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Sample records for interventions enabling sensemaking

  1. The role of conversation in health care interventions: enabling sensemaking and learning

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Michelle E; Lanham, Holly J; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Nutting, Paul A; Miller, William L; Stange, Kurt C; McDaniel, Reuben R

    2009-01-01

    Background Those attempting to implement changes in health care settings often find that intervention efforts do not progress as expected. Unexpected outcomes are often attributed to variation and/or error in implementation processes. We argue that some unanticipated variation in intervention outcomes arises because unexpected conversations emerge during intervention attempts. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of conversation in shaping interventions and to explain why conversation is important in intervention efforts in health care organizations. We draw on literature from sociolinguistics and complex adaptive systems theory to create an interpretive framework and develop our theory. We use insights from a fourteen-year program of research, including both descriptive and intervention studies undertaken to understand and assist primary care practices in making sustainable changes. We enfold these literatures and these insights to articulate a common failure of overlooking the role of conversation in intervention success, and to develop a theoretical argument for the importance of paying attention to the role of conversation in health care interventions. Discussion Conversation between organizational members plays an important role in the success of interventions aimed at improving health care delivery. Conversation can facilitate intervention success because interventions often rely on new sensemaking and learning, and these are accomplished through conversation. Conversely, conversation can block the success of an intervention by inhibiting sensemaking and learning. Furthermore, the existing relationship contexts of an organization can influence these conversational possibilities. We argue that the likelihood of intervention success will increase if the role of conversation is considered in the intervention process. Summary The generation of productive conversation should be considered as one of the foundations of intervention efforts. We suggest

  2. The role of conversation in health care interventions: enabling sensemaking and learning.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Michelle E; Lanham, Holly J; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Nutting, Paul A; Miller, William L; Stange, Kurt C; McDaniel, Reuben R

    2009-03-13

    Those attempting to implement changes in health care settings often find that intervention efforts do not progress as expected. Unexpected outcomes are often attributed to variation and/or error in implementation processes. We argue that some unanticipated variation in intervention outcomes arises because unexpected conversations emerge during intervention attempts. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of conversation in shaping interventions and to explain why conversation is important in intervention efforts in health care organizations. We draw on literature from sociolinguistics and complex adaptive systems theory to create an interpretive framework and develop our theory. We use insights from a fourteen-year program of research, including both descriptive and intervention studies undertaken to understand and assist primary care practices in making sustainable changes. We enfold these literatures and these insights to articulate a common failure of overlooking the role of conversation in intervention success, and to develop a theoretical argument for the importance of paying attention to the role of conversation in health care interventions. Conversation between organizational members plays an important role in the success of interventions aimed at improving health care delivery. Conversation can facilitate intervention success because interventions often rely on new sensemaking and learning, and these are accomplished through conversation. Conversely, conversation can block the success of an intervention by inhibiting sensemaking and learning. Furthermore, the existing relationship contexts of an organization can influence these conversational possibilities. We argue that the likelihood of intervention success will increase if the role of conversation is considered in the intervention process. The generation of productive conversation should be considered as one of the foundations of intervention efforts. We suggest that intervention facilitators

  3. Experimentally Testing a Narrative Sense-Making Metaphor Intervention: Facilitating Communicative Coping about Social Aggression with Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willer, Erin K.

    2009-01-01

    Social aggression, including behaviors such as gossip and friendship manipulation, can be damaging to girls' individual and relational well-being. As a result, the purpose of the present dissertation study was to test a narrative sense-making metaphor intervention with middle schools girls experiencing social aggression in order to facilitate…

  4. Experimentally Testing a Narrative Sense-Making Metaphor Intervention: Facilitating Communicative Coping about Social Aggression with Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willer, Erin K.

    2009-01-01

    Social aggression, including behaviors such as gossip and friendship manipulation, can be damaging to girls' individual and relational well-being. As a result, the purpose of the present dissertation study was to test a narrative sense-making metaphor intervention with middle schools girls experiencing social aggression in order to facilitate…

  5. Unpacking Sensemaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapon, Suulamit

    2017-01-01

    Learning science involves an ongoing process in which learners construct and reconstruct self-explanations and evaluate their relative soundness. This work coordinates and aligns complementary methodological and theoretical approaches to learning to both unpack sensemaking and better understand the conditions that facilitate it. I conceptualize…

  6. Unpacking Sensemaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapon, Suulamit

    2017-01-01

    Learning science involves an ongoing process in which learners construct and reconstruct self-explanations and evaluate their relative soundness. This work coordinates and aligns complementary methodological and theoretical approaches to learning to both unpack sensemaking and better understand the conditions that facilitate it. I conceptualize…

  7. Conversational sensemaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Alun; Webberley, Will; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in natural language question-answering systems and context-aware mobile apps create opportunities for improved sensemaking in a tactical setting. Users equipped with mobile devices act as both sensors (able to acquire information) and effectors (able to act in situ), operating alone or in collectives. The currently- dominant technical approaches follow either a pull model (e.g. Apple's Siri or IBM's Watson which respond to users' natural language queries) or a push model (e.g. Google's Now which sends notifications to a user based on their context). There is growing recognition that users need more flexible styles of conversational interaction, where they are able to freely ask or tell, be asked or told, seek explanations and clarifications. Ideally such conversations should involve a mix of human and machine agents, able to collaborate in collective sensemaking activities with as few barriers as possible. Desirable capabilities include adding new knowledge, collaboratively building models, invoking specific services, and drawing inferences. As a step towards this goal, we collect evidence from a number of recent pilot studies including natural experiments (e.g. situation awareness in the context of organised protests) and synthetic experiments (e.g. human and machine agents collaborating in information seeking and spot reporting). We identify some principles and areas of future research for "conversational sensemaking".

  8. Sensemaking Handoffs: Why? How? and When?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    Sensemaking tasks are challenging and typically involve collecting, organizing and understanding information. Sensemaking often involves a handoff where a subsequent recipient picks up work done by a provider. Sensemaking handoffs are very challenging because handoffs introduce discontinuity in sensemaking. This dissertation attempts to explore…

  9. Quality as Sense-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Sense-making is a process of engaging with complex and dynamic environments that provides organisations and their leaders with a flexible and agile model of the world. The seven key properties of sense-making describe a process that is social and that respects the range of different stakeholders in an organisation. It also addresses the need to…

  10. Quality as Sense-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Sense-making is a process of engaging with complex and dynamic environments that provides organisations and their leaders with a flexible and agile model of the world. The seven key properties of sense-making describe a process that is social and that respects the range of different stakeholders in an organisation. It also addresses the need to…

  11. An "Ideology in Pieces" Approach to Studying Change in Teachers' Sensemaking about Race, Racism, and Racial Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    This article makes a unique contribution to the literature on teachers' racialized sensemaking by proposing a framework of "ideology in pieces" that synthesizes Hall's (1982, 1996) theory of ideology and diSessa's (1993) theory of conceptual change. Hall's theory of ideology enables an examination of teachers' sensemaking as situated within a…

  12. Approaches to Enhance Sensemaking for Intelligence Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-17

    This essay describes four approaches to enhance sensemaking for intelligence analysis . Sensemaking refers to how individuals, groups, and...productively with others. Each approach is explained from a sensemaking perspective and linked to Richard Heuer’s Psychology of Intelligence Analysis . Examples

  13. Electrical bioimpedance enabling prompt intervention in traumatic brain injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seoane, Fernando; Atefi, S. Reza

    2017-05-01

    Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) is a well spread technology used in clinical practice across the world. Advancements in Textile material technology with conductive textile fabrics and textile-electronics integration have allowed exploring potential applications for Wearable Measurement Sensors and Systems exploiting. The sensing principle of electrical bioimpedance is based on the intrinsic passive dielectric properties of biological tissue. Using a pair of electrodes, tissue is electrically stimulated and the electrical response can be sensed with another pair of surface electrodes. EBI spectroscopy application for cerebral monitoring of neurological conditions such as stroke and perinatal asphyxia in newborns have been justified using animal studies and computational simulations. Such studies have shown proof of principle that neurological pathologies indeed modify the dielectric composition of the brain that is detectable via EBI. Similar to stroke, Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) also affects the dielectric properties of brain tissue that can be detected via EBI measurements. Considering the portable and noninvasive characteristics of EBI it is potentially useful for prehospital triage of TBI patients where. In the battlefield blast induced Traumatic Brain Injuries are very common. Brain damage must be assessed promptly to have a chance to prevent severe damage or eventually death. The relatively low-complexity of the sensing hardware required for EBI sensing and the already proven compatibility with textile electrodes suggest the EBI technology is indeed a candidate for developing a handheld device equipped with a sensorized textile cap to produce an examination in minutes for enabling medically-guided prompt intervention.

  14. Nurse/physician communication through a sensemaking lens: shifting the paradigm to improve patient safety.

    PubMed

    Manojlovich, Milisa

    2010-11-01

    Physician-nurse communication has been identified as one of the main obstacles to progress in patient safety. Breakdowns in communication between physicians and nurses often result in errors, many of which are preventable. Recent research into nurse/physician communication has borrowed heavily from team literature, tending to study communication as one behavior in a larger cluster of behaviors. The multicluster approach to team research has not provided enough analysis of and attention to communication alone. Research into communication specifically is needed to understand its crucial role in teamwork and safety. A critique of the research literature on nurse/physician communication published since 1992 revealed 3 dominant themes: settings and context, consensus building, and conflict resolution. A fourth implicit theme, the temporal nature of communication, emerged as well. These themes were used to frame a discussion on sensemaking: an iterative process arising from dialogue when 2 or more people share their unique perspectives. As a theoretical model, sensemaking may offer an alternative lens through which to view the phenomenon of nurse/physician communication and advance our understanding of how nurse/physician communication can promote patient safety. Sensemaking may represent a paradigm shift with the potential to affect 2 spheres of influence: clinical practice and health care outcomes. Sensemaking may also hold promise as an intervention because through sensemaking consensus may be built and errors possibly prevented. Engaging in sensemaking may overcome communication barriers without realigning power bases, incorporate contextual influences without drawing attention away from communicators, and inform actions arising from communication.

  15. Enable and Succeed, Force and Fail: Military Intervention to Enable Democratization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-25

    the forced democratization approach, but successes in West Germany, Japan, and South Korea provide compelling counter arguments. Identifying...install democratic governments only magnifies the importance of studying why force democratization so often fails. The United States’ success in...The record of these interventions is littered with failures, suggesting limitations in the forced democratization approach, but successes in West

  16. Enabling Transformative Learning in the Workplace: An Educative Research Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmson, Lena; Åberg, Marie Moström; Backström, Tomas; Olsson, Bengt Köping

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the potential of an educative research intervention to influence the quality of the learning outcome in the workplace as interpreted from the perspectives of adult learning theory. The research project was designed as a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods study. In this article, quantitative survey data were…

  17. Enabling Transformative Learning in the Workplace: An Educative Research Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmson, Lena; Åberg, Marie Moström; Backström, Tomas; Olsson, Bengt Köping

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the potential of an educative research intervention to influence the quality of the learning outcome in the workplace as interpreted from the perspectives of adult learning theory. The research project was designed as a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods study. In this article, quantitative survey data were…

  18. Self-monitoring bypass grafts enable early intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neville, Richard F.; Gupta, Samit K.; Kuraguntla, David J.

    2016-09-01

    Prosthetic grafts used for lower extremity revascularization and dialysis access fail due to hyperplastic stenosis and thrombosis. Graft surveillance is advocated to monitor function, however, graft failure can occur between episodic examinations. An innovative self-monitoring graft system allows automated surveillance with assessment of graft function using a cloud-based algorithm. We performed proof of concept experiments with in vitro and in vivo models to assess the feasibility such a real-time graft surveillance system. Initial in-vitro and in-vivo experiments demonstrate the ability for a self-monitoring graft system to remotely monitor hemodynamic parameters reflecting graft function using wireless data transmission. This automated system shows promise to deliver real-time data that can be analyzed by cloud-based algorithms alerting the clinician of a change in graft function or development of stenosis for further diagnostic study or intervention prior to graft failure.

  19. Perceived Enablers and Barriers Related to Sustainability of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkelman, Sarah E.; McIntosh, Kent; Rasplica, Caitlin K.; Berg, Tricia; Strickland-Cohen, M. Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the most important perceived enablers and barriers regarding sustainability of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports. School personnel representing 860 schools implementing or preparing to implement school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports completed an open-ended…

  20. Supporting Communication and Coordination in Collaborative Sensemaking.

    PubMed

    Mahyar, Narges; Tory, Melanie

    2014-12-01

    When people work together to analyze a data set, they need to organize their findings, hypotheses, and evidence, share that information with their collaborators, and coordinate activities amongst team members. Sharing externalizations (recorded information such as notes) could increase awareness and assist with team communication and coordination. However, we currently know little about how to provide tool support for this sort of sharing. We explore how linked common work (LCW) can be employed within a `collaborative thinking space', to facilitate synchronous collaborative sensemaking activities in Visual Analytics (VA). Collaborative thinking spaces provide an environment for analysts to record, organize, share and connect externalizations. Our tool, CLIP, extends earlier thinking spaces by integrating LCW features that reveal relationships between collaborators' findings. We conducted a user study comparing CLIP to a baseline version without LCW. Results demonstrated that LCW significantly improved analytic outcomes at a collaborative intelligence task. Groups using CLIP were also able to more effectively coordinate their work, and held more discussion of their findings and hypotheses. LCW enabled them to maintain awareness of each other's activities and findings and link those findings to their own work, preventing disruptive oral awareness notifications.

  1. A virtual environment for modeling and testing sensemaking with multisensor information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Denise; Bartlett, Kathleen; Hoppenfeld, Robert; Nolan, Margaret; Schatz, Sae

    2014-05-01

    Given today's challenging Irregular Warfare, members of small infantry units must be able to function as highly sensitized perceivers throughout large operational areas. Improved Situation Awareness (SA) in rapidly changing fields of operation may also save lives of law enforcement personnel and first responders. Critical competencies for these individuals include sociocultural sensemaking, the ability to assess a situation through the perception of essential salient environmental and behavioral cues, and intuitive sensemaking, which allows experts to act with the utmost agility. Intuitive sensemaking and intuitive decision making (IDM), which involve processing information at a subconscious level, have been cited as playing a critical role in saving lives and enabling mission success. This paper discusses the development of a virtual environment for modeling, analysis and human-in-the-loop testing of perception, sensemaking, intuitive sensemaking, decision making (DM), and IDM performance, using state-of-the-art scene simulation and modeled imagery from multi-source systems, under the "Intuition and Implicit Learning" Basic Research Challenge (I2BRC) sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (ONR). We present results from our human systems engineering approach including 1) development of requirements and test metrics for individual and integrated system components, 2) the system architecture design 3) images of the prototype virtual environment testing system and 4) a discussion of the system's current and future testing capabilities. In particular, we examine an Enhanced Interaction Suite testbed to model, test, and analyze the impact of advances in sensor spatial, and temporal resolution to a user's intuitive sensemaking and decision making capabilities.

  2. Sustained Organizational Learning for Comprehensive School Reform: A Sensemaking Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Mary B.

    2009-01-01

    Organizational sensemaking is the attempt to understand complex events that occur in organizations (Weick, Sutcliffe, & Obstfeld, 2005). This study focuses on the sensemaking leadership capabilities of a leadership team promoting comprehensive reform. The cross-school leadership team engaged in organizational sensemaking in order to…

  3. Sustained Organizational Learning for Comprehensive School Reform: A Sensemaking Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Mary B.

    2009-01-01

    Organizational sensemaking is the attempt to understand complex events that occur in organizations (Weick, Sutcliffe, & Obstfeld, 2005). This study focuses on the sensemaking leadership capabilities of a leadership team promoting comprehensive reform. The cross-school leadership team engaged in organizational sensemaking in order to…

  4. Perceived Barriers and Enablers to Implementing Individualized Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bambara, Linda M.; Goh, Ailsa; Kern, Lee; Caskie, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Identifying factors perceived to either hinder or support the implementation of individualized positive behavior interventions and supports (IPBIS) is essential for promoting sustainable practice. This survey study examined the extent to which school-based professionals (n = 293) experienced barriers and enablers and examined their perceived level…

  5. Perceived Enablers and Barriers Related to Sustainability of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkelman, Sarah; McIntosh, Kent; Raspica, Caitlin; Berg, Tricia; Strickland-Cohen, M. Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the most important perceived enablers and barriers regarding sustainability of School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS). School personnel representing 860 schools implementing or preparing to implement SWPBIS completed an open-ended survey of factors regarding its sustainability.…

  6. Sensemaking of Patient Safety Risks and Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Battles, James B; Dixon, Nancy M; Borotkanics, Robert J; Rabin-Fastmen, Barbara; Kaplan, Harold S

    2006-01-01

    In order for organizations to become learning organizations, they must make sense of their environment and learn from safety events. Sensemaking, as described by Weick (1995), literally means making sense of events. The ultimate goal of sensemaking is to build the understanding that can inform and direct actions to eliminate risk and hazards that are a threat to patient safety. True sensemaking in patient safety must use both retrospective and prospective approach to learning. Sensemaking is as an essential part of the design process leading to risk informed design. Sensemaking serves as a conceptual framework to bring together well established approaches to assessment of risk and hazards: (1) at the single event level using root cause analysis (RCA), (2) at the processes level using failure modes effects analysis (FMEA) and (3) at the system level using probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The results of these separate or combined approaches are most effective when end users in conversation-based meetings add their expertise and knowledge to the data produced by the RCA, FMEA, and/or PRA in order to make sense of the risks and hazards. Without ownership engendered by such conversations, the possibility of effective action to eliminate or minimize them is greatly reduced. PMID:16898979

  7. Embodiment and sense-making in autism

    PubMed Central

    De Jaegher, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I sketch an enactive account of autism. For the enactive approach to cognition, embodiment, experience, and social interaction are fundamental to understanding mind and subjectivity. Enaction defines cognition as sense-making: the way cognitive agents meaningfully connect with their world, based on their needs and goals as self-organizing, self-maintaining, embodied agents. In the social realm, the interactive coordination of embodied sense-making activities with others lets us participate in each other's sense-making (social understanding = participatory sense-making). The enactive approach provides new concepts to overcome the problems of traditional functionalist accounts of autism, which can only give a piecemeal and disintegrated view because they consider cognition, communication, and perception separately, do not take embodied into account, and are methodologically individualistic. Applying the concepts of enaction to autism, I show: How embodiment and sense-making connect, i.e., how autistic particularities of moving, perceiving, and emoting relate to how people with autism make sense of their world. For instance, restricted interests or preference for detail will have certain sensorimotor correlates, as well as specific meaning for autistic people.That reduced flexibility in interactional coordination correlates with difficulties in participatory sense-making. At the same time, seemingly irrelevant “autistic behaviors” can be quite attuned to the interactive context. I illustrate this complexity in the case of echolalia. An enactive account of autism starts from the embodiment, experience, and social interactions of autistic people. Enaction brings together the sensorimotor, cognitive, social, experiential, and affective aspects of autism in a coherent framework based on a complex non-linear multi-causality. This foundation allows to build new bridges between autistic people and their often non-autistic context, and to improve quality

  8. The efficacy of computer-enabled discharge communication interventions: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Motamedi, Soror Mona; Posadas-Calleja, Juan; Straus, Sharon; Bates, David W; Lorenzetti, Diane L; Baylis, Barry; Gilmour, Janet; Kimpton, Shandra; Ghali, William A

    2011-05-01

    Traditional manual/dictated discharge summaries are inaccurate, inconsistent and untimely. Computer-enabled discharge communications may improve information transfer by providing a standardised document that immediately links acute and community healthcare providers. To conduct a systematic review evaluating the efficacy of computer-enabled discharge communication compared with traditional communication for patients discharged from acute care hospitals. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials and MEDLINE In-Process. Keywords from three themes were combined: discharge communication, electronic/online/web-based and controlled interventional studies. Study types included: clinical trials, quasiexperimental studies with concurrent controls and controlled before--after studies. Interventions included: (1) automatic population of a discharge document by computer database(s); (2) transmission of discharge information via computer technology; or (3) computer technology providing a 'platform' for dynamic discharge communication. Controls included: no intervention or traditional manual/dictated discharge summaries. Primary outcomes included: mortality, readmission and adverse events/near misses. Secondary outcomes included: timeliness, accuracy, quality/completeness and physician/patient satisfaction. Description of interventions and study outcomes were extracted by two independent reviewers. 12 unique studies were identified: eight randomised controlled trials and four quasi-experimental studies. Pooling/meta-analysis was not possible, given the heterogeneity of measures and outcomes reported. The primary outcomes of mortality and readmission were inconsistently reported. There was no significant difference in mortality, and one study reported reduced long-term readmission. Intervention groups experienced reductions in perceived medical errors/adverse events, and improvements in timeliness and physician/patient satisfaction. Computer-enabled

  9. Enabling hygienic behavior among preschoolers: improving environmental conditions through a multifaceted intervention.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Laura; Zucker, David; Brody, David; Engelhard, Dan; Meir, Marina; Manor, Orly

    2011-01-01

    Environmental conditions often serve as critical enabling factors for health promotion. This article describes the effect of a preschool hygiene intervention program on classroom environmental conditions. Cluster randomized trial, with randomization at the level of the preschool. State-run preschools in Jerusalem. Forty secular and religious Jerusalem preschools (including 1029 children). A multidisciplinary hygiene intervention that included changes to the preschool environment. Presence of soap, soap dispenser, paper towel, paper towel dispenser, cloth towels, communal cup, or personal cups. Generalized estimating equations and Fisher's exact test were used to estimate the effect of the intervention program on environmental conditions. Information was obtained from most (97.9%) visits. Baseline environmental hygienic conditions were poor. Relative to the control group, the following environmental conditions were better in the intervention group after program implementation: soap (odds ratio [OR] = 14.7; p < .01), paper towels (OR = 13.5; p < .01), communal cups (OR = .05; p < .01), soap dispensers (secular preschools only, p < .01), individual cups (secular, p < .01; religious, OR = 18.7; p < .02). Environmental hygiene in the Israeli preschools studied was deficient at baseline but amenable to change. Improvement in environmental conditions was a necessary enabling factor for the changes in hand-washing behavior that were observed among the children. Sustained environmental change is possible in the preschool environment.

  10. Principals' Sensemaking and Enactment of Teacher Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Jessica G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to look across six first-year principals to investigate their engagement with and sensemaking of specific messages of instructional leadership around teacher evaluation. Design/methodology/approach: This research project, a cross-case study, was carried out using in-depth qualitative observations and…

  11. Principals' Sensemaking and Enactment of Teacher Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Jessica G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to look across six first-year principals to investigate their engagement with and sensemaking of specific messages of instructional leadership around teacher evaluation. Design/methodology/approach: This research project, a cross-case study, was carried out using in-depth qualitative observations and…

  12. Sensemaking, Organizational Culture, and Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Debbie S.; Smythe, Mary Jeanette

    2004-01-01

    While EEOC guidelines for managing sexual harassment prescribe a strong sexual harassment policy and aggressive remedial action following complaints, a communication approach suggests a need for a more complex understanding of sexual harassment as diffused throughout an organizational culture. The present case study uses a sensemaking approach to…

  13. The Process of Sensemaking in Complex Human Endeavors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    sensemaking constructs and paradigms . In addition to training application, the sensemaking process can be used to support knowledge representation for...derive understanding from fragmentary pieces of information (Ntuen, 2003; 2006). Sensemaking can be viewed as a paradigm , a tool, a process, or a...Berkeley (1710) notes that meaning exists in one’s mind, and is often difficult to explain it—an observation that leads to the paradigm that “we know more

  14. Evidence-based practice in physiotherapy: a systematic review of barriers, enablers and interventions.

    PubMed

    Scurlock-Evans, Laura; Upton, Penney; Upton, Dominic

    2014-09-01

    Despite clear benefits of the Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) approach to ensuring quality and consistency of care, its uptake within physiotherapy has been inconsistent. Synthesise the findings of research into EBP barriers, facilitators and interventions in physiotherapy and identify methods of enhancing adoption and implementation. Literature concerning physiotherapists' practice between 2000 and 2012 was systematically searched using: Academic Search Complete, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature Plus, American Psychological Association databases, Medline, Journal Storage, and Science Direct. Reference lists were searched to identify additional studies. Thirty-two studies, focusing either on physiotherapists' EBP knowledge, attitudes or implementation, or EBP interventions in physiotherapy were included. One author undertook all data extraction and a second author reviewed to ensure consistency and rigour. Synthesis was organised around the themes of EBP barriers/enablers, attitudes, knowledge/skills, use and interventions. Many physiotherapists hold positive attitudes towards EBP. However, this does not necessarily translate into consistent, high-quality EBP. Many barriers to EBP implementation are apparent, including: lack of time and skills, and misperceptions of EBP. Only studies published in the English language, in peer-reviewed journals were included, thereby introducing possible publication bias. Furthermore, narrative synthesis may be subject to greater confirmation bias. There is no "one-size fits all" approach to enhancing EBP implementation; assessing organisational culture prior to designing interventions is crucial. Although some interventions appear promising, further research is required to explore the most effective methods of supporting physiotherapists' adoption of EBP. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analogies, metaphors, and wondering about the future: Lay sense-making around synthetic meat.

    PubMed

    Marcu, Afrodita; Gaspar, Rui; Rutsaert, Pieter; Seibt, Beate; Fletcher, David; Verbeke, Wim; Barnett, Julie

    2015-07-01

    Drawing on social representations theory, we explore how the public make sense of the unfamiliar, taking as the example a novel technology: synthetic meat. Data from an online deliberation study and eighteen focus groups in Belgium, Portugal and the UK indicated that the various strategies of sense-making afforded different levels of critical thinking about synthetic meat. Anchoring to genetic modification, metaphors like 'Frankenfoods' and commonplaces like 'playing God' closed off debates around potential applications of synthetic meat, whereas asking factual and rhetorical questions about it, weighing up pragmatically its risks and benefits, and envisaging changing current mentalities or behaviours in order to adapt to scientific developments enabled a consideration of synthetic meat's possible implications for agriculture, environment, and society. We suggest that research on public understanding of technology should cultivate a climate of active thinking and should encourage questioning during the process of sense-making to try to reduce unhelpful anchoring.

  16. Cognitive Constructs and the Sensemaking Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    time , the cognitive processes required to adapt to such changes must be dynamic. This change is dependence on the constructive memory which holds...profile of IED occurrence using a link analysis, incorporating time , place, events, etc. How to use the analytic information to defeat the enemy depends ...action planning and decision making is not robust to capture adaptive, agile, and time -phased sensemaking process since it was not designed to address

  17. Impact of IT-Enabled Intervention on MRI Use for Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Ivan K.; Gershanik, Esteban F.; Schneider, Louise I.; Raja, Ali S.; Mar, Wenhong; Seltzer, Steven; Healey, Michael J.; Khorasani, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Background Examine the impact of a multi-faceted, clinical decision support (CDS)-enabled intervention on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) use in adult primary care patients with low back pain. Methods After a baseline observation period, we implemented a CDS targeting lumbar-spine MRI use in primary care patients with low back pain through our computerized physician order entry (CPOE) as well as two accountability tools: 1) mandatory peer-to-peer consultation when test utility was uncertain and 2) quarterly practice pattern variation reports to providers. Our primary outcome measure was rate of lumbar-spine MRI use. Secondary measures included utilization of MRI of any body part, comparing to that of a concurrent national comparison, as well as proportion of lumbar-spine MRI performed in the study cohort that was adherent to evidence-based guideline. Chi-square, t-tests, and logistic regression were used to assess pre- and post-intervention differences. Results In the study cohort, pre-intervention, 5.3% of low back pain-related primary care visits resulted in lumbar-spine MRI compared to 3.7% of visits post-intervention (p<0.0001, Adjusted Odds Ratio 0.68). There was a 30.8% relative decrease (6.5% vs. 4.5%, p<0.0001, Adjusted Odds Ratio 0.67) in the use of MRI of any body part by the primary care providers in the study cohort. This difference was not detected in the control cohort (5.6% vs. 5.3%, p=0.712). In the study cohort, adherence to evidence-based guideline in the use of lumbar-spine MRI increased from 78% to 96% (p=0.0002). Conclusions CDS and associated accountability tools may reduce potentially inappropriate imaging in patients with low back pain. PMID:24513065

  18. Sensemaking: Conceptual Changes, Cognitive Mechanisms, and Structural Representations. a Qualitative User Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Pengyi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to improve our understanding of sensemaking process as a basis for building better systems to assist sensemaking. Sensemaking is the task of creating an understanding of a problem or task so that further actions may be taken in an informed manner. Sensemaking is a pre-requisite for many other tasks such as decision…

  19. Sensemaking: Conceptual Changes, Cognitive Mechanisms, and Structural Representations. a Qualitative User Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Pengyi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to improve our understanding of sensemaking process as a basis for building better systems to assist sensemaking. Sensemaking is the task of creating an understanding of a problem or task so that further actions may be taken in an informed manner. Sensemaking is a pre-requisite for many other tasks such as decision…

  20. Development of temporal context-based feature abstractions for enabling monitoring and managing of interventions.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Pei-Yun Sabrina; Ramakrishnan, Sreeram; Yu, Ke; Akushevich, Marina; Sharma, Shweta; Mooiweer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Disease self-management programs and intervention/care plan monitoring are often unable to systematically leverage patient-generated information, especially those requiring interpretation of the temporal contexts of the measurement. While existing techniques help in capturing and storing the relevant data, their ability to determine appropriate metrics most sensitive to that individual is limited or non-existent. This is attributable to the lack of unifying models for enabling such interpretations and the non-trivial process required to generate meaningful feature abstractions to support individualized prognosis. To address these issues, a data-driven approach designed to identify the right abstractions for key features relevant to personalization and monitoring of care is discussed.

  1. To Heaven or Hell: Sensemaking about Why Faculty Leave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, KerryAnn; Lounder, Andrew; Campbell, Corbin M.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes sensemaking about faculty departure among administrators, faculty colleagues, and faculty leavers in one research university. A mixed methods database was analyzed to reveal four dominant explanations for faculty departure and two influences on sensemaking. Dominant explanations included better opportunities, the likelihood…

  2. Symbolic Resources and Sense-Making in Learning and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zittoun, Tania

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of symbolic resources for apprehending sense-making in learning and instruction. It first reminds the centrality of sense-making in learning and instruction from a sociocultural perspective, and proposes a pragmatist approach to examine what sorts of knowledge people use when they face situations that matter. The…

  3. To Heaven or Hell: Sensemaking about Why Faculty Leave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, KerryAnn; Lounder, Andrew; Campbell, Corbin M.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes sensemaking about faculty departure among administrators, faculty colleagues, and faculty leavers in one research university. A mixed methods database was analyzed to reveal four dominant explanations for faculty departure and two influences on sensemaking. Dominant explanations included better opportunities, the likelihood…

  4. SensePath: Understanding the Sensemaking Process Through Analytic Provenance.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phong H; Xu, Kai; Wheat, Ashley; Wong, B L William; Attfield, Simon; Fields, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Sensemaking is described as the process of comprehension, finding meaning and gaining insight from information, producing new knowledge and informing further action. Understanding the sensemaking process allows building effective visual analytics tools to make sense of large and complex datasets. Currently, it is often a manual and time-consuming undertaking to comprehend this: researchers collect observation data, transcribe screen capture videos and think-aloud recordings, identify recurring patterns, and eventually abstract the sensemaking process into a general model. In this paper, we propose a general approach to facilitate such a qualitative analysis process, and introduce a prototype, SensePath, to demonstrate the application of this approach with a focus on browser-based online sensemaking. The approach is based on a study of a number of qualitative research sessions including observations of users performing sensemaking tasks and post hoc analyses to uncover their sensemaking processes. Based on the study results and a follow-up participatory design session with HCI researchers, we decided to focus on the transcription and coding stages of thematic analysis. SensePath automatically captures user's sensemaking actions, i.e., analytic provenance, and provides multi-linked views to support their further analysis. A number of other requirements elicited from the design session are also implemented in SensePath, such as easy integration with existing qualitative analysis workflow and non-intrusive for participants. The tool was used by an experienced HCI researcher to analyze two sensemaking sessions. The researcher found the tool intuitive and considerably reduced analysis time, allowing better understanding of the sensemaking process.

  5. Self-management support interventions that are clinically linked and technology enabled: can they successfully prevent and treat diabetes?

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Neal D; Woodley, Paula D Patnoe

    2011-05-01

    Patients with diabetes need a complex set of services and supports. The challenge of integrating these services into the diabetes regimen can be successfully overcome through self-management support interventions that are clinically linked and technology enabled: self-management support because patients need help mastering the knowledge, attitudes, skills, and behaviors so necessary for good outcomes; interventions because comprehensive theory-based, evidence-proven, long-term, longitudinal interventions work better than direct-to-consumer or nonplanned health promotion approaches; clinically linked because patients are more likely to adopt new behaviors when the approach is in the context of a trusted therapeutic relationship and within an effective medical care system; and technology enabled because capitalizing on the amazing power of information technology leads to the delivery of cost-effective, scalable, engaging solutions that prevent and manage diabetes.

  6. Self-Management Support Interventions That Are Clinically Linked and Technology Enabled: Can They Successfully Prevent and Treat Diabetes?

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Neal D; Woodley, Paula D. Patnoe

    2011-01-01

    Patients with diabetes need a complex set of services and supports. The challenge of integrating these services into the diabetes regimen can be successfully overcome through self-management support interventions that are clinically linked and technology enabled: self-management support because patients need help mastering the knowledge, attitudes, skills, and behaviors so necessary for good outcomes; interventions because comprehensive theory-based, evidence-proven, long-term, longitudinal interventions work better than direct-to-consumer or nonplanned health promotion approaches; clinically linked because patients are more likely to adopt new behaviors when the approach is in the context of a trusted therapeutic relationship and within an effective medical care system; and technology enabled because capitalizing on the amazing power of information technology leads to the delivery of cost-effective, scalable, engaging solutions that prevent and manage diabetes. PMID:21722596

  7. The effect of educational intervention on girl's behavior regarding nutrition: Applying the beliefs, attitudes, subjective norms, and enabling factors

    PubMed Central

    Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Hazavei, Mohammad Mehdi; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an educational program based on the Belief, Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Enabling Factors (BASNEF) Model on the nutritional behavior among second-grade, middle school, female students in Isfahan city. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 72 students. The samples were randomly divided in two groups (36 in the intervention group and 36 in the control group). The data collection tools were validated and had reliable questionnaires. For the intervention group, a 75-minute educational session was held thrice. The control group had no education. The BASNEF model constructs guided the development of the questionnaires and content of the educational sessions. The independent t-test and paired t-test were used to analyze the data. A two-tailed P value lower than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Result: According to the results, the mean scores of knowledge and model variables (Belief, Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Enabling Factors) had a significant difference in the two groups after intervention (P < 0.001). On the basis of the findings, after educational intervention, 36.1% of the students had unfavorable nutritional behavior. In the control group, 88.9% of the students had unfavorable nutritional behavior, before and one month after intervention. Conclusion: The present study showed that nutrition education intervention based on the BASNEF model could promote the nutritional behavior in girl students. PMID:25250345

  8. Academic Enablers and Student Achievement: Implications for Assessment and Intervention Services in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPerna, James Clyde

    2006-01-01

    Academic enablers have been defined as attitudes and behaviors that facilitate students' participation in, and benefit from, academic instruction in the classroom (J.C. DiPerna & S.N. Elliott, 2000). The purpose of this article is to provide practitioners with an overview of specific academic enablers (motivation, study skills, engagement, and…

  9. Psychological Functions of Semiotic Borders in Sense-Making: Liminality of Narrative Processes

    PubMed Central

    De Luca Picione, Raffaele; Valsiner, Jaan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the semiotic functions of the psychological borders that structure the flow of narrative processes. Each narration is always a contextual, situated and contingent process of sensemaking, made possible by the creation of borders, such as dynamic semiotic devices that are capable of connecting the past and the future, the inside and the outside, and the me with the non-me. Borders enable us to narratively construct one’s own experiences using three inherent processes: contextualization, intersubjective positioning and setting of pertinence. The narrative process – as a subjective articulation of signs in a contingent social context – involves several functions of semiotic borders: separation, differentiation, distinction-making, connection, articulation and relation-enabling. The relevant psychological aspect highlighted here is that a border is a semiotic device which is required for both maintaining stability and inducing transformation at the same time. The peculiar dynamics and the semiotic structure of borders generate a liminal space, which is characterized by instability, by a blurred space-time distinction and by ambiguities in the semantic and syntactic processes of sensemaking. The psychological processes that occur in liminal space are strongly affectively loaded, yet it is exactly the setting and activation of liminality processes that lead to novelty and creativity and enable the creation of new narrative forms. PMID:28904600

  10. Integrated Cognitive-neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Transition to the Intelligence Community

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Transition to the Intelligence Community Kevin...Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): A Computational Basis for ICArUS: Transition to the...Research Projects Activity) program ICArUS (Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking) developed and tested brain

  11. Barriers to and enablers of contraceptive use among adolescent females and their interest in an emergency department based intervention.

    PubMed

    Chernick, Lauren S; Schnall, Rebecca; Higgins, Tracy; Stockwell, Melissa S; Castaño, Paula M; Santelli, John; Dayan, Peter S

    2015-03-01

    Over 15 million adolescents, many at high risk for pregnancy, use emergency departments (EDs) in the United States annually, but little is known regarding reasons for failure to use contraceptives in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers to and enablers of contraceptive use among adolescent females using the ED and determine their interest in an ED-based pregnancy prevention intervention. We conducted semistructured, open-ended interviews with females in an urban ED. Eligible females were 14-19 years old, sexually active, presenting for reproductive health complaints and at risk for pregnancy, defined as nonuse of effective (per the World Health Organization) contraception. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and coded based on thematic analysis. Enrollment continued until no new themes emerged. A modified Health Belief Model guided the organization of the data. Participants (n=14) were predominantly Hispanic (93%), insured (93%) and in a sexual relationship (86%). The primary barrier to contraceptive use was perceived health risk, including effects on menstruation, weight and future fertility. Other barriers consisted of mistrust in contraceptives, ambivalent pregnancy intentions, uncertainty about the future, partner's desire for pregnancy and limited access to contraceptives. Enablers of past contraceptive use included the presence of a school-based health clinic and clear plans for the future. All participants were receptive to ED-based pregnancy prevention interventions. The identified barriers and enablers influencing hormonal contraceptive use can be used to inform the design of future ED-based adolescent pregnancy prevention interventions. Adolescents who visit the emergency department (ED) identify contraceptive side effects, mistrust in contraceptives, limited access, pregnancy ambivalence and partner pregnancy desires as barriers to hormonal contraception use. They expressed interest in an ED-based intervention to

  12. Enabling Older Homeless Minority Women to Overcome Homelessness by Using a Life Management Enhancement Group Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Olivia G. M.; Moxley, David P.; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of a life management enhancement (LME) group intervention for older minority women in developing personal control and self-confidence in social relationships as they overcome homelessness. Women in the treatment group showed significantly greater personal control and higher levels of self-confidence following the six-week intervention than women in the control group. Increasing personal control and developing self-confidence in social relationships can help individuals achieve desired outcomes as a result of their actions, efforts, and abilities. These attributes can help women increase and sustain appropriate coping methods and overcome homelessness. PMID:19212866

  13. Enabling Work: Occupational Therapy Interventions for Persons with Occupational Injuries and Diseases: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Blas, Alexa Jane T; Beltran, Kenneth Matthew B; Martinez, Pauline Gail V; Yao, Daryl Patrick G

    2017-09-08

    Purpose This review aims to map the scope of published research on occupational therapy (OT) interventions and pertinent work and work-related outcomes for persons with occupational injuries and diseases. Methods The scoping review adapted Arksey and O'Malley's framework. Six electronic databases were searched. Ancestral search was also done on five systematic reviews. The search was conducted from September 2015 to October 2015. Interventions and outcomes were coded using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set for Vocational Rehabilitation to plot trends. Results Forty-six articles were included in the review. The top five intervention approaches included: acquiring skills (12.27%), health services, systems, and policies (10.43%), products and technology for employment (9.20%), handling stress and other psychological demands (7.98%), and apprenticeship (6.74%). The top five outcomes targeted included: remunerative employment (15.71%); sensation of pain (10.99%); emotional functions (5.76%); handling stress and other psychological demands (5.76%); economic self-sufficiency (4.71%); muscle endurance functions (4.71%); exercise tolerance functions (4.71%); undertaking multiple tasks (4.19%); acquiring, keeping, and terminating a job (4.19%); and looking after one's health (4.19%). Conclusion The trend in interventions show the use of activities and environment facilitators which are attuned to the conceptual nature of OT. Furthermore, the trend in outcomes show that there is substantial evidence that supports the use of OT to target work. This review may provide a platform for collaboration with other professionals and also help identify research directions to strengthen the evidence base for OT in work-related practice.

  14. Barriers to and Enablers of Contraceptive Use among Adolescent Females and their Interest in an Emergency Department-based Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Chernick, Lauren S; Schnall, Rebecca; Higgins, Tracy; Stockwell, Melissa; Castaño, Paula; Santelli, John; Dayan, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    Objective Over 15 million adolescents, many at high risk for pregnancy, use emergency departments (ED) in the United States annually, but little is known regarding reasons for failure to use contraceptives in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers to and enablers of contraceptive use among adolescent females using the ED and determine their interest in an ED-based pregnancy prevention intervention. Study Design We conducted semi-structured, open-ended interviews with females in an urban ED. Eligible females were 14-19 years old, sexually active, presenting for reproductive health complaints, and at risk for pregnancy, defined as non-use of effective (per the World Health Organization) contraception. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded based on thematic analysis. Enrollment continued until no new themes emerged. A modified Health Belief Model guided the organization of the data. Results Participants (n=14) were predominantly Hispanic (93%), insured (93%), and in a sexual relationship (86%). The primary barrier to contraceptive use was perceived health risk, including effects on menstruation, weight, and future fertility. Other barriers consisted of mistrust in contraceptives, ambivalent pregnancy intentions, uncertainty about the future, partner's desire for pregnancy, and limited access to contraceptives. Enablers of past contraceptive use included the presence of a school-based health clinic and clear plans for the future. All participants were receptive to ED-based pregnancy prevention interventions. Conclusions The identified barriers and enablers influencing hormonal contraceptive use can be used to inform the design of future ED-based adolescent pregnancy prevention interventions. PMID:25499588

  15. Finite Element Modeling of Endovascular Intervention Enables Hemodynamic Prediction of Complex Treatment Strategies for Coiling and Flow Diversion

    PubMed Central

    Damiano, Robert J.; Ma, Ding; Xiang, Jianping; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Snyder, Kenneth V.; Meng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular interventions using coil embolization and flow diversion are becoming the mainstream treatment for intracranial aneurysms (IAs). To help assess the effect of intervention strategies on aneurysm hemodynamics and treatment outcome, we have developed a finite-element-method (FEM)-based technique for coil deployment along with our HiFiVS technique for flow diverter (FD) deployment in patient-specific IAs. We tested four clinical intervention strategies: coiling (1–8 coils), single FD, FD with adjunctive coils (1–8 coils), and overlapping FDs. By evaluating post-treatment hemodynamics using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), we compared the flow-modification performance of these strategies. Results show that a single FD provides more reduction in inflow rate than low PD coiling, but less reduction in average velocity inside the aneurysm. Adjunctive coils add no additional reduction of inflow rate beyond a single FD until coil PD exceeds 11%. This suggests that the main role of FDs is to divert inflow, while that of coils is to create stasis in the aneurysm. Overlapping FDs decreases inflow rate, average velocity, and average wall shear stress (WSS) in the aneurysm sac, but adding a third FD produces minimal additional reduction. In conclusion, our FEM-based techniques for virtual coiling and flow diversion enable recapitulation of complex endovascular intervention strategies and detailed hemodynamics to identify hemodynamic factors that affect treatment outcome. PMID:26169778

  16. [Enabling intervention for active screening of respiratory symptomatic patients in two municipalities located in the City of Havana province].

    PubMed

    Jordán Severo, Tamine; Oramas González, René; Díaz Castrillo, Amparo Olga; Armas Pérez, Luisa; González Ochoa, Edilberto

    2010-01-01

    to evaluate the feasibility and immediate effect of an enabling intervention to improve the active screening of respiratory symptomatic patients in groups at risk of suffering tuberculosis and the quality of filling in lab records. a quasi-experimental-designed intervention study was conducted in two health areas of Boyeros municipality (Salvador Allende polyclinics and Federico Capdevila polyclinics). Two other areas were selected as controls in "10 de Octubre" municipality ("Turcios Lima" polyclinics and "Puente Uceda" polyclinics). Family physicians and nurses were then trained to identify patients with respiratory symptoms in the risk groups during home visits, finally sputum tests were indicated. A new model for lab recording was used. After 2 months, the ratio of detected respiratory symptomatic cases was estimated. The relative risk (95 % CI) was found. The percentage by type of screening, risk group and number of empty, misplaced and wrongly filled in items in the new model was calculated. after the intervention, the capabilities of physicians and nurses for detecting respiratory symptomatic patients in "Salvador Allende" health area was almost 2.5 times higher than before (RR= 2.4320) and in "Federico Capdevila" health area was almost 2 times higher (RR = 1.8112). Over 80 % of this improvement was due to active screening carried out almost completely (90 %) in risk groups. There were no misplaced or wrongly filled data, just empty items under 0.5%. the enabling intervention proved to be immediate and effective in order to raise the active screening of respiratory symptomatic patients in risk groups and to improve the quality of filling in lab records.

  17. IT-enabled Community Health Interventions: Challenges, Opportunities, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Kharrazi, Hadi; Weiner, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    Rising health information technology (HIT) adoption and the increasing interoperability of health data have propelled the role of IT in community-wide health transformations. Disseminating the challenges and opportunities that the early adopters of community-wide HIT interventions have experienced is critical for empowering the growing demand for community-based health systems. This special issue of eGEMs addresses that need. This issue includes a variety of community-based HIT projects covering topics such as governance, informatics, and learning health systems. These projects represent a diverse set of stakeholders, a wide selection of data sources, and multiple information platforms to collate or exchange data. We hope that this special issue of eGEMs will be the first of several future issues dedicated to community-wide HIT transformations.

  18. Empowering frontline nurses: a structured intervention enables nurses to improve medication administration accuracy.

    PubMed

    Kliger, Julie; Blegen, Mary A; Gootee, Dave; O'Neil, Edward

    2009-12-01

    Seven hospitals from the San Francisco Bay Area participated in an 18-month-long Integrated Nurse Leadership Program, which was designed to improve the reliability of medication administration by developing and deploying nurse leadership and process improvement skills on one medical/surgical inpatient unit. Each hospital formed a nurse-led project team that worked on six safety processes to improve the accuracy of medication administration: Compare medication to the medication administration record, keep medication labeled from preparation to administration, check two forms of patient identification, explain drug to patient (if applicable), chart immediately after administration, and protect process from distractions and interruptions. For the six hospitals included in the analysis, the accuracy of medication administration (as measured by the percent of correct doses administered) improved from 85% in the baseline period to 92% six months after the intervention and 96% 18 months after the intervention. The sum of the six safety processes completed also improved significantly, from 4.8 on a 0-6 scale at baseline to 5.6 at 6 months to 5.75 at 18 months. This study suggests that frontline nurses and other hospital-based staff, if given the training, resources, and authority, are well positioned to improve patient care and safety processes on hospital patient units. Frontline clinicians have the unique opportunity to see what is and is not working in the direct provision of patient care. To address the sustainability of the program's changes after the official project ended, each team was required to develop a sustainability plan entailing monitoring of progress, actions to ensure the improvements are built into the organizational infrastructure, and staff's interaction with leaders to ensure that the work could continue.

  19. Collaborative Sense-Making in Print and Digital Text Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dennis S.; Neitzel, Carin

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the sense-making behaviors of sixth- and seventh-grade students (n = 46 dyads) as they read and discussed expository articles in print and digital formats. Most dyads approached the digital text as if it were static and linear, despite the availability of hyperlinks. Reading through (or covering) the text was the most commonly…

  20. Physician Sensemaking and Readiness for Electronic Medical Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riesenmy, Kelly Rouse

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore physician sensemaking and readiness to implement electronic medical records (EMR) as a first step to finding strategies that enhance EMR adoption behaviors. Design/methodology/approach: The case study approach provides a detailed analysis of individuals within an organizational unit. Using a…

  1. A Foresight Process as an Institutional Sensemaking Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how a foresight project supports institutional positioning efforts through joint sensemaking. Design/methodology/approach: This paper describes a case study that investigated the design, implementation, and outcomes of a foresight project at a Finnish higher education institution that selected sales…

  2. Understanding gut microbiota in elderly's health will enable intervention through probiotics.

    PubMed

    Pérez Martínez, G; Bäuerl, C; Collado, M C

    2014-09-01

    Today, advances in the public health system of most countries have managed to extend notably life expectancy, however, elderly's health remain as a very serious concern. The lifelong stimulation of innate and adaptive immune systems leads to immunosenescence and, as result, to a low ability to produce immunoglobulins against pathogens but also to a low-grade chronic inflammatory state (inflammaging) that is linked to most age-related health problems, such as dementia, Alzheimer or atherosclerosis. This inflammatory state could make the host more sensitive to intestinal microbes, or vice versa, as changes in the gut microbiota composition are related to the progression of diseases and frailty in the elderly population. It was considered that gut microbiota changed during aging, with an increase of Bacteroidetes vs. Firmicutes proportion and a reduction of bifidobacterial counts, however recent studies reported a great inter-individual variation among elderly and a significant relationship between gut microbiota, diet and institution or community living. Intervention studies of probiotics and prebiotics in elderly are not very abundant, but most cases showed that Bifidobacterium populations can efficiently be stimulated with a concomitant decrease of Enterobacteria. Furthermore, also some studies demonstrated that probiotics decreased the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines which are upregulated in the elderly, such as interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6 or tumour necrosis factor ?, among others, and they increased the levels of activated lymphocytes, natural killer cells, phagocytic activity and even showed a greater response to influenza vaccination. This suggests that direct manipulation of the gut microbiota may improve adaptive immune response and reduce inflammatory secretions, therefore compensating immunosenescence effects, however, there are no records of their effect on clinical symptoms or risk for disease. Those facts reveal that this is an open research field

  3. Evaluating complex interventions and health technologies using normalization process theory: development of a simplified approach and web-enabled toolkit

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Normalization Process Theory (NPT) can be used to explain implementation processes in health care relating to new technologies and complex interventions. This paper describes the processes by which we developed a simplified version of NPT for use by clinicians, managers, and policy makers, and which could be embedded in a web-enabled toolkit and on-line users manual. Methods Between 2006 and 2010 we undertook four tasks. (i) We presented NPT to potential and actual users in multiple workshops, seminars, and presentations. (ii) Using what we discovered from these meetings, we decided to create a simplified set of statements and explanations expressing core constructs of the theory (iii) We circulated these statements to a criterion sample of 60 researchers, clinicians and others, using SurveyMonkey to collect qualitative textual data about their criticisms of the statements. (iv) We then reconstructed the statements and explanations to meet users' criticisms, embedded them in a web-enabled toolkit, and beta tested this 'in the wild'. Results On-line data collection was effective: over a four week period 50/60 participants responded using SurveyMonkey (40/60) or direct phone and email contact (10/60). An additional nine responses were received from people who had been sent the SurveyMonkey form by other respondents. Beta testing of the web enabled toolkit produced 13 responses, from 327 visits to http://www.normalizationprocess.org. Qualitative analysis of both sets of responses showed a high level of support for the statements but also showed that some statements poorly expressed their underlying constructs or overlapped with others. These were rewritten to take account of users' criticisms and then embedded in a web-enabled toolkit. As a result we were able translate the core constructs into a simplified set of statements that could be utilized by non-experts. Conclusion Normalization Process Theory has been developed through transparent procedures at

  4. Space to Think: Large, High-Resolution Displays for Sensemaking

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Christopher P.; Endert, Alexander; North, Chris

    2010-05-05

    Space supports human cognitive abilities in a myriad of ways. The note attached to the side of the monitor, the papers spread out on the desk, diagrams scrawled on a whiteboard, and even the keys left out on the counter are all examples of using space to recall, reveal relationships, and think. Technological advances have made it possible to construct large display environments in which space has real meaning. This paper examines how increased space affects the way displays are regarded and used within the context of the cognitively demanding task of sensemaking. A study was conducted observing analysts using a prototype large, high-resolution display to solve an analytic problem. This paper reports on the results of this study and suggests a number of potential design criteria for future sensemaking tools developed for large, high-resolution displays.

