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Sample records for intestinal crypt survival

  1. Dietary Pectin Increases Intestinal Crypt Stem Cell Survival following Radiation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sureban, Sripathi M.; May, Randal; Qu, Dongfeng; Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; Weygant, Nathaniel; Ali, Naushad; Lightfoot, Stan A.; Ding, Kai; Umar, Shahid; Schlosser, Michael J.; Houchen, Courtney W.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal damage is a devastating adverse effect of radiation therapy. We have recently reported that expression of Dclk1, a Tuft cell and tumor stem cell (TSC) marker, 24h after high dose total-body gamma-IR (TBI) can be used as a surrogate marker for crypt survival. Dietary pectin has been demonstrated to possess chemopreventive properties, whereas its radioprotective property has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary pectin on ionizing radiation (IR)-induced intestinal stem cell (ISC) deletion, crypt and overall survival following lethal TBI. C57BL/6 mice received a 6% pectin diet and 0.5% pectin drinking water (pre-IR mice received pectin one week before TBI until death; post-IR mice received pectin after TBI until death). Animals were exposed to TBI (14 Gy) and euthanized at 24 and 84h post-IR to assess ISC deletion and crypt survival respectively. Animals were also subjected to overall survival studies following TBI. In pre-IR treatment group, we observed a three-fold increase in ISC/crypt survival, a two-fold increase in Dclk1+ stem cells, increased overall survival (median 10d vs. 7d), and increased expression of Dclk1, Msi1, Lgr5, Bmi1, and Notch1 (in small intestine) post-TBI in pectin treated mice compared to controls. We also observed increased survival of mice treated with pectin (post-IR) compared to controls. Dietary pectin is a radioprotective agent; prevents IR-induced deletion of potential reserve ISCs; facilitates crypt regeneration; and ultimately promotes overall survival. Given the anti-cancer activity of pectin, our data support a potential role for dietary pectin as an agent that can be administered to patients receiving radiation therapy to protect against radiation-induces mucositis. PMID:26270561

  2. Crypt stem cell survival in the mouse intestinal epithelium is regulated by prostaglandins synthesized through cyclooxygenase-1.

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, S M; Schloemann, S; Tessner, T; Seibert, K; Stenson, W F

    1997-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are important mediators of epithelial integrity and function in the gastrointestinal tract. Relatively little is known, however, about the mechanism by which PGs affect stem cells in the intestine during normal epithelial turnover, or during wound repair. PGs are synthesized from arachidonate by either of two cyclooxygenases, cyclooxygenase-1 (Cox-1) or cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), which are present in a wide variety of mamalian cells. Cox-1 is thought to be a constitutively expressed enzyme, and the expression of Cox-2 is inducible by cytokines or other stimuli in a variety of cell types. We investigated the role of PGs in mouse intestinal stem cell survival and proliferation following radiation injury. The number of surviving crypt stem cells was determined 3.5 d after irradiation by the microcolony assay. Radiation injury induced a dose-dependent decrease in the number of surviving crypts. Indomethacin, an inhibitor of Cox-1 and Cox-2, further reduced the number of surviving crypts in irradiated mice. The indomethacin dose response for inhibition of PGE2 production and reduction of crypt survival were similar. DimethylPGE2 reversed the indomethacin-induced decrease in crypt survival. Selective Cox-2 inhibitors had no effect on crypt survival. PGE2, Cox-1 mRNA, and Cox-1 protein levels all increase in the 3 d after irradiation. Immunohistochemistry for Cox-1 demonstrated localization in epithelial cells of the crypt in the unirradiated mouse, and in the regenerating crypt epithelium in the irradiated mouse. We conclude that radiation injury results in increased Cox-1 levels in crypt stem cells and their progeny, and that PGE2 produced through Cox-1 promotes crypt stem cell survival and proliferation. PMID:9077547

  3. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) increases murine intestinal crypt stem cell survival following radiation injury

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ailing; Wang, Zhihong; Gao, Boning; Zhou, Minhang; Cui, Yu; Wang, Lili; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Bianhong; Wang, Li; Liu, Anqi; Qiu, Lanlan; Qian, Kun; Lu, Yejian; Deng, Wanping; Zheng, Xi; Han, Zhengtao; Li, Yonghui; Sun, Junzhong

    2017-01-01

    Radiation enteropathy is a common complication in cancer patients following radiation therapy. Thus, there is a need for agents that can protect the intestinal epithelium against radiation. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) has been shown to induce differentiation and/or apoptosis in multiple cell lines and primary cells. In the current report, we studied the function of TPA in radiation induced enteropathy in cultured rat intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6 after ionizing radiation (IR) and in mice after high dose total-body gamma-IR (TBI). In IEC-6 cells, there were reduced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in TPA treated cells after IR. We detected a four-fold increase in crypt cell survival and a two-fold increase in animal survival post TBI in TPA treated mice. The beneficial effects of TPA were accompanied by upregulation of stem cells markers and higher level of proteins that are involved in PKC signaling pathway. In addition, TPA also decreased the TBI-augmented levels of the DNA damage indicators. The effects were only observed when TPA was given before irradiation. These results suggest that TPA has the ability to modulate intestinal crypt stem cells survival and this may represent a promising countermeasure against radiation induced enteropathy. PMID:28545017

  4. Selective irradiation of the vascular endothelium has no effect on the survival of murine intestinal crypt stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Schuller, Bradley W.; Binns, Peter J.; Riley, Kent J.; Ma, Ling; Hawthorne, M. Frederick; Coderre, Jeffrey A.

    2006-01-01

    The possible role of vascular endothelial cell damage in the loss of intestinal crypt stem cells and the subsequent development of the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome is addressed. Mice received whole-body epithermal neutron irradiation at a dose rate of 0.57 ± 0.04 Gy·min−1. An additional dose was selectively targeted to endothelial cells from the short-ranged (5–9 μm) particles released from neutron capture reactions in 10B confined to the blood by incorporation into liposomes 70–90 nm in diameter. Different liposome formulations produced 45 ± 7 or 118 ± 12 μg/g 10B in the blood at the time of neutron irradiation, which resulted in total absorbed dose rates in the endothelial cells of 1.08 ± 0.09 or 1.90 ± 0.16 Gy·min−1, respectively. At 3.5 d after irradiation, the intestinal crypt microcolony assay showed that the 2- to 3-fold increased doses to the microvasculature, relative to the nonspecific whole-body neutron beam doses, caused no additional crypt stem cell loss beyond that produced by the neutron beam alone. The threshold dose for death from the GI syndrome after neutron-beam-only irradiation was 9.0 ± 0.6 Gy. There were no deaths from the GI syndrome, despite calculated absorbed doses to endothelial cells as high as 27.7 Gy, in the groups that received neutron beam doses of <9.0 Gy with boronated liposomes in the blood. These data indicate that endothelial cell damage is not causative in the loss of intestinal crypt stem cells and the eventual development of the GI syndrome. PMID:16505359

  5. The RBE-LET relationship for rodent intestinal crypt cell survival, testes weight loss, and multicellular spheroid cell survival after heavy-ion irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, A.; Alpen, E. L.; Powers-Risius, P.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents data for survival of mouse intestinal crypt cells, mouse testes weight loss as an indicator of survival of spermatogonial stem cells, and survival of rat 9L spheroid cells after irradiation in the plateau region of unmodified particle beams ranging in mass from 4He to 139La. The LET values range from 1.6 to 953 keV/microns. These studies examine the RBE-LET relationship for two normal tissues and for an in vitro tissue model, multicellular spheroids. When the RBE values are plotted as a function of LET, the resulting curve is characterized by a region in which RBE increases with LET, a peak RBE at an LET value of 100 keV/microns, and a region of decreasing RBE at LETs greater than 100 keV/microns. Inactivation cross sections (sigma) for these three biological systems have been calculated from the exponential terminal slope of the dose-response relationship for each ion. For this determination the dose is expressed as particle fluence and the parameter sigma indicates effect per particle. A plot of sigma versus LET shows that the curve for testes weight loss is shifted to the left, indicating greater radiosensitivity at lower LETs than for crypt cell and spheroid cell survival. The curves for cross section versus LET for all three model systems show similar characteristics with a relatively linear portion below 100 keV/microns and a region of lessened slope in the LET range above 100 keV/microns for testes and spheroids. The data indicate that the effectiveness per particle increases as a function of LET and, to a limited extent, Z, at LET values greater than 100 keV/microns. Previously published results for spread Bragg peaks are also summarized, and they suggest that RBE is dependent on both the LET and the Z of the particle.

  6. The glycan-binding protein galectin-1 controls survival of epithelial cells along the crypt-villus axis of small intestine.

    PubMed

    Muglia, C; Mercer, N; Toscano, M A; Schattner, M; Pozner, R; Cerliani, J P; Gobbi, R Papa; Rabinovich, G A; Docena, G H

    2011-05-26

    Intestinal epithelial cells serve as mechanical barriers and active components of the mucosal immune system. These cells migrate from the crypt to the tip of the villus, where different stimuli can differentially affect their survival. Here we investigated, using in vitro and in vivo strategies, the role of galectin-1 (Gal-1), an evolutionarily conserved glycan-binding protein, in modulating the survival of human and mouse enterocytes. Both Gal-1 and its specific glyco-receptors were broadly expressed in small bowel enterocytes. Exogenous Gal-1 reduced the viability of enterocytes through apoptotic mechanisms involving activation of both caspase and mitochondrial pathways. Consistent with these findings, apoptotic cells were mainly detected at the tip of the villi, following administration of Gal-1. Moreover, Gal-1-deficient (Lgals1(-/-)) mice showed longer villi compared with their wild-type counterparts in vivo. In an experimental model of starvation, fasted wild-type mice displayed reduced villi and lower intestinal weight compared with Lgals1(-/-) mutant mice, an effect reflected by changes in the frequency of enterocyte apoptosis. Of note, human small bowel enterocytes were also prone to this pro-apoptotic effect. Thus, Gal-1 is broadly expressed in mucosal tissue and influences the viability of human and mouse enterocytes, an effect which might influence the migration of these cells from the crypt, the integrity of the villus and the epithelial barrier function.

  7. Optimality in the Development of Intestinal Crypts

    PubMed Central

    Itzkovitz, Shalev; Blat, Irene C.; Jacks, Tyler; Clevers, Hans; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Intestinal crypts in mammals are comprised of long-lived stem cells and shorter-lived progenies. These two populations are maintained in specific proportions during adult life. Here, we investigate the design principles governing the dynamics of these proportions during crypt morphogenesis. Using optimal control theory, we show that a proliferation strategy known as a “bang-bang” control minimizes the time to obtain a mature crypt. This strategy consists of a surge of symmetric stem cell divisions, establishing the entire stem cell pool first, followed by a sharp transition to strictly asymmetric stem cell divisions, producing nonstem cells with a delay. We validate these predictions using lineage tracing and single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization of intestinal crypts in infant mice, uncovering small crypts that are entirely composed of Lgr5-labeled stem cells, which become a minority as crypts continue to grow. Our approach can be used to uncover similar design principles in other developmental systems. PMID:22304925

  8. STUDIES ON SMALL INTESTINAL CRYPT EPITHELIUM

    PubMed Central

    Trier, Jerry S.

    1963-01-01

    Small intestinal crypt epithelium obtained from normal fasting humans by peroral biopsy of the mucosa was studied with the electron microscope. Paneth cells were identified at the base of the crypts by their elaborate highly organized endoplasmic reticulum, large secretory granules, and small lysosome-like dense bodies within the cytoplasm. Undifferentiated cells were characterized by smaller cytoplasmic membrane-bounded granules which were presumed to be secretory in nature, a less elaborate endoplasmic reticulum, many unattached ribosomes and, in some cells, the presence of glycogen. Some undifferentiated cells at the base of the crypts contained lobulated nuclei and striking paranuclear accumulations of mitochondria. Membrane-bounded cytoplasmic fragments, probably originating from undifferentiated and Paneth cells, were frequently apparent within crypt lumina. Of the goblet cells, some were seen actively secreting mucus. In these, apical mucus appeared to exude into the crypt lumen between gaps in the microvilli. The membrane formerly surrounding the apical mucus appeared to fuse with and become part of the plasma membrane of the cell, suggesting a merocrine secretory mechanism. Enterochromaffin cells were identified by their location between the basal regions of other crypt cells and by their unique intracytoplasmic granules. PMID:14064112

  9. The crypt cycle. Crypt and villus production in the adult intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Totafurno, J; Bjerknes, M; Cheng, H

    1987-01-01

    We propose a model for the growth of individual crypts that is able to account for the observed changes in the number of cells in crypts under normal conditions, after irradiation, and after 30% resection. Parameter values for this model are estimated both for mouse and man, and detailed predictions of crypt growth rates are made. This model does not predict a steady-state crypt size; rather it suggests that crypts grow until they bifurcate. We therefore propose a crypt cycle (analogous to the cell cycle) and present evidence that most if not all crypts in the adult mouse are cycling asynchronously and independently. This evidence consists of four experiments that indicate that branching crypts are randomly distributed over the intestinal epithelium, that the plane of bifurcation of branching crypts is randomly oriented with respect to the villus base, and that the size distribution of crypts is consistent with an expanding crypt population. We also report for the first time evidence of villus production in the adult mouse intestinal epithelium. We conclude that the crypt and villus populations in the adult mouse are not in a steady state. Images FIGURE 4 PMID:3663832

  10. The drug monosodium luminol (GVT) preserves crypt-villus epithelial organization and allows survival of intestinal T cells in mice infected with the ts1 retrovirus.

    PubMed

    Scofield, Virginia L; Yan, Mingshan; Kuang, Xianghong; Kim, Soo-Jin; Wong, Paul K Y

    2009-02-21

    Of the cytopathic retroviruses that affect mammals, including HIV-1, many selectively infect CD4+ T cells and cause immunosuppressive syndromes. These diseases destroy both the thymus and the small and large intestines, after infecting and killing T-lineage cells in both tissues. A mutant of the murine leukemia retrovirus MoMuLV-TB, called ts1, causes this syndrome in susceptible strains of mice. In FVB/N strain mice that are infected at birth, thymic atrophy, CD4+ T cell loss, intestinal collapse, body wasting, and death occur by approximately 30-40 days postinfection (dpi). Apoptosis of ts1-infected T-lineage cells, in the thymus, peripheral lymphoid system and intestines is caused by accumulation of the ts1 mutant viral envelope preprotein gPr80(env), which is inefficiently cleaved into the mature viral proteins gp70 and PrP15E. We show here that ts1 infection in the small intestine is followed by loss of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and cell cycling gradients (along the crypt-villus axes), accumulation of gPr80(env) in intestinal cells, apoptosis of developing T cells in the lamina propria (LP), and intestinal collapse by approximately 30 dpi. In infected mice treated with the antioxidant drug monosodium luminol (GVT), however, normal intestinal epithelial cell gradients are still in place at 30 dpi, and IECs covering both the crypts and villi contain large amounts of the antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2. In addition, no apoptotic cells are present, and accumulated gpr80(env) is absent from the tissue at this time. We conclude that GVT treatment can make ts1 a noncytopathic virus for intestinal lymphoid cells, as it does for thymocytes [25]. As in the thymus, GVT may protect the intestine by reducing oxidant stress in infected intestinal T cells, perhaps by prevention of gPr80(env) accumulation via Nrf2 upregulation in the IECs. These results identify GVT as a potential therapy for intestinal diseases or inflammatory

  11. Bone marrow hypoplasia and intestinal crypt cell necrosis associated with fenbendazole administration in five painted storks.

    PubMed

    Weber, Martha A; Terrell, Scott P; Neiffer, Donald L; Miller, Michele A; Mangold, Barbara J

    2002-08-01

    Five painted storks were treated with fenbendazole for 5 days for internal parasitism. Four birds died following treatment. Profound heteropenia was a consistent finding in all samples evaluated; additionally, the 1 surviving bird had progressive anemia. Consistent necropsy findings in the 4 birds that died were small intestinal crypt cell necrosis and severe bone marrow depletion and necrosis. Fenbendazole has been associated with bone marrow hypoplasia and enteric damage in mammals and other species of birds. The dosages of fenbendazole used in birds are often substantially higher than those recommended for mammals, which may contribute to bone marrow hypoplasia and intestinal crypt cell necrosis associated with fenbendazole administration in birds.

  12. In Vivo Imaging Reveals Existence of Crypt Fission and Fusion in Adult Mouse Intestine.

    PubMed

    Bruens, Lotte; Ellenbroek, Saskia I J; van Rheenen, Jacco; Snippert, Hugo J

    2017-09-01

    The intestinal epithelium is a repetitive sheet of crypt and villus units with stem cells at the bottom of the crypts. During postnatal development, crypts multiply via fission, generating 2 daughter crypts from 1 parental crypt. In the adult intestine, crypt fission is observed at a low frequency. Using intravital microscopy in Lgr5(EGFP-Ires-CreERT2) mice, we monitored individual crypt dynamics over multiple days with single-cell resolution. We discovered the existence of crypt fusion, an almost exact reverse phenomenon of crypt fission, in which 2 crypts fuse into 1 daughter crypt. Examining 819 crypts in 4 mice, we found that 3.5% ± 0.6% of all crypts were in the process of fission, whereas 4.1 ± 0.9% of all crypts were undergoing crypt fusion. As counteracting processes, crypt fission and fusion could regulate crypt numbers during the lifetime of a mouse. Identifying the mechanisms that regulate rates of crypt fission and fusion could provide insights into intestinal adaptation to altered environmental conditions and disease pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibition of Notch signaling reduces the number of surviving Dclk1+ reserve crypt epithelial stem cells following radiation injury

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Dongfeng; May, Randal; Sureban, Sripathi M.; Weygant, Nathaniel; Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; Ali, Naushad; Li, Linheng; Barrett, Terrence

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported that doublecortin-like kinase 1 (Dclk1) is a putative intestinal stem cell (ISC) marker. In this report, we evaluated the use of Dclk1 as a marker of surviving ISCs in response to treatment with high-dose total body irradiation (TBI). Both apoptotic and mitotic Dclk1+ cells were observed 24 h post-TBI associated with a corresponding loss of intestinal crypts observed at 84 h post-TBI. Although the Notch signaling pathway plays an important role in regulating proliferation and lineage commitment within the intestine, its role in ISC function in response to severe genotoxic injury is not yet fully understood. We employed the microcolony assay to functionally assess the effects of Notch inhibition with difluorophenacetyl-l-alanyl-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT) on intestinal crypt stem cell survival following severe (>8 Gy) radiation injury. Following treatment with DAPT, we observed a nearly 50% reduction in the number of surviving Dclk1+ crypt epithelial cells at 24 h after TBI and similar reduction in the number of surviving small intestinal crypts at 84 h. These data indicate that inhibition of Notch signaling decreases ISC survival following radiation injury, suggesting that the Notch signaling pathway plays an important role in ISC-mediated crypt regeneration. These results also suggest that crypt epithelial cell Dclk1 expression can be used as one potential marker to evaluate the early survival of ISCs following severe radiation injury. PMID:24368703

  14. Opioid receptors on guinea-pig intestinal crypt epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lang, M E; Davison, J S; Bates, S L; Meddings, J B

    1996-01-01

    1. Opioid peptides promote net intestinal absorption via two mechanisms: stimulation of Na+ and Cl- absorption and inhibition of Cl- secretion. Although these transport changes are predominantly mediated by submucosal neurones, it is currently unclear whether opioid peptides can regulate enterocyte function directly. We therefore tested the hypothesis that enterocytes have specific opioid receptors. 2. Villus and crypt jejunal epithelial cells were isolated by the distended sac method from anaesthetized guinea-pigs. Flow cytometry was used to resolve enterocytes from other cell types and to determine whether binding of a fluorescently labelled opioid antagonist, naltrexone-FITC, could be prevented by unlabelled mu- and delta-opioid receptor agonists. A population of crypt enterocytes (approximately 21%) exhibited high-affinity naltrexone-FITC binding to both mu- and delta-type binding sites that was stereoselective and sodium dependent. Villus enterocytes did not exhibit any of these characteristics. 3. Basal cAMP production was elevated in both villus and crypt cells treated with IBMX (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine). Villus cells did not respond to 100 nM vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), nor were they affected by opioid peptides. In contrast, 100 nM VIP significantly increased cAMP production in crypt epithelial cells, which was significantly reduced by both morphiceptin and D-Ser2-Leu-Enk-Thr. This opioid-mediated effect was stereoselective and blocked by the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone. 4. These experiments suggest that enterocytes isolated from the crypt epithelium of guineapigs have both mu- and delta-types of opioid receptors. It is possible that these cells participate in opioid-mediated regulation of intestinal secretion. Images Figure 12 PMID:8951719

  15. Screening of Intestinal Crypt Organoids: A Simple Readout for Complex Biology.

    PubMed

    Ley, Svenja; Galuba, Olaf; Salathe, Adrian; Melin, Nicolas; Aebi, Alexandra; Pikiolek, Monika; Knehr, Judith; Carbone, Walter; Beibel, Martin; Nigsch, Florian; Roma, Guglielmo; d'Ario, Giovanni; Kirkland, Susan; Bouchez, Laure C; Gubser Keller, Caroline; Bouwmeester, Tewis; Parker, Christian N; Ruffner, Heinz

    2017-06-01

    Oral and intestinal mucositis is a debilitating side effect of radiation treatment. A mouse model of radiation-induced mucositis leads to weight loss and tissue damage, reflecting the human ailment as it responds to keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), the standard-of-care treatment. Cultured intestinal crypt organoids allowed the development of an assay monitoring the effect of treatments of intestinal epithelium to radiation-induced damage. This in vitro assay resembles the mouse model as KGF and roof plate-specific spondin-1 (RSPO1) enhanced crypt organoid recovery following radiation. Screening identified compounds that increased the survival of organoids postradiation. Testing of these compounds revealed that the organoids changed their responses over time. Unbiased transcriptome analysis was performed on crypt organoid cultures at various time points in culture to investigate this adaptive behavior. A number of genes and pathways were found to be modulated over time, providing a rationale for the altered sensitivity of the organoid cultures. This report describes an in vitro assay that reflects aspects of human disease. The assay was used to identify bioactive compounds, which served as probes to interrogate the biology of crypt organoids over prolonged culture. The pathways that are changing over time may offer potential targets for treatment of mucositis.

  16. Intestinal crypt homeostasis revealed at single-stem-cell level by in vivo live imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritsma, Laila; Ellenbroek, Saskia I. J.; Zomer, Anoek; Snippert, Hugo J.; de Sauvage, Frederic J.; Simons, Benjamin D.; Clevers, Hans; van Rheenen, Jacco

    2014-03-01

    The rapid turnover of the mammalian intestinal epithelium is supported by stem cells located around the base of the crypt. In addition to the Lgr5 marker, intestinal stem cells have been associated with other markers that are expressed heterogeneously within the crypt base region. Previous quantitative clonal fate analyses have led to the proposal that homeostasis occurs as the consequence of neutral competition between dividing stem cells. However, the short-term behaviour of individual Lgr5+ cells positioned at different locations within the crypt base compartment has not been resolved. Here we establish the short-term dynamics of intestinal stem cells using the novel approach of continuous intravital imaging of Lgr5-Confetti mice. We find that Lgr5+ cells in the upper part of the niche (termed `border cells') can be passively displaced into the transit-amplifying domain, after the division of proximate cells, implying that the determination of stem-cell fate can be uncoupled from division. Through quantitative analysis of individual clonal lineages, we show that stem cells at the crypt base, termed `central cells', experience a survival advantage over border stem cells. However, through the transfer of stem cells between the border and central regions, all Lgr5+ cells are endowed with long-term self-renewal potential. These findings establish a novel paradigm for stem-cell maintenance in which a dynamically heterogeneous cell population is able to function long term as a single stem-cell pool.

  17. Intestinal crypt homeostasis revealed at single-stem-cell level by in vivo live imaging.

    PubMed

    Ritsma, Laila; Ellenbroek, Saskia I J; Zomer, Anoek; Snippert, Hugo J; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Simons, Benjamin D; Clevers, Hans; van Rheenen, Jacco

    2014-03-20

    The rapid turnover of the mammalian intestinal epithelium is supported by stem cells located around the base of the crypt. In addition to the Lgr5 marker, intestinal stem cells have been associated with other markers that are expressed heterogeneously within the crypt base region. Previous quantitative clonal fate analyses have led to the proposal that homeostasis occurs as the consequence of neutral competition between dividing stem cells. However, the short-term behaviour of individual Lgr5(+) cells positioned at different locations within the crypt base compartment has not been resolved. Here we establish the short-term dynamics of intestinal stem cells using the novel approach of continuous intravital imaging of Lgr5- Confetti mice. We find that Lgr5(+) cells in the upper part of the niche (termed 'border cells') can be passively displaced into the transit-amplifying domain, after the division of proximate cells, implying that the determination of stem-cell fate can be uncoupled from division. Through quantitative analysis of individual clonal lineages, we show that stem cells at the crypt base, termed 'central cells', experience a survival advantage over border stem cells. However, through the transfer of stem cells between the border and central regions, all Lgr5(+) cells are endowed with long-term self-renewal potential. These findings establish a novel paradigm for stem-cell maintenance in which a dynamically heterogeneous cell population is able to function long term as a single stem-cell pool.

  18. Stem cell self-renewal in intestinal crypt

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, Benjamin D.

    2011-11-15

    As a rapidly cycling tissue capable of fast repair and regeneration, the intestinal epithelium has emerged as a favored model system to explore the principles of adult stem cell biology. However, until recently, the identity and characteristics of the stem cell population in both the small intestine and colon has remained the subject of debate. Recent studies based on targeted lineage tracing strategies, combined with the development of an organotypic culture system, have identified the crypt base columnar cell as the intestinal stem cell, and have unveiled the strategy by which the balance between proliferation and differentiation is maintained. These results show that intestinal stem cells operate in a dynamic environment in which frequent and stochastic stem cell loss is compensated by the proliferation of neighboring stem cells. We review the basis of these experimental findings and the insights they offer into the mechanisms of homeostatic stem cell regulation.

  19. Application of three-dimensional imaging to the intestinal crypt organoids and biopsied intestinal tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Tsai, Ya-Hui; Liu, Yuan-An; Lee, Shih-Hua; Tseng, Sheng-Hong; Tang, Shiue-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) histopathology is the standard analytical method for intestinal biopsied tissues; however, the role of 3-dimensional (3D) imaging system in the analysis of the intestinal tissues is unclear. The 3D structure of the crypt organoids from the intestinal stem cell culture and intestinal tissues from the donors and recipients after intestinal transplantation was observed using a 3D imaging system and compared with 2D histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The crypt organoids and intestinal tissues showed well-defined 3D structures. The 3D images of the intestinal tissues with acute rejection revealed absence of villi and few crypts, which were consistent with the histopathological features. In the intestinal transplant for megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome, the donor's intestinal tissues had well-developed nerve networks and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in the muscle layer, while the recipient's intestinal tissues had distorted nerve network and the ICCs were few and sparsely distributed, relative to those of the donor. The 3D images showed a clear spatial relationship between the microstructures of the small bowel and the features of graft rejection. In conclusion, integration of the 3D imaging and 2D histopathology provided a global view of the intestinal tissues from the transplant patients.

  20. Effects of weaning on intestinal crypt epithelial cells in piglets

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huansheng; Xiong, Xia; Wang, Xiaocheng; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells in the crypt proliferate in piglets in response to weaning. However, the underlying mechanism has been unclear. We examined 40 piglets from eight litters (five piglets per litter) that were weaned at the age of 14 d, and one piglet from each litter was randomly selected for closer investigation. Based on the distended intestinal sac method, we isolated crypt epithelial cells from the mid-jejunum on Days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 post-weaning. Protein expression was analyzed using either isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification or western blotting. Proteins related to the cell cycle, organization of the cellular macromolecular complex subunit, localization of cellular macromolecules, Golgi vesicle transport, fatty acid metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and translational initiation were mainly down-regulated, while those involved in glycolysis, cell cycle arrest, protein catabolism, and cellular amino acid metabolism were up-regulated. The amount of proteins active in the mTOR signaling pathway was generally decreased over time. These results indicate that weaning influences energy metabolism, cellular macromolecule organization and localization, and protein metabolism, thereby affecting the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells in weaned piglets. Moreover, those cellular processes are possibly controlled by that signaling pathway. PMID:27830738

  1. An individual based computational model of intestinal crypt fission and its application to predicting unrestrictive growth of the intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Pin, Carmen; Parker, Aimee; Gunning, A Patrick; Ohta, Yuki; Johnson, Ian T; Carding, Simon R; Sato, Toshiro

    2015-02-01

    Intestinal crypt fission is a homeostatic phenomenon, observable in healthy adult mucosa, but which also plays a pathological role as the main mode of growth of some intestinal polyps. Building on our previous individual based model for the small intestinal crypt and on in vitro cultured intestinal organoids, we here model crypt fission as a budding process based on fluid mechanics at the individual cell level and extrapolated predictions for growth of the intestinal epithelium. Budding was always observed in regions of organoids with abundant Paneth cells. Our data support a model in which buds are biomechanically initiated by single stem cells surrounded by Paneth cells which exhibit greater resistance to viscoelastic deformation, a hypothesis supported by atomic force measurements of single cells. Time intervals between consecutive budding events, as simulated by the model and observed in vitro, were 2.84 and 2.62 days, respectively. Predicted cell dynamics was unaffected within the original crypt which retained its full capability of providing cells to the epithelium throughout fission. Mitotic pressure in simulated primary crypts forced upward migration of buds, which simultaneously grew into new protruding crypts at a rate equal to 1.03 days(-1) in simulations and 0.99 days(-1) in cultured organoids. Simulated crypts reached their final size in 4.6 days, and required 6.2 days to migrate to the top of the primary crypt. The growth of the secondary crypt is independent of its migration along the original crypt. Assuming unrestricted crypt fission and multiple budding events, a maximal growth rate of the intestinal epithelium of 0.10 days(-1) is predicted and thus approximately 22 days are required for a 10-fold increase of polyp size. These predictions are in agreement with the time reported to develop macroscopic adenomas in mice after loss of Apc in intestinal stem cells.

  2. Fluorescent labelling of intestinal epithelial cells reveals independent long-lived intestinal stem cells in a crypt

    SciTech Connect

    Horita, Nobukatsu; Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Hayashi, Ryohei; Fukushima, Keita; Hibiya, Shuji; Fukuda, Masayoshi; Kano, Yoshihito; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Nemoto, Yasuhiro; Yui, Shiro; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • Lentivirus mixed with Matrigel enables direct infection of intestinal organoids. • Our original approach allows the marking of a single stem cell in a crypt. • Time-lapse imaging shows the dynamics of a single stem cell. • Our lentivirus transgene system demonstrates plural long-lived stem cells in a crypt. - Abstract: Background and aims: The dynamics of intestinal stem cells are crucial for regulation of intestinal function and maintenance. Although crypt stem cells have been identified in the intestine by genetic marking methods, identification of plural crypt stem cells has not yet been achieved as they are visualised in the same colour. Methods: Intestinal organoids were transferred into Matrigel® mixed with lentivirus encoding mCherry. The dynamics of mCherry-positive cells was analysed using time-lapse imaging, and the localisation of mCherry-positive cells was analysed using 3D immunofluorescence. Results: We established an original method for the introduction of a transgene into an organoid generated from mouse small intestine that resulted in continuous fluorescence of the mCherry protein in a portion of organoid cells. Three-dimensional analysis using confocal microscopy showed a single mCherry-positive cell in an organoid crypt that had been cultured for >1 year, which suggested the presence of long-lived mCherry-positive and -negative stem cells in the same crypt. Moreover, a single mCherry-positive stem cell in a crypt gave rise to both crypt base columnar cells and transit amplifying cells. Each mCherry-positive and -negative cell contributed to the generation of organoids. Conclusions: The use of our original lentiviral transgene system to mark individual organoid crypt stem cells showed that long-lived plural crypt stem cells might independently serve as intestinal epithelial cells, resulting in the formation of a completely functional villus.

  3. Ballroom dancing with stem cells: placement and displacement in the intestinal crypt.

    PubMed

    Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2014-03-06

    Intestinal homeostasis is dependent upon stem cells that reside in the intestinal crypt, although the identity and dynamics of this population are unclear. Ritsma et al. (2014) recently reported temporal live imaging of mouse intestinal stem cells and their progeny, providing insights into spatial dynamics underlying stem cell behavior.

  4. Mensenchymal stem cells can delay radiation-induced crypt death: impact on intestinal CD44(+) fragments.

    PubMed

    Chang, Peng-Yu; Jin, Xing; Jiang, Yi-Yao; Wang, Li-Xian; Liu, Yong-Jun; Wang, Jin

    2016-05-01

    Intestinal stem cells are primitive cells found within the intestinal epithelium that play a central role in maintaining epithelial homeostasis through self-renewal and commitment into functional epithelial cells. Several markers are available to identify intestinal stem cells, such as Lgr5, CD24 and EphB2, which can be used to sort intestinal stem cells from mammalian gut. Here, we identify and isolate intestinal stem cells from C57BL/6 mice by using a cell surface antigen, CD44. In vitro, some CD44(+) crypt cells are capable of forming "villus-crypt"-like structures (organoids). A subset strongly positive for CD44 expresses high levels of intestinal stem-cell-related genes, including Lgr5, Bmi1, Hopx, Lrig1, Ascl2, Smoc2 and Rnf43. Cells from this subset are more capable of developing into organoids in vitro, compared with the subset weakly positive for CD44. However, the organoids are sensitive to ionizing irradiation. We investigate the specific roles of mesenchymal stem cells in protecting organoids against radiation-induced crypt death. When co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells, the crypt domains of irradiated organoids possess more proliferative cells and fewer apoptotic cells than those not co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells. Cd44v6 continues to be expressed in the crypt domains of irradiated organoids co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells. Our results indicate specific roles of mesenchymal stem cells in delaying radiation-induced crypt death in vitro.

  5. Fermentable dietary fiber potentiates the localization of immune cells in the rat large intestinal crypts.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Seiji; Xu, Hong; Hara, Hiroshi

    2004-10-01

    Intestinal crypts are composed of a well-defined hierarchy of epithelial cells, and proliferating epithelial cells reside close to the bottom of the crypts-even in the large intestine. We investigated whether CD8(+)and CD4(+)intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and CD161(+) natural killer (NK) cells localized in proliferating or differentiated epithelial region of cecum and colon. Both proliferating epithelial layer cells and the immune cells along the longitudinal crypt axis of the large intestine were measured histochemically. Dietary intervention revealed that the physiological localization of the immune cells in the longitudinal crypt axis depended on the immune cell type. CD8(+) IELs were preferentially located among differentiated epithelial cells. In contrast, CD161(+) NK cells were located adjacent to the epithelial cells at the bottom of crypt. Cecal crypts contained significantly larger numbers of CD8(+) IELs than did colonic crypts. However, there was only a minor population of CD4(+) IEL in the cecal and colonic epithelia. Some dietary fibers increased the densities of CD8(+) IELs and CD161(+) NK cells in the cecum, with the magnitude of response varying among the types of fiber. There was a significant relationship between SCFA and the localization of immune cells, especially CD8(+) IEL and CD161(+) NK cells, which are considered to be involved in the maintenance of epithelial homeostasis.

  6. Intestinal tuft cells regulate the ATM mediated DNA Damage response via Dclk1 dependent mechanism for crypt restitution following radiation injury

    PubMed Central

    Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; May, Randal; Weygant, Nathaniel; Qu, Dongfeng; Berry, William L.; Sureban, Sripathi M.; Ali, Naushad; Rao, Chinthalapally; Huycke, Mark; Bronze, Michael S.; Houchen, Courtney W.

    2016-01-01

    Crypt epithelial survival and regeneration after injury require highly coordinated complex interplay between resident stem cells and diverse cell types. The function of Dclk1 expressing tuft cells regulating intestinal epithelial DNA damage response for cell survival/self-renewal after radiation-induced injury is unclear. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) were isolated and purified and utilized for experimental analysis. We found that small intestinal crypts of VillinCre;Dclk1f/f mice were hypoplastic and more apoptotic 24 h post-total body irradiation, a time when stem cell survival is p53-independent. Injury-induced ATM mediated DNA damage response, pro-survival genes, stem cell markers, and self-renewal ability for survival and restitution were reduced in the isolated intestinal epithelial cells. An even greater reduction in these signaling pathways was observed 3.5 days post-TBI, when peak crypt regeneration occurs. We found that interaction with Dclk1 is critical for ATM and COX2 activation in response to injury. We determined that Dclk1 expressing tuft cells regulate the whole intestinal epithelial cells following injury through paracrine mechanism. These findings suggest that intestinal tuft cells play an important role in regulating the ATM mediated DNA damage response, for epithelial cell survival/self-renewal via a Dclk1 dependent mechanism, and these processes are indispensable for restitution and function after severe radiation-induced injury. PMID:27876863

  7. Cdx2 modulates proliferation in normal human intestinal epithelial crypt cells

    SciTech Connect

    Escaffit, Fabrice; Pare, Frederic; Gauthier, Remy; Rivard, Nathalie; Boudreau, Francois; Beaulieu, Jean-Francois . E-mail: Jean-Francois.Beaulieu@USherbrooke.ca

    2006-03-31

    The homeobox gene Cdx2 is involved in the regulation of the expression of intestine specific markers such as sucrase-isomaltase and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Previous studies performed with immortalized or transformed intestinal cell lines have provided evidence that Cdx2 can promote morphological and functional differentiation in these experimental models. However, no data exist concerning the implication of this factor in normal human intestinal cell physiology. In the present work, we have investigated the role of Cdx2 in normal human intestinal epithelial crypt (HIEC) cells that lack this transcription factor. The establishment of HIEC cells expressing Cdx2 in an inducible manner shows that forced expression of Cdx2 significantly alters the proliferation of intestinal crypt cells and stimulates dipeptidylpeptidase IV expression but is not sufficient to trigger intestinal terminal differentiation. These observations suggest that Cdx2 requires additional factors to activate the enterocyte differentiation program in normal undifferentiated cells.

  8. Crypt cell production rate in the small intestine of the zinc-supplemented mouse.

    PubMed

    Duff, Michael; Ettarh, Rajunor R

    2002-01-01

    Zinc is a trace element which is necessary in the body and the daily requirement is usually provided mainly through food intake. The effects of zinc deficiency are multisystemic and in the gastrointestinal tract include ulceration and inflammation. Many of these effects in the mammalian small intestine are reversible by zinc replenishment in a manner that is thought to be linked to the effect of this element on intestinal mucosal cell kinetics. However, the effects of continued replenishment (supplementation) have not been closely examined. This study examined the effects of zinc supplementation on gut crypt cell production in zinc-replete animals. Fifteen CD-1 mice were given zinc sulphate (0.3 mmol/l) in tap water while a second (control) group of 15 mice received only tap water. After 14 days, the small intestine was removed, measured and divided into four equal lengths and then sampled at the midpoint of each of the resulting four segments. Whole crypt numbers and crypt cell production rate were determined for each intestinal site for both groups of mice. While crypt dimensions and crypt numbers in zinc-fed mice showed no significant change from control levels, the crypt cell production in zinc-fed mice was significantly increased and duration of mitosis reduced in the third (distal) intestinal segment when compared to values from control mice. These findings show that the addition of subtoxic quantities of zinc to diet in zinc-replete animals enhances cell production and indicate that the reversal of zinc deficiency-induced gut damage following dietary zinc replenishment may be due to a direct effect on cell kinetics. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Ex vivo culture of intestinal crypt organoids as a model system for assessing cell death induction in intestinal epithelial cells and enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Grabinger, T; Luks, L; Kostadinova, F; Zimberlin, C; Medema, J P; Leist, M; Brunner, T

    2014-05-15

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) not only have a critical function in the absorption of nutrients, but also act as a physical barrier between our body and the outside world. Damage and death of the epithelial cells lead to the breakdown of this barrier function and inflammation due to access of the immune system to compounds of the intestinal flora. Intestinal epithelial damage is frequently associated with various inflammatory disorders, chemo- and radiotherapy as well as drug-mediated toxicity. Until recently, intestinal epithelial-damaging activities of drugs and treatments could be tested only in vivo in animal models because of the poor survival rate of primary IECs ex vivo. The three-dimensional culture and outgrowth of intestinal crypt stem cells into organoids have offered new possibilities to culture and study IECs ex vivo. Here we demonstrate that intestinal organoids are a useful and physiologically relevant model system to study cell death and survival in IECs. We further describe a number of microscopy-based as well as colorimetric methods to monitor and score survival and death of intestinal organoids. Finally, the comparison of organoids isolated from gene-deficient mice and wild-type mice allows investigating the role of specific genes in the regulation of IEC death. Owing to their comparable structure and behavior, intestinal organoids may serve as an interesting and physiologically relevant surrogate system for large- and mid-scale in vitro testing of intestinal epithelium-damaging drugs and toxins, and for the investigation of cell death pathways.

  10. Structural and mechanical architecture of the intestinal villi and crypts in the rat intestine: integrative reevaluation from ultrastructural analysis.

    PubMed

    Hosoyamada, Yasue; Sakai, Tatsuo

    2005-08-01

    The ultrastructure of the rat intestinal interstitium was analyzed from the viewpoint of mechanical dynamics to stabilize the intestinal villi, crypts and mucosal folds. In the rat, the small intestine lacks circular folds, but the large intestine possesses spiral folds. The intestinal villi, the largest in the duodenum, decreased in size in the jejunum and ileum successively, and were absent in the large intestine. The intestinal interstitium consisted of lamina propria mucosae (LPM) and tela submucosa (TSM) separated by muscularis mucosae (MM), the LPM was subdivided into an upper part within the villi and a lower part among the crypts in the small intestine. The light microscopic density of interstitium in the intestinal wall was lowest in the upper LPM, moderately dense in the lower LPM and highest in the TSM, and that among the intestinal region was highest in the duodenum and decreased successively in the jejunum and ileum. In the large intestine, the TSM bulged to form spiral folds with very low density. The intestinal epithelium in the villi possessed wide intercellular spaces and that in the crypts had closed intercellular spaces. At electron microscopic level, the upper and lower LPM contained subepithelial supportive meshwork that consisted of collagen fibrils and myofibroblast processes. The lower LPM and TSM contained conspicuous bundles of collagen fibrils and, in addition, TSM contained minor populations of scattered collagen fibrils near the smooth muscle layer (SML). The diameter of collagen fibrils was the largest in the bundles of TSM, and decreased from the duodenum through the jejunum and ileum to the large intestine. On the basis of these observations, we hypothesize that the intestinal villi are mechanically stabilized by the balance between the expansive interstitial pressure and inward pull by the subepithelial supportive meshwork. This hypothesis explains the hitherto neglected fact that the intestinal epithelium possesses wide

  11. Energy metabolism in intestinal epithelial cells during maturation along the crypt-villus axis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huansheng; Wang, Xiaocheng; Xiong, Xia; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells continuously migrate and mature along crypt-villus axis (CVA), while the changes in energy metabolism during maturation are unclear in neonates. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the energy metabolism in intestinal epithelial cells would be changed during maturation along CVA in neonates. Eight 21-day-old suckling piglets were used. Intestinal epithelial cells were isolated sequentially along CVA, and proteomics was used to analyze the changes in proteins expression in epithelial cells along CVA. The identified differentially expressed proteins were mainly involved in cellular process, metabolic process, biological regulation, pigmentation, multicellular organizational process and so on. The energy metabolism in intestinal epithelial cells of piglets was increased from the bottom of crypt to the top of villi. Moreover, the expression of proteins related to the metabolism of glucose, most of amino acids, and fatty acids was increased in intestinal epithelial cells during maturation along CVA, while the expression of proteins related to glutamine metabolism was decreased from crypt to villus tip. The expression of proteins involved in citrate cycle was also increased intestinal epithelial cells during maturation along CVA. Moreover, dietary supplementation with different energy sources had different effects on intestinal structure of weaned piglets. PMID:27558220

  12. Interplay between metabolic identities in the intestinal crypt supports stem cell function.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Colman, Maria J; Schewe, Matthias; Meerlo, Maaike; Stigter, Edwin; Gerrits, Johan; Pras-Raves, Mia; Sacchetti, Andrea; Hornsveld, Marten; Oost, Koen C; Snippert, Hugo J; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda; Fodde, Riccardo; Burgering, Boudewijn M T

    2017-03-16

    The small intestinal epithelium self-renews every four or five days. Intestinal stem cells (Lgr5(+) crypt base columnar cells (CBCs)) sustain this renewal and reside between terminally differentiated Paneth cells at the bottom of the intestinal crypt. Whereas the signalling requirements for maintaining stem cell function and crypt homeostasis have been well studied, little is known about how metabolism contributes to epithelial homeostasis. Here we show that freshly isolated Lgr5(+) CBCs and Paneth cells from the mouse small intestine display different metabolic programs. Compared to Paneth cells, Lgr5(+) CBCs display high mitochondrial activity. Inhibition of mitochondrial activity in Lgr5(+) CBCs or inhibition of glycolysis in Paneth cells strongly affects stem cell function, as indicated by impaired organoid formation. In addition, Paneth cells support stem cell function by providing lactate to sustain the enhanced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in the Lgr5(+) CBCs. Mechanistically, we show that oxidative phosphorylation stimulates p38 MAPK activation by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species signalling, thereby establishing the mature crypt phenotype. Together, our results reveal a critical role for the metabolic identity of Lgr5(+) CBCs and Paneth cells in supporting optimal stem cell function, and we identify mitochondria and reactive oxygen species signalling as a driving force of cellular differentiation.

  13. Investigating the Relation between Stochastic Differentiation, Homeostasis and Clonal Expansion in Intestinal Crypts via Multiscale Modeling

    PubMed Central

    De Matteis, Giovanni; Antoniotti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal tumors originate and develop within intestinal crypts. Even though some of the essential phenomena that characterize crypt structure and dynamics have been effectively described in the past, the relation between the differentiation process and the overall crypt homeostasis is still only partially understood. We here investigate this relation and other important biological phenomena by introducing a novel multiscale model that combines a morphological description of the crypt with a gene regulation model: the emergent dynamical behavior of the underlying gene regulatory network drives cell growth and differentiation processes, linking the two distinct spatio-temporal levels. The model relies on a few a priori assumptions, yet accounting for several key processes related to crypt functioning, such as: dynamic gene activation patterns, stochastic differentiation, signaling pathways ruling cell adhesion properties, cell displacement, cell growth, mitosis, apoptosis and the presence of biological noise. We show that this modeling approach captures the major dynamical phenomena that characterize the regular physiology of crypts, such as cell sorting, coordinate migration, dynamic turnover, stem cell niche correct positioning and clonal expansion. All in all, the model suggests that the process of stochastic differentiation might be sufficient to drive the crypt to homeostasis, under certain crypt configurations. Besides, our approach allows to make precise quantitative inferences that, when possible, were matched to the current biological knowledge and it permits to investigate the role of gene-level perturbations, with reference to cancer development. We also remark the theoretical framework is general and may be applied to different tissues, organs or organisms. PMID:24869488

  14. Radiation-induced hyperproliferation of intestinal crypts results in elevated genome instability with inactive p53-related genomic surveillance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Ma, Xiaofei; Wang, Zhenhua; Sun, Chao; Wang, Yupei; He, Yang; Zhang, Hong

    2015-12-15

    Radiation-induced hyperproliferation of intestinal crypts is well documented, but its potential tumorigenic effects remain elusive. Here we aim to determine the genomic surveillance process during crypt hyperproliferation, and its consequential outcome after ionizing radiation. Crypt regeneration in the intestine was induced by a single dose of 12Gy abdominal irradiation. γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and DNA-PKcs were used as DNA repair surrogates to investigate the inherent ability of intestinal crypt cells to recognize and repair double-strand breaks. Ki67 staining and the 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation assay were used to study patterns of cell proliferation in regenerating crypts. Staining for ATM, p53, Chk1 and Chk2 was performed to study checkpoint activation and release. Apoptosis was evaluated through H&E staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (dUTP) nick-end labeling. The ATM-p53 pathway was immediately activated after irradiation. A second wave of DSBs in crypt cells was observed in regenerating crypts, accompanied with significantly increased chromosomal bridges. The p53-related genomic surveillance pathway was not active during the regeneration phase despite DSBs and chromosomal bridges in the cells of regenerating crypts. Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) DSBs repair was involved in the DSBs repair process, as indicated by p-DNA-PKcs staining. Intestinal crypt cells retained hyperproliferation with inactive p53-related genomic surveillance system. NHEJ was involved in the resultant genomic instability during hyperproliferation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sodium Selenite Radiosensitizes Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer Xenograft Tumors but Not Intestinal Crypt Cells In Vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Tian Junqiang; Ning Shouchen; Knox, Susan J.

