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Sample records for interventions enabling sensemaking

  1. The role of conversation in health care interventions: enabling sensemaking and learning

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Michelle E; Lanham, Holly J; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Nutting, Paul A; Miller, William L; Stange, Kurt C; McDaniel, Reuben R

    2009-01-01

    Background Those attempting to implement changes in health care settings often find that intervention efforts do not progress as expected. Unexpected outcomes are often attributed to variation and/or error in implementation processes. We argue that some unanticipated variation in intervention outcomes arises because unexpected conversations emerge during intervention attempts. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of conversation in shaping interventions and to explain why conversation is important in intervention efforts in health care organizations. We draw on literature from sociolinguistics and complex adaptive systems theory to create an interpretive framework and develop our theory. We use insights from a fourteen-year program of research, including both descriptive and intervention studies undertaken to understand and assist primary care practices in making sustainable changes. We enfold these literatures and these insights to articulate a common failure of overlooking the role of conversation in intervention success, and to develop a theoretical argument for the importance of paying attention to the role of conversation in health care interventions. Discussion Conversation between organizational members plays an important role in the success of interventions aimed at improving health care delivery. Conversation can facilitate intervention success because interventions often rely on new sensemaking and learning, and these are accomplished through conversation. Conversely, conversation can block the success of an intervention by inhibiting sensemaking and learning. Furthermore, the existing relationship contexts of an organization can influence these conversational possibilities. We argue that the likelihood of intervention success will increase if the role of conversation is considered in the intervention process. Summary The generation of productive conversation should be considered as one of the foundations of intervention efforts. We suggest

  2. Experimentally Testing a Narrative Sense-Making Metaphor Intervention: Facilitating Communicative Coping about Social Aggression with Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willer, Erin K.

    2009-01-01

    Social aggression, including behaviors such as gossip and friendship manipulation, can be damaging to girls' individual and relational well-being. As a result, the purpose of the present dissertation study was to test a narrative sense-making metaphor intervention with middle schools girls experiencing social aggression in order to facilitate…

  3. Conversational sensemaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Alun; Webberley, Will; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in natural language question-answering systems and context-aware mobile apps create opportunities for improved sensemaking in a tactical setting. Users equipped with mobile devices act as both sensors (able to acquire information) and effectors (able to act in situ), operating alone or in collectives. The currently- dominant technical approaches follow either a pull model (e.g. Apple's Siri or IBM's Watson which respond to users' natural language queries) or a push model (e.g. Google's Now which sends notifications to a user based on their context). There is growing recognition that users need more flexible styles of conversational interaction, where they are able to freely ask or tell, be asked or told, seek explanations and clarifications. Ideally such conversations should involve a mix of human and machine agents, able to collaborate in collective sensemaking activities with as few barriers as possible. Desirable capabilities include adding new knowledge, collaboratively building models, invoking specific services, and drawing inferences. As a step towards this goal, we collect evidence from a number of recent pilot studies including natural experiments (e.g. situation awareness in the context of organised protests) and synthetic experiments (e.g. human and machine agents collaborating in information seeking and spot reporting). We identify some principles and areas of future research for "conversational sensemaking".

  4. Sensemaking Handoffs: Why? How? and When?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    Sensemaking tasks are challenging and typically involve collecting, organizing and understanding information. Sensemaking often involves a handoff where a subsequent recipient picks up work done by a provider. Sensemaking handoffs are very challenging because handoffs introduce discontinuity in sensemaking. This dissertation attempts to explore…

  5. An "Ideology in Pieces" Approach to Studying Change in Teachers' Sensemaking about Race, Racism, and Racial Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    This article makes a unique contribution to the literature on teachers' racialized sensemaking by proposing a framework of "ideology in pieces" that synthesizes Hall's (1982, 1996) theory of ideology and diSessa's (1993) theory of conceptual change. Hall's theory of ideology enables an examination of teachers' sensemaking as situated within a…

  6. Perceived Enablers and Barriers Related to Sustainability of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkelman, Sarah E.; McIntosh, Kent; Rasplica, Caitlin K.; Berg, Tricia; Strickland-Cohen, M. Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the most important perceived enablers and barriers regarding sustainability of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports. School personnel representing 860 schools implementing or preparing to implement school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports completed an open-ended…

  7. Mainstream economics and sense-making.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Sergio; Davanzati, Guglielmo Forges; Potì, Silvia; Ruggieri, Ruggero

    2009-06-01

    This work presents a semiotic approach to the economy, underlining that any economic phenomena is at the same time a communicative act as it is contingent to sense-making. The article discusses this topic by focusing on a specific phenomenon studied by economics: the underground economy. It shows that the conceptualization of the underground economy in terms of sense-making processes offers a thought-provoking perspective for theoretical development. More in general, the discussion proposed makes it clear that in order to deepen our vision of economic phenomena in a more thoughtful and realistic way we need to rethink these phenomena as being reciprocally and circularly embedded in the semiotic flow of life. The economy is within sense-making and it is shaped by it; at the same time sense-making is within the economy, as its semiotic substance.

  8. Supporting Communication and Coordination in Collaborative Sensemaking.

    PubMed

    Mahyar, Narges; Tory, Melanie

    2014-12-01

    When people work together to analyze a data set, they need to organize their findings, hypotheses, and evidence, share that information with their collaborators, and coordinate activities amongst team members. Sharing externalizations (recorded information such as notes) could increase awareness and assist with team communication and coordination. However, we currently know little about how to provide tool support for this sort of sharing. We explore how linked common work (LCW) can be employed within a `collaborative thinking space', to facilitate synchronous collaborative sensemaking activities in Visual Analytics (VA). Collaborative thinking spaces provide an environment for analysts to record, organize, share and connect externalizations. Our tool, CLIP, extends earlier thinking spaces by integrating LCW features that reveal relationships between collaborators' findings. We conducted a user study comparing CLIP to a baseline version without LCW. Results demonstrated that LCW significantly improved analytic outcomes at a collaborative intelligence task. Groups using CLIP were also able to more effectively coordinate their work, and held more discussion of their findings and hypotheses. LCW enabled them to maintain awareness of each other's activities and findings and link those findings to their own work, preventing disruptive oral awareness notifications. PMID:26356877

  9. Supporting Communication and Coordination in Collaborative Sensemaking.

    PubMed

    Mahyar, Narges; Tory, Melanie

    2014-12-01

    When people work together to analyze a data set, they need to organize their findings, hypotheses, and evidence, share that information with their collaborators, and coordinate activities amongst team members. Sharing externalizations (recorded information such as notes) could increase awareness and assist with team communication and coordination. However, we currently know little about how to provide tool support for this sort of sharing. We explore how linked common work (LCW) can be employed within a `collaborative thinking space', to facilitate synchronous collaborative sensemaking activities in Visual Analytics (VA). Collaborative thinking spaces provide an environment for analysts to record, organize, share and connect externalizations. Our tool, CLIP, extends earlier thinking spaces by integrating LCW features that reveal relationships between collaborators' findings. We conducted a user study comparing CLIP to a baseline version without LCW. Results demonstrated that LCW significantly improved analytic outcomes at a collaborative intelligence task. Groups using CLIP were also able to more effectively coordinate their work, and held more discussion of their findings and hypotheses. LCW enabled them to maintain awareness of each other's activities and findings and link those findings to their own work, preventing disruptive oral awareness notifications.

  10. Nurse/physician communication through a sensemaking lens: shifting the paradigm to improve patient safety.

    PubMed

    Manojlovich, Milisa

    2010-11-01

    Physician-nurse communication has been identified as one of the main obstacles to progress in patient safety. Breakdowns in communication between physicians and nurses often result in errors, many of which are preventable. Recent research into nurse/physician communication has borrowed heavily from team literature, tending to study communication as one behavior in a larger cluster of behaviors. The multicluster approach to team research has not provided enough analysis of and attention to communication alone. Research into communication specifically is needed to understand its crucial role in teamwork and safety. A critique of the research literature on nurse/physician communication published since 1992 revealed 3 dominant themes: settings and context, consensus building, and conflict resolution. A fourth implicit theme, the temporal nature of communication, emerged as well. These themes were used to frame a discussion on sensemaking: an iterative process arising from dialogue when 2 or more people share their unique perspectives. As a theoretical model, sensemaking may offer an alternative lens through which to view the phenomenon of nurse/physician communication and advance our understanding of how nurse/physician communication can promote patient safety. Sensemaking may represent a paradigm shift with the potential to affect 2 spheres of influence: clinical practice and health care outcomes. Sensemaking may also hold promise as an intervention because through sensemaking consensus may be built and errors possibly prevented. Engaging in sensemaking may overcome communication barriers without realigning power bases, incorporate contextual influences without drawing attention away from communicators, and inform actions arising from communication. PMID:20829721

  11. A virtual environment for modeling and testing sensemaking with multisensor information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Denise; Bartlett, Kathleen; Hoppenfeld, Robert; Nolan, Margaret; Schatz, Sae

    2014-05-01

    Given today's challenging Irregular Warfare, members of small infantry units must be able to function as highly sensitized perceivers throughout large operational areas. Improved Situation Awareness (SA) in rapidly changing fields of operation may also save lives of law enforcement personnel and first responders. Critical competencies for these individuals include sociocultural sensemaking, the ability to assess a situation through the perception of essential salient environmental and behavioral cues, and intuitive sensemaking, which allows experts to act with the utmost agility. Intuitive sensemaking and intuitive decision making (IDM), which involve processing information at a subconscious level, have been cited as playing a critical role in saving lives and enabling mission success. This paper discusses the development of a virtual environment for modeling, analysis and human-in-the-loop testing of perception, sensemaking, intuitive sensemaking, decision making (DM), and IDM performance, using state-of-the-art scene simulation and modeled imagery from multi-source systems, under the "Intuition and Implicit Learning" Basic Research Challenge (I2BRC) sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (ONR). We present results from our human systems engineering approach including 1) development of requirements and test metrics for individual and integrated system components, 2) the system architecture design 3) images of the prototype virtual environment testing system and 4) a discussion of the system's current and future testing capabilities. In particular, we examine an Enhanced Interaction Suite testbed to model, test, and analyze the impact of advances in sensor spatial, and temporal resolution to a user's intuitive sensemaking and decision making capabilities.

  12. Sustained Organizational Learning for Comprehensive School Reform: A Sensemaking Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Mary B.

    2009-01-01

    Organizational sensemaking is the attempt to understand complex events that occur in organizations (Weick, Sutcliffe, & Obstfeld, 2005). This study focuses on the sensemaking leadership capabilities of a leadership team promoting comprehensive reform. The cross-school leadership team engaged in organizational sensemaking in order to successfully…

  13. Perceived Enablers and Barriers Related to Sustainability of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkelman, Sarah; McIntosh, Kent; Raspica, Caitlin; Berg, Tricia; Strickland-Cohen, M. Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the most important perceived enablers and barriers regarding sustainability of School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS). School personnel representing 860 schools implementing or preparing to implement SWPBIS completed an open-ended survey of factors regarding its sustainability.…

  14. Perceived Barriers and Enablers to Implementing Individualized Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bambara, Linda M.; Goh, Ailsa; Kern, Lee; Caskie, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Identifying factors perceived to either hinder or support the implementation of individualized positive behavior interventions and supports (IPBIS) is essential for promoting sustainable practice. This survey study examined the extent to which school-based professionals (n = 293) experienced barriers and enablers and examined their perceived level…

  15. Embodiment and sense-making in autism

    PubMed Central

    De Jaegher, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I sketch an enactive account of autism. For the enactive approach to cognition, embodiment, experience, and social interaction are fundamental to understanding mind and subjectivity. Enaction defines cognition as sense-making: the way cognitive agents meaningfully connect with their world, based on their needs and goals as self-organizing, self-maintaining, embodied agents. In the social realm, the interactive coordination of embodied sense-making activities with others lets us participate in each other's sense-making (social understanding = participatory sense-making). The enactive approach provides new concepts to overcome the problems of traditional functionalist accounts of autism, which can only give a piecemeal and disintegrated view because they consider cognition, communication, and perception separately, do not take embodied into account, and are methodologically individualistic. Applying the concepts of enaction to autism, I show: How embodiment and sense-making connect, i.e., how autistic particularities of moving, perceiving, and emoting relate to how people with autism make sense of their world. For instance, restricted interests or preference for detail will have certain sensorimotor correlates, as well as specific meaning for autistic people.That reduced flexibility in interactional coordination correlates with difficulties in participatory sense-making. At the same time, seemingly irrelevant “autistic behaviors” can be quite attuned to the interactive context. I illustrate this complexity in the case of echolalia. An enactive account of autism starts from the embodiment, experience, and social interactions of autistic people. Enaction brings together the sensorimotor, cognitive, social, experiential, and affective aspects of autism in a coherent framework based on a complex non-linear multi-causality. This foundation allows to build new bridges between autistic people and their often non-autistic context, and to improve quality

  16. Sensemaking, Organizational Culture, and Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Debbie S.; Smythe, Mary Jeanette

    2004-01-01

    While EEOC guidelines for managing sexual harassment prescribe a strong sexual harassment policy and aggressive remedial action following complaints, a communication approach suggests a need for a more complex understanding of sexual harassment as diffused throughout an organizational culture. The present case study uses a sensemaking approach to…

  17. Principals' Sensemaking and Enactment of Teacher Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Jessica G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to look across six first-year principals to investigate their engagement with and sensemaking of specific messages of instructional leadership around teacher evaluation. Design/methodology/approach: This research project, a cross-case study, was carried out using in-depth qualitative observations and…

  18. Analogies, metaphors, and wondering about the future: Lay sense-making around synthetic meat.

    PubMed

    Marcu, Afrodita; Gaspar, Rui; Rutsaert, Pieter; Seibt, Beate; Fletcher, David; Verbeke, Wim; Barnett, Julie

    2015-07-01

    Drawing on social representations theory, we explore how the public make sense of the unfamiliar, taking as the example a novel technology: synthetic meat. Data from an online deliberation study and eighteen focus groups in Belgium, Portugal and the UK indicated that the various strategies of sense-making afforded different levels of critical thinking about synthetic meat. Anchoring to genetic modification, metaphors like 'Frankenfoods' and commonplaces like 'playing God' closed off debates around potential applications of synthetic meat, whereas asking factual and rhetorical questions about it, weighing up pragmatically its risks and benefits, and envisaging changing current mentalities or behaviours in order to adapt to scientific developments enabled a consideration of synthetic meat's possible implications for agriculture, environment, and society. We suggest that research on public understanding of technology should cultivate a climate of active thinking and should encourage questioning during the process of sense-making to try to reduce unhelpful anchoring.

  19. Sensemaking: Conceptual Changes, Cognitive Mechanisms, and Structural Representations. a Qualitative User Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Pengyi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to improve our understanding of sensemaking process as a basis for building better systems to assist sensemaking. Sensemaking is the task of creating an understanding of a problem or task so that further actions may be taken in an informed manner. Sensemaking is a pre-requisite for many other tasks such as decision…

  20. Teachers' Sensemaking of Data and Implications for Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Melanie; Marsh, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines an understudied aspect of teachers' sensemaking of student learning data: the way in which teachers explain the causes of the outcomes observed in data. Drawing on sensemaking and attribution theory and data collected in six middle schools, we find that while teachers most often attributed outcomes to their own instruction,…

  1. Sensemaking on Campus: How Community College Presidents Frame Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Pamela L.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the ways in which two community college presidents used framing to aid campus sense-making. Defines framing as the choice of one set of meanings over another, and sense-making as the process by which individuals interpret changes around them. Reports that the presidents chose frames that drove campus goals and subsequent strategies to…

  2. To Heaven or Hell: Sensemaking about Why Faculty Leave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, KerryAnn; Lounder, Andrew; Campbell, Corbin M.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes sensemaking about faculty departure among administrators, faculty colleagues, and faculty leavers in one research university. A mixed methods database was analyzed to reveal four dominant explanations for faculty departure and two influences on sensemaking. Dominant explanations included better opportunities, the likelihood…

  3. Development of temporal context-based feature abstractions for enabling monitoring and managing of interventions.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Pei-Yun Sabrina; Ramakrishnan, Sreeram; Yu, Ke; Akushevich, Marina; Sharma, Shweta; Mooiweer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Disease self-management programs and intervention/care plan monitoring are often unable to systematically leverage patient-generated information, especially those requiring interpretation of the temporal contexts of the measurement. While existing techniques help in capturing and storing the relevant data, their ability to determine appropriate metrics most sensitive to that individual is limited or non-existent. This is attributable to the lack of unifying models for enabling such interpretations and the non-trivial process required to generate meaningful feature abstractions to support individualized prognosis. To address these issues, a data-driven approach designed to identify the right abstractions for key features relevant to personalization and monitoring of care is discussed. PMID:25160229

  4. Development of temporal context-based feature abstractions for enabling monitoring and managing of interventions.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Pei-Yun Sabrina; Ramakrishnan, Sreeram; Yu, Ke; Akushevich, Marina; Sharma, Shweta; Mooiweer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Disease self-management programs and intervention/care plan monitoring are often unable to systematically leverage patient-generated information, especially those requiring interpretation of the temporal contexts of the measurement. While existing techniques help in capturing and storing the relevant data, their ability to determine appropriate metrics most sensitive to that individual is limited or non-existent. This is attributable to the lack of unifying models for enabling such interpretations and the non-trivial process required to generate meaningful feature abstractions to support individualized prognosis. To address these issues, a data-driven approach designed to identify the right abstractions for key features relevant to personalization and monitoring of care is discussed.

  5. Constructing the dead: Retrospective sensemaking in eulogies.

    PubMed

    Davis, Christine S; Quinlan, Margaret M; Baker, Debra K

    2016-01-01

    Eulogies serve a sensemaking function of identity construction--both for the deceased and for the survivors. This work examines the communicative construction of identity in eulogies and shows how eulogia discourse affirms and reconstructs our relational identity through communication. The article extends scholarship on eulogies by using relational communication theories to investigate how eulogic discourse functions as identity construction, considering eulogies of ordinary people, and exploring the gendered nature of eulogies. We discuss how eulogies are specific ritualized forms of communication in which the bereaved focus on self-identity as they articulate their experience of grief. PMID:26766407

  6. SensePath: Understanding the Sensemaking Process Through Analytic Provenance.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phong H; Xu, Kai; Wheat, Ashley; Wong, B L William; Attfield, Simon; Fields, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Sensemaking is described as the process of comprehension, finding meaning and gaining insight from information, producing new knowledge and informing further action. Understanding the sensemaking process allows building effective visual analytics tools to make sense of large and complex datasets. Currently, it is often a manual and time-consuming undertaking to comprehend this: researchers collect observation data, transcribe screen capture videos and think-aloud recordings, identify recurring patterns, and eventually abstract the sensemaking process into a general model. In this paper, we propose a general approach to facilitate such a qualitative analysis process, and introduce a prototype, SensePath, to demonstrate the application of this approach with a focus on browser-based online sensemaking. The approach is based on a study of a number of qualitative research sessions including observations of users performing sensemaking tasks and post hoc analyses to uncover their sensemaking processes. Based on the study results and a follow-up participatory design session with HCI researchers, we decided to focus on the transcription and coding stages of thematic analysis. SensePath automatically captures user's sensemaking actions, i.e., analytic provenance, and provides multi-linked views to support their further analysis. A number of other requirements elicited from the design session are also implemented in SensePath, such as easy integration with existing qualitative analysis workflow and non-intrusive for participants. The tool was used by an experienced HCI researcher to analyze two sensemaking sessions. The researcher found the tool intuitive and considerably reduced analysis time, allowing better understanding of the sensemaking process.

  7. Delivering an evidence-based outdoor journey intervention to people with stroke: Barriers and enablers experienced by community rehabilitation teams

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Transferring knowledge from research into practice can be challenging, partly because the process involves a change in attitudes, roles and behaviour by individuals and teams. Helping teams to identify then target potential barriers may aid the knowledge transfer process. The aim of this study was to identify barriers and enablers, as perceived by allied health professionals, to delivering an evidence-based (Level 1) outdoor journey intervention for people with stroke. Methods A qualitative design and semi-structured interviews were used. Allied health professionals (n = 13) from two community rehabilitation teams were interviewed, before and after receiving feedback from a medical record audit and attending a training workshop. Interviews allowed participants to identify potential and actual barriers, as well as enablers to delivering the intervention. Qualitative data were analysed using theoretical domains described by Michie and colleagues. Results Two barriers to delivery of the intervention were the social influence of people with stroke and their family, and professionals' beliefs about their capabilities. Other barriers included professionals' knowledge and skills, their role identity, availability of resources, whether professionals remembered to provide the intervention, and how they felt about delivering the intervention. Enablers to delivering the intervention included a belief that they could deliver the intervention, a willingness to expand and share professional roles, procedures that reminded them what to do, and feeling good about helping people with stroke to participate. Conclusions This study represents one step in the quality improvement process. The interviews encouraged reflection by staff. We obtained valuable data which have been used to plan behaviour change interventions addressing identified barriers. Our methods may assist other researchers who need to design similar behaviour change interventions. PMID:20082725

  8. Self-management support interventions that are clinically linked and technology enabled: can they successfully prevent and treat diabetes?

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Neal D; Woodley, Paula D Patnoe

    2011-05-01

    Patients with diabetes need a complex set of services and supports. The challenge of integrating these services into the diabetes regimen can be successfully overcome through self-management support interventions that are clinically linked and technology enabled: self-management support because patients need help mastering the knowledge, attitudes, skills, and behaviors so necessary for good outcomes; interventions because comprehensive theory-based, evidence-proven, long-term, longitudinal interventions work better than direct-to-consumer or nonplanned health promotion approaches; clinically linked because patients are more likely to adopt new behaviors when the approach is in the context of a trusted therapeutic relationship and within an effective medical care system; and technology enabled because capitalizing on the amazing power of information technology leads to the delivery of cost-effective, scalable, engaging solutions that prevent and manage diabetes.

  9. BiSet: Semantic Edge Bundling with Biclusters for Sensemaking.

    PubMed

    Sun, Maoyuan; Mi, Peng; North, Chris; Ramakrishnan, Naren

    2016-01-01

    Identifying coordinated relationships is an important task in data analytics. For example, an intelligence analyst might want to discover three suspicious people who all visited the same four cities. Existing techniques that display individual relationships, such as between lists of entities, require repetitious manual selection and significant mental aggregation in cluttered visualizations to find coordinated relationships. In this paper, we present BiSet, a visual analytics technique to support interactive exploration of coordinated relationships. In BiSet, we model coordinated relationships as biclusters and algorithmically mine them from a dataset. Then, we visualize the biclusters in context as bundled edges between sets of related entities. Thus, bundles enable analysts to infer task-oriented semantic insights about potentially coordinated activities. We make bundles as first class objects and add a new layer, "in-between", to contain these bundle objects. Based on this, bundles serve to organize entities represented in lists and visually reveal their membership. Users can interact with edge bundles to organize related entities, and vice versa, for sensemaking purposes. With a usage scenario, we demonstrate how BiSet supports the exploration of coordinated relationships in text analytics.

  10. Developmental dysgraphia with profound hearing impairment: intervention by auditory methods enabled by cochlear implant.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kunihiro; Kawasaki, Akihiro; Nagayasu, Rie; Kunisue, Kazuya; Maeda, Yukihide; Kariya, Shin; Kataoka, Yuko; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2008-06-01

    Learning disability combined with hearing impairment (LDHI) is a poor prognostic factor for the language development of hearing impaired children after educational intervention. A typical example of a child with LDHI and effective interventions provided by cochlear implants are presented in this report. A case of congenital cytomegaloviral infection that showed dysgraphia as well as profound deafness was reported and an underlying visual processing problem diagnosed in the present case caused the patient's dysgraphia. The dysgraphia could be circumvented by the use of auditory memory fairly established by a cochlear implant. PMID:18082987

  11. Virtual and augmented medical imaging environments: enabling technology for minimally invasive cardiac interventional guidance.

    PubMed

    Linte, Cristian A; White, James; Eagleson, Roy; Guiraudon, Gérard M; Peters, Terry M

    2010-01-01

    Virtual and augmented reality environments have been adopted in medicine as a means to enhance the clinician's view of the anatomy and facilitate the performance of minimally invasive procedures. Their value is truly appreciated during interventions where the surgeon cannot directly visualize the targets to be treated, such as during cardiac procedures performed on the beating heart. These environments must accurately represent the real surgical field and require seamless integration of pre- and intra-operative imaging, surgical tracking, and visualization technology in a common framework centered around the patient. This review begins with an overview of minimally invasive cardiac interventions, describes the architecture of a typical surgical guidance platform including imaging, tracking, registration and visualization, highlights both clinical and engineering accuracy limitations in cardiac image guidance, and discusses the translation of the work from the laboratory into the operating room together with typically encountered challenges. PMID:22275200

  12. Barriers to and Enablers of Contraceptive Use among Adolescent Females and their Interest in an Emergency Department-based Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Chernick, Lauren S; Schnall, Rebecca; Higgins, Tracy; Stockwell, Melissa; Castaño, Paula; Santelli, John; Dayan, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    Objective Over 15 million adolescents, many at high risk for pregnancy, use emergency departments (ED) in the United States annually, but little is known regarding reasons for failure to use contraceptives in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers to and enablers of contraceptive use among adolescent females using the ED and determine their interest in an ED-based pregnancy prevention intervention. Study Design We conducted semi-structured, open-ended interviews with females in an urban ED. Eligible females were 14-19 years old, sexually active, presenting for reproductive health complaints, and at risk for pregnancy, defined as non-use of effective (per the World Health Organization) contraception. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded based on thematic analysis. Enrollment continued until no new themes emerged. A modified Health Belief Model guided the organization of the data. Results Participants (n=14) were predominantly Hispanic (93%), insured (93%), and in a sexual relationship (86%). The primary barrier to contraceptive use was perceived health risk, including effects on menstruation, weight, and future fertility. Other barriers consisted of mistrust in contraceptives, ambivalent pregnancy intentions, uncertainty about the future, partner's desire for pregnancy, and limited access to contraceptives. Enablers of past contraceptive use included the presence of a school-based health clinic and clear plans for the future. All participants were receptive to ED-based pregnancy prevention interventions. Conclusions The identified barriers and enablers influencing hormonal contraceptive use can be used to inform the design of future ED-based adolescent pregnancy prevention interventions. PMID:25499588

  13. Collaborative Sense-Making in Print and Digital Text Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dennis S.; Neitzel, Carin

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the sense-making behaviors of sixth- and seventh-grade students (n = 46 dyads) as they read and discussed expository articles in print and digital formats. Most dyads approached the digital text as if it were static and linear, despite the availability of hyperlinks. Reading through (or covering) the text was the most commonly…

  14. A Foresight Process as an Institutional Sensemaking Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how a foresight project supports institutional positioning efforts through joint sensemaking. Design/methodology/approach: This paper describes a case study that investigated the design, implementation, and outcomes of a foresight project at a Finnish higher education institution that selected sales…

  15. Physician Sensemaking and Readiness for Electronic Medical Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riesenmy, Kelly Rouse

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore physician sensemaking and readiness to implement electronic medical records (EMR) as a first step to finding strategies that enhance EMR adoption behaviors. Design/methodology/approach: The case study approach provides a detailed analysis of individuals within an organizational unit. Using a…

  16. Understanding gut microbiota in elderly's health will enable intervention through probiotics.

    PubMed

    Pérez Martínez, G; Bäuerl, C; Collado, M C

    2014-09-01

    Today, advances in the public health system of most countries have managed to extend notably life expectancy, however, elderly's health remain as a very serious concern. The lifelong stimulation of innate and adaptive immune systems leads to immunosenescence and, as result, to a low ability to produce immunoglobulins against pathogens but also to a low-grade chronic inflammatory state (inflammaging) that is linked to most age-related health problems, such as dementia, Alzheimer or atherosclerosis. This inflammatory state could make the host more sensitive to intestinal microbes, or vice versa, as changes in the gut microbiota composition are related to the progression of diseases and frailty in the elderly population. It was considered that gut microbiota changed during aging, with an increase of Bacteroidetes vs. Firmicutes proportion and a reduction of bifidobacterial counts, however recent studies reported a great inter-individual variation among elderly and a significant relationship between gut microbiota, diet and institution or community living. Intervention studies of probiotics and prebiotics in elderly are not very abundant, but most cases showed that Bifidobacterium populations can efficiently be stimulated with a concomitant decrease of Enterobacteria. Furthermore, also some studies demonstrated that probiotics decreased the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines which are upregulated in the elderly, such as interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6 or tumour necrosis factor ?, among others, and they increased the levels of activated lymphocytes, natural killer cells, phagocytic activity and even showed a greater response to influenza vaccination. This suggests that direct manipulation of the gut microbiota may improve adaptive immune response and reduce inflammatory secretions, therefore compensating immunosenescence effects, however, there are no records of their effect on clinical symptoms or risk for disease. Those facts reveal that this is an open research field

  17. Evaluating complex interventions and health technologies using normalization process theory: development of a simplified approach and web-enabled toolkit

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Normalization Process Theory (NPT) can be used to explain implementation processes in health care relating to new technologies and complex interventions. This paper describes the processes by which we developed a simplified version of NPT for use by clinicians, managers, and policy makers, and which could be embedded in a web-enabled toolkit and on-line users manual. Methods Between 2006 and 2010 we undertook four tasks. (i) We presented NPT to potential and actual users in multiple workshops, seminars, and presentations. (ii) Using what we discovered from these meetings, we decided to create a simplified set of statements and explanations expressing core constructs of the theory (iii) We circulated these statements to a criterion sample of 60 researchers, clinicians and others, using SurveyMonkey to collect qualitative textual data about their criticisms of the statements. (iv) We then reconstructed the statements and explanations to meet users' criticisms, embedded them in a web-enabled toolkit, and beta tested this 'in the wild'. Results On-line data collection was effective: over a four week period 50/60 participants responded using SurveyMonkey (40/60) or direct phone and email contact (10/60). An additional nine responses were received from people who had been sent the SurveyMonkey form by other respondents. Beta testing of the web enabled toolkit produced 13 responses, from 327 visits to http://www.normalizationprocess.org. Qualitative analysis of both sets of responses showed a high level of support for the statements but also showed that some statements poorly expressed their underlying constructs or overlapped with others. These were rewritten to take account of users' criticisms and then embedded in a web-enabled toolkit. As a result we were able translate the core constructs into a simplified set of statements that could be utilized by non-experts. Conclusion Normalization Process Theory has been developed through transparent procedures at

  18. Space to Think: Large, High-Resolution Displays for Sensemaking

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Christopher P.; Endert, Alexander; North, Chris

    2010-05-05

    Space supports human cognitive abilities in a myriad of ways. The note attached to the side of the monitor, the papers spread out on the desk, diagrams scrawled on a whiteboard, and even the keys left out on the counter are all examples of using space to recall, reveal relationships, and think. Technological advances have made it possible to construct large display environments in which space has real meaning. This paper examines how increased space affects the way displays are regarded and used within the context of the cognitively demanding task of sensemaking. A study was conducted observing analysts using a prototype large, high-resolution display to solve an analytic problem. This paper reports on the results of this study and suggests a number of potential design criteria for future sensemaking tools developed for large, high-resolution displays.

  19. A Sensemaking Perspective on Situation Awareness in Power Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Schur, Anne; Paget, Mia L.; Guttromson, Ross T.

    2008-07-21

    With increasing complexity and interconnectivity of the electric power grid, the scope and complexity of grid operations continues to grow. New paradigms are needed to guide research to improve operations by enhancing situation awareness of operators. Research on human factors/situation awareness is described within a taxonomy of tools and approaches that address different levels of cognitive processing. While user interface features and visualization approaches represent the predominant focus of human factors studies of situation awareness, this paper argues that a complementary level, sensemaking, deserves further consideration by designers of decision support systems for power grid operations. A sensemaking perspective on situation aware-ness may reveal new insights that complement ongoing human factors research, where the focus of the investigation of errors is to understand why the decision makers experienced the situation the way they did, or why what they saw made sense to them at the time.

  20. A Functional Model of Sensemaking in a Neurocognitive Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Lebiere, Christian; Paik, Jaehyon; Rutledge-Taylor, Matthew; Staszewski, James; Anderson, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Sensemaking is the active process of constructing a meaningful representation (i.e., making sense) of some complex aspect of the world. In relation to intelligence analysis, sensemaking is the act of finding and interpreting relevant facts amongst the sea of incoming reports, images, and intelligence. We present a cognitive model of core information-foraging and hypothesis-updating sensemaking processes applied to complex spatial probability estimation and decision-making tasks. While the model was developed in a hybrid symbolic-statistical cognitive architecture, its correspondence to neural frameworks in terms of both structure and mechanisms provided a direct bridge between rational and neural levels of description. Compared against data from two participant groups, the model correctly predicted both the presence and degree of four biases: confirmation, anchoring and adjustment, representativeness, and probability matching. It also favorably predicted human performance in generating probability distributions across categories, assigning resources based on these distributions, and selecting relevant features given a prior probability distribution. This model provides a constrained theoretical framework describing cognitive biases as arising from three interacting factors: the structure of the task environment, the mechanisms and limitations of the cognitive architecture, and the use of strategies to adapt to the dual constraints of cognition and the environment. PMID:24302930

  1. A functional model of sensemaking in a neurocognitive architecture.

    PubMed

    Lebiere, Christian; Pirolli, Peter; Thomson, Robert; Paik, Jaehyon; Rutledge-Taylor, Matthew; Staszewski, James; Anderson, John R

    2013-01-01

    Sensemaking is the active process of constructing a meaningful representation (i.e., making sense) of some complex aspect of the world. In relation to intelligence analysis, sensemaking is the act of finding and interpreting relevant facts amongst the sea of incoming reports, images, and intelligence. We present a cognitive model of core information-foraging and hypothesis-updating sensemaking processes applied to complex spatial probability estimation and decision-making tasks. While the model was developed in a hybrid symbolic-statistical cognitive architecture, its correspondence to neural frameworks in terms of both structure and mechanisms provided a direct bridge between rational and neural levels of description. Compared against data from two participant groups, the model correctly predicted both the presence and degree of four biases: confirmation, anchoring and adjustment, representativeness, and probability matching. It also favorably predicted human performance in generating probability distributions across categories, assigning resources based on these distributions, and selecting relevant features given a prior probability distribution. This model provides a constrained theoretical framework describing cognitive biases as arising from three interacting factors: the structure of the task environment, the mechanisms and limitations of the cognitive architecture, and the use of strategies to adapt to the dual constraints of cognition and the environment. PMID:24302930

  2. A functional model of sensemaking in a neurocognitive architecture.

    PubMed

    Lebiere, Christian; Pirolli, Peter; Thomson, Robert; Paik, Jaehyon; Rutledge-Taylor, Matthew; Staszewski, James; Anderson, John R

    2013-01-01

    Sensemaking is the active process of constructing a meaningful representation (i.e., making sense) of some complex aspect of the world. In relation to intelligence analysis, sensemaking is the act of finding and interpreting relevant facts amongst the sea of incoming reports, images, and intelligence. We present a cognitive model of core information-foraging and hypothesis-updating sensemaking processes applied to complex spatial probability estimation and decision-making tasks. While the model was developed in a hybrid symbolic-statistical cognitive architecture, its correspondence to neural frameworks in terms of both structure and mechanisms provided a direct bridge between rational and neural levels of description. Compared against data from two participant groups, the model correctly predicted both the presence and degree of four biases: confirmation, anchoring and adjustment, representativeness, and probability matching. It also favorably predicted human performance in generating probability distributions across categories, assigning resources based on these distributions, and selecting relevant features given a prior probability distribution. This model provides a constrained theoretical framework describing cognitive biases as arising from three interacting factors: the structure of the task environment, the mechanisms and limitations of the cognitive architecture, and the use of strategies to adapt to the dual constraints of cognition and the environment.

  3. Collaborative Educational Leadership: The Emergence of Human Interactional Sense-Making Process as a Complex System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jäppinen, Aini-Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    The article aims at explicating the emergence of human interactional sense-making process within educational leadership as a complex system. The kind of leadership is understood as a holistic entity called collaborative leadership. There, sense-making emerges across interdependent domains, called attributes of collaborative leadership. The…

  4. Principal Sensemaking of Inclusion: A Multi-Case Study of Five Urban School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMatthews, David Edward

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how five principals working in one urban school district made sense of inclusion. I employed a multi-case study guided by the theoretical framework of sensemaking. Weick's sensemaking theory was useful in examining the way principals made sense of inclusion. Each of the seven characteristics of Weick's sensemaking…

  5. Office-Based Physical Activity and Nutrition Intervention: Barriers, Enablers, and Preferred Strategies for Workplace Obesity Prevention, Perth, Western Australia, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Jancey, Jonine; Howat, Peter; Ledger, Melissa; Lee, Andy H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Workplace health promotion programs to prevent overweight and obesity in office-based employees should be evidence-based and comprehensive and should consider behavioral, social, organizational, and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to and enablers of physical activity and nutrition as well as intervention strategies for health promotion in office-based workplaces in the Perth, Western Australia, metropolitan area in 2012. Methods We conducted an online survey of 111 employees from 55 organizations. The online survey investigated demographics, individual and workplace characteristics, barriers and enablers, intervention-strategy preferences, and physical activity and nutrition behaviors. We used χ2 and Mann–Whitney U statistics to test for differences between age and sex groups for barriers and enablers, intervention-strategy preferences, and physical activity and nutrition behaviors. Stepwise multiple regression analysis determined factors that affect physical activity and nutrition behaviors. Results We identified several factors that affected physical activity and nutrition behaviors, including the most common barriers (“too tired” and “access to unhealthy food”) and enablers (“enjoy physical activity” and “nutrition knowledge”). Intervention-strategy preferences demonstrated employee support for health promotion in the workplace. Conclusion The findings provide useful insights into employees’ preferences for interventions; they can be used to develop comprehensive programs for evidence-based workplace health promotion that consider environmental and policy influences as well as the individual. PMID:24028834

  6. Evaluation of the feasibility and acceptability of the ‘Care for Stroke’ intervention in India, a smartphone-enabled, carer-supported, educational intervention for management of disability following stroke

    PubMed Central

    Sureshkumar, K; Murthy, GVS; Natarajan, S; Naveen, C; Goenka, S; Kuper, H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) To identify operational issues encountered by study participants in using the ‘Care for Stroke’ intervention; (2) to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Design Mixed-methods research design. Setting Participant's home. Participants were selected from a tertiary hospital in Chennai, South India. Participants Sixty stroke survivors treated and discharged from the hospital, and their caregivers. Intervention ‘Care for Stroke’ is a smartphone-enabled, educational intervention for management of physical disabilities following stroke. It is delivered through a web-based, smartphone-enabled application. It includes inputs from stroke rehabilitation experts in a digitised format. Methods Evaluation of the intervention was completed in two phases. In the first phase, the preliminary intervention was field-tested with 30 stroke survivors for 2 weeks. In the second phase, the finalised intervention was provided to a further 30 stroke survivors to be used in their homes with support from their carers for 4 weeks. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes: (1) operational difficulties in using the intervention; (2) feasibility and acceptability of the intervention in an Indian setting. Disability and dependency were assessed as secondary outcomes. Results Field-testing identified operational difficulties related to connectivity, video-streaming, picture clarity, quality of videos, and functionality of the application. The intervention was reviewed, revised and finalised before pilot-testing. Findings from the pilot-testing showed that the ‘Care for Stroke’ intervention was feasible and acceptable. Over 90% (n=27) of the study participants felt that the intervention was relevant, comprehensible and useful. Over 96% (n=29) of the stroke survivors and all the caregivers (100%, n=30) rated the intervention as excellent and very useful. These findings were supported by qualitative interviews. Conclusions

  7. Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: South African examples of a leadership of sensemaking for primary health care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    make sense of policy intentions and incorporate them into their everyday routines and practices. This requires a leadership of sensemaking that enables front line staff to exercise their collective discretionary power in strengthening PHC. We hope this theoretically-framed analysis of one set of experiences stimulates wider thinking about the leadership needed to sustain primary health care in other settings. PMID:24935658

  8. Learning to see, seeing to learn: visual aspects of sensemaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Daniel M.

    2003-06-01

    When one says "I see," what is usually meant is "I understand." But what does it mean to create a sense of understanding a large, complex, problem, one with many interlocking pieces, sometimes ill-fitting data and the occasional bit of contradictory information? The traditional computer science perspective on helping people towards understanding is to provide an armamentarium of tools and techniques - databases, query tools and a variety of graphing methods. As a field, we have an overly simple perspective on what it means to grapple with real information. In practice, people who try to make sense of some thing (say, the life sciences, the Middle East, the large scale structure of the universe, their taxes) are faced with a complex collection of information, some in easy-to-digest structured forms, but with many relevant parts scattered hither and yon, in forms and shapes too difficult to manage. To create an understanding, we find that people create representations of complex information. Yet using representations relies on fairly sophisticated perceptual practices. These practices are in no way preordained, but subject to the kinds of perceptual and cognitive phenomena we see in every day life. In order to understand our information environments, we need to learn to perceive these perceptual elements, and understand when they do, and do not, work to our advantage. A more powerful approach to the problem of supporting realistic sensemaking practice is to design information environments that accommodate both the world"s information realities and people"s cognitive characteristics. This paper argues that visual aspects of representation use often dominate sensemaking behavior, and illustrates this by showing three sensemaking tools we have built that take advantage of this property.

  9. Facilitated sensemaking: a feasibility study for the provision of a family support program in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Judy E; Daly, Barbara J; Agan, Donna; Brady, Noreen R; Higgins, Patricia A

    2010-01-01

    Family members of intensive care unit patients may develop anxiety, depression, and/or posttraumatic stress syndrome. Approaches to prevention are not well defined. Before testing preventive measures, it is important to evaluate which interventions the family will accept, use, and value. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an intervention for support for families of mechanically ventilated adults, grounded in a new midrange nursing theory titled "Facilitated Sensemaking." Families were provided a kit of supplies and the primary investigator coached families on how to obtain information, interpret surroundings, and participate in care. Participants were asked to complete an adapted Critical Care Family Needs Inventory and Family Support Program evaluation. Family members of 30 patients consented to participate; 22 participants completed the surveys. Internal consistency reliability of the adapted Critical Care Family Needs Inventory was high (alpha = .96). Results validated the importance of informational needs and provided a score indicating the family member's perception of how well each need was met, weighted by importance, which identified performance improvement opportunities for use by clinical managers. The program evaluation confirmed that families will use this format of support and find it helpful. Personal care supplies (eg, lotion, lip balm) were universally well received. Forty-two referrals to ancillary service were made. Operational issues to improve services were identified. As proposed in the Facilitated Sensemaking model, family members welcomed interventions targeted to help make sense of the new situation and make sense of their new role as caregiver. Planned supportive interventions were perceived as helpful.

  10. Framing women's health with a sense-making approach: magazine coverage of breast cancer and implants.

    PubMed

    Andsager, J L; Powers, A

    2001-01-01

    This study examined how women's magazines framed breast cancer and silicone implants to determine whether they used a sense-making framework. Sense-making calls for existing gaps to be closed between what one group views as real and what another group experiences (Parrott, 1996). Analysis included 86 articles on cancer and implants published in four women's magazines from 1990 to 1997. Overall findings suggest that women's magazines used a sense-making approach to cancer coverage, framing the disease in terms of coping with its effects, personal experiences, and risk factors. Themes in implant articles pertained to economic concerns of the medical industry and media.

  11. Deinstitutionalisation from the perspective of sensemaking: An empirical investigation of the Electricity of Vietnam Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tham, H. A.

    This thesis is a study of deinstitutionalisation seeking to understand the evolvement of deinstitutionalisation process via the lens of sensemaking. It does so by conducting an in-depth qualitative, case study-based empirical study of the processual nature of deinstitutionalisation and the significance of organisational sensemaking during the deinstitutionalisation process. An interdisciplinary approach is adopted drawing insights from various literatures including institutional theory, sensemaking and social psychology. The need for greater understanding of the deinstitutionalisation phenomenon, especially its process is acknowledged after relevant literatures are reviewed. The potential of using microanalysis in examining the deinstitutionalisation process is demonstrated. The sensemaking perspective is thus used to facilitate this processual research. Findings have important implications for the theoretical development of institutional changes, sensemaking and especially deinstitutionalisation. First of all, the model and evidence sheds some light on the nature and development of the deinstitutionalisation process. Secondly, the analytic capacity of the institutional theory especially its descriptive and predictive contents are tested in the context of evolving institutions. The relative strengths of regulative, cognitive and normative influences in non-conventional cultural and institutional contexts extend our knowledge of institutional change and effects. Using sensemaking perspective, the findings also demonstrate the role and power of resistance during institutional processes and explain the possibility of multiple paces and outcomes within a single deinstitutionalisation process. As for sensemaking, crisis sensemaking will be examined in a new context: disaster-struck but not life-threatening. In practical terms, this study is carried out in an organisational context therefore it has relevant managerial implications.

  12. ‘Care for Stroke’, a web-based, smartphone-enabled educational intervention for management of physical disabilities following stroke: feasibility in the Indian context

    PubMed Central

    Sureshkumar, K; Murthy, G V S; Munuswamy, Suresh; Goenka, Shifalika; Kuper, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stroke rehabilitation is a process targeted towards restoration or maintenance of the physical, mental, intellectual and social abilities of an individual affected by stroke. Unlike high-income countries, the resources for stroke rehabilitation are very limited in many low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Provision of cost-effective, post-stroke multidisciplinary rehabilitation services for the stroke survivors therefore becomes crucial to address the unmet needs and growing magnitude of disability experienced by the stroke survivors in LMICs. In order to meet the growing need for post-stroke rehabilitation services in India, we developed a web-based Smartphone-enabled educational intervention for management of physical disabilities following a stroke. Methods On the basis of the findings from the rehabilitation needs assessment study, guidance from the expert group and available evidence from systematic reviews, the framework of the intervention content was designed. Web-based application designing and development by Professional application developers were subsequently undertaken. Results The application is called ‘Care for Stroke’. It is a web-based educational intervention for management of physical disabilities following a stroke. This intervention is developed for use by the Stroke survivors who have any kind of rehabilitation needs to independently participate in his/her family and social roles. Discussion ‘Care for stroke’ is an innovative intervention which could be tested not just for its feasibility and acceptability but also for its clinical and cost-effectiveness through rigorously designed, randomised clinical trials. It is very important to test this intervention in LMICs where the rehabilitation and information needs of the stroke survivors seem to be substantial and largely unmet. PMID:26246902

  13. Student Sensemaking with Science Diagrams in a Computer-Based Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furberg, Anniken; Kluge, Anders; Ludvigsen, Sten

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of students' conceptual sensemaking with science diagrams within a computer-based learning environment aimed at supporting collaborative learning. Through the microanalysis of students' interactions in a project about energy and heat transfer, we demonstrate "how" representations become productive social and cognitive…

  14. Founders' Sensemaking and Sensegiving Behaviors Effect on the Organizational Identities of New Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehsenfeld, Corie

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative, multiple case study looked at the emerging organizational identity of four charter schools during the early years of development and the influence of the founder on that developing identity. The study looked at the ways in which each founder's sensemaking and sensegiving behaviors may have influenced the organizational identity…

  15. Sense-Making in a Temporary Organization: Implementing a New Curriculum in a Swedish Municipality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordholm, Daniel Erik

    2015-01-01

    This article explores sense-making in a municipality-led temporary organization established in response to the introduction of a new curriculum and marking system in Sweden. Qualitative data were extracted from audio-recorded interviews (n = 18) and observations of central subject group meetings (n = 6). By applying core elements of sociological…

  16. Beyond Epistemological Deficits: Dynamic Explanations of Engineering Students' Difficulties with Mathematical Sense-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have argued against deficit-based explanations of students' difficulties with mathematical sense-making, pointing instead to factors such as epistemology. Students' beliefs about knowledge and learning can hinder the activation and integration of productive knowledge they have. Such explanations, however, risk falling into a "deficit…

  17. A Dialogic Account of Sense-Making in Scientific Argumentation and Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This article identifies aspects of argumentation in scientific practice that are key for scientific sense-making and articulates how engagement in these aspects happens both inter-mentally (between people) and intra-mentally (an individual's reasoning). Institutionally, peer review exerts critique on new knowledge claims in science and is…

  18. Emotions and Sensemaking: A Consideration of a Community College Presidential Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Kerri S.

    2013-01-01

    A change in primary leadership for a community college presents distinct challenges for its employees. The case study research reported in this article is based on emotions and sensemaking data that were collected at an urban community college in the midst of a presidential transition. Analysis of the data led to a primary focus on the period of…

  19. The Use of Assessment for Institutional Sensemaking by Top Administrative Officials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegeman, Johnston Niven

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between the degree to which top administrators of four-year colleges and universities that have been effective in implementing and sustaining assessment view the use of assessment and seven components of institutional sensemaking at their institutions. The underlying premise is that outcomes assessment…

  20. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Sense-Making by Department of Defense Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, John L., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore the perceptions and lived experiences of Department of Defense (DOD) civilian employees to identify how their personal sense-making affects their coaching of adult students. The author used an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) method involving personal interviews…

  1. In the Sandbox: Individuals and Collectives in Organizational Learning as Sense-Making through Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popova-Nowak, Irina V.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a grounded theory of connections between individual and collective (group and organizational) levels of analysis through the examination of play and sense-making as integral parts of organizational learning (OL) by relying on the meta-paradigm theoretical framework. The study employed grounded theory as its…

  2. Teachers' Positioning towards an Educational Innovation in the Light of Ownership, Sense-Making and Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketelaar, Evelien; Beijaard, Douwe; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.; Den Brok, Perry J.