  5. A survey of automated methods for sensemaking support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llinas, James

    2014-05-01

    Complex, dynamic problems in general present a challenge for the design of analysis support systems and tools largely because there is limited reliable a priori procedural knowledge descriptive of the dynamic processes in the environment. Problem domains that are non-cooperative or adversarial impute added difficulties involving suboptimal observational data and/or data containing the effects of deception or covertness. The fundamental nature of analysis in these environments is based on composite approaches involving mining or foraging over the evidence, discovery and learning processes, and the synthesis of fragmented hypotheses; together, these can be labeled as sensemaking procedures. This paper reviews and analyzes the features, benefits, and limitations of a variety of automated techniques that offer possible support to sensemaking processes in these problem domains.

  6. A Sensemaking Perspective on Situation Awareness in Power Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Schur, Anne; Paget, Mia L.; Guttromson, Ross T.

    2008-07-21

    With increasing complexity and interconnectivity of the electric power grid, the scope and complexity of grid operations continues to grow. New paradigms are needed to guide research to improve operations by enhancing situation awareness of operators. Research on human factors/situation awareness is described within a taxonomy of tools and approaches that address different levels of cognitive processing. While user interface features and visualization approaches represent the predominant focus of human factors studies of situation awareness, this paper argues that a complementary level, sensemaking, deserves further consideration by designers of decision support systems for power grid operations. A sensemaking perspective on situation aware-ness may reveal new insights that complement ongoing human factors research, where the focus of the investigation of errors is to understand why the decision makers experienced the situation the way they did, or why what they saw made sense to them at the time.

  7. A functional model of sensemaking in a neurocognitive architecture.

    PubMed

    Lebiere, Christian; Pirolli, Peter; Thomson, Robert; Paik, Jaehyon; Rutledge-Taylor, Matthew; Staszewski, James; Anderson, John R

    2013-01-01

    Sensemaking is the active process of constructing a meaningful representation (i.e., making sense) of some complex aspect of the world. In relation to intelligence analysis, sensemaking is the act of finding and interpreting relevant facts amongst the sea of incoming reports, images, and intelligence. We present a cognitive model of core information-foraging and hypothesis-updating sensemaking processes applied to complex spatial probability estimation and decision-making tasks. While the model was developed in a hybrid symbolic-statistical cognitive architecture, its correspondence to neural frameworks in terms of both structure and mechanisms provided a direct bridge between rational and neural levels of description. Compared against data from two participant groups, the model correctly predicted both the presence and degree of four biases: confirmation, anchoring and adjustment, representativeness, and probability matching. It also favorably predicted human performance in generating probability distributions across categories, assigning resources based on these distributions, and selecting relevant features given a prior probability distribution. This model provides a constrained theoretical framework describing cognitive biases as arising from three interacting factors: the structure of the task environment, the mechanisms and limitations of the cognitive architecture, and the use of strategies to adapt to the dual constraints of cognition and the environment.

  8. A Functional Model of Sensemaking in a Neurocognitive Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Lebiere, Christian; Paik, Jaehyon; Rutledge-Taylor, Matthew; Staszewski, James; Anderson, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Sensemaking is the active process of constructing a meaningful representation (i.e., making sense) of some complex aspect of the world. In relation to intelligence analysis, sensemaking is the act of finding and interpreting relevant facts amongst the sea of incoming reports, images, and intelligence. We present a cognitive model of core information-foraging and hypothesis-updating sensemaking processes applied to complex spatial probability estimation and decision-making tasks. While the model was developed in a hybrid symbolic-statistical cognitive architecture, its correspondence to neural frameworks in terms of both structure and mechanisms provided a direct bridge between rational and neural levels of description. Compared against data from two participant groups, the model correctly predicted both the presence and degree of four biases: confirmation, anchoring and adjustment, representativeness, and probability matching. It also favorably predicted human performance in generating probability distributions across categories, assigning resources based on these distributions, and selecting relevant features given a prior probability distribution. This model provides a constrained theoretical framework describing cognitive biases as arising from three interacting factors: the structure of the task environment, the mechanisms and limitations of the cognitive architecture, and the use of strategies to adapt to the dual constraints of cognition and the environment. PMID:24302930

  9. Patient perspectives on participation in the ENABLE II randomized controlled trial of a concurrent oncology palliative care intervention: benefits and burdens.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Cristine; Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Li, Zhongze; Hegel, Mark; Ahles, Tim A; Bakitas, Marie

    2013-04-01

    ENABLE (Educate, Nurture, Advise Before Life Ends) II was one of the first randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effects of a concurrent oncology palliative care intervention on quality of life, mood, and symptom control for advanced cancer patients and their caregivers. However, little is known about how participants experience early palliative care and the benefits and burdens of participating in a palliative care clinical trial. To gain a deeper understanding of participants' perspectives of the intervention and palliative care trial participation. A qualitative descriptive study using thematic analysis to determine benefits and burdens of a new palliative care intervention and trial participation. Of the 72 participants who were alive when the study commenced, 53 agreed to complete an in-depth, semi-structured interview regarding the ENABLE II intervention and clinical trial participation. Participants' perceptions of intervention benefits were represented by four themes: enhanced problem-solving skills, better coping, feeling empowered, and feeling supported or reassured. Three themes related to trial participation: helping future patients and contributing to science, gaining insight through completion of questionnaires, and trial/intervention aspects to improve. The benefits of the intervention and the positive aspects of trial participation outweighed trial "burdens". This study raises additional important questions relevant to future trial design and intervention development: when should a palliative care intervention be initiated and what aspects of self-care and healthy living should be offered in addition to palliative content for advanced cancer patients when they are feeling well?

  10. Collaborative Educational Leadership: The Emergence of Human Interactional Sense-Making Process as a Complex System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jäppinen, Aini-Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    The article aims at explicating the emergence of human interactional sense-making process within educational leadership as a complex system. The kind of leadership is understood as a holistic entity called collaborative leadership. There, sense-making emerges across interdependent domains, called attributes of collaborative leadership. The…

  11. Human-machine analytics for closed-loop sense-making in time-dominant cyber defense problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Matthew H.

    2017-05-01

    Many defense problems are time-dominant: attacks progress at speeds that outpace human-centric systems designed for monitoring and response. Despite this shortcoming, these well-honed and ostensibly reliable systems pervade most domains, including cyberspace. The argument that often prevails when considering the automation of defense is that while technological systems are suitable for simple, well-defined tasks, only humans possess sufficiently nuanced understanding of problems to act appropriately under complicated circumstances. While this perspective is founded in verifiable truths, it does not account for a middle ground in which human-managed technological capabilities extend well into the territory of complex reasoning, thereby automating more nuanced sense-making and dramatically increasing the speed at which it can be applied. Snort1 and platforms like it enable humans to build, refine, and deploy sense-making tools for network defense. Shortcomings of these platforms include a reliance on rule-based logic, which confounds analyst knowledge of how bad actors behave with the means by which bad behaviors can be detected, and a lack of feedback-informed automation of sensor deployment. We propose an approach in which human-specified computational models hypothesize bad behaviors independent of indicators and then allocate sensors to estimate and forecast the state of an intrusion. State estimates and forecasts inform the proactive deployment of additional sensors and detection logic, thereby closing the sense-making loop. All the while, humans are on the loop, rather than in it, permitting nuanced management of fast-acting automated measurement, detection, and inference engines. This paper motivates and conceptualizes analytics to facilitate this human-machine partnership.

  12. Office-Based Physical Activity and Nutrition Intervention: Barriers, Enablers, and Preferred Strategies for Workplace Obesity Prevention, Perth, Western Australia, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Jancey, Jonine; Howat, Peter; Ledger, Melissa; Lee, Andy H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Workplace health promotion programs to prevent overweight and obesity in office-based employees should be evidence-based and comprehensive and should consider behavioral, social, organizational, and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to and enablers of physical activity and nutrition as well as intervention strategies for health promotion in office-based workplaces in the Perth, Western Australia, metropolitan area in 2012. Methods We conducted an online survey of 111 employees from 55 organizations. The online survey investigated demographics, individual and workplace characteristics, barriers and enablers, intervention-strategy preferences, and physical activity and nutrition behaviors. We used χ2 and Mann–Whitney U statistics to test for differences between age and sex groups for barriers and enablers, intervention-strategy preferences, and physical activity and nutrition behaviors. Stepwise multiple regression analysis determined factors that affect physical activity and nutrition behaviors. Results We identified several factors that affected physical activity and nutrition behaviors, including the most common barriers (“too tired” and “access to unhealthy food”) and enablers (“enjoy physical activity” and “nutrition knowledge”). Intervention-strategy preferences demonstrated employee support for health promotion in the workplace. Conclusion The findings provide useful insights into employees’ preferences for interventions; they can be used to develop comprehensive programs for evidence-based workplace health promotion that consider environmental and policy influences as well as the individual. PMID:24028834

  13. Office-based physical activity and nutrition intervention: barriers, enablers, and preferred strategies for workplace obesity prevention, Perth, Western Australia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Blackford, Krysten; Jancey, Jonine; Howat, Peter; Ledger, Melissa; Lee, Andy H

    2013-09-12

    Workplace health promotion programs to prevent overweight and obesity in office-based employees should be evidence-based and comprehensive and should consider behavioral, social, organizational, and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to and enablers of physical activity and nutrition as well as intervention strategies for health promotion in office-based workplaces in the Perth, Western Australia, metropolitan area in 2012. We conducted an online survey of 111 employees from 55 organizations. The online survey investigated demographics, individual and workplace characteristics, barriers and enablers, intervention-strategy preferences, and physical activity and nutrition behaviors. We used χ(2) and Mann-Whitney U statistics to test for differences between age and sex groups for barriers and enablers, intervention-strategy preferences, and physical activity and nutrition behaviors. Stepwise multiple regression analysis determined factors that affect physical activity and nutrition behaviors. We identified several factors that affected physical activity and nutrition behaviors, including the most common barriers ("too tired" and "access to unhealthy food") and enablers ("enjoy physical activity" and "nutrition knowledge"). Intervention-strategy preferences demonstrated employee support for health promotion in the workplace. The findings provide useful insights into employees' preferences for interventions; they can be used to develop comprehensive programs for evidence-based workplace health promotion that consider environmental and policy influences as well as the individual.

  14. Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: South African examples of a leadership of sensemaking for primary health care.

    PubMed

    Gilson, Lucy; Elloker, Soraya; Olckers, Patti; Lehmann, Uta

    2014-06-16

    incorporate them into their everyday routines and practices. This requires a leadership of sensemaking that enables front line staff to exercise their collective discretionary power in strengthening PHC. We hope this theoretically-framed analysis of one set of experiences stimulates wider thinking about the leadership needed to sustain primary health care in other settings.

  15. Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: South African examples of a leadership of sensemaking for primary health care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    make sense of policy intentions and incorporate them into their everyday routines and practices. This requires a leadership of sensemaking that enables front line staff to exercise their collective discretionary power in strengthening PHC. We hope this theoretically-framed analysis of one set of experiences stimulates wider thinking about the leadership needed to sustain primary health care in other settings. PMID:24935658

  16. Evaluation of the feasibility and acceptability of the ‘Care for Stroke’ intervention in India, a smartphone-enabled, carer-supported, educational intervention for management of disability following stroke

    PubMed Central

    Sureshkumar, K; Murthy, GVS; Natarajan, S; Naveen, C; Goenka, S; Kuper, H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) To identify operational issues encountered by study participants in using the ‘Care for Stroke’ intervention; (2) to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Design Mixed-methods research design. Setting Participant's home. Participants were selected from a tertiary hospital in Chennai, South India. Participants Sixty stroke survivors treated and discharged from the hospital, and their caregivers. Intervention ‘Care for Stroke’ is a smartphone-enabled, educational intervention for management of physical disabilities following stroke. It is delivered through a web-based, smartphone-enabled application. It includes inputs from stroke rehabilitation experts in a digitised format. Methods Evaluation of the intervention was completed in two phases. In the first phase, the preliminary intervention was field-tested with 30 stroke survivors for 2 weeks. In the second phase, the finalised intervention was provided to a further 30 stroke survivors to be used in their homes with support from their carers for 4 weeks. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes: (1) operational difficulties in using the intervention; (2) feasibility and acceptability of the intervention in an Indian setting. Disability and dependency were assessed as secondary outcomes. Results Field-testing identified operational difficulties related to connectivity, video-streaming, picture clarity, quality of videos, and functionality of the application. The intervention was reviewed, revised and finalised before pilot-testing. Findings from the pilot-testing showed that the ‘Care for Stroke’ intervention was feasible and acceptable. Over 90% (n=27) of the study participants felt that the intervention was relevant, comprehensible and useful. Over 96% (n=29) of the stroke survivors and all the caregivers (100%, n=30) rated the intervention as excellent and very useful. These findings were supported by qualitative interviews. Conclusions

  17. Learning to see, seeing to learn: visual aspects of sensemaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Daniel M.

    2003-06-01

    When one says "I see," what is usually meant is "I understand." But what does it mean to create a sense of understanding a large, complex, problem, one with many interlocking pieces, sometimes ill-fitting data and the occasional bit of contradictory information? The traditional computer science perspective on helping people towards understanding is to provide an armamentarium of tools and techniques - databases, query tools and a variety of graphing methods. As a field, we have an overly simple perspective on what it means to grapple with real information. In practice, people who try to make sense of some thing (say, the life sciences, the Middle East, the large scale structure of the universe, their taxes) are faced with a complex collection of information, some in easy-to-digest structured forms, but with many relevant parts scattered hither and yon, in forms and shapes too difficult to manage. To create an understanding, we find that people create representations of complex information. Yet using representations relies on fairly sophisticated perceptual practices. These practices are in no way preordained, but subject to the kinds of perceptual and cognitive phenomena we see in every day life. In order to understand our information environments, we need to learn to perceive these perceptual elements, and understand when they do, and do not, work to our advantage. A more powerful approach to the problem of supporting realistic sensemaking practice is to design information environments that accommodate both the world"s information realities and people"s cognitive characteristics. This paper argues that visual aspects of representation use often dominate sensemaking behavior, and illustrates this by showing three sensemaking tools we have built that take advantage of this property.

  18. Evaluation of the feasibility and acceptability of the 'Care for Stroke' intervention in India, a smartphone-enabled, carer-supported, educational intervention for management of disability following stroke.

    PubMed

    Sureshkumar, K; Murthy, Gvs; Natarajan, S; Naveen, C; Goenka, S; Kuper, H

    2016-02-02

    (1) To identify operational issues encountered by study participants in using the 'Care for Stroke' intervention; (2) to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Mixed-methods research design. Participant's home. Participants were selected from a tertiary hospital in Chennai, South India. Sixty stroke survivors treated and discharged from the hospital, and their caregivers. 'Care for Stroke' is a smartphone-enabled, educational intervention for management of physical disabilities following stroke. It is delivered through a web-based, smartphone-enabled application. It includes inputs from stroke rehabilitation experts in a digitised format. Evaluation of the intervention was completed in two phases. In the first phase, the preliminary intervention was field-tested with 30 stroke survivors for 2 weeks. In the second phase, the finalised intervention was provided to a further 30 stroke survivors to be used in their homes with support from their carers for 4 weeks. (1) operational difficulties in using the intervention; (2) feasibility and acceptability of the intervention in an Indian setting. Disability and dependency were assessed as secondary outcomes. Field-testing identified operational difficulties related to connectivity, video-streaming, picture clarity, quality of videos, and functionality of the application. The intervention was reviewed, revised and finalised before pilot-testing. Findings from the pilot-testing showed that the 'Care for Stroke' intervention was feasible and acceptable. Over 90% (n=27) of the study participants felt that the intervention was relevant, comprehensible and useful. Over 96% (n=29) of the stroke survivors and all the caregivers (100%, n=30) rated the intervention as excellent and very useful. These findings were supported by qualitative interviews. Evaluation indicated that the 'Care for Stroke' intervention was feasible and acceptable in an Indian context. An assessment of effectiveness is now warranted

  19. Patient Perspectives on Participation in the ENABLE II Randomized Controlled Trial of a Concurrent Oncology Palliative Care Intervention: Benefits and Burdens

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Cristine; Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Li, Zhongze; Hegel, Mark; Ahles, Tim A.; Bakitas, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Background ENABLE (Educate, Nurture, Advise Before Life Ends) II was one of the first randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effects of a concurrent oncology palliative care intervention on quality of life, mood, and symptom control for advanced cancer patients and their caregivers. However, little is known about how participants experience early palliative care and the benefits and burdens of participating in a palliative care clinical trial. Aim To gain a deeper understanding of participants’ perspectives about the intervention and palliative care trial participation. Design A qualitative descriptive study using thematic analysis to determine benefits and burdens of a new palliative care intervention and trial participation. Setting/Participants Of the 72 participants who were alive when the study commenced, 53 agreed to complete an in-depth, semi-structured interview regarding the ENABLE II intervention and clinical trial participation. Results Participants’ perceptions of intervention benefits were represented by four themes: enhanced problem-solving skills, better coping, feeling empowered, and feeling supported or reassured. Three themes related to trial participation: helping future patients and contributing to science, gaining insight through completion of questionnaires, and trial/intervention aspects to improve. Conclusions The benefits of the intervention and the positive aspects of trial participation outweighed trial “burdens”. This study raises additional important questions relevant to future trial design and intervention development: when should a palliative care intervention be initiated and what aspects of self-care and healthy living should be offered in addition to palliative content for advanced cancer patients when they are feeling well? PMID:22573470

  20. Development and evaluation of a Smartphone-enabled, caregiver-supported educational intervention for management of physical disabilities following stroke in India: protocol for a formative research study.

    PubMed

    Sureshkumar, K; Murthy, G V S; Kinra, Sanjay; Goenka, Shifalika; Kuper, Hannah

    2015-07-01

    The incidence and prevalence of stroke in India has reached epidemic proportions. The growing magnitude of disability in patients with stroke in India poses a major public health challenge. Given the nature of the condition, affected individuals often become disabled with profound effects on their quality of life. The availability of rehabilitation services for people with disabilities is inadequate in India. Rehabilitation services are usually offered by private hospitals located in urban areas and many stroke survivors, especially those who are poor or live in rural areas, cannot afford to pay for, or do not have access to, such services. Thus, identification of cost-effective ways to rehabilitate people with stroke-related disability is an important challenge. Educational interventions in stroke rehabilitation can assist stroke survivors to make informed decisions regarding their on-going treatment and to self-manage their condition with support from their caregivers. Although educational interventions have been shown to improve patient knowledge for self-management of stroke, an optimal format for the intervention has not as yet been established, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This formative research study aims to systematically develop an educational intervention for management of post-stroke disability for stroke survivors in India, and evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of delivering the intervention using Smartphones and with caregiver support. The research study will be conducted in Chennai, India, and will be organised in three different phases. Phase 1: Development of the intervention. Phase 2: Field testing and finalising the intervention. Phase 3: Piloting of the intervention and assessment of feasibility and acceptability. A mixed-methods approach will be used to develop and evaluate the intervention. If successful, it will help realise the potential of using Smartphone-enabled, carer-supported educational intervention to

  1. Development and evaluation of a Smartphone-enabled, caregiver-supported educational intervention for management of physical disabilities following stroke in India: protocol for a formative research study

    PubMed Central

    Sureshkumar, K; Murthy, G V S; Kinra, Sanjay; Goenka, Shifalika; Kuper, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of stroke in India has reached epidemic proportions. The growing magnitude of disability in patients with stroke in India poses a major public health challenge. Given the nature of the condition, affected individuals often become disabled with profound effects on their quality of life. The availability of rehabilitation services for people with disabilities is inadequate in India. Rehabilitation services are usually offered by private hospitals located in urban areas and many stroke survivors, especially those who are poor or live in rural areas, cannot afford to pay for, or do not have access to, such services. Thus, identification of cost-effective ways to rehabilitate people with stroke-related disability is an important challenge. Educational interventions in stroke rehabilitation can assist stroke survivors to make informed decisions regarding their on-going treatment and to self-manage their condition with support from their caregivers. Although educational interventions have been shown to improve patient knowledge for self-management of stroke, an optimal format for the intervention has not as yet been established, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This formative research study aims to systematically develop an educational intervention for management of post-stroke disability for stroke survivors in India, and evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of delivering the intervention using Smartphones and with caregiver support. The research study will be conducted in Chennai, India, and will be organised in three different phases. Phase 1: Development of the intervention. Phase 2: Field testing and finalising the intervention. Phase 3: Piloting of the intervention and assessment of feasibility and acceptability. A mixed-methods approach will be used to develop and evaluate the intervention. If successful, it will help realise the potential of using Smartphone-enabled, carer-supported educational intervention to

  2. Making sense of executive sensemaking. A phenomenological case study with methodological criticism.

    PubMed

    Parry, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to answer the research question, "how do senior executives in my organisation make sense of their professional life?" Having reviewed the sensemaking literature, in particular that of the pre-eminent author in this field, Karl E. Weick, I adopt a phenomenological, interpretist orientation which relies on an ideographic, inductive generation of theory. I situate myself, both as researcher and chief executive of the organisation studied, in the narrative of sensemaking. Using semi-structured interviews and a combination of grounded theory and template analysis to generate categories, seven themes of sensemaking are tentatively produced which are then compared with Weick's characteristics. The methodological approach is then reflected on, criticised and alternative methodologies are briefly considered. The conclusion reached is that the themes generated by the research may have relevance for sensemaking processes, but that the production of formal theory through social research is problematic.

  3. Deinstitutionalisation from the perspective of sensemaking: An empirical investigation of the Electricity of Vietnam Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tham, H. A.

    This thesis is a study of deinstitutionalisation seeking to understand the evolvement of deinstitutionalisation process via the lens of sensemaking. It does so by conducting an in-depth qualitative, case study-based empirical study of the processual nature of deinstitutionalisation and the significance of organisational sensemaking during the deinstitutionalisation process. An interdisciplinary approach is adopted drawing insights from various literatures including institutional theory, sensemaking and social psychology. The need for greater understanding of the deinstitutionalisation phenomenon, especially its process is acknowledged after relevant literatures are reviewed. The potential of using microanalysis in examining the deinstitutionalisation process is demonstrated. The sensemaking perspective is thus used to facilitate this processual research. Findings have important implications for the theoretical development of institutional changes, sensemaking and especially deinstitutionalisation. First of all, the model and evidence sheds some light on the nature and development of the deinstitutionalisation process. Secondly, the analytic capacity of the institutional theory especially its descriptive and predictive contents are tested in the context of evolving institutions. The relative strengths of regulative, cognitive and normative influences in non-conventional cultural and institutional contexts extend our knowledge of institutional change and effects. Using sensemaking perspective, the findings also demonstrate the role and power of resistance during institutional processes and explain the possibility of multiple paces and outcomes within a single deinstitutionalisation process. As for sensemaking, crisis sensemaking will be examined in a new context: disaster-struck but not life-threatening. In practical terms, this study is carried out in an organisational context therefore it has relevant managerial implications.

  4. Enhancing Mother Infant Interactions through Video Feedback Enabled Interventions in Women with Schizophrenia: A Single Subject Research Design Study.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Pashapu Dharma; Desai, Geehta; Hamza, Ameer; Karthik, Sheshachala; Ananthanpillai, Supraja Thirumalai; Chandra, Prabha S

    2014-10-01

    It has been shown that mother infant interactions are often impaired in mothers with schizophrenia. Contributory factors include psychotic symptoms, negative symptoms and surrogate parenting by others. This study describes the effectiveness of video feedback in enhancing mother-infant interaction in mothers with schizophrenia who have impaired interaction with their infant. Two women with schizophrenia who were admitted for persistent psychotic symptoms and poor mothering skills, participated in the intervention. Pre intervention parenting assessment was done using video recording of mother infant interaction. Six sessions of mothering intervention were provided using video feedback and a repeat recording was done. Pre-and post-intervention videos were subsequently rated in a blind fashion by an independent expert in perinatal psychiatry using the pediatric infant parent exam (PIPE) scale. Pre and post intervention comparison of PIPE scores indicating significant improvement in several areas of mothering. Video feedback is a simple and inexpensive tool which can be used for improving mothering skills among mothers with postpartum psychosis or schizophrenia even in low resource settings.

  5. Members' sensemaking in a multi-professional team.

    PubMed

    Rovio-Johansson, Airi; Liff, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate sensemaking as interaction among team members in a multi-professional team setting in a new public management context at a Swedish Child and Youth Psychiatric Unit. A discursive pragmatic approach grounded in ethonomethodology is taken in the analysis of a treatment conference (TC). In order to interpret and understand the multi-voiced complexity of discourse and of talk-in-interaction, the authors use dialogism in the analysis of the members' sensemaking processes. The analysis is based on the theoretical assumption that language and texts are the primary tools actors use to comprehend the social reality and to make sense of their multi-professional discussions. Health care managers are offered insights, derived from theory and empirical evidence, into how professionals' communications influence multi-professional cooperation. The team leader and members are interviewed before and after the observed TC. Team members create their identities and positions in the group by interpreting and "misinterpreting" talk-in-interaction. The analyses reveal the ways the team members relate to their treatment methods in the discussion of a patient; advocating a treatment method means that the team member and the method are intertwined. The findings may be valuable to health care professionals and managers working in teams by showing them how to achieve greater cooperation through the use of verbal abilities. The findings and methods contribute to the international research on cooperation problems in multi-professional teams and to the empirical research on institutional discourse through text and talk.

  6. Enabling and sustaining the activities of lay health influencers: lessons from a community-based tobacco cessation intervention study.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Muramoto, Myra

    2010-07-01

    The authors present findings from a community-based tobacco cessation project that trained lay health influencers to conduct brief interventions. They outline four major lessons regarding sustainability. First, participants were concerned about the impact that promoting cessation might have on social relationships. "Social risk" must be addressed during training to ensure long-term sustainability. Second, formal training provided participants with an increased sense of self-efficacy, allowed them to embrace a health influencer identity, and aided in further reducing social risk. Third, material resources functioned to mediate social tensions during health intervention conversations. A variety of resources should be made available to health influencers to accommodate type of relationship, timing, and location of the interaction. Finally, project design must be attentive to the creation of a "community of practice" among health influencers as an integral part of project sustainability. These lessons have broad implications for successful health promotion beyond tobacco cessation.

  7. School-based intervention to enable school children to act as change agents on weight, physical activity and diet of their mothers: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, Nalika; Kurotani, Kayo; Indrawansa, Susantha; Nonaka, Daisuke; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Samarasinghe, Diyanath

    2016-04-06

    School health promotion has been shown to improve the lifestyle of students, but it remains unclear whether school-based programs can influence family health. We developed an innovative program that enables school children to act as change agents in promoting healthy lifestyles of their mothers. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the child-initiated intervention on weight, physical activity and dietary habit of their mothers. A 12-month cluster randomized trial was conducted, with school as a cluster. Participants were mothers with grade 8 students, aged around 13 years, of 20 schools in Homagama, Sri Lanka. Students of the intervention group were trained by facilitators to acquire the ability to assess noncommunicable disease risk factors in their homes and take action to address them, whereas those of the comparison group received no intervention. Body weight, step count and lifestyle of their mothers were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Multi-level multivariable linear regression and logistic regression were used to assess the effects of intervention on continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Of 308 study participants, 261 completed the final assessment at 12 month. There was a significantly greater decrease of weight and increase of physical activity in the intervention group. The mean (95% confidence interval) difference comparing the intervention group with the control group was -2.49 (-3.38 to -1.60) kg for weight and -0.99 (-1.40 to -0.58) kg/m(2) for body mass index. The intervention group had a 3.25 (95% confidence interval 1.87-5.62) times higher odds of engaging in adequate physical activity than the control group, and the former showed a greater number of steps than the latter after intervention. The intervention group showed a greater reduction of household purchase of biscuits and ice cream. A program to motivate students to act as change agents of family's lifestyle was effective in decreasing weight and

  8. Optimising self-care support for people with heart failure and their caregivers: development of the Rehabilitation Enablement in Chronic Heart Failure (REACH-HF) intervention using intervention mapping.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Colin J; Wingham, Jennifer; Deighan, Carolyn; Doherty, Patrick; Elliott, Jennifer; Armitage, Wendy; Clark, Michelle; Austin, Jackie; Abraham, Charles; Frost, Julia; Singh, Sally; Jolly, Kate; Paul, Kevin; Taylor, Louise; Buckingham, Sarah; Davis, Russell; Dalal, Hasnain; Taylor, Rod S

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to establish the support needs of people with heart failure and their caregivers and develop an intervention to improve their health-related quality of life. We used intervention mapping to guide the development of our intervention. We identified "targets for change" by synthesising research evidence and international guidelines and consulting with patients, caregivers and health service providers. We then used behaviour change theory, expert opinion and a taxonomy of behaviour change techniques, to identify barriers to and facilitators of change and to match intervention strategies to each target. A patient and public involvement group helped to identify patient and caregiver needs, refine the intervention objectives and strategies and deliver training to the intervention facilitators. A feasibility study (ISRCTN25032672) involving 23 patients, 12 caregivers and seven trained facilitators at four sites assessed the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention and quality of delivery and generated ideas to help refine the intervention. The Rehabilitation Enablement in Chronic Heart Failure (REACH-HF) intervention is a comprehensive self-care support programme comprising the "Heart Failure Manual", a choice of two exercise programmes for patients, a "Family and Friends Resource" for caregivers, a "Progress Tracker" tool and a facilitator training course. The main targets for change are engaging in exercise training, monitoring for symptom deterioration, managing stress and anxiety, managing medications and understanding heart failure. Secondary targets include managing low mood and smoking cessation. The intervention is facilitated by trained healthcare professionals with specialist cardiac experience over 12 weeks, via home and telephone contacts. The feasibility study found high levels of satisfaction and engagement with the intervention from facilitators, patients and caregivers. Intervention fidelity analysis and stakeholder feedback suggested

  9. The importance of role sending in the sensemaking of change agent roles.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Danielle A; Hendy, Jane; Barlow, James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate what happens when a lack of role-sending results in ambiguous change agent roles during a large scale organisational reconfiguration. The authors consider the role of sensemaking in resolving role ambiguity of middle manager change agents and the consequences of this for organisational restructuring. Data were collected from a case study analysis of significant organisational reconfiguration across a local National Health Service Trust in the UK. Data consists of 82 interviews, complemented by analysis of over 100 documents and field notes from 51 hours of observations collected over five phases covering a three year period before, during and after the reconfiguration. An inductive qualitative analysis revealed the sensemaking processes by which ambiguity in role definition was resolved. The data explains how change agents collectively make sense of a role in their own way, drawing on their own experiences and views as well as cues from other organisational members. The authors also identified the organisational outcomes which resulted from this freedom in sensemaking. This study demonstrates that by leaving too much flexibility in the definition of the role, agents developed their own sensemaking which was subsequently very difficult to manipulate. In creating new roles, management first needs to have a realistic vision of the task and roles that their agents will perform, and second, to communicate these expectations to both those responsible for recruiting these roles and to the agents themselves. Much of the focus in sensemaking research has been on the importance of change agents' sensemaking of the change but there has been little focus on how change agents sensemake their own role in the change.

  10. Integrated Cognitive-neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): A Computational Basis for ICArUS Challenge Problem Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): A Computational Basis for ICArUS Challenge...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): A Computational Basis for ICArUS...Advanced Research Projects Activity) program ICArUS (Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking) requires

  11. ‘Care for Stroke’, a web-based, smartphone-enabled educational intervention for management of physical disabilities following stroke: feasibility in the Indian context

    PubMed Central

    Sureshkumar, K; Murthy, G V S; Munuswamy, Suresh; Goenka, Shifalika; Kuper, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stroke rehabilitation is a process targeted towards restoration or maintenance of the physical, mental, intellectual and social abilities of an individual affected by stroke. Unlike high-income countries, the resources for stroke rehabilitation are very limited in many low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Provision of cost-effective, post-stroke multidisciplinary rehabilitation services for the stroke survivors therefore becomes crucial to address the unmet needs and growing magnitude of disability experienced by the stroke survivors in LMICs. In order to meet the growing need for post-stroke rehabilitation services in India, we developed a web-based Smartphone-enabled educational intervention for management of physical disabilities following a stroke. Methods On the basis of the findings from the rehabilitation needs assessment study, guidance from the expert group and available evidence from systematic reviews, the framework of the intervention content was designed. Web-based application designing and development by Professional application developers were subsequently undertaken. Results The application is called ‘Care for Stroke’. It is a web-based educational intervention for management of physical disabilities following a stroke. This intervention is developed for use by the Stroke survivors who have any kind of rehabilitation needs to independently participate in his/her family and social roles. Discussion ‘Care for stroke’ is an innovative intervention which could be tested not just for its feasibility and acceptability but also for its clinical and cost-effectiveness through rigorously designed, randomised clinical trials. It is very important to test this intervention in LMICs where the rehabilitation and information needs of the stroke survivors seem to be substantial and largely unmet. PMID:26246902

  12. Improving Anesthesiologists' Ability to Speak Up in the Operating Room: A Randomized Controlled Experiment of a Simulation-Based Intervention and a Qualitative Analysis of Hurdles and Enablers.

    PubMed

    Raemer, Daniel B; Kolbe, Michaela; Minehart, Rebecca D; Rudolph, Jenny W; Pian-Smith, May C M

    2016-04-01

    The authors addressed three questions: (1) Would a realistic simulation-based educational intervention improve speaking-up behaviors of practicing nontrainee anesthesiologists? (2) What would those speaking-up behaviors be when the issue emanated from a surgeon, a circulating nurse, or an anesthesiologist colleague? (3) What were the hurdles and enablers to speaking up in those situations? The authors conducted a simulation-based randomized controlled experiment from March 2008-February 2011 at the Center for Medical Simulation, Boston, Massachusetts. During a mandatory crisis management course for practicing nontrainee anesthesiologists from five Boston institutions, a 50-minute workshop on speaking up was conducted for intervention (n = 35) and control (n = 36) groups before or after, respectively, an experimental scenario with three events. The authors analyzed videos of the experimental scenarios and debriefing sessions. No statistically significant differences between the intervention and control group subjects with respect to speaking-up actions were observed in any of the three events. The five most frequently mentioned hurdles to speaking up were uncertainty about the issue, stereotypes of others on the team, familiarity with the individual, respect for experience, and the repercussion expected. The five most frequently mentioned enablers were realizing the speaking-up problem, having a speaking-up rubric, certainty about the consequences of speaking up, familiarity with the individual, and having a second opinion or getting help. An educational intervention alone was ineffective in improving the speaking-up behaviors of practicing nontrainee anesthesiologists. Other measures to change speaking-up behaviors could be implemented and might improve patient safety.

  13. The Conflict between Teaching and Scientific Sense-Making: The Case of a Curriculum on Seasonal Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Denis; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the integration of technology into the curriculum and how to design an interactive technological learning environment based on the concept of scientific sense-making. Highlights include the importance of sense-making in science education and an experiment on curriculum design for a fifth- to sixth-grade unit on seasonal change. (Contains…

  14. Factors influencing middle school students' sense-making discussions in their small-group investigations of force and motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandifer, Cody Wayne

    2001-07-01

    In this study, I adopted a combined individual and sociocultural perspective on learning in order to investigate small-group discussions in an inquiry-based middle school science classroom. The specific purpose of the study was to answer the following research questions: (a) How can we classify students' sense-making statements? (b) To what extent do students engage in sense-making discussion (SMD)? and (c) Which factors provide support for students' SMD? To answer these questions, two groups were videotaped during the Interactions and Motion unit from the Constructing Ideas in Physical Science middle school curriculum. To classify students' sense-making statements, I developed a six-component framework for sense-making discussion. My six components of sense-making discussion are: predicting a phenomenon or experimental outcome; clarifying the facts of a phenomenon or experimental result; describing and explaining a phenomenon or experimental result; defining, describing, clarifying, and connecting scientific concepts, procedures, processes, and representations; testing knowledge compatibility; and making a request for any of the above. The extent of students' sense-making discussions was established by (a) documenting instances of student sense-making according to the six component scheme, and then forming distributions of sense-making instances, and (b) calculating the percentage of time that groups dedicated to sense-making discussion. To determine the influence that various factors have on students' sense-making discussions, I first drew on the research in collaboration, discourse, and nonverbal sense-making to arrive at an initial list of personal, group, task, and contextual factors that would likely influence the SMD in this study. I then picked out significant quantitative differences in sense-making between groups, students, and different portions of the curriculum (cycles, sub-sections, etc.), and determined to what extent the initial list of factors

  15. The Patient Remote Intervention and Symptom Management System (PRISMS) - a Telehealth- mediated intervention enabling real-time monitoring of chemotherapy side-effects in patients with haematological malignancies: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Breen, Sibilah; Ritchie, David; Schofield, Penelope; Hsueh, Ya-Seng; Gough, Karla; Santamaria, Nick; Kamateros, Rose; Maguire, Roma; Kearney, Nora; Aranda, Sanchia

    2015-10-19

    -and-paper self-report alongside review of the patient medical record. The primary outcome is burden due to nausea, mucositis, constipation and fatigue. Secondary outcomes include: burden due to vomiting and diarrhoea; psychological distress; ability to self-manage health; level of cancer information/support needs and; utilisation of health services. Analyses will be intention-to-treat. A cost-effectiveness analysis is planned. This trial is the first in the world to test a remote monitoring/management intervention for adult haematological cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Future use of such interventions have the potential to improve patient outcomes/safety and decrease health care costs by enabling early detection/clinical intervention. ACTRN12614000516684 . Date registered: 12 March 2014 (registered retrospectively).

  16. The climate visualizer: Sense-making through scientific visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordin, Douglas N.; Polman, Joseph L.; Pea, Roy D.

    1994-12-01

    This paper describes the design of a learning environment, called the Climate Visualizer, intended to facilitate scientific sense-making in high school classrooms by providing students the ability to craft, inspect, and annotate scientific visualizations. The theoretical back-ground for our design presents a view of learning as acquiring and critiquing cultural practices and stresses the need for students to appropriate the social and material aspects of practice when learning an area. This is followed by a description of the design of the Climate Visualizer, including detailed accounts of its provision of spatial and temporal context and the quantitative and visual representations it employs. A broader context is then explored by describing its integration into the high school science classroom. This discussion explores how visualizations can promote the creation of scientific theories, especially in conjunction with the Collaboratory Notebook, an embedded environment for creating and critiquing scientific theories and visualizations. Finally, we discuss the design trade-offs we have made in light of our theoretical orientation, and our hopes for further progress.

  17. Effects of a palliative care intervention on clinical outcomes in patients with advanced cancer: the Project ENABLE II randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bakitas, Marie; Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Hegel, Mark T; Balan, Stefan; Brokaw, Frances C; Seville, Janette; Hull, Jay G; Li, Zhongze; Tosteson, Tor D; Byock, Ira R; Ahles, Tim A

    2009-08-19

    There are few randomized controlled trials on the effectiveness of palliative care interventions to improve the care of patients with advanced cancer. To determine the effect of a nursing-led intervention on quality of life, symptom intensity, mood, and resource use in patients with advanced cancer. Randomized controlled trial conducted from November 2003 through May 2008 of 322 patients with advanced cancer in a rural, National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center in New Hampshire and affiliated outreach clinics and a VA medical center in Vermont. A multicomponent, psychoeducational intervention (Project ENABLE [Educate, Nurture, Advise, Before Life Ends]) conducted by advanced practice nurses consisting of 4 weekly educational sessions and monthly follow-up sessions until death or study completion (n = 161) vs usual care (n = 161). Quality of life was measured by the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy for Palliative Care (score range, 0-184). Symptom intensity was measured by the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (score range, 0-900). Mood was measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (range, 0-60). These measures were assessed at baseline, 1 month, and every 3 months until death or study completion. Intensity of service was measured as the number of days in the hospital and in the intensive care unit (ICU) and the number of emergency department visits recorded in the electronic medical record. A total of 322 participants with cancer of the gastrointestinal tract (41%; 67 in the usual care group vs 66 in the intervention group), lung (36%; 58 vs 59), genitourinary tract (12%; 20 vs 19), and breast (10%; 16 vs 17) were randomized. The estimated treatment effects (intervention minus usual care) for all participants were a mean (SE) of 4.6 (2) for quality of life (P = .02), -27.8 (15) for symptom intensity (P = .06), and -1.8 (0.81) for depressed mood (P = .02). The estimated treatment effects in

  18. Medical home implementation: a sensemaking taxonomy of hard and soft best practices.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Timothy

    2013-12-01

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model of care is currently a central focus of U.S. health system reform, but less is known about the model's implementation in the practice of everyday primary care. Understanding its implementation is key to ensuring the approach's continued support and success nationally. This article addresses this gap through a qualitative examination of the best practices associated with PCMH implementation for older adult patients in primary care. I used a multicase, comparative study design that relied on a sensemaking approach and fifty-one in-depth interviews with physicians, nurses, and clinic support staff working in six accredited medical homes located in various geographic areas. My emphasis was on gaining descriptive insights into the staff's experiences delivering medical home care to older adult patients in particular and then analyzing how these experiences shaped the staff's thinking, learning, and future actions in implementing medical home care. I found two distinct taxonomies of implementation best practices, which I labeled "hard" and "soft" because of their differing emphasis and content. Hard implementation practices are normative activities and structural interventions that align well with existing national standards for medical home care. Soft best practices are more relational in nature and derive from the existing practice social structure and everyday interactions between staff and patients. Currently, external stakeholders are less apt to recognize, encourage, or incentivize soft best practices. The results suggest that there may be no standardized, one-size-fits-all approach to making medical home implementation work, particularly for special patient populations such as the elderly. My study also raises the issue of broadening current PCMH assessments and reward systems to include implementation practices that contain heavy social and relational components of care, in addition to the emphasis now placed on

  19. Barriers and enablers of health promotion, prevention and early intervention in primary care: evidence to inform the Australian national dementia strategy.

    PubMed

    Travers, Catherine; Martin-Khan, Melinda; Lie, David

    2009-06-01

    A comprehensive literature review was undertaken to: (i) identify and summarise the research evidence regarding barriers and enablers of health promotion, prevention and early intervention (PPEI) in primary care to reduce the risk of chronic disease in the older population; and (ii) use this evidence to make recommendations to inform the Australian national dementia prevention strategy around the translation of evidence-based care into practice. PPEI activities in primary care have the potential to not only reduce the prevalence and impact of a number of chronic diseases, but may also prevent or slow the onset of dementia given the apparent overlap in risk factors. While sizeable gaps exist regarding the most effective ways to promote the adoption of these activities, limited evidence suggests that, to be effective, PPEI activities should be quick and easy to administer, have a sound rationale and be readily incorporated into existing work processes.

  20. Using internet enabled mobile devices and social networking technologies to promote exercise as an intervention for young first episode psychosis patients.

    PubMed

    Killackey, Eoin; Anda, Anna Lee; Gibbs, Martin; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario; Thompson, Andrew; Sun, Pamela; Baksheev, Gennady N

    2011-05-12

    Young people with first episode psychosis are at an increased risk for a range of poor health outcomes. In contrast to the growing body of evidence that suggests that exercise therapy may benefit the physical and mental health of people diagnosed with schizophrenia, there are no studies to date that have sought to extend the use of exercise therapy among patients with first episode psychosis. The aim of the study is to test the feasibility and acceptability of an exercise program that will be delivered via internet enabled mobile devices and social networking technologies among young people with first episode psychosis. This study is a qualitative pilot study being conducted at Orygen Youth Health Research Centre in Melbourne, Australia. Participants are young people aged 15-24 who are receiving clinical care at a specialist first episode psychosis treatment centre. Participants will also comprise young people from the general population. The exercise intervention is a 9-week running program, designed to gradually build a person's level of fitness to be able to run 5 kilometres (3 miles) towards the end of the program. The program will be delivered via an internet enabled mobile device. Participants will be asked to post messages about their running experiences on the social networking website, and will also be asked to attend three face-to-face interviews. This paper describes the development of a qualitative study to pilot a running program coupled with the use of internet enabled mobile devices among young people with first episode psychosis. If the program is found to be feasible and acceptable to patients, it is hoped that further rigorous evaluations will ultimately lead to the introduction of exercise therapy as part of an evidence-based, multidisciplinary approach in routine clinical care.

  1. Beyond Epistemological Deficits: Dynamic Explanations of Engineering Students' Difficulties with Mathematical Sense-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have argued against deficit-based explanations of students' difficulties with mathematical sense-making, pointing instead to factors such as epistemology. Students' beliefs about knowledge and learning can hinder the activation and integration of productive knowledge they have. Such explanations, however, risk falling into a…

  2. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Sense-Making by Department of Defense Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, John L., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore the perceptions and lived experiences of Department of Defense (DOD) civilian employees to identify how their personal sense-making affects their coaching of adult students. The author used an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) method involving personal interviews…

  3. Principals' Sensemaking of Coaching for Ambitious Reading Instruction in a High-Stakes Accountability Policy Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsummura, Lindsay Clare; Wang, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    In the present exploratory qualitative study we examine the contextual factors that influenced the implementation of a multi-year comprehensive literacy-coaching program (Content-Focused Coaching, CFC). We argue that principals' sensemaking of the dialogic instructional strategies promoted by the program in light of high-stakes accountability…

  4. Student Sensemaking with Science Diagrams in a Computer-Based Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furberg, Anniken; Kluge, Anders; Ludvigsen, Sten

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of students' conceptual sensemaking with science diagrams within a computer-based learning environment aimed at supporting collaborative learning. Through the microanalysis of students' interactions in a project about energy and heat transfer, we demonstrate "how" representations become productive social and cognitive…

  5. Founders' Sensemaking and Sensegiving Behaviors Effect on the Organizational Identities of New Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehsenfeld, Corie

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative, multiple case study looked at the emerging organizational identity of four charter schools during the early years of development and the influence of the founder on that developing identity. The study looked at the ways in which each founder's sensemaking and sensegiving behaviors may have influenced the organizational identity…

  6. In the Sandbox: Individuals and Collectives in Organizational Learning as Sense-Making through Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popova-Nowak, Irina V.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a grounded theory of connections between individual and collective (group and organizational) levels of analysis through the examination of play and sense-making as integral parts of organizational learning (OL) by relying on the meta-paradigm theoretical framework. The study employed grounded theory as its…

  7. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Sense-Making by Department of Defense Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, John L., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore the perceptions and lived experiences of Department of Defense (DOD) civilian employees to identify how their personal sense-making affects their coaching of adult students. The author used an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) method involving personal interviews…

  8. Beyond Epistemological Deficits: Dynamic Explanations of Engineering Students' Difficulties with Mathematical Sense-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have argued against deficit-based explanations of students' difficulties with mathematical sense-making, pointing instead to factors such as epistemology. Students' beliefs about knowledge and learning can hinder the activation and integration of productive knowledge they have. Such explanations, however, risk falling into a…

  9. The Use of Assessment for Institutional Sensemaking by Top Administrative Officials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegeman, Johnston Niven

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between the degree to which top administrators of four-year colleges and universities that have been effective in implementing and sustaining assessment view the use of assessment and seven components of institutional sensemaking at their institutions. The underlying premise is that outcomes assessment…

  10. Emotions and Sensemaking: A Consideration of a Community College Presidential Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Kerri S.

    2013-01-01

    A change in primary leadership for a community college presents distinct challenges for its employees. The case study research reported in this article is based on emotions and sensemaking data that were collected at an urban community college in the midst of a presidential transition. Analysis of the data led to a primary focus on the period of…

  11. Sensemaking and New College Presidents: A Conceptual Study of the Transition Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smerek, Ryan E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the sensemaking processes of new college presidents to understand how they develop plausible, working descriptions of the campus and come to understand their role. Semi-structured interviews were completed with 18 presidents who were organizational outsiders and first-time presidents. As newcomers, presidents were found to act…

  12. Digitized and Decoupled? Teacher Sensemaking around Educational Technology in a Model 1:1 Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gherardi, Stacy

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-methods study utilized surveys and interviews to analyze teacher sensemaking in a widely acclaimed 1:1 laptop program in a predominantly low-income, predominantly Latino school district. Quantitative and qualitative measures found that teachers across the district used technology in similar ways and that technology strongly increased…

  13. Sensemaking and New College Presidents: A Conceptual Study of the Transition Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smerek, Ryan E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the sensemaking processes of new college presidents to understand how they develop plausible, working descriptions of the campus and come to understand their role. Semi-structured interviews were completed with 18 presidents who were organizational outsiders and first-time presidents. As newcomers, presidents were found to act…

  14. Socialization as Sensemaking: A Semiotic Analysis of International Graduate Students' Narratives in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suspitsyna, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the data from interviews with 32 international students, this qualitative study applies Weick's framework of organizational sensemaking to the analysis of international graduate students' socialization in the academic and student communities in a large US university. Methodologically, the analysis relies on a semiotic chain…

  15. Emotions and Sensemaking: A Consideration of a Community College Presidential Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Kerri S.

    2013-01-01

    A change in primary leadership for a community college presents distinct challenges for its employees. The case study research reported in this article is based on emotions and sensemaking data that were collected at an urban community college in the midst of a presidential transition. Analysis of the data led to a primary focus on the period of…

  16. Sense-Making, Grief, and the Experience of Violent Loss: Toward a Mediational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currier, Joseph M.; Holland, Jason M.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Bereavement following violent loss by accident, homicide or suicide increases the risk for complications in grieving. This is the first study to examine a constructivist model of grief that proposes that sense-making, or the capacity to construct an understanding of the loss experience, mediates the association between violent death and…

  17. Sense-Making in a Temporary Organization: Implementing a New Curriculum in a Swedish Municipality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordholm, Daniel Erik

    2015-01-01

    This article explores sense-making in a municipality-led temporary organization established in response to the introduction of a new curriculum and marking system in Sweden. Qualitative data were extracted from audio-recorded interviews (n = 18) and observations of central subject group meetings (n = 6). By applying core elements of sociological…

  18. Sense-Making, Grief, and the Experience of Violent Loss: Toward a Mediational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currier, Joseph M.; Holland, Jason M.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Bereavement following violent loss by accident, homicide or suicide increases the risk for complications in grieving. This is the first study to examine a constructivist model of grief that proposes that sense-making, or the capacity to construct an understanding of the loss experience, mediates the association between violent death and…

  19. The Use of Assessment for Institutional Sensemaking by Top Administrative Officials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegeman, Johnston Niven

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between the degree to which top administrators of four-year colleges and universities that have been effective in implementing and sustaining assessment view the use of assessment and seven components of institutional sensemaking at their institutions. The underlying premise is that outcomes assessment…

  20. In the Sandbox: Individuals and Collectives in Organizational Learning as Sense-Making through Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popova-Nowak, Irina V.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a grounded theory of connections between individual and collective (group and organizational) levels of analysis through the examination of play and sense-making as integral parts of organizational learning (OL) by relying on the meta-paradigm theoretical framework. The study employed grounded theory as its…

  1. Shared Sense-Making: How Charter School Leaders Ascribe Meaning to Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawlik, Marytza A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ways in which charter school leaders influence the understanding and conception of accountability policy and how that understanding translates into practice. In particular, this paper draws from sense-making theory and research on charter school leaders to identify their pre-existing…

  2. Student Sensemaking with Science Diagrams in a Computer-Based Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furberg, Anniken; Kluge, Anders; Ludvigsen, Sten

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of students' conceptual sensemaking with science diagrams within a computer-based learning environment aimed at supporting collaborative learning. Through the microanalysis of students' interactions in a project about energy and heat transfer, we demonstrate "how" representations become productive social and cognitive…

  3. Examining the Institutional Transformation Process: The Importance of Sensemaking, Interrelated Strategies, and Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Eckel, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Developed elements of a transformational change framework through case studies of 6 institutions over a 4-year period. Three key findings were: (1) five core strategies for transformational change; (2) the characteristic that makes them essential: sensemaking; and (3) the interrelationship among core and secondary strategies, the nonlinear process…

  4. Teachers' Positioning towards an Educational Innovation in the Light of Ownership, Sense-Making and Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketelaar, Evelien; Beijaard, Douwe; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.; Den Brok, Perry J.