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that sodium selenite (SSE) increases radiation-induced cell killing of human prostate carcinoma cells in vitro. In this study we further evaluated the in vivo radiosensitizing effect of SSE in prostate cancer xenograft tumors and normal radiosensitive intestinal crypt cells. Methods and Materials: Immunodeficient (SCID) mice with hormone-independent LAPC-4 (HI-LAPC-4) and PC-3 xenograft tumors (approximately 200 mm{sup 3}) were divided into four groups: control (untreated), radiation therapy (XRT, local irradiation), SSE (2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, 3 times/week), and XRT plus SSE. The XRT was given at the beginning of the regimen as a single dose of 5 Gy for HI-LAPC-4 tumors and a single dose of 7 Gy followed by a fractional dose of 3 Gy/d for 5 days for PC-3 tumors. The tumor volume was measured 3 times per week. The radiosensitizing effect of SSE on normal intestinal epithelial cells was assessed by use of a crypt cell microcolony assay. Results: In the efficacy study, SSE alone significantly inhibited the tumor growth in HI-LAPC-4 tumors but not PC-3 tumors. Sodium selenite significantly enhanced the XRT-induced tumor growth inhibition in both HI-LAPC-4 and PC-3 tumors. In the toxicity study, SSE did not affect the intestinal crypt cell survival either alone or in combination with XRT. Conclusions: Sodium selenite significantly enhances the effect of radiation on well-established hormone-independent prostate tumors and does not sensitize the intestinal epithelial cells to radiation. These results suggest that SSE may increase the therapeutic index of XRT for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  16. IGF1 stimulates crypt expansion via differential activation of 2 intestinal stem cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Van Landeghem, Laurianne; Santoro, M. Agostina; Mah, Amanda T.; Krebs, Adrienne E.; Dehmer, Jeffrey J.; McNaughton, Kirk K.; Helmrath, Michael A.; Magness, Scott T.; Lund, P. Kay

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) has potent trophic effects on normal or injured intestinal epithelium, but specific effects on intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are undefined. We used Sox9-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter mice that permit analyses of both actively cycling ISCs (Sox9-EGFPLow) and reserve/facultative ISCs (Sox9-EGFPHigh) to study IGF1 action on ISCs in normal intestine or during crypt regeneration after high-dose radiation-induced injury. We hypothesized that IGF1 differentially regulates proliferation and gene expression in actively cycling and reserve/facultative ISCs. IGF1 was delivered for 5 days using subcutaneously implanted mini-pumps in uninjured mice or after 14 Gy abdominal radiation. ISC numbers, proliferation, and transcriptome were assessed. IGF1 increased epithelial growth in nonirradiated mice and enhanced crypt regeneration after radiation. In uninjured and regenerating intestines, IGF1 increased total numbers of Sox9-EGFPLow ISCs and percentage of these cells in M-phase. IGF1 increased percentages of Sox9-EGFPHigh ISCs in S-phase but did not expand this population. Microarray revealed that IGF1 activated distinct gene expression signatures in the 2 Sox9-EGFP ISC populations. In vitro IGF1 enhanced enteroid formation by Sox9-EGFPHigh facultative ISCs but not Sox9-EGFPLow actively cycling ISCs. Our data provide new evidence that IGF1 activates 2 ISC populations via distinct regulatory pathways to promote growth of normal intestinal epithelium and crypt regeneration after irradiation.—Van Landeghem, L., Santoro, M. A., Mah, A. T., Krebs, A. E., Dehmer, J. J., McNaughton, K. K., Helmrath, M. A., Magness, S. T., Lund, P. K. IGF1 stimulates crypt expansion via differential activation of 2 intestinal stem cell populations. PMID:25837582

  17. Critical role of microbiota within cecal crypts on the regenerative capacity of the intestinal epithelium following surgical stress

    PubMed Central

    Zaborin, Alexander; Krezalek, Monika; Hyoju, Sanjiv; Defazio, Jennifer R.; Setia, Namrata; Belogortseva, Natalia; Bindokas, Vytautas P.; Guo, Qiti; Zaborina, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Cecal crypts represent a unique niche that are normally occupied by the commensal microbiota. Due to their density and close proximity to stem cells, microbiota within cecal crypts may modulate epithelial regeneration. Here we demonstrate that surgical stress, a process that invariably involves a short period of starvation, antibiotic exposure, and tissue injury, results in cecal crypt evacuation of their microbiota. Crypts devoid of their microbiota display pathophysiological features characterized by abnormal stem cell activation as judged by leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) staining, expansion of the proliferative zone toward the tips of the crypts, and an increase in apoptosis. In addition, crypts devoid of their microbiota display loss of their regenerative capacity as assessed by their ability to form organoids ex vivo. When a four-member human pathogen community isolated from the stool of a critically ill patient is introduced into the cecum of mice with empty crypts, crypts become occupied by the pathogens and further disruption of crypt homeostasis is observed. Fecal microbiota transplantation restores the cecal crypts’ microbiota, normalizes homeostasis within crypts, and reestablishes crypt regenerative capacity. Taken together, these findings define an emerging role for the microbiota within cecal crypts to maintain epithelial cell homeostasis in a manner that may enhance recovery in response to the physiological stress imposed by the process of surgery. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study provides novel insight into the process by which surgical injury places the intestinal epithelium at risk for colonization by pathogenic microbes and impairment of its regenerative capacity via loss of its microbiota. We show that fecal transplant restores crypt homeostasis in association with repopulation of the microbiota within cecal crypts. PMID:27979825

  18. De Novo Formation of Insulin-Producing “Neo-β Cell Islets” from Intestinal Crypts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ju; Finkbeiner, Stacy R.; Weinblatt, Daniel; Emmett, Matthew J.; Tameire, Feven; Yousefi, Maryam; Yang, Chenghua; Maehr, Rene; Zhou, Qiao; Shemer, Ruth; Dor, Yuval; Li, Changhong; Spence, Jason R.; Stanger, Ben Z.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The ability to interconvert terminally differentiated cells could serve as a powerful tool for cell-based treatment of degenerative diseases, including diabetes mellitus. To determine which, if any, adult tissues are competent to activate an islet β cell program, we performed an in vivo screen by expressing three β cell “reprogramming factors” in a wide spectrum of tissues. We report that transient intestinal expression of these factors—Pdx1, MafA, and Ngn3 (PMN)—promotes rapid conversion of intestinal crypt cells into endocrine cells, which coalesce into “neoislets” below the crypt base. Neoislet cells express insulin and show ultrastructural features of β cells. Importantly, intestinal neoislets are glucose-responsive and able to ameliorate hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. Moreover, PMN expression in human intestinal “organoids” stimulates the conversion of intestinal epithelial cells into β-like cells. Our results thus demonstrate that the intestine is an accessible and abundant source of functional insulin-producing cells. PMID:24613355

  19. Scap is required for sterol synthesis and crypt growth in intestinal mucosa[S

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Matthew R.; Cantoria, Mary Jo; Linden, Albert G.; January, Brandon A.; Liang, Guosheng; Engelking, Luke J.

    2015-01-01

    SREBP cleavage-activating protein (Scap) is an endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein required for cleavage and activation of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), which activate the transcription of genes in sterol and fatty acid biosynthesis. Liver-specific loss of Scap is well tolerated; hepatic synthesis of sterols and fatty acids is reduced, but mice are otherwise healthy. To determine whether Scap loss is tolerated in the intestine, we generated a mouse model (Vil-Scap−) in which tamoxifen-inducible Cre-ERT2, a fusion protein of Cre recombinase with a mutated ligand binding domain of the human estrogen receptor, ablates Scap in intestinal mucosa. After 4 days of tamoxifen, Vil-Scap− mice succumb with a severe enteropathy and near-complete collapse of intestinal mucosa. Organoids grown ex vivo from intestinal crypts of Vil-Scap− mice are readily killed when Scap is deleted by 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Death is prevented when culture medium is supplemented with cholesterol and oleate. These data show that, unlike the liver, the intestine requires Scap to sustain tissue integrity by maintaining the high levels of lipid synthesis necessary for proliferation of intestinal crypts. PMID:25896350

  20. Paneth cell marker expression in intestinal villi and colon crypts characterizes dietary induced risk for mouse sporadic intestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Donghai; Peregrina, Karina; Dhima, Elena; Lin, Elaine Y; Mariadason, John M; Augenlicht, Leonard H

    2011-06-21

    Nutritional and genetic risk factors for intestinal tumors are additive on mouse tumor phenotype, establishing that diet and genetic factors impact risk by distinct combinatorial mechanisms. In a mouse model of dietary-induced sporadic small and large intestinal cancer in WT mice in which tumor etiology, lag, incidence, and frequency reflect >90% of intestinal cancer in Western societies, dietary-induced risk altered gene expression profiles predominantly in villus cells of the histologically normal mucosa, in contrast to targeting of crypt cells by inheritance of an Apc(1638N) allele or homozygous inactivation of p21(Waf1/cip1), and profiles induced by each risk factor were distinct at the gene or functional group level. The dietary-induced changes in villus cells encompassed ectopic expression of Paneth cell markers (a lineage normally confined to the bottom of small intestinal crypts), elevated expression of the Wnt receptor Fzd5 and of EphB2 (genes necessary for Paneth cell differentiation and localization to the crypt bottom), and increased Wnt signaling in villus cells. Ectopic elevation of these markers was also present in the colon crypts, which are also sites of sporadic tumors in the nutritional model. Elevating dietary vitamin D(3) and calcium, which prevents tumor development, abrogated these changes in the villus and colon cells. Thus, common intestinal cancer driven by diet involves mechanisms of tumor development distinct from those mechanisms that cause tumors induced by the rare inheritance of a mutant adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) allele. This is fundamental for understanding how common sporadic tumors arise and in evaluating relative risk in the population.

  1. Cell proliferation within small intestinal crypts is the principal driving force for cell migration on villi

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Aimee; Maclaren, Oliver J.; Fletcher, Alexander G.; Muraro, Daniele; Kreuzaler, Peter A.; Byrne, Helen M.; Maini, Philip K.; Watson, Alastair J. M.; Pin, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The functional integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier relies on tight coordination of cell proliferation and migration, with failure to regulate these processes resulting in disease. It is not known whether cell proliferation is sufficient to drive epithelial cell migration during homoeostatic turnover of the epithelium. Nor is it known precisely how villus cell migration is affected when proliferation is perturbed. Some reports suggest that proliferation and migration may not be related while other studies support a direct relationship. We used established cell-tracking methods based on thymine analog cell labeling and developed tailored mathematical models to quantify cell proliferation and migration under normal conditions and when proliferation is reduced and when it is temporarily halted. We found that epithelial cell migration velocities along the villi are coupled to cell proliferation rates within the crypts in all conditions. Furthermore, halting and resuming proliferation results in the synchronized response of cell migration on the villi. We conclude that cell proliferation within the crypt is the primary force that drives cell migration along the villus. This methodology can be applied to interrogate intestinal epithelial dynamics and characterize situations in which processes involved in cell turnover become uncoupled, including pharmacological treatments and disease models.—Parker, A., Maclaren, O. J., Fletcher, A. G., Muraro, D., Kreuzaler, P. A., Byrne, H. M., Maini, P. K., Watson, A. J. M., Pin, C. Cell proliferation within small intestinal crypts is the principal driving force for cell migration on villi. PMID:27811059

  2. In vitro model of intestinal crypt abscess. A novel neutrophil-derived secretagogue activity.

    PubMed Central

    Nash, S; Parkos, C; Nusrat, A; Delp, C; Madara, J L

    1991-01-01

    In order to model crypt abscesses, a histological finding which correlates with disease activity in intestinal inflammation, human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were layered onto monolayers of the human intestinal epithelial cell line T84, a crypt-like epithelium which is capable of Cl- secretion. Such PMN-epithelial interaction had no substantial effect on monolayer integrity or function. However, when PMN were stimulated by conditions including those present naturally in the human colonic lumen, monolayers responded with a bumetanide-sensitive short circuit current (Isc) indicative of Cl- secretion, the basis of secretory diarrhea. This Isc response was induced by a neutrophil-derived secretagogue (NDS), which was only active when applied to the luminal surface of monolayers and did not require PMN-epithelial contact. NDS activity is resistant to boiling, acid, and trypsin and passes a 500 nominal mol wt cutoff filter. NDS activity is not secondary to the respiratory burst products O2- or H2O2 and does not appear to be a myeloperoxidase product. We speculate NDS elicited Cl- secretion may contribute to the secretory diarrhea seen in patients with intestinal inflammation and crypt abscesses. PMID:2010557

  3. Cell proliferation within small intestinal crypts is the principal driving force for cell migration on villi.

    PubMed

    Parker, Aimee; Maclaren, Oliver J; Fletcher, Alexander G; Muraro, Daniele; Kreuzaler, Peter A; Byrne, Helen M; Maini, Philip K; Watson, Alastair J M; Pin, Carmen

    2017-02-01

    The functional integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier relies on tight coordination of cell proliferation and migration, with failure to regulate these processes resulting in disease. It is not known whether cell proliferation is sufficient to drive epithelial cell migration during homoeostatic turnover of the epithelium. Nor is it known precisely how villus cell migration is affected when proliferation is perturbed. Some reports suggest that proliferation and migration may not be related while other studies support a direct relationship. We used established cell-tracking methods based on thymine analog cell labeling and developed tailored mathematical models to quantify cell proliferation and migration under normal conditions and when proliferation is reduced and when it is temporarily halted. We found that epithelial cell migration velocities along the villi are coupled to cell proliferation rates within the crypts in all conditions. Furthermore, halting and resuming proliferation results in the synchronized response of cell migration on the villi. We conclude that cell proliferation within the crypt is the primary force that drives cell migration along the villus. This methodology can be applied to interrogate intestinal epithelial dynamics and characterize situations in which processes involved in cell turnover become uncoupled, including pharmacological treatments and disease models.-Parker, A., Maclaren, O. J., Fletcher, A. G., Muraro, D., Kreuzaler, P. A., Byrne, H. M., Maini, P. K., Watson, A. J. M., Pin, C. Cell proliferation within small intestinal crypts is the principal driving force for cell migration on villi.

  4. Unraveling intestinal stem cell behavior with models of crypt dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Carulli, Alexis J.; Samuelson, Linda C.; Schnell, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    The definition, regulation and function of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) has been hotly debated. Recent discoveries have started to clarify the nature of ISCs, but many questions remain. This review discusses the current advances and controversies of ISC biology as well as theoretical compartmental models that have been coupled with in vivo experimentation to investigate the mechanisms of ISC dynamics during homeostasis, tumorigenesis, repair and development. We conclude our review by discussing the key lingering questions in the field and proposing how many of these questions can be addressed using both compartmental models and experimental techniques. PMID:24480852

  5. IGF1 stimulates crypt expansion via differential activation of 2 intestinal stem cell populations.

    PubMed

    Van Landeghem, Laurianne; Santoro, M Agostina; Mah, Amanda T; Krebs, Adrienne E; Dehmer, Jeffrey J; McNaughton, Kirk K; Helmrath, Michael A; Magness, Scott T; Lund, P Kay

    2015-07-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) has potent trophic effects on normal or injured intestinal epithelium, but specific effects on intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are undefined. We used Sox9-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter mice that permit analyses of both actively cycling ISCs (Sox9-EGFP(Low)) and reserve/facultative ISCs (Sox9-EGFP(High)) to study IGF1 action on ISCs in normal intestine or during crypt regeneration after high-dose radiation-induced injury. We hypothesized that IGF1 differentially regulates proliferation and gene expression in actively cycling and reserve/facultative ISCs. IGF1 was delivered for 5 days using subcutaneously implanted mini-pumps in uninjured mice or after 14 Gy abdominal radiation. ISC numbers, proliferation, and transcriptome were assessed. IGF1 increased epithelial growth in nonirradiated mice and enhanced crypt regeneration after radiation. In uninjured and regenerating intestines, IGF1 increased total numbers of Sox9-EGFP(Low) ISCs and percentage of these cells in M-phase. IGF1 increased percentages of Sox9-EGFP(High) ISCs in S-phase but did not expand this population. Microarray revealed that IGF1 activated distinct gene expression signatures in the 2 Sox9-EGFP ISC populations. In vitro IGF1 enhanced enteroid formation by Sox9-EGFP(High) facultative ISCs but not Sox9-EGFP(Low) actively cycling ISCs. Our data provide new evidence that IGF1 activates 2 ISC populations via distinct regulatory pathways to promote growth of normal intestinal epithelium and crypt regeneration after irradiation.

  6. Enteral glutamine differentially regulates Nrf 2 along the villus-crypt axis of the intestine to enhance glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    Venoji, Raghupathy; Amirtharaj, Gnanaraj Jayakumar; Kini, Archana; Vanaparthi, Sivakumar; Venkatraman, Aparna; Ramachandran, Anup

    2015-12-01

    Glutamine is an important energy source for the intestinal epithelium, and its supplementation protects intestinal epithelial cells by induction of glutathione. However, mechanisms of glutathione induction in cells at various stages of differentiation along the crypt to villus axis are not well understood. This study examined induction of glutathione in response to glutamine along the intestinal villus-crypt axis and evaluated regulatory mediators involved in the process. Animals were administered 4% glutamine in feed for 7 days, following which enterocytes at various stages of differentiation were isolated and glutathione levels and signaling mediators involved in its regulation were studied. In control animals, glutathione levels were higher in the intestinal crypt than in the villus or middle region. This was accompanied by elevated expression of the modifier subunit of glutathione synthetase (GCLM) and the transcription factor Nrf2 when compared with cells from the villus and middle regions. These levels were further enhanced by glutamine throughout the intestine, although the effects were more dramatic in the crypt. In parallel to glutathione induction, glutamine supplementation also altered actin dynamics and proliferation in cells of the crypt. These results suggest that the variation of glutathione levels along the villus-crypt axis in the intestine is due to gradients in expression of mediators such as glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit and Nrf2. The protective effects of glutamine supplementation seem to be most pronounced in the crypt, where it upregulates proliferation, glutathione levels and alters actin dynamics. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Signaling and epigenetic mechanisms of intestinal stem cells and progenitors: insight into crypt homeostasis, plasticity, and niches.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan J; Rao-Bhatia, Abilasha; Kim, Tae-Hee

    2017-09-01

    The rapid turnover of intestinal epithelial cells is maintained by a small number of stem cells located in pocket-like gland structures called crypts. While our understanding of the identity and function of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) has rapidly progressed, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation in crypt stem cell and progenitor pools remains an active field of investigation. Surrounded by various types of cells in the stroma, crypt progenitors display high levels of plasticity, harboring the ability to interconvert in the face of epithelial damage. Recent studies analyzing epigenetic patterns of intestinal epithelial cells have provided evidence that plasticity is maintained by a broadly permissive epigenomic state, wherein cell-lineage specification is directed through activation of signaling pathways and transcription factor (TF) expression. New studies also have shown that the ISC niche, which is comprised of surrounding epithelial and mesenchymal tissues, plays a crucial role in supporting the maintenance and differentiation of stem cells by providing contextual information in the form of signaling cascades, such as Wnt, Notch, and Hippo. These cascades ultimately govern TF expression to promote early cell-lineage decisions in both crypt stem cells and progenitors. Highlighting recent studies investigating signaling, transcriptional, and epigenetic mechanisms of intestinal epithelial cells, we will discuss the mechanisms underlying crypt homeostasis, plasticity, and niches. WIREs Dev Biol 2017, 6:e281. doi: 10.1002/wdev.281 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Impaired Cell Volume Regulation in Intestinal Crypt Epithelia of Cystic Fibrosis Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde, M. A.; O'Brien, J. A.; Sepulveda, F. V.; Ratcliff, R. A.; Evans, M. J.; Colledge, W. H.

    1995-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a disease characterized by abnormalities in the epithelia of the lungs, intestine, salivary and sweat glands, liver, and reproductive systems, often as a result of inadequate hydration of their secretions. The primary defect in cystic fibrosis is the altered activity of a cAMP-activated Cl^- channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel. However, it is not clear how a defect in the CFTR Cl^- channel function leads to the observed pathological changes. Although much is known about the structural properties and regulation of the CFTR, little is known of its relationship to cellular functions other than the cAMP-dependent Cl^- secretion. Here we report that cell volume regulation after hypotonic challenge is also defective in intestinal crypt epithelial cells isolated from CFTR -/- mutant mice. Moreover, the impairment of the regulatory volume decrease in CFTR -/- crypts appears to be related to the inability of a K^+ conductance to provide a pathway for the exit of this cation during the volume adjustments. This provides evidence that the lack of CFTR protein may have additional consequences for the cellular function other than the abnormal cAMP-mediated Cl^- secretion.

  9. EP receptor expression in human intestinal epithelium and localization relative to the stem cell zone of the crypts.

    PubMed

    Olsen Hult, Lene Th; Kleiveland, Charlotte R; Fosnes, Kjetil; Jacobsen, Morten; Lea, Tor

    2011-01-01

    There is substantial evidence for PGE2 affecting intestinal epithelial proliferation. PGE2 is also reported to be involved in the regulation of growth and differentiation in adult stem cells, both effects mediated by binding to EP-receptors. We have used the Lgr5 as a marker to scrutinize EP-receptor and COX expression in human intestinal epithelial cells with focus on the stem cell area of the crypts. Normal tissue from ileum and colon, but also duodenal biopsies from patients with untreated celiac disease, were investigated by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. The combination of fresh flash-frozen tissue and laser microdissection made it possible to isolate RNA from the epithelial cell layer, only. In the small intestine, Lgr5 labels cells are in the +4 position, while in the colon, Lgr5 positive cells are localized to the crypt bottoms. Epithelial crypt cells of normal small intestine expressed neither EP-receptor mRNA nor COX1/2. However, crypt cells in tissue from patients with untreated celiac disease expressed EP2/4 receptor and COX1 mRNA. In the colon, the situation was different. Epithelial crypt cells from normal colon were found to express EP2/4 receptor and COX1/2 transcripts. Thus, there are distinct differences between normal human small intestine and colon with regard to expression of EP2/4 receptors and COX1/2. In normal colon tissue, PGE2-mediated signaling through EP-receptors 2/4 could be involved in regulation of growth and differentiation of the epithelium, while the lack of EP-receptor expression in the small intestinal tissue exclude the possibility of a direct effect of PGE2 on the crypt epithelial cells.

  10. Organization of the crypt-villus axis and evolution of its stem cell hierarchy during intestinal development.

    PubMed

    Hermiston, M L; Gordon, J I

    1995-05-01

    The small intestinal crypt of the adult mouse represents a model system for studying cell renewal. One or more functionally equivalent stem cells located within the crypt fuel a continuous regeneration of the gut's four principal epithelial cell lineages. These lineages differentiate during a geographically well-organized migration along the crypt-villus axis. This axis does not complete its morphogenetic program until the third postnatal week. We examined the organization of the crypt-villus axis and its stem cell hierarchy in postnatal day 1 (P1) to P28 transgenic mice. These mice contained transcriptional regulatory elements from the liver fatty acid binding protein gene linked to a human growth hormone (hGH) reporter. Adult male and female animals exhibit a striped pattern of hGH accumulation in their villus-associated epithelial cells: vertical coherent bands of wholly hGH-positive epithelial cells derived from a monoclonal crypt and vertical coherent stripes of wholly hGH-negative epithelial cells derived from an adjacent crypt extend to the apical extrusion zone of their common villus. Villus striping develops in a proximal-to-distal wave that extends from the duodenum to the jejunum by P7 and to the ileum by P14. Striping occurs as a result of a loss in the ability to support transgene expression. The decision appears to affect all cells within a stripe, irrespective of their position along the basilar-to-apical axis of a villus, suggesting that it is programmed by the nascent crypt's multipotent stem cell(s). Suppression of transgene expression traverses the crypt-villus axis more rapidly than the rate of epithelial cell migration. The boundary between stripes is very sharp and does not contain cells with transitional levels of the hGH reporter, indicating that the epithelial components of the crypt-villus axis have a higher degree of organization at this stage of development than appreciated previously.

  11. The response of murine intestinal crypts to short-range promethium-147 beta irradiation: deductions concerning clonogenic cell numbers and positions.

    PubMed

    Hendry, J H; Potten, C S; Ghafoor, A; Moore, J V; Roberts, S A; Williams, P C

    1989-05-01

    An exteriorized loop of mouse intestine was exposed to 147Pm low-energy electrons, where the dose rate decreased by a factor of 5 from the base of the crypt to the top of the proliferative zone. A crypt survival curve was obtained, expressed in terms of exposure time. The shape of the curve was interpreted in terms of survival parameters for colony-forming cells (clonogens) derived using 137Cs gamma rays and the depth-dose curve measured for 147Pm electrons. It is concluded that the shape of the crypt survival curve using 147Pm electrons is inconsistent with the notion of either the presence of a large number of clonogens or a small number near the top of the proliferative zone. A computer fitting procedure showed that the best agreement between predicted and observed curves was achieved with 2.7 +/- 0.5 clonogens at cell position 5.6 +/- 0.6, in the putative stem-cell zone.

  12. The response of murine intestinal crypts to short-range promethium-147 beta irradiation: Deductions concerning clonogenic cell numbers and positions

    SciTech Connect

    Hendry, J.H.; Potten, C.S.; Ghafoor, A.; Moore, J.V.; Roberts, S.A.; Williams, P.C.

    1989-05-01

    An exteriorized loop of mouse intestine was exposed to /sup 147/Pm low-energy electrons, where the dose rate decreased by a factor of 5 from the base of the crypt to the top of the proliferative zone. A crypt survival curve was obtained, expressed in terms of exposure time. The shape of the curve was interpreted in terms of survival parameters for colony-forming cells (clonogens) derived using /sup 137/Cs gamma rays and the depth-dose curve measured for /sup 147/Pm electrons. It is concluded that the shape of the crypt survival curve using /sup 147/Pm electrons is inconsistent with the notion of either the presence of a large number of clonogens or a small number near the top of the proliferative zone. A computer fitting procedure showed that the best agreement between predicted and observed curves was achieved with 2.7 +/- 0.5 clonogens at cell position 5.6 +/- 0.6, in the putative stem-cell zone.

  13. The Viral Mimetic Polyinosinic:Polycytidylic Acid Alters the Growth Characteristics of Small Intestinal and Colonic Crypt Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Julie M.; Santaolalla, Rebeca; von Furstenberg, Richard J.; Henning, Susan J.; Abreu, Maria T.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The intestinal epithelium is the first line of defense against enteric pathogens. We investigated the response of small intestinal and colonic crypt cultures to a panel of toll-like receptor ligands to assess the impact of microbial pattern recognition on epithelial growth. Methods Primary murine jejunal enteroids and colonoids were cultured with lipopeptide Pam3CSK4, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) for 4 to 6 days. Surface area, budding and survival were assessed. Proliferation and numbers of lysozyme positive cells were quantified by flow cytometry. Gene expression was assessed by Nanostring and qRT-PCR. Results Exposure to Pam3CSK4 and LPS had minimal impact on either enteroids or colonoids. In contrast, Poly I:C increased the surface area of enteroids, while colonoids demonstrated decreased budding. Survival was decreased by Poly I:C in enteroids but not in colonoids. Both enteroids and colonoids exhibited upregulated gene expression of chemokines, but these were increased in magnitude in enteroids. Decreases in gene expression associated with epithelial differentiation and lysozyme positive cells were more apparent in enteroids than in colonoids. Baseline gene expression between enteroids and colonoids differed markedly in levels of stem cell and inflammatory markers. The changes in morphology induced by Poly I:C were mediated by the toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 1 (Ticam1) in enteroids but not in colonoids. Conclusions Poly I:C alters the molecular program of epithelial cells and shifts from absorption and digestion towards defense and inflammation. Diversity of responses to microbial patterns in enteroids and colonoids may underlie differences in susceptibility to infection along the intestinal tract. PMID:26414184

  14. Modelling the spatio-temporal cell dynamics reveals novel insights on cell differentiation and proliferation in the small intestinal crypt.

    PubMed

    Pin, Carmen; Watson, Alastair J M; Carding, Simon R

    2012-01-01

    We developed a slow structural relaxation model to describe cellular dynamics in the crypt of the mouse small intestine. Cells are arranged in a three dimensional spiral the size of which dynamically changes according to cell production demands of adjacent villi. Cell differentiation and proliferation is regulated through Wnt and Notch signals, the strength of which depends on the local cell composition. The highest level of Wnt activity is associated with maintaining equipotent stem cells (SC), Paneth cells and common goblet-Paneth cell progenitors (CGPCPs) intermingling at the crypt bottom. Low levels of Wnt signalling area are associated with stem cells giving rise to secretory cells (CGPCPs, enteroendocrine or Tuft cells) and proliferative absorptive progenitors. Deciding between these two fates, secretory and stem/absorptive cells, depends on Notch signalling. Our model predicts that Notch signalling inhibits secretory fate if more than 50% of cells they are in contact with belong to the secretory lineage. CGPCPs under high Wnt signalling will differentiate into Paneth cells while those migrating out from the crypt bottom differentiate into goblet cells. We have assumed that mature Paneth cells migrating upwards undergo anoikis. Structural relaxation explains the localisation of Paneth cells to the crypt bottom in the absence of active forces. The predicted crypt generation time from one SC is 4-5 days with 10-12 days needed to reach a structural steady state. Our predictions are consistent with experimental observations made under altered Wnt and Notch signalling. Mutations affecting stem cells located at the crypt floor have a 50% chance of being propagated throughout the crypt while mutations in cells above are rarely propagated. The predicted recovery time of an injured crypt losing half of its cells is approximately 2 days.

  15. Modelling the Spatio-Temporal Cell Dynamics Reveals Novel Insights on Cell Differentiation and Proliferation in the Small Intestinal Crypt

    PubMed Central

    Pin, Carmen; Watson, Alastair J. M.; Carding, Simon R.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a slow structural relaxation model to describe cellular dynamics in the crypt of the mouse small intestine. Cells are arranged in a three dimensional spiral the size of which dynamically changes according to cell production demands of adjacent villi. Cell differentiation and proliferation is regulated through Wnt and Notch signals, the strength of which depends on the local cell composition. The highest level of Wnt activity is associated with maintaining equipotent stem cells (SC), Paneth cells and common goblet-Paneth cell progenitors (CGPCPs) intermingling at the crypt bottom. Low levels of Wnt signalling area are associated with stem cells giving rise to secretory cells (CGPCPs, enteroendocrine or Tuft cells) and proliferative absorptive progenitors. Deciding between these two fates, secretory and stem/absorptive cells, depends on Notch signalling. Our model predicts that Notch signalling inhibits secretory fate if more than 50% of cells they are in contact with belong to the secretory lineage. CGPCPs under high Wnt signalling will differentiate into Paneth cells while those migrating out from the crypt bottom differentiate into goblet cells. We have assumed that mature Paneth cells migrating upwards undergo anoikis. Structural relaxation explains the localisation of Paneth cells to the crypt bottom in the absence of active forces. The predicted crypt generation time from one SC is 4–5 days with 10–12 days needed to reach a structural steady state. Our predictions are consistent with experimental observations made under altered Wnt and Notch signalling. Mutations affecting stem cells located at the crypt floor have a 50% chance of being propagated throughout the crypt while mutations in cells above are rarely propagated. The predicted recovery time of an injured crypt losing half of its cells is approximately 2 days. PMID:22623982

  16. Protein kinase D1 mediates stimulation of DNA synthesis and proliferation in intestinal epithelial IEC-18 cells and in mouse intestinal crypts.

    PubMed

    Sinnett-Smith, James; Rozengurt, Nora; Kui, Robert; Huang, Carlos; Rozengurt, Enrique

    2011-01-07

    We examined whether protein kinase D1 (PKD1), the founding member of a new protein kinase family, plays a critical role in intestinal epithelial cell proliferation. Our results demonstrate that PKD1 activation is sustained, whereas that of PKD2 is transient in intestinal epithelial IEC-18 stimulated with the G(q)-coupled receptor agonists angiotensin II or vasopressin. PKD1 gene silencing utilizing small interfering RNAs dramatically reduced DNA synthesis and cell proliferation in IEC-18 cells stimulated with G(q)-coupled receptor agonists. To clarify the role of PKD1 in intestinal epithelial cell proliferation in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that express elevated PKD1 protein in the intestinal epithelium. Transgenic PKD1 exhibited constitutive catalytic activity and phosphorylation at the activation loop residues Ser(744) and Ser(748) and on the autophosphorylation site, Ser(916). To examine whether PKD1 expression stimulates intestinal cell proliferation, we determined the rate of crypt cell DNA synthesis by detection of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporated into the nuclei of crypt cells of the ileum. Our results demonstrate a significant increase (p < 0.005) in DNA-synthesizing cells in the crypts of two independent lines of PKD1 transgenic mice as compared with non-transgenic littermates. Morphometric analysis showed a significant increase in the length and in the total number of cells per crypt in the transgenic PKD1 mice as compared with the non-transgenic littermates (p < 0.01). Thus, transgenic PKD1 signaling increases the number of cells per crypt by stimulating the rate of crypt cell proliferation. Collectively, our results indicate that PKD1 plays a role in promoting cell proliferation in intestinal epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Notch receptor regulation of intestinal stem cell homeostasis and crypt regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Carulli, Alexis J.; Keeley, Theresa M.; Demitrack, Elise S.; Chung, Jooho; Maillard, Ivan; Samuelson, Linda C.

    2015-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway regulates intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis, including stem cell maintenance, progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. Notch1 and Notch2 receptors are expressed in the epithelium, but individual contributions to these functions are unclear. We used genetic deletion to define receptor roles on stem cell function, cell proliferation/differentiation, and repair after injury. Loss of Notch1 induced a transient secretory cell hyperplasia that spontaneously resolved over time. In contrast, deletion of Notch2 had no secretory cell effect. Compound deletions of Notch1 and Notch2 resulted in a more severe secretory cell hyperplasia than deletion of Notch1 alone. Furthermore, only double deletion of Notch1 and Notch2 decreased cell proliferation, suggesting a low threshold for maintenance of proliferation compared to differentiation. Stem cells were affected by deletion of Notch1, with reduced expression of Olfm4 and fewer LGR5+ stem cells. Deletion of Notch2 had no apparent affect on stem cell homeostasis. However, we observed impaired crypt regeneration after radiation in both Notch1- and Notch2-deleted intestine, suggesting that higher Notch activity is required post-injury. These findings suggest that Notch1 is the primary receptor regulating intestinal stem cell function and that Notch1 and Notch2 together regulate epithelial cell proliferation, cell fate determination, and post-injury regeneration. PMID:25835502

  18. Selection of multipotent stem cells during morphogenesis of small intestinal crypts of Lieberkuhn is perturbed by stimulation of Lef-1/beta-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Wong, Melissa H; Huelsken, Joerg; Birchmeier, Walter; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2002-05-03

    Studies of chimeric mice have disclosed that the stem cell hierarchy in the small intestinal epithelium is established during formation of its proliferative units (crypts of Lieberkühn). This process involves a selection among several multipotential progenitors so that ultimately only one survives to supply descendants to the fully formed crypt. In this report, we examine the hypothesis that the level of beta-catenin (beta-cat)-mediated signaling is an important factor regulating this stem cell selection. In the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, beta-catenin can partner with Lef-1/Tcf high mobility group (HMG) box transcription factors to control gene expression. Both Lef-1 and Tcf-4 mRNAs are produced in the fetal mouse small intestine. Tcf-4 expression is sustained, whereas Lef-1 levels fall as crypt formation is completed during the first two postnatal weeks. A Tcf-4 gene knockout is known to block intestinal epithelial proliferation in late fetal life. Therefore, to test the hypothesis, we enhanced beta-catenin signaling in a chimeric mouse model in which the stem cell selection could be monitored. A fusion protein containing the HMG box domain of Lef-1 linked to the trans-activation domain of beta-catenin (Lef-1/beta-cat) was constructed to promote direct stimulation of signaling without being retained in the cytoplasm through interactions with E-cadherin and Apc/Axin. Lef-1/beta-cat was expressed in 129/Sv embryonic stem cell-derived small intestinal epithelial progenitors present in developing B6-ROSA26<-->129/Sv chimeras. Lef-1/beta-cat stimulated expression of a known beta-catenin target (E-cadherin), suppressed expression of Apc and Axin, and induced apoptosis in 129/Sv but not in neighboring B6-ROSA26 epithelial cells. This apoptotic response was not associated with any detectable changes in cell division within the Lef-1/beta-cat-expressing epithelium. By the time crypt development was completed, all 129/Sv epithelial cells were lost. These results

  19. Survival after total body irradiation: Effects of irradiation of exteriorized small intestine. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Vigneulle, R.M.; Kitto, G.; Pelky, T.; Taylor, P.

    1993-12-31

    Rats receiving lethal irradiation to their exteriorized small intestine with pulsed 18 MVp bremsstrahlung radiation live about 4 days longer than rats receiving a dose of total-body irradiation (TBI) causing intestinal death. The LD50 for intestinal irradiation is approximately 6 Gy higher than the LD50 for intestinal death after TBI. Survival time after exteriorized intestinal irradiation can be decreased, by adding abdominal irradiation. Adding thoracic or pelvic irradiation does not alter survival time. Shielding of large intestine improves survival after irradiation of the rest of the abdomen while the small intestine is also shielded. The kinetics of histological changes in small intestinal tissues implicate the release of humoral factors after irradiation of the abdomen. Radiation injury develops faster in the first (proximal) 40 cm of the small intestine and is expressed predominantly as shortening in villus height. In the last (distal) 40 cm of the small intestine, the most pronounced radiation effect is a decrease in the number of crypts per millimeter. Irradiation (20 Gy) of the proximal small intestine causes 92 % mortality (median survival 10 days). Irradiation (20 Gy) of the distal small intestine causes 27% mortality (median survival > 30 days). In addition to depletion of crypt stem cells in the small intestine, other issues (humoral factors, irradiated subsection of the small intestine and shielding of the large intestine) appear to influence radiation-induced intestinal mortality.

  20. The Helical Shape of Campylobacter jejuni Promotes In Vivo Pathogenesis by Aiding Transit through Intestinal Mucus and Colonization of Crypts

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Martin; Frirdich, Emilisa; Vermeulen, Jenny; Badayeva, Yuliya; Li, Xiaoxia

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a helix-shaped enteric bacterial pathogen and a common cause of gastroenteritis. We recently developed a mouse model for this human pathogen utilizing the SIGIRR-deficient mouse strain, which exhibits significant intestinal inflammation in response to intestinal C. jejuni infection. In the current study, this mouse model was used to define whether C. jejuni's characteristic helical shape plays a role in its ability to colonize and elicit inflammation in the mouse intestine. Mice were infected with the previously characterized straight-rod Δpgp1 and Δpgp2 mutant strains, along with a newly characterized curved-rod Δ1228 mutant strain. We also compared the resultant infections and pathology to those elicited by the helix-shaped wild-type C. jejuni and complemented strains. Despite displaying wild-type colonization of the intestinal lumen, the straight-rod Δpgp1 and Δpgp2 mutants were essentially nonpathogenic, while all strains with a curved or helical shape retained their expected virulence. Furthermore, analysis of C. jejuni localization within the ceca of infected mice determined that the primary difference between the rod-shaped, nonpathogenic mutants and the helix-shaped, pathogenic strains was the ability to colonize intestinal crypts. Rod-shaped mutants appeared unable to colonize intestinal crypts due to an inability to pass through the intestinal mucus layer to directly contact the epithelium. Together, these results support a critical role for C. jejuni's helical morphology in enabling it to traverse and colonize the mucus-filled intestinal crypts of their host, a necessary step required to trigger intestinal inflammation in response to C. jejuni. PMID:27647867

  1. The Helical Shape of Campylobacter jejuni Promotes In Vivo Pathogenesis by Aiding Transit through Intestinal Mucus and Colonization of Crypts.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Martin; Frirdich, Emilisa; Vermeulen, Jenny; Badayeva, Yuliya; Li, Xiaoxia; Vallance, Bruce A; Gaynor, Erin C

    2016-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a helix-shaped enteric bacterial pathogen and a common cause of gastroenteritis. We recently developed a mouse model for this human pathogen utilizing the SIGIRR-deficient mouse strain, which exhibits significant intestinal inflammation in response to intestinal C. jejuni infection. In the current study, this mouse model was used to define whether C. jejuni's characteristic helical shape plays a role in its ability to colonize and elicit inflammation in the mouse intestine. Mice were infected with the previously characterized straight-rod Δpgp1 and Δpgp2 mutant strains, along with a newly characterized curved-rod Δ1228 mutant strain. We also compared the resultant infections and pathology to those elicited by the helix-shaped wild-type C. jejuni and complemented strains. Despite displaying wild-type colonization of the intestinal lumen, the straight-rod Δpgp1 and Δpgp2 mutants were essentially nonpathogenic, while all strains with a curved or helical shape retained their expected virulence. Furthermore, analysis of C. jejuni localization within the ceca of infected mice determined that the primary difference between the rod-shaped, nonpathogenic mutants and the helix-shaped, pathogenic strains was the ability to colonize intestinal crypts. Rod-shaped mutants appeared unable to colonize intestinal crypts due to an inability to pass through the intestinal mucus layer to directly contact the epithelium. Together, these results support a critical role for C. jejuni's helical morphology in enabling it to traverse and colonize the mucus-filled intestinal crypts of their host, a necessary step required to trigger intestinal inflammation in response to C. jejuni. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Saireito (TJ-114), a Japanese traditional herbal medicine, reduces 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in mice by inhibiting cytokine-mediated apoptosis in intestinal crypt cells.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shinichi; Hayashi, Shusaku; Kitahara, Yumeno; Nagasawa, Koyo; Aono, Hitomi; Shibata, Junichiro; Utsumi, Daichi; Amagase, Kikuko; Kadowaki, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Clinical chemotherapy frequently causes intestinal mucositis as a side effect, which is accompanied by severe diarrhea. We recently showed that the cytokine-mediated apoptotic pathway might be important for the development of intestinal mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Saireito, the traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine, is widely used to treat diarrhea and various inflammatory diseases in Japan. In the present study, we investigated the effect of saireito on 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in mice, especially in relation to apoptosis in the intestinal crypt. Male C57BL/6 mice were given 5-FU (50 mg/kg), i.p. once daily for 6 days. Intestinal mucositis was evaluated histochemically. Saireito (100-1000 mg/kg) was administered p.o. twice daily for 6 days. Repeated 5-FU treatment caused severe intestinal mucositis including morphological damage, which was accompanied by body weight loss and diarrhea. Daily administration of saireito reduced the severity of intestinal mucositis in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight loss and diarrhea during 5-FU treatment were also significantly attenuated by saireito administration. The number of apoptotic and caspase-3-activated cells in the intestinal crypt was increased, and was accompanied by up-regulated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β mRNA within 24 h of the first 5-FU injection. However, all of these measures were significantly lower after saireito administration. These results suggest that saireito attenuates 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. This action may come from the reduction of apoptosis in the intestinal crypt via suppression of the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, saireito may be clinically useful for the prevention of intestinal mucositis during cancer chemotherapy.

  3. MicroRNA mir-16 is anti-proliferative in enterocytes and exhibits diurnal rhythmicity in intestinal crypts

    SciTech Connect

    Balakrishnan, Anita; Stearns, Adam T.; Park, Peter J.; Dreyfuss, Jonathan M.; Ashley, Stanley W.; Rhoads, David B.; Tavakkolizadeh, Ali

    2010-12-10

    Background and aims: The intestine exhibits profound diurnal rhythms in function and morphology, in part due to changes in enterocyte proliferation. The regulatory mechanisms behind these rhythms remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that microRNAs are involved in mediating these rhythms, and studied the role of microRNAs specifically in modulating intestinal proliferation. Methods: Diurnal rhythmicity of microRNAs in rat jejunum was analyzed by microarrays and validated by qPCR. Temporal expression of diurnally rhythmic mir-16 was further quantified in intestinal crypts, villi, and smooth muscle using laser capture microdissection and qPCR. Morphological changes in rat jejunum were assessed by histology and proliferation by immunostaining for bromodeoxyuridine. In IEC-6 cells stably overexpressing mir-16, proliferation was assessed by cell counting and MTS assay, cell cycle progression and apoptosis by flow cytometry, and cell cycle gene expression by qPCR and immunoblotting. Results: mir-16 peaked 6 hours after light onset (HALO 6) with diurnal changes restricted to crypts. Crypt depth and villus height peaked at HALO 13-14 in antiphase to mir-16. Overexpression of mir-16 in IEC-6 cells suppressed specific G1/S regulators (cyclins D1-3, cyclin E1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 6) and produced G1 arrest. Protein expression of these genes exhibited diurnal rhythmicity in rat jejunum, peaking between HALO 11 and 17 in antiphase to mir-16. Conclusions: This is the first report of circadian rhythmicity of specific microRNAs in rat jejunum. Our data provide a link between anti-proliferative mir-16 and the intestinal proliferation rhythm and point to mir-16 as an important regulator of proliferation in jejunal crypts. This function may be essential to match proliferation and absorptive capacity with nutrient availability.

  4. Interactions of radiation and 5-fluorouracil, cyclophosphamide or methotrexate in intestinal crypt cells

    SciTech Connect

    von der Maase, H.

    1984-01-01

    The interactions of radiation and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), cyclophosphamide (CTX), or methotrexate (MTX) in mouse jejunal crypt cells were studied using the microcolony survival assay. 5-FU given from 48 hr before to 24 hr after irradiation resulted in an almost constant, increased cell kill except at injection 6 hr after irradiation, which resulted in a more pronounced effect. CTX enhanced the radiation effect only when given simultaneously with or up to 3 hr after irradiation. The effect of MTX, extremely dependent on the sequence and interval between drug administration and irradiation, was most prominent when administered 1 hr before irradiation. At this drug-radiation interval, the D/sub 0/ surprisingly increased by a factor of 2.4, whereas MTX 15 min before irradiation displaced the survival curve to the left without changing the D/sub 0/. The influence of MTX on the radiation response disappeared when the drug was given either 96 hr before or 3 hr after irradiation.

  5. Radiobiological intercomparison of two clinical neutron beams using the regeneration of mouse intestinal crypts.

    PubMed

    Böhm, L; Gueulette, J; Jones, D T; Beauduin, M; Vynckier, S; de Roubaix, S; Yudelev, M; Slabbert, J P; Wambersie, A

    1990-03-01

    Determination of dose modification factor greatly facilitates the introduction of clinically proven neutron therapy schedules at new installations. We have compared the biological performance of the p(66)+Be neutron facility at Faure, South Africa, with the established p(65)+Be installation at Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Filtration, D gamma/DT, dose rate and HVT 5/15 for the Louvain and Faure beam are: 2 cm, 2.5 cm polyethylene; 3%, 5%; 0.2 Gy/min, 0.4 Gy/min; and 20 cm and 19 cm respectively. Dosimetry was done in A-150 plastic. Irradiation of BALB/C mice was carried on according to the dose accumulation method in a perspex phantom at 5 cm depth and at an SSD of 150 cm at a field size of 28 X 28 cm2. Sections of the jejunum were prepared at each centre and analyzed by both. The RBE of the Faure beam determined at a survival level of 50 crypts ranged from 1.64 to 1.69. The dose modification factor RBE of the Louvain beam given by Beauduin et al. was 1.61 +/- 0.14. The dose modification factor of the Faure beam relative to the Louvain beam is thus 1.03 +/- 0.13 which could be expected from the similarity of the physical characteristics. Independent RBE measurements in a variety of systems also suggest similar biological properties. The depth variation of the RBE was found to be 4% (mouse gut) using 3 cm polyethylene filter over the depth range of 2.5 to 13.5 cm. This is in agreement with microdosimetry measurements using polyethylene filters of various thicknesses and with V79 measurements reported by Slabbert et al.

  6. Ratiometric Imaging of Tissue by Two-Photon Microscopy: Observation of a High Level of Formaldehyde around Mouse Intestinal Crypts.

    PubMed

    Singha, Subhankar; Jun, Yong Woong; Bae, Juryang; Ahn, Kyo Han

    2017-03-21

    Ratiometric imaging by two-photon microscopy can offer a viable tool for the relative quantification of biological analytes inside tissue with minimal influence from environmental factors that affect fluorescence signal. We demonstrate the ratiometric imaging of formaldehyde at the suborgan level using a two-photon fluorescent probe, which involves pixel-to-pixel ratiometric data transformation. This study reveals for the first time a high level of formaldehyde around the crypts of mouse small intestine, implicating its possible protective role along with the released antimicrobials from the Paneth cells.