    2012-01-01

    The positioning of eleven teachers towards an innovation was studied in the light of ownership, sense-making and agency. Semi-structured and video-stimulated interviews were used for data collection. The findings show that these three concepts are useful for describing similarities and differences between teachers in terms of their positioning…

  3. Shared Sense-Making: How Charter School Leaders Ascribe Meaning to Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawlik, Marytza A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ways in which charter school leaders influence the understanding and conception of accountability policy and how that understanding translates into practice. In particular, this paper draws from sense-making theory and research on charter school leaders to identify their pre-existing…

  4. Sensemaking and New College Presidents: A Conceptual Study of the Transition Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smerek, Ryan E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the sensemaking processes of new college presidents to understand how they develop plausible, working descriptions of the campus and come to understand their role. Semi-structured interviews were completed with 18 presidents who were organizational outsiders and first-time presidents. As newcomers, presidents were found to act…

  5. Sense-Making as a Methodology to Inform Interdisciplinary Communication of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanello, S.; Dervin, B.; Fortner, R.

    2003-04-01

    Sense-Making was used to investigate interdisciplinary communication of uncertainty between scientists studying global climate change. Traditional research in the human dimensions of global climate confirms that there are differences between non-expert and expert understanding of global climate change (Brunn and O’Lear, 1999; Zehr 2000; Yearley, 2000; Aron, et al. 1994) and that non-expert and expert perceptions of uncertainty are at the center of this problem. The scientist-public discourse in global climate change involves not scientists as a unified coherent group but scientists representing multiple disciplines. Sense-Making was used in this study because of the difference it mandates on the individual when compared to traditional approaches: to view the internal process of individual understanding of climate change without constricting or limiting the individual to the researcher’s understanding or biases about the situation. Through the structured dialogue of the Sense-Making Triangle (situation, gap, verbings, bridge and outcomes), Sense-Making interviews allow for a series of explanations and multiple perspectives. The researcher is therefore able to listen to the way the individual negotiates reality (Dervin and Frenette, 2001) and not the a prior assumptions of the researcher. As the process of Integrated Assessment becomes a more prevalent method of environmental policy and decision-making, the understanding of interdisciplinary communication and research methodologies able to investigate interdisciplinary communication become more important. Sense-Making, while not well used in the arena of the human dimensions of global climate change and the larger community of the human dimensions of natural resources, appears to be a methodology that can help aid and inform interdisciplinary communication of science.

  6. Inferior vena cava filter insertion through the popliteal vein: enabling the percutaneous endovenous intervention of deep vein thrombosis with a single venous access approach in a single session

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoung Ook; Kim, Jae Kyu; Park, Jin Gyoon; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kang, Yang Jun; Jung, Hye Doo

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the efficiency of placing an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter through the same popliteal vein access site used for percutaneous endovenous intervention in patients with extensive lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. METHODS This retrospective study included 21 patients who underwent IVC filter insertion through the popliteal vein over a three-year period. Patient medical records were reviewed for the location of the deep vein thrombosis, result of filter removal, and total number of endovascular procedures needed for filter insertion and recanalization of the lower extremity venous system. Follow-up lower extremity computed tomography (CT) venography was also reviewed in each patient to assess the degree of filter tilt in the IVC. RESULTS All patients had extensive lower extremity deep vein thrombosis involving the iliac vein and/or femoral vein. Seventeen patients showed deep vein thrombosis of the calf veins. In all patients, IVC filter insertion and the recanalization procedure were performed during a single procedure through the single popliteal vein access site. In the 17 patients undergoing follow-up CT, the mean tilt angle of the filter was 7.14°±4.48° in the coronal plane and 8.77°±5.49° in the sagittal plane. Filter retrieval was successful in 16 of 17 patients (94.1%) in whom filter retrieval was attempted. CONCLUSION Transpopliteal IVC filter insertion is an efficient technique that results in low rates of significant filter tilt and enables a single session procedure using a single venous access site for filter insertion and percutaneous endovenous intervention. PMID:27559713

  7. Exploring the potential of a capability framework as a vision and "sensemaking" tool for leaders of interprofessional education.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Margo

    2016-09-01

    Creating a vision (visioning) and sensemaking have been described as key leadership practices in the leadership literature. A vision provides clarity, motivation, and direction for staff, and is essential particularly in times of significant change. Closely related to visioning is sensemaking (the organisation of stimuli into a framework allowing people to understand, explain, attribute, extrapolate, and predict). The application of these strategies to leadership within the interprofessional field is yet to be scrutinised. This study examines an interprofessional capability framework as a visioning and sensemaking tool for use by leaders within a university health science curriculum. Interviews with 11 faculty members revealed that the framework had been embedded across multiple years and contexts within the curriculum. Furthermore, a range of responses to the framework were evoked in relation to its use to make sense of interprofessional practice and to provide a vision, guide, and focus for faculty. Overall the findings indicate that the framework can function as both a visioning and sensemaking tool.

  8. Medical Home Implementation: A Sensemaking Taxonomy of Hard and Soft Best Practices

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Context The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model of care is currently a central focus of U.S. health system reform, but less is known about the model's implementation in the practice of everyday primary care. Understanding its implementation is key to ensuring the approach's continued support and success nationally. This article addresses this gap through a qualitative examination of the best practices associated with PCMH implementation for older adult patients in primary care. Methods I used a multicase, comparative study design that relied on a sensemaking approach and fifty-one in-depth interviews with physicians, nurses, and clinic support staff working in six accredited medical homes located in various geographic areas. My emphasis was on gaining descriptive insights into the staff's experiences delivering medical home care to older adult patients in particular and then analyzing how these experiences shaped the staff's thinking, learning, and future actions in implementing medical home care. Findings I found two distinct taxonomies of implementation best practices, which I labeled “hard” and “soft” because of their differing emphasis and content. Hard implementation practices are normative activities and structural interventions that align well with existing national standards for medical home care. Soft best practices are more relational in nature and derive from the existing practice social structure and everyday interactions between staff and patients. Currently, external stakeholders are less apt to recognize, encourage, or incentivize soft best practices. Conclusions The results suggest that there may be no standardized, one-size-fits-all approach to making medical home implementation work, particularly for special patient populations such as the elderly. My study also raises the issue of broadening current PCMH assessments and reward systems to include implementation practices that contain heavy social and relational components of care

  9. Making sense of shared sense-making in an inquiry-based science classroom: Toward a sociocultural theory of mind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladewski, Barbara G.

    Despite considerable exploration of inquiry and reflection in the literatures of science education and teacher education/teacher professional development over the past century, few theoretical or analytical tools exist to characterize these processes within a naturalistic classroom context. In addition, little is known regarding possible developmental trajectories for inquiry or reflection---for teachers or students---as these processes develop within a classroom context over time. In the dissertation, I use a sociocultural lens to explore these issues with an eye to the ways in which teachers and students develop shared sense-making, rather than from the more traditional perspective of individual teacher activity or student learning. The study includes both theoretical and empirical components. Theoretically, I explore the elaborations of sociocultural theory needed to characterize teacher-student shared sense-making as it develops within a classroom context, and, in particular, the role of inquiry and reflection in that sense-making. I develop a sociocultural model of shared sense-making that attempts to represent the dialectic between the individual and the social, through an elaboration of existing sociocultural and psychological constructs, including Vygotsky's zone of proximal development and theory of mind. Using this model as an interpretive framework, I develop a case study that explores teacher-student shared sense-making within a middle-school science classroom across a year of scaffolded introduction to inquiry-based science instruction. The empirical study serves not only as a test case for the theoretical model, but also informs our understanding regarding possible developmental trajectories and important mechanisms supporting and constraining shared sense-making within inquiry-based science classrooms. Theoretical and empirical findings provide support for the idea that perspectival shifts---that is, shifts of point-of-view that alter relationships

  10. What sense can the sense-making perspective make for economics?

    PubMed

    Cortés, Mauricio; Londoño, Sandra

    2009-06-01

    A landscape of interdisciplinary decision theories is sketched with a tentative place for the sense-making approach presented by Salvatore et al (2009). Uncertainty and ambiguity are highlighted as key concepts in both, economics and sense-making perspectives aligning possible and useful conceptual coincidences among post Keynesian economics (Shackle 1974; Davidson 2005) cultural psychology (Salvatore et al. 2009) and organization theory (March 1978, 1994; Weick 1995). Few ideas for the construction of possible research agenda aimed to build a complex model of decision making are suggested. Finally a brief reflection on the study of underground economy is presented. The challenge for the link between psychology and economics is to figure out a descriptive general model of the process of decision making, perhaps by combining weighted elements of the different ways in which human rationality emerges--calculation, rule following, sense-making--for explaining singular and specific decisions.

  11. The EPICS Trial: Enabling Parents to Increase Child Survival through the introduction of community-based health interventions in rural Guinea Bissau

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Vera; Fazzio, Ila; King, Rebecca; Walker, Polly; dos Santos, Albino; Carlos de Sa, Jose; Jayanti, Chitra; Frost, Chris; Elbourne, Diana; Boone, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background Guinea-Bissau is a small country in West Africa with a population of 1.7 million. The WHO and UNICEF reported an under-five child mortality of 203 per 1000, the 10th highest amongst 192 countries. The aim of the trial is to assess whether an intervention package that includes community health promotion campaign and education through health clubs, intensive training and mentoring of village health workers to diagnose and provide first-line treatment for children's diseases within the community, and improved outreach services can generate a rapid and cost-effective reduction in under-five child mortality in rural regions of Guinea-Bissau. Effective Intervention plans to expand the project to a much larger region if there is good evidence after two and a half years that the project is generating a cost-effective, sustainable reduction in child mortality. Methods/design This trial is a cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 146 clusters. The trial will run for 2.5 years. The interventions will be introduced in two stages: seventy-three clusters will receive the interventions at the start of the project, and seventy-three control clusters will receive the interventions 2.5 years after the first clusters have received all interventions if the research shows that the interventions are effective. The impact of the interventions and cost-effectiveness will be measured during the first stage. The package of interventions includes a community health promotion campaign and education through health clubs, and intensive training and mentoring of village health workers to diagnose and provide first-line treatment for common children's diseases within the community. It also includes improved outreach services to encourage provision of antenatal and post natal care and provide ongoing monitoring for village health workers. The primary outcome of the trial will be the proportion of children that die under 5 years of age during the trial. Secondary outcomes will

  12. Dilemmas of reform: An exploration of science teachers' collective sensemaking of formative assessment practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heredia, Sara Catherine

    Current reform efforts in science education call for significant shifts in how science is taught and learned. Teachers are important gatekeepers for reform, as they must enact these changes with students in their own classrooms. As such, professional development approaches need to be developed and studied to understand how teachers interpret and make instructional plans to implement these reforms. However, traditional approaches to studying implementation of reforms often draw on metrics such as time allotted to new activities, rather than exploring the ways in which teachers make sense of these reforms. In this dissertation I draw upon a body of work called sensemaking that has focused on locating learning in teachers' conversations in departmental work groups. I developed a conceptual and analytic framework to analyze how teachers make sense of reform given their local contexts and then used this framework to perform a case study of one group of teachers that participated in larger professional development project that examined the impact of a learning progression on science teachers' formative assessment practices. I draw upon videotapes of three years of monthly professional development meetings as my primary source of data, and used an ethnographic approach to identify dilemmas surfaced by teachers, sources of ambiguity and uncertainty, and patterns of and resources for teacher sensemaking. The case study reveals relationships between the type of dilemma surfaced by the teachers and different patterns of sensemaking for modification of teaching practices. When teachers expressed concerns about district or administrative requirements, they aligned their work in the professional development to those external forces. In contrast, teachers were able to develop and try out new practices when they perceived coherence between the professional development and school or district initiatives. These results underscore the importance of coherence between various

  13. Exploring the potential of a capability framework as a vision and "sensemaking" tool for leaders of interprofessional education.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Margo

    2016-09-01

    Creating a vision (visioning) and sensemaking have been described as key leadership practices in the leadership literature. A vision provides clarity, motivation, and direction for staff, and is essential particularly in times of significant change. Closely related to visioning is sensemaking (the organisation of stimuli into a framework allowing people to understand, explain, attribute, extrapolate, and predict). The application of these strategies to leadership within the interprofessional field is yet to be scrutinised. This study examines an interprofessional capability framework as a visioning and sensemaking tool for use by leaders within a university health science curriculum. Interviews with 11 faculty members revealed that the framework had been embedded across multiple years and contexts within the curriculum. Furthermore, a range of responses to the framework were evoked in relation to its use to make sense of interprofessional practice and to provide a vision, guide, and focus for faculty. Overall the findings indicate that the framework can function as both a visioning and sensemaking tool. PMID:27314171

  14. Towards Understanding How to Leverage Sense-Making, Induction and Refinement, and Fluency to Improve Robust Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doroudi, Shayan; Holstein, Kenneth; Aleven, Vincent; Brunskill, Emma

    2015-01-01

    The field of EDM has focused more on modeling student knowledge than on investigating what sequences of different activity types achieve good learning outcomes. In this paper we consider three activity types, targeting sense-making, induction and refinement, and fluency building. We investigate what mix of the three types might be most effective…

  15. Students' Meaning-Making and Sense-Making of Vocational Knowledge in Dutch Senior Secondary Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijlsma, Nienke; Schaap, Harmen; de Bruijn, Elly

    2016-01-01

    Meaning-making and sense-making are generally assumed to be part of students' personal vocational knowledge development, since they contribute to both students' socialisation in a vocation and students' personalisation of concepts, values and beliefs regarding that vocation. However, how students in vocational education acquire meaning and make…

  16. The Life Course and Sense-Making: Immigrant Families' Journeys toward Understanding Educational Policies and Choosing Bilingual Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorner, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Implementing policies relies on their design, the will and capacity of implementors, the organizations within which implementation occurs, and individuals' interpretations. Despite the fact that families' decisions are critical to the successful implementation of educational programs, however, few studies examine their sense-making processes.…

  17. Teachers' Implementation of the Coaching Role: Do Teachers' Ownership, Sensemaking, and Agency Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketelaar, Evelien; Beijaard, Douwe; Brok, Perry J.; Boshuizen, Henny P.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether teachers' positioning towards an innovation is related to their implementation of it. Positioning was reflected in terms of teachers' ownership, sensemaking, and agency. The innovation that was of central focus in this study pertained to the changing role of teachers towards a more coaching…

  18. Level of Sense-Making in Children with Autistic Disorder and Intellectual Disability: Patterns of Delay and Deviance in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined levels of sense-making in relation to adaptive functioning and autism symptomatology in low-functioning children with autistic disorder. Thirty-six children with autistic disorder and intellectual disability were compared with 27 children with intellectual disability and 33 typically developing children with a comparable…

  19. Role Identity: At the Intersection of Organizational Socialization and Individual Sensemaking of New Principals and Vice-Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grodzki, John S.

    2011-01-01

    This study of one mid-sized Canadian school district employed a case study approach to uncover and document the influences of organizational socialization, sensemaking, and perceptions of self-efficacy on the development of administrators' role identities. Findings describe formal and informal socialization processes experienced by administrators,…

  20. Borders and Modal Articulations. Semiotic Constructs of Sensemaking Processes Enabling a Fecund Dialogue Between Cultural Psychology and Clinical Psychology.

    PubMed

    De Luca Picione, Raffaele; Freda, Maria Francesca

    2016-03-01

    The notion of the border is an interesting advancement in research on the processes of meaning making within the cultural psychology. The development of this notion in semiotic key allows to handle with adequate complexity construction, transformation, stability and the breakup of the relationship between person/world/otherness. These semiotic implications have already been widely discussed and exposed by authors such Valsiner (2007, 2014), Neuman (2003, 2008), Simão (Culture & Psychology, 9, 449-459, 2003, Theory & Psychology, 15, 549-574, 2005, 2015), with respect to issues of identity/relatedness, inside/outside, stability/change in the irreversible flow of the time. In this work, after showing some of the basics of such semiotic notion of border, we discuss the processes of construction and transformation of borders through the modal articulation, defined as the contextual positioning that the person assumes with respect to the establishment of a boundary in terms of necessity, obligation, willingness, possibility, permission, ability. This modal subjective positioning acquires considerable interest from the clinical point of view since its degree of plasticity vs that of rigidity is the basis of processes of development or stiffening of relations between person/world/otherness.

  1. Borders and Modal Articulations. Semiotic Constructs of Sensemaking Processes Enabling a Fecund Dialogue Between Cultural Psychology and Clinical Psychology.

    PubMed

    De Luca Picione, Raffaele; Freda, Maria Francesca

    2016-03-01

    The notion of the border is an interesting advancement in research on the processes of meaning making within the cultural psychology. The development of this notion in semiotic key allows to handle with adequate complexity construction, transformation, stability and the breakup of the relationship between person/world/otherness. These semiotic implications have already been widely discussed and exposed by authors such Valsiner (2007, 2014), Neuman (2003, 2008), Simão (Culture & Psychology, 9, 449-459, 2003, Theory & Psychology, 15, 549-574, 2005, 2015), with respect to issues of identity/relatedness, inside/outside, stability/change in the irreversible flow of the time. In this work, after showing some of the basics of such semiotic notion of border, we discuss the processes of construction and transformation of borders through the modal articulation, defined as the contextual positioning that the person assumes with respect to the establishment of a boundary in terms of necessity, obligation, willingness, possibility, permission, ability. This modal subjective positioning acquires considerable interest from the clinical point of view since its degree of plasticity vs that of rigidity is the basis of processes of development or stiffening of relations between person/world/otherness. PMID:26149084

  2. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Rehabilitation Enablement in Chronic Heart Failure (REACH-HF) facilitated self-care rehabilitation intervention in heart failure patients and caregivers: rationale and protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, R S; Hayward, C; Eyre, V; Austin, J; Davies, R; Doherty, P; Jolly, K; Wingham, J; Van Lingen, R; Abraham, C; Green, C; Warren, FC; Britten, N; Greaves, C J; Singh, S; Buckingham, S; Paul, K; Dalal, H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Rehabilitation EnAblement in CHronic Heart Failure (REACH-HF) trial is part of a research programme designed to develop and evaluate a health professional facilitated, home-based, self-help rehabilitation intervention to improve self-care and health-related quality of life in people with heart failure and their caregivers. The trial will assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the REACH-HF intervention in patients with systolic heart failure and impact on the outcomes of their caregivers. Methods and analysis A parallel two group randomised controlled trial with 1:1 individual allocation to the REACH-HF intervention plus usual care (intervention group) or usual care alone (control group) in 216 patients with systolic heart failure (ejection fraction <45%) and their caregivers. The intervention comprises a self-help manual delivered by specially trained facilitators over a 12-week period. The primary outcome measure is patients’ disease-specific health-related quality of life measured using the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire at 12 months’ follow-up. Secondary outcomes include survival and heart failure related hospitalisation, blood biomarkers, psychological well-being, exercise capacity, physical activity, other measures of quality of life, patient safety and the quality of life, psychological well-being and perceived burden of caregivers at 4, 6 and 12 months’ follow-up. A process evaluation will assess fidelity of intervention delivery and explore potential mediators and moderators of changes in health-related quality of life in intervention and control group patients. Qualitative studies will describe patient and caregiver experiences of the intervention. An economic evaluation will estimate the cost-effectiveness of the REACH-HF intervention plus usual care versus usual care alone in patients with systolic heart failure. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the North West

  3. Sense-making for intelligence analysis on social media data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritzkau, Albert

    2016-05-01

    Social networks, in particular online social networks as a subset, enable the analysis of social relationships which are represented by interaction, collaboration, or other sorts of influence between people. Any set of people and their internal social relationships can be modelled as a general social graph. These relationships are formed by exchanging emails, making phone calls, or carrying out a range of other activities that build up the network. This paper presents an overview of current approaches to utilizing social media as a ubiquitous sensor network in the context of national and global security. Exploitation of social media is usually an interdisciplinary endeavour, in which the relevant technologies and methods are identified and linked in order ultimately demonstrate selected applications. Effective and efficient intelligence is usually accomplished in a combined human and computer effort. Indeed, the intelligence process heavily depends on combining a human's flexibility, creativity, and cognitive ability with the bandwidth and processing power of today's computers. To improve the usability and accuracy of the intelligence analysis we will have to rely on data-processing tools at the level of natural language. Especially the collection and transformation of unstructured data into actionable, structured data requires scalable computational algorithms ranging from Artificial Intelligence, via Machine Learning, to Natural Language Processing (NLP). To support intelligence analysis on social media data, social media analytics is concerned with developing and evaluating computational tools and frameworks to collect, monitor, analyze, summarize, and visualize social media data. Analytics methods are employed to extract of significant patterns that might not be obvious. As a result, different data representations rendering distinct aspects of content and interactions serve as a means to adapt the focus of the intelligence analysis to specific information

  4. A metaphor analysis of recovering substance abusers' sensemaking of medication-assisted treatment.

    PubMed

    Malvini Redden, Shawna; Tracy, Sarah J; Shafer, Michael S

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we examined metaphors invoked by people recovering from opioid dependence as they described the challenges and successes of using medication-assisted treatment. Metaphors provide linguistic tools for expressing issues that are confusing, complex, hidden, and difficult to state analytically or literally. Using data from eight focus groups with 68 participants representing four ethnic minority groups, we conducted a grounded analysis to show how recovering substance users communicatively constructed addiction and recovery. The primary medication, methadone, was framed as "liquid handcuffs" that allowed those in recovery to quit "hustling," get "straight," and find "money in their pockets." Nonetheless, methadone also served as a "crutch," leaving them still feeling like "users" with "habits" who "came up dirty" to friends and family. In this analysis, we tease out implications of these metaphors, and how they shed light on sensemaking, agency, and related racial- and class-based structural challenges in substance abuse recovery.

  5. Large High Resolution Displays for Co-Located Collaborative Sensemaking: Display Usage and Territoriality

    SciTech Connect

    Bradel, Lauren; Endert, Alexander; Koch, Kristen; Andrews, Christopher; North, Chris

    2013-08-01

    Large, high-resolution vertical displays carry the potential to increase the accuracy of collaborative sensemaking, given correctly designed visual analytics tools. From an exploratory user study using a fictional textual intelligence analysis task, we investigated how users interact with the display to construct spatial schemas and externalize information, as well as how they establish shared and private territories. We investigated the space management strategies of users partitioned by type of tool philosophy followed (visualization- or text-centric). We classified the types of territorial behavior exhibited in terms of how the users interacted with information on the display (integrated or independent workspaces). Next, we examined how territorial behavior impacted the common ground between the pairs of users. Finally, we offer design suggestions for building future co-located collaborative visual analytics tools specifically for use on large, high-resolution vertical displays.

  6. Combining computational analyses and interactive visualization for document exploration and sensemaking in jigsaw.

    PubMed

    Görg, Carsten; Liu, Zhicheng; Kihm, Jaeyeon; Choo, Jaegul; Park, Haesun; Stasko, John

    2013-10-01

    Investigators across many disciplines and organizations must sift through large collections of text documents to understand and piece together information. Whether they are fighting crime, curing diseases, deciding what car to buy, or researching a new field, inevitably investigators will encounter text documents. Taking a visual analytics approach, we integrate multiple text analysis algorithms with a suite of interactive visualizations to provide a flexible and powerful environment that allows analysts to explore collections of documents while sensemaking. Our particular focus is on the process of integrating automated analyses with interactive visualizations in a smooth and fluid manner. We illustrate this integration through two example scenarios: an academic researcher examining InfoVis and VAST conference papers and a consumer exploring car reviews while pondering a purchase decision. Finally, we provide lessons learned toward the design and implementation of visual analytics systems for document exploration and understanding.

  7. Examining the Use of a Visual Analytics System for Sensemaking Tasks: Case Studies with Domain Experts.

    PubMed

    Kang, Youn-Ah; Stasko, J

    2012-12-01

    While the formal evaluation of systems in visual analytics is still relatively uncommon, particularly rare are case studies of prolonged system use by domain analysts working with their own data. Conducting case studies can be challenging, but it can be a particularly effective way to examine whether visual analytics systems are truly helping expert users to accomplish their goals. We studied the use of a visual analytics system for sensemaking tasks on documents by six analysts from a variety of domains. We describe their application of the system along with the benefits, issues, and problems that we uncovered. Findings from the studies identify features that visual analytics systems should emphasize as well as missing capabilities that should be addressed. These findings inform design implications for future systems.

  8. Application of a Sensemaking Approach to Ethics Training in the Physical Sciences and Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kligyte, Vykinta; Marcy, Richard T.; Waples, Ethan P.; Sevier, Sydney T.; Godfrey, Elaine S.; Mumford, Michael D.; Hougen, Dean F.

    2008-06-01

    Integrity is a critical determinant of the effectiveness of research organizations in terms of producing high quality research and educating the new generation of scientists. A number of responsible conduct of research (RCR) training programs have been developed to address this growing organizational concern. However, in spite of a significant body of research in ethics training, it is still unknown which approach has the highest potential to enhance researchers' integrity. One of the approaches showing some promise in improving researchers' integrity has focused on the development of ethical decision-making skills. The current effort proposes a novel curriculum that focuses on broad metacognitive reasoning strategies researchers use when making sense of day-to-day social and professional practices that have ethical implications for the physical sciences and engineering. This sensemaking training has been implemented in a professional sample of scientists conducting research in electrical engineering, atmospheric and computer sciences at a large multi-cultural, multi-disciplinary, and multi-university research center. A pre-post design was used to assess training effectiveness using scenario-based ethical decision-making measures. The training resulted in enhanced ethical decision-making of researchers in relation to four ethical conduct areas, namely data management, study conduct, professional practices, and business practices. In addition, sensemaking training led to researchers' preference for decisions involving the application of the broad metacognitive reasoning strategies. Individual trainee and training characteristics were used to explain the study findings. Broad implications of the findings for ethics training development, implementation, and evaluation in the sciences are discussed.

  9. Application of a sensemaking approach to ethics training in the physical sciences and engineering.

    PubMed

    Kligyte, Vykinta; Marcy, Richard T; Waples, Ethan P; Sevier, Sydney T; Godfrey, Elaine S; Mumford, Michael D; Hougen, Dean F

    2008-06-01

    Integrity is a critical determinant of the effectiveness of research organizations in terms of producing high quality research and educating the new generation of scientists. A number of responsible conduct of research (RCR) training programs have been developed to address this growing organizational concern. However, in spite of a significant body of research in ethics training, it is still unknown which approach has the highest potential to enhance researchers' integrity. One of the approaches showing some promise in improving researchers' integrity has focused on the development of ethical decision-making skills. The current effort proposes a novel curriculum that focuses on broad metacognitive reasoning strategies researchers use when making sense of day-to-day social and professional practices that have ethical implications for the physical sciences and engineering. This sensemaking training has been implemented in a professional sample of scientists conducting research in electrical engineering, atmospheric and computer sciences at a large multi-cultural, multi-disciplinary, and multi-university research center. A pre-post design was used to assess training effectiveness using scenario-based ethical decision-making measures. The training resulted in enhanced ethical decision-making of researchers in relation to four ethical conduct areas, namely data management, study conduct, professional practices, and business practices. In addition, sensemaking training led to researchers' preference for decisions involving the application of the broad metacognitive reasoning strategies. Individual trainee and training characteristics were used to explain the study findings. Broad implications of the findings for ethics training development, implementation, and evaluation in the sciences are discussed.

  10. Teacher sense-making and policy implementation: A qualitative case study of a school system's reading initiative in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, John R.

    In response to the No Child Left Behind federal legislation and Maryland's Bridge to Excellence Act, a school district created a strategic plan that included a program initiative for improving student reading scores in secondary schools. The initiative involved the implementation of Reading Apprenticeship, a program that required content teachers to infuse reading instruction into their practice by modeling reading behaviors and utilizing tools designed to promote metacognitive conversations with their students. This qualitative case study used a cognitive perspective to explore the sense-making of a team of middle school science teachers who received training in and sought to implement the program in their instructional practice during the 2004--2005 school year. The findings revealed that policy implementation varied for the different members of the team and was adversely affected by conflict with other policies and resistance by students. At the same time, policy implementation was enhanced by participation in the communities of practice associated with the initiative. Implications from the study advocate that school districts actively engage in sense-making activities and support communities of practice that are established when new policy measures are introduced. The study calls for further research on how students receive policy and how they shape their teachers' sense-making. This study contributed to the sparse body of literature in this arena of policy implementation research.

  11. Empowering Prospective Teachers to Become Active Sense-Makers: Multimodal Modeling of the Seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Mi Song

    2015-10-01

    Situating science concepts in concrete and authentic contexts, using information and communications technologies, including multimodal modeling tools, is important for promoting the development of higher-order thinking skills in learners. However, teachers often struggle to integrate emergent multimodal models into a technology-rich informal learning environment. Our design-based research co-designs and develops engaging, immersive, and interactive informal learning activities called "Embodied Modeling-Mediated Activities" (EMMA) to support not only Singaporean learners' deep learning of astronomy but also the capacity of teachers. As part of the research on EMMA, this case study describes two prospective teachers' co-design processes involving multimodal models for teaching and learning the concept of the seasons in a technology-rich informal learning setting. Our study uncovers four prominent themes emerging from our data concerning the contextualized nature of learning and teaching involving multimodal models in informal learning contexts: (1) promoting communication and emerging questions, (2) offering affordances through limitations, (3) explaining one concept involving multiple concepts, and (4) integrating teaching and learning experiences. This study has an implication for the development of a pedagogical framework for teaching and learning in technology-enhanced learning environments—that is empowering teachers to become active sense-makers using multimodal models.

  12. A sensemaking perspective on framing the mental picture of air traffic controllers.

    PubMed

    Malakis, Stathis; Kontogiannis, Tom

    2013-03-01

    It has long been recognized that controller strategies are based on a 'mental picture' or representation of traffic situations. Earlier studies indicated that controllers tend to maintain a selective representation of traffic flows based on a few salient traffic features that point out to interesting events (e.g., potential conflicts). A field study is presented in this paper that examines salient features or 'knowledge variables' that constitute the building blocks of controller mental pictures. Verbal reports from participants, a field experiment and observations of real-life scenarios provided insights into the cognitive processes that shape and reframe the mental pictures of controllers. Several cognitive processes (i.e., problem detection, elaboration, reframing and replanning) have been explored within a particular framework of sensemaking stemming from the data/frame theory (Klein et al., 2007). Cognitive maps, representing standard and non-standard air traffic flows, emerged as an explanatory framework for making sense of traffic patterns and for reframing mental pictures. The data/frame theory proved to be a useful theoretical tool for investigating complex cognitive phenomena. The findings of the study have implications for the design of training curricula and decision support systems in air traffic control systems.

  13. Find an Interventional Radiologist

    MedlinePlus

    ... are administered by the American Board of Radiology. Innovation and Patient Safety Interventional Radiologists are Experts in ... Safety Interventional radiologists' unique blend of skills fosters innovation and enables them to quickly adapt their imaging ...

  14. "I Tolerate Technology--I Don't Embrace It": Instructor Surprise and Sensemaking in a Technology-Rich Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Jennifer L.; Meiners, Eric B.; Violette, Jayne L.

    2016-01-01

    Assuming a dialectical approach to technology and pedagogy, this study explores sensemaking processes for instructors teaching in a technologically enhanced college classroom environment. Through a series of semi-structured individual and group interviews, seven instructors provided narrative accounts of the problems encountered with progressive…

  15. Dynamic social representations of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic: Shifting patterns of sense-making and blame.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Eric; Eicher, Véronique; Bangerter, Adrian; Gilles, Ingrid; Clémence, Alain; Green, Eva G T

    2013-11-01

    We investigate dynamics of public perceptions of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic to understand changing patterns of sense-making and blame regarding the outbreak of emerging infectious diseases. We draw on social representation theory combined with a dramaturgical perspective to identify changes in how various collectives are depicted over the course of the pandemic, according to three roles: heroes, villains and victims. Quantitative results based on content analysis of three cross-sectional waves of interviews show a shift from mentions of distant collectives (e.g., far-flung countries) at Wave 1 to local collectives (e.g., risk groups) as the pandemic became of more immediate concern (Wave 2) and declined (Wave 3). Semi-automated content analysis of media coverage shows similar results. Thematic analyses of the discourse associated with collectives revealed that many were consistently perceived as heroes, villains and victims.

  16. Dynamics of human categorization in a collaborative tagging system: How social processes of semantic stabilization shape individual sensemaking

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Tobias; Seitlinger, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We study how categories form and develop over time in a sensemaking task by groups of students employing a collaborative tagging system. In line with distributed cognition theories, we look at both the tags students use and their strength of representation in memory. We hypothesize that categories get more differentiated over time as students learn, and that semantic stabilization on the group level (i.e. the convergence in the use of tags) mediates this relationship. Results of a field experiment that tested the impact of topic study duration on the specificity of tags confirms these hypotheses, although it was not study duration that produced this effect, but rather the effectiveness of the collaborative taxonomy the groups built. In the groups with higher levels of semantic stabilization, we found use of more specific tags and better representation in memory. We discuss these findings with regard to the important role of the information value of tags that would drive both the convergence on the group level as well as a shift to more specific levels of categorization. We also discuss the implication for cognitive science research by highlighting the importance of collaboratively built artefacts in the process of how knowledge is acquired, and implications for educational applications of collaborative tagging environments. PMID:26566299

  17. Outcomes from Enabling Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Oanh; Ball, Katrina

    The outcomes of enabling courses offered in Australia's vocational education and training (VET) sector were examined. "Enabling course" was defined as lower-level preparatory and prevocational courses covering a wide range of areas, including remedial education, bridging courses, precertificate courses, and general employment preparation courses.…

  18. Technology Enabled Learning. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers on technology-enabled learning and human resource development. Among results found in "Current State of Technology-enabled Learning Programs in Select Federal Government Organizations: a Case Study of Ten Organizations" (Letitia A. Combs) are the following: the dominant delivery method is traditional…

  19. Physician Enabling Skills Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Hudon, Catherine; Lambert, Mireille; Almirall, José

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the reliability and validity of the newly developed Physician Enabling Skills Questionnaire (PESQ) by assessing its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity with patient-centred care, and predictive validity with patient activation and patient enablement. Design Validation study. Setting Saguenay, Que. Participants One hundred patients with at least 1 chronic disease who presented in a waiting room of a regional health centre family medicine unit. Main outcome measures Family physicians’ enabling skills, measured with the PESQ at 2 points in time (ie, while in the waiting room at the family medicine unit and 2 weeks later through a mail survey); patient-centred care, assessed with the Patient Perception of Patient-Centredness instrument; patient activation, assessed with the Patient Activation Measure; and patient enablement, assessed with the Patient Enablement Instrument. Results The internal consistency of the 6 subscales of the PESQ was adequate (Cronbach α = .69 to .92). The test-retest reliability was very good (r = 0.90; 95% CI 0.84 to 0.93). Concurrent validity with the Patient Perception of Patient-Centredness instrument was good (r = −0.67; 95% CI −0.78 to −0.53; P < .001). The PESQ accounts for 11% of the total variance with the Patient Activation Measure (r2 = 0.11; P = .002) and 19% of the variance with the Patient Enablement Instrument (r2 = 0.19; P < .001). Conclusion The newly developed PESQ presents good psychometric properties, allowing for its use in practice and research. PMID:26889507

  20. Dust control for Enabler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, Kevin; Karl, Chad; Litherland, Mark; Ritchie, David; Sun, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    The dust control group designed a system to restrict dust that is disturbed by the Enabler during its operation from interfering with astronaut or camera visibility. This design also considers the many different wheel positions made possible through the use of artinuation joints that provide the steering and wheel pitching for the Enabler. The system uses a combination of brushes and fenders to restrict the dust when the vehicle is moving in either direction and in a turn. This design also allows for each of maintenance as well as accessibility of the remainder of the vehicle.

  1. Dust control for Enabler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, Kevin; Karl, Chad; Litherland, Mark; Ritchie, David; Sun, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    The dust control group designed a system to restrict dust that is disturbed by the Enabler during its operation from interfering with astronaut or camera visibility. This design also considers the many different wheel positions made possible through the use of artinuation joints that provide the steering and wheel pitching for the Enabler. The system uses a combination of brushes and fenders to restrict the dust when the vehicle is moving in either direction and in a turn. This design also allows for ease of maintenance as well as accessibility of the remainder of the vehicle.

  2. Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

    2012-07-02

    Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

  3. Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema

    Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

    2016-07-12

    Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

  4. Enabling Wind Power Nationwide

    SciTech Connect

    Jose, Zayas; Michael, Derby; Patrick, Gilman; Ananthan, Shreyas; Lantz, Eric; Cotrell, Jason; Beck, Fredic; Tusing, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Leveraging this experience, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office has evaluated the potential for wind power to generate electricity in all 50 states. This report analyzes and quantifies the geographic expansion that could be enabled by accessing higher above ground heights for wind turbines and considers the means by which this new potential could be responsibly developed.

  5. Teachers' sense-making of curriculum structures and its impact on the implementation of an innovative reform-based science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckford-Smart, Meredith

    This study discusses the social interactions involved in teachers' enactment and use of new science curricula. The teachers studied participated in the LiFE program, a university-school partnership, which is an inquiry based science and nutrition education program. In this program fifth and sixth grade students learned science through the study of food. The program used the study of food and food systems to teach life sciences and nutrition through inquiry based studies. Through the partnership teachers received professional development which aimed to deepen their conceptual understandings of life science and develop skills in implementing inquiry-base teaching. Using qualitative research methods of ethnography and narrative inquiry to study teachers' sense-making of messages from curriculum structures, the intention was to explore how teachers' sense-making of these structures guided their classroom practices. Two research questions were addressed: (a) How do teachers make sense of curriculum given their perceptions, their school context and their curricular context; (b) What influence do their identities as science teachers/learners have on their enactment of an innovative science curriculum. I used comparative analysis to examine teacher's beliefs and identities as teachers/learners. In the process of studying these teachers an understanding of how teachers' stories and identities shape their use and enactment of science curriculum came to light. The initial analysis revealed four distinct teacher identities: (a) social responsibility teacher/learner; (b) experiential teacher/learner; (c) supportive institution teacher/learner; and (d) turning point teacher. Besides these distinct teacher identities three cross cutting themes emerged: (a) creating environments conducive to their teaching visions; (b) empowering student through science teaching; and (c) dealing with the uncertainty of teaching. The information gathered from this study will illuminate how these

  6. Smart Grid Enabled EVSE

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-10-15

    The combined team of GE Global Research, Federal Express, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Consolidated Edison has successfully achieved the established goals contained within the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment funding opportunity. The final program product, shown charging two vehicles in Figure 1, reduces by nearly 50% the total installed system cost of the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) as well as enabling a host of new Smart Grid enabled features. These include bi-directional communications, load control, utility message exchange and transaction management information. Using the new charging system, Utilities or energy service providers will now be able to monitor transportation related electrical loads on their distribution networks, send load control commands or preferences to individual systems, and then see measured responses. Installation owners will be able to authorize usage of the stations, monitor operations, and optimally control their electricity consumption. These features and cost reductions have been developed through a total system design solution.

  7. Enabling graphene nanoelectronics.

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei; Ohta, Taisuke; Biedermann, Laura Butler; Gutierrez, Carlos; Nolen, C. M.; Howell, Stephen Wayne; Beechem Iii, Thomas Edwin; McCarty, Kevin F.; Ross, Anthony Joseph, III

    2011-09-01

    Recent work has shown that graphene, a 2D electronic material amenable to the planar semiconductor fabrication processing, possesses tunable electronic material properties potentially far superior to metals and other standard semiconductors. Despite its phenomenal electronic properties, focused research is still required to develop techniques for depositing and synthesizing graphene over large areas, thereby enabling the reproducible mass-fabrication of graphene-based devices. To address these issues, we combined an array of growth approaches and characterization resources to investigate several innovative and synergistic approaches for the synthesis of high quality graphene films on technologically relevant substrate (SiC and metals). Our work focused on developing the fundamental scientific understanding necessary to generate large-area graphene films that exhibit highly uniform electronic properties and record carrier mobility, as well as developing techniques to transfer graphene onto other substrates.

  8. Enabling immersive simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Josh; Mateas, Michael; Hart, Derek H.; Whetzel, Jonathan; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Glickman, Matthew R.; Abbott, Robert G.

    2009-02-01

    The object of the 'Enabling Immersive Simulation for Complex Systems Analysis and Training' LDRD has been to research, design, and engineer a capability to develop simulations which (1) provide a rich, immersive interface for participation by real humans (exploiting existing high-performance game-engine technology wherever possible), and (2) can leverage Sandia's substantial investment in high-fidelity physical and cognitive models implemented in the Umbra simulation framework. We report here on these efforts. First, we describe the integration of Sandia's Umbra modular simulation framework with the open-source Delta3D game engine. Next, we report on Umbra's integration with Sandia's Cognitive Foundry, specifically to provide for learning behaviors for 'virtual teammates' directly from observed human behavior. Finally, we describe the integration of Delta3D with the ABL behavior engine, and report on research into establishing the theoretical framework that will be required to make use of tools like ABL to scale up to increasingly rich and realistic virtual characters.

  9. Displays enabling mobile multimedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmel, Jyrki

    2007-02-01

    With the rapid advances in telecommunications networks, mobile multimedia delivery to handsets is now a reality. While a truly immersive multimedia experience is still far ahead in the mobile world, significant advances have been made in the constituent audio-visual technologies to make this become possible. One of the critical components in multimedia delivery is the mobile handset display. While such alternatives as headset-style near-to-eye displays, autostereoscopic displays, mini-projectors, and roll-out flexible displays can deliver either a larger virtual screen size than the pocketable dimensions of the mobile device can offer, or an added degree of immersion by adding the illusion of the third dimension in the viewing experience, there are still challenges in the full deployment of such displays in real-life mobile communication terminals. Meanwhile, direct-view display technologies have developed steadily, and can provide a development platform for an even better viewing experience for multimedia in the near future. The paper presents an overview of the mobile display technology space with an emphasis on the advances and potential in developing direct-view displays further to meet the goal of enabling multimedia in the mobile domain.

  10. Enabling responsible public genomics.

    PubMed

    Conley, John M; Doerr, Adam K; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    As scientific understandings of genetics advance, researchers require increasingly rich datasets that combine genomic data from large numbers of individuals with medical and other personal information. Linking individuals' genetic data and personal information precludes anonymity and produces medically significant information--a result not contemplated by the established legal and ethical conventions governing human genomic research. To pursue the next generation of human genomic research and commerce in a responsible fashion, scientists, lawyers, and regulators must address substantial new issues, including researchers' duties with respect to clinically significant data, the challenges to privacy presented by genomic data, the boundary between genomic research and commerce, and the practice of medicine. This Article presents a new model for understanding and addressing these new challenges--a "public genomics" premised on the idea that ethically, legally, and socially responsible genomics research requires openness, not privacy, as its organizing principle. Responsible public genomics combines the data contributed by informed and fully consenting information altruists and the research potential of rich datasets in a genomic commons that is freely and globally available. This Article examines the risks and benefits of this public genomics model in the context of an ambitious genetic research project currently under way--the Personal Genome Project. This Article also (i) demonstrates that large-scale genomic projects are desirable, (ii) evaluates the risks and challenges presented by public genomics research, and (iii) determines that the current legal and regulatory regimes restrict beneficial and responsible scientific inquiry while failing to adequately protect participants. The Article concludes by proposing a modified normative and legal framework that embraces and enables a future of responsible public genomics.

  11. FOILFEST :community enabled security.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Johnson, Curtis Martin; Whitley, John B.; Drayer, Darryl Donald; Cummings, John C., Jr.

    2005-09-01

    The Advanced Concepts Group of Sandia National Laboratories hosted a workshop, ''FOILFest: Community Enabled Security'', on July 18-21, 2005, in Albuquerque, NM. This was a far-reaching look into the future of physical protection consisting of a series of structured brainstorming sessions focused on preventing and foiling attacks on public places and soft targets such as airports, shopping malls, hotels, and public events. These facilities are difficult to protect using traditional security devices since they could easily be pushed out of business through the addition of arduous and expensive security measures. The idea behind this Fest was to explore how the public, which is vital to the function of these institutions, can be leveraged as part of a physical protection system. The workshop considered procedures, space design, and approaches for building community through technology. The workshop explored ways to make the ''good guys'' in public places feel safe and be vigilant while making potential perpetrators of harm feel exposed and convinced that they will not succeed. Participants in the Fest included operators of public places, social scientists, technology experts, representatives of government agencies including DHS and the intelligence community, writers and media experts. Many innovative ideas were explored during the fest with most of the time spent on airports, including consideration of the local airport, the Albuquerque Sunport. Some provocative ideas included: (1) sniffers installed in passage areas like revolving door, escalators, (2) a ''jumbotron'' showing current camera shots in the public space, (3) transparent portal screeners allowing viewing of the screening, (4) a layered open/funnel/open/funnel design where open spaces are used to encourage a sense of ''communitas'' and take advantage of citizen ''sensing'' and funnels are technological tunnels of sensors (the tunnels of truth), (5) curved benches with blast proof walls or backs, (6

  12. Interventional radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    This reference gives a step-by-step presentation of the elements of interventional radiology. CONTENTS: Introduction; Radiation protection; Embolotherapy; Interventional techniques in the management of gastrointestinal bleeding; Transluminal angioplasty; Thrombolytic therapy; Foreign body removal; Inferior vena cava filter placement; Percutaneous uroradiologic techniques; Interventional techniques in the biliary tract; Nonvascular gastrointestinal tract dilations; Percutaneous biopsy techniques; Drainage of abscess fluid collections in the abdomen.

  13. [Crisis intervention].

    PubMed

    Stein, Claudius

    2012-01-01

    The Austrian Program for Suicide Prevention defines as Point 2: "Support and treatment". The suicide-preventive outcome of the development of psychotherapeutic-psychosocial care in Austria has been proved. This means, that the further development of institutions with focus on crisis intervention is a central agenda of Suicide prevention Austria (SUPRA). First, in this article are defined the terms crisis and crisis intervention, also the close connection to programs of suicide prevention is pointed out. Furthermore general aims and standards for crisis intervention are defined and the current situation of crisis intervention in Austria is described. Finally recommendations for practical aims and their implementation in the context of SUPRA are made.

  14. Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on early intervention. The four articles presented on this theme are: (1) "Deaf Infants, Hearing Mothers: A Research Report" (Kathryn P. Meadow-Orlans, and others), reporting findings on effects of auditory loss on early development; (2) "Maintaining Involvement of Inner City Families in Early Intervention Programs through…

  15. Interventional CMR: Clinical Applications and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Toby

    2015-01-01

    Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance (iCMR) promises to enable radiation-free catheterization procedures and to enhance contemporary image guidance for structural heart and electrophysiological interventions. However, clinical translation of exciting pre-clinical interventions has been limited by availability of devices that are safe to use in the magnetic resonance (MR) environment. We discuss challenges and solutions for clinical translation, including MR-conditional and MR-safe device design, and how to configure an interventional suite. We review the recent advances that have already enabled diagnostic MR right heart catheterization and simple electrophysiologic ablation to be performed in humans and explore future clinical applications. PMID:25894793

  16. Enabling Space Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, William J.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation on enabling space science and exploration covers the following topics: 1) Today s Deep Space Network; 2) Next Generation Deep Space Network; 3) Needed technologies; 4) Mission IT and networking; and 5) Multi-mission operations.

  17. Computer Security Systems Enable Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Gary

    1989-01-01

    A good security system enables access and protects information from damage or tampering, but the most important aspects of a security system aren't technical. A security procedures manual addresses the human element of computer security. (MLW)

  18. Ureteral Interventions.

    PubMed

    Herr, Allen; Malhotra, Anuj; White, Mark; Siskin, Gary

    2016-09-01

    Interventional radiologists are commonly called upon to manage patients with benign and malignant ureteral pathologic conditions. Unfortunately, treatments for both cure and palliation can be fraught with problems causing patients to be undesirably maintained with lifelong catheters. This review describes outcomes for antegrade and retrograde therapeutic options and techniques for patients with most types of ureteral pathologic conditions that the interventional radiologist would encounter in practice. PMID:27641452

  19. Intervention Methods Keep the Group on Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmston, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses some strategies and principles of intervention that will lead to a more effective group behavior and enable the group to be proactive about improving its work. The author also discusses some of the common challenges and reliable interventions faced by a facilitator: (1) Redirect conversational altitudes; (2) Correct problems…

  20. Interventional radiology neck procedures.

    PubMed

    Zabala Landa, R M; Korta Gómez, I; Del Cura Rodríguez, J L

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasonography has become extremely useful in the evaluation of masses in the head and neck. It enables us to determine the anatomic location of the masses as well as the characteristics of the tissues that compose them, thus making it possible to orient the differential diagnosis toward inflammatory, neoplastic, congenital, traumatic, or vascular lesions, although it is necessary to use computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging to determine the complete extension of certain lesions. The growing range of interventional procedures, mostly guided by ultrasonography, now includes biopsies, drainages, infiltrations, sclerosing treatments, and tumor ablation. PMID:27138033

  1. Interventional radiology neck procedures.

    PubMed

    Zabala Landa, R M; Korta Gómez, I; Del Cura Rodríguez, J L

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasonography has become extremely useful in the evaluation of masses in the head and neck. It enables us to determine the anatomic location of the masses as well as the characteristics of the tissues that compose them, thus making it possible to orient the differential diagnosis toward inflammatory, neoplastic, congenital, traumatic, or vascular lesions, although it is necessary to use computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging to determine the complete extension of certain lesions. The growing range of interventional procedures, mostly guided by ultrasonography, now includes biopsies, drainages, infiltrations, sclerosing treatments, and tumor ablation.