    2012-01-01

    The positioning of eleven teachers towards an innovation was studied in the light of ownership, sense-making and agency. Semi-structured and video-stimulated interviews were used for data collection. The findings show that these three concepts are useful for describing similarities and differences between teachers in terms of their positioning…

  5. A Dialogic Account of Sense-Making in Scientific Argumentation and Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This article identifies aspects of argumentation in scientific practice that are key for scientific sense-making and articulates how engagement in these aspects happens both inter-mentally (between people) and intra-mentally (an individual's reasoning). Institutionally, peer review exerts critique on new knowledge claims in science and is…

  6. Inferior vena cava filter insertion through the popliteal vein: enabling the percutaneous endovenous intervention of deep vein thrombosis with a single venous access approach in a single session

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoung Ook; Kim, Jae Kyu; Park, Jin Gyoon; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kang, Yang Jun; Jung, Hye Doo

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the efficiency of placing an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter through the same popliteal vein access site used for percutaneous endovenous intervention in patients with extensive lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. METHODS This retrospective study included 21 patients who underwent IVC filter insertion through the popliteal vein over a three-year period. Patient medical records were reviewed for the location of the deep vein thrombosis, result of filter removal, and total number of endovascular procedures needed for filter insertion and recanalization of the lower extremity venous system. Follow-up lower extremity computed tomography (CT) venography was also reviewed in each patient to assess the degree of filter tilt in the IVC. RESULTS All patients had extensive lower extremity deep vein thrombosis involving the iliac vein and/or femoral vein. Seventeen patients showed deep vein thrombosis of the calf veins. In all patients, IVC filter insertion and the recanalization procedure were performed during a single procedure through the single popliteal vein access site. In the 17 patients undergoing follow-up CT, the mean tilt angle of the filter was 7.14°±4.48° in the coronal plane and 8.77°±5.49° in the sagittal plane. Filter retrieval was successful in 16 of 17 patients (94.1%) in whom filter retrieval was attempted. CONCLUSION Transpopliteal IVC filter insertion is an efficient technique that results in low rates of significant filter tilt and enables a single session procedure using a single venous access site for filter insertion and percutaneous endovenous intervention. PMID:27559713

  7. Inferior vena cava filter insertion through the popliteal vein: enabling the percutaneous endovenous intervention of deep vein thrombosis with a single venous access approach in a single session.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung Ook; Kim, Jae Kyu; Park, Jin Gyoon; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kang, Yang Jun; Jung, Hye Doo

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficiency of placing an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter through the same popliteal vein access site used for percutaneous endovenous intervention in patients with extensive lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. This retrospective study included 21 patients who underwent IVC filter insertion through the popliteal vein over a three-year period. Patient medical records were reviewed for the location of the deep vein thrombosis, result of filter removal, and total number of endovascular procedures needed for filter insertion and recanalization of the lower extremity venous system. Follow-up lower extremity computed tomography (CT) venography was also reviewed in each patient to assess the degree of filter tilt in the IVC. All patients had extensive lower extremity deep vein thrombosis involving the iliac vein and/or femoral vein. Seventeen patients showed deep vein thrombosis of the calf veins. In all patients, IVC filter insertion and the recanalization procedure were performed during a single procedure through the single popliteal vein access site. In the 17 patients undergoing follow-up CT, the mean tilt angle of the filter was 7.14°±4.48° in the coronal plane and 8.77°±5.49° in the sagittal plane. Filter retrieval was successful in 16 of 17 patients (94.1%) in whom filter retrieval was attempted. Transpopliteal IVC filter insertion is an efficient technique that results in low rates of significant filter tilt and enables a single session procedure using a single venous access site for filter insertion and percutaneous endovenous intervention.

  8. Exploring the potential of a capability framework as a vision and "sensemaking" tool for leaders of interprofessional education.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Margo

    2016-09-01

    Creating a vision (visioning) and sensemaking have been described as key leadership practices in the leadership literature. A vision provides clarity, motivation, and direction for staff, and is essential particularly in times of significant change. Closely related to visioning is sensemaking (the organisation of stimuli into a framework allowing people to understand, explain, attribute, extrapolate, and predict). The application of these strategies to leadership within the interprofessional field is yet to be scrutinised. This study examines an interprofessional capability framework as a visioning and sensemaking tool for use by leaders within a university health science curriculum. Interviews with 11 faculty members revealed that the framework had been embedded across multiple years and contexts within the curriculum. Furthermore, a range of responses to the framework were evoked in relation to its use to make sense of interprofessional practice and to provide a vision, guide, and focus for faculty. Overall the findings indicate that the framework can function as both a visioning and sensemaking tool.

  9. Medical Home Implementation: A Sensemaking Taxonomy of Hard and Soft Best Practices

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Context The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model of care is currently a central focus of U.S. health system reform, but less is known about the model's implementation in the practice of everyday primary care. Understanding its implementation is key to ensuring the approach's continued support and success nationally. This article addresses this gap through a qualitative examination of the best practices associated with PCMH implementation for older adult patients in primary care. Methods I used a multicase, comparative study design that relied on a sensemaking approach and fifty-one in-depth interviews with physicians, nurses, and clinic support staff working in six accredited medical homes located in various geographic areas. My emphasis was on gaining descriptive insights into the staff's experiences delivering medical home care to older adult patients in particular and then analyzing how these experiences shaped the staff's thinking, learning, and future actions in implementing medical home care. Findings I found two distinct taxonomies of implementation best practices, which I labeled “hard” and “soft” because of their differing emphasis and content. Hard implementation practices are normative activities and structural interventions that align well with existing national standards for medical home care. Soft best practices are more relational in nature and derive from the existing practice social structure and everyday interactions between staff and patients. Currently, external stakeholders are less apt to recognize, encourage, or incentivize soft best practices. Conclusions The results suggest that there may be no standardized, one-size-fits-all approach to making medical home implementation work, particularly for special patient populations such as the elderly. My study also raises the issue of broadening current PCMH assessments and reward systems to include implementation practices that contain heavy social and relational components of care

  10. Making sense of shared sense-making in an inquiry-based science classroom: Toward a sociocultural theory of mind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladewski, Barbara G.

    Despite considerable exploration of inquiry and reflection in the literatures of science education and teacher education/teacher professional development over the past century, few theoretical or analytical tools exist to characterize these processes within a naturalistic classroom context. In addition, little is known regarding possible developmental trajectories for inquiry or reflection---for teachers or students---as these processes develop within a classroom context over time. In the dissertation, I use a sociocultural lens to explore these issues with an eye to the ways in which teachers and students develop shared sense-making, rather than from the more traditional perspective of individual teacher activity or student learning. The study includes both theoretical and empirical components. Theoretically, I explore the elaborations of sociocultural theory needed to characterize teacher-student shared sense-making as it develops within a classroom context, and, in particular, the role of inquiry and reflection in that sense-making. I develop a sociocultural model of shared sense-making that attempts to represent the dialectic between the individual and the social, through an elaboration of existing sociocultural and psychological constructs, including Vygotsky's zone of proximal development and theory of mind. Using this model as an interpretive framework, I develop a case study that explores teacher-student shared sense-making within a middle-school science classroom across a year of scaffolded introduction to inquiry-based science instruction. The empirical study serves not only as a test case for the theoretical model, but also informs our understanding regarding possible developmental trajectories and important mechanisms supporting and constraining shared sense-making within inquiry-based science classrooms. Theoretical and empirical findings provide support for the idea that perspectival shifts---that is, shifts of point-of-view that alter relationships

  11. What sense can the sense-making perspective make for economics?

    PubMed

    Cortés, Mauricio; Londoño, Sandra

    2009-06-01

    A landscape of interdisciplinary decision theories is sketched with a tentative place for the sense-making approach presented by Salvatore et al (2009). Uncertainty and ambiguity are highlighted as key concepts in both, economics and sense-making perspectives aligning possible and useful conceptual coincidences among post Keynesian economics (Shackle 1974; Davidson 2005) cultural psychology (Salvatore et al. 2009) and organization theory (March 1978, 1994; Weick 1995). Few ideas for the construction of possible research agenda aimed to build a complex model of decision making are suggested. Finally a brief reflection on the study of underground economy is presented. The challenge for the link between psychology and economics is to figure out a descriptive general model of the process of decision making, perhaps by combining weighted elements of the different ways in which human rationality emerges--calculation, rule following, sense-making--for explaining singular and specific decisions.

  12. Integrated Cognitive-neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Phase 2 Challenge Problem Walkthrough

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Phase 2 Challenge Problem Walkthrough Kevin Burns...IARPA-BAA-10-04, via contract 2009- 0917826-016, and is subject to the Rights in Data-General Clause 52.227-14, Alt. IV (DEC 2007). Any views and...governmental purposes notwithstanding any copyright annotation therein. © 2014 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved. Approved for Public

  13. Organizational sensemaking about risk controls: the case of offshore hydrocarbons production.

    PubMed

    Busby, J S; Collins, A M

    2014-09-01

    In the same way that individuals' risk perceptions can influence how they behave toward risks, how organizational members make sense of risk controls is an important influence on how they apply and maintain such controls. In this article, we describe an analysis of sensemaking about the control of risk in offshore hydrocarbons production, an industry that continues to produce disasters of societal significance. A field study of 80 interviews was conducted in five offshore oil and gas companies and the agency that regulates them. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative template analysis. This provided a categorization of the many ways of acting through which informants made sense of the risk control task, and indicated that the organizations placed substantially different emphases on different ways of acting. Nevertheless, this sensemaking fell into two broad classes: that which tended to limit or be pessimistic about organizational controls, and that which tended to extend or be optimistic about organizational controls. All the participating organizations collectively placed a balanced emphasis on these two classes. We argue that this balanced sensemaking is an adaptation rather than a deliberate choice, but that it is an important element of controlling risk in its own right. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. A Sensemaking Visualization Tool with Military Doctrinal Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    design is to enable information sharing in a community of battle staffs. As noted by Eppler and Burkhard (2004), knowledge visualization allows visual...Introduction to Generalized Linear Models, end Edition. Eppler, M., and Burkhard , R. (2004). Knowledge visualization: Towards a new discipline and its

  15. The EPICS Trial: Enabling Parents to Increase Child Survival through the introduction of community-based health interventions in rural Guinea Bissau.

    PubMed

    Mann, Vera; Fazzio, Ila; King, Rebecca; Walker, Polly; dos Santos, Albino; de Sa, Jose Carlos; Jayanti, Chitra; Frost, Chris; Elbourne, Diana; Boone, Peter

    2009-08-03

    Guinea-Bissau is a small country in West Africa with a population of 1.7 million. The WHO and UNICEF reported an under-five child mortality of 203 per 1000, the 10th highest amongst 192 countries. The aim of the trial is to assess whether an intervention package that includes community health promotion campaign and education through health clubs, intensive training and mentoring of village health workers to diagnose and provide first-line treatment for children's diseases within the community, and improved outreach services can generate a rapid and cost-effective reduction in under-five child mortality in rural regions of Guinea-Bissau. Effective Intervention plans to expand the project to a much larger region if there is good evidence after two and a half years that the project is generating a cost-effective, sustainable reduction in child mortality. This trial is a cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 146 clusters. The trial will run for 2.5 years. The interventions will be introduced in two stages: seventy-three clusters will receive the interventions at the start of the project, and seventy-three control clusters will receive the interventions 2.5 years after the first clusters have received all interventions if the research shows that the interventions are effective. The impact of the interventions and cost-effectiveness will be measured during the first stage.The package of interventions includes a community health promotion campaign and education through health clubs, and intensive training and mentoring of village health workers to diagnose and provide first-line treatment for common children's diseases within the community. It also includes improved outreach services to encourage provision of antenatal and post natal care and provide ongoing monitoring for village health workers.The primary outcome of the trial will be the proportion of children that die under 5 years of age during the trial. Secondary outcomes will include age at and cause of

  16. The EPICS Trial: Enabling Parents to Increase Child Survival through the introduction of community-based health interventions in rural Guinea Bissau

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Vera; Fazzio, Ila; King, Rebecca; Walker, Polly; dos Santos, Albino; Carlos de Sa, Jose; Jayanti, Chitra; Frost, Chris; Elbourne, Diana; Boone, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background Guinea-Bissau is a small country in West Africa with a population of 1.7 million. The WHO and UNICEF reported an under-five child mortality of 203 per 1000, the 10th highest amongst 192 countries. The aim of the trial is to assess whether an intervention package that includes community health promotion campaign and education through health clubs, intensive training and mentoring of village health workers to diagnose and provide first-line treatment for children's diseases within the community, and improved outreach services can generate a rapid and cost-effective reduction in under-five child mortality in rural regions of Guinea-Bissau. Effective Intervention plans to expand the project to a much larger region if there is good evidence after two and a half years that the project is generating a cost-effective, sustainable reduction in child mortality. Methods/design This trial is a cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 146 clusters. The trial will run for 2.5 years. The interventions will be introduced in two stages: seventy-three clusters will receive the interventions at the start of the project, and seventy-three control clusters will receive the interventions 2.5 years after the first clusters have received all interventions if the research shows that the interventions are effective. The impact of the interventions and cost-effectiveness will be measured during the first stage. The package of interventions includes a community health promotion campaign and education through health clubs, and intensive training and mentoring of village health workers to diagnose and provide first-line treatment for common children's diseases within the community. It also includes improved outreach services to encourage provision of antenatal and post natal care and provide ongoing monitoring for village health workers. The primary outcome of the trial will be the proportion of children that die under 5 years of age during the trial. Secondary outcomes will

  17. Dilemmas of reform: An exploration of science teachers' collective sensemaking of formative assessment practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heredia, Sara Catherine

    Current reform efforts in science education call for significant shifts in how science is taught and learned. Teachers are important gatekeepers for reform, as they must enact these changes with students in their own classrooms. As such, professional development approaches need to be developed and studied to understand how teachers interpret and make instructional plans to implement these reforms. However, traditional approaches to studying implementation of reforms often draw on metrics such as time allotted to new activities, rather than exploring the ways in which teachers make sense of these reforms. In this dissertation I draw upon a body of work called sensemaking that has focused on locating learning in teachers' conversations in departmental work groups. I developed a conceptual and analytic framework to analyze how teachers make sense of reform given their local contexts and then used this framework to perform a case study of one group of teachers that participated in larger professional development project that examined the impact of a learning progression on science teachers' formative assessment practices. I draw upon videotapes of three years of monthly professional development meetings as my primary source of data, and used an ethnographic approach to identify dilemmas surfaced by teachers, sources of ambiguity and uncertainty, and patterns of and resources for teacher sensemaking. The case study reveals relationships between the type of dilemma surfaced by the teachers and different patterns of sensemaking for modification of teaching practices. When teachers expressed concerns about district or administrative requirements, they aligned their work in the professional development to those external forces. In contrast, teachers were able to develop and try out new practices when they perceived coherence between the professional development and school or district initiatives. These results underscore the importance of coherence between various

  18. Borders and Modal Articulations. Semiotic Constructs of Sensemaking Processes Enabling a Fecund Dialogue Between Cultural Psychology and Clinical Psychology.

    PubMed

    De Luca Picione, Raffaele; Freda, Maria Francesca

    2016-03-01

    The notion of the border is an interesting advancement in research on the processes of meaning making within the cultural psychology. The development of this notion in semiotic key allows to handle with adequate complexity construction, transformation, stability and the breakup of the relationship between person/world/otherness. These semiotic implications have already been widely discussed and exposed by authors such Valsiner (2007, 2014), Neuman (2003, 2008), Simão (Culture & Psychology, 9, 449-459, 2003, Theory & Psychology, 15, 549-574, 2005, 2015), with respect to issues of identity/relatedness, inside/outside, stability/change in the irreversible flow of the time. In this work, after showing some of the basics of such semiotic notion of border, we discuss the processes of construction and transformation of borders through the modal articulation, defined as the contextual positioning that the person assumes with respect to the establishment of a boundary in terms of necessity, obligation, willingness, possibility, permission, ability. This modal subjective positioning acquires considerable interest from the clinical point of view since its degree of plasticity vs that of rigidity is the basis of processes of development or stiffening of relations between person/world/otherness.

  19. Sense-Making as a Lens on Everyday Change Leadership Practice: The Case of Holly Tree Primary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Pat; Hall, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Scholars of educational change agree that leaders need to develop a vision, build capacity and ensure ownership of change by staff. We argue that understanding the actual work that leaders must do in order to convert these categories into action, requires a social practice approach. Taking the notion of sense-making as a social practice, drawn…

  20. Level of Sense-Making in Children with Autistic Disorder and Intellectual Disability: Patterns of Delay and Deviance in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined levels of sense-making in relation to adaptive functioning and autism symptomatology in low-functioning children with autistic disorder. Thirty-six children with autistic disorder and intellectual disability were compared with 27 children with intellectual disability and 33 typically developing children with a comparable…

  1. Role Identity: At the Intersection of Organizational Socialization and Individual Sensemaking of New Principals and Vice-Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grodzki, John S.

    2011-01-01

    This study of one mid-sized Canadian school district employed a case study approach to uncover and document the influences of organizational socialization, sensemaking, and perceptions of self-efficacy on the development of administrators' role identities. Findings describe formal and informal socialization processes experienced by administrators,…

  2. Teachers' Implementation of the Coaching Role: Do Teachers' Ownership, Sensemaking, and Agency Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketelaar, Evelien; Beijaard, Douwe; Brok, Perry J.; Boshuizen, Henny P.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether teachers' positioning towards an innovation is related to their implementation of it. Positioning was reflected in terms of teachers' ownership, sensemaking, and agency. The innovation that was of central focus in this study pertained to the changing role of teachers towards a more coaching…

  3. Towards Understanding How to Leverage Sense-Making, Induction and Refinement, and Fluency to Improve Robust Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doroudi, Shayan; Holstein, Kenneth; Aleven, Vincent; Brunskill, Emma

    2015-01-01

    The field of EDM has focused more on modeling student knowledge than on investigating what sequences of different activity types achieve good learning outcomes. In this paper we consider three activity types, targeting sense-making, induction and refinement, and fluency building. We investigate what mix of the three types might be most effective…

  4. The Life Course and Sense-Making: Immigrant Families' Journeys toward Understanding Educational Policies and Choosing Bilingual Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorner, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Implementing policies relies on their design, the will and capacity of implementors, the organizations within which implementation occurs, and individuals' interpretations. Despite the fact that families' decisions are critical to the successful implementation of educational programs, however, few studies examine their sense-making processes.…

  5. Students' Meaning-Making and Sense-Making of Vocational Knowledge in Dutch Senior Secondary Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijlsma, Nienke; Schaap, Harmen; de Bruijn, Elly

    2016-01-01

    Meaning-making and sense-making are generally assumed to be part of students' personal vocational knowledge development, since they contribute to both students' socialisation in a vocation and students' personalisation of concepts, values and beliefs regarding that vocation. However, how students in vocational education acquire meaning and make…

  6. Level of Sense-Making in Children with Autistic Disorder and Intellectual Disability: Patterns of Delay and Deviance in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined levels of sense-making in relation to adaptive functioning and autism symptomatology in low-functioning children with autistic disorder. Thirty-six children with autistic disorder and intellectual disability were compared with 27 children with intellectual disability and 33 typically developing children with a comparable…

  7. The Life Course and Sense-Making: Immigrant Families' Journeys toward Understanding Educational Policies and Choosing Bilingual Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorner, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Implementing policies relies on their design, the will and capacity of implementors, the organizations within which implementation occurs, and individuals' interpretations. Despite the fact that families' decisions are critical to the successful implementation of educational programs, however, few studies examine their sense-making processes.…

  8. The parietal cortex in sensemaking: the dissociation of multiple types of spatial information.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanlong; Wang, Hongbin

    2013-01-01

    According to the data-frame theory, sensemaking is a macrocognitive process in which people try to make sense of or explain their observations by processing a number of explanatory structures called frames until the observations and frames become congruent. During the sensemaking process, the parietal cortex has been implicated in various cognitive tasks for the functions related to spatial and temporal information processing, mathematical thinking, and spatial attention. In particular, the parietal cortex plays important roles by extracting multiple representations of magnitudes at the early stages of perceptual analysis. By a series of neural network simulations, we demonstrate that the dissociation of different types of spatial information can start early with a rather similar structure (i.e., sensitivity on a common metric), but accurate representations require specific goal-directed top-down controls due to the interference in selective attention. Our results suggest that the roles of the parietal cortex rely on the hierarchical organization of multiple spatial representations and their interactions. The dissociation and interference between different types of spatial information are essentially the result of the competition at different levels of abstraction.

  9. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Rehabilitation Enablement in Chronic Heart Failure (REACH-HF) facilitated self-care rehabilitation intervention in heart failure patients and caregivers: rationale and protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, R S; Hayward, C; Eyre, V; Austin, J; Davies, R; Doherty, P; Jolly, K; Wingham, J; Van Lingen, R; Abraham, C; Green, C; Warren, FC; Britten, N; Greaves, C J; Singh, S; Buckingham, S; Paul, K; Dalal, H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Rehabilitation EnAblement in CHronic Heart Failure (REACH-HF) trial is part of a research programme designed to develop and evaluate a health professional facilitated, home-based, self-help rehabilitation intervention to improve self-care and health-related quality of life in people with heart failure and their caregivers. The trial will assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the REACH-HF intervention in patients with systolic heart failure and impact on the outcomes of their caregivers. Methods and analysis A parallel two group randomised controlled trial with 1:1 individual allocation to the REACH-HF intervention plus usual care (intervention group) or usual care alone (control group) in 216 patients with systolic heart failure (ejection fraction <45%) and their caregivers. The intervention comprises a self-help manual delivered by specially trained facilitators over a 12-week period. The primary outcome measure is patients’ disease-specific health-related quality of life measured using the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire at 12 months’ follow-up. Secondary outcomes include survival and heart failure related hospitalisation, blood biomarkers, psychological well-being, exercise capacity, physical activity, other measures of quality of life, patient safety and the quality of life, psychological well-being and perceived burden of caregivers at 4, 6 and 12 months’ follow-up. A process evaluation will assess fidelity of intervention delivery and explore potential mediators and moderators of changes in health-related quality of life in intervention and control group patients. Qualitative studies will describe patient and caregiver experiences of the intervention. An economic evaluation will estimate the cost-effectiveness of the REACH-HF intervention plus usual care versus usual care alone in patients with systolic heart failure. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the North West

  10. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Rehabilitation Enablement in Chronic Heart Failure (REACH-HF) facilitated self-care rehabilitation intervention in heart failure patients and caregivers: rationale and protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Taylor, R S; Hayward, C; Eyre, V; Austin, J; Davies, R; Doherty, P; Jolly, K; Wingham, J; Van Lingen, R; Abraham, C; Green, C; Warren, F C; Britten, N; Greaves, C J; Singh, S; Buckingham, S; Paul, K; Dalal, H

    2015-12-23

    The Rehabilitation EnAblement in CHronic Heart Failure (REACH-HF) trial is part of a research programme designed to develop and evaluate a health professional facilitated, home-based, self-help rehabilitation intervention to improve self-care and health-related quality of life in people with heart failure and their caregivers. The trial will assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the REACH-HF intervention in patients with systolic heart failure and impact on the outcomes of their caregivers. A parallel two group randomised controlled trial with 1:1 individual allocation to the REACH-HF intervention plus usual care (intervention group) or usual care alone (control group) in 216 patients with systolic heart failure (ejection fraction <45%) and their caregivers. The intervention comprises a self-help manual delivered by specially trained facilitators over a 12-week period. The primary outcome measure is patients' disease-specific health-related quality of life measured using the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire at 12 months' follow-up. Secondary outcomes include survival and heart failure related hospitalisation, blood biomarkers, psychological well-being, exercise capacity, physical activity, other measures of quality of life, patient safety and the quality of life, psychological well-being and perceived burden of caregivers at 4, 6 and 12 months' follow-up. A process evaluation will assess fidelity of intervention delivery and explore potential mediators and moderators of changes in health-related quality of life in intervention and control group patients. Qualitative studies will describe patient and caregiver experiences of the intervention. An economic evaluation will estimate the cost-effectiveness of the REACH-HF intervention plus usual care versus usual care alone in patients with systolic heart failure. The study is approved by the North West-Lancaster Research Ethics Committee (ref 14/NW/1351). Findings will be

  11. Sense-making for intelligence analysis on social media data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritzkau, Albert

    2016-05-01

    Social networks, in particular online social networks as a subset, enable the analysis of social relationships which are represented by interaction, collaboration, or other sorts of influence between people. Any set of people and their internal social relationships can be modelled as a general social graph. These relationships are formed by exchanging emails, making phone calls, or carrying out a range of other activities that build up the network. This paper presents an overview of current approaches to utilizing social media as a ubiquitous sensor network in the context of national and global security. Exploitation of social media is usually an interdisciplinary endeavour, in which the relevant technologies and methods are identified and linked in order ultimately demonstrate selected applications. Effective and efficient intelligence is usually accomplished in a combined human and computer effort. Indeed, the intelligence process heavily depends on combining a human's flexibility, creativity, and cognitive ability with the bandwidth and processing power of today's computers. To improve the usability and accuracy of the intelligence analysis we will have to rely on data-processing tools at the level of natural language. Especially the collection and transformation of unstructured data into actionable, structured data requires scalable computational algorithms ranging from Artificial Intelligence, via Machine Learning, to Natural Language Processing (NLP). To support intelligence analysis on social media data, social media analytics is concerned with developing and evaluating computational tools and frameworks to collect, monitor, analyze, summarize, and visualize social media data. Analytics methods are employed to extract of significant patterns that might not be obvious. As a result, different data representations rendering distinct aspects of content and interactions serve as a means to adapt the focus of the intelligence analysis to specific information

  12. Identifying the barriers and enablers for a triage, treatment, and transfer clinical intervention to manage acute stroke patients in the emergency department: a systematic review using the theoretical domains framework (TDF).

    PubMed

    Craig, Louise E; McInnes, Elizabeth; Taylor, Natalie; Grimley, Rohan; Cadilhac, Dominique A; Considine, Julie; Middleton, Sandy

    2016-11-28

    Clinical guidelines recommend that assessment and management of patients with stroke commences early including in emergency departments (ED). To inform the development of an implementation intervention targeted in ED, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies to identify relevant barriers and enablers to six key clinical behaviours in acute stroke care: appropriate triage, thrombolysis administration, monitoring and management of temperature, blood glucose levels, and of swallowing difficulties and transfer of stroke patients in ED. Studies of any design, conducted in ED, where barriers or enablers based on primary data were identified for one or more of these six clinical behaviours. Major biomedical databases (CINAHL, OVID SP EMBASE, OVID SP MEDLINE) were searched using comprehensive search strategies. The barriers and enablers were categorised using the theoretical domains framework (TDF). The behaviour change technique (BCT) that best aligned to the strategy each enabler represented was selected for each of the reported enablers using a standard taxonomy. Five qualitative studies and four surveys out of the 44 studies identified met the selection criteria. The majority of barriers reported corresponded with the TDF domains of "environmental, context and resources" (such as stressful working conditions or lack of resources) and "knowledge" (such as lack of guideline awareness or familiarity). The majority of enablers corresponded with the domains of "knowledge" (such as education for physicians on the calculated risk of haemorrhage following intravenous thrombolysis [tPA]) and "skills" (such as providing opportunity to treat stroke cases of varying complexity). The total number of BCTs assigned was 18. The BCTs most frequently assigned to the reported enablers were "focus on past success" and "information about health consequences." Barriers and enablers for the delivery of key evidence-based protocols in an emergency setting have

  13. Improving ethical knowledge and sensemaking from cases through elaborative interrogation and outcome valence.

    PubMed

    Johnson, James F; Bagdasarov, Zhanna; MacDougall, Alexandra E; Steele, Logan; Connelly, Shane; Devenport, Lynn D; Mumford, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    The case-based approach to learning is popular among many applied fields. However, results of case-based education vary widely on case content and case presentation. This study examined two aspects of case-based education-outcome valence and case elaboration methods-in a two-day case-based Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) ethics education program. Results suggest that outcome information is an integral part of a quality case. Furthermore, valence consistent outcomes may have certain advantages over mixed valence outcome information. Finally, students enjoy and excel working with case material, and the use of elaborative interrogation techniques can significantly improve internally-focused ethical sensemaking strategies associated with personal biases, constraints, and emotions.

  14. Sixteen years of collaborative learning through active sense-making in physics (CLASP) at UC Davis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Wendell; Webb, David; Paul, Cassandra; West, Emily; Bowen, Mark; Weiss, Brenda; Coleman, Lawrence; De Leone, Charles

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes our large reformed introductory physics course at UC Davis, which bioscience students have been taking since 1996. The central feature of this course is a focus on sense-making by the students during the 5 h per week discussion/labs in which the students take part in activities emphasizing peer-peer discussions, argumentation, and presentations of ideas. The course differs in many fundamental ways from traditionally taught introductory physics courses. After discussing the unique features of CLASP and its implementation at UC Davis, various student outcome measures are presented that show increased performance by students who took the CLASP course compared to students who took a traditionally taught introductory physics course. Measures we use include upper-division GPAs, MCAT scores, FCI gains, and MPEX-II scores.

  15. Large High Resolution Displays for Co-Located Collaborative Sensemaking: Display Usage and Territoriality

    SciTech Connect

    Bradel, Lauren; Endert, Alexander; Koch, Kristen; Andrews, Christopher; North, Chris

    2013-08-01

    Large, high-resolution vertical displays carry the potential to increase the accuracy of collaborative sensemaking, given correctly designed visual analytics tools. From an exploratory user study using a fictional textual intelligence analysis task, we investigated how users interact with the display to construct spatial schemas and externalize information, as well as how they establish shared and private territories. We investigated the space management strategies of users partitioned by type of tool philosophy followed (visualization- or text-centric). We classified the types of territorial behavior exhibited in terms of how the users interacted with information on the display (integrated or independent workspaces). Next, we examined how territorial behavior impacted the common ground between the pairs of users. Finally, we offer design suggestions for building future co-located collaborative visual analytics tools specifically for use on large, high-resolution vertical displays.

  16. Combining computational analyses and interactive visualization for document exploration and sensemaking in jigsaw.

    PubMed

    Görg, Carsten; Liu, Zhicheng; Kihm, Jaeyeon; Choo, Jaegul; Park, Haesun; Stasko, John

    2013-10-01

    Investigators across many disciplines and organizations must sift through large collections of text documents to understand and piece together information. Whether they are fighting crime, curing diseases, deciding what car to buy, or researching a new field, inevitably investigators will encounter text documents. Taking a visual analytics approach, we integrate multiple text analysis algorithms with a suite of interactive visualizations to provide a flexible and powerful environment that allows analysts to explore collections of documents while sensemaking. Our particular focus is on the process of integrating automated analyses with interactive visualizations in a smooth and fluid manner. We illustrate this integration through two example scenarios: an academic researcher examining InfoVis and VAST conference papers and a consumer exploring car reviews while pondering a purchase decision. Finally, we provide lessons learned toward the design and implementation of visual analytics systems for document exploration and understanding.

  17. Application of a sensemaking approach to ethics training in the physical sciences and engineering.

    PubMed

    Kligyte, Vykinta; Marcy, Richard T; Waples, Ethan P; Sevier, Sydney T; Godfrey, Elaine S; Mumford, Michael D; Hougen, Dean F

    2008-06-01

    Integrity is a critical determinant of the effectiveness of research organizations in terms of producing high quality research and educating the new generation of scientists. A number of responsible conduct of research (RCR) training programs have been developed to address this growing organizational concern. However, in spite of a significant body of research in ethics training, it is still unknown which approach has the highest potential to enhance researchers' integrity. One of the approaches showing some promise in improving researchers' integrity has focused on the development of ethical decision-making skills. The current effort proposes a novel curriculum that focuses on broad metacognitive reasoning strategies researchers use when making sense of day-to-day social and professional practices that have ethical implications for the physical sciences and engineering. This sensemaking training has been implemented in a professional sample of scientists conducting research in electrical engineering, atmospheric and computer sciences at a large multi-cultural, multi-disciplinary, and multi-university research center. A pre-post design was used to assess training effectiveness using scenario-based ethical decision-making measures. The training resulted in enhanced ethical decision-making of researchers in relation to four ethical conduct areas, namely data management, study conduct, professional practices, and business practices. In addition, sensemaking training led to researchers' preference for decisions involving the application of the broad metacognitive reasoning strategies. Individual trainee and training characteristics were used to explain the study findings. Broad implications of the findings for ethics training development, implementation, and evaluation in the sciences are discussed.

  18. Application of a Sensemaking Approach to Ethics Training in the Physical Sciences and Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kligyte, Vykinta; Marcy, Richard T.; Waples, Ethan P.; Sevier, Sydney T.; Godfrey, Elaine S.; Mumford, Michael D.; Hougen, Dean F.

    2008-06-01

    Integrity is a critical determinant of the effectiveness of research organizations in terms of producing high quality research and educating the new generation of scientists. A number of responsible conduct of research (RCR) training programs have been developed to address this growing organizational concern. However, in spite of a significant body of research in ethics training, it is still unknown which approach has the highest potential to enhance researchers' integrity. One of the approaches showing some promise in improving researchers' integrity has focused on the development of ethical decision-making skills. The current effort proposes a novel curriculum that focuses on broad metacognitive reasoning strategies researchers use when making sense of day-to-day social and professional practices that have ethical implications for the physical sciences and engineering. This sensemaking training has been implemented in a professional sample of scientists conducting research in electrical engineering, atmospheric and computer sciences at a large multi-cultural, multi-disciplinary, and multi-university research center. A pre-post design was used to assess training effectiveness using scenario-based ethical decision-making measures. The training resulted in enhanced ethical decision-making of researchers in relation to four ethical conduct areas, namely data management, study conduct, professional practices, and business practices. In addition, sensemaking training led to researchers' preference for decisions involving the application of the broad metacognitive reasoning strategies. Individual trainee and training characteristics were used to explain the study findings. Broad implications of the findings for ethics training development, implementation, and evaluation in the sciences are discussed.

  19. Sensemaking, stakeholder discord, and long-term risk communication at a US Superfund site.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Anna Goodman

    2017-03-01

    Risk communication can help reduce exposures to environmental contaminants, mitigate negative health outcomes, and inform community-based decisions about hazardous waste sites. While communication best practices have long guided such efforts, little research has examined unintended consequences arising from such guidelines. As rhetoric informs stakeholder sensemaking, the language used in and reinforced by these guidelines can challenge relationships and exacerbate stakeholder tensions. This study evaluates risk communication at a U.S. Superfund site to identify unintended consequences arising from current risk communication practices. This qualitative case study crystallizes data spanning 6 years from three sources: 1) local newspaper coverage of site-related topics; 2) focus-group transcripts from a multi-year project designed to support future visioning of site use; and 3) published blog entries authored by a local environmental activist. Constant comparative analysis provides the study's analytic foundation, with qualitative data analysis software QSR NVivo 8 supporting a three-step process: 1) provisional coding to identify broad topic categories within datasets, 2) coding occurrences of sensemaking constructs and emergent intra-dataset patterns, and 3) grouping related codes across datasets to examine the relationships among them. Existing risk communication practices at this Superfund site contribute to a dichotomous conceptualization of multiple and diverse stakeholders as members of one of only two categories: the government or the public. This conceptualization minimizes perceptions of capacity, encourages public commitment to stances aligned with a preferred group, and contributes to negative expectations that can become self-fulfilling prophecies. Findings indicate a need to re-examine and adapt risk communication guidelines to encourage more pluralistic understanding of the stakeholder landscape.

  20. A qualitative study describing nursing home nurses sensemaking to detect medication order discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Vogelsmeier, Amy; Anderson, Ruth A; Anbari, Allison; Ganong, Lawrence; Farag, Amany; Niemeyer, MaryAnn

    2017-08-04

    Medication reconciliation is a safety practice to identify medication order discrepancies when patients' transitions between settings. In nursing homes, registered nurses (RNs) and licensed practical nurses (LPNs), each group with different education preparation and scope of practice responsibilities, perform medication reconciliation. However, little is known about how they differ in practice when making sense of medication orders to detect discrepancies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe differences in RN and LPN sensemaking when detecting discrepancies. We used a qualitative methodology in a study of 13 RNs and 13 LPNs working in 12 Midwestern United States nursing homes. We used both conventional content analysis and directed content analysis methods to analyze semi-structured interviews. Four resident transfer vignettes embedded with medication order discrepancies guided the interviews. Participants were asked to describe their roles with medication reconciliation and their rationale for identifying medication order discrepancies within the vignettes as well as to share their experiences of performing medication reconciliation. The analysis approach was guided by Weick's Sensemaking theory. RNs provided explicit stories of identifying medication order discrepancies as well as examples of clinical reasoning to assure medication order appropriateness whereas LPNs described comparing medication lists. RNs and LPNs both acknowledged competing demands, but when performing medication reconciliation, RNs were more concerned about accuracy and safety, whereas LPNs were more concerned about time. Nursing home nurses, particularly RNs, are in an important position to identify discrepancies that could cause resident harm. Both RNs and LPNs are valuable assets to nursing home care and keeping residents safe, yet RNs offer a unique contribution to complex processes such as medication reconciliation. Nursing home leaders must acknowledge the differences

  1. Description and process evaluation of pharmacists' interventions in a pharmacist-led information technology-enabled multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial for reducing medication errors in general practice (PINCER trial).

    PubMed

    Howard, Rachel; Rodgers, Sarah; Avery, Anthony J; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-02-01

    To undertake a process evaluation of pharmacists' recommendations arising in the context of a complex IT-enabled pharmacist-delivered randomised controlled trial (PINCER trial) to reduce the risk of hazardous medicines management in general practices. PINCER pharmacists manually recorded patients' demographics, details of interventions recommended, actions undertaken by practice staff and time taken to manage individual cases of hazardous medicines management. Data were coded, double-entered into SPSS version 15 and then summarised using percentages for categorical data (with 95% confidence interval (CI)) and, as appropriate, means (± standard deviation) or medians (interquartile range) for continuous data. Pharmacists spent a median of 20 min (interquartile range 10, 30) reviewing medical records, recommending interventions and completing actions in each case of hazardous medicines management. Pharmacists judged 72% (95% CI 70, 74; 1463/2026) of cases of hazardous medicines management to be clinically relevant. Pharmacists recommended 2105 interventions in 74% (95% CI 73, 76; 1516/2038) of cases and 1685 actions were taken in 61% (95% CI 59, 63; 1246/2038) of cases; 66% (95% CI 64, 68; 1383/2105) of interventions recommended by pharmacists were completed and 5% (95% CI 4, 6; 104/2105) of recommendations were accepted by general practitioners (GPs), but not completed at the end of the pharmacists' placement; the remaining recommendations were rejected or considered not relevant by GPs. The outcome measures were used to target pharmacist activity in general practice towards patients at risk from hazardous medicines management. Recommendations from trained PINCER pharmacists were found to be broadly acceptable to GPs and led to ameliorative action in the majority of cases. It seems likely that the approach used by the PINCER pharmacists could be employed by other practice pharmacists following appropriate training. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of

  2. Description and process evaluation of pharmacists' interventions in a pharmacist-led information technology-enabled multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial for reducing medication errors in general practice (PINCER trial)

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Rachel; Rodgers, Sarah; Avery, Anthony J; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Objective To undertake a process evaluation of pharmacists' recommendations arising in the context of a complex IT-enabled pharmacist-delivered randomised controlled trial (PINCER trial) to reduce the risk of hazardous medicines management in general practices. Methods PINCER pharmacists manually recorded patients' demographics, details of interventions recommended, actions undertaken by practice staff and time taken to manage individual cases of hazardous medicines management. Data were coded, double-entered into SPSS version 15 and then summarised using percentages for categorical data (with 95% confidence interval (CI)) and, as appropriate, means (± standard deviation) or medians (interquartile range) for continuous data. Key findings Pharmacists spent a median of 20 min (interquartile range 10, 30) reviewing medical records, recommending interventions and completing actions in each case of hazardous medicines management. Pharmacists judged 72% (95% CI 70, 74; 1463/2026) of cases of hazardous medicines management to be clinically relevant. Pharmacists recommended 2105 interventions in 74% (95% CI 73, 76; 1516/2038) of cases and 1685 actions were taken in 61% (95% CI 59, 63; 1246/2038) of cases; 66% (95% CI 64, 68; 1383/2105) of interventions recommended by pharmacists were completed and 5% (95% CI 4, 6; 104/2105) of recommendations were accepted by general practitioners (GPs), but not completed at the end of the pharmacists' placement; the remaining recommendations were rejected or considered not relevant by GPs. Conclusions The outcome measures were used to target pharmacist activity in general practice towards patients at risk from hazardous medicines management. Recommendations from trained PINCER pharmacists were found to be broadly acceptable to GPs and led to ameliorative action in the majority of cases. It seems likely that the approach used by the PINCER pharmacists could be employed by other practice pharmacists following appropriate training. PMID

  3. Integrated Cognitive-neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Phase 1 Test and Evaluation Development Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    introducing self-initiated sensemaking. This document focuses on 5 types of intelligence data (INT), including: HUMINT (Human Intelligence...Unlike Task 3, the subject is given the center (from HUMINT ) for one group A, along with four possible locations 1, 2, 3, and 4 of attack by that...update the prior ( HUMINT ) probabilities. The subject then allocates resources in % across the sites. At the end of the trial the subject is shown

  4. Teacher sense-making and policy implementation: A qualitative case study of a school system's reading initiative in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, John R.

    In response to the No Child Left Behind federal legislation and Maryland's Bridge to Excellence Act, a school district created a strategic plan that included a program initiative for improving student reading scores in secondary schools. The initiative involved the implementation of Reading Apprenticeship, a program that required content teachers to infuse reading instruction into their practice by modeling reading behaviors and utilizing tools designed to promote metacognitive conversations with their students. This qualitative case study used a cognitive perspective to explore the sense-making of a team of middle school science teachers who received training in and sought to implement the program in their instructional practice during the 2004--2005 school year. The findings revealed that policy implementation varied for the different members of the team and was adversely affected by conflict with other policies and resistance by students. At the same time, policy implementation was enhanced by participation in the communities of practice associated with the initiative. Implications from the study advocate that school districts actively engage in sense-making activities and support communities of practice that are established when new policy measures are introduced. The study calls for further research on how students receive policy and how they shape their teachers' sense-making. This study contributed to the sparse body of literature in this arena of policy implementation research.

  5. A Multi-Level, Mobile-Enabled Intervention to Promote Physical Activity in Older Adults in the Primary Care Setting (iCanFit 2.0): Protocol for a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Hong, Y Alicia; Forjuoh, Samuel N; Ory, Marcia G; Reis, Michael D; Sang, Huiyan

    2017-09-12

    Most older adults do not adhere to the US Centers for Disease Control physical activity guidelines; their physical inactivity contributes to overweight and multiple chronic conditions. An urgent need exists for effective physical activity-promotion programs for the large number of older adults in the United States. This study presents the development of the intervention and trial protocol of iCanFit 2.0, a multi-level, mobile-enabled, physical activity-promotion program developed for overweight older adults in primary care settings. The iCanFit 2.0 program was developed based on our prior mHealth intervention programs, qualitative interviews with older patients in a primary care clinic, and iterative discussions with key stakeholders. We will test the efficacy of iCanFit 2.0 through a cluster randomized controlled trial in six pairs of primary care clinics. The proposed protocol received a high score in a National Institutes of Health review, but was not funded due to limited funding sources. We are seeking other funding sources to conduct the project. The iCanFit 2.0 program is one of the first multi-level, mobile-enabled, physical activity-promotion programs for older adults in a primary care setting. The development process has actively involved older patients and other key stakeholders. The patients, primary care providers, health coaches, and family and friends were engaged in the program using a low-cost, off-the-shelf mobile tool. Such low-cost, multi-level programs can potentially address the high prevalence of physical inactivity in older adults.

  6. Using interactive visual reasoning to support sense-making: implications for design.

    PubMed

    Kodagoda, Neesha; Attfield, Simon; Wong, B L William; Rooney, Chris; Choudhury, Sharmin Tinni

    2013-12-01

    This research aims to develop design guidelines for systems that support investigators and analysts in the exploration and assembly of evidence and inferences. We focus here on the problem of identifying candidate 'influencers' within a community of practice. To better understand this problem and its related cognitive and interaction needs, we conducted a user study using a system called INVISQUE (INteractive Visual Search and QUery Environment) loaded with content from the ACM Digital Library. INVISQUE supports search and manipulation of results over a freeform infinite 'canvas'. The study focuses on the representations user create and their reasoning process. It also draws on some pre-established theories and frameworks related to sense-making and cognitive work in general, which we apply as a 'theoretical lenses' to consider findings and articulate solutions. Analysing the user-study data in the light of these provides some understanding of how the high-level problem of identifying key players within a domain can translate into lower-level questions and interactions. This, in turn, has informed our understanding of representation and functionality needs at a level of description which abstracts away from the specifics of the problem at hand to the class of problems of interest. We consider the study outcomes from the perspective of implications for design.

  7. Rethinking diversity in learning science: The logic of everyday sense-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Beth; Ballenger, Cynthia; Ogonowski, Mark; Rosebery, Ann S.; Hudicourt-Barnes, Josiane

    2001-05-01

    There are many ways to understand the gap in science learning and achievement separating low-income, ethnic minority and linguistic minority children from more economically privileged students. In this article we offer our perspective. First, we discuss in broad strokes how the relationship between everyday and scientific knowledge and ways of knowing has been conceptualized in the field of science education research. We consider two dominant perspectives on this question, one which views the relationship as fundamentally discontinuous and the other which views it as fundamentally continuous. We locate our own work within the latter tradition and propose a framework for understanding the everyday sense-making practices of students from diverse communities as an intellectual resource in science learning and teaching. Two case studies follow in which we elaborate this point of view through analysis of Haitian American and Latino students' talk and activity as they work to understand metamorphosis and experimentation, respectively. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of this new conceptualization for research on science learning and teaching.

  8. Empowering Prospective Teachers to Become Active Sense-Makers: Multimodal Modeling of the Seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Mi Song

    2015-10-01

    Situating science concepts in concrete and authentic contexts, using information and communications technologies, including multimodal modeling tools, is important for promoting the development of higher-order thinking skills in learners. However, teachers often struggle to integrate emergent multimodal models into a technology-rich informal learning environment. Our design-based research co-designs and develops engaging, immersive, and interactive informal learning activities called "Embodied Modeling-Mediated Activities" (EMMA) to support not only Singaporean learners' deep learning of astronomy but also the capacity of teachers. As part of the research on EMMA, this case study describes two prospective teachers' co-design processes involving multimodal models for teaching and learning the concept of the seasons in a technology-rich informal learning setting. Our study uncovers four prominent themes emerging from our data concerning the contextualized nature of learning and teaching involving multimodal models in informal learning contexts: (1) promoting communication and emerging questions, (2) offering affordances through limitations, (3) explaining one concept involving multiple concepts, and (4) integrating teaching and learning experiences. This study has an implication for the development of a pedagogical framework for teaching and learning in technology-enhanced learning environments—that is empowering teachers to become active sense-makers using multimodal models.

  9. Sense-making and the Solution of Division Problems Involving Remainders: An Examination of Students' Solution Processes and Their Interpretations of Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Edward A.; And Others

    This paper reports the latest in a series of studies investigating children's performance in solving division story problems involving remainders. One aspect of the work involved examining the way in which "sense-making" is involved in the interpretation of the numerical solution obtained. Subjects were 195 sixth, seventh, and eighth…

  10. Low-Income Latino Students and California's Early Assessment Program: The Role of Sensemaking in the Use of College Readiness Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    California's Early Assessment Program is designed to notify students about their college readiness, encouraging them to take action to improve their skills during their senior year. The author uses qualitative methods and applies sense-making theory to examine how students attending majority Latino, low-income high schools make sense of the…

  11. "I Tolerate Technology--I Don't Embrace It": Instructor Surprise and Sensemaking in a Technology-Rich Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Jennifer L.; Meiners, Eric B.; Violette, Jayne L.

    2016-01-01

    Assuming a dialectical approach to technology and pedagogy, this study explores sensemaking processes for instructors teaching in a technologically enhanced college classroom environment. Through a series of semi-structured individual and group interviews, seven instructors provided narrative accounts of the problems encountered with progressive…

  12. Low-Income Latino Students and California's Early Assessment Program: The Role of Sensemaking in the Use of College Readiness Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    California's Early Assessment Program is designed to notify students about their college readiness, encouraging them to take action to improve their skills during their senior year. The author uses qualitative methods and applies sense-making theory to examine how students attending majority Latino, low-income high schools make sense of the…

  13. It Takes a (Virtual) Village: Exploring the Role of a Career Community to Support Sensemaking As a Proactive Socialization Practice.

    PubMed

    Good, Darren; Cavanagh, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Scholars have long advocated for individuals to play a more proactive role during organizational entry rather than relying on institutionally led processes. The primary benefit being that the newcomer moves from passive recipient, dependent on the institution to highlight relevant information, to active agent with self-determined sources and methods to aid in adjustment. A virtual career community made up of 12 first year business faculty members was created to provide such a self-determined source of support during the transition from doctoral studies to full-time assistant professorship. After the entry period (1 academic year), the interactions in this community were used as data for a phenomenon driven research study. The results illustrate how a virtual career community could be used as a proactive socialization tool by encouraging sensemaking amongst first year faculty peers. The sensemaking process consists of perceived contrasts and tensions, followed by positive and negative self-disclosures, community feedback, and the experience of cognitive-behavioral shifts. The findings also expand the proactive use of external referents during organizational entry, which previously had only looked at friends and family members of the newcomer.

  14. It Takes a (Virtual) Village: Exploring the Role of a Career Community to Support Sensemaking As a Proactive Socialization Practice

    PubMed Central

    Good, Darren; Cavanagh, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Scholars have long advocated for individuals to play a more proactive role during organizational entry rather than relying on institutionally led processes. The primary benefit being that the newcomer moves from passive recipient, dependent on the institution to highlight relevant information, to active agent with self-determined sources and methods to aid in adjustment. A virtual career community made up of 12 first year business faculty members was created to provide such a self-determined source of support during the transition from doctoral studies to full-time assistant professorship. After the entry period (1 academic year), the interactions in this community were used as data for a phenomenon driven research study. The results illustrate how a virtual career community could be used as a proactive socialization tool by encouraging sensemaking amongst first year faculty peers. The sensemaking process consists of perceived contrasts and tensions, followed by positive and negative self-disclosures, community feedback, and the experience of cognitive-behavioral shifts. The findings also expand the proactive use of external referents during organizational entry, which previously had only looked at friends and family members of the newcomer. PMID:28220088

  15. Dynamic social representations of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic: Shifting patterns of sense-making and blame.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Eric; Eicher, Véronique; Bangerter, Adrian; Gilles, Ingrid; Clémence, Alain; Green, Eva G T

    2013-11-01

    We investigate dynamics of public perceptions of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic to understand changing patterns of sense-making and blame regarding the outbreak of emerging infectious diseases. We draw on social representation theory combined with a dramaturgical perspective to identify changes in how various collectives are depicted over the course of the pandemic, according to three roles: heroes, villains and victims. Quantitative results based on content analysis of three cross-sectional waves of interviews show a shift from mentions of distant collectives (e.g., far-flung countries) at Wave 1 to local collectives (e.g., risk groups) as the pandemic became of more immediate concern (Wave 2) and declined (Wave 3). Semi-automated content analysis of media coverage shows similar results. Thematic analyses of the discourse associated with collectives revealed that many were consistently perceived as heroes, villains and victims.