  7. A nonlinear mathematical model of cell turnover, differentiation and tumorigenesis in the intestinal crypt.

    PubMed

    d'Onofrio, Alberto; Tomlinson, Ian P M

    2007-02-07

    We present a development of a model [Tomlinson, I.P.M., Bodmer, W.F., 1995. Failure of programmed cell death and differentiation as causes of tumors: Some simple mathematical models. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 11130-11134.] of the relationship between cells in three compartments of the intestinal crypt: stem cells, semi-differentiated cells and fully differentiated cells. Stem and semi-differentiated cells may divide to self-renew, undergo programmed death or progress to semi-differentiated and fully differentiated cells, respectively. The probabilities of each of these events provide the most important parameters of the model. Fully differentiated cells do not divide, but a proportion undergoes programmed death in each generation. Our previous models showed that failure of programmed death--for example, in tumorigenesis--could lead either to exponential growth in cell numbers or to growth to some plateau. Our new models incorporate plausible fluctuation in the parameters of the model and introduce nonlinearity by assuming that the parameters depend on the numbers of cells in each state of differentiation. We present detailed analysis of the equilibrium conditions for various forms of these models and, where appropriate, simulate the changes in cell numbers. We find that the model is characterized by bifurcation between increase in cell numbers to stable equilibrium or explosive exponential growth; in a restricted number of cases, there may be multiple stable equilibria. Fluctuation in cell numbers undergoing programmed death, for example caused by tissue damage, generally makes exponential growth more likely, as long as the size of the fluctuation exceeds a certain critical value for a sufficiently long period of time. In most cases, once exponential growth has started, this process is irreversible. In some circumstances, exponential growth is preceded by a long plateau phase, of variable duration, mimicking equilibrium: thus apparently self-limiting lesions

  8. Further studies on the response of intestinal crypt cells of different hierarchical status to eighteen different cytotoxic agents.

    PubMed Central

    Ijiri, K.; Potten, C. S.

    1987-01-01

    Adult male mice were treated with one or two different doses of each of 18 different cytotoxic agents. They were sampled at various times (3-12h) thereafter, and the spatial distributions of cell death in the small intestinal crypts were studied. Dead or dying cells or cells carrying dead cell fragments were examined histologically, and all of these were recorded (for convenience as apoptotic fragments), relative to the cell position in the crypt. Thus, distributions of apoptotic fragments against cell position were determined. A regression analysis of the data obtained at different times after administration of each agent was undertaken and the position of the median of the spatial distribution of presumptive target cells was deduced for each cytotoxic agent. The accuracy of this median value was determined to be +/- 0.5 cell positions. From these median values, the different cytotoxic agents could be divided roughly into three groups: [3H]thymidine, isopropyl-methane-sulphonate, gamma-rays, bleomycin and adriamycin all have their median values (susceptible cells) at cell positions 4 to 6; bischlorethylnitrosourea, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide and cycloheximide at cell positions 6-8; mechlorethamine, triethylenethiophosphoramide, vincristine, 5-fluorouracil, hydroxyurea and methotrexate at cell positions 8-11. The position of these medians was considered in relation to the killing of clonogenic cells. Preliminary studies on the distributions of dead cells after myleran, cis-platinum and heat (hyperthermia) were also reported. There is a general tendency for antibiotics and radiation to attack the lower cell positions in the crypt. Alkylating agents on the other hand have a somewhat broad spectrum of action. Antimetabolites and a microtubule dissociating agent act on higher cell positions. No difference could be detected between two different forms (sources) of actinomycin D. The changes in the yields of apoptotic and mitotic cells with time and the migration

  9. Paneth Cell-Rich Regions Separated by a Cluster of Lgr5+ Cells Initiate Crypt Fission in the Intestinal Stem Cell Niche

    PubMed Central

    Langlands, Alistair J.; Almet, Axel A.; Appleton, Paul L.; Newton, Ian P.; Osborne, James M.; Näthke, Inke S.

    2016-01-01

    The crypts of the intestinal epithelium house the stem cells that ensure the continual renewal of the epithelial cells that line the intestinal tract. Crypt number increases by a process called crypt fission, the division of a single crypt into two daughter crypts. Fission drives normal tissue growth and maintenance. Correspondingly, it becomes less frequent in adulthood. Importantly, fission is reactivated to drive adenoma growth. The mechanisms governing fission are poorly understood. However, only by knowing how normal fission operates can cancer-associated changes be elucidated. We studied normal fission in tissue in three dimensions using high-resolution imaging and used intestinal organoids to identify underlying mechanisms. We discovered that both the number and relative position of Paneth cells and Lgr5+ cells are important for fission. Furthermore, the higher stiffness and increased adhesion of Paneth cells are involved in determining the site of fission. Formation of a cluster of Lgr5+ cells between at least two Paneth-cell-rich domains establishes the site for the upward invagination that initiates fission. PMID:27348469

  10. Paneth Cell-Rich Regions Separated by a Cluster of Lgr5+ Cells Initiate Crypt Fission in the Intestinal Stem Cell Niche.

    PubMed

    Langlands, Alistair J; Almet, Axel A; Appleton, Paul L; Newton, Ian P; Osborne, James M; Näthke, Inke S

    2016-06-01

    The crypts of the intestinal epithelium house the stem cells that ensure the continual renewal of the epithelial cells that line the intestinal tract. Crypt number increases by a process called crypt fission, the division of a single crypt into two daughter crypts. Fission drives normal tissue growth and maintenance. Correspondingly, it becomes less frequent in adulthood. Importantly, fission is reactivated to drive adenoma growth. The mechanisms governing fission are poorly understood. However, only by knowing how normal fission operates can cancer-associated changes be elucidated. We studied normal fission in tissue in three dimensions using high-resolution imaging and used intestinal organoids to identify underlying mechanisms. We discovered that both the number and relative position of Paneth cells and Lgr5+ cells are important for fission. Furthermore, the higher stiffness and increased adhesion of Paneth cells are involved in determining the site of fission. Formation of a cluster of Lgr5+ cells between at least two Paneth-cell-rich domains establishes the site for the upward invagination that initiates fission.

  11. [Study on detoxication of euphorbia pekinensis radix processed with vinegar on rat small intestinal crypt epithelial cells IEC-6].

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu-Dan; Yan, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Li; Ding, An-Wei

    2014-03-01

    To compare the difference of Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix before and after being processed with vinegar in the toxicity on rat small intestinal crypt epithelial cells IEC-6, and make a preliminary study on the mechanism of detoxication of Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix processed with vinegar. With rat small intestinal crypt epithelial cells IEC-6 as the study object, the MTT method was adopted to detect the effect of Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix before and after being processed with vinegar on IEC-6 cell activity. The morphology of cells were observed by the inverted microscope. The down-regulated mitochondrial apoptosis pathway of enterocytes caused by the vinegar processing was analyzed by using the high content screening. Compared with the negative control group, the proliferation inhibition experiment showed that Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix showed a relatively high intestinal cell toxicity (P < 0.01). The results of HCS analysis showed that Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix could significantly reduce the cell nucleus Hoechst fluorescence intensity and mitochondria membrane (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), and increase Annexin V-FITC and PI fluorescence intensity and membrane permeability (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.01). After being processed with vinegar, compared with Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix groups with different doses, Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix processed with vinegar could significantly decrease the cell proliferation inhibition effect on enterocytes, increase the cell nuclear Hoechst fluorescence intensity and mitochondria membrane (P < 0.05, P < 0.05), and decrease Annexin V-FITC and PI fluorescence intensity and membrane permeability (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.05), and showed a certain dose-effect relationship. The vinegar processing can further reduce the toxicity of Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix on enterocytes. Its possible mechanism can decrease the effect of Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix on the permeability of IEC-6 cell membrane, so as to provide a basis for further explanation of

  12. Preferential Entry of Botulinum Neurotoxin A Hc Domain through Intestinal Crypt Cells and Targeting to Cholinergic Neurons of the Mouse Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Couesnon, Aurélie; Molgó, Jordi; Connan, Chloé; Popoff, Michel R.

    2012-01-01

    Botulism, characterized by flaccid paralysis, commonly results from botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) absorption across the epithelial barrier from the digestive tract and then dissemination through the blood circulation to target autonomic and motor nerve terminals. The trafficking pathway of BoNT/A passage through the intestinal barrier is not yet fully understood. We report that intralumenal administration of purified BoNT/A into mouse ileum segment impaired spontaneous muscle contractions and abolished the smooth muscle contractions evoked by electric field stimulation. Entry of BoNT/A into the mouse upper small intestine was monitored with fluorescent HcA (half C-terminal domain of heavy chain) which interacts with cell surface receptor(s). We show that HcA preferentially recognizes a subset of neuroendocrine intestinal crypt cells, which probably represent the entry site of the toxin through the intestinal barrier, then targets specific neurons in the submucosa and later (90–120 min) in the musculosa. HcA mainly binds to certain cholinergic neurons of both submucosal and myenteric plexuses, but also recognizes, although to a lower extent, other neuronal cells including glutamatergic and serotoninergic neurons in the submucosa. Intestinal cholinergic neuron targeting by HcA could account for the inhibition of intestinal peristaltism and secretion observed in botulism, but the consequences of the targeting to non-cholinergic neurons remains to be determined. PMID:22438808

  13. A rat decellularized small bowel scaffold that preserves villus-crypt architecture for intestinal regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Totonelli, Giorgia; Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Garriboli, Massimo; Riegler, Johannes; Orlando, Giuseppe; Burns, Alan J.; Sebire, Neil J.; Smith, Virpi V.; Fishman, Jonathan M.; Ghionzoli, Marco; Turmaine, Mark; Birchall, Martin A.; Atala, Anthony; Soker, Shay; Lythgoe, Mark F.; Seifalian, Alexander; Pierro, Agostino; Eaton, Simon; De Coppi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Management of intestinal failure remains a clinical challenge and total parenteral nutrition, intestinal elongation and/or transplantation are partial solutions. In this study, using a detergent-enzymatic treatment (DET), we optimize in rats a new protocol that creates a natural intestinal scaffold, as a base for developing functional intestinal tissue. After 1 cycle of DET, histological examination and SEM and TEM analyses showed removal of cellular elements with preservation of the native architecture and connective tissue components. Maintenance of biomechanical, adhesion and angiogenic properties were also demonstrated strengthen the idea that matrices obtained using DET may represent a valid support for intestinal regeneration. PMID:22305104

  14. Critical role of microbiota within cecal crypts on the regenerative capacity of the intestinal epithelium following surgical stress.

    PubMed

    Zaborin, Alexander; Krezalek, Monika; Hyoju, Sanjiv; Defazio, Jennifer R; Setia, Namrata; Belogortseva, Natalia; Bindokas, Vytautas P; Guo, Qiti; Zaborina, Olga; Alverdy, John C

    2017-02-01

    Cecal crypts represent a unique niche that are normally occupied by the commensal microbiota. Due to their density and close proximity to stem cells, microbiota within cecal crypts may modulate epithelial regeneration. Here we demonstrate that surgical stress, a process that invariably involves a short period of starvation, antibiotic exposure, and tissue injury, results in cecal crypt evacuation of their microbiota. Crypts devoid of their microbiota display pathophysiological features characterized by abnormal stem cell activation as judged by leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) staining, expansion of the proliferative zone toward the tips of the crypts, and an increase in apoptosis. In addition, crypts devoid of their microbiota display loss of their regenerative capacity as assessed by their ability to form organoids ex vivo. When a four-member human pathogen community isolated from the stool of a critically ill patient is introduced into the cecum of mice with empty crypts, crypts become occupied by the pathogens and further disruption of crypt homeostasis is observed. Fecal microbiota transplantation restores the cecal crypts' microbiota, normalizes homeostasis within crypts, and reestablishes crypt regenerative capacity. Taken together, these findings define an emerging role for the microbiota within cecal crypts to maintain epithelial cell homeostasis in a manner that may enhance recovery in response to the physiological stress imposed by the process of surgery.

  15. PepT1 Expression Helps Maintain Intestinal Homeostasis by Mediating the Differential Expression of miRNAs along the Crypt-Villus Axis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuchen; Viennois, Emilie; Zhang, Mingzhen; Xiao, Bo; Han, Moon Kwon; Walter, Lewins; Garg, Pallavi; Merlin, Didier

    2016-01-01

    In the jejunum, PepT1 is particularly enriched in the well-differentiated absorptive epithelial cells in the villi. Studies of expression and function of PepT1 along the crypt-villus axis demonstrated that this protein is crucial to the process of di/tripeptide absorption. We recently exhibited that PepT1 plays an important role in multiple biological functions, including the ability to regulate the expression/secretion of specific microRNAs (miRNAs) and the expression levels of multiple proteins. In this study, we observed that PepT1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited reduced body weight and shorten intestinal microvilli. We then examined the expression levels of various miRNAs and their target proteins along the crypt-villi axis in the jejunum of PepT1 KO mice. We found that PepT1 KO altered the distribution of miRNAs along the crypt-villus axis and changed the miRNA profiles of both villi and crypts. Using miRNA-target prediction and 2D-DIGE/mass spectrometry on villi and crypts samples, we found that ablation of PepT1 further directly or indirectly altered expression levels of certain protein targets. Collectively, our results suggest that PepT1 contributes to maintain balance of homeostasis and proper functions in the small intestine, and dysregulated miRNAs and proteins along the crypt-villus axis are highly related to this process. PMID:27250880

  16. Proliferation and mRNA expression of absorptive villous cell markers and mineral transporters in prolactin-exposed IEC-6 intestinal crypt cells.

    PubMed

    Teerapornpuntakit, Jarinthorn; Wongdee, Kannikar; Thongbunchoo, Jirawan; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2012-06-01

    During pregnancy and lactation, prolactin (PRL) enhances intestinal absorption of calcium and other minerals for fetal development and milk production. Although an enhanced absorptive efficiency is believed to mainly result from the upregulation of mineral transporters in the absorptive villous cells, some other possibilities, such as PRL-enhanced crypt cell proliferation and differentiation to increase the absorptive area, have never been ruled out. Here, we investigated cell proliferation and mRNA expression of mineral absorption-related genes in the PRL-exposed IEC-6 crypt cells. As expected, the cell proliferation was not altered by PRL. Inasmuch as the mRNA expressions of villous cell markers, including dipeptidylpeptidase-4, lactase and glucose transporter-5, were not increased, PRL was not likely to enhance crypt cell differentiation into the absorptive villous cells. In contrast to the previous findings in villous cells, PRL was found to downregulate the expression of calbindin-D(9k), claudin-3 and occludin in IEC-6 crypt cells, while having no effect on transient receptor potential vanilloid family channels-5/6, plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA)-1b and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger-1 expression. In conclusion, IEC-6 crypt cells did not respond to PRL by increasing proliferation or differentiation into villous cells. The present results thus supported the previous hypothesis that PRL enhanced mineral absorption predominantly by increasing transporter expression and activity in the absorptive villous cells. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. [Identification and classification of lysozyme-expressing cells in the mouse small intestinal crypt and their correlation with the morphology of secretory granules and labeling density of immunogold].

    PubMed

    Satot, Toru; Kawamoto, Eiichi; Yamada, Jinzo

    2009-09-01

    The four principal epithelial cell lineages (absorptive enterocytes, goblet cells, enteroendocrine cells and Paneth cells) of the adult mouse small intestine derive from multipotent stem cells. Furthermore, the intermediate cells and granule goblet cells are located near the base of crypts of mouse intestine; the former has the characteristics of goblet and Paneth cells and the latter is transformed from the intermediate cells. However, the grounds and the definition for classifing these three cell types (Paneth, intermediate and granule goblet cells) are vague, making it difficult to discuss the structure and a function of those cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the identification and classification of lysozyme-expressing cells in the mouse small intestinal crypt and their correlation with the morphology of secretory granules and labeling density of immunogold using quantitative immunoelectron microscopy analysis. The results were follows. (1) Paneth cells, intermediate cells and granule goblet cells showed lysozyme immunoreactivity in the electron-dense core of biphasic secretory granules, and therefore lysozyme-exprssing cells were identified in the mouse small intestinal crypt. The sizes of secretory granules were divided into ten groups (every 10%) according to area ratio (core/granule (%)). (2) This distribution of three type cells was classified statistically into "Paneth cell phase": 61% < or = (core/granule (%)), "intermediate cell phase": (core/granule (%)) 21 < or = 60%, "granule goblet cell phase": (core/granule (%)) < or = 20%. (3) Labeling density for lysozyme was commensurate with the size of the central dense core. The Paneth cells had the highest labeling density among the cells. When the transformation from intermediate to granule goblet cell occurred, it happened at the same time that the core of secretory granules gradually shrinks, and the labeling density for lysozyme disappears. (4) The labeling density of immunogold for

  18. Goblet cell depletion in small intestinal villous and crypt epithelium of conventional nursing and weaned pigs infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwonil; Saif, Linda J

    2017-02-01

    Intestinal goblet cells secret mucins to form mucus layers critical for maintaining the integrity of the intestinal epithelium. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes watery diarrhea and high mortality of suckling pigs. PEDV mainly infects villous epithelial cells of the small intestine, and infected cells undergo acute, massive necrosis, followed by severe villous atrophy. Conventional 9-day-old nursing pigs [PEDV-inoculated (n=9); Mock (n=11)] and 26-day-old weaned [PEDV-inoculated (n=11); Mock (n=9)] were inoculated orally [8.9 log10 genomic equivalents/pig] with PEDV strain PC21A or mock. We used alcian blue or Periodic-Acid-Schiff staining for the detection of acidic or neutral mucin-secreting goblet cells in the small intestine. We demonstrated that PEDV infection of the nursing pigs at post-inoculation days (PIDs) 1-5 and weaned pigs at PIDs 3-5 led to depletion or significant reduction in the number of goblet cells (and also the number of villous goblet cells normalized by jejunal villous crypt height to crypt depth ratios) in the villi or crypts. These findings coincided with the development of intestinal villous atrophy. By immunohistochemistry, a few PEDV antigen-positive goblet cells were identified in the jejunal or ileal villous epithelium of the infected nursing or weaned pigs. During the early stages of PEDV infection, goblet cell mucins in the small intestine may be decreased, possibly leading to an impaired mucus layer and increased susceptibility to secondary enteric bacterial infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Lawsonia intracellularis exploits β-catenin/Wnt and Notch signalling pathways during infection of intestinal crypt to alter cell homeostasis and promote cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Yang W.; Bengtsson, Rebecca J.; MacIntyre, Neil; Guthrie, Jack; Finlayson, Heather; Smith, Sionagh H.; Archibald, Alan L.; Ait-Ali, Tahar

    2017-01-01

    Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes proliferative enteropathy (PE) in pigs. L. intracellularis infection causes extensive intestinal crypt cell proliferation and inhibits secretory and absorptive cell differentiation. However, the affected host upstream cellular pathways leading to PE are still unknown. β-catenin/Wnt signalling is essential in maintaining intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation and self-renewal capacity, while Notch signalling governs differentiation of secretory and absorptive lineage specification. Therefore, in this report we used immunofluorescence (IF) and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RTqPCR) to examine β-catenin/Wnt and Notch-1 signalling levels in uninfected and L. intracellularis infected pig ileums at 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post challenge (dpc). We found that while the significant increase in Ki67+ nuclei in crypts at the peak of L. intracellularis infection suggested enhanced cell proliferation, the expression of c-MYC and ASCL2, promoters of cell growth and ISC proliferation respectively, was down-regulated. Peak infection also coincided with enhanced cytosolic and membrane-associated β-catenin staining and induction of AXIN2 and SOX9 transcripts, both encoding negative regulators of β-catenin/Wnt signalling and suggesting a potential alteration to β-catenin/Wnt signalling levels, with differential regulation of the expression of its target genes. We found that induction of HES1 and OLFM4 and the down-regulation of ATOH1 transcript levels was consistent with the increased Notch-1 signalling in crypts at the peak of infection. Interestingly, the significant down-regulation of ATOH1 transcript levels coincided with the depletion of MUC2 expression at 14 dpc, consistent with the role of ATOH1 in promoting goblet cell maturation. The lack of significant change to LGR5 transcript levels at the peak of infection suggested that the crypt hyperplasia was not due to the expansion

  20. CD44 and TLR4 mediate hyaluronic acid regulation of Lgr5+ stem cell proliferation, crypt fission, and intestinal growth in postnatal and adult mice.

    PubMed

    Riehl, Terrence E; Santhanam, Srikanth; Foster, Lynne; Ciorba, Matthew; Stenson, William F

    2015-12-01

    Hyaluronic acid, a glycosaminoglycan in the extracellular matrix, binds to CD44 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). We previously addressed the role of hyaluronic acid in small intestinal and colonic growth in mice. We addressed the role of exogenous hyaluronic acid by giving hyaluronic acid intraperitoneally and the role of endogenous hyaluronic acid by giving PEP-1, a peptide that blocks hyaluronic acid binding to its receptors. Exogenous hyaluronic acid increased epithelial proliferation but had no effect on intestinal length. PEP-1 resulted in a shortened small intestine and colon and diminished epithelial proliferation. In the current study, we sought to determine whether the effects of hyaluronic acid on growth were mediated by signaling through CD44 or TLR4 by giving exogenous hyaluronic acid or PEP-1 twice a week from 3-8 wk of age to wild-type, CD44(-/-), and TLR4(-/-) mice. These studies demonstrated that signaling through both CD44 and TLR4 were important in mediating the effects of hyaluronic acid on growth in the small intestine and colon. Extending our studies to early postnatal life, we assessed the effects of exogenous hyaluronic acid and PEP-1 on Lgr5(+) stem cell proliferation and crypt fission. Administration of PEP-1 to Lgr5(+) reporter mice from postnatal day 7 to day 14 decreased Lgr5(+) cell proliferation and decreased crypt fission. These studies indicate that endogenous hyaluronic acid increases Lgr5(+) stem cell proliferation, crypt fission, and intestinal lengthening and that these effects are dependent on signaling through CD44 and TLR4.

  1. CD44 and TLR4 mediate hyaluronic acid regulation of Lgr5+ stem cell proliferation, crypt fission, and intestinal growth in postnatal and adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Riehl, Terrence E.; Santhanam, Srikanth; Foster, Lynne; Ciorba, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid, a glycosaminoglycan in the extracellular matrix, binds to CD44 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). We previously addressed the role of hyaluronic acid in small intestinal and colonic growth in mice. We addressed the role of exogenous hyaluronic acid by giving hyaluronic acid intraperitoneally and the role of endogenous hyaluronic acid by giving PEP-1, a peptide that blocks hyaluronic acid binding to its receptors. Exogenous hyaluronic acid increased epithelial proliferation but had no effect on intestinal length. PEP-1 resulted in a shortened small intestine and colon and diminished epithelial proliferation. In the current study, we sought to determine whether the effects of hyaluronic acid on growth were mediated by signaling through CD44 or TLR4 by giving exogenous hyaluronic acid or PEP-1 twice a week from 3–8 wk of age to wild-type, CD44−/−, and TLR4−/− mice. These studies demonstrated that signaling through both CD44 and TLR4 were important in mediating the effects of hyaluronic acid on growth in the small intestine and colon. Extending our studies to early postnatal life, we assessed the effects of exogenous hyaluronic acid and PEP-1 on Lgr5+ stem cell proliferation and crypt fission. Administration of PEP-1 to Lgr5+ reporter mice from postnatal day 7 to day 14 decreased Lgr5+ cell proliferation and decreased crypt fission. These studies indicate that endogenous hyaluronic acid increases Lgr5+ stem cell proliferation, crypt fission, and intestinal lengthening and that these effects are dependent on signaling through CD44 and TLR4. PMID:26505972

  2. Colorectal Cancers Mimic Structural Organization of Normal Colonic Crypts

    PubMed Central

    Cernat, Laura; Blaj, Cristina; Jackstadt, Rene; Brandl, Lydia; Engel, Jutta; Hermeking, Heiko; Jung, Andreas; Kirchner, Thomas; Horst, David

    2014-01-01

    Colonic crypts are stereotypical structures with distinct stem cell, proliferating, and differentiating compartments. Colorectal cancers derive from colonic crypt epithelia but, in contrast, form morphologically disarrayed glands. In this study, we investigated to which extent colorectal cancers phenocopy colonic crypt architecture and thus preserve structural organization of the normal intestinal epithelium. A subset of colon cancers showed crypt-like compartments with high WNT activity and nuclear β-Catenin at the leading tumor edge, adjacent proliferation, and enhanced Cytokeratin 20 expression in most differentiated tumor epithelia of the tumor center. This architecture strongly depended on growth conditions, and was fully reproducible in mouse xenografts of cultured and primary colon cancer cells. Full crypt-like organization was associated with low tumor grade and was an independent prognostic marker of better survival in a collection of 221 colorectal cancers. Our findings suggest that full activation of preserved intestinal morphogenetic programs in colon cancer requires in vivo growth environments. Furthermore, crypt-like architecture was linked with less aggressive tumor biology, and may be useful to improve current colon cancer grading schemes. PMID:25111606

  3. p21waf1/cip1 deficiency does not perturb the intestinal crypt stem cell population after massive small bowel resection

    PubMed Central

    Longshore, Shannon W.; Nair, Rajalakshmi; Perrone, Erin E.; Erwin, Christopher R.; Guo, Jun; Warner, Brad W.

    2009-01-01

    Background After small bowel resection (SBR), adaptation is initiated in intestinal crypts where stem cells reside. Prior studies revealed SBR induced enterocyte proliferation requires the expression of p21waf1/cip1. Since deficient expression of p21waf1/cip1 has been shown to result in reduced numbers of hematopoietic stem cells, we sought to test the hypothesis that p21waf1/cip1 deficiency similarly perturbs the intestinal stem cell population after SBR. Methods Control (n=21; C57Bl/6) and p21waf1/cip1-null mice (n=30) underwent 50% proximal SBR or sham operation. After 3 days, the ileum was harvested and the crypt stem cell population evaluated by counting crypt base columnar (CBC) cells on histological sections, determining the expression of Musashi-1 and Lgr5, and profiling the transcriptional expression of 84 known stem cell genes. Results There were no significant differences in CBC cells, expression of Musashi-1 or Lgr5, or in stem cell gene expression after SBR in control mice. Further, there were no differences in these markers between controls and p21waf1/cip1-null mice. Conclusion In contrast with bone marrow stem cells, the stem cell population of the gut is unaffected by deficient expression of p21waf1/cip1. Additional mechanisms for the role of p21waf1/cip1 in small bowel proliferation and adaptation following massive SBR must be considered. PMID:19524718

  4. Serum and fecal canine α1-proteinase inhibitor concentrations reflect the severity of intestinal crypt abscesses and/or lacteal dilation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, Romy M; Parnell, Nolie K; Grützner, Niels; Mansell, Joanne; Berghoff, Nora; Schellenberg, Stefan; Reusch, Claudia E; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) protein loss, due to lymphangiectasia or chronic inflammation, can be challenging to diagnose. This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of serum and fecal canine α1-proteinase inhibitor (cα1PI) concentrations to detect crypt abscesses and/or lacteal dilation in dogs. Serum and fecal cα1PI concentrations were measured in 120 dogs undergoing GI tissue biopsies, and were compared between dogs with and without crypt abscesses/lacteal dilation. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for dichotomous outcomes. Serial serum cα1PI concentrations were also evaluated in 12 healthy corticosteroid-treated dogs. Serum cα1PI and albumin concentrations were significantly lower in dogs with crypt abscesses and/or lacteal dilation than in those without (both P <0.001), and more severe lesions were associated with lower serum cα1PI concentrations, higher 3 days-mean fecal cα1PI concentrations, and lower serum/fecal cα1PI ratios. Serum and fecal cα1PI, and their ratios, distinguished dogs with moderate or severe GI crypt abscesses/lacteal dilation from dogs with only mild or none such lesions with moderate sensitivity (56-92%) and specificity (67-81%). Serum cα1PI concentrations increased during corticosteroid administration. We conclude that serum and fecal α1PI concentrations reflect the severity of intestinal crypt abscesses/lacteal dilation in dogs. Due to its specificity for the GI tract, measurement of fecal cα1PI appears to be superior to serum cα1PI for diagnosing GI protein loss in dogs. In addition, the serum/fecal cα1PI ratio has an improved accuracy in hypoalbuminemic dogs, but serum cα1PI concentrations should be carefully interpreted in corticosteroid-treated dogs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prostaglandin-induced radioprotection of murine intestinal crypts and villi by a PGE diene analog (SC-44932) and a PGI analog (Iloprost)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Wayne R.; Collins, Paul W.

    The aminothiols exemplified by WR-2721 are effective radioprotectors; however, their toxicity associated with hypotension, nausea, and emesis has limited their development for applications in medicine or in hazardous radiation environments. There is a need for new radioprotectors that have fewer toxic side effects when given alone or combined with reduced amounts of thiols. A variety of prostaglandins (PGs) have been shown to be radioprotective agents and some appear to have fewer toxic side effects than the aminothiols. Iloprost, a stable PGI, analog protects the clonogenic epithelial cells of intestinal crypts but does not protect epithelial cells of the villi. In contrast, an E-series omega chain diene analog designated SC-44932 protects epithelial cells of both crypts and villi. When the two are combined, protection of the crypts is additive and the villi are protected to the same degree as when SC-44932 is given alone. Since radioprotection for some PGs has been shown to be dependent upon receptors, we suggest that the pattern of radioprotection seen with these two analogs depend on the location of the respective receptors or on the ability of differentiated villus cells to respond to PGs. By studying different analogs, we hope to identify mechanisms associated with PG-induced radioprotection and to identify the most protective PG analogs for applications of radioprotection.

  6. A novel in vitro survival assay of small intestinal stem cells after exposure to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Motohiro; Otsuka, Kensuke; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Tomita, Masanori; Takahashi, Masayuki; Nakasono, Satoshi; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Yoshida, Kazuo

    2014-03-01

    The microcolony assay developed by Withers and Elkind has been a gold standard to assess the surviving fraction of small intestinal stem cells after exposure to high (≥8 Gy) doses of ionizing radiation (IR), but is not applicable in cases of exposure to lower doses. Here, we developed a novel in vitro assay that enables assessment of the surviving fraction of small intestinal stem cells after exposure to lower IR doses. The assay includes in vitro culture of small intestinal stem cells, which allows the stem cells to develop into epithelial organoids containing all four differentiated cell types of the small intestine. We used Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-CreERT2/ROSA26-tdTomato mice to identify Lgr5(+) stem cells and their progeny. Enzymatically dissociated single crypt cells from the duodenum and jejunum of mice were irradiated with 7.25, 29, 101, 304, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mGy of X-rays immediately after plating, and the number of organoids was counted on Day 12. Organoid-forming efficiency of irradiated cells relative to that of unirradiated controls was defined as the surviving fraction of stem cells. We observed a significant decrease in the surviving fraction of stem cells at ≥1000 mGy. Moreover, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses and passage of the organoids revealed that proliferation of stem cells surviving IR is significantly potentiated. Together, the present study demonstrates that the in vitro assay is useful for quantitatively assessing the surviving fraction of small intestinal stem cells after exposure to lower doses of IR as compared with previous examinations using the microcolony assay.

  7. Differential expression of proteins involved in energy production along the crypt-villus axis in early-weaning pig small intestine.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xia; Yang, Huansheng; Tan, Bie; Yang, Chengbo; Wu, Miaomiao; Liu, Gang; Kim, Sung Woo; Li, Tiejun; Li, Lili; Wang, Junjun; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2015-08-15

    Weaning of piglets reflects intestinal dysfunction and atrophy and affected the physiological state of enterocytes. However, few studies have defined physiological state of enterocytes along the crypt-villus axis in early-weaning piglets. A total of 16 piglets from 8 litters were used in the experiment. One group of piglets was nursed by sows until age 21 days, and another group was weaned at age 14 days and then fed creep feed instead of breast milk for 7 days. Piglets were killed at 21 days, and the jejunum segments were dissected. After sequential isolation of jejunum epithelial cells along the crypt-villus axis, their proteins were analyzed through the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification, and proteins involved in the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway and proliferating cell nuclear antigen abundances in jejunal epithelial cells of weaning or suckling group were determined by Western blotting. The differential proteins in three cell fractions were identified and analyzed. The results showed that proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, β-oxidation, and the glycolysis pathway were significantly downregulated in the upper and middle villus of the early-weaned group. However, proteins involved in glycolysis were significantly upregulated in crypt cells. In addition, Western blot analysis showed that the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin pathway-related proteins was decreased (P < 0.05) in the early-weaned group. The present results showed that early-weaning differentially affect the expression of proteins involved in energy production of enterocytes along the jejunal crypt-villus axis.

  8. Combined changes in Wnt signaling response and contact inhibition induce altered proliferation in radiation-treated intestinal crypts

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, S.-J.; Osborne, J. M.; Appleton, P. L.; Näthke, I.

    2016-01-01

    Curative intervention is possible if colorectal cancer is identified early, underscoring the need to detect the earliest stages of malignant transformation. A candidate biomarker is the expanded proliferative zone observed in crypts before adenoma formation, also found in irradiated crypts. However, the underlying driving mechanism for this is not known. Wnt signaling is a key regulator of proliferation, and elevated Wnt signaling is implicated in cancer. Nonetheless, how cells differentiate Wnt signals of varying strengths is not understood. We use computational modeling to compare alternative hypotheses about how Wnt signaling and contact inhibition affect proliferation. Direct comparison of simulations with published experimental data revealed that the model that best reproduces proliferation patterns in normal crypts stipulates that proliferative fate and cell cycle duration are set by the Wnt stimulus experienced at birth. The model also showed that the broadened proliferation zone induced by tumorigenic radiation can be attributed to cells responding to lower Wnt concentrations and dividing at smaller volumes. Application of the model to data from irradiated crypts after an extended recovery period permitted deductions about the extent of the initial insult. Application of computational modeling to experimental data revealed how mechanisms that control cell dynamics are altered at the earliest stages of carcinogenesis. PMID:27053661

  9. Stem cell factor enhances the survival of murine intestinal stem cells after photon irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, B.R.; Khan, W.; Hancock, S.L.

    1995-04-01

    Recombinant rat stem cell factor (SCF) has been shown to decrease lethality in mice exposed to total-body irradiation (TBI) in the lower range of lethality through radioprotection of hematopoietic stem cells and acceleration of bone marrow repopulation. This study evaluates the effect of SCF on the survival of the intestinal mucosal stem cell after TBI. This non-hematopoietic cell is clinically relevant. Gastrointestinal toxicity is common during and after abdominal and pelvic radiation therapy and limits the radiation dose in these regions. As observed with bone marrow, the administration of SCF to mice prior to TBI enhanced the survival of mouse duodenal crypt stem cells. The maximum enhancement of survival was seen when 100 {mu}/kg of SCF was given intraperitoneally 8 h before irradiation. This regimen increased the survival of duodenal crypt stem cells after 12.0 Gy TBI from 22.5 {+-} 0.7 per duodenal cross section for controls to 30.0 {+-} 1.7 after treatment with SCF (P=0.03). The TBI dose producing 50% mortality of 6 days (LD{sub 50/6}) was increased from 14.9 Gy for control mice to 19.0 Gy for mice treated with SCF (dose modification factor = 1.28). These findings demonstrate that SCF (dose modification factor = 1.28). These findings demonstrate that SCF has radioprotective effects on a non-hematopoietic stem cell population and suggest that SCF may be of clinical value in preventing radiation injury to the intestine. 29 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Effects of epidermal growth factor and dimethylhydrazine on crypt size, cell proliferation, and crypt fission in the rat colon. Cell proliferation and crypt fission are controlled independently.

    PubMed Central

    Park, H. S.; Goodlad, R. A.; Ahnen, D. J.; Winnett, A.; Sasieni, P.; Lee, C. Y.; Wright, N. A.

    1997-01-01

    Crypt fission is now established as an important mechanism of intestinal growth and regeneration. It has been proposed that increased crypt size is the stimulus for crypt fission, because crypts preparing for fission are generally larger. Consequently, we investigated the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and dimethylhydrazine, which are both known to stimulate crypt cell proliferation, on crypt fission in the rat intestine. We also examined whether the effects of EGF on both proliferation and crypt fission are modified by the pretreatment with dimethylhydrazine for 16 weeks, dimethylhydrazine was then discontinued for 8 weeks, followed by intravenous infusion of EGF for 1 week. There were four groups: vehicle alone, EGF alone, dimethylhydrazine alone, and dimethylhydrazine followed by EGF infusion. The rats were killed at 25 weeks and rates of intestinal crypt cell production, crypt size, and crypt fission were determined. Intravenously infused EGF significantly increased crypt cell production rate, but the magnitude of the effect decreased from the proximal to the distal colon. EGF caused an increase in crypt area, possibly reflecting an increase in crypt size. Importantly dimethylhydrazine had no significant effect on crypt cell production rate nor on crypt area in the distal colon, but it did cause an increase in crypt area in the mid-colon. The crypt fission index was significantly decreased by EGF and increased by dimethylhydrazine. There was no qualitative interaction between EGF and dimethylhydrazine. These results demonstrate the marked proliferative effect of intravenously infused EGF in the colon of orally fed rats, with significant site effects (P = 0.0007); the effect was greatest in the proximal colon and disappeared in the distal colon. The observation that EGF reduced crypt fission indicates that increased cell proliferation, per se, is not a stimulus for crypt fission. This is further supported by the observation that dimethylhydrazine

  11. Structural alteration of tight and adherens junctions in villous and crypt epithelium of the small and large intestine of conventional nursing piglets infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwonil; Eyerly, Bryan; Annamalai, Thavamathi; Lu, Zhongyan; Saif, Linda J

    2015-06-12

    Integrity of the intestinal epithelium is critical for proper functioning of the barrier that regulates absorption of water and restricts uptake of luminal bacteria. It is maintained mainly by tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs). We conducted immunofluorescence (IF) staining for in situ identification of zonula occludin (ZO)-1 proteins for TJ and E-Cadherin proteins for AJ in the small and large intestinal villous and crypt epithelium of nursing pigs infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Twenty 9-day-old piglets [PEDV-infected (n=9) and Mock (n=11)] from PEDV seronegative sows, were orally inoculated [8.9 log₁₀ genomic equivalents/pig] with PEDV PC21A strain or mock. At post-inoculation days (PIDs) 1-5, infected pigs showed severe watery diarrhea and/or vomiting and severe atrophic enteritis. By immunohistochemistry, PEDV antigens were evident in enterocytes lining the villous epithelium. At PIDs 1-5, PEDV-infected pigs exhibited mildly to extensively disorganized, irregular distribution and reduced expression of ZO-1 or E-Cadherin in villous, but not crypt epithelial cells of the jejunum and ileum, but not in the large intestine, when compared to the negative controls. The structural destruction and disorganization of TJ and AJ were extensive in PEDV-infected pigs at PIDs 1-3, but then appeared to reversibly recover at PID 5, as evident by increased numbers of ZO-1-positive epithelial cells and markedly improved appearance of E-Cadherin-positive villous epithelium. Our results suggest a possible involvement of structurally impaired TJ and AJ in the pathogenesis of PEDV, potentially leading to secondary bacterial infections.

  12. Food-grade TiO2 impairs intestinal and systemic immune homeostasis, initiates preneoplastic lesions and promotes aberrant crypt development in the rat colon

    PubMed Central

    Bettini, Sarah; Boutet-Robinet, Elisa; Cartier, Christel; Coméra, Christine; Gaultier, Eric; Dupuy, Jacques; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Grysan, Patrick; Reguer, Solenn; Thieriet, Nathalie; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Thiaudière, Dominique; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Carrière, Marie; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Pierre, Fabrice H.; Guzylack-Piriou, Laurence; Houdeau, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Food-grade titanium dioxide (TiO2) containing a nanoscale particle fraction (TiO2-NPs) is approved as a white pigment (E171 in Europe) in common foodstuffs, including confectionary. There are growing concerns that daily oral TiO2-NP intake is associated with an increased risk of chronic intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis. In rats orally exposed for one week to E171 at human relevant levels, titanium was detected in the immune cells of Peyer’s patches (PP) as observed with the TiO2-NP model NM-105. Dendritic cell frequency increased in PP regardless of the TiO2 treatment, while regulatory T cells involved in dampening inflammatory responses decreased with E171 only, an effect still observed after 100 days of treatment. In all TiO2-treated rats, stimulation of immune cells isolated from PP showed a decrease in Thelper (Th)-1 IFN-γ secretion, while splenic Th1/Th17 inflammatory responses sharply increased. E171 or NM-105 for one week did not initiate intestinal inflammation, while a 100-day E171 treatment promoted colon microinflammation and initiated preneoplastic lesions while also fostering the growth of aberrant crypt foci in a chemically induced carcinogenesis model. These data should be considered for risk assessments of the susceptibility to Th17-driven autoimmune diseases and to colorectal cancer in humans exposed to TiO2 from dietary sources. PMID:28106049

  13. Food-grade TiO2 impairs intestinal and systemic immune homeostasis, initiates preneoplastic lesions and promotes aberrant crypt development in the rat colon.

    PubMed

    Bettini, Sarah; Boutet-Robinet, Elisa; Cartier, Christel; Coméra, Christine; Gaultier, Eric; Dupuy, Jacques; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Grysan, Patrick; Reguer, Solenn; Thieriet, Nathalie; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Thiaudière, Dominique; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Carrière, Marie; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Pierre, Fabrice H; Guzylack-Piriou, Laurence; Houdeau, Eric

    2017-01-20

    Food-grade titanium dioxide (TiO2) containing a nanoscale particle fraction (TiO2-NPs) is approved as a white pigment (E171 in Europe) in common foodstuffs, including confectionary. There are growing concerns that daily oral TiO2-NP intake is associated with an increased risk of chronic intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis. In rats orally exposed for one week to E171 at human relevant levels, titanium was detected in the immune cells of Peyer's patches (PP) as observed with the TiO2-NP model NM-105. Dendritic cell frequency increased in PP regardless of the TiO2 treatment, while regulatory T cells involved in dampening inflammatory responses decreased with E171 only, an effect still observed after 100 days of treatment. In all TiO2-treated rats, stimulation of immune cells isolated from PP showed a decrease in Thelper (Th)-1 IFN-γ secretion, while splenic Th1/Th17 inflammatory responses sharply increased. E171 or NM-105 for one week did not initiate intestinal inflammation, while a 100-day E171 treatment promoted colon microinflammation and initiated preneoplastic lesions while also fostering the growth of aberrant crypt foci in a chemically induced carcinogenesis model. These data should be considered for risk assessments of the susceptibility to Th17-driven autoimmune diseases and to colorectal cancer in humans exposed to TiO2 from dietary sources.

  14. Resistant carbohydrates stimulate cell proliferation and crypt fission in wild-type mice and in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model of intestinal cancer, association with enhanced polyp development.

    PubMed

    Mandir, Nikki; Englyst, Hans; Goodlad, Robert A

    2008-10-01

    Fermentation of carbohydrates in the colon can stimulate cell proliferation and could thus be a cancer risk. The effects of resistant carbohydrates, i.e. those not digested and absorbed in the small intestine, on cell proliferation, crypt fission and polyp development were investigated in wild-type and adenomatous polyposis coli multiple intestinal neoplasia (Apc(Min/+)) mice. Fifteen 4-week-old female wild-type and fifteen Apc(Min/+) mice were used for each group and fed a chow diet, a semi-synthetic diet or the semi-synthetic supplemented with wheat bran or an apple pomace preparation, both high in resistant carbohydrates, for 8 weeks. Tissue from all mice was used to measure cell proliferation and crypt fission and tissue from the Apc(Min/+) mice was scored for polyp number and tumour burden. There were slight reductions in intestinal mass in the mice fed the semi-synthetic diets and this was increased by the inclusion of resistant carbohydrates. The Apc(Min/+) mice had elevated cell proliferation and crypt fission in the distal small intestine and colon and these were increased by the resistant carbohydrates. Bran or apple pomace significantly increased polyp number in the proximal third of the small intestine. Apple pulp more than doubled polyp number throughout the small bowel (99.2 (SEM 11.1) v. 40.0 (SEM 8.2), P<0.004). Bran and apple pomace increased polyp diameter and hence burden in the colon by 243 and 150 %, respectively (P<0.05). In conclusion, both types of resistant carbohydrates increased polyp number and tumour burden and this was associated with elevated epithelial cell proliferation and crypt fission.

  15. The effect of hyperthermia on the radiation response of crypt cells in mouse jejunum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of hyperthermia and/or gamma-radiation on the survival of intestinal crypt cells was studied in BDF sub 1 mice using a microcolony assay. Hyperthermia treatments, which in themselves caused no detectable cell lethality, inhibited the capacity of crypt cells to repair sublethal radiation damage. In addition, heat applied either before or after single radiation exposures potentiated lethal damage to crypt cells; the degree of enhancement was dependent on the time interval between treatments. At the levels of heating employed, DNA synthesis in the intestinal epithelium was significantly reduced immediately following exposure, but returned rapidly to normal levels. No further disturbances in cellular kinetics were observed for up to 10 days after heating.

  16. Fluid absorption in isolated perfused colonic crypts.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, S K; Binder, H J; Boron, W F; Geibel, J P

    1995-01-01

    A spatial segregation of ion transport processes between crypt and surface epithelial cells is well-accepted and integrated into physiological and pathophysiological paradigms of small and large intestinal function: Absorptive processes are believed to be located in surface (and villous) cells, whereas secretory processes are believed to be present in crypt cells. Validation of this model requires direct determination of fluid movement in intestinal crypts. This study describes the adaptation of techniques from renal tubule microperfusion to hand-dissect and perfuse single, isolated crypts from rat distal colon to measure directly fluid movement. Morphologic analyses of the isolated crypt preparation revealed no extraepithelial cellular elements derived from the lamina propria, including myofibroblasts. In the basal state, crypts exhibited net fluid absorption (mean net fluid movement = 0.34 +/- 0.01 nl.mm-1.min-1), which was Na+ and partially HCO3- dependent. Addition of 1 mM dibutyryl-cyclic AMP, 60 nM vasoactive intestinal peptide, or 0.1 mM acetylcholine to the bath (serosal) solution reversibly induced net fluid secretion (net fluid movement approximately -0.35 +/- 0.01 nl.mm-1.min-1). These observations permit speculation that absorption is a constitutive transport function in crypt cells and that secretion by crypt cells is regulated by one or more neurohumoral agonists that are released in situ from lamina propria cells. The functional, intact polarized crypt described here that both absorbs and secretes will permit future studies that dissect the mechanisms that govern fluid and electrolyte movement in the colonic crypt. Images PMID:7593625

  17. The role of the Hes1 crosstalk hub in Notch-Wnt interactions of the intestinal crypt

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Heather A.; Dale, Trevor; Gavaghan, David J.

