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Sample records for interventions enabling sensemaking

  1. The role of conversation in health care interventions: enabling sensemaking and learning

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Michelle E; Lanham, Holly J; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Nutting, Paul A; Miller, William L; Stange, Kurt C; McDaniel, Reuben R

    2009-01-01

    Background Those attempting to implement changes in health care settings often find that intervention efforts do not progress as expected. Unexpected outcomes are often attributed to variation and/or error in implementation processes. We argue that some unanticipated variation in intervention outcomes arises because unexpected conversations emerge during intervention attempts. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of conversation in shaping interventions and to explain why conversation is important in intervention efforts in health care organizations. We draw on literature from sociolinguistics and complex adaptive systems theory to create an interpretive framework and develop our theory. We use insights from a fourteen-year program of research, including both descriptive and intervention studies undertaken to understand and assist primary care practices in making sustainable changes. We enfold these literatures and these insights to articulate a common failure of overlooking the role of conversation in intervention success, and to develop a theoretical argument for the importance of paying attention to the role of conversation in health care interventions. Discussion Conversation between organizational members plays an important role in the success of interventions aimed at improving health care delivery. Conversation can facilitate intervention success because interventions often rely on new sensemaking and learning, and these are accomplished through conversation. Conversely, conversation can block the success of an intervention by inhibiting sensemaking and learning. Furthermore, the existing relationship contexts of an organization can influence these conversational possibilities. We argue that the likelihood of intervention success will increase if the role of conversation is considered in the intervention process. Summary The generation of productive conversation should be considered as one of the foundations of intervention efforts. We suggest

  2. Experimentally Testing a Narrative Sense-Making Metaphor Intervention: Facilitating Communicative Coping about Social Aggression with Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willer, Erin K.

    2009-01-01

    Social aggression, including behaviors such as gossip and friendship manipulation, can be damaging to girls' individual and relational well-being. As a result, the purpose of the present dissertation study was to test a narrative sense-making metaphor intervention with middle schools girls experiencing social aggression in order to facilitate…

  3. Unpacking Sensemaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapon, Suulamit

    2017-01-01

    Learning science involves an ongoing process in which learners construct and reconstruct self-explanations and evaluate their relative soundness. This work coordinates and aligns complementary methodological and theoretical approaches to learning to both unpack sensemaking and better understand the conditions that facilitate it. I conceptualize…

  4. Conversational sensemaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Alun; Webberley, Will; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in natural language question-answering systems and context-aware mobile apps create opportunities for improved sensemaking in a tactical setting. Users equipped with mobile devices act as both sensors (able to acquire information) and effectors (able to act in situ), operating alone or in collectives. The currently- dominant technical approaches follow either a pull model (e.g. Apple's Siri or IBM's Watson which respond to users' natural language queries) or a push model (e.g. Google's Now which sends notifications to a user based on their context). There is growing recognition that users need more flexible styles of conversational interaction, where they are able to freely ask or tell, be asked or told, seek explanations and clarifications. Ideally such conversations should involve a mix of human and machine agents, able to collaborate in collective sensemaking activities with as few barriers as possible. Desirable capabilities include adding new knowledge, collaboratively building models, invoking specific services, and drawing inferences. As a step towards this goal, we collect evidence from a number of recent pilot studies including natural experiments (e.g. situation awareness in the context of organised protests) and synthetic experiments (e.g. human and machine agents collaborating in information seeking and spot reporting). We identify some principles and areas of future research for "conversational sensemaking".

  5. Quality as Sense-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Sense-making is a process of engaging with complex and dynamic environments that provides organisations and their leaders with a flexible and agile model of the world. The seven key properties of sense-making describe a process that is social and that respects the range of different stakeholders in an organisation. It also addresses the need to…

  6. Knowledge Representation Artifacts for Use in Sensemaking Support Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-12

    is suitable for automated reasoning, while encoding this information using a graph representation enables knowledge discovery through network... Knowledge Representation Artifacts for Use in Sensemaking Support Systems Jean Roy and Alexandre Bergeron Guyard Defence Research and Development...systems requires that one cares about knowledge representation. Motivated by the fact that no single representation method is ideally suited by

  7. An "Ideology in Pieces" Approach to Studying Change in Teachers' Sensemaking about Race, Racism, and Racial Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    This article makes a unique contribution to the literature on teachers' racialized sensemaking by proposing a framework of "ideology in pieces" that synthesizes Hall's (1982, 1996) theory of ideology and diSessa's (1993) theory of conceptual change. Hall's theory of ideology enables an examination of teachers' sensemaking as situated within a…

  8. Enabling Transformative Learning in the Workplace: An Educative Research Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmson, Lena; Åberg, Marie Moström; Backström, Tomas; Olsson, Bengt Köping

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the potential of an educative research intervention to influence the quality of the learning outcome in the workplace as interpreted from the perspectives of adult learning theory. The research project was designed as a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods study. In this article, quantitative survey data were…

  9. Self-monitoring bypass grafts enable early intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neville, Richard F.; Gupta, Samit K.; Kuraguntla, David J.

    2016-09-01

    Prosthetic grafts used for lower extremity revascularization and dialysis access fail due to hyperplastic stenosis and thrombosis. Graft surveillance is advocated to monitor function, however, graft failure can occur between episodic examinations. An innovative self-monitoring graft system allows automated surveillance with assessment of graft function using a cloud-based algorithm. We performed proof of concept experiments with in vitro and in vivo models to assess the feasibility such a real-time graft surveillance system. Initial in-vitro and in-vivo experiments demonstrate the ability for a self-monitoring graft system to remotely monitor hemodynamic parameters reflecting graft function using wireless data transmission. This automated system shows promise to deliver real-time data that can be analyzed by cloud-based algorithms alerting the clinician of a change in graft function or development of stenosis for further diagnostic study or intervention prior to graft failure.

  10. Supporting Communication and Coordination in Collaborative Sensemaking.

    PubMed

    Mahyar, Narges; Tory, Melanie

    2014-12-01

    When people work together to analyze a data set, they need to organize their findings, hypotheses, and evidence, share that information with their collaborators, and coordinate activities amongst team members. Sharing externalizations (recorded information such as notes) could increase awareness and assist with team communication and coordination. However, we currently know little about how to provide tool support for this sort of sharing. We explore how linked common work (LCW) can be employed within a `collaborative thinking space', to facilitate synchronous collaborative sensemaking activities in Visual Analytics (VA). Collaborative thinking spaces provide an environment for analysts to record, organize, share and connect externalizations. Our tool, CLIP, extends earlier thinking spaces by integrating LCW features that reveal relationships between collaborators' findings. We conducted a user study comparing CLIP to a baseline version without LCW. Results demonstrated that LCW significantly improved analytic outcomes at a collaborative intelligence task. Groups using CLIP were also able to more effectively coordinate their work, and held more discussion of their findings and hypotheses. LCW enabled them to maintain awareness of each other's activities and findings and link those findings to their own work, preventing disruptive oral awareness notifications.

  11. A virtual environment for modeling and testing sensemaking with multisensor information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Denise; Bartlett, Kathleen; Hoppenfeld, Robert; Nolan, Margaret; Schatz, Sae

    2014-05-01

    Given today's challenging Irregular Warfare, members of small infantry units must be able to function as highly sensitized perceivers throughout large operational areas. Improved Situation Awareness (SA) in rapidly changing fields of operation may also save lives of law enforcement personnel and first responders. Critical competencies for these individuals include sociocultural sensemaking, the ability to assess a situation through the perception of essential salient environmental and behavioral cues, and intuitive sensemaking, which allows experts to act with the utmost agility. Intuitive sensemaking and intuitive decision making (IDM), which involve processing information at a subconscious level, have been cited as playing a critical role in saving lives and enabling mission success. This paper discusses the development of a virtual environment for modeling, analysis and human-in-the-loop testing of perception, sensemaking, intuitive sensemaking, decision making (DM), and IDM performance, using state-of-the-art scene simulation and modeled imagery from multi-source systems, under the "Intuition and Implicit Learning" Basic Research Challenge (I2BRC) sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (ONR). We present results from our human systems engineering approach including 1) development of requirements and test metrics for individual and integrated system components, 2) the system architecture design 3) images of the prototype virtual environment testing system and 4) a discussion of the system's current and future testing capabilities. In particular, we examine an Enhanced Interaction Suite testbed to model, test, and analyze the impact of advances in sensor spatial, and temporal resolution to a user's intuitive sensemaking and decision making capabilities.

  12. Sustained Organizational Learning for Comprehensive School Reform: A Sensemaking Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Mary B.

    2009-01-01

    Organizational sensemaking is the attempt to understand complex events that occur in organizations (Weick, Sutcliffe, & Obstfeld, 2005). This study focuses on the sensemaking leadership capabilities of a leadership team promoting comprehensive reform. The cross-school leadership team engaged in organizational sensemaking in order to…

  13. Embodiment and sense-making in autism

    PubMed Central

    De Jaegher, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I sketch an enactive account of autism. For the enactive approach to cognition, embodiment, experience, and social interaction are fundamental to understanding mind and subjectivity. Enaction defines cognition as sense-making: the way cognitive agents meaningfully connect with their world, based on their needs and goals as self-organizing, self-maintaining, embodied agents. In the social realm, the interactive coordination of embodied sense-making activities with others lets us participate in each other's sense-making (social understanding = participatory sense-making). The enactive approach provides new concepts to overcome the problems of traditional functionalist accounts of autism, which can only give a piecemeal and disintegrated view because they consider cognition, communication, and perception separately, do not take embodied into account, and are methodologically individualistic. Applying the concepts of enaction to autism, I show: How embodiment and sense-making connect, i.e., how autistic particularities of moving, perceiving, and emoting relate to how people with autism make sense of their world. For instance, restricted interests or preference for detail will have certain sensorimotor correlates, as well as specific meaning for autistic people.That reduced flexibility in interactional coordination correlates with difficulties in participatory sense-making. At the same time, seemingly irrelevant “autistic behaviors” can be quite attuned to the interactive context. I illustrate this complexity in the case of echolalia. An enactive account of autism starts from the embodiment, experience, and social interactions of autistic people. Enaction brings together the sensorimotor, cognitive, social, experiential, and affective aspects of autism in a coherent framework based on a complex non-linear multi-causality. This foundation allows to build new bridges between autistic people and their often non-autistic context, and to improve quality

  14. Principals' Sensemaking and Enactment of Teacher Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Jessica G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to look across six first-year principals to investigate their engagement with and sensemaking of specific messages of instructional leadership around teacher evaluation. Design/methodology/approach: This research project, a cross-case study, was carried out using in-depth qualitative observations and…

  15. Sensemaking, Organizational Culture, and Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Debbie S.; Smythe, Mary Jeanette

    2004-01-01

    While EEOC guidelines for managing sexual harassment prescribe a strong sexual harassment policy and aggressive remedial action following complaints, a communication approach suggests a need for a more complex understanding of sexual harassment as diffused throughout an organizational culture. The present case study uses a sensemaking approach to…

  16. Development of temporal context-based feature abstractions for enabling monitoring and managing of interventions.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Pei-Yun Sabrina; Ramakrishnan, Sreeram; Yu, Ke; Akushevich, Marina; Sharma, Shweta; Mooiweer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Disease self-management programs and intervention/care plan monitoring are often unable to systematically leverage patient-generated information, especially those requiring interpretation of the temporal contexts of the measurement. While existing techniques help in capturing and storing the relevant data, their ability to determine appropriate metrics most sensitive to that individual is limited or non-existent. This is attributable to the lack of unifying models for enabling such interpretations and the non-trivial process required to generate meaningful feature abstractions to support individualized prognosis. To address these issues, a data-driven approach designed to identify the right abstractions for key features relevant to personalization and monitoring of care is discussed.

  17. Sensemaking Training Requirements for the Adaptive Battlestaff

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press Hodgkins, R.A. (1992). Michael polanyi on the activity of knowing—the bearing of his ideas on the theory of...know more than we can tell (Polyani, 1966). Polanyi describes the semantic aspect of tacit knowing, how meaning tends to be displaced away from...training systems. The focal knowledge posited by Polanyi (1966) forms the theoretical basis for describing the enactment of sensemaking process into

  18. Cognitive Constructs and the Sensemaking Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    time , the cognitive processes required to adapt to such changes must be dynamic. This change is dependence on the constructive memory which holds...profile of IED occurrence using a link analysis, incorporating time , place, events, etc. How to use the analytic information to defeat the enemy depends ...action planning and decision making is not robust to capture adaptive, agile, and time -phased sensemaking process since it was not designed to address

  19. Analogies, metaphors, and wondering about the future: Lay sense-making around synthetic meat.

    PubMed

    Marcu, Afrodita; Gaspar, Rui; Rutsaert, Pieter; Seibt, Beate; Fletcher, David; Verbeke, Wim; Barnett, Julie

    2015-07-01

    Drawing on social representations theory, we explore how the public make sense of the unfamiliar, taking as the example a novel technology: synthetic meat. Data from an online deliberation study and eighteen focus groups in Belgium, Portugal and the UK indicated that the various strategies of sense-making afforded different levels of critical thinking about synthetic meat. Anchoring to genetic modification, metaphors like 'Frankenfoods' and commonplaces like 'playing God' closed off debates around potential applications of synthetic meat, whereas asking factual and rhetorical questions about it, weighing up pragmatically its risks and benefits, and envisaging changing current mentalities or behaviours in order to adapt to scientific developments enabled a consideration of synthetic meat's possible implications for agriculture, environment, and society. We suggest that research on public understanding of technology should cultivate a climate of active thinking and should encourage questioning during the process of sense-making to try to reduce unhelpful anchoring.

  20. Sensemaking: Conceptual Changes, Cognitive Mechanisms, and Structural Representations. a Qualitative User Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Pengyi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to improve our understanding of sensemaking process as a basis for building better systems to assist sensemaking. Sensemaking is the task of creating an understanding of a problem or task so that further actions may be taken in an informed manner. Sensemaking is a pre-requisite for many other tasks such as decision…

  1. To Heaven or Hell: Sensemaking about Why Faculty Leave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, KerryAnn; Lounder, Andrew; Campbell, Corbin M.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes sensemaking about faculty departure among administrators, faculty colleagues, and faculty leavers in one research university. A mixed methods database was analyzed to reveal four dominant explanations for faculty departure and two influences on sensemaking. Dominant explanations included better opportunities, the likelihood…

  2. Symbolic Resources and Sense-Making in Learning and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zittoun, Tania

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of symbolic resources for apprehending sense-making in learning and instruction. It first reminds the centrality of sense-making in learning and instruction from a sociocultural perspective, and proposes a pragmatist approach to examine what sorts of knowledge people use when they face situations that matter. The…

  3. SensePath: Understanding the Sensemaking Process Through Analytic Provenance.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phong H; Xu, Kai; Wheat, Ashley; Wong, B L William; Attfield, Simon; Fields, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Sensemaking is described as the process of comprehension, finding meaning and gaining insight from information, producing new knowledge and informing further action. Understanding the sensemaking process allows building effective visual analytics tools to make sense of large and complex datasets. Currently, it is often a manual and time-consuming undertaking to comprehend this: researchers collect observation data, transcribe screen capture videos and think-aloud recordings, identify recurring patterns, and eventually abstract the sensemaking process into a general model. In this paper, we propose a general approach to facilitate such a qualitative analysis process, and introduce a prototype, SensePath, to demonstrate the application of this approach with a focus on browser-based online sensemaking. The approach is based on a study of a number of qualitative research sessions including observations of users performing sensemaking tasks and post hoc analyses to uncover their sensemaking processes. Based on the study results and a follow-up participatory design session with HCI researchers, we decided to focus on the transcription and coding stages of thematic analysis. SensePath automatically captures user's sensemaking actions, i.e., analytic provenance, and provides multi-linked views to support their further analysis. A number of other requirements elicited from the design session are also implemented in SensePath, such as easy integration with existing qualitative analysis workflow and non-intrusive for participants. The tool was used by an experienced HCI researcher to analyze two sensemaking sessions. The researcher found the tool intuitive and considerably reduced analysis time, allowing better understanding of the sensemaking process.

  4. Self-management support interventions that are clinically linked and technology enabled: can they successfully prevent and treat diabetes?

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Neal D; Woodley, Paula D Patnoe

    2011-05-01

    Patients with diabetes need a complex set of services and supports. The challenge of integrating these services into the diabetes regimen can be successfully overcome through self-management support interventions that are clinically linked and technology enabled: self-management support because patients need help mastering the knowledge, attitudes, skills, and behaviors so necessary for good outcomes; interventions because comprehensive theory-based, evidence-proven, long-term, longitudinal interventions work better than direct-to-consumer or nonplanned health promotion approaches; clinically linked because patients are more likely to adopt new behaviors when the approach is in the context of a trusted therapeutic relationship and within an effective medical care system; and technology enabled because capitalizing on the amazing power of information technology leads to the delivery of cost-effective, scalable, engaging solutions that prevent and manage diabetes.

  5. The effect of educational intervention on girl's behavior regarding nutrition: Applying the beliefs, attitudes, subjective norms, and enabling factors

    PubMed Central

    Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Hazavei, Mohammad Mehdi; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an educational program based on the Belief, Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Enabling Factors (BASNEF) Model on the nutritional behavior among second-grade, middle school, female students in Isfahan city. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 72 students. The samples were randomly divided in two groups (36 in the intervention group and 36 in the control group). The data collection tools were validated and had reliable questionnaires. For the intervention group, a 75-minute educational session was held thrice. The control group had no education. The BASNEF model constructs guided the development of the questionnaires and content of the educational sessions. The independent t-test and paired t-test were used to analyze the data. A two-tailed P value lower than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Result: According to the results, the mean scores of knowledge and model variables (Belief, Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Enabling Factors) had a significant difference in the two groups after intervention (P < 0.001). On the basis of the findings, after educational intervention, 36.1% of the students had unfavorable nutritional behavior. In the control group, 88.9% of the students had unfavorable nutritional behavior, before and one month after intervention. Conclusion: The present study showed that nutrition education intervention based on the BASNEF model could promote the nutritional behavior in girl students. PMID:25250345

  6. Academic Enablers and Student Achievement: Implications for Assessment and Intervention Services in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPerna, James Clyde

    2006-01-01

    Academic enablers have been defined as attitudes and behaviors that facilitate students' participation in, and benefit from, academic instruction in the classroom (J.C. DiPerna & S.N. Elliott, 2000). The purpose of this article is to provide practitioners with an overview of specific academic enablers (motivation, study skills, engagement, and…

  7. Integrated Cognitive-neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Phase 1 Challenge Problem Walkthrough

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Phase 1 Challenge Problem Walkthrough Kevin Burns...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Phase 1 Challenge Problem Walkthrough...Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS) Phase 1 challenge problem. The pages include screen shots

  8. Integrated Cognitive-neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Transition to the Intelligence Community

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Transition to the Intelligence Community Kevin...Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): A Computational Basis for ICArUS: Transition to the...Research Projects Activity) program ICArUS (Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking) developed and tested brain

  9. Finite Element Modeling of Endovascular Intervention Enables Hemodynamic Prediction of Complex Treatment Strategies for Coiling and Flow Diversion

    PubMed Central

    Damiano, Robert J.; Ma, Ding; Xiang, Jianping; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Snyder, Kenneth V.; Meng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular interventions using coil embolization and flow diversion are becoming the mainstream treatment for intracranial aneurysms (IAs). To help assess the effect of intervention strategies on aneurysm hemodynamics and treatment outcome, we have developed a finite-element-method (FEM)-based technique for coil deployment along with our HiFiVS technique for flow diverter (FD) deployment in patient-specific IAs. We tested four clinical intervention strategies: coiling (1–8 coils), single FD, FD with adjunctive coils (1–8 coils), and overlapping FDs. By evaluating post-treatment hemodynamics using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), we compared the flow-modification performance of these strategies. Results show that a single FD provides more reduction in inflow rate than low PD coiling, but less reduction in average velocity inside the aneurysm. Adjunctive coils add no additional reduction of inflow rate beyond a single FD until coil PD exceeds 11%. This suggests that the main role of FDs is to divert inflow, while that of coils is to create stasis in the aneurysm. Overlapping FDs decreases inflow rate, average velocity, and average wall shear stress (WSS) in the aneurysm sac, but adding a third FD produces minimal additional reduction. In conclusion, our FEM-based techniques for virtual coiling and flow diversion enable recapitulation of complex endovascular intervention strategies and detailed hemodynamics to identify hemodynamic factors that affect treatment outcome. PMID:26169778

  10. IT-enabled Community Health Interventions: Challenges, Opportunities, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Kharrazi, Hadi; Weiner, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    Rising health information technology (HIT) adoption and the increasing interoperability of health data have propelled the role of IT in community-wide health transformations. Disseminating the challenges and opportunities that the early adopters of community-wide HIT interventions have experienced is critical for empowering the growing demand for community-based health systems. This special issue of eGEMs addresses that need. This issue includes a variety of community-based HIT projects covering topics such as governance, informatics, and learning health systems. These projects represent a diverse set of stakeholders, a wide selection of data sources, and multiple information platforms to collate or exchange data. We hope that this special issue of eGEMs will be the first of several future issues dedicated to community-wide HIT transformations.

  11. Understanding gut microbiota in elderly's health will enable intervention through probiotics.

    PubMed

    Pérez Martínez, G; Bäuerl, C; Collado, M C

    2014-09-01

    Today, advances in the public health system of most countries have managed to extend notably life expectancy, however, elderly's health remain as a very serious concern. The lifelong stimulation of innate and adaptive immune systems leads to immunosenescence and, as result, to a low ability to produce immunoglobulins against pathogens but also to a low-grade chronic inflammatory state (inflammaging) that is linked to most age-related health problems, such as dementia, Alzheimer or atherosclerosis. This inflammatory state could make the host more sensitive to intestinal microbes, or vice versa, as changes in the gut microbiota composition are related to the progression of diseases and frailty in the elderly population. It was considered that gut microbiota changed during aging, with an increase of Bacteroidetes vs. Firmicutes proportion and a reduction of bifidobacterial counts, however recent studies reported a great inter-individual variation among elderly and a significant relationship between gut microbiota, diet and institution or community living. Intervention studies of probiotics and prebiotics in elderly are not very abundant, but most cases showed that Bifidobacterium populations can efficiently be stimulated with a concomitant decrease of Enterobacteria. Furthermore, also some studies demonstrated that probiotics decreased the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines which are upregulated in the elderly, such as interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6 or tumour necrosis factor ?, among others, and they increased the levels of activated lymphocytes, natural killer cells, phagocytic activity and even showed a greater response to influenza vaccination. This suggests that direct manipulation of the gut microbiota may improve adaptive immune response and reduce inflammatory secretions, therefore compensating immunosenescence effects, however, there are no records of their effect on clinical symptoms or risk for disease. Those facts reveal that this is an open research field

  12. Collaborative Sense-Making in Print and Digital Text Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dennis S.; Neitzel, Carin

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the sense-making behaviors of sixth- and seventh-grade students (n = 46 dyads) as they read and discussed expository articles in print and digital formats. Most dyads approached the digital text as if it were static and linear, despite the availability of hyperlinks. Reading through (or covering) the text was the most commonly…

  13. Physician Sensemaking and Readiness for Electronic Medical Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riesenmy, Kelly Rouse

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore physician sensemaking and readiness to implement electronic medical records (EMR) as a first step to finding strategies that enhance EMR adoption behaviors. Design/methodology/approach: The case study approach provides a detailed analysis of individuals within an organizational unit. Using a…

  14. A Foresight Process as an Institutional Sensemaking Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how a foresight project supports institutional positioning efforts through joint sensemaking. Design/methodology/approach: This paper describes a case study that investigated the design, implementation, and outcomes of a foresight project at a Finnish higher education institution that selected sales…

  15. A survey of automated methods for sensemaking support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llinas, James

    2014-05-01

    Complex, dynamic problems in general present a challenge for the design of analysis support systems and tools largely because there is limited reliable a priori procedural knowledge descriptive of the dynamic processes in the environment. Problem domains that are non-cooperative or adversarial impute added difficulties involving suboptimal observational data and/or data containing the effects of deception or covertness. The fundamental nature of analysis in these environments is based on composite approaches involving mining or foraging over the evidence, discovery and learning processes, and the synthesis of fragmented hypotheses; together, these can be labeled as sensemaking procedures. This paper reviews and analyzes the features, benefits, and limitations of a variety of automated techniques that offer possible support to sensemaking processes in these problem domains.

  16. A Sensemaking Perspective on Situation Awareness in Power Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Schur, Anne; Paget, Mia L.; Guttromson, Ross T.

    2008-07-21

    With increasing complexity and interconnectivity of the electric power grid, the scope and complexity of grid operations continues to grow. New paradigms are needed to guide research to improve operations by enhancing situation awareness of operators. Research on human factors/situation awareness is described within a taxonomy of tools and approaches that address different levels of cognitive processing. While user interface features and visualization approaches represent the predominant focus of human factors studies of situation awareness, this paper argues that a complementary level, sensemaking, deserves further consideration by designers of decision support systems for power grid operations. A sensemaking perspective on situation aware-ness may reveal new insights that complement ongoing human factors research, where the focus of the investigation of errors is to understand why the decision makers experienced the situation the way they did, or why what they saw made sense to them at the time.

  17. Evaluation of the feasibility and acceptability of the ‘Care for Stroke’ intervention in India, a smartphone-enabled, carer-supported, educational intervention for management of disability following stroke

    PubMed Central

    Sureshkumar, K; Murthy, GVS; Natarajan, S; Naveen, C; Goenka, S; Kuper, H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) To identify operational issues encountered by study participants in using the ‘Care for Stroke’ intervention; (2) to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Design Mixed-methods research design. Setting Participant's home. Participants were selected from a tertiary hospital in Chennai, South India. Participants Sixty stroke survivors treated and discharged from the hospital, and their caregivers. Intervention ‘Care for Stroke’ is a smartphone-enabled, educational intervention for management of physical disabilities following stroke. It is delivered through a web-based, smartphone-enabled application. It includes inputs from stroke rehabilitation experts in a digitised format. Methods Evaluation of the intervention was completed in two phases. In the first phase, the preliminary intervention was field-tested with 30 stroke survivors for 2 weeks. In the second phase, the finalised intervention was provided to a further 30 stroke survivors to be used in their homes with support from their carers for 4 weeks. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes: (1) operational difficulties in using the intervention; (2) feasibility and acceptability of the intervention in an Indian setting. Disability and dependency were assessed as secondary outcomes. Results Field-testing identified operational difficulties related to connectivity, video-streaming, picture clarity, quality of videos, and functionality of the application. The intervention was reviewed, revised and finalised before pilot-testing. Findings from the pilot-testing showed that the ‘Care for Stroke’ intervention was feasible and acceptable. Over 90% (n=27) of the study participants felt that the intervention was relevant, comprehensible and useful. Over 96% (n=29) of the stroke survivors and all the caregivers (100%, n=30) rated the intervention as excellent and very useful. These findings were supported by qualitative interviews. Conclusions

  18. A Functional Model of Sensemaking in a Neurocognitive Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Lebiere, Christian; Paik, Jaehyon; Rutledge-Taylor, Matthew; Staszewski, James; Anderson, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Sensemaking is the active process of constructing a meaningful representation (i.e., making sense) of some complex aspect of the world. In relation to intelligence analysis, sensemaking is the act of finding and interpreting relevant facts amongst the sea of incoming reports, images, and intelligence. We present a cognitive model of core information-foraging and hypothesis-updating sensemaking processes applied to complex spatial probability estimation and decision-making tasks. While the model was developed in a hybrid symbolic-statistical cognitive architecture, its correspondence to neural frameworks in terms of both structure and mechanisms provided a direct bridge between rational and neural levels of description. Compared against data from two participant groups, the model correctly predicted both the presence and degree of four biases: confirmation, anchoring and adjustment, representativeness, and probability matching. It also favorably predicted human performance in generating probability distributions across categories, assigning resources based on these distributions, and selecting relevant features given a prior probability distribution. This model provides a constrained theoretical framework describing cognitive biases as arising from three interacting factors: the structure of the task environment, the mechanisms and limitations of the cognitive architecture, and the use of strategies to adapt to the dual constraints of cognition and the environment. PMID:24302930

  19. Integrated Cognitive-neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Phase 2 Challenge Problem Design and Test Specification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Phase 2 Challenge Problem Design and Test...SUBTITLE Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): A Computational Basis for ICArUS: Phase 2 Challenge...IARPA program ICArUS (Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking) requires a research problem that poses cognitive

  20. Collaborative Educational Leadership: The Emergence of Human Interactional Sense-Making Process as a Complex System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jäppinen, Aini-Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    The article aims at explicating the emergence of human interactional sense-making process within educational leadership as a complex system. The kind of leadership is understood as a holistic entity called collaborative leadership. There, sense-making emerges across interdependent domains, called attributes of collaborative leadership. The…

  1. Learning to see, seeing to learn: visual aspects of sensemaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Daniel M.

    2003-06-01

    When one says "I see," what is usually meant is "I understand." But what does it mean to create a sense of understanding a large, complex, problem, one with many interlocking pieces, sometimes ill-fitting data and the occasional bit of contradictory information? The traditional computer science perspective on helping people towards understanding is to provide an armamentarium of tools and techniques - databases, query tools and a variety of graphing methods. As a field, we have an overly simple perspective on what it means to grapple with real information. In practice, people who try to make sense of some thing (say, the life sciences, the Middle East, the large scale structure of the universe, their taxes) are faced with a complex collection of information, some in easy-to-digest structured forms, but with many relevant parts scattered hither and yon, in forms and shapes too difficult to manage. To create an understanding, we find that people create representations of complex information. Yet using representations relies on fairly sophisticated perceptual practices. These practices are in no way preordained, but subject to the kinds of perceptual and cognitive phenomena we see in every day life. In order to understand our information environments, we need to learn to perceive these perceptual elements, and understand when they do, and do not, work to our advantage. A more powerful approach to the problem of supporting realistic sensemaking practice is to design information environments that accommodate both the world"s information realities and people"s cognitive characteristics. This paper argues that visual aspects of representation use often dominate sensemaking behavior, and illustrates this by showing three sensemaking tools we have built that take advantage of this property.

  2. Enabling and sustaining the activities of lay health influencers: lessons from a community-based tobacco cessation intervention study.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Muramoto, Myra

    2010-07-01

    The authors present findings from a community-based tobacco cessation project that trained lay health influencers to conduct brief interventions. They outline four major lessons regarding sustainability. First, participants were concerned about the impact that promoting cessation might have on social relationships. "Social risk" must be addressed during training to ensure long-term sustainability. Second, formal training provided participants with an increased sense of self-efficacy, allowed them to embrace a health influencer identity, and aided in further reducing social risk. Third, material resources functioned to mediate social tensions during health intervention conversations. A variety of resources should be made available to health influencers to accommodate type of relationship, timing, and location of the interaction. Finally, project design must be attentive to the creation of a "community of practice" among health influencers as an integral part of project sustainability. These lessons have broad implications for successful health promotion beyond tobacco cessation.

  3. Deinstitutionalisation from the perspective of sensemaking: An empirical investigation of the Electricity of Vietnam Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tham, H. A.

    This thesis is a study of deinstitutionalisation seeking to understand the evolvement of deinstitutionalisation process via the lens of sensemaking. It does so by conducting an in-depth qualitative, case study-based empirical study of the processual nature of deinstitutionalisation and the significance of organisational sensemaking during the deinstitutionalisation process. An interdisciplinary approach is adopted drawing insights from various literatures including institutional theory, sensemaking and social psychology. The need for greater understanding of the deinstitutionalisation phenomenon, especially its process is acknowledged after relevant literatures are reviewed. The potential of using microanalysis in examining the deinstitutionalisation process is demonstrated. The sensemaking perspective is thus used to facilitate this processual research. Findings have important implications for the theoretical development of institutional changes, sensemaking and especially deinstitutionalisation. First of all, the model and evidence sheds some light on the nature and development of the deinstitutionalisation process. Secondly, the analytic capacity of the institutional theory especially its descriptive and predictive contents are tested in the context of evolving institutions. The relative strengths of regulative, cognitive and normative influences in non-conventional cultural and institutional contexts extend our knowledge of institutional change and effects. Using sensemaking perspective, the findings also demonstrate the role and power of resistance during institutional processes and explain the possibility of multiple paces and outcomes within a single deinstitutionalisation process. As for sensemaking, crisis sensemaking will be examined in a new context: disaster-struck but not life-threatening. In practical terms, this study is carried out in an organisational context therefore it has relevant managerial implications.

  4. ‘Care for Stroke’, a web-based, smartphone-enabled educational intervention for management of physical disabilities following stroke: feasibility in the Indian context

    PubMed Central

    Sureshkumar, K; Murthy, G V S; Munuswamy, Suresh; Goenka, Shifalika; Kuper, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stroke rehabilitation is a process targeted towards restoration or maintenance of the physical, mental, intellectual and social abilities of an individual affected by stroke. Unlike high-income countries, the resources for stroke rehabilitation are very limited in many low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Provision of cost-effective, post-stroke multidisciplinary rehabilitation services for the stroke survivors therefore becomes crucial to address the unmet needs and growing magnitude of disability experienced by the stroke survivors in LMICs. In order to meet the growing need for post-stroke rehabilitation services in India, we developed a web-based Smartphone-enabled educational intervention for management of physical disabilities following a stroke. Methods On the basis of the findings from the rehabilitation needs assessment study, guidance from the expert group and available evidence from systematic reviews, the framework of the intervention content was designed. Web-based application designing and development by Professional application developers were subsequently undertaken. Results The application is called ‘Care for Stroke’. It is a web-based educational intervention for management of physical disabilities following a stroke. This intervention is developed for use by the Stroke survivors who have any kind of rehabilitation needs to independently participate in his/her family and social roles. Discussion ‘Care for stroke’ is an innovative intervention which could be tested not just for its feasibility and acceptability but also for its clinical and cost-effectiveness through rigorously designed, randomised clinical trials. It is very important to test this intervention in LMICs where the rehabilitation and information needs of the stroke survivors seem to be substantial and largely unmet. PMID:26246902

  5. Integrated Cognitive-neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): A Computational Basis for ICArUS Challenge Problem Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): A Computational Basis for ICArUS Challenge...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): A Computational Basis for ICArUS...Advanced Research Projects Activity) program ICArUS (Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking) requires

  6. Barriers and enablers of health promotion, prevention and early intervention in primary care: evidence to inform the Australian national dementia strategy.

    PubMed

    Travers, Catherine; Martin-Khan, Melinda; Lie, David

    2009-06-01

    A comprehensive literature review was undertaken to: (i) identify and summarise the research evidence regarding barriers and enablers of health promotion, prevention and early intervention (PPEI) in primary care to reduce the risk of chronic disease in the older population; and (ii) use this evidence to make recommendations to inform the Australian national dementia prevention strategy around the translation of evidence-based care into practice. PPEI activities in primary care have the potential to not only reduce the prevalence and impact of a number of chronic diseases, but may also prevent or slow the onset of dementia given the apparent overlap in risk factors. While sizeable gaps exist regarding the most effective ways to promote the adoption of these activities, limited evidence suggests that, to be effective, PPEI activities should be quick and easy to administer, have a sound rationale and be readily incorporated into existing work processes.

  7. The climate visualizer: Sense-making through scientific visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordin, Douglas N.; Polman, Joseph L.; Pea, Roy D.

    1994-12-01

    This paper describes the design of a learning environment, called the Climate Visualizer, intended to facilitate scientific sense-making in high school classrooms by providing students the ability to craft, inspect, and annotate scientific visualizations. The theoretical back-ground for our design presents a view of learning as acquiring and critiquing cultural practices and stresses the need for students to appropriate the social and material aspects of practice when learning an area. This is followed by a description of the design of the Climate Visualizer, including detailed accounts of its provision of spatial and temporal context and the quantitative and visual representations it employs. A broader context is then explored by describing its integration into the high school science classroom. This discussion explores how visualizations can promote the creation of scientific theories, especially in conjunction with the Collaboratory Notebook, an embedded environment for creating and critiquing scientific theories and visualizations. Finally, we discuss the design trade-offs we have made in light of our theoretical orientation, and our hopes for further progress.

  8. Inferior vena cava filter insertion through the popliteal vein: enabling the percutaneous endovenous intervention of deep vein thrombosis with a single venous access approach in a single session

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoung Ook; Kim, Jae Kyu; Park, Jin Gyoon; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kang, Yang Jun; Jung, Hye Doo

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the efficiency of placing an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter through the same popliteal vein access site used for percutaneous endovenous intervention in patients with extensive lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. METHODS This retrospective study included 21 patients who underwent IVC filter insertion through the popliteal vein over a three-year period. Patient medical records were reviewed for the location of the deep vein thrombosis, result of filter removal, and total number of endovascular procedures needed for filter insertion and recanalization of the lower extremity venous system. Follow-up lower extremity computed tomography (CT) venography was also reviewed in each patient to assess the degree of filter tilt in the IVC. RESULTS All patients had extensive lower extremity deep vein thrombosis involving the iliac vein and/or femoral vein. Seventeen patients showed deep vein thrombosis of the calf veins. In all patients, IVC filter insertion and the recanalization procedure were performed during a single procedure through the single popliteal vein access site. In the 17 patients undergoing follow-up CT, the mean tilt angle of the filter was 7.14°±4.48° in the coronal plane and 8.77°±5.49° in the sagittal plane. Filter retrieval was successful in 16 of 17 patients (94.1%) in whom filter retrieval was attempted. CONCLUSION Transpopliteal IVC filter insertion is an efficient technique that results in low rates of significant filter tilt and enables a single session procedure using a single venous access site for filter insertion and percutaneous endovenous intervention. PMID:27559713

  9. The Use of Assessment for Institutional Sensemaking by Top Administrative Officials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegeman, Johnston Niven

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between the degree to which top administrators of four-year colleges and universities that have been effective in implementing and sustaining assessment view the use of assessment and seven components of institutional sensemaking at their institutions. The underlying premise is that outcomes assessment…

  10. Sense-Making, Grief, and the Experience of Violent Loss: Toward a Mediational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currier, Joseph M.; Holland, Jason M.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Bereavement following violent loss by accident, homicide or suicide increases the risk for complications in grieving. This is the first study to examine a constructivist model of grief that proposes that sense-making, or the capacity to construct an understanding of the loss experience, mediates the association between violent death and…

  11. In the Sandbox: Individuals and Collectives in Organizational Learning as Sense-Making through Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popova-Nowak, Irina V.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a grounded theory of connections between individual and collective (group and organizational) levels of analysis through the examination of play and sense-making as integral parts of organizational learning (OL) by relying on the meta-paradigm theoretical framework. The study employed grounded theory as its…

  12. Sensemaking and New College Presidents: A Conceptual Study of the Transition Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smerek, Ryan E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the sensemaking processes of new college presidents to understand how they develop plausible, working descriptions of the campus and come to understand their role. Semi-structured interviews were completed with 18 presidents who were organizational outsiders and first-time presidents. As newcomers, presidents were found to act…

  13. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Sense-Making by Department of Defense Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, John L., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore the perceptions and lived experiences of Department of Defense (DOD) civilian employees to identify how their personal sense-making affects their coaching of adult students. The author used an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) method involving personal interviews…

  14. Emotions and Sensemaking: A Consideration of a Community College Presidential Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Kerri S.

    2013-01-01

    A change in primary leadership for a community college presents distinct challenges for its employees. The case study research reported in this article is based on emotions and sensemaking data that were collected at an urban community college in the midst of a presidential transition. Analysis of the data led to a primary focus on the period of…

  15. Beyond Epistemological Deficits: Dynamic Explanations of Engineering Students' Difficulties with Mathematical Sense-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have argued against deficit-based explanations of students' difficulties with mathematical sense-making, pointing instead to factors such as epistemology. Students' beliefs about knowledge and learning can hinder the activation and integration of productive knowledge they have. Such explanations, however, risk falling into a…

  16. Sense-Making in a Temporary Organization: Implementing a New Curriculum in a Swedish Municipality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordholm, Daniel Erik

    2015-01-01

    This article explores sense-making in a municipality-led temporary organization established in response to the introduction of a new curriculum and marking system in Sweden. Qualitative data were extracted from audio-recorded interviews (n = 18) and observations of central subject group meetings (n = 6). By applying core elements of sociological…

  17. Principals' Sensemaking of Coaching for Ambitious Reading Instruction in a High-Stakes Accountability Policy Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsummura, Lindsay Clare; Wang, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    In the present exploratory qualitative study we examine the contextual factors that influenced the implementation of a multi-year comprehensive literacy-coaching program (Content-Focused Coaching, CFC). We argue that principals' sensemaking of the dialogic instructional strategies promoted by the program in light of high-stakes accountability…

  18. Student Sensemaking with Science Diagrams in a Computer-Based Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furberg, Anniken; Kluge, Anders; Ludvigsen, Sten

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of students' conceptual sensemaking with science diagrams within a computer-based learning environment aimed at supporting collaborative learning. Through the microanalysis of students' interactions in a project about energy and heat transfer, we demonstrate "how" representations become productive social and cognitive…

  19. Teachers' Positioning towards an Educational Innovation in the Light of Ownership, Sense-Making and Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketelaar, Evelien; Beijaard, Douwe; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.; Den Brok, Perry J.

    2012-01-01

    The positioning of eleven teachers towards an innovation was studied in the light of ownership, sense-making and agency. Semi-structured and video-stimulated interviews were used for data collection. The findings show that these three concepts are useful for describing similarities and differences between teachers in terms of their positioning…

  20. A Dialogic Account of Sense-Making in Scientific Argumentation and Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This article identifies aspects of argumentation in scientific practice that are key for scientific sense-making and articulates how engagement in these aspects happens both inter-mentally (between people) and intra-mentally (an individual's reasoning). Institutionally, peer review exerts critique on new knowledge claims in science and is…

  1. Knowledge Enabled Logistics (KEL)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    decentralization of work , globalization, telecommuting , emphasis on constant learning, and greater use of teams within the workplace. While these...GLENN W. HARSHBERGER Work Unit Manager Anticipate & Influence Behavior Division Sensemaking & Organizational...NUMBER 2830 5e. TASK NUMBER 05 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 28300504 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  2. Exploring the potential of a capability framework as a vision and "sensemaking" tool for leaders of interprofessional education.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Margo

    2016-09-01

    Creating a vision (visioning) and sensemaking have been described as key leadership practices in the leadership literature. A vision provides clarity, motivation, and direction for staff, and is essential particularly in times of significant change. Closely related to visioning is sensemaking (the organisation of stimuli into a framework allowing people to understand, explain, attribute, extrapolate, and predict). The application of these strategies to leadership within the interprofessional field is yet to be scrutinised. This study examines an interprofessional capability framework as a visioning and sensemaking tool for use by leaders within a university health science curriculum. Interviews with 11 faculty members revealed that the framework had been embedded across multiple years and contexts within the curriculum. Furthermore, a range of responses to the framework were evoked in relation to its use to make sense of interprofessional practice and to provide a vision, guide, and focus for faculty. Overall the findings indicate that the framework can function as both a visioning and sensemaking tool.

  3. Making sense of shared sense-making in an inquiry-based science classroom: Toward a sociocultural theory of mind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladewski, Barbara G.

    Despite considerable exploration of inquiry and reflection in the literatures of science education and teacher education/teacher professional development over the past century, few theoretical or analytical tools exist to characterize these processes within a naturalistic classroom context. In addition, little is known regarding possible developmental trajectories for inquiry or reflection---for teachers or students---as these processes develop within a classroom context over time. In the dissertation, I use a sociocultural lens to explore these issues with an eye to the ways in which teachers and students develop shared sense-making, rather than from the more traditional perspective of individual teacher activity or student learning. The study includes both theoretical and empirical components. Theoretically, I explore the elaborations of sociocultural theory needed to characterize teacher-student shared sense-making as it develops within a classroom context, and, in particular, the role of inquiry and reflection in that sense-making. I develop a sociocultural model of shared sense-making that attempts to represent the dialectic between the individual and the social, through an elaboration of existing sociocultural and psychological constructs, including Vygotsky's zone of proximal development and theory of mind. Using this model as an interpretive framework, I develop a case study that explores teacher-student shared sense-making within a middle-school science classroom across a year of scaffolded introduction to inquiry-based science instruction. The empirical study serves not only as a test case for the theoretical model, but also informs our understanding regarding possible developmental trajectories and important mechanisms supporting and constraining shared sense-making within inquiry-based science classrooms. Theoretical and empirical findings provide support for the idea that perspectival shifts---that is, shifts of point-of-view that alter relationships

  4. Integrated Cognitive-neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Phase 2 Challenge Problem Walkthrough

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Phase 2 Challenge Problem Walkthrough Kevin Burns...IARPA-BAA-10-04, via contract 2009- 0917826-016, and is subject to the Rights in Data-General Clause 52.227-14, Alt. IV (DEC 2007). Any views and...governmental purposes notwithstanding any copyright annotation therein. © 2014 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved. Approved for Public

  5. Organizational sensemaking about risk controls: the case of offshore hydrocarbons production.

    PubMed

    Busby, J S; Collins, A M

    2014-09-01

    In the same way that individuals' risk perceptions can influence how they behave toward risks, how organizational members make sense of risk controls is an important influence on how they apply and maintain such controls. In this article, we describe an analysis of sensemaking about the control of risk in offshore hydrocarbons production, an industry that continues to produce disasters of societal significance. A field study of 80 interviews was conducted in five offshore oil and gas companies and the agency that regulates them. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative template analysis. This provided a categorization of the many ways of acting through which informants made sense of the risk control task, and indicated that the organizations placed substantially different emphases on different ways of acting. Nevertheless, this sensemaking fell into two broad classes: that which tended to limit or be pessimistic about organizational controls, and that which tended to extend or be optimistic about organizational controls. All the participating organizations collectively placed a balanced emphasis on these two classes. We argue that this balanced sensemaking is an adaptation rather than a deliberate choice, but that it is an important element of controlling risk in its own right.