  16. Technology Enabled Learning. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers on technology-enabled learning and human resource development. Among results found in "Current State of Technology-enabled Learning Programs in Select Federal Government Organizations: a Case Study of Ten Organizations" (Letitia A. Combs) are the following: the dominant delivery method is traditional…

  17. Outcomes from Enabling Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Oanh; Ball, Katrina

    The outcomes of enabling courses offered in Australia's vocational education and training (VET) sector were examined. "Enabling course" was defined as lower-level preparatory and prevocational courses covering a wide range of areas, including remedial education, bridging courses, precertificate courses, and general employment preparation…

  18. Smartphone-Enabled Health Coaching Intervention (iMOVE) to Promote Long-Term Maintenance of Physical Activity in Breast Cancer Survivors: Protocol for a Feasibility Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ritvo, Paul; Obadia, Maya; Santa Mina, Daniel; Alibhai, Shabbir; Sabiston, Catherine; Oh, Paul; Campbell, Kristin; McCready, David; Auger, Leslie; Jones, Jennifer Michelle

    2017-08-24

    Although physical activity has been shown to contribute to long-term disease control and health in breast cancer survivors, a majority of breast cancer survivors do not meet physical activity guidelines. Past research has focused on promoting physical activity components for short-term breast cancer survivor benefits, but insufficient attention has been devoted to long-term outcomes and sustained exercise adherence. We are assessing a health coach intervention (iMOVE) that uses mobile technology to increase and sustain physical activity maintenance in initially inactive breast cancer survivors. This pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) is an initial step in evaluating the iMOVE intervention and will inform development of a full-scale pragmatic RCT. We will enroll 107 physically inactive breast cancer survivors and randomly assign them to intervention or control groups at the University Health Network, a tertiary cancer care center in Toronto, Canada. Participants will be women (age 18 to 74 years) stratified by age (55 years and older/younger than 55 years) and adjuvant hormone therapy (AHT) exposure (AHT vs no AHT) following breast cancer treatment with no metastases or recurrence who report less than 60 minutes of preplanned physical activity per week. Both intervention and control groups receive the 12-week physical activity program with weekly group sessions and an individualized, progressive, home-based exercise program. The intervention group will additionally receive (1) 10 telephone-based health coaching sessions, (2) smartphone with data plan, if needed, (3) supportive health tracking software (Connected Wellness, NexJ Health Inc), and (4) a wearable step-counting device linked to a smartphone program. We will be assessing recruitment rates; acceptability reflected in selective, semistructured interviews; and enrollment, retention, and adherence quantitative intervention markers as pilot outcome measures. The primary clinical outcome will be directly

  19. Physician Enabling Skills Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Hudon, Catherine; Lambert, Mireille; Almirall, José

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the reliability and validity of the newly developed Physician Enabling Skills Questionnaire (PESQ) by assessing its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity with patient-centred care, and predictive validity with patient activation and patient enablement. Design Validation study. Setting Saguenay, Que. Participants One hundred patients with at least 1 chronic disease who presented in a waiting room of a regional health centre family medicine unit. Main outcome measures Family physicians’ enabling skills, measured with the PESQ at 2 points in time (ie, while in the waiting room at the family medicine unit and 2 weeks later through a mail survey); patient-centred care, assessed with the Patient Perception of Patient-Centredness instrument; patient activation, assessed with the Patient Activation Measure; and patient enablement, assessed with the Patient Enablement Instrument. Results The internal consistency of the 6 subscales of the PESQ was adequate (Cronbach α = .69 to .92). The test-retest reliability was very good (r = 0.90; 95% CI 0.84 to 0.93). Concurrent validity with the Patient Perception of Patient-Centredness instrument was good (r = −0.67; 95% CI −0.78 to −0.53; P < .001). The PESQ accounts for 11% of the total variance with the Patient Activation Measure (r2 = 0.11; P = .002) and 19% of the variance with the Patient Enablement Instrument (r2 = 0.19; P < .001). Conclusion The newly developed PESQ presents good psychometric properties, allowing for its use in practice and research. PMID:26889507

  20. Dust control for Enabler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, Kevin; Karl, Chad; Litherland, Mark; Ritchie, David; Sun, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    The dust control group designed a system to restrict dust that is disturbed by the Enabler during its operation from interfering with astronaut or camera visibility. This design also considers the many different wheel positions made possible through the use of artinuation joints that provide the steering and wheel pitching for the Enabler. The system uses a combination of brushes and fenders to restrict the dust when the vehicle is moving in either direction and in a turn. This design also allows for ease of maintenance as well as accessibility of the remainder of the vehicle.

  1. Dust control for Enabler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, Kevin; Karl, Chad; Litherland, Mark; Ritchie, David; Sun, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    The dust control group designed a system to restrict dust that is disturbed by the Enabler during its operation from interfering with astronaut or camera visibility. This design also considers the many different wheel positions made possible through the use of artinuation joints that provide the steering and wheel pitching for the Enabler. The system uses a combination of brushes and fenders to restrict the dust when the vehicle is moving in either direction and in a turn. This design also allows for each of maintenance as well as accessibility of the remainder of the vehicle.

  2. [The process of "sense-making" in nursing and in literature. Research and analysis of health care situations in several works of Russian authors of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Manara, D F; Campagnano, T

    2001-01-01

    In this article the authors examine an aspect that is seldom considered in the contemporary nursing research in Italy. Beside the well-known process of "decision-making" happens, in every relief situation, a process of "sense-making". This process, more or less shared by the various protagonists involved, is similar to what happens in artistic experience. Object of this research is to show the process of "sense-making" through a critical analysis of some famous works of russian literature of the late nineteenth century: Lev Nikolaevic Tolstoj, The death of Ivan Il'ic' and The stories of Sebastopol; Fedor Michajlovic Dostoevsky, The idiot; Michail Afanas'evic Bulgakov, Morphine. The similes between literature and nursing in the analysis of the process of "sense-making" will suggest, at last, some general reflections for our matter: moreover the hermeneutic comprehension of the other and the constructivist approach in the use of nursing theories.

  3. Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema

    Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

    2016-07-12

    Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

  4. Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

    2012-07-02

    Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

  5. Dynamics of human categorization in a collaborative tagging system: How social processes of semantic stabilization shape individual sensemaking

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Tobias; Seitlinger, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We study how categories form and develop over time in a sensemaking task by groups of students employing a collaborative tagging system. In line with distributed cognition theories, we look at both the tags students use and their strength of representation in memory. We hypothesize that categories get more differentiated over time as students learn, and that semantic stabilization on the group level (i.e. the convergence in the use of tags) mediates this relationship. Results of a field experiment that tested the impact of topic study duration on the specificity of tags confirms these hypotheses, although it was not study duration that produced this effect, but rather the effectiveness of the collaborative taxonomy the groups built. In the groups with higher levels of semantic stabilization, we found use of more specific tags and better representation in memory. We discuss these findings with regard to the important role of the information value of tags that would drive both the convergence on the group level as well as a shift to more specific levels of categorization. We also discuss the implication for cognitive science research by highlighting the importance of collaboratively built artefacts in the process of how knowledge is acquired, and implications for educational applications of collaborative tagging environments. PMID:26566299

  6. Dynamics of human categorization in a collaborative tagging system: How social processes of semantic stabilization shape individual sensemaking.

    PubMed

    Ley, Tobias; Seitlinger, Paul

    2015-10-01

    We study how categories form and develop over time in a sensemaking task by groups of students employing a collaborative tagging system. In line with distributed cognition theories, we look at both the tags students use and their strength of representation in memory. We hypothesize that categories get more differentiated over time as students learn, and that semantic stabilization on the group level (i.e. the convergence in the use of tags) mediates this relationship. Results of a field experiment that tested the impact of topic study duration on the specificity of tags confirms these hypotheses, although it was not study duration that produced this effect, but rather the effectiveness of the collaborative taxonomy the groups built. In the groups with higher levels of semantic stabilization, we found use of more specific tags and better representation in memory. We discuss these findings with regard to the important role of the information value of tags that would drive both the convergence on the group level as well as a shift to more specific levels of categorization. We also discuss the implication for cognitive science research by highlighting the importance of collaboratively built artefacts in the process of how knowledge is acquired, and implications for educational applications of collaborative tagging environments.

  7. Liquid metal enabled pump.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Sivan, Vijay; Petersen, Phred; O'Mullane, Anthony P; Abbott, Derek; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

    2014-03-04

    Small-scale pumps will be the heartbeat of many future micro/nanoscale platforms. However, the integration of small-scale pumps is presently hampered by limited flow rate with respect to the input power, and their rather complicated fabrication processes. These issues arise as many conventional pumping effects require intricate moving elements. Here, we demonstrate a system that we call the liquid metal enabled pump, for driving a range of liquids without mechanical moving parts, upon the application of modest electric field. This pump incorporates a droplet of liquid metal, which induces liquid flow at high flow rates, yet with exceptionally low power consumption by electrowetting/deelectrowetting at the metal surface. We present theory explaining this pumping mechanism and show that the operation is fundamentally different from other existing pumps. The presented liquid metal enabled pump is both efficient and simple, and thus has the potential to fundamentally advance the field of microfluidics.

  8. Liquid metal enabled pump

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Sivan, Vijay; Petersen, Phred; O’Mullane, Anthony P.; Abbott, Derek; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale pumps will be the heartbeat of many future micro/nanoscale platforms. However, the integration of small-scale pumps is presently hampered by limited flow rate with respect to the input power, and their rather complicated fabrication processes. These issues arise as many conventional pumping effects require intricate moving elements. Here, we demonstrate a system that we call the liquid metal enabled pump, for driving a range of liquids without mechanical moving parts, upon the application of modest electric field. This pump incorporates a droplet of liquid metal, which induces liquid flow at high flow rates, yet with exceptionally low power consumption by electrowetting/deelectrowetting at the metal surface. We present theory explaining this pumping mechanism and show that the operation is fundamentally different from other existing pumps. The presented liquid metal enabled pump is both efficient and simple, and thus has the potential to fundamentally advance the field of microfluidics. PMID:24550485

  9. Enabling Wind Power Nationwide

    SciTech Connect

    Jose, Zayas; Michael, Derby; Patrick, Gilman; Ananthan, Shreyas; Lantz, Eric; Cotrell, Jason; Beck, Fredic; Tusing, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Leveraging this experience, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office has evaluated the potential for wind power to generate electricity in all 50 states. This report analyzes and quantifies the geographic expansion that could be enabled by accessing higher above ground heights for wind turbines and considers the means by which this new potential could be responsibly developed.

  10. Rehabilitation Enablement in Chronic Heart Failure—a facilitated self-care rehabilitation intervention in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (REACH-HFpEF) and their caregivers: rationale and protocol for a single-centre pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lang, C C; Smith, K; Jolly, K; Davis, R; Hayward, C; Wingham, J; Abraham, C; Green, C; Warren, F C; Britten, N; Greaves, C J; Doherty, P; Austin, J; Van Lingen, R; Singh, S; Buckingham, S; Paul, K; Taylor, R S; Dalal, H M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Rehabilitation EnAblement in CHronic Heart Failure in patients with Heart Failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (REACH-HFpEF) pilot trial is part of a research programme designed to develop and evaluate a facilitated, home-based, self-help rehabilitation intervention to improve self-care and quality of life (QoL) in heart failure patients and their caregivers. We will assess the feasibility of a definitive trial of the REACH-HF intervention in patients with HFpEF and their caregivers. The impact of the REACH-HF intervention on echocardiographic outcomes and bloodborne biomarkers will also be assessed. Methods and analysis A single-centre parallel two-group randomised controlled trial (RCT) with 1:1 individual allocation to the REACH-HF intervention plus usual care (intervention) or usual care alone (control) in 50 HFpEF patients and their caregivers. The REACH-HF intervention comprises a REACH-HF manual with supplementary tools, delivered by trained facilitators over 12 weeks. A mixed methods approach will be used to assess estimation of recruitment and retention rates; fidelity of REACH-HF manual delivery; identification of barriers to participation and adherence to the intervention and study protocol; feasibility of data collection and outcome burden. We will assess the variance in study outcomes to inform a definitive study sample size and assess methods for the collection of resource use and intervention delivery cost data to develop the cost-effectiveness analyses framework for any future trial. Patient outcomes collected at baseline, 4 and 6 months include QoL, psychological well-being, exercise capacity, physical activity and HF-related hospitalisation. Caregiver outcomes will also be assessed, and a substudy will evaluate impact of the REACH-HF manual on resting global cardiovascular function and bloodborne biomarkers in HFpEF patients. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the East of Scotland Research Ethics

  11. Smart Grid Enabled EVSE

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-01-12

    The combined team of GE Global Research, Federal Express, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Consolidated Edison has successfully achieved the established goals contained within the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment funding opportunity. The final program product, shown charging two vehicles in Figure 1, reduces by nearly 50% the total installed system cost of the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) as well as enabling a host of new Smart Grid enabled features. These include bi-directional communications, load control, utility message exchange and transaction management information. Using the new charging system, Utilities or energy service providers will now be able to monitor transportation related electrical loads on their distribution networks, send load control commands or preferences to individual systems, and then see measured responses. Installation owners will be able to authorize usage of the stations, monitor operations, and optimally control their electricity consumption. These features and cost reductions have been developed through a total system design solution.

  12. Enable, mediate, advocate.

    PubMed

    Saan, Hans; Wise, Marilyn

    2011-12-01

    The authors of the Ottawa Charter selected the words enable, mediate and advocate to describe the core activities in what was, in 1986, the new Public Health. This article considers these concepts and the values and ideas upon which they were based. We discuss their relevance in the current context within which health promotion is being conducted, and discuss the implications of changes in the health agenda, media and globalization for practice. We consider developments within health promotion since 1986: its central role in policy rhetoric, the increasing understanding of complexities and the interlinkage with many other societal processes. So the three core activities are reviewed: they still fit well with the main health promotion challenges, but should be refreshed by new ideas and values. As the role of health promotion in the political arena has grown we have become part of the policy establishment and that is a mixed blessing. Making way for community advocates is now our challenge. Enabling requires greater sensitivity to power relations involved and an understanding of the role of health literacy. Mediating keeps its central role as it bridges vital interests of parties. We conclude that these core concepts in the Ottawa Charter need no serious revision. There are, however, lessons from the last 25 years that point to ways to address present and future challenges with greater sensitivity and effectiveness. We invite the next generation to avoid canonizing this text: as is true of every heritage, the heirs must decide on its use.

  13. Enabling graphene nanoelectronics.

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei; Ohta, Taisuke; Biedermann, Laura Butler; Gutierrez, Carlos; Nolen, C. M.; Howell, Stephen Wayne; Beechem Iii, Thomas Edwin; McCarty, Kevin F.; Ross, Anthony Joseph, III

    2011-09-01

    Recent work has shown that graphene, a 2D electronic material amenable to the planar semiconductor fabrication processing, possesses tunable electronic material properties potentially far superior to metals and other standard semiconductors. Despite its phenomenal electronic properties, focused research is still required to develop techniques for depositing and synthesizing graphene over large areas, thereby enabling the reproducible mass-fabrication of graphene-based devices. To address these issues, we combined an array of growth approaches and characterization resources to investigate several innovative and synergistic approaches for the synthesis of high quality graphene films on technologically relevant substrate (SiC and metals). Our work focused on developing the fundamental scientific understanding necessary to generate large-area graphene films that exhibit highly uniform electronic properties and record carrier mobility, as well as developing techniques to transfer graphene onto other substrates.

  14. Liquid metal enabled microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Tang, Shi-Yang; Zhu, Jiu Yang; Schaefer, Samira; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Dickey, Michael D

    2017-03-14

    Several gallium-based liquid metal alloys are liquid at room temperature. As 'liquid', such alloys have a low viscosity and a high surface tension while as 'metal', they have high thermal and electrical conductivities, similar to mercury. However, unlike mercury, these liquid metal alloys have low toxicity and a negligible vapor pressure, rendering them much safer. In comparison to mercury, the distinguishing feature of these alloys is the rapid formation of a self-limiting atomically thin layer of gallium oxide over their surface when exposed to oxygen. This oxide layer changes many physical and chemical properties of gallium alloys, including their interfacial and rheological properties, which can be employed and modulated for various applications in microfluidics. Injecting liquid metal into microfluidic structures has been extensively used to pattern and encapsulate highly deformable and reconfigurable electronic devices including electrodes, sensors, antennas, and interconnects. Likewise, the unique features of liquid metals have been employed for fabricating miniaturized microfluidic components including pumps, valves, heaters, and electrodes. In this review, we discuss liquid metal enabled microfluidic components, and highlight their desirable attributes including simple fabrication, facile integration, stretchability, reconfigurability, and low power consumption, with promising applications for highly integrated microfluidic systems.

  15. Topologically enabled optical nanomotors

    PubMed Central

    Ilic, Ognjen; Kaminer, Ido; Zhen, Bo; Miller, Owen D.; Buljan, Hrvoje; Soljačić, Marin

    2017-01-01

    Shaping the topology of light, by way of spin or orbital angular momentum engineering, is a powerful tool to manipulate matter on the nanoscale. Conventionally, such methods focus on shaping the incident beam of light and not the full interaction between the light and the object to be manipulated. We theoretically show that tailoring the topology of the phase space of the light particle interaction is a fundamentally more versatile approach, enabling dynamics that may not be achievable by shaping of the light alone. In this manner, we find that optically asymmetric (Janus) particles can become stable nanoscale motors even in a light field with zero angular momentum. These precessing steady states arise from topologically protected anticrossing behavior of the vortices of the optical torque vector field. Furthermore, by varying the wavelength of the incident light, we can control the number, orientations, and the stability of the spinning states. These results show that the combination of phase-space topology and particle asymmetry can provide a powerful degree of freedom in designing nanoparticles for optimal external manipulation in a range of nano-optomechanical applications. PMID:28695194

  16. Enabling immersive simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Josh; Mateas, Michael; Hart, Derek H.; Whetzel, Jonathan; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Glickman, Matthew R.; Abbott, Robert G.

    2009-02-01

    The object of the 'Enabling Immersive Simulation for Complex Systems Analysis and Training' LDRD has been to research, design, and engineer a capability to develop simulations which (1) provide a rich, immersive interface for participation by real humans (exploiting existing high-performance game-engine technology wherever possible), and (2) can leverage Sandia's substantial investment in high-fidelity physical and cognitive models implemented in the Umbra simulation framework. We report here on these efforts. First, we describe the integration of Sandia's Umbra modular simulation framework with the open-source Delta3D game engine. Next, we report on Umbra's integration with Sandia's Cognitive Foundry, specifically to provide for learning behaviors for 'virtual teammates' directly from observed human behavior. Finally, we describe the integration of Delta3D with the ABL behavior engine, and report on research into establishing the theoretical framework that will be required to make use of tools like ABL to scale up to increasingly rich and realistic virtual characters.

  17. Enabling responsible public genomics.

    PubMed

    Conley, John M; Doerr, Adam K; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    As scientific understandings of genetics advance, researchers require increasingly rich datasets that combine genomic data from large numbers of individuals with medical and other personal information. Linking individuals' genetic data and personal information precludes anonymity and produces medically significant information--a result not contemplated by the established legal and ethical conventions governing human genomic research. To pursue the next generation of human genomic research and commerce in a responsible fashion, scientists, lawyers, and regulators must address substantial new issues, including researchers' duties with respect to clinically significant data, the challenges to privacy presented by genomic data, the boundary between genomic research and commerce, and the practice of medicine. This Article presents a new model for understanding and addressing these new challenges--a "public genomics" premised on the idea that ethically, legally, and socially responsible genomics research requires openness, not privacy, as its organizing principle. Responsible public genomics combines the data contributed by informed and fully consenting information altruists and the research potential of rich datasets in a genomic commons that is freely and globally available. This Article examines the risks and benefits of this public genomics model in the context of an ambitious genetic research project currently under way--the Personal Genome Project. This Article also (i) demonstrates that large-scale genomic projects are desirable, (ii) evaluates the risks and challenges presented by public genomics research, and (iii) determines that the current legal and regulatory regimes restrict beneficial and responsible scientific inquiry while failing to adequately protect participants. The Article concludes by proposing a modified normative and legal framework that embraces and enables a future of responsible public genomics.

  18. Adventure-Based Interventions with Young People in Trouble and at Risk. Proceedings of a National One-Day Conference "Adventure-Based Interventions" (April 22, 1994) and a Study Weekend "Enabling Troubled Youth" (Ambleside, England, United Kingdom, April 22-24, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Jon, Comp.

    A 1-day conference and a study weekend brought together adventure and youth social work practitioners from the United Kingdom, United States, Australia, and Canada. Workshops and presentations focused on five themes: (1) integration of adventure-based interventions with the work of other youth agencies and the needs of communities; (2) program…

  19. FOILFEST :community enabled security.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Johnson, Curtis Martin; Whitley, John B.; Drayer, Darryl Donald; Cummings, John C., Jr.

    2005-09-01

    The Advanced Concepts Group of Sandia National Laboratories hosted a workshop, ''FOILFest: Community Enabled Security'', on July 18-21, 2005, in Albuquerque, NM. This was a far-reaching look into the future of physical protection consisting of a series of structured brainstorming sessions focused on preventing and foiling attacks on public places and soft targets such as airports, shopping malls, hotels, and public events. These facilities are difficult to protect using traditional security devices since they could easily be pushed out of business through the addition of arduous and expensive security measures. The idea behind this Fest was to explore how the public, which is vital to the function of these institutions, can be leveraged as part of a physical protection system. The workshop considered procedures, space design, and approaches for building community through technology. The workshop explored ways to make the ''good guys'' in public places feel safe and be vigilant while making potential perpetrators of harm feel exposed and convinced that they will not succeed. Participants in the Fest included operators of public places, social scientists, technology experts, representatives of government agencies including DHS and the intelligence community, writers and media experts. Many innovative ideas were explored during the fest with most of the time spent on airports, including consideration of the local airport, the Albuquerque Sunport. Some provocative ideas included: (1) sniffers installed in passage areas like revolving door, escalators, (2) a ''jumbotron'' showing current camera shots in the public space, (3) transparent portal screeners allowing viewing of the screening, (4) a layered open/funnel/open/funnel design where open spaces are used to encourage a sense of ''communitas'' and take advantage of citizen ''sensing'' and funnels are technological tunnels of sensors (the tunnels of truth), (5) curved benches with blast proof walls or backs, (6

  20. Enabling interstellar probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Ralph L.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; International Interstellar Probe Team

    2011-04-01

    The scientific community has advocated a scientific probe to the interstellar medium for over 30 years. While the Voyager spacecraft have passed through the termination shock of the solar wind, they have limited lifetimes as their radioisotope power supplies decay. It remains unclear whether they can reach the heliopause, the boundary between shocked solar wind and interstellar plasmas, and, in any case, they will not reach the undisturbed interstellar medium. As with most exploratory space missions, their ongoing observations continue to raise even more questions about the nature of the interaction of our heliosphere and the interstellar medium. Scientific questions including: What is the nature of the nearby interstellar medium? How do the Sun and galaxy affect the dynamics of the heliosphere? What is the structure of the heliosphere? How did matter in the solar system and interstellar medium originate and evolve? can only be answered by an "interstellar precursor" probe. Such a mission is required to make in situ measurements in the interaction region and interstellar medium itself at distances far from the Sun, but in a finite mission lifetime. By launching a probe toward the incoming "interstellar wind," whose direction is known, the distance to be traveled can be minimized but is still large. The current consensus is that a scientifically compelling mission must function to at least a distance of 200 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun and return a reasonable stream of data during the voyage. The central problem is that of providing a means of propulsion to accelerate a probe from the Solar System. Even with a low-mass payload and spacecraft, achieving the high speeds needed, even with gravity assists, have remained problematic. Voyager 1, the fastest object ever to leave the system is now traveling ˜3.6 AU/yr, and a credible probe must reach at least 2-3 times this speed. The use of an Ares V is an approach for enabling a fast interstellar precursor

  1. Teachers' sense-making of curriculum structures and its impact on the implementation of an innovative reform-based science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckford-Smart, Meredith

    This study discusses the social interactions involved in teachers' enactment and use of new science curricula. The teachers studied participated in the LiFE program, a university-school partnership, which is an inquiry based science and nutrition education program. In this program fifth and sixth grade students learned science through the study of food. The program used the study of food and food systems to teach life sciences and nutrition through inquiry based studies. Through the partnership teachers received professional development which aimed to deepen their conceptual understandings of life science and develop skills in implementing inquiry-base teaching. Using qualitative research methods of ethnography and narrative inquiry to study teachers' sense-making of messages from curriculum structures, the intention was to explore how teachers' sense-making of these structures guided their classroom practices. Two research questions were addressed: (a) How do teachers make sense of curriculum given their perceptions, their school context and their curricular context; (b) What influence do their identities as science teachers/learners have on their enactment of an innovative science curriculum. I used comparative analysis to examine teacher's beliefs and identities as teachers/learners. In the process of studying these teachers an understanding of how teachers' stories and identities shape their use and enactment of science curriculum came to light. The initial analysis revealed four distinct teacher identities: (a) social responsibility teacher/learner; (b) experiential teacher/learner; (c) supportive institution teacher/learner; and (d) turning point teacher. Besides these distinct teacher identities three cross cutting themes emerged: (a) creating environments conducive to their teaching visions; (b) empowering student through science teaching; and (c) dealing with the uncertainty of teaching. The information gathered from this study will illuminate how these

  2. Implementing Self-Management within a Group Counseling Context: Effects on Academic Enabling Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briesch DuBois, Jacquelyn M.; Briesch, Amy M.; Hoffman, Jessica A.; Struzziero, Joan; Toback, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Self-management interventions have been adapted to serve as targeted interventions to increase academic enabling behaviors in groups of students. However, a trade-off exists between adapting these interventions to feasibly fit group contexts and maintaining theoretical intervention components. This study examines the use of self-management within…

  3. SimCenter Hawaii Technology Enabled Learning and Intervention Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    may vary depending on the scale of the event. First-responders must be able to process information and act accordingly in order to optimize medical...PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response...this collection of information . Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information , including

  4. Communication and Sense-Making in Intensive Care: An Observation Study of Multi-Disciplinary Rounds to Design Computerized Supporting Tools

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Danny; Xiao, Yan; Vaidya, Vinay; Hu, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Multi-disciplinary rounds are a forum for communication and sense-making, and they play a critical role in intensive care to ensure care coordination across specialties and providers. Increased availability of clinical information through computers has made it possible to provide support during rounds. We conducted an observation study to determine ways in which computers may be used during rounds, when users are under time pressure in accessing and manipulating clinical data. A total of fifteen hours of rounds in a pediatric intensive care unit for 47 patients were observed. Factors influencing information transfer during rounds were characterized in three areas: physical, social and cognitive, and supporting artifacts. Based on these factors we developed a set of design guidelines for computerized supporting tools. An example guideline suggests digital capture of handwritten notes. These guidelines developed may help guide future systems development, thus leveraging the power of computing during the critical moments of multi-disciplinary rounds. PMID:18693852

  5. Toward genome-enabled mycology.

    PubMed

    Hibbett, David S; Stajich, Jason E; Spatafora, Joseph W

    2013-01-01

    Genome-enabled mycology is a rapidly expanding field that is characterized by the pervasive use of genome-scale data and associated computational tools in all aspects of fungal biology. Genome-enabled mycology is integrative and often requires teams of researchers with diverse skills in organismal mycology, bioinformatics and molecular biology. This issue of Mycologia presents the first complete fungal genomes in the history of the journal, reflecting the ongoing transformation of mycology into a genome-enabled science. Here, we consider the prospects for genome-enabled mycology and the technical and social challenges that will need to be overcome to grow the database of complete fungal genomes and enable all fungal biologists to make use of the new data.

  6. Empowering versus Enabling in Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espeland, Karen; Shanta, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Enabling behaviors that encourage dependence should be avoided by nursing faculty. An empowerment model that includes collegiality, communication, accountability, and autonomy is more suited to the professional preparation of nurses. (Contains 30 references.) (SK)

  7. Enabling Space Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, William J.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation on enabling space science and exploration covers the following topics: 1) Today s Deep Space Network; 2) Next Generation Deep Space Network; 3) Needed technologies; 4) Mission IT and networking; and 5) Multi-mission operations.

  8. Computer Security Systems Enable Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Gary

    1989-01-01

    A good security system enables access and protects information from damage or tampering, but the most important aspects of a security system aren't technical. A security procedures manual addresses the human element of computer security. (MLW)

  9. Enabling Space Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, William J.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation on enabling space science and exploration covers the following topics: 1) Today s Deep Space Network; 2) Next Generation Deep Space Network; 3) Needed technologies; 4) Mission IT and networking; and 5) Multi-mission operations.

  10. Mindfulness Interventions.

    PubMed

    Creswell, J David

    2017-01-03

    Mindfulness interventions aim to foster greater attention to and awareness of present moment experience. There has been a dramatic increase in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness interventions over the past two decades. This article evaluates the growing evidence of mindfulness intervention RCTs by reviewing and discussing (a) the effects of mindfulness interventions on health, cognitive, affective, and interpersonal outcomes; (b) evidence-based applications of mindfulness interventions to new settings and populations (e.g., the workplace, military, schools); (c) psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness interventions; (d) mindfulness intervention dosing considerations; and (e) potential risks of mindfulness interventions. Methodologically rigorous RCTs have demonstrated that mindfulness interventions improve outcomes in multiple domains (e.g., chronic pain, depression relapse, addiction). Discussion focuses on opportunities and challenges for mindfulness intervention research and on community applications.

  11. Enable: Developing Instructional Language Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Beth

    The program presented in this manual provides a structure and activities for systematic development of effective listening comprehension in typical and atypical children. The complete ENABLE kit comes with pictures, cut-outs, and puppets to illustrate the directives, questions, and narrative activities. The manual includes an organizational and…

  12. Integrated Cognitive-neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Overview of Test and Evaluation Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    source code. 8 • Nbproject: Contains the Net Beans project files, for developers using the Net Beans Integrated Development Environment (IDE...enabling developers to open and edit the Java source code using Net Beans . • Schemas: Contains the XML schemas defining XML exam and feature

  13. Making Connections among Multiple Graphical Representations of Fractions: Sense-Making Competencies Enhance Perceptual Fluency, but Not Vice Versa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rau, Martina A.; Aleven, Vincent; Rummel, Nikol

    2017-01-01

    Prior research shows that representational competencies that enable students to use graphical representations to reason and solve tasks is key to learning in many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics domains. We focus on two types of representational competencies: (1) "sense making" of connections by verbally explaining how…

  14. Integrating: A managerial practice that enables implementation in fragmented health care environments.

    PubMed

    Kerrissey, Michaela; Satterstrom, Patricia; Leydon, Nicholas; Schiff, Gordon; Singer, Sara

    How some organizations improve while others remain stagnant is a key question in health care research. Studies identifying how organizations can implement improvement despite barriers are needed, particularly in primary care. This inductive qualitative study examines primary care clinics implementing improvement efforts in order to identify mechanisms that enable implementation despite common barriers, such as lack of time and fragmentation across stakeholder groups. Using an embedded multiple case study design, we leverage a longitudinal data set of field notes, meeting minutes, and interviews from 16 primary care clinics implementing improvement over 15 months. We segment clinics into those that implemented more versus those that implemented less, comparing similarities and differences. We identify interpersonal mechanisms promoting implementation, develop a conceptual model of our key findings, and test the relationship with performance using patient surveys conducted pre-/post-implementation. Nine clinics implemented more successfully over the study period, whereas seven implemented less. Successfully implementing clinics exhibited the managerial practice of integrating, which we define as achieving unity of effort among stakeholder groups in the pursuit of a shared and mutually developed goal. We theorize that integrating is critical in improvement implementation because of the fragmentation observed in health care settings, and we extend theory about clinic managers' role in implementation. We identify four integrating mechanisms that clinic managers enacted: engaging groups, bridging communication, sensemaking, and negotiating. The mean patient survey results for integrating clinics improved by 0.07 units over time, whereas the other clinics' survey scores declined by 0.08 units on a scale of 5 (p = .02). Our research explores an understudied element of how clinics can implement improvement despite barriers: integrating stakeholders within and outside the

  15. Exogenous Attention Enables Perceptual Learning.

    PubMed

    Szpiro, Sarit F A; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-12-01

    Practice can improve visual perception, and these improvements are considered to be a form of brain plasticity. Training-induced learning is time-consuming and requires hundreds of trials across multiple days. The process of learning acquisition is understudied. Can learning acquisition be potentiated by manipulating visual attentional cues? We developed a protocol in which we used task-irrelevant cues for between-groups manipulation of attention during training. We found that training with exogenous attention can enable the acquisition of learning. Remarkably, this learning was maintained even when observers were subsequently tested under neutral conditions, which indicates that a change in perception was involved. Our study is the first to isolate the effects of exogenous attention and to demonstrate its efficacy to enable learning. We propose that exogenous attention boosts perceptual learning by enhancing stimulus encoding.

  16. Technologies for Networked Enabled Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B.; Levine, J.

    2005-01-01

    Current point-to-point data links will not scale to support future integration of surveillance, security, and globally-distributed air traffic data, and already hinders efficiency and capacity. While the FAA and industry focus on a transition to initial system-wide information management (SWIM) capabilities, this paper describes a set of initial studies of NAS network-enabled operations technology gaps targeted for maturity in later SWIM spirals (201 5-2020 timeframe).

  17. Nanofluidics: enabling processes for biotech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmanella, Umberto; Ho, Chih-Ming

    2001-10-01

    The advance of micro and nanodevice manufacturing technology enables us to carry out biological and chemical processes in a more efficient manner. In fact, fluidic processes connect the macro and the micro/nano worlds. For devices approaching the size of the fluid molecules, many physical phenomena occur that are not observed in macro flows. In this brief review, we discuss a few selected topics which of are interest for basic research and are important for applications in biotechnology.

  18. Cyber Enabled Direct Digital Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-15

    binary file formats , it is difficult or impossible for operators and modelers to determine how a part was actually produced. Without essential process...open-access AMSF file format (Nassar and Reutzel, 2013) to enable automatic specification and extraction of processing parameters for a variety of...Using the established AMSF file format ,, the authors have developed and demonstrated two approaches for direct integration of AM processes with

  19. Secure Enclaves-Enabled Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-25

    William Vine, Benjamin Vowell Team Advisor: Capt Nick Mastronardi UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY Introduction Secure Enclaves-Enabled...Technologies’ software goes a layer deeper, activating a hardware solution to put a stop to the death spiral. Utilizing the silicon of the computer chip...veritable impenetrable fortress to be placed inside modern day computer systems. Few digital security solutions on today’s market are hardware based, and

  20. Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC

    2012-06-28

    A recently proposed concept of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) FEL uses two laser modulators in combination with two dispersion sections to generate a high-harmonic density modulation in a relativistic beam. This seeding technique holds promise of a one-stage soft x-ray FEL that radiates not only transversely but also longitudinally coherent pulses. Currently, an experimental verification of the concept is being conducted at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory aimed at the demonstration of the EEHG.

  1. Canadian Network Enabled Operations Initiatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    as having taken a firm foothold in the Canadian military. CFEC- CEFC 1 Briefing to 9th Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium By...Sandy Babcock 15-17 Jun 04 Network Enabled Operations in the Canadian Context CFEC- CEFC 2 OUTLINE 1) Canadian Initiatives to date 2) Robust Ram 3...Pacific Littoral ISR Experiment 4) Atlantic Littoral ISR Experiment 5) The Way Forward CFEC- CEFC 3 • C4ISR Campaign Plan • Canadian Forces

  2. New Generation Sensor Web Enablement

    PubMed Central

    Bröring, Arne; Echterhoff, Johannes; Jirka, Simon; Simonis, Ingo; Everding, Thomas; Stasch, Christoph; Liang, Steve; Lemmens, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Many sensor networks have been deployed to monitor Earth’s environment, and more will follow in the future. Environmental sensors have improved continuously by becoming smaller, cheaper, and more intelligent. Due to the large number of sensor manufacturers and differing accompanying protocols, integrating diverse sensors into observation systems is not straightforward. A coherent infrastructure is needed to treat sensors in an interoperable, platform-independent and uniform way. The concept of the Sensor Web reflects such a kind of infrastructure for sharing, finding, and accessing sensors and their data across different applications. It hides the heterogeneous sensor hardware and communication protocols from the applications built on top of it. The Sensor Web Enablement initiative of the Open Geospatial Consortium standardizes web service interfaces and data encodings which can be used as building blocks for a Sensor Web. This article illustrates and analyzes the recent developments of the new generation of the Sensor Web Enablement specification framework. Further, we relate the Sensor Web to other emerging concepts such as the Web of Things and point out challenges and resulting future work topics for research on Sensor Web Enablement. PMID:22163760

  3. 'Ethos' Enabling Organisational Knowledge Creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsudaira, Yoshito

    This paper examines knowledge creation in relation to improvements on the production line in the manufacturing department of Nissan Motor Company and aims to clarify embodied knowledge observed in the actions of organisational members who enable knowledge creation will be clarified. For that purpose, this study adopts an approach that adds a first, second, and third-person's viewpoint to the theory of knowledge creation. Embodied knowledge, observed in the actions of organisational members who enable knowledge creation, is the continued practice of 'ethos' (in Greek) founded in Nissan Production Way as an ethical basis. Ethos is knowledge (intangible) assets for knowledge creating companies. Substantiated analysis classifies ethos into three categories: the individual, team and organisation. This indicates the precise actions of the organisational members in each category during the knowledge creation process. This research will be successful in its role of showing the indispensability of ethos - the new concept of knowledge assets, which enables knowledge creation -for future knowledge-based management in the knowledge society.

  4. Enablement as a Positive Force in Counselling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg

    1996-01-01

    Explores the concept of enablement and provides a framework for the counselor and counselor educator to use in facilitating client- or student-directed goals. Examines use of enablement, enablement versus co-dependency, the use of the enablement framework in the counseling role, and clinical examples of the enablement framework. (RJM)

  5. Enablement as a Positive Force in Counselling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg

    1996-01-01

    Explores the concept of enablement and provides a framework for the counselor and counselor educator to use in facilitating client- or student-directed goals. Examines use of enablement, enablement versus co-dependency, the use of the enablement framework in the counseling role, and clinical examples of the enablement framework. (RJM)

  6. [Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter focuses on the theme of early intervention which infants and young children with special needs in nine brief articles: "Early Intervention: A Matter of Context" (Samuel J. Meisels); "Early Intervention Research: Asking and Answering Meaningful Questions" (Jack P. Shonkoff); "From Case Management to Service…

  7. Noise-enabled optical ratchets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León-Montiel, Roberto De J.; Quinto-Su, Pedro A.

    2017-03-01

    In this contribution, we report on the implementation of a novel noise-enabled optical ratchet system. We demonstrate that, unlike commonly-used ratchet schemes—where complex asymmetric optical potentials are needed—efficient transport of microparticles across a one-dimensional optical lattice can be produced by introducing controllable noise in the system. This work might open interesting routes towards the development of new technologies aimed at enhancing the efficiency of transport occurring at the micro- and nanoscale, from novel particle-sorting tools to efficient molecular motors.

  8. Noise-enabled optical ratchets

    PubMed Central

    León-Montiel, Roberto de J.; Quinto-Su, Pedro A.

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution, we report on the implementation of a novel noise-enabled optical ratchet system. We demonstrate that, unlike commonly-used ratchet schemes—where complex asymmetric optical potentials are needed—efficient transport of microparticles across a one-dimensional optical lattice can be produced by introducing controllable noise in the system. This work might open interesting routes towards the development of new technologies aimed at enhancing the efficiency of transport occurring at the micro- and nanoscale, from novel particle-sorting tools to efficient molecular motors. PMID:28287152

  9. Optimized microsystems-enabled photovoltaics

    DOEpatents

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Nielson, Gregory N.; Young, Ralph W.; Resnick, Paul J.; Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-22

    Technologies pertaining to designing microsystems-enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) cells are described herein. A first restriction for a first parameter of an MEPV cell is received. Subsequently, a selection of a second parameter of the MEPV cell is received. Values for a plurality of parameters of the MEPV cell are computed such that the MEPV cell is optimized with respect to the second parameter, wherein the values for the plurality of parameters are computed based at least in part upon the restriction for the first parameter.

  10. Directory Enabled Policy Based Networking

    SciTech Connect

    KELIIAA, CURTIS M.

    2001-10-01

    This report presents a discussion of directory-enabled policy-based networking with an emphasis on its role as the foundation for securely scalable enterprise networks. A directory service provides the object-oriented logical environment for interactive cyber-policy implementation. Cyber-policy implementation includes security, network management, operational process and quality of service policies. The leading network-technology vendors have invested in these technologies for secure universal connectivity that transverses Internet, extranet and intranet boundaries. Industry standards are established that provide the fundamental guidelines for directory deployment scalable to global networks. The integration of policy-based networking with directory-service technologies provides for intelligent management of the enterprise network environment as an end-to-end system of related clients, services and resources. This architecture allows logical policies to protect data, manage security and provision critical network services permitting a proactive defense-in-depth cyber-security posture. Enterprise networking imposes the consideration of supporting multiple computing platforms, sites and business-operation models. An industry-standards based approach combined with principled systems engineering in the deployment of these technologies allows these issues to be successfully addressed. This discussion is focused on a directory-based policy architecture for the heterogeneous enterprise network-computing environment and does not propose specific vendor solutions. This document is written to present practical design methodology and provide an understanding of the risks, complexities and most important, the benefits of directory-enabled policy-based networking.

  11. Enabling Exploration Through Docking Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Caris A.

    2012-01-01

    Human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit will likely require international cooperation in order to leverage limited resources. International standards can help enable cooperative missions by providing well understood, predefined interfaces allowing compatibility between unique spacecraft and systems. The International Space Station (ISS) partnership has developed a publicly available International Docking System Standard (IDSS) that provides a solution to one of these key interfaces by defining a common docking interface. The docking interface provides a way for even dissimilar spacecraft to dock for exchange of crew and cargo, as well as enabling the assembly of large space systems. This paper provides an overview of the key attributes of the IDSS, an overview of the NASA Docking System (NDS), and the plans for updating the ISS with IDSS compatible interfaces. The NDS provides a state of the art, low impact docking system that will initially be made available to commercial crew and cargo providers. The ISS will be used to demonstrate the operational utility of the IDSS interface as a foundational technology for cooperative exploration.

  12. Nanomaterial-Enabled Neural Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongchen; Guo, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Neural stimulation is a critical technique in treating neurological diseases and investigating brain functions. Traditional electrical stimulation uses electrodes to directly create intervening electric fields in the immediate vicinity of neural tissues. Second-generation stimulation techniques directly use light, magnetic fields or ultrasound in a non-contact manner. An emerging generation of non- or minimally invasive neural stimulation techniques is enabled by nanotechnology to achieve a high spatial resolution and cell-type specificity. In these techniques, a nanomaterial converts a remotely transmitted primary stimulus such as a light, magnetic or ultrasonic signal to a localized secondary stimulus such as an electric field or heat to stimulate neurons. The ease of surface modification and bio-conjugation of nanomaterials facilitates cell-type-specific targeting, designated placement and highly localized membrane activation. This review focuses on nanomaterial-enabled neural stimulation techniques primarily involving opto-electric, opto-thermal, magneto-electric, magneto-thermal and acousto-electric transduction mechanisms. Stimulation techniques based on other possible transduction schemes and general consideration for these emerging neurotechnologies are also discussed. PMID:27013938

  13. Autonomy enables new science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Richard J.; Gor, Victoria; Man, Guy K.; Stolorz, Paul E.; Chapman, Clark; Merline, William J.; Stern, Alan

    1997-01-01

    The challenge of space flight in NASA's future is to enable smaller, more frequent and intensive space exploration at much lower total cost without substantially decreasing mission reliability, capability, or the scientific return on investment. The most effective way to achieve this goal is to build intelligent capabilities into the spacecraft themselves. Our technological vision for meeting the challenge of returning quality science through limited communication bandwidth will actually put scientists in a more direct link with the spacecraft than they have enjoyed to date. Technologies such as pattern recognition and machine learning can place a part of the scientist's awareness onboard the spacecraft to prioritize downlink or to autonomously trigger time-critical follow-up observations-particularly important in flyby missions-without ground interaction. Onboard knowledge discovery methods can be used to include candidate discoveries in each downlink for scientists' scrutiny. Such capabilities will allow scientists to quickly reprioritize missions in a much more intimate and efficient manner than is possible today. Ultimately, new classes of exploration missions will be enabled.

  14. Genome-enabled plant metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Tohge, Takayuki; de Souza, Leonardo Perez; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2014-09-01

    The grand challenge currently facing metabolomics is that of comprehensitivity whilst next generation sequencing and advanced proteomics methods now allow almost complete and at least 50% coverage of their respective target molecules, metabolomics platforms at best offer coverage of just 10% of the small molecule complement of the cell. Here we discuss the use of genome sequence information as an enabling tool for peak identity and for translational metabolomics. Whilst we argue that genome information is not sufficient to compute the size of a species metabolome it is highly useful in predicting the occurrence of a wide range of common metabolites. Furthermore, we describe how via gene functional analysis in model species the identity of unknown metabolite peaks can be resolved. Taken together these examples suggest that genome sequence information is current (and likely will remain), a highly effective tool in peak elucidation in mass spectral metabolomics strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Context-Enabled Business Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2012-04-01

    To truly understand context and apply it in business intelligence, it is vital to understand what context is and how it can be applied in addressing organizational needs. Context describes the facets of the environment that impact the way that end users interact with the system. Context includes aspects of location, chronology, access method, demographics, social influence/ relationships, end-user attitude/ emotional state, behavior/ past behavior, and presence. To be successful in making Business Intelligence content enabled, it is important to be able to capture the context of use user. With advances in technology, there are a number of ways in which this user based information can be gathered and exposed to enhance the overall end user experience.

  16. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bean; Trond Bjornard; Thomas Larson

    2007-09-01

    It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment MEthodology (SESAME) has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wireframe construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed.

  17. Spatially Enabling the Health Sector

    PubMed Central

    Weeramanthri, Tarun Stephen; Woodgate, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Spatial information describes the physical location of either people or objects, and the measured relationships between them. In this article, we offer the view that greater utilization of spatial information and its related technology, as part of a broader redesign of the architecture of health information at local and national levels, could assist and speed up the process of health reform, which is taking place across the globe in richer and poorer countries alike. In making this point, we describe the impetus for health sector reform, recent developments in spatial information and analytics, and current Australasian spatial health research. We highlight examples of uptake of spatial information by the health sector, as well as missed opportunities. Our recommendations to spatially enable the health sector are applicable to high- and low-resource settings. PMID:27867933

  18. Enabling the Kepler Exoplanet Census

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The Kepler mission, with its unrivaled photometric precision and nearly continuous monitoring, provides an unprecedented opportunity for an exoplanet census. However, while it has identified thousands of transiting planet candidates, only relatively few have yet been dynamically confirmed as bona fide planets, with only a handful more even conceivably amenable to future dynamical confirmation. As a result, the ability to draw detailed conclusions about the diversity of exoplanet systems from Kepler detections relies critically on assigning false positive probabilities to thousands of unconfirmed candidates. I have developed a procedure to calculate these probabilities using only the Kepler photometry, optionally including available follow-up observations. Using this, I can often statistically validate a candidate signal using two single-epoch observations: a stellar spectrum and a high-resolution image. Accordingly, I have applied this procedure to the publicly released Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) using results from several large follow-up campaigns: spectroscopic surveys of >100 KOIs with TripleSpec at the Palomar 200-in and >700 KOIs with Keck/HIRES, and imaging surveys of >60 KOIs with Keck/NIRC2 and nearly 1000 KOIs with the Palomar Robo-AO system. This has enabled me to identify hundreds of Kepler candidates as newly secure planets, identify some as likely false positives, and prescribe the most useful follow-up observations for the rest of the KOIs. These results will enable Kepler to fulfill its promise as a mission to study the statistics of exoplanet systems. In addition, this new approach to transit survey follow-up---detailed probabilistic assessment of large numbers of candidates in order to inform the application of relatively scarce follow-up resources---will remain fruitful as transit surveys continue to produce many more candidates than can be followed up with traditional strategies.

  19. Interventional ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, H.H.; Kristensen, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses: Introduction to interventional ultrasound/handling of aspirated material/general principles of fine needle aspiration cytology/procedure and principles in ultrasonically guided puncture/puncture of focal liver lesions/intraoperative puncture of the liver guided by ultrasound/Interventional ultrasound in cancer therapy/Interventional echocardiography/Fine-needle aspiration biopsy: Are there any risks./Puncture of renal mass lesions/Intrauterine needle diagnosis/Percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

  20. Interventional CMR: Clinical Applications and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Toby

    2015-01-01

    Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance (iCMR) promises to enable radiation-free catheterization procedures and to enhance contemporary image guidance for structural heart and electrophysiological interventions. However, clinical translation of exciting pre-clinical interventions has been limited by availability of devices that are safe to use in the magnetic resonance (MR) environment. We discuss challenges and solutions for clinical translation, including MR-conditional and MR-safe device design, and how to configure an interventional suite. We review the recent advances that have already enabled diagnostic MR right heart catheterization and simple electrophysiologic ablation to be performed in humans and explore future clinical applications. PMID:25894793

  1. [Crisis intervention].

    PubMed

    Stein, Claudius

    2012-01-01

    The Austrian Program for Suicide Prevention defines as Point 2: "Support and treatment". The suicide-preventive outcome of the development of psychotherapeutic-psychosocial care in Austria has been proved. This means, that the further development of institutions with focus on crisis intervention is a central agenda of Suicide prevention Austria (SUPRA). First, in this article are defined the terms crisis and crisis intervention, also the close connection to programs of suicide prevention is pointed out. Furthermore general aims and standards for crisis intervention are defined and the current situation of crisis intervention in Austria is described. Finally recommendations for practical aims and their implementation in the context of SUPRA are made.

  2. Enabling Participation In Exoplanet Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart F.

    2015-08-01

    Determining the distribution of exoplanets has required the contributions of a community of astronomers, who all require the support of colleagues to finish their projects in a manner to enable them to enter new collaborations to continue to contribute to understanding exoplanet science.The contributions of each member of the astronomy community are to be encouraged and must never be intentionally obstructed.We present a member’s long pursuit to be a contributing part of the exoplanet community through doing transit photometry as a means of commissioning the telescopes for a new observatory, followed by pursuit of interpreting the distributions in exoplanet parameter data.We present how the photometry projects have been presented as successful by the others who have claimed to have completed them, but how by requiring its employees to present results while omitting one member has been obstructive against members working together and has prevented the results from being published in what can genuinely be called a peer-reviewed fashion.We present how by tolerating one group to obstruct one member from finishing participation and then falsely denying credit is counterproductive to doing science.We show how expecting one member to attempt to go around an ostracizing group by starting something different is destructive to the entire profession. We repeat previously published appeals to help ostracized members to “go around the observatory” by calling for discussion on how the community must act to reverse cases of shunning, bullying, and other abuses. Without better recourse and support from the community, actions that do not meet standard good collegial behavior end up forcing good members from the community. The most important actions are to enable an ostracized member to have recourse to participating in group papers by either working through other authors or through the journal. All journals and authors must expect that no co-author is keeping out a major

  3. Enabling technology for human collaboration.

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Tim Andrew; Jones, Wendell Bruce; Warner, David Jay; Doser, Adele Beatrice; Johnson, Curtis Martin; Merkle, Peter Benedict

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a five-month LDRD late start project which explored the potential of enabling technology to improve the performance of small groups. The purpose was to investigate and develop new methods to assist groups working in high consequence, high stress, ambiguous and time critical situations, especially those for which it is impractical to adequately train or prepare. A testbed was constructed for exploratory analysis of a small group engaged in tasks with high cognitive and communication performance requirements. The system consisted of five computer stations, four with special devices equipped to collect physiologic, somatic, audio and video data. Test subjects were recruited and engaged in a cooperative video game. Each team member was provided with a sensor array for physiologic and somatic data collection while playing the video game. We explored the potential for real-time signal analysis to provide information that enables emergent and desirable group behavior and improved task performance. The data collected in this study included audio, video, game scores, physiological, somatic, keystroke, and mouse movement data. The use of self-organizing maps (SOMs) was explored to search for emergent trends in the physiological data as it correlated with the video, audio and game scores. This exploration resulted in the development of two approaches for analysis, to be used concurrently, an individual SOM and a group SOM. The individual SOM was trained using the unique data of each person, and was used to monitor the effectiveness and stress level of each member of the group. The group SOM was trained using the data of the entire group, and was used to monitor the group effectiveness and dynamics. Results suggested that both types of SOMs were required to adequately track evolutions and shifts in group effectiveness. Four subjects were used in the data collection and development of these tools. This report documents a proof of concept

  4. Good pharmacovigilance practices: technology enabled.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Robert C; Palsulich, Bruce; Gogolak, Victor

    2002-01-01

    The assessment of spontaneous reports is most effective it is conducted within a defined and rigorous process. The framework for good pharmacovigilance process (GPVP) is proposed as a subset of good postmarketing surveillance process (GPMSP), a functional structure for both a public health and corporate risk management strategy. GPVP has good practices that implement each step within a defined process. These practices are designed to efficiently and effectively detect and alert the drug safety professional to new and potentially important information on drug-associated adverse reactions. These practices are enabled by applied technology designed specifically for the review and assessment of spontaneous reports. Specific practices include rules-based triage, active query prompts for severe organ insults, contextual single case evaluation, statistical proportionality and correlational checks, case-series analyses, and templates for signal work-up and interpretation. These practices and the overall GPVP are supported by state-of-the-art web-based systems with powerful analytical engines, workflow and audit trials to allow validated systems support for valid drug safety signalling efforts. It is also important to understand that a process has a defined set of steps and any one cannot stand independently. Specifically, advanced use of technical alerting methods in isolation can mislead and allow one to misunderstand priorities and relative value. In the end, pharmacovigilance is a clinical art and a component process to the science of pharmacoepidemiology and risk management.