    2017-01-01

    The Notch pathway plays a vital role in determining whether cells in the intestinal epithelium adopt a secretory or an absorptive phenotype. Cell fate specification is coordinated via Notch’s interaction with the canonical Wnt pathway. Here, we propose a new mathematical model of the Notch and Wnt pathways, in which the Hes1 promoter acts as a hub for pathway crosstalk. Computational simulations of the model can assist in understanding how healthy intestinal tissue is maintained, and predict the likely consequences of biochemical knockouts upon cell fate selection processes. Chemical reaction network theory (CRNT) is a powerful, generalised framework which assesses the capacity of our model for monostability or multistability, by analysing properties of the underlying network structure without recourse to specific parameter values or functional forms for reaction rates. CRNT highlights the role of β-catenin in stabilising the Notch pathway and damping oscillations, demonstrating that Wnt-mediated actions on the Hes1 promoter can induce dynamic transitions in the Notch system, from multistability to monostability. Time-dependent model simulations of cell pairs reveal the stabilising influence of Wnt upon the Notch pathway, in which β-catenin- and Dsh-mediated action on the Hes1 promoter are key in shaping the subcellular dynamics. Where Notch-mediated transcription of Hes1 dominates, there is Notch oscillation and maintenance of fate flexibility; Wnt-mediated transcription of Hes1 favours bistability akin to cell fate selection. Cells could therefore regulate the proportion of Wnt- and Notch-mediated control of the Hes1 promoter to coordinate the timing of cell fate selection as they migrate through the intestinal epithelium and are subject to reduced Wnt stimuli. Furthermore, mutant cells characterised by hyperstimulation of the Wnt pathway may, through coupling with Notch, invert cell fate in neighbouring healthy cells, enabling an aberrant cell to maintain

  18. The role of the Hes1 crosstalk hub in Notch-Wnt interactions of the intestinal crypt.

    PubMed

    Kay, Sophie K; Harrington, Heather A; Shepherd, Sarah; Brennan, Keith; Dale, Trevor; Osborne, James M; Gavaghan, David J; Byrne, Helen M

    2017-02-28

    The Notch pathway plays a vital role in determining whether cells in the intestinal epithelium adopt a secretory or an absorptive phenotype. Cell fate specification is coordinated via Notch's interaction with the canonical Wnt pathway. Here, we propose a new mathematical model of the Notch and Wnt pathways, in which the Hes1 promoter acts as a hub for pathway crosstalk. Computational simulations of the model can assist in understanding how healthy intestinal tissue is maintained, and predict the likely consequences of biochemical knockouts upon cell fate selection processes. Chemical reaction network theory (CRNT) is a powerful, generalised framework which assesses the capacity of our model for monostability or multistability, by analysing properties of the underlying network structure without recourse to specific parameter values or functional forms for reaction rates. CRNT highlights the role of β-catenin in stabilising the Notch pathway and damping oscillations, demonstrating that Wnt-mediated actions on the Hes1 promoter can induce dynamic transitions in the Notch system, from multistability to monostability. Time-dependent model simulations of cell pairs reveal the stabilising influence of Wnt upon the Notch pathway, in which β-catenin- and Dsh-mediated action on the Hes1 promoter are key in shaping the subcellular dynamics. Where Notch-mediated transcription of Hes1 dominates, there is Notch oscillation and maintenance of fate flexibility; Wnt-mediated transcription of Hes1 favours bistability akin to cell fate selection. Cells could therefore regulate the proportion of Wnt- and Notch-mediated control of the Hes1 promoter to coordinate the timing of cell fate selection as they migrate through the intestinal epithelium and are subject to reduced Wnt stimuli. Furthermore, mutant cells characterised by hyperstimulation of the Wnt pathway may, through coupling with Notch, invert cell fate in neighbouring healthy cells, enabling an aberrant cell to maintain its

  19. Intestinal D-glucose transport and membrane fluidity along crypt-villus axis of streptozocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Dudeja, P K; Wali, R K; Klitzke, A; Brasitus, T A

    1990-10-01

    Diabetes was induced in male Lewis rats by a single injection of streptozocin (50 mg/kg body wt ip). After 10-14 days, diabetic and age- and sex-matched control animals were killed, and their proximal small intestines were removed. Villus-tip, mid-villus, and lower-villus enterocytes were harvested from each group with a method that combined divalent cation chelation with mild mechanical dissociation. These fractions were used as starting material to prepare brush-border membrane vesicles. Preparations from each of these fractions were then analyzed and compared with respect to their Na(+)-gradient-dependent and Na(+)-independent D-glucose transport, lipid fluidity, and lipid composition. The results of these experiments demonstrated that 1) maximum rates of Na(+)-gradient-dependent D-glucose transport (Vmax) were greatest in membrane vesicles prepared from mature cells (villus tip and mid villus) of control rats; 2) the glucose concentration producing half-maximal rates of transport (Km), however, was significantly lower in lower-villus membrane vesicles of control rats, suggesting that a distinct glucose transporter existed in the membranes of these relatively immature enterocytes; 3) Na(+)-gradient-dependent, but not Na(+)-independent, D-glucose uptake was greater in diabetic membrane vesicles prepared from mid-villus and lower-villus fractions but not in vesicles prepared from villus-tip cells; and 4) no obvious relationship between alterations in membrane lipid fluidity and enhanced uptake of Na(+)-gradient-dependent D-glucose by these transporter(s) could be established in this experimental model of acute diabetes mellitus.

  20. Hydrolysed inulin alleviates the azoxymethane-induced preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci by altering selected intestinal microbiota in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Pattananandecha, Thanawat; Sirilun, Sasithorn; Duangjitcharoen, Yodsawee; Sivamaruthi, Bhagavathi Sundaram; Suwannalert, Prasit; Peerajan, Sartjin; Chaiyasut, Chaiyavat

    2016-09-01

    Context Inulin, a non-digestible carbohydrate isolated from Helianthus tuberosus L. (Asteraceae), has been shown to alter the gut beneficial bacteria including Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacteria. Inulin also influences the activities of intestinal microbiota that could prevent the colon cancer development. Objective This study determines the effect of hydrolysed inulin with different degrees of polymerisation on alteration of intestinal microbiota and their activities on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. Materials and methods Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups (three control and three AOM-treated groups) and the animal were fed with either a normal diet or diet containing 10% of long-chain inulin (InuL) or short-chain inulin (InuS), respectively, for 17 weeks. Colon cancer was induced in rats by injecting AOM subcutaneously at the 8th and 9th week of the study period. At the end of the experiment, cecal contents of rats were examined for selected microbiota, organic acids, putrefactive compounds and microbial enzymes. ACF formation was microscopically examined. Results The inulin diets significantly increased the weight and decreased the pH of the caecal content. The rats fed with InuL-supplemented diet showed approximately 2.9- and 6.8-fold increases in the biomass of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacteria, respectively. Naive and AOM-treated rats fed with inulin-supplemented diet showed ∼1.3- and ∼2.2-fold decreases in the biomass of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, respectively. Inulins significantly decreased the colonic concentration of phenol, p-cresol and indole. Reduction in the activity of microbial enzymes such as β-glucuronidase, azoreductase and nitroreductase were observed in inulin-treated animals. Reduction in the ACF formation has been observed in inulin-treated groups. Discussion and conclusion The present study demonstrates that dietary

  1. Modelling the dynamics of stem cells in colonic crypts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirio, Orozco-Fuentes; Barrio, Rafael A.

    2017-02-01

    We present a theoretical and computational framework to model the colonic crypt organisation in the human intestine. We construct a theoretical and computational framework to model the colonic crypt behaviour, using a Voronoi tessellation to represent each cell and elastic forces between them we addressed how their dynamical disfunction can lead to tumour masses and cancer. Our results indicate that for certain parameters the crypt is in a homeostatic state, but slight changes on their values can disrupt this behaviour.

  2. Intestine.

    PubMed

    Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Horslen, S P; Edwards, E B; Harper, A M; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2016-01-01

    Intestine and intestine-liver transplant plays an important role in the treatment of intestinal failure, despite decreased morbidity associated with parenteral nutrition. In 2014, 210 new patients were added to the intestine transplant waiting list. Among prevalent patients on the list at the end of 2014, 65% were waiting for an intestine transplant and 35% were waiting for an intestine-liver transplant. The pretransplant mortality rate decreased dramatically over time for all age groups. Pretransplant mortality was highest for adult candidates, at 22.1 per 100 waitlist years compared with less than 3 per 100 waitlist years for pediatric candidates, and notably higher for candidates for intestine-liver transplant than for candidates for intestine transplant without a liver. Numbers of intestine transplants without a liver increased from a low of 51 in 2013 to 67 in 2014. Intestine-liver transplants increased from a low of 44 in 2012 to 72 in 2014. Short-gut syndrome (congenital and other) was the main cause of disease leading to both intestine and intestine-liver transplant. Graft survival improved over the past decade. Patient survival was lowest for adult intestine-liver recipients and highest for pediatric intestine recipients. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  3. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and electrical activity influence neuronal survival

    SciTech Connect

    Brenneman, D.E.; Eiden, L.E.

    1986-02-01

    Blockage of electrical activity in dissociated spinal cord cultures results in a significant loss of neurons during a critical period in development. Decreases in neuronal cell numbers and SVI-labeled tetanus toxin fixation produced by electrical blockage with tetrodotoxin (TTX) were prevented by addition of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) to the nutrient medium. The most effective concentration of VIP was 0.1 nM. At higher concentrations, the survival-enhancing effect of VIP on TTX-treated cultures was attenuated. Addition of the peptide alone had no significant effect on neuronal cell counts or tetanus toxin fixation. With the same experimental conditions, two closely related peptides, PHI-27 (peptide, histidyl-isoleucine amide) and secretin, were found not to increase the number of neurons in TTX-treated cultures. Interference with VIP action by VIP antiserum resulted in neuronal losses that were not significantly different from those observed after TTX treatment. These data indicate that under conditions of electrical blockade a neurotrophic action of VIP on neuronal survival can be demonstrated.

  4. Novel Regenerative Peptide TP508 Mitigates Radiation-Induced Gastrointestinal Damage By Activating Stem Cells and Preserving Crypt Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Kantara, Carla; Moya, Stephanie M.; Houchen, Courtney W.; Umar, Shahid; Ullrich, Robert L.; Singh, Pomila; Carney, Darrell H.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing threats of radiation exposure and nuclear disasters have become a significant concern for the United States and countries worldwide. Exposure to high doses of radiation triggers a number of potentially lethal effects. Among the most severe is the gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity syndrome caused by the destruction of the intestinal barrier, resulting in bacterial translocation, systemic bacteremia, sepsis and death. The lack of effective radioprotective agents capable of mitigating radiation-induced damage has prompted a search for novel countermeasures that can mitigate the effects of radiation post-exposure, accelerate tissue repair in radiation-exposed individuals, and prevent mortality. We report that a single injection of regenerative peptide TP508 (rusalatide acetate, Chrysalin®) 24h after lethal radiation exposure (9Gy, LD100/15) appears to significantly increase survival and delay mortality by mitigating radiation-induced intestinal and colonic toxicity. TP508 treatment post-exposure prevents the disintegration of gastrointestinal crypts, stimulates the expression of adherens junction protein E-cadherin, activates crypt cell proliferation, and decreases apoptosis. TP508 post-exposure treatment also up-regulates the expression of DCLK1 and LGR5 markers of stem cells that have been shown to be responsible for maintaining and regenerating intestinal crypts. Thus, TP508 appears to mitigate the effects of GI toxicity by activating radioresistant stem cells and increasing the stemness potential of crypts to maintain and restore intestinal integrity. These results suggest that TP508 may be an effective emergency nuclear countermeasure that could be delivered within 24h post-exposure to increase survival and delay mortality, giving victims time to reach clinical sites for advanced medical treatment. PMID:26280221

  5. Novel regenerative peptide TP508 mitigates radiation-induced gastrointestinal damage by activating stem cells and preserving crypt integrity.

    PubMed

    Kantara, Carla; Moya, Stephanie M; Houchen, Courtney W; Umar, Shahid; Ullrich, Robert L; Singh, Pomila; Carney, Darrell H

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, increasing threats of radiation exposure and nuclear disasters have become a significant concern for the United States and countries worldwide. Exposure to high doses of radiation triggers a number of potentially lethal effects. Among the most severe is the gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity syndrome caused by the destruction of the intestinal barrier, resulting in bacterial translocation, systemic bacteremia, sepsis, and death. The lack of effective radioprotective agents capable of mitigating radiation-induced damage has prompted a search for novel countermeasures that can mitigate the effects of radiation post exposure, accelerate tissue repair in radiation-exposed individuals, and prevent mortality. We report that a single injection of regenerative peptide TP508 (rusalatide acetate, Chrysalin) 24 h after lethal radiation exposure (9 Gy, LD100/15) appears to significantly increase survival and delay mortality by mitigating radiation-induced intestinal and colonic toxicity. TP508 treatment post exposure prevents the disintegration of GI crypts, stimulates the expression of adherens junction protein E-cadherin, activates crypt cell proliferation, and decreases apoptosis. TP508 post-exposure treatment also upregulates the expression of DCLK1 and LGR5 markers of stem cells that have been shown to be responsible for maintaining and regenerating intestinal crypts. Thus, TP508 appears to mitigate the effects of GI toxicity by activating radioresistant stem cells and increasing the stemness potential of crypts to maintain and restore intestinal integrity. These results suggest that TP508 may be an effective emergency nuclear countermeasure that could be delivered within 24 h post exposure to increase survival and delay mortality, giving victims time to reach clinical sites for advanced medical treatment.

  6. HIV enteropathy: HAART reduces HIV-induced stem cell hyperproliferation and crypt hypertrophy to normal in jejunal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Batman, Philip A; Kapembwa, Moses S; Belmonte, Liliana; Tudor, Gregory; Kotler, Donald P; Potten, Christopher S; Booth, Catherine; Cahn, Pedro; Griffin, George E

    2014-01-01

    To analyse the structural and kinetic response of small intestinal crypt epithelial cells including stem cells to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Crypt size and proliferative activity of transit and stem cells in jejunal mucosa were quantified using morphometric techniques. Crypt length was measured by counting the number of enterocytes along one side of a number of crypts in each biopsy specimen and the mean crypt length was calculated. Proliferating crypt cells were identified with MIB-1 monoclonal antibody, and the percentage of crypt cells in proliferation was calculated at each cell position along the length of the crypt (proliferation index). Data were obtained from 9 HIV-positive test patients co-infected with microsporidia, 34 HIV-positive patients receiving HAART and 13 control cases. Crypt length was significantly greater in test patients than in controls, but crypt length in patients receiving HAART was normal. The proliferation index was greater in test subjects than in controls in stem and transit cell compartments, and was decreased in patients treated with HAART only in the stem cell region of the crypt. Villous atrophy in HIV enteropathy is attributed to crypt hypertrophy and encroachment of crypt cells onto villi. HAART restores normal crypt structure by inhibition of HIV-driven stem cell hyperproliferation at the crypt bases.

  7. Effect of dietary caraway (Carum carvi L.) on aberrant crypt foci development, fecal steroids, and intestinal alkaline phosphatase activities in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kamaleeswari, Muthaiyan; Deeptha, Kumaraswami; Sengottuvelan, Murugan; Nalini, Namasivayam

    2006-08-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most common malignancies in many regions of the world and is thought to arise from the accumulation of mutations in a single epithelial cell of the colon and rectum. Caraway (Carum carvi L. Umbelliferae) is a shrub with a long history as a medicinal plant since ancient times. The effect of different doses of caraway (CC) on the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and the levels of fecal bile acids, neutral sterols, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were studied in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon cancer in rats. Animals were randomized into 6 groups. Group 1 served as control, and group 2 received 90 mg/kg body weight caraway orally everyday. Groups 3-6 rats were given subcutaneous injections of DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) once a week for the first 4 weeks to induce ACF. Rats in groups 4-6, in addition to DMH injections, received caraway at 30, 60, and 90 mg/kg body weight respectively p.o. everyday until the end of whole experimental period of 15 weeks. Caraway supplementation significantly reduced ACF development and also decreased the levels of fecal bile acids, neutral sterols, and tissue ALP activities. The histological alterations induced by DMH were also significantly improved. Overall, our results showed that all 3 doses of caraway inhibited tumorigenesis though the effect of the intermediary dose of 60 mg/kg body weight was more pronounced.

  8. Differential Salmonella survival against communities of intestinal amoebae.

    PubMed

    Wildschutte, Hans; Lawrence, Jeffrey G

    2007-06-01

    Predation from intestinal amoebae may provide selective pressure for the maintenance of high genetic diversity at the Salmonella enterica rfb locus, whereby serovars better escape predators in particular environments depending on the O-antigens they express. Here, the hypothesis that amoebae from a particular intestinal environment collectively prefer one serovar over another is tested. Collections of Acanthamoeba, Tetramitus, Naegleria and Hartmannella were isolated from the intestinal tracts of several vertebrate hosts, including bullfrog tadpoles, goldfish, turtles and bearded dragons, and their feeding preferences were determined. Congeneric amoebae from the same environment had significantly similar feeding preferences. Strikingly, even unrelated amoebae - such as Naegleria and Tetramitus from goldfish - also had significantly similar feeding preferences. Yet amoebae isolated from different environments showed no similarity in prey choice. Thus, feeding preferences of amoebae appear to reflect their environment, not their taxonomic relationships. A mechanism mediating this phenotypic convergence is discussed.

  9. Using crypts as iris minutiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Feng; Flynn, Patrick J.

    2013-05-01

    Iris recognition is one of the most reliable biometric technologies for identity recognition and verification, but it has not been used in a forensic context because the representation and matching of iris features are not straightforward for traditional iris recognition techniques. In this paper we concentrate on the iris crypt as a visible feature used to represent the characteristics of irises in a similar way to fingerprint minutiae. The matching of crypts is based on their appearances and locations. The number of matching crypt pairs found between two irises can be used for identity verification and the convenience of manual inspection makes iris crypts a potential candidate for forensic applications.

  10. Cdc42 and Rab8a are critical for intestinal stem cell division, survival, and differentiation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sakamori, Ryotaro; Das, Soumyashree; Yu, Shiyan; Feng, Shanshan; Stypulkowski, Ewa; Guan, Yinzheng; Douard, Veronique; Tang, Waixing; Ferraris, Ronaldo P.; Harada, Akihiro; Brakebusch, Cord; Guo, Wei; Gao, Nan

    2012-01-01

    The constant self renewal and differentiation of adult intestinal stem cells maintains a functional intestinal mucosa for a lifetime. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate intestinal stem cell division and epithelial homeostasis are largely undefined. We report here that the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rab8a are critical regulators of these processes in mice. Conditional ablation of Cdc42 in the mouse intestinal epithelium resulted in the formation of large intracellular vacuolar structures containing microvilli (microvillus inclusion bodies) in epithelial enterocytes, a phenotype reminiscent of human microvillus inclusion disease (MVID), a devastating congenital intestinal disorder that results in severe nutrient deprivation. Further analysis revealed that Cdc42-deficient stem cells had cell division defects, reduced capacity for clonal expansion and differentiation into Paneth cells, and increased apoptosis. Cdc42 deficiency impaired Rab8a activation and its association with multiple effectors, and prevented trafficking of Rab8a vesicles to the midbody. This impeded cytokinesis, triggering crypt apoptosis and disrupting epithelial morphogenesis. Rab8a was also required for Cdc42-GTP activity in the intestinal epithelium, where continued cell division takes place. Furthermore, mice haploinsufficient for both Cdc42 and Rab8a in the intestine demonstrated abnormal crypt morphogenesis and epithelial transporter physiology, further supporting their functional interaction. These data suggest that defects of the stem cell niche can cause MVID. This hypothesis represents a conceptual departure from the conventional view of this disease, which has focused on the affected enterocytes, and suggests stem cell–based approaches could be beneficial to infants with this often lethal condition. PMID:22354172

  11. Teduglutide ([Gly2]GLP-2) protects small intestinal stem cells from radiation damage.

    PubMed

    Booth, C; Booth, D; Williamson, S; Demchyshyn, L L; Potten, C S

    2004-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 and its dipeptidyl peptidase (DP-IV) resistant analogue teduglutide are trophic for the gastrointestinal epithelium. Exposure increases villus height and crypt size and results in increased overall intestinal weight. As these effects may be mediated through stimulation of the stem cell compartment, they may promote intestinal healing and act as potential anti-mucositis agents in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy. A study was initiated to investigate the protective effects of teduglutide on the murine small intestinal epithelium following gamma-irradiation using the crypt microcolony assay as a measure of stem cell survival and functional competence. Teduglutide demonstrated intestinotrophic effects in both CD1 and BDF1 mouse strains. In BDF1 mice, subcutaneous injection of GLP-2 or teduglutide (0.2 mg/kg/day, b.i.d.) for 14 days increased intestinal weight by 28% and resulted in comparable increases in crypt size, villus height and area. Teduglutide given daily for 6 or 14 days prior to whole body, gamma-irradiation significantly increased crypt stem cell survival when compared with vehicle-treated controls. The mean levels of protection over a range of doses provided protection factors from 1.3 to 1.5. A protective effect was only observed when teduglutide was given before irradiation. These results suggest that teduglutide has the ability to modulate clonogenic stem cell survival in the small intestine and this may have a useful clinical application in the prevention of cancer therapy-induced mucositis.

  12. Somatostatin peptides inhibit basolateral potassium channels in human colonic crypts.

    PubMed

    Sandle, G I; Warhurst, G; Butterfield, I; Higgs, N B; Lomax, R B

    1999-11-01

    Somatostatin is a powerful inhibitor of intestinal Cl(-) secretion. We used patch-clamp recording techniques to investigate the effects of somatostatin on low-conductance (23-pS) K(+) channels in the basolateral membrane of human colonic crypts, which are an important component of the Cl(-) secretory process. Somatostatin (2 microM) elicited a >80% decrease in "spontaneous" K(+) channel activity in cell-attached patches in nonstimulated crypts (50% inhibition = approximately 8 min), which was voltage-independent and was prevented by pretreating crypts for 18 h with pertussis toxin (200 ng/ml), implicating a G protein-dependent mechanism. In crypts stimulated with 100-200 microM dibutyryl cAMP, 2 microM somatostatin and its synthetic analog octreotide (2 microM) both produced similar degrees of K(+) channel inhibition to that seen in nonstimulated crypts, which was also present under low-Cl(-) (5 mM) conditions. In addition, 2 microM somatostatin abolished the increase in K(+) channel activity stimulated by 2 microM thapsigargin but had no effect on the thapsigargin-stimulated rise in intracellular Ca(2+). These results indicate that somatostatin peptides inhibit 23-pS basolateral K(+) channels in human colonic crypt cells via a G protein-dependent mechanism, which may result in loss of the channel's inherent Ca(2+) sensitivity.

  13. [Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome: a case of prolonged survival].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Gil de Muro, S T; Moros Peña, M; Gimeno Pita, P; Castejón Ponce, E; Ros Mar, L

    2004-04-01

    Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome is a multisystemic disorder in which impaired intestinal motor activity causes recurrent symptoms of intestinal obstruction in the absence of mechanical occlusion, associated with bladder distention without distal obstruction of the urinary tract. It is an uncommon disorder with high morbidity and mortality, and long-term total parenteral nutrition may be required. We describe an 18-year-old girl with long-term survival, followed-up by our service since birth. With medical, surgical and nutritional management she currently presents a good oral tolerance and good quality of life, only requiring parenteral nutrition during periods of decompensation.

  14. Pancreatic Digestive Enzyme Blockade in the Intestine Increases Survival After Experimental Shock

    PubMed Central

    DeLano, Frank A.; Hoyt, David B.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.

    2015-01-01

    Shock, sepsis, and multiorgan failure are associated with inflammation, morbidity, and high mortality. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism is unknown, but evidence suggests that pancreatic enzymes in the intestinal lumen autodigest the intestine and generate systemic inflammation. Blocking these enzymes in the intestine reduces inflammation and multiorgan dysfunction. We investigated whether enzymatic blockade also reduces mortality after shock. Three rat shock models were used here: hemorrhagic shock, peritonitis shock induced by placement of cecal material into the peritoneum, and endotoxin shock. One hour after initiation of hemorrhagic, peritonitis, or endotoxin shock, animals were administered one of three different pancreatic enzyme inhibitors—6-amidino-2-naphtyl p-guanidinobenzoate di-methanesulfate, tranexamic acid, or aprotinin—into the lumen of the small intestine. In all forms of shock, blockade of digestive proteases with protease inhibitor attenuated entry of digestive enzymes into the wall of the intestine and subsequent autodigestion and morphological damage to the intestine, lung, and heart. Animals treated with protease inhibitors also survived in larger numbers than untreated controls over a period of 12 weeks. Surviving animals recovered completely and returned to normal weight within 14 days after shock. The results suggest that the active and concentrated digestive enzymes in the lumen of the intestine play a central role in shock and multi-organ failure, which can be treated with protease inhibitors that are currently available for use in the clinic. PMID:23345609

  15. Pancreatic digestive enzyme blockade in the intestine increases survival after experimental shock.

    PubMed

    DeLano, Frank A; Hoyt, David B; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2013-01-23

    Shock, sepsis, and multiorgan failure are associated with inflammation, morbidity, and high mortality. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism is unknown, but evidence suggests that pancreatic enzymes in the intestinal lumen autodigest the intestine and generate systemic inflammation. Blocking these enzymes in the intestine reduces inflammation and multiorgan dysfunction. We investigated whether enzymatic blockade also reduces mortality after shock. Three rat shock models were used here: hemorrhagic shock, peritonitis shock induced by placement of cecal material into the peritoneum, and endotoxin shock. One hour after initiation of hemorrhagic, peritonitis, or endotoxin shock, animals were administered one of three different pancreatic enzyme inhibitors--6-amidino-2-naphtyl p-guanidinobenzoate dimethanesulfate, tranexamic acid, or aprotinin--into the lumen of the small intestine. In all forms of shock, blockade of digestive proteases with protease inhibitor attenuated entry of digestive enzymes into the wall of the intestine and subsequent autodigestion and morphological damage to the intestine, lung, and heart. Animals treated with protease inhibitors also survived in larger numbers than untreated controls over a period of 12 weeks. Surviving animals recovered completely and returned to normal weight within 14 days after shock. The results suggest that the active and concentrated digestive enzymes in the lumen of the intestine play a central role in shock and multiorgan failure, which can be treated with protease inhibitors that are currently available for use in the clinic.

  16. Monitoring and survival of Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 in the human intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Fujita, Takashi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Benno, Yoshimi

    2006-01-01

    The monitoring and survival of Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 in the human intestinal tract was investigated with seven healthy subjects having a low number of fecal lactobacilli. An increase of fecal lactobacilli (10(3.2-5.2) CFU/g feces) was recognized after ingestion of yogurt with SBT2055 by the subjects. A high positive rate of L. gasseri in fecal lactobacilli detected from the subjects (over 70% at 2nd weeks of feeding) was also observed during the ingestion period using the species-specific PCR system. These findings indicate that the SBT2055 strain in yogurt survived in the human intestinal tract and was recovered from human feces.

  17. Factors affecting long-term survival of horses recovering from surgery of the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Proudman, C J; Edwards, G B; Barnes, J; French, N R

    2005-07-01

    Epiploic foramen entrapment (EFE) has been associated with a particularly poor post operative prognosis for equine colic cases, but the reasons for this are unknown. To identify variables associated with post operative survival following surgery for small intestinal disease; develop a model describing long-term post operative survival; and identify reasons for the poor prognosis associated with EFE. Data from 382 horses undergoing surgery were used to identify variables associated with survival. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model for post operative survival was developed and model fit evaluated. The final model included the variables total plasma protein (TP) and packed cell volume (PCV) at admission, duration of surgery and the dichotomous variable relaparotomy (yes/no). Risk of death was positively associated with increasing PCV, but negatively associated with increasing TP (which decreased the probability of death). In a univariable model, EFE cases had a significantly higher death rate than other types of small intestinal disease (hazard ratio = 1.7, P = 0.035). Multivariable modelling indicated that some of the increased risk associated with EFE cases was due to lower TP values and longer duration of surgery. Preoperative TP is associated negatively with the risk of post operative death in horses recovering from small intestinal surgery. Other variables associated with the probability of survival are preoperative PCV, duration of surgery and relaparotomy. The increased post operative death rate of EFE cases can be explained in part by lower TP and longer surgery times of these cases. Total plasma protein may be not simply a measure of hydration status in small intestinal colic cases, but an important determinant of survival. Further investigation of this relationship is warranted. Our model for post operative survival highlights the importance of preoperative TP, PCV and duration of surgery as prognostic indicators. This information should allow a

  18. Survival, Intestinal Mucosa Adhesion, and Immunomodulatory Potential of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains.

    PubMed

    Santarmaki, Valentini; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Mavrogonatou, Eleni; Kiourtzidis, Mikis; Chorianopoulos, Nikos; Tassou, Chrysoula; Tsakalidou, Effie; Simopoulos, Constantinos; Ypsilantis, Petros

    2017-09-01

    Survival during transit through the gastrointestinal track, intestinal mucosa adhesion, and a potential immunomodulatory effect of Lactobacillus plantarum strains 2035 and ACA-DC 2640 were investigated in a rat model. According to microbiological and multiplex PCR analysis, both strains were detected in feces 24 h after either single-dose or daily administration for 7 days. Intestinal mucosa adhesion of L. plantarum 2035 was noted in the large intestine at 24 h after single-dose administration, while it was not detected at 48 h. Daily dosing, prolonged detection of the strain up to 48 h post-administration, and expanded adhesion to the small intestine. Adhesion of L. plantarum ACA-DC 2640 to the intestinal mucosa after single-dose administration was prolonged and more extended compared to L. plantarum 2035. Daily dosing increased both the levels and the rate of positive cultures of the strains compared to those of the single-dose scheme. In addition, both strains increased total IgG while decreased IgM and IgA serum levels. In conclusion, L. plantarum 2035 and L. plantarum ACA-DC 2640 survived transit through the gastrointestinal track, exhibited transient distinct adhesion to the intestinal mucosa and modulated the systemic immune response.

  19. Bax and Bak Do Not Exhibit Functional Redundancy in Mediating Radiation-Induced Endothelial Apoptosis in the Intestinal Mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Rotolo, Jimmy A.; Maj, Jerzy G.; Feldman, Regina; Ren, Decheng; Haimovitz-Friedman, Adriana; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Cheng, Emily H.-Y.; Kolesnick, Richard; Fuks, Zvi

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: To address in vivo the issue of whether Bax and Bak are functionally redundant in signaling apoptosis, capable of substituting for each other. Methods and Materials: Mice were exposed to whole-body radiation, and endothelial cell apoptosis was quantified using double immunostaining with TUNEL and anti-CD31 antibody. Crypt survival was determined at 3.5 days after whole-body radiation by the microcolony survival assay. Actuarial animal survival was calculated by the product-limit Kaplan-Meier method, and autopsies were performed to establish cause of death. Results: Radiation exposure of Bax- and Bak-deficient mice, both expressing a wild-type acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) phenotype, indicated that Bax and Bak are both mandatory, though mutually independent, for the intestinal endothelial apoptotic response. However, neither affected epithelial apoptosis at crypt positions 4-5, indicating specificity toward endothelium. Furthermore, Bax deficiency and Bak deficiency each individually mimicked ASMase deficiency in inhibiting crypt lethality in the microcolony assay and in rescuing mice from the lethal gastrointestinal syndrome. Conclusions: The data indicate that Bax and Bak have nonredundant functional roles in the apoptotic response of the irradiated intestinal endothelium. The observation that Bax deficiency and Bak deficiency also protect crypts in the microcolony assay provides strong evidence that the microvascular apoptotic component is germane to the mechanism of radiation-induced damage to mouse intestines, regulating reproductive cell death of crypt stem cell clonogens.

  20. Misoprostol in the intestinal lumen protects against radiation injury of the mucosa of the small bowel

    SciTech Connect

    Delaney, J.P.; Bonsack, M.E.; Felemovicius, I. )

    1994-03-01

    Systemically administered misoprostol, a PGE analog, has been shown to be an intestinal radioprotector. The purpose of this study was to determine if administration of misoprostol into the intestinal lumen can also reduce the severity of acute radiation enteritis. The rat small bowel was operatively exteriorized and segmented by means of suture ties. The remainder of the intestine and the rat were shielded in a lead box. Misoprostol was introduced into the lumen in various doses. After 30 min exposure to misoprostol, the isolated, exteriorized, segmented bowel was subjected to 11 Gy X irradiation. Five days later the animals were sacrificed and the intestines harvested for evaluation. Surviving crypt numbers per circumference and mucosal height were the criteria used for quantification of damage. Mucosa exposed to misoprostol at the time of radiation delivery showed significantly increased crypt numbers and mucosal height compared to adjacent saline-filled intestine. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells stimulate intestinal stem cells to repair radiation-induced intestinal injury

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Wei; Guo, Mengzheng; Han, Zhibo; Wang, Yan; Yang, Ping; Xu, Chang; Wang, Qin; Du, Liqing; Li, Qian; Zhao, Hui; Fan, Feiyue; Liu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The loss of stem cells residing in the base of the intestinal crypt has a key role in radiation-induced intestinal injury. In particular, Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are indispensable for intestinal regeneration following exposure to radiation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have previously been shown to improve intestinal epithelial repair in a mouse model of radiation injury, and, therefore, it was hypothesized that this protective effect is related to Lgr5+ ISCs. In this study, it was found that, following exposure to radiation, transplantation of MSCs improved the survival of the mice, ameliorated intestinal injury and increased the number of regenerating crypts. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in Lgr5+ ISCs and their daughter cells, including Ki67+ transient amplifying cells, Vil1+ enterocytes and lysozyme+ Paneth cells, in response to treatment with MSCs. Crypts isolated from mice treated with MSCs formed a higher number of and larger enteroids than those from the PBS group. MSC transplantation also reduced the number of apoptotic cells within the small intestine at 6 h post-radiation. Interestingly, Wnt3a and active β-catenin protein levels were increased in the small intestines of MSC-treated mice. In addition, intravenous delivery of recombinant mouse Wnt3a after radiation reduced damage in the small intestine and was radioprotective, although not to the same degree as MSC treatment. Our results show that MSCs support the growth of endogenous Lgr5+ ISCs, thus promoting repair of the small intestine following exposure to radiation. The molecular mechanism of action mediating this was found to be related to increased activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:27685631

  2. Kinetics of changes in the crypts of the jejunal mucosa of dimethylhydrazine-treated rats.

    PubMed Central

    Sunter, J. P.; Appleton, D. R.; Wright, N. A.; Watson, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    When symmetrical 1,2 dimethylhydrazine was administered to rats by weekly s.c. injection, 37% of the animals had developed small intestinal carcinomas after 21-27 weeks. These lesions were largely localized to duodenum and upper jejunum. At the same time there was a diffuse crypt hyperplasia in the jejunum which affected all the treated animals, not just those with neoplasms. This marked hyperplasia was preceded by a modest sustained crypt elongation which was seen soon after DMH injections began. In these hyperplastic jejunal crypts the absolute size of the proliferative compartment was increased, but the growth fraction calculated from labelling studies appeared to fall, probably by reduction in relative size of the proliferating population within the proliferative compartment. No convincing alteration in actual cell-cycle time was observed in the abnormal crypts. There was a slight (25%) increase in cell-production rate in the abnormal crypts. Images Fig. 1 PMID:656298

  3. mTOR disruption causes intestinal epithelial cell defects and intestinal atrophy postinjury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Leesa L.; Davis, Ashley K.; Grogg, Matthew W.; Zheng, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) drive small intestinal epithelial homeostasis and regeneration. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates stem and progenitor cell metabolism and is frequently dysregulated in human disease, but its physiologic functions in the mammalian small intestinal epithelium remain poorly defined. We disrupted the genes mTOR, Rptor, Rictor, or both Rptor and Rictor in mouse ISCs, progenitors, and differentiated intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) using Villin-Cre. Mutant tissues and wild-type or heterozygous littermate controls were analyzed by histologic immunostaining, immunoblots, and proliferation assays. A total of 10 Gy irradiation was used to injure the intestinal epithelium and induce subsequent crypt regeneration. We report that mTOR supports absorptive enterocytes and secretory Paneth and goblet cell function while negatively regulating chromogranin A-positive enteroendocrine cell number. Through additional Rptor, Rictor, and Rptor/Rictor mutant mouse models, we identify mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 as the major IEC regulatory pathway, but mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 also contributes to ileal villus maintenance and goblet cell size. Homeostatic adult small intestinal crypt cell proliferation, survival, and canonical wingless-int (WNT) activity are not mTOR dependent, but Olfm4+ ISC/progenitor population maintenance and crypt regeneration postinjury require mTOR. Overall, we conclude that mTOR regulates multiple IEC lineages and promotes stem and progenitor cell activity during intestinal epithelium repair postinjury.—Sampson, L. L., Davis, A. K., Grogg, M. W., Zheng, Y. mTOR disruption causes intestinal epithelial cell defects and intestinal atrophy postinjury in mice. PMID:26631481

  4. Membrane sphingolipids as essential molecular signals for Bacteroides survival in the intestine

    PubMed Central

    An, Dingding; Na, Chongzheng; Bielawski, Jacek; Hannun, Yusuf A.; Kasper, Dennis L.

    2011-01-01

    As predominant intestinal symbiotic bacteria, Bacteroides are essential in maintaining the health of the normal mammalian host; in return, the host provides a niche with plentiful nutrients for the symbionts. However, the intestinal environment is replete with chemical, physical, and biological challenges that require mechanisms for prompt and adept sensing of and responses to stress if the bacteria are to survive. Herein we propose that to persist in the intestine Bacteroides take advantage of their unusual bacterial sphingolipids to mediate signaling pathways previously known to be available only to higher organisms. Sphingolipids convey diverse signal transduction and stress response pathways and have profound physiological impacts demonstrated in a variety of eukaryotic cell types. We propose a mechanism by which the formation of specific sphingolipid membrane microdomains initiates signaling cascades that facilitate survival strategies within the bacteria. Our preliminary data suggest that sphingolipid signaling plays an important role in Bacteroides physiology, enabling these bacteria to persist in the intestine and to perform other functions related to symbiosis. PMID:20855611

  5. Protective effect of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) on radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Joong Sun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Jong Choon; Park, Hae-Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jang, Jong Sik; Jo, Sung Kee

    2009-12-01

    The protective properties of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) against intestinal damage were examined by evaluating its effects on jejunal crypt survival, morphological changes, and apoptosis in gamma-irradiated mice. The mice were whole-body irradiated with 12 Gy for the examination of jejunal crypt survival and any morphological changes and with 2 Gy for the detection of apoptosis and Ki-67 labeling. Irradiation was conducted using (60)Co gamma-rays. HemoHIM treatment was administered intraperitonially at a dosage of 50 mg/kg of body weight at 36 and 12 hours pre-irradiation and 30 minutes post-irradiation or orally at a dosage of 250 mg/kg of body weight/day for 7 or 11 days before necropsy. The HemoHIM-treated group displayed a significant increase in survival of jejunal crypts, when compared to the irradiation controls. HemoHIM treatment decreased intestinal morphological changes such as crypt depth, villus height, mucosal length, and basal lamina length of 10 enterocytes after irradiation. Furthermore, the administration of HemoHIM protected intestinal cells from irradiation-induced apoptosis. These results suggested that HemoHIM may be therapeutically useful to reduce intestinal injury following irradiation.

  6. Cell Organisation in the Colonic Crypt: A Theoretical Comparison of the Pedigree and Niche Concepts

    PubMed Central

    van der Wath, Richard C.; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Burgess, Antony W.; Smith, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa is a monolayer of rapidly self-renewing epithelial cells which is not only responsible for absorption of water and nutrients into the bloodstream but also acts as a protective barrier against harmful microbes entering the body. New functional epithelial cells are produced from stem cells, and their proliferating progeny. These stem cells are found within millions of crypts (tubular pits) spaced along the intestinal tract. The entire intestinal epithelium is replaced every 2–3 days in mice (3–5 days in humans) and hence cell production, differentiation, migration and turnover need to be tightly regulated. Malfunctions in this regulation are strongly linked to inflammatory bowel diseases and to the formation of adenomas and ultimately cancerous tumours. Despite a great deal of biological experimentation and observation, precisely how colonic crypts are regulated to produce mature colonocytes remains unclear. To assist in understanding how cell organisation in crypts is achieved, two very different conceptual models of cell behaviour are developed here, referred to as the ‘pedigree’ and the ‘niche’ models. The pedigree model proposes that crypt cells are largely preprogrammed and receive minimal prompting from the environment as they move through a routine of cell differentiation and proliferation to become mature colonocytes. The niche model proposes that crypt cells are primarily influenced by the local microenvironments along the crypt, and that predetermined cell behaviour plays a negligible role in their development. In this paper we present a computational model of colonic crypts in the mouse, which enables a comparison of the quality and controllability of mature coloncyte production by crypts operating under these two contrasting conceptual models of crypt regulation. PMID:24069177

  7. Iron homeostasis: new tales from the crypt.

    PubMed

    Roy, C N; Enns, C A

    2000-12-15

    The enterocyte is a highly specialized cell of the duodenal epithelium that coordinates iron uptake and transport into the body. Until recently, the molecular mechanisms underlying iron absorption and iron homeostasis have remained a mystery. This review focuses on the proteins and regulatory mechanisms known to be present in the enterocyte precursor cell and in the mature enterocyte. The recent cloning of a basolateral iron transporter and investigations into its regulation provide new insights into possible mechanisms for iron transport and homeostasis. The roles of proteins such as iron regulatory proteins, the hereditary hemochromatosis protein (HFE)-transferrin receptor complex, and hephaestin in regulating this transporter and in regulating iron transport across the intestinal epithelium are discussed. A speculative, but testable, model for the maintenance of iron homeostasis, which incorporates the changes in the iron-related proteins associated with the life cycle of the enterocyte as it journeys from the crypt to the tip of the villous is proposed.

  8. The Delayed Effects of Acute Radiation Syndrome: Evidence of Long-Term Functional Changes in the Clonogenic Cells of the Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Booth, Catherine; Tudor, Gregory L; Katz, Barry P; MacVittie, Thomas J

    2015-11-01

    Long term or residual damage post-irradiation has been described for many tissues. In hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), this is only revealed when the HSC are stressed and required to regenerate and repopulate a myeloablated host. Such an assay cannot be used to assess the recovery potential of previously irradiated intestinal stem cells (ISC) due to their incompatibility with transplantation. The best approximation to the HSC assay is the crypt microcolony assay, also based on clonogen survival. In the current study, the regenerative capacity of intestinal clonogenic cells in mice that had survived 13 Gy irradiation (with 5% bone marrow shielding to allow survival through the hematopoietic syndrome) and were then aged for 200 d was compared to previously unirradiated age-matched controls. Interestingly, at 200 d following 13 Gy, there remained a statistically significant reduction in crypts present in the various small intestinal regions (illustrating that the gastrointestinal epithelium had not fully recovered despite the 200-d interval). However, upon re-irradiation on day 196, those mice previously irradiated had improved crypt survival and regeneration compared to the age-matched controls. This was evident in all regions of the small intestine following 11-13 Gy re-exposure. Thus, there were either more clonogens per crypt within those previously irradiated and/or those that were present were more radioresistant (possibly because a subpopulation was more quiescent). This is contrary to the popular belief that previously irradiated animals may have an impaired/delayed regenerative response and be more radiosensitive.

  9. Daily variations in colchicine-induced apoptosis in duodenal crypts.

    PubMed

    Norma, V González; Badrán, Amado F; Barbeito, Claudio G

    2005-01-01

    Apoptotic cell death can be induced by several agents, among them colchicine, a microtubule disrupting-drug that affects continuously renewing cell populations, such as the intestinal crypt enterocytes. The objectives of this investigation were (1) to confirm in vivo colchicines-inductive effect and (2) to determine the existence of 24 h variations in the crypt enterocytes apoptotic indices. The study was done on C3H/S male adult mice housed under standardized conditions. Starting at midnight until the end of a circadian period, subgroups of mice were sacrificed after having been injected with colchicine or saline i.p. 4h beforehand. Duodenal samples were processed for hematoxylin-eosin staining and TUNEL technique. In order to score the number of apoptosis, the longitudinal sections of the crypts were divided into three regions comprised, respectively, of tiers 1-4, 5-12, and 13-20, proceeding from the bottom to the top of the crypt. Values of each lot were expressed as mean +/- SEM. A highly significant statistical difference in apoptotic indices was found for colchicine-treated animals. The 24 h curve for colchicine-induced apoptosis displayed qualitative and quantitative differences compared to other inducer agents. Highest apoptotic indices were found in the deepest crypt regions. Daily variations were observed in all the crypt sectors of the colchicine-treated animals and in tiers 5-12 of the saline controls. The present work demonstrates that the colchicine cytotoxicity due to its apoptotic-inducing effect depends on the dosing time during the 24 h in this mouse strain.

  10. Inhibition of CDK4/6 protects against radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Liang; Leibowitz, Brian J.; Wang, Xinwei; Epperly, Michael; Greenberger, Joel; Zhang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy causes dose-limiting toxicity and long-term complications in rapidly renewing tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract. Currently, there is no FDA-approved agent for the prevention or treatment of radiation-induced intestinal injury. In this study, we have shown that PD 0332991 (PD), an FDA-approved selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6), prevents radiation-induced lethal intestinal injury in mice. Treating mice with PD or a structurally distinct CDK4/6 inhibitor prior to radiation blocked proliferation and crypt apoptosis and improved crypt regeneration. PD treatment also enhanced LGR5+ stem cell survival and regeneration after radiation. PD was an on-target inhibitor of RB phosphorylation and blocked G1/S transition in the intestinal crypts. PD treatment strongly but reversibly inhibited radiation-induced p53 activation, which blocked p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis–dependent (PUMA-dependent) apoptosis without affecting p21-dependent suppression of DNA damage accumulation, with a repair bias toward nonhomologous end joining. Further, deletion of PUMA synergized with PD treatment for even greater intestinal radioprotection. Our results demonstrate that the cell cycle critically regulates the DNA damage response and survival of intestinal stem cells and support the concept that pharmacological quiescence is a potentially highly effective and selective strategy for intestinal radioprotection. PMID:27701148

  11. Histone H3 modifications and Cdx-2 binding to the sucrase-isomaltase (SI) gene is involved in induction of the gene in the transition from the crypt to villus in the small intestine of rats.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takuji; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Goda, Toshinao

    2008-05-02

    Expression of the sucrase-isomaltase (SI) gene is induced in cells transitioning from the crypt to the villus of rat jejunum. In the present study, we revealed by ChIP assay using a cryostat sectioning technique that binding of the di-acetylated histone H3 at lysine 9/14 and the transcriptional factor Cdx-2 to the promoter region on the SI gene, as well as mRNA, increased in the transient process. Additionally, di-/tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9/14 on the promoter region of the SI gene rapidly decreased with increasing mRNA. These results suggest that induction of the SI gene during the transition from the crypt to the villi is associated with changes in histone H3 modifications from methylation at lysine 9 to di-acetylation at lysine 9/14, as well as increased binding of Cdx-2 to the SI promoter region.

  12. Intestinal smooth muscle phenotype determines enteric neuronal survival via GDNF expression.

    PubMed

    Han, T Y; Lourenssen, S; Miller, K G; Blennerhassett, M G

    2015-04-02

    Intestinal inflammation causes initial axonal degeneration and neuronal death, as well as the proliferation of intestinal smooth muscle cells (ISMC), but subsequent axonal outgrowth leads to re-innervation. We recently showed that expression of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), the critical neurotrophin for the post-natal enteric nervous system (ENS) is upregulated in ISMC by inflammatory cytokines, leading us to explore the relationship between ISMC growth and GDNF expression. In co-cultures of myenteric neurons and ISMC, GDNF or fetal calf serum (FCS) was equally effective in supporting neuronal survival, with neurons forming extensive axonal networks among the ISMC. However, only GDNF was effective in low-density cultures where neurons lacked contact with ISMC. In early-passage cultures of colonic circular smooth muscle cells (CSMC), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting showed that proliferation was associated with expression of GDNF, and the successful survival of neonatal neurons co-cultured on CSMC was blocked by vandetanib or siGDNF. In tri-nitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis, immunocytochemistry showed the selective expression of GDNF in proliferating CSMC, suggesting that smooth muscle proliferation supports the ENS in vivo as well as in vitro. However, high-passage CSMC expressed significantly less GDNF and failed to support neuronal survival, while expressing reduced amounts of smooth muscle marker proteins. We conclude that in the inflamed intestine, smooth muscle proliferation supports the ENS, and thus its own re-innervation, by expression of GDNF. In chronic inflammation, a compromised smooth muscle phenotype may lead to progressive neural damage. Intestinal stricture formation in human disease, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), may be an endpoint of failure of this homeostatic mechanism.