  6. The EPICS Trial: Enabling Parents to Increase Child Survival through the introduction of community-based health interventions in rural Guinea Bissau

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Vera; Fazzio, Ila; King, Rebecca; Walker, Polly; dos Santos, Albino; Carlos de Sa, Jose; Jayanti, Chitra; Frost, Chris; Elbourne, Diana; Boone, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background Guinea-Bissau is a small country in West Africa with a population of 1.7 million. The WHO and UNICEF reported an under-five child mortality of 203 per 1000, the 10th highest amongst 192 countries. The aim of the trial is to assess whether an intervention package that includes community health promotion campaign and education through health clubs, intensive training and mentoring of village health workers to diagnose and provide first-line treatment for children's diseases within the community, and improved outreach services can generate a rapid and cost-effective reduction in under-five child mortality in rural regions of Guinea-Bissau. Effective Intervention plans to expand the project to a much larger region if there is good evidence after two and a half years that the project is generating a cost-effective, sustainable reduction in child mortality. Methods/design This trial is a cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 146 clusters. The trial will run for 2.5 years. The interventions will be introduced in two stages: seventy-three clusters will receive the interventions at the start of the project, and seventy-three control clusters will receive the interventions 2.5 years after the first clusters have received all interventions if the research shows that the interventions are effective. The impact of the interventions and cost-effectiveness will be measured during the first stage. The package of interventions includes a community health promotion campaign and education through health clubs, and intensive training and mentoring of village health workers to diagnose and provide first-line treatment for common children's diseases within the community. It also includes improved outreach services to encourage provision of antenatal and post natal care and provide ongoing monitoring for village health workers. The primary outcome of the trial will be the proportion of children that die under 5 years of age during the trial. Secondary outcomes will

  7. A Sensemaking Visualization Tool with Military Doctrinal Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    design is to enable information sharing in a community of battle staffs. As noted by Eppler and Burkhard (2004), knowledge visualization allows visual...Introduction to Generalized Linear Models, end Edition. Eppler, M., and Burkhard , R. (2004). Knowledge visualization: Towards a new discipline and its

  8. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Rehabilitation Enablement in Chronic Heart Failure (REACH-HF) facilitated self-care rehabilitation intervention in heart failure patients and caregivers: rationale and protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, R S; Hayward, C; Eyre, V; Austin, J; Davies, R; Doherty, P; Jolly, K; Wingham, J; Van Lingen, R; Abraham, C; Green, C; Warren, FC; Britten, N; Greaves, C J; Singh, S; Buckingham, S; Paul, K; Dalal, H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Rehabilitation EnAblement in CHronic Heart Failure (REACH-HF) trial is part of a research programme designed to develop and evaluate a health professional facilitated, home-based, self-help rehabilitation intervention to improve self-care and health-related quality of life in people with heart failure and their caregivers. The trial will assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the REACH-HF intervention in patients with systolic heart failure and impact on the outcomes of their caregivers. Methods and analysis A parallel two group randomised controlled trial with 1:1 individual allocation to the REACH-HF intervention plus usual care (intervention group) or usual care alone (control group) in 216 patients with systolic heart failure (ejection fraction <45%) and their caregivers. The intervention comprises a self-help manual delivered by specially trained facilitators over a 12-week period. The primary outcome measure is patients’ disease-specific health-related quality of life measured using the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire at 12 months’ follow-up. Secondary outcomes include survival and heart failure related hospitalisation, blood biomarkers, psychological well-being, exercise capacity, physical activity, other measures of quality of life, patient safety and the quality of life, psychological well-being and perceived burden of caregivers at 4, 6 and 12 months’ follow-up. A process evaluation will assess fidelity of intervention delivery and explore potential mediators and moderators of changes in health-related quality of life in intervention and control group patients. Qualitative studies will describe patient and caregiver experiences of the intervention. An economic evaluation will estimate the cost-effectiveness of the REACH-HF intervention plus usual care versus usual care alone in patients with systolic heart failure. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the North West

  9. Borders and Modal Articulations. Semiotic Constructs of Sensemaking Processes Enabling a Fecund Dialogue Between Cultural Psychology and Clinical Psychology.

    PubMed

    De Luca Picione, Raffaele; Freda, Maria Francesca

    2016-03-01

    The notion of the border is an interesting advancement in research on the processes of meaning making within the cultural psychology. The development of this notion in semiotic key allows to handle with adequate complexity construction, transformation, stability and the breakup of the relationship between person/world/otherness. These semiotic implications have already been widely discussed and exposed by authors such Valsiner (2007, 2014), Neuman (2003, 2008), Simão (Culture & Psychology, 9, 449-459, 2003, Theory & Psychology, 15, 549-574, 2005, 2015), with respect to issues of identity/relatedness, inside/outside, stability/change in the irreversible flow of the time. In this work, after showing some of the basics of such semiotic notion of border, we discuss the processes of construction and transformation of borders through the modal articulation, defined as the contextual positioning that the person assumes with respect to the establishment of a boundary in terms of necessity, obligation, willingness, possibility, permission, ability. This modal subjective positioning acquires considerable interest from the clinical point of view since its degree of plasticity vs that of rigidity is the basis of processes of development or stiffening of relations between person/world/otherness.

  10. Towards Understanding How to Leverage Sense-Making, Induction and Refinement, and Fluency to Improve Robust Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doroudi, Shayan; Holstein, Kenneth; Aleven, Vincent; Brunskill, Emma

    2015-01-01

    The field of EDM has focused more on modeling student knowledge than on investigating what sequences of different activity types achieve good learning outcomes. In this paper we consider three activity types, targeting sense-making, induction and refinement, and fluency building. We investigate what mix of the three types might be most effective…

  11. Level of Sense-Making in Children with Autistic Disorder and Intellectual Disability: Patterns of Delay and Deviance in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined levels of sense-making in relation to adaptive functioning and autism symptomatology in low-functioning children with autistic disorder. Thirty-six children with autistic disorder and intellectual disability were compared with 27 children with intellectual disability and 33 typically developing children with a comparable…

  12. The Life Course and Sense-Making: Immigrant Families' Journeys toward Understanding Educational Policies and Choosing Bilingual Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorner, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Implementing policies relies on their design, the will and capacity of implementors, the organizations within which implementation occurs, and individuals' interpretations. Despite the fact that families' decisions are critical to the successful implementation of educational programs, however, few studies examine their sense-making processes.…

  13. Role Identity: At the Intersection of Organizational Socialization and Individual Sensemaking of New Principals and Vice-Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grodzki, John S.

    2011-01-01

    This study of one mid-sized Canadian school district employed a case study approach to uncover and document the influences of organizational socialization, sensemaking, and perceptions of self-efficacy on the development of administrators' role identities. Findings describe formal and informal socialization processes experienced by administrators,…

  14. Students' Meaning-Making and Sense-Making of Vocational Knowledge in Dutch Senior Secondary Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijlsma, Nienke; Schaap, Harmen; de Bruijn, Elly

    2016-01-01

    Meaning-making and sense-making are generally assumed to be part of students' personal vocational knowledge development, since they contribute to both students' socialisation in a vocation and students' personalisation of concepts, values and beliefs regarding that vocation. However, how students in vocational education acquire meaning and make…

  15. Sense-Making as a Lens on Everyday Change Leadership Practice: The Case of Holly Tree Primary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Pat; Hall, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Scholars of educational change agree that leaders need to develop a vision, build capacity and ensure ownership of change by staff. We argue that understanding the actual work that leaders must do in order to convert these categories into action, requires a social practice approach. Taking the notion of sense-making as a social practice, drawn…

  16. The parietal cortex in sensemaking: the dissociation of multiple types of spatial information.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanlong; Wang, Hongbin

    2013-01-01

    According to the data-frame theory, sensemaking is a macrocognitive process in which people try to make sense of or explain their observations by processing a number of explanatory structures called frames until the observations and frames become congruent. During the sensemaking process, the parietal cortex has been implicated in various cognitive tasks for the functions related to spatial and temporal information processing, mathematical thinking, and spatial attention. In particular, the parietal cortex plays important roles by extracting multiple representations of magnitudes at the early stages of perceptual analysis. By a series of neural network simulations, we demonstrate that the dissociation of different types of spatial information can start early with a rather similar structure (i.e., sensitivity on a common metric), but accurate representations require specific goal-directed top-down controls due to the interference in selective attention. Our results suggest that the roles of the parietal cortex rely on the hierarchical organization of multiple spatial representations and their interactions. The dissociation and interference between different types of spatial information are essentially the result of the competition at different levels of abstraction.

  17. Sense-making for intelligence analysis on social media data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritzkau, Albert

    2016-05-01

    Social networks, in particular online social networks as a subset, enable the analysis of social relationships which are represented by interaction, collaboration, or other sorts of influence between people. Any set of people and their internal social relationships can be modelled as a general social graph. These relationships are formed by exchanging emails, making phone calls, or carrying out a range of other activities that build up the network. This paper presents an overview of current approaches to utilizing social media as a ubiquitous sensor network in the context of national and global security. Exploitation of social media is usually an interdisciplinary endeavour, in which the relevant technologies and methods are identified and linked in order ultimately demonstrate selected applications. Effective and efficient intelligence is usually accomplished in a combined human and computer effort. Indeed, the intelligence process heavily depends on combining a human's flexibility, creativity, and cognitive ability with the bandwidth and processing power of today's computers. To improve the usability and accuracy of the intelligence analysis we will have to rely on data-processing tools at the level of natural language. Especially the collection and transformation of unstructured data into actionable, structured data requires scalable computational algorithms ranging from Artificial Intelligence, via Machine Learning, to Natural Language Processing (NLP). To support intelligence analysis on social media data, social media analytics is concerned with developing and evaluating computational tools and frameworks to collect, monitor, analyze, summarize, and visualize social media data. Analytics methods are employed to extract of significant patterns that might not be obvious. As a result, different data representations rendering distinct aspects of content and interactions serve as a means to adapt the focus of the intelligence analysis to specific information

  18. Large High Resolution Displays for Co-Located Collaborative Sensemaking: Display Usage and Territoriality

    SciTech Connect

    Bradel, Lauren; Endert, Alexander; Koch, Kristen; Andrews, Christopher; North, Chris

    2013-08-01

    Large, high-resolution vertical displays carry the potential to increase the accuracy of collaborative sensemaking, given correctly designed visual analytics tools. From an exploratory user study using a fictional textual intelligence analysis task, we investigated how users interact with the display to construct spatial schemas and externalize information, as well as how they establish shared and private territories. We investigated the space management strategies of users partitioned by type of tool philosophy followed (visualization- or text-centric). We classified the types of territorial behavior exhibited in terms of how the users interacted with information on the display (integrated or independent workspaces). Next, we examined how territorial behavior impacted the common ground between the pairs of users. Finally, we offer design suggestions for building future co-located collaborative visual analytics tools specifically for use on large, high-resolution vertical displays.

  19. Sixteen years of collaborative learning through active sense-making in physics (CLASP) at UC Davis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Wendell; Webb, David; Paul, Cassandra; West, Emily; Bowen, Mark; Weiss, Brenda; Coleman, Lawrence; De Leone, Charles

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes our large reformed introductory physics course at UC Davis, which bioscience students have been taking since 1996. The central feature of this course is a focus on sense-making by the students during the 5 h per week discussion/labs in which the students take part in activities emphasizing peer-peer discussions, argumentation, and presentations of ideas. The course differs in many fundamental ways from traditionally taught introductory physics courses. After discussing the unique features of CLASP and its implementation at UC Davis, various student outcome measures are presented that show increased performance by students who took the CLASP course compared to students who took a traditionally taught introductory physics course. Measures we use include upper-division GPAs, MCAT scores, FCI gains, and MPEX-II scores.

  20. Application of a sensemaking approach to ethics training in the physical sciences and engineering.

    PubMed

    Kligyte, Vykinta; Marcy, Richard T; Waples, Ethan P; Sevier, Sydney T; Godfrey, Elaine S; Mumford, Michael D; Hougen, Dean F

    2008-06-01

    Integrity is a critical determinant of the effectiveness of research organizations in terms of producing high quality research and educating the new generation of scientists. A number of responsible conduct of research (RCR) training programs have been developed to address this growing organizational concern. However, in spite of a significant body of research in ethics training, it is still unknown which approach has the highest potential to enhance researchers' integrity. One of the approaches showing some promise in improving researchers' integrity has focused on the development of ethical decision-making skills. The current effort proposes a novel curriculum that focuses on broad metacognitive reasoning strategies researchers use when making sense of day-to-day social and professional practices that have ethical implications for the physical sciences and engineering. This sensemaking training has been implemented in a professional sample of scientists conducting research in electrical engineering, atmospheric and computer sciences at a large multi-cultural, multi-disciplinary, and multi-university research center. A pre-post design was used to assess training effectiveness using scenario-based ethical decision-making measures. The training resulted in enhanced ethical decision-making of researchers in relation to four ethical conduct areas, namely data management, study conduct, professional practices, and business practices. In addition, sensemaking training led to researchers' preference for decisions involving the application of the broad metacognitive reasoning strategies. Individual trainee and training characteristics were used to explain the study findings. Broad implications of the findings for ethics training development, implementation, and evaluation in the sciences are discussed.

  1. Application of a Sensemaking Approach to Ethics Training in the Physical Sciences and Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kligyte, Vykinta; Marcy, Richard T.; Waples, Ethan P.; Sevier, Sydney T.; Godfrey, Elaine S.; Mumford, Michael D.; Hougen, Dean F.

    2008-06-01

    Integrity is a critical determinant of the effectiveness of research organizations in terms of producing high quality research and educating the new generation of scientists. A number of responsible conduct of research (RCR) training programs have been developed to address this growing organizational concern. However, in spite of a significant body of research in ethics training, it is still unknown which approach has the highest potential to enhance researchers' integrity. One of the approaches showing some promise in improving researchers' integrity has focused on the development of ethical decision-making skills. The current effort proposes a novel curriculum that focuses on broad metacognitive reasoning strategies researchers use when making sense of day-to-day social and professional practices that have ethical implications for the physical sciences and engineering. This sensemaking training has been implemented in a professional sample of scientists conducting research in electrical engineering, atmospheric and computer sciences at a large multi-cultural, multi-disciplinary, and multi-university research center. A pre-post design was used to assess training effectiveness using scenario-based ethical decision-making measures. The training resulted in enhanced ethical decision-making of researchers in relation to four ethical conduct areas, namely data management, study conduct, professional practices, and business practices. In addition, sensemaking training led to researchers' preference for decisions involving the application of the broad metacognitive reasoning strategies. Individual trainee and training characteristics were used to explain the study findings. Broad implications of the findings for ethics training development, implementation, and evaluation in the sciences are discussed.

  2. Teacher sense-making and policy implementation: A qualitative case study of a school system's reading initiative in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, John R.

    In response to the No Child Left Behind federal legislation and Maryland's Bridge to Excellence Act, a school district created a strategic plan that included a program initiative for improving student reading scores in secondary schools. The initiative involved the implementation of Reading Apprenticeship, a program that required content teachers to infuse reading instruction into their practice by modeling reading behaviors and utilizing tools designed to promote metacognitive conversations with their students. This qualitative case study used a cognitive perspective to explore the sense-making of a team of middle school science teachers who received training in and sought to implement the program in their instructional practice during the 2004--2005 school year. The findings revealed that policy implementation varied for the different members of the team and was adversely affected by conflict with other policies and resistance by students. At the same time, policy implementation was enhanced by participation in the communities of practice associated with the initiative. Implications from the study advocate that school districts actively engage in sense-making activities and support communities of practice that are established when new policy measures are introduced. The study calls for further research on how students receive policy and how they shape their teachers' sense-making. This study contributed to the sparse body of literature in this arena of policy implementation research.

  3. Using interactive visual reasoning to support sense-making: implications for design.

    PubMed

    Kodagoda, Neesha; Attfield, Simon; Wong, B L William; Rooney, Chris; Choudhury, Sharmin Tinni

    2013-12-01

    This research aims to develop design guidelines for systems that support investigators and analysts in the exploration and assembly of evidence and inferences. We focus here on the problem of identifying candidate 'influencers' within a community of practice. To better understand this problem and its related cognitive and interaction needs, we conducted a user study using a system called INVISQUE (INteractive Visual Search and QUery Environment) loaded with content from the ACM Digital Library. INVISQUE supports search and manipulation of results over a freeform infinite 'canvas'. The study focuses on the representations user create and their reasoning process. It also draws on some pre-established theories and frameworks related to sense-making and cognitive work in general, which we apply as a 'theoretical lenses' to consider findings and articulate solutions. Analysing the user-study data in the light of these provides some understanding of how the high-level problem of identifying key players within a domain can translate into lower-level questions and interactions. This, in turn, has informed our understanding of representation and functionality needs at a level of description which abstracts away from the specifics of the problem at hand to the class of problems of interest. We consider the study outcomes from the perspective of implications for design.

  4. Empowering Prospective Teachers to Become Active Sense-Makers: Multimodal Modeling of the Seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Mi Song

    2015-10-01

    Situating science concepts in concrete and authentic contexts, using information and communications technologies, including multimodal modeling tools, is important for promoting the development of higher-order thinking skills in learners. However, teachers often struggle to integrate emergent multimodal models into a technology-rich informal learning environment. Our design-based research co-designs and develops engaging, immersive, and interactive informal learning activities called "Embodied Modeling-Mediated Activities" (EMMA) to support not only Singaporean learners' deep learning of astronomy but also the capacity of teachers. As part of the research on EMMA, this case study describes two prospective teachers' co-design processes involving multimodal models for teaching and learning the concept of the seasons in a technology-rich informal learning setting. Our study uncovers four prominent themes emerging from our data concerning the contextualized nature of learning and teaching involving multimodal models in informal learning contexts: (1) promoting communication and emerging questions, (2) offering affordances through limitations, (3) explaining one concept involving multiple concepts, and (4) integrating teaching and learning experiences. This study has an implication for the development of a pedagogical framework for teaching and learning in technology-enhanced learning environments—that is empowering teachers to become active sense-makers using multimodal models.

  5. Low-Income Latino Students and California's Early Assessment Program: The Role of Sensemaking in the Use of College Readiness Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    California's Early Assessment Program is designed to notify students about their college readiness, encouraging them to take action to improve their skills during their senior year. The author uses qualitative methods and applies sense-making theory to examine how students attending majority Latino, low-income high schools make sense of the…

  6. Sense-making and the Solution of Division Problems Involving Remainders: An Examination of Students' Solution Processes and Their Interpretations of Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Edward A.; And Others

    This paper reports the latest in a series of studies investigating children's performance in solving division story problems involving remainders. One aspect of the work involved examining the way in which "sense-making" is involved in the interpretation of the numerical solution obtained. Subjects were 195 sixth, seventh, and eighth…

  7. It Takes a (Virtual) Village: Exploring the Role of a Career Community to Support Sensemaking As a Proactive Socialization Practice.

    PubMed

    Good, Darren; Cavanagh, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Scholars have long advocated for individuals to play a more proactive role during organizational entry rather than relying on institutionally led processes. The primary benefit being that the newcomer moves from passive recipient, dependent on the institution to highlight relevant information, to active agent with self-determined sources and methods to aid in adjustment. A virtual career community made up of 12 first year business faculty members was created to provide such a self-determined source of support during the transition from doctoral studies to full-time assistant professorship. After the entry period (1 academic year), the interactions in this community were used as data for a phenomenon driven research study. The results illustrate how a virtual career community could be used as a proactive socialization tool by encouraging sensemaking amongst first year faculty peers. The sensemaking process consists of perceived contrasts and tensions, followed by positive and negative self-disclosures, community feedback, and the experience of cognitive-behavioral shifts. The findings also expand the proactive use of external referents during organizational entry, which previously had only looked at friends and family members of the newcomer.

  8. It Takes a (Virtual) Village: Exploring the Role of a Career Community to Support Sensemaking As a Proactive Socialization Practice

    PubMed Central

    Good, Darren; Cavanagh, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Scholars have long advocated for individuals to play a more proactive role during organizational entry rather than relying on institutionally led processes. The primary benefit being that the newcomer moves from passive recipient, dependent on the institution to highlight relevant information, to active agent with self-determined sources and methods to aid in adjustment. A virtual career community made up of 12 first year business faculty members was created to provide such a self-determined source of support during the transition from doctoral studies to full-time assistant professorship. After the entry period (1 academic year), the interactions in this community were used as data for a phenomenon driven research study. The results illustrate how a virtual career community could be used as a proactive socialization tool by encouraging sensemaking amongst first year faculty peers. The sensemaking process consists of perceived contrasts and tensions, followed by positive and negative self-disclosures, community feedback, and the experience of cognitive-behavioral shifts. The findings also expand the proactive use of external referents during organizational entry, which previously had only looked at friends and family members of the newcomer. PMID:28220088

  9. Dynamic social representations of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic: Shifting patterns of sense-making and blame.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Eric; Eicher, Véronique; Bangerter, Adrian; Gilles, Ingrid; Clémence, Alain; Green, Eva G T

    2013-11-01

    We investigate dynamics of public perceptions of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic to understand changing patterns of sense-making and blame regarding the outbreak of emerging infectious diseases. We draw on social representation theory combined with a dramaturgical perspective to identify changes in how various collectives are depicted over the course of the pandemic, according to three roles: heroes, villains and victims. Quantitative results based on content analysis of three cross-sectional waves of interviews show a shift from mentions of distant collectives (e.g., far-flung countries) at Wave 1 to local collectives (e.g., risk groups) as the pandemic became of more immediate concern (Wave 2) and declined (Wave 3). Semi-automated content analysis of media coverage shows similar results. Thematic analyses of the discourse associated with collectives revealed that many were consistently perceived as heroes, villains and victims.

  10. Outcomes from Enabling Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Oanh; Ball, Katrina

    The outcomes of enabling courses offered in Australia's vocational education and training (VET) sector were examined. "Enabling course" was defined as lower-level preparatory and prevocational courses covering a wide range of areas, including remedial education, bridging courses, precertificate courses, and general employment preparation…

  11. Technology Enabled Learning. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers on technology-enabled learning and human resource development. Among results found in "Current State of Technology-enabled Learning Programs in Select Federal Government Organizations: a Case Study of Ten Organizations" (Letitia A. Combs) are the following: the dominant delivery method is traditional…

  12. Rehabilitation Enablement in Chronic Heart Failure—a facilitated self-care rehabilitation intervention in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (REACH-HFpEF) and their caregivers: rationale and protocol for a single-centre pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lang, C C; Smith, K; Jolly, K; Davis, R; Hayward, C; Wingham, J; Abraham, C; Green, C; Warren, F C; Britten, N; Greaves, C J; Doherty, P; Austin, J; Van Lingen, R; Singh, S; Buckingham, S; Paul, K; Taylor, R S; Dalal, H M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Rehabilitation EnAblement in CHronic Heart Failure in patients with Heart Failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (REACH-HFpEF) pilot trial is part of a research programme designed to develop and evaluate a facilitated, home-based, self-help rehabilitation intervention to improve self-care and quality of life (QoL) in heart failure patients and their caregivers. We will assess the feasibility of a definitive trial of the REACH-HF intervention in patients with HFpEF and their caregivers. The impact of the REACH-HF intervention on echocardiographic outcomes and bloodborne biomarkers will also be assessed. Methods and analysis A single-centre parallel two-group randomised controlled trial (RCT) with 1:1 individual allocation to the REACH-HF intervention plus usual care (intervention) or usual care alone (control) in 50 HFpEF patients and their caregivers. The REACH-HF intervention comprises a REACH-HF manual with supplementary tools, delivered by trained facilitators over 12 weeks. A mixed methods approach will be used to assess estimation of recruitment and retention rates; fidelity of REACH-HF manual delivery; identification of barriers to participation and adherence to the intervention and study protocol; feasibility of data collection and outcome burden. We will assess the variance in study outcomes to inform a definitive study sample size and assess methods for the collection of resource use and intervention delivery cost data to develop the cost-effectiveness analyses framework for any future trial. Patient outcomes collected at baseline, 4 and 6 months include QoL, psychological well-being, exercise capacity, physical activity and HF-related hospitalisation. Caregiver outcomes will also be assessed, and a substudy will evaluate impact of the REACH-HF manual on resting global cardiovascular function and bloodborne biomarkers in HFpEF patients. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the East of Scotland Research Ethics

  13. Dynamics of human categorization in a collaborative tagging system: How social processes of semantic stabilization shape individual sensemaking

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Tobias; Seitlinger, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We study how categories form and develop over time in a sensemaking task by groups of students employing a collaborative tagging system. In line with distributed cognition theories, we look at both the tags students use and their strength of representation in memory. We hypothesize that categories get more differentiated over time as students learn, and that semantic stabilization on the group level (i.e. the convergence in the use of tags) mediates this relationship. Results of a field experiment that tested the impact of topic study duration on the specificity of tags confirms these hypotheses, although it was not study duration that produced this effect, but rather the effectiveness of the collaborative taxonomy the groups built. In the groups with higher levels of semantic stabilization, we found use of more specific tags and better representation in memory. We discuss these findings with regard to the important role of the information value of tags that would drive both the convergence on the group level as well as a shift to more specific levels of categorization. We also discuss the implication for cognitive science research by highlighting the importance of collaboratively built artefacts in the process of how knowledge is acquired, and implications for educational applications of collaborative tagging environments. PMID:26566299

  14. Dynamics of human categorization in a collaborative tagging system: How social processes of semantic stabilization shape individual sensemaking.

    PubMed

    Ley, Tobias; Seitlinger, Paul

    2015-10-01

    We study how categories form and develop over time in a sensemaking task by groups of students employing a collaborative tagging system. In line with distributed cognition theories, we look at both the tags students use and their strength of representation in memory. We hypothesize that categories get more differentiated over time as students learn, and that semantic stabilization on the group level (i.e. the convergence in the use of tags) mediates this relationship. Results of a field experiment that tested the impact of topic study duration on the specificity of tags confirms these hypotheses, although it was not study duration that produced this effect, but rather the effectiveness of the collaborative taxonomy the groups built. In the groups with higher levels of semantic stabilization, we found use of more specific tags and better representation in memory. We discuss these findings with regard to the important role of the information value of tags that would drive both the convergence on the group level as well as a shift to more specific levels of categorization. We also discuss the implication for cognitive science research by highlighting the importance of collaboratively built artefacts in the process of how knowledge is acquired, and implications for educational applications of collaborative tagging environments.

  15. Physician Enabling Skills Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Hudon, Catherine; Lambert, Mireille; Almirall, José

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the reliability and validity of the newly developed Physician Enabling Skills Questionnaire (PESQ) by assessing its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity with patient-centred care, and predictive validity with patient activation and patient enablement. Design Validation study. Setting Saguenay, Que. Participants One hundred patients with at least 1 chronic disease who presented in a waiting room of a regional health centre family medicine unit. Main outcome measures Family physicians’ enabling skills, measured with the PESQ at 2 points in time (ie, while in the waiting room at the family medicine unit and 2 weeks later through a mail survey); patient-centred care, assessed with the Patient Perception of Patient-Centredness instrument; patient activation, assessed with the Patient Activation Measure; and patient enablement, assessed with the Patient Enablement Instrument. Results The internal consistency of the 6 subscales of the PESQ was adequate (Cronbach α = .69 to .92). The test-retest reliability was very good (r = 0.90; 95% CI 0.84 to 0.93). Concurrent validity with the Patient Perception of Patient-Centredness instrument was good (r = −0.67; 95% CI −0.78 to −0.53; P < .001). The PESQ accounts for 11% of the total variance with the Patient Activation Measure (r2 = 0.11; P = .002) and 19% of the variance with the Patient Enablement Instrument (r2 = 0.19; P < .001). Conclusion The newly developed PESQ presents good psychometric properties, allowing for its use in practice and research. PMID:26889507

  16. Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema

    Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

    2016-07-12

    Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

  17. Liquid metal enabled pump

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Sivan, Vijay; Petersen, Phred; O’Mullane, Anthony P.; Abbott, Derek; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale pumps will be the heartbeat of many future micro/nanoscale platforms. However, the integration of small-scale pumps is presently hampered by limited flow rate with respect to the input power, and their rather complicated fabrication processes. These issues arise as many conventional pumping effects require intricate moving elements. Here, we demonstrate a system that we call the liquid metal enabled pump, for driving a range of liquids without mechanical moving parts, upon the application of modest electric field. This pump incorporates a droplet of liquid metal, which induces liquid flow at high flow rates, yet with exceptionally low power consumption by electrowetting/deelectrowetting at the metal surface. We present theory explaining this pumping mechanism and show that the operation is fundamentally different from other existing pumps. The presented liquid metal enabled pump is both efficient and simple, and thus has the potential to fundamentally advance the field of microfluidics. PMID:24550485

  18. Nanotechnology - Enabled Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-07

    via subwavelength confinement of optical fields near metallic nanostructures, as shown in Figure 2.3. When a single cadmium selenide quantum dot is...optical modulator uses a coating of cadmium selenide quantum dots to convert two light beams into surface plasmon polaritons. (Reprinted by permission...helpful. Two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals can enable new sensing systems based on fluorescent molecules and/or quantum dots and

  19. Enabling Wind Power Nationwide

    SciTech Connect

    Jose, Zayas; Michael, Derby; Patrick, Gilman; Ananthan, Shreyas; Lantz, Eric; Cotrell, Jason; Beck, Fredic; Tusing, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Leveraging this experience, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office has evaluated the potential for wind power to generate electricity in all 50 states. This report analyzes and quantifies the geographic expansion that could be enabled by accessing higher above ground heights for wind turbines and considers the means by which this new potential could be responsibly developed.

  20. Smart Grid Enabled EVSE

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-01-12

    The combined team of GE Global Research, Federal Express, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Consolidated Edison has successfully achieved the established goals contained within the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment funding opportunity. The final program product, shown charging two vehicles in Figure 1, reduces by nearly 50% the total installed system cost of the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) as well as enabling a host of new Smart Grid enabled features. These include bi-directional communications, load control, utility message exchange and transaction management information. Using the new charging system, Utilities or energy service providers will now be able to monitor transportation related electrical loads on their distribution networks, send load control commands or preferences to individual systems, and then see measured responses. Installation owners will be able to authorize usage of the stations, monitor operations, and optimally control their electricity consumption. These features and cost reductions have been developed through a total system design solution.

  1. Enable, mediate, advocate.

    PubMed

    Saan, Hans; Wise, Marilyn

    2011-12-01

    The authors of the Ottawa Charter selected the words enable, mediate and advocate to describe the core activities in what was, in 1986, the new Public Health. This article considers these concepts and the values and ideas upon which they were based. We discuss their relevance in the current context within which health promotion is being conducted, and discuss the implications of changes in the health agenda, media and globalization for practice. We consider developments within health promotion since 1986: its central role in policy rhetoric, the increasing understanding of complexities and the interlinkage with many other societal processes. So the three core activities are reviewed: they still fit well with the main health promotion challenges, but should be refreshed by new ideas and values. As the role of health promotion in the political arena has grown we have become part of the policy establishment and that is a mixed blessing. Making way for community advocates is now our challenge. Enabling requires greater sensitivity to power relations involved and an understanding of the role of health literacy. Mediating keeps its central role as it bridges vital interests of parties. We conclude that these core concepts in the Ottawa Charter need no serious revision. There are, however, lessons from the last 25 years that point to ways to address present and future challenges with greater sensitivity and effectiveness. We invite the next generation to avoid canonizing this text: as is true of every heritage, the heirs must decide on its use.

  2. Enabling graphene nanoelectronics.

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei; Ohta, Taisuke; Biedermann, Laura Butler; Gutierrez, Carlos; Nolen, C. M.; Howell, Stephen Wayne; Beechem Iii, Thomas Edwin; McCarty, Kevin F.; Ross, Anthony Joseph, III

    2011-09-01

    Recent work has shown that graphene, a 2D electronic material amenable to the planar semiconductor fabrication processing, possesses tunable electronic material properties potentially far superior to metals and other standard semiconductors. Despite its phenomenal electronic properties, focused research is still required to develop techniques for depositing and synthesizing graphene over large areas, thereby enabling the reproducible mass-fabrication of graphene-based devices. To address these issues, we combined an array of growth approaches and characterization resources to investigate several innovative and synergistic approaches for the synthesis of high quality graphene films on technologically relevant substrate (SiC and metals). Our work focused on developing the fundamental scientific understanding necessary to generate large-area graphene films that exhibit highly uniform electronic properties and record carrier mobility, as well as developing techniques to transfer graphene onto other substrates.

  3. Enabling immersive simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Josh; Mateas, Michael; Hart, Derek H.; Whetzel, Jonathan; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Glickman, Matthew R.; Abbott, Robert G.

    2009-02-01

    The object of the 'Enabling Immersive Simulation for Complex Systems Analysis and Training' LDRD has been to research, design, and engineer a capability to develop simulations which (1) provide a rich, immersive interface for participation by real humans (exploiting existing high-performance game-engine technology wherever possible), and (2) can leverage Sandia's substantial investment in high-fidelity physical and cognitive models implemented in the Umbra simulation framework. We report here on these efforts. First, we describe the integration of Sandia's Umbra modular simulation framework with the open-source Delta3D game engine. Next, we report on Umbra's integration with Sandia's Cognitive Foundry, specifically to provide for learning behaviors for 'virtual teammates' directly from observed human behavior. Finally, we describe the integration of Delta3D with the ABL behavior engine, and report on research into establishing the theoretical framework that will be required to make use of tools like ABL to scale up to increasingly rich and realistic virtual characters.

  4. Liquid metal enabled microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Tang, Shi-Yang; Zhu, Jiu Yang; Schaefer, Samira; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Dickey, Michael D

    2017-03-14

    Several gallium-based liquid metal alloys are liquid at room temperature. As 'liquid', such alloys have a low viscosity and a high surface tension while as 'metal', they have high thermal and electrical conductivities, similar to mercury. However, unlike mercury, these liquid metal alloys have low toxicity and a negligible vapor pressure, rendering them much safer. In comparison to mercury, the distinguishing feature of these alloys is the rapid formation of a self-limiting atomically thin layer of gallium oxide over their surface when exposed to oxygen. This oxide layer changes many physical and chemical properties of gallium alloys, including their interfacial and rheological properties, which can be employed and modulated for various applications in microfluidics. Injecting liquid metal into microfluidic structures has been extensively used to pattern and encapsulate highly deformable and reconfigurable electronic devices including electrodes, sensors, antennas, and interconnects. Likewise, the unique features of liquid metals have been employed for fabricating miniaturized microfluidic components including pumps, valves, heaters, and electrodes. In this review, we discuss liquid metal enabled microfluidic components, and highlight their desirable attributes including simple fabrication, facile integration, stretchability, reconfigurability, and low power consumption, with promising applications for highly integrated microfluidic systems.

  5. Teachers' sense-making of curriculum structures and its impact on the implementation of an innovative reform-based science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckford-Smart, Meredith

    This study discusses the social interactions involved in teachers' enactment and use of new science curricula. The teachers studied participated in the LiFE program, a university-school partnership, which is an inquiry based science and nutrition education program. In this program fifth and sixth grade students learned science through the study of food. The program used the study of food and food systems to teach life sciences and nutrition through inquiry based studies. Through the partnership teachers received professional development which aimed to deepen their conceptual understandings of life science and develop skills in implementing inquiry-base teaching. Using qualitative research methods of ethnography and narrative inquiry to study teachers' sense-making of messages from curriculum structures, the intention was to explore how teachers' sense-making of these structures guided their classroom practices. Two research questions were addressed: (a) How do teachers make sense of curriculum given their perceptions, their school context and their curricular context; (b) What influence do their identities as science teachers/learners have on their enactment of an innovative science curriculum. I used comparative analysis to examine teacher's beliefs and identities as teachers/learners. In the process of studying these teachers an understanding of how teachers' stories and identities shape their use and enactment of science curriculum came to light. The initial analysis revealed four distinct teacher identities: (a) social responsibility teacher/learner; (b) experiential teacher/learner; (c) supportive institution teacher/learner; and (d) turning point teacher. Besides these distinct teacher identities three cross cutting themes emerged: (a) creating environments conducive to their teaching visions; (b) empowering student through science teaching; and (c) dealing with the uncertainty of teaching. The information gathered from this study will illuminate how these

  6. Enabling responsible public genomics.

    PubMed

    Conley, John M; Doerr, Adam K; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    As scientific understandings of genetics advance, researchers require increasingly rich datasets that combine genomic data from large numbers of individuals with medical and other personal information. Linking individuals' genetic data and personal information precludes anonymity and produces medically significant information--a result not contemplated by the established legal and ethical conventions governing human genomic research. To pursue the next generation of human genomic research and commerce in a responsible fashion, scientists, lawyers, and regulators must address substantial new issues, including researchers' duties with respect to clinically significant data, the challenges to privacy presented by genomic data, the boundary between genomic research and commerce, and the practice of medicine. This Article presents a new model for understanding and addressing these new challenges--a "public genomics" premised on the idea that ethically, legally, and socially responsible genomics research requires openness, not privacy, as its organizing principle. Responsible public genomics combines the data contributed by informed and fully consenting information altruists and the research potential of rich datasets in a genomic commons that is freely and globally available. This Article examines the risks and benefits of this public genomics model in the context of an ambitious genetic research project currently under way--the Personal Genome Project. This Article also (i) demonstrates that large-scale genomic projects are desirable, (ii) evaluates the risks and challenges presented by public genomics research, and (iii) determines that the current legal and regulatory regimes restrict beneficial and responsible scientific inquiry while failing to adequately protect participants. The Article concludes by proposing a modified normative and legal framework that embraces and enables a future of responsible public genomics.

  7. Mindfulness Interventions.

    PubMed

    Creswell, J David

    2017-01-03

    Mindfulness interventions aim to foster greater attention to and awareness of present moment experience. There has been a dramatic increase in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness interventions over the past two decades. This article evaluates the growing evidence of mindfulness intervention RCTs by reviewing and discussing (a) the effects of mindfulness interventions on health, cognitive, affective, and interpersonal outcomes; (b) evidence-based applications of mindfulness interventions to new settings and populations (e.g., the workplace, military, schools); (c) psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness interventions; (d) mindfulness intervention dosing considerations; and (e) potential risks of mindfulness interventions. Methodologically rigorous RCTs have demonstrated that mindfulness interventions improve outcomes in multiple domains (e.g., chronic pain, depression relapse, addiction). Discussion focuses on opportunities and challenges for mindfulness intervention research and on community applications.

  8. Enabling interstellar probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Ralph L.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; International Interstellar Probe Team

    2011-04-01

    The scientific community has advocated a scientific probe to the interstellar medium for over 30 years. While the Voyager spacecraft have passed through the termination shock of the solar wind, they have limited lifetimes as their radioisotope power supplies decay. It remains unclear whether they can reach the heliopause, the boundary between shocked solar wind and interstellar plasmas, and, in any case, they will not reach the undisturbed interstellar medium. As with most exploratory space missions, their ongoing observations continue to raise even more questions about the nature of the interaction of our heliosphere and the interstellar medium. Scientific questions including: What is the nature of the nearby interstellar medium? How do the Sun and galaxy affect the dynamics of the heliosphere? What is the structure of the heliosphere? How did matter in the solar system and interstellar medium originate and evolve? can only be answered by an "interstellar precursor" probe. Such a mission is required to make in situ measurements in the interaction region and interstellar medium itself at distances far from the Sun, but in a finite mission lifetime. By launching a probe toward the incoming "interstellar wind," whose direction is known, the distance to be traveled can be minimized but is still large. The current consensus is that a scientifically compelling mission must function to at least a distance of 200 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun and return a reasonable stream of data during the voyage. The central problem is that of providing a means of propulsion to accelerate a probe from the Solar System. Even with a low-mass payload and spacecraft, achieving the high speeds needed, even with gravity assists, have remained problematic. Voyager 1, the fastest object ever to leave the system is now traveling ˜3.6 AU/yr, and a credible probe must reach at least 2-3 times this speed. The use of an Ares V is an approach for enabling a fast interstellar precursor

  9. FOILFEST :community enabled security.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Johnson, Curtis Martin; Whitley, John B.; Drayer, Darryl Donald; Cummings, John C., Jr.

    2005-09-01

    The Advanced Concepts Group of Sandia National Laboratories hosted a workshop, ''FOILFest: Community Enabled Security'', on July 18-21, 2005, in Albuquerque, NM. This was a far-reaching look into the future of physical protection consisting of a series of structured brainstorming sessions focused on preventing and foiling attacks on public places and soft targets such as airports, shopping malls, hotels, and public events. These facilities are difficult to protect using traditional security devices since they could easily be pushed out of business through the addition of arduous and expensive security measures. The idea behind this Fest was to explore how the public, which is vital to the function of these institutions, can be leveraged as part of a physical protection system. The workshop considered procedures, space design, and approaches for building community through technology. The workshop explored ways to make the ''good guys'' in public places feel safe and be vigilant while making potential perpetrators of harm feel exposed and convinced that they will not succeed. Participants in the Fest included operators of public places, social scientists, technology experts, representatives of government agencies including DHS and the intelligence community, writers and media experts. Many innovative ideas were explored during the fest with most of the time spent on airports, including consideration of the local airport, the Albuquerque Sunport. Some provocative ideas included: (1) sniffers installed in passage areas like revolving door, escalators, (2) a ''jumbotron'' showing current camera shots in the public space, (3) transparent portal screeners allowing viewing of the screening, (4) a layered open/funnel/open/funnel design where open spaces are used to encourage a sense of ''communitas'' and take advantage of citizen ''sensing'' and funnels are technological tunnels of sensors (the tunnels of truth), (5) curved benches with blast proof walls or backs, (6

  10. Communication and Sense-Making in Intensive Care: An Observation Study of Multi-Disciplinary Rounds to Design Computerized Supporting Tools

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Danny; Xiao, Yan; Vaidya, Vinay; Hu, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Multi-disciplinary rounds are a forum for communication and sense-making, and they play a critical role in intensive care to ensure care coordination across specialties and providers. Increased availability of clinical information through computers has made it possible to provide support during rounds. We conducted an observation study to determine ways in which computers may be used during rounds, when users are under time pressure in accessing and manipulating clinical data. A total of fifteen hours of rounds in a pediatric intensive care unit for 47 patients were observed. Factors influencing information transfer during rounds were characterized in three areas: physical, social and cognitive, and supporting artifacts. Based on these factors we developed a set of design guidelines for computerized supporting tools. An example guideline suggests digital capture of handwritten notes. These guidelines developed may help guide future systems development, thus leveraging the power of computing during the critical moments of multi-disciplinary rounds. PMID:18693852

  11. [Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter focuses on the theme of early intervention which infants and young children with special needs in nine brief articles: "Early Intervention: A Matter of Context" (Samuel J. Meisels); "Early Intervention Research: Asking and Answering Meaningful Questions" (Jack P. Shonkoff); "From Case Management to Service…

  12. [Crisis intervention].

    PubMed

    Stein, Claudius

    2012-01-01

    The Austrian Program for Suicide Prevention defines as Point 2: "Support and treatment". The suicide-preventive outcome of the development of psychotherapeutic-psychosocial care in Austria has been proved. This means, that the further development of institutions with focus on crisis intervention is a central agenda of Suicide prevention Austria (SUPRA). First, in this article are defined the terms crisis and crisis intervention, also the close connection to programs of suicide prevention is pointed out. Furthermore general aims and standards for crisis intervention are defined and the current situation of crisis intervention in Austria is described. Finally recommendations for practical aims and their implementation in the context of SUPRA are made.

  13. Enabling Space Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, William J.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation on enabling space science and exploration covers the following topics: 1) Today s Deep Space Network; 2) Next Generation Deep Space Network; 3) Needed technologies; 4) Mission IT and networking; and 5) Multi-mission operations.

  14. Empowering versus Enabling in Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espeland, Karen; Shanta, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Enabling behaviors that encourage dependence should be avoided by nursing faculty. An empowerment model that includes collegiality, communication, accountability, and autonomy is more suited to the professional preparation of nurses. (Contains 30 references.) (SK)

  15. Interventional CMR: Clinical Applications and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Toby

    2015-01-01

    Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance (iCMR) promises to enable radiation-free catheterization procedures and to enhance contemporary image guidance for structural heart and electrophysiological interventions. However, clinical translation of exciting pre-clinical interventions has been limited by availability of devices that are safe to use in the magnetic resonance (MR) environment. We discuss challenges and solutions for clinical translation, including MR-conditional and MR-safe device design, and how to configure an interventional suite. We review the recent advances that have already enabled diagnostic MR right heart catheterization and simple electrophysiologic ablation to be performed in humans and explore future clinical applications. PMID:25894793

  16. Interventional Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Saikus, Christina E.; Lederman, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) combines excellent soft-tissue contrast, multiplanar views, and dynamic imaging of cardiac function without ionizing radiation exposure. Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance (iCMR) leverages these features to enhance conventional interventional procedures or to enable novel ones. Although still awaiting clinical deployment, this young field has tremendous potential. We survey promising clinical applications for iCMR. Next, we discuss the technologies that allow CMR-guided interventions and, finally, what still needs to be done to bring them to the clinic. PMID:19909937

  17. Integrated Cognitive-neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Overview of Test and Evaluation Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    source code. 8 • Nbproject: Contains the Net Beans project files, for developers using the Net Beans Integrated Development Environment (IDE...enabling developers to open and edit the Java source code using Net Beans . • Schemas: Contains the XML schemas defining XML exam and feature

  18. Selecting Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, Danny G.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a systematic approach to selecting instructional designs, discussing performance analysis, gaps, elements (inputs, conditions, process, outputs, consequences, feedback), matrices, changes in performance state (establishing, improving, maintaining, and extinguishing performance), intervention interference, and involving others in…

  19. Pediatric Interventional Radiology: Vascular Interventions.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Pediatric interventional radiology (PIR) comprises a range of minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are performed using image guidance. PIR has emerged as an essential adjunct to various surgical and medical conditions. Over the years, technology has undergone dramatic and continuous evolution, making this speciality grow. In this review, the authors will discuss various vascular interventional procedures undertaken in pediatric patients. It is challenging for the interventional radiologist to accomplish a successful interventional procedure. There are many vascular interventional radiology procedures which are being performed and have changed the way the diseases are managed. Some of the procedures are life saving and have become the treatment of choice in those patients. The future is indeed bright for the practice and practitioners of pediatric vascular and non-vascular interventions. As more and more of the procedures that are currently being performed in adults get gradually adapted for use in the pediatric population, it may be possible to perform safe and successful interventions in many of the pediatric vascular lesions that are otherwise being referred for surgery.

  20. Secure Enclaves-Enabled Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-25

    solution. Recommendations There is the potential to exploit extremely lucrative opportunities utilizing our first- mover advantage in this...emerging market segment. However, there is still significant work to be completed. The SE Enabled browser extension application is still in the early

  1. Intervention Methods Keep the Group on Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmston, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses some strategies and principles of intervention that will lead to a more effective group behavior and enable the group to be proactive about improving its work. The author also discusses some of the common challenges and reliable interventions faced by a facilitator: (1) Redirect conversational altitudes; (2) Correct problems…

  2. Interventional radiology neck procedures.

    PubMed

    Zabala Landa, R M; Korta Gómez, I; Del Cura Rodríguez, J L

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasonography has become extremely useful in the evaluation of masses in the head and neck. It enables us to determine the anatomic location of the masses as well as the characteristics of the tissues that compose them, thus making it possible to orient the differential diagnosis toward inflammatory, neoplastic, congenital, traumatic, or vascular lesions, although it is necessary to use computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging to determine the complete extension of certain lesions. The growing range of interventional procedures, mostly guided by ultrasonography, now includes biopsies, drainages, infiltrations, sclerosing treatments, and tumor ablation.

  3. Exogenous Attention Enables Perceptual Learning.

    PubMed

    Szpiro, Sarit F A; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-12-01

    Practice can improve visual perception, and these improvements are considered to be a form of brain plasticity. Training-induced learning is time-consuming and requires hundreds of trials across multiple days. The process of learning acquisition is understudied. Can learning acquisition be potentiated by manipulating visual attentional cues? We developed a protocol in which we used task-irrelevant cues for between-groups manipulation of attention during training. We found that training with exogenous attention can enable the acquisition of learning. Remarkably, this learning was maintained even when observers were subsequently tested under neutral conditions, which indicates that a change in perception was involved. Our study is the first to isolate the effects of exogenous attention and to demonstrate its efficacy to enable learning. We propose that exogenous attention boosts perceptual learning by enhancing stimulus encoding.

  4. Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC

    2012-06-28

    A recently proposed concept of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) FEL uses two laser modulators in combination with two dispersion sections to generate a high-harmonic density modulation in a relativistic beam. This seeding technique holds promise of a one-stage soft x-ray FEL that radiates not only transversely but also longitudinally coherent pulses. Currently, an experimental verification of the concept is being conducted at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory aimed at the demonstration of the EEHG.

  5. Technologies for Networked Enabled Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B.; Levine, J.

    2005-01-01

    Current point-to-point data links will not scale to support future integration of surveillance, security, and globally-distributed air traffic data, and already hinders efficiency and capacity. While the FAA and industry focus on a transition to initial system-wide information management (SWIM) capabilities, this paper describes a set of initial studies of NAS network-enabled operations technology gaps targeted for maturity in later SWIM spirals (201 5-2020 timeframe).