  5. DMD-enabled confocal microendoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Pierre M.; Dlugan, Andrew L. P.; MacAulay, Calum E.

    2001-05-01

    Conventional endoscopy is limited to imaging macroscopic views of tissue. The British Columbia Cancer Research Center, in collaboration with Digital Optical Imaging Corp., is developing a fiber-bundle based microendoscopy system to enable in vivo confocal imaging of cells and tissue structure through the biopsy channel of an endoscope, hypodermic needle, or catheter. The feasibility of imaging individual cells and tissue architecture will be presented using both reflectance and tissue auto-fluorescence modes of imaging. The system consists of a coherent fiber bundle, low-magnification high-NA objective lens, Digital Micromirror DeviceTM(DMD), light source, and CCD camera. The novel approach is the precise control and manipulation of light flow into and out of individual optical fibers. This control is achieved by employing a DMD to illuminate and detect light from selected fibers such that only the core of each fiber is illuminated or detected. The objective of the research is to develop a low-cost, clinically viable microendoscopy system for a range of detection, diagnostic, localization and differentiation uses associated with cancer and pre-cancerous conditions. Currently, multi-wavelength reflectance confocal images with 1 micrometers lateral resolution and 1.6 micrometers axial resolution have been achieved using a 0.95 mm bundle with 30,000 fibers.

  6. Interventional Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Saikus, Christina E.; Lederman, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) combines excellent soft-tissue contrast, multiplanar views, and dynamic imaging of cardiac function without ionizing radiation exposure. Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance (iCMR) leverages these features to enhance conventional interventional procedures or to enable novel ones. Although still awaiting clinical deployment, this young field has tremendous potential. We survey promising clinical applications for iCMR. Next, we discuss the technologies that allow CMR-guided interventions and, finally, what still needs to be done to bring them to the clinic. PMID:19909937

  7. Enabling a New Planning and Scheduling Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Davis, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    without the intervention of a scheduling expert. The algorithm is tuned for the constraint hierarchies and the complex temporal relationships provided by the modeling schema. It has an extensive search algorithm which can exploit timing flexibilities and constraint and relationship options. (3) A web-based architecture allows multiple remote users to simultaneously model science and technology requirements and other users to model vehicle and hardware characteristics. The architecture allows the users to submit scheduling requests directly to the scheduling engine and immediately see the results. These three components are integrated so that science and technology experts with no knowledge of the vehicle or hardware subsystems and no knowledge of the internal workings of the scheduling engine have the ability to build and submit scheduling requests and see the results. The immediate feedback will hone the users' modeling skills and ultimately enable them to produce the desired timeline. This paper summarizes the three components of the enabling technology and describes how this technology would make a new paradigm possible.

  8. Enabling a New Planning and Scheduling Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Davis, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    without the intervention of a scheduling expert. The algorithm is tuned for the constraint hierarchies and the complex temporal relationships provided by the modeling schema. It has an extensive search algorithm which can exploit timing flexibilities and constraint and relationship options. (3) A web-based architecture allows multiple remote users to simultaneously model science and technology requirements and other users to model vehicle and hardware characteristics. The architecture allows the users to submit scheduling requests directly to the scheduling engine and immediately see the results. These three components are integrated so that science and technology experts with no knowledge of the vehicle or hardware subsystems and no knowledge of the internal workings of the scheduling engine have the ability to build and submit scheduling requests and see the results. The immediate feedback will hone the users' modeling skills and ultimately enable them to produce the desired timeline. This paper summarizes the three components of the enabling technology and describes how this technology would make a new paradigm possible.

  9. Can State Intervention Spur Academic Turnaround? State Intervention, Spring 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRobbie, Joan

    Many states are adopting results-oriented school accountability systems. Some of the difficult issues that states are working through as they set up and implement strategies for academic intervention are discussed in this report. The report examines the "machinery" that needs to be in place to enable and support a program of state intervention…

  10. Solar Glitter -- Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, Gregory N.

    2012-02-01

    Many products have significantly benefitted from, or been enabled by, the ability to manufacture structures at an ever decreasing length scale. Obvious examples of this include integrated circuits, flat panel displays, micro-scale sensors, and LED lighting. These industries have benefited from length scale effects in terms of improved performance, reduced cost, or new functionality (or a combination of these). In a similar manner, we are working to take advantage of length scale effects that exist within solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. While this is a significant step away from traditional approaches to solar power systems, the benefits in terms of new functionality, improved performance, and reduced cost for solar power are compelling. We are exploring scale effects that result from the size of the solar cells within the system. We have developed unique cells of both crystalline silicon and III-V materials that are very thin (5-20 microns thick) and have very small lateral dimensions (on the order of hundreds of microns across). These cells minimize the amount of expensive semiconductor material required for the system, allow improved cell performance, and provide an expanded design space for both module and system concepts allowing optimized power output and reduced module and balance of system costs. Furthermore, the small size of the cells allows for unique high-efficiency, high-flexibility PV panels and new building-integrated PV options that are currently unavailable. These benefits provide a pathway for PV power to become cost competitive with grid power and allow unique power solutions independent of grid power.

  11. Enabling individualized therapy through nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Jason H.; van de Ven, Anne L.; Godin, Biana; Blanco, Elvin; Serda, Rita E.; Grattoni, Alessandro; Ziemys, Arturas; Bouamrani, Ali; Hu, Tony; Ranganathan, Shivakumar I.; De Rosa, Enrica; Martinez, Jonathan O.; Smid, Christine A.; Buchanan, Rachel M.; Lee, Sei-Young; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Landry, Matthew; Meyn, Anne; Tasciotti, Ennio; Liu, Xuewu; Decuzzi, Paolo; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Individualized medicine is the healthcare strategy that rebukes the idiomatic dogma of ‘losing sight of the forest for the trees’. We are entering a new era of healthcare where it is no longer acceptable to develop and market a drug that is effective for only 80% of the patient population. The emergence of “-omic” technologies (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and advances in systems biology are magnifying the deficiencies of standardized therapy, which often provide little treatment latitude for accommodating patient physiologic idiosyncrasies. A personalized approach to medicine is not a novel concept. Ever since the scientific community began unraveling the mysteries of the genome, the promise of discarding generic treatment regimens in favor of patient-specific therapies became more feasible and realistic. One of the major scientific impediments of this movement towards personalized medicine has been the need for technological enablement. Nanotechnology is projected to play a critical role in patient-specific therapy; however, this transition will depend heavily upon the evolutionary development of a systems biology approach to clinical medicine based upon “-omic” technology analysis and integration. This manuscript provides a forward looking assessment of the promise of nanomedicine as it pertains to individualized medicine and establishes a technology “snapshot” of the current state of nano-based products over a vast array of clinical indications and range of patient specificity. Other issues such as market driven hurdles and regulatory compliance reform are anticipated to “self-correct” in accordance to scientific advancement and healthcare demand. These peripheral, non-scientific concerns are not addressed at length in this manuscript; however they do exist, and their impact to the paradigm shifting healthcare transformation towards individualized medicine will be critical for its success. PMID:20045055

  12. CUDA Enabled Graph Subset Examiner

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Jeremy T.

    2016-12-22

    Finding Godsil-McKay switching sets in graphs is one way to demonstrate that a specific graph is not determined by its spectrum--the eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix. An important area of active research in pure mathematics is determining which graphs are determined by their spectra, i.e. when the spectrum of the adjacency matrix uniquely determines the underlying graph. We are interested in exploring the spectra of graphs in the Johnson scheme and specifically seek to determine which of these graphs are determined by their spectra. Given a graph G, a Godsil-McKay switching set is an induced subgraph H on 2k vertices with the following properties: I) H is regular, ii) every vertex in G/H is adjacent to either 0, k, or 2k vertices of H, and iii) at least one vertex in G/H is adjacent to k vertices in H. The software package examines each subset of a user specified size to determine whether or not it satisfies those 3 conditions. The software makes use of the massive parallel processing power of CUDA enabled GPUs. It also exploits the vertex transitivity of graphs in the Johnson scheme by reasoning that if G has a Godsil-McKay switching set, then it has a switching set which includes vertex 1. While the code (in its current state) is tuned to this specific problem, the method of examining each induced subgraph of G can be easily re-written to check for any user specified conditions on the subgraphs and can therefore be used much more broadly.

  13. Selecting Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, Danny G.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a systematic approach to selecting instructional designs, discussing performance analysis, gaps, elements (inputs, conditions, process, outputs, consequences, feedback), matrices, changes in performance state (establishing, improving, maintaining, and extinguishing performance), intervention interference, and involving others in…

  14. Pediatric Interventional Radiology: Vascular Interventions.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Pediatric interventional radiology (PIR) comprises a range of minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are performed using image guidance. PIR has emerged as an essential adjunct to various surgical and medical conditions. Over the years, technology has undergone dramatic and continuous evolution, making this speciality grow. In this review, the authors will discuss various vascular interventional procedures undertaken in pediatric patients. It is challenging for the interventional radiologist to accomplish a successful interventional procedure. There are many vascular interventional radiology procedures which are being performed and have changed the way the diseases are managed. Some of the procedures are life saving and have become the treatment of choice in those patients. The future is indeed bright for the practice and practitioners of pediatric vascular and non-vascular interventions. As more and more of the procedures that are currently being performed in adults get gradually adapted for use in the pediatric population, it may be possible to perform safe and successful interventions in many of the pediatric vascular lesions that are otherwise being referred for surgery.

  15. Intervention Methods Keep the Group on Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmston, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses some strategies and principles of intervention that will lead to a more effective group behavior and enable the group to be proactive about improving its work. The author also discusses some of the common challenges and reliable interventions faced by a facilitator: (1) Redirect conversational altitudes; (2) Correct problems…

  16. Interventional radiology neck procedures.

    PubMed

    Zabala Landa, R M; Korta Gómez, I; Del Cura Rodríguez, J L

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasonography has become extremely useful in the evaluation of masses in the head and neck. It enables us to determine the anatomic location of the masses as well as the characteristics of the tissues that compose them, thus making it possible to orient the differential diagnosis toward inflammatory, neoplastic, congenital, traumatic, or vascular lesions, although it is necessary to use computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging to determine the complete extension of certain lesions. The growing range of interventional procedures, mostly guided by ultrasonography, now includes biopsies, drainages, infiltrations, sclerosing treatments, and tumor ablation.

  17. Enablement in health care context: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Hudon, Catherine; St-Cyr Tribble, Denise; Bravo, Gina; Poitras, Marie-Eve

    2011-02-01

    The enablement process is defined as a professional intervention aiming to recognize, support and emphasize the patient's capacity to have control over her or his health and life. The purpose of this article was to study the enablement concept through a concept analysis in the health care context to identify: (1) its attributes and (2) its antecedents and consequents. A concept analysis was performed according to the method of Rodgers. The literature was reviewed from 1980 to June 2008, using search strategies adapted to the databases Cinahl, Medline, Embase, PsycInfo and Social Works Abstract, and hand searching. All articles contributing to a deeper understanding of the concept were included. The analysis was carried out according to a thematic analysis procedure, as described by Miles & Huberman. The search identified 1305 citations. After in-depth assessment of 148 potentially eligible citations, 61 articles were included in the review. Five articles were added with hand searching. Sixty-seven per cent of these articles were related to nursing. The attributes of the enablement concept included: contribution to the therapeutic relationship; consideration of the person as a whole; facilitation of learning; valorization of the person's strengths; implication and support to decision making; and broadening of the possibilities. These attributes could be used as a basis for other studies on enablement. Conceptual and empirical work is still needed to better position this concept among others such as patient-centred care, shared decision making and patient's participation. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Interventional neuroradiology.

    PubMed Central

    Barnwell, S L

    1993-01-01

    A wide variety of diseases affecting the central nervous system and head and neck can be treated using interventional neuroradiologic techniques. These new treatments have depended on advances in radiologic imaging, catheter technology, and the development of new embolic agents. These procedures may be an adjunct to other therapy, palliative or curative. Diseases for which interventional neuroradiologic techniques have been major advances in treatment include cerebral aneurysms, vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebral arteriovenous malformations, dural arteriovenous fistulas, dural sinus thrombosis, atherosclerosis, scalp arteriovenous fistulas, carotid-cavernous fistulas, and stroke. This field is rapidly evolving as advances are made in catheter technology and new embolic agents are developed. Images PMID:8434468

  19. SixDOF position sensor: enabling manufacturing flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Vann, C.S.

    1998-03-24

    A small, non-contact optical sensor invented by the author attaches to a robot (or other machines), enabling the robot to detect objects, adjust its alignment in all six degrees of freedom (SixDOF), and read a task from a code on the part. Thus, the SixDOF sensor provides robots more intelligence to operate autonomously and adapt to changes without human intervention. A description of the sensor is provided. Also, an operating arrangement of a robot using the SixDOF sensor is presented with performance results described.

  20. Family intervention for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Pharoah, Fiona; Mari, Jair; Rathbone, John; Wong, Winson

    2014-01-01

    expressed emotion within the family. We did not find data to suggest that family intervention either prevents or promotes suicide. Authors’ conclusions Family intervention may reduce the number of relapse events and hospitalisations and would therefore be of interest to people with schizophrenia, clinicians and policy makers. However, the treatment effects of these trials may be overestimated due to the poor methodological quality. Further data from trials that describe the methods of randomisation, test the blindness of the study evaluators, and implement the CONSORT guidelines would enable greater confidence in these findings. PMID:21154340

  1. An Internet enabled impact limiter material database

    SciTech Connect

    Wix, S.; Kanipe, F.; McMurtry, W.

    1998-09-01

    This paper presents a detailed explanation of the construction of an interest enabled database, also known as a database driven web site. The data contained in the internet enabled database are impact limiter material and seal properties. The technique used in constructing the internet enabled database presented in this paper are applicable when information that is changing in content needs to be disseminated to a wide audience.

  2. Making sense of domestic violence intervention in professional health care.

    PubMed

    Husso, Marita; Virkki, Tuija; Notko, Marianne; Holma, Juha; Laitila, Aarno; Mäntysaari, Mikko

    2012-07-01

    Intervening in domestic violence in the health care and social service settings is a complex and contested issue. In this qualitative, multidisciplinary study, the barriers to but also the possibilities for health care professionals in encountering victims of violence were scrutinised. The focus was on omissions in service structure and practices. The data consisted of six focus group interviews with nurses, physicians, social workers and psychologists in specialist health care (n = 30) conducted in Finland in 2009. The aim was to explore professionals' processes of making sense of violence interventions and the organisational practices of violence interventions. Four types of framing of the domestic violence issue were identified: (i) practical frame, (ii) medical frame, (iii) individualistic frame and (iv) psychological frame. Each frame consisted of particular features relating to explaining, structuring or dismissing the question of domestic violence in health care settings. The main themes included the division of responsibilities and feasibility of treatment. All four frames underlie the tendency for healthcare professionals to arrive at sense-making practices where it is possible to focus on fixing the injuries and consequences of domestic violence and bypassing the issue of violence as the cause of symptoms and injuries. The results indicate that developing successful practices both in identifying survivors of domestic violence and in preventing further victimisation requires a broad understanding of the effects of domestic violence and the challenges for health care professionals in dealing with it. New perspectives are needed in creating adequate practices both for victims of violence seeking help and for professionals working with this issue. Strong support at the organisational level and established practices throughout the fields of health and social care are the key elements in building a responsible approach to domestic violence.

  3. Youth Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suren, Asuncion, Ed.; Shermis, Michael, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    An overview of the diverse programs of research, scholarship, and creative activities conducted at Indiana University, the articles in this issue of "Research & Creative Activity" describe numerous interventions that can make a positive difference in the lives of at-risk youth. The articles are as follows: "Giving Back What You…

  4. "I have a connection!": The situated sense-making of an elementary student about the role of water in modeled vs. experienced ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Lisa Elisabeth N.

    Current policy and research have led the field of science education towards a model of "science as practice." In the past decade, several research programs on model-based reasoning practices in education have articulated key dimensions of practice, including constructing and defending models, comparing models to empirical data, using representations to identify patterns in data and use those as inscriptions to buttress arguments. This study presents a detailed case of how the use of a physical microcosm and children's self-directed representations of an ecosystem constrained and afforded student sense-making in an urban elementary classroom. The case analyzed the experiences of a 10-year old fifth grade student, Jorge, and the variation in his expressed understanding of ecosystems as he interacted with academic tasks, along with models and representations, to design, observe and explain an ecological microcosm. The study used a conceptual framework that brings together theories of situated cognition and Doyle's work on academic task to explain how and why Jorge's perception and communication of dimensions of ecosystem structure, function, and behavior appear to "come in and out of focus," influenced by the affordances of the tools and resources available, the academic task as given by the teacher, and Jorge's own experiences and knowledge of phenomena related to ecosystems. Findings from this study suggest that elementary students' ability or inability to address particular ecological concepts in a given task relate less to gaps in their understanding and more to the structure of academic tasks and learning contexts. The process of a student interacting with curriculum follows a dynamic trajectory and leads to emergent outcomes. As a result of the complex interactions of task, tools, and his own interests and agency, Jorge's attunement to the role of water in ecosystems comes in and out of focus throughout the unit. The instructional constraint of needing to

  5. Commentary: Academic Enablers and School Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.

    2002-01-01

    This commentary presents academic enablers within the broader, overlapping context of school learning theory, including the theories of Carroll, Harnishfeger and Wiley, Walberg, and others. Multivariate models are needed to understand the influences of academic enabler and school learning variables on learning, as well as the influences of these…

  6. [Crisis intervention].

    PubMed

    Sonneck, G

    1986-10-31

    The main aspects of crisis intervention are an immediate onset without time-consuming referrals, activities of the helper always keeping in mind the biopycho-social context, and assistance for selfhelp. Helping people in crises minds to find out and develop the possibilities of the afflicted person aiming that he can overcome his crisis by himself, gaining maturity and reaching a less crisis-prone life style.

  7. Spinal interventions.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Santiago, F; Filippiadis, D K; Guzmán Álvarez, L; Martínez Martínez, A; Castellano, M M

    2016-04-01

    We review the state of the art in imaging-guided percutaneous interventional procedures used to diagnose and/or treat the diverse causes of back pain. These procedures can be used for diagnosis, treatment, or both. They are focused on the vertebral bodies, the facet joints, the intervertebral discs, and the nerve structures. Copyright © 2015 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Current Status of Interventional Endoscopic Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Ryozawa, Shomei; Fujita, Naotaka; Irisawa, Atsushi; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Mine, Tetsuya

    2017-03-20

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is being used increasingly in the management of pancreatic fluid collection, biliary and pancreatic duct drainage in cases of failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, drainage of the gallbladder, and other conditions. The role of interventional EUS is rapidly expanding and new interventions are continuously emerging. The development of devices could be a major breakthrough in the field of interventional EUS. New devices would enable the expansion of its role even further and prompt its widespread use in clinical practice. This review focuses on the current status of interventional EUS, especially highlighting the topics that are drawing endoscopists' interest at present. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. FOCUS: A Model of Sensemaking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    in an unexpected effect. An implication of these results is that little would be gained by trying to teach novices to 2 think like experts, because...identifying facilitation and instructional strategies for teaching tactical thinking skills to Army Captains (Ross, Battaglia, Hutton, & Crandall, 2003...frames, seeking a frame, and refraining. In relating the current work to earlier concepts by Piaget , we proposed ways in which cycles of assimilation

  10. College students' barriers and enablers for healthful weight management: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Greaney, Mary L; Less, Faith D; White, Adrienne A; Dayton, Sarah F; Riebe, Deborah; Blissmer, Bryan; Shoff, Suzanne; Walsh, Jennifer R; Greene, Geoffrey W

    2009-01-01

    To identify barriers and enablers for healthful weight management among college students. Sixteen on-line focus groups, homogeneous by sex and university. Eight universities in 8 states. College students (N = 115; 55% female; mean age 19.7 +/- 1.6). Qualitative software, Nvivo version 2 (QSR International, Victoria, Australia, 2002), was used; similar codes were grouped together and categorized using an ecological model. Males and females cited the same barriers to weight management: intrapersonal (eg, temptation and lack of discipline); interpersonal (social situations); and environmental (eg, time constraints, ready access to unhealthful food). Similar enablers were identified by sex: intrapersonal (eg, regulating food intake, being physically active); interpersonal (social support); and environmental (eg, university's environment supports physical activity). More barriers than enablers were given, indicating that these college students were more sensitive to barriers than the enablers for weight management. Factors viewed by some students as barriers to weight management were viewed as enablers by others. When designing weight management interventions for college students, sex specificity may not be as important as considering that a barrier for one student may be an enabler for another. From an ecological perspective, individually focused interventions must be implemented in conjunction with environmental-level interventions to facilitate behavior change.

  11. Technology Advances Enabling a New Class of Hybrid Underwater Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, A.

    2016-02-01

    Both tethered (ROV) and untethered (AUV) systems have proven to be highly valuable tools for a range of application undersea. Certain enabling technologies coupled with recent advances in robotic systems make it possible to consider supplementing many of the functions performed by these platforms with appropriately designed semi-autonomous vehicles that may be less expensive operate than traditional deep-water ROVs. Such vehicles can be deployed from smaller ships and may lead to sea-floor resident systems able to perform a range of interventions under direct human control when required. These systems are effectively a hybrid cross between ROV and AUV vehicles and poised to enable an important new class of undersea vehicle. It is now possible to radically redefine the meaning of the words "tethered vehicle" to include virtual tethering via acoustic and optical means or through the use of small diameter re-useable tethers, providing not power but only high bandwidth communications. The recent developments at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), paves the way for a derivative vehicle type able to perform a range of interventions in deep water. Such battery-powered, hybrid-tethered vehicles will be able to perform tasks that might otherwise require a conventional ROV. These functions will be possible from less complex ships because of a greatly reduced dependence on large, heavy tethers and associated vehicle handling equipment. In certain applications, such vehicles can be resident within subsea facilities, able to provide operators with near instant access when required. Several key emerging technologies and capabilities make such a vehicle possible. Advances in both acoustic and optical "wireless" underwater communications and mico-tethers as pioneered by the HROV Nereus offer the potential to transform ROV type operations and thus offer planners and designers an important new dimension to subsea robotic intervention

  12. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  13. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Karen; Vasquez, Deb

    2017-01-01

    The Federal Energy Management Program's 'Utility Energy Service Contracts: Enabling Documents' provide legislative information and materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy service contracts, or UESCs.

  14. ISS - Enabling Exploration Through Docking Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Caris A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA and the ISS partnership are jointly developing a key standard to enable future collaborative exploration. The IDSS is based on flight proven design while incorporating new low impact technology. Low impact technology accommodates a wide range of vehicle contact and capture conditions. This standard will get early demonstration on the ISS. Experience gained here will enable operational experience and the opportunity to refine the standard.

  15. An Architecture to Enable Future Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Dan; Caffrey, Robert; Frye, Stu; Grosvenor, Sandra; Hess, Melissa; Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Rob; Davies, Ashley; Hayden, Sandra; Sweet, Adam

    2004-01-01

    A sensor web is a coherent set of distributed 'nodes', interconnected by a communications fabric, that collectively behave as a single dynamic observing system. A 'plug and play' mission architecture enables progressive mission autonomy and rapid assembly and thereby enables sensor webs. This viewgraph presentation addresses: Target mission messaging architecture; Strategy to establish architecture; Progressive autonomy with onboard sensor web; EO-1; Adaptive array antennas (smart antennas) for satellite ground stations.

  16. GIS Enabled Modeling and Simulation (GEMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    polygons, visual databases include texture information to provide a visualization of ground and material types. These databases include 3D models ...US Army TEC GIS-Enabled Modeling and Simulation project, and was the lead developer on the building interior semantic information portion of the...GIS Enabled Modeling and Simulation (GEMS) Thomas Stanzione Kevin Johnson MAK Technologies 68 Moulton Street Cambridge, MA 02138 (617) 876

  17. New Labour and the enabling state.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ian

    2000-11-01

    The notion of the 'enabling state' gained currency in the UK during the 1990s as an alternative to the 'providing' or the welfare state. It reflected the process of contracting out in the NHS and compulsory competitive tendering (CCT) in local government during the 1980s, but was also associated with developments during the 1990s in health, social care and education in particular. The creation of an internal market in the NHS and the associated purchaser-provider split appeared to transfer 'ownership' of services increasingly to the providers - hospitals, General Practitioners (GPs) and schools. The mixed economy of care that was stimulated by the 1990 NHS and Community Care Act appeared to offer local authorities the opportunity to enable non state providers to offer care services in the community. The new service charters were part of the enablement process because they offered users more opportunity to influence provision. This article examines how far service providers were enabled and assesses the extent to which new Labour's policies enhance or reject the 'enabling state' in favour of more direct provision.

  18. Deconstructing interventions: approaches to studying behavior change techniques across obesity interventions.

    PubMed

    Tate, Deborah F; Lytle, Leslie A; Sherwood, Nancy E; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Matheson, Donna; Moore, Shirley M; Loria, Catherine M; Pratt, Charlotte; Ward, Dianne S; Belle, Steven H; Michie, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Deconstructing interventions into the specific techniques that are used to change behavior represents a new frontier in behavioral intervention research. This paper considers opportunities and challenges in employing the Behavior Change Techniques Taxonomy (BCTTv1) developed by Michie and colleagues, to code the behavior change techniques (BCTs) across multiple interventions addressing obesity and capture dose received at the technique level. Numerous advantages were recognized for using a shared framework for intervention description. Coding interventions at levels of the social ecological framework beyond the individual level, separate coding for behavior change initiation vs. maintenance, fidelity of BCT delivery, accounting for BCTs mode of delivery, and tailoring BCTs, present both challenges and opportunities. Deconstructing interventions and identifying the dose required to positively impact health-related outcomes could enable important gains in intervention science.

  19. Incentives and enablers to improve adherence in tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lutge, Elizabeth E; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Knight, Stephen E; Sinclair, David; Volmink, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient adherence to medications, particularly for conditions requiring prolonged treatment such as tuberculosis (TB), is frequently less than ideal and can result in poor treatment outcomes. Material incentives to reward good behaviour and enablers to remove economic barriers to accessing care are sometimes given in the form of cash, vouchers, or food to improve adherence. Objectives To evaluate the effects of material incentives and enablers in patients undergoing diagnostic testing, or receiving prophylactic or curative therapy, for TB. Search methods We undertook a comprehensive search of the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; Science Citation Index; and reference lists of relevant publications up to 5 June 2015. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials of material incentives in patients being investigated for TB, or on treatment for latent or active TB. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently screened and selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. We compared the effects of interventions using risk ratios (RR), and presented RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. Main results We identified 12 eligible trials. Ten were conducted in the USA: in adolescents (one trial), in injection drug or cocaine users (four trials), in homeless adults (three trials), and in prisoners (two trials). The remaining two trials, in general adult populations, were conducted in Timor-Leste and South Africa. Sustained incentive programmes Only two trials have assessed whether material incentives and enablers can improve long-term adherence and completion of treatment for active TB, and neither demonstrated a clear benefit (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.14; two trials, 4356 participants; low quality evidence). In one trial, the incentive

  20. Enabling the Discovery of Gravitational Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of gravitational radiation was announced with the publication of the results of a physics experiment involving over a thousand participants. This was preceded by a century of theoretical work, involving a similarly large group of physicists, mathematicians, and computer scientists. This huge effort was enabled by a substantial commitment of resources, both public and private, to develop the different strands of this complex research enterprise, and to build a community of scientists to carry it out. In the excitement following the discovery, the role of key enablers of this success has not always been adequately recognized in popular accounts. In this talk, I will try to call attention to a few of the key ingredients that proved crucial to enabling the successful discovery of gravitational waves, and the opening of a new field of science.

  1. Networking Technologies Enable Advances in Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory; Freeman, Kenneth; Gilstrap, Raymond; Beck, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment to prototype a new way of conducting science by applying networking and distributed computing technologies to an Earth Science application. A combination of satellite, wireless, and terrestrial networking provided geologists at a remote field site with interactive access to supercomputer facilities at two NASA centers, thus enabling them to validate and calibrate remotely sensed geological data in near-real time. This represents a fundamental shift in the way that Earth scientists analyze remotely sensed data. In this paper we describe the experiment and the network infrastructure that enabled it, analyze the data flow during the experiment, and discuss the scientific impact of the results.

  2. Enabling human HUMS with data modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.; Jaenisch, Kristina K.; Hicklen, Michael L.

    2006-05-01

    We simulate a notional Navy SEAL rebreather diver on an extended mission using Model Predictive Control (MPC) theory. A mathematical framework for enabling physiological HUMS (Health Usage Management Systems) is shown. A rebreather simulation is used to derive MPC baseline Data Models of diver status by converting the simulation first into differential equations and then into lookup tables (LUT). When abnormal readings are indicated, sensor data from the diver is published to the ad hoc network, enabling intermittent upload. Mission success confidence is updated and determined during the mission. A novel method of converting MPC Data Models into lookup tables worn by the diver is given.

  3. Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) ENABLE Program

    SciTech Connect

    2012-06-01

    The Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) ENABLE program, a new project funding approach, allows small Federal facilities to realize energy and water savings in six months or less. ESPC ENABLE provides a standardized and streamlined process to install targeted energy conservation measures (ECMs) such as lighting, water, and controls with measurement and verification (M&V) appropriate for the size and scope of the project. This allows Federal facilities smaller than 200,000 square feet to make progress towards important energy efficiency and water conservation requirements.

  4. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing; Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong; Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing; Yu, Hongyu

    2014-02-24

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics.

  5. Upgraded NERVA systems: Enabler nuclear system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farbman, Gerry

    1991-01-01

    The NERVA/Rover Enabler technology enables to go on a low risk, short-term program to meet the requirements of the Mars mission and maybe some lunar missions. The following subject areas are covered: NERVA technology - the foundation for tomorrow's space missions; NERVA/Rover reactor system test sequence; NERVA engine development program; nuclear thermal reactor capability based on many related Westinghouse technology programs; investment in Rover/Nerva technology; synergistic applications of NERVA technology; flow schematic of the NDR engine; the NERVA nuclear subsystem; and technology evolution.

  6. CHOIS: enabling grid technologies for obesity surveillance and control.

    PubMed

    Datta, Arun K; Jackson, Victoria; Nandkumar, Radha; Sproat, Jill; Zhu, Weimo; Krahling, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    CHOIS, the Child Health and Obesity Informatics System, is developed using open source portal technology with three-tiered Open Grid Services Architecture, an accepted standard for accessing Grid Computing and other services under Open Grid Collaborating Environments (OGCE). Its web application provides web based forms with 112 different fields to enter data ranging from demographic, height & weight for BMI, to genomic information. Automatic computation of BMI, BMI percentile and the risk of obesity alert are embedded into this system. After successful testing of the prototype, CHOIS is now ready to be used by the Illinois Department of Human Services (DHS) for obesity surveillance. This HIPAA & FERPA compliant secure system, integrating large databases in a high performance grid computing environment, enables school-nurse to collect data on school children and report statistical and surveillance information on BMI to identify those at-risk and obese for obesity prevention and intervention programs.

  7. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  8. School Bureaucracies That Work: Enabling, Not Coercive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, Wayne K.; Sweetland, Scott R.

    2000-01-01

    Attempts to reconcile two theoretically opposing perspectives of bureaucracy (as either alienating or facilitative) by creating and testing a new construct called "enabling bureaucracy." Empirical results are encouraging. Schools can be designed with formalized procedures and hierarchical structures that help rather than hinder teaching and…

  9. ICT-Enabled Learning: The Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Geoff; Grebennikov, Leonid; Gozzard, Terry

    2009-01-01

    This research seeks to contribute to current discussions in Australian higher education on how best to deploy ICT-enabled learning. Its particular focus is on examining the qualitative data from students on their experience of using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) at one college in an Australian university. In total, about 71,240…

  10. Caring at home until death: enabled determination.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Carole A; Bottorff, Joan L; McFee, Erin; Bissell, Laura J; Fyles, Gillian

    2017-04-01

    The importance of family caregivers in providing palliative care at home and in supporting a home death is well supported. Gaining a better understanding of what enables palliative family caregivers to continue caring at home for their family members until death is critical to providing direction for more effective support. The purpose of the study was to describe the experiences of bereaved family caregivers whose terminally ill family members with advanced cancer were successful in achieving a desired home death. A qualitative interpretive descriptive approach was used. Data were collected using semi-structured, audio-recorded interviews conducted in-person or via telephone in addition to field notes and reflective journaling. The study took place in British Columbia, Canada, and included 29 bereaved adult family caregivers who had provided care for a family member with advanced cancer and experienced a home death. Four themes captured the experience of caring at home until death: context of providing care, supportive antecedents to providing care, determination to provide care at home, and enabled determination. Factors that enabled determination to achieve a home death included initiation of formal palliative care, asking for and receiving help, augmented care, relief or respite, and making the healthcare system work for the ill person. Clarifying caregiving goals and supporting the factors that enable caregiver determination appear to be critical in enhancing the likelihood of a desired home death.

  11. Enabling a Comprehensive Teaching Strategy: Video Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brecht, H. David; Ogilby, Suzanne M.

    2008-01-01

    This study empirically tests the feasibility and effectiveness of video lectures as a form of video instruction that enables a comprehensive teaching strategy used throughout a traditional classroom course. It examines student use patterns and the videos' effects on student learning, using qualitative and nonparametric statistical analyses of…

  12. 75 FR 13235 - IP-Enabled Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 63 IP-Enabled Services AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission ACTION: Final rule... interconnected Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) service the discontinuance obligations that apply to domestic...

  13. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  14. Nanotechnologv Enabled Biological and Chemical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehne, Jessica; Meyyappan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an enabling technology that will impact almost all economic sectors: one of the most important and with great potential is the health/medical sector. - Nanomaterials for drug delivery - Early warning sensors - Implantable devices - Artificial parts with improved characteristics Carbon nanotubes and nanofibers show promise for use in sensor development, electrodes and other biomedical applications.

  15. Network Enabled Operations: A Canadian Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-13

    Decisive: US Naval Institute Proceedings. ** VERDON , J. (2004) Transformation in the CF - People Implications of Effects-Based and Network-Enabled...Operations: A Canadian Perspective (U) 4. AUTHORS (First name, middle initial and last name. If military, show rank, e.g. Maj. John E. Doe.) Michael H

  16. Tracheostomy tube enabling speech during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Nomori, Hiroaki

    2004-03-01

    A voice tracheostomy tube (VTT) was developed to enable patients to speak during mechanical ventilation. The VTT has slits cut in it and is covered on part of its side with an elastic cuff, enabling the cuff to expand with positive pressure from the ventilator on inspiration and to deflate on expiration. By this mechanism, inspired air from the ventilator goes to the lung with the cuff inflated, and some of the expired air passes out around the deflated cuff and discharges through the glottis, allowing sufficient ventilation and also enabling vocal fold vibration. An experiment using a model lung showed that there was little leakage on inspiration even for low lung compliance and high airway pressure, and that the leakage volume on expiration was approximately 40% of the ventilated volume, ie, the volume discharging through the vocal fold in clinical use. Sixteen patients who had been managed by ventilation via a conventional tracheostomy tube were switched to the VTT. All patients except one were able to speak after switching to the VTT without change in PaO(2) and PaCO(2). There were no complications associated with the use of the VTT. Bronchoscopy showed that the cuff of the VTT did not damage the tracheal mucosa. The VTT enables patients to speak during mechanical ventilation with sufficient ventilation and without aspiration and damage to the tracheal mucosa, even in patients with low lung compliance.

  17. Enabling Efficient Intelligence Analysis in Degraded Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    When facing decisions in underdeveloped, degraded, and denied environments, commanders are likely to rely even more heavily on efficient intelligence ... analysis . Unfortunately, most of the time, the data gathered in these environments will be uncertain, ambiguous, and incomplete. Tools enabling fast

  18. Safely Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Near-term Goal: Enable initial low-altitude airspace and UAS operations with demonstrated safety as early as possible, within 5 years. Long-term Goal: Accommodate increased UAS operations with highest safety, efficiency, and capacity as much autonomously as possible (10-15 years).

  19. Technology-Enabled Crime, Policing and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuade, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Crime, policing and security are enabled by and co-evolve with technologies that make them possible. As criminals compete with security and policing officials for technological advantage perpetually complex crime, policing and security results in relatively confusing and therefore unmanageable threats to society. New, adaptive and ordinary crimes…

  20. Wearable sensors and systems. From enabling technology to clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Bonato, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    It is now more than 50 years since the time when clinical monitoring of individuals in the home and community settings was first envisioned. Until recently, technologies to enable such vision were lacking. However, wearable sensors and systems developed over the past decade have provided the tools to finally implement and deploy technology with the capabilities required by researchers in the field of patients' home monitoring. As discussed, potential applications of these technologies include the early diagnosis of diseases such as congestive heart failure, the prevention of chronic conditions such as diabetes, improved clinical management of neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's disease, and the ability to promptly respond to emergency situations such as seizures in patients with epilepsy and cardiac arrest in subjects undergoing cardiovascular monitoring. Current research efforts are now focused on the development of more complex systems for home monitoring of individuals with a variety of preclinical and clinical conditions. Recent research on the clinical assessment of wearable technology promises to deliver methodologies that are expected to lead to clinical adoption within the next five to ten years. In particular, combining home robots and wearable technology is likely to be a key step toward achieving the goal of effectively monitoring patients in the home. These efforts to merge home robots and wearable technology are expected to enable a new generation of complex systems with the ability to monitor subjects' status, facilitate the administration of interventions, and provide an invaluable tool to respond to emergency situations.

  1. Semantically-Enabled Sensor Plug & Play for the Sensor Web

    PubMed Central

    Bröring, Arne; Maúe, Patrick; Janowicz, Krzysztof; Nüst, Daniel; Malewski, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Environmental sensors have continuously improved by becoming smaller, cheaper, and more intelligent over the past years. As consequence of these technological advancements, sensors are increasingly deployed to monitor our environment. The large variety of available sensor types with often incompatible protocols complicates the integration of sensors into observing systems. The standardized Web service interfaces and data encodings defined within OGC’s Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) framework make sensors available over the Web and hide the heterogeneous sensor protocols from applications. So far, the SWE framework does not describe how to integrate sensors on-the-fly with minimal human intervention. The driver software which enables access to sensors has to be implemented and the measured sensor data has to be manually mapped to the SWE models. In this article we introduce a Sensor Plug & Play infrastructure for the Sensor Web by combining (1) semantic matchmaking functionality, (2) a publish/subscribe mechanism underlying the SensorWeb, as well as (3) a model for the declarative description of sensor interfaces which serves as a generic driver mechanism. We implement and evaluate our approach by applying it to an oil spill scenario. The matchmaking is realized using existing ontologies and reasoning engines and provides a strong case for the semantic integration capabilities provided by Semantic Web research. PMID:22164033

  2. Optical and opto-acoustic interventional imaging.

    PubMed

    Sarantopoulos, Athanasios; Beziere, Nicolas; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2012-02-01

    Many clinical interventional procedures, such as surgery or endoscopy, are today still guided by human vision and perception. Human vision however is not sensitive or accurate in detecting a large range of disease biomarkers, for example cellular or molecular processes characteristic of disease. For this reason advanced optical and opto-acoustic (photo-acoustic) methods are considered for enabling a more versatile, sensitive and accurate detection of disease biomarkers and complement human vision in clinical decision making during interventions. Herein, we outline developments in emerging fluorescence and opto-acoustic sensing and imaging techniques that can lead to practical implementations toward improving interventional vision.

  3. Cardiac patients show high interest in technology enabled cardiovascular rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Buys, Roselien; Claes, Jomme; Walsh, Deirdre; Cornelis, Nils; Moran, Kieran; Budts, Werner; Woods, Catherine; Cornelissen, Véronique A

    2016-07-19

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) can slow or reverse the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, uptake of community-based CR is very low. E-cardiology, e-health and technology solutions for physical activity uptake and monitoring have evolved rapidly and have potential in CVD management. However, it is unclear what the current technology usage is of CVD patients, and their needs and interests for technology enabled CR. A technology usage questionnaire was developed and completed by patients from a supervised ambulatory CR program and an adult congenital heart disease clinic and from two community-based CR programs. Results were described and related with age, gender and educational level by Spearman correlations. Of 310 patients, 298 patients (77 % male; mean age 61,7 ± 14,5 years) completed at least 25 questions of the survey and were included in the analysis (completion rate 96 %). Most (97 %) patients had a mobile phone and used the internet (91 %). Heart rate monitors were used by 35 % and 68 % reported to find heart rate monitoring important when exercising at home. Physical activity monitoring was reported by 12 % of the respondents. Respondents were interested in CR support through internet (77 %) and mobile phone (68 %). Many patients reported interest in game-based CR (67 %) and virtual rehabilitation (58 %). At least medium interest in technology enabled CR was reported by 75 % of the patients. Interest decreased with increasing age (r = -0.16; p = 0.005). CVD patients show interest for technology enabled home-based CR. Our results could guide the design of a technology-based, virtual CR intervention.

  4. A Study of Asynchronous Mobile-Enabled SMS Text Psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hull, Thomas D; Mahan, Kush

    2017-03-01

    Many obstacles to obtaining psychotherapy continue to diminish its reach despite its documented positive effects. Using short message service (SMS) texting and Web platforms to enable licensed psychotherapists to deliver therapy directly to the lived context of the client is one possible solution. Employing a feasibility study design, this pilot trial further evaluated the external validity for treatment outcomes of text therapy and extended findings to include mobile-enabled text platforms. Adults seeking text therapy treatment for a variety of disorders were recruited from a text therapy service (N = 57). Clinical outcomes were measured using the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) through 15 weeks of treatment. A process variable, the therapeutic alliance, was measured with the Working Alliance Inventory. Treatment acceptability was assessed with ratings of satisfaction for several aspects of the treatment, including affordability, effectiveness, convenience, wait times to receiving treatment, and cost-effectiveness. Results indicate evidence for the effectiveness of the intervention (GHQ-12, Cohen's d = 1.3). Twenty-five (46%) participants experienced clinically significant symptom remission. Therapeutic alliance scores were lower than those found in traditional treatment settings, but still predicted symptom improvement (R(2) = 0.299). High levels of satisfaction with text therapy were reported on dimensions of affordability, convenience, and effectiveness. Cost-effectiveness analyses suggest that text therapy is 42.2% the cost of traditional services and offers much reduced wait times. Mobile-enabled asynchronous text therapy with a licensed therapist is an acceptable and clinically beneficial medium for individuals with various diagnoses and histories of psychological distress.

  5. Reflections on a Failed Action Learning Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper reflects on the failure of a recent action learning intervention with a UK television company. The aim of the project was to gain insight into the reasons why the viewing figures of their factual programming channels were in decline and to develop a new strategy enabled by the action learning methodology. Unfortunately, this…

  6. Response to Intervention in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feuerborn, Laura L.; Sarin, Kathryn; Tyre, Ashli D.

    2011-01-01

    Many schools are turning to response to intervention (RTI) models to meet the needs of their students. The promise of RTI is that it will enable schools to better and more efficiently meet the learning needs of a large continuum of students by providing evidence-based schoolwide instruction, supplemental supports, and intensive individualized…

  7. Enabling room temperature sodium metal batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Ruiguo; Mishra, Kuber; Li, Xiaolin; Qian, Jiangfeng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bowden, Mark E.; Han, Kee Sung; Mueller, Karl T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2016-12-01

    Rechargeable batteries based upon sodium (Na+) cations are at the core of many new battery chemistries beyond Li-ion batteries. Rather than using carbon or alloy-based anodes, the direct utilization of solid sodium metal as an anode would be highly advantageous, but its use has been highly problematic due to its high reactivity. In this work, however, it is demonstrated that, by tailoring the electrolyte formulation, solid Na metal can be electrochemically plated/stripped at ambient temperature with high efficiency (> 99%) on both copper and inexpensive aluminum current collectors thereby enabling a shift in focus to new battery chemical couples based upon Na metal operating at ambient temperature. These highly concentrated electrolytes has enabled stable cycling of Na metal batteries based on a Na metal anode and Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode at high rates with very high efficiency.

  8. Enabling technologies: fermentation and downstream processing.

    PubMed

    Weuster-Botz, Dirk; Hekmat, Dariusch; Puskeiler, Robert; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel

    2007-01-01

    Efficient parallel tools for bioprocess design, consequent application of the concepts for metabolic process analysis as well as innovative downstream processing techniques are enabling technologies for new industrial bioprocesses from an engineering point of view. Basic principles, state-of-the-art techniques and cutting-edge technologies are briefly reviewed. Emphasis is on parallel bioreactors for bioprocess design, biochemical systems characterization and metabolic control analysis, as well as on preparative chromatography, affinity filtration and protein crystallization on a process scale.

  9. NASA Missions Enabled by Space Nuclear Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.; Schmidt, George R.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Space Missions that are enabled by Space Nuclear Systems. The topics include: 1) Space Nuclear System Applications; 2) Trade Space for Electric Power Systems; 3) Power Generation Specific Energy Trade Space; 4) Radioisotope Power Generation; 5) Radioisotope Missions; 6) Fission Power Generation; 7) Solar Powered Lunar Outpost; 8) Fission Powered Lunar Outpost; 9) Fission Electric Power Generation; and 10) Fission Nuclear Thermal Propulsion.

  10. Enabling technologies for petascale electromagnetic accelerator simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Lie-Quan; Akcelik, Volkan; Chen, Sheng; Ge, Lixin; Prudencio, Ernesto; Schussman, Greg; Uplenchwar, Ravi; Ng, Cho; Ko, Kwok; Luo, Xiaojun; Shephard, Mark

    2007-07-01

    The SciDAC2 accelerator project at SLAC aims to simulate an entire three-cryomodule radio frequency (RF) unit of the International Linear Collider (ILC) main Linac. Petascale computing resources supported by advances in Applied Mathematics (AM) and Computer Science (CS) and INCITE Program are essential to enable such very large-scale electromagnetic accelerator simulations required by the ILC Global Design Effort. This poster presents the recent advances and achievements in the areas of CS/AM through collaborations.

  11. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation.

    PubMed

    Vreeman, Daniel J; Chiaravalloti, Maria Teresa; Hook, John; McDonald, Clement J

    2012-08-01

    Interoperable health information exchange depends on adoption of terminology standards, but international use of such standards can be challenging because of language differences between local concept names and the standard terminology. To address this important barrier, we describe the evolution of an efficient process for constructing translations of LOINC terms names, the foreign language functions in RELMA, and the current state of translations in LOINC. We also present the development of the Italian translation to illustrate how translation is enabling adoption in international contexts. We built a tool that finds the unique list of LOINC Parts that make up a given set of LOINC terms. This list enables translation of smaller pieces like the core component "hepatitis c virus" separately from all the suffixes that could appear with it, such "Ab.IgG", "DNA", and "RNA". We built another tool that generates a translation of a full LOINC name from all of these atomic pieces. As of version 2.36 (June 2011), LOINC terms have been translated into nine languages from 15 linguistic variants other than its native English. The five largest linguistic variants have all used the Part-based translation mechanism. However, even with efficient tools and processes, translation of standard terminology is a complex undertaking. Two of the prominent linguistic challenges that translators have faced include: the approach to handling acronyms and abbreviations, and the differences in linguistic syntax (e.g. word order) between languages. LOINC's open and customizable approach has enabled many different groups to create translations that met their needs and matched their resources. Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange.

  12. Open Architecture as an Enabler for FORCEnet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Functional Area Manager FCP Fire Control Picture FCS Fire Control Solution FCQ Fire Control Quality FFBD Functional Flow Block Diagram Fn/OA FORCEnet...a) Firing Unit (FRU) receive Fire Control Quality ( FCQ ) data on threat from Remote Unit(s) (RUs). b) Validate FCQ data, enable FRU to act. c...Maintain Common Operational Picture (COP) of local tracks. d) Develop Fire Control Solution (FCS) based on FCQ data. e) Correlate FRU FCS with RU

  13. Enabling Tactical Edge Mashups with Live Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    and visual Situation Reports (SITREPs) while airborne, via his Live Objects-enabled IP radio, to better vector the bird to the site of the downed...including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources , gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and...Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a

  14. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation

    PubMed Central

    Vreeman, Daniel J.; Chiaravalloti, Maria Teresa; Hook, John; McDonald, Clement J.

    2012-01-01

    Interoperable health information exchange depends on adoption of terminology standards, but international use of such standards can be challenging because of language differences between local concept names and the standard terminology. To address this important barrier, we describe the evolution of an efficient process for constructing translations of LOINC terms names, the foreign language functions in RELMA, and the current state of translations in LOINC. We also present the development of the Italian translation to illustrate how translation is enabling adoption in international contexts. We built a tool that finds the unique list of LOINC Parts that make up a given set of LOINC terms. This list enables translation of smaller pieces like the core component “hepatitis c virus” separately from all the suffixes that could appear with it, such “Ab.IgG”, “DNA”, and “RNA”. We built another tool that generates a translation of a full LOINC name from all of these atomic pieces. As of version 2.36 (June 2011), LOINC terms have been translated into 9 languages from 15 linguistic variants other than its native English. The five largest linguistic variants have all used the Part-based translation mechanism. However, even with efficient tools and processes, translation of standard terminology is a complex undertaking. Two of the prominent linguistic challenges that translators have faced include: the approach to handling acronyms and abbreviations, and the differences in linguistic syntax (e.g. word order) between languages. LOINC’s open and customizable approach has enabled many different groups to create translations that met their needs and matched their resources. Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange PMID:22285984

  15. Edge-Enabled Tactical Systems (Poster)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-23

    We will develop an algorithm that can assign a credibility score quickly (seconds) and provide a human - understandable chain of reasoning in the...Mobile Systems Team FY14 Research Focus Group Autonomy for Mobile Systems (GAMS): Develop middleware and algorithms to enable a single human operator to...control a heterogeneous swarm of sensors, tailored to mission contexts • Create algorithms for distributed prioritized and pheromone -based area

  16. Enabling Technologies for Petascale Electromagnetic Accelerator Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Lie-Quan; Akcelik, Volkan; Chen, Sheng; Ge, Li-Xin; Prudencio, Ernesto; Schussman, Greg; Uplenchwar, Ravi; Ng, Cho; Ko, Kwok; Luo, Xiaojun; Shephard, Mark; /Rensselaer Poly.

    2007-11-09

    The SciDAC2 accelerator project at SLAC aims to simulate an entire three-cryomodule radio frequency (RF) unit of the International Linear Collider (ILC) main Linac. Petascale computing resources supported by advances in Applied Mathematics (AM) and Computer Science (CS) and INCITE Program are essential to enable such very large-scale electromagnetic accelerator simulations required by the ILC Global Design Effort. This poster presents the recent advances and achievements in the areas of CS/AM through collaborations.