  13. Gastrin attenuates ischemia-reperfusion-induced intestinal injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhihao; Luo, Yongli; Cheng, Yunjiu; Zou, Dezhi; Zeng, Aihong; Yang, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a devastating complication when the blood supply is reflowed in ischemic organs. Gastrin has critical function in regulating acid secretion, proliferation, and differentiation in the gastric mucosa. We aimed to determine whether gastrin has an effect on intestinal I/R damage. Intestinal I/R injury was induced by 60-min occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery followed by 60-min reperfusion, and the rats were induced to be hypergastrinemic by pretreated with omeprazole or directly injected with gastrin. Some hypergastrinemic rats were injected with cholecystokinin-2 (CCK-2) receptor antagonist prior to I/R operation. After the animal surgery, the intestine was collected for histological analysis. Isolated intestinal epithelial cells or crypts were harvested for RNA and protein analysis. CCK-2 receptor expression, intestinal mucosal damage, cell apoptosis, and apoptotic protein caspase-3 activity were measured. We found that high gastrin in serum significantly reduced intestinal hemorrhage, alleviated extensive epithelial disruption, decreased disintegration of lamina propria, downregulated myeloperoxidase activity, tumor necrosis factor-α, and caspase-3 activity, and lead to low mortality in response to I/R injury. On the contrary, CCK-2 receptor antagonist L365260 could markedly impair intestinal protection by gastrin on intestinal I/R. Severe edema of mucosal villi with severe intestinal crypt injury and numerous intestinal villi disintegrated were observed again in the hypergastrinemic rats with L365260. The survival in the hypergastrinemic rats after intestinal I/R injury was shortened by L365260. Finally, gastrin could remarkably upregulated intestinal CCK-2 receptor expression. Our data suggest that gastrin by omeprazole remarkably attenuated I/R induced intestinal injury by enhancing CCK-2 receptor expression and gastrin could be a potential mitigator for intestinal I/R damage in the clinical setting. PMID

  14. Use of transgenic mice to map cis-acting elements in the intestinal fatty acid binding protein gene (Fabpi) that control its cell lineage- specific and regional patterns of expression along the duodenal-colonic and crypt-villus axes of the gut epithelium

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The mouse intestinal epithelium is able to establish and maintain complex lineage-specific, spatial, and temporal patterns of gene expression despite its rapid and continuous renewal. A multipotent stem cell located near the base of each intestinal crypt gives rise to progeny which undergo amplification and allocation to either enterocytic, Paneth cell, goblet cell, or enteroendocrine cell lineages. Differentiation of these four lineages occurs during their geographically ordered migration along the crypt-villus axis. Gut stem cells appear to have a "positional address" which is manifested by differences in the differentiation programs of their lineal descendants along the duodenal-colonic (cephalocaudal) axis. We have used the intestinal fatty acid binding protein gene (Fabpi) as a model to identify cis-acting elements which regulate cell- and region-specific patterns of gene expression in the gut. Nucleotides -1178 to +28 of rat Fabpi direct a pattern of expression of a reporter (human growth hormone [hGH]) which mimics that of mouse Fabpi (a) steady-state levels of hGH mRNA are highest in the distal jejunum of adult transgenic mice and fall progressively toward both the duodenum and the mid-colon; and (b) hGH is confined to the enterocytic lineage and first appears as postmitotic, differentiating cells exit the crypt and migrate to the base of small intestinal villi or their colonic homologs, the surface epithelial cuffs. Nucleotides -103 to +28, which are highly conserved in rat, mouse and human Fabpi, are able to correctly initiate transgene expression in late fetal life, restrict hGH to the enterocytic lineage, and establish an appropriate cephalocaudal gradient of reporter expression. This cephalocaudal gradient is also influenced by cis- acting elements located between nucleotides -1178 and -278, and -277 and -185 that enhance and suppress (respectively) expression in the ileum and colon and by element(s) located upstream of nucleotide -277 that are needed

  15. Case of congenital short small intestine: survival with use of long-term parenteral feeding.

    PubMed

    Dorney, S F; Byrne, W J; Ament, M E

    1986-03-01

    Isolated congenital short small intestine is a rare anomaly. Of six (one male, five females) previously reported cases, four died in infancy from intractable diarrhea. We report the case of 7-year-old boy with this syndrome in whom a 2-year period of parenteral feeding at home allowed normal weight gain, growth, and development while intestinal adaptation occurred. Parenteral feeding was discontinued at age 2 1/3 years, and for the past 5 years his weight has remained between the tenth and 25th percentiles and his stature between the 25th and 50th percentiles. His development has been normal and he functions at or above grade level at school. Coefficient of fat absorption has increased from 54% to 81%. Vitamin B12 absorption has improved but has not normalized. He remains lactose intolerant. We believe his survival, growth, and development would have been compromised if he had not received a prolonged period of parenteral feeding.

  16. Survival and passage of ingested New Zealand mudsnails through the intestinal tract of rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruce, R. Louise; Moffitt, Christine M.; Dennis, Brian

    2009-01-01

    We conducted laboratory trials to determine the transit time and survival of New Zealand mudsnails Potamopyrgus antipodarum in the gastrointestinal tract of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. To assess the rate of snail passage, we force-fed groups of fish a known quantity of snails and then held them in tanks. At selected intervals we removed individual fish from the test tanks and recorded the number of snails, their condition (live or dead), and their location in the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, anterior intestine, and posterior intestine). Feces were removed from tanks and examined for live snails. We repeated evaluations of passage rate and snail survival to determine the effects of varying the number of snails ingested, fish size, snail size, and feeding a commercial diet to fish after snail ingestion. We plotted and modeled gut evacuation using a stochastic model for ordinal data to consider each test variable. Snail passage rates were faster in fish that were fed smaller snails. Surprisingly, fish fed snails and then administered rations of commercial fish feed retained the snails longer in their stomach than did fish that were not administered fish feeds after being fed snails. Increased retention time of snails in the stomach decreased the probability of snail survival when voided in fecal material. Snails that passed through the gastrointestinal tract within 12–24 h of ingestion were often recovered live in fecal samples. However, no live snails were recovered from the posterior intestine or fecal material collected 24 h after ingestion. Using our results we propose potential management options that could reduce the risks of introducing live snails into new locations when stocking fish from infested hatcheries.

  17. Fasting protects mice from lethal DNA damage by promoting small intestinal epithelial stem cell survival.

    PubMed

    Tinkum, Kelsey L; Stemler, Kristina M; White, Lynn S; Loza, Andrew J; Jeter-Jones, Sabrina; Michalski, Basia M; Kuzmicki, Catherine; Pless, Robert; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Piwnica-Worms, David; Piwnica-Worms, Helen

    2015-12-22

    Short-term fasting protects mice from lethal doses of chemotherapy through undetermined mechanisms. Herein, we demonstrate that fasting preserves small intestinal (SI) architecture by maintaining SI stem cell viability and SI barrier function following exposure to high-dose etoposide. Nearly all SI stem cells were lost in fed mice, whereas fasting promoted sufficient SI stem cell survival to preserve SI integrity after etoposide treatment. Lineage tracing demonstrated that multiple SI stem cell populations, marked by Lgr5, Bmi1, or HopX expression, contributed to fasting-induced survival. DNA repair and DNA damage response genes were elevated in SI stem/progenitor cells of fasted etoposide-treated mice, which importantly correlated with faster resolution of DNA double-strand breaks and less apoptosis. Thus, fasting preserved SI stem cell viability as well as SI architecture and barrier function suggesting that fasting may reduce host toxicity in patients undergoing dose intensive chemotherapy.

  18. Fasting protects mice from lethal DNA damage by promoting small intestinal epithelial stem cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Tinkum, Kelsey L.; Stemler, Kristina M.; White, Lynn S.; Loza, Andrew J.; Jeter-Jones, Sabrina; Michalski, Basia M.; Kuzmicki, Catherine; Pless, Robert; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Piwnica-Worms, David; Piwnica-Worms, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Short-term fasting protects mice from lethal doses of chemotherapy through undetermined mechanisms. Herein, we demonstrate that fasting preserves small intestinal (SI) architecture by maintaining SI stem cell viability and SI barrier function following exposure to high-dose etoposide. Nearly all SI stem cells were lost in fed mice, whereas fasting promoted sufficient SI stem cell survival to preserve SI integrity after etoposide treatment. Lineage tracing demonstrated that multiple SI stem cell populations, marked by Lgr5, Bmi1, or HopX expression, contributed to fasting-induced survival. DNA repair and DNA damage response genes were elevated in SI stem/progenitor cells of fasted etoposide-treated mice, which importantly correlated with faster resolution of DNA double-strand breaks and less apoptosis. Thus, fasting preserved SI stem cell viability as well as SI architecture and barrier function suggesting that fasting may reduce host toxicity in patients undergoing dose intensive chemotherapy. PMID:26644583

  19. Instabilities of Monolayered Epithelia: Shape and Structure of Villi and Crypts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannezo, E.; Prost, J.; Joanny, J.-F.

    2011-08-01

    We study theoretically the shapes of a dividing epithelial monolayer of cells lying on top of an elastic stroma. The negative tension created by cell division provokes a buckling instability at a finite wave vector leading to the formation of periodic arrays of villi and crypts. The instability is similar to the buckling of a metallic plate under compression. We use the results to rationalize the various structures of the intestinal lining observed in vivo. Taking into account the coupling between cell division and local curvature, we obtain different patterns of villi and crypts, which could explain the different morphologies of the small intestine and the colon.

  20. Dclk1, a tumor stem cell marker, regulates pro-survival signaling and self-renewal of intestinal tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; Yao, Jiannan; Qu, Dongfeng; May, Randal; Weygant, Nathaniel; Ge, Yang; Ali, Naushad; Sureban, Sripathi M; Gude, Modhi; Vega, Kenneth; Bannerman-Menson, Eddie; Xia, Lijun; Bronze, Michael; An, Guangyu; Houchen, Courtney W

    2017-02-01

    More than 80% of intestinal neoplasia is associated with the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutation. Doublecortin-like kinase 1 (Dclk1), a kinase protein, is overexpressed in colorectal cancer and specifically marks tumor stem cells (TSCs) that self-renew and increased the tumor progeny in Apc (Min/+) mice. However, the role of Dclk1 expression and its contribution to regulating pro-survival signaling for tumor progression in Apc mutant cancer is poorly understood. We analyzed DCLK1 and pro-survival signaling gene expression datasets of 329 specimens from TCGA Colon Adenocarcinoma Cancer Data. The network of DCLK1 and pro-survival signaling was analyzed utilizing the GeneMANIA database. We examined the expression levels of Dclk1 and other stem cell-associated markers, pro-survival signaling pathways, cell self-renewal in the isolated intestinal epithelial cells of Apc (Min/+) mice with high-grade dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. To determine the functional role of Dclk1 for tumor progression, we knocked down Dclk1 and determined the pro-survival signaling pathways and stemness. We used siRNA technology to gene silence pro-survival signaling in colon cancer cells in vitro. We utilized FACS, IHC, western blot, RT-PCR, and clonogenic (self-renewal) assays. We found a correlation between DCLK1 and pro-survival signaling expression. The expression of Dclk1 and stem cell-associated markers Lgr5, Bmi1, and Musashi1 were significantly higher in the intestinal epithelial cells of Apc (Min/+) mice than in wild-type controls. Intestinal epithelial cells of Apc (Min/+) mice showed increased expression of pro-survival signaling, pluripotency and self-renewal ability. Furthermore, the enteroids formed from the intestinal Dclk1(+) cells of Apc (Min/+) mice display higher pluripotency and pro-survival signaling. Dclk1 knockdown in Apc (Min/+) mice attenuates intestinal adenomas and adenocarcinoma, and decreases pro-survival signaling and self-renewal. Knocking down RELA and NOTCH1

  1. Survival after total-body irradiation. I. Effects of partial small bowel shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Vigneulle, R.M.; Vriesendorp, H.M.; Taylor, P.; Burns, W.; Pelkey, T. )

    1989-08-01

    The small intestine of the rat was shielded during total-body irradiation (TBI) to evaluate the effects of radiation dose and length of intestine shielded on survival. Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized in groups of 10. Using aseptic surgical procedures 80, 40, 20, or 10 cm, or none of the proximal or distal small intestine were temporarily exteriorized and shielded during irradiation with photons from an 18 MeV linear accelerator. Less than 17% of the dose was delivered to the shielded intestines. In unshielded animals deaths occurred from Days 4 to 6 with 13, 15, or 17 Gy and from Days 8 to 30 with 9, 11, and 12 Gy. However, in all animals exposed to 15 Gy with all or part of the small intestine shielded, survival was increased to between 5 and 9 days. Shielding of the distal small intestine was more effective in prolonging survival than shielding of the proximal small intestine. The previously identified target of radiation damage in the small intestine is the crypt stem cell. In this study, the analysis of histological specimens of shielded and irradiated small intestine suggested that humoral factors also influence intestinal histology and survival after irradiation. These humoral factors are thought to originate from the irradiated body tissues, the shielded proximal intestine, and the shielded distal intestine. Further studies are required to identify these factors and to determine their mode of action and their therapeutic potential after radiation damage to the small intestine.

  2. Cellular chloride and bicarbonate retention alters intracellular pH regulation in Cftr KO crypt epithelium.

    PubMed

    Walker, Nancy M; Liu, Jinghua; Stein, Sydney R; Stefanski, Casey D; Strubberg, Ashlee M; Clarke, Lane L

    2016-01-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion channel providing a major pathway for Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) efflux across the apical membrane of the epithelium. In the intestine, CF manifests as obstructive syndromes, dysbiosis, inflammation, and an increased risk for gastrointestinal cancer. Cftr knockout (KO) mice recapitulate CF intestinal disease, including intestinal hyperproliferation. Previous studies using Cftr KO intestinal organoids (enteroids) indicate that crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline intracellular pH (pHi). We hypothesized that Cftr has a cell-autonomous role in downregulating pHi that is incompletely compensated by acid-base regulation in its absence. Here, 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein microfluorimetry of enteroids showed that Cftr KO crypt epithelium sustains an alkaline pHi and resistance to cell acidification relative to wild-type. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that Cftr KO enteroids exhibit downregulated transcription of base (HCO3 (-))-loading proteins and upregulation of the basolateral membrane HCO3 (-)-unloader anion exchanger 2 (Ae2). Although Cftr KO crypt epithelium had increased Ae2 expression and Ae2-mediated Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange with maximized gradients, it also had increased intracellular Cl(-) concentration relative to wild-type. Pharmacological reduction of intracellular Cl(-) concentration in Cftr KO crypt epithelium normalized pHi, which was largely Ae2-dependent. We conclude that Cftr KO crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline pHi as a consequence of losing both Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) efflux, which impairs pHi regulation by Ae2. Retention of Cl(-) and an alkaline pHi in crypt epithelium may alter several cellular processes in the proliferative compartment of Cftr KO intestine.

  3. Cellular chloride and bicarbonate retention alters intracellular pH regulation in Cftr KO crypt epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Nancy M.; Liu, Jinghua; Stein, Sydney R.; Stefanski, Casey D.; Strubberg, Ashlee M.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion channel providing a major pathway for Cl− and HCO3− efflux across the apical membrane of the epithelium. In the intestine, CF manifests as obstructive syndromes, dysbiosis, inflammation, and an increased risk for gastrointestinal cancer. Cftr knockout (KO) mice recapitulate CF intestinal disease, including intestinal hyperproliferation. Previous studies using Cftr KO intestinal organoids (enteroids) indicate that crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline intracellular pH (pHi). We hypothesized that Cftr has a cell-autonomous role in downregulating pHi that is incompletely compensated by acid-base regulation in its absence. Here, 2′,7′-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein microfluorimetry of enteroids showed that Cftr KO crypt epithelium sustains an alkaline pHi and resistance to cell acidification relative to wild-type. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that Cftr KO enteroids exhibit downregulated transcription of base (HCO3−)-loading proteins and upregulation of the basolateral membrane HCO3−-unloader anion exchanger 2 (Ae2). Although Cftr KO crypt epithelium had increased Ae2 expression and Ae2-mediated Cl−/HCO3− exchange with maximized gradients, it also had increased intracellular Cl− concentration relative to wild-type. Pharmacological reduction of intracellular Cl− concentration in Cftr KO crypt epithelium normalized pHi, which was largely Ae2-dependent. We conclude that Cftr KO crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline pHi as a consequence of losing both Cl− and HCO3− efflux, which impairs pHi regulation by Ae2. Retention of Cl− and an alkaline pHi in crypt epithelium may alter several cellular processes in the proliferative compartment of Cftr KO intestine. PMID:26542396

  4. Gamma tocotrienol, a potent radioprotector, preferentially upregulates expression of anti-apoptotic genes to promote intestinal cell survival.

    PubMed

    Suman, Shubhankar; Datta, Kamal; Chakraborty, Kushal; Kulkarni, Shilpa S; Doiron, Kathryn; Fornace, Albert J; Sree Kumar, K; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Ghosh, Sanchita P

    2013-10-01

    Gamma tocotrienol (GT3) has been reported as a potent ameliorator of radiation-induced gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity when administered prophylactically. This study aimed to evaluate the role of GT3 mediated pro- and anti-apoptotic gene regulation in protecting mice from radiation-induced GI damage. Male 10- to 12-weeks-old CD2F1 mice were administered with a single dose of 200 mg/kg of GT3 or equal volume of vehicle (5% Tween-80) 24 h before exposure to 11 Gy of whole-body γ-radiation. Mouse jejunum was surgically removed 4 and 24h after radiation exposure, and was used for PCR array, histology, immunohistochemistry, and immunoblot analysis. Results were compared among vehicle pre-treated no radiation, vehicle pre-treated irradiated, and GT3 pre-treated irradiated groups. GT3 pretreated irradiated groups, both 4h and 24h after radiation, showed greater upregulation of anti-apoptotic gene expression than vehicle pretreated irradiated groups. TUNEL staining and intestinal crypt analysis showed protection of jejunum after GT3 pre-treatment and immunoblot results were supportive of PCR data. Our study demonstrated that GT3-mediated protection of intestinal cells from a GI-toxic dose of radiation occurred via upregulation of antiapoptotic and downregulation of pro-apoptotic factors, both at the transcript as well as at the protein levels.

  5. Inhibition of Intestinal Epithelial Apoptosis Improves Survival in a Murine Model of Radiation Combined Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Enjae; Perrone, Erin E.; Brahmamdan, Pavan; McDonough, Jacquelyn S.; Leathersich, Ann M.; Dominguez, Jessica A.; Clark, Andrew T.; Fox, Amy C.; Dunne, W. Michael; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2013-01-01

    World conditions place large populations at risk from ionizing radiation (IR) from detonation of dirty bombs or nuclear devices. In a subgroup of patients, ionizing radiation exposure would be followed by a secondary infection. The effects of radiation combined injury are potentially more lethal than either insult in isolation. The purpose of this study was to determine mechanisms of mortality and possible therapeutic targets in radiation combined injury. Mice were exposed to IR with 2.5 Gray (Gy) followed four days later by intratracheal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). While either IR or MRSA alone yielded 100% survival, animals with radiation combined injury had 53% survival (p = 0.01). Compared to IR or MRSA alone, mice with radiation combined injury had increased gut apoptosis, local and systemic bacterial burden, decreased splenic CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells, and increased BAL and systemic IL-6 and G-CSF. In contrast, radiation combined injury did not alter lymphocyte apoptosis, pulmonary injury, or intestinal proliferation compared to IR or MRSA alone. In light of the synergistic increase in gut apoptosis following radiation combined injury, transgenic mice that overexpress Bcl-2 in their intestine and wild type mice were subjected to IR followed by MRSA. Bcl-2 mice had decreased gut apoptosis and improved survival compared to WT mice (92% vs. 42%; p<0.01). These data demonstrate that radiation combined injury results in significantly higher mortality than could be predicted based upon either IR or MRSA infection alone, and that preventing gut apoptosis may be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:24204769

  6. Use of a Collagen Membrane to Enhance the Survival of Primary Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Di Claudio, Fiorella; Muglia, Cecilia I; Smaldini, Paola L; Orsini Delgado, María Lucía; Trejo, Fernando M; Grigera, J Raúl; Docena, Guillermo H

    2017-09-01

    Intestinal epithelial cell culture is important for biological, functional, and immunological studies. Since enterocytes have a short in vivo life span due to anoikis, we aimed to establish a novel and reproducible method to prolong the survival of mouse and human cells. Cells were isolated following a standard procedure, and cultured on ordered-cow's collagen membranes. A prolonged cell life span was achieved; cells covered the complete surface of bio-membranes and showed a classical enterocyte morphology with high expression of enzymes supporting the possibility of cryopreservation. Apoptosis was dramatically reduced and cultured enterocytes expressed cytokeratin and LGR5 (low frequency). Cells exposed to LPS or flagellin showed the induction of TLR4 and TLR5 expression and a functional phenotype upon exposure to the probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum or the pathogenic Clostridium difficile. The secretion of the homeostatic (IL-25 and TSLP), inhibitory (IL-10 and TGF-β), or pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-1β and TNF) were induced. In conclusion, this novel protocol using cow's collagen-ordered membrane provides a simple and reproducible method to maintain intestinal epithelial cells functional for cell-microorganism interaction studies and stem cell expansion. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2489-2496, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Apoptosis of ileal crypt epithelia after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation without graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Kreft, Andreas; Russo, Alexandra; Lux, Steffi; Waiz, Lioudmila; Seidmann, Larissa; Faber, Jörg; Kirkpatrick, Charles J

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Intestinal crypt cell apoptosis may occur after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation without clinically overt graft-versus-host disease. We describe this phenomenon in a case of a 12-year-old girl who had segments of the ileum resected because of a relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The diagnostic difficulties are discussed. PMID:25984309

  8. Computational Models Reveal a Passive Mechanism for Cell Migration in the Crypt

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Sara-Jane; Näthke, Inke S.; Osborne, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Cell migration in the intestinal crypt is essential for the regular renewal of the epithelium, and the continued upward movement of cells is a key characteristic of healthy crypt dynamics. However, the driving force behind this migration is unknown. Possibilities include mitotic pressure, active movement driven by motility cues, or negative pressure arising from cell loss at the crypt collar. It is possible that a combination of factors together coordinate migration. Here, three different computational models are used to provide insight into the mechanisms that underpin cell movement in the crypt, by examining the consequence of eliminating cell division on cell movement. Computational simulations agree with existing experimental results, confirming that migration can continue in the absence of mitosis. Importantly, however, simulations allow us to infer mechanisms that are sufficient to generate cell movement, which is not possible through experimental observation alone. The results produced by the three models agree and suggest that cell loss due to apoptosis and extrusion at the crypt collar relieves cell compression below, allowing cells to expand and move upwards. This finding suggests that future experiments should focus on the role of apoptosis and cell extrusion in controlling cell migration in the crypt. PMID:24260407

  9. Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS): report of a case with prolonged survival and literature review.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, Eunice; Hernández-Zarco, Adelina; Polanco-Ortiz, Amilcar; Villa-Morales, Judith; Mateos-Sánchez, Leovigildo

    2013-02-01

    Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) was first described in 1976. A rare congenital autosomal recessive alteration that predominantly affects females (4:1 ratio), it is characterized by the presence of distended bladder (without distal urinary tract obstruction), microcolon, and decreased or absent intestinal peristalsis. Inconsistent and non-specific histological changes affecting the bladder and intestinal smooth muscle, and intrinsic innervations, have been reported most frequently. MMIHS usually has a fatal prognosis in the first year of life; nevertheless there are some case reports of longer survival. Here is presented the case report of a boy with a diagnosis of MMIHS who has achieved prolonged survival, followed by a review of the literature.

  10. Intestinal microbes influence the survival, reproduction and protein profile of Trichinella spiralis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hai-yan; Zhao, Na; Zhang, Qiao-ling; Gao, Jiang-ming; Liu, Li-li; Wu, Teng-Fei; Wang, Ying; Huang, Qing-hua; Gou, Qiang; Chen, Wei; Gong, Peng-tao; Li, Jian-hua; Gao, Ying-jie; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Xi-chen

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between intestinal microbes and parasitic worms play an essential role in the development of the host immune system. However, the effects of gut microbes on Trichinella spiralis are unknown. The aim of this work was to explore microbe-induced alterations in the survival and reproduction of T. spiralis in vitro. To further identify the proteins and genes involved in the response of nematodes to microbes, quantitative proteomic analysis of T. spiralis was conducted by iTRAQ-coupled LCMS/MS technology and quantitative real-time-PCR was used to measure changes in mRNA expression. The results showed Lactobacillus acidophilus, and especially Lactobacillus bulgaricus, significantly enhanced the survival and reproductive rates of nematodes. Salmonella enterica, and especially Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC), had opposite effects. Genetic responses were activated mainly by EHEC. A total of 514 proteins were identified and quantified, and carbohydrate metabolism-related proteins existed in a higher proportion. These findings indicated that some gut bacteria are friendly or harmful to humans and in addition they may have similar beneficial or detrimental effects on parasites. This may be due to the regulation of expression of specific genes and proteins. Our studies provide a basis for developing therapies against parasitic infections from knowledge generated by studying the gut microbes of mammals.

  11. Pretreatment with transforming growth factor beta-3 protects small intestinal stem cells against radiation damage in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Potten, C. S.; Booth, D.; Haley, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract, with its rapid cell replacement, is sensitive to cytotoxic damage and can be a site of dose-limiting toxicity in cancer therapy. Here, we have investigated the use of one growth modulator to manipulate the cell cycle status of gastrointestinal stem cells before cytotoxic exposure to minimize damage to this normal tissue. Transforming growth factor beta-3 (TGF-beta3), a known inhibitor of cell cycle progression through G1, was used to alter intestinal crypt stem cell sensitivity before 12-16 Gy of gamma irradiation, which was used as a model cytotoxic agent. Using a crypt microcolony assay as a measure of functional competence of gastrointestinal stem cells, it was shown that the administration of TGF-beta3 over a 24-h period before irradiation increased the number of surviving crypts by four- to six-fold. To test whether changes in crypt survival are reflected in the well-being of the animal, survival time analyses were performed. After 14.5 Gy of radiation, only 35% of the animals survived within a period of about 12 days, while prior treatment with TGF-beta3 provided significant protection against this early gastrointestinal animal death, with 95% of the treated animals surviving for greater than 30 days. PMID:9166937

  12. Survival after total-body irradiation. 1. Effects of partial small bowel shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Vigneulle, R.M.; Vriesendorp, H.M.; Taylor, P.; Burns, W.; Pelkey, T.

    1989-01-01

    The small intestine of the rat was shielded during total-body irradiation (TBI) to evaluate the effects of radiation dose and length of intestine shielded on survival. Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized in groups of 10. Using aseptic surgical procedures 80, 40, 20, or 10 cm, or none of the proximal or distal small intestine were temporarily exteriorized and shielded during irradiation with photons from an 18-MeV linear accelerator. Less than 17% of the dose was delivered to the shielded intestines. In unshielded animals deaths occurred from Days 4 to 6 with 13, 15, or 17 Gy and from Days 8 to 30 with 9, 11, and 12 Gy. However, in all animals exposed to 15 Gy with all or part of the small intestine shielded, survival was increased to between 5 and 9 days. Shielding of the distal small intestine. The previously identified target of radiation damage in the small intestine is the crypt stem cell. In this study, the analysis of histological specimens of shielded and irradiated small intestine suggested that humoral factors also influence intestinal histology and survival after irradiation. These humoral factors are thought to originate from the irradiated body tissues, the shielded proximal intestine, and the shielded distal intestine. Further studies are required to identify these factors and to determine their mode of action and their therapeutic potential after radiation damage to the small intestine.

  13. Radioprotection to small intestine of the mice against ionizing radiation by semiquinone glucoside derivative (SQGD) isolated from Bacillus sp. INM-1.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dev Dutt; Bansal, Deen Dayal; Mishra, Saurabh; Arora, Rajesh; Sharma, Ashok; Jain, Swatantra Kumar; Kumar, Raj

    2012-11-01

    Ionizing irradiation induces severe damage to the intestinal crypt cells which are responsible for renovation and maintenance of the intestinal cellular architecture. Therefore, protection of intestinal cells and tissue against lethal irradiation using a semiquinone glucoside derivative (SQGD) isolated from radioresistant bacterium Bacillus sp. INM-1 is the prime focus of the present investigation. BALB/c mice were administered by SQGD (50 mg/kg.b.wt. i.p.) 2 h before whole body irradiation (10 Gy), and histological analysis of the jejunum section was carried out and compared to the irradiated mice. Significant (p < 0.0001) increase in villus length, number of cells per villus, crypts numbers per villus section, total cells counts and mitotic cell counts per crypt and low goblet cells per villus section, and low apoptotic index per crypt section were observed in the irradiated mice pre-treated by SQGD at 48-168 h. Significant induction in NF-kβ at 24 h and Bcl-2/Bax ratio was observed in irradiated mice pre-treated by SQGD compared to only irradiated animals. SQGD pre-treatment before irradiation was found instrumental to reverse the radiation-induced degenerative changes by replenishment of the damaged cells by enhancing mitotic, proliferating, pro-survival, and apoptosis inhibitory activities probably through modulation of cell cycle arrest in G(1)/S phase in the intestinal cellular milieu.

  14. PU.1-silenced dendritic cells prolong allograft survival in rats receiving intestinal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xing-Wei; Ding, Bo-Wen; Zhu, Chuan-Rong; Ji, Wu; Li, Jie-Shou

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the function of PU.1-silenced semi-mature dendritic cells (DCs) and the possibility of utilizing cell immunity in rat intestinal transplantation. METHODS: DCs were isolated from the bone marrow of F344 rats and cultured using the adherent method. The PU.1 gene was knocked down in DCs using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) for 24 h, and the cells were then incubated with lipopolysaccharide for 48 h. The PU.1 siRNA that had the highest silencing efficiency was screened using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot for further study. The tolerance capacity was analyzed and compared between PU.1-silenced DCs (siRNA PU.1 group), negative control-silenced DCs (siRNA NC group) and immature DCs (control group) both in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: Blocking expression of the PU.1 gene in vitro led to a reduction in DC maturation and an increased tolerance capability. PU.1-silenced DCs expressed moderate levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-II and low levels of co-stimulatory molecules, and produced more interleukin (IL)-10, but less IL-12. Compared with the negative control group, surface molecules cluster of differentiation 80 (CD80), CD86 and MHC-II in the siRNA PU.1 group were 27.0% ± 5.6%, 23.6% ± 4.8% and 36.8% ± 6.8%, respectively, and showed a significantly lower trend (P < 0.05). In vivo treatment of recipients with PU.1-silenced DCs injected before intestinal transplantation (siRNA PU.1 group), significantly prolonged allograft survival and resulted in better tissue histopathology compared with the siRNA NC group and control group. Mean survival time after transplantation was 14.3 ± 3.3 d in the siRNA PU.1 group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: PU.1-silenced semi-mature DCs induced partial immune tolerance both in vitro and in vivo, which could be used as a new strategy to promote transplantation tolerance. PMID:24282365

  15. Pharmacologically blocking p53-dependent apoptosis protects intestinal stem cells and mice from radiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinwei; Wei, Liang; Cramer, Julie M.; Leibowitz, Brian J.; Judge, Colleen; Epperly, Michael; Greenberger, Joel; Wang, Fengchao; Li, Linheng; Stelzner, Matthias G.; Dunn, James C. Y.; Martin, Martin G.; Lagasse, Eric; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation (IR) leads to debilitating and dose-limiting gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Using three-dimensional mouse crypt culture, we demonstrated that p53 target PUMA mediates radiation-induced apoptosis via a cell-intrinsic mechanism, and identified the GSK-3 inhibitor CHIR99021 as a potent radioprotector. CHIR99021 treatment improved Lgr5+ cell survival and crypt regeneration after radiation in culture and mice. CHIR99021 treatment specifically blocked apoptosis and PUMA induction and K120 acetylation of p53 mediated by acetyl-transferase Tip60, while it had no effect on p53 stabilization, phosphorylation or p21 induction. CHIR99021 also protected human intestinal cultures from radiation by PUMA but not p21 suppression. These results demonstrate that p53 posttranslational modifications play a key role in the pathological and apoptotic response of the intestinal stem cells to radiation and can be targeted pharmacologically. PMID:25858503

  16. The Vibrio cholerae extracellular chitinase ChiA2 is important for survival and pathogenesis in the host intestine.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Moumita; Nag, Dhrubajyoti; Koley, Hemanta; Saha, Dhira Rani; Chatterjee, Nabendu Sekhar

    2014-01-01

    In aquatic environments, Vibrio cholerae colonizes mainly on the chitinous surface of copepods and utilizes chitin as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. Of the two extracellular chitinases essential for chitin utilization, the expression of chiA2 is maximally up-regulated in host intestine. Recent studies indicate that several bacterial chitinases may be involved in host pathogenesis. However, the role of V. cholerae chitinases in host infection is not yet known. In this study, we provide evidence to show that ChiA2 is important for V. cholerae survival in intestine as well as in pathogenesis. We demonstrate that ChiA2 de-glycosylates mucin and releases reducing sugars like GlcNAc and its oligomers. Deglycosylation of mucin corroborated with reduced uptake of alcian blue stain by ChiA2 treated mucin. Next, we show that V. cholerae could utilize mucin as a nutrient source. In comparison to the wild type strain, ΔchiA2 mutant was 60-fold less efficient in growth in mucin supplemented minimal media and was also ∼6-fold less competent to survive when grown in the presence of mucin-secreting human intestinal HT29 epithelial cells. Similar results were also obtained when the strains were infected in mice intestine. Infection with the ΔchiA2 mutant caused ∼50-fold less fluid accumulation in infant mice as well as in rabbit ileal loop compared to the wild type strain. To see if the difference in survival of the ΔchiA2 mutant and wild type V. cholerae was due to reduced adhesion of the mutant, we monitored binding of the strains on HT29 cells. The initial binding of the wild type and mutant strain was similar. Collectively these data suggest that ChiA2 secreted by V. cholerae in the intestine hydrolyzed intestinal mucin to release GlcNAc, and the released sugar is successfully utilized by V. cholerae for growth and survival in the host intestine.

  17. Survival of Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20 in fermented milk under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    da Conceição, L L; Leandro, E S; Freitas, F S; de Oliveira, M N V; Ferreira-Machado, A B; Borges, A C; de Moraes, C A

    2013-09-01

    The survival of Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20 was assessed in fermented milk, both during the storage period and after exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, as well the detection of the gene fbpA involved in adherence to human gastrointestinal tract. L. delbrueckii UFV H2b20 remained stable and viable for 28 days under refrigerated storage conditions. After one day of storage, that strain exhibited a one-log population reduction following exposure in tandem to simulated gastric and intestinal juices. After 14 days of storage, a two-log reduction was observed following 90 min of exposure to the simulated gastric conditions. However, the strain did not survive following exposure to the simulated intestinal juice. The observed tolerance to storage conditions and resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal conditions confirm the potential use of L. delbrueckii UFV H2b20 as a probiotic, which is further reinforced by the detection of fbpA in this strain.

  18. Effect of fasting and feeding on polyamines and related enzymes along the villus: crypt axis.

    PubMed

    Bamba, T; Vaja, S; Murphy, G M; Dowling, R H

    1990-01-01

    Fasting and feeding have profound effects on crypt cell production and small bowel mucosal growth but the mechanism whereby food stimulates villus tip enterocytes to influence crypt cell production is unknown. We therefore measured the activities of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), diamine oxidase (DAO) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP--a marker of enterocyte maturity) and polyamine concentrations in epithelial cells from villus tips, mid villi, lower villi and crypts of small intestine in non-fasted controls and 18-24 h fasted rats. Fasting reduced crypt cell production and caused villus hyperplasia, DAO activity (mU/g) increased in control villus tips from 9.6 +/- (SEM) 0.8 to 12.3 +/- 1.5 after fasting (NS), from 7.6 +/- 0.4 to 13.9 +/- 3.0 in mid villi (p less than 0.01), from 5.7 +/- 1.0 to 10.4 +/- 7.4 in lower villi (p less than 0.01) and from 5.4 +/- 0.9 to 12.8 +/- 1.5 in the crypts (p less than 0.001). ALP showed a similar pattern of results. In contrast, fasting lowered ODC activity (pmol/mg protein/h) dramatically from 319 +/- 82 in control villus tips to 16.7 +/- 3.0 during fasting, from 297 +/- 59 to 10.7 +/- 3.6 in mid villi, from 224 +/- 45 to 6.3 +/- 2.8 in lower villi and from 150 +/- 31 to 5.8 +/- 3.3 in the crypts. Fasting reduced putrescine concentrations in all fractions but particularly in the crypts and in general was associated with increases in spermidine and spermine concentrations. The role of DAO in the maintenance of low putrescine concentrations during fasting is unclear.

  19. Survival After Total Body Irradiation: Effects of Irradiation of Exteriorized Small Intestine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    exteriorized small intestine H . M. Vriesendorp 1, R. M. Vigneulle’, G. Kitto ’, T. Pelky t, P. Taylor ’-* and J . Smith ’Armed Forces Radiobiologv...P., Fiedner, T. M. and Archambeau, J . 0. Mare- Schultheiss, T. E. and Jardine, J . H . Acute and late radiation malian Radiation Lethality, a...acute intestinal 4 Dowling, R. H . Update on intestinal adaptation. Triangle radiation syndrome through shielding. Am. J . Physiol. 185, Sandoz J . Med

  20. Microencapsulation of a probiotic and prebiotic in alginate-chitosan capsules improves survival in simulated gastro-intestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Chávarri, María; Marañón, Izaskun; Ares, Raquel; Ibáñez, Francisco C; Marzo, Florencio; Villarán, María del Carmen

    2010-08-15

    Chitosan was used as a coating material to improve encapsulation of a probiotic and prebiotic in calcium alginate beads. Chitosan-coated alginate microspheres were produced to encapsulate Lactobacillus gasseri (L) and Bifidobacterium bifidum (B) as probiotics and the prebiotic quercetin (Q) with the objective of enhancing survival of the probiotic bacteria and keeping intact the prebiotic during exposure to the adverse conditions of the gastro-intestinal tract. The encapsulation yield for viable cells for chitosan-coated alginate microspheres with quercetin (L+Q and B+Q) was very low. These results, together with the study about the survival of microspheres with quercetin during storage at 4 degrees C, demonstrated that probiotic bacteria microencapsulated with quercetin did not survive. Owing to this, quercetin and L. gasseri or B. bifidum were microencapsulated separately. Microencapsulated L. gasseri and microencapsulated B. bifidum were resistant to simulated gastric conditions (pH 2.0, 2h) and bile solution (3%, 2h), resulting in significantly (p<0.05) improved survival when compared with free bacteria. This work showed that the microencapsulation of L. gasseri and B. bifidum with alginate and a chitosan coating offers an effective means of delivery of viable bacterial cells to the colon and maintaining their survival during simulated gastric and intestinal juice.

  1. Crypt dysplasia in Barrett's oesophagus shows clonal identity between crypt and surface cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shabuddin; McDonald, Stuart A C; Wright, Nicholas A; Graham, Trevor A; Odze, Robert D; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Zeki, Sebastian

    2013-09-01

    Epithelial dysplasia is an important histological diagnosis signifying the presence of pre-invasive disease, usually needing intervention. However, the specific genetic changes responsible for the induction of this phenotypic change are unknown. Moreover, recent reports indicate that the dysplastic phenotype may not be immutable: in basal crypt dysplasia (CD), unequivocal dysplastic changes are seen in the crypts in Barrett's oesophagus and other pre-invasive lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, but the upper crypts and surface epithelium associated with these dysplastic crypts show the definitive morphology of a differentiated epithelium. The genotypic relationship between CD and the differentiated surface epithelium is presently unclear. We obtained 17 examples of CD: the lower and upper crypts and surface epithelium were differentially laser-microdissected from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections and mutations were sought in tumour suppressor genes frequently associated with progression in Barrett's oesophagus. We found two patients who both showed a c. C238T mutation in the CDKN2A (CDKN2AInk4A) gene and where the precise microanatomical relationships could be discerned: this mutation was present in both the CD at the crypt base and in the upper crypt and surface epithelium. We conclude that, in CD, the dysplastic basal crypt epithelium and the upper crypt and surface epithelium show clonal CDKN2A mutations, thus showing definitively that the surface epithelium is derived from the dysplastic crypt epithelium: the dysplastic phenotype is therefore not fixed and can be reversed. The mechanism of this change is unclear but may be related to the possibility that dysplastic cells can, probably early in their progression, respond to differentiation signals. However, it is also clear that a heavy mutational burden can be borne by crypts in the gastrointestinal tract without the development of phenotypic dysplasia. We are evidently some way from understanding

  2. Structural Stability of Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 Is Essential for Protective Effects Against Radiation-Induced Intestinal Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Fumiaki; Umeda, Sachiko; Yasuda, Takeshi; Asada, Masahiro; Motomura, Kaori; Suzuki, Masashi; Zakrzewska, Malgorzata; Imamura, Toru; Imai, Takashi

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Human fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1) has radioprotective effects on the intestine, although its structural instability limits its potential for practical use. Several stable FGF1 mutants were created increasing stability in the order, wild-type FGF1, single mutants (Q40P, S47I, and H93G), Q40P/S47I, and Q40P/S47I/H93G. This study evaluated the contribution of the structural stability of FGF1 to its radioprotective effect. Methods and Materials: Each FGF1 mutant was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 h before or after total body irradiation (TBI) with {gamma}-rays at 8-12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. Results: Q40P/S47I/H93G could activate all subtypes of FGF receptors in vitro much more strongly than the wild-type without endogenous or exogenous heparin. Preirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G significantly increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1 after TBI at 10 or 12 Gy, and postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G was effective in promoting crypt survival after TBI at 10, 11, or 12 Gy. In addition, crypt cell proliferation, crypt depth, and epithelial differentiation were significantly promoted by postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G. The level of stability of FGF1 mutants correlated with their mitogenic activities in vitro in the absence of heparin; however, preirradiation treatment with the mutants increased the crypt number to almost the same level as Q40P/S47I/H93G. When given 24 h after TBI at 10 Gy, all FGF1 mutants increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1, and Q40P/S47I/H93G had the strongest mitogenic effects in intestinal epithelial cells after radiation damage. Moreover, Q40P/S47I/H93G prolonged mouse survival after TBI because of the repair of intestinal damage. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the structural stability of FGF1 can contribute to the enhancement of protective effects against radiation-induced intestinal

  3. EFFECTS OF TOPICAL TREATMENT WITH EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI LATEX ON THE SURVIVAL AND INTESTINAL ADHESIONS IN RATS WITH EXPERIMENTAL PERITONITIS

    PubMed Central

    de ARAÚJO, Lilhian Alves; MRUÉ, Fátima; NEVES, Roberpaulo Anacleto; ALVES, Maxley Martins; da SILVA-JÚNIOR, Nelson Jorge; SILVA, Marcelo Seixo de Brito; de MELO-REIS, Paulo Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of plants of the family Euphorbiaceae, particularly Euphorbia tirucalli (avelós) has been popularly widespread for treating a variety of diseases of infectious, tumoral, and inflammatory. Aim: To demonstrated antimicrobial and immunomodulatory effects of these extracts, evaluating the effect of a topical treatment with an aqueous solution of avelós latex on the survival and on intestinal adhesions in rats with experimental peritonitis. Methods: Peritonitis was induced in 24 Wistar rats, that were randomized into four groups of six as follows: (1) Control group (n=6), no treatment; (2) Antibiotic group (n=6), treatment with a single intramuscular dose of antibiotic Unasyn; (3) Saline group (n=6), the abdominal cavity was washed with 0.9% saline; and (4) E.tirucalli group (n=6), the abdominal cavity was washed with E. tirucalli at a concentration of 12 mg/ml. The animals that died were necropsied, and the time of death was recorded. The survivors were killed on postoperative day 11, and necropsy was subsequently performed for evaluation of the intestinal adhesions. Results: Significant differences were observed in the control and antibiotic groups (p<0.01) with respect to the survival hours when compared with the saline and E. tirucalli groups. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the survival of animals in the saline andE. tirucalli groups; however, one animal died in the saline group. Necropsy of the animals in the saline and E. tirucalligroups showed strong adhesions resistant to manipulation, between the intestinal loops and abdominal wall. The remaining groups did not show any adhesions. Conclusions: Topical treatment with E. tirucalli latex stimulated an increased formation of intestinal adhesions and prevented the death of all animals with peritonitis. PMID:26734792

  4. Intestinal Subepithelial Myofibroblasts Support the Growth of Intestinal Epithelial Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Nan Ye; Jabaji, Ziyad; Wang, Jiafang; Joshi, Vaidehi S.; Brinkley, Garrett J.; Khalil, Hassan; Wang, Fengchao; Jaroszewicz, Artur; Pellegrini, Matteo; Li, Linheng; Lewis, Michael; Stelzner, Matthias; Dunn, James C. Y.; Martín, Martín G.

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial stem cells (ISCs) are the focus of recent intense study. Current in vitro models rely on supplementation with the Wnt agonist R-spondin1 to support robust growth, ISC self-renewal, and differentiation. Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs) are important supportive cells within the ISC niche. We hypothesized that co-culture with ISEMF enhances the growth of ISCs in vitro and allows for their successful in vivo implantation and engraftment. ISC-containing small intestinal crypts, FACS-sorted single ISCs, and ISEMFs were procured from C57BL/6 mice. Crypts and single ISCs were grown in vitro into enteroids, in the presence or absence of ISEMFs. ISEMFs enhanced the growth of intestinal epithelium in vitro in a proximity-dependent fashion, with co-cultures giving rise to larger enteroids than monocultures. Co-culture of ISCs with supportive ISEMFs relinquished the requirement of exogenous R-spondin1 to sustain long-term growth and differentiation of ISCs. Mono- and co-cultures were implanted subcutaneously in syngeneic mice. Co-culture with ISEMFs proved necessary for successful in vivo engraftment and proliferation of enteroids; implants without ISEMFs did not survive. ISEMF whole transcriptome sequencing and qPCR demonstrated high expression of specific R-spondins, well-described Wnt agonists that supports ISC growth. Specific non-supportive ISEMF populations had reduced expression of R-spondins. The addition of ISEMFs in intestinal epithelial culture therefore recapitulates a critical element of the intestinal stem cell niche and allows for its experimental interrogation and biodesign-driven manipulation. PMID:24400106

  5. Distinct cytoprotective roles of pyruvate and ATP by glucose metabolism on epithelial necroptosis and crypt proliferation in ischaemic gut.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ching-Ying; Kuo, Wei-Ting; Huang, Chung-Yen; Lee, Tsung-Chun; Chen, Chin-Tin; Peng, Wei-Hao; Lu, Kuo-Shyan; Yang, Chung-Yi; Yu, Linda Chia-Hui

    2017-01-15

    Intestinal ischaemia causes epithelial death and crypt dysfunction, leading to barrier defects and gut bacteria-derived septic complications. Enteral glucose protects against ischaemic injury; however, the roles played by glucose metabolites such as pyruvate and ATP on epithelial death and crypt dysfunction remain elusive. A novel form of necrotic death that involves the assembly and phosphorylation of receptor interacting protein kinase 1/3 complex was found in ischaemic enterocytes. Pyruvate suppressed epithelial cell death in an ATP-independent manner and failed to maintain crypt function. Conversely, replenishment of ATP partly restored crypt proliferation but had no effect on epithelial necroptosis in ischaemic gut. Our data argue against the traditional view of ATP as the main cytoprotective factor by glucose metabolism, and indicate a novel anti-necroptotic role of glycolytic pyruvate under ischaemic stress. Mesenteric ischaemia/reperfusion induces epithelial death in both forms of apoptosis and necrosis, leading to villus denudation and gut barrier damage. It remains unclear whether programmed cell necrosis [i.e. receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIP)-dependent necroptosis] is involved in ischaemic injury. Previous studies have demonstrated that enteral glucose uptake by sodium-glucose transporter 1 ameliorated ischaemia/reperfusion-induced epithelial injury, partly via anti-apoptotic signalling and maintenance of crypt proliferation. Glucose metabolism is generally assumed to be cytoprotective; however, the roles played by glucose metabolites (e.g. pyruvate and ATP) on epithelial cell death and crypt dysfunction remain elusive. The present study aimed to investigate the cytoprotective effects exerted by distinct glycolytic metabolites in ischaemic gut. Wistar rats subjected to mesenteric ischaemia were enterally instilled glucose, pyruvate or liposomal ATP. The results showed that intestinal ischaemia caused RIP1-dependent epithelial necroptosis and

  6. Orphan Gpr182 suppresses ERK-mediated intestinal proliferation during regeneration and adenoma formation

    PubMed Central

    Kechele, Daniel O.; Blue, R. Eric; Zwarycz, Bailey; Espenschied, Scott T.; Mah, Amanda T.; Siegel, Marni B.; Perou, Charles M.; Ding, Shengli; Magness, Scott T.; Lund, P. Kay

    2017-01-01

    Orphan GPCRs provide an opportunity to identify potential pharmacological targets, yet their expression patterns and physiological functions remain challenging to elucidate. Here, we have used a genetically engineered knockin reporter mouse to map the expression pattern of the Gpr182 during development and adulthood. We observed that Gpr182 is expressed at the crypt base throughout the small intestine, where it is enriched in crypt base columnar stem cells, one of the most active stem cell populations in the body. Gpr182 knockdown had no effect on homeostatic intestinal proliferation in vivo, but led to marked increases in proliferation during intestinal regeneration following irradiation-induced injury. In the ApcMin mouse model, which forms spontaneous intestinal adenomas, reductions in Gpr182 led to more adenomas and decreased survival. Loss of Gpr182 enhanced organoid growth efficiency ex vivo in an EGF-dependent manner. Gpr182 reduction led to increased activation of ERK1/2 in basal and challenge models, demonstrating a potential role for this orphan GPCR in regulating the proliferative capacity of the intestine. Importantly, GPR182 expression was profoundly reduced in numerous human carcinomas, including colon adenocarcinoma. Together, these results implicate Gpr182 as a negative regulator of intestinal MAPK signaling–induced proliferation, particularly during regeneration and adenoma formation. PMID:28094771

  7. The cellular prion protein PrPc is a partner of the Wnt pathway in intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Besnier, Laura S.; Cardot, Philippe; Da Rocha, Barbara; Simon, Anthony; Loew, Damarys; Klein, Christophe; Riveau, Béatrice; Lacasa, Michel; Clair, Caroline; Rousset, Monique; Thenet, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    We reported previously that the cellular prion protein (PrPc) is a component of desmosomes and contributes to the intestinal barrier function. We demonstrated also the presence of PrPc in the nucleus of proliferating intestinal epithelial cells. Here we sought to decipher the function of this nuclear pool. In human intestinal cancer cells Caco-2/TC7 and SW480 and normal crypt-like HIEC-6 cells, PrPc interacts, in cytoplasm and nucleus, with γ-catenin, one of its desmosomal partners, and with β-catenin and TCF7L2, effectors of the canonical Wnt pathway. PrPc up-regulates the transcriptional activity of the β-catenin/TCF7L2 complex, whereas γ-catenin down-regulates it. Silencing of PrPc results in the modulation of several Wnt target gene expressions in human cells, with different effects depending on their Wnt signaling status, and in mouse intestinal crypt cells in vivo. PrPc also interacts with the Hippo pathway effector YAP, suggesting that it may contribute to the regulation of gene transcription beyond the β-catenin/TCF7L2 complex. Finally, we demonstrate that PrPc is required for proper formation of intestinal organoids, indicating that it contributes to proliferation and survival of intestinal progenitors. In conclusion, PrPc must be considered as a new modulator of the Wnt signaling pathway in proliferating intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:26224313

  8. Effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to lethal whole-body. gamma. irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Onoue, M.; Uchida, K.; Yokokura, T.; Takahashi, T.; Mutai, M.