  2. Enabling the Differently-Abled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pal, Sonali

    2009-01-01

    It is perhaps unfortunate that enabling technologies do not come with an "ability warning", as they generally require the user to already have acquired a certain level of IT skills, in a similar way that online courses require users to have a certain level of prior IT knowledge. Accessing a computer and making the most of e-learning…

  3. Enable: Developing Instructional Language Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Beth

    The program presented in this manual provides a structure and activities for systematic development of effective listening comprehension in typical and atypical children. The complete ENABLE kit comes with pictures, cut-outs, and puppets to illustrate the directives, questions, and narrative activities. The manual includes an organizational and…

  4. Family intervention for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Pharoah, Fiona; Mari, Jair; Rathbone, John; Wong, Winson

    2014-01-01

    expressed emotion within the family. We did not find data to suggest that family intervention either prevents or promotes suicide. Authors’ conclusions Family intervention may reduce the number of relapse events and hospitalisations and would therefore be of interest to people with schizophrenia, clinicians and policy makers. However, the treatment effects of these trials may be overestimated due to the poor methodological quality. Further data from trials that describe the methods of randomisation, test the blindness of the study evaluators, and implement the CONSORT guidelines would enable greater confidence in these findings. PMID:21154340

  5. Spinal interventions.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Santiago, F; Filippiadis, D K; Guzmán Álvarez, L; Martínez Martínez, A; Castellano, M M

    2016-04-01

    We review the state of the art in imaging-guided percutaneous interventional procedures used to diagnose and/or treat the diverse causes of back pain. These procedures can be used for diagnosis, treatment, or both. They are focused on the vertebral bodies, the facet joints, the intervertebral discs, and the nerve structures. PMID:26778583

  6. Spinal interventions.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Santiago, F; Filippiadis, D K; Guzmán Álvarez, L; Martínez Martínez, A; Castellano, M M

    2016-04-01

    We review the state of the art in imaging-guided percutaneous interventional procedures used to diagnose and/or treat the diverse causes of back pain. These procedures can be used for diagnosis, treatment, or both. They are focused on the vertebral bodies, the facet joints, the intervertebral discs, and the nerve structures.

  7. Technologies for Networked Enabled Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B.; Levine, J.

    2005-01-01

    Current point-to-point data links will not scale to support future integration of surveillance, security, and globally-distributed air traffic data, and already hinders efficiency and capacity. While the FAA and industry focus on a transition to initial system-wide information management (SWIM) capabilities, this paper describes a set of initial studies of NAS network-enabled operations technology gaps targeted for maturity in later SWIM spirals (201 5-2020 timeframe).

  8. Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC

    2012-06-28

    A recently proposed concept of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) FEL uses two laser modulators in combination with two dispersion sections to generate a high-harmonic density modulation in a relativistic beam. This seeding technique holds promise of a one-stage soft x-ray FEL that radiates not only transversely but also longitudinally coherent pulses. Currently, an experimental verification of the concept is being conducted at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory aimed at the demonstration of the EEHG.

  9. Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, Gennady

    2010-08-25

    A recently proposed concept of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) FEL uses two laser modulators in combination with two dispersion sections to generate a high-harmonic density modulation in a relativistic beam. This seeding technique holds promise of a one-stage soft x-ray FEL that radiates not only transversely but also longitudinally coherent pulses. Currently, an experimental verification of the concept is being conducted at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory aimed at the demonstration of the EEHG.

  10. MEMS: Enabled Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Angelica; Sheybani, Roya; Meng, Ellis

    2015-05-01

    Drug delivery systems play a crucial role in the treatment and management of medical conditions. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies have allowed the development of advanced miniaturized devices for medical and biological applications. This Review presents the use of MEMS technologies to produce drug delivery devices detailing the delivery mechanisms, device formats employed, and various biomedical applications. The integration of dosing control systems, examples of commercially available microtechnology-enabled drug delivery devices, remaining challenges, and future outlook are also discussed.

  11. New Generation Sensor Web Enablement

    PubMed Central

    Bröring, Arne; Echterhoff, Johannes; Jirka, Simon; Simonis, Ingo; Everding, Thomas; Stasch, Christoph; Liang, Steve; Lemmens, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Many sensor networks have been deployed to monitor Earth’s environment, and more will follow in the future. Environmental sensors have improved continuously by becoming smaller, cheaper, and more intelligent. Due to the large number of sensor manufacturers and differing accompanying protocols, integrating diverse sensors into observation systems is not straightforward. A coherent infrastructure is needed to treat sensors in an interoperable, platform-independent and uniform way. The concept of the Sensor Web reflects such a kind of infrastructure for sharing, finding, and accessing sensors and their data across different applications. It hides the heterogeneous sensor hardware and communication protocols from the applications built on top of it. The Sensor Web Enablement initiative of the Open Geospatial Consortium standardizes web service interfaces and data encodings which can be used as building blocks for a Sensor Web. This article illustrates and analyzes the recent developments of the new generation of the Sensor Web Enablement specification framework. Further, we relate the Sensor Web to other emerging concepts such as the Web of Things and point out challenges and resulting future work topics for research on Sensor Web Enablement. PMID:22163760

  12. [Interventional ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Blázquez Sánchez, N; Fernández Canedo, I; Valdés Vilches, L; de Troya Martín, M

    2015-11-01

    High-frequency ultrasound has become increasingly used in dermatology. This technique is accessible, non-invasive, and rapid and provides information in real time. Consequently, it has become of great diagnostic value in dermatology. However, high-frequency ultrasound also has a promising future as a complementary technique in interventional diagnostic procedures, even though its application in this field has been little studied by dermatologists. PMID:26895944

  13. Optimized microsystems-enabled photovoltaics

    DOEpatents

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Nielson, Gregory N.; Young, Ralph W.; Resnick, Paul J.; Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-22

    Technologies pertaining to designing microsystems-enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) cells are described herein. A first restriction for a first parameter of an MEPV cell is received. Subsequently, a selection of a second parameter of the MEPV cell is received. Values for a plurality of parameters of the MEPV cell are computed such that the MEPV cell is optimized with respect to the second parameter, wherein the values for the plurality of parameters are computed based at least in part upon the restriction for the first parameter.

  14. Nanomaterial-Enabled Neural Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongchen; Guo, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Neural stimulation is a critical technique in treating neurological diseases and investigating brain functions. Traditional electrical stimulation uses electrodes to directly create intervening electric fields in the immediate vicinity of neural tissues. Second-generation stimulation techniques directly use light, magnetic fields or ultrasound in a non-contact manner. An emerging generation of non- or minimally invasive neural stimulation techniques is enabled by nanotechnology to achieve a high spatial resolution and cell-type specificity. In these techniques, a nanomaterial converts a remotely transmitted primary stimulus such as a light, magnetic or ultrasonic signal to a localized secondary stimulus such as an electric field or heat to stimulate neurons. The ease of surface modification and bio-conjugation of nanomaterials facilitates cell-type-specific targeting, designated placement and highly localized membrane activation. This review focuses on nanomaterial-enabled neural stimulation techniques primarily involving opto-electric, opto-thermal, magneto-electric, magneto-thermal and acousto-electric transduction mechanisms. Stimulation techniques based on other possible transduction schemes and general consideration for these emerging neurotechnologies are also discussed.

  15. Enabling Exploration Through Docking Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Caris A.

    2012-01-01

    Human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit will likely require international cooperation in order to leverage limited resources. International standards can help enable cooperative missions by providing well understood, predefined interfaces allowing compatibility between unique spacecraft and systems. The International Space Station (ISS) partnership has developed a publicly available International Docking System Standard (IDSS) that provides a solution to one of these key interfaces by defining a common docking interface. The docking interface provides a way for even dissimilar spacecraft to dock for exchange of crew and cargo, as well as enabling the assembly of large space systems. This paper provides an overview of the key attributes of the IDSS, an overview of the NASA Docking System (NDS), and the plans for updating the ISS with IDSS compatible interfaces. The NDS provides a state of the art, low impact docking system that will initially be made available to commercial crew and cargo providers. The ISS will be used to demonstrate the operational utility of the IDSS interface as a foundational technology for cooperative exploration.

  16. Nanomaterial-Enabled Neural Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongchen; Guo, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Neural stimulation is a critical technique in treating neurological diseases and investigating brain functions. Traditional electrical stimulation uses electrodes to directly create intervening electric fields in the immediate vicinity of neural tissues. Second-generation stimulation techniques directly use light, magnetic fields or ultrasound in a non-contact manner. An emerging generation of non- or minimally invasive neural stimulation techniques is enabled by nanotechnology to achieve a high spatial resolution and cell-type specificity. In these techniques, a nanomaterial converts a remotely transmitted primary stimulus such as a light, magnetic or ultrasonic signal to a localized secondary stimulus such as an electric field or heat to stimulate neurons. The ease of surface modification and bio-conjugation of nanomaterials facilitates cell-type-specific targeting, designated placement and highly localized membrane activation. This review focuses on nanomaterial-enabled neural stimulation techniques primarily involving opto-electric, opto-thermal, magneto-electric, magneto-thermal and acousto-electric transduction mechanisms. Stimulation techniques based on other possible transduction schemes and general consideration for these emerging neurotechnologies are also discussed. PMID:27013938

  17. Simulation enabled safeguards assessment methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, Robert; Bjornard, Trond; Larson, Tom

    2007-07-01

    It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment MEthodology has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wire-frame construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed. (authors)

  18. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bean; Trond Bjornard; Thomas Larson

    2007-09-01

    It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment MEthodology (SESAME) has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wireframe construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed.

  19. Context-Enabled Business Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2012-04-01

    To truly understand context and apply it in business intelligence, it is vital to understand what context is and how it can be applied in addressing organizational needs. Context describes the facets of the environment that impact the way that end users interact with the system. Context includes aspects of location, chronology, access method, demographics, social influence/ relationships, end-user attitude/ emotional state, behavior/ past behavior, and presence. To be successful in making Business Intelligence content enabled, it is important to be able to capture the context of use user. With advances in technology, there are a number of ways in which this user based information can be gathered and exposed to enhance the overall end user experience.

  20. Enabling Participation In Exoplanet Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart F.

    2015-08-01

    Determining the distribution of exoplanets has required the contributions of a community of astronomers, who all require the support of colleagues to finish their projects in a manner to enable them to enter new collaborations to continue to contribute to understanding exoplanet science.The contributions of each member of the astronomy community are to be encouraged and must never be intentionally obstructed.We present a member’s long pursuit to be a contributing part of the exoplanet community through doing transit photometry as a means of commissioning the telescopes for a new observatory, followed by pursuit of interpreting the distributions in exoplanet parameter data.We present how the photometry projects have been presented as successful by the others who have claimed to have completed them, but how by requiring its employees to present results while omitting one member has been obstructive against members working together and has prevented the results from being published in what can genuinely be called a peer-reviewed fashion.We present how by tolerating one group to obstruct one member from finishing participation and then falsely denying credit is counterproductive to doing science.We show how expecting one member to attempt to go around an ostracizing group by starting something different is destructive to the entire profession. We repeat previously published appeals to help ostracized members to “go around the observatory” by calling for discussion on how the community must act to reverse cases of shunning, bullying, and other abuses. Without better recourse and support from the community, actions that do not meet standard good collegial behavior end up forcing good members from the community. The most important actions are to enable an ostracized member to have recourse to participating in group papers by either working through other authors or through the journal. All journals and authors must expect that no co-author is keeping out a major

  1. Enabling technology for human collaboration.

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Tim Andrew; Jones, Wendell Bruce; Warner, David Jay; Doser, Adele Beatrice; Johnson, Curtis Martin; Merkle, Peter Benedict

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a five-month LDRD late start project which explored the potential of enabling technology to improve the performance of small groups. The purpose was to investigate and develop new methods to assist groups working in high consequence, high stress, ambiguous and time critical situations, especially those for which it is impractical to adequately train or prepare. A testbed was constructed for exploratory analysis of a small group engaged in tasks with high cognitive and communication performance requirements. The system consisted of five computer stations, four with special devices equipped to collect physiologic, somatic, audio and video data. Test subjects were recruited and engaged in a cooperative video game. Each team member was provided with a sensor array for physiologic and somatic data collection while playing the video game. We explored the potential for real-time signal analysis to provide information that enables emergent and desirable group behavior and improved task performance. The data collected in this study included audio, video, game scores, physiological, somatic, keystroke, and mouse movement data. The use of self-organizing maps (SOMs) was explored to search for emergent trends in the physiological data as it correlated with the video, audio and game scores. This exploration resulted in the development of two approaches for analysis, to be used concurrently, an individual SOM and a group SOM. The individual SOM was trained using the unique data of each person, and was used to monitor the effectiveness and stress level of each member of the group. The group SOM was trained using the data of the entire group, and was used to monitor the group effectiveness and dynamics. Results suggested that both types of SOMs were required to adequately track evolutions and shifts in group effectiveness. Four subjects were used in the data collection and development of these tools. This report documents a proof of concept

  2. Enabling a New Planning and Scheduling Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Davis, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    without the intervention of a scheduling expert. The algorithm is tuned for the constraint hierarchies and the complex temporal relationships provided by the modeling schema. It has an extensive search algorithm which can exploit timing flexibilities and constraint and relationship options. (3) A web-based architecture allows multiple remote users to simultaneously model science and technology requirements and other users to model vehicle and hardware characteristics. The architecture allows the users to submit scheduling requests directly to the scheduling engine and immediately see the results. These three components are integrated so that science and technology experts with no knowledge of the vehicle or hardware subsystems and no knowledge of the internal workings of the scheduling engine have the ability to build and submit scheduling requests and see the results. The immediate feedback will hone the users' modeling skills and ultimately enable them to produce the desired timeline. This paper summarizes the three components of the enabling technology and describes how this technology would make a new paradigm possible.

  3. Good pharmacovigilance practices: technology enabled.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Robert C; Palsulich, Bruce; Gogolak, Victor

    2002-01-01

    The assessment of spontaneous reports is most effective it is conducted within a defined and rigorous process. The framework for good pharmacovigilance process (GPVP) is proposed as a subset of good postmarketing surveillance process (GPMSP), a functional structure for both a public health and corporate risk management strategy. GPVP has good practices that implement each step within a defined process. These practices are designed to efficiently and effectively detect and alert the drug safety professional to new and potentially important information on drug-associated adverse reactions. These practices are enabled by applied technology designed specifically for the review and assessment of spontaneous reports. Specific practices include rules-based triage, active query prompts for severe organ insults, contextual single case evaluation, statistical proportionality and correlational checks, case-series analyses, and templates for signal work-up and interpretation. These practices and the overall GPVP are supported by state-of-the-art web-based systems with powerful analytical engines, workflow and audit trials to allow validated systems support for valid drug safety signalling efforts. It is also important to understand that a process has a defined set of steps and any one cannot stand independently. Specifically, advanced use of technical alerting methods in isolation can mislead and allow one to misunderstand priorities and relative value. In the end, pharmacovigilance is a clinical art and a component process to the science of pharmacoepidemiology and risk management. PMID:12071777

  4. "I have a connection!": The situated sense-making of an elementary student about the role of water in modeled vs. experienced ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Lisa Elisabeth N.

    Current policy and research have led the field of science education towards a model of "science as practice." In the past decade, several research programs on model-based reasoning practices in education have articulated key dimensions of practice, including constructing and defending models, comparing models to empirical data, using representations to identify patterns in data and use those as inscriptions to buttress arguments. This study presents a detailed case of how the use of a physical microcosm and children's self-directed representations of an ecosystem constrained and afforded student sense-making in an urban elementary classroom. The case analyzed the experiences of a 10-year old fifth grade student, Jorge, and the variation in his expressed understanding of ecosystems as he interacted with academic tasks, along with models and representations, to design, observe and explain an ecological microcosm. The study used a conceptual framework that brings together theories of situated cognition and Doyle's work on academic task to explain how and why Jorge's perception and communication of dimensions of ecosystem structure, function, and behavior appear to "come in and out of focus," influenced by the affordances of the tools and resources available, the academic task as given by the teacher, and Jorge's own experiences and knowledge of phenomena related to ecosystems. Findings from this study suggest that elementary students' ability or inability to address particular ecological concepts in a given task relate less to gaps in their understanding and more to the structure of academic tasks and learning contexts. The process of a student interacting with curriculum follows a dynamic trajectory and leads to emergent outcomes. As a result of the complex interactions of task, tools, and his own interests and agency, Jorge's attunement to the role of water in ecosystems comes in and out of focus throughout the unit. The instructional constraint of needing to

  5. Enabling individualized therapy through nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Jason H.; van de Ven, Anne L.; Godin, Biana; Blanco, Elvin; Serda, Rita E.; Grattoni, Alessandro; Ziemys, Arturas; Bouamrani, Ali; Hu, Tony; Ranganathan, Shivakumar I.; De Rosa, Enrica; Martinez, Jonathan O.; Smid, Christine A.; Buchanan, Rachel M.; Lee, Sei-Young; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Landry, Matthew; Meyn, Anne; Tasciotti, Ennio; Liu, Xuewu; Decuzzi, Paolo; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Individualized medicine is the healthcare strategy that rebukes the idiomatic dogma of ‘losing sight of the forest for the trees’. We are entering a new era of healthcare where it is no longer acceptable to develop and market a drug that is effective for only 80% of the patient population. The emergence of “-omic” technologies (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and advances in systems biology are magnifying the deficiencies of standardized therapy, which often provide little treatment latitude for accommodating patient physiologic idiosyncrasies. A personalized approach to medicine is not a novel concept. Ever since the scientific community began unraveling the mysteries of the genome, the promise of discarding generic treatment regimens in favor of patient-specific therapies became more feasible and realistic. One of the major scientific impediments of this movement towards personalized medicine has been the need for technological enablement. Nanotechnology is projected to play a critical role in patient-specific therapy; however, this transition will depend heavily upon the evolutionary development of a systems biology approach to clinical medicine based upon “-omic” technology analysis and integration. This manuscript provides a forward looking assessment of the promise of nanomedicine as it pertains to individualized medicine and establishes a technology “snapshot” of the current state of nano-based products over a vast array of clinical indications and range of patient specificity. Other issues such as market driven hurdles and regulatory compliance reform are anticipated to “self-correct” in accordance to scientific advancement and healthcare demand. These peripheral, non-scientific concerns are not addressed at length in this manuscript; however they do exist, and their impact to the paradigm shifting healthcare transformation towards individualized medicine will be critical for its success. PMID:20045055

  6. Solar Glitter -- Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, Gregory N.

    2012-02-01

    Many products have significantly benefitted from, or been enabled by, the ability to manufacture structures at an ever decreasing length scale. Obvious examples of this include integrated circuits, flat panel displays, micro-scale sensors, and LED lighting. These industries have benefited from length scale effects in terms of improved performance, reduced cost, or new functionality (or a combination of these). In a similar manner, we are working to take advantage of length scale effects that exist within solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. While this is a significant step away from traditional approaches to solar power systems, the benefits in terms of new functionality, improved performance, and reduced cost for solar power are compelling. We are exploring scale effects that result from the size of the solar cells within the system. We have developed unique cells of both crystalline silicon and III-V materials that are very thin (5-20 microns thick) and have very small lateral dimensions (on the order of hundreds of microns across). These cells minimize the amount of expensive semiconductor material required for the system, allow improved cell performance, and provide an expanded design space for both module and system concepts allowing optimized power output and reduced module and balance of system costs. Furthermore, the small size of the cells allows for unique high-efficiency, high-flexibility PV panels and new building-integrated PV options that are currently unavailable. These benefits provide a pathway for PV power to become cost competitive with grid power and allow unique power solutions independent of grid power.

  7. SixDOF position sensor: enabling manufacturing flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Vann, C.S.

    1998-03-24

    A small, non-contact optical sensor invented by the author attaches to a robot (or other machines), enabling the robot to detect objects, adjust its alignment in all six degrees of freedom (SixDOF), and read a task from a code on the part. Thus, the SixDOF sensor provides robots more intelligence to operate autonomously and adapt to changes without human intervention. A description of the sensor is provided. Also, an operating arrangement of a robot using the SixDOF sensor is presented with performance results described.

  8. Key enablers to facilitate healthy behavior change: workshop summary.

    PubMed

    Teyhen, Deydre S; Aldag, Matt; Centola, Damon; Edinborough, Elton; Ghannadian, Jason D; Haught, Andrea; Jackson, Theresa; Kinn, Julie; Kunkler, Kevin J; Levine, Betty; Martindale, Valerie E; Neal, David; Snyder, Leslie B; Styn, Mindi A; Thorndike, Frances; Trabosh, Valerie; Parramore, David J

    2014-05-01

    The increases in preventable chronic diseases and the rising costs of health care are unsustainable. The US Army Surgeon General's vision to transition from a health care system to a system of health requires the identification of key health enablers to facilitate the adoption of healthy behaviors. In support of this vision, the US Army Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center hosted a workshop in April 2013 titled "Incentives to Create and Sustain Change for Health." Members of government and academia participated to identify key health enablers that could ultimately be leveraged by technology. The key health enablers discussed included (1) public health messaging, (2) changing health habits and the environmental influence on health, (3) goal setting and tracking, (4) the role of incentives in behavior-change intervention, and (5) the role of peer and social networks on change. This report summarizes leading evidence and the group consensus on evidence-based practices with respect to the key enablers in creating healthy behavior change.

  9. Common Interventional Radiology Procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... of common interventional techniques is below. Common Interventional Radiology Procedures Angiography An X-ray exam of the ... into the vertebra. Copyright © 2016 Society of Interventional Radiology. All rights reserved. 3975 Fair Ridge Drive • Suite ...

  10. Complementary and Other Interventions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment of ADHD Complementary and Other Interventions Coaching Neurofeedback (EEG Biofeedback) Fish Oil Supplements and ADHD Carrying Your ... and Other Interventions Complementary and Other Interventions Coaching Neurofeedback (EEG Biofeedback) Fish Oil Supplements and ADHD Complementary and ...

  11. Interventions for promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Charles; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Thorogood, Margaret; Kaur, Asha; Wedatilake, Thamindu

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effectiveness of strategies to enable people to achieve and maintain recommended levels of physical activity. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to promote physical activity in adults aged 16 years and older, not living in an institution. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (issue 1 2005), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, BIDS ISI, SPORTDISCUS, SIGLE, SCISEARCH (from earliest dates available to December 2004). Reference lists of relevant articles were checked. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials that compared different interventions to encourage sedentary adults not living in an institution to become physically active. Studies required a minimum of six months follow up from the start of the intervention to the collection of final data and either used an intention-to-treat analysis or, failing that, had no more than 20% loss to follow up. Data collection and analysis At least two reviewers independently assessed each study quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information where necessary. Standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous measures of self-reported physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness. For studies with dichotomous outcomes, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Main results The effect of interventions on self-reported physical activity (19 studies; 7598 participants) was positive and moderate (pooled SMD random effects model 0.28 95% CI 0.15 to 0.41) as was the effect of interventions (11 studies; 2195 participants) on cardio-respiratory fitness (pooled SMD random effects model 0.52 95% CI 0.14 to 0.90). There was significant heterogeneity in the reported effects as well as heterogeneity in characteristics of the interventions. The heterogeneity in reported effects was reduced in higher quality studies, when physical

  12. An Internet enabled impact limiter material database

    SciTech Connect

    Wix, S.; Kanipe, F.; McMurtry, W.

    1998-09-01

    This paper presents a detailed explanation of the construction of an interest enabled database, also known as a database driven web site. The data contained in the internet enabled database are impact limiter material and seal properties. The technique used in constructing the internet enabled database presented in this paper are applicable when information that is changing in content needs to be disseminated to a wide audience.

  13. Hepatobiliary Intervention in Children

    SciTech Connect

    Franchi-Abella, Stéphanie; Cahill, Anne Marie; Barnacle, Alex M.; Pariente, Danièle; Roebuck, Derek J.

    2013-08-02

    Various vascular and nonvascular hepatobiliary interventional radiology techniques are now commonly performed in children’s hospitals. Although the procedures are broadly similar to interventional practice in adults, there are important differences in indications and technical aspects. This review describes the indications, techniques, and results of liver biopsy, hepatic and portal venous interventions and biliary interventions in children.

  14. Electronic Health Record Application Support Service Enablers.

    PubMed

    Neofytou, M S; Neokleous, K; Aristodemou, A; Constantinou, I; Antoniou, Z; Schiza, E C; Pattichis, C S; Schizas, C N

    2015-08-01

    There is a huge need for open source software solutions in the healthcare domain, given the flexibility, interoperability and resource savings characteristics they offer. In this context, this paper presents the development of three open source libraries - Specific Enablers (SEs) for eHealth applications that were developed under the European project titled "Future Internet Social and Technological Alignment Research" (FI-STAR) funded under the "Future Internet Public Private Partnership" (FI-PPP) program. The three SEs developed under the Electronic Health Record Application Support Service Enablers (EHR-EN) correspond to: a) an Electronic Health Record enabler (EHR SE), b) a patient summary enabler based on the EU project "European patient Summary Open Source services" (epSOS SE) supporting patient mobility and the offering of interoperable services, and c) a Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) enabler (PACS SE) based on the dcm4che open source system for the support of medical imaging functionality. The EHR SE follows the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) V2.0 and supports the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) profiles (recently awarded in Connectathon 2015). These three FI-STAR platform enablers are designed to facilitate the deployment of innovative applications and value added services in the health care sector. They can be downloaded from the FI-STAR cataloque website. Work in progress focuses in the validation and evaluation scenarios for the proving and demonstration of the usability, applicability and adaptability of the proposed enablers. PMID:26736531

  15. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  16. An Architecture to Enable Future Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Dan; Caffrey, Robert; Frye, Stu; Grosvenor, Sandra; Hess, Melissa; Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Rob; Davies, Ashley; Hayden, Sandra; Sweet, Adam

    2004-01-01

    A sensor web is a coherent set of distributed 'nodes', interconnected by a communications fabric, that collectively behave as a single dynamic observing system. A 'plug and play' mission architecture enables progressive mission autonomy and rapid assembly and thereby enables sensor webs. This viewgraph presentation addresses: Target mission messaging architecture; Strategy to establish architecture; Progressive autonomy with onboard sensor web; EO-1; Adaptive array antennas (smart antennas) for satellite ground stations.

  17. Biophysical Intervention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Scott

    1987-01-01

    Biophysical interventions as part of an ecological approach to intervention with handicapped children include psychotropic medications (neuroleptics, antidepressants, stimulants, minor tranquilizers and sedatives, lithium); nutritional agents (sugar, vitamins, food allergies); and physical therapies (patterning, optometric training). (DB)

  18. Paediatric Interventional Uroradiology

    SciTech Connect

    Barnacle, Alex M.; Wilkinson, A. Graham; Roebuck, Derek J.

    2011-04-15

    Paediatric interventional uroradiology lies at the intersection of the disciplines of paediatric interventional radiology and paediatric endourology. Interdisciplinary collaboration has led to the development of new techniques and refinement of procedures adopted from adult practice. This article reviews the major procedures used in paediatric interventional uroradiology, with emphasis on nephrostomy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, balloon-burst pyeloplasty, and antegrade ureteric stenting.

  19. Brief Interventions for Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Ken C

    2016-01-01

    Public health concerns regarding adolescent alcohol and other drug involvement emphasize the need for continuing research to develop and evaluate preventive interventions for use in a variety of settings. This focus includes research on brief interventions. This short commentary piece provides an overview of the brief intervention literature and highlights future directions PMID:27182561

  20. The Gang Intervention Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Arnold P., Ed.; Huff, C. Ronald, Ed.

    This book provides overviews and evaluations of current juvenile-gang-intervention programs and recommends approaches that have been effective in both prevention and rehabilitation. Its three parts, composed of individual essays, examine patterns of ganging and gang intervention, explore the value of psychology-based interventions, and discuss the…

  1. Incentives and enablers to improve adherence in tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lutge, Elizabeth E; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Knight, Stephen E; Sinclair, David; Volmink, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient adherence to medications, particularly for conditions requiring prolonged treatment such as tuberculosis (TB), is frequently less than ideal and can result in poor treatment outcomes. Material incentives to reward good behaviour and enablers to remove economic barriers to accessing care are sometimes given in the form of cash, vouchers, or food to improve adherence. Objectives To evaluate the effects of material incentives and enablers in patients undergoing diagnostic testing, or receiving prophylactic or curative therapy, for TB. Search methods We undertook a comprehensive search of the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; Science Citation Index; and reference lists of relevant publications up to 5 June 2015. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials of material incentives in patients being investigated for TB, or on treatment for latent or active TB. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently screened and selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. We compared the effects of interventions using risk ratios (RR), and presented RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. Main results We identified 12 eligible trials. Ten were conducted in the USA: in adolescents (one trial), in injection drug or cocaine users (four trials), in homeless adults (three trials), and in prisoners (two trials). The remaining two trials, in general adult populations, were conducted in Timor-Leste and South Africa. Sustained incentive programmes Only two trials have assessed whether material incentives and enablers can improve long-term adherence and completion of treatment for active TB, and neither demonstrated a clear benefit (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.14; two trials, 4356 participants; low quality evidence). In one trial, the incentive

  2. Psychosocial interventions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: update.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common reason for referral to child and adolescent psychiatry clinics. Although stimulant medications represent an evidence-based approach to managing ADHD, psychosocial interventions for child/adolescent ADHD target functional impairments as the intervention goal, and rely heavily on behavioral therapy techniques and operant conditioning principles. Evidence-based psychosocial interventions for managing pediatric ADHD include behavioral parent training, school-based interventions relying on behavioral modification, teaching skills, and operant conditioning principles, and intensive summer treatment programs. The use of conjoint psychosocial treatments with ADHD medications may enable lower doses of each form of treatment. PMID:25455577

  3. New Labour and the enabling state.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ian

    2000-11-01

    The notion of the 'enabling state' gained currency in the UK during the 1990s as an alternative to the 'providing' or the welfare state. It reflected the process of contracting out in the NHS and compulsory competitive tendering (CCT) in local government during the 1980s, but was also associated with developments during the 1990s in health, social care and education in particular. The creation of an internal market in the NHS and the associated purchaser-provider split appeared to transfer 'ownership' of services increasingly to the providers - hospitals, General Practitioners (GPs) and schools. The mixed economy of care that was stimulated by the 1990 NHS and Community Care Act appeared to offer local authorities the opportunity to enable non state providers to offer care services in the community. The new service charters were part of the enablement process because they offered users more opportunity to influence provision. This article examines how far service providers were enabled and assesses the extent to which new Labour's policies enhance or reject the 'enabling state' in favour of more direct provision. PMID:11560707

  4. Semantically-Enabled Sensor Plug & Play for the Sensor Web

    PubMed Central

    Bröring, Arne; Maúe, Patrick; Janowicz, Krzysztof; Nüst, Daniel; Malewski, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Environmental sensors have continuously improved by becoming smaller, cheaper, and more intelligent over the past years. As consequence of these technological advancements, sensors are increasingly deployed to monitor our environment. The large variety of available sensor types with often incompatible protocols complicates the integration of sensors into observing systems. The standardized Web service interfaces and data encodings defined within OGC’s Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) framework make sensors available over the Web and hide the heterogeneous sensor protocols from applications. So far, the SWE framework does not describe how to integrate sensors on-the-fly with minimal human intervention. The driver software which enables access to sensors has to be implemented and the measured sensor data has to be manually mapped to the SWE models. In this article we introduce a Sensor Plug & Play infrastructure for the Sensor Web by combining (1) semantic matchmaking functionality, (2) a publish/subscribe mechanism underlying the SensorWeb, as well as (3) a model for the declarative description of sensor interfaces which serves as a generic driver mechanism. We implement and evaluate our approach by applying it to an oil spill scenario. The matchmaking is realized using existing ontologies and reasoning engines and provides a strong case for the semantic integration capabilities provided by Semantic Web research. PMID:22164033

  5. Semantically-enabled sensor plug & play for the sensor web.

    PubMed

    Bröring, Arne; Maúe, Patrick; Janowicz, Krzysztof; Nüst, Daniel; Malewski, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Environmental sensors have continuously improved by becoming smaller, cheaper, and more intelligent over the past years. As consequence of these technological advancements, sensors are increasingly deployed to monitor our environment. The large variety of available sensor types with often incompatible protocols complicates the integration of sensors into observing systems. The standardized Web service interfaces and data encodings defined within OGC's Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) framework make sensors available over the Web and hide the heterogeneous sensor protocols from applications. So far, the SWE framework does not describe how to integrate sensors on-the-fly with minimal human intervention. The driver software which enables access to sensors has to be implemented and the measured sensor data has to be manually mapped to the SWE models. In this article we introduce a Sensor Plug & Play infrastructure for the Sensor Web by combining (1) semantic matchmaking functionality, (2) a publish/subscribe mechanism underlying the SensorWeb, as well as (3) a model for the declarative description of sensor interfaces which serves as a generic driver mechanism. We implement and evaluate our approach by applying it to an oil spill scenario. The matchmaking is realized using existing ontologies and reasoning engines and provides a strong case for the semantic integration capabilities provided by Semantic Web research.

  6. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing; Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong; Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing; Yu, Hongyu

    2014-02-24

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics.

  7. Networking Technologies Enable Advances in Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory; Freeman, Kenneth; Gilstrap, Raymond; Beck, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment to prototype a new way of conducting science by applying networking and distributed computing technologies to an Earth Science application. A combination of satellite, wireless, and terrestrial networking provided geologists at a remote field site with interactive access to supercomputer facilities at two NASA centers, thus enabling them to validate and calibrate remotely sensed geological data in near-real time. This represents a fundamental shift in the way that Earth scientists analyze remotely sensed data. In this paper we describe the experiment and the network infrastructure that enabled it, analyze the data flow during the experiment, and discuss the scientific impact of the results.

  8. Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) ENABLE Program

    SciTech Connect

    2012-06-01

    The Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) ENABLE program, a new project funding approach, allows small Federal facilities to realize energy and water savings in six months or less. ESPC ENABLE provides a standardized and streamlined process to install targeted energy conservation measures (ECMs) such as lighting, water, and controls with measurement and verification (M&V) appropriate for the size and scope of the project. This allows Federal facilities smaller than 200,000 square feet to make progress towards important energy efficiency and water conservation requirements.

  9. Older women's fears of violence: the need for interventions that enable active ageing.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Karen; Buys, Laurie; Lovie-Kitchin, Jan; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Smith, Dianne; Heffernan, Maree

    2007-01-01

    Women's fear of violence can impact negatively on their active participation in life. An ageing survey conducted with 2,620 Australian respondents aged 50 to 90 years examined aspects of work, learning, social, spiritual and emotional status, health, vision, home, life events, demographics, and asked an open-ended question about what being actively engaged in life meant. Ordinal regression was carried out on two dependent variables: wanting and needing to learn to discourage violence. Analyses found that as women's age increased, those on lower incomes were more likely than others to say they needed to learn how to discourage violence against them. This paper investigates the variables associated with the findings-transport, finances, news media, home safety, and reduced social interactions. Results highlight the importance of understanding women's fear in the context of personal and social issues, and the need to provide learning opportunities to improve safety and social engagement.

  10. ASR Technology for Children with Dyslexia: Enabling Immediate Intervention to Support Reading in Bahasa Melayu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husni, Husniza; Jamaludin, Zulikha

    2009-01-01

    Reading is an essential skill towards literacy development, and should be provided so that children can master the skill at their early ages. For dyslexic children, mastering the skill is a challenge. It has been widely agreed that the theory behind such difficulties in reading for dyslexic lies in the phonological-core deficits. Support has been…

  11. Designing nursing interventions.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Sanchia

    2008-01-01

    The development of nursing interventions that demonstrate the link between nursing actions and patient outcomes is a high priority for nursing research. The development of intervention research frequently focuses on the methods used to test the intervention while less attention is placed on rigor in intervention development and design. The purpose of this paper is to provide thinking points for researchers considering the development of nursing interventions. The thinking points were developed from the limited literature on this topic in synthesis with the authors own experiences of designing nursing interventions. Adoption of a systematic approach to intervention testing is advocated along with a step-wise intervention development process. This process calls for attention to problem definition, conceptual underpinnings, desired outcomes and measures and evidence-based content along with careful consideration of delivery methods, dose and attention to protecting the integrity of the intervention during testing. The approach advocated will help to ensure that nursing intervention research makes a useful contribution to the development of nursing practice.

  12. Safely Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Near-term Goal - Enable initial low-altitude airspace and UAS operations with demonstrated safety as early as possible, within 5 years. Long-term Goal - Accommodate increased UAS operations with highest safety, efficiency, and capacity as much autonomously as possible (10-15 years).

  13. School Bureaucracies That Work: Enabling, Not Coercive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, Wayne K.; Sweetland, Scott R.

    2000-01-01

    Attempts to reconcile two theoretically opposing perspectives of bureaucracy (as either alienating or facilitative) by creating and testing a new construct called "enabling bureaucracy." Empirical results are encouraging. Schools can be designed with formalized procedures and hierarchical structures that help rather than hinder teaching and…

  14. Nanotechnologv Enabled Biological and Chemical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehne, Jessica; Meyyappan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an enabling technology that will impact almost all economic sectors: one of the most important and with great potential is the health/medical sector. - Nanomaterials for drug delivery - Early warning sensors - Implantable devices - Artificial parts with improved characteristics Carbon nanotubes and nanofibers show promise for use in sensor development, electrodes and other biomedical applications.

  15. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  16. Safely Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Near-term Goal: Enable initial low-altitude airspace and UAS operations with demonstrated safety as early as possible, within 5 years. Long-term Goal: Accommodate increased UAS operations with highest safety, efficiency, and capacity as much autonomously as possible (10-15 years).

  17. ICT-Enabled Learning: The Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Geoff; Grebennikov, Leonid; Gozzard, Terry

    2009-01-01

    This research seeks to contribute to current discussions in Australian higher education on how best to deploy ICT-enabled learning. Its particular focus is on examining the qualitative data from students on their experience of using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) at one college in an Australian university. In total, about 71,240…

  18. 75 FR 13235 - IP-Enabled Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... 47 CFR 63.60(a) and (f), published on August 7, 2009 (74 FR 39551), were approved by the Office of... published a document in the Federal Register, 74 FR 39551, August 7, 2009, that sets forth an effective date... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 63 IP-Enabled Services AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission ACTION: Final...

  19. Technology-Enabled Crime, Policing and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuade, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Crime, policing and security are enabled by and co-evolve with technologies that make them possible. As criminals compete with security and policing officials for technological advantage perpetually complex crime, policing and security results in relatively confusing and therefore unmanageable threats to society. New, adaptive and ordinary crimes…

  20. Smoking spaces as enabling spaces of wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qian Hui

    2013-11-01

    A persistent emphasis on the negative biomedical effects of cigarette smoking effectively glosses over the affectual-sensual and social wellbeing that smoking can enable. In addition, while tobacco research has recently been more attuned to the stigmatizing affects brought about by smoking de-normalization efforts, a lot less attention has been placed on how smokers negotiate these feelings of stigmatization so as to restore their personal spaces of wellbeing. In this paper, I situate my investigation of smoking geographies in the burgeoning literature on enabling spaces which focuses on how places co-constitute our ability to act/affect in empowering ways. By deploying qualitative research methods such as in-depth interviews, I argue that an acknowledgment of how smoking spaces in Singapore can be enabling along affectual, sensorial and social registers is long overdue. While it is not my purpose to systematically downplay the damaging health effects that smoking can engender, a focus on enabling smoking spaces emphasizes the role of smokers as creative agents capable of (re)fashioning their own holistic and subjective versions of wellbeing. In so doing, I hope to contribute to the existing research on smoking spaces and a recent profusion of work on relational geographies of affect.

  1. Enabling Family-Friendly Cultural Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Kate; Yen, Joyce W.; Riskin, Eve A.; Lange, Sheila Edwards

    2007-01-01

    Strategies to address the problem of work and family balance have begun emerging in recent years. Many American college and universities have begun to adopt this "family-friendly policies," such as tenure-clock extensions. Each of the policies to enable work and family balance, however, is situated within the broader academic culture. Departmental…

  2. Fluorescent particles enable visualization of gas flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. J.

    1968-01-01

    Fluorescent particles enable visualization of the flow patterns of gases at slow velocities. Through a transparent section in the gas line, a camera views the visible light emitted by the particles carried by the gas stream. Fine definition of the particle tracks are obtained at slow camera shutter speeds.

  3. Assessing enablement in clinical practice: a systematic review of available instruments

    PubMed Central

    Hudon, Catherine; St-Cyr Tribble, Denise; Légaré, France; Bravo, Gina; Fortin, Martin; Almirall, José

    2010-01-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives Enablement is an intervention by which the health care provider recognizes, promotes and enhances patients' ability to control their health and life. An abundant health literature suggests that enablement is associated with good outcomes. In this review, we aimed at identifying and comparing instruments that assess enablement in the health care context. Method We conducted a systematic literature review using Medline, Embase, Cochrane, Cinahl and PsycINFO databases, 1980 through March 2009, with specific search strategy for each database. Citations were included if they reported: (1) development and/or validation of an instrument; (2) evaluation of enablement in a health care context; and (3) quantitative results following administration of the instrument. The quality of each main retained citation was assessed using a modified version of the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy. Results Of 3135 citations identified, 53 were retrieved for detailed evaluation. Four articles were included. Two instruments were found: the Patient Empowerment Scale (PES) and the Empowering Speech Practices Scale (ESPS). Both instruments assessed enablement in hospital setting, one from the inpatient's perspective (PES) and the other from both perspectives (ESPS). Conclusion Two instruments assess enablement in hospital setting. No instrument is currently available to assess enablement in an ambulatory care context. PMID:20727059

  4. Developing a Complex Educational-Behavioural Intervention: The TREAT Intervention for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Clarkesmith, Danielle E; Pattison, Helen M; Borg Xuereb, Christian; Lane, Deirdre A

    2016-01-14

    This article describes the theoretical and pragmatic development of a patient-centred intervention for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Theoretical models (Common Sense Model, Necessity-Concerns Framework), clinical frameworks, and AF patient feedback contributed to the design of a one-off hour-long behaviour-change intervention package. Intervention materials consisted of a DVD, educational booklet, diary and worksheet, which were patient-centred and easy to administer. The intervention was evaluated within a randomised controlled trial. Several "active theoretical ingredients" were identified (for e.g., where patients believed their medication was less harmful they spent more time within the therapeutic range (TTR), with general harm scores predicting TTR at 6 months). Allowing for social comparison and adopting behaviour change techniques enabled accurate patient understanding of their condition and medication. The process of developing the intervention using theory-derived content and evaluation tools allowed a greater understanding of the mechanisms by which this intervention was successful. Alleviating concerns about treatment medication by educating patients can help to improve adherence. This process of intervention development could be adopted for a range of chronic illnesses and treatments. Critical elements should include the use of: (1) clinical guidelines; (2) appropriate theoretical models; (3) patient input; and (4) appropriate evaluation tools.

  5. Developing a Complex Educational–Behavioural Intervention: The TREAT Intervention for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Clarkesmith, Danielle E.; Pattison, Helen M.; Borg Xuereb, Christian; Lane, Deirdre A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the theoretical and pragmatic development of a patient-centred intervention for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Theoretical models (Common Sense Model, Necessity-Concerns Framework), clinical frameworks, and AF patient feedback contributed to the design of a one-off hour-long behaviour-change intervention package. Intervention materials consisted of a DVD, educational booklet, diary and worksheet, which were patient-centred and easy to administer. The intervention was evaluated within a randomised controlled trial. Several “active theoretical ingredients” were identified (for e.g., where patients believed their medication was less harmful they spent more time within the therapeutic range (TTR), with general harm scores predicting TTR at 6 months). Allowing for social comparison and adopting behaviour change techniques enabled accurate patient understanding of their condition and medication. The process of developing the intervention using theory-derived content and evaluation tools allowed a greater understanding of the mechanisms by which this intervention was successful. Alleviating concerns about treatment medication by educating patients can help to improve adherence. This process of intervention development could be adopted for a range of chronic illnesses and treatments. Critical elements should include the use of: (1) clinical guidelines; (2) appropriate theoretical models; (3) patient input; and (4) appropriate evaluation tools. PMID:27417598

  6. Developing a Complex Educational-Behavioural Intervention: The TREAT Intervention for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Clarkesmith, Danielle E; Pattison, Helen M; Borg Xuereb, Christian; Lane, Deirdre A

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the theoretical and pragmatic development of a patient-centred intervention for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Theoretical models (Common Sense Model, Necessity-Concerns Framework), clinical frameworks, and AF patient feedback contributed to the design of a one-off hour-long behaviour-change intervention package. Intervention materials consisted of a DVD, educational booklet, diary and worksheet, which were patient-centred and easy to administer. The intervention was evaluated within a randomised controlled trial. Several "active theoretical ingredients" were identified (for e.g., where patients believed their medication was less harmful they spent more time within the therapeutic range (TTR), with general harm scores predicting TTR at 6 months). Allowing for social comparison and adopting behaviour change techniques enabled accurate patient understanding of their condition and medication. The process of developing the intervention using theory-derived content and evaluation tools allowed a greater understanding of the mechanisms by which this intervention was successful. Alleviating concerns about treatment medication by educating patients can help to improve adherence. This process of intervention development could be adopted for a range of chronic illnesses and treatments. Critical elements should include the use of: (1) clinical guidelines; (2) appropriate theoretical models; (3) patient input; and (4) appropriate evaluation tools. PMID:27417598

  7. Blue space geographies: Enabling health in place.

    PubMed

    Foley, Ronan; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Drawing from research on therapeutic landscapes and relationships between environment, health and wellbeing, we propose the idea of 'healthy blue space' as an important new development Complementing research on healthy green space, blue space is defined as; 'health-enabling places and spaces, where water is at the centre of a range of environments with identifiable potential for the promotion of human wellbeing'. Using theoretical ideas from emotional and relational geographies and critical understandings of salutogenesis, the value of blue space to health and wellbeing is recognised and evaluated. Six individual papers from five different countries consider how health can be enabled in mixed blue space settings. Four sub-themes; embodiment, inter-subjectivity, activity and meaning, document multiple experiences within a range of healthy blue spaces. Finally, we suggest a considerable research agenda - theoretical, methodological and applied - for future work within different forms of blue space. All are suggested as having public health policy relevance in social and public space.

  8. Femtosecond laser enabled keratoplasty for advanced keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Shivanna, Yathish; Nagaraja, Harsha; Kugar, Thungappa; Shetty, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy and advantages of femtosecond laser enabled keratoplasty (FLEK) over conventional penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) in advanced keratoconus. Materials and Methods: Detailed review of literature of published randomized controlled trials of operative techniques in PKP and FLEK. Results: Fifteen studies were identified, analyzed, and compared with our outcome. FLEK was found to have better outcome in view of better and earlier stabilization uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and better refractive outcomes with low astigmatism as compared with conventional PKP. Wound healing also was noticed to be earlier, enabling early suture removal in FLEK. Conclusions: Studies relating to FLEK have shown better results than conventional PKP, however further studies are needed to assess the safety and intraoperative complications of the procedure. PMID:23925340

  9. Education Now and Babies Later (ENABL): life history of a campaign to Postpone Sexual Involvement.

    PubMed

    Cagampang, H H; Barth, R P; Korpi, M; Kirby, D

    1997-01-01

    Education Now and Babies Later (ENABL), a statewide adolescent pregnancy prevention initiative, was inaugurated in California in June 1992. Developed by the state's Office of Family Planning, ENABL utilized a five-session intervention curriculum, Postponing Sexual Involvement (PSI), targeted at delaying the onset of sexual activity among youths aged 12-14. Schoolwide and community-based activities, along with a statewide media and public relations campaign, reinforced the intervention's message. Data collected from nearly 9,000 surveys, 75 individual interviews and 50 focus groups indicated that youths, parents and community representatives supported the initiative and endorsed its message, although most recommended changes to the curriculum. However, because no impact on sexual behavior could be demonstrated, the campaign was abruptly terminated in February 1996, despite recommendations that the program be retained and improved. PMID:9179579

  10. Education Now and Babies Later (ENABL): life history of a campaign to Postpone Sexual Involvement.

    PubMed

    Cagampang, H H; Barth, R P; Korpi, M; Kirby, D

    1997-01-01

    Education Now and Babies Later (ENABL), a statewide adolescent pregnancy prevention initiative, was inaugurated in California in June 1992. Developed by the state's Office of Family Planning, ENABL utilized a five-session intervention curriculum, Postponing Sexual Involvement (PSI), targeted at delaying the onset of sexual activity among youths aged 12-14. Schoolwide and community-based activities, along with a statewide media and public relations campaign, reinforced the intervention's message. Data collected from nearly 9,000 surveys, 75 individual interviews and 50 focus groups indicated that youths, parents and community representatives supported the initiative and endorsed its message, although most recommended changes to the curriculum. However, because no impact on sexual behavior could be demonstrated, the campaign was abruptly terminated in February 1996, despite recommendations that the program be retained and improved.