  6. Nanofluidics: enabling processes for biotech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmanella, Umberto; Ho, Chih-Ming

    2001-10-01

    The advance of micro and nanodevice manufacturing technology enables us to carry out biological and chemical processes in a more efficient manner. In fact, fluidic processes connect the macro and the micro/nano worlds. For devices approaching the size of the fluid molecules, many physical phenomena occur that are not observed in macro flows. In this brief review, we discuss a few selected topics which of are interest for basic research and are important for applications in biotechnology.

  7. New Generation Sensor Web Enablement

    PubMed Central

    Bröring, Arne; Echterhoff, Johannes; Jirka, Simon; Simonis, Ingo; Everding, Thomas; Stasch, Christoph; Liang, Steve; Lemmens, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Many sensor networks have been deployed to monitor Earth’s environment, and more will follow in the future. Environmental sensors have improved continuously by becoming smaller, cheaper, and more intelligent. Due to the large number of sensor manufacturers and differing accompanying protocols, integrating diverse sensors into observation systems is not straightforward. A coherent infrastructure is needed to treat sensors in an interoperable, platform-independent and uniform way. The concept of the Sensor Web reflects such a kind of infrastructure for sharing, finding, and accessing sensors and their data across different applications. It hides the heterogeneous sensor hardware and communication protocols from the applications built on top of it. The Sensor Web Enablement initiative of the Open Geospatial Consortium standardizes web service interfaces and data encodings which can be used as building blocks for a Sensor Web. This article illustrates and analyzes the recent developments of the new generation of the Sensor Web Enablement specification framework. Further, we relate the Sensor Web to other emerging concepts such as the Web of Things and point out challenges and resulting future work topics for research on Sensor Web Enablement. PMID:22163760

  8. 'Ethos' Enabling Organisational Knowledge Creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsudaira, Yoshito

    This paper examines knowledge creation in relation to improvements on the production line in the manufacturing department of Nissan Motor Company and aims to clarify embodied knowledge observed in the actions of organisational members who enable knowledge creation will be clarified. For that purpose, this study adopts an approach that adds a first, second, and third-person's viewpoint to the theory of knowledge creation. Embodied knowledge, observed in the actions of organisational members who enable knowledge creation, is the continued practice of 'ethos' (in Greek) founded in Nissan Production Way as an ethical basis. Ethos is knowledge (intangible) assets for knowledge creating companies. Substantiated analysis classifies ethos into three categories: the individual, team and organisation. This indicates the precise actions of the organisational members in each category during the knowledge creation process. This research will be successful in its role of showing the indispensability of ethos - the new concept of knowledge assets, which enables knowledge creation -for future knowledge-based management in the knowledge society.

  9. Enablement as a Positive Force in Counselling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg

    1996-01-01

    Explores the concept of enablement and provides a framework for the counselor and counselor educator to use in facilitating client- or student-directed goals. Examines use of enablement, enablement versus co-dependency, the use of the enablement framework in the counseling role, and clinical examples of the enablement framework. (RJM)

  10. Interventional neuroradiology.

    PubMed Central

    Barnwell, S L

    1993-01-01

    A wide variety of diseases affecting the central nervous system and head and neck can be treated using interventional neuroradiologic techniques. These new treatments have depended on advances in radiologic imaging, catheter technology, and the development of new embolic agents. These procedures may be an adjunct to other therapy, palliative or curative. Diseases for which interventional neuroradiologic techniques have been major advances in treatment include cerebral aneurysms, vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebral arteriovenous malformations, dural arteriovenous fistulas, dural sinus thrombosis, atherosclerosis, scalp arteriovenous fistulas, carotid-cavernous fistulas, and stroke. This field is rapidly evolving as advances are made in catheter technology and new embolic agents are developed. Images PMID:8434468

  11. Family intervention for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Pharoah, Fiona; Mari, Jair; Rathbone, John; Wong, Winson

    2014-01-01

    expressed emotion within the family. We did not find data to suggest that family intervention either prevents or promotes suicide. Authors’ conclusions Family intervention may reduce the number of relapse events and hospitalisations and would therefore be of interest to people with schizophrenia, clinicians and policy makers. However, the treatment effects of these trials may be overestimated due to the poor methodological quality. Further data from trials that describe the methods of randomisation, test the blindness of the study evaluators, and implement the CONSORT guidelines would enable greater confidence in these findings. PMID:21154340

  12. Spinal interventions.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Santiago, F; Filippiadis, D K; Guzmán Álvarez, L; Martínez Martínez, A; Castellano, M M

    2016-04-01

    We review the state of the art in imaging-guided percutaneous interventional procedures used to diagnose and/or treat the diverse causes of back pain. These procedures can be used for diagnosis, treatment, or both. They are focused on the vertebral bodies, the facet joints, the intervertebral discs, and the nerve structures.

  13. Youth Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suren, Asuncion, Ed.; Shermis, Michael, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    An overview of the diverse programs of research, scholarship, and creative activities conducted at Indiana University, the articles in this issue of "Research & Creative Activity" describe numerous interventions that can make a positive difference in the lives of at-risk youth. The articles are as follows: "Giving Back What You…

  14. Noise-enabled optical ratchets

    PubMed Central

    León-Montiel, Roberto de J.; Quinto-Su, Pedro A.

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution, we report on the implementation of a novel noise-enabled optical ratchet system. We demonstrate that, unlike commonly-used ratchet schemes—where complex asymmetric optical potentials are needed—efficient transport of microparticles across a one-dimensional optical lattice can be produced by introducing controllable noise in the system. This work might open interesting routes towards the development of new technologies aimed at enhancing the efficiency of transport occurring at the micro- and nanoscale, from novel particle-sorting tools to efficient molecular motors. PMID:28287152

  15. Optimized microsystems-enabled photovoltaics

    DOEpatents

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Nielson, Gregory N.; Young, Ralph W.; Resnick, Paul J.; Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-22

    Technologies pertaining to designing microsystems-enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) cells are described herein. A first restriction for a first parameter of an MEPV cell is received. Subsequently, a selection of a second parameter of the MEPV cell is received. Values for a plurality of parameters of the MEPV cell are computed such that the MEPV cell is optimized with respect to the second parameter, wherein the values for the plurality of parameters are computed based at least in part upon the restriction for the first parameter.

  16. Noise-enabled optical ratchets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León-Montiel, Roberto De J.; Quinto-Su, Pedro A.

    2017-03-01

    In this contribution, we report on the implementation of a novel noise-enabled optical ratchet system. We demonstrate that, unlike commonly-used ratchet schemes—where complex asymmetric optical potentials are needed—efficient transport of microparticles across a one-dimensional optical lattice can be produced by introducing controllable noise in the system. This work might open interesting routes towards the development of new technologies aimed at enhancing the efficiency of transport occurring at the micro- and nanoscale, from novel particle-sorting tools to efficient molecular motors.

  17. Autonomy enables new science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Richard J.; Gor, Victoria; Man, Guy K.; Stolorz, Paul E.; Chapman, Clark; Merline, William J.; Stern, Alan

    1997-01-01

    The challenge of space flight in NASA's future is to enable smaller, more frequent and intensive space exploration at much lower total cost without substantially decreasing mission reliability, capability, or the scientific return on investment. The most effective way to achieve this goal is to build intelligent capabilities into the spacecraft themselves. Our technological vision for meeting the challenge of returning quality science through limited communication bandwidth will actually put scientists in a more direct link with the spacecraft than they have enjoyed to date. Technologies such as pattern recognition and machine learning can place a part of the scientist's awareness onboard the spacecraft to prioritize downlink or to autonomously trigger time-critical follow-up observations-particularly important in flyby missions-without ground interaction. Onboard knowledge discovery methods can be used to include candidate discoveries in each downlink for scientists' scrutiny. Such capabilities will allow scientists to quickly reprioritize missions in a much more intimate and efficient manner than is possible today. Ultimately, new classes of exploration missions will be enabled.

  18. Nanomaterial-Enabled Neural Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongchen; Guo, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Neural stimulation is a critical technique in treating neurological diseases and investigating brain functions. Traditional electrical stimulation uses electrodes to directly create intervening electric fields in the immediate vicinity of neural tissues. Second-generation stimulation techniques directly use light, magnetic fields or ultrasound in a non-contact manner. An emerging generation of non- or minimally invasive neural stimulation techniques is enabled by nanotechnology to achieve a high spatial resolution and cell-type specificity. In these techniques, a nanomaterial converts a remotely transmitted primary stimulus such as a light, magnetic or ultrasonic signal to a localized secondary stimulus such as an electric field or heat to stimulate neurons. The ease of surface modification and bio-conjugation of nanomaterials facilitates cell-type-specific targeting, designated placement and highly localized membrane activation. This review focuses on nanomaterial-enabled neural stimulation techniques primarily involving opto-electric, opto-thermal, magneto-electric, magneto-thermal and acousto-electric transduction mechanisms. Stimulation techniques based on other possible transduction schemes and general consideration for these emerging neurotechnologies are also discussed. PMID:27013938

  19. Enabling Exploration Through Docking Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Caris A.

    2012-01-01

    Human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit will likely require international cooperation in order to leverage limited resources. International standards can help enable cooperative missions by providing well understood, predefined interfaces allowing compatibility between unique spacecraft and systems. The International Space Station (ISS) partnership has developed a publicly available International Docking System Standard (IDSS) that provides a solution to one of these key interfaces by defining a common docking interface. The docking interface provides a way for even dissimilar spacecraft to dock for exchange of crew and cargo, as well as enabling the assembly of large space systems. This paper provides an overview of the key attributes of the IDSS, an overview of the NASA Docking System (NDS), and the plans for updating the ISS with IDSS compatible interfaces. The NDS provides a state of the art, low impact docking system that will initially be made available to commercial crew and cargo providers. The ISS will be used to demonstrate the operational utility of the IDSS interface as a foundational technology for cooperative exploration.

  20. Directory Enabled Policy Based Networking

    SciTech Connect

    KELIIAA, CURTIS M.

    2001-10-01

    This report presents a discussion of directory-enabled policy-based networking with an emphasis on its role as the foundation for securely scalable enterprise networks. A directory service provides the object-oriented logical environment for interactive cyber-policy implementation. Cyber-policy implementation includes security, network management, operational process and quality of service policies. The leading network-technology vendors have invested in these technologies for secure universal connectivity that transverses Internet, extranet and intranet boundaries. Industry standards are established that provide the fundamental guidelines for directory deployment scalable to global networks. The integration of policy-based networking with directory-service technologies provides for intelligent management of the enterprise network environment as an end-to-end system of related clients, services and resources. This architecture allows logical policies to protect data, manage security and provision critical network services permitting a proactive defense-in-depth cyber-security posture. Enterprise networking imposes the consideration of supporting multiple computing platforms, sites and business-operation models. An industry-standards based approach combined with principled systems engineering in the deployment of these technologies allows these issues to be successfully addressed. This discussion is focused on a directory-based policy architecture for the heterogeneous enterprise network-computing environment and does not propose specific vendor solutions. This document is written to present practical design methodology and provide an understanding of the risks, complexities and most important, the benefits of directory-enabled policy-based networking.

  1. Spatially Enabling the Health Sector

    PubMed Central

    Weeramanthri, Tarun Stephen; Woodgate, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Spatial information describes the physical location of either people or objects, and the measured relationships between them. In this article, we offer the view that greater utilization of spatial information and its related technology, as part of a broader redesign of the architecture of health information at local and national levels, could assist and speed up the process of health reform, which is taking place across the globe in richer and poorer countries alike. In making this point, we describe the impetus for health sector reform, recent developments in spatial information and analytics, and current Australasian spatial health research. We highlight examples of uptake of spatial information by the health sector, as well as missed opportunities. Our recommendations to spatially enable the health sector are applicable to high- and low-resource settings. PMID:27867933

  2. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bean; Trond Bjornard; Thomas Larson

    2007-09-01

    It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment MEthodology (SESAME) has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wireframe construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed.

  3. Context-Enabled Business Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2012-04-01

    To truly understand context and apply it in business intelligence, it is vital to understand what context is and how it can be applied in addressing organizational needs. Context describes the facets of the environment that impact the way that end users interact with the system. Context includes aspects of location, chronology, access method, demographics, social influence/ relationships, end-user attitude/ emotional state, behavior/ past behavior, and presence. To be successful in making Business Intelligence content enabled, it is important to be able to capture the context of use user. With advances in technology, there are a number of ways in which this user based information can be gathered and exposed to enhance the overall end user experience.

  4. Enabling the Kepler Exoplanet Census

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The Kepler mission, with its unrivaled photometric precision and nearly continuous monitoring, provides an unprecedented opportunity for an exoplanet census. However, while it has identified thousands of transiting planet candidates, only relatively few have yet been dynamically confirmed as bona fide planets, with only a handful more even conceivably amenable to future dynamical confirmation. As a result, the ability to draw detailed conclusions about the diversity of exoplanet systems from Kepler detections relies critically on assigning false positive probabilities to thousands of unconfirmed candidates. I have developed a procedure to calculate these probabilities using only the Kepler photometry, optionally including available follow-up observations. Using this, I can often statistically validate a candidate signal using two single-epoch observations: a stellar spectrum and a high-resolution image. Accordingly, I have applied this procedure to the publicly released Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) using results from several large follow-up campaigns: spectroscopic surveys of >100 KOIs with TripleSpec at the Palomar 200-in and >700 KOIs with Keck/HIRES, and imaging surveys of >60 KOIs with Keck/NIRC2 and nearly 1000 KOIs with the Palomar Robo-AO system. This has enabled me to identify hundreds of Kepler candidates as newly secure planets, identify some as likely false positives, and prescribe the most useful follow-up observations for the rest of the KOIs. These results will enable Kepler to fulfill its promise as a mission to study the statistics of exoplanet systems. In addition, this new approach to transit survey follow-up---detailed probabilistic assessment of large numbers of candidates in order to inform the application of relatively scarce follow-up resources---will remain fruitful as transit surveys continue to produce many more candidates than can be followed up with traditional strategies.

  5. Current Status of Interventional Endoscopic Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Ryozawa, Shomei; Fujita, Naotaka; Irisawa, Atsushi; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Mine, Tetsuya

    2017-03-20

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is being used increasingly in the management of pancreatic fluid collection, biliary and pancreatic duct drainage in cases of failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, drainage of the gallbladder, and other conditions. The role of interventional EUS is rapidly expanding and new interventions are continuously emerging. The development of devices could be a major breakthrough in the field of interventional EUS. New devices would enable the expansion of its role even further and prompt its widespread use in clinical practice. This review focuses on the current status of interventional EUS, especially highlighting the topics that are drawing endoscopists' interest at present. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Making sense of domestic violence intervention in professional health care.

    PubMed

    Husso, Marita; Virkki, Tuija; Notko, Marianne; Holma, Juha; Laitila, Aarno; Mäntysaari, Mikko

    2012-07-01

    Intervening in domestic violence in the health care and social service settings is a complex and contested issue. In this qualitative, multidisciplinary study, the barriers to but also the possibilities for health care professionals in encountering victims of violence were scrutinised. The focus was on omissions in service structure and practices. The data consisted of six focus group interviews with nurses, physicians, social workers and psychologists in specialist health care (n = 30) conducted in Finland in 2009. The aim was to explore professionals' processes of making sense of violence interventions and the organisational practices of violence interventions. Four types of framing of the domestic violence issue were identified: (i) practical frame, (ii) medical frame, (iii) individualistic frame and (iv) psychological frame. Each frame consisted of particular features relating to explaining, structuring or dismissing the question of domestic violence in health care settings. The main themes included the division of responsibilities and feasibility of treatment. All four frames underlie the tendency for healthcare professionals to arrive at sense-making practices where it is possible to focus on fixing the injuries and consequences of domestic violence and bypassing the issue of violence as the cause of symptoms and injuries. The results indicate that developing successful practices both in identifying survivors of domestic violence and in preventing further victimisation requires a broad understanding of the effects of domestic violence and the challenges for health care professionals in dealing with it. New perspectives are needed in creating adequate practices both for victims of violence seeking help and for professionals working with this issue. Strong support at the organisational level and established practices throughout the fields of health and social care are the key elements in building a responsible approach to domestic violence.

  7. Enabling Participation In Exoplanet Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart F.

    2015-08-01

    Determining the distribution of exoplanets has required the contributions of a community of astronomers, who all require the support of colleagues to finish their projects in a manner to enable them to enter new collaborations to continue to contribute to understanding exoplanet science.The contributions of each member of the astronomy community are to be encouraged and must never be intentionally obstructed.We present a member’s long pursuit to be a contributing part of the exoplanet community through doing transit photometry as a means of commissioning the telescopes for a new observatory, followed by pursuit of interpreting the distributions in exoplanet parameter data.We present how the photometry projects have been presented as successful by the others who have claimed to have completed them, but how by requiring its employees to present results while omitting one member has been obstructive against members working together and has prevented the results from being published in what can genuinely be called a peer-reviewed fashion.We present how by tolerating one group to obstruct one member from finishing participation and then falsely denying credit is counterproductive to doing science.We show how expecting one member to attempt to go around an ostracizing group by starting something different is destructive to the entire profession. We repeat previously published appeals to help ostracized members to “go around the observatory” by calling for discussion on how the community must act to reverse cases of shunning, bullying, and other abuses. Without better recourse and support from the community, actions that do not meet standard good collegial behavior end up forcing good members from the community. The most important actions are to enable an ostracized member to have recourse to participating in group papers by either working through other authors or through the journal. All journals and authors must expect that no co-author is keeping out a major

  8. Enabling technology for human collaboration.

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Tim Andrew; Jones, Wendell Bruce; Warner, David Jay; Doser, Adele Beatrice; Johnson, Curtis Martin; Merkle, Peter Benedict

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a five-month LDRD late start project which explored the potential of enabling technology to improve the performance of small groups. The purpose was to investigate and develop new methods to assist groups working in high consequence, high stress, ambiguous and time critical situations, especially those for which it is impractical to adequately train or prepare. A testbed was constructed for exploratory analysis of a small group engaged in tasks with high cognitive and communication performance requirements. The system consisted of five computer stations, four with special devices equipped to collect physiologic, somatic, audio and video data. Test subjects were recruited and engaged in a cooperative video game. Each team member was provided with a sensor array for physiologic and somatic data collection while playing the video game. We explored the potential for real-time signal analysis to provide information that enables emergent and desirable group behavior and improved task performance. The data collected in this study included audio, video, game scores, physiological, somatic, keystroke, and mouse movement data. The use of self-organizing maps (SOMs) was explored to search for emergent trends in the physiological data as it correlated with the video, audio and game scores. This exploration resulted in the development of two approaches for analysis, to be used concurrently, an individual SOM and a group SOM. The individual SOM was trained using the unique data of each person, and was used to monitor the effectiveness and stress level of each member of the group. The group SOM was trained using the data of the entire group, and was used to monitor the group effectiveness and dynamics. Results suggested that both types of SOMs were required to adequately track evolutions and shifts in group effectiveness. Four subjects were used in the data collection and development of these tools. This report documents a proof of concept

  9. Enabling a New Planning and Scheduling Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Davis, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    without the intervention of a scheduling expert. The algorithm is tuned for the constraint hierarchies and the complex temporal relationships provided by the modeling schema. It has an extensive search algorithm which can exploit timing flexibilities and constraint and relationship options. (3) A web-based architecture allows multiple remote users to simultaneously model science and technology requirements and other users to model vehicle and hardware characteristics. The architecture allows the users to submit scheduling requests directly to the scheduling engine and immediately see the results. These three components are integrated so that science and technology experts with no knowledge of the vehicle or hardware subsystems and no knowledge of the internal workings of the scheduling engine have the ability to build and submit scheduling requests and see the results. The immediate feedback will hone the users' modeling skills and ultimately enable them to produce the desired timeline. This paper summarizes the three components of the enabling technology and describes how this technology would make a new paradigm possible.

  10. CUDA Enabled Graph Subset Examiner

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Jeremy T.

    2016-12-22

    Finding Godsil-McKay switching sets in graphs is one way to demonstrate that a specific graph is not determined by its spectrum--the eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix. An important area of active research in pure mathematics is determining which graphs are determined by their spectra, i.e. when the spectrum of the adjacency matrix uniquely determines the underlying graph. We are interested in exploring the spectra of graphs in the Johnson scheme and specifically seek to determine which of these graphs are determined by their spectra. Given a graph G, a Godsil-McKay switching set is an induced subgraph H on 2k vertices with the following properties: I) H is regular, ii) every vertex in G/H is adjacent to either 0, k, or 2k vertices of H, and iii) at least one vertex in G/H is adjacent to k vertices in H. The software package examines each subset of a user specified size to determine whether or not it satisfies those 3 conditions. The software makes use of the massive parallel processing power of CUDA enabled GPUs. It also exploits the vertex transitivity of graphs in the Johnson scheme by reasoning that if G has a Godsil-McKay switching set, then it has a switching set which includes vertex 1. While the code (in its current state) is tuned to this specific problem, the method of examining each induced subgraph of G can be easily re-written to check for any user specified conditions on the subgraphs and can therefore be used much more broadly.

  11. Solar Glitter -- Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, Gregory N.

    2012-02-01

    Many products have significantly benefitted from, or been enabled by, the ability to manufacture structures at an ever decreasing length scale. Obvious examples of this include integrated circuits, flat panel displays, micro-scale sensors, and LED lighting. These industries have benefited from length scale effects in terms of improved performance, reduced cost, or new functionality (or a combination of these). In a similar manner, we are working to take advantage of length scale effects that exist within solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. While this is a significant step away from traditional approaches to solar power systems, the benefits in terms of new functionality, improved performance, and reduced cost for solar power are compelling. We are exploring scale effects that result from the size of the solar cells within the system. We have developed unique cells of both crystalline silicon and III-V materials that are very thin (5-20 microns thick) and have very small lateral dimensions (on the order of hundreds of microns across). These cells minimize the amount of expensive semiconductor material required for the system, allow improved cell performance, and provide an expanded design space for both module and system concepts allowing optimized power output and reduced module and balance of system costs. Furthermore, the small size of the cells allows for unique high-efficiency, high-flexibility PV panels and new building-integrated PV options that are currently unavailable. These benefits provide a pathway for PV power to become cost competitive with grid power and allow unique power solutions independent of grid power.

  12. Enabling individualized therapy through nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Jason H.; van de Ven, Anne L.; Godin, Biana; Blanco, Elvin; Serda, Rita E.; Grattoni, Alessandro; Ziemys, Arturas; Bouamrani, Ali; Hu, Tony; Ranganathan, Shivakumar I.; De Rosa, Enrica; Martinez, Jonathan O.; Smid, Christine A.; Buchanan, Rachel M.; Lee, Sei-Young; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Landry, Matthew; Meyn, Anne; Tasciotti, Ennio; Liu, Xuewu; Decuzzi, Paolo; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Individualized medicine is the healthcare strategy that rebukes the idiomatic dogma of ‘losing sight of the forest for the trees’. We are entering a new era of healthcare where it is no longer acceptable to develop and market a drug that is effective for only 80% of the patient population. The emergence of “-omic” technologies (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and advances in systems biology are magnifying the deficiencies of standardized therapy, which often provide little treatment latitude for accommodating patient physiologic idiosyncrasies. A personalized approach to medicine is not a novel concept. Ever since the scientific community began unraveling the mysteries of the genome, the promise of discarding generic treatment regimens in favor of patient-specific therapies became more feasible and realistic. One of the major scientific impediments of this movement towards personalized medicine has been the need for technological enablement. Nanotechnology is projected to play a critical role in patient-specific therapy; however, this transition will depend heavily upon the evolutionary development of a systems biology approach to clinical medicine based upon “-omic” technology analysis and integration. This manuscript provides a forward looking assessment of the promise of nanomedicine as it pertains to individualized medicine and establishes a technology “snapshot” of the current state of nano-based products over a vast array of clinical indications and range of patient specificity. Other issues such as market driven hurdles and regulatory compliance reform are anticipated to “self-correct” in accordance to scientific advancement and healthcare demand. These peripheral, non-scientific concerns are not addressed at length in this manuscript; however they do exist, and their impact to the paradigm shifting healthcare transformation towards individualized medicine will be critical for its success. PMID:20045055

  13. SixDOF position sensor: enabling manufacturing flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Vann, C.S.

    1998-03-24

    A small, non-contact optical sensor invented by the author attaches to a robot (or other machines), enabling the robot to detect objects, adjust its alignment in all six degrees of freedom (SixDOF), and read a task from a code on the part. Thus, the SixDOF sensor provides robots more intelligence to operate autonomously and adapt to changes without human intervention. A description of the sensor is provided. Also, an operating arrangement of a robot using the SixDOF sensor is presented with performance results described.

  14. "I have a connection!": The situated sense-making of an elementary student about the role of water in modeled vs. experienced ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Lisa Elisabeth N.

    Current policy and research have led the field of science education towards a model of "science as practice." In the past decade, several research programs on model-based reasoning practices in education have articulated key dimensions of practice, including constructing and defending models, comparing models to empirical data, using representations to identify patterns in data and use those as inscriptions to buttress arguments. This study presents a detailed case of how the use of a physical microcosm and children's self-directed representations of an ecosystem constrained and afforded student sense-making in an urban elementary classroom. The case analyzed the experiences of a 10-year old fifth grade student, Jorge, and the variation in his expressed understanding of ecosystems as he interacted with academic tasks, along with models and representations, to design, observe and explain an ecological microcosm. The study used a conceptual framework that brings together theories of situated cognition and Doyle's work on academic task to explain how and why Jorge's perception and communication of dimensions of ecosystem structure, function, and behavior appear to "come in and out of focus," influenced by the affordances of the tools and resources available, the academic task as given by the teacher, and Jorge's own experiences and knowledge of phenomena related to ecosystems. Findings from this study suggest that elementary students' ability or inability to address particular ecological concepts in a given task relate less to gaps in their understanding and more to the structure of academic tasks and learning contexts. The process of a student interacting with curriculum follows a dynamic trajectory and leads to emergent outcomes. As a result of the complex interactions of task, tools, and his own interests and agency, Jorge's attunement to the role of water in ecosystems comes in and out of focus throughout the unit. The instructional constraint of needing to

  15. Optical and opto-acoustic interventional imaging.

    PubMed

    Sarantopoulos, Athanasios; Beziere, Nicolas; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2012-02-01

    Many clinical interventional procedures, such as surgery or endoscopy, are today still guided by human vision and perception. Human vision however is not sensitive or accurate in detecting a large range of disease biomarkers, for example cellular or molecular processes characteristic of disease. For this reason advanced optical and opto-acoustic (photo-acoustic) methods are considered for enabling a more versatile, sensitive and accurate detection of disease biomarkers and complement human vision in clinical decision making during interventions. Herein, we outline developments in emerging fluorescence and opto-acoustic sensing and imaging techniques that can lead to practical implementations toward improving interventional vision.

  16. An Internet enabled impact limiter material database

    SciTech Connect

    Wix, S.; Kanipe, F.; McMurtry, W.

    1998-09-01

    This paper presents a detailed explanation of the construction of an interest enabled database, also known as a database driven web site. The data contained in the internet enabled database are impact limiter material and seal properties. The technique used in constructing the internet enabled database presented in this paper are applicable when information that is changing in content needs to be disseminated to a wide audience.

  17. Response to Intervention in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feuerborn, Laura L.; Sarin, Kathryn; Tyre, Ashli D.

    2011-01-01

    Many schools are turning to response to intervention (RTI) models to meet the needs of their students. The promise of RTI is that it will enable schools to better and more efficiently meet the learning needs of a large continuum of students by providing evidence-based schoolwide instruction, supplemental supports, and intensive individualized…

  18. Commentary: Academic Enablers and School Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.

    2002-01-01

    This commentary presents academic enablers within the broader, overlapping context of school learning theory, including the theories of Carroll, Harnishfeger and Wiley, Walberg, and others. Multivariate models are needed to understand the influences of academic enabler and school learning variables on learning, as well as the influences of these…

  19. Interventions for promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Charles; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Thorogood, Margaret; Kaur, Asha; Wedatilake, Thamindu

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effectiveness of strategies to enable people to achieve and maintain recommended levels of physical activity. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to promote physical activity in adults aged 16 years and older, not living in an institution. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (issue 1 2005), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, BIDS ISI, SPORTDISCUS, SIGLE, SCISEARCH (from earliest dates available to December 2004). Reference lists of relevant articles were checked. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials that compared different interventions to encourage sedentary adults not living in an institution to become physically active. Studies required a minimum of six months follow up from the start of the intervention to the collection of final data and either used an intention-to-treat analysis or, failing that, had no more than 20% loss to follow up. Data collection and analysis At least two reviewers independently assessed each study quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information where necessary. Standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous measures of self-reported physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness. For studies with dichotomous outcomes, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Main results The effect of interventions on self-reported physical activity (19 studies; 7598 participants) was positive and moderate (pooled SMD random effects model 0.28 95% CI 0.15 to 0.41) as was the effect of interventions (11 studies; 2195 participants) on cardio-respiratory fitness (pooled SMD random effects model 0.52 95% CI 0.14 to 0.90). There was significant heterogeneity in the reported effects as well as heterogeneity in characteristics of the interventions. The heterogeneity in reported effects was reduced in higher quality studies, when physical

  20. Hepatobiliary Intervention in Children

    SciTech Connect

    Franchi-Abella, Stéphanie; Cahill, Anne Marie; Barnacle, Alex M.; Pariente, Danièle; Roebuck, Derek J.

    2013-08-02

    Various vascular and nonvascular hepatobiliary interventional radiology techniques are now commonly performed in children’s hospitals. Although the procedures are broadly similar to interventional practice in adults, there are important differences in indications and technical aspects. This review describes the indications, techniques, and results of liver biopsy, hepatic and portal venous interventions and biliary interventions in children.

  1. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Karen; Vasquez, Deb

    2017-01-01

    The Federal Energy Management Program's 'Utility Energy Service Contracts: Enabling Documents' provide legislative information and materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy service contracts, or UESCs.

  2. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  3. ISS - Enabling Exploration Through Docking Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Caris A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA and the ISS partnership are jointly developing a key standard to enable future collaborative exploration. The IDSS is based on flight proven design while incorporating new low impact technology. Low impact technology accommodates a wide range of vehicle contact and capture conditions. This standard will get early demonstration on the ISS. Experience gained here will enable operational experience and the opportunity to refine the standard.

  4. GIS Enabled Modeling and Simulation (GEMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    polygons, visual databases include texture information to provide a visualization of ground and material types. These databases include 3D models ...US Army TEC GIS-Enabled Modeling and Simulation project, and was the lead developer on the building interior semantic information portion of the...GIS Enabled Modeling and Simulation (GEMS) Thomas Stanzione Kevin Johnson MAK Technologies 68 Moulton Street Cambridge, MA 02138 (617) 876

  5. CHOIS: enabling grid technologies for obesity surveillance and control.

    PubMed

    Datta, Arun K; Jackson, Victoria; Nandkumar, Radha; Sproat, Jill; Zhu, Weimo; Krahling, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    CHOIS, the Child Health and Obesity Informatics System, is developed using open source portal technology with three-tiered Open Grid Services Architecture, an accepted standard for accessing Grid Computing and other services under Open Grid Collaborating Environments (OGCE). Its web application provides web based forms with 112 different fields to enter data ranging from demographic, height & weight for BMI, to genomic information. Automatic computation of BMI, BMI percentile and the risk of obesity alert are embedded into this system. After successful testing of the prototype, CHOIS is now ready to be used by the Illinois Department of Human Services (DHS) for obesity surveillance. This HIPAA & FERPA compliant secure system, integrating large databases in a high performance grid computing environment, enables school-nurse to collect data on school children and report statistical and surveillance information on BMI to identify those at-risk and obese for obesity prevention and intervention programs.

  6. Innovative Techniques for Evaluating Behavioral Nutrition Interventions.

    PubMed

    Scherr, Rachel E; Laugero, Kevin D; Graham, Dan J; Cunningham, Brian T; Jahns, Lisa; Lora, Karina R; Reicks, Marla; Mobley, Amy R

    2017-01-01

    Assessing outcomes and the impact from behavioral nutrition interventions has remained challenging because of the lack of methods available beyond traditional nutrition assessment tools and techniques. With the current high global obesity and related chronic disease rates, novel methods to evaluate the impact of behavioral nutrition-based interventions are much needed. The objective of this narrative review is to describe and review the current status of knowledge as it relates to 4 different innovative methods or tools to assess behavioral nutrition interventions. Methods reviewed include 1) the assessment of stress and stress responsiveness to enhance the evaluation of nutrition interventions, 2) eye-tracking technology in nutritional interventions, 3) smartphone biosensors to assess nutrition and health-related outcomes, and 4) skin carotenoid measurements to assess fruit and vegetable intake. Specifically, the novel use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, by characterizing the brain's responsiveness to an intervention, can help researchers develop programs with greater efficacy. Similarly, if eye-tracking technology can enable researchers to get a better sense as to how participants view materials, the materials may be better tailored to create an optimal impact. The latter 2 techniques reviewed, smartphone biosensors and methods to detect skin carotenoids, can provide the research community with portable, effective, nonbiased ways to assess dietary intake and quality and more in the field. The information gained from using these types of methodologies can improve the efficacy and assessment of behavior-based nutrition interventions.

  7. New Labour and the enabling state.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ian

    2000-11-01

    The notion of the 'enabling state' gained currency in the UK during the 1990s as an alternative to the 'providing' or the welfare state. It reflected the process of contracting out in the NHS and compulsory competitive tendering (CCT) in local government during the 1980s, but was also associated with developments during the 1990s in health, social care and education in particular. The creation of an internal market in the NHS and the associated purchaser-provider split appeared to transfer 'ownership' of services increasingly to the providers - hospitals, General Practitioners (GPs) and schools. The mixed economy of care that was stimulated by the 1990 NHS and Community Care Act appeared to offer local authorities the opportunity to enable non state providers to offer care services in the community. The new service charters were part of the enablement process because they offered users more opportunity to influence provision. This article examines how far service providers were enabled and assesses the extent to which new Labour's policies enhance or reject the 'enabling state' in favour of more direct provision.

  8. Biophysical Intervention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Scott

    1987-01-01

    Biophysical interventions as part of an ecological approach to intervention with handicapped children include psychotropic medications (neuroleptics, antidepressants, stimulants, minor tranquilizers and sedatives, lithium); nutritional agents (sugar, vitamins, food allergies); and physical therapies (patterning, optometric training). (DB)

  9. Enabling the Discovery of Gravitational Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of gravitational radiation was announced with the publication of the results of a physics experiment involving over a thousand participants. This was preceded by a century of theoretical work, involving a similarly large group of physicists, mathematicians, and computer scientists. This huge effort was enabled by a substantial commitment of resources, both public and private, to develop the different strands of this complex research enterprise, and to build a community of scientists to carry it out. In the excitement following the discovery, the role of key enablers of this success has not always been adequately recognized in popular accounts. In this talk, I will try to call attention to a few of the key ingredients that proved crucial to enabling the successful discovery of gravitational waves, and the opening of a new field of science.

  10. Wearable sensors and systems. From enabling technology to clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Bonato, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    It is now more than 50 years since the time when clinical monitoring of individuals in the home and community settings was first envisioned. Until recently, technologies to enable such vision were lacking. However, wearable sensors and systems developed over the past decade have provided the tools to finally implement and deploy technology with the capabilities required by researchers in the field of patients' home monitoring. As discussed, potential applications of these technologies include the early diagnosis of diseases such as congestive heart failure, the prevention of chronic conditions such as diabetes, improved clinical management of neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's disease, and the ability to promptly respond to emergency situations such as seizures in patients with epilepsy and cardiac arrest in subjects undergoing cardiovascular monitoring. Current research efforts are now focused on the development of more complex systems for home monitoring of individuals with a variety of preclinical and clinical conditions. Recent research on the clinical assessment of wearable technology promises to deliver methodologies that are expected to lead to clinical adoption within the next five to ten years. In particular, combining home robots and wearable technology is likely to be a key step toward achieving the goal of effectively monitoring patients in the home. These efforts to merge home robots and wearable technology are expected to enable a new generation of complex systems with the ability to monitor subjects' status, facilitate the administration of interventions, and provide an invaluable tool to respond to emergency situations.

  11. Semantically-Enabled Sensor Plug & Play for the Sensor Web

    PubMed Central

    Bröring, Arne; Maúe, Patrick; Janowicz, Krzysztof; Nüst, Daniel; Malewski, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Environmental sensors have continuously improved by becoming smaller, cheaper, and more intelligent over the past years. As consequence of these technological advancements, sensors are increasingly deployed to monitor our environment. The large variety of available sensor types with often incompatible protocols complicates the integration of sensors into observing systems. The standardized Web service interfaces and data encodings defined within OGC’s Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) framework make sensors available over the Web and hide the heterogeneous sensor protocols from applications. So far, the SWE framework does not describe how to integrate sensors on-the-fly with minimal human intervention. The driver software which enables access to sensors has to be implemented and the measured sensor data has to be manually mapped to the SWE models. In this article we introduce a Sensor Plug & Play infrastructure for the Sensor Web by combining (1) semantic matchmaking functionality, (2) a publish/subscribe mechanism underlying the SensorWeb, as well as (3) a model for the declarative description of sensor interfaces which serves as a generic driver mechanism. We implement and evaluate our approach by applying it to an oil spill scenario. The matchmaking is realized using existing ontologies and reasoning engines and provides a strong case for the semantic integration capabilities provided by Semantic Web research. PMID:22164033

  12. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing; Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong; Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing; Yu, Hongyu

    2014-02-24

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics.

  13. Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) ENABLE Program

    SciTech Connect

    2012-06-01

    The Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) ENABLE program, a new project funding approach, allows small Federal facilities to realize energy and water savings in six months or less. ESPC ENABLE provides a standardized and streamlined process to install targeted energy conservation measures (ECMs) such as lighting, water, and controls with measurement and verification (M&V) appropriate for the size and scope of the project. This allows Federal facilities smaller than 200,000 square feet to make progress towards important energy efficiency and water conservation requirements.

  14. Enabling human HUMS with data modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.; Jaenisch, Kristina K.; Hicklen, Michael L.

    2006-05-01

    We simulate a notional Navy SEAL rebreather diver on an extended mission using Model Predictive Control (MPC) theory. A mathematical framework for enabling physiological HUMS (Health Usage Management Systems) is shown. A rebreather simulation is used to derive MPC baseline Data Models of diver status by converting the simulation first into differential equations and then into lookup tables (LUT). When abnormal readings are indicated, sensor data from the diver is published to the ad hoc network, enabling intermittent upload. Mission success confidence is updated and determined during the mission. A novel method of converting MPC Data Models into lookup tables worn by the diver is given.

  15. Upgraded NERVA systems: Enabler nuclear system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farbman, Gerry

    1991-01-01

    The NERVA/Rover Enabler technology enables to go on a low risk, short-term program to meet the requirements of the Mars mission and maybe some lunar missions. The following subject areas are covered: NERVA technology - the foundation for tomorrow's space missions; NERVA/Rover reactor system test sequence; NERVA engine development program; nuclear thermal reactor capability based on many related Westinghouse technology programs; investment in Rover/Nerva technology; synergistic applications of NERVA technology; flow schematic of the NDR engine; the NERVA nuclear subsystem; and technology evolution.

  16. Networking Technologies Enable Advances in Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory; Freeman, Kenneth; Gilstrap, Raymond; Beck, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment to prototype a new way of conducting science by applying networking and distributed computing technologies to an Earth Science application. A combination of satellite, wireless, and terrestrial networking provided geologists at a remote field site with interactive access to supercomputer facilities at two NASA centers, thus enabling them to validate and calibrate remotely sensed geological data in near-real time. This represents a fundamental shift in the way that Earth scientists analyze remotely sensed data. In this paper we describe the experiment and the network infrastructure that enabled it, analyze the data flow during the experiment, and discuss the scientific impact of the results.

  17. Paediatric Interventional Uroradiology

    SciTech Connect

    Barnacle, Alex M.; Wilkinson, A. Graham; Roebuck, Derek J.

    2011-04-15

    Paediatric interventional uroradiology lies at the intersection of the disciplines of paediatric interventional radiology and paediatric endourology. Interdisciplinary collaboration has led to the development of new techniques and refinement of procedures adopted from adult practice. This article reviews the major procedures used in paediatric interventional uroradiology, with emphasis on nephrostomy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, balloon-burst pyeloplasty, and antegrade ureteric stenting.

  18. The Gang Intervention Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Arnold P., Ed.; Huff, C. Ronald, Ed.

    This book provides overviews and evaluations of current juvenile-gang-intervention programs and recommends approaches that have been effective in both prevention and rehabilitation. Its three parts, composed of individual essays, examine patterns of ganging and gang intervention, explore the value of psychology-based interventions, and discuss the…

  19. Brief Interventions for Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Ken C

    2016-01-01

    Public health concerns regarding adolescent alcohol and other drug involvement emphasize the need for continuing research to develop and evaluate preventive interventions for use in a variety of settings. This focus includes research on brief interventions. This short commentary piece provides an overview of the brief intervention literature and highlights future directions PMID:27182561

  20. Thinking Aloud Together: A test of an intervention to foster middle school students' collaborative scientific reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Kathleen

    1997-11-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to examine whether an intervention stressing the metacognitive, regulatory, and strategic aspects of knowledge co-construction would improve middle school students' collaborative scientific reasoning processes and products. A second purpose was to examine potential relationships between individual differences in students' perspectives on learning science and their learning behaviors and outcomes in a complex, collaborative task context. This study thus integrated analyses of social, cognitive, metacognitive, and epistemological dimensions of science learning. An intervention called Thinking Aloud Together was embedded within a 12-week unit on building mental models of the nature of matter. Collaboratively building mental models was an open-ended, highly conceptual challenge that required students to build knowledge largely from their own and their peers' ideas and observations. The assumption behind the intervention design was that for such complex, higher-order, constructive intellectual tasks, raising students' metacognitive awareness of the kinds of thinking required would help them to acquire the necessary collaborative reasoning skills. The study included a quantitative, quasi-experimental portion and a qualitative, interpretive portion. For the quantitative portion, half of a sample of 163 eighth grade students received the intervention. The qualitative procedures included extensive observations of four classrooms; recording, logging, and analysis of 73 sense-making conversations of eight target groups (24 students); and two interviews with each of 12 students from the target groups. Students who received the Thinking Aloud Together intervention gained in metacognitive knowledge about collaborative reasoning and ability to articulate their collaborative reasoning processes in comparison to students in control classrooms, as hypothesized. However, the treatment and control students did not differ substantially either in

  1. A Design for Computationally Enabled Analyses Supporting the Pre-Intervention Analytical Framework (PIAF)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    do not fit well into operational doc- trine or leverage the best available sociocultural theory and research (Schmorrow 2011). The U.S. Army Engineer...offering competing theories ), authoritative sources can ground the understanding of sociocultural factors. Then, tools and meth- ods should provide...literature findings and organized in terms of underlying sociocultural drivers. The design for computationally ena- bled analysis, described here, exploits

  2. Transformative Learning: Patterns of Psychophysiologic Response and Technology-Enabled Learning and Intervention Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    demonstrate smoking: a) Royal Tennenbaums, b) Coffee and Cigarettes, c) Bridget Jones Diary, and d) My Best Friend’s Wedding. SECTION...contact for this study is Pamela Barretto- Jones , RN, MSN, Human Subjects Protection Scientist, at 301-619- 1018/pamela.barrettojones@us.army.mil

  3. ASR Technology for Children with Dyslexia: Enabling Immediate Intervention to Support Reading in Bahasa Melayu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husni, Husniza; Jamaludin, Zulikha

    2009-01-01

    Reading is an essential skill towards literacy development, and should be provided so that children can master the skill at their early ages. For dyslexic children, mastering the skill is a challenge. It has been widely agreed that the theory behind such difficulties in reading for dyslexic lies in the phonological-core deficits. Support has been…

  4. Older women's fears of violence: the need for interventions that enable active ageing.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Karen; Buys, Laurie; Lovie-Kitchin, Jan; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Smith, Dianne; Heffernan, Maree

    2007-01-01

    Women's fear of violence can impact negatively on their active participation in life. An ageing survey conducted with 2,620 Australian respondents aged 50 to 90 years examined aspects of work, learning, social, spiritual and emotional status, health, vision, home, life events, demographics, and asked an open-ended question about what being actively engaged in life meant. Ordinal regression was carried out on two dependent variables: wanting and needing to learn to discourage violence. Analyses found that as women's age increased, those on lower incomes were more likely than others to say they needed to learn how to discourage violence against them. This paper investigates the variables associated with the findings-transport, finances, news media, home safety, and reduced social interactions. Results highlight the importance of understanding women's fear in the context of personal and social issues, and the need to provide learning opportunities to improve safety and social engagement.

  5. Network Enabled Operations: A Canadian Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-13

    Decisive: US Naval Institute Proceedings. ** VERDON , J. (2004) Transformation in the CF - People Implications of Effects-Based and Network-Enabled...Operations: A Canadian Perspective (U) 4. AUTHORS (First name, middle initial and last name. If military, show rank, e.g. Maj. John E. Doe.) Michael H

  6. Nanotechnologv Enabled Biological and Chemical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehne, Jessica; Meyyappan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an enabling technology that will impact almost all economic sectors: one of the most important and with great potential is the health/medical sector. - Nanomaterials for drug delivery - Early warning sensors - Implantable devices - Artificial parts with improved characteristics Carbon nanotubes and nanofibers show promise for use in sensor development, electrodes and other biomedical applications.

  7. School Bureaucracies That Work: Enabling, Not Coercive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, Wayne K.; Sweetland, Scott R.

    2000-01-01

    Attempts to reconcile two theoretically opposing perspectives of bureaucracy (as either alienating or facilitative) by creating and testing a new construct called "enabling bureaucracy." Empirical results are encouraging. Schools can be designed with formalized procedures and hierarchical structures that help rather than hinder teaching and…

  8. ICT-Enabled Learning: The Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Geoff; Grebennikov, Leonid; Gozzard, Terry

    2009-01-01

    This research seeks to contribute to current discussions in Australian higher education on how best to deploy ICT-enabled learning. Its particular focus is on examining the qualitative data from students on their experience of using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) at one college in an Australian university. In total, about 71,240…

  9. Enabling a Comprehensive Teaching Strategy: Video Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brecht, H. David; Ogilby, Suzanne M.

    2008-01-01

    This study empirically tests the feasibility and effectiveness of video lectures as a form of video instruction that enables a comprehensive teaching strategy used throughout a traditional classroom course. It examines student use patterns and the videos' effects on student learning, using qualitative and nonparametric statistical analyses of…

  10. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  11. Safely Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Near-term Goal: Enable initial low-altitude airspace and UAS operations with demonstrated safety as early as possible, within 5 years. Long-term Goal: Accommodate increased UAS operations with highest safety, efficiency, and capacity as much autonomously as possible (10-15 years).