  17. DISK FORMATION ENABLED BY ENHANCED RESISTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang Hsien; Li Zhiyun

    2010-06-20

    Disk formation in magnetized cloud cores is hindered by magnetic braking. Previous work has shown that for realistic levels of core magnetization, the magnetic field suppresses the formation of rotationally supported disks during the protostellar mass accretion phase of low-mass star formation both in the ideal MHD limit and in the presence of ambipolar diffusion for typical rates of cosmic-ray ionization. Additional effects, such as ohmic dissipation, the Hall effect, and protostellar outflow, are needed to weaken the magnetic braking and enable the formation of persistent, rotationally supported, protostellar disks. In this paper, we first demonstrate that the classic microscopic resistivity is not large enough to enable disk formation by itself. We then experiment with a set of enhanced values for the resistivity in the range {eta} = 10{sup 17}-10{sup 22} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}. We find that a value of order 10{sup 19} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} is needed to enable the formation of a 10{sup 2} AU scale Keplerian disk; the value depends somewhat on the degree of core magnetization. The required resistivity is a few orders of magnitude larger than the classic microscopic values. Whether it can be achieved naturally during protostellar collapse remains to be determined.

  18. Enabling Research Tools for Sustained Climate Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leidner, Allison K.; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Jasinski, Michael F.; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Waliser, Duane Edward; Lee, Tsengdar J.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Global Change Research Program Sustained Assessment process benefits from long-term investments in Earth science research that enable the scientific community to conduct assessment-relevant science. To this end, NASA initiated several research programs over the past five years to support the Earth observation community in developing indicators, datasets, research products, and tools to support ongoing and future National Climate Assessments. These activities complement NASA's ongoing Earth science research programs. One aspect of the assessment portfolio funds four "enabling tools" projects at NASA research centers. Each tool leverages existing capacity within the center, but has developed tailored applications and products for National Climate Assessments. The four projects build on the capabilities of a global atmospheric reanalysis (MERRA-2), a continental U.S. land surface reanalysis (NCA-LDAS), the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX), and a Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES). Here, we provide a brief overview of each enabling tool, highlighting the ways in which it has advanced assessment science to date. We also discuss how the assessment community can access and utilize these tools for National Climate Assessments and other sustained assessment activities.

  19. Enabling Research Tools for Sustained Climate Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leidner, A. K.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Jasinski, M. F.; Nemani, R. R.; Waliser, D. E.; Lee, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Global Change Research Program Sustained Assessment process benefits from long-term investments in Earth science research that enable the scientific community to conduct assessment-relevant science. To this end, NASA initiated several research programs over the past five years to support the Earth observation community in developing indicators, datasets, research products, and tools to support ongoing and future National Climate Assessments. These activities complement NASA's ongoing Earth science research programs. One aspect of the assessment portfolio funds four "enabling tools" projects at NASA research centers. Each tool leverages existing capacity within the center, but has developed tailored applications and products for National Climate Assessments. The four projects build on the capabilities of a global atmospheric reanalysis (MERRA-2), a continental U.S. land surface reanalysis (NCA-LDAS), the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX), and a Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES). Here, we provide a brief overview of each enabling tool, highlighting the ways in which it has advanced assessment science to date. We also discuss how the assessment community can access and utilize these tools for National Climate Assessments and other sustained assessment activities.

  20. Technology Enabling the First 100 Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcy, Geoffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    The discoveries of the first 100 exoplanets by precise radial velocities in the late 1990's at Lick Observatory and Observatoire de Haute-Provence were enabled by several technological advances and a cultural one. A key ingredient was a cross-dispersed echelle spectrometer at a stable, coude focus, with a CCD detector, offering high spectral resolution, large wavelength coverage, and a linear response to photons. A second ingredient was a computer capable of storing the megabyte images from such spectrometers and analyzing them for Doppler shifts. Both Lick and OHP depended on these advents. A third ingredient was a stable wavelength calibration. Here, two technologies emerged independently, with iodine gas employed by Marcy's group (used first by solar physicists doing helioseismology) and simultaneous thorium-argon spectra (enabled by fiber optics) used by Mayor's group. A final ingredient was a new culture emerging in the 1990's of forward-modeling of spectra on computers, enabled by the well-behaved photon noise of CCDs, giving Poisson errors amenable to rigorous statistical algorithms for measuring millipixel Doppler shifts. The prospect of detecting the 12 meter/sec reflex velocity (1/100 pixel) of a Jupiter-like planet was considered impossible, except to a few who asked, "What actually limits Doppler precision?". Inspired insights were provided by Robert Howard, Paul Schechter, Bruce Campbell, and Gordon Walker, leading to the first 100 exoplanets.

  1. Enabling conditions and children's understanding of pretense.

    PubMed

    Sobel, David M

    2009-11-01

    Two experiments examined whether preschoolers' difficulties on tasks that required relating pretending and knowledge (e.g., Lillard, A. S. (1993a). Young children's conceptualization of pretense: Action or mental representational state? Child Development, 64, 372-386) were due to children's inability to appreciate the causal mechanism behind enabling conditions. In Experiment 1, 4-year-olds were told about a character who knew about one kind of animal and did not know about another. The character acted in a manner consistent with both animals. Children were asked whether the character was pretending to be the animal of which he was ignorant. The character's knowledge was either represented in a generic manner (as a picture) or in a manner that suggested a particular enabling condition relation that children found accessible (as a battery, which most 4-year-olds recognize is critical for making toys work). Children were more successful at relating knowledge and pretending in the battery condition. This improvement in performance extended to another task in which children had to identify the enabling condition relation between knowledge and identification, in which there were reduced demands on the inhibitory mechanisms necessary for success. Experiment 2 found that the results in Experiment 1 were not due to demands of the procedure used in Experiment 1. These results are discussed in the context of recent theories of theory of mind that focus on the importance of causal relations among mental states.

  2. Web-enabling technologies for the factory floor: a web-enabling strategy for emanufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velez, Ricardo; Lastra, Jose L. M.; Tuokko, Reijo O.

    2001-10-01

    This paper is intended to address the different technologies available for Web-enabling of the factory floor. It will give an overview of the importance of Web-enabling of the factory floor, in the application of the concepts of flexible and intelligent manufacturing, in conjunction with e-commerce. As a last section, it will try to define a Web-enabling strategy for the application in eManufacturing. This is made under the scope of the electronics manufacturing industry, so every application, technology or related matter is presented under such scope.

  3. The BASICS Intervention Mathematics Program for At-Risk Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Terry

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the "BASICS" or "Building Accuracy and Speed In Core Skills" Mathematics Intervention Program which has been designed to enable students who are either low-achievers or have some form of learning disability, to attain real improvement and make the successful transition to core mathematics. The "BASICS" Intervention Program…

  4. Interventions for promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Charles; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Thorogood, Margaret; Kaur, Asha; Wedatilake, Thamindu

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effectiveness of strategies to enable people to achieve and maintain recommended levels of physical activity. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to promote physical activity in adults aged 16 years and older, not living in an institution. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (issue 1 2005), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, BIDS ISI, SPORTDISCUS, SIGLE, SCISEARCH (from earliest dates available to December 2004). Reference lists of relevant articles were checked. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials that compared different interventions to encourage sedentary adults not living in an institution to become physically active. Studies required a minimum of six months follow up from the start of the intervention to the collection of final data and either used an intention-to-treat analysis or, failing that, had no more than 20% loss to follow up. Data collection and analysis At least two reviewers independently assessed each study quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information where necessary. Standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous measures of self-reported physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness. For studies with dichotomous outcomes, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Main results The effect of interventions on self-reported physical activity (19 studies; 7598 participants) was positive and moderate (pooled SMD random effects model 0.28 95% CI 0.15 to 0.41) as was the effect of interventions (11 studies; 2195 participants) on cardio-respiratory fitness (pooled SMD random effects model 0.52 95% CI 0.14 to 0.90). There was significant heterogeneity in the reported effects as well as heterogeneity in characteristics of the interventions. The heterogeneity in reported effects was reduced in higher quality studies, when physical

  5. Transformative Learning: Patterns of Psychophysiologic Response and Technology-Enabled Learning and Intervention Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Activity Figure 6 - Film Presentation: Neutral Scenes Figure 7 - Film Presentation: Amusing Scenes Figure 8 - Film Presentation: Scary Scenes...Figure 6: Film Presentation: Neutral Scenes Figure 6: The 3 images above are examples of neutral clips that were used in the film

  6. A Design for Computationally Enabled Analyses Supporting the Pre-Intervention Analytical Framework (PIAF)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    literature findings and organized in terms of underlying sociocultural drivers. The design for computationally ena- bled analysis, described here, exploits...design for this technology is shaped by two factors: (1) the “wicked- ness” of understanding and accounting for the influence of sociocultural factors...model through interactive visualizations. ........................... 33  Figure 14. Interactive exploration of sociocultural modeling and simulation

  7. Older women's fears of violence: the need for interventions that enable active ageing.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Karen; Buys, Laurie; Lovie-Kitchin, Jan; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Smith, Dianne; Heffernan, Maree

    2007-01-01

    Women's fear of violence can impact negatively on their active participation in life. An ageing survey conducted with 2,620 Australian respondents aged 50 to 90 years examined aspects of work, learning, social, spiritual and emotional status, health, vision, home, life events, demographics, and asked an open-ended question about what being actively engaged in life meant. Ordinal regression was carried out on two dependent variables: wanting and needing to learn to discourage violence. Analyses found that as women's age increased, those on lower incomes were more likely than others to say they needed to learn how to discourage violence against them. This paper investigates the variables associated with the findings-transport, finances, news media, home safety, and reduced social interactions. Results highlight the importance of understanding women's fear in the context of personal and social issues, and the need to provide learning opportunities to improve safety and social engagement.

  8. ASR Technology for Children with Dyslexia: Enabling Immediate Intervention to Support Reading in Bahasa Melayu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husni, Husniza; Jamaludin, Zulikha

    2009-01-01

    Reading is an essential skill towards literacy development, and should be provided so that children can master the skill at their early ages. For dyslexic children, mastering the skill is a challenge. It has been widely agreed that the theory behind such difficulties in reading for dyslexic lies in the phonological-core deficits. Support has been…

  9. Outcome Evidencing: A Method for Enabling and Evaluating Program Intervention in Complex Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paz-Ybarnegaray, Rodrigo; Douthwaite, Boru

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the development and use of a rapid evaluation approach to meet program accountability and learning requirements in a research for development program operating in five developing countries. The method identifies clusters of outcomes, both expected and unexpected, happening within areas of change. In a workshop, change agents…

  10. Chemokine interactome mapping enables tailored intervention in acute and chronic inflammation.

    PubMed

    von Hundelshausen, Philipp; Agten, Stijn M; Eckardt, Veit; Blanchet, Xavier; Schmitt, Martin M; Ippel, Hans; Neideck, Carlos; Bidzhekov, Kiril; Leberzammer, Julian; Wichapong, Kanin; Faussner, Alexander; Drechsler, Maik; Grommes, Jochen; van Geffen, Johanna P; Li, He; Ortega-Gomez, Almudena; Megens, Remco T A; Naumann, Ronald; Dijkgraaf, Ingrid; Nicolaes, Gerry A F; Döring, Yvonne; Soehnlein, Oliver; Lutgens, Esther; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Koenen, Rory R; Mayo, Kevin H; Hackeng, Tilman M; Weber, Christian

    2017-04-05

    Chemokines orchestrate leukocyte trafficking and function in health and disease. Heterophilic interactions between chemokines in a given microenvironment may amplify, inhibit, or modulate their activity; however, a systematic evaluation of the chemokine interactome has not been performed. We used immunoligand blotting and surface plasmon resonance to obtain a comprehensive map of chemokine-chemokine interactions and to confirm their specificity. Structure-function analyses revealed that chemokine activity can be enhanced by CC-type heterodimers but inhibited by CXC-type heterodimers. Functional synergism was achieved through receptor heteromerization induced by CCL5-CCL17 or receptor retention at the cell surface via auxiliary proteoglycan binding of CCL5-CXCL4. In contrast, inhibitory activity relied on conformational changes (in CXCL12), affecting receptor signaling. Obligate CC-type heterodimers showed high efficacy and potency and drove acute lung injury and atherosclerosis, processes abrogated by specific CCL5-derived peptide inhibitors or knock-in of an interaction-deficient CXCL4 variant. Atheroprotective effects of CCL17 deficiency were phenocopied by a CCL5-derived peptide disrupting CCL5-CCL17 heterodimers, whereas a CCL5 α-helix peptide mimicked inhibitory effects on CXCL12-driven platelet aggregation. Thus, formation of specific chemokine heterodimers differentially dictates functional activity and can be exploited for therapeutic targeting. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-01-01

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

  12. A wireless sensor enabled by wireless power.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-11-22

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network.

  13. Small-RPS Enabled Mars Rover Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Tibor S.

    2005-02-01

    Both the MER and the Mars Pathfinder rovers operated on Mars in an energy-limited mode, since the solar panels generated power during daylight hours only. At other times the rovers relied on power stored in batteries. In comparison, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) offer a power-enabled paradigm, where power can be generated for long mission durations (measured in years), independently from the Sun, and on a continuous basis. A study was performed at JPL to assess the feasibility of a small-RPS enabled MER-class rover concept and any associated advantages of its mission on Mars, The rover concept relied on design heritage from MER with two significant changes. First, the solar panels were replaced with two single GPHS module based small-RPSs. Second, the Mossbauer spectroscope was substituted with a laser Raman spectroscope, in order to move towards MEPAG defined astrobiology driven science goals. The highest power requirements were contributed to mobility and telecommunication type operating modes, hence influencing power system sizing. The resulting hybrid power system included two small-RPSs and two batteries. Each small-RPS was assumed to generate 50 We of power or 620 Wh/sol of energy (BOL), comparable to that of MER. The two 8 Ah batteries were considered available during peak power usage. Mission architecture, power trades, science instruments, data, communication, thermal and radiation environments, mobility, and mass issues were also addressed. The study demonstrated that a new set of RPS-enabled rover missions could be envisioned for Mars exploration within the next decade, targeting astrobiology oriented science objectives, while powered by 2 to 4 GPHS modules.

  14. Astronomy Enabled by Ares V -- A Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, Daniel F.; Langhoff, S.; Worden, S. P.; Thronson, H.; Correll, R.

    2009-01-01

    On April 26th and 27th, 2008, NASA Ames Research Center hosted a two-day weekend workshop entitled "Astronomy Enabled by Ares V.” The primary goal of the workshop was to begin the process of bringing the Ares V designers together with senior representatives of the astronomical community to discuss the feasibility of using the Ares V heavy-lift launch vehicle to enable both new astronomical telescope architectures and new science. When developed in the latter part of the upcoming decade Ares V will be by far the most capable launch vehicle, with mass and volume launch capability many times that now available. The vehicle is understood to be the main workhorse in carrying humans and cargo to the Moon and beyond and, as such, is a key lynchpin for NASA's new space transportation architecture. Participants included experts from academia, industry, and NASA, including representatives of the Constellation architecture. Participants considered, in the context of identified astronomy needs: (1) Are there telescope concepts or missions capable of breakthrough science that are either enabled or significantly enhanced by the capabilities of an Ares V? (2) What demands do large telescopes place on the payload environment of the Ares V, such as mass, volume, fairing shape, cleanliness, acoustics, etc.? (3) What technology and environmental issues need to be addressed to facilitate launching observatories on an Ares V? (4) Is there a trade-off between mass and complexity that could reduce launch risk and, thereby, the cost of building large telescopes? We report on the results of this workshop, which included discussion on the operations model for such large-investment astronomical facilities. Such an operations model might well involve human and or robotic maintenance and servicing, in order to fully capitalize on the science potential of such facilities.

  15. Camera-enabled techniques for organic synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ingham, Richard J; O’Brien, Matthew; Browne, Duncan L

    2013-01-01

    Summary A great deal of time is spent within synthetic chemistry laboratories on non-value-adding activities such as sample preparation and work-up operations, and labour intensive activities such as extended periods of continued data collection. Using digital cameras connected to computer vision algorithms, camera-enabled apparatus can perform some of these processes in an automated fashion, allowing skilled chemists to spend their time more productively. In this review we describe recent advances in this field of chemical synthesis and discuss how they will lead to advanced synthesis laboratories of the future. PMID:23766820

  16. Enabling Rapid Naval Architecture Design Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Michael A.; Dufresne, Stephane; Balestrini-Robinson, Santiago; Mavris, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    Well accepted conceptual ship design tools can be used to explore a design space, but more precise results can be found using detailed models in full-feature computer aided design programs. However, defining a detailed model can be a time intensive task and hence there is an incentive for time sensitive projects to use conceptual design tools to explore the design space. In this project, the combination of advanced aerospace systems design methods and an accepted conceptual design tool facilitates the creation of a tool that enables the user to not only visualize ship geometry but also determine design feasibility and estimate the performance of a design.

  17. Enabling Strain Hardening Simulations with Dislocation Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Arsenlis, A; Cai, W

    2006-12-20

    Numerical algorithms for discrete dislocation dynamics simulations are investigated for the purpose of enabling strain hardening simulations of single crystals on massively parallel computers. The algorithms investigated include the /(N) calculation of forces, the equations of motion, time integration, adaptive mesh refinement, the treatment of dislocation core reactions, and the dynamic distribution of work on parallel computers. A simulation integrating all of these algorithmic elements using the Parallel Dislocation Simulator (ParaDiS) code is performed to understand their behavior in concert, and evaluate the overall numerical performance of dislocation dynamics simulations and their ability to accumulate percents of plastic strain.

  18. PHM Enabled Autonomous Propellant Loading Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Mark; Figueroa, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The utility of Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) software capability applied to Autonomous Operations (AO) remains an active research area within aerospace applications. The ability to gain insight into which assets and subsystems are functioning properly, along with the derivation of confident predictions concerning future ability, reliability, and availability, are important enablers for making sound mission planning decisions. When coupled with software that fully supports mission planning and execution, an integrated solution can be developed that leverages state assessment and estimation for the purposes of delivering autonomous operations. The authors have been applying this integrated, model-based approach to the autonomous loading of cryogenic spacecraft propellants at Kennedy Space Center.

  19. Enabling plant synthetic biology through genome engineering.

    PubMed

    Baltes, Nicholas J; Voytas, Daniel F

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic biology seeks to create new biological systems, including user-designed plants and plant cells. These systems can be employed for a variety of purposes, ranging from producing compounds of industrial or therapeutic value, to reducing crop losses by altering cellular responses to pathogens or climate change. To realize the full potential of plant synthetic biology, techniques are required that provide control over the genetic code - enabling targeted modifications to DNA sequences within living plant cells. Such control is now within reach owing to recent advances in the use of sequence-specific nucleases to precisely engineer genomes. We discuss here the enormous potential provided by genome engineering for plant synthetic biology.

  20. ENABLER Nuclear Propulsion System Conceptual Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauley, Keith A.; Woodham, Kurt; Ohi, Don; Haga, Heath; Henderson, Bo

    2004-02-01

    The Titan Corporation conducted a systems engineering study to develop an overall architecture that meets both the articulated and unarticulated requirements on the Prometheus Program with the least development effort. Key elements of the Titan-designed ENABLER system include a thermal fission reactor, thermionic power converters, sodium heat pipes, ion thruster engines, and a radiation shield and deployable truss to protect the payload. The overall design is scaleable over a wide range of power requirements from 10s of kilowatts to 10s of megawatts.

  1. The role of CORBA in enabling telemedicine

    SciTech Connect

    Forslund, D.W.

    1997-07-01

    One of the most powerful tools available for telemedicine is a multimedia medical record accessible over a wide area and simultaneously editable by multiple physicians. The ability to do this through an intuitive interface linking multiple distributed data repositories while maintaining full data integrity is a fundamental enabling technology in healthcare. The author discusses the role of distributed object technology using CORBA in providing this capability including an example of such a system (TeleMed) which can be accessed through the World Wide Web. Issues of security, scalability, data integrity, and useability are emphasized.

  2. Nano-enabled SERS reporting photosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Farhadi, Arash; Roxin, Áron; Wilson, Brian C; Zheng, Gang

    2015-01-01

    To impart effective cellular damage via photodynamic therapy (PDT), it is vital to deliver the appropriate light dose and photosensitizer concentration, and to monitor the PDT dose delivered at the site of interest. In vivo monitoring of photosensitizers has in large part relied on their fluorescence emission. Palladium-containing photosensitizers have shown promising clinical results by demonstrating near full conversion of light to PDT activity at the cost of having undetectable fluorescence. We demonstrate that, through the coupling of plasmonic nanoparticles with palladium-photosensitizers, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) provides both reporting and monitoring capability to otherwise quiescent molecules. Nano-enabled SERS reporting of photosensitizers allows for the decoupling of the therapeutic and imaging mechanisms so that both phenomena can be optimized independently. Most importantly, the design enables the use of the same laser wavelength to stimulate both the PDT and imaging features, opening the potential for real-time dosimetry of photosensitizer concentration and PDT dose delivery by SERS monitoring.

  3. In-Orbit Servicing: The Master Enabler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; Kienlen, Michael; Naasz, Bo; Roberts, Brian; Deweese, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most noteworthy missions in space exploration have occurred in the last two decades and owe their success to on-orbit servicing. The tremendously successful Hubble Space Telescope repair and upgrade missions, as well as the completed assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and its full utilization, lead us to the next chapter and set of challenges. These include fully exploiting the many space systems already launched, assembling large structures in situ thereby enabling new scientific discoveries, and providing systems that reliably and cost-effectively support the next steps in space exploration. In-orbit servicing is a tool--a tool that can serve as the master enabler to create space architectures that would otherwise be unattainable. This paper will survey how NASA's satellite-servicing technology development efforts are being applied to the planning and execution of two such ambitious missions, specifically asteroid capture and the in-space assembly of a very large life-finding telescope.

  4. The Master Enabler: In Orbit Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; Kienlen, Michael; Naasz, Bo; Roberts, Brian; Deweese, Keith; Cassidy, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most noteworthy missions in space exploration have occurred in the last two decades and owe their success to on-orbit servicing. The tremendously successful Hubble Space Telescope repair and upgrade missions, as well as the completed assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and its full utilization, lead us to the next chapter and set of challenges. These include fully exploiting the many space systems already launched, assembling large structures in situ thereby enabling new scientific discoveries, and providing systems that reliably and cost-effectively support the next steps in space exploration. In-orbit servicing is a tool--a tool that can serve as the master enabler to create space architectures that would otherwise be unattainable. This paper will survey how NASA's satellite-servicing technology development efforts are being applied to the planning and execution of two such ambitious missions, specifically asteroid capture and the in-space assembly of a very large life-finding telescope.

  5. High-performance microlasers enable display applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Eric B.; Hargis, David E.; Bergstedt, Robert; Dion, Al; Hurtado, Randy; Solone, Paul J.

    1999-08-01

    Recent advances in compact, air-cooled, diode-pumped solid- state visible microlasers have enabled the development of portable laser display systems. In addition to the added benefits of large color gamut, invariant color accuracy, image uniformity, high contrast, and large depth of focus inherent in the microlaser design, the reliability of these all-solid state red-green-blue (RGB) sources make them attractive for display applications. Compact, multi-watt laser modules have been demonstrated for use as a high brightness 'laser light engine' for replacing arc lamps in LCD/DMD type display configurations. Using this 'backlit' approach, a microlaser- based projector has been demonstrated, providing greater than 500 lumens at 1280 X 1024 resolution using reflective AMLCD light valves. Also being developed is an airborne tactical HMD system wherein the laser module is remotely coupled to a subtractive color LCD assembly through an optical fiber to provide a more than 24,000,000 (twenty-four million) cd/m2 luminance for illuminating the LCD assembly. This technology could be applied to a variety of cockpit displays providing sunlight readable illumination for both head-down and head-up backlit display configurations. The advantages of the microlaser technology will enable further applications in other military platforms such as command and control centers, simulators and HMDs. Longer term potential includes high end CAD workstations, entertainment systems, and electronic cinema.

  6. The "Master Enabler" - In-Orbit Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Benjamin; Kienlen, Michael; Naasz, Bo; Roberts, Brian; Deweese, Keith; Cassidy, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most noteworthy missions in space exploration have occurred in the last two decades and owe their success to on-orbit servicing. The tremendously successful Hubble Space Telescope repair and upgrade missions, as well as the completed assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and its full utilization, lead us to the next chapter and set of challenges. These include fully exploiting the many space systems already launched, assembling large structures in situ thereby enabling new scientific discoveries, and providing systems that reliably and cost-effectively support the next steps in space exploration. In-orbit servicing is a tool-a tool that can serve as the master enabler to create space architectures that would otherwise be unattainable. This paper will survey how NASA's satellite-servicing technology development efforts are being applied to the planning and execution of two such ambitious missions, specifically asteroid capture and the in-space assembly of a very large life-finding telescope.

  7. Enabling Meaningful Affiliation Searches in the ADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D. M.; Chyla, R.; Holachek, A.; Accomazzi, A.; Henneken, E. A.; Kurtz, M. J.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    For many years, users have wanted to search affiliations in the ADS in order to build institutional databases and to help with author disambiguation. Although we currently provide this capability upon request, we have yet to incorporate it as part of the operational Abstract Service. This is because it cannot be used reliably, primarily because of the lack of uniform representation of the affiliation data. In an effort to make affiliation searches more meaningful, we have designed a two-tiered hierarchy of standard institutional names based on Ringgold identifiers, with the expectation that this will enable us to implement a search by institution, which will work for the vast majority of institutions. It is our intention to provide the capability of searching the ADS both by standard affiliation name and original affiliation string, as well as to enable autosuggest of affiliations as a means of helping to disambiguate author identification. Some institutions are likely to require manual work, and we encourage interested librarians to assist us in standardizing the representation of their institutions in the affiliation field.

  8. MENTOR: an enabler for interoperable intelligent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarraipa, João; Jardim-Goncalves, Ricardo; Steiger-Garcao, Adolfo

    2010-07-01

    A community with knowledge organisation based on ontologies will enable an increase in the computational intelligence of its information systems. However, due to the worldwide diversity of communities, a high number of knowledge representation elements, which are not semantically coincident, have appeared representing the same segment of reality, becoming a barrier to business communications. Even if a domain community uses the same kind of technologies in its information systems, such as ontologies, it doesn't solve its semantics differences. In order to solve this interoperability problem, a solution is to use a reference ontology as an intermediary in the communications between the community enterprises and the outside, while allowing the enterprises to keep their own ontology and semantics unchanged internally. This work proposes MENTOR, a methodology to support the development of a common reference ontology for a group of organisations sharing the same business domain. This methodology is based on the mediator ontology (MO) concept, which assists the semantic transformations among each enterprise's ontology and the referential one. The MO enables each organisation to keep its own terminology, glossary and ontological structures, while providing seamless communication and interaction with the others.

  9. Enabling access to seismologic data through a service oriented architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muench, J.; Kamb, L.; Casey, R.; Weertman, B.; Ahern, T.

    2006-12-01

    As research in the geosciences grows more interdisciplinary in nature, the IRIS Data Management Center is developing services to simplify access for non-domain experts as well as to enable expert users to more efficiently access the data and tools they need for their research. By building a service-oriented architecture (SOA) based on data retrieval, basic processing and visualization tools, IRIS will make seismic data products such as record sections and seismic event visualizations available to users without requiring a detailed knowledge of seismic data analysis. These composable web services will allow our expert users to build automated workflows to extract and pre-process their data requests, reducing the need for manual intervention in the data retrieval phase. A significant aspect of our SOA effort is to facilitate data discovery across disciplines and organizations. To provide our users with access to other geological data sources and help non-domain experts find our data, we are working with UNAVCO and MG&G at LDEO to create interoperable data discovery services, called GeoWS, between our unique data repositories. We also plan to collaborate with JAMSTEC, the host institution for the Earth Simulator. This will bring international data access and products produced on the Earth Simulator into our discovery system. Finally, we will develop a service providing discovery and visualization of community-based velocity models provided by selected individual researchers from IRIS member institutions. In a further effort to create community tools, all our services will be accessible from within portlets based on the GridSphere portal framework. We hope to share data and analysis portlets with other geoscience community web sites such as SCEC CME and GEON. Our long-term aim is to provide reusable, composable services with programmatic and interactive interfaces, enabling users to easily customize seismic data access.

  10. Hepatobiliary Intervention in Children

    SciTech Connect

    Franchi-Abella, Stéphanie; Cahill, Anne Marie; Barnacle, Alex M.; Pariente, Danièle; Roebuck, Derek J.

    2013-08-02

    Various vascular and nonvascular hepatobiliary interventional radiology techniques are now commonly performed in children’s hospitals. Although the procedures are broadly similar to interventional practice in adults, there are important differences in indications and technical aspects. This review describes the indications, techniques, and results of liver biopsy, hepatic and portal venous interventions and biliary interventions in children.

  11. Education Now and Babies Later (ENABL): life history of a campaign to Postpone Sexual Involvement.

    PubMed

    Cagampang, H H; Barth, R P; Korpi, M; Kirby, D

    1997-01-01

    Education Now and Babies Later (ENABL), a statewide adolescent pregnancy prevention initiative, was inaugurated in California in June 1992. Developed by the state's Office of Family Planning, ENABL utilized a five-session intervention curriculum, Postponing Sexual Involvement (PSI), targeted at delaying the onset of sexual activity among youths aged 12-14. Schoolwide and community-based activities, along with a statewide media and public relations campaign, reinforced the intervention's message. Data collected from nearly 9,000 surveys, 75 individual interviews and 50 focus groups indicated that youths, parents and community representatives supported the initiative and endorsed its message, although most recommended changes to the curriculum. However, because no impact on sexual behavior could be demonstrated, the campaign was abruptly terminated in February 1996, despite recommendations that the program be retained and improved.

  12. Provision of enabling technology in professional sports.

    PubMed

    McBride, D K

    2000-06-01

    Multiple-round golf tournaments are designed intentionally to separate individuals' scores as play proceeds. Variance analyses and consideration of individual differences (vs group mean effects) for a sample of professional events confirm that 3-, 4-, and 5-round tournaments show significantly increased variability (though stable means) from first to last rounds. It is argued here that the dispersion of scores increases as play proceeds because the more physically or mentally fit players emerge and continue to perform best. Furthermore, a marginal income analysis indicates that the average gain in earnings from a one-shot improvement in score is approximately $8,000. An interpretation based on fatigue, competition, and stress supports the Professional Golf Association's claim that provision of enabling devices, like a golf cart for disabled players, is also an enhancement and is thus unfair.

  13. Enabling Computational Technologies for Terascale Scientific Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, S.F.

    2000-08-24

    We develop scalable algorithms and object-oriented code frameworks for terascale scientific simulations on massively parallel processors (MPPs). Our research in multigrid-based linear solvers and adaptive mesh refinement enables Laboratory programs to use MPPs to explore important physical phenomena. For example, our research aids stockpile stewardship by making practical detailed 3D simulations of radiation transport. The need to solve large linear systems arises in many applications, including radiation transport, structural dynamics, combustion, and flow in porous media. These systems result from discretizations of partial differential equations on computational meshes. Our first research objective is to develop multigrid preconditioned iterative methods for such problems and to demonstrate their scalability on MPPs. Scalability describes how total computational work grows with problem size; it measures how effectively additional resources can help solve increasingly larger problems. Many factors contribute to scalability: computer architecture, parallel implementation, and choice of algorithm. Scalable algorithms have been shown to decrease simulation times by several orders of magnitude.

  14. Nanoplasmon-enabled macroscopic thermal management

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Gustav Edman; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    In numerous applications of energy harvesting via transformation of light into heat the focus recently shifted towards highly absorptive nanoplasmonic materials. It is currently established that noble metals-based absorptive plasmonic platforms deliver significant light-capturing capability and can be viewed as super-absorbers of optical radiation. Naturally, approaches to the direct experimental probing of macroscopic temperature increase resulting from these absorbers are welcomed. Here we derive a general quantitative method of characterizing heat-generating properties of optically absorptive layers via macroscopic thermal imaging. We further monitor macroscopic areas that are homogeneously heated by several degrees with nanostructures that occupy a mere 8% of the surface, leaving it essentially transparent and evidencing significant heat generation capability of nanoplasmon-enabled light capture. This has a direct bearing to a large number of applications where thermal management is crucial. PMID:24870613

  15. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hufnagel, Dick

    2015-11-19

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize “opportunistic” resources — resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS — to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Here we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  16. Laboratory Astrophysics: Enabling Scientific Discovery and Understanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, K.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Science Strategic Roadmap for Universe Exploration lays out a series of science objectives on a grand scale and discusses the various missions, over a wide range of wavelengths, which will enable discovery. Astronomical spectroscopy is arguably the most powerful tool we have for exploring the Universe. Experimental and theoretical studies in Laboratory Astrophysics convert "hard-won data into scientific understanding". However, the development of instruments with increasingly high spectroscopic resolution demands atomic and molecular data of unprecedented accuracy and completeness. How to meet these needs, in a time of severe budgetary constraints, poses a significant challenge both to NASA, the astronomical observers and model-builders, and the laboratory astrophysics community. I will discuss these issues, together with some recent examples of productive astronomy/lab astro collaborations.

  17. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufnagel, D.; CMS Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize opportunistic resources resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Here we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  18. Microsystem enabled photovoltaic modules and systems

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Sweatt, William C; Okandan, Murat

    2015-05-12

    A microsystem enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) module including: an absorber layer; a fixed optic layer coupled to the absorber layer; a translatable optic layer; a translation stage coupled between the fixed and translatable optic layers; and a motion processor electrically coupled to the translation stage to controls motion of the translatable optic layer relative to the fixed optic layer. The absorber layer includes an array of photovoltaic (PV) elements. The fixed optic layer includes an array of quasi-collimating (QC) micro-optical elements designed and arranged to couple incident radiation from an intermediate image formed by the translatable optic layer into one of the PV elements such that it is quasi-collimated. The translatable optic layer includes an array of focusing micro-optical elements corresponding to the QC micro-optical element array. Each focusing micro-optical element is designed to produce a quasi-telecentric intermediate image from substantially collimated radiation incident within a predetermined field of view.

  19. Enabling patients to manage altered body image.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2016-12-14

    The author presented a model in the 1990s to explain altered body image, which has been used to characterise the difficulties encountered by patients who experience body change as a result of illness, injury or disability. However, it remains a challenge for nurses to establish care plans that can assist patients to manage the psychological adjustments associated with disfigurement. This article presents some simple questions to help patients narrate their psychological experiences and needs, and proposes a model of psychological change, based on the work of Kübler-Ross, to enable nurses to anticipate patient requirements that might arise at different stages of the individual's recovery and rehabilitation. Body-image rehabilitation may be protracted. Therefore, it is essential for nurses to understand what the patient is thinking and feeling throughout the rehabilitation process and which stage of psychological change the patient is working through.

  20. Enabling communication concurrency through flexible MPI endpoints

    DOE PAGES

    Dinan, James; Grant, Ryan E.; Balaji, Pavan; ...

    2014-09-23

    MPI defines a one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. This model captures many use cases effectively; however, it also limits communication concurrency and interoperability between MPI and programming models that utilize threads. Our paper describes the MPI endpoints extension, which relaxes the longstanding one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. Using endpoints, an MPI implementation can map separate communication contexts to threads, allowing them to drive communication independently. Also, endpoints enable threads to be addressable in MPI operations, enhancing interoperability between MPI and other programming models. Furthermore, these characteristics are illustrated through several examples and an empirical study thatmore » contrasts current multithreaded communication performance with the need for high degrees of communication concurrency to achieve peak communication performance.« less

  1. Focus on atomtronics-enabled quantum technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amico, Luigi; Birkl, Gerhard; Boshier, Malcolm; Kwek, Leong-Chuan

    2017-02-01

    Atomtronics is an emerging field in quantum technology that promises to realize ‘atomic circuit’ architectures exploiting ultra-cold atoms manipulated in versatile micro-optical circuits generated by laser fields of different shapes and intensities or micro-magnetic circuits known as atom chips. Although devising new applications for computation and information transfer is a defining goal of the field, atomtronics wants to enlarge the scope of quantum simulators and to access new physical regimes with novel fundamental science. With this focus issue we want to survey the state of the art of atomtronics-enabled quantum technology. We collect articles on both conceptual and applicative aspects of the field for diverse exploitations, both to extend the scope of the existing atom-based quantum devices and to devise platforms for new routes to quantum technology.

  2. Health-Enabled Smart Sensor Fusion Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ray

    2012-01-01

    A process was designed to fuse data from multiple sensors in order to make a more accurate estimation of the environment and overall health in an intelligent rocket test facility (IRTF), to provide reliable, high-confidence measurements for a variety of propulsion test articles. The object of the technology is to provide sensor fusion based on a distributed architecture. Specifically, the fusion technology is intended to succeed in providing health condition monitoring capability at the intelligent transceiver, such as RF signal strength, battery reading, computing resource monitoring, and sensor data reading. The technology also provides analytic and diagnostic intelligence at the intelligent transceiver, enhancing the IEEE 1451.x-based standard for sensor data management and distributions, as well as providing appropriate communications protocols to enable complex interactions to support timely and high-quality flow of information among the system elements.

  3. Enabling communication concurrency through flexible MPI endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Dinan, James; Grant, Ryan E.; Balaji, Pavan; Goodell, David; Miller, Douglas; Snir, Marc; Thakur, Rajeev

    2014-09-23

    MPI defines a one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. This model captures many use cases effectively; however, it also limits communication concurrency and interoperability between MPI and programming models that utilize threads. Our paper describes the MPI endpoints extension, which relaxes the longstanding one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. Using endpoints, an MPI implementation can map separate communication contexts to threads, allowing them to drive communication independently. Also, endpoints enable threads to be addressable in MPI operations, enhancing interoperability between MPI and other programming models. Furthermore, these characteristics are illustrated through several examples and an empirical study that contrasts current multithreaded communication performance with the need for high degrees of communication concurrency to achieve peak communication performance.

  4. Enabling Communication in Emergency Response Environments

    PubMed Central

    Aldunate, Roberto G.; Schmidt, Klaus Nicholas; Herrera, Oriel

    2012-01-01

    Effective communication among first responders during response to natural and human-made large-scale catastrophes has increased tremendously during the last decade. However, most efforts to achieve a higher degree of effectiveness in communication lack synergy between the environment and the technology involved to support first responders operations. This article presents a natural and intuitive interface to support Stigmergy; or communication through the environment, based on intuitively marking and retrieving information from the environment with a pointer. A prototype of the system was built and tested in the field, however the pointing activity revealed challenges regarding accuracy due to limitations of the sensors used. The results obtained from these field tests were the basis for this research effort and will have the potential to enable communication through the environment for first responders operating in highly dynamical and inhospitable disaster relief environments. PMID:22778647

  5. Microdevices enabled by rarefied flow phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeenko, Alina A.; Strongrich, A. D.; Cofer, A. G.; Pikus, A.; Sebastiao, I. B.; Tholeti, S. S.; Shivkumar, G.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we review emerging applications of rarefied gas dynamics for microscale sensing, actuation, power generation and thermal management. The performance of conventional fluidic devices such as pumps, combustors and heat engines drops with the decrease of characteristic length scale due to greater viscous and heat transfer losses. However, the close coupling between non-equilibrium gas, liquid and solid-state transport and electromagnetic phenomena enables unconventional micro/nanodevices. We specifically consider three distinct examples of devices with non-equilibrium gas-phase transport based on i) very large thermal gradients; ii) increased capillary forces; iii) high electric fields - all of which are generated by scaling down device size by using nano/micromanufacturing techniques.

  6. Enabling MEMS technologies for communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubecke, Victor M.; Barber, Bradley P.; Arney, Susanne

    2001-11-01

    Modern communications demands have been steadily growing not only in size, but sophistication. Phone calls over copper wires have evolved into high definition video conferencing over optical fibers, and wireless internet browsing. The technology used to meet these demands is under constant pressure to provide increased capacity, speed, and efficiency, all with reduced size and cost. Various MEMS technologies have shown great promise for meeting these challenges by extending the performance of conventional circuitry and introducing radical new systems approaches. A variety of strategic MEMS structures including various cost-effective free-space optics and high-Q RF components are described, along with related practical implementation issues. These components are rapidly becoming essential for enabling the development of progressive new communications systems technologies including all-optical networks, and low cost multi-system wireless terminals and basestations.

  7. The network-enabled optimization system server

    SciTech Connect

    Mesnier, M.P.

    1995-08-01

    Mathematical optimization is a technology under constant change and advancement, drawing upon the most efficient and accurate numerical methods to date. Further, these methods can be tailored for a specific application or generalized to accommodate a wider range of problems. This perpetual change creates an ever growing field, one that is often difficult to stay abreast of. Hence, the impetus behind the Network-Enabled Optimization System (NEOS) server, which aims to provide users, both novice and expert, with a guided tour through the expanding world of optimization. The NEOS server is responsible for bridging the gap between users and the optimization software they seek. More specifically, the NEOS server will accept optimization problems over the Internet and return a solution to the user either interactively or by e-mail. This paper discusses the current implementation of the server.

  8. Enabling communication concurrency through flexible MPI endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Dinan, James; Grant, Ryan E.; Balaji, Pavan; Goodell, David; Miller, Doug; Snir, Marc; Thakur, Rajeev

    2014-11-01

    MPI defines a one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. This model captures many use cases effectively; however, it also limits communication concurrency and interoperability between MPI and programming models that utilize threads. This paper describes the MPI endpoints extension, which relaxes the longstanding one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. Using endpoints, an MPI implementation can map separate communication contexts to threads, allowing them to drive communication independently. Endpoints also enable threads to be addressable in MPI operations, enhancing interoperability between MPI and other programming models. These characteristics are illustrated through several examples and an empirical study that contrasts current multithreaded communication performance with the need for high degrees of communication concurrency to achieve peak communication performance.

  9. Bluetooth-enabled teleradiology: applications and complications.

    PubMed

    Hura, Angela M

    2002-01-01

    Wireless personal area networks and local area networks are becoming increasingly more prevalent in the teleradiology and telemedicine industry. Although there has been much debate about the role that Bluetooth will play in the future of wireless technology, both promoters and doubters acknowledge that Bluetooth will have an impact on networking, even if only as a "niche" product. This article provides an overview of the Bluetooth standard and highlights current and future areas of inclusion for use in a teleradiology environment. The possibilities for Bluetooth in a teleradiology environment without wires are nearly boundless and an overview of current and proposed Bluetooth-enabled radiology equipment and vendors is provided. A comparison of Bluetooth and other wireless technologies is provided, including areas of similarity and potential conflict. Bluetooth and other wireless technologies can not only peacefully coexist but also complement each other and provide enhanced teleradiology services.

  10. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hufnagel, Dirk

    2015-12-23

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize opportunistic resources resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Finally, we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  11. Science Missions Enabled by the Ares V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worden, Simon Peter; Weiler, Edward J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's planned heavy-lift Ares V rocket is a centerpiece of U.S. Space Exploration Policy. With approximately 30% more capacity to Trans-Lunar Injection (TLI) than the Saturn V, Ares V could also enable additional science and exploration missions currently unachievable or extremely unworkable under current launch vehicle architectures. During the spring and summer of 2008, NASA held two workshops dedicated to the discussion of these new mission concepts for the Ares V rocket. The first workshop dealt with astronomy and astrophysics, and the second dealt primarily with planetary science and exploration, but did touch on Earth science and heliophysics. We present here the summary results and outcomes of these meetings, including a discussion of specific mission concepts and ideas, as well as suggestions on design for the Ares V fairing and flight configurations that improve science return.

  12. Grid Enabled Geospatial Catalogue Web Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Ai-Jun; Di, Li-Ping; Wei, Ya-Xing; Liu, Yang; Bui, Yu-Qi; Hu, Chau-Min; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    Geospatial Catalogue Web Service is a vital service for sharing and interoperating volumes of distributed heterogeneous geospatial resources, such as data, services, applications, and their replicas over the web. Based on the Grid technology and the Open Geospatial Consortium (0GC) s Catalogue Service - Web Information Model, this paper proposes a new information model for Geospatial Catalogue Web Service, named as GCWS which can securely provides Grid-based publishing, managing and querying geospatial data and services, and the transparent access to the replica data and related services under the Grid environment. This information model integrates the information model of the Grid Replica Location Service (RLS)/Monitoring & Discovery Service (MDS) with the information model of OGC Catalogue Service (CSW), and refers to the geospatial data metadata standards from IS0 19115, FGDC and NASA EOS Core System and service metadata standards from IS0 191 19 to extend itself for expressing geospatial resources. Using GCWS, any valid geospatial user, who belongs to an authorized Virtual Organization (VO), can securely publish and manage geospatial resources, especially query on-demand data in the virtual community and get back it through the data-related services which provide functions such as subsetting, reformatting, reprojection etc. This work facilitates the geospatial resources sharing and interoperating under the Grid environment, and implements geospatial resources Grid enabled and Grid technologies geospatial enabled. It 2!so makes researcher to focus on science, 2nd not cn issues with computing ability, data locztic, processir,g and management. GCWS also is a key component for workflow-based virtual geospatial data producing.

  13. Thinking Aloud Together: A test of an intervention to foster middle school students' collaborative scientific reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Kathleen

    1997-11-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to examine whether an intervention stressing the metacognitive, regulatory, and strategic aspects of knowledge co-construction would improve middle school students' collaborative scientific reasoning processes and products. A second purpose was to examine potential relationships between individual differences in students' perspectives on learning science and their learning behaviors and outcomes in a complex, collaborative task context. This study thus integrated analyses of social, cognitive, metacognitive, and epistemological dimensions of science learning. An intervention called Thinking Aloud Together was embedded within a 12-week unit on building mental models of the nature of matter. Collaboratively building mental models was an open-ended, highly conceptual challenge that required students to build knowledge largely from their own and their peers' ideas and observations. The assumption behind the intervention design was that for such complex, higher-order, constructive intellectual tasks, raising students' metacognitive awareness of the kinds of thinking required would help them to acquire the necessary collaborative reasoning skills. The study included a quantitative, quasi-experimental portion and a qualitative, interpretive portion. For the quantitative portion, half of a sample of 163 eighth grade students received the intervention. The qualitative procedures included extensive observations of four classrooms; recording, logging, and analysis of 73 sense-making conversations of eight target groups (24 students); and two interviews with each of 12 students from the target groups. Students who received the Thinking Aloud Together intervention gained in metacognitive knowledge about collaborative reasoning and ability to articulate their collaborative reasoning processes in comparison to students in control classrooms, as hypothesized. However, the treatment and control students did not differ substantially either in

  14. Balancing the boat: enabling an ocean of possibilities.

    PubMed

    Majnemer, Annette

    2010-10-01

    Working in partnership, occupational therapists help clients to "balance their boat" and engage in meaningful occupations as clients journey through life. Life balance requires prioritization between time spent at work and other life experiences. Leisure time provides opportunities to rest, re-energize and enjoy activities of one's choosing, and is vitally important to an individual's physical and mental health. As occupational therapists, we need to appreciate how valuable and meaningful these activities are. In particular, it is essential that we optimize balance between the "must do" activities that are often prioritized in our interventions, with the "would like to do" leisure activities that promote well-being and social engagement. Asking our clients about the leisure activities in which they would most like to participate promotes choice and a sense of control. Focusing on modifiable personal and environmental factors enables occupational therapists to address barriers to participation in leisure activities. Occupational therapists have the knowledge and skills to work with individuals, organizations and communities to advocate for policy and practice changes that will optimize participation for individuals with functional challenges.

  15. Realising the Uncertainty Enabled Model Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornford, D.; Bastin, L.; Pebesma, E. J.; Williams, M.; Stasch, C.; Jones, R.; Gerharz, L.

    2012-12-01

    The FP7 funded UncertWeb project aims to create the "uncertainty enabled model web". The central concept here is that geospatial models and data resources are exposed via standard web service interfaces, such as the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) suite of encodings and interface standards, allowing the creation of complex workflows combining both data and models. The focus of UncertWeb is on the issue of managing uncertainty in such workflows, and providing the standards, architecture, tools and software support necessary to realise the "uncertainty enabled model web". In this paper we summarise the developments in the first two years of UncertWeb, illustrating several key points with examples taken from the use case requirements that motivate the project. Firstly we address the issue of encoding specifications. We explain the usage of UncertML 2.0, a flexible encoding for representing uncertainty based on a probabilistic approach. This is designed to be used within existing standards such as Observations and Measurements (O&M) and data quality elements of ISO19115 / 19139 (geographic information metadata and encoding specifications) as well as more broadly outside the OGC domain. We show profiles of O&M that have been developed within UncertWeb and how UncertML 2.0 is used within these. We also show encodings based on NetCDF and discuss possible future directions for encodings in JSON. We then discuss the issues of workflow construction, considering discovery of resources (both data and models). We discuss why a brokering approach to service composition is necessary in a world where the web service interfaces remain relatively heterogeneous, including many non-OGC approaches, in particular the more mainstream SOAP and WSDL approaches. We discuss the trade-offs between delegating uncertainty management functions to the service interfaces themselves and integrating the functions in the workflow management system. We describe two utility services to address

  16. Enabling Technologies for Ceramic Hot Section Components

    SciTech Connect

    Venkat Vedula; Tania Bhatia

    2009-04-30

    Silicon-based ceramics are attractive materials for use in gas turbine engine hot sections due to their high temperature mechanical and physical properties as well as lower density than metals. The advantages of utilizing ceramic hot section components include weight reduction, and improved efficiency as well as enhanced power output and lower emissions as a result of reducing or eliminating cooling. Potential gas turbine ceramic components for industrial, commercial and/or military high temperature turbine applications include combustor liners, vanes, rotors, and shrouds. These components require materials that can withstand high temperatures and pressures for long duration under steam-rich environments. For Navy applications, ceramic hot section components have the potential to increase the operation range. The amount of weight reduced by utilizing a lighter gas turbine can be used to increase fuel storage capacity while a more efficient gas turbine consumes less fuel. Both improvements enable a longer operation range for Navy ships and aircraft. Ceramic hot section components will also be beneficial to the Navy's Growth Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) and VAATE (Versatile Affordable Advanced Turbine Engines) initiatives in terms of reduced weight, cooling air savings, and capability/cost index (CCI). For DOE applications, ceramic hot section components provide an avenue to achieve low emissions while improving efficiency. Combustors made of ceramic material can withstand higher wall temperatures and require less cooling air. Ability of the ceramics to withstand high temperatures enables novel combustor designs that have reduced NO{sub x}, smoke and CO levels. In the turbine section, ceramic vanes and blades do not require sophisticated cooling schemes currently used for metal components. The saved cooling air could be used to further improve efficiency and power output. The objectives of this contract were to develop technologies critical for ceramic hot section

  17. Enabling Wireless Avionics Intra-Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Omar; Nguyen, Truong; Mackenzie, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The Electromagnetics and Sensors Branch of NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is investigating the potential of an all-wireless aircraft as part of the ECON (Efficient Reconfigurable Cockpit Design and Fleet Operations using Software Intensive, Networked and Wireless Enabled Architecture) seedling proposal, which is funded by the Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) project, Transformative Aeronautics Concepts (TAC) program, and NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI). The project consists of a brief effort carried out by a small team in the Electromagnetic Environment Effects (E3) laboratory with the intention of exposing some of the challenges faced by a wireless communication system inside the reflective cavity of an aircraft and to explore potential solutions that take advantage of that environment for constructive gain. The research effort was named EWAIC for "Enabling Wireless Aircraft Intra-communications." The E3 laboratory is a research facility that includes three electromagnetic reverberation chambers and equipment that allow testing and generation of test data for the investigation of wireless systems in reflective environments. Using these chambers, the EWAIC team developed a set of tests and setups that allow the intentional variation of intensity of a multipath field to reproduce the environment of the various bays and cabins of large transport aircraft. This setup, in essence, simulates an aircraft environment that allows the investigation and testing of wireless communication protocols that can effectively be used as a tool to mitigate some of the risks inherent to an aircraft wireless system for critical functions. In addition, the EWAIC team initiated the development of a computational modeling tool to illustrate the propagation of EM waves inside the reflective cabins and bays of aircraft and to obtain quantifiable information regarding the degradation of signals in aircraft subassemblies. The nose landing gear of a UAV CAD model was used

  18. Technology-enabled Airborne Spacing and Merging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, James; Barmore, Bryan; Abbott, Tetence

    2005-01-01

    Over the last several decades, advances in airborne and groundside technologies have allowed the Air Traffic Service Provider (ATSP) to give safer and more efficient service, reduce workload and frequency congestion, and help accommodate a critically escalating traffic volume. These new technologies have included advanced radar displays, and data and communication automation to name a few. In step with such advances, NASA Langley is developing a precision spacing concept designed to increase runway throughput by enabling the flight crews to manage their inter-arrival spacing from TRACON entry to the runway threshold. This concept is being developed as part of NASA s Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) project under the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program. Precision spacing is enabled by Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), which provides air-to-air data exchange including position and velocity reports; real-time wind information and other necessary data. On the flight deck, a research prototype system called Airborne Merging and Spacing for Terminal Arrivals (AMSTAR) processes this information and provides speed guidance to the flight crew to achieve the desired inter-arrival spacing. AMSTAR is designed to support current ATC operations, provide operationally acceptable system-wide increases in approach spacing performance and increase runway throughput through system stability, predictability and precision spacing. This paper describes problems and costs associated with an imprecise arrival flow. It also discusses methods by which Air Traffic Controllers achieve and maintain an optimum interarrival interval, and explores means by which AMSTAR can assist in this pursuit. AMSTAR is an extension of NASA s previous work on in-trail spacing that was successfully demonstrated in a flight evaluation at Chicago O Hare International Airport in September 2002. In addition to providing for precision inter-arrival spacing, AMSTAR

  19. Agile SE Enablers and Quantification Project: Identification, Characterization, and Evaluation Criteria for Systems Engineering Agile Enablers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-16

    Development of the evaluation white paper .......................................................................................... 7 3 References...enablers as they are identified. The ultimate result of the process is an evaluation white paper supporting one of three decisions: 1. not likely to...be effective, 2. possibly suitable but more research is needed, or 3. definitely suitable and expedited transition is recommended. This paper

  20. Willing and Enabled: The Academic Outcomes of a Tertiary Enabling Program in Regional Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrewartha, Lisa; Harvey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the achievement levels of students undertaking the Tertiary Enabling Program (TEP) at La Trobe University. The TEP is an alternative pathway program that traverses multiple institutions, campuses, and disciplinary areas, and is designed to prepare a diverse student cohort for tertiary study. The Program integrates several…

  1. Innovative Techniques for Evaluating Behavioral Nutrition Interventions.

    PubMed

    Scherr, Rachel E; Laugero, Kevin D; Graham, Dan J; Cunningham, Brian T; Jahns, Lisa; Lora, Karina R; Reicks, Marla; Mobley, Amy R

    2017-01-01

    Assessing outcomes and the impact from behavioral nutrition interventions has remained challenging because of the lack of methods available beyond traditional nutrition assessment tools and techniques. With the current high global obesity and related chronic disease rates, novel methods to evaluate the impact of behavioral nutrition-based interventions are much needed. The objective of this narrative review is to describe and review the current status of knowledge as it relates to 4 different innovative methods or tools to assess behavioral nutrition interventions. Methods reviewed include 1) the assessment of stress and stress responsiveness to enhance the evaluation of nutrition interventions, 2) eye-tracking technology in nutritional interventions, 3) smartphone biosensors to assess nutrition and health-related outcomes, and 4) skin carotenoid measurements to assess fruit and vegetable intake. Specifically, the novel use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, by characterizing the brain's responsiveness to an intervention, can help researchers develop programs with greater efficacy. Similarly, if eye-tracking technology can enable researchers to get a better sense as to how participants view materials, the materials may be better tailored to create an optimal impact. The latter 2 techniques reviewed, smartphone biosensors and methods to detect skin carotenoids, can provide the research community with portable, effective, nonbiased ways to assess dietary intake and quality and more in the field. The information gained from using these types of methodologies can improve the efficacy and assessment of behavior-based nutrition interventions.