  11. NASA Missions Enabled by Space Nuclear Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.; Schmidt, George R.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Space Missions that are enabled by Space Nuclear Systems. The topics include: 1) Space Nuclear System Applications; 2) Trade Space for Electric Power Systems; 3) Power Generation Specific Energy Trade Space; 4) Radioisotope Power Generation; 5) Radioisotope Missions; 6) Fission Power Generation; 7) Solar Powered Lunar Outpost; 8) Fission Powered Lunar Outpost; 9) Fission Electric Power Generation; and 10) Fission Nuclear Thermal Propulsion.

  12. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation

    PubMed Central

    Vreeman, Daniel J.; Chiaravalloti, Maria Teresa; Hook, John; McDonald, Clement J.

    2012-01-01

    Interoperable health information exchange depends on adoption of terminology standards, but international use of such standards can be challenging because of language differences between local concept names and the standard terminology. To address this important barrier, we describe the evolution of an efficient process for constructing translations of LOINC terms names, the foreign language functions in RELMA, and the current state of translations in LOINC. We also present the development of the Italian translation to illustrate how translation is enabling adoption in international contexts. We built a tool that finds the unique list of LOINC Parts that make up a given set of LOINC terms. This list enables translation of smaller pieces like the core component “hepatitis c virus” separately from all the suffixes that could appear with it, such “Ab.IgG”, “DNA”, and “RNA”. We built another tool that generates a translation of a full LOINC name from all of these atomic pieces. As of version 2.36 (June 2011), LOINC terms have been translated into 9 languages from 15 linguistic variants other than its native English. The five largest linguistic variants have all used the Part-based translation mechanism. However, even with efficient tools and processes, translation of standard terminology is a complex undertaking. Two of the prominent linguistic challenges that translators have faced include: the approach to handling acronyms and abbreviations, and the differences in linguistic syntax (e.g. word order) between languages. LOINC’s open and customizable approach has enabled many different groups to create translations that met their needs and matched their resources. Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange PMID:22285984

  13. Delivering compassionate care: the enablers and barriers.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Angela; O'Brien, Mary R; Kirton, Jennifer A; Zubairu, Kate; Bray, Lucy

    The importance of providing compassionate care to patients is well established. While compassionate care can be understood as an individual response to others' vulnerability, it is acknowledged that healthcare environments can impact significantly on this aspect of practice. This study sought to explore how health professionals and pre-qualifying healthcare students (HCS) understand compassionate care and factors that hinder or enable them to practice compassionately. The perceptions of health professionals (n=146) and HCS (n=166) registered at a university in Northwest England were explored using mixed methods. This article reports on the data gained from the qualitative interviews and responses to open-text questions from the mainly quantitative questionnaire. The findings are discussed under the following themes: individual and relationship factors that impact on compassionate care practice; organisational factors that impact on the clinical environment and team; and leadership factors that hinder or enable a compassionate care culture. This article argues that there are a number of enabling factors that enhance a culture conducive to providing compassionate care. These include leaders who act as positive role models, good relationships between team members and a focus on staff wellbeing. PMID:26355360

  14. Design and Simulation of MEMS Enabled Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Mark

    2001-03-01

    Over the past two decades considerable progress in microsystems (MEMS) fabrication technologies has been made resulting in a variety of commercially successful devices. Most of these devices have required application specific fabrication steps, which must be developed, and the lack of proper design tools often resulted in repeated prototyping that was expensive and time consuming. Further development of MEMS enabled commercial products and reduction of the time to market requires implementation of a concurrent design methodology through better design tools and standardization of the fabrication processes. The cross-disciplinary nature of MEMS-Enabled Systems necessitates designers with different backgrounds to work together in understanding the effects of one sub-system on another and this requires a top-down approach to integrated system design. Design tools that can facilitate this communication and reduce the need for excessive prototype fabrication and test iterations and significantly reduce cost and time-to-market are vitally important. The main focus of this article is to describe the top-down design methodology and and ongoing research on tools that facilitate concurrent design of MEMS enabled systems.

  15. MR sequences and rapid acquisition for MR guided interventions

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Washburn, Adrienne E; Faranesh, Anthony Z; Lederman, Robert J; Hansen, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Interventional MR uses rapid imaging to guide diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. One of the attractions of MR-guidance is the abundance of inherent contrast mechanisms available. Dynamic procedural guidance with real-time imaging has pushed the limits of MR technology, demanding rapid acquisition and reconstruction paired with interactive control and device visualization. This article reviews the technical aspects of real-time MR sequences that enable MR-guided interventions. PMID:26499283

  16. When to Recommend Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olswang, Lesley B.; Bain, Barbara A.

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the critical issues that influence whether a child with language impairments can benefit from intervention. It recommends three procedures (profiling, dynamic assessment, and tracking/monitoring) as tools for helping speech-language pathologists make informed decisions about intervention. (Author/JDD)

  17. Anger Management Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochman, John E.; Palardy, Nicole R.; McElroy, Heather K.; Phillips, Nancy; Holmes, Khiela J.

    2004-01-01

    Two anger management interventions for aggressive children, Anger Coping and Coping Power, are described in this review article, including conceptual underpinnings, session format and content, and outcome research findings. Important issues and considerations in the implementation of such interventions are also presented. Overall, Anger Coping and…

  18. Web-enabling technologies for the factory floor: a web-enabling strategy for emanufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velez, Ricardo; Lastra, Jose L. M.; Tuokko, Reijo O.

    2001-10-01

    This paper is intended to address the different technologies available for Web-enabling of the factory floor. It will give an overview of the importance of Web-enabling of the factory floor, in the application of the concepts of flexible and intelligent manufacturing, in conjunction with e-commerce. As a last section, it will try to define a Web-enabling strategy for the application in eManufacturing. This is made under the scope of the electronics manufacturing industry, so every application, technology or related matter is presented under such scope.

  19. A wireless sensor enabled by wireless power.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-11-22

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network.

  20. Small-RPS Enabled Mars Rover Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Tibor S.

    2005-02-01

    Both the MER and the Mars Pathfinder rovers operated on Mars in an energy-limited mode, since the solar panels generated power during daylight hours only. At other times the rovers relied on power stored in batteries. In comparison, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) offer a power-enabled paradigm, where power can be generated for long mission durations (measured in years), independently from the Sun, and on a continuous basis. A study was performed at JPL to assess the feasibility of a small-RPS enabled MER-class rover concept and any associated advantages of its mission on Mars, The rover concept relied on design heritage from MER with two significant changes. First, the solar panels were replaced with two single GPHS module based small-RPSs. Second, the Mossbauer spectroscope was substituted with a laser Raman spectroscope, in order to move towards MEPAG defined astrobiology driven science goals. The highest power requirements were contributed to mobility and telecommunication type operating modes, hence influencing power system sizing. The resulting hybrid power system included two small-RPSs and two batteries. Each small-RPS was assumed to generate 50 We of power or 620 Wh/sol of energy (BOL), comparable to that of MER. The two 8 Ah batteries were considered available during peak power usage. Mission architecture, power trades, science instruments, data, communication, thermal and radiation environments, mobility, and mass issues were also addressed. The study demonstrated that a new set of RPS-enabled rover missions could be envisioned for Mars exploration within the next decade, targeting astrobiology oriented science objectives, while powered by 2 to 4 GPHS modules.

  1. A wireless sensor enabled by wireless power.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-01-01

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

  2. Small-RPS Enabled Mars Rover Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balint, Tibor S.

    2004-01-01

    Both the MER and the Mars Pathfinder rovers operated on Mars in an energy-limited mode, since the solar panels generated power during daylight hours only. At other times the rovers relied on power stored in batteries. In comparison, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) offer a power-enabled paradigm, where power can be generated for long mission durations (measured in years), independently from the Sun, and on a continuous basis. A study was performed at PL to assess the feasibility of a small-RPS enabled MER-class rover concept and any associated advantages of its mission on Mars. The rover concept relied on design heritage from MER with two significant changes. First, the solar panels were replaced with two single GPHS module based small-RPSs. Second, the Mossbauer spectroscope was substituted with a laser Raman spectroscope, in order to move towards MEPAG defined astrobiology driven science goals. The highest power requirements were contributed to mobility and telecommunication type operating modes, hence influencing power system sizing. The resulting hybrid power system included two small-RPSs and two batteries. Each small-RPS was assumed to generate 50We of power or 62OWh/sol of energy (BOL), comparable to that of MER. The two 8Ah batteries were considered available during peak power usage. Mission architecture, power trades, science instruments, data, communication, thermal and radiation environments, mobility, mass issues were also addressed. The study demonstrated that a new set of RPS-enabled rover missions could be envisioned for Mars exploration within the next decade, targeting astrobiology oriented science objectives, while powered by 2 to 4 GPHS modules.

  3. A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-01-01

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

  4. Solar vapor generation enabled by nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Oara; Urban, Alexander S; Day, Jared; Lal, Surbhi; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2013-01-22

    Solar illumination of broadly absorbing metal or carbon nanoparticles dispersed in a liquid produces vapor without the requirement of heating the fluid volume. When particles are dispersed in water at ambient temperature, energy is directed primarily to vaporization of water into steam, with a much smaller fraction resulting in heating of the fluid. Sunlight-illuminated particles can also drive H(2)O-ethanol distillation, yielding fractions significantly richer in ethanol content than simple thermal distillation. These phenomena can also enable important compact solar applications such as sterilization of waste and surgical instruments in resource-poor locations.

  5. Enabling Strain Hardening Simulations with Dislocation Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Arsenlis, A; Cai, W

    2006-12-20

    Numerical algorithms for discrete dislocation dynamics simulations are investigated for the purpose of enabling strain hardening simulations of single crystals on massively parallel computers. The algorithms investigated include the /(N) calculation of forces, the equations of motion, time integration, adaptive mesh refinement, the treatment of dislocation core reactions, and the dynamic distribution of work on parallel computers. A simulation integrating all of these algorithmic elements using the Parallel Dislocation Simulator (ParaDiS) code is performed to understand their behavior in concert, and evaluate the overall numerical performance of dislocation dynamics simulations and their ability to accumulate percents of plastic strain.

  6. Enabling Rapid Naval Architecture Design Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Michael A.; Dufresne, Stephane; Balestrini-Robinson, Santiago; Mavris, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    Well accepted conceptual ship design tools can be used to explore a design space, but more precise results can be found using detailed models in full-feature computer aided design programs. However, defining a detailed model can be a time intensive task and hence there is an incentive for time sensitive projects to use conceptual design tools to explore the design space. In this project, the combination of advanced aerospace systems design methods and an accepted conceptual design tool facilitates the creation of a tool that enables the user to not only visualize ship geometry but also determine design feasibility and estimate the performance of a design.

  7. Enabling Meetings for ``Anywhere and Anytime''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Alison; Chandra, Umesh

    Mobile technologies and services are playing critical roles in mobile work. One area is mobile collaboration where mobile telephony and data sharing are in high demand. This paper explores and demonstrates that enabling meetings for the mobile context to support “anywhere and anytime” collaboration poses new opportunities, challenges, and tools. EasyMeet incorporates four novel additions, compared to traditional, electronic, meeting tools that support these scenarios and opportunities. They include s60 widget, synchronous voice and data sharing, remote content access, and access to mobile phone platform capabilities through web services. Initial feedback from a pilot has provided insights and improvements about usability and system performance.

  8. ENABLER Nuclear Propulsion System Conceptual Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauley, Keith A.; Woodham, Kurt; Ohi, Don; Haga, Heath; Henderson, Bo

    2004-02-01

    The Titan Corporation conducted a systems engineering study to develop an overall architecture that meets both the articulated and unarticulated requirements on the Prometheus Program with the least development effort. Key elements of the Titan-designed ENABLER system include a thermal fission reactor, thermionic power converters, sodium heat pipes, ion thruster engines, and a radiation shield and deployable truss to protect the payload. The overall design is scaleable over a wide range of power requirements from 10s of kilowatts to 10s of megawatts.

  9. Solar vapor generation enabled by nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Oara; Urban, Alexander S; Day, Jared; Lal, Surbhi; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2013-01-22

    Solar illumination of broadly absorbing metal or carbon nanoparticles dispersed in a liquid produces vapor without the requirement of heating the fluid volume. When particles are dispersed in water at ambient temperature, energy is directed primarily to vaporization of water into steam, with a much smaller fraction resulting in heating of the fluid. Sunlight-illuminated particles can also drive H(2)O-ethanol distillation, yielding fractions significantly richer in ethanol content than simple thermal distillation. These phenomena can also enable important compact solar applications such as sterilization of waste and surgical instruments in resource-poor locations. PMID:23157159

  10. WSKE: Web Server Key Enabled Cookies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masone, Chris; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Smith, Sean

    In this paper, we present the design and prototype of a new approach to cookie management: if a server deposits a cookie only after authenticating itself via the SSL handshake, the browser will return the cookie only to a server that can authenticate itself, via SSL, to the same keypair. This approach can enable usable but secure client authentication. This approach can improve the usability of server authentication by clients. This approach is superior to the prior work on Active Cookies in that it defends against both DNS spoofing and IP spoofing—and does not require binding a user's interaction with a server to individual IP addresses.

  11. Transparent displays enabled by resonant nanoparticle scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Zhen, Bo; Qiu, Wenjun; Shapira, Ofer; Delacy, Brendan G.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin

    2014-01-01

    The ability to display graphics and texts on a transparent screen can enable many useful applications. Here we create a transparent display by projecting monochromatic images onto a transparent medium embedded with nanoparticles that selectively scatter light at the projected wavelength. We describe the optimal design of such nanoparticles, and experimentally demonstrate this concept with a blue-color transparent display made of silver nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. This approach has attractive features including simplicity, wide viewing angle, scalability to large sizes and low cost.

  12. Camera-enabled techniques for organic synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ingham, Richard J; O’Brien, Matthew; Browne, Duncan L

    2013-01-01

    Summary A great deal of time is spent within synthetic chemistry laboratories on non-value-adding activities such as sample preparation and work-up operations, and labour intensive activities such as extended periods of continued data collection. Using digital cameras connected to computer vision algorithms, camera-enabled apparatus can perform some of these processes in an automated fashion, allowing skilled chemists to spend their time more productively. In this review we describe recent advances in this field of chemical synthesis and discuss how they will lead to advanced synthesis laboratories of the future. PMID:23766820

  13. The role of CORBA in enabling telemedicine

    SciTech Connect

    Forslund, D.W.

    1997-07-01

    One of the most powerful tools available for telemedicine is a multimedia medical record accessible over a wide area and simultaneously editable by multiple physicians. The ability to do this through an intuitive interface linking multiple distributed data repositories while maintaining full data integrity is a fundamental enabling technology in healthcare. The author discusses the role of distributed object technology using CORBA in providing this capability including an example of such a system (TeleMed) which can be accessed through the World Wide Web. Issues of security, scalability, data integrity, and useability are emphasized.

  14. Community Health Advocate-Identified Enablers of HIV Testing for Latina Immigrant Women.

    PubMed

    Massengale, Kelley E; Morrison, Sharon D; Sudha, S

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to identify enablers or facilitators of HIV testing among Latina immigrant women through qualitative interviews with five community health advocates (CHAs). CHAs act as cultural bridges between Latinos and service providers. We employed a single case-study design using the PEN-3 model as a conceptual framework for situating HIV testing behaviors within cultural and structural contexts of Latina immigrant women's lives. A cross-case analysis of themes revealed that intrinsic enablers of HIV testing included individual trust, confidentiality, intergenerational family participation, and peers. The extrinsic enablers were local community outreach, bicultural/bilingual testing staff, service location and mass media outlets. These results have implications for the cultural competency of health and social service providers, instituting and revising HIV testing outreach interventions, and the earlier identification of women who may have been infected. They offer important insights for promoting other health behaviors among the Latino communities. PMID:27427927

  15. MENTOR: an enabler for interoperable intelligent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarraipa, João; Jardim-Goncalves, Ricardo; Steiger-Garcao, Adolfo

    2010-07-01

    A community with knowledge organisation based on ontologies will enable an increase in the computational intelligence of its information systems. However, due to the worldwide diversity of communities, a high number of knowledge representation elements, which are not semantically coincident, have appeared representing the same segment of reality, becoming a barrier to business communications. Even if a domain community uses the same kind of technologies in its information systems, such as ontologies, it doesn't solve its semantics differences. In order to solve this interoperability problem, a solution is to use a reference ontology as an intermediary in the communications between the community enterprises and the outside, while allowing the enterprises to keep their own ontology and semantics unchanged internally. This work proposes MENTOR, a methodology to support the development of a common reference ontology for a group of organisations sharing the same business domain. This methodology is based on the mediator ontology (MO) concept, which assists the semantic transformations among each enterprise's ontology and the referential one. The MO enables each organisation to keep its own terminology, glossary and ontological structures, while providing seamless communication and interaction with the others.

  16. Interaction-enabled topological crystalline phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapa, Matthew F.; Teo, Jeffrey C. Y.; Hughes, Taylor L.

    2016-03-01

    In this article we provide a general mechanism for generating interaction-enabled fermionic topological phases. We illustrate the mechanism with crystalline symmetry-protected topological phases in one, two, and three spatial dimensions. These nontrivial phases require interactions for their existence, and in the cases we consider, the free-fermion classification yields only a trivial phase. For the one- and two-dimensional phases we consider, we provide explicit exactly solvable models which realize the interaction-enabled phases. Similar to the interpretation of the Kitaev Majorana wire as a mean-field p -wave superconductor Hamiltonian arising from an interacting model with quartic interactions, we show that our systems can be interpreted as "mean-field" charge-4 e superconductors arising, e.g., from an interacting model with eight-body interactions or through another physical mechanism. The quartet superconducting nature allows for the teleportation of full Cooper pairs and, in two dimensions, for interesting semiclassical crystalline defects with non-Abelian anyon bound states.

  17. Nano-Enabled SERS Reporting Photosensitizers

    PubMed Central

    Farhadi, Arash; Roxin, Áron; Wilson, Brian C.; Zheng, Gang

    2015-01-01

    To impart effective cellular damage via photodynamic therapy (PDT), it is vital to deliver the appropriate light dose and photosensitizer concentration, and to monitor the PDT dose delivered at the site of interest. In vivo monitoring of photosensitizers has in large part relied on their fluorescence emission. Palladium-containing photosensitizers have shown promising clinical results by demonstrating near full conversion of light to PDT activity at the cost of having undetectable fluorescence. We demonstrate that, through the coupling of plasmonic nanoparticles with palladium-photosensitizers, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) provides both reporting and monitoring capability to otherwise quiescent molecules. Nano-enabled SERS reporting of photosensitizers allows for the decoupling of the therapeutic and imaging mechanisms so that both phenomena can be optimized independently. Most importantly, the design enables the use of the same laser wavelength to stimulate both the PDT and imaging features, opening the potential for real-time dosimetry of photosensitizer concentration and PDT dose delivery by SERS monitoring. PMID:25767614

  18. Enabling occupational performance: optimal experiences in therapy.

    PubMed

    Rebeiro, K L; Polgar, J M

    1999-02-01

    Occupational therapists believe that engagement in occupation contributes to health through an individually balanced use of time, a positive focus for one's physical and mental energy, and the provision of a sense of purpose. Flow is a construct which describes optimal experiences or enjoyment in everyday activities. A review of the literature suggests that the theory of optimal experience is complementary to occupational therapy beliefs and that an understanding of the flow experience may contribute to our understanding of human occupation. Specifically, flow may be useful in understanding those aspects of the occupation, environment and person that contribute to a "just right" challenge, and to enabling occupational performance through enjoyable, structured and purposeful activity. Occupational therapists are encouraged to explore whether optimal experiences facilitate occupational performance for individuals with a disability. Future research could explore whether the occupational opportunities available to persons with a disability provide the degree of challenge required to elicit the optimal experience. Finally, research could explore whether the client-driven selection of meaningful occupation, and therapist enablement of the "just right" challenge, influences optimal experience, occupational performance, and life satisfaction for those with a disability. PMID:10462878

  19. The Master Enabler: In Orbit Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; Kienlen, Michael; Naasz, Bo; Roberts, Brian; Deweese, Keith; Cassidy, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most noteworthy missions in space exploration have occurred in the last two decades and owe their success to on-orbit servicing. The tremendously successful Hubble Space Telescope repair and upgrade missions, as well as the completed assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and its full utilization, lead us to the next chapter and set of challenges. These include fully exploiting the many space systems already launched, assembling large structures in situ thereby enabling new scientific discoveries, and providing systems that reliably and cost-effectively support the next steps in space exploration. In-orbit servicing is a tool--a tool that can serve as the master enabler to create space architectures that would otherwise be unattainable. This paper will survey how NASA's satellite-servicing technology development efforts are being applied to the planning and execution of two such ambitious missions, specifically asteroid capture and the in-space assembly of a very large life-finding telescope.

  20. The "Master Enabler" - In-Orbit Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Benjamin; Kienlen, Michael; Naasz, Bo; Roberts, Brian; Deweese, Keith; Cassidy, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most noteworthy missions in space exploration have occurred in the last two decades and owe their success to on-orbit servicing. The tremendously successful Hubble Space Telescope repair and upgrade missions, as well as the completed assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and its full utilization, lead us to the next chapter and set of challenges. These include fully exploiting the many space systems already launched, assembling large structures in situ thereby enabling new scientific discoveries, and providing systems that reliably and cost-effectively support the next steps in space exploration. In-orbit servicing is a tool-a tool that can serve as the master enabler to create space architectures that would otherwise be unattainable. This paper will survey how NASA's satellite-servicing technology development efforts are being applied to the planning and execution of two such ambitious missions, specifically asteroid capture and the in-space assembly of a very large life-finding telescope.

  1. In-Orbit Servicing: The Master Enabler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; Kienlen, Michael; Naasz, Bo; Roberts, Brian; Deweese, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most noteworthy missions in space exploration have occurred in the last two decades and owe their success to on-orbit servicing. The tremendously successful Hubble Space Telescope repair and upgrade missions, as well as the completed assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and its full utilization, lead us to the next chapter and set of challenges. These include fully exploiting the many space systems already launched, assembling large structures in situ thereby enabling new scientific discoveries, and providing systems that reliably and cost-effectively support the next steps in space exploration. In-orbit servicing is a tool--a tool that can serve as the master enabler to create space architectures that would otherwise be unattainable. This paper will survey how NASA's satellite-servicing technology development efforts are being applied to the planning and execution of two such ambitious missions, specifically asteroid capture and the in-space assembly of a very large life-finding telescope.

  2. [Psychosocial interventions in dementia].

    PubMed

    Kurz, A

    2013-01-01

    Psychosocial interventions improve cognitive abilities (cognitive stimulation, cognitive training), enhance emotional well-being (activity planning, reminiscence), reduce behavioral symptoms (aromatherapy, music therapy) and promote everyday functioning (occupational therapy). Through these effects they reinforce and augment pharmacological treatments for dementia. In addition, psychosocial interventions complement the treatment of patients by supporting family caregivers (educational groups, support programs). The potential of psychosocial interventions in dementia needs to be explored further in studies using improved methodology to determine effective components, clinical relevance and duration of effects, predictors of individual treatment response and health-economic implications. PMID:23306213

  3. Pursuing prosody interventions.

    PubMed

    Hargrove, Patricia M

    2013-08-01

    This paper provides an overview of evidence-based prosodic intervention strategies to facilitate clinicians' inclusion of prosody in their therapeutic planning and to encourage researchers' interest in prosody as an area of specialization. Four current evidence-based prosodic interventions are reviewed and answers to some important clinical questions are proposed. Additionally, the future direction of prosodic intervention research is discussed in recommendations about issues that are of concern to clinicians. The paper ends with a call for participation in an online collaboration at the Clinical Prosody blog at clinicalprosody.wordpress.com. PMID:23806133

  4. Intervention research: GAO experiences.

    PubMed

    Grasso, P G

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes tools of program evaluation that may prove useful in conducting research on occupational health and safety interventions. It presents examples of three studies conducted by the U.S. General Accounting Office that illustrate a variety of techniques for collecting and analyzing data on program interventions, including analysis of extant data, synthesis of results of existing studies, and combining data from administrative files with survey results. At the same time, it stresses the importance and difficulty of constructing an adequate "theory" of how the intervention is expected to affect outcomes, both for guiding data collection and for allowing adequate interpretation of results.

  5. [Psychosocial interventions in dementia].

    PubMed

    Kurz, A

    2013-01-01

    Psychosocial interventions improve cognitive abilities (cognitive stimulation, cognitive training), enhance emotional well-being (activity planning, reminiscence), reduce behavioral symptoms (aromatherapy, music therapy) and promote everyday functioning (occupational therapy). Through these effects they reinforce and augment pharmacological treatments for dementia. In addition, psychosocial interventions complement the treatment of patients by supporting family caregivers (educational groups, support programs). The potential of psychosocial interventions in dementia needs to be explored further in studies using improved methodology to determine effective components, clinical relevance and duration of effects, predictors of individual treatment response and health-economic implications.

  6. Intervention research: GAO experiences.

    PubMed

    Grasso, P G

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes tools of program evaluation that may prove useful in conducting research on occupational health and safety interventions. It presents examples of three studies conducted by the U.S. General Accounting Office that illustrate a variety of techniques for collecting and analyzing data on program interventions, including analysis of extant data, synthesis of results of existing studies, and combining data from administrative files with survey results. At the same time, it stresses the importance and difficulty of constructing an adequate "theory" of how the intervention is expected to affect outcomes, both for guiding data collection and for allowing adequate interpretation of results. PMID:8728140

  7. Technology Innovation Enabling Falls Risk Assessment in a Community Setting.

    PubMed

    Ni Scanaill, Cliodhna; Garattini, Chiara; Greene, Barry R; McGrath, Michael J

    2011-06-01

    Approximately one in three people over the age of 65 will fall each year, resulting in significant financial, physical, and emotional cost on the individual, their family, and society. Currently, falls are managed using on-body sensors and alarm pendants to notify others when a falls event occurs. However these technologies do not prevent a fall from occurring. There is now a growing focus on falls risk assessment and preventative interventions. Falls risk is currently assessed in a clinical setting by expert physiotherapists, geriatricians, or occupational therapists following the occurrence of an injurious fall. As the population ages, this reactive model of care will become increasingly unsatisfactory, and a proactive community-based prevention strategy will be required. Recent advances in technology can support this new model of care by enabling community-based practitioners to perform tests that previously required expensive technology or expert interpretation. Gait and balance impairment is one of the most common risk factors for falls. This paper reviews the current technical and non-technical gait and balance assessments, discusses how low-cost technology can be applied to objectively administer and interpret these tests in the community, and reports on recent research where body-worn sensors have been utilized. It also discusses the barriers to adoption in the community and proposes ethnographic research as a method to investigate solutions to these barriers. PMID:21660088

  8. Interventional Treatments for Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Patient information Membership Directory (SIR login) Interventional Radiology Interventional Treatments for Liver Disease There are a ... liver that can be treated with nonsurgical, interventional radiology techniques. Portal Hypertension Seen most frequently in patients ...

  9. Enabling the Full Participation of University Students with Disabilities: Seeking Best Practices for a Barrier-Free Language Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuomi, Margaret Trotta; Jauhojärvi-Koskelo, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that 3.4% of university students in Finland have a diagnosed or observed illness or disability that affects their learning at the university level. The University of Jyväskylä Language Centre embarked on an organised, ongoing research and intervention project to enable appropriate teaching practices to suit the needs of…

  10. A Computer-Aided Telephone System to Enable Five Persons with Alzheimer's Disease to Make Phone Calls Independently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perilli, Viviana; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Laporta, Dominga; Paparella, Adele; Caffo, Alessandro O.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta

    2013-01-01

    This study extended the assessment of a computer-aided telephone system to enable five patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease to make phone calls independently. The patients were divided into two groups and exposed to intervention according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across groups. All patients started with baseline in…

  11. Society of Interventional Radiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... comments to CMS on two MACRA coding issues; society is engaged with CMS as they develop codes ... radiology case studies Developed by ACR Copyright © 2016 Society of Interventional Radiology. All rights reserved. 3975 Fair ...

  12. Overview of Early Intervention

    MedlinePlus

    ... process. Back to top The evaluation and assessment process Service coordinator | Once connected with either Child Find ... service coordinator who will explain the early intervention process and help you through the next steps in ...

  13. Pediatric Biliary Interventions.

    PubMed

    Atchie, Benjamin; Kalva, Sanjeeva; Josephs, Shellie

    2015-12-01

    An interventional radiologist is frequently called to evaluate and treat biliary diseases in children; a tailored approach specific to this population is required. Imaging with an emphasis on minimizing ionizing radiation is used not only in the initial workup but also to guide interventions. The most common form of intervention generally consists of transhepatic biliary drainage to treat either biliary obstruction or bile leakage, a scenario frequently encountered after pediatric liver transplantation. Other pathologies referred for evaluation and management include biliary atresia and, rarely, symptomatic choledochal cysts. Biliary complications caused by an underlying malignancy are not a frequently encountered problem in the pediatric population. The initial evaluation, role of preprocedural imaging, and interventional management with an emphasis on technique are discussed regarding these common biliary pathologies in children. PMID:26615168

  14. Bio-enabled synthesis of metamaterials.

    PubMed

    DuFort, Christopher C; Dragnea, Bogdan

    2010-01-01

    Biological systems offer more than an inspiration for the spontaneous hierarchical organization of matter at length scales between 1 and 1000 nm. They also provide useful principles and molecular building blocks that have recently emerged with the proven ability to generate extended three-dimensional structures of hybrid biotic/abiotic components arranged with molecular precision. These principles and tools draw from the methods of molecular biology and modern biochemistry and are expected to provide unmatched flexibility in building supramolecular architectures, notably structures made of artificial atoms whose coupled responses to electromagnetic or elastic excitations have been predicted to yield astonishing properties unparalleled by any conventional materials. To illustrate the potential of merging bio-enabled organization with metamaterials synthesis, we provide here a succinct overview of the architectural constraints leading to metamaterial behavior together with examples of biological material assembly that are particularly promising to comply with these constraints. PMID:20055682

  15. Health-Enabled Smart Sensor Fusion Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ray

    2012-01-01

    A process was designed to fuse data from multiple sensors in order to make a more accurate estimation of the environment and overall health in an intelligent rocket test facility (IRTF), to provide reliable, high-confidence measurements for a variety of propulsion test articles. The object of the technology is to provide sensor fusion based on a distributed architecture. Specifically, the fusion technology is intended to succeed in providing health condition monitoring capability at the intelligent transceiver, such as RF signal strength, battery reading, computing resource monitoring, and sensor data reading. The technology also provides analytic and diagnostic intelligence at the intelligent transceiver, enhancing the IEEE 1451.x-based standard for sensor data management and distributions, as well as providing appropriate communications protocols to enable complex interactions to support timely and high-quality flow of information among the system elements.

  16. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hufnagel, Dick

    2015-11-19

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize “opportunistic” resources — resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS — to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Here we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  17. Enabling Radiation Tolerant Systems for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauffman, Billy; Hardage, Donna

    1999-01-01

    A hazard to all spacecraft orbiting the Earth is the existence of a harsh environment with its subsequent effects. The effects can provide damaging or even disabling effects on spacecraft and its instruments. One of the most recognized and serious of the different space environments is ionizing radiation and its effects on spacecraft and spacecraft systems. This is increasingly becoming more of an issue for all missions due to the use of lighter composite materials, smaller satellites, and smaller electronics. NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program was established to develop new plateaus of technical capability to reduce the cost of NASA's missions and provide leading-edge exploratory and focused technology to promote continued U.S. preeminence in space. The SEE Program has an "Implementation Plan" to develop roadmaps and fund technical tasks to enable radiation systems for space.

  18. The network-enabled optimization system server

    SciTech Connect

    Mesnier, M.P.

    1995-08-01

    Mathematical optimization is a technology under constant change and advancement, drawing upon the most efficient and accurate numerical methods to date. Further, these methods can be tailored for a specific application or generalized to accommodate a wider range of problems. This perpetual change creates an ever growing field, one that is often difficult to stay abreast of. Hence, the impetus behind the Network-Enabled Optimization System (NEOS) server, which aims to provide users, both novice and expert, with a guided tour through the expanding world of optimization. The NEOS server is responsible for bridging the gap between users and the optimization software they seek. More specifically, the NEOS server will accept optimization problems over the Internet and return a solution to the user either interactively or by e-mail. This paper discusses the current implementation of the server.

  19. Science Missions Enabled by the Ares V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worden, Simon Peter; Weiler, Edward J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's planned heavy-lift Ares V rocket is a centerpiece of U.S. Space Exploration Policy. With approximately 30% more capacity to Trans-Lunar Injection (TLI) than the Saturn V, Ares V could also enable additional science and exploration missions currently unachievable or extremely unworkable under current launch vehicle architectures. During the spring and summer of 2008, NASA held two workshops dedicated to the discussion of these new mission concepts for the Ares V rocket. The first workshop dealt with astronomy and astrophysics, and the second dealt primarily with planetary science and exploration, but did touch on Earth science and heliophysics. We present here the summary results and outcomes of these meetings, including a discussion of specific mission concepts and ideas, as well as suggestions on design for the Ares V fairing and flight configurations that improve science return.

  20. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufnagel, D.; CMS Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize opportunistic resources resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Here we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  1. Enabling Communication in Emergency Response Environments

    PubMed Central

    Aldunate, Roberto G.; Schmidt, Klaus Nicholas; Herrera, Oriel

    2012-01-01

    Effective communication among first responders during response to natural and human-made large-scale catastrophes has increased tremendously during the last decade. However, most efforts to achieve a higher degree of effectiveness in communication lack synergy between the environment and the technology involved to support first responders operations. This article presents a natural and intuitive interface to support Stigmergy; or communication through the environment, based on intuitively marking and retrieving information from the environment with a pointer. A prototype of the system was built and tested in the field, however the pointing activity revealed challenges regarding accuracy due to limitations of the sensors used. The results obtained from these field tests were the basis for this research effort and will have the potential to enable communication through the environment for first responders operating in highly dynamical and inhospitable disaster relief environments. PMID:22778647

  2. Bluetooth-enabled teleradiology: applications and complications.

    PubMed

    Hura, Angela M

    2002-01-01

    Wireless personal area networks and local area networks are becoming increasingly more prevalent in the teleradiology and telemedicine industry. Although there has been much debate about the role that Bluetooth will play in the future of wireless technology, both promoters and doubters acknowledge that Bluetooth will have an impact on networking, even if only as a "niche" product. This article provides an overview of the Bluetooth standard and highlights current and future areas of inclusion for use in a teleradiology environment. The possibilities for Bluetooth in a teleradiology environment without wires are nearly boundless and an overview of current and proposed Bluetooth-enabled radiology equipment and vendors is provided. A comparison of Bluetooth and other wireless technologies is provided, including areas of similarity and potential conflict. Bluetooth and other wireless technologies can not only peacefully coexist but also complement each other and provide enhanced teleradiology services.

  3. Laboratory Astrophysics: Enabling Scientific Discovery and Understanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, K.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Science Strategic Roadmap for Universe Exploration lays out a series of science objectives on a grand scale and discusses the various missions, over a wide range of wavelengths, which will enable discovery. Astronomical spectroscopy is arguably the most powerful tool we have for exploring the Universe. Experimental and theoretical studies in Laboratory Astrophysics convert "hard-won data into scientific understanding". However, the development of instruments with increasingly high spectroscopic resolution demands atomic and molecular data of unprecedented accuracy and completeness. How to meet these needs, in a time of severe budgetary constraints, poses a significant challenge both to NASA, the astronomical observers and model-builders, and the laboratory astrophysics community. I will discuss these issues, together with some recent examples of productive astronomy/lab astro collaborations.

  4. Enabling communication concurrency through flexible MPI endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Dinan, James; Grant, Ryan E.; Balaji, Pavan; Goodell, David; Miller, Douglas; Snir, Marc; Thakur, Rajeev

    2014-09-23

    MPI defines a one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. This model captures many use cases effectively; however, it also limits communication concurrency and interoperability between MPI and programming models that utilize threads. Our paper describes the MPI endpoints extension, which relaxes the longstanding one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. Using endpoints, an MPI implementation can map separate communication contexts to threads, allowing them to drive communication independently. Also, endpoints enable threads to be addressable in MPI operations, enhancing interoperability between MPI and other programming models. Furthermore, these characteristics are illustrated through several examples and an empirical study that contrasts current multithreaded communication performance with the need for high degrees of communication concurrency to achieve peak communication performance.

  5. Enabling communication concurrency through flexible MPI endpoints

    DOE PAGES

    Dinan, James; Grant, Ryan E.; Balaji, Pavan; Goodell, David; Miller, Douglas; Snir, Marc; Thakur, Rajeev

    2014-09-23

    MPI defines a one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. This model captures many use cases effectively; however, it also limits communication concurrency and interoperability between MPI and programming models that utilize threads. Our paper describes the MPI endpoints extension, which relaxes the longstanding one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. Using endpoints, an MPI implementation can map separate communication contexts to threads, allowing them to drive communication independently. Also, endpoints enable threads to be addressable in MPI operations, enhancing interoperability between MPI and other programming models. Furthermore, these characteristics are illustrated through several examples and an empirical study thatmore » contrasts current multithreaded communication performance with the need for high degrees of communication concurrency to achieve peak communication performance.« less

  6. Nanoplasmon-enabled macroscopic thermal management

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Gustav Edman; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    In numerous applications of energy harvesting via transformation of light into heat the focus recently shifted towards highly absorptive nanoplasmonic materials. It is currently established that noble metals-based absorptive plasmonic platforms deliver significant light-capturing capability and can be viewed as super-absorbers of optical radiation. Naturally, approaches to the direct experimental probing of macroscopic temperature increase resulting from these absorbers are welcomed. Here we derive a general quantitative method of characterizing heat-generating properties of optically absorptive layers via macroscopic thermal imaging. We further monitor macroscopic areas that are homogeneously heated by several degrees with nanostructures that occupy a mere 8% of the surface, leaving it essentially transparent and evidencing significant heat generation capability of nanoplasmon-enabled light capture. This has a direct bearing to a large number of applications where thermal management is crucial. PMID:24870613

  7. Enabling Computational Technologies for Terascale Scientific Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, S.F.

    2000-08-24

    We develop scalable algorithms and object-oriented code frameworks for terascale scientific simulations on massively parallel processors (MPPs). Our research in multigrid-based linear solvers and adaptive mesh refinement enables Laboratory programs to use MPPs to explore important physical phenomena. For example, our research aids stockpile stewardship by making practical detailed 3D simulations of radiation transport. The need to solve large linear systems arises in many applications, including radiation transport, structural dynamics, combustion, and flow in porous media. These systems result from discretizations of partial differential equations on computational meshes. Our first research objective is to develop multigrid preconditioned iterative methods for such problems and to demonstrate their scalability on MPPs. Scalability describes how total computational work grows with problem size; it measures how effectively additional resources can help solve increasingly larger problems. Many factors contribute to scalability: computer architecture, parallel implementation, and choice of algorithm. Scalable algorithms have been shown to decrease simulation times by several orders of magnitude.

  8. Microsystem enabled photovoltaic modules and systems

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Sweatt, William C; Okandan, Murat

    2015-05-12

    A microsystem enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) module including: an absorber layer; a fixed optic layer coupled to the absorber layer; a translatable optic layer; a translation stage coupled between the fixed and translatable optic layers; and a motion processor electrically coupled to the translation stage to controls motion of the translatable optic layer relative to the fixed optic layer. The absorber layer includes an array of photovoltaic (PV) elements. The fixed optic layer includes an array of quasi-collimating (QC) micro-optical elements designed and arranged to couple incident radiation from an intermediate image formed by the translatable optic layer into one of the PV elements such that it is quasi-collimated. The translatable optic layer includes an array of focusing micro-optical elements corresponding to the QC micro-optical element array. Each focusing micro-optical element is designed to produce a quasi-telecentric intermediate image from substantially collimated radiation incident within a predetermined field of view.

  9. Grid Enabled Geospatial Catalogue Web Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Ai-Jun; Di, Li-Ping; Wei, Ya-Xing; Liu, Yang; Bui, Yu-Qi; Hu, Chau-Min; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    Geospatial Catalogue Web Service is a vital service for sharing and interoperating volumes of distributed heterogeneous geospatial resources, such as data, services, applications, and their replicas over the web. Based on the Grid technology and the Open Geospatial Consortium (0GC) s Catalogue Service - Web Information Model, this paper proposes a new information model for Geospatial Catalogue Web Service, named as GCWS which can securely provides Grid-based publishing, managing and querying geospatial data and services, and the transparent access to the replica data and related services under the Grid environment. This information model integrates the information model of the Grid Replica Location Service (RLS)/Monitoring & Discovery Service (MDS) with the information model of OGC Catalogue Service (CSW), and refers to the geospatial data metadata standards from IS0 19115, FGDC and NASA EOS Core System and service metadata standards from IS0 191 19 to extend itself for expressing geospatial resources. Using GCWS, any valid geospatial user, who belongs to an authorized Virtual Organization (VO), can securely publish and manage geospatial resources, especially query on-demand data in the virtual community and get back it through the data-related services which provide functions such as subsetting, reformatting, reprojection etc. This work facilitates the geospatial resources sharing and interoperating under the Grid environment, and implements geospatial resources Grid enabled and Grid technologies geospatial enabled. It 2!so makes researcher to focus on science, 2nd not cn issues with computing ability, data locztic, processir,g and management. GCWS also is a key component for workflow-based virtual geospatial data producing.

  10. Disability and dignity-enabling home environments.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Barbara E; Secker, Barbara; Rolfe, Debbie; Wagner, Frank; Parke, Bob; Mistry, Bhavnita

    2012-01-01

    In Canada where long-term care is primarily oriented to elderly persons and affordable accessible housing is limited, younger disabled adults may be living in circumstances that do not meet their health needs and contribute to their social exclusion. The purpose of this study was to undertake an ethical analysis of what constitute an 'adequate' home environment for adults with significant mobility disabilities. An integrated design was used that combined qualitative interviews with normative ethical analysis in an iterative process. Twenty interviews with 19 participants were conducted in Ontario, Canada with two groups: younger adults (ages 18-55) with mobility disabilities and 'decision-makers' who consisted of policy makers, program administrators and discharge planners. Data were analyzed using a critical disability ethics approach and processes of reflective equilibrium. Drawing on Nora Jacobson's (Jacobson, 2009) taxonomy of dignity and pluralistic approaches to social justice, the concept of 'social dignity' provides a lens for exploring the adequacy of home environments for disabled people. Analyses suggested seven threshold conditions necessary for a dignity-enabling home: the ability to form and sustain meaningful relationships; access to community and civic life; access to control and flexibility of daily activities; access to opportunities for self-expression and identity affirmation; access to respectful relationships with attendants; access to opportunities to participate in school, work or leisure; access to physical, psychological and ontological security. The results have implications for housing, health and social care policies, and political reform. Social dignity provides a normative ethical grounding for assessing the adequacy of home environments. The threshold elements outline specific dignity-enabling conditions that are open to further specification or elaboration in different contexts.

  11. Paediatric musculoskeletal interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Natali, Gian L; Paolantonio, Guglielmo; Fruhwirth, Rodolfo; Alvaro, Giuseppe; Parapatt, George K; Toma', Paolo; Rollo, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Interventional radiology technique is now well established and widely used in the adult population. Through minimally invasive procedures, it increasingly replaces surgical interventions that involve higher percentages of invasiveness and, consequently, of morbidity and mortality. For these advantageous reasons, interventional radiology in recent years has spread to the paediatric age as well. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the development, use and perspectives of these procedures in the paediatric musculoskeletal field. Several topics are covered: osteomuscle neoplastic malignant and benign pathologies treated with invasive diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedures such as radiofrequency ablation in the osteoid osteoma; invasive and non-invasive procedures in vascular malformations; treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts; and role of interventional radiology in paediatric inflammatory and rheumatic inflammations. The positive results that have been generated with interventional radiology procedures in the paediatric field highly encourage both the development of new ad hoc materials, obviously adapted to young patients, as well as the improvement of such techniques, in consideration of the fact that childrens' pathologies do not always correspond to those of adults. In conclusion, as these interventional procedures have proven to be less invasive, with lower morbidity and mortality rates as well, they are becoming a viable and valid alternative to surgery in the paediatric population.

  12. Longitudinal Outcomes of Functional Behavioral Assessment--Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Lee; Gallagher, Patricia; Starosta, Kristin; Hickman, Wesley; George, Michael

    2006-01-01

    A critical measure of intervention effectiveness is durability over time. Still, few studies have examined the long-term outcomes of support derived from a functional behavioral assessment as well as enablers and barriers that contribute to or impede successful outcomes. In the current study, a functional behavioral assessment was conducted with a…

  13. Enabling Technologies for Ceramic Hot Section Components

    SciTech Connect

    Venkat Vedula; Tania Bhatia

    2009-04-30

    Silicon-based ceramics are attractive materials for use in gas turbine engine hot sections due to their high temperature mechanical and physical properties as well as lower density than metals. The advantages of utilizing ceramic hot section components include weight reduction, and improved efficiency as well as enhanced power output and lower emissions as a result of reducing or eliminating cooling. Potential gas turbine ceramic components for industrial, commercial and/or military high temperature turbine applications include combustor liners, vanes, rotors, and shrouds. These components require materials that can withstand high temperatures and pressures for long duration under steam-rich environments. For Navy applications, ceramic hot section components have the potential to increase the operation range. The amount of weight reduced by utilizing a lighter gas turbine can be used to increase fuel storage capacity while a more efficient gas turbine consumes less fuel. Both improvements enable a longer operation range for Navy ships and aircraft. Ceramic hot section components will also be beneficial to the Navy's Growth Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) and VAATE (Versatile Affordable Advanced Turbine Engines) initiatives in terms of reduced weight, cooling air savings, and capability/cost index (CCI). For DOE applications, ceramic hot section components provide an avenue to achieve low emissions while improving efficiency. Combustors made of ceramic material can withstand higher wall temperatures and require less cooling air. Ability of the ceramics to withstand high temperatures enables novel combustor designs that have reduced NO{sub x}, smoke and CO levels. In the turbine section, ceramic vanes and blades do not require sophisticated cooling schemes currently used for metal components. The saved cooling air could be used to further improve efficiency and power output. The objectives of this contract were to develop technologies critical for ceramic hot section

  14. Realising the Uncertainty Enabled Model Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornford, D.; Bastin, L.; Pebesma, E. J.; Williams, M.; Stasch, C.; Jones, R.; Gerharz, L.

    2012-12-01

    The FP7 funded UncertWeb project aims to create the "uncertainty enabled model web". The central concept here is that geospatial models and data resources are exposed via standard web service interfaces, such as the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) suite of encodings and interface standards, allowing the creation of complex workflows combining both data and models. The focus of UncertWeb is on the issue of managing uncertainty in such workflows, and providing the standards, architecture, tools and software support necessary to realise the "uncertainty enabled model web". In this paper we summarise the developments in the first two years of UncertWeb, illustrating several key points with examples taken from the use case requirements that motivate the project. Firstly we address the issue of encoding specifications. We explain the usage of UncertML 2.0, a flexible encoding for representing uncertainty based on a probabilistic approach. This is designed to be used within existing standards such as Observations and Measurements (O&M) and data quality elements of ISO19115 / 19139 (geographic information metadata and encoding specifications) as well as more broadly outside the OGC domain. We show profiles of O&M that have been developed within UncertWeb and how UncertML 2.0 is used within these. We also show encodings based on NetCDF and discuss possible future directions for encodings in JSON. We then discuss the issues of workflow construction, considering discovery of resources (both data and models). We discuss why a brokering approach to service composition is necessary in a world where the web service interfaces remain relatively heterogeneous, including many non-OGC approaches, in particular the more mainstream SOAP and WSDL approaches. We discuss the trade-offs between delegating uncertainty management functions to the service interfaces themselves and integrating the functions in the workflow management system. We describe two utility services to address

  15. Technology-enabled Airborne Spacing and Merging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, James; Barmore, Bryan; Abbott, Tetence

    2005-01-01

    Over the last several decades, advances in airborne and groundside technologies have allowed the Air Traffic Service Provider (ATSP) to give safer and more efficient service, reduce workload and frequency congestion, and help accommodate a critically escalating traffic volume. These new technologies have included advanced radar displays, and data and communication automation to name a few. In step with such advances, NASA Langley is developing a precision spacing concept designed to increase runway throughput by enabling the flight crews to manage their inter-arrival spacing from TRACON entry to the runway threshold. This concept is being developed as part of NASA s Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) project under the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program. Precision spacing is enabled by Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), which provides air-to-air data exchange including position and velocity reports; real-time wind information and other necessary data. On the flight deck, a research prototype system called Airborne Merging and Spacing for Terminal Arrivals (AMSTAR) processes this information and provides speed guidance to the flight crew to achieve the desired inter-arrival spacing. AMSTAR is designed to support current ATC operations, provide operationally acceptable system-wide increases in approach spacing performance and increase runway throughput through system stability, predictability and precision spacing. This paper describes problems and costs associated with an imprecise arrival flow. It also discusses methods by which Air Traffic Controllers achieve and maintain an optimum interarrival interval, and explores means by which AMSTAR can assist in this pursuit. AMSTAR is an extension of NASA s previous work on in-trail spacing that was successfully demonstrated in a flight evaluation at Chicago O Hare International Airport in September 2002. In addition to providing for precision inter-arrival spacing, AMSTAR

  16. An Enabling Technology for New Planning and Scheduling Paradigms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Davis, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    intervention of a scheduling expert. The algorithm is tuned for the constraint hierarchies and the complex temporal relationships provided by the modeling schema. It has an extensive search algorithm that can exploit timing flexibilities and constraint and relationship options. (3) An innovative architecture allows multiple remote users to simultaneously model science and technology requirements and other users to model vehicle and hardware characteristics. The architecture allows the remote users to submit scheduling requests directly to the scheduling engine and immediately see the results. These three components are integrated so that science and technology experts with no knowledge of the vehicle or hardware subsystems and no knowledge of the internal workings of the scheduling engine have the ability to build and submit scheduling requests and see the results. The immediate feedback will hone the users' modeling skills and ultimately enable them to produce the desired timeline. This paper summarizes the three components of the enabling technology and describes how this technology would make a new paradigm possible.