  12. Technology-Enabled Crime, Policing and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuade, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Crime, policing and security are enabled by and co-evolve with technologies that make them possible. As criminals compete with security and policing officials for technological advantage perpetually complex crime, policing and security results in relatively confusing and therefore unmanageable threats to society. New, adaptive and ordinary crimes…

  13. Imaging in interventional oncology.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Stephen B; Silverman, Stuart G

    2010-12-01

    Medical imaging in interventional oncology is used differently than in diagnostic radiology and prioritizes different imaging features. Whereas diagnostic imaging prioritizes the highest-quality imaging, interventional imaging prioritizes real-time imaging with lower radiation dose in addition to high-quality imaging. In general, medical imaging plays five key roles in image-guided therapy, and interventional oncology, in particular. These roles are (a) preprocedure planning, (b) intraprocedural targeting, (c) intraprocedural monitoring, (d) intraprocedural control, and (e) postprocedure assessment. Although many of these roles are still relatively basic in interventional oncology, as research and development in medical imaging focuses on interventional needs, it is likely that the role of medical imaging in intervention will become even more integral and more widely applied. In this review, the current status of medical imaging for intervention in oncology will be described and directions for future development will be examined.

  14. Enabling room temperature sodium metal batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Ruiguo; Mishra, Kuber; Li, Xiaolin; Qian, Jiangfeng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bowden, Mark E.; Han, Kee Sung; Mueller, Karl T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2016-12-01

    Rechargeable batteries based upon sodium (Na+) cations are at the core of many new battery chemistries beyond Li-ion batteries. Rather than using carbon or alloy-based anodes, the direct utilization of solid sodium metal as an anode would be highly advantageous, but its use has been highly problematic due to its high reactivity. In this work, however, it is demonstrated that, by tailoring the electrolyte formulation, solid Na metal can be electrochemically plated/stripped at ambient temperature with high efficiency (> 99%) on both copper and inexpensive aluminum current collectors thereby enabling a shift in focus to new battery chemical couples based upon Na metal operating at ambient temperature. These highly concentrated electrolytes has enabled stable cycling of Na metal batteries based on a Na metal anode and Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode at high rates with very high efficiency.

  15. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation.

    PubMed

    Vreeman, Daniel J; Chiaravalloti, Maria Teresa; Hook, John; McDonald, Clement J

    2012-08-01

    Interoperable health information exchange depends on adoption of terminology standards, but international use of such standards can be challenging because of language differences between local concept names and the standard terminology. To address this important barrier, we describe the evolution of an efficient process for constructing translations of LOINC terms names, the foreign language functions in RELMA, and the current state of translations in LOINC. We also present the development of the Italian translation to illustrate how translation is enabling adoption in international contexts. We built a tool that finds the unique list of LOINC Parts that make up a given set of LOINC terms. This list enables translation of smaller pieces like the core component "hepatitis c virus" separately from all the suffixes that could appear with it, such "Ab.IgG", "DNA", and "RNA". We built another tool that generates a translation of a full LOINC name from all of these atomic pieces. As of version 2.36 (June 2011), LOINC terms have been translated into nine languages from 15 linguistic variants other than its native English. The five largest linguistic variants have all used the Part-based translation mechanism. However, even with efficient tools and processes, translation of standard terminology is a complex undertaking. Two of the prominent linguistic challenges that translators have faced include: the approach to handling acronyms and abbreviations, and the differences in linguistic syntax (e.g. word order) between languages. LOINC's open and customizable approach has enabled many different groups to create translations that met their needs and matched their resources. Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange.

  16. Enabling Tactical Edge Mashups with Live Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    and visual Situation Reports (SITREPs) while airborne, via his Live Objects-enabled IP radio, to better vector the bird to the site of the downed...including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources , gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and...Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a

  17. NASA Missions Enabled by Space Nuclear Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.; Schmidt, George R.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Space Missions that are enabled by Space Nuclear Systems. The topics include: 1) Space Nuclear System Applications; 2) Trade Space for Electric Power Systems; 3) Power Generation Specific Energy Trade Space; 4) Radioisotope Power Generation; 5) Radioisotope Missions; 6) Fission Power Generation; 7) Solar Powered Lunar Outpost; 8) Fission Powered Lunar Outpost; 9) Fission Electric Power Generation; and 10) Fission Nuclear Thermal Propulsion.

  18. Enabling technologies for petascale electromagnetic accelerator simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Lie-Quan; Akcelik, Volkan; Chen, Sheng; Ge, Lixin; Prudencio, Ernesto; Schussman, Greg; Uplenchwar, Ravi; Ng, Cho; Ko, Kwok; Luo, Xiaojun; Shephard, Mark

    2007-07-01

    The SciDAC2 accelerator project at SLAC aims to simulate an entire three-cryomodule radio frequency (RF) unit of the International Linear Collider (ILC) main Linac. Petascale computing resources supported by advances in Applied Mathematics (AM) and Computer Science (CS) and INCITE Program are essential to enable such very large-scale electromagnetic accelerator simulations required by the ILC Global Design Effort. This poster presents the recent advances and achievements in the areas of CS/AM through collaborations.

  19. Open Architecture as an Enabler for FORCEnet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Functional Area Manager FCP Fire Control Picture FCS Fire Control Solution FCQ Fire Control Quality FFBD Functional Flow Block Diagram Fn/OA FORCEnet...a) Firing Unit (FRU) receive Fire Control Quality ( FCQ ) data on threat from Remote Unit(s) (RUs). b) Validate FCQ data, enable FRU to act. c...Maintain Common Operational Picture (COP) of local tracks. d) Develop Fire Control Solution (FCS) based on FCQ data. e) Correlate FRU FCS with RU

  20. Enabling technologies: fermentation and downstream processing.

    PubMed

    Weuster-Botz, Dirk; Hekmat, Dariusch; Puskeiler, Robert; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel

    2007-01-01

    Efficient parallel tools for bioprocess design, consequent application of the concepts for metabolic process analysis as well as innovative downstream processing techniques are enabling technologies for new industrial bioprocesses from an engineering point of view. Basic principles, state-of-the-art techniques and cutting-edge technologies are briefly reviewed. Emphasis is on parallel bioreactors for bioprocess design, biochemical systems characterization and metabolic control analysis, as well as on preparative chromatography, affinity filtration and protein crystallization on a process scale.

  1. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation

    PubMed Central

    Vreeman, Daniel J.; Chiaravalloti, Maria Teresa; Hook, John; McDonald, Clement J.

    2012-01-01

    Interoperable health information exchange depends on adoption of terminology standards, but international use of such standards can be challenging because of language differences between local concept names and the standard terminology. To address this important barrier, we describe the evolution of an efficient process for constructing translations of LOINC terms names, the foreign language functions in RELMA, and the current state of translations in LOINC. We also present the development of the Italian translation to illustrate how translation is enabling adoption in international contexts. We built a tool that finds the unique list of LOINC Parts that make up a given set of LOINC terms. This list enables translation of smaller pieces like the core component “hepatitis c virus” separately from all the suffixes that could appear with it, such “Ab.IgG”, “DNA”, and “RNA”. We built another tool that generates a translation of a full LOINC name from all of these atomic pieces. As of version 2.36 (June 2011), LOINC terms have been translated into 9 languages from 15 linguistic variants other than its native English. The five largest linguistic variants have all used the Part-based translation mechanism. However, even with efficient tools and processes, translation of standard terminology is a complex undertaking. Two of the prominent linguistic challenges that translators have faced include: the approach to handling acronyms and abbreviations, and the differences in linguistic syntax (e.g. word order) between languages. LOINC’s open and customizable approach has enabled many different groups to create translations that met their needs and matched their resources. Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange PMID:22285984

  2. Enabling Technologies for Petascale Electromagnetic Accelerator Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Lie-Quan; Akcelik, Volkan; Chen, Sheng; Ge, Li-Xin; Prudencio, Ernesto; Schussman, Greg; Uplenchwar, Ravi; Ng, Cho; Ko, Kwok; Luo, Xiaojun; Shephard, Mark; /Rensselaer Poly.

    2007-11-09

    The SciDAC2 accelerator project at SLAC aims to simulate an entire three-cryomodule radio frequency (RF) unit of the International Linear Collider (ILC) main Linac. Petascale computing resources supported by advances in Applied Mathematics (AM) and Computer Science (CS) and INCITE Program are essential to enable such very large-scale electromagnetic accelerator simulations required by the ILC Global Design Effort. This poster presents the recent advances and achievements in the areas of CS/AM through collaborations.

  3. Enabling Research Tools for Sustained Climate Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leidner, Allison K.; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Jasinski, Michael F.; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Waliser, Duane Edward; Lee, Tsengdar J.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Global Change Research Program Sustained Assessment process benefits from long-term investments in Earth science research that enable the scientific community to conduct assessment-relevant science. To this end, NASA initiated several research programs over the past five years to support the Earth observation community in developing indicators, datasets, research products, and tools to support ongoing and future National Climate Assessments. These activities complement NASA's ongoing Earth science research programs. One aspect of the assessment portfolio funds four "enabling tools" projects at NASA research centers. Each tool leverages existing capacity within the center, but has developed tailored applications and products for National Climate Assessments. The four projects build on the capabilities of a global atmospheric reanalysis (MERRA-2), a continental U.S. land surface reanalysis (NCA-LDAS), the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX), and a Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES). Here, we provide a brief overview of each enabling tool, highlighting the ways in which it has advanced assessment science to date. We also discuss how the assessment community can access and utilize these tools for National Climate Assessments and other sustained assessment activities.

  4. DISK FORMATION ENABLED BY ENHANCED RESISTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang Hsien; Li Zhiyun

    2010-06-20

    Disk formation in magnetized cloud cores is hindered by magnetic braking. Previous work has shown that for realistic levels of core magnetization, the magnetic field suppresses the formation of rotationally supported disks during the protostellar mass accretion phase of low-mass star formation both in the ideal MHD limit and in the presence of ambipolar diffusion for typical rates of cosmic-ray ionization. Additional effects, such as ohmic dissipation, the Hall effect, and protostellar outflow, are needed to weaken the magnetic braking and enable the formation of persistent, rotationally supported, protostellar disks. In this paper, we first demonstrate that the classic microscopic resistivity is not large enough to enable disk formation by itself. We then experiment with a set of enhanced values for the resistivity in the range {eta} = 10{sup 17}-10{sup 22} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}. We find that a value of order 10{sup 19} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} is needed to enable the formation of a 10{sup 2} AU scale Keplerian disk; the value depends somewhat on the degree of core magnetization. The required resistivity is a few orders of magnitude larger than the classic microscopic values. Whether it can be achieved naturally during protostellar collapse remains to be determined.

  5. Enabling conditions and children's understanding of pretense.

    PubMed

    Sobel, David M

    2009-11-01

    Two experiments examined whether preschoolers' difficulties on tasks that required relating pretending and knowledge (e.g., Lillard, A. S. (1993a). Young children's conceptualization of pretense: Action or mental representational state? Child Development, 64, 372-386) were due to children's inability to appreciate the causal mechanism behind enabling conditions. In Experiment 1, 4-year-olds were told about a character who knew about one kind of animal and did not know about another. The character acted in a manner consistent with both animals. Children were asked whether the character was pretending to be the animal of which he was ignorant. The character's knowledge was either represented in a generic manner (as a picture) or in a manner that suggested a particular enabling condition relation that children found accessible (as a battery, which most 4-year-olds recognize is critical for making toys work). Children were more successful at relating knowledge and pretending in the battery condition. This improvement in performance extended to another task in which children had to identify the enabling condition relation between knowledge and identification, in which there were reduced demands on the inhibitory mechanisms necessary for success. Experiment 2 found that the results in Experiment 1 were not due to demands of the procedure used in Experiment 1. These results are discussed in the context of recent theories of theory of mind that focus on the importance of causal relations among mental states.

  6. Web-enabling technologies for the factory floor: a web-enabling strategy for emanufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velez, Ricardo; Lastra, Jose L. M.; Tuokko, Reijo O.

    2001-10-01

    This paper is intended to address the different technologies available for Web-enabling of the factory floor. It will give an overview of the importance of Web-enabling of the factory floor, in the application of the concepts of flexible and intelligent manufacturing, in conjunction with e-commerce. As a last section, it will try to define a Web-enabling strategy for the application in eManufacturing. This is made under the scope of the electronics manufacturing industry, so every application, technology or related matter is presented under such scope.

  7. Interventional Radiology in China

    SciTech Connect

    Teng Gaojun Xu Ke; Ni Caifang; Li Linsun

    2008-03-15

    With more than 3000 members, the Chinese Society of Interventional Radiology (CSIR) is one of the world's largest societies for interventional radiology (IR). Nevertheless, compared to other societies such as CIRSE and SIR, the CSIR is a relatively young society. In this article, the status of IR in China is described, which includes IR history, structure and patient management, personnel, fellowship, training, modalities, procedures, research, turf battle, and insightful visions for IR from Chinese interventional radiologists.

  8. Pediatric Interventional Radiology: Non-Vascular Interventions.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Pediatric interventional radiology (PIR), which includes variety of procedures done under image guidance has emerged as an essential adjunct to various surgical and medical conditions, plays a significant role in the delivery of safe and effective care by reducing surgical risks, decreasing the length of hospital stay and reducing costs. The application of interventional techniques in children has been delayed over years as compared to adults due to lack of special hardwares/equipments, lack of adequately trained physicians and also the lack of awareness among the pediatric practitioners. This situation is gradually changing now owing to the advancements in technology. In this review, authors will discuss various non-vascular interventional procedures undertaken in pediatric patients.

  9. Interventional Radiology in Paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Chippington, Samantha J; Goodwin, Susie J

    2015-01-01

    As in adult practice, there is a growing role for paediatric interventional radiology expertise in the management of paediatric pathologies. This review is targeted for clinicians who may refer their patients to paediatric interventional radiology services, or who are responsible for patients who are undergoing paediatric interventional radiology procedures. The article includes a brief overview of the indications for intervention, techniques involved and the commonest complications. Although some of the procedures described are most commonly performed in a tertiary paediatric centre, many are performed in most Children's hospitals.

  10. Developing a Complex Educational–Behavioural Intervention: The TREAT Intervention for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Clarkesmith, Danielle E.; Pattison, Helen M.; Borg Xuereb, Christian; Lane, Deirdre A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the theoretical and pragmatic development of a patient-centred intervention for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Theoretical models (Common Sense Model, Necessity-Concerns Framework), clinical frameworks, and AF patient feedback contributed to the design of a one-off hour-long behaviour-change intervention package. Intervention materials consisted of a DVD, educational booklet, diary and worksheet, which were patient-centred and easy to administer. The intervention was evaluated within a randomised controlled trial. Several “active theoretical ingredients” were identified (for e.g., where patients believed their medication was less harmful they spent more time within the therapeutic range (TTR), with general harm scores predicting TTR at 6 months). Allowing for social comparison and adopting behaviour change techniques enabled accurate patient understanding of their condition and medication. The process of developing the intervention using theory-derived content and evaluation tools allowed a greater understanding of the mechanisms by which this intervention was successful. Alleviating concerns about treatment medication by educating patients can help to improve adherence. This process of intervention development could be adopted for a range of chronic illnesses and treatments. Critical elements should include the use of: (1) clinical guidelines; (2) appropriate theoretical models; (3) patient input; and (4) appropriate evaluation tools. PMID:27417598

  11. Developing a Complex Educational-Behavioural Intervention: The TREAT Intervention for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Clarkesmith, Danielle E; Pattison, Helen M; Borg Xuereb, Christian; Lane, Deirdre A

    2016-01-14

    This article describes the theoretical and pragmatic development of a patient-centred intervention for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Theoretical models (Common Sense Model, Necessity-Concerns Framework), clinical frameworks, and AF patient feedback contributed to the design of a one-off hour-long behaviour-change intervention package. Intervention materials consisted of a DVD, educational booklet, diary and worksheet, which were patient-centred and easy to administer. The intervention was evaluated within a randomised controlled trial. Several "active theoretical ingredients" were identified (for e.g., where patients believed their medication was less harmful they spent more time within the therapeutic range (TTR), with general harm scores predicting TTR at 6 months). Allowing for social comparison and adopting behaviour change techniques enabled accurate patient understanding of their condition and medication. The process of developing the intervention using theory-derived content and evaluation tools allowed a greater understanding of the mechanisms by which this intervention was successful. Alleviating concerns about treatment medication by educating patients can help to improve adherence. This process of intervention development could be adopted for a range of chronic illnesses and treatments. Critical elements should include the use of: (1) clinical guidelines; (2) appropriate theoretical models; (3) patient input; and (4) appropriate evaluation tools.

  12. Enabling access to seismologic data through a service oriented architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muench, J.; Kamb, L.; Casey, R.; Weertman, B.; Ahern, T.

    2006-12-01

    As research in the geosciences grows more interdisciplinary in nature, the IRIS Data Management Center is developing services to simplify access for non-domain experts as well as to enable expert users to more efficiently access the data and tools they need for their research. By building a service-oriented architecture (SOA) based on data retrieval, basic processing and visualization tools, IRIS will make seismic data products such as record sections and seismic event visualizations available to users without requiring a detailed knowledge of seismic data analysis. These composable web services will allow our expert users to build automated workflows to extract and pre-process their data requests, reducing the need for manual intervention in the data retrieval phase. A significant aspect of our SOA effort is to facilitate data discovery across disciplines and organizations. To provide our users with access to other geological data sources and help non-domain experts find our data, we are working with UNAVCO and MG&G at LDEO to create interoperable data discovery services, called GeoWS, between our unique data repositories. We also plan to collaborate with JAMSTEC, the host institution for the Earth Simulator. This will bring international data access and products produced on the Earth Simulator into our discovery system. Finally, we will develop a service providing discovery and visualization of community-based velocity models provided by selected individual researchers from IRIS member institutions. In a further effort to create community tools, all our services will be accessible from within portlets based on the GridSphere portal framework. We hope to share data and analysis portlets with other geoscience community web sites such as SCEC CME and GEON. Our long-term aim is to provide reusable, composable services with programmatic and interactive interfaces, enabling users to easily customize seismic data access.

  13. Small-RPS Enabled Mars Rover Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Tibor S.

    2005-02-01

    Both the MER and the Mars Pathfinder rovers operated on Mars in an energy-limited mode, since the solar panels generated power during daylight hours only. At other times the rovers relied on power stored in batteries. In comparison, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) offer a power-enabled paradigm, where power can be generated for long mission durations (measured in years), independently from the Sun, and on a continuous basis. A study was performed at JPL to assess the feasibility of a small-RPS enabled MER-class rover concept and any associated advantages of its mission on Mars, The rover concept relied on design heritage from MER with two significant changes. First, the solar panels were replaced with two single GPHS module based small-RPSs. Second, the Mossbauer spectroscope was substituted with a laser Raman spectroscope, in order to move towards MEPAG defined astrobiology driven science goals. The highest power requirements were contributed to mobility and telecommunication type operating modes, hence influencing power system sizing. The resulting hybrid power system included two small-RPSs and two batteries. Each small-RPS was assumed to generate 50 We of power or 620 Wh/sol of energy (BOL), comparable to that of MER. The two 8 Ah batteries were considered available during peak power usage. Mission architecture, power trades, science instruments, data, communication, thermal and radiation environments, mobility, and mass issues were also addressed. The study demonstrated that a new set of RPS-enabled rover missions could be envisioned for Mars exploration within the next decade, targeting astrobiology oriented science objectives, while powered by 2 to 4 GPHS modules.

  14. A wireless sensor enabled by wireless power.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-11-22

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network.

  15. Astronomy Enabled by Ares V -- A Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, Daniel F.; Langhoff, S.; Worden, S. P.; Thronson, H.; Correll, R.

    2009-01-01

    On April 26th and 27th, 2008, NASA Ames Research Center hosted a two-day weekend workshop entitled "Astronomy Enabled by Ares V.” The primary goal of the workshop was to begin the process of bringing the Ares V designers together with senior representatives of the astronomical community to discuss the feasibility of using the Ares V heavy-lift launch vehicle to enable both new astronomical telescope architectures and new science. When developed in the latter part of the upcoming decade Ares V will be by far the most capable launch vehicle, with mass and volume launch capability many times that now available. The vehicle is understood to be the main workhorse in carrying humans and cargo to the Moon and beyond and, as such, is a key lynchpin for NASA's new space transportation architecture. Participants included experts from academia, industry, and NASA, including representatives of the Constellation architecture. Participants considered, in the context of identified astronomy needs: (1) Are there telescope concepts or missions capable of breakthrough science that are either enabled or significantly enhanced by the capabilities of an Ares V? (2) What demands do large telescopes place on the payload environment of the Ares V, such as mass, volume, fairing shape, cleanliness, acoustics, etc.? (3) What technology and environmental issues need to be addressed to facilitate launching observatories on an Ares V? (4) Is there a trade-off between mass and complexity that could reduce launch risk and, thereby, the cost of building large telescopes? We report on the results of this workshop, which included discussion on the operations model for such large-investment astronomical facilities. Such an operations model might well involve human and or robotic maintenance and servicing, in order to fully capitalize on the science potential of such facilities.

  16. A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-01-01

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

  17. ENABLER Nuclear Propulsion System Conceptual Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauley, Keith A.; Woodham, Kurt; Ohi, Don; Haga, Heath; Henderson, Bo

    2004-02-01

    The Titan Corporation conducted a systems engineering study to develop an overall architecture that meets both the articulated and unarticulated requirements on the Prometheus Program with the least development effort. Key elements of the Titan-designed ENABLER system include a thermal fission reactor, thermionic power converters, sodium heat pipes, ion thruster engines, and a radiation shield and deployable truss to protect the payload. The overall design is scaleable over a wide range of power requirements from 10s of kilowatts to 10s of megawatts.

  18. Enabling Strain Hardening Simulations with Dislocation Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Arsenlis, A; Cai, W

    2006-12-20

    Numerical algorithms for discrete dislocation dynamics simulations are investigated for the purpose of enabling strain hardening simulations of single crystals on massively parallel computers. The algorithms investigated include the /(N) calculation of forces, the equations of motion, time integration, adaptive mesh refinement, the treatment of dislocation core reactions, and the dynamic distribution of work on parallel computers. A simulation integrating all of these algorithmic elements using the Parallel Dislocation Simulator (ParaDiS) code is performed to understand their behavior in concert, and evaluate the overall numerical performance of dislocation dynamics simulations and their ability to accumulate percents of plastic strain.

  19. Enabling Rapid Naval Architecture Design Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Michael A.; Dufresne, Stephane; Balestrini-Robinson, Santiago; Mavris, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    Well accepted conceptual ship design tools can be used to explore a design space, but more precise results can be found using detailed models in full-feature computer aided design programs. However, defining a detailed model can be a time intensive task and hence there is an incentive for time sensitive projects to use conceptual design tools to explore the design space. In this project, the combination of advanced aerospace systems design methods and an accepted conceptual design tool facilitates the creation of a tool that enables the user to not only visualize ship geometry but also determine design feasibility and estimate the performance of a design.

  20. Camera-enabled techniques for organic synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ingham, Richard J; O’Brien, Matthew; Browne, Duncan L

    2013-01-01

    Summary A great deal of time is spent within synthetic chemistry laboratories on non-value-adding activities such as sample preparation and work-up operations, and labour intensive activities such as extended periods of continued data collection. Using digital cameras connected to computer vision algorithms, camera-enabled apparatus can perform some of these processes in an automated fashion, allowing skilled chemists to spend their time more productively. In this review we describe recent advances in this field of chemical synthesis and discuss how they will lead to advanced synthesis laboratories of the future. PMID:23766820

  1. Enabling plant synthetic biology through genome engineering.

    PubMed

    Baltes, Nicholas J; Voytas, Daniel F

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic biology seeks to create new biological systems, including user-designed plants and plant cells. These systems can be employed for a variety of purposes, ranging from producing compounds of industrial or therapeutic value, to reducing crop losses by altering cellular responses to pathogens or climate change. To realize the full potential of plant synthetic biology, techniques are required that provide control over the genetic code - enabling targeted modifications to DNA sequences within living plant cells. Such control is now within reach owing to recent advances in the use of sequence-specific nucleases to precisely engineer genomes. We discuss here the enormous potential provided by genome engineering for plant synthetic biology.

  2. PHM Enabled Autonomous Propellant Loading Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Mark; Figueroa, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The utility of Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) software capability applied to Autonomous Operations (AO) remains an active research area within aerospace applications. The ability to gain insight into which assets and subsystems are functioning properly, along with the derivation of confident predictions concerning future ability, reliability, and availability, are important enablers for making sound mission planning decisions. When coupled with software that fully supports mission planning and execution, an integrated solution can be developed that leverages state assessment and estimation for the purposes of delivering autonomous operations. The authors have been applying this integrated, model-based approach to the autonomous loading of cryogenic spacecraft propellants at Kennedy Space Center.

  3. MR sequences and rapid acquisition for MR guided interventions

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Washburn, Adrienne E; Faranesh, Anthony Z; Lederman, Robert J; Hansen, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Interventional MR uses rapid imaging to guide diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. One of the attractions of MR-guidance is the abundance of inherent contrast mechanisms available. Dynamic procedural guidance with real-time imaging has pushed the limits of MR technology, demanding rapid acquisition and reconstruction paired with interactive control and device visualization. This article reviews the technical aspects of real-time MR sequences that enable MR-guided interventions. PMID:26499283

  4. Practical interventional radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Von Sonnenberg, E.; Mueller, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    This book describes techniques employed in interventional radiology with emphasis on imaging leading to intervention. Includes the entire array of procedures available to the radiologist, discussing the indications, materials, technique, results, and complications for each. Covers the chest, abdomen, bone, pediatric considerations, and nursing care.

  5. Juvenile Delinquency Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsey, Mark W.

    1988-01-01

    Three meta-analyses by C. J. Garrett (1984, 1985), P. Kaufman (1985), and W. S. Davidson and others (1984) of juvenile delinquency interventions are summarized. This systematic literature review indicates that interventions to reduce juvenile delinquency may have small, but meaningful, impacts. Promising avenues for future research are suggested.…

  6. Worksite Stress Management Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivancevich, John M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents a framework used for viewing stress and organizational stress interventions. Reviews the stress management intervention literature in the context of this framework. Provides examples of corporations committed to stress management programs. Identifies future needs appropriate for organizational psychologists to address. (Author/JS)

  7. Enabling Meaningful Affiliation Searches in the ADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D. M.; Chyla, R.; Holachek, A.; Accomazzi, A.; Henneken, E. A.; Kurtz, M. J.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    For many years, users have wanted to search affiliations in the ADS in order to build institutional databases and to help with author disambiguation. Although we currently provide this capability upon request, we have yet to incorporate it as part of the operational Abstract Service. This is because it cannot be used reliably, primarily because of the lack of uniform representation of the affiliation data. In an effort to make affiliation searches more meaningful, we have designed a two-tiered hierarchy of standard institutional names based on Ringgold identifiers, with the expectation that this will enable us to implement a search by institution, which will work for the vast majority of institutions. It is our intention to provide the capability of searching the ADS both by standard affiliation name and original affiliation string, as well as to enable autosuggest of affiliations as a means of helping to disambiguate author identification. Some institutions are likely to require manual work, and we encourage interested librarians to assist us in standardizing the representation of their institutions in the affiliation field.

  8. Nano-enabled SERS reporting photosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Farhadi, Arash; Roxin, Áron; Wilson, Brian C; Zheng, Gang

    2015-01-01

    To impart effective cellular damage via photodynamic therapy (PDT), it is vital to deliver the appropriate light dose and photosensitizer concentration, and to monitor the PDT dose delivered at the site of interest. In vivo monitoring of photosensitizers has in large part relied on their fluorescence emission. Palladium-containing photosensitizers have shown promising clinical results by demonstrating near full conversion of light to PDT activity at the cost of having undetectable fluorescence. We demonstrate that, through the coupling of plasmonic nanoparticles with palladium-photosensitizers, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) provides both reporting and monitoring capability to otherwise quiescent molecules. Nano-enabled SERS reporting of photosensitizers allows for the decoupling of the therapeutic and imaging mechanisms so that both phenomena can be optimized independently. Most importantly, the design enables the use of the same laser wavelength to stimulate both the PDT and imaging features, opening the potential for real-time dosimetry of photosensitizer concentration and PDT dose delivery by SERS monitoring.

  9. The Master Enabler: In Orbit Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; Kienlen, Michael; Naasz, Bo; Roberts, Brian; Deweese, Keith; Cassidy, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most noteworthy missions in space exploration have occurred in the last two decades and owe their success to on-orbit servicing. The tremendously successful Hubble Space Telescope repair and upgrade missions, as well as the completed assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and its full utilization, lead us to the next chapter and set of challenges. These include fully exploiting the many space systems already launched, assembling large structures in situ thereby enabling new scientific discoveries, and providing systems that reliably and cost-effectively support the next steps in space exploration. In-orbit servicing is a tool--a tool that can serve as the master enabler to create space architectures that would otherwise be unattainable. This paper will survey how NASA's satellite-servicing technology development efforts are being applied to the planning and execution of two such ambitious missions, specifically asteroid capture and the in-space assembly of a very large life-finding telescope.

  10. In-Orbit Servicing: The Master Enabler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; Kienlen, Michael; Naasz, Bo; Roberts, Brian; Deweese, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most noteworthy missions in space exploration have occurred in the last two decades and owe their success to on-orbit servicing. The tremendously successful Hubble Space Telescope repair and upgrade missions, as well as the completed assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and its full utilization, lead us to the next chapter and set of challenges. These include fully exploiting the many space systems already launched, assembling large structures in situ thereby enabling new scientific discoveries, and providing systems that reliably and cost-effectively support the next steps in space exploration. In-orbit servicing is a tool--a tool that can serve as the master enabler to create space architectures that would otherwise be unattainable. This paper will survey how NASA's satellite-servicing technology development efforts are being applied to the planning and execution of two such ambitious missions, specifically asteroid capture and the in-space assembly of a very large life-finding telescope.

  11. The "Master Enabler" - In-Orbit Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Benjamin; Kienlen, Michael; Naasz, Bo; Roberts, Brian; Deweese, Keith; Cassidy, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most noteworthy missions in space exploration have occurred in the last two decades and owe their success to on-orbit servicing. The tremendously successful Hubble Space Telescope repair and upgrade missions, as well as the completed assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and its full utilization, lead us to the next chapter and set of challenges. These include fully exploiting the many space systems already launched, assembling large structures in situ thereby enabling new scientific discoveries, and providing systems that reliably and cost-effectively support the next steps in space exploration. In-orbit servicing is a tool-a tool that can serve as the master enabler to create space architectures that would otherwise be unattainable. This paper will survey how NASA's satellite-servicing technology development efforts are being applied to the planning and execution of two such ambitious missions, specifically asteroid capture and the in-space assembly of a very large life-finding telescope.

  12. MENTOR: an enabler for interoperable intelligent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarraipa, João; Jardim-Goncalves, Ricardo; Steiger-Garcao, Adolfo

    2010-07-01

    A community with knowledge organisation based on ontologies will enable an increase in the computational intelligence of its information systems. However, due to the worldwide diversity of communities, a high number of knowledge representation elements, which are not semantically coincident, have appeared representing the same segment of reality, becoming a barrier to business communications. Even if a domain community uses the same kind of technologies in its information systems, such as ontologies, it doesn't solve its semantics differences. In order to solve this interoperability problem, a solution is to use a reference ontology as an intermediary in the communications between the community enterprises and the outside, while allowing the enterprises to keep their own ontology and semantics unchanged internally. This work proposes MENTOR, a methodology to support the development of a common reference ontology for a group of organisations sharing the same business domain. This methodology is based on the mediator ontology (MO) concept, which assists the semantic transformations among each enterprise's ontology and the referential one. The MO enables each organisation to keep its own terminology, glossary and ontological structures, while providing seamless communication and interaction with the others.

  13. Early intervention in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kulhara, Parmanand; Banerjee, Anindya; Dutt, Alakananda

    2008-04-01

    Early intervention (EI) programs in schizophrenia and other psychoses are aimed at early detection (ED) of the disease; prevent conversion to manifested psychosis and phase-specific treatment to reduce development of chronic disabilities. EI strategies include targeting people at "high risk" for developing schizophrenia, intervening in prodromal phase of schizophrenia, and reducing the "duration of untreated psychosis" (DUP). Services are delivered by a specialized team and are usually resource intensive. Several strategies like treatment with antipsychotics, family interventions, and cognitive behavior therapy have been tried with modest success in prodromal patients. Significant ethical reservations exist regarding exposing prodromal patients to the stigma of labeling as "high risk for schizophrenia" and side effects of psychotropics in the absence of clear evidence of efficacy in favor of ED, intervention by specialist teams, and phase-specific interventions in prodrome of psychosis. More research is warranted to demonstrate the risk-benefit and cost-benefit of such interventions before these can be routinely recommended.

  14. Balancing the boat: enabling an ocean of possibilities.

    PubMed

    Majnemer, Annette

    2010-10-01

    Working in partnership, occupational therapists help clients to "balance their boat" and engage in meaningful occupations as clients journey through life. Life balance requires prioritization between time spent at work and other life experiences. Leisure time provides opportunities to rest, re-energize and enjoy activities of one's choosing, and is vitally important to an individual's physical and mental health. As occupational therapists, we need to appreciate how valuable and meaningful these activities are. In particular, it is essential that we optimize balance between the "must do" activities that are often prioritized in our interventions, with the "would like to do" leisure activities that promote well-being and social engagement. Asking our clients about the leisure activities in which they would most like to participate promotes choice and a sense of control. Focusing on modifiable personal and environmental factors enables occupational therapists to address barriers to participation in leisure activities. Occupational therapists have the knowledge and skills to work with individuals, organizations and communities to advocate for policy and practice changes that will optimize participation for individuals with functional challenges.

  15. Enabling the Full Participation of University Students with Disabilities: Seeking Best Practices for a Barrier-Free Language Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuomi, Margaret Trotta; Jauhojärvi-Koskelo, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that 3.4% of university students in Finland have a diagnosed or observed illness or disability that affects their learning at the university level. The University of Jyväskylä Language Centre embarked on an organised, ongoing research and intervention project to enable appropriate teaching practices to suit the needs of…

  16. A Computer-Aided Telephone System to Enable Five Persons with Alzheimer's Disease to Make Phone Calls Independently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perilli, Viviana; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Laporta, Dominga; Paparella, Adele; Caffo, Alessandro O.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta

    2013-01-01

    This study extended the assessment of a computer-aided telephone system to enable five patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease to make phone calls independently. The patients were divided into two groups and exposed to intervention according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across groups. All patients started with baseline in…

  17. Nanoplasmon-enabled macroscopic thermal management

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Gustav Edman; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    In numerous applications of energy harvesting via transformation of light into heat the focus recently shifted towards highly absorptive nanoplasmonic materials. It is currently established that noble metals-based absorptive plasmonic platforms deliver significant light-capturing capability and can be viewed as super-absorbers of optical radiation. Naturally, approaches to the direct experimental probing of macroscopic temperature increase resulting from these absorbers are welcomed. Here we derive a general quantitative method of characterizing heat-generating properties of optically absorptive layers via macroscopic thermal imaging. We further monitor macroscopic areas that are homogeneously heated by several degrees with nanostructures that occupy a mere 8% of the surface, leaving it essentially transparent and evidencing significant heat generation capability of nanoplasmon-enabled light capture. This has a direct bearing to a large number of applications where thermal management is crucial. PMID:24870613

  18. Enabling Computational Technologies for Terascale Scientific Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, S.F.

    2000-08-24

    We develop scalable algorithms and object-oriented code frameworks for terascale scientific simulations on massively parallel processors (MPPs). Our research in multigrid-based linear solvers and adaptive mesh refinement enables Laboratory programs to use MPPs to explore important physical phenomena. For example, our research aids stockpile stewardship by making practical detailed 3D simulations of radiation transport. The need to solve large linear systems arises in many applications, including radiation transport, structural dynamics, combustion, and flow in porous media. These systems result from discretizations of partial differential equations on computational meshes. Our first research objective is to develop multigrid preconditioned iterative methods for such problems and to demonstrate their scalability on MPPs. Scalability describes how total computational work grows with problem size; it measures how effectively additional resources can help solve increasingly larger problems. Many factors contribute to scalability: computer architecture, parallel implementation, and choice of algorithm. Scalable algorithms have been shown to decrease simulation times by several orders of magnitude.

  19. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hufnagel, Dick

    2015-11-19

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize “opportunistic” resources — resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS — to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Here we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  20. Enabling Communication in Emergency Response Environments

    PubMed Central

    Aldunate, Roberto G.; Schmidt, Klaus Nicholas; Herrera, Oriel

    2012-01-01

    Effective communication among first responders during response to natural and human-made large-scale catastrophes has increased tremendously during the last decade. However, most efforts to achieve a higher degree of effectiveness in communication lack synergy between the environment and the technology involved to support first responders operations. This article presents a natural and intuitive interface to support Stigmergy; or communication through the environment, based on intuitively marking and retrieving information from the environment with a pointer. A prototype of the system was built and tested in the field, however the pointing activity revealed challenges regarding accuracy due to limitations of the sensors used. The results obtained from these field tests were the basis for this research effort and will have the potential to enable communication through the environment for first responders operating in highly dynamical and inhospitable disaster relief environments. PMID:22778647

  1. Focus on atomtronics-enabled quantum technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amico, Luigi; Birkl, Gerhard; Boshier, Malcolm; Kwek, Leong-Chuan

    2017-02-01

    Atomtronics is an emerging field in quantum technology that promises to realize ‘atomic circuit’ architectures exploiting ultra-cold atoms manipulated in versatile micro-optical circuits generated by laser fields of different shapes and intensities or micro-magnetic circuits known as atom chips. Although devising new applications for computation and information transfer is a defining goal of the field, atomtronics wants to enlarge the scope of quantum simulators and to access new physical regimes with novel fundamental science. With this focus issue we want to survey the state of the art of atomtronics-enabled quantum technology. We collect articles on both conceptual and applicative aspects of the field for diverse exploitations, both to extend the scope of the existing atom-based quantum devices and to devise platforms for new routes to quantum technology.

  2. Health-Enabled Smart Sensor Fusion Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ray

    2012-01-01

    A process was designed to fuse data from multiple sensors in order to make a more accurate estimation of the environment and overall health in an intelligent rocket test facility (IRTF), to provide reliable, high-confidence measurements for a variety of propulsion test articles. The object of the technology is to provide sensor fusion based on a distributed architecture. Specifically, the fusion technology is intended to succeed in providing health condition monitoring capability at the intelligent transceiver, such as RF signal strength, battery reading, computing resource monitoring, and sensor data reading. The technology also provides analytic and diagnostic intelligence at the intelligent transceiver, enhancing the IEEE 1451.x-based standard for sensor data management and distributions, as well as providing appropriate communications protocols to enable complex interactions to support timely and high-quality flow of information among the system elements.

  3. Enabling MEMS technologies for communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubecke, Victor M.; Barber, Bradley P.; Arney, Susanne

    2001-11-01

    Modern communications demands have been steadily growing not only in size, but sophistication. Phone calls over copper wires have evolved into high definition video conferencing over optical fibers, and wireless internet browsing. The technology used to meet these demands is under constant pressure to provide increased capacity, speed, and efficiency, all with reduced size and cost. Various MEMS technologies have shown great promise for meeting these challenges by extending the performance of conventional circuitry and introducing radical new systems approaches. A variety of strategic MEMS structures including various cost-effective free-space optics and high-Q RF components are described, along with related practical implementation issues. These components are rapidly becoming essential for enabling the development of progressive new communications systems technologies including all-optical networks, and low cost multi-system wireless terminals and basestations.

  4. Provision of enabling technology in professional sports.

    PubMed

    McBride, D K

    2000-06-01

    Multiple-round golf tournaments are designed intentionally to separate individuals' scores as play proceeds. Variance analyses and consideration of individual differences (vs group mean effects) for a sample of professional events confirm that 3-, 4-, and 5-round tournaments show significantly increased variability (though stable means) from first to last rounds. It is argued here that the dispersion of scores increases as play proceeds because the more physically or mentally fit players emerge and continue to perform best. Furthermore, a marginal income analysis indicates that the average gain in earnings from a one-shot improvement in score is approximately $8,000. An interpretation based on fatigue, competition, and stress supports the Professional Golf Association's claim that provision of enabling devices, like a golf cart for disabled players, is also an enhancement and is thus unfair.

  5. Enabling patients to manage altered body image.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2016-12-14

    The author presented a model in the 1990s to explain altered body image, which has been used to characterise the difficulties encountered by patients who experience body change as a result of illness, injury or disability. However, it remains a challenge for nurses to establish care plans that can assist patients to manage the psychological adjustments associated with disfigurement. This article presents some simple questions to help patients narrate their psychological experiences and needs, and proposes a model of psychological change, based on the work of Kübler-Ross, to enable nurses to anticipate patient requirements that might arise at different stages of the individual's recovery and rehabilitation. Body-image rehabilitation may be protracted. Therefore, it is essential for nurses to understand what the patient is thinking and feeling throughout the rehabilitation process and which stage of psychological change the patient is working through.

  6. Enabling communication concurrency through flexible MPI endpoints

    DOE PAGES

    Dinan, James; Grant, Ryan E.; Balaji, Pavan; ...

    2014-09-23

    MPI defines a one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. This model captures many use cases effectively; however, it also limits communication concurrency and interoperability between MPI and programming models that utilize threads. Our paper describes the MPI endpoints extension, which relaxes the longstanding one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. Using endpoints, an MPI implementation can map separate communication contexts to threads, allowing them to drive communication independently. Also, endpoints enable threads to be addressable in MPI operations, enhancing interoperability between MPI and other programming models. Furthermore, these characteristics are illustrated through several examples and an empirical study thatmore » contrasts current multithreaded communication performance with the need for high degrees of communication concurrency to achieve peak communication performance.« less

  7. Science Missions Enabled by the Ares V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worden, Simon Peter; Weiler, Edward J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's planned heavy-lift Ares V rocket is a centerpiece of U.S. Space Exploration Policy. With approximately 30% more capacity to Trans-Lunar Injection (TLI) than the Saturn V, Ares V could also enable additional science and exploration missions currently unachievable or extremely unworkable under current launch vehicle architectures. During the spring and summer of 2008, NASA held two workshops dedicated to the discussion of these new mission concepts for the Ares V rocket. The first workshop dealt with astronomy and astrophysics, and the second dealt primarily with planetary science and exploration, but did touch on Earth science and heliophysics. We present here the summary results and outcomes of these meetings, including a discussion of specific mission concepts and ideas, as well as suggestions on design for the Ares V fairing and flight configurations that improve science return.

  8. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufnagel, D.; CMS Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize opportunistic resources resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Here we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  9. Enabling communication concurrency through flexible MPI endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Dinan, James; Grant, Ryan E.; Balaji, Pavan; Goodell, David; Miller, Douglas; Snir, Marc; Thakur, Rajeev

    2014-09-23

    MPI defines a one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. This model captures many use cases effectively; however, it also limits communication concurrency and interoperability between MPI and programming models that utilize threads. Our paper describes the MPI endpoints extension, which relaxes the longstanding one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. Using endpoints, an MPI implementation can map separate communication contexts to threads, allowing them to drive communication independently. Also, endpoints enable threads to be addressable in MPI operations, enhancing interoperability between MPI and other programming models. Furthermore, these characteristics are illustrated through several examples and an empirical study that contrasts current multithreaded communication performance with the need for high degrees of communication concurrency to achieve peak communication performance.

  10. Microdevices enabled by rarefied flow phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeenko, Alina A.; Strongrich, A. D.; Cofer, A. G.; Pikus, A.; Sebastiao, I. B.; Tholeti, S. S.; Shivkumar, G.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we review emerging applications of rarefied gas dynamics for microscale sensing, actuation, power generation and thermal management. The performance of conventional fluidic devices such as pumps, combustors and heat engines drops with the decrease of characteristic length scale due to greater viscous and heat transfer losses. However, the close coupling between non-equilibrium gas, liquid and solid-state transport and electromagnetic phenomena enables unconventional micro/nanodevices. We specifically consider three distinct examples of devices with non-equilibrium gas-phase transport based on i) very large thermal gradients; ii) increased capillary forces; iii) high electric fields - all of which are generated by scaling down device size by using nano/micromanufacturing techniques.

  11. Microsystem enabled photovoltaic modules and systems

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Sweatt, William C; Okandan, Murat

    2015-05-12

    A microsystem enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) module including: an absorber layer; a fixed optic layer coupled to the absorber layer; a translatable optic layer; a translation stage coupled between the fixed and translatable optic layers; and a motion processor electrically coupled to the translation stage to controls motion of the translatable optic layer relative to the fixed optic layer. The absorber layer includes an array of photovoltaic (PV) elements. The fixed optic layer includes an array of quasi-collimating (QC) micro-optical elements designed and arranged to couple incident radiation from an intermediate image formed by the translatable optic layer into one of the PV elements such that it is quasi-collimated. The translatable optic layer includes an array of focusing micro-optical elements corresponding to the QC micro-optical element array. Each focusing micro-optical element is designed to produce a quasi-telecentric intermediate image from substantially collimated radiation incident within a predetermined field of view.

  12. Laboratory Astrophysics: Enabling Scientific Discovery and Understanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, K.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Science Strategic Roadmap for Universe Exploration lays out a series of science objectives on a grand scale and discusses the various missions, over a wide range of wavelengths, which will enable discovery. Astronomical spectroscopy is arguably the most powerful tool we have for exploring the Universe. Experimental and theoretical studies in Laboratory Astrophysics convert "hard-won data into scientific understanding". However, the development of instruments with increasingly high spectroscopic resolution demands atomic and molecular data of unprecedented accuracy and completeness. How to meet these needs, in a time of severe budgetary constraints, poses a significant challenge both to NASA, the astronomical observers and model-builders, and the laboratory astrophysics community. I will discuss these issues, together with some recent examples of productive astronomy/lab astro collaborations.

  13. Bluetooth-enabled teleradiology: applications and complications.

    PubMed

    Hura, Angela M

    2002-01-01

    Wireless personal area networks and local area networks are becoming increasingly more prevalent in the teleradiology and telemedicine industry. Although there has been much debate about the role that Bluetooth will play in the future of wireless technology, both promoters and doubters acknowledge that Bluetooth will have an impact on networking, even if only as a "niche" product. This article provides an overview of the Bluetooth standard and highlights current and future areas of inclusion for use in a teleradiology environment. The possibilities for Bluetooth in a teleradiology environment without wires are nearly boundless and an overview of current and proposed Bluetooth-enabled radiology equipment and vendors is provided. A comparison of Bluetooth and other wireless technologies is provided, including areas of similarity and potential conflict. Bluetooth and other wireless technologies can not only peacefully coexist but also complement each other and provide enhanced teleradiology services.

  14. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hufnagel, Dirk

    2015-12-23

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize opportunistic resources resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Finally, we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  15. Grid Enabled Geospatial Catalogue Web Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Ai-Jun; Di, Li-Ping; Wei, Ya-Xing; Liu, Yang; Bui, Yu-Qi; Hu, Chau-Min; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    Geospatial Catalogue Web Service is a vital service for sharing and interoperating volumes of distributed heterogeneous geospatial resources, such as data, services, applications, and their replicas over the web. Based on the Grid technology and the Open Geospatial Consortium (0GC) s Catalogue Service - Web Information Model, this paper proposes a new information model for Geospatial Catalogue Web Service, named as GCWS which can securely provides Grid-based publishing, managing and querying geospatial data and services, and the transparent access to the replica data and related services under the Grid environment. This information model integrates the information model of the Grid Replica Location Service (RLS)/Monitoring & Discovery Service (MDS) with the information model of OGC Catalogue Service (CSW), and refers to the geospatial data metadata standards from IS0 19115, FGDC and NASA EOS Core System and service metadata standards from IS0 191 19 to extend itself for expressing geospatial resources. Using GCWS, any valid geospatial user, who belongs to an authorized Virtual Organization (VO), can securely publish and manage geospatial resources, especially query on-demand data in the virtual community and get back it through the data-related services which provide functions such as subsetting, reformatting, reprojection etc. This work facilitates the geospatial resources sharing and interoperating under the Grid environment, and implements geospatial resources Grid enabled and Grid technologies geospatial enabled. It 2!so makes researcher to focus on science, 2nd not cn issues with computing ability, data locztic, processir,g and management. GCWS also is a key component for workflow-based virtual geospatial data producing.