  2. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection. PMID:24961213

  3. Enabling scientific workflows in virtual reality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreylos, O.; Bawden, G.; Bernardin, T.; Billen, M.I.; Cowgill, E.S.; Gold, R.D.; Hamann, B.; Jadamec, M.; Kellogg, L.H.; Staadt, O.G.; Sumner, D.Y.

    2006-01-01

    To advance research and improve the scientific return on data collection and interpretation efforts in the geosciences, we have developed methods of interactive visualization, with a special focus on immersive virtual reality (VR) environments. Earth sciences employ a strongly visual approach to the measurement and analysis of geologic data due to the spatial and temporal scales over which such data ranges, As observations and simulations increase in size and complexity, the Earth sciences are challenged to manage and interpret increasing amounts of data. Reaping the full intellectual benefits of immersive VR requires us to tailor exploratory approaches to scientific problems. These applications build on the visualization method's strengths, using both 3D perception and interaction with data and models, to take advantage of the skills and training of the geological scientists exploring their data in the VR environment. This interactive approach has enabled us to develop a suite of tools that are adaptable to a range of problems in the geosciences and beyond. Copyright ?? 2008 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.

  4. Survey of Enabling Technologies for CAPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antol, Jeffrey; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Koons, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    The enabling technologies required for the development of a viable Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS) can be divided into two principal areas: detection and deflection/orbit modification. With the proper funding levels, many of the technologies needed to support a CAPS architecture could be achievable within the next 15 to 20 years. In fact, many advanced detection technologies are currently in development for future in-space telescope systems such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), formerly known as the Next Generation Space Telescope. It is anticipated that many of the JWST technologies would be available for application for CAPS detection concepts. Deflection/orbit modification technologies are also currently being studied as part of advanced power and propulsion research. However, many of these technologies, such as extremely high-output power systems, advanced propulsion, heat rejection, and directed energy systems, would likely be farther term in availability than many of the detection technologies. Discussed subsequently is a preliminary examination of the main technologies that have been identified as being essential to providing the element functionality defined during the CAPS conceptual study. The detailed requirements for many of the technology areas are still unknown, and many additional technologies will be identified as future in-depth studies are conducted in this area.

  5. Individualized grid-enabled mammographic training system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap, M. H.; Gale, A. G.

    2009-02-01

    The PERFORMS self-assessment scheme measures individuals skills in identifying key mammographic features on sets of known cases. One aspect of this is that it allows radiologists' skills to be trained, based on their data from this scheme. Consequently, a new strategy is introduced to provide revision training based on mammographic features that the radiologist has had difficulty with in these sets. To do this requires a lot of random cases to provide dynamic, unique, and up-to-date training modules for each individual. We propose GIMI (Generic Infrastructure in Medical Informatics) middleware as the solution to harvest cases from distributed grid servers. The GIMI middleware enables existing and legacy data to support healthcare delivery, research, and training. It is technology-agnostic, data-agnostic, and has a security policy. The trainee examines each case, indicating the location of regions of interest, and completes an evaluation form, to determine mammographic feature labelling, diagnosis, and decisions. For feedback, the trainee can choose to have immediate feedback after examining each case or batch feedback after examining a number of cases. All the trainees' result are recorded in a database which also contains their trainee profile. A full report can be prepared for the trainee after they have completed their training. This project demonstrates the practicality of a grid-based individualised training strategy and the efficacy in generating dynamic training modules within the coverage/outreach of the GIMI middleware. The advantages and limitations of the approach are discussed together with future plans.

  6. 'Slings' enable neutrophil rolling at high shear.

    PubMed

    Sundd, Prithu; Gutierrez, Edgar; Koltsova, Ekaterina K; Kuwano, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Satoru; Pospieszalska, Maria K; Groisman, Alex; Ley, Klaus

    2012-08-16

    Most leukocytes can roll along the walls of venules at low shear stress (1 dyn cm−2), but neutrophils have the ability to roll at tenfold higher shear stress in microvessels in vivo. The mechanisms involved in this shear-resistant rolling are known to involve cell flattening and pulling of long membrane tethers at the rear. Here we show that these long tethers do not retract as postulated, but instead persist and appear as 'slings' at the front of rolling cells. We demonstrate slings in a model of acute inflammation in vivo and on P-selectin in vitro, where P-selectin-glycoprotein-ligand-1 (PSGL-1) is found in discrete sticky patches whereas LFA-1 is expressed over the entire length on slings. As neutrophils roll forward, slings wrap around the rolling cells and undergo a step-wise peeling from the P-selectin substrate enabled by the failure of PSGL-1 patches under hydrodynamic forces. The 'step-wise peeling of slings' is distinct from the 'pulling of tethers' reported previously. Each sling effectively lays out a cell-autonomous adhesive substrate in front of neutrophils rolling at high shear stress during inflammation.

  7. Nanocrystal-enabled solid state bonding.

    SciTech Connect

    San Diego State University, San Diego, CA; Puskar, Joseph David; Tikare, Veena; Garcia Cardona, Cristina; Reece, Mark; Brewer, Luke N.; Holm, Elizabeth Ann

    2010-10-01

    In this project, we performed a preliminary set of sintering experiments to examine nanocrystal-enabled diffusion bonding (NEDB) in Ag-on-Ag and Cu-on-Cu using Ag nanoparticles. The experimental test matrix included the effects of material system, temperature, pressure, and particle size. The nanoparticle compacts were bonded between plates using a customized hot press, tested in shear, and examined post mortem using microscopy techniques. NEDB was found to be a feasible mechanism for low-temperature, low-pressure, solid-state bonding of like materials, creating bonded interfaces that were able to support substantial loads. The maximum supported shear strength varied substantially within sample cohorts due to variation in bonded area; however, systematic variation with fabrication conditions was also observed. Mesoscale sintering simulations were performed in order to understand whether sintering models can aid in understanding the NEDB process. A pressure-assisted sintering model was incorporated into the SPPARKS kinetic Monte Carlo sintering code. Results reproduce most of the qualitative behavior observed in experiments, indicating that simulation can augment experiments during the development of the NEDB process. Because NEDB offers a promising route to low-temperature, low-pressure, solid-state bonding, we recommend further research and development with a goal of devising new NEDB bonding processes to support Sandia's customers.

  8. Bandwidth Enabled Flight Operations: Examining the Possibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisanich, Greg; Renema, Fritz; Clancy, Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Bandwidth Enabled Flight Operations project is a research effort at the NASA Ames Research Center to investigate the use of satellite communications to improve aviation safety and capacity. This project is a follow on to the AeroSAPIENT Project, which demonstrated methods for transmitting high bandwidth data in various configurations. For this research, we set a goal to nominally use only 10 percent of the available bandwidth demonstrated by AeroSAPIENT or projected by near-term technology advances. This paper describes the results of our research, including available satellite bandwidth, commercial and research efforts to provide these services, and some of the limiting factors inherent with this communications medium. It also describes our investigation into the needs of the stakeholders (Airlines, Pilots, Cabin Crews, ATC, Maintenance, etc). The paper also describes our development of low-cost networked flight deck and airline operations center simulations that were used to demonstrate two application areas: Providing real time weather information to the commercial flight deck, and enhanced crew monitoring and control for airline operations centers.

  9. Smart sensors enable smart air conditioning control.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-06-24

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  10. Barriers and enablers to academic health leadership.

    PubMed

    Bharwani, Aleem; Kline, Theresa; Patterson, Margaret; Craighead, Peter

    2017-02-06

    Purpose This study sought to identify the barriers and enablers to leadership enactment in academic health-care settings. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews ( n = 77) with programme stakeholders (medical school trainees, university leaders, clinical leaders, medical scientists and directors external to the medical school) were conducted, and the responses content-analysed. Findings Both contextual and individual factors were identified as playing a role in affecting academic health leadership enactment that has an impact on programme development, success and maintenance. Contextual factors included sufficient resources allocated to the programme, opportunities for learners to practise leadership skills, a competent team around the leader once that person is in place, clear expectations for the leader and a culture that fosters open communication. Contextual barriers included highly bureaucratic structures, fear-of-failure and non-trusting cultures and inappropriate performance systems. Programmes were advised to select participants based on self-awareness, strong communication skills and an innovative thinking style. Filling specific knowledge and skill gaps, particularly for those not trained in medical school, was viewed as essential. Ineffective decision-making styles and tendencies to get involved in day-to-day activities were barriers to the development of academic health leaders. Originality/value Programmes designed to develop academic health-care leaders will be most effective if they develop leadership at all levels; ensure that the organisation's culture, structure and processes reinforce positive leadership practices; and recognise the critical role of teams in supporting its leaders.

  11. Water: A Critical Material Enabling Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Karen D.

    2014-01-01

    Water is one of the most critical materials in human spaceflight. The availability of water defines the duration of a space mission; the volume of water required for a long-duration space mission becomes too large, heavy, and expensive for launch vehicles to carry. Since the mission duration is limited by the amount of water a space vehicle can carry, the capability to recycle water enables space exploration. In addition, water management in microgravity impacts spaceflight in other respects, such as the recent emergency termination of a spacewalk caused by free water in an astronaut's spacesuit helmet. A variety of separation technologies are used onboard spacecraft to ensure that water is always available for use, and meets the stringent water quality required for human space exploration. These separation technologies are often adapted for use in a microgravity environment, where water behaves in unique ways. The use of distillation, membrane processes, ion exchange and granular activated carbon will be reviewed. Examples of microgravity effects on operations will also be presented. A roadmap for future technologies, needed to supply water resources for the exploration of Mars, will also be reviewed.

  12. Ion Implant Enabled 2x Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Patrick M.; Godet, Ludovic; Cheung, Andrew; de Cock, Gael; Hatem, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Ion implantation has many applications in microelectronics beyond doping. The broad range of species available combined with the ability to precisely control dose, angle, and energy offers compelling advantages for use in precision material modification. The application to lithography has been reported elsewhere. Integrating ion implantation into the lithography process enables scaling the feature size requirements beyond the 15 nm node with a simplified double patterning sequence. In addition, ion implant may be used to remove line edge roughness, providing tremendous advantages to meet extreme lithography imaging requirements and provide additional device stability. We examine several species (e.g. Si, Ar, etc.) and the effect of energy and impact angle on several commercially available 193 nm immersion photoresists using a Varian VIISta® single wafer high current ion implanter. The treated photoresist will be evaluated for stability in an integrated double patterning application with ion implant used to freeze the primary image. We report on critical dimension impact, pattern integrity, optical property modification, and adhesion. We analyze the impact of line edge roughness improvement beyond the work of C. Struck including the power spectral distribution. TGA and FTIR Spectroscopy results for the implanted photoresist materials will also be included.

  13. Imaging enabled platforms for development of therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, Jonathan; Rizvi, Imran; Blanden, Adam R.; Evans, Conor L.; Abu-Yousif, Adnan O.; Spring, Bryan Q.; Muzikansky, Alona; Pogue, Brian W.; Finkelstein, Dianne M.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2011-03-01

    Advances in imaging and spectroscopic technologies have enabled the optimization of many therapeutic modalities in cancer and noncancer pathologies either by earlier disease detection or by allowing therapy monitoring. Amongst the therapeutic options benefiting from developments in imaging technologies, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is exceptional. PDT is a photochemistry-based therapeutic approach where a light-sensitive molecule (photosensitizer) is activated with light of appropriate energy (wavelength) to produce reactive molecular species such as free radicals and singlet oxygen. These molecular entities then react with biological targets such as DNA, membranes and other cellular components to impair their function and lead to eventual cell and tissue death. Development of PDT-based imaging also provides a platform for rapid screening of new therapeutics in novel in vitro models prior to expensive and labor-intensive animal studies. In this study we demonstrate how an imaging platform can be used for strategizing a novel combination treatment strategy for multifocal ovarian cancer. Using an in vitro 3D model for micrometastatic ovarian cancer in conjunction with quantitative imaging we examine dose and scheduling strategies for PDT in combination with carboplatin, a chemotherapeutic agent presently in clinical use for management of this deadly form of cancer.

  14. Nanoelectronic Coating Enabled Versatile Multifunctional Neural Probes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhengtuo; Luan, Lan; Wei, Xiaoling; Zhu, Hanlin; Li, Xue; Lin, Shengqing; Siegel, Jennifer J; Chitwood, Raymond A; Xie, Chong

    2017-08-09

    Brain function can be best studied by simultaneous measurements and modulation of the multifaceted signaling at the cellular scale. Extensive efforts have been made to develop multifunctional neural probes, typically involving highly specialized fabrication processes. Here, we report a novel multifunctional neural probe platform realized by applying ultrathin nanoelectronic coating (NEC) on the surfaces of conventional microscale devices such as optical fibers and micropipettes. We fabricated the NECs by planar photolithography techniques using a substrate-less and multilayer design, which host arrays of individually addressed electrodes with an overall thickness below 1 μm. Guided by an analytic model and taking advantage of the surface tension, we precisely aligned and coated the NEC devices on the surfaces of these conventional microprobes and enabled electrical recording capabilities on par with the state-of-the-art neural electrodes. We further demonstrated optogenetic stimulation and controlled drug infusion with simultaneous, spatially resolved neural recording in a rodent model. This study provides a low-cost, versatile approach to construct multifunctional neural probes that can be applied to both fundamental and translational neuroscience.

  15. Enabling electroweak baryogenesis through dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewicki, Marek; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Wells, James D.

    2016-06-01

    We study the impact on electroweak baryogenesis from a swifter cosmological expansion induced by dark matter. We detail the experimental bounds that one can place on models that realize it, and we investigate the modifications of these bounds that result from a non-standard cosmological history. The modifications can be sizeable if the expansion rate of the Universe increases by several orders of magnitude. We illustrate the impact through the example of scalar field dark matter, which can alter the cosmological history enough to enable a strong-enough first-order phase transition in the Standard Model when it is supplemented by a dimension six operator directly modifying the Higgs boson potential. We show that due to the modified cosmological history, electroweak baryogenesis can be realized, while keeping deviations of the triple Higgs coupling below HL-LHC sensitivies. The required scale of new physics to effectuate a strong-enough first order phase transition can change by as much as twenty percent as the expansion rate increases by six orders of magnitude.

  16. Glass ceramic ZERODUR enabling nanometer precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Kunisch, Clemens; Nieder, Johannes; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The IC Lithography roadmap foresees manufacturing of devices with critical dimension of < 20 nm. Overlay specification of single digit nanometer asking for nanometer positioning accuracy requiring sub nanometer position measurement accuracy. The glass ceramic ZERODUR® is a well-established material in critical components of microlithography wafer stepper and offered with an extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), the tightest tolerance available on market. SCHOTT is continuously improving manufacturing processes and it's method to measure and characterize the CTE behavior of ZERODUR® to full fill the ever tighter CTE specification for wafer stepper components. In this paper we present the ZERODUR® Lithography Roadmap on the CTE metrology and tolerance. Additionally, simulation calculations based on a physical model are presented predicting the long term CTE behavior of ZERODUR® components to optimize dimensional stability of precision positioning devices. CTE data of several low thermal expansion materials are compared regarding their temperature dependence between - 50°C and + 100°C. ZERODUR® TAILORED 22°C is full filling the tight CTE tolerance of +/- 10 ppb / K within the broadest temperature interval compared to all other materials of this investigation. The data presented in this paper explicitly demonstrates the capability of ZERODUR® to enable the nanometer precision required for future generation of lithography equipment and processes.

  17. Nanomaterials Enabled Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Pei

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs), as the third generation of solar cells, have attracted tremendous attention for their unique properties. The semi-transparent nature, low-cost, environmental friendliness, and convenient manufacturing conditions of this generation of solar cells are promising aspects of DSCs that make them competitive in their future applications. However, much improvement in many aspects of DSCs' is required for the realization of its full potential. In this thesis, various nanomaterials, such as graphene, multi wall carbon nanotubes, vertically aligned single wall carbon nanotubes, hybrid structures and etc, have been used to improve the performance of DSCs. First, the application of graphene covered metal grids as transparent conductive electrodes in DSCs is explored. It is demonstrated that the mechanical properties of these flexible hybrid transparent electrodes, in both bending and stretching tests, are better than their oxide-based counter parts. Moreover, different kinds of carbon nanotubes, for instance vertically aligned single wall carbon nanotubes, have been used as a replacement for traditional platinum counter electrodes, in both iodine electrolyte, and sulfide-electrolyte. Further, a flexible, seamlessly connected, 3-dimensional vertically-aligned few wall carbon nanotubes graphene hybrid structures on Ni foil as DSCs' counter electrodes improve their efficiency significantly. All these nanomaterials enabled DSCs architectures achieve a comparable or better performance than standard brittle platinum/fluorine doped tin oxide combination. The large surface area of such nanomaterials in addition to the high electrical conductivity and their mechanical robustness provides a platform for significant enhancements in DSCs' performance.

  18. Enabler for the agile virtual enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerst, Karl; Schmidt, Thomas; Wippel, Gerald

    2001-10-01

    In this presentation, a new approach for a flexible low-cost Internet extended enterprise (project FLoCI-EE) will be presented. FLoCI-EE is a project in the fifth framework program of the European commission with 8 partners from 4 countries, which started in January 2001 and will be finished in December 2003. The main objective of FLoCI-EE is the development of a software prototype, which enables flexible enterprise cooperation with the aim to design, manufacture and sell products commonly, independent of enterprise borderlines. The needed IT-support includes functions of product data management (PDM), enterprise resource planning (ERP), supply chain management (SCM) and customer relationship management (CRM). Especially for small and medium sized enterprises, existing solutions are too expensive and inflexible to be of use under current turbulent market conditions. The second part of this paper covers the item Web Services, because in the role-specific support approach of FLoCI-EE, there are user- interface-components, which are tailored for specific roles in an enterprise. These components integrate automatically the services of the so-called basic-components, and the externally offered Web Services like UDDI.

  19. Graphene-Enabled Electrodes for Electrocardiogram Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Numan; Manivannan, Nadarajah; Strudwick, Andrew; Balachandran, Wamadeva

    2016-01-01

    The unique parameters of graphene (GN)—notably its considerable electron mobility, high surface area, and electrical conductivity—are bringing extensive attention into the wearable technologies. This work presents a novel graphene-based electrode for acquisition of electrocardiogram (ECG). The proposed electrode was fabricated by coating GN on top of a metallic layer of a Ag/AgCl electrode using a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. To investigate the performance of the fabricated GN-based electrode, two types of electrodes were fabricated with different sizes to conduct the signal qualities and the skin-electrode contact impedance measurements. Performances of the GN-enabled electrodes were compared to the conventional Ag/AgCl electrodes in terms of ECG signal quality, skin–electrode contact impedance, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and response time. Experimental results showed the proposed GN-based electrodes produced better ECG signals, higher SNR (improved by 8%), and lower contact impedance (improved by 78%) values than conventional ECG electrodes. PMID:28335284

  20. Enabling technologies for autonomous MAV operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbanhawi, M.; Mohamed, A.; Clothier, R.; Palmer, J. L.; Simic, M.; Watkins, S.

    2017-05-01

    The utility of micro air vehicles (MAVs) has expanded significantly in the last decade, and there are now numerous commercial systems available at relatively low cost. This expansion has arisen mainly due to the miniaturisation of flight control systems and advances in energy storage and propulsion technologies. Several emerging applications involve routine operation of MAVs in complex urban environments such as parcel delivery, communications relay and environmental monitoring. However, MAVs currently rely on one or more operators-in-the-loop and, whilst desirable, full autonomous operation has not yet been achieved. In this review paper, autonomous MAV operation in complex environments is explored with conceptualisation for future MAV operation in urban environments. Limitations of current technologies are systematically examined through consideration of the state-of-the-art and future trends. The main limitations challenging the realisation of fully autonomous MAVs are mainly attributed to: computational power, communication and energy storage. These limitations lead to poor sensing and planning capabilities, which are essential components of autonomous MAVs. Possible solutions are explored with goal of enabling MAVs to reliably operate autonomously in urban environments.

  1. Biophysical Intervention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Scott

    1987-01-01

    Biophysical interventions as part of an ecological approach to intervention with handicapped children include psychotropic medications (neuroleptics, antidepressants, stimulants, minor tranquilizers and sedatives, lithium); nutritional agents (sugar, vitamins, food allergies); and physical therapies (patterning, optometric training). (DB)

  2. Biophysical Intervention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Scott

    1987-01-01

    Biophysical interventions as part of an ecological approach to intervention with handicapped children include psychotropic medications (neuroleptics, antidepressants, stimulants, minor tranquilizers and sedatives, lithium); nutritional agents (sugar, vitamins, food allergies); and physical therapies (patterning, optometric training). (DB)

  3. An Enabling Technology for New Planning and Scheduling Paradigms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Davis, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    intervention of a scheduling expert. The algorithm is tuned for the constraint hierarchies and the complex temporal relationships provided by the modeling schema. It has an extensive search algorithm that can exploit timing flexibilities and constraint and relationship options. (3) An innovative architecture allows multiple remote users to simultaneously model science and technology requirements and other users to model vehicle and hardware characteristics. The architecture allows the remote users to submit scheduling requests directly to the scheduling engine and immediately see the results. These three components are integrated so that science and technology experts with no knowledge of the vehicle or hardware subsystems and no knowledge of the internal workings of the scheduling engine have the ability to build and submit scheduling requests and see the results. The immediate feedback will hone the users' modeling skills and ultimately enable them to produce the desired timeline. This paper summarizes the three components of the enabling technology and describes how this technology would make a new paradigm possible.

  4. An Enabling Technology for New Planning and Scheduling Paradigms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Davis, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    intervention of a scheduling expert. The algorithm is tuned for the constraint hierarchies and the complex temporal relationships provided by the modeling schema. It has an extensive search algorithm that can exploit timing flexibilities and constraint and relationship options. (3) An innovative architecture allows multiple remote users to simultaneously model science and technology requirements and other users to model vehicle and hardware characteristics. The architecture allows the remote users to submit scheduling requests directly to the scheduling engine and immediately see the results. These three components are integrated so that science and technology experts with no knowledge of the vehicle or hardware subsystems and no knowledge of the internal workings of the scheduling engine have the ability to build and submit scheduling requests and see the results. The immediate feedback will hone the users' modeling skills and ultimately enable them to produce the desired timeline. This paper summarizes the three components of the enabling technology and describes how this technology would make a new paradigm possible.

  5. Barriers and enablers to diabetic retinopathy screening attendance: Protocol for a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Graham-Rowe, Ella; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Lawrenson, John G; Burr, Jennifer; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Ivers, Noah M; Peto, Tunde; Bunce, Catey; Francis, Jill J

    2016-08-11

    Diabetic retinopathy is a serious complication of diabetes which, if left untreated, can result in blindness. Population screening among people with diabetes has been shown to be clinically effective; however, suboptimal attendance with wide demographic disparities has been reported. To develop quality improvement interventions to maximise attendance, it is important to understand the theoretical determinants (i.e. barriers and enablers) of screening behaviour. The aim of this systematic review is to identify and synthesise the modifiable barriers and enablers associated with diabetic retinopathy screening attendance. Primary and secondary studies will be included if they report perceived barriers/enablers of diabetic retinopathy screening attendance, from the perspectives of people with diabetes and healthcare providers. There will be no restrictions on study design. Studies will be identified from published and grey literature through multiple sources. Bibliographic databases will be searched using synonyms in four search domains: diabetic retinopathy; screening; barriers/enablers; and theoretical constructs relating to behaviour. Search engines and established databases of grey literature will be searched to identify additional relevant studies. Extracted data will include: participant quotations from qualitative studies, statistical analyses from questionnaire and survey studies, and interpretive descriptions and summaries of results from reports. All extracted data will be coded into domains from the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and (for organisational level data) the Consolidated Framework of Implementation Research (CFIR); with domains representing theoretical barriers/enablers proposed to mediate behaviour change. The potential role of each domain in influencing retinopathy screening attendance will be investigated through thematic analysis of the TDF/ CFIR coding. Domain importance will be identified using pre-specified criteria: "frequency" and

  6. [Classification of nursing interventions].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, H C; Barros, A L

    2001-06-01

    During the last years, Nursing is seeking to classify its diagnoses, interventions/actions and outcomes. Here is presented one of the classifications of nursing interventions that was proposed by nurses of the University of Iowa in 1987, the Nursing Interventions Classifications (NIC) as well as the reasons os its creation, in order to contribute to the dissemination of one of the most advanced proposals for classifying nursing interventions.

  7. Web enabled data management with DPM & LFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez Ayllon, Alejandro; Beche, Alexandre; Furano, Fabrizio; Hellmich, Martin; Keeble and, Oliver; Brito Da Rocha, Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    The Disk Pool Manager (DPM) and LCG File Catalog (LFC) are two grid data management components currently used in production with more than 240 endpoints. Together with a set of grid client tools they give the users a unified view of their data, hiding most details concerning data location and access. Recently we've put a lot of effort in developing a reliable and high performance HTTP/WebDAV frontend to both our grid catalog and storage components, exposing the existing functionality to users accessing the services via standard clients - e.g. web browsers, curl - present in all operating systems, giving users a simple and straight-forward way of interaction. In addition, as other relevant grid storage components (like dCache) expose their data using the same protocol, for the first time we had the opportunity of attempting a unified view of all grid storage using HTTP. We describe the HTTP redirection mechanism used to integrate the grid catalog(s) with the multiple storage components, including details on some assumptions made to allow integration with other implementations. We describe the way we hide the details regarding site availability or catalog inconsistencies by switching the standard HTTP client automatically between multiple replicas. We also present measurements of access performance, and the relevant factors regarding replica selection - current throughput and load, geographic proximity, etc. Finally, we report on some additional work done to have this system as a viable alternative to GridFTP, providing multi-stream transfers and exploiting some additional features of WebDAV to enable third party copies - essential for managing data movements between storage systems - with equivalent performance.

  8. Enabling a Scientific Cloud Marketplace: VGL (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, R.; Woodcock, R.; Wyborn, L. A.; Vote, J.; Rankine, T.; Cox, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Virtual Geophysics Laboratory (VGL) provides a flexible, web based environment where researchers can browse data and use a variety of scientific software packaged into tool kits that run in the Cloud. Both data and tool kits are published by multiple researchers and registered with the VGL infrastructure forming a data and application marketplace. The VGL provides the basic work flow of Discovery and Access to the disparate data sources and a Library for tool kits and scripting to drive the scientific codes. Computation is then performed on the Research or Commercial Clouds. Provenance information is collected throughout the work flow and can be published alongside the results allowing for experiment comparison and sharing with other researchers. VGL's "mix and match" approach to data, computational resources and scientific codes, enables a dynamic approach to scientific collaboration. VGL allows scientists to publish their specific contribution, be it data, code, compute or work flow, knowing the VGL framework will provide other components needed for a complete application. Other scientists can choose the pieces that suit them best to assemble an experiment. The coarse grain workflow of the VGL framework combined with the flexibility of the scripting library and computational toolkits allows for significant customisation and sharing amongst the community. The VGL utilises the cloud computational and storage resources from the Australian academic research cloud provided by the NeCTAR initiative and a large variety of data accessible from national and state agencies via the Spatial Information Services Stack (SISS - http://siss.auscope.org). VGL v1.2 screenshot - http://vgl.auscope.org

  9. New Catalog of Resources Enables Paleogeosciences Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingo, R. C.; Horlick, K. A.; Anderson, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The 21st century promises a new era for scientists of all disciplines, the age where cyber infrastructure enables research and education and fuels discovery. EarthCube is a working community of over 2,500 scientists and students of many Earth Science disciplines who are looking to build bridges between disciplines. The EarthCube initiative will create a digital infrastructure that connects databases, software, and repositories. A catalog of resources (databases, software, repositories) has been produced by the Research Coordination Network for Paleogeosciences to improve the discoverability of resources. The Catalog is currently made available within the larger-scope CINERGI geosciences portal (http://hydro10.sdsc.edu/geoportal/catalog/main/home.page). Other distribution points and web services are planned, using linked data, content services for the web, and XML descriptions that can be harvested using metadata protocols. The databases provide searchable interfaces to find data sets that would otherwise remain dark data, hidden in drawers and on personal computers. The software will be described in catalog entries so just one click will lead users to methods and analytical tools that many geoscientists were unaware of. The repositories listed in the Paleogeosciences Catalog contain physical samples found all across the globe, from natural history museums to the basements of university buildings. EarthCube has over 250 databases, 300 software systems, and 200 repositories which will grow in the coming year. When completed, geoscientists across the world will be connected into a productive workflow for managing, sharing, and exploring geoscience data and information that expedites collaboration and innovation within the paleogeosciences, potentially bringing about new interdisciplinary discoveries.

  10. "Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced Industrial Heat Transfer Fluids"

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Ganesh Skandan; Dr. Amit Singhal; Mr. Kenneth Eberts; Mr. Damian Sobrevilla; Prof. Jerry Shan; Stephen Tse; Toby Rossmann

    2008-06-12

    ABSTRACT Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced industrial Heat Transfer Fluids” Improving the efficiency of Industrial Heat Exchangers offers a great opportunity to improve overall process efficiencies in diverse industries such as pharmaceutical, materials manufacturing and food processing. The higher efficiencies can come in part from improved heat transfer during both cooling and heating of the material being processed. Additionally, there is great interest in enhancing the performance and reducing the weight of heat exchangers used in automotives in order to increase fuel efficiency. The goal of the Phase I program was to develop nanoparticle containing heat transfer fluids (e.g., antifreeze, water, silicone and hydrocarbon-based oils) that are used in transportation and in the chemical industry for heating, cooling and recovering waste heat. Much work has been done to date at investigating the potential use of nanoparticle-enhanced thermal fluids to improve heat transfer in heat exchangers. In most cases the effect in a commercial heat transfer fluid has been marginal at best. In the Phase I work, we demonstrated that the thermal conductivity, and hence heat transfer, of a fluid containing nanoparticles can be dramatically increased when subjected to an external influence. The increase in thermal conductivity was significantly larger than what is predicted by commonly used thermal models for two-phase materials. Additionally, the surface of the nanoparticles was engineered so as to have a minimal influence on the viscosity of the fluid. As a result, a nanoparticle-laden fluid was successfully developed that can lead to enhanced heat transfer in both industrial and automotive heat exchangers

  11. Enabling the Full Participation of University Students with Disabilities: Seeking Best Practices for a Barrier-Free Language Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuomi, Margaret Trotta; Jauhojärvi-Koskelo, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that 3.4% of university students in Finland have a diagnosed or observed illness or disability that affects their learning at the university level. The University of Jyväskylä Language Centre embarked on an organised, ongoing research and intervention project to enable appropriate teaching practices to suit the needs of…

  12. A Computer-Aided Telephone System to Enable Five Persons with Alzheimer's Disease to Make Phone Calls Independently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perilli, Viviana; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Laporta, Dominga; Paparella, Adele; Caffo, Alessandro O.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta

    2013-01-01

    This study extended the assessment of a computer-aided telephone system to enable five patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease to make phone calls independently. The patients were divided into two groups and exposed to intervention according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across groups. All patients started with baseline in…

  13. A Computer-Aided Telephone System to Enable Five Persons with Alzheimer's Disease to Make Phone Calls Independently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perilli, Viviana; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Laporta, Dominga; Paparella, Adele; Caffo, Alessandro O.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta

    2013-01-01

    This study extended the assessment of a computer-aided telephone system to enable five patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease to make phone calls independently. The patients were divided into two groups and exposed to intervention according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across groups. All patients started with baseline in…

  14. Paediatric Interventional Uroradiology

    SciTech Connect

    Barnacle, Alex M.; Wilkinson, A. Graham; Roebuck, Derek J.

    2011-04-15

    Paediatric interventional uroradiology lies at the intersection of the disciplines of paediatric interventional radiology and paediatric endourology. Interdisciplinary collaboration has led to the development of new techniques and refinement of procedures adopted from adult practice. This article reviews the major procedures used in paediatric interventional uroradiology, with emphasis on nephrostomy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, balloon-burst pyeloplasty, and antegrade ureteric stenting.

  15. Intensive Intervention in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sarah R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2015-01-01

    Students who demonstrate persistent mathematics difficulties and whose performance is severely below grade level require "intensive intervention". Intensive intervention is an individualized approach to instruction that is more demanding and concentrated than Tier 2 intervention efforts. We present the elements of intensive intervention…

  16. The Gang Intervention Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Arnold P., Ed.; Huff, C. Ronald, Ed.

    This book provides overviews and evaluations of current juvenile-gang-intervention programs and recommends approaches that have been effective in both prevention and rehabilitation. Its three parts, composed of individual essays, examine patterns of ganging and gang intervention, explore the value of psychology-based interventions, and discuss the…

  17. The Gang Intervention Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Arnold P., Ed.; Huff, C. Ronald, Ed.

    This book provides overviews and evaluations of current juvenile-gang-intervention programs and recommends approaches that have been effective in both prevention and rehabilitation. Its three parts, composed of individual essays, examine patterns of ganging and gang intervention, explore the value of psychology-based interventions, and discuss the…

  18. Brief Interventions for Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Ken C

    2016-01-01

    Public health concerns regarding adolescent alcohol and other drug involvement emphasize the need for continuing research to develop and evaluate preventive interventions for use in a variety of settings. This focus includes research on brief interventions. This short commentary piece provides an overview of the brief intervention literature and highlights future directions PMID:27182561

  19. Enabling healthy living: Experiences of people with severe mental illness in psychiatric outpatient services.

    PubMed

    Blomqvist, Marjut; Sandgren, Anna; Carlsson, Ing-Marie; Jormfeldt, Henrika

    2017-02-03

    It is well known that people with severe mental illness have a reduced life expectancy and a greater risk of being affected by preventable physical illnesses such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. There are still, however, only a few published studies focusing on what enables healthy living for this group. This study thus aimed to describe what enables healthy living among people with severe mental illness in psychiatric outpatient services. The data were collected in qualitative interviews (n = 16) and content analysis was used to analyze the data. The interviews resulted in an overall theme "Being regarded as a whole human being by self and others", which showed the multidimensional nature of health and the issues that enable healthy living among people with severe mental illness. Three categories emerged: (i) everyday structure (ii), motivating life events and (iii) support from significant others. The results indicate that a person with severe mental illness needs to be encountered as a whole person if healthy living is to be enabled. Attaining healthy living requires collaboration between the providers of care, help and support. Health care organizations need to work together to develop and provide interventions to enable healthy living and to reduce poor physical health among people with severe mental illness. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  20. Incentives and enablers to improve adherence in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Lutge, Elizabeth E; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Knight, Stephen E; Sinclair, David; Volmink, Jimmy

    2015-09-03

    Patient adherence to medications, particularly for conditions requiring prolonged treatment such as tuberculosis (TB), is frequently less than ideal and can result in poor treatment outcomes. Material incentives to reward good behaviour and enablers to remove economic barriers to accessing care are sometimes given in the form of cash, vouchers, or food to improve adherence. To evaluate the effects of material incentives and enablers in patients undergoing diagnostic testing, or receiving prophylactic or curative therapy, for TB. We undertook a comprehensive search of the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; Science Citation Index; and reference lists of relevant publications up to 5 June 2015. Randomized controlled trials of material incentives in patients being investigated for TB, or on treatment for latent or active TB. At least two review authors independently screened and selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. We compared the effects of interventions using risk ratios (RR), and presented RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. We identified 12 eligible trials. Ten were conducted in the USA: in adolescents (one trial), in injection drug or cocaine users (four trials), in homeless adults (three trials), and in prisoners (two trials). The remaining two trials, in general adult populations, were conducted in Timor-Leste and South Africa. Sustained incentive programmesOnly two trials have assessed whether material incentives and enablers can improve long-term adherence and completion of treatment for active TB, and neither demonstrated a clear benefit (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.14; two trials, 4356 participants; low quality evidence). In one trial, the incentive, given as a daily hot meal, was not well received by the population due to the inconvenience of

  1. Enabling patient-centered care through health information technology.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Joseph; Knight, Amy; Marinopoulos, Spyridon; Gibbons, M Christopher; Berger, Zackary; Aboumatar, Hanan; Wilson, Renee F; Lau, Brandyn D; Sharma, Ritu; Bass, Eric B

    2012-06-01

    The main objective of the report is to review the evidence on the impact of health information technology (IT) that supports patient-centered care (PCC) on: health care processes; clinical outcomes; intermediate outcomes (patient or provider satisfaction, health knowledge and behavior, and cost); responsiveness to needs and preferences of patients; shared decisionmaking and patient-clinician communication; and access to information. Additional objectives were to identify barriers and facilitators for using health IT to deliver PCC, and to identify gaps in evidence and information needed by patients, providers, payers, and policymakers. MEDLINE®, Embase®, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycINFO, INSPEC, and Compendex databases through July 31, 2010. Paired members of our team reviewed citations to identify randomized controlled trials of PCC-related health IT interventions and studies that addressed barriers and facilitators for health IT for delivery of PCC. Independent assessors rated studies for quality. Paired reviewers abstracted data. The search identified 327 eligible articles, including 184 articles on the impact of health IT applications implemented to support PCC and 206 articles addressing barriers or facilitators for such health IT applications. Sixty-three articles addressed both questions. The study results suggested positive effects of PCC-related health IT interventions on health care process outcomes, disease-specific clinical outcomes (for diabetes mellitus, heart disease, cancer, and other health conditions), intermediate outcomes, responsiveness to the needs and preferences of patients, shared decisionmaking, patient-clinician communication, and access to medical information. Studies reported a number of barriers and facilitators for using health IT applications to enable PCC. Barriers included: lack of usability; problems with access to the health IT application due to older age, low income

  2. Bioblendstocks that Enable High Efficiency Engine Designs

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, Robert L.; Fioroni, Gina M.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Zigler, Bradley T.; Farrell, John

    2016-11-03

    The past decade has seen a high level of innovation in production of biofuels from sugar, lipid, and lignocellulose feedstocks. As discussed in several talks at this workshop, ethanol blends in the E25 to E50 range could enable more highly efficient spark-ignited (SI) engines. This is because of their knock resistance properties that include not only high research octane number (RON), but also charge cooling from high heat of vaporization, and high flame speed. Emerging alcohol fuels such as isobutanol or mixed alcohols have desirable properties such as reduced gasoline blend vapor pressure, but also have lower RON than ethanol. These fuels may be able to achieve the same knock resistance benefits, but likely will require higher blend levels or higher RON hydrocarbon blendstocks. A group of very high RON (>150) oxygenates such as dimethyl furan, methyl anisole, and related compounds are also produced from biomass. While providing no increase in charge cooling, their very high octane numbers may provide adequate knock resistance for future highly efficient SI engines. Given this range of options for highly knock resistant fuels there appears to be a critical need for a fuel knock resistance metric that includes effects of octane number, heat of vaporization, and potentially flame speed. Emerging diesel fuels include highly branched long-chain alkanes from hydroprocessing of fats and oils, as well as sugar-derived terpenoids. These have relatively high cetane number (CN), which may have some benefits in designing more efficient CI engines. Fast pyrolysis of biomass can produce diesel boiling range streams that are high in aromatic, oxygen and acid contents. Hydroprocessing can be applied to remove oxygen and consequently reduce acidity, however there are strong economic incentives to leave up to 2 wt% oxygen in the product. This oxygen will primarily be present as low CN alkyl phenols and aryl ethers. While these have high heating value, their presence in diesel fuel

  3. The OGC Sensor Web Enablement framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. J.; Botts, M.

    2006-12-01

    Sensor observations are at the core of natural sciences. Improvements in data-sharing technologies offer the promise of much greater utilisation of observational data. A key to this is interoperable data standards. The Open Geospatial Consortium's (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement initiative (SWE) is developing open standards for web interfaces for the discovery, exchange and processing of sensor observations, and tasking of sensor systems. The goal is to support the construction of complex sensor applications through real-time composition of service chains from standard components. The framework is based around a suite of standard interfaces, and standard encodings for the message transferred between services. The SWE interfaces include: Sensor Observation Service (SOS)-parameterized observation requests (by observation time, feature of interest, property, sensor); Sensor Planning Service (SPS)-tasking a sensor- system to undertake future observations; Sensor Alert Service (SAS)-subscription to an alert, usually triggered by a sensor result exceeding some value. The interface design generally follows the pattern established in the OGC Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Feature Service (WFS) interfaces, where the interaction between a client and service follows a standard sequence of requests and responses. The first obtains a general description of the service capabilities, followed by obtaining detail required to formulate a data request, and finally a request for a data instance or stream. These may be implemented in a stateless "REST" idiom, or using conventional "web-services" (SOAP) messaging. In a deployed system, the SWE interfaces are supplemented by Catalogue, data (WFS) and portrayal (WMS) services, as well as authentication and rights management. The standard SWE data formats are Observations and Measurements (O&M) which encodes observation metadata and results, Sensor Model Language (SensorML) which describes sensor-systems, Transducer Model Language (TML) which

  4. Hydrologic Prediction Through Earthcube Enabled Hydrogeophysical Cyberinfrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteeg, R. J.; Johnson, D.

    2012-12-01

    to "develop a framework to understand and predict responses of the Earth as a system— from the space-atmosphere boundary to the core, including the influences of humans and ecosystems." Effective development of hydrologic prediction tools will require the hydrogeophysical community to engage in and become conversant with the cyberinfrastructure community. In my presentation I will provide several examples of how such tools could look like, and what some of the opportunities are for getting this engagement going and develop cyberinfrastructure enabled hydrologic prediction tools.

  5. Enablers towards establishing and growing South Africa's waste to electricity industry.

    PubMed

    Amsterdam, Heinrich; Thopil, George Alex

    2017-10-01

    In South Africa the electricity generation mix is relatively un-diverse whereas globally the transformation of the sector is advancing rapidly. Coal remains the predominant fuel source and limited success has to date been achieved in the renewable energy sector. The electricity generation sector is therefore hindered from moving towards an electricity generation landscape where alternative fuel sources is utilised. This research is aimed at gaining insight into the enablers that led towards an increasing trend (observed globally) in exploiting waste as a fuel for electricity generation, and to outline the presence of obstacles that hinder separation of waste for electricity use in the South African context. Furthermore it is an attempt at informing what appropriate interventions (operational and policy) may be considered suitable for South Africa to overcome these barriers in order to enable a sustainable South African waste to electricity (WTE) Industry. Findings show that numerous barriers to a WTE exists in the South African context, however overcoming these barriers is not as simple as adopting the European model with the aim to modify the electricity generation mix and waste management landscape. Selected enablers deemed appropriate in the South African context are adapted from the European model, and are greatly influenced by the prevailing socio-economic status of South Africa. Primary enablers identified were, (i) government support is needed especially in the form of subsidisation for green energy, (ii) increase landfill costs through the implementation of a landfill tax, (iii) streamline the process for Independent Private Power Producers (IPPPs) to connect to the national grid with off-take guaranteed and the inclusion of WTE into an electricity roadmap (effectively government's strategy). The proposed enabling interventions would help in overcoming the barriers for a South African WTE industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Imaging in interventional oncology.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Stephen B; Silverman, Stuart G

    2010-12-01

    Medical imaging in interventional oncology is used differently than in diagnostic radiology and prioritizes different imaging features. Whereas diagnostic imaging prioritizes the highest-quality imaging, interventional imaging prioritizes real-time imaging with lower radiation dose in addition to high-quality imaging. In general, medical imaging plays five key roles in image-guided therapy, and interventional oncology, in particular. These roles are (a) preprocedure planning, (b) intraprocedural targeting, (c) intraprocedural monitoring, (d) intraprocedural control, and (e) postprocedure assessment. Although many of these roles are still relatively basic in interventional oncology, as research and development in medical imaging focuses on interventional needs, it is likely that the role of medical imaging in intervention will become even more integral and more widely applied. In this review, the current status of medical imaging for intervention in oncology will be described and directions for future development will be examined.

  7. 78 FR 76603 - Enable Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Enable Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on November 26, 2013, Enable Gas Transmission, LLC (Enable) 1111 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed... Gas Transmission, LLC, P.O. Box 21734 Shreveport, LA 71151 at (318) 429- 3708. Specifically,...

  8. The Role of Leaders in Enabling Student Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Dana; Serriere, Stephanie; Stoicovy, Donnan

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how leadership can help to enable student voice to occur in schools. We find that the relationship between teachers and the school leader is a critical context for enabling voice. Specifically, we find that the following concepts were important for efforts to enable and foster student voice: (1) clear vision of school that is…

  9. An Investigation of Relations among Academic Enablers and Reading Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Lyndsay N.; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the link between academic enablers and different types of reading achievement measures. Academic enablers are skills and behaviors that support, or enable, students to perform well academically, such as engagement, interpersonal skills, motivation, and study skills. The sample in this study consisted of 61 third-,…

  10. An Investigation of Relations among Academic Enablers and Reading Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Lyndsay N.; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the link between academic enablers and different types of reading achievement measures. Academic enablers are skills and behaviors that support, or enable, students to perform well academically, such as engagement, interpersonal skills, motivation, and study skills. The sample in this study consisted of 61 third-,…

  11. Fusion-Enabled Pluto Orbiter and Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    The Pluto orbiter mission proposed here is credible and exciting. The benefits to this and all outer-planet and interstellar-probe missions are difficult to overstate. The enabling technology, Direct Fusion Drive, is a unique fusion engine concept based on the Princeton Field-Reversed Configuration (PFRC) fusion reactor under development at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The truly game-changing levels of thrust and power in a modestly sized package could integrate with our current launch infrastructure while radically expanding the science capability of these missions. During this Phase I effort, we made great strides in modeling the engine efficiency, thrust, and specific impulse and analyzing feasible trajectories. Based on 2D fluid modeling of the fusion reactors outer stratum, its scrape-off-layer (SOL), we estimate achieving 2.5 to 5 N of thrust for each megawatt of fusion power, reaching a specific impulse, Isp, of about 10,000 s. Supporting this model are particle-in-cell calculations of energy transfer from the fusion products to the SOL electrons. Subsequently, this energy is transferred to the ions as they expand through the magnetic nozzle and beyond. Our point solution for the Pluto mission now delivers 1000 kg of payload to Pluto orbit in 3.75 years using 7.5 N constant thrust. This could potentially be achieved with a single 1 MW engine. The departure spiral from Earth orbit and insertion spiral to Pluto orbit require only a small portion of the total delta-V. Departing from low Earth orbit reduces mission cost while increasing available mission mass. The payload includes a lander, which utilizes a standard green propellant engine for the landing sequence. The lander has about 4 square meters of solar panels mounted on a gimbal that allows it to track the orbiter, which beams 30 to 50 kW of power using a 1080 nm laser. Optical communication provides dramatically high data rates back to Earth. Our mass modeling investigations revealed that if

  12. Costing interventions in primary care.

    PubMed

    Kernick, D

    2000-02-01

    Against a background of increasing demands on limited resources, studies that relate benefits of health interventions to the resources they consume will be an important part of any decision-making process in primary care, and an accurate assessment of costs will be an important part of any economic evaluation. Although there is no such thing as a gold standard cost estimate, there are a number of basic costing concepts that underlie any costing study. How costs are derived and combined will depend on the assumptions that have been made in their derivation. It is important to be clear what assumptions have been made and why in order to maintain consistency across comparative studies and prevent inappropriate conclusions being drawn. This paper outlines some costing concepts and principles to enable primary care practitioners and researchers to have a basic understanding of costing exercises and their pitfalls.

  13. Self-Management: Enabling and empowering patients living with cancer as a chronic illness

    PubMed Central

    McCorkle, Ruth; Ercolano, Elizabeth; Lazenby, Mark; Schulman-Green, Dena; Schilling, Lynne S.; Lorig, Kate; Wagner, Edward H.

    2010-01-01

    With recent improvements in early detection, diagnosis and treatment of cancer, people with cancer are living longer, and their cancer may be managed as a chronic illness. Cancer as a chronic illness places new demands on patients and families to manage their own care, and it challenges old paradigms that oncology's work is done after treatment. As a chronic illness, however, cancer care occurs on a continuum that stretches from prevention to the end of life, with early detection, diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship in between. In this paper, we review self-management interventions that enable patients and families to participate in managing their care along this continuum. We review randomized controlled trials of self-management interventions with cancer patients and families in the treatment, survivorship, and end-of-life phases of the cancer-care continuum. We also present the Chronic Care Model as a model of care that oncology practices can use to enable and empower patients and families to engage in self-management. We conclude that, the need for a common language by which to speak about self-management and a common set of self-management actions for cancer care notwithstanding, oncology practices can now build strong relationships with their patients and formulate mutually-agreed upon care plans that enable and empower patients to care for themselves in the way they prefer. PMID:21205833

  14. The feasibility of implementing recovery, psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for psychosis: comparison study.