  17. Willing and Enabled: The Academic Outcomes of a Tertiary Enabling Program in Regional Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrewartha, Lisa; Harvey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the achievement levels of students undertaking the Tertiary Enabling Program (TEP) at La Trobe University. The TEP is an alternative pathway program that traverses multiple institutions, campuses, and disciplinary areas, and is designed to prepare a diverse student cohort for tertiary study. The Program integrates several…

  18. Frailty Intervention Trial (FIT)

    PubMed Central

    Fairhall, Nicola; Aggar, Christina; Kurrle, Susan E; Sherrington, Catherine; Lord, Stephen; Lockwood, Keri; Monaghan, Noeline; Cameron, Ian D

    2008-01-01

    Background Frailty is a term commonly used to describe the condition of an older person who has chronic health problems, has lost functional abilities and is likely to deteriorate further. However, despite its common use, only a small number of studies have attempted to define the syndrome of frailty and measure its prevalence. The criteria Fried and colleagues used to define the frailty syndrome will be used in this study (i.e. weight loss, fatigue, decreased grip strength, slow gait speed, and low physical activity). Previous studies have shown that clinical outcomes for frail older people can be improved using multi-factorial interventions such as comprehensive geriatric assessment, and single interventions such as exercise programs or nutritional supplementation, but no interventions have been developed to specifically reverse the syndrome of frailty. We have developed a multidisciplinary intervention that specifically targets frailty as defined by Fried et al. We aim to establish the effects of this intervention on frailty, mobility, hospitalisation and institutionalisation in frail older people. Methods and Design A single centre randomised controlled trial comparing a multidisciplinary intervention with usual care. The intervention will target identified characteristics of frailty, functional limitations, nutritional status, falls risk, psychological issues and management of chronic health conditions. Two hundred and thirty people aged 70 and over who meet the Fried definition of frailty will be recruited from clients of the aged care service of a metropolitan hospital. Participants will be followed for a 12-month period. Discussion This research is an important step in the examination of specifically targeted frailty interventions. This project will assess whether an intervention specifically targeting frailty can be implemented, and whether it is effective when compared to usual care. If successful, the study will establish a new approach to the treatment

  19. Realist complex intervention science: Applying realist principles across all phases of the Medical Research Council framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Adam; Jamal, Farah; Moore, Graham; Evans, Rhiannon E.; Murphy, Simon; Bonell, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The integration of realist evaluation principles within randomised controlled trials (‘realist RCTs’) enables evaluations of complex interventions to answer questions about what works, for whom and under what circumstances. This allows evaluators to better develop and refine mid-level programme theories. However, this is only one phase in the process of developing and evaluating complex interventions. We describe and exemplify how social scientists can integrate realist principles across all phases of the Medical Research Council framework. Intervention development, modelling, and feasibility and pilot studies need to theorise the contextual conditions necessary for intervention mechanisms to be activated. Where interventions are scaled up and translated into routine practice, realist principles also have much to offer in facilitating knowledge about longer-term sustainability, benefits and harms. Integrating a realist approach across all phases of complex intervention science is vital for considering the feasibility and likely effects of interventions for different localities and population subgroups. PMID:27478401

  20. Survey of Enabling Technologies for CAPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antol, Jeffrey; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Koons, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    The enabling technologies required for the development of a viable Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS) can be divided into two principal areas: detection and deflection/orbit modification. With the proper funding levels, many of the technologies needed to support a CAPS architecture could be achievable within the next 15 to 20 years. In fact, many advanced detection technologies are currently in development for future in-space telescope systems such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), formerly known as the Next Generation Space Telescope. It is anticipated that many of the JWST technologies would be available for application for CAPS detection concepts. Deflection/orbit modification technologies are also currently being studied as part of advanced power and propulsion research. However, many of these technologies, such as extremely high-output power systems, advanced propulsion, heat rejection, and directed energy systems, would likely be farther term in availability than many of the detection technologies. Discussed subsequently is a preliminary examination of the main technologies that have been identified as being essential to providing the element functionality defined during the CAPS conceptual study. The detailed requirements for many of the technology areas are still unknown, and many additional technologies will be identified as future in-depth studies are conducted in this area.

  1. Key Enabling Technologies for Virtual Private Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nick, Jeffrey M.; Cohen, David; Kaliski, Burton S.

    The concept of a virtual private cloud (VPC) has emerged recently as a way of managing information technology resources so that they appear to be operated for a single organization from a logical point of view, but may be built from underlying physical resources that belong to the organization, an external service provider, or a combination of both. Several technologies are essential to the effective implementation of a VPC. Virtual data centers provide the insulation that sets one organization's virtual resources apart from those of other organizations and from the underlying physical infrastructure. Virtual applications collect those resources into separately manageable units. Policy-based deployment and policy compliance offer a means of control and verification of the operation of the virtual applications across the virtual data centers. Finally, service management integration bridges across the underlying resources to give an overall, logical and actionable view. These key technologies enable cloud providers to offer organizations the cost and efficiency benefits of cloud computing as well as the operational autonomy and flexibility to which they have been accustomed.

  2. Enabling electroweak baryogenesis through dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewicki, Marek; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Wells, James D.

    2016-06-01

    We study the impact on electroweak baryogenesis from a swifter cosmological expansion induced by dark matter. We detail the experimental bounds that one can place on models that realize it, and we investigate the modifications of these bounds that result from a non-standard cosmological history. The modifications can be sizeable if the expansion rate of the Universe increases by several orders of magnitude. We illustrate the impact through the example of scalar field dark matter, which can alter the cosmological history enough to enable a strong-enough first-order phase transition in the Standard Model when it is supplemented by a dimension six operator directly modifying the Higgs boson potential. We show that due to the modified cosmological history, electroweak baryogenesis can be realized, while keeping deviations of the triple Higgs coupling below HL-LHC sensitivies. The required scale of new physics to effectuate a strong-enough first order phase transition can change by as much as twenty percent as the expansion rate increases by six orders of magnitude.

  3. Enabler for the agile virtual enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerst, Karl; Schmidt, Thomas; Wippel, Gerald

    2001-10-01

    In this presentation, a new approach for a flexible low-cost Internet extended enterprise (project FLoCI-EE) will be presented. FLoCI-EE is a project in the fifth framework program of the European commission with 8 partners from 4 countries, which started in January 2001 and will be finished in December 2003. The main objective of FLoCI-EE is the development of a software prototype, which enables flexible enterprise cooperation with the aim to design, manufacture and sell products commonly, independent of enterprise borderlines. The needed IT-support includes functions of product data management (PDM), enterprise resource planning (ERP), supply chain management (SCM) and customer relationship management (CRM). Especially for small and medium sized enterprises, existing solutions are too expensive and inflexible to be of use under current turbulent market conditions. The second part of this paper covers the item Web Services, because in the role-specific support approach of FLoCI-EE, there are user- interface-components, which are tailored for specific roles in an enterprise. These components integrate automatically the services of the so-called basic-components, and the externally offered Web Services like UDDI.

  4. Bandwidth Enabled Flight Operations: Examining the Possibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisanich, Greg; Renema, Fritz; Clancy, Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Bandwidth Enabled Flight Operations project is a research effort at the NASA Ames Research Center to investigate the use of satellite communications to improve aviation safety and capacity. This project is a follow on to the AeroSAPIENT Project, which demonstrated methods for transmitting high bandwidth data in various configurations. For this research, we set a goal to nominally use only 10 percent of the available bandwidth demonstrated by AeroSAPIENT or projected by near-term technology advances. This paper describes the results of our research, including available satellite bandwidth, commercial and research efforts to provide these services, and some of the limiting factors inherent with this communications medium. It also describes our investigation into the needs of the stakeholders (Airlines, Pilots, Cabin Crews, ATC, Maintenance, etc). The paper also describes our development of low-cost networked flight deck and airline operations center simulations that were used to demonstrate two application areas: Providing real time weather information to the commercial flight deck, and enhanced crew monitoring and control for airline operations centers.

  5. Smart sensors enable smart air conditioning control.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection. PMID:24961213

  6. Smart sensors enable smart air conditioning control.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-06-24

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  7. Water: A Critical Material Enabling Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Karen D.

    2014-01-01

    Water is one of the most critical materials in human spaceflight. The availability of water defines the duration of a space mission; the volume of water required for a long-duration space mission becomes too large, heavy, and expensive for launch vehicles to carry. Since the mission duration is limited by the amount of water a space vehicle can carry, the capability to recycle water enables space exploration. In addition, water management in microgravity impacts spaceflight in other respects, such as the recent emergency termination of a spacewalk caused by free water in an astronaut's spacesuit helmet. A variety of separation technologies are used onboard spacecraft to ensure that water is always available for use, and meets the stringent water quality required for human space exploration. These separation technologies are often adapted for use in a microgravity environment, where water behaves in unique ways. The use of distillation, membrane processes, ion exchange and granular activated carbon will be reviewed. Examples of microgravity effects on operations will also be presented. A roadmap for future technologies, needed to supply water resources for the exploration of Mars, will also be reviewed.

  8. Nanocrystal-enabled solid state bonding.

    SciTech Connect

    San Diego State University, San Diego, CA; Puskar, Joseph David; Tikare, Veena; Garcia Cardona, Cristina; Reece, Mark; Brewer, Luke N.; Holm, Elizabeth Ann

    2010-10-01

    In this project, we performed a preliminary set of sintering experiments to examine nanocrystal-enabled diffusion bonding (NEDB) in Ag-on-Ag and Cu-on-Cu using Ag nanoparticles. The experimental test matrix included the effects of material system, temperature, pressure, and particle size. The nanoparticle compacts were bonded between plates using a customized hot press, tested in shear, and examined post mortem using microscopy techniques. NEDB was found to be a feasible mechanism for low-temperature, low-pressure, solid-state bonding of like materials, creating bonded interfaces that were able to support substantial loads. The maximum supported shear strength varied substantially within sample cohorts due to variation in bonded area; however, systematic variation with fabrication conditions was also observed. Mesoscale sintering simulations were performed in order to understand whether sintering models can aid in understanding the NEDB process. A pressure-assisted sintering model was incorporated into the SPPARKS kinetic Monte Carlo sintering code. Results reproduce most of the qualitative behavior observed in experiments, indicating that simulation can augment experiments during the development of the NEDB process. Because NEDB offers a promising route to low-temperature, low-pressure, solid-state bonding, we recommend further research and development with a goal of devising new NEDB bonding processes to support Sandia's customers.

  9. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection. PMID:24961213

  10. Glass ceramic ZERODUR enabling nanometer precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Kunisch, Clemens; Nieder, Johannes; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The IC Lithography roadmap foresees manufacturing of devices with critical dimension of < 20 nm. Overlay specification of single digit nanometer asking for nanometer positioning accuracy requiring sub nanometer position measurement accuracy. The glass ceramic ZERODUR® is a well-established material in critical components of microlithography wafer stepper and offered with an extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), the tightest tolerance available on market. SCHOTT is continuously improving manufacturing processes and it's method to measure and characterize the CTE behavior of ZERODUR® to full fill the ever tighter CTE specification for wafer stepper components. In this paper we present the ZERODUR® Lithography Roadmap on the CTE metrology and tolerance. Additionally, simulation calculations based on a physical model are presented predicting the long term CTE behavior of ZERODUR® components to optimize dimensional stability of precision positioning devices. CTE data of several low thermal expansion materials are compared regarding their temperature dependence between - 50°C and + 100°C. ZERODUR® TAILORED 22°C is full filling the tight CTE tolerance of +/- 10 ppb / K within the broadest temperature interval compared to all other materials of this investigation. The data presented in this paper explicitly demonstrates the capability of ZERODUR® to enable the nanometer precision required for future generation of lithography equipment and processes.

  11. Powered wheelchairs: are we enabling or disabling?

    PubMed

    Beaumont-White, S; Ham, R O

    1997-04-01

    Following the unsuccessful issue of three powered indoor National Health Service (NHS) wheelchairs, a survey was carried out of 40 users in a London wheelchair service to identify the problems with issue and possible areas for improvement to practice. The survey identified improvements that were necessary both from the service and the manufacturers' booklets. The improvements include the issue of written instructions and information to complement verbal instruction given at handover. Such information should be as interesting to read as possible, make use of appropriate language and diagrams (especially in area where English is often not the first language), colour, text and print size to maximise comprehension to these severely disabled users and often their elderly relatives or carers. The importance of the role of the rehabilitation engineer in training the user, giving instruction at handover and annual review are highlighted to ensure that the equipment remains working, suitable and up to date for the individual's needs. Training in interpersonal and communication skills and the importance of recall should also be emphasised. The implementation of the findings should lead to increasing contact with the service by the user, reduction in repair and replacement costs, regular review, correct supply and will therefore enable users to increase their independence with appropriate equipment. PMID:9141127

  12. Enabling scientific workflows in virtual reality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreylos, O.; Bawden, G.; Bernardin, T.; Billen, M.I.; Cowgill, E.S.; Gold, R.D.; Hamann, B.; Jadamec, M.; Kellogg, L.H.; Staadt, O.G.; Sumner, D.Y.

    2006-01-01

    To advance research and improve the scientific return on data collection and interpretation efforts in the geosciences, we have developed methods of interactive visualization, with a special focus on immersive virtual reality (VR) environments. Earth sciences employ a strongly visual approach to the measurement and analysis of geologic data due to the spatial and temporal scales over which such data ranges, As observations and simulations increase in size and complexity, the Earth sciences are challenged to manage and interpret increasing amounts of data. Reaping the full intellectual benefits of immersive VR requires us to tailor exploratory approaches to scientific problems. These applications build on the visualization method's strengths, using both 3D perception and interaction with data and models, to take advantage of the skills and training of the geological scientists exploring their data in the VR environment. This interactive approach has enabled us to develop a suite of tools that are adaptable to a range of problems in the geosciences and beyond. Copyright ?? 2008 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.

  13. Imaging enabled platforms for development of therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, Jonathan; Rizvi, Imran; Blanden, Adam R.; Evans, Conor L.; Abu-Yousif, Adnan O.; Spring, Bryan Q.; Muzikansky, Alona; Pogue, Brian W.; Finkelstein, Dianne M.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2011-03-01

    Advances in imaging and spectroscopic technologies have enabled the optimization of many therapeutic modalities in cancer and noncancer pathologies either by earlier disease detection or by allowing therapy monitoring. Amongst the therapeutic options benefiting from developments in imaging technologies, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is exceptional. PDT is a photochemistry-based therapeutic approach where a light-sensitive molecule (photosensitizer) is activated with light of appropriate energy (wavelength) to produce reactive molecular species such as free radicals and singlet oxygen. These molecular entities then react with biological targets such as DNA, membranes and other cellular components to impair their function and lead to eventual cell and tissue death. Development of PDT-based imaging also provides a platform for rapid screening of new therapeutics in novel in vitro models prior to expensive and labor-intensive animal studies. In this study we demonstrate how an imaging platform can be used for strategizing a novel combination treatment strategy for multifocal ovarian cancer. Using an in vitro 3D model for micrometastatic ovarian cancer in conjunction with quantitative imaging we examine dose and scheduling strategies for PDT in combination with carboplatin, a chemotherapeutic agent presently in clinical use for management of this deadly form of cancer.

  14. Enabling patient-centered care through health information technology.

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Joseph; Knight, Amy; Marinopoulos, Spyridon; Gibbons, M Christopher; Berger, Zackary; Aboumatar, Hanan; Wilson, Renee F; Lau, Brandyn D; Sharma, Ritu; Bass, Eric B

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The main objective of the report is to review the evidence on the impact of health information technology (IT) that supports patient-centered care (PCC) on: health care processes; clinical outcomes; intermediate outcomes (patient or provider satisfaction, health knowledge and behavior, and cost); responsiveness to needs and preferences of patients; shared decisionmaking and patient-clinician communication; and access to information. Additional objectives were to identify barriers and facilitators for using health IT to deliver PCC, and to identify gaps in evidence and information needed by patients, providers, payers, and policymakers. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE®, Embase®, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycINFO, INSPEC, and Compendex databases through July 31, 2010. METHODS Paired members of our team reviewed citations to identify randomized controlled trials of PCC-related health IT interventions and studies that addressed barriers and facilitators for health IT for delivery of PCC. Independent assessors rated studies for quality. Paired reviewers abstracted data. RESULTS The search identified 327 eligible articles, including 184 articles on the impact of health IT applications implemented to support PCC and 206 articles addressing barriers or facilitators for such health IT applications. Sixty-three articles addressed both questions. The study results suggested positive effects of PCC-related health IT interventions on health care process outcomes, disease-specific clinical outcomes (for diabetes mellitus, heart disease, cancer, and other health conditions), intermediate outcomes, responsiveness to the needs and preferences of patients, shared decisionmaking, patient-clinician communication, and access to medical information. Studies reported a number of barriers and facilitators for using health IT applications to enable PCC. Barriers included: lack of usability; problems with access to the health IT

  15. Review of Randomised Controlled Trials of Internet Interventions for Mental Disorders and Related Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Kathleen M.; Christensen, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Self-help Internet interventions have the potential to enable consumers to play a central role in managing their own health. This paper contains a systematic review of 15 randomised controlled trials of the effectiveness of self-help Internet interventions for mental disorders and related conditions. Conditions addressed by the interventions…

  16. Can theoretical intervention improve hand hygiene behavior among nurses?

    PubMed Central

    Baghaei, Rahim; Sharifian, Elham; Kamran, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Background Hand washing is the best strategy to prevent known nosocomial infections but the nurses’ hand hygiene is estimated to be poor in Iran. Objective This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of BASNEF (Behavior, Attitude, Subjective Norms, and Enabling Factors) model on hand hygiene adherence education. Methods This controlled quasi-experimental study was conducted on 70 hemodialysis unit nurses (35 case and 35 control) in the health and educational centers of the University of Medical Sciences of Urmia, Iran. To collect the data, a six-part validated and reliable questionnaire was used. The data were analyzed using SPSS version18, using Wilcoxon, Mann–Whitney, chi-square, and Fisher’s exact tests. The significance level was considered P<0.05. Results The mean age was 38.4±8.1 years for the intervention group and 40.2±8.0 years for the control group. There was no significant difference between the two groups for any demographic variables. Also, before the intervention, there was no significant difference between the two groups for any components of the BASNEF model. Post-intervention, the attitude, subjective norms, enabling factors, and intention improved significantly in the intervention group (P<0.001), but hand hygiene behavior did not show any significant change in the intervention group (P=0.16). Conclusion Despite the improving attitudes and intention, the intervention had no significant effect on hand hygiene behavior among the studied nurses. PMID:27366106

  17. Refusal to medical interventions.

    PubMed

    Palacios, G; Herreros, B; Pacho, E

    2014-10-01

    Refusal to medical interventions is the not acceptance, voluntary and free, of an indicated medical intervention. What the physician should do in case of refusal? It is understandable that the rejection of a validated medical intervention is difficult to accept by the responsible physician when raises the conflict protection of life versus freedom of choice. Therefore it is important to follow some steps to incorporate the most relevant aspects of the conflict. These steps include: 1) Give complete information to patients, informing on possible alternatives, 2) determine whether the patient can decide (age, competency and level of capacity), 3) to ascertain whether the decision is free, 4) analyze the decision with the patient, 5) to persuade, 6) if the patient kept in the rejection decision, consider conscientious objection, 7) take the decision based on the named criteria, 8) finally, if the rejection is accepted, offer available alternatives.

  18. Early Intervention in Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    McGorry, Patrick D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Early intervention for potentially serious disorder is a fundamental feature of healthcare across the spectrum of physical illness. It has been a major factor in the reductions in morbidity and mortality that have been achieved in some of the non-communicable diseases, notably cancer and cardiovascular disease. Over the past two decades, an international collaborative effort has been mounted to build the evidence and the capacity for early intervention in the psychotic disorders, notably schizophrenia, where for so long deep pessimism had reigned. The origins and rapid development of early intervention in psychosis are described from a personal and Australian perspective. This uniquely evidence-informed, evidence-building and cost-effective reform provides a blueprint and launch pad to radically change the wider landscape of mental health care and dissolve many of the barriers that have constrained progress for so long. PMID:25919380

  19. Interventional Molecular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Stephen B; Cornelis, Francois

    2016-04-01

    Although molecular imaging has had a dramatic impact on diagnostic imaging, it has only recently begun to be integrated into interventional procedures. Its significant impact is attributed to its ability to provide noninvasive, physiologic information that supplements conventional morphologic imaging. The four major interventional opportunities for molecular imaging are, first, to provide guidance to localize a target; second, to provide tissue analysis to confirm that the target has been reached; third, to provide in-room, posttherapy assessment; and fourth, to deliver targeted therapeutics. With improved understanding and application of(18)F-FDG, as well as the addition of new molecular probes beyond(18)F-FDG, the future holds significant promise for the expansion of molecular imaging into the realm of interventional procedures. PMID:26912443

  20. Self-Management: Enabling and empowering patients living with cancer as a chronic illness

    PubMed Central

    McCorkle, Ruth; Ercolano, Elizabeth; Lazenby, Mark; Schulman-Green, Dena; Schilling, Lynne S.; Lorig, Kate; Wagner, Edward H.

    2010-01-01

    With recent improvements in early detection, diagnosis and treatment of cancer, people with cancer are living longer, and their cancer may be managed as a chronic illness. Cancer as a chronic illness places new demands on patients and families to manage their own care, and it challenges old paradigms that oncology's work is done after treatment. As a chronic illness, however, cancer care occurs on a continuum that stretches from prevention to the end of life, with early detection, diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship in between. In this paper, we review self-management interventions that enable patients and families to participate in managing their care along this continuum. We review randomized controlled trials of self-management interventions with cancer patients and families in the treatment, survivorship, and end-of-life phases of the cancer-care continuum. We also present the Chronic Care Model as a model of care that oncology practices can use to enable and empower patients and families to engage in self-management. We conclude that, the need for a common language by which to speak about self-management and a common set of self-management actions for cancer care notwithstanding, oncology practices can now build strong relationships with their patients and formulate mutually-agreed upon care plans that enable and empower patients to care for themselves in the way they prefer. PMID:21205833

  1. "Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced Industrial Heat Transfer Fluids"

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Ganesh Skandan; Dr. Amit Singhal; Mr. Kenneth Eberts; Mr. Damian Sobrevilla; Prof. Jerry Shan; Stephen Tse; Toby Rossmann

    2008-06-12

    ABSTRACT Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced industrial Heat Transfer Fluids” Improving the efficiency of Industrial Heat Exchangers offers a great opportunity to improve overall process efficiencies in diverse industries such as pharmaceutical, materials manufacturing and food processing. The higher efficiencies can come in part from improved heat transfer during both cooling and heating of the material being processed. Additionally, there is great interest in enhancing the performance and reducing the weight of heat exchangers used in automotives in order to increase fuel efficiency. The goal of the Phase I program was to develop nanoparticle containing heat transfer fluids (e.g., antifreeze, water, silicone and hydrocarbon-based oils) that are used in transportation and in the chemical industry for heating, cooling and recovering waste heat. Much work has been done to date at investigating the potential use of nanoparticle-enhanced thermal fluids to improve heat transfer in heat exchangers. In most cases the effect in a commercial heat transfer fluid has been marginal at best. In the Phase I work, we demonstrated that the thermal conductivity, and hence heat transfer, of a fluid containing nanoparticles can be dramatically increased when subjected to an external influence. The increase in thermal conductivity was significantly larger than what is predicted by commonly used thermal models for two-phase materials. Additionally, the surface of the nanoparticles was engineered so as to have a minimal influence on the viscosity of the fluid. As a result, a nanoparticle-laden fluid was successfully developed that can lead to enhanced heat transfer in both industrial and automotive heat exchangers

  2. Enabling a Scientific Cloud Marketplace: VGL (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, R.; Woodcock, R.; Wyborn, L. A.; Vote, J.; Rankine, T.; Cox, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Virtual Geophysics Laboratory (VGL) provides a flexible, web based environment where researchers can browse data and use a variety of scientific software packaged into tool kits that run in the Cloud. Both data and tool kits are published by multiple researchers and registered with the VGL infrastructure forming a data and application marketplace. The VGL provides the basic work flow of Discovery and Access to the disparate data sources and a Library for tool kits and scripting to drive the scientific codes. Computation is then performed on the Research or Commercial Clouds. Provenance information is collected throughout the work flow and can be published alongside the results allowing for experiment comparison and sharing with other researchers. VGL's "mix and match" approach to data, computational resources and scientific codes, enables a dynamic approach to scientific collaboration. VGL allows scientists to publish their specific contribution, be it data, code, compute or work flow, knowing the VGL framework will provide other components needed for a complete application. Other scientists can choose the pieces that suit them best to assemble an experiment. The coarse grain workflow of the VGL framework combined with the flexibility of the scripting library and computational toolkits allows for significant customisation and sharing amongst the community. The VGL utilises the cloud computational and storage resources from the Australian academic research cloud provided by the NeCTAR initiative and a large variety of data accessible from national and state agencies via the Spatial Information Services Stack (SISS - http://siss.auscope.org). VGL v1.2 screenshot - http://vgl.auscope.org

  3. New Catalog of Resources Enables Paleogeosciences Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingo, R. C.; Horlick, K. A.; Anderson, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The 21st century promises a new era for scientists of all disciplines, the age where cyber infrastructure enables research and education and fuels discovery. EarthCube is a working community of over 2,500 scientists and students of many Earth Science disciplines who are looking to build bridges between disciplines. The EarthCube initiative will create a digital infrastructure that connects databases, software, and repositories. A catalog of resources (databases, software, repositories) has been produced by the Research Coordination Network for Paleogeosciences to improve the discoverability of resources. The Catalog is currently made available within the larger-scope CINERGI geosciences portal (http://hydro10.sdsc.edu/geoportal/catalog/main/home.page). Other distribution points and web services are planned, using linked data, content services for the web, and XML descriptions that can be harvested using metadata protocols. The databases provide searchable interfaces to find data sets that would otherwise remain dark data, hidden in drawers and on personal computers. The software will be described in catalog entries so just one click will lead users to methods and analytical tools that many geoscientists were unaware of. The repositories listed in the Paleogeosciences Catalog contain physical samples found all across the globe, from natural history museums to the basements of university buildings. EarthCube has over 250 databases, 300 software systems, and 200 repositories which will grow in the coming year. When completed, geoscientists across the world will be connected into a productive workflow for managing, sharing, and exploring geoscience data and information that expedites collaboration and innovation within the paleogeosciences, potentially bringing about new interdisciplinary discoveries.

  4. Web enabled data management with DPM & LFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez Ayllon, Alejandro; Beche, Alexandre; Furano, Fabrizio; Hellmich, Martin; Keeble and, Oliver; Brito Da Rocha, Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    The Disk Pool Manager (DPM) and LCG File Catalog (LFC) are two grid data management components currently used in production with more than 240 endpoints. Together with a set of grid client tools they give the users a unified view of their data, hiding most details concerning data location and access. Recently we've put a lot of effort in developing a reliable and high performance HTTP/WebDAV frontend to both our grid catalog and storage components, exposing the existing functionality to users accessing the services via standard clients - e.g. web browsers, curl - present in all operating systems, giving users a simple and straight-forward way of interaction. In addition, as other relevant grid storage components (like dCache) expose their data using the same protocol, for the first time we had the opportunity of attempting a unified view of all grid storage using HTTP. We describe the HTTP redirection mechanism used to integrate the grid catalog(s) with the multiple storage components, including details on some assumptions made to allow integration with other implementations. We describe the way we hide the details regarding site availability or catalog inconsistencies by switching the standard HTTP client automatically between multiple replicas. We also present measurements of access performance, and the relevant factors regarding replica selection - current throughput and load, geographic proximity, etc. Finally, we report on some additional work done to have this system as a viable alternative to GridFTP, providing multi-stream transfers and exploiting some additional features of WebDAV to enable third party copies - essential for managing data movements between storage systems - with equivalent performance.

  5. Enabling New Research with Free Landsat Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headley, R.

    2009-12-01

    to Level 0 data has just become available. Independently created software will be required to read and process these data. In all, the Landsat Project has every interest to enable research that requires a broadening of geographic and temporal coverage at the mid-resolution scale. We hope to prevent the need for individual long-term archive building by providing any scene at any time with the most up-to-date processing parameters.

  6. Tobacco Interventions. Fastback 421.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fibkins, William L.

    Tobacco is routinely used during the school day by many middle school, junior, and senior high school students. Since the cost of tobacco addiction in terms of illness and the drain on school resources are enormous, an in-school cessation program is needed. No other institution in the community is better situated to provide intervention programs…

  7. Interventions to Improve Communication

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Rhea

    2008-01-01

    SYNOPSIS It is clear that children with autism benefit from intensive, early intervention that focuses on increasing the frequency, form, and function of communicative acts. Intervention methods that draw from a range of philosophies and make use of varying degrees of adult direction have been shown to be effective in increasing language and communicative behaviors, although direct comparisons among methods, controlled studies with random assignment to treatments, and long-term outcome studies are, as yet, lacking. Available evidence shows that highly structured behavioral methods have important positive consequences for these children, particularly in eliciting first words. However, the limitation of these methods in maintenance and generalization of skills suggests that many children with autism will need to have these methods supplemented with less adult-directed activities to increase communicative initiation and to carry over learned skills to new settings and communication partners. A review of programs aimed at language development in high functioning children with ASD points out the importance of thinking beyond words and sentences to the social functions of communication and language use when developing interventions. Although a range of adult-mediated programs are reviewed here, providing opportunities for mediated peer interactions with trained peers in natural settings appears to be especially important in maximizing the effects of this intervention. PMID:18775373

  8. Selecting Family Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Richard E.

    Just as counseling approaches designed for individuals have their theory-specific techniques, family counseling approaches also have theory-specific interventions and strategies. Whatever presenting problem the family brings to counseling, one or more of four essential components (communication, problem solving, roles and boundaries) is typically…

  9. Psychological Interventions with Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, James N.; And Others

    Psychotherapy is an alien concept to many refugees from traditional cultures, since much of psychotherapy is tied to Western thoughts, practices, and belief systems. However, a variety of therapeutic strategies can be effective with refugees if modified to account for cultural factors. Four clinical intervention strategies are discussed with…

  10. Intervention Practices & Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of School Improvement.

    This document is designed as a resource to assist North Carolina schools in providing the best programs and strategies in the areas of acceleration, remediation, and intervention. The best practices described here are applicable to most students, including students with disabilities. The programs and strategies were validated as effective by the…

  11. Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

    2010-01-01

    This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

  12. Criteria for Evaluating Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, T. R.

    2007-01-01

    By common consent there is a "gold standard" in reference to which the efficacy of medical interventions needs to be evaluated. It is suggested in this paper that in educational research achievement of this gold standard is rarely possible. It does not follow, however, that research that falls short of this standard is therefore valueless; there…

  13. Violence as Social Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monti, Daniel J.

    1981-01-01

    The role of violence or threat of violence in the development of conflict intervention strategies and the relationship between collective violence and social reform are discussed in this paper. The effects of industrial, racial, and urban mass violence on institutional policies and the concept of social justice are examined. (JCD)

  14. Intervention as Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkjaer, Bente; Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how workplace interventions may benefit from a simultaneous focus on individuals' learning and knowledge and on the situatedness of workplaces in the wider world of changing professional knowledge regimes. This is illustrated by the demand for evidence-based practice in health care.…

  15. The Weekend Intervention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegal, Harvey A.

    The Weekend Intervention Program (WIP) at the Wright State University School of Medicine is described in this report. Designed to address severe health and social problems while supporting the university's academic mission, the program began with the goal of addressing the health and social problems of alcohol abusers. WIP is a 72-hour intensive…

  16. Behavioral Intervention In Homosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConaghy, N.

    1977-01-01

    The author believes ethical and moral issues often come into play when deciding whether behavioral intervention strategies should be used with homosexuals. Counselors are warned not to lose sight of the patients' desires. Presented at the annual convention of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, San Francisco, 13 December 1975.…

  17. Incentives and enablers to improve adherence in tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lutge, Elizabeth E; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Knight, Stephen E; Sinclair, David; Volmink, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient adherence to medications, particularly for conditions requiring prolonged treatment such as tuberculosis (TB), is frequently less than ideal and can result in poor treatment outcomes. Material incentives to reward good behaviour and enablers to remove economic barriers to accessing care are sometimes given in the form of cash, vouchers, or food to improve adherence. Objectives To evaluate the effects of material incentives and enablers in patients undergoing diagnostic testing, or receiving prophylactic or curative therapy, for TB. Search methods We undertook a comprehensive search of the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; Science Citation Index; and reference lists of relevant publications up to 5 June 2015. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials of material incentives in patients being investigated for TB, or on treatment for latent or active TB. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently screened and selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. We compared the effects of interventions using risk ratios (RR), and presented RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. Main results We identified 12 eligible trials. Ten were conducted in the USA: in adolescents (one trial), in injection drug or cocaine users (four trials), in homeless adults (three trials), and in prisoners (two trials). The remaining two trials, in general adult populations, were conducted in Timor-Leste and South Africa. Sustained incentive programmes Only two trials have assessed whether material incentives and enablers can improve long-term adherence and completion of treatment for active TB, and neither demonstrated a clear benefit (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.14; two trials, 4356 participants; low quality evidence). In one trial, the incentive

  18. An Investigation of Relations among Academic Enablers and Reading Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Lyndsay N.; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the link between academic enablers and different types of reading achievement measures. Academic enablers are skills and behaviors that support, or enable, students to perform well academically, such as engagement, interpersonal skills, motivation, and study skills. The sample in this study consisted of 61 third-,…

  19. 78 FR 76603 - Enable Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Enable Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on November 26, 2013, Enable Gas Transmission, LLC (Enable) 1111 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed in the above reference docket application pursuant to section 7(b) and 7(c) of the of the Natural...

  20. Knowledge Cartography for Open Sensemaking Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shum, Simon Buckingham; Okada, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge Cartography is the discipline of visually mapping the conceptual structure of ideas, such as the connections between issues, concepts, answers, arguments and evidence. The cognitive process of externalising one's understanding clarifies one's own grasp of the situation, as well as communicating it to others as a network that invites…

  1. Competition and Sensemaking in Ethical Situations

    PubMed Central

    Caughron, Jay J.; Antes, Alison L.; Stenmark, Cheryl K.; Thiel, Chaise E.; Wang, Xiaoqian; Mumford, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Intra-organizational competition was examined in relation to ethicality. The effect of a competitor being an in-group versus and out-group member, competitor offering uncorroborated or corroborated information, and the impact of the competitor expressing selfish, pro-group, or pro-organizational level goals were examined. Findings suggest that the way competition is presented has an important influence on how well individuals are able to make sense of an ethically ambiguous situation and render an ethical decision. A main effect for information sharing was found, such that when a competitor offers uncorroborated information participants made less ethical decisions and used pro-ethical reasoning strategies less often. An additional main effect was found suggesting that participants made more ethical decisions when working with an in-group competitor rather than an out-group competitor. Complex interactive effects were also found and discussed suggesting that pro-ethical reasoning strategies may be used less often depending on information corroboration, the competitor’s relative group membership status, and the motives expressed by the competitor. PMID:26778850

  2. Biobehavioral Intervention for Cancer Stress: Conceptualization, Components, and Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Barbara L.; Golden-Kreutz, Deanna M.; Emery, Charles F.; Thiel, Debora L.

    2009-01-01

    Trials testing the efficacy of psychological interventions for cancer patients had their beginnings in the 1970s. Since then, hundreds of trials have found interventions to be generally efficacious. In this article, we describe an intervention grounded in a conceptual model that includes psychological, behavioral, and biological components. It is…

  3. Petascale Computing Enabling Technologies Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    de Supinski, B R

    2010-02-14

    The Petascale Computing Enabling Technologies (PCET) project addressed challenges arising from current trends in computer architecture that will lead to large-scale systems with many more nodes, each of which uses multicore chips. These factors will soon lead to systems that have over one million processors. Also, the use of multicore chips will lead to less memory and less memory bandwidth per core. We need fundamentally new algorithmic approaches to cope with these memory constraints and the huge number of processors. Further, correct, efficient code development is difficult even with the number of processors in current systems; more processors will only make it harder. The goal of PCET was to overcome these challenges by developing the computer science and mathematical underpinnings needed to realize the full potential of our future large-scale systems. Our research results will significantly increase the scientific output obtained from LLNL large-scale computing resources by improving application scientist productivity and system utilization. Our successes include scalable mathematical algorithms that adapt to these emerging architecture trends and through code correctness and performance methodologies that automate critical aspects of application development as well as the foundations for application-level fault tolerance techniques. PCET's scope encompassed several research thrusts in computer science and mathematics: code correctness and performance methodologies, scalable mathematics algorithms appropriate for multicore systems, and application-level fault tolerance techniques. Due to funding limitations, we focused primarily on the first three thrusts although our work also lays the foundation for the needed advances in fault tolerance. In the area of scalable mathematics algorithms, our preliminary work established that OpenMP performance of the AMG linear solver benchmark and important individual kernels on Atlas did not match the predictions of our

  4. Agency and intervention.

    PubMed

    Roskies, Adina L

    2015-09-19

    Novel ways to intervene on brain function raise questions about agency and responsibility. Here, I discuss whether direct brain interventions, and in particular, deep brain stimulation, pose a threat to agency in individual cases, or to our general conceptualization of what it is to be a responsible agent. While I do not currently see evidence that these interventions constitute a global challenge to our concept of agency, they do have the potential to diminish agency in individuals. I consider whether the lack of evidence for a global challenge ratifies our folk conceptions, or is a necessary consequence of them. In closing, I propose that our theoretical understanding of agency and our therapeutic approaches could be improved with a more nuanced, multidimensional view of agency. PMID:26240430

  5. Community interventions against depression.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, C R

    2007-11-01

    Depression appears to be the common psychiatric dosorder in any given community. Depression in different forms may affect 10% of the population at any given time. The paucity of mental health power has made people to ignore the presence of depression and its impact on individual's capacity of functioning. If we have to plan community based interventions some strategies are to be adopted. In primary healthcare systems short training of all categories of personnel in PHC and regular supply of free medicines are essential. With the experiences of general practitioners and their involvement, patients with depression can be approached for help. So also school and college teachers, trained counselors, religious and spiritual leaders can be involved in the processes. Family members can take care of patients. Stress management techniques, helpline, crisis intervention can be other methods to help the patients suffering from depression.

  6. Agency and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Roskies, Adina L.

    2015-01-01

    Novel ways to intervene on brain function raise questions about agency and responsibility. Here, I discuss whether direct brain interventions, and in particular, deep brain stimulation, pose a threat to agency in individual cases, or to our general conceptualization of what it is to be a responsible agent. While I do not currently see evidence that these interventions constitute a global challenge to our concept of agency, they do have the potential to diminish agency in individuals. I consider whether the lack of evidence for a global challenge ratifies our folk conceptions, or is a necessary consequence of them. In closing, I propose that our theoretical understanding of agency and our therapeutic approaches could be improved with a more nuanced, multidimensional view of agency. PMID:26240430

  7. Safety Intervention Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    ZIMMERMAN, R.O.

    2001-10-16

    Judging safety intervention effectiveness is often left up to the eye of the beholder. Safety and Health Professionals must increase skills and increase their body of knowledge, based on scientific evidence, that can be applied confidently in the workplace. Evidence must be collected and analyzed to separate the interventions of the month with those that stand the test of time. The book Guide to Evaluating the Effectiveness of Strategies for Preventing Work injuries DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2001-119, April 2001, serves as a primary reference. An example study related to biorhythms, popular in the late 1970s, is used to illustrate the separating of scientific evidence and pseudo-science hype. The cited biorhythm study focuses on the relationship of the accident dates and the three biorhythmic cycles (physical, emotional, and intelligence).

  8. [Coronary intervention. 2012 update].

    PubMed

    Rittger, H; Arnold, M; Schmid, M; Zimmermann, S; Daniel, W G

    2012-03-01

    In-stent restenosis and stent thrombosis are still the main topics of any update on coronary intervention. One of the challenging issues in the past year lay in answering the question of whether the data on first-generation drug-eluting stents are still relevant in the light of newer stent designs and drugs. Other issues include new strategies in antiplatelet therapy, treatment of in-stent restenosis, particularly drug-eluting stent restenosis, treatment of multivessel and left-main disease, as well as the latest developments in bioresorbable polymers and "scaffolds". In the light of demographic changes, the main challenge for the interventional community is to build an evidence base for the adequate treatment of elderly patients in order to resolve uncertainties in the treatment of this challenging patient group. PMID:22382138

  9. Challenges in Tailored Intervention Research

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Cornelia; McSweeney, Jean C.; Richards, Kathy C.; Roberson, Paula K.; Tsai, Pao-Feng; Souder, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Summary Although individuals and nurses value tailored health interventions, incorporating tailored interventions into research is fraught with pitfalls. This manuscript provides guidance on addressing challenges on developing, implementing, and evaluating tailored interventions (TI). The initial step in designing TI involves selecting the individual characteristics on which to tailor the intervention. After selecting critical characteristics for tailoring, researchers must decide how to assess these characteristics. Then researchers can use manuals, algorithms, or computer programs to tailor an intervention and maintain treatment fidelity. If desired outcomes are not achieved, focus groups or individual interviews may be conducted to gather information to improve the intervention for specific individuals/groups. Then, incorporating study arms of TI in intervention studies, investigators may compare TI with standardized interventions statistically and clinically. We believe TI may have better outcomes, promote better adherence, and be more cost efficient. PMID:20362779

  10. How to Measure the Intervention Process? An Assessment of Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to Data Collection in the Process Evaluation of Organizational Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Abildgaard, Johan S.; Saksvik, Per Ø.; Nielsen, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Organizational interventions aiming at improving employee health and wellbeing have proven to be challenging to evaluate. To analyze intervention processes two methodological approaches have widely been used: quantitative (often questionnaire data), or qualitative (often interviews). Both methods are established tools, but their distinct epistemological properties enable them to illuminate different aspects of organizational interventions. In this paper, we use the quantitative and qualitative process data from an organizational intervention conducted in a national postal service, where the Intervention Process Measure questionnaire (N = 285) as well as an extensive interview study (N = 50) were used. We analyze what type of knowledge about intervention processes these two methodologies provide and discuss strengths and weaknesses as well as potentials for mixed methods evaluation methodologies. PMID:27713707

  11. [Music-based intervention in children].

    PubMed

    Kiese-Himmel, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Music-based interventions with children are an effective method in health and sickness treatment and in education systems. The engagement with music enables positive transfer effects on extra-musical developmental domains. Music therapy was applied primarily as a practically-oriented scientific discipline both within the framework of a multi-modal therapy approach as one treatment component and focused specifically on children with emotional disorders within a somatic therapy concept and in rehabilitation. The following narrative overview will present music therapy's working basis, treatment goals, and select outcome research in children from 2005-2010. There currently exists a substantial lack, even within empirical research, in relation to the application of music therapy to children. This is an opportunity to initiate a broad range of study for the future. Current challenges and opportunities in scientific, music-based intervention in the paediatric population lie in the concretization of differential indications (both in intervention approach and duration), replicable comparative therapy (alternated treatment-design), the application of a music-therapeutic placebo requirement, as well as in the verification and analysis of specific music therapeutic mechanisms.

  12. Early childhood mathematics intervention.

    PubMed

    Clements, Douglas H; Sarama, Julie

    2011-08-19

    Preschool and primary grade children have the capacity to learn substantial mathematics, but many children lack opportunities to do so. Too many children not only start behind their more advantaged peers, but also begin a negative trajectory in mathematics. Interventions designed to facilitate their mathematical learning during ages 3 to 5 years have a strong positive effect on these children's lives for many years thereafter.

  13. Interventions in reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, D S; Sheriff, S Omer

    2006-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technology has helped many childless couples. It has also raised questions about how appropriate the technology might be in different situations. How we understand parenthood is crucial in taking a stand on such scientific intervention. It is suggested that physicians should decide on offering artificial insemination, surrogacy and in-vitro fertilisation only after considering if the child will have good parents and if there will be legal complications from the use of the technology. PMID:17223683

  14. [Smoking intervention program].

    PubMed

    Schmeiser-Rieder, A; Schoberberger, R; Gredler, B; Kunze, M

    1994-01-01

    For promoting health the "Fonds Gesundes Osterreich" worked out an "Intervention Programme Against Smoking". In cooperation with different institutions as "Osterreichische Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Volksgesundheit", "Ludwig-Boltzmann Institut für Gesundheitspsychologie der Frau" and "Institute of Social Medicine, University of Vienna" a report on smoking and health, an update on smoking in pregnancy and associated health hazards, report and overview of smoking cessation in Austria and state of the art of smoking cessation therapy were carried out. Based on these projects curricula for physicians, pharmacists, midwives and psychologists were prepared to involve more and more health professionals that smoking cessation treatment will become a generally accepted part of any preventive or therapeutic strategy to control tobacco associated diseases. The target group of the intervention programme is the dissonant smoker, who wants to stop smoking, informing him and providing professional help. Many techniques ranging from self help to sophisticated combined therapeutic approaches including pharmacological interventions are now available to deal with the nicotine addiction problem. For health policy and public health smoking cessation will be one approach within the framework of a comprehensive approach to control the most important modern epidemic, the health damages caused by tobacco consumption.

  15. Interventional cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Pihkala, J; Nykanen, D; Freedom, R M; Benson, L N

    1999-04-01

    Over the past decade, transcatheter interventions have become increasingly important in the treatment of patients with congenital heart lesions. These procedures may be broadly grouped as dilations (e.g., septostomy, valvuloplasty, angioplasty, and endovascular stenting) or as closures (e.g., vascular embolization and device closure of defects). Balloon valvuloplasty has become the treatment of choice for patients in all age groups with simple valvar pulmonic stenosis and, although not curative, seems at least comparable to surgery for congenital aortic stenosis in newborns to young adults. Balloon angioplasty is successfully applied to a wide range of aortic, pulmonary artery, and venous stenoses. Stents are useful in dilating lesions of which the intrinsic elasticity results in vessel recoil after balloon dilation alone. Catheter-delivered coils are used to embolize a wide range of arterial, venous, and prosthetic vascular connections. Although some devices remain investigational, they have been successfully used for closure of many arterial ducts and atrial and ventricular septal defects. In the therapy for patients with complex CHD, best results may be achieved by combining cardiac surgery with interventional catheterization. The cooperation among interventional cardiologists and cardiac surgeons was highlighted in a report of an algorithm to manage patients with tetralogy of Fallot or pulmonary atresia with diminutive pulmonary arteries, involving balloon dilation, coil embolization of collaterals, and intraoperative stent placement. In this setting, well-planned catheterization procedures have an important role in reducing the overall number of procedures that patients may require over a lifetime, with improved outcomes.