    1981-11-01

    The effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to 2-kR whole-body ..gamma.. irradiation was studied using germfree, monoassociated, and conventionalized ICR mice. The germfree mice were monoassociated with 1 of 11 bacterial strains, which were isolated from the fresh feces of conventional mice, 2 weeks prior to irradiation. All mice died within 3 weeks after irradiation. Monoassociation with Fusobacterium sp., Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, or Pseudomonas sp. significantly reduced the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. In contrast, monoassociation with Clostridium sp., Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, or Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly prolonged the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. This suggests that the latter organisms may perform some activity to protect the mice from radiation injury. In this histopathological autopsy examination, the main lesions were hypocellularity in hematopoietic organs and hemorrhage in various organs. Neither karyorrhexis nor desquamation of intestinal mucosal cells was observed in any mice. From these observations, it is suggested that the death of these mice was related to hematopoietic damage. Bacterial invasion into various organs was observed in conventionalized and Pseudomonas-, E. coli-, or S. faecalis-monoassociated mice but not in Clostridium-, B. pseudolongum-, L. acidophilus-, or Fusobacterium-monoassociated mice.

  9. Direct inhibitory effect of nicardipine on basolateral K+ channels in human colonic crypts.

    PubMed

    Sandle, G I; Butterfield, I; Higgs, N B; Warhurst, G

    1999-03-01

    The most abundant basolateral K+ channels in human colonic crypt cells have a low conductance (23 pS), respond to increases in intracellular Ca2+ and cAMP, and have been implicated in intestinal electrogenic Cl- secretion. The effect of nicardipine on the activity of these K+ channels was examined by patch-clamp recording in the cell-attached and excised inside-out configurations from the basolateral membrane of single crypts isolated from biopsied samples of human distal colon. During cell-attached recordings, addition of 2 micromol/l nicardipine to crypts pretreated with 200 micromol/l dibutyryl cAMP decreased single-channel open probability by 87%, but in parallel studies nicardipine had no effect on the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Using inside-out patches from crypts pretreated with dibutyryl cAMP (bathed in 1.2 mmol/l Ca2+), the addition of increasing concentrations of nicardipine (200 nmol/l, 2 micromol/l and 20 micromol/l) decreased single-channel open probability in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 0.47 micromol/l). In additional experiments using stripped rat distal colonic mucosa mounted in conventional Ussing chambers, serosal addition of nicardipine at increasing concentrations (ranging from 200 nmol/l to 20 micromol/l) produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of dibutyryl-cAMP-stimulated electrogenic Cl- secretion (IC50 2 micromol/l). Taken together, these results indicate that nicardipine has a direct inhibitory action on 23-pS basolateral K+ channels in human intestinal crypt cells, which is likely to decrease cAMP-stimulated electrogenic Cl- secretion. These basolateral K+ channels may provide a focal point for the development of new strategies in the treatment of secretory diarrhoeal diseases.

  10. Reg4+ deep crypt secretory cells function as epithelial niche for Lgr5+ stem cells in colon

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Nobuo; Sachs, Norman; Wiebrands, Kay; Ellenbroek, Saskia I. J.; Fumagalli, Arianna; Lyubimova, Anna; Begthel, Harry; van den Born, Maaike; van Es, Johan H.; Karthaus, Wouter R.; Li, Vivian S. W.; López-Iglesias, Carmen; Peters, Peter J.; van Rheenen, Jacco; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-positive (Lgr5+) stem cells reside at crypt bottoms of the small and large intestine. Small intestinal Paneth cells supply Wnt3, EGF, and Notch signals to neighboring Lgr5+ stem cells. Whereas the colon lacks Paneth cells, deep crypt secretory (DCS) cells are intermingled with Lgr5+ stem cells at crypt bottoms. Here, we report regenerating islet-derived family member 4 (Reg4) as a marker of DCS cells. To investigate a niche function, we eliminated DCS cells by using the diphtheria-toxin receptor gene knocked into the murine Reg4 locus. Ablation of DCS cells results in loss of stem cells from colonic crypts and disrupts gut homeostasis and colon organoid growth. In agreement, sorted Reg4+ DCS cells promote organoid formation of single Lgr5+ colon stem cells. DCS cells can be massively produced from Lgr5+ colon stem cells in vitro by combined Notch inhibition and Wnt activation. We conclude that Reg4+ DCS cells serve as Paneth cell equivalents in the colon crypt niche. PMID:27573849

  11. Comparison of clinical findings and short-term survival between horses with intestinal entrapment in the gastrosplenic ligament and horses with intestinal entrapment in the epiploic foramen.

    PubMed

    Kilcoyne, Isabelle; Dechant, Julie E; Nieto, Jorge E

    2016-09-15

    OBJECTIVE To compare clinical findings and short-term outcome for horses with intestinal entrapment in the gastrosplenic ligament (GLE) with those of horses with intestinal entrapment in the epiploic foramen (EFE). DESIGN Retrospective case-control study. ANIMALS 43 horses with GLE (cases) and 73 horses with EFE (controls). PROCEDURES Medical records of horses examined because of colic at a veterinary teaching hospital between 1992 and 2012 were reviewed. Signalment was extracted from medical records for all horses with colic (colic population), and additional information regarding colic history, clinical findings, treatments, and outcome was extracted from the records of horses in which GLE or EFE was diagnosed during surgery or necropsy. Signalment was compared between the colic population and the case and control populations. Clinical findings and short-term outcome were compared between the cases and controls. RESULTS The proportions of middle-aged horses and geldings in both the case and control groups were greater than those in the colic population. Mean heart rate and blood and peritoneal fluid lactate concentrations in horses with EFE were significantly greater than those for horses with GLE. The proportion of horses that underwent surgery and were discharged from the hospital (short-term survival rate) did not differ between the GLE (22/25 [88%]) and EFE (29/34 [85%]) groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Compared with the colic population, results suggested middle-aged geldings might be predisposed to GLE and EFE. The short-term survival rate was similar between the GLE and EFE groups even though horses with EFE had more severe systemic derangements than did horses with GLE.

  12. IL-6 and STAT3 are required for survival of intestinal epithelial cells and development of colitis associated cancer

    PubMed Central

    Grivennikov, Sergei; Karin, Eliad; Terzic, Janos; Mucida, Daniel; Yu, Guann-Yi; Vallabhapurapu, Sivakumar; Scheller, Jürgen; Rose-John, Stefan; Cheroutre, Hilde; Eckmann, Lars; Karin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Summary Colitis associated cancer (CAC) is the most serious complication of inflammatory bowel disease. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were suggested to regulate pre-neoplastic growth during CAC tumorigenesis. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional NF-κB–regulated cytokine which acts on epithelial and immune cells. Using genetic tools we now demonstrate that IL-6 is a critical tumor promoter during early CAC tumorigenesis. In addition to enhancing proliferation of tumor initiating cells, IL-6 produced by lamina propria myeloid cells protects normal and pre-malignant intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) from apoptosis. The proliferative and survival effects of IL-6 are largely mediated by transcription factor STAT3, whose IEC-specific ablation has profound impact on CAC tumorigenesis. Thus, the NF-κB-IL-6-STAT3 cascade is an important regulator of the proliferation and survival of tumor initiating IEC. PMID:19185845

  13. Prostaglandin E2 supports growth of chicken embryo intestinal organoids in Matrigel matrix.

    PubMed

    Pierzchalska, Malgorzata; Grabacka, Maja; Michalik, Marta; Zyla, Krzysztof; Pierzchalski, Piotr

    2012-05-01

    Investigating intestinal physiology in vitro remains challenging due to the lack of an effective primary enterocyte culture system. Recently developed protocols for growing organoids containing crypts and villus from adult mouse intestinal epithelium in Matrigel present an attractive alternative to the classical techniques. However, these approaches require the use of sophisticated and expensive serum-free medium supplemented with epithelial growth factor (EGF), Wnt agonist (R-spondin 1), and bone morphogenetic protein inhibitor (Noggin) in high concentrations. Here we demonstrate that is possible to use an isolated chicken embryonic intestinal epithelium to create such an organoid culture. Structures formed in Matrigel matrix in the first two days following isolation survive and enlarge during ensuing weeks. They have the appearance of empty spheres and comprise cells expressing cytokeratin (an epithelial cell marker), villin (a marker of enterocytes), and Sox-9 (a transcription factor characteristic of progenitors and stem cells of intestinal crypts). With chicken embryonic tissue as a source of organoids, prostaglandin E2 is as effective as R-spondin 1 and Noggin in promoting sustained growth and survival of epithelial spheroids.

  14. A Crypt-Specific Core Microbiota Resides in the Mouse Colon

    PubMed Central

    Pédron, Thierry; Mulet, Céline; Dauga, Catherine; Frangeul, Lionel; Chervaux, Christian; Grompone, Gianfranco; Sansonetti, Philippe J.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT In an attempt to explore the microbial content of functionally critical niches of the mouse gastrointestinal tract, we targeted molecular microbial diagnostics of the crypts that contain the intestinal stem cells, which account for epithelial regeneration. As current evidence indicates, the gut microbiota affects epithelial regeneration; bacteria that are likely to primarily participate in this essential step of the gut, microbiota cross talk, have been identified. We show in this article that only the cecal and colonic crypts harbor resident microbiota in the mouse and that regardless of the line and breeding origin of these mice, this bacterial population is unexpectedly dominated by aerobic genera. Interestingly, this microbiota resembles the restricted microbiota found in the midgut of invertebrates; thus, the presence of our so-called “crypt-specific core microbiota” (CSCM) in the mouse colon potentially reflects a coevolutionary process under selective conditions that can now be addressed. We suggest that CSCM could play both a protective and a homeostatic role within the colon. This article is setting the bases for such studies, particularly by providing a bona fide—and essentially cultivable—crypt microbiota of reference. PMID:22617141

  15. ADAR1 is essential for intestinal homeostasis and stem cell maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, W; Wang, X; Buchanan, M; He, K; Sharma, R; Zhang, L; Wang, Q; Yu, J

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) is a double-stranded RNA-editing enzyme that converts adenosine (A) to inosine (I), and essential for normal development. In this study, we reported an essential role of ADAR1 in the survival and maintenance of intestinal stem cells and intestinal homoeostasis by suppressing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and interferon (IFN) signaling. ADAR1 was highly expressed in the Lgr5+ cells, and its deletion in adult mice led to a rapid apoptosis and loss of these actively cycling stem cells in the small intestine and colon. ADAR1 deletion resulted in a drastic expansion of progenitors and Paneth cells but a reduction of three other major epithelial lineages. Moreover, loss of ADAR1 induced ER stress and activation of IFN signaling, and altered expression in WNT targets, followed by intestinal inflammation. An ER stress inhibitor partially suppressed crypt apoptosis. Finally, data from cultured intestinal crypts demonstrated that loss of ADAR1 in the epithelial cells is the primary cause of these effects. These results support an essential role of ADAR1 and RNA editing in tissue homeostasis and stem cells. PMID:23598411

  16. Duodenal crypt health following exposure to Cr(VI): Micronucleus scoring, γ-H2AX immunostaining, and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Chad M.; Wolf, Jeffrey C.; Elbekai, Reem H.; Paranjpe, Madhav G.; Seiter, Jennifer M.; Chappell, Mark A.; Tappero, Ryan V.; Suh, Mina; Proctor, Deborah M.; Bichteler, Anne; Haws, Laurie C.; Harris, Mark A.

    2015-08-01

    Lifetime exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water results in intestinal damage and an increase in duodenal tumors in B6C3F1 mice. To assess whether these tumors could be the result of a direct mutagenic or genotoxic mode of action, we conducted a GLP-compliant 7-day drinking water study to assess crypt health along the entire length of the duodenum. Mice were exposed to water (vehicle control), 1.4, 21, or 180 ppm Cr(VI) via drinking water for 7 consecutive days. Crypt enterocytes in Swiss roll sections were scored as normal, mitotic, apoptotic, karyorrhectic, or as having micronuclei. A single oral gavage of 50 mg/kg cyclophosphamide served as a positive control for micronucleus induction. Exposure to 21 and 180 ppm Cr(VI) significantly increased the number of crypt enterocytes. Micronuclei and γ-H2AX immunostaining were not elevated in the crypts of Cr(VI)-treated mice. In contrast, treatment with cyclophosphamide significantly increased numbers of crypt micronuclei and qualitatively increased γ-H2AX immunostaining. Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy revealed the presence of strong Cr fluorescence in duodenal villi, but negligible Cr fluorescence in the crypt compartment. Together, these data indicate that Cr(VI) does not adversely effect the crypt compartment where intestinal stem cells reside, and provide additional evidence that the mode of action for Cr(VI)-induced intestinal cancer in B6C3F1 mice involves chronic villous wounding resulting in compensatory crypt enterocyte hyperplasia.

  17. Intestinal epithelial stem/progenitor cells are controlled by mucosal afferent nerves.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Ove; Jodal, Mats; Jansson, Madeleine; Ryberg, Anders T; Svensson, Lennart

    2011-02-09

    The maintenance of the intestinal epithelium is of great importance for the survival of the organism. A possible nervous control of epithelial cell renewal was studied in rats and mice. Mucosal afferent nerves were stimulated by exposing the intestinal mucosa to capsaicin (1.6 mM), which stimulates intestinal external axons. Epithelial cell renewal was investigated in the jejunum by measuring intestinal thymidine kinase (TK) activity, intestinal (3)H-thymidine incorporation into DNA, and the number of crypt cells labeled with BrdU. The influence of the external gut innervation was minimized by severing the periarterial nerves. Luminal capsaicin increased all the studied variables, an effect nervously mediated to judge from inhibitory effects on TK activity or (3)H-thymidine incorporation into DNA by exposing the mucosa to lidocaine (a local anesthetic) or by giving four different neurotransmitter receptor antagonists i.v. (muscarinic, nicotinic, neurokinin1 (NK1) or calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) receptors). After degeneration of the intestinal external nerves capsaicin did not increase TK activity, suggesting the involvement of an axon reflex. Intra-arterial infusion of Substance P (SP) or CGRP increased intestinal TK activity, a response abolished by muscarinic receptor blockade. Immunohistochemistry suggested presence of M3 and M5 muscarinic receptors on the intestinal stem/progenitor cells. We propose that the stem/progenitor cells are controlled by cholinergic nerves, which, in turn, are influenced by mucosal afferent neuron(s) releasing acetylcholine and/or SP and/or CGRP. In mice lacking the capsaicin receptor, thymidine incorporation into DNA and number of crypt cells labeled with BrdU was lower than in wild type animals suggesting that nerves are important also in the absence of luminal capsaicin, a conclusion also supported by the observation that atropine lowered thymidine incorporation into DNA by 60% in control rat segments. Enteric nerves are

  18. Intestinal Epithelial Stem/Progenitor Cells Are Controlled by Mucosal Afferent Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Lundgren, Ove; Jodal, Mats; Jansson, Madeleine; Ryberg, Anders T.; Svensson, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    Background The maintenance of the intestinal epithelium is of great importance for the survival of the organism. A possible nervous control of epithelial cell renewal was studied in rats and mice. Methods Mucosal afferent nerves were stimulated by exposing the intestinal mucosa to capsaicin (1.6 mM), which stimulates intestinal external axons. Epithelial cell renewal was investigated in the jejunum by measuring intestinal thymidine kinase (TK) activity, intestinal 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA, and the number of crypt cells labeled with BrdU. The influence of the external gut innervation was minimized by severing the periarterial nerves. Principal Findings Luminal capsaicin increased all the studied variables, an effect nervously mediated to judge from inhibitory effects on TK activity or 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA by exposing the mucosa to lidocaine (a local anesthetic) or by giving four different neurotransmitter receptor antagonists i.v. (muscarinic, nicotinic, neurokinin1 (NK1) or calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) receptors). After degeneration of the intestinal external nerves capsaicin did not increase TK activity, suggesting the involvement of an axon reflex. Intra-arterial infusion of Substance P (SP) or CGRP increased intestinal TK activity, a response abolished by muscarinic receptor blockade. Immunohistochemistry suggested presence of M3 and M5 muscarinic receptors on the intestinal stem/progenitor cells. We propose that the stem/progenitor cells are controlled by cholinergic nerves, which, in turn, are influenced by mucosal afferent neuron(s) releasing acetylcholine and/or SP and/or CGRP. In mice lacking the capsaicin receptor, thymidine incorporation into DNA and number of crypt cells labeled with BrdU was lower than in wild type animals suggesting that nerves are important also in the absence of luminal capsaicin, a conclusion also supported by the observation that atropine lowered thymidine incorporation into DNA by 60% in control

  19. Influence of Ketotifen, Cromolyn Sodium, and Compound 48/80 on the survival rates after intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zi-qing, Hei; Xiao-liang, Gan; Pin-jie, Huang; Jing, Wei; Ning, Shen; Wan-ling, Gao

    2008-01-01

    Background Mast cells were associated with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury, the study was to observe the influence of Ketotifen, Cromolyn Sdium(CS), and Compound 48/80(CP) on the survival rates on the third day after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Methods 120 healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, Sham-operated group (group S), model group (group M), group K, group C and group CP. Intestinal damage was triggered by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 75 minutes, group K, C, and CP were treated with kotifen 1 mg·kg-1, CS 50 mg·kg-1, and CP 0.75 mg·kg-1 i.v. at 5 min before reperfusion and once daily for three days following reperfusion respectively. Survival rate in each group was recorded during the three days after reperfusion. All the surviving rats were killed for determining the concentration of serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase(AST), glutamic pyruvic transaminase(ALT), the ratio of AST compare ALT(S/L), total protein(TP), albumin(ALB), globulin(GLB), the ratio of ALB compare GLB(A/G), phosphocreatine kinase(CK), lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), urea nitrogen(BUN) and creatinine(CRE) at the 3rd day after reperfusion. And ultrastructure of IMMC, Chiu's score, lung histology, IMMC counts, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 of the small intestine were detected at the same time. Results Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury reduced the survival rate. The concentrations of TP, ALB and level of IL-10 in intestine in group M decreased significantly while the concentrations of S/L, LDH and the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in intestine increased significantly compared with group S (P < 0.05). Treatment with Ketotifen and CS increased the survival rate compared with group M (P < 0.05), attenuated the down-regulation or up-regulation of the above index (P < 0.05). Treatment with CP decreased the survival rate on the 3rd day after reperfusion compared with group M(P < 0.05). Group K and C had better

  20. Tis7 deletion reduces survival and induces intestinal anastomotic inflammation and obstruction in high-fat diet-fed mice with short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Amy M; Wakeman, Derek; Lu, Jianyun; Rowley, Christopher; Geisman, Taylor; Butler, Catherine; Bala, Shashi; Swietlicki, Elzbieta A; Warner, Brad W; Levin, Marc S; Rubin, Deborah C

    2014-09-15

    Effective therapies are limited for patients with parenteral nutrition-dependent short bowel syndrome. We previously showed that intestinal expression of the transcriptional coregulator tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate-induced sequence 7 (tis7) is markedly increased during the adaptive response following massive small bowel resection and tis7 plays a role in normal gut lipid metabolism. Here, we further explore the functional implications of tis7 deletion in intestinal lipid metabolism and the adaptive response following small bowel resection. Intestinal tis7 transgenic (tis7(tg)), tis7(-/-), and wild-type (WT) littermates were subjected to 50% small bowel resection. Mice were fed a control or a high-saturated-fat (42% energy) diet for 21 days. Survival, body weight recovery, lipid absorption, mucosal lipid analysis, and the morphometric adaptive response were analyzed. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to identify tis7 downstream gene targets. Postresection survival was markedly reduced in high-fat, but not control, diet-fed tis7(-/-) mice. Decreased survival was associated with anastomotic inflammation and intestinal obstruction postresection. High-fat, but not control, diet-fed tis7(-/-) mice had increased intestinal IL-6 expression. Intestinal lipid trafficking was altered in tis7(-/-) compared with WT mice postresection. In contrast, high-fat diet-fed tis7(tg) mice had improved survival postresection compared with WT littermates. High-fat diet feeding in the setting of tis7 deletion resulted in postresection anastomotic inflammation and small bowel obstruction. Tolerance of a calorie-rich, high-fat diet postresection may require tis7 and its target genes. The presence of luminal fat in the setting of tis7 deletion promotes an intestinal inflammatory response postresection.

  1. Nrf2-Knockout Protects from Intestinal Injuries in C57BL/6J Mice Following Abdominal Irradiation with γ Rays.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenyan; Sun, Zhijuan; Yang, Bing; Wang, Qin

    2017-07-31

    Radiation-induced intestinal injuries (RIII) commonly occur in patients who suffer from pelvic or abdominal cancer. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcriptional regulator of antioxidant, and the radioprotective role of Nrf2 is found in bone marrow, lung, and intestine, etc. Here, we investigated the effect of Nrf2 knockout on radiation-induced intestinal injuries using Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2(-/-)) mice and wild-type (Nrf2(+/+)) C57BL/6J mice following 13 Gy abdominal irradiation (ABI). It was found that Nrf2 knockout promoted the survival of irradiated mice, protected the crypt-villus structure of the small intestine, and elevated peripheral blood lymphocyte count and thymus coefficients. The DNA damage of peripheral blood lymphocytes and the apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) of irradiated Nrf2(-/-) mice were decreased. Furthermore, compared with that of Nrf2(+/+) mice, Nrf2 knockout increased the number of Lgr5⁺ intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and their daughter cells including Ki67⁺ transient amplifying cells, Villin⁺ enterocytes, and lysozyme⁺ Paneth cells. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was accumulated in the crypt base nuclei of the small intestine, and the mRNA expression of NF-κB target genes Bcl-2, uPA, and Xiap of the small intestine from irradiated Nrf2(-/-) mice were increased. Collectively, Nrf2 knockout has the protective effect on small intestine damage following abdominal irradiation by prompting the proliferation and differentiation of Lgr5⁺ intestinal stem cells and activation of NF-κB.

  2. Nrf2-Knockout Protects from Intestinal Injuries in C57BL/6J Mice Following Abdominal Irradiation with γ Rays

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wenyan; Sun, Zhijuan; Yang, Bing; Wang, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced intestinal injuries (RIII) commonly occur in patients who suffer from pelvic or abdominal cancer. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcriptional regulator of antioxidant, and the radioprotective role of Nrf2 is found in bone marrow, lung, and intestine, etc. Here, we investigated the effect of Nrf2 knockout on radiation-induced intestinal injuries using Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2−/−) mice and wild-type (Nrf2+/+) C57BL/6J mice following 13 Gy abdominal irradiation (ABI). It was found that Nrf2 knockout promoted the survival of irradiated mice, protected the crypt-villus structure of the small intestine, and elevated peripheral blood lymphocyte count and thymus coefficients. The DNA damage of peripheral blood lymphocytes and the apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) of irradiated Nrf2−/− mice were decreased. Furthermore, compared with that of Nrf2+/+ mice, Nrf2 knockout increased the number of Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and their daughter cells including Ki67+ transient amplifying cells, Villin+ enterocytes, and lysozyme+ Paneth cells. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was accumulated in the crypt base nuclei of the small intestine, and the mRNA expression of NF-κB target genes Bcl-2, uPA, and Xiap of the small intestine from irradiated Nrf2−/− mice were increased. Collectively, Nrf2 knockout has the protective effect on small intestine damage following abdominal irradiation by prompting the proliferation and differentiation of Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells and activation of NF-κB. PMID:28758961

  3. Compensation by the residual intestine after intestinal resection in the rat. I. Influence of amount of tissue removed.

    PubMed

    Hanson, W R; Osborne, J W; Sharp, J G

    1977-04-01

    Thirty days after resection of 10 to 80% of the midportion of the small intestine, excluding the duodenum, several cell kinetic parameters were investigated in the residual intestine. The degree of intestinal response increased in a stepwise fashion as the amount of tissue removed was increased. The response involved marked increases in: DNA synthesis per crypt expressed as disintegrations per minute of tritium (3H) reflecting (3H)thymidine incorporation, cells per crypt column, 3H-labelled cells per crypt column, cells per villus column, and thickness of all intestinal wall components. These changes occureed throughout the small intestine even at lesser resections. "Crypt profiles'' reflected changes in cell counts, but when the labeling frequency of proliferative cells was expressed as a percentage of the total crypt height, there was no change. The total number of crypts in the duodenum remained unchanged and the total number of cyrpts in the residual jejunum plus ileum decreased proportionally to the amount of tissue removed. Intestinal compensation occurred by increasing the size of the structures present in the residual intestine, not by increasing the number of structural units.

  4. Campylobacter protein oxidation influences epithelial cell invasion or intracellular survival as well as intestinal tract colonization in chickens.

    PubMed

    Lasica, A M; Wyszynska, A; Szymanek, K; Majewski, P; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, E K

    2010-01-01

    The Dsb family of redox proteins catalyzes disulfide bond formation and isomerization. Since mutations in dsb genes change the conformation and stability of many extracytoplasmic proteins, and since many virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria are extracytoplasmic, inactivation of dsb genes often results in pathogen attenuation. This study investigated the role of 2 membrane-bound oxidoreductases, DsbB and DsbI, in the Campylobacter jejuni oxidative Dsb pathway. Campylobacter mutants, lacking DsbB or DsbI or both, were constructed by allelic replacement and used in the human intestinal epithelial T84 cell line for the gentamicin protection assay (invasion assay) and chicken colonization experiments. In C. coli strain 23/1, the inactivation of the dsbB or dsbI gene separately did not significantly affect the colonization process. However, simultaneous disruption of both membrane-bound oxidoreductase genes significantly decreased the strain’s ability to colonize chicken intestines. Moreover, C. jejuni strain 81-176 with mutated dsbB or dsbI genes showed reduced invasion/intracellular survival abilities. No cells of the double mutants (dsbB⁻ dsbI⁻) of C. jejuni 81-176 were recovered from human cells after 3 h of invasion.

  5. Intestinal Phospholipid Remodeling Is Required for Dietary-Lipid Uptake and Survival on a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Rong, Xin; Duerr, Mark A; Hermanson, Daniel J; Hedde, Per Niklas; Wong, Jinny S; Vallim, Thomas Q de Aguiar; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Gratton, Enrico; Ford, David A; Tontonoz, Peter

    2016-03-08

    Phospholipids are important determinants of membrane biophysical properties, but the impact of membrane acyl chain composition on dietary-lipid absorption is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the LXR-responsive phospholipid-remodeling enzyme Lpcat3 modulates intestinal fatty acid and cholesterol absorption and is required for survival on a high-fat diet. Mice lacking Lpcat3 in the intestine thrive on carbohydrate-based chow but lose body weight rapidly and become moribund on a triglyceride-rich diet. Lpcat3-dependent incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into phospholipids is required for the efficient transport of dietary lipids into enterocytes. Furthermore, loss of Lpcat3 amplifies the production of gut hormones, including GLP-1 and oleoylethanolamide, in response to high-fat feeding, contributing to the paradoxical cessation of food intake in the setting of starvation. These results reveal that membrane phospholipid composition is a gating factor in passive lipid absorption and implicate LXR-Lpcat3 signaling in a gut-brain feedback loop that couples absorption to food intake.

  6. A bioassay to measure energy metabolism in mouse colonic crypts, organoids, and sorted stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yang-Yi; Davidson, Laurie A.; Callaway, Evelyn S.; Wright, Gus A.; Safe, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that targeting cancer cell energy metabolism might be an effective therapeutic approach for selective ablation of malignancies. Using a Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer, we have demonstrated that select environmental agents can alter colonic mitochondrial function by increasing respiration-induced proton leak, thereby inducing apoptosis, a marker of colon cancer risk. To further probe bioenergetics in primary intestinal cells, we developed methodology that can be modified and adapted to measure the bioenergetic profiles of colonic crypts, the basic functional unit of the colon, and colonic organoids, an ex vivo 3D culture of colonic crypts. Furthermore, in combination with the MoFlo Astrios High-Speed Cell Sorter, we were able to measure the bioenergetic profiles of colonic adult stem and daughter cells from Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-creERT2 transgenic mice. We examined the effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a full arylhydrocarbon receptor agonist, known to affect gastrointestinal function and cancer risk, on the bioenergetic profiles of intestinal epithelial cells. Mouse colonic crypts, organoids, or sorted single cells were seeded onto Matrigel-precoated Seahorse XF24 microplates for extracellular flux analysis. Temporal analyses revealed distinct energy metabolic profiles in crypts and organoids challenged with TCDD. Furthermore, sorted Lgr5+ stem cells exhibited a Warburg-like metabolic profile. This is noteworthy because perturbations in stem cell dynamics are generally believed to represent the earliest step toward colon tumorigenesis. We propose that our innovative methodology may facilitate future in vivo/ex vivo metabolic studies using environmental agents affecting colonocyte energy metabolism. PMID:25977509

  7. A bioassay to measure energy metabolism in mouse colonic crypts, organoids, and sorted stem cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yang-Yi; Davidson, Laurie A; Callaway, Evelyn S; Wright, Gus A; Safe, Stephen; Chapkin, Robert S

    2015-07-01

    Evidence suggests that targeting cancer cell energy metabolism might be an effective therapeutic approach for selective ablation of malignancies. Using a Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer, we have demonstrated that select environmental agents can alter colonic mitochondrial function by increasing respiration-induced proton leak, thereby inducing apoptosis, a marker of colon cancer risk. To further probe bioenergetics in primary intestinal cells, we developed methodology that can be modified and adapted to measure the bioenergetic profiles of colonic crypts, the basic functional unit of the colon, and colonic organoids, an ex vivo 3D culture of colonic crypts. Furthermore, in combination with the MoFlo Astrios High-Speed Cell Sorter, we were able to measure the bioenergetic profiles of colonic adult stem and daughter cells from Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-creER(T2) transgenic mice. We examined the effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a full arylhydrocarbon receptor agonist, known to affect gastrointestinal function and cancer risk, on the bioenergetic profiles of intestinal epithelial cells. Mouse colonic crypts, organoids, or sorted single cells were seeded onto Matrigel-precoated Seahorse XF24 microplates for extracellular flux analysis. Temporal analyses revealed distinct energy metabolic profiles in crypts and organoids challenged with TCDD. Furthermore, sorted Lgr5(+) stem cells exhibited a Warburg-like metabolic profile. This is noteworthy because perturbations in stem cell dynamics are generally believed to represent the earliest step toward colon tumorigenesis. We propose that our innovative methodology may facilitate future in vivo/ex vivo metabolic studies using environmental agents affecting colonocyte energy metabolism. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Neurogenic differentiation factor NeuroD confers protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Du, Aonan; Xu, Jing; Ma, Yanchao; Cao, Han; Yang, Chao; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xing, Chun-Gen; Chen, Ming; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Shuyu; Cao, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract, especially the small intestine, is particularly sensitive to radiation, and is prone to radiation-induced injury as a result. Neurogenic differentiation factor (NeuroD) is an evolutionarily-conserved basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor. NeuroD contains a protein transduction domain (PTD), which allows it to be exogenously delivered across the membrane of mammalian cells, whereupon its transcription activity can be unleashed. Whether NeuroD has therapeutic effects for radiation-induced injury remains unclear. In the present study, we prepared a NeuroD-EGFP recombinant protein, and explored its protective effects on the survival and intestinal damage induced by ionizing radiation. Our results showed that NeuroD-EGFP could be transduced into small intestine epithelial cells and tissues. NeuroD-EGFP administration significantly increased overall survival of mice exposed to lethal total body irradiation (TBI). This recombinant NeuroD also reduced radiation-induced intestinal mucosal injury and apoptosis, and improved crypt survival. Expression profiling of NeuroD-EGFP-treated mice revealed upregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), a known inhibitor of apoptosis in mammalian cells. In conclusion, NeuroD confers protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury, and provides a novel therapeutic clinical option for the prevention of intestinal side effects of radiotherapy and the treatment of victims of incidental exposure. PMID:27436572

  9. Nonuniform irradiation of the canine intestine. I. Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Vigneulle, R.M.; Herrera, J.; Gage, T.; MacVittie, T.J.; Taylor, P.; Zeman, G.; Nold, J.B.; Dubois, A. )

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the effects of nonuniform irradiation on the small intestine, we prepared 24 dogs for continent isoperistaltic ileostomies under aseptic surgical conditions and general anesthesia. After a 3-week recovery period, the ileum was catheterized with a fiberoptic endoscope to observe the intestinal mucosa and to harvest mucosal biopsies. The baseline macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the intestinal mucosa was determined. Two weeks later, the ileum was catheterized with a 100-cm soft tube containing 40 groups of three thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at equally spaced intervals, and a dose of either 4.5, 8, 10, 11, or 15 Gy 60Co gamma rays was delivered to the right abdomen (nonuniform exposure). This method allowed a direct and precise assessment of the dose received at 40 sites located in the 100-cm intestinal segment. The intestinal mucosa was again evaluated 1, 4, and 6 days after irradiation. All animals exposed to 4.5 and 8 Gy survived, whereas none survived after 11 and 15 Gy. After exposure to 10 Gy, 60% of the animals died within 4-6 days and 40% survived with symptoms associated with both the intestinal and the hematopoietic syndromes. Crypt cell necrosis, blunting of villi, and reduction of the mucosal lining increased between 1 and 4 days after irradiation, and mucosal damage was correlated with intraintestinal dosimetry at Day 6. The granulocyte counts at Day 4 were significantly lower than baseline level in animals that died within 4-6 days but not in survivors. The present model appears to be realistic and clinically relevant, allowing the concurrent study of the intestinal and hematopoietic effects of high-dose nonuniform irradiation similar to that received by patients during radiation therapy as well as by radiation accident victims.

  10. Investigation of computer-aided colonic crypt pattern analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xin; Pan, Yinsheng; Sivak, Michael V., Jr.; Olowe, Kayode; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2007-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Approximately 50% of these deaths could be prevented by earlier detection through screening. Magnification chromoendoscopy is a technique which utilizes tissue stains applied to the gastrointestinal mucosa and high-magnification endoscopy to better visualize and characterize lesions. Prior studies have shown that shapes of colonic crypts change with disease and show characteristic patterns. Current methods for assessing colonic crypt patterns are somewhat subjective and not standardized. Computerized algorithms could be used to standardize colonic crypt pattern assessment. We have imaged resected colonic mucosa in vitro (N = 70) using methylene blue dye and a surgical microscope to approximately simulate in vivo imaging with magnification chromoendoscopy. We have developed a method of computerized processing to analyze the crypt patterns in the images. The quantitative image analysis consists of three steps. First, the crypts within the region of interest of colonic tissue are semi-automatically segmented using watershed morphological processing. Second, crypt size and shape parameters are extracted from the segmented crypts. Third, each sample is assigned to a category according to the Kudo criteria. The computerized classification is validated by comparison with human classification using the Kudo classification criteria. The computerized colonic crypt pattern analysis algorithm will enable a study of in vivo magnification chromoendoscopy of colonic crypt pattern correlated with risk of colorectal cancer. This study will assess the feasibility of screening and surveillance of the colon using magnification chromoendoscopy.

  11. Post Treatment With an FGF Chimeric Growth Factor Enhances Epithelial Cell Proliferation to Improve Recovery From Radiation-Induced Intestinal Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Fumiaki; Hagiwara, Akiko; Umeda, Sachiko; Asada, Masahiro; Goto, Megumi; Oki, Junko; Suzuki, Masashi; Imamura, Toru; Akashi, Makoto

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: A fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 1-FGF2 chimera (FGFC) was created previously and showed greater structural stability than FGF1. This chimera was capable of stimulating epithelial cell proliferation much more strongly than FGF1 or FGF2 even without heparin. Therefore FGFC was expected to have greater biologic activity in vivo. This study evaluated and compared the protective activity of FGFC and FGF1 against radiation-induced intestinal injuries. Methods and Materials: We administered FGFC and FGF1 intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice 24 h before or after total-body irradiation (TBI). The numbers of surviving crypts were determined 3.5 days after TBI with gamma rays at doses ranging from 8 to 12 Gy. Results: The effect of FGFC was equal to or slightly superior to FGF1 with heparin. However, FGFC was significantly more effective in promoting crypt survival than FGF1 (p < 0.01) when 10 {mu}g of each FGF was administered without heparin before irradiation. In addition, FGFC was significantly more effective at promoting crypt survival (p < 0.05) than FGF1 even when administered without heparin at 24 h after TBI at 10, 11, or 12 Gy. We found that FGFC post treatment significantly promoted 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation into crypts and increased crypt depth, resulting in more epithelial differentiation. However, the number of apoptotic cells in FGFC-treated mice decreased to almost the same level as that in FGF1-treated mice. Conclusions: These findings suggest that FGFC strongly enhanced radioprotection with the induction of epithelial proliferation without exogenous heparin after irradiation and is useful in clinical applications for both the prevention and post treatment of radiation injuries.

  12. Farnesoid X Receptor Activation Attenuates Intestinal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Decuypere, Jean-Paul; Farré, Ricard; De Hertogh, Gert; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Jochmans, Ina; Monbaliu, Diethard; Nevens, Frederik; Tack, Jan; Laleman, Wim; Pirenne, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is abundantly expressed in the ileum, where it exerts an enteroprotective role as a key regulator of intestinal innate immunity and homeostasis, as shown in pre-clinical models of inflammatory bowel disease. Since intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is characterized by hyperpermeability, bacterial translocation and inflammation, we aimed to investigate, for the first time, if the FXR-agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) could attenuate intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury. Material and Methods In a validated rat model of intestinal IRI (laparotomy + temporary mesenteric artery clamping), 3 conditions were tested (n = 16/group): laparotomy only (sham group); ischemia 60min+ reperfusion 60min + vehicle pretreatment (IR group); ischemia 60min + reperfusion 60min + OCA pretreatment (IR+OCA group). Vehicle or OCA (INT-747, 2*30mg/kg) was administered by gavage 24h and 4h prior to IRI. The following end-points were analyzed: 7-day survival; biomarkers of enterocyte viability (L-lactate, I-FABP); histology (morphologic injury to villi/crypts and villus length); intestinal permeability (Ussing chamber); endotoxin translocation (Lipopolysaccharide assay); cytokines (IL-6, IL-1-β, TNFα, IFN-γ IL-10, IL-13); apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3); and autophagy (LC3, p62). Results It was found that intestinal IRI was associated with high mortality (90%); loss of intestinal integrity (structurally and functionally); increased endotoxin translocation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production; and inhibition of autophagy. Conversely, OCA-pretreatment improved 7-day survival up to 50% which was associated with prevention of epithelial injury, preserved intestinal architecture and permeability. Additionally, FXR-agonism led to decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine release and alleviated autophagy inhibition. Conclusion Pretreatment with OCA, an FXR-agonist, improves survival in a rodent model of intestinal IRI, preserves the gut barrier

  13. Patterns of Proliferative Activity in the Colonic Crypt Determine Crypt Stability and Rates of Somatic Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Rui; Michor, Franziska

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial cells in the colon are arranged in cylindrical structures called crypts in which cellular proliferation and migration are tightly regulated. We hypothesized that the proliferation patterns of cells may determine the stability of crypts as well as the rates of somatic evolution towards colorectal tumorigenesis. Here, we propose a linear process model of colonic epithelial cells that explicitly takes into account the proliferation kinetics of cells as a function of cell position within the crypt. Our results indicate that proliferation kinetics has significant influence on the speed of cell movement, kinetics of mutation propagation, and sensitivity of the system to selective effects of mutated cells. We found that, of all proliferation curves tested, those with mitotic activities concentrated near the stem cell, including the actual proliferation kinetics determined in in vivo labeling experiments, have a greater ability of delaying the rate of mutation accumulation in colonic stem cells compared to hypothetical proliferation curves with mitotic activities focused near the top of the crypt column. Our model can be used to investigate the dynamics of proliferation and mutation accumulation in spatially arranged tissues. PMID:23785264

  14. Human Enteroids/Colonoids and Intestinal Organoids Functionally Recapitulate Normal Intestinal Physiology and Pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Zachos, Nicholas C; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Foulke-Abel, Jennifer; In, Julie; Blutt, Sarah E; de Jonge, Hugo R; Estes, Mary K; Donowitz, Mark

    2016-02-19

    Identification of Lgr5 as the intestinal stem cell marker as well as the growth factors necessary to replicate adult intestinal stem cell division has led to the establishment of the methods to generate "indefinite" ex vivo primary intestinal epithelial cultures, termed "mini-intestines." Primary cultures developed from isolated intestinal crypts or stem cells (termed enteroids/colonoids) and from inducible pluripotent stem cells (termed intestinal organoids) are being applied to study human intestinal physiology and pathophysiology with great expectations for translational applications, including regenerative medicine. Here we discuss the physiologic properties of these cultures, their current use in understanding diarrhea-causing host-pathogen interactions, and potential future applications.

  15. Intestinal adaptation following resection.

    PubMed

    Tappenden, Kelly A

    2014-05-01

    Intestinal adaptation is a natural compensatory process that occurs following extensive intestinal resection, whereby structural and functional changes in the intestine improve nutrient and fluid absorption in the remnant bowel. In animal studies, postresection structural adaptations include bowel lengthening and thickening and increases in villus height and crypt depth. Functional changes include increased nutrient transporter expression, accelerated crypt cell differentiation, and slowed transit time. In adult humans, data regarding adaptive changes are sparse, and the mechanisms underlying intestinal adaptation remain to be fully elucidated. Several factors influence the degree of intestinal adaptation that occurs post resection, including site and extent of resection, luminal stimulation with enteral nutrients, and intestinotrophic factors. Two intestinotrophic growth factors, the glucagon-like peptide 2 analog teduglutide and recombinant growth hormone (somatropin), are now approved for clinical use in patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS). Both agents enhance fluid absorption and decrease requirements for parenteral nutrition (PN) and/or intravenous fluid. Intestinal adaptation has been thought to be limited to the first 1-2 years following resection in humans. However, recent data suggest that a significant proportion of adult patients with SBS can achieve enteral autonomy, even after many years of PN dependence, particularly with trophic stimulation.

  16. Mice overexpressing CD97 in intestinal epithelial cells provide a unique model for mammalian postnatal intestinal cylindrical growth

    PubMed Central

    Aust, Gabriela; Kerner, Christiane; Gonsior, Susann; Sittig, Doreen; Schneider, Hartmut; Buske, Peter; Scholz, Markus; Dietrich, Norman; Oldenburg, Sindy; Karpus, Olga N.; Galle, Jörg; Amasheh, Salah; Hamann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Postnatal enlargement of the mammalian intestine comprises cylindrical and luminal growth, associated with crypt fission and crypt/villus hyperplasia, respectively, which subsequently predominate before and after weaning. The bipartite adhesion G protein–coupled receptor CD97 shows an expression gradient along the crypt–villus axis in the normal human intestine. We here report that transgenic mice overexpressing CD97 in intestinal epithelial cells develop an upper megaintestine. Intestinal enlargement involves an increase in length and diameter but does not affect microscopic morphology, as typical for cylindrical growth. The megaintestine is acquired after birth and before weaning, independent of the genotype of the mother, excluding altered availability of milk constituents as driving factor. CD97 overexpression does not regulate intestinal growth factors, stem cell markers, and Wnt signaling, which contribute to epithelial differentiation and renewal, nor does it affect suckling-to-weaning transition. Consistent with augmented cylindrical growth, suckling but not adult transgenic mice show enlarged crypts and thus more crypt fissions caused by a transient increase of the crypt transit-amplifying zone. Intestinal enlargement by CD97 requires its seven-span transmembrane/cytoplasmic C-terminal fragment but not the N-terminal fragment binding partner CD55. In summary, ectopic expression of CD97 in intestinal epithelial cells provides a unique model for intestinal cylindrical growth occurring in breast-fed infants. PMID:23676664

  17. Improving access to intestinal stem cells as a step toward intestinal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, J W; Lau, C; Jacomino, M; Finegold, M; Henning, S J

    1994-03-01

    In previous studies exploring the intestinal epithelium as a potential site for somatic gene therapy, we concluded that the mucus lining the intestine constitutes a significant barrier to any attempts at gene transfer via the lumenal route. The mucus problem is aggravated by the fact that the epithelial stem cells, which are the logical target for gene transfer, are located deep in the intestinal crypts. The goals of the current study were to develop procedures that would improve accessibility to the intestinal stem cells and which would effect in vivo mucus removal without damaging the underlying epithelium. Initial experiments involved evaluation of the use of distension to improve accessibility to the intestinal crypts and the use of the mucolytic agents dithiothreitol (DTT) and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) versus a control solution of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for mucus removal. Catheters were inserted in each end of 3-cm terminal ileal segments in anesthetized rats. Two milliliters of agent was instilled into the clamped segment for 2 min, removed, and repeated. Lumenal distension resulted in shortened villi with wider intervillus spacing, thereby improving crypt access. Both NAC and DTT washes removed significant mucus between the villi but failed to reach the crypt lumen. To enhance mucus release from the crypt lumen, pilocarpine was selected due to its cholinergic properties and preferential binding to muscarinic receptors on crypt goblet cells. Pilocarpine given intraperitoneally 30 min prior to the mucolytic or PBS wash resulted in significant eradication of mucus down into the crypt lumen. This effect was still evident 3-4 hr later provided the intestine remained undisturbed.

  18. Analysis of Cell Death Induction in Intestinal Organoids In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Grabinger, Thomas; Delgado, Eugenia; Brunner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium has an important function in the absorption of nutrients contained in the food. Furthermore, it also has an important barrier function, preventing luminal pathogens from entering the bloodstream. This single cell layer epithelium is quite sensitive to various cell death-promoting triggers, including drugs, irradiation, and TNF family members, leading to loss of barrier integrity, epithelial erosion, inflammation, malabsorption, and diarrhea. In order to assess the intestinal epithelium-damaging potential of treatments and substances specific test systems are required. As intestinal tumor cell lines are a poor substitute for primary intestinal epithelial cells, and in vivo experiments in mice are costly and often unethical, the use of intestinal organoids cultured from intestinal crypts provide an ideal tool to study cell death induction and mechanisms in primary intestinal epithelial cells. This protocol describes the isolation and culture of intestinal organoids from murine small intestinal crypts, and the quantitative assessment of cell death induction in these organoids.

  19. The Leuven Immunomodulatory Protocol Promotes T-Regulatory Cells and Substantially Prolongs Survival After First Intestinal Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ceulemans, L J; Braza, F; Monbaliu, D; Jochmans, I; De Hertogh, G; Du Plessis, J; Emonds, M-P; Kitade, H; Kawai, M; Li, Y; Zhao, X; Koshiba, T; Sprangers, B; Brouard, S; Waer, M; Pirenne, J

    2016-10-01

    Intestinal transplantation (ITx) remains challenged by frequent/severe rejections and immunosuppression-related complications (infections/malignancies/drug toxicity). We developed the Leuven Immunomodulatory Protocol (LIP) in the lab and translated it to the clinics. LIP consists of experimentally proven maneuvers, destined to promote T-regulatory (Tregs)-dependent graft-protective mechanisms: donor-specific blood transfusion (DSBT); avoiding high-dose steroids/calcineurin-inhibitors; and minimizing reperfusion injury and endotoxin translocation. LIP was tested in 13 consecutive ITx from deceased donors (2000-2014) (observational cohort study). Recipient age was 37 years (2.8-57 years). Five-year graft/patient survival was 92%. One patient died at 9 months due to aspergillosis, another at 12 years due to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced enteropathy. Early acute rejection (AR) developed in two (15%); late AR in three (23%); all were reversible. No chronic rejection (CR) occurred. No malignancies developed and estimated glomerular filtration rate remained stable post-Tx. At last follow-up (3.5 years [0.5-12.5 years]), no donor-specific antibodies were detected and 11 survivors were total parenteral nutrition free with a Karnofsky score >90% in 8 recipients (follow-up >1 years). A high frequency of circulating CD4(+) CD45RA(-) Foxp3(hi) memory Tregs was found (1.8% [1.39-2.21]), comparable to tolerant kidney transplant (KTx) recipients and superior to stable immunosuppression (IS)-KTx, KTx with CR, and healthy volunteers. In this ITx cohort we show that DSBT in a low-inflammatory/pro-regulatory environment activates Tregs at levels similar to tolerant-KTx, without causing sensitization. LIP limits rejection under reduced IS and thereby prolongs long-term survival to an extent not previously attained after ITx. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  20. Effects of glycine betaine on bone marrow death and intestinal damage by gamma rays and carbon ions.