  16. Pursuing prosody interventions.

    PubMed

    Hargrove, Patricia M

    2013-08-01

    This paper provides an overview of evidence-based prosodic intervention strategies to facilitate clinicians' inclusion of prosody in their therapeutic planning and to encourage researchers' interest in prosody as an area of specialization. Four current evidence-based prosodic interventions are reviewed and answers to some important clinical questions are proposed. Additionally, the future direction of prosodic intervention research is discussed in recommendations about issues that are of concern to clinicians. The paper ends with a call for participation in an online collaboration at the Clinical Prosody blog at clinicalprosody.wordpress.com.

  17. [Psychosocial interventions in dementia].

    PubMed

    Kurz, A

    2013-01-01

    Psychosocial interventions improve cognitive abilities (cognitive stimulation, cognitive training), enhance emotional well-being (activity planning, reminiscence), reduce behavioral symptoms (aromatherapy, music therapy) and promote everyday functioning (occupational therapy). Through these effects they reinforce and augment pharmacological treatments for dementia. In addition, psychosocial interventions complement the treatment of patients by supporting family caregivers (educational groups, support programs). The potential of psychosocial interventions in dementia needs to be explored further in studies using improved methodology to determine effective components, clinical relevance and duration of effects, predictors of individual treatment response and health-economic implications.

  18. Intervention research: GAO experiences.

    PubMed

    Grasso, P G

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes tools of program evaluation that may prove useful in conducting research on occupational health and safety interventions. It presents examples of three studies conducted by the U.S. General Accounting Office that illustrate a variety of techniques for collecting and analyzing data on program interventions, including analysis of extant data, synthesis of results of existing studies, and combining data from administrative files with survey results. At the same time, it stresses the importance and difficulty of constructing an adequate "theory" of how the intervention is expected to affect outcomes, both for guiding data collection and for allowing adequate interpretation of results.

  19. Why Early Intervention Works

    PubMed Central

    Guralnick, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    A systems perspective is put forward designed to place the many diverse conceptual and practice approaches and accomplishments in the early intervention field within a common framework. Complex reciprocal patterns of influence are described emphasizing risk and protective factors operating at 3 levels: child social and cognitive competence, family patterns of interaction, and family resources. It is argued that this framework can provide an understanding with respect to why early intervention works when it does as well as establish a new assessment and intervention approach firmly grounded in developmental science. PMID:21532932

  20. Enabling Technologies for Ceramic Hot Section Components

    SciTech Connect

    Venkat Vedula; Tania Bhatia

    2009-04-30

    Silicon-based ceramics are attractive materials for use in gas turbine engine hot sections due to their high temperature mechanical and physical properties as well as lower density than metals. The advantages of utilizing ceramic hot section components include weight reduction, and improved efficiency as well as enhanced power output and lower emissions as a result of reducing or eliminating cooling. Potential gas turbine ceramic components for industrial, commercial and/or military high temperature turbine applications include combustor liners, vanes, rotors, and shrouds. These components require materials that can withstand high temperatures and pressures for long duration under steam-rich environments. For Navy applications, ceramic hot section components have the potential to increase the operation range. The amount of weight reduced by utilizing a lighter gas turbine can be used to increase fuel storage capacity while a more efficient gas turbine consumes less fuel. Both improvements enable a longer operation range for Navy ships and aircraft. Ceramic hot section components will also be beneficial to the Navy's Growth Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) and VAATE (Versatile Affordable Advanced Turbine Engines) initiatives in terms of reduced weight, cooling air savings, and capability/cost index (CCI). For DOE applications, ceramic hot section components provide an avenue to achieve low emissions while improving efficiency. Combustors made of ceramic material can withstand higher wall temperatures and require less cooling air. Ability of the ceramics to withstand high temperatures enables novel combustor designs that have reduced NO{sub x}, smoke and CO levels. In the turbine section, ceramic vanes and blades do not require sophisticated cooling schemes currently used for metal components. The saved cooling air could be used to further improve efficiency and power output. The objectives of this contract were to develop technologies critical for ceramic hot section

  1. Is Early Intervention Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1974-01-01

    Synthesizes the results of current follow-up studies on the efficacy of preschool programs, and lays down the basis for a major reorientation in the design of intervention programs and in the training of personnel. (CS)

  2. Society of Interventional Radiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... decoded SIR’s Health Policy and Economics team provides information on the varied activities the society engages in to ensure proper coding of interventional radiology services. SIR is committed to assisting you, your institution ...

  3. Technology-enabled Airborne Spacing and Merging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, James; Barmore, Bryan; Abbott, Tetence

    2005-01-01

    Over the last several decades, advances in airborne and groundside technologies have allowed the Air Traffic Service Provider (ATSP) to give safer and more efficient service, reduce workload and frequency congestion, and help accommodate a critically escalating traffic volume. These new technologies have included advanced radar displays, and data and communication automation to name a few. In step with such advances, NASA Langley is developing a precision spacing concept designed to increase runway throughput by enabling the flight crews to manage their inter-arrival spacing from TRACON entry to the runway threshold. This concept is being developed as part of NASA s Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) project under the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program. Precision spacing is enabled by Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), which provides air-to-air data exchange including position and velocity reports; real-time wind information and other necessary data. On the flight deck, a research prototype system called Airborne Merging and Spacing for Terminal Arrivals (AMSTAR) processes this information and provides speed guidance to the flight crew to achieve the desired inter-arrival spacing. AMSTAR is designed to support current ATC operations, provide operationally acceptable system-wide increases in approach spacing performance and increase runway throughput through system stability, predictability and precision spacing. This paper describes problems and costs associated with an imprecise arrival flow. It also discusses methods by which Air Traffic Controllers achieve and maintain an optimum interarrival interval, and explores means by which AMSTAR can assist in this pursuit. AMSTAR is an extension of NASA s previous work on in-trail spacing that was successfully demonstrated in a flight evaluation at Chicago O Hare International Airport in September 2002. In addition to providing for precision inter-arrival spacing, AMSTAR

  4. Enabling Wireless Avionics Intra-Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Omar; Nguyen, Truong; Mackenzie, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The Electromagnetics and Sensors Branch of NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is investigating the potential of an all-wireless aircraft as part of the ECON (Efficient Reconfigurable Cockpit Design and Fleet Operations using Software Intensive, Networked and Wireless Enabled Architecture) seedling proposal, which is funded by the Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) project, Transformative Aeronautics Concepts (TAC) program, and NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI). The project consists of a brief effort carried out by a small team in the Electromagnetic Environment Effects (E3) laboratory with the intention of exposing some of the challenges faced by a wireless communication system inside the reflective cavity of an aircraft and to explore potential solutions that take advantage of that environment for constructive gain. The research effort was named EWAIC for "Enabling Wireless Aircraft Intra-communications." The E3 laboratory is a research facility that includes three electromagnetic reverberation chambers and equipment that allow testing and generation of test data for the investigation of wireless systems in reflective environments. Using these chambers, the EWAIC team developed a set of tests and setups that allow the intentional variation of intensity of a multipath field to reproduce the environment of the various bays and cabins of large transport aircraft. This setup, in essence, simulates an aircraft environment that allows the investigation and testing of wireless communication protocols that can effectively be used as a tool to mitigate some of the risks inherent to an aircraft wireless system for critical functions. In addition, the EWAIC team initiated the development of a computational modeling tool to illustrate the propagation of EM waves inside the reflective cabins and bays of aircraft and to obtain quantifiable information regarding the degradation of signals in aircraft subassemblies. The nose landing gear of a UAV CAD model was used

  5. Telepresence and Intervention Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-11-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO10628 TITLE: Telepresence and Intervention Robotics DISTRIBUTION...comprise the compilation report: ADPO10609 thru ADP010633 UNCLASSIFIED 20-1 TELEPRESENCE AND INTERVENTION ROBOTICS Nathalie Cislo Laboratoire de...Robotique de Paris 10-12, Avenue de 1’Europe 78140 VWlizy-Villacoublay, FRANCE cislo@robot.uvsq.fr ABSTRACT In the field of Mobile Robotics applications

  6. Willing and Enabled: The Academic Outcomes of a Tertiary Enabling Program in Regional Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrewartha, Lisa; Harvey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the achievement levels of students undertaking the Tertiary Enabling Program (TEP) at La Trobe University. The TEP is an alternative pathway program that traverses multiple institutions, campuses, and disciplinary areas, and is designed to prepare a diverse student cohort for tertiary study. The Program integrates several…

  7. Agile SE Enablers and Quantification Project: Identification, Characterization, and Evaluation Criteria for Systems Engineering Agile Enablers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-16

    Development of the evaluation white paper .......................................................................................... 7 3 References...enablers as they are identified. The ultimate result of the process is an evaluation white paper supporting one of three decisions: 1. not likely to...be effective, 2. possibly suitable but more research is needed, or 3. definitely suitable and expedited transition is recommended. This paper

  8. An Enabling Technology for New Planning and Scheduling Paradigms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Davis, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    intervention of a scheduling expert. The algorithm is tuned for the constraint hierarchies and the complex temporal relationships provided by the modeling schema. It has an extensive search algorithm that can exploit timing flexibilities and constraint and relationship options. (3) An innovative architecture allows multiple remote users to simultaneously model science and technology requirements and other users to model vehicle and hardware characteristics. The architecture allows the remote users to submit scheduling requests directly to the scheduling engine and immediately see the results. These three components are integrated so that science and technology experts with no knowledge of the vehicle or hardware subsystems and no knowledge of the internal workings of the scheduling engine have the ability to build and submit scheduling requests and see the results. The immediate feedback will hone the users' modeling skills and ultimately enable them to produce the desired timeline. This paper summarizes the three components of the enabling technology and describes how this technology would make a new paradigm possible.

  9. Paediatric musculoskeletal interventional radiology

    PubMed Central

    Paolantonio, Guglielmo; Fruhwirth, Rodolfo; Alvaro, Giuseppe; Parapatt, George K; Toma', Paolo; Rollo, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Interventional radiology technique is now well established and widely used in the adult population. Through minimally invasive procedures, it increasingly replaces surgical interventions that involve higher percentages of invasiveness and, consequently, of morbidity and mortality. For these advantageous reasons, interventional radiology in recent years has spread to the paediatric age as well. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the development, use and perspectives of these procedures in the paediatric musculoskeletal field. Several topics are covered: osteomuscle neoplastic malignant and benign pathologies treated with invasive diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedures such as radiofrequency ablation in the osteoid osteoma; invasive and non-invasive procedures in vascular malformations; treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts; and role of interventional radiology in paediatric inflammatory and rheumatic inflammations. The positive results that have been generated with interventional radiology procedures in the paediatric field highly encourage both the development of new ad hoc materials, obviously adapted to young patients, as well as the improvement of such techniques, in consideration of the fact that childrens' pathologies do not always correspond to those of adults. In conclusion, as these interventional procedures have proven to be less invasive, with lower morbidity and mortality rates as well, they are becoming a viable and valid alternative to surgery in the paediatric population. PMID:26235144

  10. Nanomaterials Enabled Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Pei

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs), as the third generation of solar cells, have attracted tremendous attention for their unique properties. The semi-transparent nature, low-cost, environmental friendliness, and convenient manufacturing conditions of this generation of solar cells are promising aspects of DSCs that make them competitive in their future applications. However, much improvement in many aspects of DSCs' is required for the realization of its full potential. In this thesis, various nanomaterials, such as graphene, multi wall carbon nanotubes, vertically aligned single wall carbon nanotubes, hybrid structures and etc, have been used to improve the performance of DSCs. First, the application of graphene covered metal grids as transparent conductive electrodes in DSCs is explored. It is demonstrated that the mechanical properties of these flexible hybrid transparent electrodes, in both bending and stretching tests, are better than their oxide-based counter parts. Moreover, different kinds of carbon nanotubes, for instance vertically aligned single wall carbon nanotubes, have been used as a replacement for traditional platinum counter electrodes, in both iodine electrolyte, and sulfide-electrolyte. Further, a flexible, seamlessly connected, 3-dimensional vertically-aligned few wall carbon nanotubes graphene hybrid structures on Ni foil as DSCs' counter electrodes improve their efficiency significantly. All these nanomaterials enabled DSCs architectures achieve a comparable or better performance than standard brittle platinum/fluorine doped tin oxide combination. The large surface area of such nanomaterials in addition to the high electrical conductivity and their mechanical robustness provides a platform for significant enhancements in DSCs' performance.

  11. Ion Implant Enabled 2x Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Patrick M.; Godet, Ludovic; Cheung, Andrew; de Cock, Gael; Hatem, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Ion implantation has many applications in microelectronics beyond doping. The broad range of species available combined with the ability to precisely control dose, angle, and energy offers compelling advantages for use in precision material modification. The application to lithography has been reported elsewhere. Integrating ion implantation into the lithography process enables scaling the feature size requirements beyond the 15 nm node with a simplified double patterning sequence. In addition, ion implant may be used to remove line edge roughness, providing tremendous advantages to meet extreme lithography imaging requirements and provide additional device stability. We examine several species (e.g. Si, Ar, etc.) and the effect of energy and impact angle on several commercially available 193 nm immersion photoresists using a Varian VIISta® single wafer high current ion implanter. The treated photoresist will be evaluated for stability in an integrated double patterning application with ion implant used to freeze the primary image. We report on critical dimension impact, pattern integrity, optical property modification, and adhesion. We analyze the impact of line edge roughness improvement beyond the work of C. Struck including the power spectral distribution. TGA and FTIR Spectroscopy results for the implanted photoresist materials will also be included.

  12. Imaging enabled platforms for development of therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, Jonathan; Rizvi, Imran; Blanden, Adam R.; Evans, Conor L.; Abu-Yousif, Adnan O.; Spring, Bryan Q.; Muzikansky, Alona; Pogue, Brian W.; Finkelstein, Dianne M.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2011-03-01

    Advances in imaging and spectroscopic technologies have enabled the optimization of many therapeutic modalities in cancer and noncancer pathologies either by earlier disease detection or by allowing therapy monitoring. Amongst the therapeutic options benefiting from developments in imaging technologies, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is exceptional. PDT is a photochemistry-based therapeutic approach where a light-sensitive molecule (photosensitizer) is activated with light of appropriate energy (wavelength) to produce reactive molecular species such as free radicals and singlet oxygen. These molecular entities then react with biological targets such as DNA, membranes and other cellular components to impair their function and lead to eventual cell and tissue death. Development of PDT-based imaging also provides a platform for rapid screening of new therapeutics in novel in vitro models prior to expensive and labor-intensive animal studies. In this study we demonstrate how an imaging platform can be used for strategizing a novel combination treatment strategy for multifocal ovarian cancer. Using an in vitro 3D model for micrometastatic ovarian cancer in conjunction with quantitative imaging we examine dose and scheduling strategies for PDT in combination with carboplatin, a chemotherapeutic agent presently in clinical use for management of this deadly form of cancer.

  13. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection. PMID:24961213

  14. Enabling electroweak baryogenesis through dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewicki, Marek; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Wells, James D.

    2016-06-01

    We study the impact on electroweak baryogenesis from a swifter cosmological expansion induced by dark matter. We detail the experimental bounds that one can place on models that realize it, and we investigate the modifications of these bounds that result from a non-standard cosmological history. The modifications can be sizeable if the expansion rate of the Universe increases by several orders of magnitude. We illustrate the impact through the example of scalar field dark matter, which can alter the cosmological history enough to enable a strong-enough first-order phase transition in the Standard Model when it is supplemented by a dimension six operator directly modifying the Higgs boson potential. We show that due to the modified cosmological history, electroweak baryogenesis can be realized, while keeping deviations of the triple Higgs coupling below HL-LHC sensitivies. The required scale of new physics to effectuate a strong-enough first order phase transition can change by as much as twenty percent as the expansion rate increases by six orders of magnitude.

  15. Bandwidth Enabled Flight Operations: Examining the Possibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisanich, Greg; Renema, Fritz; Clancy, Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Bandwidth Enabled Flight Operations project is a research effort at the NASA Ames Research Center to investigate the use of satellite communications to improve aviation safety and capacity. This project is a follow on to the AeroSAPIENT Project, which demonstrated methods for transmitting high bandwidth data in various configurations. For this research, we set a goal to nominally use only 10 percent of the available bandwidth demonstrated by AeroSAPIENT or projected by near-term technology advances. This paper describes the results of our research, including available satellite bandwidth, commercial and research efforts to provide these services, and some of the limiting factors inherent with this communications medium. It also describes our investigation into the needs of the stakeholders (Airlines, Pilots, Cabin Crews, ATC, Maintenance, etc). The paper also describes our development of low-cost networked flight deck and airline operations center simulations that were used to demonstrate two application areas: Providing real time weather information to the commercial flight deck, and enhanced crew monitoring and control for airline operations centers.

  16. Smart sensors enable smart air conditioning control.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-06-24

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  17. Nanocrystal-enabled solid state bonding.

    SciTech Connect

    San Diego State University, San Diego, CA; Puskar, Joseph David; Tikare, Veena; Garcia Cardona, Cristina; Reece, Mark; Brewer, Luke N.; Holm, Elizabeth Ann

    2010-10-01

    In this project, we performed a preliminary set of sintering experiments to examine nanocrystal-enabled diffusion bonding (NEDB) in Ag-on-Ag and Cu-on-Cu using Ag nanoparticles. The experimental test matrix included the effects of material system, temperature, pressure, and particle size. The nanoparticle compacts were bonded between plates using a customized hot press, tested in shear, and examined post mortem using microscopy techniques. NEDB was found to be a feasible mechanism for low-temperature, low-pressure, solid-state bonding of like materials, creating bonded interfaces that were able to support substantial loads. The maximum supported shear strength varied substantially within sample cohorts due to variation in bonded area; however, systematic variation with fabrication conditions was also observed. Mesoscale sintering simulations were performed in order to understand whether sintering models can aid in understanding the NEDB process. A pressure-assisted sintering model was incorporated into the SPPARKS kinetic Monte Carlo sintering code. Results reproduce most of the qualitative behavior observed in experiments, indicating that simulation can augment experiments during the development of the NEDB process. Because NEDB offers a promising route to low-temperature, low-pressure, solid-state bonding, we recommend further research and development with a goal of devising new NEDB bonding processes to support Sandia's customers.

  18. Water: A Critical Material Enabling Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Karen D.

    2014-01-01

    Water is one of the most critical materials in human spaceflight. The availability of water defines the duration of a space mission; the volume of water required for a long-duration space mission becomes too large, heavy, and expensive for launch vehicles to carry. Since the mission duration is limited by the amount of water a space vehicle can carry, the capability to recycle water enables space exploration. In addition, water management in microgravity impacts spaceflight in other respects, such as the recent emergency termination of a spacewalk caused by free water in an astronaut's spacesuit helmet. A variety of separation technologies are used onboard spacecraft to ensure that water is always available for use, and meets the stringent water quality required for human space exploration. These separation technologies are often adapted for use in a microgravity environment, where water behaves in unique ways. The use of distillation, membrane processes, ion exchange and granular activated carbon will be reviewed. Examples of microgravity effects on operations will also be presented. A roadmap for future technologies, needed to supply water resources for the exploration of Mars, will also be reviewed.

  19. Glass ceramic ZERODUR enabling nanometer precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Kunisch, Clemens; Nieder, Johannes; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The IC Lithography roadmap foresees manufacturing of devices with critical dimension of < 20 nm. Overlay specification of single digit nanometer asking for nanometer positioning accuracy requiring sub nanometer position measurement accuracy. The glass ceramic ZERODUR® is a well-established material in critical components of microlithography wafer stepper and offered with an extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), the tightest tolerance available on market. SCHOTT is continuously improving manufacturing processes and it's method to measure and characterize the CTE behavior of ZERODUR® to full fill the ever tighter CTE specification for wafer stepper components. In this paper we present the ZERODUR® Lithography Roadmap on the CTE metrology and tolerance. Additionally, simulation calculations based on a physical model are presented predicting the long term CTE behavior of ZERODUR® components to optimize dimensional stability of precision positioning devices. CTE data of several low thermal expansion materials are compared regarding their temperature dependence between - 50°C and + 100°C. ZERODUR® TAILORED 22°C is full filling the tight CTE tolerance of +/- 10 ppb / K within the broadest temperature interval compared to all other materials of this investigation. The data presented in this paper explicitly demonstrates the capability of ZERODUR® to enable the nanometer precision required for future generation of lithography equipment and processes.

  20. Enabler for the agile virtual enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerst, Karl; Schmidt, Thomas; Wippel, Gerald

    2001-10-01

    In this presentation, a new approach for a flexible low-cost Internet extended enterprise (project FLoCI-EE) will be presented. FLoCI-EE is a project in the fifth framework program of the European commission with 8 partners from 4 countries, which started in January 2001 and will be finished in December 2003. The main objective of FLoCI-EE is the development of a software prototype, which enables flexible enterprise cooperation with the aim to design, manufacture and sell products commonly, independent of enterprise borderlines. The needed IT-support includes functions of product data management (PDM), enterprise resource planning (ERP), supply chain management (SCM) and customer relationship management (CRM). Especially for small and medium sized enterprises, existing solutions are too expensive and inflexible to be of use under current turbulent market conditions. The second part of this paper covers the item Web Services, because in the role-specific support approach of FLoCI-EE, there are user- interface-components, which are tailored for specific roles in an enterprise. These components integrate automatically the services of the so-called basic-components, and the externally offered Web Services like UDDI.

  1. Barriers and enablers to academic health leadership.

    PubMed

    Bharwani, Aleem; Kline, Theresa; Patterson, Margaret; Craighead, Peter

    2017-02-06

    Purpose This study sought to identify the barriers and enablers to leadership enactment in academic health-care settings. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews ( n = 77) with programme stakeholders (medical school trainees, university leaders, clinical leaders, medical scientists and directors external to the medical school) were conducted, and the responses content-analysed. Findings Both contextual and individual factors were identified as playing a role in affecting academic health leadership enactment that has an impact on programme development, success and maintenance. Contextual factors included sufficient resources allocated to the programme, opportunities for learners to practise leadership skills, a competent team around the leader once that person is in place, clear expectations for the leader and a culture that fosters open communication. Contextual barriers included highly bureaucratic structures, fear-of-failure and non-trusting cultures and inappropriate performance systems. Programmes were advised to select participants based on self-awareness, strong communication skills and an innovative thinking style. Filling specific knowledge and skill gaps, particularly for those not trained in medical school, was viewed as essential. Ineffective decision-making styles and tendencies to get involved in day-to-day activities were barriers to the development of academic health leaders. Originality/value Programmes designed to develop academic health-care leaders will be most effective if they develop leadership at all levels; ensure that the organisation's culture, structure and processes reinforce positive leadership practices; and recognise the critical role of teams in supporting its leaders.

  2. Enabling scientific workflows in virtual reality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreylos, O.; Bawden, G.; Bernardin, T.; Billen, M.I.; Cowgill, E.S.; Gold, R.D.; Hamann, B.; Jadamec, M.; Kellogg, L.H.; Staadt, O.G.; Sumner, D.Y.

    2006-01-01

    To advance research and improve the scientific return on data collection and interpretation efforts in the geosciences, we have developed methods of interactive visualization, with a special focus on immersive virtual reality (VR) environments. Earth sciences employ a strongly visual approach to the measurement and analysis of geologic data due to the spatial and temporal scales over which such data ranges, As observations and simulations increase in size and complexity, the Earth sciences are challenged to manage and interpret increasing amounts of data. Reaping the full intellectual benefits of immersive VR requires us to tailor exploratory approaches to scientific problems. These applications build on the visualization method's strengths, using both 3D perception and interaction with data and models, to take advantage of the skills and training of the geological scientists exploring their data in the VR environment. This interactive approach has enabled us to develop a suite of tools that are adaptable to a range of problems in the geosciences and beyond. Copyright ?? 2008 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.

  3. Survey of Enabling Technologies for CAPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antol, Jeffrey; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Koons, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    The enabling technologies required for the development of a viable Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS) can be divided into two principal areas: detection and deflection/orbit modification. With the proper funding levels, many of the technologies needed to support a CAPS architecture could be achievable within the next 15 to 20 years. In fact, many advanced detection technologies are currently in development for future in-space telescope systems such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), formerly known as the Next Generation Space Telescope. It is anticipated that many of the JWST technologies would be available for application for CAPS detection concepts. Deflection/orbit modification technologies are also currently being studied as part of advanced power and propulsion research. However, many of these technologies, such as extremely high-output power systems, advanced propulsion, heat rejection, and directed energy systems, would likely be farther term in availability than many of the detection technologies. Discussed subsequently is a preliminary examination of the main technologies that have been identified as being essential to providing the element functionality defined during the CAPS conceptual study. The detailed requirements for many of the technology areas are still unknown, and many additional technologies will be identified as future in-depth studies are conducted in this area.

  4. 'Slings' enable neutrophil rolling at high shear.

    PubMed

    Sundd, Prithu; Gutierrez, Edgar; Koltsova, Ekaterina K; Kuwano, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Satoru; Pospieszalska, Maria K; Groisman, Alex; Ley, Klaus

    2012-08-16

    Most leukocytes can roll along the walls of venules at low shear stress (1 dyn cm−2), but neutrophils have the ability to roll at tenfold higher shear stress in microvessels in vivo. The mechanisms involved in this shear-resistant rolling are known to involve cell flattening and pulling of long membrane tethers at the rear. Here we show that these long tethers do not retract as postulated, but instead persist and appear as 'slings' at the front of rolling cells. We demonstrate slings in a model of acute inflammation in vivo and on P-selectin in vitro, where P-selectin-glycoprotein-ligand-1 (PSGL-1) is found in discrete sticky patches whereas LFA-1 is expressed over the entire length on slings. As neutrophils roll forward, slings wrap around the rolling cells and undergo a step-wise peeling from the P-selectin substrate enabled by the failure of PSGL-1 patches under hydrodynamic forces. The 'step-wise peeling of slings' is distinct from the 'pulling of tethers' reported previously. Each sling effectively lays out a cell-autonomous adhesive substrate in front of neutrophils rolling at high shear stress during inflammation.

  5. Graphene-Enabled Electrodes for Electrocardiogram Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Numan; Manivannan, Nadarajah; Strudwick, Andrew; Balachandran, Wamadeva

    2016-01-01

    The unique parameters of graphene (GN)—notably its considerable electron mobility, high surface area, and electrical conductivity—are bringing extensive attention into the wearable technologies. This work presents a novel graphene-based electrode for acquisition of electrocardiogram (ECG). The proposed electrode was fabricated by coating GN on top of a metallic layer of a Ag/AgCl electrode using a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. To investigate the performance of the fabricated GN-based electrode, two types of electrodes were fabricated with different sizes to conduct the signal qualities and the skin-electrode contact impedance measurements. Performances of the GN-enabled electrodes were compared to the conventional Ag/AgCl electrodes in terms of ECG signal quality, skin–electrode contact impedance, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and response time. Experimental results showed the proposed GN-based electrodes produced better ECG signals, higher SNR (improved by 8%), and lower contact impedance (improved by 78%) values than conventional ECG electrodes. PMID:28335284

  6. Enabling healthy living: Experiences of people with severe mental illness in psychiatric outpatient services.

    PubMed

    Blomqvist, Marjut; Sandgren, Anna; Carlsson, Ing-Marie; Jormfeldt, Henrika

    2017-02-03

    It is well known that people with severe mental illness have a reduced life expectancy and a greater risk of being affected by preventable physical illnesses such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. There are still, however, only a few published studies focusing on what enables healthy living for this group. This study thus aimed to describe what enables healthy living among people with severe mental illness in psychiatric outpatient services. The data were collected in qualitative interviews (n = 16) and content analysis was used to analyze the data. The interviews resulted in an overall theme "Being regarded as a whole human being by self and others", which showed the multidimensional nature of health and the issues that enable healthy living among people with severe mental illness. Three categories emerged: (i) everyday structure (ii), motivating life events and (iii) support from significant others. The results indicate that a person with severe mental illness needs to be encountered as a whole person if healthy living is to be enabled. Attaining healthy living requires collaboration between the providers of care, help and support. Health care organizations need to work together to develop and provide interventions to enable healthy living and to reduce poor physical health among people with severe mental illness.

  7. Implementing Response to Intervention in Context. A Center Practice Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Response to intervention is meant to be broad-based and preventative. However, as formulated and practiced the approach often is too limited in how it frames what needs to go on to enable learning, engage students, and keep them engaged. In particular, it pays too little attention to the need to strengthen the classroom and schoolwide context in…

  8. The Effect of Performance Support and Training as Performance Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Frank; Klein, James D.

    2008-01-01

    For decades, training has been one of the most common interventions used by organizations to improve the performance of their employees and teach them new ideas and skills. But owing to the cost of developing and delivering training, organizations have adopted alternative ways to enable employee performance while reducing the cost and minimizing…

  9. Enabling a Scientific Cloud Marketplace: VGL (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, R.; Woodcock, R.; Wyborn, L. A.; Vote, J.; Rankine, T.; Cox, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Virtual Geophysics Laboratory (VGL) provides a flexible, web based environment where researchers can browse data and use a variety of scientific software packaged into tool kits that run in the Cloud. Both data and tool kits are published by multiple researchers and registered with the VGL infrastructure forming a data and application marketplace. The VGL provides the basic work flow of Discovery and Access to the disparate data sources and a Library for tool kits and scripting to drive the scientific codes. Computation is then performed on the Research or Commercial Clouds. Provenance information is collected throughout the work flow and can be published alongside the results allowing for experiment comparison and sharing with other researchers. VGL's "mix and match" approach to data, computational resources and scientific codes, enables a dynamic approach to scientific collaboration. VGL allows scientists to publish their specific contribution, be it data, code, compute or work flow, knowing the VGL framework will provide other components needed for a complete application. Other scientists can choose the pieces that suit them best to assemble an experiment. The coarse grain workflow of the VGL framework combined with the flexibility of the scripting library and computational toolkits allows for significant customisation and sharing amongst the community. The VGL utilises the cloud computational and storage resources from the Australian academic research cloud provided by the NeCTAR initiative and a large variety of data accessible from national and state agencies via the Spatial Information Services Stack (SISS - http://siss.auscope.org). VGL v1.2 screenshot - http://vgl.auscope.org

  10. New Catalog of Resources Enables Paleogeosciences Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingo, R. C.; Horlick, K. A.; Anderson, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The 21st century promises a new era for scientists of all disciplines, the age where cyber infrastructure enables research and education and fuels discovery. EarthCube is a working community of over 2,500 scientists and students of many Earth Science disciplines who are looking to build bridges between disciplines. The EarthCube initiative will create a digital infrastructure that connects databases, software, and repositories. A catalog of resources (databases, software, repositories) has been produced by the Research Coordination Network for Paleogeosciences to improve the discoverability of resources. The Catalog is currently made available within the larger-scope CINERGI geosciences portal (http://hydro10.sdsc.edu/geoportal/catalog/main/home.page). Other distribution points and web services are planned, using linked data, content services for the web, and XML descriptions that can be harvested using metadata protocols. The databases provide searchable interfaces to find data sets that would otherwise remain dark data, hidden in drawers and on personal computers. The software will be described in catalog entries so just one click will lead users to methods and analytical tools that many geoscientists were unaware of. The repositories listed in the Paleogeosciences Catalog contain physical samples found all across the globe, from natural history museums to the basements of university buildings. EarthCube has over 250 databases, 300 software systems, and 200 repositories which will grow in the coming year. When completed, geoscientists across the world will be connected into a productive workflow for managing, sharing, and exploring geoscience data and information that expedites collaboration and innovation within the paleogeosciences, potentially bringing about new interdisciplinary discoveries.

  11. Web enabled data management with DPM & LFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez Ayllon, Alejandro; Beche, Alexandre; Furano, Fabrizio; Hellmich, Martin; Keeble and, Oliver; Brito Da Rocha, Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    The Disk Pool Manager (DPM) and LCG File Catalog (LFC) are two grid data management components currently used in production with more than 240 endpoints. Together with a set of grid client tools they give the users a unified view of their data, hiding most details concerning data location and access. Recently we've put a lot of effort in developing a reliable and high performance HTTP/WebDAV frontend to both our grid catalog and storage components, exposing the existing functionality to users accessing the services via standard clients - e.g. web browsers, curl - present in all operating systems, giving users a simple and straight-forward way of interaction. In addition, as other relevant grid storage components (like dCache) expose their data using the same protocol, for the first time we had the opportunity of attempting a unified view of all grid storage using HTTP. We describe the HTTP redirection mechanism used to integrate the grid catalog(s) with the multiple storage components, including details on some assumptions made to allow integration with other implementations. We describe the way we hide the details regarding site availability or catalog inconsistencies by switching the standard HTTP client automatically between multiple replicas. We also present measurements of access performance, and the relevant factors regarding replica selection - current throughput and load, geographic proximity, etc. Finally, we report on some additional work done to have this system as a viable alternative to GridFTP, providing multi-stream transfers and exploiting some additional features of WebDAV to enable third party copies - essential for managing data movements between storage systems - with equivalent performance.

  12. "Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced Industrial Heat Transfer Fluids"

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Ganesh Skandan; Dr. Amit Singhal; Mr. Kenneth Eberts; Mr. Damian Sobrevilla; Prof. Jerry Shan; Stephen Tse; Toby Rossmann

    2008-06-12

    ABSTRACT Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced industrial Heat Transfer Fluids” Improving the efficiency of Industrial Heat Exchangers offers a great opportunity to improve overall process efficiencies in diverse industries such as pharmaceutical, materials manufacturing and food processing. The higher efficiencies can come in part from improved heat transfer during both cooling and heating of the material being processed. Additionally, there is great interest in enhancing the performance and reducing the weight of heat exchangers used in automotives in order to increase fuel efficiency. The goal of the Phase I program was to develop nanoparticle containing heat transfer fluids (e.g., antifreeze, water, silicone and hydrocarbon-based oils) that are used in transportation and in the chemical industry for heating, cooling and recovering waste heat. Much work has been done to date at investigating the potential use of nanoparticle-enhanced thermal fluids to improve heat transfer in heat exchangers. In most cases the effect in a commercial heat transfer fluid has been marginal at best. In the Phase I work, we demonstrated that the thermal conductivity, and hence heat transfer, of a fluid containing nanoparticles can be dramatically increased when subjected to an external influence. The increase in thermal conductivity was significantly larger than what is predicted by commonly used thermal models for two-phase materials. Additionally, the surface of the nanoparticles was engineered so as to have a minimal influence on the viscosity of the fluid. As a result, a nanoparticle-laden fluid was successfully developed that can lead to enhanced heat transfer in both industrial and automotive heat exchangers

  13. Self-Management: Enabling and empowering patients living with cancer as a chronic illness

    PubMed Central

    McCorkle, Ruth; Ercolano, Elizabeth; Lazenby, Mark; Schulman-Green, Dena; Schilling, Lynne S.; Lorig, Kate; Wagner, Edward H.

    2010-01-01

    With recent improvements in early detection, diagnosis and treatment of cancer, people with cancer are living longer, and their cancer may be managed as a chronic illness. Cancer as a chronic illness places new demands on patients and families to manage their own care, and it challenges old paradigms that oncology's work is done after treatment. As a chronic illness, however, cancer care occurs on a continuum that stretches from prevention to the end of life, with early detection, diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship in between. In this paper, we review self-management interventions that enable patients and families to participate in managing their care along this continuum. We review randomized controlled trials of self-management interventions with cancer patients and families in the treatment, survivorship, and end-of-life phases of the cancer-care continuum. We also present the Chronic Care Model as a model of care that oncology practices can use to enable and empower patients and families to engage in self-management. We conclude that, the need for a common language by which to speak about self-management and a common set of self-management actions for cancer care notwithstanding, oncology practices can now build strong relationships with their patients and formulate mutually-agreed upon care plans that enable and empower patients to care for themselves in the way they prefer. PMID:21205833

  14. Fighting Fires in Early Intervention Supervision: Trading the Axe for Mr. Rogers's Slippers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Laura; Gallen, Robert T.; Salazar, Ruby; Shahmoon-Shanok, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    When Pennsylvania's Early Intervention system implemented an early intervention-reflective supervision project, modest expectations for change were anticipated, given the limited amount of time and funding for the project. In this article, one participant tells the story of her professional development, which enabled her to augment her skills as…

  15. Review of Randomised Controlled Trials of Internet Interventions for Mental Disorders and Related Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Kathleen M.; Christensen, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Self-help Internet interventions have the potential to enable consumers to play a central role in managing their own health. This paper contains a systematic review of 15 randomised controlled trials of the effectiveness of self-help Internet interventions for mental disorders and related conditions. Conditions addressed by the interventions…

  16. Realist complex intervention science: Applying realist principles across all phases of the Medical Research Council framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Adam; Jamal, Farah; Moore, Graham; Evans, Rhiannon E.; Murphy, Simon; Bonell, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The integration of realist evaluation principles within randomised controlled trials (‘realist RCTs’) enables evaluations of complex interventions to answer questions about what works, for whom and under what circumstances. This allows evaluators to better develop and refine mid-level programme theories. However, this is only one phase in the process of developing and evaluating complex interventions. We describe and exemplify how social scientists can integrate realist principles across all phases of the Medical Research Council framework. Intervention development, modelling, and feasibility and pilot studies need to theorise the contextual conditions necessary for intervention mechanisms to be activated. Where interventions are scaled up and translated into routine practice, realist principles also have much to offer in facilitating knowledge about longer-term sustainability, benefits and harms. Integrating a realist approach across all phases of complex intervention science is vital for considering the feasibility and likely effects of interventions for different localities and population subgroups. PMID:27478401

  17. Early intervention in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kulhara, Parmanand; Banerjee, Anindya; Dutt, Alakananda

    2008-01-01

    Early intervention (EI) programs in schizophrenia and other psychoses are aimed at early detection (ED) of the disease; prevent conversion to manifested psychosis and phase-specific treatment to reduce development of chronic disabilities. EI strategies include targeting people at “high risk" for developing schizophrenia, intervening in prodromal phase of schizophrenia, and reducing the “duration of untreated psychosis" (DUP). Services are delivered by a specialized team and are usually resource intensive. Several strategies like treatment with antipsychotics, family interventions, and cognitive behavior therapy have been tried with modest success in prodromal patients. Significant ethical reservations exist regarding exposing prodromal patients to the stigma of labeling as “high risk for schizophrenia" and side effects of psychotropics in the absence of clear evidence of efficacy in favor of ED, intervention by specialist teams, and phase-specific interventions in prodrome of psychosis. More research is warranted to demonstrate the risk-benefit and cost-benefit of such interventions before these can be routinely recommended. PMID:19742227

  18. Immune interventions in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ying; Liu, Qiang; Anrather, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory and immune responses in the brain can shape the clinical presentation and outcome of stroke. Approaches for effective management of acute stroke are sparse and many measures for brain protection fail, but our ability to modulate the immune system and modify the disease progression of multiple sclerosis is increasing. As a result, immune interventions are currently being explored as therapeutic interventions in acute stroke. In this Review, we compare the immunological features of acute stroke with those of multiple sclerosis, identify unique immunological features of stroke, and consider the evidence for immune interventions. In acute stroke, microglia activation and cell death products trigger an inflammatory cascade that damages vessels and the parenchyma within minutes to hours of the ischaemia or haemorrhage. Immune interventions that restrict brain inflammation, vascular permeability and tissue oedema must be administered rapidly to reduce acute immune-mediated destruction and to avoid subsequent immunosuppression. Preliminary results suggest that the use of drugs that modify disease in multiple sclerosis might accomplish these goals in ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Further elucidation of the immune mechanisms involved in stroke is likely to lead to successful immune interventions. PMID:26303850

  19. Hydrologic Prediction Through Earthcube Enabled Hydrogeophysical Cyberinfrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteeg, R. J.; Johnson, D.

    2012-12-01

    to "develop a framework to understand and predict responses of the Earth as a system— from the space-atmosphere boundary to the core, including the influences of humans and ecosystems." Effective development of hydrologic prediction tools will require the hydrogeophysical community to engage in and become conversant with the cyberinfrastructure community. In my presentation I will provide several examples of how such tools could look like, and what some of the opportunities are for getting this engagement going and develop cyberinfrastructure enabled hydrologic prediction tools.

  20. The OGC Sensor Web Enablement framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. J.; Botts, M.

    2006-12-01

    Sensor observations are at the core of natural sciences. Improvements in data-sharing technologies offer the promise of much greater utilisation of observational data. A key to this is interoperable data standards. The Open Geospatial Consortium's (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement initiative (SWE) is developing open standards for web interfaces for the discovery, exchange and processing of sensor observations, and tasking of sensor systems. The goal is to support the construction of complex sensor applications through real-time composition of service chains from standard components. The framework is based around a suite of standard interfaces, and standard encodings for the message transferred between services. The SWE interfaces include: Sensor Observation Service (SOS)-parameterized observation requests (by observation time, feature of interest, property, sensor); Sensor Planning Service (SPS)-tasking a sensor- system to undertake future observations; Sensor Alert Service (SAS)-subscription to an alert, usually triggered by a sensor result exceeding some value. The interface design generally follows the pattern established in the OGC Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Feature Service (WFS) interfaces, where the interaction between a client and service follows a standard sequence of requests and responses. The first obtains a general description of the service capabilities, followed by obtaining detail required to formulate a data request, and finally a request for a data instance or stream. These may be implemented in a stateless "REST" idiom, or using conventional "web-services" (SOAP) messaging. In a deployed system, the SWE interfaces are supplemented by Catalogue, data (WFS) and portrayal (WMS) services, as well as authentication and rights management. The standard SWE data formats are Observations and Measurements (O&M) which encodes observation metadata and results, Sensor Model Language (SensorML) which describes sensor-systems, Transducer Model Language (TML) which

  1. Bioblendstocks that Enable High Efficiency Engine Designs

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, Robert L.; Fioroni, Gina M.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Zigler, Bradley T.; Farrell, John

    2016-11-03

    The past decade has seen a high level of innovation in production of biofuels from sugar, lipid, and lignocellulose feedstocks. As discussed in several talks at this workshop, ethanol blends in the E25 to E50 range could enable more highly efficient spark-ignited (SI) engines. This is because of their knock resistance properties that include not only high research octane number (RON), but also charge cooling from high heat of vaporization, and high flame speed. Emerging alcohol fuels such as isobutanol or mixed alcohols have desirable properties such as reduced gasoline blend vapor pressure, but also have lower RON than ethanol. These fuels may be able to achieve the same knock resistance benefits, but likely will require higher blend levels or higher RON hydrocarbon blendstocks. A group of very high RON (>150) oxygenates such as dimethyl furan, methyl anisole, and related compounds are also produced from biomass. While providing no increase in charge cooling, their very high octane numbers may provide adequate knock resistance for future highly efficient SI engines. Given this range of options for highly knock resistant fuels there appears to be a critical need for a fuel knock resistance metric that includes effects of octane number, heat of vaporization, and potentially flame speed. Emerging diesel fuels include highly branched long-chain alkanes from hydroprocessing of fats and oils, as well as sugar-derived terpenoids. These have relatively high cetane number (CN), which may have some benefits in designing more efficient CI engines. Fast pyrolysis of biomass can produce diesel boiling range streams that are high in aromatic, oxygen and acid contents. Hydroprocessing can be applied to remove oxygen and consequently reduce acidity, however there are strong economic incentives to leave up to 2 wt% oxygen in the product. This oxygen will primarily be present as low CN alkyl phenols and aryl ethers. While these have high heating value, their presence in diesel fuel

  2. Technical Assessment: Data-Enabled Technology Watch and Horizon Scanning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    current and can manage technology-enabled opportunities and challenges. All of these decisions can benefit substantially from a keen understanding of...1 Potential Benefits from Data-Enabled TW/HS...6 Leveraging Knowledge Management

  3. Embodied intervention reduce depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dong-Qing; Bi, Xin; Fu, Ying

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the difference of the selected-rate of undergraduates' depression with respect to time, gender and scales and the intervention effect of embodied exercise, 201 Undergraduates were measured with Self-Rating Depression Scale and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).The result shows there are significant difference of the selected-rates of undergraduates' depression resulted from long-time interval rather than from short-time interval and gender. After the intervention, the selected-rates are decreased and no significant difference has been found between the embodied groups and the controlled group. Only the embodied groups maintain the better effects of the intervention in the tracking. Also the result shows that only the participants of embodied groups obtain more positive emotional experience. We conclude that there is significant difference of selected-rate of undergraduates' depression on scales, and the embodied exercise can effectively reduce undergraduate's depression.

  4. Early Intervention in Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    McGorry, Patrick D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Early intervention for potentially serious disorder is a fundamental feature of healthcare across the spectrum of physical illness. It has been a major factor in the reductions in morbidity and mortality that have been achieved in some of the non-communicable diseases, notably cancer and cardiovascular disease. Over the past two decades, an international collaborative effort has been mounted to build the evidence and the capacity for early intervention in the psychotic disorders, notably schizophrenia, where for so long deep pessimism had reigned. The origins and rapid development of early intervention in psychosis are described from a personal and Australian perspective. This uniquely evidence-informed, evidence-building and cost-effective reform provides a blueprint and launch pad to radically change the wider landscape of mental health care and dissolve many of the barriers that have constrained progress for so long. PMID:25919380

  5. Interventional balloon-enteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Albert, Jörg G

    2012-01-01

    Balloon assisted enteroscopy (BE) expands greatly the therapeutic options in interventional endoscopy; bleeding sites, strictures, polyps, and other small bowel lesions are increasingly been treated by use of BE in the last 10 years. Treatment options for small bowel bleeding include Argon plasma coagulation (APC), injection therapy, and application of TTS metal clips, and thereby bleeding is stopped in most cases. Dilating symptomatic strictures, resecting polyps as seen in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), and removing foreign bodies, BE carries most endoscopic treatment techniques to the small bowel. Another new indication field for BE are interventions at the biliary system in patients with surgically modified anatomy such as Roux-Y anastomosis. This review offers a full overview on indications of BE and refers to the practical use of the method for all endoscopic interventions.

  6. Refusal to medical interventions.

    PubMed

    Palacios, G; Herreros, B; Pacho, E

    2014-10-01

    Refusal to medical interventions is the not acceptance, voluntary and free, of an indicated medical intervention. What the physician should do in case of refusal? It is understandable that the rejection of a validated medical intervention is difficult to accept by the responsible physician when raises the conflict protection of life versus freedom of choice. Therefore it is important to follow some steps to incorporate the most relevant aspects of the conflict. These steps include: 1) Give complete information to patients, informing on possible alternatives, 2) determine whether the patient can decide (age, competency and level of capacity), 3) to ascertain whether the decision is free, 4) analyze the decision with the patient, 5) to persuade, 6) if the patient kept in the rejection decision, consider conscientious objection, 7) take the decision based on the named criteria, 8) finally, if the rejection is accepted, offer available alternatives.