  16. Family Interventions in Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Thomas L.

    1991-01-01

    As we begin to understand the relationships between family interaction and physical health, we can develop interventions that focus on education, support, and problem solving. The author reviews existing research on family interventions in physical health and proposes guidelines for developing, implementing, and studying family interventions. PMID:21229055

  17. Group Intervention in Pediatric Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaForme Fiss, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    Group intervention in pediatric physical and occupational therapy is an alternative to individual intervention allowing the therapist to meet the needs of multiple children at one time. Survey research indicates that approximately 40% to 60% of pediatric physical and occupational therapists use group intervention at least occasionally in practice,…

  18. The Effectiveness of Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J., Ed.

    This book reviews research on the effectiveness of early intervention for children with disabilities or who are at risk. Program factors for children at risk and with disabilities, the effects of early intervention on different types of disabilities, and the outcomes of early intervention are explored. Chapters include: "Second-Generation Research…

  19. Enabling autonomous control for space reactor power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R. T.

    2006-07-01

    The application of nuclear reactors for space power and/or propulsion presents some unique challenges regarding the operations and control of the power system. Terrestrial nuclear reactors employ varying degrees of human control and decision-making for operations and benefit from periodic human interaction for maintenance. In contrast, the control system of a space reactor power system (SRPS) employed for deep space missions must be able to accommodate unattended operations due to communications delays and periods of planetary occlusion while adapting to evolving or degraded conditions with no opportunity for repair or refurbishment. Thus, a SRPS control system must provide for operational autonomy. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted an investigation of the state of the technology for autonomous control to determine the experience base in the nuclear power application domain, both for space and terrestrial use. It was found that control systems with varying levels of autonomy have been employed in robotic, transportation, spacecraft, and manufacturing applications. However, autonomous control has not been implemented for an operating terrestrial nuclear power plant nor has there been any experience beyond automating simple control loops for space reactors. Current automated control technologies for nuclear power plants are reasonably mature, and basic control for a SRPS is clearly feasible under optimum circumstances. However, autonomous control is primarily intended to account for the non optimum circumstances when degradation, failure, and other off-normal events challenge the performance of the reactor and near-term human intervention is not possible. Thus, the development and demonstration of autonomous control capabilities for the specific domain of space nuclear power operations is needed. This paper will discuss the findings of the ORNL study and provide a description of the concept of autonomy, its key characteristics, and a prospective

  20. Early intervention for psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Max; Rathbone, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Proponents of early intervention have argued that outcomes might be improved if more therapeutic efforts were focused on the early stages of schizophrenia or on people with prodromal symptoms. Early intervention in schizophrenia has two elements that are distinct from standard care: early detection, and phase-specific treatment (phase-specific treatment is a psychological, social or physical treatment developed, or modified, specifically for use with people at an early stage of the illness). Early detection and phase-specific treatment may both be offered as supplements to standard care, or may be provided through a specialised early intervention team. Early intervention is now well established as a therapeutic approach in America, Europe and Australasia. Objectives To evaluate the effects of: (a) early detection; (b) phase-specific treatments; and (c) specialised early intervention teams in the treatment of people with prodromal symptoms or first-episode psychosis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (March 2009), inspected reference lists of all identified trials and reviews and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) designed to prevent progression to psychosis in people showing prodromal symptoms, or to improve outcome for people with first-episode psychosis. Eligible interventions, alone and in combination, included: early detection, phase-specific treatments, and care from specialised early intervention teams. We accepted cluster-randomised trials but excluded non-randomised trials. Data collection and analysis We reliably selected studies, quality rated them and extracted data. For dichotomous data, we estimated relative risks (RR), with the 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where possible, we calculated the number needed to treat/harm statistic (NNT/H) and used intention-to-treat analysis (ITT). Main results Studies were diverse, mostly small

  1. Interventions for trachoma trichiasis

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Matthew; Habtamu, Esmael; Ho, Derek; Gower, Emily W

    2015-01-01

    Background Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends eliminating trachomatous blindness through the SAFE strategy: Surgery for trichiasis, Antibiotic treatment, Facial cleanliness and Environmental hygiene. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003, and previously updated in 2006. Objectives To assess the effects of interventions for trachomatous trichiasis for people living in endemic settings. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2015, Issue 4), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to May 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2015), the ISRCTN registry (http://www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), http://ClinicalTrials.gov (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (http://www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 7 May 2015. We searched the reference lists of included studies to identify further potentially relevant studies. We also contacted authors for details of other relevant studies. Selection criteria We included randomised trials of any intervention intended to treat trachomatous trichiasis. Data collection and analysis Three review authors independently selected and assessed the trials, including the risk of bias. We contacted trial authors for missing data when necessary. Our primary outcome was post-operative trichiasis which was defined as any lash touching the globe at three months, one year or two years after surgery. Main results Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria with 8586 participants. Most of the studies were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of the studies were of a low or unclear risk of bias. Five studies compared different

  2. Evidence, theory and context - using intervention mapping to develop a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Only limited data are available on the development and feasibility piloting of school-based interventions to prevent and reduce obesity in children. Clear documentation of the rationale, process of development and content of such interventions is essential to enable other researchers to understand why interventions succeed or fail. Methods This paper describes the development of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP), a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children, through the first 4 steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol (IM). The intervention focuses on the following health behaviours, i) reduction of the consumption of sweetened fizzy drinks, ii) increase in the proportion of healthy snacks consumed and iii) reduction of TV viewing and other screen-based activities, within the context of a wider attempt to improve diet and increase physical activity. Results Two phases of pilot work demonstrated that the intervention was acceptable and feasible for schools, children and their families and suggested areas for further refinement. Feedback from the first pilot phase suggested that the 9-10 year olds were both receptive to the messages and more able and willing to translate them into possible behaviour changes than older or younger children and engaged their families to the greatest extent. Performance objectives were mapped onto 3 three broad domains of behaviour change objectives - establish motivation, take action and stay motivated - in order to create an intervention that supports and enables behaviour change. Activities include whole school assemblies, parents evenings, sport/dance workshops, classroom based education lessons, interactive drama workshops and goal setting and runs over three school terms. Conclusion The Intervention Mapping protocol was a useful tool in developing a feasible, theory based intervention aimed at motivating children and their families to make small sustainable changes to their eating and activity

  3. Barriers and enablers to implementing multiple stroke guideline recommendations: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Translating evidence into practice is an important final step in the process of evidence-based practice. Medical record audits can be used to examine how well practice compares with published evidence, and identify evidence-practice gaps. After providing audit feedback to professionals, local barriers to practice change can be identified and targetted with focussed behaviour change interventions. This study aimed to identify barriers and enablers to implementing multiple stroke guideline recommendations at one Australian stroke unit. Methods A qualitative methodology was used. A sample of 28 allied health, nursing and medical professionals participated in a group or individual interview. These interviews occurred after staff had received audit feedback and identified areas for practice change. Questions focused on barriers and enablers to implementing guideline recommendations about management of: upper limb sensory impairments, mobility including sitting balance; vision; anxiety and depression; neglect; swallowing; communication; education for stroke survivors and carers; advice about return to work and driving. Qualitative data were analysed for themes using theoretical domains described by Michie and colleagues (2005). Results Six group and two individual interviews were conducted, involving six disciplines. Barriers were different across disciplines. The six key barriers identified were: (1) Beliefs about capabilities of individual professionals and their discipline, and about patient capabilities (2) Beliefs about the consequences, positive and negative, of implementing the recommendations (3) Memory of, and attention to, best practices (4) Knowledge and skills required to implement best practice; (5) Intention and motivation to implement best practice, and (6) Resources. Some barriers were also enablers to change. For example, occupational therapists required new knowledge and skills (a barrier), to better manage sensation and neglect impairments

  4. Poisoning: Effective Clinical Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Turner, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    Poisoning accounts for 40-60% of suicides, is the commonest medical emergency in small children, and an important source of occupational injury. Prevention of unintentional poisoning involves primarily education of parents. In intervention, the patient—not the poison—must be treated. Self-poisoners require supportive but firm handling. Treatment is directed towards prevention of further absorption, removal of absorbed poison, symptomatic or supportive therapy, and administration of systemic antidotes. Careful attention should be paid to the physician's legal responsibilities in cases of poisoning. Imagesp2032-a PMID:21286544

  5. Barriers and Enablers of Kangaroo Mother Care Practice: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Seidman, Gabriel; Unnikrishnan, Shalini; Kenny, Emma; Myslinski, Scott; Cairns-Smith, Sarah; Mulligan, Brian; Engmann, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is an evidence-based approach to reducing mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Although KMC is a key intervention package in newborn health initiatives, there is limited systematic information available on the barriers to KMC practice that mothers and other stakeholders face while practicing KMC. This systematic review sought to identify the most frequently reported barriers to KMC practice for mothers, fathers, and health practitioners, as well as the most frequently reported enablers to practice for mothers. We searched nine electronic databases and relevant reference lists for publications reporting barriers or enablers to KMC practice. We identified 1,264 unique publications, of which 103 were included based on pre-specified criteria. Publications were scanned for all barriers / enablers. Each publication was also categorized based on its approach to identification of barriers / enablers, and more weight was assigned to publications which had systematically sought to understand factors influencing KMC practice. Four of the top five ranked barriers to KMC practice for mothers were resource-related: “Issues with the facility environment / resources,” “negative impressions of staff attitudes or interactions with staff,” “lack of help with KMC practice or other obligations,” and “low awareness of KMC / infant health.” Considering only publications from low- and middle-income countries, “pain / fatigue” was ranked higher than when considering all publications. Top enablers to practice were included “mother-infant attachment” and “support from family, friends, and other mentors.” Our findings suggest that mother can understand and enjoy KMC, and it has benefits for mothers, infants, and families. However, continuous KMC may be physically and emotionally difficult, and often requires support from family members, health practitioners, or other mothers. These findings can serve as a starting point for

  6. Workflow in interventional radiology: uterine fibroid embolization (UFE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindisch, David; Neumuth, Thomas; Burgert, Oliver; Spies, James; Cleary, Kevin

    2008-03-01

    Workflow analysis can be used to record the steps taken during clinical interventions with the goal of identifying bottlenecks and streamlining the procedure efficiency. In this study, we recorded the workflow for uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) procedures in the interventional radiology suite at Georgetown University Hospital in Washington, DC, USA. We employed a custom client/server software architecture developed by the Innovation Center for Computer Assisted Surgery (ICCAS) at the University of Leipzig, Germany. This software runs in a JAVA environment and enables an observer to record the actions taken by the physician and surgical team during these interventions. The data recorded is stored as an XML document, which can then be further processed. We recorded data from 30 patients and found a mean intervention time of 01:49:46 (+/- 16:04) minutes. The critical intervention step, the embolization, had a mean time of 00:15:42 (+/- 05:49) minutes, which was only 15% of the total intervention time.

  7. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

    PubMed

    Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

  8. Pediatric arterial interventions.

    PubMed

    Marshalleck, Francis

    2010-12-01

    The spectrum of pediatric vascular pathology differs from the adult population and it varies greatly to include congenital and acquired disorders. Although catheter-directed angiography remains the gold standard, most vascular conditions in the child can be adequately diagnosed with magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomographic angiography, or duplex/Doppler ultrasonography with only a few exceptions, such as intrarenal arterial stenosis, small vessel vasculitides, and visceral vascular malformations. The advancement of catheter and wire technology has made it increasingly possible for complex arterial interventions to be performed in children, including embolization, angioplasty with stent insertion, thrombolysis, and endovascular neurological procedures. More angiographic procedures are being performed with the aim of also being therapeutic. Special considerations in children include the use of appropriate equipment and adequate dosing of contrast and of the various medications used during angiography, particularly in patients less than 15 kg in weight. This article will focus on the management of renovascular hypertension, liver transplant hepatic arterial intervention, and the use of carbon dioxide gas as a contrast agent in the child.

  9. Peritoneal fibrosis intervention.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Kayo; Hamada, Chieko; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2007-06-01

    Peritoneal fibrosis (PF) is invariably observed in patients undergoing long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD). The condition is thought to occur in response to a variety of insults, including bioincompatible dialysates (acidic solution, high glucose, glucose degradation products, or a combination), peritonitis, uremia, and chronic inflammation. Recently, the pathophysiologic mechanisms that contribute to the fibrosing process have been intensively studied. Transforming growth factor-beta has been shown to be a key mediator of PF. Loss of the mesothelial cell layer has been identified in several studies and shown to correlate with submesothelial thickening and vasculopathy. An association has also been identified between increased submesothelial thickness in the peritoneal membrane and increased solute transport, suggesting a relationship between PF and loss of ultrafiltration capacity. Thus, to maintain long-term PD and improve quality of life for patients, it is important to develop interventions for prevention and treatment of PF. Several strategies for peritoneal fibrosis intervention have been reported, including developing biocompatible dialysate, targeting mediators responsible for inflammation and fibrosis, and reconstituting the peritoneum using mesothelial or bone marrow-derived cells. Recent experimental trials in animal models and clinical studies are presented in this review.

  10. Multilevel Interventions: Measurement and Measures

    PubMed Central

    Charns, Martin P.; Alligood, Elaine C.; Benzer, Justin K.; Burgess, James F.; Mcintosh, Nathalie M.; Burness, Allison; Partin, Melissa R.; Clauser, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Multilevel intervention research holds the promise of more accurately representing real-life situations and, thus, with proper research design and measurement approaches, facilitating effective and efficient resolution of health-care system challenges. However, taking a multilevel approach to cancer care interventions creates both measurement challenges and opportunities. Methods One-thousand seventy two cancer care articles from 2005 to 2010 were reviewed to examine the state of measurement in the multilevel intervention cancer care literature. Ultimately, 234 multilevel articles, 40 involving cancer care interventions, were identified. Additionally, literature from health services, social psychology, and organizational behavior was reviewed to identify measures that might be useful in multilevel intervention research. Results The vast majority of measures used in multilevel cancer intervention studies were individual level measures. Group-, organization-, and community-level measures were rarely used. Discussion of the independence, validity, and reliability of measures was scant. Discussion Measurement issues may be especially complex when conducting multilevel intervention research. Measurement considerations that are associated with multilevel intervention research include those related to independence, reliability, validity, sample size, and power. Furthermore, multilevel intervention research requires identification of key constructs and measures by level and consideration of interactions within and across levels. Thus, multilevel intervention research benefits from thoughtful theory-driven planning and design, an interdisciplinary approach, and mixed methods measurement and analysis. PMID:22623598

  11. Features of State Response to Intervention Initiatives in Northeast and Islands Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 083

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocala, Candice; Mello, Daniel; Reedy, Kristin; Lacireno-Paquet, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    Response to intervention (RTI) is an approach to instruction, assessment, and intervention that enables early identification of students who are experiencing academic or behavioral difficulties. The jurisdictions served by the Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast and Islands expressed interest in a study of whether and how state education…

  12. Commitment in Structurally Enabled and Induced Exchange Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Edward J.; Thye, Shane R.; Yoon, Jeongkoo

    2006-01-01

    Network structures both enable and constrain the development of social relations. This research investigates these features by comparing the development of commitments in structurally enabled and structurally induced exchange relations. We integrate ideas from the theory of relational cohesion and the choice process theory of commitment. In an…

  13. AFC-Enabled Vertical Tail System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, Helen P.; Brandt, John B.; Lacy, Douglas S.; Whalen, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    This document serves as the final report for the SMAAART AFC-Enabled Vertical Tail System Integration Study. Included are the ground rule assumptions which have gone into the study, layouts of the baseline and AFC-enabled configurations, critical sizing information, system requirements and architectures, and assumed system properties that result in an NPV assessment of the two candidate AFC technologies.

  14. RFID-enabled traceability system for consignment and high value products: a case study in the healthcare sector.

    PubMed

    Bendavid, Ygal; Boeck, Harold; Philippe, Richard

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a case study of a hospital operating room that evaluated a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID)-enabled traceability system for the management of consignment and high value products requiring item level traceability. Results indicate that the traceability system in conjunction with the redesign of replenishment processes facilitates item level traceability, improves financial controls and case costing, upgrades service levels and reduces inventory shrinkage. Other benefits include time saved from non-value-added activities that can be transferred to patient care activities. The solution can be considered (i) as an alternative to RFID-enabled cabinets used in the replenishment of consignment and high value supplies in certain operating rooms, cardiac catheterization laboratories and interventional radiology departments, or (ii) as a complementary solution facilitating the tracking of medical devices removed from RFID-enabled cabinets. In short, the end-to-end traceability of medical products in the healthcare supply chain can be significantly enhanced. PMID:22105627

  15. RFID-enabled traceability system for consignment and high value products: a case study in the healthcare sector.

    PubMed

    Bendavid, Ygal; Boeck, Harold; Philippe, Richard

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a case study of a hospital operating room that evaluated a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID)-enabled traceability system for the management of consignment and high value products requiring item level traceability. Results indicate that the traceability system in conjunction with the redesign of replenishment processes facilitates item level traceability, improves financial controls and case costing, upgrades service levels and reduces inventory shrinkage. Other benefits include time saved from non-value-added activities that can be transferred to patient care activities. The solution can be considered (i) as an alternative to RFID-enabled cabinets used in the replenishment of consignment and high value supplies in certain operating rooms, cardiac catheterization laboratories and interventional radiology departments, or (ii) as a complementary solution facilitating the tracking of medical devices removed from RFID-enabled cabinets. In short, the end-to-end traceability of medical products in the healthcare supply chain can be significantly enhanced.

  16. Using GPS-enabled cell phones to track the travel patterns of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wiehe, Sarah E; Carroll, Aaron E; Liu, Gilbert C; Haberkorn, Kelly L; Hoch, Shawn C; Wilson, Jeffery S; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Background Few tools exist to directly measure the microsocial and physical environments of adolescents in circumstances where participatory observation is not practical or ethical. Yet measuring these environments is important as they are significantly associated with adolescent health-risk. For example, health-related behaviors such as cigarette smoking often occur in specific places where smoking may be relatively surreptitious. Results We assessed the feasibility of using GPS-enabled cell phones to track adolescent travel patterns and gather daily diary data. We enrolled 15 adolescent women from a clinic-based setting and asked them to carry the phones for 1 week. We found that these phones can accurately and reliably track participant locations, as well as record diary information on adolescent behaviors. Participants had variable paths extending beyond their immediate neighborhoods, and denied that GPS-tracking influenced their activity. Conclusion GPS-enabled cell phones offer a feasible and, in many ways, ideal modality of monitoring the location and travel patterns of adolescents. In addition, cell phones allow space- and time-specific interaction, probing, and intervention which significantly extends both research and health promotion beyond a clinical setting. Future studies can employ GPS-enabled cell phones to better understand adolescent environments, how they are associated with health-risk behaviors, and perhaps intervene to change health behavior. PMID:18495025

  17. Contributions of treatment theory and enablement theory to rehabilitation research and practice.

    PubMed

    Whyte, John

    2014-01-01

    Scientific theory is crucial to the advancement of clinical research. The breadth of rehabilitation treatment requires that many different theoretical perspectives be incorporated into the design and testing of treatment interventions. In this article, the 2 broad classes of theory relevant to rehabilitation research and practice are defined, and their distinct but complementary contributions to research and clinical practice are explored. These theory classes are referred to as treatment theories (theories about how to effect change in clinical targets) and enablement theories (theories about how changes in a proximal clinical target will influence distal clinical aims). Treatment theories provide the tools for inducing clinical change but do not specify how far reaching the ultimate impact of the change will be. Enablement theories model the impact of changes on other areas of function but provide no insight as to how treatment can create functional change. Treatment theories are more critical in the early stages of treatment development, whereas enablement theories become increasingly relevant in specifying the clinical significance and practical effectiveness of more mature treatments. Understanding the differences in the questions these theory classes address and how to combine their insights is crucial for effective research development and clinical practice.

  18. Early intervention for psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Max; Rathbone, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Proponents of early intervention have argued that outcomes might be improved if more therapeutic efforts were focused on the early stages of schizophrenia or on people with prodromal symptoms. Early intervention in schizophrenia has two elements that are distinct from standard care: early detection, and phase-specific treatment (phase-specific treatment is a psychological, social or physical treatment developed, or modified, specifically for use with people at an early stage of the illness). Early detection and phase-specific treatment may both be offered as supplements to standard care, or may be provided through a specialised early intervention team. Early intervention is now well established as a therapeutic approach in America, Europe and Australasia. Objectives To evaluate the effects of: (a) early detection; (b) phase-specific treatments; and (c) specialised early intervention teams in the treatment of people with prodromal symptoms or first-episode psychosis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (March 2009), inspected reference lists of all identified trials and reviews and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) designed to prevent progression to psychosis in people showing prodromal symptoms, or to improve outcome for people with first-episode psychosis. Eligible interventions, alone and in combination, included: early detection, phase-specific treatments, and care from specialised early intervention teams. We accepted cluster-randomised trials but excluded non-randomised trials. Data collection and analysis We reliably selected studies, quality rated them and extracted data. For dichotomous data, we estimated relative risks (RR), with the 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where possible, we calculated the number needed to treat/harm statistic (NNT/H) and used intention-to-treat analysis (ITT). Main results Studies were diverse, mostly small

  19. Cash-based interventions: lessons from southern Somalia.

    PubMed

    Mattinen, Hanna; Ogden, Kate

    2006-09-01

    Commodity distributions, the predominant relief response, are subject to growing criticism, while donors and humanitarian actors are increasingly viewing cash-based interventions as a viable alternative. This paper aims to contribute to the current debate on cash-based interventions by drawing on the experience of Action Contre la Faim in southern Somalia, where it has implemented cash for work programmes since 2004. The authors conclude that cash-based interventions are a feasible option in complex emergencies as well as in highly insecure environments as long as appropriate modalities are employed and objectives are clearly set in accordance with the needs and the context. Cash as a relief response offers wide-reaching possibilities for the future from both the perspective of the donor/agency and the standpoint of the beneficiary. It enables the beneficiaries to take control of the relief themselves and to adapt it to their individual requirements in a timely manner.

  20. Interventions for chronic blepharitis

    PubMed Central

    Lindsley, Kristina; Matsumura, Sueko; Hatef, Elham; Akpek, Esen K

    2012-01-01

    Background Blepharitis, an inflammatory condition associated with itchiness, redness, flaking, and crusting of the eyelids, is a common eye condition that affects both children and adults. It is common in all ethnic groups and across all ages. Although infrequent, blepharitis can lead to permanent alterations to the eyelid margin or vision loss from superficial keratopathy (abnormality of the cornea), corneal neovascularization, and ulceration. Most importantly, blepharitis frequently causes significant ocular symptoms such as burning sensation, irritation, tearing, and red eyes as well as visual problems such as photophobia and blurred vision. The exact etiopathogenesis is unknown, but suspected to be multifactorial, including chronic low-grade infections of the ocular surface with bacteria, infestations with certain parasites such as demodex, and inflammatory skin conditions such as atopy and seborrhea. Blepharitis can be categorized in several different ways. First, categorization is based on the length of disease process: acute or chronic blepharitis. Second, categorization is based on the anatomical location of disease: anterior, or front of the eye (e.g. staphylococcal and seborrheic blepharitis), and posterior, or back of the eye (e.g. meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD)). This review focuses on chronic blepharitis and stratifies anterior and posterior blepharitis. Objectives To examine the effectiveness of interventions in the treatment of chronic blepharitis. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 1), MEDLINE (January 1950 to February 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to February 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We searched the reference lists of included studies for any

  1. Robotically assisted ultrasound interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jienan; Swerdlow, Dan; Wang, Shuxin; Wilson, Emmanuel; Tang, Jonathan; Cleary, Kevin

    2008-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a robotic system to assist the physician in minimally invasive ultrasound interventions. In current practice, the physician must manually hold the ultrasound probe in one hand and manipulate the needle with the other hand, which can be challenging, particularly when trying to target small lesions. To assist the physician, the robot should not only be capable of providing the spatial movement needed, but also be able to control the contact force between the ultrasound probe and patient. To meet these requirements, we are developing a prototype system based on a six degree of freedom parallel robot. The system will provide high bandwidth, precision motion, and force control. In this paper we report on our progress to date, including the development of a PC-based control system and the results of our initial experiments.

  2. Impact Evaluation of Enabling Mothers to Prevent Pediatric Obesity through Web-Based Education and Reciprocal Determinism (EMPOWER) Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Sharma, Manoj; Cottrell, Randall R.; Wilson, Bradley R. A.; Johnson, Marcus Lee

    2015-01-01

    Background. The family and home environment is an influential antecedent of childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to pilot test The Enabling Mothers to Prevent Pediatric Obesity through Web-Based Education and Reciprocal Determinism (EMPOWER) intervention; a newly developed, theory-based, online program for prevention of childhood…

  3. One-Year Efficacy Testing of Enabling Mothers to Prevent Pediatric Obesity through Web-Based Education and Reciprocal Determinism (EMPOWER) Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlden, Adam; Sharma, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Enabling Mothers to Prevent Pediatric Obesity through Web-Based Education and Reciprocal Determinism (EMPOWER) intervention at 1-year, postintervention follow-up. Method: A mixed between-within subjects design was used to evaluate the trial. Independent variables included a…

  4. [Psychotherapeutic interventions in stereotypies].

    PubMed

    Kaloudi, E; Christodoulou, C; Kontaxakis, V; Lykouras, L; Livaditis, M

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypies belong to the psychomotor disorders and they are found in many different disorders. This article refers to the international literature about the psychotherapeutic interventions in stereotypies and reviews the psychotherapeutic techniques that are already being used for these disorders. This study refers to four kinds of psychotherapeutic treatment: (a) Behavioral therapy, (b) Milieu therapy which can be combined successfully with an occupational therapy, (c) Family therapy and (d) Supportive or cognitive or dynamic psychotherapy. The method used for finding the articles for this review was the web research. The articles found were 44 in total, but only 25 were studied extensively since they were absolutely relative to the subject of this review. 12 of these articles were case studies, 7 theoretical papers and 5 of them were reviews. The last one was a research epidemiological study. According to most of the articles, behavioral therapy is considered to be the most effective psychotherapeutic treatment for attenuating stereotypies and relies on techniques like systematic desensitization, environmental enrichment, positive reinforcement of alternative behaviors and negative reinforcement of the "problematic" behaviors. The milieu therapy, combined with occupational therapy, endeavours to shape an appropriate environment where the patient can recover. Family therapy focuses on fully informing the relatives about the nature of stereotypies. Supportive psychotherapy focuses on the current problems in the patient's life. The cognitive psychotherapy tries to fix the dysfunctional thoughts of the patients. Finally, the dynamic psychotherapy is focused on the restoration or reinforcement of the patient's defensive mechanisms. It should be noted that there is a lack of systematic research in the field of stereotypies in general and, especially, regarding psychotherapeutic interventions.

  5. Early intervention and early experience.

    PubMed

    Ramey, C T; Ramey, S L

    1998-02-01

    For 4 decades, vigorous efforts have been based on the premise that early intervention for children of poverty and, more recently, for children with developmental disabilities can yield significant improvements in cognitive, academic, and social outcomes. The history of these efforts is briefly summarized and a conceptual framework presented to understand the design, research, and policy relevance of these early interventions. This framework, biosocial developmental contextualism, derives from social ecology, developmental systems theory, developmental epidemiology, and developmental neurobiology. This integrative perspective predicts that fragmented, weak efforts in early intervention are not likely to succeed, whereas intensive, high-quality, ecologically pervasive interventions can and do. Relevant evidence is summarized in 6 principles about efficacy of early intervention. The public policy challenge in early intervention is to contain costs by more precisely targeting early interventions to those who most need and benefit from these interventions. The empirical evidence on biobehavioral effects of early experience and early intervention has direct relevance to federal and state policy development and resource allocation. PMID:9491742

  6. Early Intervention Practitioner Approaches To Natural Environment Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raab, Melinda; Dunst, Carl J.

    2004-01-01

    Practitioner beliefs about and understanding of natural environment interventions were examined. Sixteen early intervention practitioners from two programs in a southeastern state were interviewed about their understanding and use of natural environments as sources of learning opportunities for young children. Practitioners in one program had…

  7. Early Intervention Practitioner Approaches to Natural Environment Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raab, Melinda; Dunst, Carl J.

    2004-01-01

    Practitioner beliefs about and understanding of natural environment interventions were examined. Sixteen early intervention practitioners from two programs in a southeastern state were interviewed about their understanding and use of natural environments as sources of learning opportunities for young children. Practitioners in one program had…

  8. Internet-enabled collaborative agent-based supply chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Weiming; Kremer, Rob; Norrie, Douglas H.

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents some results of our recent research work related to the development of a new Collaborative Agent System Architecture (CASA) and an Infrastructure for Collaborative Agent Systems (ICAS). Initially being proposed as a general architecture for Internet based collaborative agent systems (particularly complex industrial collaborative agent systems), the proposed architecture is very suitable for managing the Internet enabled complex supply chain for a large manufacturing enterprise. The general collaborative agent system architecture with the basic communication and cooperation services, domain independent components, prototypes and mechanisms are described. Benefits of implementing Internet enabled supply chains with the proposed infrastructure are discussed. A case study on Internet enabled supply chain management is presented.

  9. Interventions for chronic blepharitis

    PubMed Central

    Lindsley, Kristina; Matsumura, Sueko; Hatef, Elham; Akpek, Esen K

    2012-01-01

    Background Blepharitis, an inflammatory condition associated with itchiness, redness, flaking, and crusting of the eyelids, is a common eye condition that affects both children and adults. It is common in all ethnic groups and across all ages. Although infrequent, blepharitis can lead to permanent alterations to the eyelid margin or vision loss from superficial keratopathy (abnormality of the cornea), corneal neovascularization, and ulceration. Most importantly, blepharitis frequently causes significant ocular symptoms such as burning sensation, irritation, tearing, and red eyes as well as visual problems such as photophobia and blurred vision. The exact etiopathogenesis is unknown, but suspected to be multifactorial, including chronic low-grade infections of the ocular surface with bacteria, infestations with certain parasites such as demodex, and inflammatory skin conditions such as atopy and seborrhea. Blepharitis can be categorized in several different ways. First, categorization is based on the length of disease process: acute or chronic blepharitis. Second, categorization is based on the anatomical location of disease: anterior, or front of the eye (e.g. staphylococcal and seborrheic blepharitis), and posterior, or back of the eye (e.g. meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD)). This review focuses on chronic blepharitis and stratifies anterior and posterior blepharitis. Objectives To examine the effectiveness of interventions in the treatment of chronic blepharitis. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 1), MEDLINE (January 1950 to February 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to February 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We searched the reference lists of included studies for any

  10. Velocardiofacial syndrome: learning difficulties and intervention.

    PubMed

    Kok, L L; Solman, R T

    1995-08-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome, delineated in 1978 by Shprintzen, is a multiple genetic disorder, characterised primarily by cleft palate, cardiovascular anomalies, typical facies, and learning disorders. This syndrome with its recurrent pattern of anomalies has significant implications for education as it is linked to a variety of educationally relevant problems including learning difficulties, behaviour disorders, and speech and language deficits. While clinical research advances and new findings in cytogenetics enable early diagnosis and genetic counselling, ramifications of the syndrome in the field of education are still unknown. Learning difficulties should not be viewed solely as a pathological condition and with data on success of intervention, parents and teachers can be apprised of the information. This paper discusses academic characteristics and the effects of intervention with emphasis on interactive computer based instruction on the development of reading, language, spelling, and numeracy skills. Positive effects of computer based instruction on students' self-esteem, motivation, and competence in computer operational skills were also observed and noted. We are encouraged by the enthusiasms of the students for the system, the development of interest in reading, and the transfer of remedial instruction to classroom performance. Comparison of pretest and post-test results indicated significant improvement in reading ability as measured using Neale Analysis. This improvement is in accordance with results obtained using computer testing of specific subskills in reading/language and mathematics.

  11. Velocardiofacial syndrome: learning difficulties and intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Kok, L L; Solman, R T

    1995-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome, delineated in 1978 by Shprintzen, is a multiple genetic disorder, characterised primarily by cleft palate, cardiovascular anomalies, typical facies, and learning disorders. This syndrome with its recurrent pattern of anomalies has significant implications for education as it is linked to a variety of educationally relevant problems including learning difficulties, behaviour disorders, and speech and language deficits. While clinical research advances and new findings in cytogenetics enable early diagnosis and genetic counselling, ramifications of the syndrome in the field of education are still unknown. Learning difficulties should not be viewed solely as a pathological condition and with data on success of intervention, parents and teachers can be apprised of the information. This paper discusses academic characteristics and the effects of intervention with emphasis on interactive computer based instruction on the development of reading, language, spelling, and numeracy skills. Positive effects of computer based instruction on students' self-esteem, motivation, and competence in computer operational skills were also observed and noted. We are encouraged by the enthusiasms of the students for the system, the development of interest in reading, and the transfer of remedial instruction to classroom performance. Comparison of pretest and post-test results indicated significant improvement in reading ability as measured using Neale Analysis. This improvement is in accordance with results obtained using computer testing of specific subskills in reading/language and mathematics. PMID:7473652

  12. [Military assistance in transportation of patients for an emergency PCI intervention].

    PubMed

    Rothmann, Susani; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Lassen, Jens Flensted; Eriksen, Jon Lindskov

    2011-12-01

    Patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) or fibrinolysis. pPCI is superior to fibrinolysis when initiated timely. However, geography and weather sometimes become obstacles for transporting the patient to a PCI centre. In this case story teamwork between hospital instances and the military enabled transport to a PCI centre for a PCI intervention even though the weather conditions were unfavourable.

  13. Family member interventions: research challenges.

    PubMed

    Leske, J S

    1991-07-01

    Numerous descriptive studies have provided a base for developing and testing interventions for family members after a critical illness event. The challenges of designing, conducting, and using research-based interventions for families are invitation for the researcher. Critical care nurses have much to offer and do make a difference with families. Accept the challenges! PMID:2071430

  14. AAC Modeling Intervention Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sennott, Samuel C.; Light, Janice C.; McNaughton, David

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of research on the effects of interventions that include communication partner modeling of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) on the language acquisition of individuals with complex communication needs was conducted. Included studies incorporated AAC modeling as a primary component of the intervention,…

  15. Systematic Interventions for Teaching Ratios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Amy E.; Bush, Sarah B.; Karp, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics interventions for struggling students supplement regular instruction and are frequently implemented through computer programs and activity sheet practice (Swanson et al. 2012). However, students with foundational misunderstandings do not benefit from additional drill and practice alone. Instead, interventions that balance concepts with…

  16. Reading Fluency and Its Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Maryanne; Katzir-Cohen, Tami

    2001-01-01

    Confronts 3 large lacunae in research on reading fluency: definition, component structure, and theory-based intervention. Presents a developmental- and component-based definition of reading fluency. Discusses how different types of current fluency interventions correspond to particular components in fluency's structure and to particular phases of…

  17. A Revisionist View of Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, Mary Lou; And Others

    A study of professional development intervention programs in which schools choose their own issues and action plans is presented in this report. "Intervention" refers to university introduction of new professional development models into the school. A 3-year program involving five schools in collaboration with university staff members and…

  18. Nonverbal Interventions in Clinical Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadish, William R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison of nonverbal with verbal clinical group interventions suggested that some traditional self-report devices show less differentiation between these two interventions than do measures of group cohesion. A strong, replicable manipulation tested these findings, which were consistent with previous research. (Author/BEF)

  19. Response to Intervention: What & Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Response to intervention (RTI) is the practice of providing high quality-instruction and intervention matched to student need, monitoring progress frequently to make decisions about changes in instruction or goals and applying student response data to important education decisions. In essence, RTI expands the practice of looking at students' risk…

  20. An IT-enabled supply chain model: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannella, Salvatore; Framinan, Jose M.; Barbosa-Póvoa, Ana

    2014-11-01

    During the last decades, supply chain collaboration practices and the underlying enabling technologies have evolved from the classical electronic data interchange (EDI) approach to a web-based and radio frequency identification (RFID)-enabled collaboration. In this field, most of the literature has focused on the study of optimal parameters for reducing the total cost of suppliers, by adopting operational research (OR) techniques. Herein we are interested in showing that the considered information technology (IT)-enabled structure is resilient, that is, it works well across a reasonably broad range of parameter settings. By adopting a methodological approach based on system dynamics, we study a multi-tier collaborative supply chain. Results show that the IT-enabled supply chain improves operational performance and customer service level. Nonetheless, benefits for geographically dispersed networks are of minor entity.

  1. The ISECG White Paper: Science Enabled by Human Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussey, D. B. J.; Worms, J. C.; Schlutz, J.; Spiero, F.; Science Advisory Group

    2016-08-01

    The ISECG has asked the international science community to develop a science white paper that highlights science opportunities enabled by human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Here we present the asteroid science, as described in the white paper.

  2. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents, May 2009 (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-05-01

    Enabling Documents, delivered by the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to provide materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs).

  3. Sequential Consequences of Therapists' Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Milbrath, Constance; Bond, Michael; Cooper, Steven; Znoj, Hans J.; Horowitz, Mardi J.; Perry, J. Christopher

    1999-01-01

    Using sequential analysis, the authors examined how therapists' actions related to the verbal disclosure and defensive patterns that followed therapists' interventions within a single therapy hour for 20 patients. At the same time, a new measure, the Psychodynamic Intervention Rating Scale (PIRS), was tested for reliability and construct validity. Results indicated that therapists fit their styles of intervention to patients' levels of distress and functioning. Within the session, patient's emotional elaboration was followed by therapist's defense interpretation, followed by more patient emotional elaboration. Patient elaboration of significance was followed by more transference interpretation, followed by more patient elaboration of significance. Noninterpretive interventions were followed by patient's disclosure of facts, not emotion. Both interpretive intervention process sequences and therapist's use of support predicted posttreatment symptom reduction. The PIRS was shown to have satisfactory reliability and construct validity. (The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 1999; 8:40–54) PMID:9888106

  4. [Sexological intervention on premature ejaculation].

    PubMed

    San Martín Blanco, C

    2014-07-01

    Strategies, recommendations and techniques proposed by sex therapy for intervention on premature ejaculation, have represented for nearly four decades the most effective model of intervention in this sexual dysfunction, which currently is complemented by the efficacy of dapoxetine drug treatment. Clinical experience and recent studies support that combined intervention offers the best therapeutic results. In addition in sex therapy, etiologic diagnosis is obtained from the analysis of the interrelationship of the couple. Diagnostic and therapeutic intervention has to be always centered in the relationship, so the techniques and resources must be applied with the expectation of being implemented in the sexual interaction. It will therefore be the relationship that receive treatment, even if medication is used for one of the members of the couple. On the other hand, this model of intervention can be implemented by a professional with training, although not necessarily a specialist.

  5. Mechanical Engineering Design Project report: Enabler control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullen, Christian; Delvecchio, Dave; Scarborough, Alan; Havics, Andrew A.

    1992-01-01

    The Controls Group was assigned the responsibility for designing the Enabler's control system. The requirement for the design was that the control system must provide a simple user interface to control the boom articulation joints, chassis articulation joints, and the wheel drive. The system required controlling hydraulic motors on the Enabler by implementing 8-bit microprocessor boards. In addition, feedback to evaluate positions and velocities must be interfaced to provide the operator with confirmation as well as control.

  6. Interventional video tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truppe, Michael J.; Pongracz, Ferenc; Ploder, Oliver; Wagner, Arne; Ewers, Rolf

    1995-05-01

    Interventional Video Tomography (IVT) is a new imaging modality for Image Directed Surgery to visualize in real-time intraoperatively the spatial position of surgical instruments relative to the patient's anatomy. The video imaging detector is based on a special camera equipped with an optical viewing and lighting system and electronic 3D sensors. When combined with an endoscope it is used for examining the inside of cavities or hollow organs of the body from many different angles. The surface topography of objects is reconstructed from a sequence of monocular video or endoscopic images. To increase accuracy and speed of the reconstruction the relative movement between objects and endoscope is continuously tracked by electronic sensors. The IVT image sequence represents a 4D data set in stereotactic space and contains image, surface topography and motion data. In ENT surgery an IVT image sequence of the planned and so far accessible surgical path is acquired prior to surgery. To simulate the surgical procedure the cross sectional imaging data is superimposed with the digitally stored IVT image sequence. During surgery the video sequence component of the IVT simulation is substituted by the live video source. The IVT technology makes obsolete the use of 3D digitizing probes for the patient image coordinate transformation. The image fusion of medical imaging data with live video sources is the first practical use of augmented reality in medicine. During surgery a head-up display is used to overlay real-time reformatted cross sectional imaging data with the live video image.

  7. Cascading Effects Following Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Gerald R.; Forgatch, Marion S.; DeGarmo, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Four different sources for cascade effects were examined using 9-year process and outcome data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a preventive intervention using Parent Management Training – Oregon Model (PMTO™). The social interaction learning (SIL) model of child antisocial behavior serves as one basis for predicting change. A second source addresses the issue of comorbid relationships among clinical diagnoses. The third source, collateral changes, describes events in which changes in one family member correlate with changes in another. The fourth component is based on the long-term effects of reducing coercion and increasing positive interpersonal processes within the family. New findings from the 9-year follow-up show that mothers experienced benefits as measured by standard of living (i.e., income, occupation, education, and financial stress) and frequency of police arrests. It is assumed that PMTO reduces the level of coercion, which sets the stage for a massive increase in positive social interaction. In effect, PMTO alters the family environment and thereby opens doors to healthy new social environments. PMID:20883592

  8. Cascading effects following intervention.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Gerald R; Forgatch, Marion S; Degarmo, David S

    2010-11-01

    Four different sources for cascade effects were examined using 9-year process and outcome data from a randomized controlled trial of a preventive intervention using the Parent Management Training-Oregon Model (PMTO™). The social interaction learning model of child antisocial behavior serves as one basis for predicting change. A second source addresses the issue of comorbid relationships among clinical diagnoses. The third source, collateral changes, describes events in which changes in one family member correlate with changes in another. The fourth component is based on the long-term effects of reducing coercion and increasing positive interpersonal processes within the family. New findings from the 9-year follow-up show that mothers experienced benefits as measured by standard of living (i.e., income, occupation, education, and financial stress) and frequency of police arrests. It is assumed that PMTO reduces the level of coercion, which sets the stage for a massive increase in positive social interaction. In effect, PMTO alters the family environment and thereby opens doors to healthy new social environments. PMID:20883592

  9. Imaging Guided Breast Interventions.

    PubMed

    Masroor, Imrana; Afzal, Shaista; Sufian, Saira Naz

    2016-06-01

    Breast imaging is a developing field, with new and upcoming innovations, decreasing the morbidity and mortality related to breast pathologies with main emphasis on breast cancer. Breast imaging has an essential role in the detection and management of breast disease. It includes a multimodality approach, i.e. mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine techniques and interventional procedures, done for the diagnosis and definitive management of breast abnormalities. The range of methods to perform biopsy of a suspicious breast lesion found on imaging has also increased markedly from the 1990s with hi-technological progress in surgical as well as percutaneous breast biopsy methods. The image guided percutaneous breast biopsy procedures cause minimal breast scarring, save time, and relieve the patient of the anxiety of going to the operation theatre. The aim of this review was to describe and discuss the different image guided breast biopsy techniques presently employed along with the indications, contraindication, merits and demerits of each method. PMID:27353993

  10. The Project ENABLE II Randomized Controlled Trial to Improve Palliative Care for Patients with Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bakitas, Marie; Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Hegel, Mark T.; Balan, Stefan; Brokaw, Frances C.; Seville, Janette; Hull, Jay G.; Li, Zhongze; Tosteson, Tor; Byock, Ira R.; Ahles, Tim A.

    2013-01-01

    Context There are few randomized controlled trials of the effectiveness of palliative care. Objective To determine the effect of a palliative care intervention on quality of life (QOL), symptom intensity, mood, and resource utilization. Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized controlled trial (November 2003-May 2008) of 322 patients with advanced cancer and an identified caregiver in a rural, NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center (the Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, NH) and affiliated outreach clinics and Veteran’s Affairs Medical Center (White River Junction, VT). Intervention A multi-component, psycho-educational, palliative care intervention (Project ENABLE) conducted by an advanced practice nurse consisting of 4 weekly educational sessions and monthly follow-up until death or study completion. Main Outcome Measures (1) The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Palliative (range: 0 to 184; higher scores indicate better QOL), (2) Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (range: 0 to 900; higher scores indicate greater symptom intensity), (3) Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (range: 0 to 60; higher scores indicate more depressive symptoms), completed at baseline, 1 month and every 3 months until death or study completion, (4) days in hospital, intensive care unit (ICU), and emergency department visits recorded in the medical record. Results 322 participants with gastrointestinal (41%), lung (36%), genitourinary (12%), and breast (10%) cancer were randomized. Estimated treatment effects (intervention minus usual care) for all subjects were 4.6 (P = .02) for QOL, −27.8 (P = .06) for symptom intensity, and −1.8 (P = .02) for depressed mood. Estimated average treatment effects in the sample of participants who died during the study were 8.6 (P = .02) for QOL, −24.2 (P = .24) for symptom intensity, and −2.7 (P = .03) for depressed mood. Days in hospital, intensive care unit, and emergency department visits were not different

  11. Considerations for climate intervention research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duren, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Action to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions is essential for addressing rapid environmental change in the Earth's polar regions. However, the potential for threshold crossing events in polar climate elements with untenable consequences for society and ecosystems may motivate consideration of additional "climate interventions". A recent National Research Council study identified risks and research needs associated with global scale intervention options such as atmospheric carbon removal and albedo modification. In addition to the issues raised by the NRC panel, any serious study of climate interventions would likely transcend the traditional scope of earth system science. Current observational systems are not designed to detect, attribute or monitor climate intervention attempts and would warrant significant augmentation. Potential field experiments to improve scientific understanding of albedo modification options would likely span a huge range of physical scales, material and energy (some in-family with established atmospheric research but others that would be wholly unprecedented). Targeted interventions focused on polar climate elements have received even less study than global-scale intervention and their consideration could present unique challenges. Finally, research priorities have not yet been informed by any strategy or scenarios about where and when climate interventions might fit in society's portfolio of climate responses.

  12. Cognitive intervention in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Buschert, Verena; Bokde, Arun L W; Hampel, Harald

    2010-09-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is one of the most prevalent chronic medical conditions affecting the elderly population. The effectiveness of approved antidementia drugs, however, is limited-licensed AD medications provide only moderate relief of clinical symptoms. Cognitive intervention is a noninvasive therapy that could aid prevention and treatment of AD. Data suggest that specifically designed cognitive interventions could impart therapeutic benefits to patients with AD that are associated with substantial biological changes within the brain. Moreover, evidence indicates that a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions could provide greater relief of clinical symptoms than either intervention given alone. Functional and structural MRI studies have increased our understanding of the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of aging and neurodegeneration, but the use of neuroimaging to investigate the effect of cognitive intervention on the brain remains largely unexplored. This Review provides an overview of the use of cognitive intervention in the healthy elderly population and patients with AD, and summarizes emerging findings that provide evidence for the effectiveness of this approach. Finally, we present recommendations for future research on the use of cognitive interventions in AD and discuss potential effects of this therapy on disease modification.

  13. Adapting an evidence-based intervention for autism spectrum disorder for scaling up in resource-constrained settings: the development of the PASS intervention in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Divan, Gauri; Hamdani, Syed Usman; Vajartkar, Vivek; Minhas, Ayesha; Taylor, Carol; Aldred, Catherine; Leadbitter, Kathy; Rahman, Atif; Green, Jonathan; Patel, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based interventions for autism spectrum disorders evaluated in high-income countries typically require highly specialised manpower, which is a scarce resource in most low- and middle-income settings. This resource limitation results in most children not having access to evidence-based interventions. Objective This paper reports on the systematic adaptation of an evidence-based intervention, the Preschool Autism Communication Therapy (PACT) evaluated in a large trial in the United Kingdom for delivery in a low-resource setting through the process of task-shifting. Design The adaptation process used the Medical Research Council framework for the development and adaptation of complex interventions, focusing on qualitative methods and case series and was conducted simultaneously in India and Pakistan. Results The original intervention delivered by speech and language therapists in a high-resource setting required adaptation in some aspects of its content and delivery to enhance contextual acceptability and to enable the intervention to be delivered by non-specialists. Conclusions The resulting intervention, the Parent-mediated intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorder in South Asia (PASS), shares the core theoretical foundations of the original PACT but is adapted in several respects to enhance its acceptability, feasibility, and scalability in low-resource settings. PMID:26243710

  14. Nonpharmacologic interventions for pain management.

    PubMed

    Doody, S B; Smith, C; Webb, J

    1991-03-01

    Managing pain is a complex and inexact science. Acute and chronic pain physically and psychologically affects and disables an overwhelming number of people. Nonpharmacologic interventions for pain management have been reviewed. These methods can be used independently or in combination with other nonpharmacologic or pharmacologic methods of pain control. The goals of nonpharmacologic interventions for pain management include the reduction of pain, minimal adverse effects, and allowing patients to become active participants in their own care. Nurses are called on many times to comfort patients in pain. It is through their expertise and intervention that the goals of pain management succeed. PMID:2043331

  15. A Sensor-Enabled Smartphone Application to Collect Eating Behavior Data for Population Screening.

    PubMed

    Maramis, Christos; Moulos, Ioannis; Ioakeimidis, Ioannis; Nolstam, Jenny; Lekka, Irini; Bergh, Cecilia; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide extent of obesity and eating disorders (ED) today highlights the necessity for efficient treatment, but also early prevention of eating-related diseases. A promising category of therapeutic and preventive interventions comes from the domain of behavioral informatics (BI), whose purpose is to monitor and modify harmful behaviors - unhealthy eating in the particular case - with the help of information and communication technologies. Smartphones have already shown great promise in delivering such BI interventions in the field of obesity and ED. In fact, plenty of smartphone applications aiming to monitor and support the change of eating behavior with the help of built-in or external sensors have been proposed in the scientific literature. However, to the best of our knowledge, no smartphone application up to date has been designed to collect eating behavior data for the purpose of population screening against obesity or ED. In this work we describe a novel, sensor-enabled smartphone application that captures in-meal behavioral data from multiple subjects in a brief data collection process, with the end goal of recording, in detail, the user's eating style throughout a cooked meal. These data can later be employed for assessing the subjects' risk for obesity or ED. The proposed application has undergone preliminary evaluation with respect to its usability and technical soundness, yielding promising results. PMID:27225568

  16. Enabling automated magnetic resonance imaging-based targeting assessment during dipole field navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latulippe, Maxime; Felfoul, Ouajdi; Dupont, Pierre E.; Martel, Sylvain

    2016-02-01

    The magnetic navigation of drugs in the vascular network promises to increase the efficacy and reduce the secondary toxicity of cancer treatments by targeting tumors directly. Recently, dipole field navigation (DFN) was proposed as the first method achieving both high field and high navigation gradient strengths for whole-body interventions in deep tissues. This is achieved by introducing large ferromagnetic cores around the patient inside a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. However, doing so distorts the static field inside the scanner, which prevents imaging during the intervention. This limitation constrains DFN to open-loop navigation, thus exposing the risk of a harmful toxicity in case of a navigation failure. Here, we are interested in periodically assessing drug targeting efficiency using MRI even in the presence of a core. We demonstrate, using a clinical scanner, that it is in fact possible to acquire, in specific regions around a core, images of sufficient quality to perform this task. We show that the core can be moved inside the scanner to a position minimizing the distortion effect in the region of interest for imaging. Moving the core can be done automatically using the gradient coils of the scanner, which then also enables the core to be repositioned to perform navigation to additional targets. The feasibility and potential of the approach are validated in an in vitro experiment demonstrating navigation and assessment at two targets.