    PubMed

    Monobe, M; Hamano, N; Sumi, M; Mukai, K; Moritake, T; Anzai, K; Uzawa, A; Ando, K

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of glycine betaine (GB) on bone marrow death and intestinal damage by gamma rays or carbon ions. C(3)H/He female mice received an i.p.-injection of GB before or after whole-body irradiation with gamma rays or 50 keV microm(-1) carbon ions. The irradiated mice were observed to determine the mortality for 30 days after exposure. Mice were also killed at 3.5 days after the exposure to determine the intestinal damage. The numbers of crypts per transverse circumference were counted using a microscope. For the bone marrow death, GB (93 mg GB per mouse) significantly (p < 0.05) increased the percentage survival for both radiations. For the intestinal damage, GB (93 mg GB per mouse) significantly (p < 0.05) increased the crypt survival for gamma rays, but not for carbon ions. GB might be a potential protector against normal tissue damage as a side effect in radiotherapy.

  1. Intestinal-type of differentiation predicts favourable overall survival: confirmatory clinicopathological analysis of 198 periampullary adenocarcinomas of pancreatic, biliary, ampullary and duodenal origin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Periampullary adenocarcinomas comprise pancreatic, distal bile duct, ampullary and duodenal adenocarcinoma. The epithelia of these anatomical structures share a common embryologic origin from the foregut. With steadily increasing numbers of pancreatoduodenectomies over the last decades, pathologists, surgeons and oncologists are more often confronted with the diagnosis of “other than pancreatic” periampullary cancers. The intestinal subtype of ampullary cancer has been shown to correlate with better prognosis. Methods Histological subtype and immunohistochemical staining pattern for CK7, CK20 and CDX2 were assessed for n = 198 cases of pancreatic ductal, distal bile duct, ampullary and duodenal adenocarcinoma with clinical follow-up. Routine pathological parameters were included in survival analysis performed with SPSS 20. Results In univariate analysis, intestinal subtype was associated with better survival in ampullary, pancreatic ductal and duodenal adenocarcinoma. The intestinal type of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma was not associated with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm and could not be reliably diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining pattern alone. Intestinal differentiation and lymph node ratio, but not tumor location were independent predictors of survival when all significant predictor variables from univariate analysis (grade, TNM stage, presence of precursor lesions, surgical margin status, perineural, vascular and lymphatic vessel invasion, CK7 and CDX2 staining pattern) were included in a Cox proportional hazards model. Conclusions Intestinal type differentiation and lymph node ratio but not tumor location are independent prognostic factors in pooled analysis of periampullary adenocarcinomas. We conclude that differentiation is more important than tumor location for prognostic stratification in periampullary adenocarcinomas. PMID:24053229

  2. Curcumin affects cell survival and cell volume regulation in human renal and intestinal cells

    PubMed Central

    Kössler, Sonja; Nofziger, Charity; Jakab, Martin; Dossena, Silvia; Paulmichl, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1E,6E-heptadiene-3,5-dione or diferuloyl methane) is a polyphenol derived from the Curcuma longa plant, commonly known as turmeric. This substance has been used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries for its anti-oxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic activity. More recently curcumin has been found to possess anti-cancer properties linked to its pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative actions. The underlying mechanisms of these diverse effects are complex, not fully elucidated and subject of intense scientific debate. Despite increasing evidence indicating that different cation channels can be a molecular target for curcumin, very little is known about the effect of curcumin on chloride channels. Since, (i) the molecular structure of curcumin indicates that the substance could potentially interact with chloride channels, (ii) chloride channels play a role during the apoptotic process and regulation of the cell volume, and (iii) apoptosis is a well known effect of curcumin, we set out to investigate whether or not curcumin could (i) exert a modulatory effect (direct or indirect) on the swelling activated chloride current IClswell in a human cell system, therefore (ii) affect cell volume regulation and (iii) ultimately modulate cell survival. The IClswell channels, which are essential for regulating the cell volume after swelling, are also known to be activated under isotonic conditions as an early event in the apoptotic process. Here we show that long-term exposure of a human kidney cell line to extracellular 0.1–10 μM curcumin modulates IClswell in a dose-dependent manner (0.1 μM curcumin is ineffective, 0.5–5.0 μM curcumin increase, while 10 μM curcumin decrease the current), and short-term exposure to micromolar concentrations of curcumin does not affect IClswell neither if applied from the extracellular nor from the intracellular side – therefore, a direct effect of curcumin on

  3. Morphological characteristics of the limbal epithelial crypt.

    PubMed

    Shanmuganathan, Vijay A; Foster, Toshana; Kulkarni, Bina B; Hopkinson, Andrew; Gray, Trevor; Powe, Des G; Lowe, James; Dua, Harminder S

    2007-04-01

    In 2005 we reported the discovery of a novel anatomical structure at the limbus, which we termed the limbal epithelial crypt (LEC). The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the distribution, immunophenotypical, and ultra structural characteristics of the LEC as a putative niche of stem cells. Sequential histological sections of human corneo-scleral limbal rims were examined for the presence and distribution of the LEC. Immunophenotypical characterisation of the LEC cells using a panel of antibodies of interest was undertaken. Transmission electron microscopy of the LEC was used to examine the ultra structural and morphometric features of cells within the LEC and adjacent limbus. A total of 74 LECs were identified in eight corneo-scleral rims. These varied in number, size and distribution within rims. Cells within the crypt demonstrated the following phenotype: CK3-/CK19+/CD 34-/Vimentin+/p63+/Connexin 43+/MIB1 (Ki67)-. Presence of Cx43 was also demonstrated in the rete pegs adjacent to the LEC. Basal cells of the LEC were significantly smaller than basal cells found in adjacent rete pegs and also smaller than suprabasal limbal and central corneal epithelial cells (p<0.05). Morphologically they had a high nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio and were adherent to the underlying basement membrane by means of complex convolutions of cytoplasmic processes. LECs are sparse but a consistent finding in the human corneo-scleral limbus. The LEC contains a unique sub-population of cells expressing several characteristics that are consistent with it representing a putative stem cell niche.

  4. Morphological characteristics of the limbal epithelial crypt

    PubMed Central

    Shanmuganathan, Vijay A; Foster, Toshana; Kulkarni, Bina B; Hopkinson, Andrew; Gray, Trevor; Powe, Des G; Lowe, James; Dua, Harminder S

    2007-01-01

    Aim In 2005 we reported the discovery of a novel anatomical structure at the limbus, which we termed the limbal epithelial crypt (LEC). The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the distribution, immunophenotypical, and ultra structural characteristics of the LEC as a putative niche of stem cells. Methods Sequential histological sections of human corneo‐scleral limbal rims were examined for the presence and distribution of the LEC. Immunophenotypical characterisation of the LEC cells using a panel of antibodies of interest was undertaken. Transmission electron microscopy of the LEC was used to examine the ultra structural and morphometric features of cells within the LEC and adjacent limbus. Results A total of 74 LECs were identified in eight corneo‐scleral rims. These varied in number, size and distribution within rims. Cells within the crypt demonstrated the following phenotype: CK3−/CK19+/CD 34−/Vimentin+/p63+/Connexin 43+/MIB1 (Ki67)−. Presence of Cx43 was also demonstrated in the rete pegs adjacent to the LEC. Basal cells of the LEC were significantly smaller than basal cells found in adjacent rete pegs and also smaller than suprabasal limbal and central corneal epithelial cells (p<0.05). Morphologically they had a high nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio and were adherent to the underlying basement membrane by means of complex convolutions of cytoplasmic processes. Conclusions LECs are sparse but a consistent finding in the human corneo‐scleral limbus. The LEC contains a unique sub‐population of cells expressing several characteristics that are consistent with it representing a putative stem cell niche. PMID:17020899

  5. Five-year survival and causes of death in patients on home parenteral nutrition for severe chronic and benign intestinal failure.

    PubMed

    Joly, Francisca; Baxter, Janet; Staun, Michael; Kelly, Darlene G; Hwa, Yi Lisa; Corcos, Olivier; De Francesco, Antonella; Agostini, Federica; Klek, Stanislaw; Santarpia, Lidia; Contaldo, Franco; Jonker, Cora; Wanten, Geert; Chicharro, Luisa; Burgos, Rosa; Van Gossum, Andre; Cuerda, Cristina; Virgili, Nuria; Pironi, Loris

    2017-06-19

    Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is the primary treatment for chronic intestinal failure (IF). Intestinal transplantation (ITx) is indicated when there is an increased risk of death due to HPN complications or to the underlying disease. Age, pathophysiologic conditions and underlying disease are known predictors of HPN dependency and overall survival. Although the cause of death on HPN is mostly related to underlying disease in these patients, the relationship between mortality and duration of HPN use remains unclear. The purpose of the present study is to describe factors associated with survival and HPN dependency as well as causes of death in adult patients requiring HPN for chronic intestinal failure during the first 5 years of treatment with HPN. A multicenter international (European and USA) questionnaire-based retrospective follow-up of a cohort of 472 IF patients who started HPN was conducted between June and December 2000. Study endpoint was either end of 5-year follow-up, weaned-off HPN, ITx, or death on HPN. Data were analyzed for HPN dependence and overall survival using Kaplan-Meier models and log rank tests. The overall survival probability was 88%, 74% and 64% at 1, 3 and 5 years respectively. Survival was inversely related to age (p < .001) and higher in patients with Crohn's disease or chronic idiopathic pseudo-obstruction. A total of 169 (36.5%) patients were weaned-off HPN mainly (80%) within the first year and most frequently in patients with fistulae. Five of the 14 patients who underwent ITx died. By the end of the study, 104 (23%) of patients died on HPN; 65% of deaths occurred within the first 2.5 years of HPN. Younger ages at HPN initiation and underlying pathologies are significantly predictive of survival on HPN. Risk of death is greatest during the first 2 years of HPN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. The characterization of an intestine-like genomic signature maintained during Barrett’s-associated adenocarcinogenesis reveals an NR5A2-mediated promotion of cancer cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, Shane P.; Behan, Fiona M.; Kirca, Murat; Zaheer, Abdul; McGarrigle, Sarah A.; Reynolds, John V.; Vaz, Gisela M. F.; Senge, Mathias O.; Kelleher, Dermot

    2016-01-01

    Barrett’s oesophagus (BO), an intestinal-type metaplasia (IM), typically arising in conjunction with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, is a prominent risk factor for the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). The molecular similarities between IM and normal intestinal tissues are ill-defined. Consequently, the contribution of intestine-enriched factors expressed within BO to oncogenesis is unclear. Herein, using transcriptomics we define the intestine-enriched genes expressed in meta-profiles of BO and OAC. Interestingly, 77% of the genes differentially expressed in a meta-profile of BO were similarly expressed in intestinal tissues. Furthermore, 85% of this intestine-like signature was maintained upon transition to OAC. Gene networking analysis of transcription factors within this signature revealed a network centred upon NR5A2, GATA6 and FOXA2, whose over-expression was determined in a cohort of BO and OAC patients. Simulated acid reflux was observed to induce the expression of both NR5A2 and GATA6. Using siRNA-mediated silencing and an NR5A2 antagonist we demonstrate that NR5A2-mediated cancer cell survival is facilitated through augmentation of GATA6 and anti-apoptotic factor BCL-XL levels. Abrogation of NR5A2-GATA6 expression in conjunction with BCL-XL co-silencing resulted in synergistically increased sensitivity to chemotherapeutics and photo-dynamic therapeutics. These findings characterize the intestine-like signature associated with IM which may have important consequences to adenocarcinogenesis. PMID:27586588

  7. Protective effect of genistein on radiation-induced intestinal injury in tumor bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Radiation therapy is the most widely used treatment for cancer, but it causes the side effect of mucositis due to intestinal damage. We examined the protective effect of genistein in tumor-bearing mice after abdominal irradiation by evaluation of apoptosis and intestinal morphological changes. Methods Mouse colon cancer CT26 cells were subcutaneously injected at the flank of BALB/c mice to generate tumors. The tumor-bearing mice were treated with abdominal radiation at 5 and 10 Gy, and with genistein at 200 mg/kg body weight per day for 1 d before radiation. The changes in intestinal histology were evaluated 12 h and 3.5 d after irradiation. To assess the effect of the combination treatment on the cancer growth, the tumor volume was determined at sacrifice before tumor overgrowth occurred. Results Genistein significantly decreased the number of apoptotic nuclei compared with that in the irradiation group 12 h after 5 Gy irradiation. Evaluation of histological changes showed that genistein ameliorated intestinal morphological changes such as decreased crypt survival, villus shortening, and increased length of the basal lamina 3.5 d after 10 Gy irradiation. Moreover, the genistein-treated group exhibited more Ki-67-positive proliferating cells in the jejunum than the irradiated control group, and crypt depths were greater in the genistein-treated group than in the irradiated control group. The mean weight of the CT26 tumors was reduced in the group treated with genistein and radiation compared with the control group. Conclusion Genistein had a protective effect on intestinal damage induced by irradiation and delayed tumor growth. These results suggest that genistein is a useful candidate for preventing radiotherapy-induced intestinal damage in cancer patients. PMID:23672582

  8. Short bowel syndrome: highlights of patient management, quality of life, and survival.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Darlene G; Tappenden, Kelly A; Winkler, Marion F

    2014-05-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) occurs as a result of intestinal resection, and in many patients is associated with complications, such as diarrhea, dehydration, weight loss, and nutrition deficiencies. Many individuals with SBS develop intestinal failure and require parenteral nutrition (PN) and/or intravenous (IV) fluids (PN/IV). Although PN is essential for survival, some patients with SBS who require long-term PN experience significant complications that contribute to morbidity and mortality. Consequently, therapies that decrease reliance on PN are of considerable importance. Intestinal adaptation, which results in morphologic and functional changes that increase performance of the remnant bowel, occurs spontaneously after intestinal resection. These effects can be enhanced with nutrition and pharmaceutical approaches. For example, oral or tube-fed nutrients stimulate growth and adaptation of intestinal tissues. In addition, prebiotics support growth of beneficial intestinal microbiota that produce short-chain fatty acids, which have been shown in preclinical studies to enhance intestinal structure and function. Finally, glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is an endogenous peptide that promotes intestinal rehabilitation and improves intestinal absorption. Teduglutide, a recombinant human GLP-2 analog, has recently been approved in the United States for the treatment of adults with SBS who are dependent on PN. In pharmacodynamic and clinical studies, teduglutide has been shown to promote changes in intestinal structure, such as increases in villus height and crypt depth, and to improve intestinal absorption, as indicated by reduced PN/IV dependence. This article presents a brief overview of SBS, including effects on survival and quality of life and current treatment options.

  9. Corrupted colonic crypt fission in carcinogen-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    The colonic crypts in rats reproduce themselves by symmetric fission at the base of the crypts, and proceeding upwards, generate two separate identical crypts. Recently we reported corrupted colonic crypt fission (CCCF) in rats with colonic carcinoma. Here we investigated whether CCCF also occurred in the colonic mucosa without carcinoma in carcinogen-treated rats. Filed Swiss-roll sections from 35 male rats (25 treated with 1,2-dimethyhydrazine (DMH) suspended in EDTA solution, and 10 EDTA-treated) were reviewed. CCCF were regarded those with either asymmetric basal fission, asymmetric lateral sprouting/lateral fission, basal dilatations, or spatial aberrations of the normal (vertical) axis. 202 CCCF (38%) were recorded amongst 533 crypts with fission in DMH-treated rats, and only one CCCF (0.1%) was found amongst 571 crypts with fission in EDTA-treated rats (p<0.05). The basal aspect of four adenomas included in Swiss roll sections exhibited CCCF lined either with indigenous (non-dysplastic) epithelium or with dysplastic epithelium. It was demonstrated that CCCF without dysplasia develop in carcinogen-treated SD rats. As judged by the figures presented, the possibility that the epithelium in those corrupted crypts was successively replaced by top-down growing dysplastic cells, could not be totally rejected. This is the first report showing that non-dysplastic CCCF may antedate the very early stages of colonic carcinogenesis in SD rats.

  10. Corrupted colonic crypt fission in carcinogen-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background The colonic crypts in rats reproduce themselves by symmetric fission at the base of the crypts, and proceeding upwards, generate two separate identical crypts. Recently we reported corrupted colonic crypt fission (CCCF) in rats with colonic carcinoma. Here we investigated whether CCCF also occurred in the colonic mucosa without carcinoma in carcinogen-treated rats. Methods Filed Swiss-roll sections from 35 male rats (25 treated with 1,2-dimethyhydrazine (DMH) suspended in EDTA solution, and 10 EDTA-treated) were reviewed. CCCF were regarded those with either asymmetric basal fission, asymmetric lateral sprouting/lateral fission, basal dilatations, or spatial aberrations of the normal (vertical) axis. Results 202 CCCF (38%) were recorded amongst 533 crypts with fission in DMH-treated rats, and only one CCCF (0.1%) was found amongst 571 crypts with fission in EDTA-treated rats (p<0.05). The basal aspect of four adenomas included in Swiss roll sections exhibited CCCF lined either with indigenous (non-dysplastic) epithelium or with dysplastic epithelium. Conclusion It was demonstrated that CCCF without dysplasia develop in carcinogen-treated SD rats. As judged by the figures presented, the possibility that the epithelium in those corrupted crypts was successively replaced by top-down growing dysplastic cells, could not be totally rejected. This is the first report showing that non-dysplastic CCCF may antedate the very early stages of colonic carcinogenesis in SD rats. PMID:28273142

  11. Macrophage-derived extracellular vesicle-packaged WNTs rescue intestinal stem cells and enhance survival after radiation injury

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Subhrajit; Aranda, Evelyn; Hayakawa, Yoku; Bhanja, Payel; Atay, Safinur; Brodin, N Patrik; Li, Jiufeng; Asfaha, Samuel; Liu, Laibin; Tailor, Yagnesh; Zhang, Jinghang; Godwin, Andrew K.; Tome, Wolfgang A.; Wang, Timothy C.; Guha, Chandan; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2016-01-01

    WNT/β-catenin signalling is crucial for intestinal homoeostasis. The intestinal epithelium and stroma are the major source of WNT ligands but their origin and role in intestinal stem cell (ISC) and epithelial repair remains unknown. Macrophages are a major constituent of the intestinal stroma. Here, we analyse the role of macrophage-derived WNT in intestinal repair in mice by inhibiting their release using a macrophage-restricted ablation of Porcupine, a gene essential for WNT synthesis. Such Porcn-depleted mice have normal intestinal morphology but are hypersensitive to radiation injury in the intestine compared with wild-type (WT) littermates. Porcn-null mice are rescued from radiation lethality by treatment with WT but not Porcn-null bone marrow macrophage-conditioned medium (CM). Depletion of extracellular vesicles (EV) from the macrophage CM removes WNT function and its ability to rescue ISCs from radiation lethality. Therefore macrophage-derived EV-packaged WNTs are essential for regenerative response of intestine against radiation. PMID:27734833

  12. Survival and Metabolic Activity of Pediocin Producer Pediococcus acidilactici UL5: Its Impact on Intestinal Microbiota and Listeria monocytogenes in a Model of the Human Terminal Ileum.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Benoît; Savard, Patricia; Fliss, Ismail

    2016-11-01

    Pediococcus acidilactici UL5 is a promising probiotic candidate due to its high survival rate under gastric and duodenal conditions and to its ability to produce the antilisterial bacteriocin pediocin PA-1. Its survival, metabolic activity, and impact on Listeria monocytogenes in a continuous stirred tank reactor containing immobilized human intestinal microbiota were studied over a period of 32 days of feeding a nutrient medium simulating ileal chyme. The impact of P. acidilactici UL5 on different bacterial groups of intestinal origin as well as its survival and its impact on L. monocytogenes were quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction coupling with propidium monoazide (PMA-qPCR), which was shown to detect and quantify viable bacteria only. P. acidilactici UL5 and its non-pediocin-producing mutant had no effect on the microbiota, but the producing strain induced an increase in the production of acetic and propionic acids. P. acidilactici survived but appeared to be a poor competitor with intestinal microbiota, dropping by 1.3 and 2.8 log10 after 8 h of fermentation to 10(4) colony-forming units (cfu) mL(-1). A 1.64 log but non-significant reduction of Listeria was observed when P. acidilactici UL5 was added at 10(8) cfu mL(-1). P. acidilactici UL5 isolated from the reactor after 3 days was still able to produce the active bacteriocin. These data demonstrate that P. acidilactici UL5 is capable of surviving transit through the ileum without losing its ability to produce pediocin PA-1 but seems to not be enough competitive with the great diversity of organisms found in the ileum.

  13. Survival and metabolic activity of the GanedenBC30 strain of Bacillus coagulans in a dynamic in vitro model of the stomach and small intestine.

    PubMed

    Maathuis, A J H; Keller, D; Farmer, S

    2010-03-01

    We have investigated the survival and activity of GanedenBC(30) during passage through the upper gastro-intestinal tract. GanedenBC(30) was tested in a dynamic, validated, in vitro model of the stomach and small intestine (TIM-1) on survival and its potential to aid in digestion of milk protein, lactose and fructose. The survival of GanedenBC(30) was high (70%), although germination of the spores was minimal (<10%) under the conditions tested. Survival of the strain in the presence of lactose and fructose was markedly lower (56-59%) than in the absence of the sugars. The amount of digested milk protein available for absorption was somewhat higher (+0.2 g) when GanedenBC(30) was added to the milk. When GanedenBC(30) was tested with lactose or fructose added to the meal, the cumulative amount of lactate produced was slightly higher (+0.12-0.18 mmol) compared to the GanedenBC(30) alone. In conclusion, although the differences in survival of GanedenBC(30) are small, these results show the potential of GanedenBC(30) to aid in protein digestion and in the digestion of lactose and fructose. If a larger fraction of the Bacillus coagulans cells had germinated, the influence on protein and carbohydrate digestion would probably have been much greater. Importance of the findings: the potential of GanedenBC(30) to aid in the digestion of lactose and fructose could be used to prevent occurrence of intestinal symptoms in individuals sensitive to these carbohydrates.

  14. Adenocarcinoma ex-goblet cell carcinoid (appendiceal-type crypt cell adenocarcinoma) is a morphologically distinct entity with highly aggressive behavior and frequent association with peritoneal/intra-abdominal dissemination: an analysis of 77 cases

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Michelle D; Basturk, Olca; Shaib, Walid L; Xue, Yue; Balci, Serdar; Choi, Hye-Jeong; Akkas, Gizem; Memis, Bahar; Robinson, Brian S; El-Rayes, Bassel F; Staley, Charles A; Staley, Christopher A; Winer, Joshua H; Russell, Maria C; Knight, Jessica H; Goodman, Michael; Krasinskas, Alyssa M; Adsay, Volkan

    2016-01-01

    High-grade versions of appendiceal goblet cell carcinoids (‘adenocarcinoma ex-goblet cell carcinoids’) are poorly characterized. We herein document 77 examples. Tumors occurred predominantly in females (74%), mean age 55 years (29–84), most with disseminated abdominal (77% peritoneal, 58% gynecologic tract involvement) and stage IV (65%) disease. Many presented to gynecologic oncologists, and nine had a working diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma. Metastases to liver (n =3) and lung (n =1) were uncommon and none arose in adenomatous lesions. Tumors had various histologic patterns, in variable combinations, most of which were fairly specific, making them recognizable as appendiceal in origin, even at metastatic sites: I: Ordinary goblet cell carcinoid/crypt pattern (rounded, non-luminal acini with well-oriented goblet cells), in variable amounts in all cases. II: Poorly cohesive goblet cell pattern (diffusely infiltrative cords/single files of signet ring-like/goblet cells). III: Poorly cohesive non-mucinous cell (diffuse-infiltrative growth of non-mucinous cells). IV: Microglandular (rosette-like glandular) pattern without goblet cells. V: Mixed ‘other’ carcinoma foci (including ordinary intestinal/mucinous). VI: goblet cell carcinoid pattern with high-grade morphology (marked nuclear atypia). VII: Solid sheet-like pattern punctuated by goblet cells/microglandular units. Ordinary nested/trabecular (‘carcinoid pattern’) was very uncommon. In total, 33(52%) died of disease, with median overall survival 38 months and 5-year survival 32%. On multivariate analysis perineural invasion and younger age (<55) were independently associated with worse outcome while lymph-vascular invasion, stage, and nodal status trended toward, but failed to reach, statistical significance. Worse behavior in younger patients combined with female predilection and ovarian-affinity raise the possibility of hormone-assisted tumor progression. In conclusion, ‘adenocarcinoma ex

  15. Adenocarcinoma ex-goblet cell carcinoid (appendiceal-type crypt cell adenocarcinoma) is a morphologically distinct entity with highly aggressive behavior and frequent association with peritoneal/intra-abdominal dissemination: an analysis of 77 cases.

    PubMed

    Reid, Michelle D; Basturk, Olca; Shaib, Walid L; Xue, Yue; Balci, Serdar; Choi, Hye-Jeong; Akkas, Gizem; Memis, Bahar; Robinson, Brian S; El-Rayes, Bassel F; Staley, Charles A; Staley, Christopher A; Winer, Joshua H; Russell, Maria C; Knight, Jessica H; Goodman, Michael; Krasinskas, Alyssa M; Adsay, Volkan

    2016-10-01

    High-grade versions of appendiceal goblet cell carcinoids ('adenocarcinoma ex-goblet cell carcinoids') are poorly characterized. We herein document 77 examples. Tumors occurred predominantly in females (74%), mean age 55 years (29-84), most with disseminated abdominal (77% peritoneal, 58% gynecologic tract involvement) and stage IV (65%) disease. Many presented to gynecologic oncologists, and nine had a working diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma. Metastases to liver (n=3) and lung (n=1) were uncommon and none arose in adenomatous lesions. Tumors had various histologic patterns, in variable combinations, most of which were fairly specific, making them recognizable as appendiceal in origin, even at metastatic sites: I: Ordinary goblet cell carcinoid/crypt pattern (rounded, non-luminal acini with well-oriented goblet cells), in variable amounts in all cases. II: Poorly cohesive goblet cell pattern (diffusely infiltrative cords/single files of signet ring-like/goblet cells). III: Poorly cohesive non-mucinous cell (diffuse-infiltrative growth of non-mucinous cells). IV: Microglandular (rosette-like glandular) pattern without goblet cells. V: Mixed 'other' carcinoma foci (including ordinary intestinal/mucinous). VI: goblet cell carcinoid pattern with high-grade morphology (marked nuclear atypia). VII: Solid sheet-like pattern punctuated by goblet cells/microglandular units. Ordinary nested/trabecular ('carcinoid pattern') was very uncommon. In total, 33(52%) died of disease, with median overall survival 38 months and 5-year survival 32%. On multivariate analysis perineural invasion and younger age (<55) were independently associated with worse outcome while lymph-vascular invasion, stage, and nodal status trended toward, but failed to reach, statistical significance. Worse behavior in younger patients combined with female predilection and ovarian-affinity raise the possibility of hormone-assisted tumor progression. In conclusion, 'adenocarcinoma ex-goblet cell carcinoid' is

  16. Elp3 drives Wnt-dependent tumor initiation and regeneration in the intestine.

    PubMed

    Ladang, Aurélie; Rapino, Francesca; Heukamp, Lukas C; Tharun, Lars; Shostak, Kateryna; Hermand, Damien; Delaunay, Sylvain; Klevernic, Iva; Jiang, Zheshen; Jacques, Nicolas; Jamart, Diane; Migeot, Valérie; Florin, Alexandra; Göktuna, Serkan; Malgrange, Brigitte; Sansom, Owen J; Nguyen, Laurent; Büttner, Reinhard; Close, Pierre; Chariot, Alain

    2015-11-16

    Tumor initiation in the intestine can rapidly occur from Lgr5(+) crypt columnar stem cells. Dclk1 is a marker of differentiated Tuft cells and, when coexpressed with Lgr5, also marks intestinal cancer stem cells. Here, we show that Elp3, the catalytic subunit of the Elongator complex, is required for Wnt-driven intestinal tumor initiation and radiation-induced regeneration by maintaining a subpool of Lgr5(+)/Dclk1(+)/Sox9(+) cells. Elp3 deficiency dramatically delayed tumor appearance in Apc-mutated intestinal epithelia and greatly prolonged mice survival without affecting the normal epithelium. Specific ablation of Elp3 in Lgr5(+) cells resulted in marked reduction of polyp formation upon Apc inactivation, in part due to a decreased number of Lgr5(+)/Dclk1(+)/Sox9(+) cells. Mechanistically, Elp3 is induced by Wnt signaling and promotes Sox9 translation, which is needed to maintain the subpool of Lgr5(+)/Dclk1(+) cancer stem cells. Consequently, Elp3 or Sox9 depletion led to similar defects in Dclk1(+) cancer stem cells in ex vivo organoids. Finally, Elp3 deficiency strongly impaired radiation-induced intestinal regeneration, in part because of decreased Sox9 protein levels. Together, our data demonstrate the crucial role of Elp3 in maintaining a subpopulation of Lgr5-derived and Sox9-expressing cells needed to trigger Wnt-driven tumor initiation in the intestine.

  17. Bivariate flow cytometric analysis of murine intestinal epithelial cells for cytokinetic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Pallavicini, M.G.; Ng, C.R.; Gray, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    The heterogeneous nature of the small intestine and the lack of methods to obtain pure crypt populations has, in the past, limited the application of standard flow cytometric analysis for cytokinetic studies of the proliferating crypts. The authors describe a flow cytometric technique to discriminate crypt and villus cells in an epithelial cell suspension on the basis of cell length, and to measure the DNA content of the discriminated subpopulations. These data indicate that bivariate analysis of a mixed epithelial cell suspension can be used to distinguish mature villus cells, G/sub 1/ crypt cells, and S-phase crypt cells. In addition, continuous labeling studies suggest that the position of a cell on the cell length axis reflects epithelial cell maturity. The authors applied this flow cytometric technique to determine the cytokinetic nature of epithelial cells obtained by sequential digestion of the small intestine. 22 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Technological characterization and survival of the exopolysaccharide-producing strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193 and its bile-resistant derivative 193+ in simulated gastric and intestinal juices.

    PubMed

    Burns, Patricia; Vinderola, Gabriel; Reinheimer, Jorge; Cuesta, Isabel; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia

    2011-08-01

    The capacity of lactic acid bacteria to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) conferring microorganisms a ropy phenotype could be an interesting feature from a technological point of view. Progressive adaptation to bile salts might render some lactobacilli able to overcome physiological gut barriers but could also modify functional properties of the strain, including the production of EPS. In this work some technological properties and the survival ability in simulated gastrointestinal conditions of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193, and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193+, a strain with stable bile-resistant phenotype derived thereof, were characterized in milk in order to know whether the acquisition of resistance to bile could modify some characteristics of the microorganism. Both strains were able to grow and acidify milk similarly; however the production of ethanol increased at the expense of the aroma compound acetaldehyde in milk fermented by the strain 193+, with respect to milk fermented by the strain 193. Both microorganisms produced a heteropolysaccharide composed of glucose and galactose, and were able to increase the viscosity of fermented milks. In spite of the higher production yield of EPS by the bile-resistant strain 193+, it displayed a lower ability to increase viscosity than Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193. Milk increased survival in simulated gastric juice; the presence of bile improved adhesion to the intestinal cell line HT29-MTX in both strains. However, the acquisition of a stable resistance phenotype did not improve survival in simulated gastric and intestinal conditions or the adhesion to the intestinal cell line HT29-MTX. Thus, Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193 presents suitable technological properties for the manufacture of fermented dairy products; the acquisition of a stable bile-resistant phenotype modified some properties of the microorganism. This suggests that the possible use of bile-resistant derivative strains should be

  19. Extent of Small Bowel Resection Does Not Influence the Magnitude of Intestinal Adaptation in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wakeman, Derek; Longshore, Shannon W; McMellen, Mark E; Santos, Jethrina A; Guo, Jun; Erwin, Christopher R; Warner, Brad W

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The magnitude of intestinal adaptation is considered to correlate with the extent of small bowel resection (SBR). However, this association has never been tested in mice. We sought to test the hypothesis that a greater SBR will induce a greater adaptation response. Methods C57/B6 mice underwent 50% SBR, 75% SBR, or sham operation and were sacrificed on postoperative day 7. The magnitude of adaptation was compared between 50% SBR and 75% SBR as changes in villus height, crypt depth, as well as rates of apoptosis and proliferation. Results 75% SBR led to decreased survival and increased weight loss compared to 50% SBR. The remnant ileum of both 50% SBR and 75% SBR displayed similar crypt expansion, enhanced villi, and increased apoptotic indices. Proliferation rates increased after 50% and 75% SBR equally. Conclusion Models of resection greater than 50% in mice result in greater morbidity and mortality and do not magnify the adaptation response to massive SBR. The use of more extreme resection models does not appear to provide added benefit for investigating mechanisms of intestinal adaptation. PMID:20620331

  20. Update on small intestinal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tesori, Valentina; Puglisi, Maria Ausiliatrice; Lattanzi, Wanda; Gasbarrini, Giovanni Battista; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2013-08-07

    Among somatic stem cells, those residing in the intestine represent a fascinating and poorly explored research field. Particularly, somatic stem cells reside in the small intestine at the level of the crypt base, in a constant balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Aim of the present review is to delve into the mechanisms that regulate the delicate equilibrium through which intestinal stem cells orchestrate intestinal architecture. To this aim, special focus will be addressed to identify the integrating signals from the surrounding niche, supporting a model whereby distinct cell populations facilitate homeostatic vs injury-induced regeneration.

  1. Stomatal crypts may facilitate diffusion of CO(2) to adaxial mesophyll cells in thick sclerophylls.

    PubMed

    Hassiotou, Foteini; Evans, John R; Ludwig, Martha; Veneklaas, Erik J

    2009-11-01

    In some plants, stomata are exclusively located in epidermal depressions called crypts. It has been argued that crypts function to reduce transpiration; however, the occurrence of crypts in species from both arid and wet environments suggests that crypts may play another role. The genus Banksia was chosen to examine quantitative relationships between crypt morphology and leaf structural and physiological traits to gain insight into the functional significance of crypts. Crypt resistance to water vapour and CO(2) diffusion was calculated by treating crypts as an additional boundary layer partially covering one leaf surface. Gas exchange measurements of polypropylene meshes confirmed the validity of this approach. Stomatal resistance was calculated as leaf resistance minus calculated crypt resistance. Stomata contributed significantly more than crypts to leaf resistance. Crypt depth increased and accounted for an increasing proportion of leaf resistance in species with greater leaf thickness and leaf dry mass per area. All Banksia species examined with leaves thicker than 0.6 mm had their stomata in deep crypts. We propose that crypts function to facilitate CO(2) diffusion from the abaxial surface to adaxial palisade cells in thick leaves. This and other possible functions of stomatal crypts, including a role in water use, are discussed.

  2. Chromoendoscopy with a Standard-Resolution Colonoscope for Evaluation of Rectal Aberrant Crypt Foci

    PubMed Central

    Orłowski, Marcin; Zinkiewicz, Krzysztof; Kurpiewski, Waldemar; Kowalczyk, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of death worldwide. According to the theory by Vogelstein, colorectal carcinogenesis involves a series of successive changes in the normal colonic mucosa, starting with excessive proliferation and focal disorders of intestinal crypts, followed by adenoma and its subsequent malignant transformation. The first identifiable changes in CRC carcinogenesis are aberrant crypt foci (ACF). ACF are invisible during routine colonoscopy yet are well identifiable in chromoendoscopy using methylene blue or indigo carmine. High-resolution colonoscopes are used for assessment of ACF. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of standard-resolution colonoscopy for identification of rectal ACF. The following parameters were evaluated: duration of chromoendoscopy of a given rectal segment, type of ACF, sensitivity and specificity of endoscopy combined with histopathological evaluation. The mean duration of colonoscopy and chromoendoscopy was 26.8 min. In the study population, typical ACF were found in 73 patients (p = 0.489), hyperplastic ACF in 49 (p = 0.328), and dysplastic ACF in 16 patients (p = 0.107). Mixed ACF were observed in 11 individuals (p = 0.073). The sensitivity of the method was found to be 0.96 whereas its specificity 0.99. Identification of rectal ACF using standard-resolution colonoscopy combined with rectal mucosa staining with 0.25% methylene blue is characterised by high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26886097

  3. The Complex Surgical Management of the First Case of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency and Multiple Intestinal Atresias Surviving after the Fourth Year of Life

    PubMed Central

    Garofano, Salvatore; Teruzzi, Elisabetta; Vinardi, Simona; Carbonaro, Giulia; Cerrina, Alessia; Morra, Isabella; Montin, Davide; Mussa, Alessandro; Schleef, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a life-threatening syndrome of recurrent infections and gastrointestinal alterations due to severe compromise of T cells and B cells. Clinically, most patients present symptoms before the age of 3 months and without intervention SCID usually results in severe infections and death by the age of 2 years. Its association with intestinal anomalies as multiple intestinal atresias (MIA) is rare and worsens the prognosis, resulting lethal. We describe the case of a four year-old boy with SCID-MIA. He presented at birth with meconium peritonitis, multiple ileal atresias and underwent several intestinal resections. A targeted Sanger sequencing revealed a homozygous 4-bp deletion (c.313ΔTATC; p.Y105fs) in tetratricopeptide repeat domain 7A (TTC7A). He experienced surgical procedures including resection and stricturoplasty. Despite parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease, the patient is surviving at the time of writing the report. Precocious immune system assessment, scrutiny of TTC7A mutations and prompt surgical procedures are crucial in the management. PMID:25587526

  4. Apc Restoration Promotes Cellular Differentiation and Reestablishes Crypt Homeostasis in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dow, Lukas E; O'Rourke, Kevin P; Simon, Janelle; Tschaharganeh, Darjus F; van Es, Johan H; Clevers, Hans; Lowe, Scott W

    2015-06-18

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor is mutated in the vast majority of human colorectal cancers (CRC) and leads to deregulated Wnt signaling. To determine whether Apc disruption is required for tumor maintenance, we developed a mouse model of CRC whereby Apc can be conditionally suppressed using a doxycycline-regulated shRNA. Apc suppression produces adenomas in both the small intestine and colon that, in the presence of Kras and p53 mutations, can progress to invasive carcinoma. In established tumors, Apc restoration drives rapid and widespread tumor-cell differentiation and sustained regression without relapse. Tumor regression is accompanied by the re-establishment of normal crypt-villus homeostasis, such that once aberrantly proliferating cells reacquire self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation capability. Our study reveals that CRC cells can revert to functioning normal cells given appropriate signals and provide compelling in vivo validation of the Wnt pathway as a therapeutic target for treatment of CRC.

  5. DNA-based watermarks using the DNA-Crypt algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Heider, Dominik; Barnekow, Angelika

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the application of watermarks based on DNA sequences to identify the unauthorized use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) protected by patents. Predicted mutations in the genome can be corrected by the DNA-Crypt program leaving the encrypted information intact. Existing DNA cryptographic and steganographic algorithms use synthetic DNA sequences to store binary information however, although these sequences can be used for authentication, they may change the target DNA sequence when introduced into living organisms. Results The DNA-Crypt algorithm and image steganography are based on the same watermark-hiding principle, namely using the least significant base in case of DNA-Crypt and the least significant bit in case of the image steganography. It can be combined with binary encryption algorithms like AES, RSA or Blowfish. DNA-Crypt is able to correct mutations in the target DNA with several mutation correction codes such as the Hamming-code or the WDH-code. Mutations which can occur infrequently may destroy the encrypted information, however an integrated fuzzy controller decides on a set of heuristics based on three input dimensions, and recommends whether or not to use a correction code. These three input dimensions are the length of the sequence, the individual mutation rate and the stability over time, which is represented by the number of generations. In silico experiments using the Ypt7 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows that the DNA watermarks produced by DNA-Crypt do not alter the translation of mRNA into protein. Conclusion The program is able to store watermarks in living organisms and can maintain the original information by correcting mutations itself. Pairwise or multiple sequence alignments show that DNA-Crypt produces few mismatches between the sequences similar to all steganographic algorithms. PMID:17535434

  6. DNA-based watermarks using the DNA-Crypt algorithm.

    PubMed

    Heider, Dominik; Barnekow, Angelika

    2007-05-29

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the application of watermarks based on DNA sequences to identify the unauthorized use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) protected by patents. Predicted mutations in the genome can be corrected by the DNA-Crypt program leaving the encrypted information intact. Existing DNA cryptographic and steganographic algorithms use synthetic DNA sequences to store binary information however, although these sequences can be used for authentication, they may change the target DNA sequence when introduced into living organisms. The DNA-Crypt algorithm and image steganography are based on the same watermark-hiding principle, namely using the least significant base in case of DNA-Crypt and the least significant bit in case of the image steganography. It can be combined with binary encryption algorithms like AES, RSA or Blowfish. DNA-Crypt is able to correct mutations in the target DNA with several mutation correction codes such as the Hamming-code or the WDH-code. Mutations which can occur infrequently may destroy the encrypted information, however an integrated fuzzy controller decides on a set of heuristics based on three input dimensions, and recommends whether or not to use a correction code. These three input dimensions are the length of the sequence, the individual mutation rate and the stability over time, which is represented by the number of generations. In silico experiments using the Ypt7 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows that the DNA watermarks produced by DNA-Crypt do not alter the translation of mRNA into protein. The program is able to store watermarks in living organisms and can maintain the original information by correcting mutations itself. Pairwise or multiple sequence alignments show that DNA-Crypt produces few mismatches between the sequences similar to all steganographic algorithms.

  7. Determination using synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy of putative stem cells in human adenocarcinoma of the intestine: corresponding benign tissue as a template.

    PubMed

    Ahmadzai, Abdullah A; Patel, Imran I; Veronesi, Giulia; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Llabjani, Valon; Cotte, Marine; Stringfellow, Helen F; Martin, Francis L

    2014-01-01

    The epithelial-cell layer lining the two morphologically and functionally distinct segments of the mammalian intestinal tract, small intestine, and colon is constantly being renewed. This renewal is necessitated by a harsh lumen environment and is hypothesized to be driven by a small population of stem cells (SCs) that are believed to reside at the base of intestinal crypts. A lack of specific markers has hampered previous attempts to identify their exact location. We obtained tissue sections containing small intestine and colon crypts derived from normal (benign) or adenocarcinoma (AC) human intestine. The samples were floated onto BaF2 windows and analyzed using synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy via an aperture size of 10 × 10 μm. Derived infrared (IR) spectral data was then analyzed using principal component analysis and/or linear discriminant analysis. Hypothesized cell types (as a function of aperture location along the length of individual crypts) within benign crypts were classed based on exploratory unsupervised IR spectral point clustering. Scores plots derived from individual small intestine crypts consistently generated one or two distinct spectra that clustered away from the remaining cell categories; these were retrospectively classed as "distinct base region" spectra. In these plots, a clear progression of locations along crypt lengths designated as from putative stem cells (SCs) to transit-amplifying (TA) cells to terminally differentiated (TD) cells was observed in benign small intestine and colon crypts. This progression of spectral points was crypt specific, pointing away from a unifying cell lineage model in human intestinal crypts. On comparison of AC-derived spectra versus corresponding benign, a subpopulation of AC-derived spectra suggested a putative SC-like spectral fingerprint; remaining IR spectra were classed as exhibiting TA cell-like or TD cell-like spectral characteristics. These observations

  8. Aging effects on intestinal homeostasis associated with expansion and dysfunction of intestinal epithelial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Moorefield, Emily C; Andres, Sarah F; Blue, R Eric; Van Landeghem, Laurianne; Mah, Amanda T; Santoro, M Agostina; Ding, Shengli

    2017-08-29

    Intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs) are critical to maintain intestinal epithelial function and homeostasis. We tested the hypothesis that aging promotes IESC dysfunction using old (18-22 months) and young (2-4 month) Sox9-EGFP IESC reporter mice. Different levels of Sox9-EGFP permit analyses of active IESC (Sox9-EGFP(Low)), activatable reserve IESC and enteroendocrine cells (Sox9-EGFP(High)), Sox9-EGFP(Sublow) progenitors, and Sox9-EGFP(Negative) differentiated lineages. Crypt-villus morphology, cellular composition and apoptosis were measured by histology. IESC function was assessed by crypt culture, and proliferation by flow cytometry and histology. Main findings were confirmed in Lgr5-EGFP and Lgr5-LacZ mice. Aging-associated gene expression changes were analyzed by Fluidigm mRNA profiling. Crypts culture from old mice yielded fewer and less complex enteroids. Histology revealed increased villus height and Paneth cells per crypt in old mice. Old mice showed increased numbers and hyperproliferation of Sox9-EGFP(Low) IESC and Sox9-EGFP(High) cells. Cleaved caspase-3 staining demonstrated increased apoptotic cells in crypts and villi of old mice. Gene expression profiling revealed aging-associated changes in mRNAs associated with cell cycle, oxidative stress and apoptosis specifically in IESC. These findings provide new, direct evidence for aging associated IESC dysfunction, and define potential biomarkers and targets for translational studies to assess and maintain IESC function during aging.

  9. WNT signaling controls expression of pro-apoptotic BOK and BAX in intestinal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Zeilstra, Jurrit; Joosten, Sander P.J.; Wensveen, Felix M.; Dessing, Mark C.; Schuetze, Denise M.; Eldering, Eric; Spaargaren, Marcel; Pals, Steven T.