  7. Incentives and enablers to improve adherence in tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lutge, Elizabeth E; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Knight, Stephen E; Sinclair, David; Volmink, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient adherence to medications, particularly for conditions requiring prolonged treatment such as tuberculosis (TB), is frequently less than ideal and can result in poor treatment outcomes. Material incentives to reward good behaviour and enablers to remove economic barriers to accessing care are sometimes given in the form of cash, vouchers, or food to improve adherence. Objectives To evaluate the effects of material incentives and enablers in patients undergoing diagnostic testing, or receiving prophylactic or curative therapy, for TB. Search methods We undertook a comprehensive search of the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; Science Citation Index; and reference lists of relevant publications up to 5 June 2015. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials of material incentives in patients being investigated for TB, or on treatment for latent or active TB. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently screened and selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. We compared the effects of interventions using risk ratios (RR), and presented RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. Main results We identified 12 eligible trials. Ten were conducted in the USA: in adolescents (one trial), in injection drug or cocaine users (four trials), in homeless adults (three trials), and in prisoners (two trials). The remaining two trials, in general adult populations, were conducted in Timor-Leste and South Africa. Sustained incentive programmes Only two trials have assessed whether material incentives and enablers can improve long-term adherence and completion of treatment for active TB, and neither demonstrated a clear benefit (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.14; two trials, 4356 participants; low quality evidence). In one trial, the incentive

  8. An Investigation of Relations among Academic Enablers and Reading Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Lyndsay N.; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the link between academic enablers and different types of reading achievement measures. Academic enablers are skills and behaviors that support, or enable, students to perform well academically, such as engagement, interpersonal skills, motivation, and study skills. The sample in this study consisted of 61 third-,…

  9. 78 FR 76603 - Enable Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Enable Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on November 26, 2013, Enable Gas Transmission, LLC (Enable) 1111 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed... Gas Transmission, LLC, P.O. Box 21734 Shreveport, LA 71151 at (318) 429- 3708. Specifically,...

  10. Nanotechnology to the rescue: using nano-enabled approaches in microbiological food safety and quality.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriadou, Mary; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Demokritou, Philip

    2017-04-01

    Food safety and quality assurance is entering a new era. Interventions along the food supply chain must become more efficient in safeguarding public health and the environment and must address numerous challenges and new consumption trends. Current methods of microbial control to assure the safety of food and minimize microbial spoilage have each shown inefficiencies. Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding area in the agri/feed/food sector. Nano-enabled approaches such as antimicrobial food-contact surfaces/packaging, nano-enabled sensors for rapid pathogen/contaminant detection and nano-delivered biocidal methods, currently on the market or at a developmental stage, show great potential for the food industry. Concerns on potential risks to human health and the environment posed by use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in food applications must, however, be adequately evaluated at the developmental stage to ensure consumer's acceptance.

  11. Intervention for Unsettled Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Beulah; And Others

    Outcomes of a follow-up, preventive care program based on a self-regulation model of neonate and parent behavior were studied in a controlled experiment. Subjects included a preterm control group, preterm intervention group, and full-term control group, with each group consisting of 27 infants. The assessment, which used the Brazelton Neonatal…

  12. The Weekend Intervention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegal, Harvey A.

    The Weekend Intervention Program (WIP) at the Wright State University School of Medicine is described in this report. Designed to address severe health and social problems while supporting the university's academic mission, the program began with the goal of addressing the health and social problems of alcohol abusers. WIP is a 72-hour intensive…

  13. Overview of Early Intervention

    MedlinePlus

    ... intervention, however. If you’re concerned about your child’s development, you may contact your local program directly and ... learn, so it’s always of concern when a child’s development seems slow or more difficult than would normally ...

  14. Psychological Interventions with Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, James N.; And Others

    Psychotherapy is an alien concept to many refugees from traditional cultures, since much of psychotherapy is tied to Western thoughts, practices, and belief systems. However, a variety of therapeutic strategies can be effective with refugees if modified to account for cultural factors. Four clinical intervention strategies are discussed with…

  15. Culturally Centered Psychosocial Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Guillermo; Saez-Santiago, Emily

    2006-01-01

    Over the last few decades, psychologists and other health professionals have called attention to the importance of considering cultural and ethnic-minority aspects in any psychosocial interventions. Although, at present, there are published guidelines on the practice of culturally competent psychology, there is still a lack of practical…

  16. Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

    2010-01-01

    This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

  17. Criteria for Evaluating Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, T. R.

    2007-01-01

    By common consent there is a "gold standard" in reference to which the efficacy of medical interventions needs to be evaluated. It is suggested in this paper that in educational research achievement of this gold standard is rarely possible. It does not follow, however, that research that falls short of this standard is therefore valueless; there…

  18. Intervention as Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkjaer, Bente; Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how workplace interventions may benefit from a simultaneous focus on individuals' learning and knowledge and on the situatedness of workplaces in the wider world of changing professional knowledge regimes. This is illustrated by the demand for evidence-based practice in health care.…

  19. A community-based behavior modification intervention for childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Gillis, David; Brauner, Michal; Granot, Esther

    2007-02-01

    Childhood obesity, caused by reduced physical activity and increased food consumption, has reached epidemic proportions. We hypothesized that a single practitioner could enable a child to reduce BMI by educating towards a healthier lifestyle and then reinforcing the message in a structured manner. In this study, intervention group participants and their parents received a half-hour talk on exercise and diet, repeated after 3 months. They were instructed to fill weekly diaries and were called weekly by telephone. Controls received the initial instruction only. Twenty-seven (14 intervention) obese children were recruited. Anthropometric parameters, fitness and biochemical data were collected before intervention and after 6 months in both groups. Sustained but not statistically significant improvements in attitude, BMI SDS and LDL-cholesterol were noted in the intervention group. These promising results support a need for further work to evaluate the efficacy and applicability of our approach in the population at large.

  20. Petascale Computing Enabling Technologies Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    de Supinski, B R

    2010-02-14

    The Petascale Computing Enabling Technologies (PCET) project addressed challenges arising from current trends in computer architecture that will lead to large-scale systems with many more nodes, each of which uses multicore chips. These factors will soon lead to systems that have over one million processors. Also, the use of multicore chips will lead to less memory and less memory bandwidth per core. We need fundamentally new algorithmic approaches to cope with these memory constraints and the huge number of processors. Further, correct, efficient code development is difficult even with the number of processors in current systems; more processors will only make it harder. The goal of PCET was to overcome these challenges by developing the computer science and mathematical underpinnings needed to realize the full potential of our future large-scale systems. Our research results will significantly increase the scientific output obtained from LLNL large-scale computing resources by improving application scientist productivity and system utilization. Our successes include scalable mathematical algorithms that adapt to these emerging architecture trends and through code correctness and performance methodologies that automate critical aspects of application development as well as the foundations for application-level fault tolerance techniques. PCET's scope encompassed several research thrusts in computer science and mathematics: code correctness and performance methodologies, scalable mathematics algorithms appropriate for multicore systems, and application-level fault tolerance techniques. Due to funding limitations, we focused primarily on the first three thrusts although our work also lays the foundation for the needed advances in fault tolerance. In the area of scalable mathematics algorithms, our preliminary work established that OpenMP performance of the AMG linear solver benchmark and important individual kernels on Atlas did not match the predictions of our

  1. Educational interventions to improve recognition of delirium: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Yanamadala, Mamata; Wieland, Darryl; Heflin, Mitchell T

    2013-11-01

    Delirium is a common and serious condition that is underrecognized in older adults in a variety of healthcare settings. It is poorly recognized because of deficiencies in provider knowledge and its atypical presentation. Early recognition of delirium is warranted to better manage the disease and prevent the adverse outcomes associated with it. The purpose of this article is to review the literature concerning educational interventions focusing on recognition of delirium. The Medline and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINHAL) databases were searched for studies with specific educational focus in the recognition of delirium, and 26 studies with various designs were identified. The types of interventions used were classified according to the Predisposing, Reinforcing and Enabling Constructs in Educational Diagnosis and Evaluation (PRECEDE) model, and outcomes were sorted according to Kirkpatrick's hierarchy. Educational strategies combining predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors achieved better results than strategies that included one or two of these components. Studies using predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing strategies together were more often effective in producing changes in staff behavior and participant outcomes. Based on this review, improvements in knowledge and skill alone seem insufficient to favorably influence recognition of delirium. Educational interventions to recognize delirium are most effective when formal teaching is interactive and is combined with strategies including engaging leadership and using clinical pathways and assessment tools. The goal of the current study was to systematically review the published literature to determine the effect of educational interventions on recognition of delirium.

  2. Biobehavioral Intervention for Cancer Stress: Conceptualization, Components, and Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Barbara L.; Golden-Kreutz, Deanna M.; Emery, Charles F.; Thiel, Debora L.

    2009-01-01

    Trials testing the efficacy of psychological interventions for cancer patients had their beginnings in the 1970s. Since then, hundreds of trials have found interventions to be generally efficacious. In this article, we describe an intervention grounded in a conceptual model that includes psychological, behavioral, and biological components. It is…

  3. Enabling autonomous control for space reactor power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R. T.

    2006-07-01

    The application of nuclear reactors for space power and/or propulsion presents some unique challenges regarding the operations and control of the power system. Terrestrial nuclear reactors employ varying degrees of human control and decision-making for operations and benefit from periodic human interaction for maintenance. In contrast, the control system of a space reactor power system (SRPS) employed for deep space missions must be able to accommodate unattended operations due to communications delays and periods of planetary occlusion while adapting to evolving or degraded conditions with no opportunity for repair or refurbishment. Thus, a SRPS control system must provide for operational autonomy. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted an investigation of the state of the technology for autonomous control to determine the experience base in the nuclear power application domain, both for space and terrestrial use. It was found that control systems with varying levels of autonomy have been employed in robotic, transportation, spacecraft, and manufacturing applications. However, autonomous control has not been implemented for an operating terrestrial nuclear power plant nor has there been any experience beyond automating simple control loops for space reactors. Current automated control technologies for nuclear power plants are reasonably mature, and basic control for a SRPS is clearly feasible under optimum circumstances. However, autonomous control is primarily intended to account for the non optimum circumstances when degradation, failure, and other off-normal events challenge the performance of the reactor and near-term human intervention is not possible. Thus, the development and demonstration of autonomous control capabilities for the specific domain of space nuclear power operations is needed. This paper will discuss the findings of the ORNL study and provide a description of the concept of autonomy, its key characteristics, and a prospective

  4. Developing, implementing and evaluating an end of life care intervention.

    PubMed

    Cox, Anna; Arber, Anne; Bailey, Fiona; Dargan, Sue; Gannon, Craig; Lisk, Radcliffe; Quinn, Barry; Samarasinghe, Jane; Wrigley, Martha; Gallagher, Ann

    2017-01-31

    Aim To develop, implement and evaluate a collaborative intervention in care homes seeking to increase the confidence and competence of staff in end of life care and enable more people to receive end of life care in their usual place of residence. Method A two-phase exploratory mixed methods design was used, evaluating the effect of an end of life care toolkit and associated training in care homes, facilitated by a specialist palliative care team. Six care homes in England were recruited to the intervention; 24 staff participated in discussion groups; 54 staff attended at least one training session; and pre- and post-intervention questionnaires were completed by 78 and 103 staff respectively. Results Staff confidence in receiving emotional and clinical support and managing end of life care symptoms increased post-intervention, but confidence in discussing death and dying with residents and relatives decreased. Audit data indicate greater reduction in the number of residents from participating care homes dying in hospital than those from comparison homes. Conclusion Collaborative end of life care interventions support care home staff to manage end of life and may enable residents to have choice about their place of death.

  5. [Music-based intervention in children].

    PubMed

    Kiese-Himmel, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Music-based interventions with children are an effective method in health and sickness treatment and in education systems. The engagement with music enables positive transfer effects on extra-musical developmental domains. Music therapy was applied primarily as a practically-oriented scientific discipline both within the framework of a multi-modal therapy approach as one treatment component and focused specifically on children with emotional disorders within a somatic therapy concept and in rehabilitation. The following narrative overview will present music therapy's working basis, treatment goals, and select outcome research in children from 2005-2010. There currently exists a substantial lack, even within empirical research, in relation to the application of music therapy to children. This is an opportunity to initiate a broad range of study for the future. Current challenges and opportunities in scientific, music-based intervention in the paediatric population lie in the concretization of differential indications (both in intervention approach and duration), replicable comparative therapy (alternated treatment-design), the application of a music-therapeutic placebo requirement, as well as in the verification and analysis of specific music therapeutic mechanisms.

  6. How to Measure the Intervention Process? An Assessment of Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to Data Collection in the Process Evaluation of Organizational Interventions.

    PubMed

    Abildgaard, Johan S; Saksvik, Per Ø; Nielsen, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Organizational interventions aiming at improving employee health and wellbeing have proven to be challenging to evaluate. To analyze intervention processes two methodological approaches have widely been used: quantitative (often questionnaire data), or qualitative (often interviews). Both methods are established tools, but their distinct epistemological properties enable them to illuminate different aspects of organizational interventions. In this paper, we use the quantitative and qualitative process data from an organizational intervention conducted in a national postal service, where the Intervention Process Measure questionnaire (N = 285) as well as an extensive interview study (N = 50) were used. We analyze what type of knowledge about intervention processes these two methodologies provide and discuss strengths and weaknesses as well as potentials for mixed methods evaluation methodologies.

  7. How to Measure the Intervention Process? An Assessment of Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to Data Collection in the Process Evaluation of Organizational Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Abildgaard, Johan S.; Saksvik, Per Ø.; Nielsen, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Organizational interventions aiming at improving employee health and wellbeing have proven to be challenging to evaluate. To analyze intervention processes two methodological approaches have widely been used: quantitative (often questionnaire data), or qualitative (often interviews). Both methods are established tools, but their distinct epistemological properties enable them to illuminate different aspects of organizational interventions. In this paper, we use the quantitative and qualitative process data from an organizational intervention conducted in a national postal service, where the Intervention Process Measure questionnaire (N = 285) as well as an extensive interview study (N = 50) were used. We analyze what type of knowledge about intervention processes these two methodologies provide and discuss strengths and weaknesses as well as potentials for mixed methods evaluation methodologies. PMID:27713707

  8. Crisis intervention: program evaluation.

    PubMed

    Simington, J A; Cargill, L; Hill, W

    1996-11-01

    Crisis intervention is based upon crisis theory and is defined as a short-term active mode of therapy that focuses on solving the client's immediate problem and reestablishing psychological equilibrium. The crisis intervention program was the first phase in the development of a broader mental health program with advancement decisions being based upon evaluation results of this initial phase. An evaluation methodology using the Stufflebeam Goal-Stakeholder Model (1980) was designed and implemented. A satisfaction survey was conducted to develop a database relative to the program's process. The Mental Health Category Measure, and the Crisis Call Outcome Rating Scale were used to capture outcome data. Analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data indicate that stakeholders are satisfied with the program. outcome data demonstrates that the program produces the intended outcomes. Triangulation, a method of comparing the qualitative and quantitative findings revealed consistency, and thus provides confidence in the accuracy of the findings.

  9. Agency and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Roskies, Adina L.

    2015-01-01

    Novel ways to intervene on brain function raise questions about agency and responsibility. Here, I discuss whether direct brain interventions, and in particular, deep brain stimulation, pose a threat to agency in individual cases, or to our general conceptualization of what it is to be a responsible agent. While I do not currently see evidence that these interventions constitute a global challenge to our concept of agency, they do have the potential to diminish agency in individuals. I consider whether the lack of evidence for a global challenge ratifies our folk conceptions, or is a necessary consequence of them. In closing, I propose that our theoretical understanding of agency and our therapeutic approaches could be improved with a more nuanced, multidimensional view of agency. PMID:26240430

  10. Transperineal Prostate Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Muntener, Michael; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Schär, Michael; Ursu, Daniel; Song, Danny Y.; Stoianovici, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The study was approved by the animal care and use committee. The purpose of the study was to prospectively establish proof of principle in vivo in canines for a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging–compatible robotic system designed for image-guided prostatic needle intervention. The entire robot is built with nonmagnetic and dielectric materials and in its current configuration is designed to perform fully automated brachytherapy seed placement within a closed MR imager. With a 3.0-T imager, in four dogs the median error for MR imaging–guided needle positioning and seed positioning was 2.02 mm (range, 0.86–3.18 mm) and 2.50 mm (range, 1.45–10.54 mm), respectively. The robotic system is capable of accurate MR imaging–guided prostatic needle intervention within a standard MR imager in vivo in a canine model. PMID:18430882

  11. Guideline for Early Interventions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    desensitization and reprocessing ( EMDR ) as a early mental health intervention, following mass violence and disasters, is a treatment of choice over other...village. Military operations take place under the eye of the world and are surrounded by high political attention. International missions far exceed...consistently reduce risks of later post-traumatic stress disorder or related adjustment difficulties. • There is no evidence that eye movement

  12. Early childhood mathematics intervention.

    PubMed

    Clements, Douglas H; Sarama, Julie

    2011-08-19

    Preschool and primary grade children have the capacity to learn substantial mathematics, but many children lack opportunities to do so. Too many children not only start behind their more advantaged peers, but also begin a negative trajectory in mathematics. Interventions designed to facilitate their mathematical learning during ages 3 to 5 years have a strong positive effect on these children's lives for many years thereafter.

  13. Bulimia nervosa: online interventions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Up to 1% of people in the community may have bulimia nervosa, characterised by an intense preoccupation with body weight, binge-eating episodes, and use of extreme measures to counteract the feared effects of overeating. People with bulimia nervosa are of normal weight or are overweight, making the condition distinct from anorexia nervosa. After 10 years, about half of people with bulimia nervosa will have recovered fully, one third will have made a partial recovery, and 10% to 20% will still have symptoms. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of online interventions for people with bulimia nervosa? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2014 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found eight studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: applications (apps) or online programmes used as an adjunct to face-to-face therapy, delivery of self-help online, and delivery of therapy online. PMID:25735611

  14. Moving beyond caregiver burden: identifying helpful interventions for family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2014-03-01

    Family members serving as informal caregivers for loved ones often experience physical, psychological, emotional, social, and financial consequences that can be conceptualized as caregiver burden. As the number of older adults in our society continues to increase, there will be even more demand for family caregivers. It is important to move beyond a focus on the statistics and characteristics of caregiver burden and identify helpful interventions to reduce this burden. Interventions that decrease caregiver burden can enable family caregivers to delay placement of the individual in an institutional setting and improve quality of life for both the caregiver and care recipient.

  15. Academic Accountability and State Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, John W.

    This speech discusses the national emerging trend toward state intervention in local educational processes as part of the academic accountability movement. It provides examples of reforms and improvements whereby state intervention furnished local school improvement. The address focuses on state intervention in Jersey City, New Jersey; predicts…

  16. Group Intervention in Pediatric Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaForme Fiss, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    Group intervention in pediatric physical and occupational therapy is an alternative to individual intervention allowing the therapist to meet the needs of multiple children at one time. Survey research indicates that approximately 40% to 60% of pediatric physical and occupational therapists use group intervention at least occasionally in practice,…

  17. The Effectiveness of Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J., Ed.

    This book reviews research on the effectiveness of early intervention for children with disabilities or who are at risk. Program factors for children at risk and with disabilities, the effects of early intervention on different types of disabilities, and the outcomes of early intervention are explored. Chapters include: "Second-Generation Research…

  18. Family Interventions in Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Thomas L.

    1991-01-01

    As we begin to understand the relationships between family interaction and physical health, we can develop interventions that focus on education, support, and problem solving. The author reviews existing research on family interventions in physical health and proposes guidelines for developing, implementing, and studying family interventions. PMID:21229055

  19. Understanding Together: Sensemaking in Collaborative Information Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Sharoda A.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years researchers have found that people often collaborate during information seeking activities. Collaborative information seeking (CIS) is composed of multiple different activities like seeking, sharing, understanding, and using information together. However, most studies of CIS have focused on how people find and retrieve information…

  20. Sensemaking: A Structure for an Intelligence Revolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    analyzed at David’s home institution, the National Security Agency ( NSA ) and at NGA, along with espionage collected by the CIA. For mysteries there...and one from NSA to boot), he is very careful about classifi cation. Th at means the visible trails of his practice in his scholarship are sparse... NSA ); Martin Krizan, NSA ; Mark Lowenthal, president of the Intelligence and Security Academy, LLC; Brandon S. Minnery, IARPA (Intelligence

  1. Knowledge Cartography for Open Sensemaking Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shum, Simon Buckingham; Okada, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge Cartography is the discipline of visually mapping the conceptual structure of ideas, such as the connections between issues, concepts, answers, arguments and evidence. The cognitive process of externalising one's understanding clarifies one's own grasp of the situation, as well as communicating it to others as a network that invites…

  2. Competition and Sensemaking in Ethical Situations.

    PubMed

    Caughron, Jay J; Antes, Alison L; Stenmark, Cheryl K; Thiel, Chaise E; Wang, Xiaoqian; Mumford, Michael D

    2013-07-01

    Intra-organizational competition was examined in relation to ethicality. The effect of a competitor being an in-group versus and out-group member, competitor offering uncorroborated or corroborated information, and the impact of the competitor expressing selfish, pro-group, or pro-organizational level goals were examined. Findings suggest that the way competition is presented has an important influence on how well individuals are able to make sense of an ethically ambiguous situation and render an ethical decision. A main effect for information sharing was found, such that when a competitor offers uncorroborated information participants made less ethical decisions and used pro-ethical reasoning strategies less often. An additional main effect was found suggesting that participants made more ethical decisions when working with an in-group competitor rather than an out-group competitor. Complex interactive effects were also found and discussed suggesting that pro-ethical reasoning strategies may be used less often depending on information corroboration, the competitor's relative group membership status, and the motives expressed by the competitor.

  3. Competition and Sensemaking in Ethical Situations

    PubMed Central

    Caughron, Jay J.; Antes, Alison L.; Stenmark, Cheryl K.; Thiel, Chaise E.; Wang, Xiaoqian; Mumford, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Intra-organizational competition was examined in relation to ethicality. The effect of a competitor being an in-group versus and out-group member, competitor offering uncorroborated or corroborated information, and the impact of the competitor expressing selfish, pro-group, or pro-organizational level goals were examined. Findings suggest that the way competition is presented has an important influence on how well individuals are able to make sense of an ethically ambiguous situation and render an ethical decision. A main effect for information sharing was found, such that when a competitor offers uncorroborated information participants made less ethical decisions and used pro-ethical reasoning strategies less often. An additional main effect was found suggesting that participants made more ethical decisions when working with an in-group competitor rather than an out-group competitor. Complex interactive effects were also found and discussed suggesting that pro-ethical reasoning strategies may be used less often depending on information corroboration, the competitor’s relative group membership status, and the motives expressed by the competitor. PMID:26778850

  4. Barriers and enablers of kangaroo mother care practice: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Gabriel; Unnikrishnan, Shalini; Kenny, Emma; Myslinski, Scott; Cairns-Smith, Sarah; Mulligan, Brian; Engmann, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is an evidence-based approach to reducing mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Although KMC is a key intervention package in newborn health initiatives, there is limited systematic information available on the barriers to KMC practice that mothers and other stakeholders face while practicing KMC. This systematic review sought to identify the most frequently reported barriers to KMC practice for mothers, fathers, and health practitioners, as well as the most frequently reported enablers to practice for mothers. We searched nine electronic databases and relevant reference lists for publications reporting barriers or enablers to KMC practice. We identified 1,264 unique publications, of which 103 were included based on pre-specified criteria. Publications were scanned for all barriers / enablers. Each publication was also categorized based on its approach to identification of barriers / enablers, and more weight was assigned to publications which had systematically sought to understand factors influencing KMC practice. Four of the top five ranked barriers to KMC practice for mothers were resource-related: "Issues with the facility environment / resources," "negative impressions of staff attitudes or interactions with staff," "lack of help with KMC practice or other obligations," and "low awareness of KMC / infant health." Considering only publications from low- and middle-income countries, "pain / fatigue" was ranked higher than when considering all publications. Top enablers to practice were included "mother-infant attachment" and "support from family, friends, and other mentors." Our findings suggest that mother can understand and enjoy KMC, and it has benefits for mothers, infants, and families. However, continuous KMC may be physically and emotionally difficult, and often requires support from family members, health practitioners, or other mothers. These findings can serve as a starting point for researchers and program

  5. Increasing physical activity through health-enabling technologies: the project "being strong without violence".

    PubMed

    Scharnweber, Corinna; Ludwig, Wolfram; Marschollek, Michael; Pein, Wolfgang; Schack, Peter; Schubert, Reiner; Haux, Reinhold

    2011-01-01

    Due to the increasing prevalence of adiposity in children numerous schools are introducing prevention programmes. Among these is "Gewaltlos Starksein" ("Being strong without violence"), a project of Hauptschule Sophienstraße Braunschweig, Germany (a general education secondary school for grades 5-10). This study aims to discover possible increases in activity through "Gewaltlos Starksein" where health-enabling technologies play a major role. A prospective intervention study with a span of 1.5 years was designed to measure this increase in activity. Partners in this study were Hauptschule Sophienstraße as the intervention group and Grund- und Hauptschule Pestalozzistraße as control group. Data collection was performed using a multi-sensor device, and questionnaires. Confirmatory data analysis of average metabolic equivalent (METs) yielded no significant results. Exploratory analysis showed interesting results, especially concerning the number of steps during leisure time. Descriptive analysis of questionnaires showed that all children enjoy physical activity. There were differences in sports team participation, open-air games and club affiliation. The study could not prove that the intervention "Gewaltlos Starksein" improves physical activity in children. However, the increased leisure activity step count indicates that "Gewaltlos Starksein" has positive effects on children's behaviour. This should be investigated in a further study in cooperation with psychologists.

  6. [Diagnostic reference levels in interventional radiology].

    PubMed

    Vañó Carruana, E; Fernández Soto, J M; Sánchez Casanueva, R M; Ten Morón, J I

    2013-12-01

    This article discusses the diagnostic reference levels for radiation exposure proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to facilitate the application of the optimization criteria in diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures. These levels are normally established as the third quartile of the dose distributions to patients in an ample sample of centers and are supposed to be representative of good practice regarding patient exposure. In determining these levels, it is important to evaluate image quality as well to ensure that it is sufficient for diagnostic purposes. When the values for the dose received by patients are systematically higher or much lower than the reference levels, an investigation should determine whether corrective measures need to be applied. The European and Spanish regulations require the use of these reference values in quality assurance programs. For interventional procedures, the dose area product (or kerma area product) values are usually used as reference values together with the time under fluoroscopy and the total number of images acquired. The most modern imaging devices allow the value of the accumulated dose at the entrance to the patient to be calculated to optimize the distribution of the dose on the skin. The ICRP recommends that the complexity of interventional procedures be taken into account when establishing reference levels. In the future, diagnostic imaging departments will have automatic systems to manage patient dosimetric data; these systems will enable continuous dosage auditing and alerts about individual procedures that might involve doses several times above the reference values. This article also discusses aspects that need to be clarified to take better advantage of the reference levels in interventional procedures.

  7. Evidence, theory and context - using intervention mapping to develop a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Only limited data are available on the development and feasibility piloting of school-based interventions to prevent and reduce obesity in children. Clear documentation of the rationale, process of development and content of such interventions is essential to enable other researchers to understand why interventions succeed or fail. Methods This paper describes the development of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP), a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children, through the first 4 steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol (IM). The intervention focuses on the following health behaviours, i) reduction of the consumption of sweetened fizzy drinks, ii) increase in the proportion of healthy snacks consumed and iii) reduction of TV viewing and other screen-based activities, within the context of a wider attempt to improve diet and increase physical activity. Results Two phases of pilot work demonstrated that the intervention was acceptable and feasible for schools, children and their families and suggested areas for further refinement. Feedback from the first pilot phase suggested that the 9-10 year olds were both receptive to the messages and more able and willing to translate them into possible behaviour changes than older or younger children and engaged their families to the greatest extent. Performance objectives were mapped onto 3 three broad domains of behaviour change objectives - establish motivation, take action and stay motivated - in order to create an intervention that supports and enables behaviour change. Activities include whole school assemblies, parents evenings, sport/dance workshops, classroom based education lessons, interactive drama workshops and goal setting and runs over three school terms. Conclusion The Intervention Mapping protocol was a useful tool in developing a feasible, theory based intervention aimed at motivating children and their families to make small sustainable changes to their eating and activity

  8. Battlefield Renewable Energy: A Key Joint Force Enabler

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Environment, Energy Security & Sustainability Symposium Jun 2010 Battlefield Renewable Energy A Key Joint Force Enabler Roy H. Adams III, LTC, USA...COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Battlefield Renewable Energy : A Key Joint Force Enabler 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  9. AFC-Enabled Vertical Tail System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, Helen P.; Brandt, John B.; Lacy, Douglas S.; Whalen, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    This document serves as the final report for the SMAAART AFC-Enabled Vertical Tail System Integration Study. Included are the ground rule assumptions which have gone into the study, layouts of the baseline and AFC-enabled configurations, critical sizing information, system requirements and architectures, and assumed system properties that result in an NPV assessment of the two candidate AFC technologies.

  10. Interventions for trachoma trichiasis

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Matthew; Habtamu, Esmael; Ho, Derek; Gower, Emily W

    2015-01-01

    Background Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends eliminating trachomatous blindness through the SAFE strategy: Surgery for trichiasis, Antibiotic treatment, Facial cleanliness and Environmental hygiene. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003, and previously updated in 2006. Objectives To assess the effects of interventions for trachomatous trichiasis for people living in endemic settings. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2015, Issue 4), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to May 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2015), the ISRCTN registry (http://www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), http://ClinicalTrials.gov (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (http://www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 7 May 2015. We searched the reference lists of included studies to identify further potentially relevant studies. We also contacted authors for details of other relevant studies. Selection criteria We included randomised trials of any intervention intended to treat trachomatous trichiasis. Data collection and analysis Three review authors independently selected and assessed the trials, including the risk of bias. We contacted trial authors for missing data when necessary. Our primary outcome was post-operative trichiasis which was defined as any lash touching the globe at three months, one year or two years after surgery. Main results Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria with 8586 participants. Most of the studies were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of the studies were of a low or unclear risk of bias. Five studies compared different

  11. Early intervention for psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Max; Rathbone, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Proponents of early intervention have argued that outcomes might be improved if more therapeutic efforts were focused on the early stages of schizophrenia or on people with prodromal symptoms. Early intervention in schizophrenia has two elements that are distinct from standard care: early detection, and phase-specific treatment (phase-specific treatment is a psychological, social or physical treatment developed, or modified, specifically for use with people at an early stage of the illness). Early detection and phase-specific treatment may both be offered as supplements to standard care, or may be provided through a specialised early intervention team. Early intervention is now well established as a therapeutic approach in America, Europe and Australasia. Objectives To evaluate the effects of: (a) early detection; (b) phase-specific treatments; and (c) specialised early intervention teams in the treatment of people with prodromal symptoms or first-episode psychosis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (March 2009), inspected reference lists of all identified trials and reviews and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) designed to prevent progression to psychosis in people showing prodromal symptoms, or to improve outcome for people with first-episode psychosis. Eligible interventions, alone and in combination, included: early detection, phase-specific treatments, and care from specialised early intervention teams. We accepted cluster-randomised trials but excluded non-randomised trials. Data collection and analysis We reliably selected studies, quality rated them and extracted data. For dichotomous data, we estimated relative risks (RR), with the 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where possible, we calculated the number needed to treat/harm statistic (NNT/H) and used intention-to-treat analysis (ITT). Main results Studies were diverse, mostly small

  12. Extracranial vertebral artery intervention.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Debabrata; Pineda, Guillermo

    2007-12-01

    Atherosclerosis is the commonest cause of vertebral artery stenosis and has a predilection for the origin and proximal section of the extracranial portion of the vessel and also the intracranial portion of the vessel. Although it has generally been thought that extracranial vertebral artery (ECVA) disease has a more benign outcome compared to intracranial vertebral artery disease, significant occlusive disease of the proximal vertebral artery is the primary cause of vertebral artery ischemia in a significant proportion of patients. We focus on the interventional management of patients with proximal ECVA disease in this article.

  13. Contributions of treatment theory and enablement theory to rehabilitation research and practice.

    PubMed

    Whyte, John

    2014-01-01

    Scientific theory is crucial to the advancement of clinical research. The breadth of rehabilitation treatment requires that many different theoretical perspectives be incorporated into the design and testing of treatment interventions. In this article, the 2 broad classes of theory relevant to rehabilitation research and practice are defined, and their distinct but complementary contributions to research and clinical practice are explored. These theory classes are referred to as treatment theories (theories about how to effect change in clinical targets) and enablement theories (theories about how changes in a proximal clinical target will influence distal clinical aims). Treatment theories provide the tools for inducing clinical change but do not specify how far reaching the ultimate impact of the change will be. Enablement theories model the impact of changes on other areas of function but provide no insight as to how treatment can create functional change. Treatment theories are more critical in the early stages of treatment development, whereas enablement theories become increasingly relevant in specifying the clinical significance and practical effectiveness of more mature treatments. Understanding the differences in the questions these theory classes address and how to combine their insights is crucial for effective research development and clinical practice.

  14. RFID-enabled traceability system for consignment and high value products: a case study in the healthcare sector.

    PubMed

    Bendavid, Ygal; Boeck, Harold; Philippe, Richard

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a case study of a hospital operating room that evaluated a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID)-enabled traceability system for the management of consignment and high value products requiring item level traceability. Results indicate that the traceability system in conjunction with the redesign of replenishment processes facilitates item level traceability, improves financial controls and case costing, upgrades service levels and reduces inventory shrinkage. Other benefits include time saved from non-value-added activities that can be transferred to patient care activities. The solution can be considered (i) as an alternative to RFID-enabled cabinets used in the replenishment of consignment and high value supplies in certain operating rooms, cardiac catheterization laboratories and interventional radiology departments, or (ii) as a complementary solution facilitating the tracking of medical devices removed from RFID-enabled cabinets. In short, the end-to-end traceability of medical products in the healthcare supply chain can be significantly enhanced.

  15. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

    PubMed

    Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

  16. Micro-Randomized Trials: An Experimental Design for Developing Just-in-Time Adaptive Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Klasnja, Predrag; Hekler, Eric B.; Shiffman, Saul; Boruvka, Audrey; Almirall, Daniel; Tewari, Ambuj; Murphy, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This paper presents an experimental design, the micro-randomized trial, developed to support optimization of just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs). JITAIs are mHealth technologies that aim to deliver the right intervention components at the right times and locations to optimally support individuals’ health behaviors. Micro-randomized trials offer a way to optimize such interventions by enabling modeling of causal effects and time-varying effect moderation for individual intervention components within a JITAI. Methods The paper describes the micro-randomized trial design, enumerates research questions that this experimental design can help answer, and provides an overview of the data analyses that can be used to assess the causal effects of studied intervention components and investigate time-varying moderation of those effects. Results Micro-randomized trials enable causal modeling of proximal effects of the randomized intervention components and assessment of time-varying moderation of those effects. Conclusions Micro-randomized trials can help researchers understand whether their interventions are having intended effects, when and for whom they are effective, and what factors moderate the interventions’ effects, enabling creation of more effective JITAIs. PMID:26651463

  17. Multilevel Interventions: Measurement and Measures

    PubMed Central

    Charns, Martin P.; Alligood, Elaine C.; Benzer, Justin K.; Burgess, James F.; Mcintosh, Nathalie M.; Burness, Allison; Partin, Melissa R.; Clauser, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Multilevel intervention research holds the promise of more accurately representing real-life situations and, thus, with proper research design and measurement approaches, facilitating effective and efficient resolution of health-care system challenges. However, taking a multilevel approach to cancer care interventions creates both measurement challenges and opportunities. Methods One-thousand seventy two cancer care articles from 2005 to 2010 were reviewed to examine the state of measurement in the multilevel intervention cancer care literature. Ultimately, 234 multilevel articles, 40 involving cancer care interventions, were identified. Additionally, literature from health services, social psychology, and organizational behavior was reviewed to identify measures that might be useful in multilevel intervention research. Results The vast majority of measures used in multilevel cancer intervention studies were individual level measures. Group-, organization-, and community-level measures were rarely used. Discussion of the independence, validity, and reliability of measures was scant. Discussion Measurement issues may be especially complex when conducting multilevel intervention research. Measurement considerations that are associated with multilevel intervention research include those related to independence, reliability, validity, sample size, and power. Furthermore, multilevel intervention research requires identification of key constructs and measures by level and consideration of interactions within and across levels. Thus, multilevel intervention research benefits from thoughtful theory-driven planning and design, an interdisciplinary approach, and mixed methods measurement and analysis. PMID:22623598

  18. Impact Evaluation of Enabling Mothers to Prevent Pediatric Obesity through Web-Based Education and Reciprocal Determinism (EMPOWER) Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Sharma, Manoj; Cottrell, Randall R.; Wilson, Bradley R. A.; Johnson, Marcus Lee

    2015-01-01

    Background. The family and home environment is an influential antecedent of childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to pilot test The Enabling Mothers to Prevent Pediatric Obesity through Web-Based Education and Reciprocal Determinism (EMPOWER) intervention; a newly developed, theory-based, online program for prevention of childhood…

  19. One-Year Efficacy Testing of Enabling Mothers to Prevent Pediatric Obesity through Web-Based Education and Reciprocal Determinism (EMPOWER) Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlden, Adam; Sharma, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Enabling Mothers to Prevent Pediatric Obesity through Web-Based Education and Reciprocal Determinism (EMPOWER) intervention at 1-year, postintervention follow-up. Method: A mixed between-within subjects design was used to evaluate the trial. Independent variables included a…

  20. [Crisis intervention with elderly people].

    PubMed

    Etzersdorfer, E

    2008-02-01

    This paper gives an overview about the most important aspects of crisis intervention, with special emphasis on crisis intervention with elderly people. First a review of the development of crisis intervention is given, including of some of the major concepts, with particular emphasis on psychoanalytic aspects of crisis intervention. Then a clinical case example of a crisis intervention with an elderly woman following a suicide attempt is given and discussed. The focus lies on the description of the transference-countertransference relationship, with attempts of pressing the therapist to comply with superficial, denying and minimizing fantasies. Peculiarities of crisis intervention with elderly people are highlighted: it is necessary to emphasize that elderly people are underrepresented in most crisis services, whereby they represent the group with the highest suicide risk. Peculiarities of elderly people still are not sufficiently met and they are created by a particularly wide range of aspects.

  1. Cognitive intervention for voice hearers.

    PubMed

    England, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy is an emerging treatment being used to attenuate negative thoughts and emotions tied to the formation, expression, and maintenance of verbal auditory hallucinations. This paper describes the theoretical underpinnings for the intervention and a clinical application of a prototype cognitive nursing intervention for treating faulty thinking and beliefs linked with problematic voice hearing experiences. The paper ends with a review of current evidence and implications concerning the efficacy of cognitive intervention approaches with voice hearers.

  2. Aging metabolism: intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Esteban

    2017-03-13

    Human beings are subjected to aging and age-associated diseases. Life expectancy has improved impressively in the last century due to social and economic development, but despite increasing improvement is still more limited than average in those ones with chronic diseases such as treated HIV infection. There has been a substantial research on the underlying factors responsible for aging both in the general and the HIV-infected populations. Several specific targets for potential intervention have been identified but studies so far have been limited to small experiments in cultured cells or living beings other than humans such as mice or flies. Time has come for designing and developing human studies with those candidate therapies showing most promising benefits and least potential toxicities to treat age-related diseases.

  3. [Psychotherapeutic interventions in stereotypies].

    PubMed

    Kaloudi, E; Christodoulou, C; Kontaxakis, V; Lykouras, L; Livaditis, M

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypies belong to the psychomotor disorders and they are found in many different disorders. This article refers to the international literature about the psychotherapeutic interventions in stereotypies and reviews the psychotherapeutic techniques that are already being used for these disorders. This study refers to four kinds of psychotherapeutic treatment: (a) Behavioral therapy, (b) Milieu therapy which can be combined successfully with an occupational therapy, (c) Family therapy and (d) Supportive or cognitive or dynamic psychotherapy. The method used for finding the articles for this review was the web research. The articles found were 44 in total, but only 25 were studied extensively since they were absolutely relative to the subject of this review. 12 of these articles were case studies, 7 theoretical papers and 5 of them were reviews. The last one was a research epidemiological study. According to most of the articles, behavioral therapy is considered to be the most effective psychotherapeutic treatment for attenuating stereotypies and relies on techniques like systematic desensitization, environmental enrichment, positive reinforcement of alternative behaviors and negative reinforcement of the "problematic" behaviors. The milieu therapy, combined with occupational therapy, endeavours to shape an appropriate environment where the patient can recover. Family therapy focuses on fully informing the relatives about the nature of stereotypies. Supportive psychotherapy focuses on the current problems in the patient's life. The cognitive psychotherapy tries to fix the dysfunctional thoughts of the patients. Finally, the dynamic psychotherapy is focused on the restoration or reinforcement of the patient's defensive mechanisms. It should be noted that there is a lack of systematic research in the field of stereotypies in general and, especially, regarding psychotherapeutic interventions.

  4. 'Enabling' of male problem drinkers in work groups.

    PubMed

    Roman, P M; Blum, T C; Martin, J K

    1992-02-01

    Theoretical understanding of the effects of groups on the development and the maintenance of adult problem drinking is sparse. Sociological theories predict that adult problem drinkers find support for their behavior among those with similar drinking patterns. By contrast, a widely diffused clinical conceptualization posits that 'significant others' who are not problem drinkers facilitate the maintenance of problem drinking. Several previous lines of research lead to the hypothesis that observed delays in identification and referral of problem drinkers in the workplace may be due to supportive relationships between problem drinkers and their coworkers and supervisors. Data from the 1973-77 Quality of Employment Panel Survey are utilized to provide a longitudinal test of this hypothesis among employed men. Results support the existence of enabling in the workplace. Data comparing 'enabled' and 'non-enabled' problem drinking workers fail to support four possible explanations of enabling.

  5. Micro-concentrators for a microsystems-enabled photovoltaic system.

    PubMed

    Jared, Bradley H; Saavedra, Michael P; Anderson, Ben J; Goeke, Ron S; Sweatt, William C; Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Elisberg, Brenton; Snively, Dave; Duncan, John; Gu, Tian; Agrawal, Gautam; Haney, Michael W

    2014-03-10

    A 100X magnification, ± 2.5° field of view micro-concentrating optical system has been developed for a microsystems-enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) prototype module using 250 µm diameter multi-junction "stacked" PV cells.

  6. An IT-enabled supply chain model: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannella, Salvatore; Framinan, Jose M.; Barbosa-Póvoa, Ana

    2014-11-01

    During the last decades, supply chain collaboration practices and the underlying enabling technologies have evolved from the classical electronic data interchange (EDI) approach to a web-based and radio frequency identification (RFID)-enabled collaboration. In this field, most of the literature has focused on the study of optimal parameters for reducing the total cost of suppliers, by adopting operational research (OR) techniques. Herein we are interested in showing that the considered information technology (IT)-enabled structure is resilient, that is, it works well across a reasonably broad range of parameter settings. By adopting a methodological approach based on system dynamics, we study a multi-tier collaborative supply chain. Results show that the IT-enabled supply chain improves operational performance and customer service level. Nonetheless, benefits for geographically dispersed networks are of minor entity.

  7. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents, May 2009 (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-05-01

    Enabling Documents, delivered by the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to provide materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs).

  8. 78 FR 69405 - Enable Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... to abandon in place the Leedey Purification Facility, also located in the state of Oklahoma, all as... . Specifically, Enable proposes to abandon in place the Leedey Purification Facility and to abandon by sale...

  9. Mechanical Engineering Design Project report: Enabler control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullen, Christian; Delvecchio, Dave; Scarborough, Alan; Havics, Andrew A.

    1992-01-01

    The Controls Group was assigned the responsibility for designing the Enabler's control system. The requirement for the design was that the control system must provide a simple user interface to control the boom articulation joints, chassis articulation joints, and the wheel drive. The system required controlling hydraulic motors on the Enabler by implementing 8-bit microprocessor boards. In addition, feedback to evaluate positions and velocities must be interfaced to provide the operator with confirmation as well as control.

  10. Ceramic Electrolyte Membrane Technology: Enabling Revolutionary Electrochemical Energy Storage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-05

    Electrochemical Energy Storage The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued as an official...Revolutionary Electrochemical Energy Storage Report Title The goal of this work is to enable the development of safe, high energy density batteries by...Reporting Period: January 1, 2014 – December 31, 2014) CERAMIC ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY: ENABLING REVOLUTIONARY ELECTROCHEMICAL ENERGY STORAGE

  11. Interventions for chronic blepharitis

    PubMed Central

    Lindsley, Kristina; Matsumura, Sueko; Hatef, Elham; Akpek, Esen K

    2012-01-01

    Background Blepharitis, an inflammatory condition associated with itchiness, redness, flaking, and crusting of the eyelids, is a common eye condition that affects both children and adults. It is common in all ethnic groups and across all ages. Although infrequent, blepharitis can lead to permanent alterations to the eyelid margin or vision loss from superficial keratopathy (abnormality of the cornea), corneal neovascularization, and ulceration. Most importantly, blepharitis frequently causes significant ocular symptoms such as burning sensation, irritation, tearing, and red eyes as well as visual problems such as photophobia and blurred vision. The exact etiopathogenesis is unknown, but suspected to be multifactorial, including chronic low-grade infections of the ocular surface with bacteria, infestations with certain parasites such as demodex, and inflammatory skin conditions such as atopy and seborrhea. Blepharitis can be categorized in several different ways. First, categorization is based on the length of disease process: acute or chronic blepharitis. Second, categorization is based on the anatomical location of disease: anterior, or front of the eye (e.g. staphylococcal and seborrheic blepharitis), and posterior, or back of the eye (e.g. meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD)). This review focuses on chronic blepharitis and stratifies anterior and posterior blepharitis. Objectives To examine the effectiveness of interventions in the treatment of chronic blepharitis. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 1), MEDLINE (January 1950 to February 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to February 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We searched the reference lists of included studies for any

  12. Cell Phone Intervention to Improve Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Marciel, Kristen K.; Saiman, Lisa; Quittell, Lynne M.; Dawkins, Kevin; Quittner, Alexandra L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Treatment regimens for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are time-consuming and complex, resulting in consistently low adherence rates. To date, few studies have evaluated innovative technologies to improve adherence in this population. Current infection control guidelines for patients with CF seek to minimize patient-to-patient transmission of potential pathogens. Thus, interventions must avoid face-to-face contact and be delivered individually, limiting opportunities for peer support. This study aimed to develop and assess a web-enabled cell phone, CFFONE™, designed to provide CF information and social support to improve adherence in adolescents with CF. Methods The acceptability, feasibility, and utility of CFFONE™ were evaluated with health care professionals (n = 17) adolescents with CF aged 11–18 years old (n = 12), adults with CF aged 21–36 years old (n = 6), parents of adolescents with CF (n = 12), and technology experts (n = 8). Adolescents also tested a prototype of CFFONE™ (n = 9). Qualitative and quantitative data were collected. Results Focus group data with health care = professionals indicated a need for this intervention, and indicated that CFFONE™ would be likely to improve knowledge and social support, and somewhat likely to improve adherence. Adolescent, adults, and parents all rated CFFONE™ as likely to improve adherence. Technology experts rated the prototype design and format as appropriate. Conclusions The current study provided some support from key stakeholders for this intervention to improve adherence in adolescents with CF. Next steps include a multi-center trial of the efficacy and safety of CFFONE™. PMID:20054860

  13. Personal network recovery enablers and relapse risks for women with substance dependence.

    PubMed

    Brown, Suzanne; Tracy, Elizabeth M; Jun, MinKyoung; Park, Hyunyong; Min, Meeyoung O

    2015-03-01

    We examined the experiences of women in treatment for substance dependence and their treatment providers about personal networks and recovery. We conducted six focus groups at three women's intensive substance abuse treatment programs. Four coders used thematic analysis to guide the data coding and an iterative process to identify major themes. Coders identified social network characteristics that enabled and impeded recovery and a reciprocal relationship between internal states, relationship management, and recovery. Although women described adding individuals to their networks, they also described managing existing relationships through distancing from or isolating some members to diminish their negative impact on recovery. Treatment providers identified similar themes but focused more on contextual barriers than the women. The focus of interventions with this population should be on both internal barriers to personal network change such as mistrust and fear, and helping women develop skills for managing enduring network relationships.