    PubMed

    van der Krieke, Lian; Bird, Victoria; Leamy, Mary; Bacon, Faye; Dunn, Rebecca; Pesola, Francesca; Janosik, Monika; Le Boutillier, Clair; Williams, Julie; Slade, Mike

    2015-05-23

    Clinical guidelines for the treatment of people experiencing psychosis have existed for over a decade, but implementation of recommended interventions is limited. Identifying influences on implementation may help to reduce this translational gap. The Structured Assessment of Feasibility (SAFE) measure is a standardised assessment of implementation blocks and enablers. The aim of this study was to characterise and compare the implementation blocks and enablers for recommended psychosis interventions. SAFE was used to evaluate and compare three groups of interventions recommended in the 2014 NICE psychosis guideline: pharmacological (43 trials testing 5 interventions), psychosocial (65 trials testing 5 interventions), and recovery (19 trials testing 5 interventions). The 127 trial reports rated with SAFE were supplemented by published intervention manuals, research protocols, trial registrations and design papers. Differences in the number of blocks and enablers across the three interventions were tested statistically, and feasibility profiles were generated. There was no difference between psychosocial and recovery interventions in the number of blocks or enablers to implementation. Pharmacological interventions (a) had fewer blocks than both psychosocial interventions (χ (2)(3) = 133.77, p < 0.001) and recovery interventions (χ (2)(3) = 104.67, p < 0.001) and (b) did not differ in number of enablers from recovery interventions (χ (2)(3) = 0.74, p = 0.863) but had fewer enablers than psychosocial interventions (χ (2)(3) = 28.92, p < 0.001). Potential adverse events associated with the intervention tend to be a block for pharmacological interventions, whereas complexity of the intervention was the most consistent block for recovery and psychosocial interventions. Feasibility profiles show that pharmacological interventions are relatively easy to implement but can sometimes involve risks. Psychosocial and recovery interventions are

  15. Petascale Computing Enabling Technologies Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    de Supinski, B R

    2010-02-14

    The Petascale Computing Enabling Technologies (PCET) project addressed challenges arising from current trends in computer architecture that will lead to large-scale systems with many more nodes, each of which uses multicore chips. These factors will soon lead to systems that have over one million processors. Also, the use of multicore chips will lead to less memory and less memory bandwidth per core. We need fundamentally new algorithmic approaches to cope with these memory constraints and the huge number of processors. Further, correct, efficient code development is difficult even with the number of processors in current systems; more processors will only make it harder. The goal of PCET was to overcome these challenges by developing the computer science and mathematical underpinnings needed to realize the full potential of our future large-scale systems. Our research results will significantly increase the scientific output obtained from LLNL large-scale computing resources by improving application scientist productivity and system utilization. Our successes include scalable mathematical algorithms that adapt to these emerging architecture trends and through code correctness and performance methodologies that automate critical aspects of application development as well as the foundations for application-level fault tolerance techniques. PCET's scope encompassed several research thrusts in computer science and mathematics: code correctness and performance methodologies, scalable mathematics algorithms appropriate for multicore systems, and application-level fault tolerance techniques. Due to funding limitations, we focused primarily on the first three thrusts although our work also lays the foundation for the needed advances in fault tolerance. In the area of scalable mathematics algorithms, our preliminary work established that OpenMP performance of the AMG linear solver benchmark and important individual kernels on Atlas did not match the predictions of our

  16. Pediatric Interventional Radiology: Non-Vascular Interventions.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Pediatric interventional radiology (PIR), which includes variety of procedures done under image guidance has emerged as an essential adjunct to various surgical and medical conditions, plays a significant role in the delivery of safe and effective care by reducing surgical risks, decreasing the length of hospital stay and reducing costs. The application of interventional techniques in children has been delayed over years as compared to adults due to lack of special hardwares/equipments, lack of adequately trained physicians and also the lack of awareness among the pediatric practitioners. This situation is gradually changing now owing to the advancements in technology. In this review, authors will discuss various non-vascular interventional procedures undertaken in pediatric patients.

  17. Developing a Complex Educational-Behavioural Intervention: The TREAT Intervention for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Clarkesmith, Danielle E; Pattison, Helen M; Borg Xuereb, Christian; Lane, Deirdre A

    2016-01-14

    This article describes the theoretical and pragmatic development of a patient-centred intervention for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Theoretical models (Common Sense Model, Necessity-Concerns Framework), clinical frameworks, and AF patient feedback contributed to the design of a one-off hour-long behaviour-change intervention package. Intervention materials consisted of a DVD, educational booklet, diary and worksheet, which were patient-centred and easy to administer. The intervention was evaluated within a randomised controlled trial. Several "active theoretical ingredients" were identified (for e.g., where patients believed their medication was less harmful they spent more time within the therapeutic range (TTR), with general harm scores predicting TTR at 6 months). Allowing for social comparison and adopting behaviour change techniques enabled accurate patient understanding of their condition and medication. The process of developing the intervention using theory-derived content and evaluation tools allowed a greater understanding of the mechanisms by which this intervention was successful. Alleviating concerns about treatment medication by educating patients can help to improve adherence. This process of intervention development could be adopted for a range of chronic illnesses and treatments. Critical elements should include the use of: (1) clinical guidelines; (2) appropriate theoretical models; (3) patient input; and (4) appropriate evaluation tools.

  18. Developing a Complex Educational–Behavioural Intervention: The TREAT Intervention for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Clarkesmith, Danielle E.; Pattison, Helen M.; Borg Xuereb, Christian; Lane, Deirdre A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the theoretical and pragmatic development of a patient-centred intervention for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Theoretical models (Common Sense Model, Necessity-Concerns Framework), clinical frameworks, and AF patient feedback contributed to the design of a one-off hour-long behaviour-change intervention package. Intervention materials consisted of a DVD, educational booklet, diary and worksheet, which were patient-centred and easy to administer. The intervention was evaluated within a randomised controlled trial. Several “active theoretical ingredients” were identified (for e.g., where patients believed their medication was less harmful they spent more time within the therapeutic range (TTR), with general harm scores predicting TTR at 6 months). Allowing for social comparison and adopting behaviour change techniques enabled accurate patient understanding of their condition and medication. The process of developing the intervention using theory-derived content and evaluation tools allowed a greater understanding of the mechanisms by which this intervention was successful. Alleviating concerns about treatment medication by educating patients can help to improve adherence. This process of intervention development could be adopted for a range of chronic illnesses and treatments. Critical elements should include the use of: (1) clinical guidelines; (2) appropriate theoretical models; (3) patient input; and (4) appropriate evaluation tools. PMID:27417598

  19. Interventional Radiology in China

    SciTech Connect

    Teng Gaojun Xu Ke; Ni Caifang; Li Linsun

    2008-03-15

    With more than 3000 members, the Chinese Society of Interventional Radiology (CSIR) is one of the world's largest societies for interventional radiology (IR). Nevertheless, compared to other societies such as CIRSE and SIR, the CSIR is a relatively young society. In this article, the status of IR in China is described, which includes IR history, structure and patient management, personnel, fellowship, training, modalities, procedures, research, turf battle, and insightful visions for IR from Chinese interventional radiologists.

  20. MR sequences and rapid acquisition for MR guided interventions

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Washburn, Adrienne E; Faranesh, Anthony Z; Lederman, Robert J; Hansen, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Interventional MR uses rapid imaging to guide diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. One of the attractions of MR-guidance is the abundance of inherent contrast mechanisms available. Dynamic procedural guidance with real-time imaging has pushed the limits of MR technology, demanding rapid acquisition and reconstruction paired with interactive control and device visualization. This article reviews the technical aspects of real-time MR sequences that enable MR-guided interventions. PMID:26499283

  1. Interventional Radiology in Paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Chippington, Samantha J; Goodwin, Susie J

    2015-01-01

    As in adult practice, there is a growing role for paediatric interventional radiology expertise in the management of paediatric pathologies. This review is targeted for clinicians who may refer their patients to paediatric interventional radiology services, or who are responsible for patients who are undergoing paediatric interventional radiology procedures. The article includes a brief overview of the indications for intervention, techniques involved and the commonest complications. Although some of the procedures described are most commonly performed in a tertiary paediatric centre, many are performed in most Children's hospitals.

  2. Women's empowerment in Pakistan-definitions and enabling and disenabling factors: a secondary data analysis.

    PubMed

    Bustamante-Gavino, Maria Irma; Rattani, Salma; Khan, Kausar

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore Pakistani women's definition of women's empowerment, including its enabling and disenabling factors. Through understanding empowerment, interventions may be developed for women to be empowered. Transcriptions of 35 interviews from a previous study were reanalyzed through secondary data analysis. The themes of economic stability, social acceptability, educational achievement, and family harmony emerged for the concept of definition of empowerment. Themes for enabling factors were strength of personality and openness of mind. Disenabling factors had sociocultural influences, religious misinterpretations, and dominant ideology as themes. Pakistani women hold on to their customs, traditions, and religion tenaciously. The views of empowerment leading to the themes were expressed as true for their lives.

  3. Nanotechnology to the rescue: using nano-enabled approaches in microbiological food safety and quality.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriadou, Mary; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Demokritou, Philip

    2017-04-01

    Food safety and quality assurance is entering a new era. Interventions along the food supply chain must become more efficient in safeguarding public health and the environment and must address numerous challenges and new consumption trends. Current methods of microbial control to assure the safety of food and minimize microbial spoilage have each shown inefficiencies. Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding area in the agri/feed/food sector. Nano-enabled approaches such as antimicrobial food-contact surfaces/packaging, nano-enabled sensors for rapid pathogen/contaminant detection and nano-delivered biocidal methods, currently on the market or at a developmental stage, show great potential for the food industry. Concerns on potential risks to human health and the environment posed by use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in food applications must, however, be adequately evaluated at the developmental stage to ensure consumer's acceptance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhancing participation for children with disabilities: application of the ICF enablement framework to pediatric physical therapist practice.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Diana Nathan; Cohn, Ellen; Coster, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes how pediatric physical therapists can utilize the enablement framework, embraced by the World Health Organization in the current International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). The ICF can guide clinical reasoning related to enhancing participation in desired activities for children with disabilities. In the ICF framework, participation reflects the person's engagement in important life situations. By emphasizing what the person can do in valued contexts, the enablement framework is a positive complement to a focus on functional limitations and disability of the disablement model. Current conceptual frameworks and policies advocate attention to children's participation. Legislation (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Amendments of 1991 and 1997 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990), the Guide to Physical Therapist Practice, and motor control and action perspectives all support the inclusion of children with disabilities in natural environments. These frameworks and laws can guide therapists' clinical reasoning to focus on children's participation in desired activities during the evaluation, goal-setting, and intervention process. A case study of a child with spastic diplegia illustrates how pediatric physical therapists can apply the enablement framework to develop meaningful goals and interventions focused on enhancing the child's participation in desired activities. Adoption of an enablement perspective may help pediatric physical therapists to focus their evaluations and interventions on promoting children's participation as well as the specific functional activities that enhance participation.

  5. Towards personalized interventional SPECT-CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Gardiazabal, José; Esposito, Marco; Matthies, Philipp; Okur, Asli; Vogel, Jakob; Kraft, Silvan; Frisch, Benjamin; Lasser, Tobias; Navab, Nassir

    2014-01-01

    The development of modern robotics and compact imaging detectors allows the transfer of diagnostic imaging modalities to the operating room, supporting surgeons to perform faster and safer procedures. An intervention that currently suffers from a lack of interventional imaging is radioembolization, a treatment for hepatic carcinoma. Currently, this procedure requires moving the patient from an angiography suite for preliminary catheterization and injection to a whole-body SPECT/CT for leakage detection, necessitating a second catheterization back in the angiography suite for the actual radioembolization. We propose an imaging setup that simplifies this procedure using a robotic approach to directly acquire an interventional SPECT/CT in the angiography suite. Using C-arm CT and a co-calibrated gamma camera mounted on a robotic arm, a personalized trajectory of the gamma camera is generated from the C-arm CT, enabling an interventional SPECT reconstruction that is inherently co-registered to the C-arm CT. In this work we demonstrate the feasibility of this personalized interventional SPECT/CT imaging approach in a liver phantom study.

  6. Juvenile Delinquency Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsey, Mark W.

    1988-01-01

    Three meta-analyses by C. J. Garrett (1984, 1985), P. Kaufman (1985), and W. S. Davidson and others (1984) of juvenile delinquency interventions are summarized. This systematic literature review indicates that interventions to reduce juvenile delinquency may have small, but meaningful, impacts. Promising avenues for future research are suggested.…

  7. Practical interventional radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Von Sonnenberg, E.; Mueller, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    This book describes techniques employed in interventional radiology with emphasis on imaging leading to intervention. Includes the entire array of procedures available to the radiologist, discussing the indications, materials, technique, results, and complications for each. Covers the chest, abdomen, bone, pediatric considerations, and nursing care.

  8. Academic Interventions Bank Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Tom; Torrens, Meg

    This paper describes development of a bank of interventions in response to individual student needs identified by Student Study Teams (SSTs) in the Horry County (South Carolina) school district. It also describes the training of SST members in the selection, application, and monitoring of each intervention. Following a survey that identified basic…

  9. Worksite Stress Management Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivancevich, John M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents a framework used for viewing stress and organizational stress interventions. Reviews the stress management intervention literature in the context of this framework. Provides examples of corporations committed to stress management programs. Identifies future needs appropriate for organizational psychologists to address. (Author/JS)

  10. Early intervention in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kulhara, Parmanand; Banerjee, Anindya; Dutt, Alakananda

    2008-04-01

    Early intervention (EI) programs in schizophrenia and other psychoses are aimed at early detection (ED) of the disease; prevent conversion to manifested psychosis and phase-specific treatment to reduce development of chronic disabilities. EI strategies include targeting people at "high risk" for developing schizophrenia, intervening in prodromal phase of schizophrenia, and reducing the "duration of untreated psychosis" (DUP). Services are delivered by a specialized team and are usually resource intensive. Several strategies like treatment with antipsychotics, family interventions, and cognitive behavior therapy have been tried with modest success in prodromal patients. Significant ethical reservations exist regarding exposing prodromal patients to the stigma of labeling as "high risk for schizophrenia" and side effects of psychotropics in the absence of clear evidence of efficacy in favor of ED, intervention by specialist teams, and phase-specific interventions in prodrome of psychosis. More research is warranted to demonstrate the risk-benefit and cost-benefit of such interventions before these can be routinely recommended.

  11. Enabling autonomous control for space reactor power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R. T.

    2006-07-01

    The application of nuclear reactors for space power and/or propulsion presents some unique challenges regarding the operations and control of the power system. Terrestrial nuclear reactors employ varying degrees of human control and decision-making for operations and benefit from periodic human interaction for maintenance. In contrast, the control system of a space reactor power system (SRPS) employed for deep space missions must be able to accommodate unattended operations due to communications delays and periods of planetary occlusion while adapting to evolving or degraded conditions with no opportunity for repair or refurbishment. Thus, a SRPS control system must provide for operational autonomy. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted an investigation of the state of the technology for autonomous control to determine the experience base in the nuclear power application domain, both for space and terrestrial use. It was found that control systems with varying levels of autonomy have been employed in robotic, transportation, spacecraft, and manufacturing applications. However, autonomous control has not been implemented for an operating terrestrial nuclear power plant nor has there been any experience beyond automating simple control loops for space reactors. Current automated control technologies for nuclear power plants are reasonably mature, and basic control for a SRPS is clearly feasible under optimum circumstances. However, autonomous control is primarily intended to account for the non optimum circumstances when degradation, failure, and other off-normal events challenge the performance of the reactor and near-term human intervention is not possible. Thus, the development and demonstration of autonomous control capabilities for the specific domain of space nuclear power operations is needed. This paper will discuss the findings of the ORNL study and provide a description of the concept of autonomy, its key characteristics, and a prospective

  12. Genetics and Intervention Research

    PubMed Central

    Plomin, Robert; Haworth, Claire M.A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of this special section on genetics and behavioral intervention, we discuss the papers by McGue et al. and by Davey Smith. In the second half of our paper, we consider the integration of genetics and intervention research more broadly. The two papers describe ways to use genetic controls to infer causation from correlational (‘observational’) data without intervention. McGue et al. discuss the use of twins discordant for exposure, which is a variant of the co-twin control method. This method can show that the link between an exposure and outcome is not entirely mediated genetically. Davey Smith discusses a method called Mendelian randomization that uses DNA to draw causal inferences without the need for experimental intervention. Despite the possibilities for using genetic controls to infer causation from correlational data in order to attenuate the need for intervention studies, we are most excited about the opportunities for integrating genetics and intervention research, especially as new DNA technologies make it possible to incorporate genetics in any intervention research. PMID:25419226

  13. Speed and Agility: How Defense Acquisition Can Enable Innovation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    feedback  Small, frequent releases  Review working software  Responsive to changes  Active user involvement Portfolio  Budget...enable top talent to prosper. The DoD should restructure programs and portfolios to enable agile and iterative developments, continue partnerships...provides rapid, decentralized decision-making. To balance these delegated authorities, portfolio reviews give executives and stakeholders transparency

  14. Identification, Characterization, and Evaluation Criteria for Systems Engineering Agile Enablers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-16

    Identification, Characterization, and Evaluation Criteria for Systems Engineering Agile Enablers Technical Report SERC-2015-TR-049-1...Characterization, and Evaluation Criteria for Systems Engineering Agile Enablers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER HQ0034-13-D-0004 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release, distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Agile SE, SE Transformation, SE MPT, The

  15. AFC-Enabled Vertical Tail System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, Helen P.; Brandt, John B.; Lacy, Douglas S.; Whalen, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    This document serves as the final report for the SMAAART AFC-Enabled Vertical Tail System Integration Study. Included are the ground rule assumptions which have gone into the study, layouts of the baseline and AFC-enabled configurations, critical sizing information, system requirements and architectures, and assumed system properties that result in an NPV assessment of the two candidate AFC technologies.

  16. Using Computational Toxicology to Enable Risk-Based ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    presentation at Drug Safety Gordon Research Conference 2016 on research efforts in NCCT to enable Computational Toxicology to support risk assessment. Slide presentation at Drug Safety Gordon Research Conference 2016 on research efforts in NCCT to enable Computational Toxicology to support risk assessment.

  17. Battlefield Renewable Energy: A Key Joint Force Enabler

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Environment, Energy Security & Sustainability Symposium Jun 2010 Battlefield Renewable Energy A Key Joint Force Enabler Roy H. Adams III, LTC, USA...COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Battlefield Renewable Energy : A Key Joint Force Enabler 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  18. Barriers and enablers of kangaroo mother care practice: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Gabriel; Unnikrishnan, Shalini; Kenny, Emma; Myslinski, Scott; Cairns-Smith, Sarah; Mulligan, Brian; Engmann, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is an evidence-based approach to reducing mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Although KMC is a key intervention package in newborn health initiatives, there is limited systematic information available on the barriers to KMC practice that mothers and other stakeholders face while practicing KMC. This systematic review sought to identify the most frequently reported barriers to KMC practice for mothers, fathers, and health practitioners, as well as the most frequently reported enablers to practice for mothers. We searched nine electronic databases and relevant reference lists for publications reporting barriers or enablers to KMC practice. We identified 1,264 unique publications, of which 103 were included based on pre-specified criteria. Publications were scanned for all barriers / enablers. Each publication was also categorized based on its approach to identification of barriers / enablers, and more weight was assigned to publications which had systematically sought to understand factors influencing KMC practice. Four of the top five ranked barriers to KMC practice for mothers were resource-related: "Issues with the facility environment / resources," "negative impressions of staff attitudes or interactions with staff," "lack of help with KMC practice or other obligations," and "low awareness of KMC / infant health." Considering only publications from low- and middle-income countries, "pain / fatigue" was ranked higher than when considering all publications. Top enablers to practice were included "mother-infant attachment" and "support from family, friends, and other mentors." Our findings suggest that mother can understand and enjoy KMC, and it has benefits for mothers, infants, and families. However, continuous KMC may be physically and emotionally difficult, and often requires support from family members, health practitioners, or other mothers. These findings can serve as a starting point for researchers and program

  19. Intervention research: GAO experiences.

    PubMed

    Grasso, P G

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes tools of program evaluation that may prove useful in conducting research on occupational health and safety interventions. It presents examples of three studies conducted by the U.S. General Accounting Office that illustrate a variety of techniques for collecting and analyzing data on program interventions, including analysis of extant data, synthesis of results of existing studies, and combining data from administrative files with survey results. At the same time, it stresses the importance and difficulty of constructing an adequate "theory" of how the intervention is expected to affect outcomes, both for guiding data collection and for allowing adequate interpretation of results.

  20. [Psychosocial interventions in dementia].

    PubMed

    Kurz, A

    2013-01-01

    Psychosocial interventions improve cognitive abilities (cognitive stimulation, cognitive training), enhance emotional well-being (activity planning, reminiscence), reduce behavioral symptoms (aromatherapy, music therapy) and promote everyday functioning (occupational therapy). Through these effects they reinforce and augment pharmacological treatments for dementia. In addition, psychosocial interventions complement the treatment of patients by supporting family caregivers (educational groups, support programs). The potential of psychosocial interventions in dementia needs to be explored further in studies using improved methodology to determine effective components, clinical relevance and duration of effects, predictors of individual treatment response and health-economic implications.

  1. Pursuing prosody interventions.

    PubMed

    Hargrove, Patricia M

    2013-08-01

    This paper provides an overview of evidence-based prosodic intervention strategies to facilitate clinicians' inclusion of prosody in their therapeutic planning and to encourage researchers' interest in prosody as an area of specialization. Four current evidence-based prosodic interventions are reviewed and answers to some important clinical questions are proposed. Additionally, the future direction of prosodic intervention research is discussed in recommendations about issues that are of concern to clinicians. The paper ends with a call for participation in an online collaboration at the Clinical Prosody blog at clinicalprosody.wordpress.com.

  2. Why Early Intervention Works

    PubMed Central

    Guralnick, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    A systems perspective is put forward designed to place the many diverse conceptual and practice approaches and accomplishments in the early intervention field within a common framework. Complex reciprocal patterns of influence are described emphasizing risk and protective factors operating at 3 levels: child social and cognitive competence, family patterns of interaction, and family resources. It is argued that this framework can provide an understanding with respect to why early intervention works when it does as well as establish a new assessment and intervention approach firmly grounded in developmental science. PMID:21532932

  3. The Effect of Performance Support and Training as Performance Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Frank; Klein, James D.

    2008-01-01

    For decades, training has been one of the most common interventions used by organizations to improve the performance of their employees and teach them new ideas and skills. But owing to the cost of developing and delivering training, organizations have adopted alternative ways to enable employee performance while reducing the cost and minimizing…

  4. Implementing Response to Intervention in Context. A Center Practice Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Response to intervention is meant to be broad-based and preventative. However, as formulated and practiced the approach often is too limited in how it frames what needs to go on to enable learning, engage students, and keep them engaged. In particular, it pays too little attention to the need to strengthen the classroom and schoolwide context in…

  5. Tackling the urban health divide though enabling intersectoral action on malnutrition in Chile and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Pridmore, Pat; Carr-Hill, Roy; Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, Mary; Lang'o, Daniel; McCowan, Tristan; Charnes, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    As momentum grows for a sustainable urbanisation goal in the post-2015 development agenda, this paper reports on an action research study that sought to tackle the urban health divide by enabling intersectoral action on social determinants at the local level. The study was located in the cities of Mombasa in Kenya and Valparaíso in Chile, and the impact of the intervention on child nutrition was evaluated using a controlled design. The findings showed that an action research process using the social educational process known as PLA could effectively build the capacity of multisectoral teams to take coordinated action which in turn built the capacity of communities to sustain them. The impact on child nutrition was inconclusive and needed to be interpreted within the context of economic collapse in the intervention area. Four factors were found to have been crucial for creating the enabling environment for effective intersectoral action (i) supportive government policy (ii) broad participation and capacity building (iii) involving policy makers as advisors and establishing the credibility of the research and (iii) strengthening community action. If lessons learned from this study can be adapted and applied in other contexts then they could have a significant economic and societal impact on health and nutrition equity in informal urban settlements.

  6. Competition and Sensemaking in Ethical Situations

    PubMed Central

    Caughron, Jay J.; Antes, Alison L.; Stenmark, Cheryl K.; Thiel, Chaise E.; Wang, Xiaoqian; Mumford, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Intra-organizational competition was examined in relation to ethicality. The effect of a competitor being an in-group versus and out-group member, competitor offering uncorroborated or corroborated information, and the impact of the competitor expressing selfish, pro-group, or pro-organizational level goals were examined. Findings suggest that the way competition is presented has an important influence on how well individuals are able to make sense of an ethically ambiguous situation and render an ethical decision. A main effect for information sharing was found, such that when a competitor offers uncorroborated information participants made less ethical decisions and used pro-ethical reasoning strategies less often. An additional main effect was found suggesting that participants made more ethical decisions when working with an in-group competitor rather than an out-group competitor. Complex interactive effects were also found and discussed suggesting that pro-ethical reasoning strategies may be used less often depending on information corroboration, the competitor’s relative group membership status, and the motives expressed by the competitor. PMID:26778850

  7. Knowledge Cartography for Open Sensemaking Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shum, Simon Buckingham; Okada, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge Cartography is the discipline of visually mapping the conceptual structure of ideas, such as the connections between issues, concepts, answers, arguments and evidence. The cognitive process of externalising one's understanding clarifies one's own grasp of the situation, as well as communicating it to others as a network that invites…

  8. Competition and Sensemaking in Ethical Situations.

    PubMed

    Caughron, Jay J; Antes, Alison L; Stenmark, Cheryl K; Thiel, Chaise E; Wang, Xiaoqian; Mumford, Michael D

    2013-07-01

    Intra-organizational competition was examined in relation to ethicality. The effect of a competitor being an in-group versus and out-group member, competitor offering uncorroborated or corroborated information, and the impact of the competitor expressing selfish, pro-group, or pro-organizational level goals were examined. Findings suggest that the way competition is presented has an important influence on how well individuals are able to make sense of an ethically ambiguous situation and render an ethical decision. A main effect for information sharing was found, such that when a competitor offers uncorroborated information participants made less ethical decisions and used pro-ethical reasoning strategies less often. An additional main effect was found suggesting that participants made more ethical decisions when working with an in-group competitor rather than an out-group competitor. Complex interactive effects were also found and discussed suggesting that pro-ethical reasoning strategies may be used less often depending on information corroboration, the competitor's relative group membership status, and the motives expressed by the competitor.

  9. Understanding Together: Sensemaking in Collaborative Information Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Sharoda A.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years researchers have found that people often collaborate during information seeking activities. Collaborative information seeking (CIS) is composed of multiple different activities like seeking, sharing, understanding, and using information together. However, most studies of CIS have focused on how people find and retrieve information…

  10. Sensemaking: A Structure for an Intelligence Revolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    behavior .” Here, people rely on automatic responses as the basis for their behavior , as when one writes “a check in January with the previous year’s...could signifi cantly improve the fate of their undertakings.”18 Th ey characterize these behaviors as fi xation and relaxation. People who fi xate...attention to the entire domain of human behavior because every sphere of human practice and knowledge can be of interest and of use in the process of

  11. Sensemaking Training Requirements for the Adaptive Battlestaff

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    information processing and sense making. Expert Systems with Applications , 20, 7-16. Medby, J.J. and Glenn, R.W. (2002). Street smart: Intelligence preparation...Chestnut, J.A. (1995). An expert system for selecting manauftauring workers for training. Expert Systems with Applications , 9 (3), 309-332. Ntuen

  12. Is Early Intervention Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1974-01-01

    Synthesizes the results of current follow-up studies on the efficacy of preschool programs, and lays down the basis for a major reorientation in the design of intervention programs and in the training of personnel. (CS)

  13. Pseudoquotes in psychoanalytic interventions.

    PubMed

    Moss, D

    1986-01-01

    The syntactical structure of any psychoanalytic intervention is itself overdetermined. As such, when the syntax of an analyst's intervention seems out of the ordinary, it may mark a moment of particular difficulty. One syntactical form used frequently by psychoanalysts is a pseudoquote. In this form, the analyst speaks for the patient, uses the pronoun "I," as though he were, for the moment, the voice of the patient. Three such interventions are presented here from audio-recorded material. The interventions are examined in context, and some probable determinants are sketched. These determinants cluster around wishes and fears associated with "the difficult moment of self-other relatedness." This somewhat empirical portion of the paper is followed by a theoretical discussion in which the development of thought, speech, and the ego are related to the question of whether pseudoquotes actually serve the psychoanalytic process.

  14. Interventions to improve antibiotic prescribing practices for hospital inpatients.

    PubMed

    Davey, Peter; Marwick, Charis A; Scott, Claire L; Charani, Esmita; McNeil, Kirsty; Brown, Erwin; Gould, Ian M; Ramsay, Craig R; Michie, Susan

    2017-02-09

    Antibiotic resistance is a major public health problem. Infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria are associated with prolonged hospital stay and death compared with infections caused by susceptible bacteria. Appropriate antibiotic use in hospitals should ensure effective treatment of patients with infection and reduce unnecessary prescriptions. We updated this systematic review to evaluate the impact of interventions to improve antibiotic prescribing to hospital inpatients. To estimate the effectiveness and safety of interventions to improve antibiotic prescribing to hospital inpatients and to investigate the effect of two intervention functions: restriction and enablement. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, and Embase. We searched for additional studies using the bibliographies of included articles and personal files. The last search from which records were evaluated and any studies identified incorporated into the review was January 2015. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised studies (NRS). We included three non-randomised study designs to measure behavioural and clinical outcomes and analyse variation in the effects: non- randomised trials (NRT), controlled before-after (CBA) studies and interrupted time series (ITS) studies. For this update we also included three additional NRS designs (case control, cohort, and qualitative studies) to identify unintended consequences. Interventions included any professional or structural interventions as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group. We defined restriction as 'using rules to reduce the opportunity to engage in the target behaviour (or increase the target behaviour by reducing the opportunity to engage in competing behaviours)'. We defined enablement as 'increasing means/reducing barriers to increase capability or opportunity'. The main comparison was between intervention and

  15. Telepresence and Intervention Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-11-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO10628 TITLE: Telepresence and Intervention Robotics DISTRIBUTION...comprise the compilation report: ADPO10609 thru ADP010633 UNCLASSIFIED 20-1 TELEPRESENCE AND INTERVENTION ROBOTICS Nathalie Cislo Laboratoire de...Robotique de Paris 10-12, Avenue de 1’Europe 78140 VWlizy-Villacoublay, FRANCE cislo@robot.uvsq.fr ABSTRACT In the field of Mobile Robotics applications

  16. Implementing spiritual care interventions.

    PubMed

    Ílvia Caldeira, S; Timmins, Fiona

    2017-04-19

    This article, the third and final in a series of three, discusses the implementation of spiritual care interventions by nurses. It describes how nurses can use clinical reasoning and the nursing process to implement appropriate spiritual care for patients, and outlines the competencies necessary to identify spiritual distress and meet the spiritual needs of patients. Spiritual care interventions are discussed as part of a multidisciplinary team approach to the provision of holistic care.

  17. Paediatric musculoskeletal interventional radiology

    PubMed Central

    Paolantonio, Guglielmo; Fruhwirth, Rodolfo; Alvaro, Giuseppe; Parapatt, George K; Toma', Paolo; Rollo, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Interventional radiology technique is now well established and widely used in the adult population. Through minimally invasive procedures, it increasingly replaces surgical interventions that involve higher percentages of invasiveness and, consequently, of morbidity and mortality. For these advantageous reasons, interventional radiology in recent years has spread to the paediatric age as well. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the development, use and perspectives of these procedures in the paediatric musculoskeletal field. Several topics are covered: osteomuscle neoplastic malignant and benign pathologies treated with invasive diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedures such as radiofrequency ablation in the osteoid osteoma; invasive and non-invasive procedures in vascular malformations; treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts; and role of interventional radiology in paediatric inflammatory and rheumatic inflammations. The positive results that have been generated with interventional radiology procedures in the paediatric field highly encourage both the development of new ad hoc materials, obviously adapted to young patients, as well as the improvement of such techniques, in consideration of the fact that childrens' pathologies do not always correspond to those of adults. In conclusion, as these interventional procedures have proven to be less invasive, with lower morbidity and mortality rates as well, they are becoming a viable and valid alternative to surgery in the paediatric population. PMID:26235144

  18. [Investigation in early intervention].

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, F A

    2002-02-01

    Point out the importance of the research in early intervention (EI), its limitations, and peculiarities. After defender the importance of research in this applied field, its problems in EI are analysed from different perspectives. The idiosyncrasy of the intervention goals perfectly explain the concurrence of ethical and methodological limitations, which affect to the possible research designs. The diversity of possible needs of EI in the children lead to a great variability and heterogeneousity in the attended population and a great dispersion in the research purposes in this field. Centred in the interest by to improve the quality of the offered services, the actual situation of the research on the efficacy of the intervention in EI lead to reclaim insistently the development of multidimensional approaches. Evaluation of the intervention results, for example, must not exclusively centred in child developmental acquisitions, or at least not only in the classic aspects of motor, cognitive, language, etc.; quite the contrary, it must be take into account new areas and competencies, related both to the child and to his/her family. The evaluation of results or goals of the intervention must be only one dimensions more, which must be faced simultaneously to the evaluation of the characteristics of the child and his/her family and the characteristics of the programs itself. The accumulated experience after eight years of service of a Research Department in a Childhood Developmental and Early Intervention Centre permit point out that this type of initiatives are valid to promote the research in the EI field.

  19. A Systematic Review of Reviews Evaluating Technology-Enabled Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Deborah A; Gee, Perry M; Fatkin, Kathy J; Peeples, Malinda

    2017-09-01

    Since the introduction of mobile phones, technology has been increasingly used to enable diabetes self-management education and support. This timely systematic review summarizes how currently available technology impacts outcomes for people living with diabetes. A systematic review of high quality review articles and meta analyses focused on utilizing technology in diabetes self-management education and support services was conducted. Articles were included if published between January 2013 and January 2017. Twenty-five studies were included for analysis. The majority evaluated the use of mobile phones and secure messaging. Most studies described healthy eating, being active and metabolic monitoring as the predominant self-care behaviors evaluated. Eighteen of 25 reviews reported significant reduction in A1c as an outcome measure. Four key elements emerged as essential for improved A1c: (1) communication, (2) patient-generated health data, (3) education, and (4) feedback. Technology-enabled diabetes self-management solutions significantly improve A1c. The most effective interventions incorporated all the components of a technology-enabled self-management feedback loop that connected people with diabetes and their health care team using 2-way communication, analyzed patient-generated health data, tailored education, and individualized feedback. The evidence from this systematic review indicates that organizations, policy makers and payers should consider integrating these solutions in the design of diabetes self-management education and support services for population health and value-based care models. With the widespread adoption of mobile phones, digital health solutions that incorporate evidence-based, behaviorally designed interventions can improve the reach and access to diabetes self-management education and ongoing support.

  20. Review of Randomised Controlled Trials of Internet Interventions for Mental Disorders and Related Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Kathleen M.; Christensen, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Self-help Internet interventions have the potential to enable consumers to play a central role in managing their own health. This paper contains a systematic review of 15 randomised controlled trials of the effectiveness of self-help Internet interventions for mental disorders and related conditions. Conditions addressed by the interventions…

  1. Review of Randomised Controlled Trials of Internet Interventions for Mental Disorders and Related Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Kathleen M.; Christensen, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Self-help Internet interventions have the potential to enable consumers to play a central role in managing their own health. This paper contains a systematic review of 15 randomised controlled trials of the effectiveness of self-help Internet interventions for mental disorders and related conditions. Conditions addressed by the interventions…

  2. Fighting Fires in Early Intervention Supervision: Trading the Axe for Mr. Rogers's Slippers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Laura; Gallen, Robert T.; Salazar, Ruby; Shahmoon-Shanok, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    When Pennsylvania's Early Intervention system implemented an early intervention-reflective supervision project, modest expectations for change were anticipated, given the limited amount of time and funding for the project. In this article, one participant tells the story of her professional development, which enabled her to augment her skills as…

  3. Fighting Fires in Early Intervention Supervision: Trading the Axe for Mr. Rogers's Slippers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Laura; Gallen, Robert T.; Salazar, Ruby; Shahmoon-Shanok, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    When Pennsylvania's Early Intervention system implemented an early intervention-reflective supervision project, modest expectations for change were anticipated, given the limited amount of time and funding for the project. In this article, one participant tells the story of her professional development, which enabled her to augment her skills as…

  4. A qualitative study to understand the barriers and enablers in implementing an enhanced recovery after surgery program.

    PubMed

    Pearsall, Emily A; Meghji, Zahida; Pitzul, Kristen B; Aarts, Mary-Anne; McKenzie, Marg; McLeod, Robin S; Okrainec, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Explore the barriers and enablers to adoption of an Enhanced Recovery after Surgery (ERAS) program by the multidisciplinary perioperative team responsible for the care of elective colorectal surgical patients. ERAS programs include perioperative interventions that when used together have led to decreased length of stay while increasing patient recovery and satisfaction. Despite the known benefits of ERAS programs, uptake remains slow. Semistructured interviews were conducted with general surgeons, anesthesiologists, and ward nurses at 7 University of Toronto-affiliated hospitals to identify potential barriers and enablers to adoption of 18 ERAS interventions. Grounded theory was used to thematically analyze the transcribed interviews. Nineteen general surgeons, 18 anesthesiologists, and 18 nurses participated. The mean time of each interview was 18 minutes. Lack of manpower, poor communication and collaboration, resistance to change, and patient factors were cited by most as barriers. Discipline-specific issues were identified although most related to resistance to change. Overall, interviewees were supportive of implementation of a standardized ERAS program and agreed that a standardized guideline based on best evidence; standardized order sets; and education of the staff, patients, and families are essential. Multidisciplinary perioperative staff supported the implementation of an ERAS program at the University of Toronto-affiliated hospitals. However, major barriers were identified, including the need for patient education, increased communication and collaboration, and better evidence for ERAS interventions. Identifying these barriers and enablers is the first step toward successfully implementing an ERAS program.

  5. Using informatics-enabled quality improvement techniques to meet health record documentation requirements in radiology reports.

    PubMed

    Prevedello, Luciano M; Farkas, Cameron; Dufault, Allen; Damiano, Maria; Doubilet, Peter; Khorasani, Ramin

    2013-08-01

    Medicare requires documented teaching physician involvement (attestation) in trainee-generated radiology reports. Automated attestation statement insertion in reports expedites the process but does not comply with requirements for active attestation. We evaluated an informatics-enabled quality improvement (QI) intervention to improve health record documentation requirements for active attestation. Institutional review board approval was not needed for this QI project performed in a 776-bed tertiary/quaternary teaching hospital. The intervention consisted of (1) policy requiring staff radiologists to actively attest to trainee-generated reports by personally activating a "macro" in the reporting system and (2) a semiautomated process to detect reports missing attestation; radiologists received daily e-mail reminders until the attestation statement was inserted. A random sample of 600 of 123,561 trainee-generated radiology reports created 17 months after the intervention (May 2011) was manually reviewed to determine attestation policy adherence. The number of attestation statements added in response to reminders throughout the entire study period was also evaluated. Trend analysis of the number of report addenda containing solely the attestation statement (proxy for missing initial attestation) was performed. Of 600 reports, 594 (99%) contained the attestation statement. Monthly attestations in response to email notifications decreased from 585 to 227 by the sixth month, a 2.6-fold reduction (P < .01). No significant trend was observed the following year, indicating a sustained effect. Informatics-enabled QI techniques resulted in 99% adherence to our teaching physician attestation policy with sustained results. Similar approaches may help improve adherence to other mandated performance measures in radiology reports. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Contributions of treatment theory and enablement theory to rehabilitation research and practice.

    PubMed

    Whyte, John

    2014-01-01

    Scientific theory is crucial to the advancement of clinical research. The breadth of rehabilitation treatment requires that many different theoretical perspectives be incorporated into the design and testing of treatment interventions. In this article, the 2 broad classes of theory relevant to rehabilitation research and practice are defined, and their distinct but complementary contributions to research and clinical practice are explored. These theory classes are referred to as treatment theories (theories about how to effect change in clinical targets) and enablement theories (theories about how changes in a proximal clinical target will influence distal clinical aims). Treatment theories provide the tools for inducing clinical change but do not specify how far reaching the ultimate impact of the change will be. Enablement theories model the impact of changes on other areas of function but provide no insight as to how treatment can create functional change. Treatment theories are more critical in the early stages of treatment development, whereas enablement theories become increasingly relevant in specifying the clinical significance and practical effectiveness of more mature treatments. Understanding the differences in the questions these theory classes address and how to combine their insights is crucial for effective research development and clinical practice.

  7. Using GPS-enabled cell phones to track the travel patterns of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wiehe, Sarah E; Carroll, Aaron E; Liu, Gilbert C; Haberkorn, Kelly L; Hoch, Shawn C; Wilson, Jeffery S; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Background Few tools exist to directly measure the microsocial and physical environments of adolescents in circumstances where participatory observation is not practical or ethical. Yet measuring these environments is important as they are significantly associated with adolescent health-risk. For example, health-related behaviors such as cigarette smoking often occur in specific places where smoking may be relatively surreptitious. Results We assessed the feasibility of using GPS-enabled cell phones to track adolescent travel patterns and gather daily diary data. We enrolled 15 adolescent women from a clinic-based setting and asked them to carry the phones for 1 week. We found that these phones can accurately and reliably track participant locations, as well as record diary information on adolescent behaviors. Participants had variable paths extending beyond their immediate neighborhoods, and denied that GPS-tracking influenced their activity. Conclusion GPS-enabled cell phones offer a feasible and, in many ways, ideal modality of monitoring the location and travel patterns of adolescents. In addition, cell phones allow space- and time-specific interaction, probing, and intervention which significantly extends both research and health promotion beyond a clinical setting. Future studies can employ GPS-enabled cell phones to better understand adolescent environments, how they are associated with health-risk behaviors, and perhaps intervene to change health behavior. PMID:18495025

  8. Using GPS-enabled cell phones to track the travel patterns of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wiehe, Sarah E; Carroll, Aaron E; Liu, Gilbert C; Haberkorn, Kelly L; Hoch, Shawn C; Wilson, Jeffery S; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2008-05-21

    Few tools exist to directly measure the microsocial and physical environments of adolescents in circumstances where participatory observation is not practical or ethical. Yet measuring these environments is important as they are significantly associated with adolescent health-risk. For example, health-related behaviors such as cigarette smoking often occur in specific places where smoking may be relatively surreptitious. We assessed the feasibility of using GPS-enabled cell phones to track adolescent travel patterns and gather daily diary data. We enrolled 15 adolescent women from a clinic-based setting and asked them to carry the phones for 1 week. We found that these phones can accurately and reliably track participant locations, as well as record diary information on adolescent behaviors. Participants had variable paths extending beyond their immediate neighborhoods, and denied that GPS-tracking influenced their activity. GPS-enabled cell phones offer a feasible and, in many ways, ideal modality of monitoring the location and travel patterns of adolescents. In addition, cell phones allow space- and time-specific interaction, probing, and intervention which significantly extends both research and health promotion beyond a clinical setting. Future studies can employ GPS-enabled cell phones to better understand adolescent environments, how they are associated with health-risk behaviors, and perhaps intervene to change health behavior.

  9. Internet-enabled collaborative agent-based supply chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Weiming; Kremer, Rob; Norrie, Douglas H.

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents some results of our recent research work related to the development of a new Collaborative Agent System Architecture (CASA) and an Infrastructure for Collaborative Agent Systems (ICAS). Initially being proposed as a general architecture for Internet based collaborative agent systems (particularly complex industrial collaborative agent systems), the proposed architecture is very suitable for managing the Internet enabled complex supply chain for a large manufacturing enterprise. The general collaborative agent system architecture with the basic communication and cooperation services, domain independent components, prototypes and mechanisms are described. Benefits of implementing Internet enabled supply chains with the proposed infrastructure are discussed. A case study on Internet enabled supply chain management is presented.

  10. Increasing physical activity through health-enabling technologies: the project "being strong without violence".

    PubMed

    Scharnweber, Corinna; Ludwig, Wolfram; Marschollek, Michael; Pein, Wolfgang; Schack, Peter; Schubert, Reiner; Haux, Reinhold

    2011-01-01

    Due to the increasing prevalence of adiposity in children numerous schools are introducing prevention programmes. Among these is "Gewaltlos Starksein" ("Being strong without violence"), a project of Hauptschule Sophienstraße Braunschweig, Germany (a general education secondary school for grades 5-10). This study aims to discover possible increases in activity through "Gewaltlos Starksein" where health-enabling technologies play a major role. A prospective intervention study with a span of 1.5 years was designed to measure this increase in activity. Partners in this study were Hauptschule Sophienstraße as the intervention group and Grund- und Hauptschule Pestalozzistraße as control group. Data collection was performed using a multi-sensor device, and questionnaires. Confirmatory data analysis of average metabolic equivalent (METs) yielded no significant results. Exploratory analysis showed interesting results, especially concerning the number of steps during leisure time. Descriptive analysis of questionnaires showed that all children enjoy physical activity. There were differences in sports team participation, open-air games and club affiliation. The study could not prove that the intervention "Gewaltlos Starksein" improves physical activity in children. However, the increased leisure activity step count indicates that "Gewaltlos Starksein" has positive effects on children's behaviour. This should be investigated in a further study in cooperation with psychologists.

  11. RFID-enabled traceability system for consignment and high value products: a case study in the healthcare sector.

    PubMed

    Bendavid, Ygal; Boeck, Harold; Philippe, Richard

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a case study of a hospital operating room that evaluated a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID)-enabled traceability system for the management of consignment and high value products requiring item level traceability. Results indicate that the traceability system in conjunction with the redesign of replenishment processes facilitates item level traceability, improves financial controls and case costing, upgrades service levels and reduces inventory shrinkage. Other benefits include time saved from non-value-added activities that can be transferred to patient care activities. The solution can be considered (i) as an alternative to RFID-enabled cabinets used in the replenishment of consignment and high value supplies in certain operating rooms, cardiac catheterization laboratories and interventional radiology departments, or (ii) as a complementary solution facilitating the tracking of medical devices removed from RFID-enabled cabinets. In short, the end-to-end traceability of medical products in the healthcare supply chain can be significantly enhanced.

  12. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents, May 2009 (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-05-01

    Enabling Documents, delivered by the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to provide materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs).

  13. 78 FR 69405 - Enable Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... to abandon in place the Leedey Purification Facility, also located in the state of Oklahoma, all as... . Specifically, Enable proposes to abandon in place the Leedey Purification Facility and to abandon by sale...

  14. 'Enabling' of male problem drinkers in work groups.

    PubMed

    Roman, P M; Blum, T C; Martin, J K

    1992-02-01

    Theoretical understanding of the effects of groups on the development and the maintenance of adult problem drinking is sparse. Sociological theories predict that adult problem drinkers find support for their behavior among those with similar drinking patterns. By contrast, a widely diffused clinical conceptualization posits that 'significant others' who are not problem drinkers facilitate the maintenance of problem drinking. Several previous lines of research lead to the hypothesis that observed delays in identification and referral of problem drinkers in the workplace may be due to supportive relationships between problem drinkers and their coworkers and supervisors. Data from the 1973-77 Quality of Employment Panel Survey are utilized to provide a longitudinal test of this hypothesis among employed men. Results support the existence of enabling in the workplace. Data comparing 'enabled' and 'non-enabled' problem drinking workers fail to support four possible explanations of enabling.

  15. An IT-enabled supply chain model: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannella, Salvatore; Framinan, Jose M.; Barbosa-Póvoa, Ana

    2014-11-01

    During the last decades, supply chain collaboration practices and the underlying enabling technologies have evolved from the classical electronic data interchange (EDI) approach to a web-based and radio frequency identification (RFID)-enabled collaboration. In this field, most of the literature has focused on the study of optimal parameters for reducing the total cost of suppliers, by adopting operational research (OR) techniques. Herein we are interested in showing that the considered information technology (IT)-enabled structure is resilient, that is, it works well across a reasonably broad range of parameter settings. By adopting a methodological approach based on system dynamics, we study a multi-tier collaborative supply chain. Results show that the IT-enabled supply chain improves operational performance and customer service level. Nonetheless, benefits for geographically dispersed networks are of minor entity.

  16. Micro-concentrators for a microsystems-enabled photovoltaic system.

    PubMed

    Jared, Bradley H; Saavedra, Michael P; Anderson, Ben J; Goeke, Ron S; Sweatt, William C; Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Elisberg, Brenton; Snively, Dave; Duncan, John; Gu, Tian; Agrawal, Gautam; Haney, Michael W

    2014-03-10

    A 100X magnification, ± 2.5° field of view micro-concentrating optical system has been developed for a microsystems-enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) prototype module using 250 µm diameter multi-junction "stacked" PV cells.

  17. Realist complex intervention science: Applying realist principles across all phases of the Medical Research Council framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Adam; Jamal, Farah; Moore, Graham; Evans, Rhiannon E.; Murphy, Simon; Bonell, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The integration of realist evaluation principles within randomised controlled trials (‘realist RCTs’) enables evaluations of complex interventions to answer questions about what works, for whom and under what circumstances. This allows evaluators to better develop and refine mid-level programme theories. However, this is only one phase in the process of developing and evaluating complex interventions. We describe and exemplify how social scientists can integrate realist principles across all phases of the Medical Research Council framework. Intervention development, modelling, and feasibility and pilot studies need to theorise the contextual conditions necessary for intervention mechanisms to be activated. Where interventions are scaled up and translated into routine practice, realist principles also have much to offer in facilitating knowledge about longer-term sustainability, benefits and harms. Integrating a realist approach across all phases of complex intervention science is vital for considering the feasibility and likely effects of interventions for different localities and population subgroups. PMID:27478401

  18. Mechanical Engineering Design Project report: Enabler control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullen, Christian; Delvecchio, Dave; Scarborough, Alan; Havics, Andrew A.

    1992-01-01

    The Controls Group was assigned the responsibility for designing the Enabler's control system. The requirement for the design was that the control system must provide a simple user interface to control the boom articulation joints, chassis articulation joints, and the wheel drive. The system required controlling hydraulic motors on the Enabler by implementing 8-bit microprocessor boards. In addition, feedback to evaluate positions and velocities must be interfaced to provide the operator with confirmation as well as control.

  19. Cake: Enabling High-level SLOs on Shared Storage Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-07

    Cake : Enabling High-level SLOs on Shared Storage Systems Andrew Wang Shivaram Venkataraman Sara Alspaugh Randy H. Katz Ion Stoica Electrical...control number. 1. REPORT DATE 07 NOV 2012 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cake : Enabling High...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Cake is a coordinated, multi-resource scheduler for shared distributed storage environments with the goal of

  20. Interventions for couples.

    PubMed

    Christensen, A; Heavey, C L

    1999-01-01

    A substantial body of empirical research has documented both the promise and the shortcomings of psychological interventions for preventing or ameliorating marital distress. Couple therapy reduces relationship distress and may affect individual psychopathology, such as depression. However, some couples are unresponsive and others improve but relapse later. Interventions to prevent marital distress usually produce short-term changes in behavior and relationship satisfaction, but little evidence exists demonstrating a longer-term prevention effect. Furthermore, these interventions have yet to be examined on a diverse population of couples or with a diverse set of outcome criteria (e.g. effects on children). Concern about the negative impact of marital discord and divorce will continue to provide the impetus for research on more effective means of intervening with couples. Future research could benefit from a focus on a more diverse population of couples, treatment in natural settings, the development of more powerful interventions, and the examination of those interventions over longer periods of time and with more comprehensive outcome measures.