  17. A Sensor-Enabled Smartphone Application to Collect Eating Behavior Data for Population Screening.

    PubMed

    Maramis, Christos; Moulos, Ioannis; Ioakeimidis, Ioannis; Nolstam, Jenny; Lekka, Irini; Bergh, Cecilia; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide extent of obesity and eating disorders (ED) today highlights the necessity for efficient treatment, but also early prevention of eating-related diseases. A promising category of therapeutic and preventive interventions comes from the domain of behavioral informatics (BI), whose purpose is to monitor and modify harmful behaviors - unhealthy eating in the particular case - with the help of information and communication technologies. Smartphones have already shown great promise in delivering such BI interventions in the field of obesity and ED. In fact, plenty of smartphone applications aiming to monitor and support the change of eating behavior with the help of built-in or external sensors have been proposed in the scientific literature. However, to the best of our knowledge, no smartphone application up to date has been designed to collect eating behavior data for the purpose of population screening against obesity or ED. In this work we describe a novel, sensor-enabled smartphone application that captures in-meal behavioral data from multiple subjects in a brief data collection process, with the end goal of recording, in detail, the user's eating style throughout a cooked meal. These data can later be employed for assessing the subjects' risk for obesity or ED. The proposed application has undergone preliminary evaluation with respect to its usability and technical soundness, yielding promising results.

  18. The Stanford Automated Mounter: Enabling High-Throughput Protein Crystal Screening at SSRL

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.A.; Cohen, A.E.

    2009-05-26

    The macromolecular crystallography experiment lends itself perfectly to high-throughput technologies. The initial steps including the expression, purification, and crystallization of protein crystals, along with some of the later steps involving data processing and structure determination have all been automated to the point where some of the last remaining bottlenecks in the process have been crystal mounting, crystal screening, and data collection. At the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, a National User Facility that provides extremely brilliant X-ray photon beams for use in materials science, environmental science, and structural biology research, the incorporation of advanced robotics has enabled crystals to be screened in a true high-throughput fashion, thus dramatically accelerating the final steps. Up to 288 frozen crystals can be mounted by the beamline robot (the Stanford Auto-Mounting System) and screened for diffraction quality in a matter of hours without intervention. The best quality crystals can then be remounted for the collection of complete X-ray diffraction data sets. Furthermore, the entire screening and data collection experiment can be controlled from the experimenter's home laboratory by means of advanced software tools that enable network-based control of the highly automated beamlines.

  19. An Android-enabled mobile framework for ensuring quality of life through patient-centric care.

    PubMed

    Koufi, Vassiliki; Malamateniou, Flora; Vassilacopoulos, George

    2012-01-01

    The drive to achieve excellence in healthcare delivery while containing costs, underlies the need for a new generation of applications which facilitate the realization of a patient-centric care model. Under this emerging care model healthcare delivery can be integrated across the continuum of services, from prevention to follow up, and care can be coordinated across all settings. With care moving out into the community, health systems require real-time information to deliver coordinated care to patients. The integration of leading-edge technologies, such as mobile technology, with Personal Health Records (PHRs) can meet this requirement by making comprehensive and unified health information available to authorized users at any point of care or decision making through familiar environments such as Google's Android. This paper presents a framework that provides ubiquitous access to patients' PHRs via Android-enabled mobile devices. Where possible health information access and management is performed in a transparent way, thus enabling healthcare professionals to devote more time on practicing medicine and patients to manage their own health with the least possible intervention. This depends heavily on the context, which is collected by both Android-specific core system services and special purpose software agents with the latter being also responsible for preserving PHR data privacy. PMID:22874352

  20. Enabled or Disabled: Is the Environment Right for Using Biodiversity to Improve Nutrition?

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Danny; Özkan, Isa; Moura de Oliveira Beltrame, Daniela; Samarasinghe, Wellakke Lokuge Gamini; Wasike, Victor Wafula; Charrondière, U. Ruth; Borelli, Teresa; Sokolow, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    How can we ensure that 9 billion people will have access to a nutritious and healthy diet that is produced in a sustainable manner by 2050? Despite major advances, our global food system still fails to feed a significant part of humanity adequately. Diversifying food systems and diets to include nutrient-rich species can help reduce malnutrition, while contributing other multiple benefits including healthy ecosystems. While research continues to demonstrate the value of incorporating biodiversity into food systems and diets, perverse subsidies, and barriers often prevent this. Countries like Brazil have shown that, by strategic actions and interventions, it is indeed possible to create better contexts to mainstream biodiversity for improved nutrition into government programs and public policies. Despite some progress, there are few global and national policy mechanisms or processes that effectively join biodiversity with agriculture and nutrition efforts. This perspective paper discusses the benefits of biodiversity for nutrition and explores what an enabling environment for biodiversity to improve nutrition might look like, including examples of steps and actions from a multi-country project that other countries might replicate. Finally, we suggest what it might take to create enabling environments to mainstream biodiversity into global initiatives and national programs and policies on food and nutrition security. With demand for new thinking about how we improve agriculture for nutrition and growing international recognition of the role biodiversity, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development presents an opportunity to move beyond business-as-usual to more holistic approaches to food and nutrition security. PMID:27376067

  1. Enabled or Disabled: Is the Environment Right for Using Biodiversity to Improve Nutrition?

    PubMed

    Hunter, Danny; Özkan, Isa; Moura de Oliveira Beltrame, Daniela; Samarasinghe, Wellakke Lokuge Gamini; Wasike, Victor Wafula; Charrondière, U Ruth; Borelli, Teresa; Sokolow, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    How can we ensure that 9 billion people will have access to a nutritious and healthy diet that is produced in a sustainable manner by 2050? Despite major advances, our global food system still fails to feed a significant part of humanity adequately. Diversifying food systems and diets to include nutrient-rich species can help reduce malnutrition, while contributing other multiple benefits including healthy ecosystems. While research continues to demonstrate the value of incorporating biodiversity into food systems and diets, perverse subsidies, and barriers often prevent this. Countries like Brazil have shown that, by strategic actions and interventions, it is indeed possible to create better contexts to mainstream biodiversity for improved nutrition into government programs and public policies. Despite some progress, there are few global and national policy mechanisms or processes that effectively join biodiversity with agriculture and nutrition efforts. This perspective paper discusses the benefits of biodiversity for nutrition and explores what an enabling environment for biodiversity to improve nutrition might look like, including examples of steps and actions from a multi-country project that other countries might replicate. Finally, we suggest what it might take to create enabling environments to mainstream biodiversity into global initiatives and national programs and policies on food and nutrition security. With demand for new thinking about how we improve agriculture for nutrition and growing international recognition of the role biodiversity, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development presents an opportunity to move beyond business-as-usual to more holistic approaches to food and nutrition security.

  2. Chemo- and site-selective derivatizations of natural products enabling biological studies.

    PubMed

    Robles, Omar; Romo, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Bioactive natural products and derivatives remain an enduring starting point for the discovery of new cellular targets for disease intervention and lead compounds for the development of new therapeutic agents. The former goal is accomplished through the synthesis of bioactive cellular probes from natural products, enabling insights into the mechanism of action of these natural products by classical affinity chromatography or more recent proteome profiling methods. However, the direct and selective modification of native natural products for these purposes remains a challenge due to the structural complexity and the wide functional group diversity found in these natural substances. The lack of selective synthetic methods available to directly manipulate unprotected complex small molecules, in particular to perform structure-activity relationship studies and prepare appropriate cellular probes, has recently begun to be addressed, benefitting from the broader emerging area of chemoselective synthetic methodology. Thus, new reagents, catalysts and reaction processes are enabling both chemo- and site-selective modifications of complex, native natural products. In this review, we describe selected recent examples of these functionalization strategies in this emerging area. PMID:24468713

  3. Chemo- and Site-Selective Derivatizations of Natural Products Enabling Biological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive natural products and derivatives remain an enduring starting point for the discovery of new cellular targets for disease intervention and lead compounds for the development of new therapeutic agents. The former goal is accomplished through the synthesis of bioactive cellular probes from natural products enabling insights into the mechanism of action of these natural products by classical affinity chromatography or more recent proteome profiling methods. However, the direct and selective modification of native natural products for these purposes remains a challenge due to the structural complexity and the wide functional group diversity found in these natural substances. The lack of selective synthetic methods available to directly manipulate unprotected complex small molecules, in particular to perform structure-activity relationship studies and prepare appropriate cellular probes, has recently begun to be addressed benefitting from the broader emerging area of chemoselective synthetic methodology. Thus, new reagents, catalysts and reaction processes are enabling both chemo- and site-selective modifications of complex, native natural products. In this review, we describe selected recent examples of these functionalization strategies in this emerging area. PMID:24468713

  4. Personal Change and Intervention Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, John D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a theory of personal change and analyzes growth-producing interventions using examples from the film, "Three Approaches to Psychotherapy". Compares the styles of Carl Rogers, Frttz Perls, and Albert Ellis to illustrate the theory. (Editor/RK)

  5. Responsive parenting: interventions and outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Eshel, Neir; Daelmans, Bernadette; de Mello, Meena Cabral; Martines, Jose

    2006-01-01

    In addition to food, sanitation and access to health facilities children require adequate care at home for survival and optimal development. Responsiveness, a mother's/caregiver's prompt, contingent and appropriate interaction with the child, is a vital parenting tool with wide-ranging benefits for the child, from better cognitive and psychosocial development to protection from disease and mortality. We examined two facets of responsive parenting -- its role in child health and development and the effectiveness of interventions to enhance it -- by conducting a systematic review of literature from both developed and developing countries. Our results revealed that interventions are effective in enhancing maternal responsiveness, resulting in better child health and development, especially for the neediest populations. Since these interventions were feasible even in poor settings, they have great potential in helping us achieve the Millennium Development Goals. We suggest that responsiveness interventions be integrated into child survival strategies. PMID:17242836

  6. Interventions to reduce school bullying.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter K; Ananiadou, Katerina; Cowie, Helen

    2003-10-01

    In the last 2 decades, school bullying has become a topic of public concern and research around the world. This has led to action to reduce the problem. We review interventions targeted at the school level (for example, whole school policy, classroom climate, peer support, school tribunal, and playground improvement), at the class level (for example, curriculum work), and at the individual level (for example, working with specific pupils). Effectiveness of interventions has been sporadically assessed. We review several systematically evaluated, large-scale, school-based intervention programs. Their effectiveness has varied, and we consider reasons for this. We suggest ways to improve the evaluation and comparability of studies, as well as the effectiveness of future interventions. PMID:14631879

  7. Alternative food safety intervention technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  8. Cognitive Interventions for Older Diabetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sheila; Scogin, Forrest

    1998-01-01

    Older diabetic adults should receive memory training to improve their compliance with medication taking. The intervention should include comprehensible medical instructions, assistance with remembering the nutritional values of food, and higher order skills for disease management. (SK)

  9. How language enables abstraction: a study in computational cultural psychology.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Yair; Turney, Peter; Cohen, Yohai

    2012-06-01

    The idea that language mediates our thoughts and enables abstract cognition has been a key idea in socio-cultural psychology. However, it is not clear what mechanisms support this process of abstraction. Peirce argued that one mechanism by which language enables abstract thought is hypostatic abstraction, the process through which a predicate (e.g., dark) turns into an object (e.g., darkness). By using novel computational tools we tested Peirce's idea. Analysis of the data provides empirical support for Peirce's mechanism and evidence of the way the use of signs enables abstraction. These conclusions are supported by the in-depth analysis of two case studies concerning the abstraction of sweet and dark. The paper concludes by discussing the findings from a broad and integrative theoretical perspective and by pointing to computational cultural psychology as a promising perspective for addressing long-lasting questions of the field.

  10. Solar Sail Propulsion: Enabling New Capabilities for Heliophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L.; Young, R.; Alhorn, D.; Heaton, A.; Vansant, T.; Campbell, B.; Pappa, R.; Keats, W.; Liewer, P. C.; Alexander, D.; Wawrzyniak, G.; Ayon, J.; Burton, R.; Carroll, D.; Matloff, G.; Kezerashvili, R. Ya.

    2010-01-01

    Solar sails can play a critical role in enabling solar and heliophysics missions. Solar sail technology within NASA is currently at 80% of TRL-6, suitable for an in-flight technology demonstration. It is conceivable that an initial demonstration could carry scientific payloads that, depending on the type of mission, are commensurate with the goals of the three study panels of the 2010 Heliophysics Survey. Follow-on solar sail missions, leveraging advances in solar sail technology to support Heliophysics Survey goals, would then be feasible. This white paper reports on a sampling of missions enabled by solar sails, the current state of the technology, and what funding is required to advance the current state of technology such that solar sails can enable these missions

  11. [Ethical intervention in pragmatic regime].

    PubMed

    Maesschalck, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of the neo-pragmatist turn in social sciences from the point of view of the method of ethical intervention. It focuses specifically on the idea of building a "learning community" as the horizon for strengthening participative 'capacitation'. It finally points at the limits of such a perspective, from the point of view of institutional building of new subjectivities through and beyond the practices proposed by ethical interventions.

  12. Pricing Health Behavior Interventions to Promote Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Ribisl, Kurt M.; Leeman, Jennifer; Glasser, Allison M.

    2015-01-01

    The relatively high cost of delivering many public health interventions limits their potential for broad public impact by reducing their likelihood of adoption and maintenance over time. Practitioners identify cost as the primary factor for which interventions they select to implement, but researchers rarely disseminate cost information or consider its importance when developing new interventions. A new approach is proposed, whereby intervention developers assess what individuals and agencies adopting their interventions are willing to pay and then design interventions that are responsive to this price range. The ultimate goal is to develop effective and affordable interventions, called lean interventions, which are widely adopted and have greater public health impact. PMID:24842743

  13. Reporting Guidelines for Music-based Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Robb, Sheri L.; Burns, Debra S.; Carpenter, Janet S.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are used to address a variety of problems experienced by individuals across the developmental lifespan (infants to elderly adults). In order to improve the transparency and specificity of reporting music-based interventions, a set of specific reporting guidelines is recommended. Recommendations pertain to reporting seven different components of music-based interventions including intervention theory, intervention content, intervention delivery schedule, interventionist, treatment fidelity, setting, and unit of delivery. Recommendations are intended to support CONSORT and TREND statements for transparent reporting of interventions while taking into account the variety, complexity, and uniqueness of music-based interventions. PMID:20709884

  14. Reporting Guidelines for Music-based Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Robb, Sheri L.; Burns, Debra S.; Carpenter, Janet S.

    2013-01-01

    Music-based interventions are used to address a variety of problems experienced by individuals across the developmental lifespan (infants to elderly adults). In order to improve the transparency and specificity of reporting music-based interventions, a set of specific reporting guidelines is recommended. Recommendations pertain to reporting seven different components of music-based interventions including intervention theory, intervention content, intervention delivery schedule, interventionist, treatment fidelity, setting, and unit of delivery. Recommendations are intended to support CONSORT and TREND statements for transparent reporting of interventions while taking into account the variety, complexity, and uniqueness of music-based interventions. PMID:23646227

  15. Duplex DNA-Invading γ-Modified Peptide Nucleic Acids Enable Rapid Identification of Bloodstream Infections in Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Nölling, Jörk; Rapireddy, Srinivas; Amburg, Joel I.; Crawford, Elizabeth M.; Prakash, Ranjit A.; Rabson, Arthur R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bloodstream infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Early and targeted antimicrobial intervention is lifesaving, yet current diagnostic approaches fail to provide actionable information within a clinically viable time frame due to their reliance on blood culturing. Here, we present a novel pathogen identification (PID) platform that features the use of duplex DNA-invading γ-modified peptide nucleic acids (γPNAs) for the rapid identification of bacterial and fungal pathogens directly from blood, without culturing. The PID platform provides species-level information in under 2.5 hours while reaching single-CFU-per-milliliter sensitivity across the entire 21-pathogen panel. The clinical utility of the PID platform was demonstrated through assessment of 61 clinical specimens, which showed >95% sensitivity and >90% overall correlation to blood culture findings. This rapid γPNA-based platform promises to improve patient care by enabling the administration of a targeted first-line antimicrobial intervention. PMID:27094328

  16. Integrated Control with Structural Feedback to Enable Lightweight Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation for the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Technical Conference covers the benefits of active structural control, related research areas, and focuses on the use of optimal control allocation for the prevention of critical loads. Active control of lightweight structures has the potential to reduce aircraft weight and fuel burn. Sensor, control law, materials, control effector, and system level research will be necessary to enable active control of lightweight structures. Optimal control allocation with structural feedback has been shown in simulation to be feasible in preventing critical loads and is one example of a control law to enable future lightweight aircraft.

  17. Surgical Materials: Current Challenges and Nano-enabled Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Annabi, Nasim; Tamayol, Ali; Shin, Su Ryon; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M.; Peppas, Nicholas A.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Surgical adhesive biomaterials have emerged as substitutes to sutures and staples in many clinical applications. Nano-enabled materials containing nanoparticles or having a distinct nanotopography have been utilized for generation of a new class of surgical materials with enhanced functionality. In this review, the state of the art in the development of conventional surgical adhesive biomaterials is critically reviewed and their shortcomings are outlined. Recent advancements in generation of nano-enabled surgical materials with their potential future applications are discussed. This review will open new avenues for the innovative development of the next generation of tissue adhesives, hemostats, and sealants with enhanced functionality for various surgical applications. PMID:25530795

  18. Fabric opto-electronics enabling healthcare applications; a case study.

    PubMed

    van Pieterson, L; van Abeelen, F A; van Os, K; Hornix, E; Zhou, G; Oversluizen, G

    2011-01-01

    Textiles are a ubiquitous part of human life. By combining them with electronics to create electronic textile systems, new application fields emerge. In this paper, technology and applications of light-emitting textile systems are presented, with emphasis on the healthcare domain: A fabric substrate is described for electronic textile with robust interwoven connections between the conductive yarns in it. This fabric enables the creation of different forms of comfortable light therapy systems. Specific challenges to enable this use in medical applications are discussed.

  19. A survey of enabling technologies in synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Realizing constructive applications of synthetic biology requires continued development of enabling technologies as well as policies and practices to ensure these technologies remain accessible for research. Broadly defined, enabling technologies for synthetic biology include any reagent or method that, alone or in combination with associated technologies, provides the means to generate any new research tool or application. Because applications of synthetic biology likely will embody multiple patented inventions, it will be important to create structures for managing intellectual property rights that best promote continued innovation. Monitoring the enabling technologies of synthetic biology will facilitate the systematic investigation of property rights coupled to these technologies and help shape policies and practices that impact the use, regulation, patenting, and licensing of these technologies. Results We conducted a survey among a self-identifying community of practitioners engaged in synthetic biology research to obtain their opinions and experiences with technologies that support the engineering of biological systems. Technologies widely used and considered enabling by survey participants included public and private registries of biological parts, standard methods for physical assembly of DNA constructs, genomic databases, software tools for search, alignment, analysis, and editing of DNA sequences, and commercial services for DNA synthesis and sequencing. Standards and methods supporting measurement, functional composition, and data exchange were less widely used though still considered enabling by a subset of survey participants. Conclusions The set of enabling technologies compiled from this survey provide insight into the many and varied technologies that support innovation in synthetic biology. Many of these technologies are widely accessible for use, either by virtue of being in the public domain or through legal tools such as non

  20. The Enabler: A concept for a lunar work vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brazell, James W.; Campbell, Craig; Kaser, Ken; Austin, James A.; Beard, Clark; Ceniza, Glenn; Hamby, Thomas; Robinson, Anne; Wooters, Dana

    1992-01-01

    The Enabler is an earthbound prototype designed to model an actual lunar work vehicle and is able to perform many of the tasks that might be expected of a lunar work vehicle. The vehicle will be constructed entirely from parts made by students and from standard stock parts. The design utilizes only four distinct chassis pieces and sixteen moving parts. The Enabler has non-orthogonal articulating joints that give the vehicle a wide range of mobility and reduce the total number of parts. Composite wheels provide the primary suspension system for the vehicle.

  1. An integrated approach to safety-driven and ICT-enabled process reengineering: methodological advice and a case study.

    PubMed

    Langer, M; Castellari, R; Locatelli, P; Sini, E; Torresani, M; Facchini, R; Moser, R

    2014-01-01

    Patient safety is a central concern inside any healthcare environment. With the progress of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), new solutions have become available to support care and management processes. Analyzing process risks helps identifying areas of improvement and provides ICT-solutions design with indications on what portions of the process need primary interventions. Understanding the link between process reengineering, technology assessment of enabling technologies and risk management allows user acceptance and patient safety improvements. Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori (INT), offers a good example of process reengineering driven by the purpose of increasing patient safety, enabled by new technologies. A pillar of the evolution of ICT process support at INT is based on Radio Frequency Identification technologies, implemented to identify and trace items and people across processes. This paper will present an integrated approach, based on process reengineering methodologies and risk assessment studies, and methodological advice applied to a case of surgical kits management procedures.

  2. An integrated approach to safety-driven and ICT-enabled process reengineering: methodological advice and a case study.

    PubMed

    Langer, M; Castellari, R; Locatelli, P; Sini, E; Torresani, M; Facchini, R; Moser, R

    2014-01-01

    Patient safety is a central concern inside any healthcare environment. With the progress of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), new solutions have become available to support care and management processes. Analyzing process risks helps identifying areas of improvement and provides ICT-solutions design with indications on what portions of the process need primary interventions. Understanding the link between process reengineering, technology assessment of enabling technologies and risk management allows user acceptance and patient safety improvements. Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori (INT), offers a good example of process reengineering driven by the purpose of increasing patient safety, enabled by new technologies. A pillar of the evolution of ICT process support at INT is based on Radio Frequency Identification technologies, implemented to identify and trace items and people across processes. This paper will present an integrated approach, based on process reengineering methodologies and risk assessment studies, and methodological advice applied to a case of surgical kits management procedures. PMID:24943545

  3. The interventionalism of medicine: interventional radiology, cardiology, and neuroradiology

    PubMed Central

    Lakhan, Shaheen E; Kaplan, Anna; Laird, Cyndi; Leiter, Yaacov

    2009-01-01

    Interventional medical practitioners are specialists who do minimally invasive procedures instead of surgery or other treatment. Most often, these procedures utilize various imaging and catheterization techniques in order to diagnose and treat vascular issues in the body. Interventionalist techniques, including injecting arteries with dye, visualizing these via x-ray, and opening up blockages, developed from early pioneers' bold and sometimes controversial experiments which aimed to find safer and better ways to treat coronary artery and other atherosclerotic vascular disease. Currently, the major interventional specialties are interventional (or vascular) radiology, interventional cardiology, and endovascular surgical (interventional) neuroradiology. All three are perfecting the use of stents and other procedures to keep diseased arteries open, while also evaluating the application these procedures. The rapid new development of imaging technologies, mechanical devices, and types of treatment, while certainly beneficial to the patient, can also lead to ambiguity regarding specific specialty claims on certain techniques and devices. While these practitioners can be in competition with each other, cooperation and communication are the most advantageous methods to deal with these "turf wars." All of the interventionalists are needed to deliver the best medical care to patients, now and in the future. PMID:19740425

  4. Barriers and Enablers to Evidence-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    The importance of educational practices based on evidence is well-supported in the literature, however barriers to their implementation in classrooms still exist. This paper examines the phenomenon of evidence-based practice in education highlighting enablers and barriers to their implementation with particular reference to RTLB practice.

  5. Enabling the BC Transfer System: A Discussion Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This discussion paper outlines processes, as well as opportunities and constraints, for "enabling" BC Transfer System institutions to enhance transfer credit information in the BC Transfer Guide, making it more reflective of institutional practices and student mobility. BCCAT's focus is increasing the availability of transfer credit information…

  6. An Enabling Pedagogy: Meditations on Writing and Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brueggemann, Brenda Jo

    2001-01-01

    Proposes that disability theory can complement existing work in gender, sexuality, race, class, and genre. Argues that disability enables insight. Discusses representations of disability in literature and films. Outlines the author's experience of teaching a number of composition classes focusing on disabilities. (PM)

  7. Anatomy Drawing Screencasts: Enabling Flexible Learning for Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, James D.

    2015-01-01

    The traditional lecture remains an essential method of disseminating information to medical students. However, due to the constant development of the modern medical curriculum many institutions are embracing novel means for delivering the core anatomy syllabus. Using mobile media devices is one such way, enabling students to access core material…

  8. Enabling Science and Technology Research Teams: A Breadmaking Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Deana

    2010-01-01

    Anyone who has been involved with a cross-disciplinary team that combines scientists and information technology specialists knows just how tough it can be to move these efforts forward. Decades of experience point to the transformative potential of technology-enabled science efforts, and the success stories offer hope for future efforts. But for…

  9. Biotechniques Laboratory: An Enabling Course in the Biological Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Trapani, Giovanna; Clarke, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Practical skills and competencies are critical to student engagement and effective learning in laboratory courses. This article describes the design of a yearlong, stand-alone laboratory course--the Biotechniques Laboratory--a common core course in the second year of all our degree programs in the biological sciences. It is an enabling,…

  10. Fraternity as "Enabling Environment:" Does Membership Lead to Gambling Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddix, J. Patrick; Hardy, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that fraternity membership is the most reliable predictor of gambling and gambling problems on campus. The purpose of this study was to determine if problematic gambling could be linked to specific aspects of fraternity membership. Though the null hypothesis (no enabling environment) failed to be rejected, descriptive…

  11. Thrice Disabling Disability: Enabling Inclusive, Socially Just Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, S. Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this inquiry was to create a social justice-oriented inclusive and enabling pedagogy by situating traditional individualised views of disability alongside three alternative understandings: a disability studies in education perspective, a First Nations view of disability and one based upon the autism pride/autism-as-culture movement.…

  12. The Xenopus ORFeome: A resource that enables functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Ian M.; Balcha, Dawit; Hao, Tong; Shen, Yun; Trivedi, Prasad; Patrushev, Ilya; Fortriede, Joshua D.; Karpinka, John B.; Liu, Limin; Zorn, Aaron M.; Stukenberg, P. Todd; Hill, David E.; Gilchrist, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Functional characterisation of proteins and large-scale, systems-level studies are enabled by extensive sets of cloned open reading frames (ORFs) in an easily-accessible format that enables many different applications. Here we report the release of the first stage of the Xenopus ORFeome, which contains 8673 ORFs from the Xenopus Gene Collection (XGC) for Xenopus laevis, cloned into a Gateway® donor vector enabling rapid in-frame transfer of the ORFs to expression vectors. This resource represents an estimated 7871 unique genes, approximately 40% of the non-redundant X. laevis gene complement, and includes 2724 genes where the human ortholog has an association with disease. Transfer into the Gateway system was validated by 5′ and 3′ end sequencing of the entire collection and protein expression of a set of test clones. In a parallel process, the underlying ORF predictions from the original XGC collection were re-analysed to verify quality and full-length status, identifying those proteins likely to exhibit truncations when translated. These data are integrated into Xenbase, the Xenopus community database, which associates genomic, expression, function and human disease model metadata to each ORF, enabling end-users to search for ORFeome clones with links to commercial distributors of the collection. When coupled with the experimental advantages of Xenopus eggs and embryos, the ORFeome collection represents a valuable resource for functional genomics and disease modelling. PMID:26391338

  13. Mission Possible: Enabling Good Work in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Gary A.; Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly; Nakamura, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Considers how institutions can define and refine their missions so that they enable productive work in times of change. Presents a systems model of what it takes to do good work in any context. Current studies are addressing the application of this model to excellent, ethical, and personally rewarding work in academia. (SLD)

  14. Biobanks and Electronic Medical Records: Enabling Cost-Effective Research

    PubMed Central

    Bowton, Erica; Field, Julie R.; Wang, Sunny; Schildcrout, Jonathan S.; Van Driest, Sara L.; Delaney, Jessica T.; Cowan, James; Weeke, Peter; Mosley, Jonathan D.; Wells, Quinn S.; Karnes, Jason H.; Shaffer, Christian; Peterson, Josh F.; Denny, Joshua C.; Roden, Dan M.; Pulley, Jill M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of electronic medical record data linked to biological specimens in health care settings is expected to enable cost-effective and rapid genomic analyses. Here, we present a model that highlights potential advantages for genomic discovery and describe the operational infrastructure that facilitated multiple simultaneous discovery efforts. PMID:24786321

  15. Integrated Children's Services: Enablers, Challenges and Impact. Research Briefing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Mark; Atkinson, Mary; Downing, Dick

    2008-01-01

    This summary provides background information about the enablers, challenges and impact of integration, based on a thorough literature review of thirty-five sources. The review findings are presented under thematic headings that reflect the: (1) extent of integration: the "stage" or depth of the collaborative activity in integrated services; (2)…

  16. Explorations of Psyche and Callisto Enabled by Ion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenkert, Daniel D.; Landau, Damon F.; Bills, Bruce G.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in ion propulsion (specifically solar electric propulsion - SEP) have the potential for dramatically reducing the transportation cost of planetary missions. We examine two representative cases, where these new developments enable missions which, until recently, would have required resouces well beyond those allocated to the Discovery program. The two cases of interest address differentiation of asteroids and large icy satellites

  17. QTIMaps: A Model to Enable Web Maps in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarrete, Toni; Santos, Patricia; Hernandez-Leo, Davinia; Blat, Josep

    2011-01-01

    Test-based e-Assessment approaches are mostly focused on the assessment of knowledge and not on that of other skills, which could be supported by multimedia interactive services. This paper presents the QTIMaps model, which combines the IMS QTI standard with web maps services enabling the computational assessment of geographical skills. We…

  18. Interactive BIM-Enabled Safety Training Piloted in Construction Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clevenger, Caroline; Lopez del Puerto, Carla; Glick, Scott

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents and assesses the development of a construction safety training module featuring interactive, BIM-enabled, 3D visualizations to test if such a tool can enhance safety training related to scaffolds. This research documents the technical challenges and the lessons learned through the development and administration of a prototype…

  19. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Alan J.; Adair, Brooke; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E.

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving. PMID:23304507

  20. Enablement, Constraint, and "The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlone, David

    2001-01-01

    Uses interviews to examine how the self-help book "The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People" shapes the identity of organization members who read and use the book. Suggests that such people are simultaneously enabled and constrained as they confront tensions between individualism and community, competition and cooperation, and domination and…

  1. Walk in Balance: Training Crisis Intervention Team Police Officers as Compassionate Warriors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chopko, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    Crisis Intervention Teams (CIT) were developed to enable law enforcement officers to effectively and compassionately respond to calls involving people experiencing psychiatric distress. Mental health professionals responsible for training CIT officers are in a unique position to promote the compassionate treatment of those experiencing psychiatric…

  2. Appropriately Targeting Group Interventions for Academic Success Adopting the Clinical Model and PAR Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Craig W.; Johnson, Ronald; Steigman, Michael; Odo, Chioma; Vijayan, Suvendra; Tata, Devadatta V.

    2016-01-01

    Prevalence of academic risk (PAR) group profiles provide data enabling empirically based group-specialized prescriptions for targeted academic success interventions to increase student retention, completion, and graduation rates, while improving allocation of institutional resources. Postsecondary student attrition engenders student debt,…

  3. Role of communication content and frequency in enabling evidence-based practices.

    PubMed

    Rangachari, Pavani; Madaio, Michael; Rethemeyer, R Karl; Wagner, Peggy; Hall, Lauren; Roy, Siddharth; Rissing, Peter

    2014-01-01

    costs savings from reduced CRBSIs in 1 year were estimated to be at least $840 000. Periodic QI interventions were effective in reframing interprofessional communication dynamics and enabling practice change. The prospective design provides insights into communication content and frequency associated with collective learning and culture change. The study identifies evidence-based management strategies for positive practice change at the unit level.

  4. Mechanical Design Engineering Enabler Project wheel and wheel drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nutt, Richard E.; Couch, Britt K.; Holley, John L., Jr.; Garris, Eric S.; Staut, Paul V.

    1992-01-01

    Our group was assigned the responsibility of designing the wheel and wheel drive system for a proof-of-concept model of the lunar-based ENABLER. ENABLER is a multi-purpose, six wheeled vehicle designed to lift and transport heavy objects associated with the construction of a lunar base. The resulting design was based on the performance criteria of the ENABLER. The drive system was designed to enable the vehicle to achieve a speed of 7 mph on a level surface, climb a 30 percent grade, and surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies were designed to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels were designed to serve as the main component of the vehicle's suspension and will provide suitable traction for lunar-type surfaces. The expected performance of the drive system for the ENABLER was influenced by many mechanical factors. The expected top speed on a level sandy surface is 4 mph instead of the desired 7 mph. This is due to a lack of necessary power at the wheels. The lack of power resulted from dimension considerations that allowed only an eight horsepower engine and also from mechanical inefficiencies of the hydraulic system. However, the vehicle will be able to climb a 30 percent grade, surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies will be able to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels will also provide adequate suspension for the vehicle and sufficient traction for lunar-type surfaces.

  5. Optimized design and analysis of preclinical intervention studies in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Laajala, Teemu D.; Jumppanen, Mikael; Huhtaniemi, Riikka; Fey, Vidal; Kaur, Amanpreet; Knuuttila, Matias; Aho, Eija; Oksala, Riikka; Westermarck, Jukka; Mäkelä, Sari; Poutanen, Matti; Aittokallio, Tero

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have called into question the reproducibility, validity and translatability of the preclinical animal studies due to limitations in their experimental design and statistical analysis. To this end, we implemented a matching-based modelling approach for optimal intervention group allocation, randomization and power calculations, which takes full account of the complex animal characteristics at baseline prior to interventions. In prostate cancer xenograft studies, the method effectively normalized the confounding baseline variability, and resulted in animal allocations which were supported by RNA-seq profiling of the individual tumours. The matching information increased the statistical power to detect true treatment effects at smaller sample sizes in two castration-resistant prostate cancer models, thereby leading to saving of both animal lives and research costs. The novel modelling approach and its open-source and web-based software implementations enable the researchers to conduct adequately-powered and fully-blinded preclinical intervention studies, with the aim to accelerate the discovery of new therapeutic interventions. PMID:27480578

  6. Optimized design and analysis of preclinical intervention studies in vivo.

    PubMed

    Laajala, Teemu D; Jumppanen, Mikael; Huhtaniemi, Riikka; Fey, Vidal; Kaur, Amanpreet; Knuuttila, Matias; Aho, Eija; Oksala, Riikka; Westermarck, Jukka; Mäkelä, Sari; Poutanen, Matti; Aittokallio, Tero

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have called into question the reproducibility, validity and translatability of the preclinical animal studies due to limitations in their experimental design and statistical analysis. To this end, we implemented a matching-based modelling approach for optimal intervention group allocation, randomization and power calculations, which takes full account of the complex animal characteristics at baseline prior to interventions. In prostate cancer xenograft studies, the method effectively normalized the confounding baseline variability, and resulted in animal allocations which were supported by RNA-seq profiling of the individual tumours. The matching information increased the statistical power to detect true treatment effects at smaller sample sizes in two castration-resistant prostate cancer models, thereby leading to saving of both animal lives and research costs. The novel modelling approach and its open-source and web-based software implementations enable the researchers to conduct adequately-powered and fully-blinded preclinical intervention studies, with the aim to accelerate the discovery of new therapeutic interventions. PMID:27480578

  7. Spatial Analysis in Support of Community Health Intervention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Eric S.; South, Andrew P.; Jones, David E.; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Huo, Shuyan; Liu, Lin; Greenberg, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Using vital records and census data representing 165,136 singleton births from 2003–2006, geospatial filtering and density estimates enabled the calculation of preterm birth rates at each geographical point within three urban Ohio counties. Adjusted attributable risk calculations were used to identify risk factors associated with regions of high and low rates of preterm birth. Among the three counties, affected populations varied in size as well as in demographic composition. Variation in the risk factors from one region to another suggests that a single one size fits all intervention strategy would be unlikely to efficiently or effectively impact the complex preterm birth problem. Although more useful in areas with a heterogeneous distribution of preterm birth, application of the presented approach supports the development of efficient community-level health intervention strategies by identifying communities with the highest potential impact and allowing for the prioritization of efforts on specific risk factors within those communities. PMID:23304301

  8. Interventions to Promote an Integrated Approach to Public Health Problems: An Application to Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Gubbels, Jessica S.; De Vries, Nanne K.; Seidell, Jaap C.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Jansen, Maria W. J.

    2012-01-01

    Experts stress the need to bring the childhood obesity epidemic under control by means of an integrated approach. The implementation of such an approach requires the development of integrated enabling policies on public health by local governments. A prerequisite for developing such integrated public health policies is intersectoral collaboration. Since the development of integrated policies is still in its early stages, this study aimed to answer the following research question: “What interventions can promote intersectoral collaboration and the development of integrated health policies for the prevention of childhood obesity?” Data were collected through a literature search and observations of and interviews with stakeholders. Based on a theoretical framework, we categorized potential interventions that could optimize an integrated approach regarding children's physical activity and diet. The intervention categories included education, persuasion, incentivization, coercion, training, restriction, environmental restructuring, modeling, and enablement. PMID:22792120

  9. Operational Interventions to Maintenance Error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Walter, Diane; Dulchinos, VIcki

    1997-01-01

    A significant proportion of aviation accidents and incidents are known to be tied to human error. However, research of flight operational errors has shown that so-called pilot error often involves a variety of human factors issues and not a simple lack of individual technical skills. In aircraft maintenance operations, there is similar concern that maintenance errors which may lead to incidents and accidents are related to a large variety of human factors issues. Although maintenance error data and research are limited, industry initiatives involving human factors training in maintenance have become increasingly accepted as one type of maintenance error intervention. Conscientious efforts have been made in re-inventing the team7 concept for maintenance operations and in tailoring programs to fit the needs of technical opeRAtions. Nevertheless, there remains a dual challenge: 1) to develop human factors interventions which are directly supported by reliable human error data, and 2) to integrate human factors concepts into the procedures and practices of everyday technical tasks. In this paper, we describe several varieties of human factors interventions and focus on two specific alternatives which target problems related to procedures and practices; namely, 1) structured on-the-job training and 2) procedure re-design. We hope to demonstrate that the key to leveraging the impact of these solutions comes from focused interventions; that is, interventions which are derived from a clear understanding of specific maintenance errors, their operational context and human factors components.

  10. Pre-school intervention programmes.

    PubMed

    Reader, L

    1984-01-01

    This paper re-examines the rationale for pre-school intervention programmes and the results from a variety of programmes are reviewed. The distinction is drawn between programmes for the socially disadvantaged and for the handicapped. The importance of parental involvement in such programmes is discussed, both with regard to advantages for the child and for the family. The wide variety of pre-school programmes that are possible are examined with consideration given to the population served, the geographical area, the theoretical basis and delivery systems. Considerable attention is paid to the difficulty of evaluating any pre-school intervention programme. With these points in mind, home visiting, a popular form of pre-school intervention with practitioners, is examined and advantages and disadvantages of this form of intervention are enumerated. The paper ends with a cautionary note, and attention paid to authors who feel that early intervention can have dangers. The conclusion drawn is that better documentation of the work going on in the field is the only way to overcome gaps in our knowledge and to individualize services to parents and to children. PMID:6236911

  11. Interventional strategies in early atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gattone, Marinella; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo

    2006-03-01

    Atherosclerosis remains clinically mute for a long time and frequently manifests itself with an acute cardiovascular event; therefore, the possibility to detect the disease in a subclinical phase and to reduce or reverse its progression is an issue of relevance. Non-invasive diagnostic procedures such as B-mode ultrasonography of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) allow to identify atherosclerotic disease in its early phases, to evaluate the disease progression and monitor the effects of interventions. In recent years, several therapeutic strategies have been adopted over time to slow early atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals at intermediate/high cardiovascular risk. Prospective trials employing multifactorial non-pharmacological interventions (diet, exercise, smoking cessation) have demonstrated a favorable effect on progression of atherosclerosis. Hence lifestyle modification may be an effective therapeutic strategy to be adopted as a first step and a highly cost-effective intervention in a preclinical setting involving a large number of individuals. Drugs should be considered as a second step or should be associated to further reduce the risk in individuals at high probability of future events, who require more intensive interventions. Reducing low-density lipoprotein levels, blood pressure and platelet aggregation seems to be the most effective intervention in these subjects, whereas the treatment of emerging coronary risk factors, e.g. oxidative stress, inflammatory activation and infections has not produced the expected protective effect. PMID:17125046

  12. Analysis of crisis intervention processes.

    PubMed

    Tschacher, Wolfgang; Jacobshagen, Nina

    2002-01-01

    The remediation processes in psychosocial crisis intervention were modeled focusing on cognitive orientation. Frequent observations and subsequent process modeling constitute a novel approach to process research and reveal process-outcome associations. A sample of 40 inpatients who were assigned to treatment in a crisis intervention unit was monitored in order to study the process of crisis intervention. The process data consisted of patients' self-ratings of the variables mood, tension, and cognitive orientation, which were assessed three times a day throughout hospitalization (M = 22.6 days). Linear time series models (vector autoregression) of the process data were computed to describe the prototypical dynamic patterns of the sample. Additionally, the outcome of crisis intervention was evaluated by pre-post questionnaires. Linear trends were found pointing to an improvement of mood, a reduction of tension, and an increase of outward cognitive orientation. Time series modeling showed that, on average, outward cognitive orientation preceded improved mood. The time series models partially predicted the treatment effect, notably the outcome domain "reduction of social anxiety," yet did not predict the domain of symptom reduction. In conclusion, crisis intervention should focus on having patients increasingly engage in outward cognitive orientation in order to stabilize mood, reduce anxiety, and activate their resources.

  13. A Theory Led Narrative Review of One-to-One Health Interventions: The Influence of Attachment Style and Client-Provider Relationship on Client Adherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanjappa, S.; Chambers, S.; Marcenes, W.; Richards, D.; Freeman, R.

    2014-01-01

    A theory-led narrative approach was used to unpack the complexities of the factors that enable successful client adherence following one-to-one health interventions. Understanding this could prepare the provider to anticipate different adherence behaviours by clients, allowing them to tailor their interventions to increase the likelihood of…

  14. Four: Forms of Governmental Intervention and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressel, Paul L., Ed.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The various and developing forms of governmental intervention and control affecting universities are discussed. State intervention and control, program audits and evaluations, and federal intervention are described. The cost of interventions into institutional autonomy and the negative effect on quality are seen as increasing. (MLW)

  15. 24 CFR 901.210 - Interventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interventions. 901.210 Section 901... PUBLIC HOUSING MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT PROGRAM § 901.210 Interventions. (a) Interventions under this part... development or a group of developments. Under this limited intervention procedure, the Department could...

  16. 24 CFR 902.83 - Interventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interventions. 902.83 Section 902... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Incentives and Remedies § 902.83 Interventions. (a) Interventions... management) or to a single development or a group of developments. Under this limited intervention...

  17. Mathematical models and lymphatic filariasis control: monitoring and evaluating interventions.

    PubMed

    Michael, Edwin; Malecela-Lazaro, Mwele N; Maegga, Bertha T A; Fischer, Peter; Kazura, James W

    2006-11-01

    Monitoring and evaluation are crucially important to the scientific management of any mass parasite control programme. Monitoring enables the effectiveness of implemented actions to be assessed and necessary adaptations to be identified; it also determines when management objectives are achieved. Parasite transmission models can provide a scientific template for informing the optimal design of such monitoring programmes. Here, we illustrate the usefulness of using a model-based approach for monitoring and evaluating anti-parasite interventions and discuss issues that need addressing. We focus on the use of such an approach for the control and/or elimination of the vector-borne parasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis. PMID:16971182

  18. GPU-accelerated interactive visualization and planning of neurosurgical interventions.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Nigro, Mario; Navkar, Nikhil V; Tsekos, Nikolaos V; Zhigang Deng

    2014-01-01

    Advances in computational methods and hardware platforms provide efficient processing of medical-imaging datasets for surgical planning. For neurosurgical interventions employing a straight access path, planning entails selecting a path from the scalp to the target area that's of minimal risk to the patient. A proposed GPU-accelerated method enables interactive quantitative estimation of the risk for a particular path. It exploits acceleration spatial data structures and efficient implementation of algorithms on GPUs. In evaluations of its computational efficiency and scalability, it achieved interactive rates even for high-resolution meshes. A user study and feedback from neurosurgeons identified this methods' potential benefits for preoperative planning and intraoperative replanning. PMID:24808165

  19. Predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with high service use in a public mental health system.

    PubMed

    Lindamer, Laurie A; Liu, Lin; Sommerfeld, David H; Folsom, David P; Hawthorne, William; Garcia, Piedad; Aarons, Gregory A; Jeste, Dilip V

    2012-05-01

    increased the likelihood of being categorized as a HU. Characteristics with the strongest association with heavy use of a public mental health system were enabling and need factors. Therefore, optimal use of public mental services may be achieved by developing and implementing interventions that address the issues of homelessness, insurance coverage, and substance use. This may be best achieved by the integration of mental health, intensive case management, and supportive housing, as well as other social services.

  20. Predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with high service use in a public mental health system.

    PubMed

    Lindamer, Laurie A; Liu, Lin; Sommerfeld, David H; Folsom, David P; Hawthorne, William; Garcia, Piedad; Aarons, Gregory A; Jeste, Dilip V

    2012-05-01

    increased the likelihood of being categorized as a HU. Characteristics with the strongest association with heavy use of a public mental health system were enabling and need factors. Therefore, optimal use of public mental services may be achieved by developing and implementing interventions that address the issues of homelessness, insurance coverage, and substance use. This may be best achieved by the integration of mental health, intensive case management, and supportive housing, as well as other social services. PMID:21533848

  1. Drivers for OSH interventions in small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Cagno, Enrico; Masi, Donato; Leão, Celina Pinto

    2016-01-01

    The debate concerning occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions has recently focused on the need of improving the evaluation of interventions, and in particular on the need for providing information about why the intervention worked or not, under what circumstances and in which context. Key concepts in the analysis of the context are the drivers, i.e., those factors enabling, fostering or facilitating OSH interventions. However, the concept of driver for an OSH intervention is both confused and contested. Although the term is widely used, there is little consensus on how drivers should be understood, how important they are in different contexts and how they can facilitate interventions. This exploratory study based on interviews with the owner-managers and the safety officers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) gives an overview of the most characteristic drivers for OSH interventions. The results will be used to make an initial evaluation of SMEs' needs, and will help orient interventions and future research.

  2. Developing, implementing and evaluating OSH interventions in SMEs: a pilot, exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Masi, Donato; Cagno, Enrico; Micheli, Guido J L

    2014-01-01

    The literature on occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions contains many debates on how interventions should work, but far less attention has been paid to how they actually do work, and to the contextual factors that influence their implementation, development and effect. The need of improving the understanding of the OSH interventions issue is particularly relevant for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), since they experience worse OSH conditions, and have fewer physical, economic and organizational resources if compared to larger enterprises; thus, SMEs strongly need to focus their few resources in the decision-making process so as to select and put in place only the most proper interventions. This exploratory study is based on interviews with safety officers of 5 SMEs, and it gives an overview of the key features of the actual intervention process in SMEs and of the contextual factors making this actual intervention process similar or dissimilar to the ideal case. The results show how much qualitative and experience driven the actual intervention process is; they should be used to direct the future research towards an increasingly applicable one, to enable practitioners from SMEs to develop, implement and evaluate their OSH interventions in an "ideal" way.