  14. Impedance sensing device enables early detection of pressure ulcers in vivo.

    PubMed

    Swisher, Sarah L; Lin, Monica C; Liao, Amy; Leeflang, Elisabeth J; Khan, Yasser; Pavinatto, Felippe J; Mann, Kaylee; Naujokas, Agne; Young, David; Roy, Shuvo; Harrison, Michael R; Arias, Ana Claudia; Subramanian, Vivek; Maharbiz, Michel M

    2015-03-17

    When pressure is applied to a localized area of the body for an extended time, the resulting loss of blood flow and subsequent reperfusion to the tissue causes cell death and a pressure ulcer develops. Preventing pressure ulcers is challenging because the combination of pressure and time that results in tissue damage varies widely between patients, and the underlying damage is often severe by the time a surface wound becomes visible. Currently, no method exists to detect early tissue damage and enable intervention. Here we demonstrate a flexible, electronic device that non-invasively maps pressure-induced tissue damage, even when such damage cannot be visually observed. Using impedance spectroscopy across flexible electrode arrays in vivo on a rat model, we find that impedance is robustly correlated with tissue health across multiple animals and wound types. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of an automated, non-invasive 'smart bandage' for early detection of pressure ulcers.

  15. Personal Network Recovery Enablers and Relapse Risks for Women With Substance Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Suzanne; Tracy, Elizabeth M.; Jun, MinKyoung; Park, Hyunyong; Min, Meeyoung O.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the experiences of women in treatment for substance dependence and their treatment providers about personal networks and recovery. We conducted six focus groups at three women’s intensive substance abuse treatment programs. Four coders used thematic analysis to guide the data coding and an iterative process to identify major themes. Coders identified social network characteristics that enabled and impeded recovery and a reciprocal relationship between internal states, relationship management, and recovery. Although women described adding individuals to their networks, they also described managing existing relationships through distancing from or isolating some members to diminish their negative impact on recovery. Treatment providers identified similar themes but focused more on contextual barriers than the women. The focus of interventions with this population should be on both internal barriers to personal network change such as mistrust and fear, and helping women develop skills for managing enduring network relationships. PMID:25231945

  16. Fluorocoxib A enables targeted detection of cyclooxygenase-2 in laser-induced choroidal neovascularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Md. Jashim; Moore, Chauca E.; Crews, Brenda C.; Daniel, Cristina K.; Ghebreselasie, Kebreab; McIntyre, J. Oliver; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Jayagopal, Ashwath

    2016-09-01

    Ocular angiogenesis is a blinding complication of age-related macular degeneration and other retinal vascular diseases. Clinical imaging approaches to detect inflammation prior to the onset of neovascularization in these diseases may enable early detection and timely therapeutic intervention. We demonstrate the feasibility of a previously developed cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) targeted molecular imaging probe, fluorocoxib A, for imaging retinal inflammation in a mouse model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization. This imaging probe exhibited focal accumulation within laser-induced neovascular lesions, with minimal detection in proximal healthy tissue. The selectivity of the probe for COX-2 was validated in vitro and by in vivo retinal imaging with nontargeted 5-carboxy-X-rhodamine dye, and by blockade of the COX-2 active site with nonfluorescent celecoxib prior to injection of fluorocoxib A. Fluorocoxib A can be utilized for imaging COX-2 expression in vivo for further validation as an imaging biomarker in retinal diseases.

  17. Systematic Interventions for Teaching Ratios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Amy E.; Bush, Sarah B.; Karp, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics interventions for struggling students supplement regular instruction and are frequently implemented through computer programs and activity sheet practice (Swanson et al. 2012). However, students with foundational misunderstandings do not benefit from additional drill and practice alone. Instead, interventions that balance concepts with…

  18. Feminist Interventions in Electronic Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocks, Mary E.

    1999-01-01

    Notes that feminist interventions are communicative acts that bring attention to shifting power relations within a specific discursive context. Argues that enacting feminist interventions in online environments changes the online community's identity and narrow sense of audience, and that creating feminist multimedia helps ensure a more human,…

  19. Clackamas Adolescent Sexual Offender Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Richard B.

    The Clackamas Adolescent Sexual Offender Intervention program is designed to interrupt and change behavior of clients who are juvenile sexual offenders at risk to re-offend. Intervention is scheduled for each offender over a 52-week period with groups meeting each week for 2 hours, and an all day session each 6-week period on Saturday. The…

  20. The Taxonomy of Intervention Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Malone, Amelia S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the Taxonomy of Intervention Intensity, which articulates 7 dimensions for evaluating and building intervention intensity. We explain the Taxonomy's dimensions of intensity. In explaining the Taxonomy, we rely on a case study to illustrate how the Taxonomy can systematize the process by which special…

  1. AAC Modeling Intervention Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sennott, Samuel C.; Light, Janice C.; McNaughton, David

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of research on the effects of interventions that include communication partner modeling of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) on the language acquisition of individuals with complex communication needs was conducted. Included studies incorporated AAC modeling as a primary component of the intervention,…

  2. Techniques for Use in Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Daniel R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses an intervention technique that can be used in working with alcoholics and drug abusers who deny the need for help. The intervention focuses on the family, providing them with drug education and improved communication skills. Defusion, reframing, and positive data are used. The counselor's role is described. (JAC)

  3. Intervention Strategies: A Multicultural Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Li-Rong Lilly

    1989-01-01

    Intervention planning for limited-English-proficient students calls for an experiential approach which compares and contrasts the students' home culture with mainstream United States culture. Methods are presented for incorporating student culture in intervention activities (building a multicultural calendar, studying folk tales) and for…

  4. Interventional video tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truppe, Michael J.; Pongracz, Ferenc; Ploder, Oliver; Wagner, Arne; Ewers, Rolf

    1995-05-01

    Interventional Video Tomography (IVT) is a new imaging modality for Image Directed Surgery to visualize in real-time intraoperatively the spatial position of surgical instruments relative to the patient's anatomy. The video imaging detector is based on a special camera equipped with an optical viewing and lighting system and electronic 3D sensors. When combined with an endoscope it is used for examining the inside of cavities or hollow organs of the body from many different angles. The surface topography of objects is reconstructed from a sequence of monocular video or endoscopic images. To increase accuracy and speed of the reconstruction the relative movement between objects and endoscope is continuously tracked by electronic sensors. The IVT image sequence represents a 4D data set in stereotactic space and contains image, surface topography and motion data. In ENT surgery an IVT image sequence of the planned and so far accessible surgical path is acquired prior to surgery. To simulate the surgical procedure the cross sectional imaging data is superimposed with the digitally stored IVT image sequence. During surgery the video sequence component of the IVT simulation is substituted by the live video source. The IVT technology makes obsolete the use of 3D digitizing probes for the patient image coordinate transformation. The image fusion of medical imaging data with live video sources is the first practical use of augmented reality in medicine. During surgery a head-up display is used to overlay real-time reformatted cross sectional imaging data with the live video image.

  5. Mind–body interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wahbeh, Helané; Elsas, Siegward-M.; Oken, Barry S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Half of the adults in the United States use complementary and alternative medicine with mind–body therapy being the most commonly used form. Neurology patients often turn to their physicians for insight into the effectiveness of the therapies and resources to integrate them into their care. The objective of this article is to give a clinical overview of mind–body interventions and their applications in neurology. Methods Medline and PsychInfo were searched on mind–body therapies and neurologic disease search terms for clinical trials and reviews and published evidence was graded. Results Meditation, relaxation, and breathing techniques, yoga, tai chi, and qigong, hypnosis, and biofeedback are described. Mind–body therapy application to general pain, back and neck pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, headaches, fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, muscular dysfunction, stroke, aging, Parkinson disease, stroke, and attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder are reviewed. Conclusions There are several conditions where the evidence for mind–body therapies is quite strong such as migraine headache. Mind–body therapies for other neurology applications have limited evidence due mostly to small clinical trials and inadequate control groups. PMID:18541886

  6. Cascading Effects Following Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Gerald R.; Forgatch, Marion S.; DeGarmo, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Four different sources for cascade effects were examined using 9-year process and outcome data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a preventive intervention using Parent Management Training – Oregon Model (PMTO™). The social interaction learning (SIL) model of child antisocial behavior serves as one basis for predicting change. A second source addresses the issue of comorbid relationships among clinical diagnoses. The third source, collateral changes, describes events in which changes in one family member correlate with changes in another. The fourth component is based on the long-term effects of reducing coercion and increasing positive interpersonal processes within the family. New findings from the 9-year follow-up show that mothers experienced benefits as measured by standard of living (i.e., income, occupation, education, and financial stress) and frequency of police arrests. It is assumed that PMTO reduces the level of coercion, which sets the stage for a massive increase in positive social interaction. In effect, PMTO alters the family environment and thereby opens doors to healthy new social environments. PMID:20883592

  7. A Sensor-Enabled Smartphone Application to Collect Eating Behavior Data for Population Screening.

    PubMed

    Maramis, Christos; Moulos, Ioannis; Ioakeimidis, Ioannis; Nolstam, Jenny; Lekka, Irini; Bergh, Cecilia; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide extent of obesity and eating disorders (ED) today highlights the necessity for efficient treatment, but also early prevention of eating-related diseases. A promising category of therapeutic and preventive interventions comes from the domain of behavioral informatics (BI), whose purpose is to monitor and modify harmful behaviors - unhealthy eating in the particular case - with the help of information and communication technologies. Smartphones have already shown great promise in delivering such BI interventions in the field of obesity and ED. In fact, plenty of smartphone applications aiming to monitor and support the change of eating behavior with the help of built-in or external sensors have been proposed in the scientific literature. However, to the best of our knowledge, no smartphone application up to date has been designed to collect eating behavior data for the purpose of population screening against obesity or ED. In this work we describe a novel, sensor-enabled smartphone application that captures in-meal behavioral data from multiple subjects in a brief data collection process, with the end goal of recording, in detail, the user's eating style throughout a cooked meal. These data can later be employed for assessing the subjects' risk for obesity or ED. The proposed application has undergone preliminary evaluation with respect to its usability and technical soundness, yielding promising results.

  8. An ongoing study of group treatment for men involved in problematic Internet-enabled sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Orzack, Maressa Hecht; Voluse, Andrew C; Wolf, David; Hennen, John

    2006-06-01

    Exponential advances have been made regarding computer/Internet technology in the past decade. This growth, in large part, can be attributed to greater access to, affordability of, and anonymity while on the computer. However, this progress has also produced negative psychological issues. Problematic Internet-enabled sexual behavior (IESB) has increasingly affected individuals' family relationships, work productivity, and academic success. This article is the first-known, empirically based outcome study regarding the effectiveness of group therapy treatment for men with problematic IESB. These closed-groups, which ran for 16 weeks, used a combination of Readiness to Change (RtC), Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), and Motivational Interviewing (MI) interventions. Five groups were analyzed for this paper (yielding a total N of 35), with the average member's age being 44.5 years old. Three different scales (the Orzack Time Intensity Survey, the BASIS-32, and the BDI) were used to track participants' progress across time. The results demonstrated that this group treatment intervention significantly increased members' quality of life and decreased the severity of their depressive symptoms. However, the protocol failed to reduce participants' inappropriate computer use. Regarding comorbidity, the results showed the following: members in the "anxiety" category responded best to the current treatment, those in the "mood" cluster responded relatively positively, and those in the "A-D/HD" category failed to respond significantly. It is clear from this report that more attention must be focused on the treatment of problematic IESB, as opposed to exploratory studies.

  9. Enabling automated magnetic resonance imaging-based targeting assessment during dipole field navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latulippe, Maxime; Felfoul, Ouajdi; Dupont, Pierre E.; Martel, Sylvain

    2016-02-01

    The magnetic navigation of drugs in the vascular network promises to increase the efficacy and reduce the secondary toxicity of cancer treatments by targeting tumors directly. Recently, dipole field navigation (DFN) was proposed as the first method achieving both high field and high navigation gradient strengths for whole-body interventions in deep tissues. This is achieved by introducing large ferromagnetic cores around the patient inside a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. However, doing so distorts the static field inside the scanner, which prevents imaging during the intervention. This limitation constrains DFN to open-loop navigation, thus exposing the risk of a harmful toxicity in case of a navigation failure. Here, we are interested in periodically assessing drug targeting efficiency using MRI even in the presence of a core. We demonstrate, using a clinical scanner, that it is in fact possible to acquire, in specific regions around a core, images of sufficient quality to perform this task. We show that the core can be moved inside the scanner to a position minimizing the distortion effect in the region of interest for imaging. Moving the core can be done automatically using the gradient coils of the scanner, which then also enables the core to be repositioned to perform navigation to additional targets. The feasibility and potential of the approach are validated in an in vitro experiment demonstrating navigation and assessment at two targets.

  10. Framework for preventing falls in acute hospitals using passive sensor enabled radio frequency identification technology.

    PubMed

    Visvanathan, Renuka; Ranasinghe, Damith C; Shinmoto Torres, Roberto L; Hill, Keith

    2012-01-01

    We describe a distributed architecture for a real-time falls prevention framework capable of providing a technological intervention to mitigate the risk of falls in acute hospitals through the development of an AmbIGeM (Ambient Intelligence Geritatric Management system). Our approach is based on using a battery free, wearable sensor enabled Radio Frequency Identification device. Unsupervised classification of high risk falls activities are used to facilitate an immediate response from caregivers by alerting them of the high risk activity, the particular patient, and their location. Early identification of high risk falls activities through a longitudinal and unsupervised setting in real-time allows the preventative intervention to be administered in a timely manner. Furthermore, real-time detection allows emergency protocols to be deployed immediately in the event of a fall. Finally, incidents of high risk activities are automatically documented to allow clinicians to customize and optimize the delivery of care to suit the needs of patients identified as being at most risk.

  11. Vulnerabilities in First-Generation RFID-enabled Credit Cards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydt-Benjamin, Thomas S.; Bailey, Daniel V.; Fu, Kevin; Juels, Ari; O'Hare, Tom

    RFID-enabled credit cards are widely deployed in the United States and other countries, but no public study has thoroughly analyzed the mechanisms that provide both security and privacy. Using samples from a variety of RFID-enabled credit cards, our study observes that (1) the cardholder's name and often credit card number and expiration are leaked in plaintext to unauthenticated readers, (2) our homemade device costing around 150 effectively clones one type of skimmed cards thus providing a proof-of-concept implementation for the RF replay attack, (3) information revealed by the RFID transmission cross contaminates the security of RFID and non-RFID payment contexts, and (4) RFID-enabled credit cards are susceptible in various degrees to a range of other traditional RFID attacks such as skimming and relaying.

  12. Detailed Modeling and Response of Demand Response Enabled Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Vyakaranam, Bharat; Fuller, Jason C.

    2014-04-14

    Proper modeling of end use loads is very important in order to predict their behavior, and how they interact with the power system, including voltage and temperature dependencies, power system and load control functions, and the complex interactions that occur between devices in such an interconnected system. This paper develops multi-state time variant residential appliance models with demand response enabled capabilities in the GridLAB-DTM simulation environment. These models represent not only the baseline instantaneous power demand and energy consumption, but the control systems developed by GE Appliances to enable response to demand response signals and the change in behavior of the appliance in response to the signal. These DR enabled appliances are simulated to estimate their capability to reduce peak demand and energy consumption.

  13. How language enables abstraction: a study in computational cultural psychology.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Yair; Turney, Peter; Cohen, Yohai

    2012-06-01

    The idea that language mediates our thoughts and enables abstract cognition has been a key idea in socio-cultural psychology. However, it is not clear what mechanisms support this process of abstraction. Peirce argued that one mechanism by which language enables abstract thought is hypostatic abstraction, the process through which a predicate (e.g., dark) turns into an object (e.g., darkness). By using novel computational tools we tested Peirce's idea. Analysis of the data provides empirical support for Peirce's mechanism and evidence of the way the use of signs enables abstraction. These conclusions are supported by the in-depth analysis of two case studies concerning the abstraction of sweet and dark. The paper concludes by discussing the findings from a broad and integrative theoretical perspective and by pointing to computational cultural psychology as a promising perspective for addressing long-lasting questions of the field.

  14. Solar Sail Propulsion: Enabling New Capabilities for Heliophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L.; Young, R.; Alhorn, D.; Heaton, A.; Vansant, T.; Campbell, B.; Pappa, R.; Keats, W.; Liewer, P. C.; Alexander, D.; Wawrzyniak, G.; Ayon, J.; Burton, R.; Carroll, D.; Matloff, G.; Kezerashvili, R. Ya.

    2010-01-01

    Solar sails can play a critical role in enabling solar and heliophysics missions. Solar sail technology within NASA is currently at 80% of TRL-6, suitable for an in-flight technology demonstration. It is conceivable that an initial demonstration could carry scientific payloads that, depending on the type of mission, are commensurate with the goals of the three study panels of the 2010 Heliophysics Survey. Follow-on solar sail missions, leveraging advances in solar sail technology to support Heliophysics Survey goals, would then be feasible. This white paper reports on a sampling of missions enabled by solar sails, the current state of the technology, and what funding is required to advance the current state of technology such that solar sails can enable these missions

  15. Enabling Continuous Quality Improvement in Practice: The Role and Contribution of Facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Gillian; Lynch, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Facilitating the implementation of continuous quality improvement (CQI) is a complex undertaking. Numerous contextual factors at a local, organizational, and health system level can influence the trajectory and ultimate success of an improvement program. Some of these contextual factors are amenable to modification, others less so. As part of planning and implementing healthcare improvement, it is important to assess and build an understanding of contextual factors that might present barriers to or enablers of implementation. On the basis of this initial diagnosis, it should then be possible to design and implement the improvement intervention in a way that is responsive to contextual barriers and enablers, often described as “tailoring” the implementation approach. Having individuals in the active role of facilitators is proposed as an effective way of delivering a context-sensitive, tailored approach to implementing CQI. This paper presents an overview of the facilitator role in implementing CQI. Drawing on empirical evidence from the use of facilitator roles in healthcare, the type of skills and knowledge required will be considered, along with the type of facilitation strategies that can be employed in the implementation process. Evidence from both case studies and systematic reviews of facilitation will be reviewed and key lessons for developing and studying the role in the future identified. PMID:28275594

  16. Stakeholder perspectives on implementing accreditation programs: a qualitative study of enabling factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Accreditation programs are complex, system-wide quality and safety interventions. Despite their international popularity, evidence of their effectiveness is weak and contradictory. This may be due to variable implementation in different contexts. However, there is limited research that informs implementation strategies. We aimed to advance knowledge in this area by identifying factors that enable effective implementation of accreditation programs across different healthcare settings. Methods We conducted 39 focus groups and eight interviews between 2011 and 2012, involving 258 diverse healthcare stakeholders from every Australian State and Territory. Interviews were semi-structured and focused on the aims, implementation and consequences of three prominent accreditation programs in the aged, primary and acute care sectors. Data were thematically analysed to distil and categorise facilitators of effective implementation. Results Four factors were identified as critical enablers of effective implementation: the accreditation program is collaborative, valid and uses relevant standards; accreditation is favourably received by health professionals; healthcare organisations are capable of embracing accreditation; and accreditation is appropriately aligned with other regulatory initiatives and supported by relevant incentives. Conclusions Strategic implementation of accreditation programs should target the four factors emerging from this study, which may increase the likelihood of accreditation being implemented successfully. PMID:24156525

  17. Barriers and enablers of physical activity engagement for patients with COPD in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Kosteli, Maria-Christina; Heneghan, Nicola R; Roskell, Carolyn; Williams, Sarah E; Adab, Peymane; Dickens, Andrew P; Enocson, Alexandra; Fitzmaurice, David A; Jolly, Kate; Jordan, Rachel; Greenfield, Sheila; Cumming, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Background Given that physical activity (PA) has a positive impact on COPD symptoms and prognosis, this study examined the factors that both encourage and limit participation in PA for individuals with COPD in a primary care setting from the perspective of social cognitive theory. Methods A purposive sample of 26 individuals with a range of COPD severity (age range: 50–89 years; males =15) were recruited from primary care to participate in one of four focus groups. Thematic analysis was undertaken to identify key concepts related to their self-efficacy beliefs. Results Several barriers and enablers closely related to self-efficacy beliefs and symptom severity were identified. The main barriers were health related (fatigue, mobility problems, breathing issues caused by the weather), psychological (embarrassment, fear, frustration/disappointment), attitudinal (feeling in control of their condition, PA perception, older age perception), and motivational. The main enabling factors were related to motivation (autonomous or controlled), attitudes, self-regulation, and performance accomplishments. Clinical implications When designing interventions for individuals with COPD, it is important to understand the patient-specific social cognitive influences on PA participation. This information can then inform individually tailored management planning.

  18. A Framework and Mechanistically Focused, In Silico Method for Enabling Rational Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, C. Anthony; Baranzini, Sergio; Matthay, Michael A.; Park, Sunwoo

    2008-01-01

    A precondition for understanding if-and-when observations on wet-lab research models can translate to patients (and vice versa) is to have a method that enables anticipating how each system at the mechanism level will respond to the same or similar new intervention. A new class of mechanistic, in silico analogues is described. We argue that, although abstract, they enable developing that method. Building an analogue of each system within a common framework allows exploration of how one analogue might undergo (automated) metamorphosis to become the other. When successful, a concrete mapping is achieved. We hypothesize that such a mapping is, itself, an analogue of a corresponding mapping between the two referent systems. The analogue mapping can help establish how targeted aspects of the two referent systems are similar and different, at the mechanistic level and, importantly, at the systemic, emergent property level. The vision is that the analogues along with the metamorphosis method can be improved iteratively as part of a rational approach to translational research. PMID:21347126

  19. Enabling Continuous Quality Improvement in Practice: The Role and Contribution of Facilitation.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Gillian; Lynch, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Facilitating the implementation of continuous quality improvement (CQI) is a complex undertaking. Numerous contextual factors at a local, organizational, and health system level can influence the trajectory and ultimate success of an improvement program. Some of these contextual factors are amenable to modification, others less so. As part of planning and implementing healthcare improvement, it is important to assess and build an understanding of contextual factors that might present barriers to or enablers of implementation. On the basis of this initial diagnosis, it should then be possible to design and implement the improvement intervention in a way that is responsive to contextual barriers and enablers, often described as "tailoring" the implementation approach. Having individuals in the active role of facilitators is proposed as an effective way of delivering a context-sensitive, tailored approach to implementing CQI. This paper presents an overview of the facilitator role in implementing CQI. Drawing on empirical evidence from the use of facilitator roles in healthcare, the type of skills and knowledge required will be considered, along with the type of facilitation strategies that can be employed in the implementation process. Evidence from both case studies and systematic reviews of facilitation will be reviewed and key lessons for developing and studying the role in the future identified.

  20. An Android-enabled mobile framework for ensuring quality of life through patient-centric care.

    PubMed

    Koufi, Vassiliki; Malamateniou, Flora; Vassilacopoulos, George

    2012-01-01

    The drive to achieve excellence in healthcare delivery while containing costs, underlies the need for a new generation of applications which facilitate the realization of a patient-centric care model. Under this emerging care model healthcare delivery can be integrated across the continuum of services, from prevention to follow up, and care can be coordinated across all settings. With care moving out into the community, health systems require real-time information to deliver coordinated care to patients. The integration of leading-edge technologies, such as mobile technology, with Personal Health Records (PHRs) can meet this requirement by making comprehensive and unified health information available to authorized users at any point of care or decision making through familiar environments such as Google's Android. This paper presents a framework that provides ubiquitous access to patients' PHRs via Android-enabled mobile devices. Where possible health information access and management is performed in a transparent way, thus enabling healthcare professionals to devote more time on practicing medicine and patients to manage their own health with the least possible intervention. This depends heavily on the context, which is collected by both Android-specific core system services and special purpose software agents with the latter being also responsible for preserving PHR data privacy.

  1. Enabled or Disabled: Is the Environment Right for Using Biodiversity to Improve Nutrition?

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Danny; Özkan, Isa; Moura de Oliveira Beltrame, Daniela; Samarasinghe, Wellakke Lokuge Gamini; Wasike, Victor Wafula; Charrondière, U. Ruth; Borelli, Teresa; Sokolow, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    How can we ensure that 9 billion people will have access to a nutritious and healthy diet that is produced in a sustainable manner by 2050? Despite major advances, our global food system still fails to feed a significant part of humanity adequately. Diversifying food systems and diets to include nutrient-rich species can help reduce malnutrition, while contributing other multiple benefits including healthy ecosystems. While research continues to demonstrate the value of incorporating biodiversity into food systems and diets, perverse subsidies, and barriers often prevent this. Countries like Brazil have shown that, by strategic actions and interventions, it is indeed possible to create better contexts to mainstream biodiversity for improved nutrition into government programs and public policies. Despite some progress, there are few global and national policy mechanisms or processes that effectively join biodiversity with agriculture and nutrition efforts. This perspective paper discusses the benefits of biodiversity for nutrition and explores what an enabling environment for biodiversity to improve nutrition might look like, including examples of steps and actions from a multi-country project that other countries might replicate. Finally, we suggest what it might take to create enabling environments to mainstream biodiversity into global initiatives and national programs and policies on food and nutrition security. With demand for new thinking about how we improve agriculture for nutrition and growing international recognition of the role biodiversity, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development presents an opportunity to move beyond business-as-usual to more holistic approaches to food and nutrition security. PMID:27376067

  2. Enabled or Disabled: Is the Environment Right for Using Biodiversity to Improve Nutrition?

    PubMed

    Hunter, Danny; Özkan, Isa; Moura de Oliveira Beltrame, Daniela; Samarasinghe, Wellakke Lokuge Gamini; Wasike, Victor Wafula; Charrondière, U Ruth; Borelli, Teresa; Sokolow, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    How can we ensure that 9 billion people will have access to a nutritious and healthy diet that is produced in a sustainable manner by 2050? Despite major advances, our global food system still fails to feed a significant part of humanity adequately. Diversifying food systems and diets to include nutrient-rich species can help reduce malnutrition, while contributing other multiple benefits including healthy ecosystems. While research continues to demonstrate the value of incorporating biodiversity into food systems and diets, perverse subsidies, and barriers often prevent this. Countries like Brazil have shown that, by strategic actions and interventions, it is indeed possible to create better contexts to mainstream biodiversity for improved nutrition into government programs and public policies. Despite some progress, there are few global and national policy mechanisms or processes that effectively join biodiversity with agriculture and nutrition efforts. This perspective paper discusses the benefits of biodiversity for nutrition and explores what an enabling environment for biodiversity to improve nutrition might look like, including examples of steps and actions from a multi-country project that other countries might replicate. Finally, we suggest what it might take to create enabling environments to mainstream biodiversity into global initiatives and national programs and policies on food and nutrition security. With demand for new thinking about how we improve agriculture for nutrition and growing international recognition of the role biodiversity, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development presents an opportunity to move beyond business-as-usual to more holistic approaches to food and nutrition security.

  3. Effectiveness of Early Phonological Awareness Interventions for Students with Speech or Language Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Puranik, Cynthia; Zilkowski, Robin; Curran, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews research examining the efficacy of early phonological interventions for young students identified with Speech or Language impairments. Eighteen studies are included, providing results for nearly 500 students in preschool through third grade. Although findings were generally positive, there were large individual differences in response to intervention. Further, there was little evidence that interventions enabled students to catch up in phonological or reading skills to typically developing peers. Methodological issues are described and implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:20161557

  4. Long-Term Impact of an Electronic Health Record-Enabled, Team-Based, and Scalable Population Health Strategy Based on the Chronic Care Model.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Anstrom, Kevin J; Anderson, John B; Bosworth, Hayden B; Lobach, David F; McAdam-Marx, Carrie; Ferranti, Jeffrey M; Shang, Howard; Yarnall, Kimberly S H

    2016-01-01

    The Chronic Care Model (CCM) is a promising framework for improving population health, but little is known regarding the long-term impact of scalable, informatics-enabled interventions based on this model. To address this challenge, this study evaluated the long-term impact of implementing a scalable, electronic health record (EHR)- enabled, and CCM-based population health program to replace a labor-intensive legacy program in 18 primary care practices. Interventions included point-of-care decision support, quality reporting, team-based care, patient engagement, and provider education. Among 6,768 patients with diabetes receiving care over 4 years, hemoglobin A1c levels remained stable during the 2-year pre-intervention and post-intervention periods (0.03% and 0% increases, respectively), compared to a 0.42% increase expected based on A1c progression observed in the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study long-term outcomes cohort. The results indicate that an EHR-enabled, team- based, and scalable population health strategy based on the CCM may be effective and efficient for managing population health.

  5. Long-Term Impact of an Electronic Health Record-Enabled, Team-Based, and Scalable Population Health Strategy Based on the Chronic Care Model

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Anstrom, Kevin J; Anderson, John B; Bosworth, Hayden B; Lobach, David F; McAdam-Marx, Carrie; Ferranti, Jeffrey M; Shang, Howard; Yarnall, Kimberly S H

    2016-01-01

    The Chronic Care Model (CCM) is a promising framework for improving population health, but little is known regarding the long-term impact of scalable, informatics-enabled interventions based on this model. To address this challenge, this study evaluated the long-term impact of implementing a scalable, electronic health record (EHR)- enabled, and CCM-based population health program to replace a labor-intensive legacy program in 18 primary care practices. Interventions included point-of-care decision support, quality reporting, team-based care, patient engagement, and provider education. Among 6,768 patients with diabetes receiving care over 4 years, hemoglobin A1c levels remained stable during the 2-year pre-intervention and post-intervention periods (0.03% and 0% increases, respectively), compared to a 0.42% increase expected based on A1c progression observed in the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study long-term outcomes cohort. The results indicate that an EHR-enabled, team- based, and scalable population health strategy based on the CCM may be effective and efficient for managing population health. PMID:28269865

  6. Clinical trials of interventional oncology.

    PubMed

    Arai, Yasuaki

    2012-08-01

    Interventional oncology has great potential to be a good treatment modality in the field of oncology, because its procedures are minimally invasive and fairly quick. However, except for a few procedures such as percutaneous radiofrequency ablation and trans-catheter arterial chemo-embolization that have been recognized as standard treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma, most procedures have not been established as the standard treatment modality due to the limited number of clinical trials with compelling evidence. There are several common problems when performing clinical trials of interventional oncology. The first is that the outcomes of clinical trials are greatly influenced by the level of technical skill of the physicians. The second is that equipment and devices vary widely in countries and regions, and they also influence the outcomes. The third is that the methodology of clinical trials for techniques such as interventional oncology has not yet been established. The fourth is the difficulty of setting appropriate endpoints; quality of life is suitable for evaluating interventional oncology in palliative care, but it is not easy to set as the endpoint. The fifth is the difficulty of employing a blinded design, because the procedure cannot be performed without the physician's awareness. Despite such difficult situations, many multi-institutional clinical trials of interventional oncology have been carried out in Japan, with some challenging results. Establishing evidence is critical to making interventional oncology the standard treatment. Interventional radiologists should know the importance of clinical trials, and should move ahead in this direction in a step-by-step manner.

  7. Considerations for climate intervention research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duren, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Action to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions is essential for addressing rapid environmental change in the Earth's polar regions. However, the potential for threshold crossing events in polar climate elements with untenable consequences for society and ecosystems may motivate consideration of additional "climate interventions". A recent National Research Council study identified risks and research needs associated with global scale intervention options such as atmospheric carbon removal and albedo modification. In addition to the issues raised by the NRC panel, any serious study of climate interventions would likely transcend the traditional scope of earth system science. Current observational systems are not designed to detect, attribute or monitor climate intervention attempts and would warrant significant augmentation. Potential field experiments to improve scientific understanding of albedo modification options would likely span a huge range of physical scales, material and energy (some in-family with established atmospheric research but others that would be wholly unprecedented). Targeted interventions focused on polar climate elements have received even less study than global-scale intervention and their consideration could present unique challenges. Finally, research priorities have not yet been informed by any strategy or scenarios about where and when climate interventions might fit in society's portfolio of climate responses.

  8. Adaptive Voltage Management Enabling Energy Efficiency in Nanoscale Integrated Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Alexander E.

    Battery powered devices emphasize energy efficiency in modern sub-22 nm CMOS microprocessors rendering classic power reduction solutions not sufficient. Classical solutions that reduce power consumption in high performance integrated circuits are superseded with novel and enhanced power reduction techniques to enable the greater energy efficiency desired in modern microprocessors and emerging mobile platforms. Dynamic power consumption is reduced by operating over a wide range of supply voltages. This region of operation is enabled by a high speed and power efficient level shifter which translates low voltage digital signals to higher voltages (and vice versa), a key component that enables communication among circuits operating at different voltage levels. Additionally, optimizing the wide supply voltage range of signals propagating across long interconnect enables greater energy savings. A closed-form delay model supporting wide voltage range is developed to enable this capability. The model supports an ultra-wide voltage range from nominal voltages to subthreshold voltages, and a wide range of repeater sizes. To mitigate the drawback of lower operating speed at reduced supply voltages, the high performance exhibited by MOS current mode logic technology is exploited. High performance and energy efficient circuits are enabled by combining this logic style with power efficient near threshold circuits. Many-core systems that operate at high frequencies and process highly parallel workloads benefit from this combination of MCML with NTC. Due to aggressive scaling, static power consumption can in some cases overshadow dynamic power. Techniques to lower leakage power have therefore become an important objective in modern microprocessors. To address this issue, an adaptive power gating technique is proposed. This technique utilizes high levels of granularity to save additional leakage power when a circuit is active as opposed to standard power gating that saves static

  9. Grid computing : enabling a vision for collaborative research.

    SciTech Connect

    von Laszewski, G.

    2002-04-09

    In this paper the authors provide a motivation for Grid computing based on a vision to enable a collaborative research environment. The authors vision goes beyond the connection of hardware resources. They argue that with an infrastructure such as the Grid, new modalities for collaborative research are enabled. They provide an overview showing why Grid research is difficult, and they present a number of management-related issues that must be addressed to make Grids a reality. They list projects that provide solutions to subsets of these issues.

  10. Surgical Materials: Current Challenges and Nano-enabled Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Annabi, Nasim; Tamayol, Ali; Shin, Su Ryon; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M.; Peppas, Nicholas A.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Surgical adhesive biomaterials have emerged as substitutes to sutures and staples in many clinical applications. Nano-enabled materials containing nanoparticles or having a distinct nanotopography have been utilized for generation of a new class of surgical materials with enhanced functionality. In this review, the state of the art in the development of conventional surgical adhesive biomaterials is critically reviewed and their shortcomings are outlined. Recent advancements in generation of nano-enabled surgical materials with their potential future applications are discussed. This review will open new avenues for the innovative development of the next generation of tissue adhesives, hemostats, and sealants with enhanced functionality for various surgical applications. PMID:25530795

  11. Fabric opto-electronics enabling healthcare applications; a case study.

    PubMed

    van Pieterson, L; van Abeelen, F A; van Os, K; Hornix, E; Zhou, G; Oversluizen, G

    2011-01-01

    Textiles are a ubiquitous part of human life. By combining them with electronics to create electronic textile systems, new application fields emerge. In this paper, technology and applications of light-emitting textile systems are presented, with emphasis on the healthcare domain: A fabric substrate is described for electronic textile with robust interwoven connections between the conductive yarns in it. This fabric enables the creation of different forms of comfortable light therapy systems. Specific challenges to enable this use in medical applications are discussed.

  12. Preliminary evaluations of a spoken web enabled care management platform.

    PubMed

    Padman, Rema; Beam, Erika; Szewczyk, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Telephones are a ubiquitous and widely accepted technology worldwide. The low ownership cost, simple user interface, intuitive voice-based access and long history contribute to the wide-spread use and success of telephones, and more recently, that of mobile phones. This study reports on our preliminary efforts to leverage this technology to bridge disparities in the access to and delivery of personalized health and wellness care by developing and evaluating a Spoken Web enabled Care Management solution. Early results with two proxy evaluations and a few visually impaired users highlight both the potential and challenges associated with this novel, voice-enabled healthcare delivery solution.

  13. A survey of enabling technologies in synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Realizing constructive applications of synthetic biology requires continued development of enabling technologies as well as policies and practices to ensure these technologies remain accessible for research. Broadly defined, enabling technologies for synthetic biology include any reagent or method that, alone or in combination with associated technologies, provides the means to generate any new research tool or application. Because applications of synthetic biology likely will embody multiple patented inventions, it will be important to create structures for managing intellectual property rights that best promote continued innovation. Monitoring the enabling technologies of synthetic biology will facilitate the systematic investigation of property rights coupled to these technologies and help shape policies and practices that impact the use, regulation, patenting, and licensing of these technologies. Results We conducted a survey among a self-identifying community of practitioners engaged in synthetic biology research to obtain their opinions and experiences with technologies that support the engineering of biological systems. Technologies widely used and considered enabling by survey participants included public and private registries of biological parts, standard methods for physical assembly of DNA constructs, genomic databases, software tools for search, alignment, analysis, and editing of DNA sequences, and commercial services for DNA synthesis and sequencing. Standards and methods supporting measurement, functional composition, and data exchange were less widely used though still considered enabling by a subset of survey participants. Conclusions The set of enabling technologies compiled from this survey provide insight into the many and varied technologies that support innovation in synthetic biology. Many of these technologies are widely accessible for use, either by virtue of being in the public domain or through legal tools such as non

  14. Integrated Control with Structural Feedback to Enable Lightweight Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation for the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Technical Conference covers the benefits of active structural control, related research areas, and focuses on the use of optimal control allocation for the prevention of critical loads. Active control of lightweight structures has the potential to reduce aircraft weight and fuel burn. Sensor, control law, materials, control effector, and system level research will be necessary to enable active control of lightweight structures. Optimal control allocation with structural feedback has been shown in simulation to be feasible in preventing critical loads and is one example of a control law to enable future lightweight aircraft.

  15. The Enabler: A concept for a lunar work vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brazell, James W.; Campbell, Craig; Kaser, Ken; Austin, James A.; Beard, Clark; Ceniza, Glenn; Hamby, Thomas; Robinson, Anne; Wooters, Dana

    1992-01-01

    The Enabler is an earthbound prototype designed to model an actual lunar work vehicle and is able to perform many of the tasks that might be expected of a lunar work vehicle. The vehicle will be constructed entirely from parts made by students and from standard stock parts. The design utilizes only four distinct chassis pieces and sixteen moving parts. The Enabler has non-orthogonal articulating joints that give the vehicle a wide range of mobility and reduce the total number of parts. Composite wheels provide the primary suspension system for the vehicle.

  16. Surgical Materials: Current Challenges and Nano-enabled Solutions.

    PubMed

    Annabi, Nasim; Tamayol, Ali; Shin, Su Ryon; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M; Peppas, Nicholas A; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-10-01

    Surgical adhesive biomaterials have emerged as substitutes to sutures and staples in many clinical applications. Nano-enabled materials containing nanoparticles or having a distinct nanotopography have been utilized for generation of a new class of surgical materials with enhanced functionality. In this review, the state of the art in the development of conventional surgical adhesive biomaterials is critically reviewed and their shortcomings are outlined. Recent advancements in generation of nano-enabled surgical materials with their potential future applications are discussed. This review will open new avenues for the innovative development of the next generation of tissue adhesives, hemostats, and sealants with enhanced functionality for various surgical applications.

  17. Adapting an evidence-based intervention for autism spectrum disorder for scaling up in resource-constrained settings: the development of the PASS intervention in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Divan, Gauri; Hamdani, Syed Usman; Vajartkar, Vivek; Minhas, Ayesha; Taylor, Carol; Aldred, Catherine; Leadbitter, Kathy; Rahman, Atif; Green, Jonathan; Patel, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based interventions for autism spectrum disorders evaluated in high-income countries typically require highly specialised manpower, which is a scarce resource in most low- and middle-income settings. This resource limitation results in most children not having access to evidence-based interventions. Objective This paper reports on the systematic adaptation of an evidence-based intervention, the Preschool Autism Communication Therapy (PACT) evaluated in a large trial in the United Kingdom for delivery in a low-resource setting through the process of task-shifting. Design The adaptation process used the Medical Research Council framework for the development and adaptation of complex interventions, focusing on qualitative methods and case series and was conducted simultaneously in India and Pakistan. Results The original intervention delivered by speech and language therapists in a high-resource setting required adaptation in some aspects of its content and delivery to enhance contextual acceptability and to enable the intervention to be delivered by non-specialists. Conclusions The resulting intervention, the Parent-mediated intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorder in South Asia (PASS), shares the core theoretical foundations of the original PACT but is adapted in several respects to enhance its acceptability, feasibility, and scalability in low-resource settings. PMID:26243710

  18. Duplex DNA-Invading γ-Modified Peptide Nucleic Acids Enable Rapid Identification of Bloodstream Infections in Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Nölling, Jörk; Rapireddy, Srinivas; Amburg, Joel I.; Crawford, Elizabeth M.; Prakash, Ranjit A.; Rabson, Arthur R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bloodstream infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Early and targeted antimicrobial intervention is lifesaving, yet current diagnostic approaches fail to provide actionable information within a clinically viable time frame due to their reliance on blood culturing. Here, we present a novel pathogen identification (PID) platform that features the use of duplex DNA-invading γ-modified peptide nucleic acids (γPNAs) for the rapid identification of bacterial and fungal pathogens directly from blood, without culturing. The PID platform provides species-level information in under 2.5 hours while reaching single-CFU-per-milliliter sensitivity across the entire 21-pathogen panel. The clinical utility of the PID platform was demonstrated through assessment of 61 clinical specimens, which showed >95% sensitivity and >90% overall correlation to blood culture findings. This rapid γPNA-based platform promises to improve patient care by enabling the administration of a targeted first-line antimicrobial intervention. PMID:27094328

  19. Finite element modeling of endovascular coiling and flow diversion enables hemodynamic prediction of complex treatment strategies for intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Robert J; Ma, Ding; Xiang, Jianping; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Snyder, Kenneth V; Meng, Hui

    2015-09-18

    Endovascular interventions using coil embolization and flow diversion are becoming the mainstream treatment for intracranial aneurysms (IAs). To help assess the effect of intervention strategies on aneurysm hemodynamics and treatment outcome, we have developed a finite-element-method (FEM)-based technique for coil deployment along with our HiFiVS technique for flow diverter (FD) deployment in patient-specific IAs. We tested four clinical intervention strategies: coiling (1-8 coils), single FD, FD with adjunctive coils (1-8 coils), and overlapping FDs. By evaluating post-treatment hemodynamics using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), we compared the flow-modification performance of these strategies. Results show that a single FD provides more reduction in inflow rate than low packing density (PD) coiling, but less reduction in average velocity inside the aneurysm. Adjunctive coils add no additional reduction of inflow rate beyond a single FD until coil PD exceeds 11%. This suggests that the main role of FDs is to divert inflow, while that of coils is to create stasis in the aneurysm. Overlapping FDs decreases inflow rate, average velocity, and average wall shear stress (WSS) in the aneurysm sac, but adding a third FD produces minimal additional reduction. In conclusion, our FEM-based techniques for virtual coiling and flow diversion enable recapitulation of complex endovascular intervention strategies and detailed hemodynamics to identify hemodynamic factors that affect treatment outcome.

  20. Explorations of Psyche and Callisto Enabled by Ion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenkert, Daniel D.; Landau, Damon F.; Bills, Bruce G.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in ion propulsion (specifically solar electric propulsion - SEP) have the potential for dramatically reducing the transportation cost of planetary missions. We examine two representative cases, where these new developments enable missions which, until recently, would have required resouces well beyond those allocated to the Discovery program. The two cases of interest address differentiation of asteroids and large icy satellites

  1. Measuring Noncommissioned Officer Knowledge and Experience to Enable Tailored Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Research Report 1952 Measuring Noncommissioned Officer...Knowledge and Experience to Enable Tailored Training Peter S. Schaefer U.S. Army Research Institute Paul N. Blankenbeckler Northrop...Grumman Corporation Christopher J. Brogdon Mercer University Consortium Research Fellows Program November 2011 Approved for

  2. Transactional network: Improving efficiency and enabling grid services for buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Lutes, Robert; Hernandez, George; Haack, Jereme; Akyol, Bora

    2016-04-08

    This paper describes the transactional network concept, the platform and two example agents/applications within VOLTTRON™ that improve operational efficiency and enable grid services for packaged air conditioners and heat pumps (RTUs). It also describes the results from testing the concept on some demonstration sites.

  3. Microfluidics-Enabled Diagnostic Systems: Markets, Challenges, and Examples.

    PubMed

    Becker, Holger; Gärtner, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Microfluidics has become an important tool for the commercial product development in diagnostics. This article will focus on current technical demands during the development process such as material and integration challenges. Furthermore, we present data on the diagnostics market as well as examples of microfluidics-enabled systems currently under commercial development or already on the market.

  4. Enabled Masses: Challenge and Trust within Modern Social Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Networks by Colonel Daniel J. W. King United States Army Dr. Richard M. Meinhart Department of Command...Enabled Masses: Challenge and Trust within Modern Social Networks by Colonel Daniel J. W. King United States Army ...United States Army War College Class of 2013 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: A Approved for Public Release Distribution is

  5. Anatomy Drawing Screencasts: Enabling Flexible Learning for Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, James D.

    2015-01-01

    The traditional lecture remains an essential method of disseminating information to medical students. However, due to the constant development of the modern medical curriculum many institutions are embracing novel means for delivering the core anatomy syllabus. Using mobile media devices is one such way, enabling students to access core material…

  6. Barriers and Enablers to Evidence-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    The importance of educational practices based on evidence is well-supported in the literature, however barriers to their implementation in classrooms still exist. This paper examines the phenomenon of evidence-based practice in education highlighting enablers and barriers to their implementation with particular reference to RTLB practice.

  7. Enabling Science and Technology Research Teams: A Breadmaking Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Deana

    2010-01-01

    Anyone who has been involved with a cross-disciplinary team that combines scientists and information technology specialists knows just how tough it can be to move these efforts forward. Decades of experience point to the transformative potential of technology-enabled science efforts, and the success stories offer hope for future efforts. But for…

  8. Neuronix enables continuous, simultaneous neural recording and electrical microstimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhi Yang; Jian Xu; Anh Tuan Nguyen; Tong Wu; Wenfeng Zhao; Wing-Kin Tam

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports a novel neurotechnology (Neuronix) and its validation through experiments. It is a miniature system-on-chip (SoC) that allows recording with simultaneous electrical microstimulation. This function has not been demonstrated before and enables precise, closed-loop neuromodulation. Neuronix represents recent advancement in brain technology and applies to both animal research and clinical applications.

  9. Fraternity as "Enabling Environment:" Does Membership Lead to Gambling Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddix, J. Patrick; Hardy, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that fraternity membership is the most reliable predictor of gambling and gambling problems on campus. The purpose of this study was to determine if problematic gambling could be linked to specific aspects of fraternity membership. Though the null hypothesis (no enabling environment) failed to be rejected, descriptive…

  10. Biotechniques Laboratory: An Enabling Course in the Biological Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Trapani, Giovanna; Clarke, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Practical skills and competencies are critical to student engagement and effective learning in laboratory courses. This article describes the design of a yearlong, stand-alone laboratory course--the Biotechniques Laboratory--a common core course in the second year of all our degree programs in the biological sciences. It is an enabling,…

  11. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Alan J.; Adair, Brooke; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E.

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving. PMID:23304507

  12. The Xenopus ORFeome: A resource that enables functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Ian M.; Balcha, Dawit; Hao, Tong; Shen, Yun; Trivedi, Prasad; Patrushev, Ilya; Fortriede, Joshua D.; Karpinka, John B.; Liu, Limin; Zorn, Aaron M.; Stukenberg, P. Todd; Hill, David E.; Gilchrist, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Functional characterisation of proteins and large-scale, systems-level studies are enabled by extensive sets of cloned open reading frames (ORFs) in an easily-accessible format that enables many different applications. Here we report the release of the first stage of the Xenopus ORFeome, which contains 8673 ORFs from the Xenopus Gene Collection (XGC) for Xenopus laevis, cloned into a Gateway® donor vector enabling rapid in-frame transfer of the ORFs to expression vectors. This resource represents an estimated 7871 unique genes, approximately 40% of the non-redundant X. laevis gene complement, and includes 2724 genes where the human ortholog has an association with disease. Transfer into the Gateway system was validated by 5′ and 3′ end sequencing of the entire collection and protein expression of a set of test clones. In a parallel process, the underlying ORF predictions from the original XGC collection were re-analysed to verify quality and full-length status, identifying those proteins likely to exhibit truncations when translated. These data are integrated into Xenbase, the Xenopus community database, which associates genomic, expression, function and human disease model metadata to each ORF, enabling end-users to search for ORFeome clones with links to commercial distributors of the collection. When coupled with the experimental advantages of Xenopus eggs and embryos, the ORFeome collection represents a valuable resource for functional genomics and disease modelling. PMID:26391338

  13. Large Scale PEM Electrolysis to Enable Renewable Hydrogen Fuel Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-10

    applications are enabled by PEM electrolyzer technology: Unmanned underwater and aerial vehicles Remote camp energy storage Space based systems – lunar ... colonies and satellites Submarine life support Fueling of specialty vehicles 15UNCLASSIFIED: Dist A. Approved for public release 65 kg/day Fueling

  14. Thrice Disabling Disability: Enabling Inclusive, Socially Just Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, S. Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this inquiry was to create a social justice-oriented inclusive and enabling pedagogy by situating traditional individualised views of disability alongside three alternative understandings: a disability studies in education perspective, a First Nations view of disability and one based upon the autism pride/autism-as-culture movement.…

  15. Integrated Children's Services: Enablers, Challenges and Impact. Research Briefing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Mark; Atkinson, Mary; Downing, Dick

    2008-01-01

    This summary provides background information about the enablers, challenges and impact of integration, based on a thorough literature review of thirty-five sources. The review findings are presented under thematic headings that reflect the: (1) extent of integration: the "stage" or depth of the collaborative activity in integrated services; (2)…

  16. Interactive BIM-Enabled Safety Training Piloted in Construction Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clevenger, Caroline; Lopez del Puerto, Carla; Glick, Scott

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents and assesses the development of a construction safety training module featuring interactive, BIM-enabled, 3D visualizations to test if such a tool can enhance safety training related to scaffolds. This research documents the technical challenges and the lessons learned through the development and administration of a prototype…

  17. Web-Based Architecture to Enable Compute-Intensive CAD Tools and Multi-user Synchronization in Teleradiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Neville; Kompalli, Suryaprakash; Chaudhary, Vipin

    Teleradiology is the electronic transmission of radiological patient images, such as x-rays, CT, or MR across multiple locations. The goal could be interpretation, consultation, or medical records keeping. Information technology solutions have enabled electronic records and their associated benefits are evident in health care today. However, salient aspects of collaborative interfaces, and computer assisted diagnostic (CAD) tools are yet to be integrated into workflow designs. The Computer Assisted Diagnostics and Interventions (CADI) group at the University at Buffalo has developed an architecture that facilitates web-enabled use of CAD tools, along with the novel concept of synchronized collaboration. The architecture can support multiple teleradiology applications and case studies are presented here.

  18. An integrated approach to safety-driven and ICT-enabled process reengineering: methodological advice and a case study.

    PubMed

    Langer, M; Castellari, R; Locatelli, P; Sini, E; Torresani, M; Facchini, R; Moser, R

    2014-01-01

    Patient safety is a central concern inside any healthcare environment. With the progress of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), new solutions have become available to support care and management processes. Analyzing process risks helps identifying areas of improvement and provides ICT-solutions design with indications on what portions of the process need primary interventions. Understanding the link between process reengineering, technology assessment of enabling technologies and risk management allows user acceptance and patient safety improvements. Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori (INT), offers a good example of process reengineering driven by the purpose of increasing patient safety, enabled by new technologies. A pillar of the evolution of ICT process support at INT is based on Radio Frequency Identification technologies, implemented to identify and trace items and people across processes. This paper will present an integrated approach, based on process reengineering methodologies and risk assessment studies, and methodological advice applied to a case of surgical kits management procedures.

  19. Microswitch Technology for Enabling Self-Determined Responding in Children with Profound and Multiple Disabilities: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Roche, Laura; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio E; O'Reilly, Mark F; Green, Vanessa A

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed 18 studies reporting on the use of microswitch technology to enable self-determined responding in children with profound and multiple disabilities. Identified studies that met pre-determined inclusion criteria were summarized in terms of (a) participants, (b) experimental design, (c) microswitches and procedures used, and (d) main results. The 18 studies formed three groups based on whether the microswitch technology was primarily intended to enable the child to (a) access preferred stimuli (7 studies), (b) choose between stimuli (6 studies), or (c) recruit attention/initiate social interaction (5 studies). The results of these studies were consistently positive and support the use of microswitch technology in educational programs for children with profound and multiple disabilities as a means to impact their environment and interact with others. Implications for delivery of augmentative and alternative communication intervention to children with profound and multiple disabilities are discussed.

  20. Personal Change and Intervention Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, John D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a theory of personal change and analyzes growth-producing interventions using examples from the film, "Three Approaches to Psychotherapy". Compares the styles of Carl Rogers, Frttz Perls, and Albert Ellis to illustrate the theory. (Editor/RK)

  1. Responsive parenting: interventions and outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Eshel, Neir; Daelmans, Bernadette; de Mello, Meena Cabral; Martines, Jose

    2006-01-01

    In addition to food, sanitation and access to health facilities children require adequate care at home for survival and optimal development. Responsiveness, a mother's/caregiver's prompt, contingent and appropriate interaction with the child, is a vital parenting tool with wide-ranging benefits for the child, from better cognitive and psychosocial development to protection from disease and mortality. We examined two facets of responsive parenting -- its role in child health and development and the effectiveness of interventions to enhance it -- by conducting a systematic review of literature from both developed and developing countries. Our results revealed that interventions are effective in enhancing maternal responsiveness, resulting in better child health and development, especially for the neediest populations. Since these interventions were feasible even in poor settings, they have great potential in helping us achieve the Millennium Development Goals. We suggest that responsiveness interventions be integrated into child survival strategies. PMID:17242836

  2. Interventions to reduce school bullying.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter K; Ananiadou, Katerina; Cowie, Helen

    2003-10-01

    In the last 2 decades, school bullying has become a topic of public concern and research around the world. This has led to action to reduce the problem. We review interventions targeted at the school level (for example, whole school policy, classroom climate, peer support, school tribunal, and playground improvement), at the class level (for example, curriculum work), and at the individual level (for example, working with specific pupils). Effectiveness of interventions has been sporadically assessed. We review several systematically evaluated, large-scale, school-based intervention programs. Their effectiveness has varied, and we consider reasons for this. We suggest ways to improve the evaluation and comparability of studies, as well as the effectiveness of future interventions.

  3. Crisis Intervention in an Earthquake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaufarb, Herbert; Levine, Jules

    1972-01-01

    This article describes the crisis intervention techniques used by the San Fernanco Valley Child Guidance Clinic to help families deal with the traumatic events experienced in the 1971 earthquake in California. (Author)

  4. Cognitive Interventions for Older Diabetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sheila; Scogin, Forrest

    1998-01-01

    Older diabetic adults should receive memory training to improve their compliance with medication taking. The intervention should include comprehensible medical instructions, assistance with remembering the nutritional values of food, and higher order skills for disease management. (SK)

  5. Mechanical Design Engineering Enabler Project wheel and wheel drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nutt, Richard E.; Couch, Britt K.; Holley, John L., Jr.; Garris, Eric S.; Staut, Paul V.

    1992-01-01

    Our group was assigned the responsibility of designing the wheel and wheel drive system for a proof-of-concept model of the lunar-based ENABLER. ENABLER is a multi-purpose, six wheeled vehicle designed to lift and transport heavy objects associated with the construction of a lunar base. The resulting design was based on the performance criteria of the ENABLER. The drive system was designed to enable the vehicle to achieve a speed of 7 mph on a level surface, climb a 30 percent grade, and surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies were designed to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels were designed to serve as the main component of the vehicle's suspension and will provide suitable traction for lunar-type surfaces. The expected performance of the drive system for the ENABLER was influenced by many mechanical factors. The expected top speed on a level sandy surface is 4 mph instead of the desired 7 mph. This is due to a lack of necessary power at the wheels. The lack of power resulted from dimension considerations that allowed only an eight horsepower engine and also from mechanical inefficiencies of the hydraulic system. However, the vehicle will be able to climb a 30 percent grade, surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies will be able to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels will also provide adequate suspension for the vehicle and sufficient traction for lunar-type surfaces.

  6. Interventional Radiology: Equipment and Techniques.

    PubMed

    Scansen, Brian A

    2016-05-01

    The breadth of small animal diseases that can now be treated by a minimally invasive, transcatheter approach continues to expand. Interventional radiology is the field of medicine that affects a therapeutic outcome via minimally invasive catheterization of peripheral blood vessels or body orifices guided by imaging. The intent of this article is to provide an overview of the equipment required for interventional radiology in veterinary medicine with a discussion of technical uses in diseases of dogs and cats.

  7. [Ethical intervention in pragmatic regime].

    PubMed

    Maesschalck, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of the neo-pragmatist turn in social sciences from the point of view of the method of ethical intervention. It focuses specifically on the idea of building a "learning community" as the horizon for strengthening participative 'capacitation'. It finally points at the limits of such a perspective, from the point of view of institutional building of new subjectivities through and beyond the practices proposed by ethical interventions.

  8. Reporting Guidelines for Music-based Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Robb, Sheri L.; Burns, Debra S.; Carpenter, Janet S.

    2013-01-01

    Music-based interventions are used to address a variety of problems experienced by individuals across the developmental lifespan (infants to elderly adults). In order to improve the transparency and specificity of reporting music-based interventions, a set of specific reporting guidelines is recommended. Recommendations pertain to reporting seven different components of music-based interventions including intervention theory, intervention content, intervention delivery schedule, interventionist, treatment fidelity, setting, and unit of delivery. Recommendations are intended to support CONSORT and TREND statements for transparent reporting of interventions while taking into account the variety, complexity, and uniqueness of music-based interventions. PMID:23646227

  9. 24 CFR 901.210 - Interventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... development or a group of developments. Under this limited intervention procedure, the Department could select.... Such intervention may include: (1) Providing technical assistance for existing PHA management staff;...

  10. Reporting Guidelines for Music-based Interventions.

    PubMed

    Robb, Sheri L; Burns, Debra S; Carpenter, Janet S

    2011-10-01

    Music-based interventions are used to address a variety of problems experienced by individuals across the developmental lifespan (infants to elderly adults). In order to improve the transparency and specificity of reporting music-based interventions, a set of specific reporting guidelines is recommended. Recommendations pertain to reporting seven different components of music-based interventions including intervention theory, intervention content, intervention delivery schedule, interventionist, treatment fidelity, setting, and unit of delivery. Recommendations are intended to support CONSORT and TREND statements for transparent reporting of interventions while taking into account the variety, complexity, and uniqueness of music-based interventions.

  11. Pricing Health Behavior Interventions to Promote Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Ribisl, Kurt M.; Leeman, Jennifer; Glasser, Allison M.

    2015-01-01

    The relatively high cost of delivering many public health interventions limits their potential for broad public impact by reducing their likelihood of adoption and maintenance over time. Practitioners identify cost as the primary factor for which interventions they select to implement, but researchers rarely disseminate cost information or consider its importance when developing new interventions. A new approach is proposed, whereby intervention developers assess what individuals and agencies adopting their interventions are willing to pay and then design interventions that are responsive to this price range. The ultimate goal is to develop effective and affordable interventions, called lean interventions, which are widely adopted and have greater public health impact. PMID:24842743

  12. Psychiatric rehabilitation interventions: a review.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Marianne; Anthony, William A

    2010-01-01

    Psychiatric rehabilitation has become accepted by the mental health field as a legitimate field of study and practice. Over the last several decades various psychiatric rehabilitation programme models and procedures have been developed, evaluated and disseminated. At the same time the process of psychiatric rehabilitation has been specified and its underlying values and practitioner technology articulated. This review describes the psychiatric rehabilitation process and in so doing differentiates psychosocial interventions that can be classified as psychiatric rehabilitation interventions from other psychosocial interventions. Furthermore, the major psychiatric rehabilitation interventions are examined within a framework of the psychiatric rehabilitation process with a review of their evidence. The review concludes that psychiatric rehabilitation interventions are currently a mixture of evidence-based practices, promising practices and emerging methods that can be effectively tied together using the psychiatric rehabilitation process framework of helping individuals with serious mental illnesses choose, get and keep valued roles, and together with complementary treatment orientated psychosocial interventions, provide a broad strategy for facilitating recovery.

  13. Role of communication content and frequency in enabling evidence-based practices.

    PubMed

    Rangachari, Pavani; Madaio, Michael; Rethemeyer, R Karl; Wagner, Peggy; Hall, Lauren; Roy, Siddharth; Rissing, Peter

    2014-01-01

    costs savings from reduced CRBSIs in 1 year were estimated to be at least $840 000. Periodic QI interventions were effective in reframing interprofessional communication dynamics and enabling practice change. The prospective design provides insights into communication content and frequency associated with collective learning and culture change. The study identifies evidence-based management strategies for positive practice change at the unit level.

  14. Appropriately Targeting Group Interventions for Academic Success Adopting the Clinical Model and PAR Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Craig W.; Johnson, Ronald; Steigman, Michael; Odo, Chioma; Vijayan, Suvendra; Tata, Devadatta V.

    2016-01-01

    Prevalence of academic risk (PAR) group profiles provide data enabling empirically based group-specialized prescriptions for targeted academic success interventions to increase student retention, completion, and graduation rates, while improving allocation of institutional resources. Postsecondary student attrition engenders student debt,…

  15. Developmental Dyspraxia: Identification and Intervention. A Manual for Parents and Professionals. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portwood, Madeleine

    This manual is designed to provide parents, teachers, and health professionals with information on dyspraxia to enable diagnosis and treatment, and offers an intervention program to improve the cognitive functioning of students with dyspraxia. Dyspraxia is defined as a marked impairment in the development of motor coordination that may result in…

  16. Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions for Treatment of Depression in Alzheimer's Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teri, Linda; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    1991-01-01

    Presents two strategies for treating depression in Alzheimer's patients: cognitive therapy for mildly demented adults which challenges patient's negative cognitions to reduce distortions and enable patient to generate more adaptive ways of viewing specific events; and behavioral intervention for moderately or severely demented adults which…

  17. Comparative study between ultrasonography and optical coherence tomography in interventional cardiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; de la Torre-Hernández, José María; Ortega-Quijano, Noé; Zueco-Gil, José Javier; Arce-Diego, José Luis

    2009-07-01

    In this work, we present clinical images of IVUS and OCT in the evaluation of pharmacological stent endothelization. These preliminary imaging results are analyzed and compared in order to determine the ability of these technologies to visualize relevant intravascular features of interest in interventional cardiology. The results enable to compare the performance of both techniques and to evaluate their potential for clinical purposes.

  18. Comparing Two Inquiry Professional Development Interventions in Science on Primary Students' Questioning and Other Inquiry Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Kim; Burgh, Gilbert; Kennedy, Callie

    2017-01-01

    Developing students' skills to pose and respond to questions and actively engage in inquiry behaviours enables students to problem solve and critically engage with learning and society. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of providing teachers with an intervention in inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum in comparison…

  19. Walk in Balance: Training Crisis Intervention Team Police Officers as Compassionate Warriors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chopko, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    Crisis Intervention Teams (CIT) were developed to enable law enforcement officers to effectively and compassionately respond to calls involving people experiencing psychiatric distress. Mental health professionals responsible for training CIT officers are in a unique position to promote the compassionate treatment of those experiencing psychiatric…

  20. Proceedings: Early Childhood Intervention Research Conference (University of South Florida, Tampa, March 5 and 6, 1970).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa.

    What experiences and knowledge acquired during the first five years of life will enable children to take full advantage of a formal education system during their growing years? The Conference on Early Childhood Intervention and Research examined available data within the theme "Programming Parents to Program Children." Topics and…

  1. Challenges of evaluating multilevel interventions.

    PubMed

    Nastasi, Bonnie K; Hitchcock, John

    2009-06-01

    This article uses the Comprehensive Mixed-Methods Participatory Evaluation (CMMPE; Nastasi and Hitchcock Transforming school mental health services: Population-based approaches to promoting the competency and wellness of children, Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press with National Association of School Psychologists 2008; Nastasi et al. School-based mental health services: creating comprehensive and culturally specific programs. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association 2004) model as a framework for addressing the multiplicity of evaluation decisions and complex nature of questions related to program success in multilevel interventions. CMMPE defines program success in terms of acceptability, integrity, social or cultural validity, outcomes (impact), sustainability and institutionalization, thus broadening the traditional notions of program outcomes. The authors use CMMPE and an example of a community-based multilevel sexual risk prevention program with multiple outcomes to discuss challenges of evaluating multilevel interventions. The sexual risk program exemplifies what Schensul and Trickett (this issue) characterize as multilevel intervention-multilevel evaluation (M-M), with both intervention and evaluation at community, health practitioner, and patient levels. The illustration provides the context for considering several challenges related to M-M designs: feasibility of randomized controlled trials within community-based multilevel intervention; acceptability and social or cultural validity of evaluation procedures; implementer, recipient, and contextual variations in program success; interactions among levels of the intervention; unanticipated changes or conditions; multiple indicators of program success; engaging multiple stakeholders in a participatory process; and evaluating sustainability and institutionalization. The complexity of multilevel intervention and evaluation designs challenges traditional notions of evaluation research and experimental

  2. Revolutionary Deep Space Science Missions Enabled by Onboard Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Debban, Theresa; Yen, Chen wan; Sherwood, Robert; Castano, Rebecca; Cichy, Benjamin; Davies, Ashley; Brul, Michael; Fukunaga, Alex; Fukunaga, Alex; Doggett, Thomas; Williams, Kevin; Dohm, James

    2003-01-01

    Breakthrough autonomy technologies enable a new range of spire missions that acquire vast amounts of data and return only the most scientifically important data to Earth. These missions would monitor science phenomena in great detail (either with frequent observations or at extremely high spatial resolution) and onboard analyze the data to detect specific science events of interest. These missions would monitor volcanic eruptions, formation and movement of aeolian features. and atmospheric phenomena. The autonomous spacecraft would respond to science events by planning its future operations to revisit or perform complementary observations. In this paradigm, the spacecraft represents the scientists agent enabling optimization of the downlink data volume resource. This paper describes preliminary efforts to define and design such missions.

  3. Federated and Cloud Enabled Resources for Data Management and Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, R.; Gordon, M.; Potter, R. G.; Satchwill, B.

    2011-12-01

    The emergence of cloud computing over the past three years has led to a paradigm shift in how data can be managed, processed and made accessible. Building on the federated data management system offered through the Canadian Space Science Data Portal (www.cssdp.ca), we demonstrate how heterogeneous and geographically distributed data sets and modeling tools have been integrated to form a virtual data center and computational modeling platform that has services for data processing and visualization embedded within it. We also discuss positive and negative experiences in utilizing Eucalyptus and OpenStack cloud applications, and job scheduling facilitated by Condor and Star Cluster. We summarize our findings by demonstrating use of these technologies in the Cloud Enabled Space Weather Data Assimilation and Modeling Platform CESWP (www.ceswp.ca), which is funded through Canarie's (canarie.ca) Network Enabled Platforms program in Canada.

  4. Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing a system to safely enable low altitude unmanned aerial system (UAS) operations. The system is referred to as UAS Traffic Management (UTM). The UTM will safely enable a variety of business models and multiple operations in the same airspace. The UTM will provide services such as airspace configuration and geo-fencing, weather and wind integration, demand-capacity imbalance management, and separation management, and contingency management. The UTM research and development has been conducted in collaboration with many in industry, academia, and government. The UTM system will evolve through four builds. Each build will be collaboratively tested with partners. The final prototype will be available for persistent daily use of UAS operations beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS).

  5. Polysulfide flow batteries enabled by percolating nanoscale conductor networks.

    PubMed

    Fan, Frank Y; Woodford, William H; Li, Zheng; Baram, Nir; Smith, Kyle C; Helal, Ahmed; McKinley, Gareth H; Carter, W Craig; Chiang, Yet-Ming

    2014-01-01

    A new approach to flow battery design is demonstrated wherein diffusion-limited aggregation of nanoscale conductor particles at ∼1 vol % concentration is used to impart mixed electronic-ionic conductivity to redox solutions, forming flow electrodes with embedded current collector networks that self-heal after shear. Lithium polysulfide flow cathodes of this architecture exhibit electrochemical activity that is distributed throughout the volume of flow electrodes rather than being confined to surfaces of stationary current collectors. The nanoscale network architecture enables cycling of polysulfide solutions deep into precipitation regimes that historically have shown poor capacity utilization and reversibility and may thereby enable new flow battery designs of higher energy density and lower system cost. Lithium polysulfide half-flow cells operating in both continuous and intermittent flow mode are demonstrated for the first time.

  6. NASA Space Launch System: An Enabling Capability for Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    SLS provides capability for human exploration missions. 70 t configuration enables EM-1 and EM-2 flight tests. Evolved configurations enable missions including humans to Mars. u? SLS offers unrivaled benefits for a variety of missions. 70 t provides greater mass lift than any contemporary launch vehicle; 130 t offers greater lift than any launch vehicle ever. With 8.4m and 10m fairings, SLS will over greater volume lift capability than any other vehicle. center dot Initial ICPS configuration and future evolution will offer high C3 for beyond- Earth missions. SLS is currently on schedule for first launch in December 2017. Preliminary design completed in July 2013; SLS is now in implementation. Manufacture and testing are currently underway. Hardware now exists representing all SLS elements.

  7. Differentially photo-crosslinked polymers enable self-assembling microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Mustapha; Zarafshar, Aasiyeh M.; Gracias, David H.

    2012-01-01

    An important feature of naturally self-assembled systems such as leaves and tissues is that they are curved and have embedded fluidic channels that enable the transport of nutrients to, or removal of waste from, specific three-dimensional (3D) regions. Here, we report the self-assembly of photopatterned polymers, and consequently microfluidic devices, into curved geometries. We discovered that differentially photo-crosslinked SU-8 films spontaneously and reversibly curved upon film de-solvation and re-solvation. Photolithographic patterning of the SU-8 films enabled the self-assembly of cylinders, cubes, and bidirectionally folded sheets. We integrated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels with these SU-8 films to self-assemble curved microfluidic networks. PMID:22068594

  8. A simple physical mechanism enables homeostasis in primitive cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhart, Aaron E.; Adamala, Katarzyna P.; Szostak, Jack W.

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of homeostatic mechanisms that enable maintenance of an intracellular steady state during growth was critical to the advent of cellular life. Here, we show that concentration-dependent reversible binding of short oligonucleotides, of both specific and random sequence, can modulate ribozyme activity. In both cases, catalysis is inhibited at high concentrations, and dilution activates the ribozyme via inhibitor dissociation, thus maintaining near-constant ribozyme specific activity throughout protocell growth. To mimic the result of RNA synthesis within non-growing protocells, we co-encapsulated high concentrations of ribozyme and oligonucleotides within fatty acid vesicles, and ribozyme activity was inhibited. Following vesicle growth, the resulting internal dilution produced ribozyme activation. This simple physical system enables a primitive homeostatic behaviour: the maintenance of constant ribozyme activity per unit volume during protocell volume changes. We suggest that such systems, wherein short oligonucleotides reversibly inhibit functional RNAs, could have preceded sophisticated modern RNA regulatory mechanisms, such as those involving miRNAs.

  9. Enabling technologies for Chinese Mars lander guidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiuqiang; Li, Shuang

    2017-04-01

    Chinese first Mars exploration activity, orbiting landing and roaming collaborative mission, has been programmed and started. As a key technology, Mars lander guidance system is intended to serve atmospheric entry, descent and landing (EDL) phases. This paper is to report the formation process of enabling technology road map for Chinese Mars lander guidance system. First, two scenarios of the first-stage of the Chinese Mars exploration project are disclosed in detail. Second, mission challenges and engineering needs of EDL guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) are presented systematically for Chinese Mars exploration program. Third, some useful related technologies developed in China's current aerospace projects are pertinently summarized, especially on entry guidance, parachute descent, autonomous hazard avoidance and safe landing. Finally, an enabling technology road map of Chinese Mars lander guidance is given through technological inheriting and improving.

  10. A Revolution in Plant Metabolism: Genome-Enabled Pathway Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongwoon; Buell, C. Robin

    2015-01-01

    Genome-enabled discoveries are the hallmark of 21st century biology, including major discoveries in the biosynthesis and regulation of plant metabolic pathways. Access to next generation sequencing technologies has enabled research on the biosynthesis of diverse plant metabolites, especially secondary metabolites, resulting in a broader understanding of not only the structural and regulatory genes involved in metabolite biosynthesis but also in the evolution of chemical diversity in the plant kingdom. Several paradigms that govern secondary metabolism have emerged, including that (1) gene family expansion and diversification contribute to the chemical diversity found in the plant kingdom, (2) genes encoding biochemical pathway components are frequently transcriptionally coregulated, and (3) physical clustering of nonhomologous genes that encode components of secondary metabolic pathways can occur. With an increasing knowledge base that is coupled with user-friendly and inexpensive technologies, biochemists are poised to accelerate the annotation of biochemical pathways relevant to human health, agriculture, and the environment. PMID:26224805

  11. Discussion of the enabling environments for decentralised water systems.

    PubMed

    Moglia, M; Alexander, K S; Sharma, A

    2011-01-01

    Decentralised water supply systems are becoming increasingly affordable and commonplace in Australia and have the potential to alleviate urban water shortages and reduce pollution into natural receiving marine and freshwater streams. Learning processes are necessary to support the efficient implementation of decentralised systems. These processes reveal the complex socio-technical and institutional factors to be considered when developing an enabling environment supporting decentralised water and wastewater servicing solutions. Critical to the technological transition towards established decentralised systems is the ability to create strategic and adaptive capacity to promote learning and dialogue. Learning processes require institutional mechanisms to ensure the lessons are incorporated into the formulation of policy and regulation, through constructive involvement of key government institutions. Engagement of stakeholders is essential to the enabling environment. Collaborative learning environments using systems analysis with communities (social learning) and adaptive management techniques are useful in refining and applying scientists' and managers' knowledge (knowledge management).

  12. Devices to enable persons with amputation to participate in sports.

    PubMed

    Rubin, G; Fleiss, D

    1983-01-01

    Participation in physically challenging competitive sports is as important to some persons with amputations as are work and leisure, both of which are ordinarily of a sedentary character. Sports participation contributes not only to physical but also to psychologic well-being. The manner in which a prosthetic clinic team can aid in this aspect of rehabilitation is discussed. Some of the more sophisticated prostheses prescribed to enable participation in sports include above-knee and below-knee water-resistant prostheses for swimmers, an adjustable foot-ankle unit for the proficient swimmer and scuba diver, prostheses and special equipment for skiers, special devices for golfers with upper extremity or lower extremity amputations, and various commercially available terminal devices to enable persons with an upper extremity amputation to bowl, to hold a fishing pole and reel, to play baseball, to hold tools, to fire a pistol, and to swim.

  13. SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, Kenneth I.

    2014-09-14

    This project focuses on leveraging scientific visualization and analytics software technology as an enabling technology for increasing scientific productivity and insight. Advances in computational technology have resulted in an "information big bang," which in turn has created a significant data understanding challenge. This challenge is widely acknowledged to be one of the primary bottlenecks in contemporary science. The vision for our Center is to respond directly to that challenge by adapting, extending, creating when necessary and deploying visualization and data understanding technologies for our science stakeholders. Using an organizational model as a Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET), we are well positioned to be responsive to the needs of a diverse set of scientific stakeholders in a coordinated fashion using a range of visualization, mathematics, statistics, computer and computational science and data management technologies.

  14. Increasing the Capacity of Primary Care Through Enabling Technology.

    PubMed

    Young, Heather M; Nesbitt, Thomas S

    2017-02-27

    Primary care is the foundation of effective and high-quality health care. The role of primary care clinicians has expanded to encompass coordination of care across multiple providers and management of more patients with complex conditions. Enabling technology has the potential to expand the capacity for primary care clinicians to provide integrated, accessible care that channels expertise to the patient and brings specialty consultations into the primary care clinic. Furthermore, technology offers opportunities to engage patients in advancing their health through improved communication and enhanced self-management of chronic conditions. This paper describes enabling technologies in four domains (the body, the home, the community, and the primary care clinic) that can support the critical role primary care clinicians play in the health care system. It also identifies challenges to incorporating these technologies into primary care clinics, care processes, and workflow.

  15. Global tree network for computing structures enabling global processing operations

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich; Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2010-01-19

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global tree network communications among processing nodes interconnected according to a tree network structure. The global tree network enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices are included that interconnect the nodes of the tree via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual tree and sub-tree structures. The global operations performed include one or more of: broadcast operations downstream from a root node to leaf nodes of a virtual tree, reduction operations upstream from leaf nodes to the root node in the virtual tree, and point-to-point message passing from any node to the root node. The global tree network is configurable to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner, and, is physically and logically partitionable.

  16. Jamming as an enabling technology for soft robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steltz, E.; Mozeika, A.; Rembisz, J.; Corson, N.; Jaeger, H. M.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a new architecture in soft robotics that utilizes particulate jamming technology. A novel concept of actuation is described that utilizes jamming technology to modulate the direction and magnitude of the work performed by a single central actuator. Jamming "activators" modulate work by jamming and unjamming (solidifying and liquifying) a granular medium coupled to a core actuator. These ideas are demonstrated in the Jamming Skin Enabled Locomotion (JSEL) prototype which can morph its shape and achieve locomotion. Next, a new actuator, denoted a Jamming Modulated Unimorph (JMU), is presented in addition to the JSEL topology. The JMU uses a single linear actuator and a discrete number of jamming cells to turn the 1 degree of freedom (DOF) linear actuator into a multi DOF bending actuator. Full characterization of the JMU actuator is presented, followed by a concluding argument for jamming as an enabling mechanism for soft robots in general, regardless of actuation technology.

  17. Optimized design and analysis of preclinical intervention studies in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Laajala, Teemu D.; Jumppanen, Mikael; Huhtaniemi, Riikka; Fey, Vidal; Kaur, Amanpreet; Knuuttila, Matias; Aho, Eija; Oksala, Riikka; Westermarck, Jukka; Mäkelä, Sari; Poutanen, Matti; Aittokallio, Tero

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have called into question the reproducibility, validity and translatability of the preclinical animal studies due to limitations in their experimental design and statistical analysis. To this end, we implemented a matching-based modelling approach for optimal intervention group allocation, randomization and power calculations, which takes full account of the complex animal characteristics at baseline prior to interventions. In prostate cancer xenograft studies, the method effectively normalized the confounding baseline variability, and resulted in animal allocations which were supported by RNA-seq profiling of the individual tumours. The matching information increased the statistical power to detect true treatment effects at smaller sample sizes in two castration-resistant prostate cancer models, thereby leading to saving of both animal lives and research costs. The novel modelling approach and its open-source and web-based software implementations enable the researchers to conduct adequately-powered and fully-blinded preclinical intervention studies, with the aim to accelerate the discovery of new therapeutic interventions. PMID:27480578

  18. Mobile mental health interventions following war and disaster.

    PubMed

    Ruzek, Josef I; Kuhn, Eric; Jaworski, Beth K; Owen, Jason E; Ramsey, Kelly M

    2016-01-01

    Mobile technologies offer potentially critical ways of delivering mental health support to those experiencing war, ethnic conflict, and human-caused and natural disasters. Research on Internet interventions suggests that effective mobile mental health technologies can be developed, and there are early indications that they will be acceptable to war and disaster survivors, and prove capable of greatly increasing the reach of mental health services. Promising mhealth interventions include video teleconferencing, text messaging, and smartphone-based applications. In addition, a variety of social media platforms has been used during and immediately after disasters to increase agility in responding, and strengthen community and individual resilience. Globally, PTSD Coach has been downloaded over 243,000 times in 96 countries, and together with large-scale use of social media for communication during disasters, suggests the potential for reach of app technology. In addition to enabling improved self-management of post-trauma problems, mobile phone interventions can also enhance delivery of face-to-face care by mental health providers and increase the effectiveness of peer helpers and mutual aid organizations. More research is needed to establish the efficacy of mhealth interventions for those affected by war and disaster. Research should also focus on the identification of active elements and core processes of change, determination of effective ways of increasing adoption and engagement, and explore ways of combining the various capabilities of mobile technologies to maximize their impact.

  19. Mobile mental health interventions following war and disaster

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Eric; Jaworski, Beth K.; Owen, Jason E.; Ramsey, Kelly M.

    2016-01-01

    Mobile technologies offer potentially critical ways of delivering mental health support to those experiencing war, ethnic conflict, and human-caused and natural disasters. Research on Internet interventions suggests that effective mobile mental health technologies can be developed, and there are early indications that they will be acceptable to war and disaster survivors, and prove capable of greatly increasing the reach of mental health services. Promising mhealth interventions include video teleconferencing, text messaging, and smartphone-based applications. In addition, a variety of social media platforms has been used during and immediately after disasters to increase agility in responding, and strengthen community and individual resilience. Globally, PTSD Coach has been downloaded over 243,000 times in 96 countries, and together with large-scale use of social media for communication during disasters, suggests the potential for reach of app technology. In addition to enabling improved self-management of post-trauma problems, mobile phone interventions can also enhance delivery of face-to-face care by mental health providers and increase the effectiveness of peer helpers and mutual aid organizations. More research is needed to establish the efficacy of mhealth interventions for those affected by war and disaster. Research should also focus on the identification of active elements and core processes of change, determination of effective ways of increasing adoption and engagement, and explore ways of combining the various capabilities of mobile technologies to maximize their impact. PMID:28293610

  20. Split rheometer Couette attachment to enable sample extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthrie, Sarah E.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2005-02-01

    We report on the development of a Couette attachment insert for a rheometer, which is designed to split in half, enabling intact sample extraction of cocoa butter crystallized from the melt under known dynamic stress conditions. This cell is capable of producing a sample 1mm thick. At shear rates of 90-720s-1 and final temperatures of 18-20°C it was shown that the sample will completely separate from the cell surface intact.

  1. Content Management Serves as a Vital Cyberspace Operations Enabler

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    cyberspace operations. (Continued from page 23) CCP - Concept Capability Plan CM - Content Management DoD - Department of Defense IIA - Inform Infl uence...22 Summer - 2011 Content management serves as a vital cyberspace operations enabler By Russell Fenton The importance of cyberspace, as part...kinetic effects in and through cyberspace. So the question must be asked, “Are content management capabilities (with the goal of getting the right

  2. Global Strike 2035: Considerations for Enabling Effective Command and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-16

    Enabling Theater Time-Sensitive Targeting Much has been learned over the past decade about the command and control attributes required to conduct...future. However, for Global Strike missions in 2035, the lessons learned through theater level operations must be extrapolated to a global scale and...established norms.44 For any organization that must learn to operate in new ways in support of innovative capabilities, leadership must ensure the

  3. Progress Towards a NASA Earth Science Reuse Enablement System (RES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, James J.; Downs, Robert R.; Mattmann, Chris A.

    2010-01-01

    A Reuse Enablement System (RES) allows developers of Earth science software to contribute software for reuse by others and.for users to find, select, and obtain software for reuse in their own systems. This paper describes work that the X4S,4 Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Software Reuse Working Group has completed to date in the development of an RES for NASA.

  4. Web-Enabled Design Review and Lessons Learned

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    Additional information regarding cookie variables may be found through any WWW search engine . Computer Hardware Resource Utilization The extent to...i:. US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories USACERL Technical Report 98/31 April 1998 Web-Enabled Design...Information source, design data or procedure, management procedure, source of ideas, etc.) 3. Has the information in this report led to any quantitative

  5. Leadership Training Module on Enable Others to Act (Kouzes & Posner)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Ananya

    2013-01-01

    Everyone has either come in contact with a leader or played the role of a leader. Everyone has also worked with effective leaders and ineffective leaders. And all of us want to work with leaders who can share a vision with us and empower and enable us to meet our goals. One can say that leaders play a crucial role in the success or failure of a…

  6. Improving Air Force Enterprise Resource Planning-Enabled Business Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    5. Business logistics—United States. 6. Reengineering (Management)—United States. I. Title. II. Title: Improving Air Force ERP -enabled business...transformation. UG633.2.R57 2013 358.4�—dc23 2013030449 - iii - Preface Enterprise Resource Planning ( ERP ) systems are configurable...of internal business activities, including procurement, accounting, finance, and human resources. ERP programs tend to be very large, involve a

  7. Fly-by-Wire Systems Enable Safer, More Efficient Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Using the ultra-reliable Apollo Guidance Computer that enabled the Apollo Moon missions, Dryden Flight Research Center engineers, in partnership with industry leaders such as Cambridge, Massachusetts-based Draper Laboratory, demonstrated that digital computers could be used to fly aircraft. Digital fly-by-wire systems have since been incorporated into large airliners, military jets, revolutionary new aircraft, and even cars and submarines.

  8. Ames Coronagraph Experiment: Enabling Missions to Directly Image Exoplanets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belikov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    Technology to find biomarkers and life on other worlds is rapidly maturing. If there is a habitable planet around the nearest star, we may be able to detect it this decade with a small satellite mission. In the 2030 decade, we will likely know if there is life in our Galactic neighborhood (1000 nearest stars). The Ames Coronagraph Experiment is developing coronagraphic technologies to enable such missions.

  9. Identification, Characterization, and Evaluation Criteria for Systems Engineering Agile Enablers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-16

    monitoring communications in social media groups and websites (such as LinkedIn or Facebook groups associated with the Scaled Agile Framework, Lean... Identification , Characterization, and Evaluation Criteria for Systems Engineering Agile Enablers Technical Report SERC-2015-TR-049-1...currently valid OMB control number 1. REPORT DATE 16 JAN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Identification

  10. Potential Astrophysics Science Missions Enabled by NASA's Planned Ares V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Thronson, Harley; Langhoff, Stepheni; Postman, Marc; Lester, Daniel; Lillie, Chuck

    2009-01-01

    NASA s planned Ares V cargo vehicle with its 10 meter diameter fairing and 60,000 kg payload mass to L2 offers the potential to launch entirely new classes of space science missions such as 8-meter monolithic aperture telescopes, 12- meter aperture x-ray telescopes, 16 to 24 meter segmented telescopes and highly capable outer planet missions. The paper will summarize the current Ares V baseline performance capabilities and review potential mission concepts enabled by these capabilities.

  11. Informatics Methods to Enable Sharing of Quantitative Imaging Research Data

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Mia A.; Freymann, John B.; Kirby, Justin S.; Fedorov, Andriy; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Eschrich, Steven A.; Berglund, Anders E.; Fenstermacher, David A.; Tan, Yongqiang; Guo, Xiaotao; Casavant, Thomas L.; Brown, Bartley J.; Braun, Terry A.; Dekker, Andre; Roelofs, Erik; Mountz, James M.; Boada, Fernando; Laymon, Charles; Oborski, Matt; Rubin, Daniel L

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Quantitative Research Network (QIN) is a collaborative research network whose goal is to share data, algorithms and research tools to accelerate quantitative imaging research. A challenge is the variability in tools and analysis platforms used in quantitative imaging. Our goal was to understand the extent of this variation and to develop an approach to enable sharing data and to promote reuse of quantitative imaging data in the community. Methods We performed a survey of the current tools in use by the QIN member sites for representation and storage of their QIN research data including images, image meta-data and clinical data. We identified existing systems and standards for data sharing and their gaps for the QIN use case. We then proposed a system architecture to enable data sharing and collaborative experimentation within the QIN. Results There area variety of tools currently used by each QIN institution. We developed a general information system architecture to support the QIN goals. We also describe the remaining architecture gaps we are developing to enable members to share research images and image meta-data across the network. Conclusions As a research network, the QIN will stimulate quantitative imaging research by pooling data, algorithms and research tools. However, there are gaps in current functional requirements that will need to be met by future informatics development. Special attention must be given to the technical requirements needed to translate these methods into the clinical research workflow to enable validation and qualification of these novel imaging biomarkers. PMID:22770688

  12. Liquid crystal-enabled electrophoresis and electro-osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    This work presents a comparative review of electrokinetic effects in isotropic and anisotropic (liquid crystalline) electrolytes. A special emphasis is placed on nonlinear electrokinetics with ow velocities growing as the square of the applied electric field. This phenomenon allows one to drive steady motion of particles and uids with an alternating-current electric field. In isotropic electrolytes, spatial separation of charges that leads to nonlinear electrokinetics is achieved through the properties of the solid component (typically a metal). If the electrolyte is a liquid crystal (LC), its anisotropic properties enable separation of charges in the presence of orientational distortions and under the action of an electric field. LC anisotropy leads to electrically-driven motion of colloidal particles (liquid crystal-enabled electrophoresis, LCEP) and of the LC itself (liquid crystal-enabled electro-osmosis, LCEO). The induced charge is proportional to the applied field, director gradients, anisotropy of conductivity, and anisotropy of permittivity. The electric field acts on the space separated charges to drive the electro-osmotic ows. If the director deformations lack mirror symmetry, the LC enables electrophoresis of free particles and electro-osmotic pumping. The advantage of LCenabled electrokinetics (LCEK) is that its mechanism lifts many restrictions imposed on the properties of the solid counterpart. For example, LCEP can transport particles even if these particles are deprived of any surface charges; the particles can even be a uid immiscible with a LC or a gas bubble. In a similar fashion, LCEO can drive ows even if there are no oating electrodes. Ionic currents in LCs which have been traditionally considered an undesirable feature in displays offer a broad platform for versatile applications in electrokinetics of particles and uids, micropumping and mixing, and lab-on-a-chip analysis...

  13. Useful Sensor Web Capabilities to Enable Progressive Mission Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Dan

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews using the Sensor Web capabilities as an enabling technology to allow for progressive autonomy of NASA space missions. The presentation reviews technical challenges for future missions, and some of the capabilities that exist to meet those challenges. To establish the ability of the technology to meet the challenges, experiments were conducted on three missions: Earth Observing 1 (EO-1), Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS) and Space Technology 5 (ST-5). These experiments are reviewed.

  14. LENS(Registered) and SFF: Enabling Technologies for Optimized Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    LENS® and SFF: Enabling Technologies for Optimized Structures D.D. Gill, C.J. Atwood , T.E. Voth, J. Robbins Sandia National Laboratories...manufacturing development required for LENS to make these complex structures has included the addition of rotational axes to Sandia’s LENS machine ...conventional machining process. Advances in computing power and research into better design methods for optimizing structures, and developments toward fully

  15. Optical Thermal Characterization Enables High-Performance Electronics Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2016-02-01

    NREL developed a modeling and experimental strategy to characterize thermal performance of materials. The technique provides critical data on thermal properties with relevance for electronics packaging applications. Thermal contact resistance and bulk thermal conductivity were characterized for new high-performance materials such as thermoplastics, boron-nitride nanosheets, copper nanowires, and atomically bonded layers. The technique is an important tool for developing designs and materials that enable power electronics packaging with small footprint, high power density, and low cost for numerous applications.

  16. Enabling students to develop confidence in basic clinical skills.

    PubMed

    Mayne, Wendy; Jootun, Dev; Young, Beverley; Marland, Glenn; Harris, Margaret; Lyttle, C Paul

    An increase in the number of nursing students is making it difficult to guarantee those on the common foundation programme the opportunity to practise basic nursing skills. In order to address this problem a nursing college developed a skills week that enabled students to practise their skills and develop confidence. Simulated clinical situations gave students the opportunity to relate these skills to practice while learning about teamwork and holistic patient care.

  17. Terahertz Characterization of DNA: Enabling a Novel Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    nucleic acid sequence, requirement of a thick DNA testing layer, and conductor structure complexity. This project enables a novel method to identify...researchers. These nucleic acid fragments are used to locate and analyze identical base pair sequences in full strands. Compilation of their...nucleic acid sequences within a genetic library would pave the way for improved forensic analysis, genetic testing, and DNA production processes.1 Other

  18. Expanding the MEU(SOC) Joint Task Force Enabler Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-28

    concept. 2 The influential twentieth-century linguistic philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein argued that real understanding rests on the precise use...of language and universally agreed upon meanings. Without clarity and common understanding, Wittgenstein observed, we can never really communicate... Wittgenstein anticipated when we don’t share a common understanding of what a term means. The Joint Task Force Enabler is potentially a critical concept, both

  19. Interventions to Promote an Integrated Approach to Public Health Problems: An Application to Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Gubbels, Jessica S.; De Vries, Nanne K.; Seidell, Jaap C.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Jansen, Maria W. J.

    2012-01-01

    Experts stress the need to bring the childhood obesity epidemic under control by means of an integrated approach. The implementation of such an approach requires the development of integrated enabling policies on public health by local governments. A prerequisite for developing such integrated public health policies is intersectoral collaboration. Since the development of integrated policies is still in its early stages, this study aimed to answer the following research question: “What interventions can promote intersectoral collaboration and the development of integrated health policies for the prevention of childhood obesity?” Data were collected through a literature search and observations of and interviews with stakeholders. Based on a theoretical framework, we categorized potential interventions that could optimize an integrated approach regarding children's physical activity and diet. The intervention categories included education, persuasion, incentivization, coercion, training, restriction, environmental restructuring, modeling, and enablement. PMID:22792120

  20. Ammonia recycling enables sustainable operation of bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ka Yu; Kaksonen, Anna H; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2013-09-01

    Ammonium (NH4(+)) migration across a cation exchange membrane is commonly observed during the operation of bioelectrochemical systems (BES). This often leads to anolyte acidification (pH <5.5) and complete inactivation of biofilm electroactivity. Without using conventional pH controls (dosage of alkali or pH buffers), the present study revealed that anodic biofilm activity (current) could be sustained if recycling of ammonia (NH3) was implemented. A simple gas-exchange apparatus was designed to enable continuous recycling of NH3 (released from the catholyte at pH >10) from the cathodic headspace to the acidified anolyte. Results indicated that current (110 mA or 688 Am(-3) net anodic chamber volume) was sustained as long as the NH3 recycling path was enabled, facilitating continuous anolyte neutralization with the recycled NH3. Since the microbial current enabled NH4(+) migration against a strong concentration gradient (~10-fold), a novel way of ammonia recovery from wastewaters could be envisaged.