  3. Developing a complex intervention to reduce time to presentation with symptoms of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sarah M; Murchie, Peter; Devereux, Graham; Johnston, Marie; Lee, Amanda J; Macleod, Una; Nicolson, Marianne C; Powell, Rachael; Ritchie, Lewis D; Wyke, Sally; Campbell, Neil C

    2012-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is the commonest cause of cancer in Scotland and is usually advanced at diagnosis. Median time between symptom onset and consultation is 14 weeks, so an intervention to prompt earlier presentation could support earlier diagnosis and enable curative treatment in more cases. Aim To develop and optimise an intervention to reduce the time between onset and first consultation with symptoms that might indicate lung cancer. Design and setting Iterative development of complex healthcare intervention according to the MRC Framework conducted in Northeast Scotland. Method The study produced a complex intervention to promote early presentation of lung cancer symptoms. An expert multidisciplinary group developed the first draft of the intervention based on theory and existing evidence. This was refined following focus groups with health professionals and high-risk patients. Results First draft intervention components included: information communicated persuasively, demonstrations of early consultation and its benefits, behaviour change techniques, and involvement of spouses/partners. Focus groups identified patient engagement, achieving behavioural change, and conflict at the patient–general practice interface as challenges and measures were incorporated to tackle these. Final intervention delivery included a detailed self-help manual and extended consultation with a trained research nurse at which specific action plans were devised. Conclusion The study has developed an intervention that appeals to patients and health professionals and has theoretical potential for benefit. Now it requires evaluation. PMID:22947581

  4. Mobile eHealth Interventions for Obesity: A Timely Opportunity to Leverage Convergence Trends

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Obesity is often cited as the most prevalent chronic health condition and highest priority public health problem in the United States. There is a limited but growing body of evidence suggesting that mobile eHealth behavioral interventions, if properly designed, may be effective in promoting and sustaining successful weight loss and weight maintenance behavior changes. This paper reviews the current literature on the successes and failures of public health, provider-administered, and self-managed behavioral health interventions for weight loss. The prevailing theories of health behavior change are discussed from the perspective of how this knowledge can serve as an evidence base to inform the design of mobile eHealth weight loss interventions. Tailored informational interventions, which, in recent years, have proven to be the most effective form of conventional health behavior intervention for weight loss, are discussed. Lessons learned from the success of conventional tailored informational interventions and the early successes of desktop computer–assisted self-help weight management interventions are presented, as are design principles suggested by Social Cognitive Theory and the Social Marketing Model. Relevant computing and communications technology convergence trends are also discussed. The recent trends in rapid advancement, convergence, and public adoption of Web-enabled cellular telephone and wireless personal digital assistant (PDA) devices provide timely opportunities to deliver the mass customization capabilities, reach, and interactivity required for the development, administration, and adoption of effective population-level eHealth tailored informational interventions for obesity. PMID:16403722

  5. Mobile eHealth interventions for obesity: a timely opportunity to leverage convergence trends.

    PubMed

    Tufano, James T; Karras, Bryant T

    2005-01-01

    Obesity is often cited as the most prevalent chronic health condition and highest priority public health problem in the United States. There is a limited but growing body of evidence suggesting that mobile eHealth behavioral interventions, if properly designed, may be effective in promoting and sustaining successful weight loss and weight maintenance behavior changes. This paper reviews the current literature on the successes and failures of public health, provider-administered, and self-managed behavioral health interventions for weight loss. The prevailing theories of health behavior change are discussed from the perspective of how this knowledge can serve as an evidence base to inform the design of mobile eHealth weight loss interventions. Tailored informational interventions, which, in recent years, have proven to be the most effective form of conventional health behavior intervention for weight loss, are discussed. Lessons learned from the success of conventional tailored informational interventions and the early successes of desktop computer-assisted self-help weight management interventions are presented, as are design principles suggested by Social Cognitive Theory and the Social Marketing Model. Relevant computing and communications technology convergence trends are also discussed. The recent trends in rapid advancement, convergence, and public adoption of Web-enabled cellular telephone and wireless personal digital assistant (PDA) devices provide timely opportunities to deliver the mass customization capabilities, reach, and interactivity required for the development, administration, and adoption of effective population-level eHealth tailored informational interventions for obesity. PMID:16403722

  6. Drivers for OSH interventions in small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Cagno, Enrico; Masi, Donato; Leão, Celina Pinto

    2016-01-01

    The debate concerning occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions has recently focused on the need of improving the evaluation of interventions, and in particular on the need for providing information about why the intervention worked or not, under what circumstances and in which context. Key concepts in the analysis of the context are the drivers, i.e., those factors enabling, fostering or facilitating OSH interventions. However, the concept of driver for an OSH intervention is both confused and contested. Although the term is widely used, there is little consensus on how drivers should be understood, how important they are in different contexts and how they can facilitate interventions. This exploratory study based on interviews with the owner-managers and the safety officers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) gives an overview of the most characteristic drivers for OSH interventions. The results will be used to make an initial evaluation of SMEs' needs, and will help orient interventions and future research. PMID:26654679

  7. Developing, implementing and evaluating OSH interventions in SMEs: a pilot, exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Masi, Donato; Cagno, Enrico; Micheli, Guido J L

    2014-01-01

    The literature on occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions contains many debates on how interventions should work, but far less attention has been paid to how they actually do work, and to the contextual factors that influence their implementation, development and effect. The need of improving the understanding of the OSH interventions issue is particularly relevant for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), since they experience worse OSH conditions, and have fewer physical, economic and organizational resources if compared to larger enterprises; thus, SMEs strongly need to focus their few resources in the decision-making process so as to select and put in place only the most proper interventions. This exploratory study is based on interviews with safety officers of 5 SMEs, and it gives an overview of the key features of the actual intervention process in SMEs and of the contextual factors making this actual intervention process similar or dissimilar to the ideal case. The results show how much qualitative and experience driven the actual intervention process is; they should be used to direct the future research towards an increasingly applicable one, to enable practitioners from SMEs to develop, implement and evaluate their OSH interventions in an "ideal" way. PMID:25189744

  8. 2014 update on interventional cardiology.

    PubMed

    Hernández Hernández, Felipe; de la Torre Hernández, José M; Rumoroso Cuevas, José R; García del Blanco, Bruno; Martínez-Sellés, Manuel; Trillo Nouche, Ramiro

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews the most relevant publications and studies in the field of interventional cardiology in 2014. In the area of coronary interventional procedures, integrated treatment of acute coronary syndrome continues to be the subject of numerous studies that evaluate different devices and pharmacological and mechanical strategies that can be used without increasing the risk of hemorrhage or the need for reintervention. Certain anatomical substrates continue to generate a considerable number of publications, both on the outcomes with different stents and on the use of specific techniques. Bioabsorbable drug-eluting stents are used in increasingly complex lesions with promising results. The development of interventional procedures for structural heart disease continues to advance, with new evidence on percutaneously placed aortic valve prostheses, the outcome of percutaneous mitral valve repair, and the safety and efficacy of left atrial appendage occlusion. Finally, renal denervation has generated one of the major debates of the year. PMID:25749393

  9. [Radiation protection in interventional radiology].

    PubMed

    Adamus, R; Loose, R; Wucherer, M; Uder, M; Galster, M

    2016-03-01

    The application of ionizing radiation in medicine seems to be a safe procedure for patients as well as for occupational exposition to personnel. The developments in interventional radiology with fluoroscopy and dose-intensive interventions require intensified radiation protection. It is recommended that all available tools should be used for this purpose. Besides the options for instruments, x‑ray protection at the intervention table must be intensively practiced with lead aprons and mounted lead glass. A special focus on eye protection to prevent cataracts is also recommended. The development of cataracts might no longer be deterministic, as confirmed by new data; therefore, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has lowered the threshold dose value for eyes from 150 mSv/year to 20 mSv/year. Measurements show that the new values can be achieved by applying all X‑ray protection measures plus lead-containing eyeglasses.

  10. Maturation of the MOUTh Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski-Jaudon, Rita A.; Kolanowski, Ann M.; Winstead, Vicki; Jones-Townsend, Corteza; Azuero, Andres

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current article is to describe a personalized practice originally conceived as a way to prevent and minimize care-resistant behavior to provide mouth care to older adult with dementia. The original intervention, Managing Oral Hygiene Using Threat Reduction Strategies (MOUTh), matured during the clinical trial study into a relationship-centered intervention with emphasis on developing strategies that support residents behavioral health and staff involved in care. Relationships that were initially pragmatic (i.e., focused on the task of completing mouth care) developed into more personal and responsive relationships that involved deeper engagement between mouth care providers and nursing home (NH) residents. Mouth care was accomplished and completed in a manner enjoyable to NH residents and mouth care providers. The MOUTh intervention may also concurrently affirm the dignity and personhood of the care recipient because of its emphasis on connecting with older adults. PMID:26934969

  11. 2014 update on interventional cardiology.

    PubMed

    Hernández Hernández, Felipe; de la Torre Hernández, José M; Rumoroso Cuevas, José R; García del Blanco, Bruno; Martínez-Sellés, Manuel; Trillo Nouche, Ramiro

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews the most relevant publications and studies in the field of interventional cardiology in 2014. In the area of coronary interventional procedures, integrated treatment of acute coronary syndrome continues to be the subject of numerous studies that evaluate different devices and pharmacological and mechanical strategies that can be used without increasing the risk of hemorrhage or the need for reintervention. Certain anatomical substrates continue to generate a considerable number of publications, both on the outcomes with different stents and on the use of specific techniques. Bioabsorbable drug-eluting stents are used in increasingly complex lesions with promising results. The development of interventional procedures for structural heart disease continues to advance, with new evidence on percutaneously placed aortic valve prostheses, the outcome of percutaneous mitral valve repair, and the safety and efficacy of left atrial appendage occlusion. Finally, renal denervation has generated one of the major debates of the year.

  12. Interventional procedures in the chest.

    PubMed

    Vollmer Torrubiano, I; Sánchez González, M

    2016-05-01

    Many thoracic conditions will require an interventional procedure for diagnosis and/or treatment. For this reason, radiologists need to know the indications and the technique for each procedure. In this article, we review the various interventional procedures that radiologists should know and the indications for each procedure. We place special emphasis on the potential differences in the diagnostic results and complications between fine-needle aspiration and biopsy. We also discuss the indications for radiofrequency ablation of lung tumors and review the concepts related to the drainage of pulmonary abscesses. We devote special attention to the management of pleural effusion, covering the indications for thoracocentesis and when to use imaging guidance, and to the protocol for pleural drainage. We also discuss the indications for percutaneous treatment of pericardial effusion and the possible complications of this treatment. Finally, we discuss the interventional management of mediastinal lesions and provide practical advice about how to approach these lesions to avoid serious complications.

  13. [Digestive interventional endoscopy in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Bautista Casasnovas, A; Villanueva Jeremías, A; Estévez Martínez, E; Méndez Gallart, R; Taboada Santomil, P; Varela Cives, R

    2006-10-01

    With development and improvement of the endoscope equipment, the paediatric endoscopy is developing from the diagnosis endoscopy to the interventional endoscopy. It is realized under general anaesthesia as a minimal invasive surgery and it is necessary to regularize the legal requirements. The main acts are realized in a current way in paediatrics endoscopy units: extraction of foreign body, dilation of oesophageal strictures, gastrostomy, polipectomy. Other indications are less frequent: injection sclerotherapy, haemostasis of upper GI bleeding or endoscopic achalasia treatment. The biliary and/or pancreatic lesions is rare in children, in these cases, interventional endoscopy is usually done with the collaboration of the adult endoscopists, with a far experience. Interventional endoscopy is a safe and effective technique that can be performed in all the pediatrics endoscopy units.

  14. Interventions to Reduce Sedentary Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Manini, Todd M.; Carr, Lucas J.; King, Abby C.; Marshall, Simon; Robinson, Thomas N.; Rejeski, W. Jack

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This paper reports on presentations and discussion from the working group on “Influences on Sedentary Behavior & Interventions” as part of the Sedentary Behavior: Identifying Research Priorities Workshop. Methods Interventions were discussed in the context of targeting sedentary behavior (SB) as a concept distinct from physical activity (PA). It was recommended that interventions targeting SB should consider a life course perspective, a position predicated on the assumption that SB is age and life stage dependent. Additionally, targeting environments where individuals have high exposure to SB— such as workplace sitting— could benefit from new technology (e.g., computer-based prompting to stand or move), environmental changes (e.g., active workstations), policies targeting reduced sedentary time (e.g., allowing employees regular desk breaks), or by changing norms surrounding prolonged sitting (e.g., standing meetings). Results & Conclusions There are limited data about the minimal amount of SB change required to produce meaningful health benefits. In addition to developing relevant scientific and public health definitions of SB, it is important to further delineate the scope of health and quality of life outcomes associated with reduced SB across the life course, and clarify what behavioral alternatives to SB can be used to optimize health gains. SB interventions will benefit from having more clarity about the potential physiological and behavioral synergies with current PA recommendations, developing multi-level interventions aimed at reducing SB across all life phases and contexts, harnessing relevant and effective strategies to extend the reach of interventions to all sectors of society, as well as applying state-of-the-science adaptive designs and methods to accelerate advances in the science of sedentary behavior interventions. PMID:25222818

  15. Using high-performance networks to enable computational aerosciences applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1992-01-01

    One component of the U.S. Federal High Performance Computing and Communications Program (HPCCP) is the establishment of a gigabit network to provide a communications infrastructure for researchers across the nation. This gigabit network will provide new services and capabilities, in addition to increased bandwidth, to enable future applications. An understanding of these applications is necessary to guide the development of the gigabit network and other high-performance networks of the future. In this paper we focus on computational aerosciences applications run remotely using the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) facility located at NASA Ames Research Center. We characterize these applications in terms of network-related parameters and relate user experiences that reveal limitations imposed by the current wide-area networking infrastructure. Then we investigate how the development of a nationwide gigabit network would enable users of the NAS facility to work in new, more productive ways.

  16. SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, Kenneth I.

    2014-09-14

    This project focuses on leveraging scientific visualization and analytics software technology as an enabling technology for increasing scientific productivity and insight. Advances in computational technology have resulted in an "information big bang," which in turn has created a significant data understanding challenge. This challenge is widely acknowledged to be one of the primary bottlenecks in contemporary science. The vision for our Center is to respond directly to that challenge by adapting, extending, creating when necessary and deploying visualization and data understanding technologies for our science stakeholders. Using an organizational model as a Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET), we are well positioned to be responsive to the needs of a diverse set of scientific stakeholders in a coordinated fashion using a range of visualization, mathematics, statistics, computer and computational science and data management technologies.

  17. Discussion of the enabling environments for decentralised water systems.

    PubMed

    Moglia, M; Alexander, K S; Sharma, A

    2011-01-01

    Decentralised water supply systems are becoming increasingly affordable and commonplace in Australia and have the potential to alleviate urban water shortages and reduce pollution into natural receiving marine and freshwater streams. Learning processes are necessary to support the efficient implementation of decentralised systems. These processes reveal the complex socio-technical and institutional factors to be considered when developing an enabling environment supporting decentralised water and wastewater servicing solutions. Critical to the technological transition towards established decentralised systems is the ability to create strategic and adaptive capacity to promote learning and dialogue. Learning processes require institutional mechanisms to ensure the lessons are incorporated into the formulation of policy and regulation, through constructive involvement of key government institutions. Engagement of stakeholders is essential to the enabling environment. Collaborative learning environments using systems analysis with communities (social learning) and adaptive management techniques are useful in refining and applying scientists' and managers' knowledge (knowledge management). PMID:21977657

  18. Federated and Cloud Enabled Resources for Data Management and Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, R.; Gordon, M.; Potter, R. G.; Satchwill, B.

    2011-12-01

    The emergence of cloud computing over the past three years has led to a paradigm shift in how data can be managed, processed and made accessible. Building on the federated data management system offered through the Canadian Space Science Data Portal (www.cssdp.ca), we demonstrate how heterogeneous and geographically distributed data sets and modeling tools have been integrated to form a virtual data center and computational modeling platform that has services for data processing and visualization embedded within it. We also discuss positive and negative experiences in utilizing Eucalyptus and OpenStack cloud applications, and job scheduling facilitated by Condor and Star Cluster. We summarize our findings by demonstrating use of these technologies in the Cloud Enabled Space Weather Data Assimilation and Modeling Platform CESWP (www.ceswp.ca), which is funded through Canarie's (canarie.ca) Network Enabled Platforms program in Canada.

  19. NASA Space Launch System: An Enabling Capability for Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    SLS provides capability for human exploration missions. 70 t configuration enables EM-1 and EM-2 flight tests. Evolved configurations enable missions including humans to Mars. u? SLS offers unrivaled benefits for a variety of missions. 70 t provides greater mass lift than any contemporary launch vehicle; 130 t offers greater lift than any launch vehicle ever. With 8.4m and 10m fairings, SLS will over greater volume lift capability than any other vehicle. center dot Initial ICPS configuration and future evolution will offer high C3 for beyond- Earth missions. SLS is currently on schedule for first launch in December 2017. Preliminary design completed in July 2013; SLS is now in implementation. Manufacture and testing are currently underway. Hardware now exists representing all SLS elements.

  20. Polysulfide flow batteries enabled by percolating nanoscale conductor networks.

    PubMed

    Fan, Frank Y; Woodford, William H; Li, Zheng; Baram, Nir; Smith, Kyle C; Helal, Ahmed; McKinley, Gareth H; Carter, W Craig; Chiang, Yet-Ming

    2014-01-01

    A new approach to flow battery design is demonstrated wherein diffusion-limited aggregation of nanoscale conductor particles at ∼1 vol % concentration is used to impart mixed electronic-ionic conductivity to redox solutions, forming flow electrodes with embedded current collector networks that self-heal after shear. Lithium polysulfide flow cathodes of this architecture exhibit electrochemical activity that is distributed throughout the volume of flow electrodes rather than being confined to surfaces of stationary current collectors. The nanoscale network architecture enables cycling of polysulfide solutions deep into precipitation regimes that historically have shown poor capacity utilization and reversibility and may thereby enable new flow battery designs of higher energy density and lower system cost. Lithium polysulfide half-flow cells operating in both continuous and intermittent flow mode are demonstrated for the first time. PMID:24597525

  1. Middleware for Data Visualization in VO-enabled Data Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotukhin, I.; Chilingarian, I.

    2008-08-01

    We present middleware for visualization and exploration of complex datasets in a VO framework, that performs interaction between data archives and existing VO client applications using PLASTIC. It comprises: (1) PLASTIC-enabled Java control applet, integrated into archive web-pages and interacting with VO applications; (2) cross-browser compatible JavaScript part managing PLASTIC-aware VO Clients (launch, data manipulation) by means of Java LiveConnect. This (or similar) solution is an essential for the new generation VO-enabled data archives providing access to complex observational and theoretical datasets (3D-spectroscopy, N-body simulations, etc.) through web-interface. Thanks to PLASTIC capabilities it is possible to start all necessary client software with a single-click in the archive query result page in a web-browser. This simplifies the scientific usage of the VO resources and makes it easy even for users with no experience in the VO technologies.

  2. A Revolution in Plant Metabolism: Genome-Enabled Pathway Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongwoon; Buell, C. Robin

    2015-01-01

    Genome-enabled discoveries are the hallmark of 21st century biology, including major discoveries in the biosynthesis and regulation of plant metabolic pathways. Access to next generation sequencing technologies has enabled research on the biosynthesis of diverse plant metabolites, especially secondary metabolites, resulting in a broader understanding of not only the structural and regulatory genes involved in metabolite biosynthesis but also in the evolution of chemical diversity in the plant kingdom. Several paradigms that govern secondary metabolism have emerged, including that (1) gene family expansion and diversification contribute to the chemical diversity found in the plant kingdom, (2) genes encoding biochemical pathway components are frequently transcriptionally coregulated, and (3) physical clustering of nonhomologous genes that encode components of secondary metabolic pathways can occur. With an increasing knowledge base that is coupled with user-friendly and inexpensive technologies, biochemists are poised to accelerate the annotation of biochemical pathways relevant to human health, agriculture, and the environment. PMID:26224805

  3. A simple physical mechanism enables homeostasis in primitive cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhart, Aaron E.; Adamala, Katarzyna P.; Szostak, Jack W.

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of homeostatic mechanisms that enable maintenance of an intracellular steady state during growth was critical to the advent of cellular life. Here, we show that concentration-dependent reversible binding of short oligonucleotides, of both specific and random sequence, can modulate ribozyme activity. In both cases, catalysis is inhibited at high concentrations, and dilution activates the ribozyme via inhibitor dissociation, thus maintaining near-constant ribozyme specific activity throughout protocell growth. To mimic the result of RNA synthesis within non-growing protocells, we co-encapsulated high concentrations of ribozyme and oligonucleotides within fatty acid vesicles, and ribozyme activity was inhibited. Following vesicle growth, the resulting internal dilution produced ribozyme activation. This simple physical system enables a primitive homeostatic behaviour: the maintenance of constant ribozyme activity per unit volume during protocell volume changes. We suggest that such systems, wherein short oligonucleotides reversibly inhibit functional RNAs, could have preceded sophisticated modern RNA regulatory mechanisms, such as those involving miRNAs.

  4. Global tree network for computing structures enabling global processing operations

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich; Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2010-01-19

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global tree network communications among processing nodes interconnected according to a tree network structure. The global tree network enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices are included that interconnect the nodes of the tree via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual tree and sub-tree structures. The global operations performed include one or more of: broadcast operations downstream from a root node to leaf nodes of a virtual tree, reduction operations upstream from leaf nodes to the root node in the virtual tree, and point-to-point message passing from any node to the root node. The global tree network is configurable to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner, and, is physically and logically partitionable.

  5. Devices to enable persons with amputation to participate in sports.

    PubMed

    Rubin, G; Fleiss, D

    1983-01-01

    Participation in physically challenging competitive sports is as important to some persons with amputations as are work and leisure, both of which are ordinarily of a sedentary character. Sports participation contributes not only to physical but also to psychologic well-being. The manner in which a prosthetic clinic team can aid in this aspect of rehabilitation is discussed. Some of the more sophisticated prostheses prescribed to enable participation in sports include above-knee and below-knee water-resistant prostheses for swimmers, an adjustable foot-ankle unit for the proficient swimmer and scuba diver, prostheses and special equipment for skiers, special devices for golfers with upper extremity or lower extremity amputations, and various commercially available terminal devices to enable persons with an upper extremity amputation to bowl, to hold a fishing pole and reel, to play baseball, to hold tools, to fire a pistol, and to swim.

  6. Jamming as an enabling technology for soft robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steltz, E.; Mozeika, A.; Rembisz, J.; Corson, N.; Jaeger, H. M.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a new architecture in soft robotics that utilizes particulate jamming technology. A novel concept of actuation is described that utilizes jamming technology to modulate the direction and magnitude of the work performed by a single central actuator. Jamming "activators" modulate work by jamming and unjamming (solidifying and liquifying) a granular medium coupled to a core actuator. These ideas are demonstrated in the Jamming Skin Enabled Locomotion (JSEL) prototype which can morph its shape and achieve locomotion. Next, a new actuator, denoted a Jamming Modulated Unimorph (JMU), is presented in addition to the JSEL topology. The JMU uses a single linear actuator and a discrete number of jamming cells to turn the 1 degree of freedom (DOF) linear actuator into a multi DOF bending actuator. Full characterization of the JMU actuator is presented, followed by a concluding argument for jamming as an enabling mechanism for soft robots in general, regardless of actuation technology.

  7. Polysulfide flow batteries enabled by percolating nanoscale conductor networks.

    PubMed

    Fan, Frank Y; Woodford, William H; Li, Zheng; Baram, Nir; Smith, Kyle C; Helal, Ahmed; McKinley, Gareth H; Carter, W Craig; Chiang, Yet-Ming

    2014-01-01

    A new approach to flow battery design is demonstrated wherein diffusion-limited aggregation of nanoscale conductor particles at ∼1 vol % concentration is used to impart mixed electronic-ionic conductivity to redox solutions, forming flow electrodes with embedded current collector networks that self-heal after shear. Lithium polysulfide flow cathodes of this architecture exhibit electrochemical activity that is distributed throughout the volume of flow electrodes rather than being confined to surfaces of stationary current collectors. The nanoscale network architecture enables cycling of polysulfide solutions deep into precipitation regimes that historically have shown poor capacity utilization and reversibility and may thereby enable new flow battery designs of higher energy density and lower system cost. Lithium polysulfide half-flow cells operating in both continuous and intermittent flow mode are demonstrated for the first time.

  8. Differentially photo-crosslinked polymers enable self-assembling microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Mustapha; Zarafshar, Aasiyeh M.; Gracias, David H.

    2012-01-01

    An important feature of naturally self-assembled systems such as leaves and tissues is that they are curved and have embedded fluidic channels that enable the transport of nutrients to, or removal of waste from, specific three-dimensional (3D) regions. Here, we report the self-assembly of photopatterned polymers, and consequently microfluidic devices, into curved geometries. We discovered that differentially photo-crosslinked SU-8 films spontaneously and reversibly curved upon film de-solvation and re-solvation. Photolithographic patterning of the SU-8 films enabled the self-assembly of cylinders, cubes, and bidirectionally folded sheets. We integrated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels with these SU-8 films to self-assemble curved microfluidic networks. PMID:22068594

  9. Reading Intervention: The Effectiveness of Leveled Literacy Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton-Archie, Sonya H.

    2014-01-01

    Reading challenges are still evident for more than 90 million adults in the United States who are functioning at the lowest levels of literacy (United States Department of Education, 2004). Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI) is one program designed to address these educational needs. The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the…

  10. Safety Planning Intervention: A Brief Intervention to Mitigate Suicide Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    The usual care for suicidal patients who are seen in the emergency department (ED) and other emergency settings is to assess level of risk and refer to the appropriate level of care. Brief psychosocial interventions such as those administered to promote lower alcohol intake or to reduce domestic violence in the ED are not typically employed for…

  11. Play-Based Interventions. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Play-based interventions" are practices designed to improve socio-emotional, physical, language, and cognitive development through guided interactive play. During play sessions, an interventionist uses strategies including modeling, verbal redirection, reinforcement, and indirect instruction to sustain and encourage child play activities. Through…

  12. LDA Educational Intervention Research Symposium Intervention Perspectives and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrill, Melinda; Satterfield, Jule

    2000-01-01

    This article summarizes the journal's special issue on educational intervention research for students with learning disabilities and identifies the following common themes in the preceding papers: (1) effective teaching, (2) the match between teacher and learner characteristics, (3) flexibility in delivery and use, and (4) teacher and student…

  13. Velocardiofacial Syndrome and Early Intervention Providers: Recommendations for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Valerie E.; Fullman, Leah I.; Bruns, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), the most common microdeletion syndrome, is increasingly diagnosed in young children because of advances in diagnostic testing. The result is an increase in the number of young children with VCFS referred for early intervention (EI) services. We describe early development of children with VCFS and strategies to…

  14. Interventional Radiology in Liver Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Karani, John B. Yu, Dominic F.Q.C.; Kane, Pauline A.

    2005-04-15

    Radiology is a key specialty within a liver transplant program. Interventional techniques not only contribute to graft and recipient survival but also allow appropriate patient selection and ensure that recipients with severe liver decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma or portal hypertension are transplanted with the best chance of prolonged survival. Equally inappropriate selection for these techniques may adversely affect survival. Liver transplantation is a dynamic field of innovative surgical techniques with a requirement for interventional radiology to parallel these developments. This paper reviews the current practice within a major European center for adult and pediatric transplantation.

  15. Informatics Methods to Enable Sharing of Quantitative Imaging Research Data

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Mia A.; Freymann, John B.; Kirby, Justin S.; Fedorov, Andriy; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Eschrich, Steven A.; Berglund, Anders E.; Fenstermacher, David A.; Tan, Yongqiang; Guo, Xiaotao; Casavant, Thomas L.; Brown, Bartley J.; Braun, Terry A.; Dekker, Andre; Roelofs, Erik; Mountz, James M.; Boada, Fernando; Laymon, Charles; Oborski, Matt; Rubin, Daniel L

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Quantitative Research Network (QIN) is a collaborative research network whose goal is to share data, algorithms and research tools to accelerate quantitative imaging research. A challenge is the variability in tools and analysis platforms used in quantitative imaging. Our goal was to understand the extent of this variation and to develop an approach to enable sharing data and to promote reuse of quantitative imaging data in the community. Methods We performed a survey of the current tools in use by the QIN member sites for representation and storage of their QIN research data including images, image meta-data and clinical data. We identified existing systems and standards for data sharing and their gaps for the QIN use case. We then proposed a system architecture to enable data sharing and collaborative experimentation within the QIN. Results There area variety of tools currently used by each QIN institution. We developed a general information system architecture to support the QIN goals. We also describe the remaining architecture gaps we are developing to enable members to share research images and image meta-data across the network. Conclusions As a research network, the QIN will stimulate quantitative imaging research by pooling data, algorithms and research tools. However, there are gaps in current functional requirements that will need to be met by future informatics development. Special attention must be given to the technical requirements needed to translate these methods into the clinical research workflow to enable validation and qualification of these novel imaging biomarkers. PMID:22770688

  16. Progress Towards a NASA Earth Science Reuse Enablement System (RES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, James J.; Downs, Robert R.; Mattmann, Chris A.

    2010-01-01

    A Reuse Enablement System (RES) allows developers of Earth science software to contribute software for reuse by others and.for users to find, select, and obtain software for reuse in their own systems. This paper describes work that the X4S,4 Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Software Reuse Working Group has completed to date in the development of an RES for NASA.

  17. Leadership Training Module on Enable Others to Act (Kouzes & Posner)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Ananya

    2013-01-01

    Everyone has either come in contact with a leader or played the role of a leader. Everyone has also worked with effective leaders and ineffective leaders. And all of us want to work with leaders who can share a vision with us and empower and enable us to meet our goals. One can say that leaders play a crucial role in the success or failure of a…

  18. Ames Coronagraph Experiment: Enabling Missions to Directly Image Exoplanets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belikov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    Technology to find biomarkers and life on other worlds is rapidly maturing. If there is a habitable planet around the nearest star, we may be able to detect it this decade with a small satellite mission. In the 2030 decade, we will likely know if there is life in our Galactic neighborhood (1000 nearest stars). The Ames Coronagraph Experiment is developing coronagraphic technologies to enable such missions.

  19. Useful Sensor Web Capabilities to Enable Progressive Mission Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Dan

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews using the Sensor Web capabilities as an enabling technology to allow for progressive autonomy of NASA space missions. The presentation reviews technical challenges for future missions, and some of the capabilities that exist to meet those challenges. To establish the ability of the technology to meet the challenges, experiments were conducted on three missions: Earth Observing 1 (EO-1), Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS) and Space Technology 5 (ST-5). These experiments are reviewed.

  20. Fly-by-Wire Systems Enable Safer, More Efficient Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Using the ultra-reliable Apollo Guidance Computer that enabled the Apollo Moon missions, Dryden Flight Research Center engineers, in partnership with industry leaders such as Cambridge, Massachusetts-based Draper Laboratory, demonstrated that digital computers could be used to fly aircraft. Digital fly-by-wire systems have since been incorporated into large airliners, military jets, revolutionary new aircraft, and even cars and submarines.

  1. Photonically enabled agile rf waveform generation by optical comb shifting.

    PubMed

    Long, Christopher M; Leaird, Daniel E; Weiner, Andrew M

    2010-12-01

    We present a photonically enabled rf arbitrary waveform generator that can rapidly switch between two output waveforms. This method is based on line-by-line shaping of an optical comb and then converting the optical pulses to rf waveforms with a fast photodetector. It uses a single diode laser as the optical source and selects different patterns preprogrammed into an optical pulse shaper by shifting the laser frequency. We demonstrate minimum update delay times of 0.45 ns.

  2. Volume CT (VCT) enabled by a novel diode technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhlef, Aziz; Zeman, Greg; Hoffman, David; Li, Wen; Possin, George

    2005-04-01

    One of the results of the latest developments in x-ray tube and detector technology, is the enabling of computed tomography (CT) as a strong non-invasive imaging modality for a new set of clinical applications including cardiac and brain imaging. A common theme among the applications is an ability to have wide anatomical coverage in a single rotation. Large coverage in CT is expected to bring significant diagnostic value in clinical field, especially in cardiac, trauma, pediatric, neuro, angiography, Stroke WorkUp and pulmonary applications. This demand, in turn, creates a need for tile-able and scalable detector design. In this paper, we introduce the design of a new diode, a crucial part of the detector, discuss how it enables wide coverage, its performance in terms of cross-talk, light output response, maximized geometric efficiency, and other CT requirements, and compare it to the traditional design which is front-illuminated diode. We ran extensive simulation and measurement experiments to study the geometric efficiency and assess the cross talk and all other performance parameters Critical To Quality (CTQs) with both designs. We modeled x-ray scattering in the scintillator, light scattering through the septa and optical coupler, and electrical cross talk. We tested the design with phantoms and clinical experiments on a scanner (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare Technologies, Waukesha, WI, USA). Our preliminary results indicate that the new diode design performs as well as the traditional in terms of cross talk and other CTQs. It, also, yields better geometric efficiency and enables tile-able detector design, which is crucial for the VCT. We introduced a new diode design, which is an essential enabler for VCT. We demonstrated the new design is superior to the traditional design for the clinically relevant performance measures.

  3. Challenges and Enablers of Deprescribing: A General Practitioner Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ailabouni, Nagham J.; Nishtala, Prasad S.; Mangin, Dee; Tordoff, June M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Deprescribing is the process of reducing or discontinuing medicines that are unnecessary or deemed to be harmful. We aimed to investigate general practitioner (GP) perceived challenges to deprescribing in residential care and the possible enablers that support GPs to implement deprescribing. Methods A qualitative study was undertaken using semi-structured, face-to-face interviews from two cities in New Zealand and a purpose-developed pilot-tested interview schedule. Interviews were recorded with permission and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were read and re-read and themes were identified with iterative building of a coding list until all data was accounted for. Interviews continued until saturation of ideas occurred. Analysis was carried out with the assistance of a Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and constant comparison techniques. Several themes were identified. Challenges and enablers of deprescribing were determined based on participants’ answers. Results Ten GPs agreed to participate. Four themes were identified to define the issues around prescribing for older people, from the GPs’ perspectives. Theme 1, the ‘recognition of the problem’, discusses the difficulties involved with prescribing for older people. Theme 2 outlines the identified behaviour change factors relevant to the problem. Deprescribing challenges were drawn from these factors and summarised in Theme 3 under three major headings; ‘prescribing factors’, ‘social influences’ and ‘policy and processes’. Deprescribing enablers, based on the opinions and professional experience of GPs, were retrieved and summarised in Theme 4. Conclusion The process of deprescribing is laced with many challenges for GPs. The uncertainty of research evidence in older people and social factors such as specialists’ and nurses’ influences were among the major challenges identified. Deprescribing enablers encompassed support for GPs’ awareness and knowledge, improvement of

  4. Potential Astrophysics Science Missions Enabled by NASA's Planned Ares V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Thronson, Harley; Langhoff, Stepheni; Postman, Marc; Lester, Daniel; Lillie, Chuck

    2009-01-01

    NASA s planned Ares V cargo vehicle with its 10 meter diameter fairing and 60,000 kg payload mass to L2 offers the potential to launch entirely new classes of space science missions such as 8-meter monolithic aperture telescopes, 12- meter aperture x-ray telescopes, 16 to 24 meter segmented telescopes and highly capable outer planet missions. The paper will summarize the current Ares V baseline performance capabilities and review potential mission concepts enabled by these capabilities.

  5. Split rheometer Couette attachment to enable sample extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthrie, Sarah E.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2005-02-01

    We report on the development of a Couette attachment insert for a rheometer, which is designed to split in half, enabling intact sample extraction of cocoa butter crystallized from the melt under known dynamic stress conditions. This cell is capable of producing a sample 1mm thick. At shear rates of 90-720s-1 and final temperatures of 18-20°C it was shown that the sample will completely separate from the cell surface intact.

  6. Quantum dot blueing and blinking enables fluorescence nanoscopy.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Patrick; Staudt, Thorsten; Engelhardt, Johann; Hell, Stefan W

    2011-01-12

    We demonstrate superresolution fluorescence imaging of cells using bioconjugated CdSe/ZnS quantum dot markers. Fluorescence blueing of quantum dot cores facilitates separation of blinking markers residing closer than the diffraction barrier. The high number of successively emitted photons enables ground state depletion microscopy followed by individual marker return with a resolving power of the size of a single dot (∼12 nm). Nanoscale imaging is feasible with a simple webcam.

  7. Enabling Disabled Persons to Gain Access to Digital Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Glenn; OGrady, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    A report describes the first phase in an effort to enhance the NaviGaze software to enable profoundly disabled persons to operate computers. (Running on a Windows-based computer equipped with a video camera aimed at the user s head, the original NaviGaze software processes the user's head movements and eye blinks into cursor movements and mouse clicks to enable hands-free control of the computer.) To accommodate large variations in movement capabilities among disabled individuals, one of the enhancements was the addition of a graphical user interface for selection of parameters that affect the way the software interacts with the computer and tracks the user s movements. Tracking algorithms were improved to reduce sensitivity to rotations and reduce the likelihood of tracking the wrong features. Visual feedback to the user was improved to provide an indication of the state of the computer system. It was found that users can quickly learn to use the enhanced software, performing single clicks, double clicks, and drags within minutes of first use. Available programs that could increase the usability of NaviGaze were identified. One of these enables entry of text by using NaviGaze as a mouse to select keys on a virtual keyboard.

  8. Fundamental plant biology enabled by the space shuttle.

    PubMed

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Wheeler, Ray M; Levine, Howard G; Ferl, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between fundamental plant biology and space biology was especially synergistic in the era of the Space Shuttle. While all terrestrial organisms are influenced by gravity, the impact of gravity as a tropic stimulus in plants has been a topic of formal study for more than a century. And while plants were parts of early space biology payloads, it was not until the advent of the Space Shuttle that the science of plant space biology enjoyed expansion that truly enabled controlled, fundamental experiments that removed gravity from the equation. The Space Shuttle presented a science platform that provided regular science flights with dedicated plant growth hardware and crew trained in inflight plant manipulations. Part of the impetus for plant biology experiments in space was the realization that plants could be important parts of bioregenerative life support on long missions, recycling water, air, and nutrients for the human crew. However, a large part of the impetus was that the Space Shuttle enabled fundamental plant science essentially in a microgravity environment. Experiments during the Space Shuttle era produced key science insights on biological adaptation to spaceflight and especially plant growth and tropisms. In this review, we present an overview of plant science in the Space Shuttle era with an emphasis on experiments dealing with fundamental plant growth in microgravity. This review discusses general conclusions from the study of plant spaceflight biology enabled by the Space Shuttle by providing historical context and reviews of select experiments that exemplify plant space biology science.

  9. Ammonia recycling enables sustainable operation of bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ka Yu; Kaksonen, Anna H; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2013-09-01

    Ammonium (NH4(+)) migration across a cation exchange membrane is commonly observed during the operation of bioelectrochemical systems (BES). This often leads to anolyte acidification (pH <5.5) and complete inactivation of biofilm electroactivity. Without using conventional pH controls (dosage of alkali or pH buffers), the present study revealed that anodic biofilm activity (current) could be sustained if recycling of ammonia (NH3) was implemented. A simple gas-exchange apparatus was designed to enable continuous recycling of NH3 (released from the catholyte at pH >10) from the cathodic headspace to the acidified anolyte. Results indicated that current (110 mA or 688 Am(-3) net anodic chamber volume) was sustained as long as the NH3 recycling path was enabled, facilitating continuous anolyte neutralization with the recycled NH3. Since the microbial current enabled NH4(+) migration against a strong concentration gradient (~10-fold), a novel way of ammonia recovery from wastewaters could be envisaged.

  10. Fundamental plant biology enabled by the space shuttle.

    PubMed

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Wheeler, Ray M; Levine, Howard G; Ferl, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between fundamental plant biology and space biology was especially synergistic in the era of the Space Shuttle. While all terrestrial organisms are influenced by gravity, the impact of gravity as a tropic stimulus in plants has been a topic of formal study for more than a century. And while plants were parts of early space biology payloads, it was not until the advent of the Space Shuttle that the science of plant space biology enjoyed expansion that truly enabled controlled, fundamental experiments that removed gravity from the equation. The Space Shuttle presented a science platform that provided regular science flights with dedicated plant growth hardware and crew trained in inflight plant manipulations. Part of the impetus for plant biology experiments in space was the realization that plants could be important parts of bioregenerative life support on long missions, recycling water, air, and nutrients for the human crew. However, a large part of the impetus was that the Space Shuttle enabled fundamental plant science essentially in a microgravity environment. Experiments during the Space Shuttle era produced key science insights on biological adaptation to spaceflight and especially plant growth and tropisms. In this review, we present an overview of plant science in the Space Shuttle era with an emphasis on experiments dealing with fundamental plant growth in microgravity. This review discusses general conclusions from the study of plant spaceflight biology enabled by the Space Shuttle by providing historical context and reviews of select experiments that exemplify plant space biology science. PMID:23281389

  11. The Addition of an Individualized Cognitive Intervention to a Standardized Behavioral Intervention for Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLucia, Janice L.; Kalodner, Cynthia R.

    This study examined the effectiveness of the addition of a cognitive intervention based on individualized assessment to a behavioral intervention for obesity. Overweight subjects (N=63) were randomly assigned to either a behavioral intervention or a behavioral intervention combined with a cognitive intervention which focused on changing specific…

  12. Interventions for waterpipe smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Maziak, Wasim; Jawad, Mohammed; Jawad, Sena; Ward, Kenneth D; Eissenberg, Thomas; Asfar, Taghrid

    2016-01-01

    Background Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), but its use is now spreading worldwide. Recent epidemiological data, for example, show that waterpipe smoking has become the most prevalent tobacco use method among adolescents in the EMR, and the second most prevalent in the US. Waterpipes are used socially, often being shared between friends or family at home, or in dedicated bars and cafes that provide waterpipes to patrons. Because the smoke passes through a reservoir of water, waterpipe tobacco smoking is perceived as being less harmful than other methods of tobacco use. At least in some cultures, women and girls are more likely to use a waterpipe than to use other forms of tobacco, and it is popular among younger smokers. Accumulating evidence suggests that some waterpipe smokers become addicted, have difficulty quitting, and experience similar health risks as cigarette smokers. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of tobacco cessation interventions for waterpipe users. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Review Group specialized register in June 2015. We also searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL, using variant terms and spellings (‘waterpipe’ or ‘narghile’ or ‘arghile’ or ‘shisha’ or ‘goza’ or ‘narkeela’ or ‘hookah’ or ‘hubble bubble’). We searched for trials, published or unpublished, in any language, and especially in regions where waterpipe use is widespread. Selection criteria We sought randomized, quasi-randomized or cluster-randomized controlled trials of smoking cessation interventions for waterpipe smokers of any age or gender. The primary outcome of interest was abstinence from tobacco use, measured at six months post-cessation or longer, regardless of whether abstinence was biochemically verified. We included interventions that were pharmacological (for example, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or

  13. The Role of the Principal in the Implementation of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports in Exemplar Elementary Schools in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headen, Monica Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative multiple case study examines how principals contribute to the success of exemplar elementary PBIS schools in North Carolina and how their thoughts about PBIS informed their actions. Guided by the literature on principals and change efforts and sensemaking, this study used individual interviews, focus group interviews, field notes,…

  14. The behaviour change wheel: A new method for characterising and designing behaviour change interventions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Improving the design and implementation of evidence-based practice depends on successful behaviour change interventions. This requires an appropriate method for characterising interventions and linking them to an analysis of the targeted behaviour. There exists a plethora of frameworks of behaviour change interventions, but it is not clear how well they serve this purpose. This paper evaluates these frameworks, and develops and evaluates a new framework aimed at overcoming their limitations. Methods A systematic search of electronic databases and consultation with behaviour change experts were used to identify frameworks of behaviour change interventions. These were evaluated according to three criteria: comprehensiveness, coherence, and a clear link to an overarching model of behaviour. A new framework was developed to meet these criteria. The reliability with which it could be applied was examined in two domains of behaviour change: tobacco control and obesity. Results Nineteen frameworks were identified covering nine intervention functions and seven policy categories that could enable those interventions. None of the frameworks reviewed covered the full range of intervention functions or policies, and only a minority met the criteria of coherence or linkage to a model of behaviour. At the centre of a proposed new framework is a 'behaviour system' involving three essential conditions: capability, opportunity, and motivation (what we term the 'COM-B system'). This forms the hub of a 'behaviour change wheel' (BCW) around which are positioned the nine intervention functions aimed at addressing deficits in one or more of these conditions; around this are placed seven categories of policy that could enable those interventions to occur. The BCW was used reliably to characterise interventions within the English Department of Health's 2010 tobacco control strategy and the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence's guidance on reducing obesity

  15. Community Dialogue to Shift Social Norms and Enable Family Planning: An Evaluation of the Family Planning Results Initiative in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Creanga, Andreea A.; Galavotti, Christine; Wamalwa, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Use of family planning (FP) is powerfully shaped by social and gender norms, including the perceived acceptability of FP and gender roles that limit women’s autonomy and restrict communication and decision-making between men and women. This study evaluated an intervention that catalyzed ongoing community dialogues about gender and FP in Siaya county, Nyanza Province, Kenya. Specifically, we explored the changes in perceived acceptability of FP, gender norms and use of FP. Methods We used a mixed-method approach. Information on married men and women’s socio-demographic characteristics, pregnancy intentions, gender-related beliefs, FP knowledge, attitudes, and use were collected during county-representative, cross-sectional household surveys at baseline (2009; n11 = 650 women; n12 = 305 men) and endline (2012; n21 = 617 women; n22 = 317 men); exposure to the intervention was measured at endline. We assessed changes in FP use at endline vs. baseline, and fitted multivariate logistic regression models for FP use to examine its association with intervention exposure and explore other predictors of use at endline. In-depth, qualitative interviews with 10 couples at endline further explored enablers and barriers to FP use. Results At baseline, 34.0% of women and 27.9% of men used a modern FP method compared to 51.2% and 52.2%, respectively, at endline (p<0.05). Exposure to FP dialogues was associated with 1.78 (95% CI: 1.20–2.63) times higher odds of using a modern FP method at endline for women, but this association was not significant for men. Women’s use of modern FP was significantly associated with higher spousal communication, control over own cash earnings, and FP self-efficacy. Men who reported high approval of FP were significantly more likely to use modern FP if reporting high approval of FP and more equitable gender beliefs. FP dialogues addressed persistent myths and misconceptions, normalized FP discussions, and increased its

  16. Three-Dimensional Printing: An Enabling Technology for IR.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Rahul; Balesh, Elie R; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Hirsch, Joshua A; Khademhosseini, Ali; Oklu, Rahmi

    2016-06-01

    Rapid prototyping, also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is a recent technologic advancement with tremendous potential for advancing medical device design. A wide range of raw materials can be incorporated into complex 3D structures, including plastics, metals, biocompatible polymers, and even living cells. With its promise of highly customized, adaptable, and personalized device design at the point of care, 3D printing stands to revolutionize medical care. The present review summarizes the methods for 3D printing and their current and potential roles in medical device design, with an emphasis on their potential relevance to interventional radiology. PMID:27117948

  17. Intervention LSCI Skills for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Signe; Chambers, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Life Space Crisis Intervention (LSCI) is a set of skills that helps adults turn problem situations into learning opportunities for kids. LSCI views conflicts or stressful incidents as opportunities for learning, growth, insight, and change. This training provides parents with tools for building positive relationships with their children and…

  18. Evaluation of Natural Resource Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Andy

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a frame for evaluation of natural resource interventions, which necessarily involves both human and natural systems. Two-system evaluands require us to adapt evaluation methods for comparison and attribution and to address differences in time and space occurring across the systems as well as potentially very different values…

  19. State Intervention in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenny, Lyman A.; Bowen, Frank M.

    State intervention in higher education is discussed, and state and federal regulations that affect higher education are discussed and contrasted. The structures and procedures by which states intervene in higher education are outlined, and the issue of institutional autonomy is considered. Policy areas through which the state can affect higher…

  20. Intervention for autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Filipek, Pauline A; Steinberg-Epstein, Robin; Book, Teri M

    2006-04-01

    A comprehensive approach to the assessment of any child with autism must be matched specifically to each individual child and family. This premise holds for medical therapies and special education services as well as psychopharmacologic interventions. Behavioral, as opposed to pharmacologic, treatment is the hallmark of effective intervention for autism. Physicians involved in the care of children with autism need to become familiar with educational law and intervention recommendations. Goals should include improved functional verbal and nonverbal communication and social skills, increased engagement in developmentally appropriate activities, improved fine and gross motor skills, and the development of independent academic and organizations skills, as well as replacement of problem behaviors with developmentally appropriate behaviors.. Medicating children with autism is difficult, but is often necessary for chronic behavioral difficulties. In the absence of clear and present guidelines, we have attempted to use evidence and clinical experience to suggest an algorithm based on symptom clusters. Although children with autism may be responsive to medications at lower doses and more susceptible to side effects than other children, medical intervention can produce a significant improvement in the quality of life for the child and family. Careful thought leading to correct identification of target behaviors can appropriately direct better alternatives for medication. Although these approaches are costly and time-consuming endeavors, the expenditure of such efforts is the only available pathway to improve the potential outcomes for individuals with autism as well as decrease the lifetime societal costs for each individual.