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Intestinal adenomas initiated by aberrant activation of the WNT pathway displayed an increased sensitivity to apoptosis. {yields} Expression profiling of apoptosis-related genes in Apc{sup Min/+} mice revealed the differential expression of pro-apoptotic Bok and Bax. {yields} APC-mutant adenomatous crypts in FAP patients showed strongly increased BAX immunoreactivity. {yields} Blocking of {beta}-catenin/TCF-4-mediated signaling in colon cancer cells reduced the expression of BOK and BAX. -- Abstract: In a majority of cases, colorectal cancer is initiated by aberrant activation of the WNT signaling pathway. Mutation of the genes encoding the WNT signaling components adenomatous polyposis coli or {beta}-catenin causes constitutively active {beta}-catenin/TCF-mediated transcription, driving the transformation of intestinal crypts to cancer precursor lesions, called dysplastic aberrant crypt foci. Deregulated apoptosis is a hallmark of adenomatous colon tissue. However, the contribution of WNT signaling to this process is not fully understood. We addressed this role by analyzing the rate of epithelial apoptosis in aberrant crypts and adenomas of the Apc{sup Min/+} mouse model. In comparison with normal crypts and adenomas, aberrant crypts displayed a dramatically increased rate of apoptotic cell death. Expression profiling of apoptosis-related genes along the crypt-villus axis and in Apc mutant adenomas revealed increased expression of two pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members in intestinal adenomas, Bok and Bax. Analysis of the colon of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients along the crypt-to-surface axis, and of dysplastic crypts, corroborated this expression pattern. Disruption of {beta}-catenin/TCF-4-mediated signaling in the colorectal cancer cell line Ls174T significantly decreased BOK and BAX expression, confirming WNT-dependent regulation in intestinal epithelial cells. Our results suggest a feedback mechanism by which

  10. Soymilk residue (okara) as a natural immobilization carrier for Lactobacillus plantarum cells enhances soymilk fermentation, glucosidic isoflavone bioconversion, and cell survival under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions

    PubMed Central

    Xiudong, Xia; Ying, Wang; Xiaoli, Liu; Ying, Li

    2016-01-01

    Cell immobilization is an alternative to microencapsulation for the maintenance of cells in a liquid medium. However, artificial immobilization carriers are expensive and pose a high safety risk. Okara, a food-grade byproduct from soymilk production, is rich in prebiotics. Lactobacilli could provide health enhancing effects to the host. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of okara as a natural immobilizer for L. plantarum 70810 cells. The study also aimed to evaluate the effects of okara-immobilized L. plantarum 70810 cells (IL) on soymilk fermentation, glucosidic isoflavone bioconversion, and cell resistance to simulated gastric and intestinal stresses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to show cells adherence to the surface of okara. Lactic acid, acetic acid and isoflavone analyses in unfermented and fermented soymilk were performed by HPLC with UV detection. Viability and growth kinetics of immobilized and free L. plantarum 70810 cells (FL) were followed during soymilk fermentation. Moreover, changes in pH, titrable acidity and viscosity were measured by conventional methods. For in vitro testing of simulated gastrointestinal resistance, fermented soymilk was inoculated with FL or IL and an aliquot incubated into acidic MRS broth which was conveniently prepared to simulate gastric, pancreatic juices and bile salts. Survival to simulated gastric and intestinal stresses was evaluated by plate count of colony forming units on MRS agar. SEM revealed that the lactobacilli cells attached and bound to the surface of okara. Compared with FL, IL exhibited a significantly higher specific growth rate, shorter lag phase of growth, higher productions of lactic and acetic acids, a faster decrease in pH and increase in titrable acidity, and a higher soymilk viscosity. Similarly, IL in soymilk showed higher productions of daizein and genistein compared with the control. Compared with FL, IL showed reinforced resistance to simulatedgastric and intestinal

  11. Soymilk residue (okara) as a natural immobilization carrier for Lactobacillus plantarum cells enhances soymilk fermentation, glucosidic isoflavone bioconversion, and cell survival under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Xiudong, Xia; Ying, Wang; Xiaoli, Liu; Ying, Li; Jianzhong, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Cell immobilization is an alternative to microencapsulation for the maintenance of cells in a liquid medium. However, artificial immobilization carriers are expensive and pose a high safety risk. Okara, a food-grade byproduct from soymilk production, is rich in prebiotics. Lactobacilli could provide health enhancing effects to the host. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of okara as a natural immobilizer for L. plantarum 70810 cells. The study also aimed to evaluate the effects of okara-immobilized L. plantarum 70810 cells (IL) on soymilk fermentation, glucosidic isoflavone bioconversion, and cell resistance to simulated gastric and intestinal stresses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to show cells adherence to the surface of okara. Lactic acid, acetic acid and isoflavone analyses in unfermented and fermented soymilk were performed by HPLC with UV detection. Viability and growth kinetics of immobilized and free L. plantarum 70810 cells (FL) were followed during soymilk fermentation. Moreover, changes in pH, titrable acidity and viscosity were measured by conventional methods. For in vitro testing of simulated gastrointestinal resistance, fermented soymilk was inoculated with FL or IL and an aliquot incubated into acidic MRS broth which was conveniently prepared to simulate gastric, pancreatic juices and bile salts. Survival to simulated gastric and intestinal stresses was evaluated by plate count of colony forming units on MRS agar. SEM revealed that the lactobacilli cells attached and bound to the surface of okara. Compared with FL, IL exhibited a significantly higher specific growth rate, shorter lag phase of growth, higher productions of lactic and acetic acids, a faster decrease in pH and increase in titrable acidity, and a higher soymilk viscosity. Similarly, IL in soymilk showed higher productions of daizein and genistein compared with the control. Compared with FL, IL showed reinforced resistance to simulatedgastric and intestinal

  12. An Escherichia coli MG1655 lipopolysaccharide deep-rough core mutant grows and survives in mouse cecal mucus but fails to colonize the mouse large intestine.

    PubMed

    Møller, Annette K; Leatham, Mary P; Conway, Tyrrell; Nuijten, Piet J M; de Haan, Louise A M; Krogfelt, Karen A; Cohen, Paul S

    2003-04-01

    The ability of E. coli strains to colonize the mouse large intestine has been correlated with their ability to grow in cecal and colonic mucus. In the present study, an E. coli MG1655 strain was mutagenized with a mini-Tn5 Km (kanamycin) transposon, and mutants were tested for the ability to grow on agar plates with mouse cecal mucus as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. One mutant, designated MD42 (for mucus defective), grew poorly on cecal-mucus agar plates but grew well on Luria agar plates and on glucose minimal-agar plates. Sequencing revealed that the insertion in MD42 was in the waaQ gene, which is involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core biosynthesis. Like "deep-rough" E. coli mutants, MD42 was hypersensitive to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), bile salts, and the hydrophobic antibiotic novobiocin. Furthermore, its LPS core oligosaccharide was truncated, like that of a deep-rough mutant. MD42 initially grew in the large intestines of streptomycin-treated mice but then failed to colonize (<10(2) CFU per g of feces), whereas its parent colonized at levels between 10(7) and 10(8) CFU per g of feces. When mouse cecal mucosal sections were hybridized with an E. coli-specific rRNA probe, MD42 was observed in cecal mucus as clumps 24 h postfeeding, whereas its parent was present almost exclusively as single cells, suggesting that clumping may play a role in preventing MD42 colonization. Surprisingly, MD42 grew nearly as well as its parent during growth in undiluted, highly viscous cecal mucus isolated directly from the mouse cecum and, like its parent, survived well after reaching stationary phase, suggesting that there are no antimicrobials in mucus that prevent MD42 colonization. After mini-mariner transposon mutagenesis, an SDS-resistant suppressor mutant of MD42 was isolated. The mini-mariner insertion was shown to be in the bipA gene, a known regulator of E. coli surface components. When grown in Luria broth, the LPS core of the suppressor mutant remained

  13. Carvacrol reduces irinotecan-induced intestinal mucositis through inhibition of inflammation and oxidative damage via TRPA1 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Elenice M; Souza, Luan K M; Araújo, Thiago S L; Nogueira, Kerolayne M; Sousa, Francisca Beatriz M; Araújo, Alyne R; Martins, Conceição S; Pacífico, Dvison M; de C Brito, Gerly Anne; Souza, Emmanuel P; Sousa, Damião P; Medeiros, Jand Venes R

    2016-12-25

    Intestinal mucositis is an inflammatory process occurring in the intestinal mucosa and is a common side effect of irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11) based anticancer regimens. The transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) receptor is highly expressed in the intestinal mucosa and has the ability to identify cell damage signaling indicates its possible association with intestinal mucositis. Carvacrol is an agonist of the TRPA1 receptor and has anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, the aim of the present study was to verify the supposed anti-inflammatory and protective action of carvacrol via TRPA1 activation against intestinal mucositis induced by CPT-11 in mice. Briefly, mice were treated with either DMSO 2% or CPT-11 (75 mg/kg, per 4 days, i.p.) or the carvacrol (25, 75 or 150 mg/kg, per 8 days, i.p.) before CPT-11. In other group, the animals were pretreated with HC-030031, a TRPA1 antagonist, 30 min before treatment with carvacrol. On day 7, animal survival and bacteremia were assessed, and following euthanasia, samples of the jejunum were obtained for morphometric analysis and measurement of antioxidant and pro-inflammatory markers. Carvacrol was found to exert an anti-inflammatory action against CPT-11-induced intestinal mucositis through strong interactions with TRPA1 receptors; reduction in the production or release or both of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and KC); and decrease in other indicators of inflammation (MPO, NF-κB, COX-2) and oxidative stress (GSH, MDA, and NOx levels). It also contributed to the restoration of the tissue architecture of the villi and crypts in the small intestine, and improved clinical parameters such as survival, body mass variation, leukogram, and blood bacterial count. Thus, TRPA1 could be a target for future therapeutic approaches in the treatment of intestinal mucositis.

  14. A new scaffold containing small intestinal submucosa and mesenchymal stem cells improves pancreatic islet function and survival in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Ding, Xiaoming; Xue, Wujun; Zheng, Jin; Tian, Xiaohui; Li, Yang; Wang, Xiaohong; Song, Huanjin; Liu, Hua; Luo, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    It is unknown whether a scaffold containing both small intestinal submucosa (SIS) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for transplantation may improve pancreatic islet function and survival. In this study, we examined the effects of a SIS-MSC scaffold on islet function and survival in vitro and in vivo. MSCs and pancreatic islets were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats, and SIS was isolated from Bamei pigs. The islets were apportioned among 3 experimental groups as follows: SIS-islets, SIS-MSC-islets and control-islets. In vitro, islet function was measured by a glucose-stimulated insulin secretion test; cytokines in cultured supernatants were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; and gene expression was analyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. In vivo, islet transplantation was performed in rats, and graft function and survival were monitored by measuring the blood glucose levels. In vitro, the SIS-MSC scaffold was associated with improved islet viability and enhanced insulin secretion compared with the controls, as well as with the increased the expression of insulin 1 (Ins1), pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1), platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 [Pecam1; also known as cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31)] and vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) in the islets, increased growth factor secretion, and decreased tumor necrosis factor (TNF) secretion. In vivo, the SIS-MSC scaffold was associated with improved islet function and graft survival compared with the SIS and control groups. On the whole, our findings demonstrate that the SIS-MSC scaffold significantly improved pancreatic islet function and survival in vitro and in vivo. This improvement may be associated with the upregulation of insulin expression, the improvement of islet microcirculation and the secretion of cytokines. PMID:27909715

  15. Calcium transport by rat duodenal villus and crypt basolateral membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, J.R.F.; Weiser, M.M.

    1987-02-01

    Rat duodenal cells were isolated sequentially to give fractions enriched for villus and crypt cells. From each of these fractions, basolateral-enriched membrane vesicles were prepared and ATP-dependent calcium uptake was studied. Calcium uptake was sensitive to temperature, was inhibited by vanadate and by A23187, and was lower in vitamin D-deficient animals. In normal animals, (UVCa)-transport was approximately twofold greater in villus-tip than in crypt cell-fraction basolateral membranes though the affinity of the uptake for calcium was similar (K/sub m/ = 0.3 M). In vitamin D-deficient animals, the crypt-to-villus gradient was reduced, and in all fractions, calcium transport was similar to or lower than that in the crypts of normal animals. Six hours after vitamin D-deficient animals were repleted with 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, a significant increase in calcium transport by everted gut sacs was present; however, basolateral calcium transport was significantly increased in only the mid-villus fractions, and no change was seen in the villus-tip fractions. Thus vitamin D appears necessary for the development of increased basolateral membrane calcium pump activity in duodenal villus cells, but not all cells in vitamin D-deficient rats are able to respond to 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol.

  16. The colon-selective spasmolytic otilonium bromide inhibits muscarinic M3 receptor-coupled calcium signals in isolated human colonic crypts

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Susanne; Hernon, James; Sharp, Paul; Johns, Neil; Addison, Sarah; Watson, Mark; Tighe, Richard; Greer, Shaun; Mackay, Jean; Rhodes, Michael; Lewis, Michael; Stebbings, William; Speakman, Chris; Evangelista, Stefano; Johnson, Ian; Williams, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Otilonium bromide (OB) is a smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Otilonium bromide has been shown to interfere with the mobilization of calcium in intestinal smooth muscle, but the effects on other intestinal tissues have not been investigated. We identified the muscarinic receptor subtype coupled to calcium signals in colonic crypt derived from the human colonic epithelium and evaluated the inhibitory effects of OB. Calcium signals were monitored by fluorescence imaging of isolated human colonic crypts and Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the cloned human muscarinic M3 receptor subtype (CHO-M3). Colonic crypt receptor expression was investigated by pharmacological and immunohistochemical techniques. The secretagogue acetylcholine (ACh) stimulated calcium mobilization from intracellular calcium stores at the base of human colonic crypts with an EC50 of 14 μM. The muscarinic receptor antagonists 4-DAMP, AF-DX 384, pirenzepine and methroctamine inhibited the ACh-induced calcium signal with the following respective IC50 (pKb) values: 0.78 nM (9.1), 69 nM (7.2), 128 nM (7.1), and 2510 nM (5.8). Immunohistochemical analyses of muscarinic receptor expression demonstrated the presence of M3 receptor subtype expression at the crypt-base. Otilonium bromide inhibited the generation of ACh-induced calcium signals in a dose dependent manner (IC50=880 nM). In CHO-M3 cells, OB inhibited calcium signals induced by ACh, but not ATP. In addition, OB did not inhibit histamine-induced colonic crypt calcium signals. The present studies have demonstrated that OB inhibited M3 receptor-coupled calcium signals in human colonic crypts and CHO-M3 cells, but not those induced by stimulation of other endogenous receptor types. We propose that the M3 receptor-coupled calcium signalling pathway is directly targeted by OB at the level of the colonic epithelium, suggestive of an anti-secretory action in IBS patients suffering with diarrhoea. PMID

  17. The colon-selective spasmolytic otilonium bromide inhibits muscarinic M(3) receptor-coupled calcium signals in isolated human colonic crypts.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Susanne; Hernon, James; Sharp, Paul; Johns, Neil; Addison, Sarah; Watson, Mark; Tighe, Richard; Greer, Shaun; Mackay, Jean; Rhodes, Michael; Lewis, Michael; Stebbings, William; Speakman, Chris; Evangelista, Stefano; Johnson, Ian; Williams, Mark

    2002-12-01

    1. Otilonium bromide (OB) is a smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Otilonium bromide has been shown to interfere with the mobilization of calcium in intestinal smooth muscle, but the effects on other intestinal tissues have not been investigated. We identified the muscarinic receptor subtype coupled to calcium signals in colonic crypt derived from the human colonic epithelium and evaluated the inhibitory effects of OB. 2. Calcium signals were monitored by fluorescence imaging of isolated human colonic crypts and Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the cloned human muscarinic M(3) receptor subtype (CHO-M(3)). Colonic crypt receptor expression was investigated by pharmacological and immunohistochemical techniques. 3. The secretagogue acetylcholine (ACh) stimulated calcium mobilization from intracellular calcium stores at the base of human colonic crypts with an EC(50) of 14 micro M. The muscarinic receptor antagonists 4-DAMP, AF-DX 384, pirenzepine and methroctamine inhibited the ACh-induced calcium signal with the following respective IC(50) (pK(b)) values: 0.78 nM (9.1), 69 nM (7.2), 128 nM (7.1), and 2510 nM (5.8). 4. Immunohistochemical analyses of muscarinic receptor expression demonstrated the presence of M(3) receptor subtype expression at the crypt-base. 5. Otilonium bromide inhibited the generation of ACh-induced calcium signals in a dose dependent manner (IC(50)=880 nM). 6. In CHO-M(3) cells, OB inhibited calcium signals induced by ACh, but not ATP. In addition, OB did not inhibit histamine-induced colonic crypt calcium signals. 7. The present studies have demonstrated that OB inhibited M(3) receptor-coupled calcium signals in human colonic crypts and CHO-M(3) cells, but not those induced by stimulation of other endogenous receptor types. We propose that the M(3) receptor-coupled calcium signalling pathway is directly targeted by OB at the level of the colonic epithelium, suggestive of an anti-secretory action

  18. Identification of a cKit+ Colonic Crypt Base Secretory Cell That Supports Lgr5+ Stem Cells in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, Michael E.; Nusse, Ysbrand; Kalisky, Tomer; Lee, John J.; Dalerba, Piero; Scheeren, Ferenc; Lobo, Neethan; Kulkarni, Subhash; Sim, Sopheak; Qian, Dalong; Beachy, Philip A.; Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Quake, Stephen R.; Clarke, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Paneth cells contribute to the small intestinal niche of Lgr5+ stem cells. Although the colon also contains Lgr5+ stem cells, it does not contain Paneth cells. We investigated the existence of colonic Paneth-like cells that have a distinct transcriptional signature and support Lgr5+ stem cells. Methods We used multicolor fluorescence-activated cell sorting to isolate different subregions of colon crypts, based on known markers, from dissociated colonic epithelium of mice. We performed multiplexed single-cell gene expression analysis with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction followed by hierarchical clustering analysis to characterize distinct cell types. We used immunostaining and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses with in vivo administration of a Notch inhibitor and in vitro organoid cultures to characterize different cell types. Results Multicolor fluorescence-activated cell sorting could isolate distinct regions of colonic crypts. Four major epithelial subtypes or transcriptional states were revealed by gene expression analysis of selected populations of single cells. One of these, the goblet cells, contained a distinct cKit/CD117+ crypt base subpopulation that expressed Dll1, Dll4, and epidermal growth factor, similar to Paneth cells, which were also marked by cKit. In the colon, cKit+ goblet cells were interdigitated with Lgr5+ stem cells. In vivo, this colonic cKit+ population was regulated by Notch signaling; administration of a γ-secretase inhibitor to mice increased the number of cKit+ cells. When isolated from mouse colon, cKit+ cells promoted formation of organoids from Lgr5+ stem cells, which expressed Kitl/stem cell factor, the ligand for cKit. When organoids were depleted of cKit+ cells using a toxin-conjugated antibody, organoid formation decreased. Conclusions cKit marks small intestinal Paneth cells and a subset of colonic goblet cells that are regulated by Notch signaling and support Lgr5+stem

  19. Reovirus intermediate subviral particles constitute a strategy to infect intestinal epithelial cells by exploiting TGF-β dependent pro-survival signaling.

    PubMed

    Stanifer, Megan L; Rippert, Anja; Kazakov, Alexander; Willemsen, Joschka; Bucher, Delia; Bender, Silke; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Binder, Marco; Boulant, Steeve

    2016-12-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) constitute the primary barrier that separates us from the outside environment. These cells, lining the surface of the intestinal tract, represent a major challenge that enteric pathogens have to face. How IECs respond to viral infection and whether enteric viruses have developed strategies to subvert IECs innate immune response remains poorly characterized. Using mammalian reovirus (MRV) as a model enteric virus, we found that the intermediate subviral particles (ISVPs), which are formed in the gut during the natural course of infection by proteolytic digestion of the reovirus virion, trigger reduced innate antiviral immune response in IECs. On the contrary, infection of IECs by virions induces a strong antiviral immune response that leads to cellular death. Additionally, we determined that virions can be sensed by both TLR and RLR pathways while ISVPs are sensed by RLR pathways only. Interestingly, we found that ISVP infected cells secrete TGF-β acting as a pro-survival factor that protects IECs against virion induced cellular death. We propose that ISVPs represent a reovirus strategy to initiate primary infection of the gut by subverting IECs innate immune system and by counteracting cellular-death pathways. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Mass transfer characterization of gamma-aminobutyric acid production by Enterococcus faecium CFR 3003: encapsulation improves its survival under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Divyashri, Gangaraju; Prapulla, Siddalingaiya Gurudatt

    2015-03-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production by free and Ca-alginate encapsulated cells of Enterococcus faecium CFR 3003 was investigated. Mass transfer rates characterizing the GABA production process using encapsulated cells were investigated. Experiments were performed to investigate external film and internal pore diffusion mass transfer rates. The Damkohler and Thiele analysis provides a good description of external film and internal pore diffusion resistances, respectively. The experiments revealed that the external film effects could be neglected but the process is affected to the greater extent by internal mass transfer effects and was found to be the principal rate-controlling step. Protective effect of encapsulation on cell survivability was tested under digestive environment, when challenged to salivary α-amylase, simulated gastric fluid and intestinal fluid. Viability of encapsulated cells was significantly higher under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions and could produce higher GABA than those observed with free cells. The results indicate that the Ca-alginate encapsulated probiotics could effectively be delivered to the colonic site for effective inhibitory action.

  1. Developmental morphology of the small intestine of African ostrich chicks.

    PubMed

    Wang, J X; Peng, K M

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the morphological development of the small intestine of African ostrich chicks and to examine the changes in the number of goblet cells therein by observing the gross anatomy and performing histochemistry and morphometry. The BW; length, height, and width of the villi; muscle thickness; depth of the crypts; and number of goblet cells in the intestinal villi and crypts were measured on neonatal d 1, 45, 90, and 334. Our results revealed that the weights of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum (relative to the BW) peaked on d 90, 45, and 45, respectively, and tended to decline thereafter. The villus height and width and muscle thickness in the small intestine were positively correlated with the age of the birds. The ratio of the villus height to the crypt depth differed among the segments of the small intestine and at the different time points. The number of goblet cells in the intestinal villi and crypts increased rapidly up to postnatal d 45 and then decreased rapidly between d 45 and 90. The number of goblet cells in the villi was greatest in the jejunum on d 1 and in the ileum on d 45, whereas that in the crypt was greatest in the ileum on d 1 and 90 and in the duodenum on d 45. These results suggest that the small intestine develops gradually from postnatal d 1 to 90 and that the period up to postnatal d 45 is marked by significant developmental changes in the parameters reflective of the digestive capacity, such as the weight, length, and surface area of the intestine and the number of goblet cells. Therefore, in reared African ostrich chicks, feed management should be enhanced between postnatal d 1 and 45.

  2. Directional delivery of RSPO1 by mesenchymal stem cells ameliorates radiation-induced intestinal injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Ju, Songwen; Lu, Ting; Xu, Yongfang; Zheng, Xiaocui; Wang, Haiyan; Ge, Yan; Ju, Songguang

    2017-02-16

    Radiation-induced intestinal injury (RIII) commonly occurs in patients who received radiotherapy for pelvic or abdominal cancer, or who suffered from whole-body irradiation during a nuclear accident. RIII can lead to intestinal disorders and even death given its integrity damage that results from intestinal stem cell (ISC) loss. Recovery from RIII relies on the intensity of supportive treatment, which can attenuate lethal infection and give surviving stem cells an opportunity to regenerate. It has been reported that RSPO1 is a cytokine with potent and specific proliferative effects on intestinal crypt cells. MSCs have multiple RIII-healing effects, including anti-inflammatory and anti-irradiation injury properties, due to its negative immune regulation and its homing ability to the damaged intestinal epithelia. To combine the comprehensive anti-injury potential of MSCs, and the potent ability of RSPO1 as a mitogenic factor for ISCs, we constructed RSPO1-modified C3H10 T1/2 cells and expected that RSPO1, the ISC-proliferative cytokine, could be delivered to the site of injury in a targeted manner. In this study, we transferred C3H10/RSPO1 intravenously via the retro-orbital sinus into mice suffering from abdominal irradiation at lethal dosages. Our findings demonstrated that C3H10/RSPO1 cells are able to directionally migrate to the injury site; enhance ISC survival, proliferation, and differentiation; and effectively repair the radiation-damaged intestinal epithelial cells. This study suggests that the directional delivery of RSPO1 by MSCs is a promising strategy to ameliorate, and even cure, RIII.

  3. Shigella's ways of manipulating the host intestinal innate and adaptive immune system: a tool box for survival?

    PubMed

    Phalipon, Armelle; Sansonetti, Philippe J

    2007-01-01

    Shigella, a Gram-negative invasive enteropathogenic bacterium, causes the rupture, invasion and inflammatory destruction of the human colonic epithelium. This complex and aggressive process accounts for the symptoms of bacillary dysentery. The so-called invasive phenotype of Shigella is linked to expression of a type III secretory system (TTSS) injecting effector proteins into the epithelial cell membrane and cytoplasm, thereby inducing local but massive changes in the cell cytoskeleton that lead to bacterial internalization into non-phagocytic intestinal epithelial cells. The invasive phenotype also accounts for the potent pro-inflammatory capacity of the microorganism. Recent evidence indicates that a large part of the mucosal inflammation is initiated by intracellular sensing of bacterial peptidoglycan by cytosolic leucine-rich receptors of the NOD family, particularly NOD1, in epithelial cells. This causes activation of the nuclear factor kappa B and c-JunNH(2)-terminal-kinase pathways, with interleukin-8 appearing as a major chemokine mediating the inflammatory burst that is dominated by massive infiltration of the mucosa by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Not unexpectedly, this inflammatory response, which is likely to be very harmful for the invading microbe, is regulated by the bacterium itself. A group of proteins encoded by Shigella, which are injected into target cells by the TTSS, has been recently recognized as a family of potent regulators of the innate immune response. These enzymes target key cellular functions that are essential in triggering the inflammatory response, and more generally defense responses of the intestinal mucosa. This review focuses on the mechanisms employed by Shigella to manipulate the host innate response in order to escape early bacterial killing, thus ensuring establishment of its infectious process. The escape strategies, the possible direct effect of Shigella on B and T lymphocytes, their impact on the development of

  4. Subversion of human intestinal mucosa innate immunity by a Crohn's disease-associated E. coli.

    PubMed

    Jarry, A; Crémet, L; Caroff, N; Bou-Hanna, C; Mussini, J M; Reynaud, A; Servin, A L; Mosnier, J F; Liévin-Le Moal, V; Laboisse, C L

    2015-05-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), associated with Crohn's disease, are likely candidate contributory factors in the disease. However, signaling pathways involved in human intestinal mucosa innate host response to AIEC remain unknown. Here we use a 3D model of human intestinal mucosa explant culture to explore the effects of the AIEC strain LF82 on two innate immunity platforms, i.e., the inflammasome through evaluation of caspase-1 status, and NFκB signaling. We showed that LF82 bacteria enter and survive within a few intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, without altering the mucosa overall architecture. Although 4-h infection with a Salmonella strain caused crypt disorganization, caspase-1 activation, and mature IL-18 production, LF82 bacteria were unable to activate caspase-1 and induce IL-18 production. In parallel, LF82 bacteria activated NFκB signaling in epithelial cells through IκBα phosphorylation, NFκBp65 nuclear translocation, and TNFα secretion. In addition, NFκB activation was crucial for the maintenance of epithelial homeostasis upon LF82 infection. In conclusion, here we decipher at the whole-mucosa level the mechanisms of the LF82-induced subversion of innate immunity that, by maintaining host cell integrity, ensure intracellular bacteria survival.

  5. Colostrum quality affects immune system establishment and intestinal development of neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Yang, M; Zou, Y; Wu, Z H; Li, S L; Cao, Z J

    2015-10-01

    The first meal of a neonatal calf after birth is crucial for survival and health. The present experiment was performed to assess the effects of colostrum quality on IgG passive transfer, immune and antioxidant status, and intestinal morphology and histology in neonatal calves. Twenty-eight Holstein neonatal male calves were used in the current study, 24 of which were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: those that received colostrum (GrC), transitional milk (GrT, which was obtained after the first milking on 2-3 d after calving), and bulk tank milk (GrB) only at birth. The 4 extra neonatal calves who were not fed any milk were assigned to the control group and were killed immediately after birth to be a negative control to small intestinal morphology and histology detection. Calves in GrC gained more body weight than in GrT, whereas GrB calves lost 0.4 kg compared with the birth weight. Serum total protein, IgG, and superoxide dismutase concentrations were highest in GrC, GrT was intermediate, whereas GrB was the lowest on d 2, 3, and 7. Apparent efficiency of absorption at 48 h, serum complement 3 (C3), and complement 4 (C4) on d 2, 3, and 7 in GrB was low compared with GrC and GrT. On the contrary, malondialdehyde on d 7 increased in GrB. Calves in GrC had better villus length and width, crypt depth, villus height/crypt depth (V/C) value, and mucosal thickness in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, whereas GrT calves had lower villus length and width, crypt depth, and mucosal thickness than those fed colostrum. Villi of calves in GrB were nonuniform, sparse, severely atrophied, and apically abscised, and Peyer's patches and hydroncus were detected. Overall, colostrum is the best source for calves in IgG absorption, antioxidant activities, and serum growth metabolites, and promoting intestinal development. The higher quality of colostrum calves ingested, the faster immune defense mechanism and the more healthy intestinal circumstances they established.

  6. Memory based active contour algorithm using pixel-level classified images for colon crypt segmentation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Assaf; Rivlin, Ehud; Shimshoni, Ilan; Sabo, Edmond

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel method for detection and segmentation of crypts in colon biopsies. Most of the approaches proposed in the literature try to segment the crypts using only the biopsy image without understanding the meaning of each pixel. The proposed method differs in that we segment the crypts using an automatically generated pixel-level classification image of the original biopsy image and handle the artifacts due to the sectioning process and variance in color, shape and size of the crypts. The biopsy image pixels are classified to nuclei, immune system, lumen, cytoplasm, stroma and goblet cells. The crypts are then segmented using a novel active contour approach, where the external force is determined by the semantics of each pixel and the model of the crypt. The active contour is applied for every lumen candidate detected using the pixel-level classification. Finally, a false positive crypt elimination process is performed to remove segmentation errors. This is done by measuring their adherence to the crypt model using the pixel level classification results. The method was tested on 54 biopsy images containing 4944 healthy and 2236 cancerous crypts, resulting in 87% detection of the crypts with 9% of false positive segments (segments that do not represent a crypt). The segmentation accuracy of the true positive segments is 96%.

  7. Synthetic Small Intestinal Scaffolds for Improved Studies of Intestinal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Cait M.; Hongpeng, Jia; Shaffiey, Shahab; Yu, Jiajie; Jain, Nina K.; Hackam, David

    2014-01-01

    In vitro intestinal models can provide new insights into small intestinal function, including cellular growth and proliferation mechanisms, drug absorption capabilities, and host-microbial interactions. These models are typically formed with cells cultured on 2D scaffolds or transwell inserts, but it is widely understood that epithelial cells cultured in 3D environments exhibit different phenotypes that are more reflective of native tissue. Our focus was to develop a porous, synthetic 3D tissue scaffold with villous features that could support the culture of epithelial cell types to mimic the natural microenvironment of the small intestine. We demonstrated that our scaffold could support the co-culture of Caco-2 cells with a mucus-producing cell line, HT29-MTX, as well as small intestinal crypts from mice for extended periods. By recreating the surface topography with accurately sized intestinal villi, we enable cellular differentiation along the villous axis in a similar manner to native intestines. In addition, we show that the biochemical microenvironments of the intestine can be further simulated via a combination of apical and basolateral feeding of intestinal cell types cultured on the 3D models. PMID:24390638

  8. The effects of age on mucosal morphology and epithelial cell production in rat small intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, R M

    1977-01-01

    Six groups of male Wistar rats were used, with mean weights of 29, 63, 97, 161, 249 and 399 g. Pieces of small intestine from three sites were examined after staining in bulk with the Feulgen reaction. Crypt/villus ratio (the number of crypts per villus) rose with age at all three sites, Villus height and crypt depth were measured on microdissected specimens. Villi in the proximal intestine were always taller than those distally. Proximal villi increased in height in successively older rats, except in the oldest group. Villi at the two distal sites tended to be tall in the youngest group of rats, but suffered a temporary reduction in height in the next two age groups. Crypt depth increased markedly within the first three age groups, and more slowly thereafter. Colchicine-metaphase accumulation rate was estimated from counts on microdissected intact crypts. The rate was low in the youngest group (8 cells/crypt/hour) but about 30 cells/crypt/hour in all other groups. After the changes during the early phase of rapid growth, no marked changes were seen during later life. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:885792

  9. Targeted inhibition of IL-18 attenuates irinotecaninduced intestinal mucositis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Júnior, R C P; Freitas, H C; Wong, D V T; Wanderley, C W S; Nunes, L G; Leite, L L; Miranda, S P; Souza, M H L P; Brito, G A C; Magalhães, P J C; Teixeira, M M; Cunha, F Q; Ribeiro, R A

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Intestinal mucositis is a common side-effect of irinotecan-based cancer chemotherapy regimens. This mucositis is associated with cytokine activation and NO synthesis. Production of IL-18 is up-regulated in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease. Therefore, we have investigated the role of IL-18 in the pathogenesis of irinotecan-induced intestinal mucositis. Experimental Approach Wild type (WT), IL-18 or caspase-1 knockout mice were treated with either saline or irinotecan (60 mg·kg−1 per 4 days, i.p.) or the IL-18 binding protein (IL-18bp, 10 mg·kg−1) before irinotecan. On day 5, diarrhoea was monitored and proximal intestinal strips were obtained for histopathology, in vitro gut contractility, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and inducible NOS (iNOS) activity, and detection of IL-18 expression. Key Results Irinotecan induced severe diarrhoea accompanied by intestinal injury (villi shortening and increased crypt depth). Additionally, irinotecan treatment increased MPO and iNOS activity, iNOS immunostaining and IL-18 expression in WT mice compared with saline treatment. The IL-18 production was associated with macrophages. In vitro, intestinal smooth muscle strips were hyperresponsive to ACh after irinotecan treatment. Increases in MPO and iNOS activity, intestinal contractility and diarrhoea were prevented in caspase-1 knockout and IL-18 knockout mice, and in IL-18bp-treated WT mice. Furthermore, the Survival of irinotecan-treated mice was increased and iNOS immunoexpression and IL-18 production prevented in IL-18 knockout mice. Conclusions and Implications Targeting IL-18 function may be a promising therapeutic approach to decreasing the severity of intestinal mucositis during irinotecan treatment regimens. PMID:24428790

  10. Polyphosphate kinases modulate Campylobacter jejuni outer membrane constituents and alter its capacity to invade and survive in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pina-Mimbela, Ruby; Madrid, Jesús Arcos; Kumar, Anand; Torrelles, Jordi B; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-12-30

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Polyphosphate kinases 1 and 2 (PPK1 and PPK2) regulate several cellular processes, including the biosynthesis of the bacterial cell wall. Despite their importance, whether PPK1 and PPK2 modulate the composition of C. jejuni outer membrane constituents (OMCs) and consequently impact its interaction with host cells remains unknown. Our comparative analysis between C. jejuni wild type, Δppk1, and Δppk2 strains showed qualitative and quantitative differences in the total OMC composition among these strains. Importantly, these OMC variations observed on the C. jejuni polyphosphate kinase mutants are directly related to their capacity to invade, survive, and alter the immune response of intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Specifically, sub-fractionation of the C. jejuni OMC indicated that OMC proteins are uniquely associated with bacterial invasion, whereas C. jejuni OMC proteins, lipids, and lipoglycans are all associated with C. jejuni intracellular survival. This study provides new insights regarding the function of polyphosphate kinases and their role in C. jejuni infection.

  11. Polyphosphate kinases modulate Campylobacter jejuni outer membrane constituents and alter its capacity to invade and survive in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pina-Mimbela, Ruby; Madrid, Jesús Arcos; Kumar, Anand; Torrelles, Jordi B; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Polyphosphate kinases 1 and 2 (PPK1 and PPK2) regulate several cellular processes, including the biosynthesis of the bacterial cell wall. Despite their importance, whether PPK1 and PPK2 modulate the composition of C. jejuni outer membrane constituents (OMCs) and consequently impact its interaction with host cells remains unknown. Our comparative analysis between C. jejuni wild type, Δppk1, and Δppk2 strains showed qualitative and quantitative differences in the total OMC composition among these strains. Importantly, these OMC variations observed on the C. jejuni polyphosphate kinase mutants are directly related to their capacity to invade, survive, and alter the immune response of intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Specifically, sub-fractionation of the C. jejuni OMC indicated that OMC proteins are uniquely associated with bacterial invasion, whereas C. jejuni OMC proteins, lipids, and lipoglycans are all associated with C. jejuni intracellular survival. This study provides new insights regarding the function of polyphosphate kinases and their role in C. jejuni infection. PMID:26714783

  12. Exogenous IL-1Ra attenuates intestinal mucositis induced by oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil through suppression of p53-dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Gao, Jin; Qian, Lan; Gao, Jing; Zhu, Shunying; Wu, Mingyuan; Zhang, Yang; Guan, Wen; Ye, Hao; Yu, Yan; Han, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis (CIM) is a major dose-limiting side effect of many chemoagents, resulting in weight loss, diarrhea, and even death. The current treatments for CIM are palliative and have limited benefit. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist is a natural antagonist of interleukin-1. Our previous studies showed the protective effect of recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1Ra) on the intestine in mice after 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. In this study, we further evaluated rhIL-1Ra in the treatment of CIM induced by different chemoagents and their combination. Normal as well as tumor-bearing mice were administered oxaliplatin (L-OHP), 5-fluorouracil, or their combination to induce intestinal mucositis and mortality. rhIL-1Ra administered after the chemotherapy, but not after the onset of diarrhea, significantly improved mouse survival, attenuated body weight loss, and reduced the incidence, severity, and duration of diarrhea. Histological examination showed that rhIL-1Ra-treated mice had a relatively intact mucosa structure, more proliferating crypt cells, and higher acid mucin content than the vehicle-treated mice. rhIL-1Ra suppressed crypt apoptosis by reducing the levels of proapoptotic proteins in wild-type, but not in IL-1RI or p53 mice. In addition, rhIL-1Ra was as effective as octreotide acetate in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced diarrhea, but with the advantage of reducing the epithelial apoptosis, the major cause of CIM. Importantly, the tumor sensitivity to chemotherapy was not affected by rhIL-1Ra. Thus, our data strongly suggest that rhIL-1Ra may be useful for the treatment of intestinal mucositis and improving the quality of life for cancer patients on chemotherapy.

  13. Lentinan diminishes apoptotic bodies in the ileal crypts associated with S-1 administration.

    PubMed

    Suga, Yasuyo; Takehana, Kenji

    2017-09-01

    S-1 is an oral agent containing tegafur (a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil) that is used to treat various cancers, but adverse effects are frequent. Two pilot clinical studies have suggested that lentinan (LNT; β-1,3-glucan) may reduce the incidence of adverse effects caused by S-1 therapy. In this study, we established a murine model for assessment of gastrointestinal toxicity associated with S-1 and studied the effect of LNT. S-1 was administered orally to BALB/c mice at the effective dose (8.3mg/kg, as tegafur equivalent) once daily (5days per week) for 3weeks. Stool consistency and intestinal specimens were examined. We investigated the effect of combined intravenous administration of LNT at 0.1mg, which is an effective dose in murine tumor models. We also investigated the effect of a single administration of S-1. During long-term administration of S-1, some mice had loose stools and an increase in apoptotic bodies was observed in the ileal crypts. An increase in apoptotic bodies was also noted after a single administration of S-1 (15mg/kg). Prior or concomitant administration of LNT inhibited the increase in apoptotic bodies in both settings. Administration of LNT also increased the accumulation of CD11b(+)TIM-4(+) cells in the ileum, while depletion of these cells by liposomal clodronate diminished the inhibitory effect of LNT on S-1 toxicity. Combined administration of LNT with S-1 led to a decrease in apoptotic bodies in the ileal crypts, possibly because LNT promoted phagocytosis of damaged cells by CD11b(+)TIM-4(+) cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of biological rhythms of small intestinal cryptic epithelial mitosis of different periodicity by fourier analysis.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Yu A; Zharkova, N A; Antochin, A I; Zakharchenko, A V

    2009-05-01

    Rhythms of cell division with different periods in the mouse small intestinal cryptic epithelium were studied using Fourier analysis. It was found that the proliferative system of the crypt is characterized by an intricate spatial and temporal organization. The amplitude of low-frequency rhythms increases, while the amplitude of high-frequency rhythms decreased in the direction from the crypt bottom to the neck.

  15. Screening in a Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus collection to select a strain able to survive to the human intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Clotilde; Botella-Carretero, José I; García-Albiach, Raimundo; Pozuelo, María J; Rodríguez-Baños, Mercedes; Baquero, Fernando; Baltadjieva, María A; del Campo, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Se determinaron la diversidad genética y la resistencia de una colección de más de 100 cepas de Lactobacillus bulgaricus subespecie delbrueckii, aisladas de diferentes yogures caseros de las áreas rurales de Bulgaria. Métodos: La cepa K98 fue la más resistente a las sales biliares y al pH bajo. La supervivencia y los efectos sobre la producción de ácidos grasos de cadena corta se evaluó en 20 voluntarios sanos. Se observó una alta diversidad genética en la colección de L. bulgaricus mediante RAPD, mientras que la capacidad de tolerar concentraciones altas del ácido desoxicólico y de diferentes niveles de pH fue variable. Se seleccionó la cepa K98 y se usó para preparar un yogur casero que se administró a los 20 voluntarios (500 ml/día durante 15 días). Se recogieron muestras fecales basales y tras la ingesta del yogur. Resultados: Los experimentos DGGE, empleando cebadores universales y para bacterias ácido-lácticas (BAL) demostraron que no hubo cambios significativos en la composición cualitativa de la composición de la microflora intestinal. Se observó una banda correspondiente a L. bulgaricus en las 20 muestras. Sólo se recuperó una cepa viable de L. bulgaricus K98 en un único voluntario. Tras la ingesta de yogur, hallamos un aumento de BAL y de Clostridium perfringens y una disminución de Bacteroides- Prevotella-Porphyromonas. Además, se detectó un aumento en las heces de los ácidos acético, butírico y 2-hidroxibutírico. Conclusiones: La diversidad genética de L. delbrueckii subespecie bulgaricus es alta. Hemos aislado una cepa probiótica resistente a la bilis y a la acidez elevada, L. delbrueckii subesp. bulgaricus-K98. Se hallaron cambios cualitativos y cuantitativos en la microflora intestinal tras la ingesta de yogur casero que contenía esta cepa, con un aumento concomitante en las heces de AGCC. Nuestros hallazgos apoyan el interés por desarrollar estudios futuros con cantidades variables de L. delbrueckii

  16. Intestinal transplantation: a review.

    PubMed

    Desai, Chirag Sureshchandra; Khan, Khalid Mahmood; Girlanda, Raffaele; Fishbein, Thomas M

    2012-09-01

    Parenteral nutrition is a life-saving therapy for patients with intestinal failure. Intestinal transplantation is now recognized as a treatment for patients who develop complications of parenteral nutrition and in whom attempts at intestinal rehabilitation have failed. Patients with parenteral nutrition related liver disease will require a liver graft typically part of a multivisceral transplant. Isolated intestinal transplants are more commonly performed in adults while multivisceral transplants are most commonly performed in infants. Isolated intestinal transplants have the best short-term outcome, with over 80 % survival at 1 year. Patients requiring multivisceral transplants have a high rate of attrition with a 1 year survival less than 70 %. Prognostic factors for a poor outcome include patient hospitalization at the time of transplant and donor age greater than 40 years while systemic sepsis and acute rejection are the major determinant of early postoperative outcome. For patients surviving the first year the outcome of transplantation of the liver in addition to intestine affords some survival advantage though long-term outcome does not yet match other abdominal organs. Outcomes for intestinal retransplantation are poor as a result of immunology and patient debility. Overall intestinal transplantation continues to develop and is a clear indication with cost and quality of life advantages in patients with intestinal failure that do not remain stable on parenteral nutrition.

  17. Intestinal bacteria are necessary for doxorubicin-induced intestinal damage but not for doxorubicin-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Rachael J; Carr, Jacquelyn; Orgel, Kelly; King, Stephanie L; Lund, P Kay; Dekaney, Christopher M

    2016-09-02

    Doxorubicin (DOXO) induces significant, but transient, increases in apoptosis in the stem cell zone of the jejunum, followed by mucosal damage involving a decrease in crypt proliferation, crypt number, and villus height. The gastrointestinal tract is home to a vast population of commensal bacteria and numerous studies have demonstrated a symbiotic relationship between intestinal bacteria and intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) in maintaining homeostatic functions of the intestine. However, whether enteric bacteria play a role in DOXO-induced damage is not well understood. We hypothesized that enteric bacteria are necessary for induction of apoptosis and damage associated with DOXO treatment. Conventionally raised (CONV) and germ free (GF) mice were given a single injection of DOXO, and intestinal tissue was collected at 6, 72, and 120 h after treatment and from no treatment (0 h) controls. Histology and morphometric analyses quantified apoptosis, mitosis, crypt depth, villus height, and crypt density. Immunostaining for muc2 and lysozyme evaluated Paneth cells, goblet cells or dual stained intermediate cells. DOXO administration induced significant increases in apoptosis in jejunal epithelium regardless of the presence of enteric bacteria; however, the resulting injury, as demonstrated by statistically significant changes in crypt depth, crypt number, and proliferative cell number, was dependent upon the presence of enteric bacteria. Furthermore, we observed expansion of Paneth and goblet cells and presence of intermediate cells only in CONV and not GF mice. These findings provide evidence that manipulation and/or depletion of the enteric microbiota may have clinical significance in limiting chemotherapy-induced mucositis.

  18. Modulatory effect of curcumin on survival of irradiated human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells: role of Akt/mTOR and NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Binion, David G.; Wellner, Michael; Behmaram, Behnaz; Floer, Martin; Mitton, Elizabeth; Nie, Linghui; Zhang, Zhihong; Otterson, Mary F.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an essential modality in the treatment of colorectal cancers. Radiation exerts an antiangiogenic effect on tumors, inhibiting endothelial proliferation and survival in the tumor microvasculature. However, damage from low levels of irradiation can induce a paradoxical effect, stimulating survival in endothelial cells. We used human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (HIMEC) to define effects of radiation on these gut-specific endothelial cells. Low-level irradiation (1–5 Gy) activates NF-κB and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, which is involved in cell cycle reentry and cell survival in HIMEC. A downstream target of PI3K/Akt is mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which contributes to endothelial proliferation and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the signaling molecules involved in the radiosensitizing effects of curcumin on HIMEC subjected to low levels of irradiation. We have demonstrated that exposure of HIMEC to low levels of irradiation induced Akt and mTOR phosphorylation, which was attenuated by curcumin, rapamycin, LY294002, and mTOR small interference RNA (siRNA). Activation of NF-κB by low levels of irradiation was inhibited by curcumin, SN-50, and mTOR siRNA. Curcumin also induced apoptosis by induction of caspase-3 cleavage in irradiated HIMEC. In conclusion, curcumin significantly inhibited NF-κB and attenuated the effect of irradiation-induced prosurvival signaling through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and NF-κB pathways in these gut-specific endothelial cells. Curcumin may be a potential radiosensitizing agent for enhanced antiangiogenic effect in colorectal cancer radiation therapy. PMID:20299603

  19. Histomorphology of aberrant crypt foci in colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Norlida, A Ojep; Phang, Koon Seng

    2010-12-01

    Colorectal carcinogenesis is a complex multistep process that includes changes in histomorphological appearance of the colonic mucosa and changes at molecular level. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) was first described by Bird in 1987 on examination of methylene-blue-stained colonic mucosa of azoxymethane-treated mice under light microscopy. Since then ACF was considered as the earliest preneoplastic change that can be seen in the colonic mucosa. The aim of this study was to look at the histomorphology and distribution of ACF in colorectal carcinoma. 50 formalin-fixed archival colectomy specimens for colorectal carcinoma were examined under light microscopy after staining with 0.2% methylene blue. ACF was identified by larger and darker crypts with thickened epithelium, and often elevated from adjacent normal mucosa. ACF was found in 41 of 50 colectomy specimens examined. There were 328 ACF consisting of 36 (11.0%) ACF without hyperplasia or dysplasia, 263 (80.2%) ACF with hyperplasia and 29 (8.8%) ACF with dysplasia. Of these 29 ACF with dysplasia, 25 showed low grade dysplasia and four high grade dysplasia. The density of ACF was higher in the left colon, those older than 65 years of age and among males but these findings were statistically not significant. The crypt multiplicity of hyperplastic ACF (30.149, SD 28.395) was larger than dysplastic ACF (20.613, SD 40.128). The spectrum of histological changes observed probably represent the evolution of ACF in colorectal carcinogenesis.

  20. Bioimage analysis of Shigella infection reveals targeting of colonic crypts.

    PubMed

    Arena, Ellen T; Campbell-Valois, Francois-Xavier; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Nigro, Giulia; Sachse, Martin; Moya-Nilges, Maryse; Nothelfer, Katharina; Marteyn, Benoit; Shorte, Spencer L; Sansonetti, Philippe J

    2015-06-23

    Few studies within the pathogenic field have used advanced imaging and analytical tools to quantitatively measure pathogenicity in vivo. In this work, we present a novel approach for the investigation of host-pathogen processes based on medium-throughput 3D fluorescence imaging. The guinea pig model for Shigella flexneri invasion of the colonic mucosa was used to monitor the infectious process over time with GFP-expressing S. flexneri. A precise quantitative imaging protocol was devised to follow individual S. flexneri in a large tissue volume. An extensive dataset of confocal images was obtained and processed to extract specific quantitative information regarding the progression of S. flexneri infection in an unbiased and exhaustive manner. Specific parameters included the analysis of S. flexneri positions relative to the epithelial surface, S. flexneri density within the tissue, and volume of tissue destruction. In particular, at early time points, there was a clear association of S. flexneri with crypts, key morphological features of the colonic mucosa. Numerical simulations based on random bacterial entry confirmed the bias of experimentally measured S. flexneri for early crypt targeting. The application of a correlative light and electron microscopy technique adapted for thick tissue samples further confirmed the location of S. flexneri within colonocytes at the mouth of crypts. This quantitative imaging approach is a novel means to examine host-pathogen systems in a tailored and robust manner, inclusive of the infectious agent.

  1. Crypt cells are involved in kin recognition in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Biechl, Daniela; Tietje, Kristin; Gerlach, Gabriele; Wullimann, Mario F

    2016-04-18

    Zebrafish larvae imprint on visual and olfactory kin cues at day 5 and 6 postfertilization, respectively, resulting in kin recognition later in life. Exposure to non-kin cues prevents imprinting and kin recognition. Imprinting depends on MHC class II related signals and only larvae sharing MHC class II alleles can imprint on each other. Here, we analyzed which type of olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) detects kin odor. The single teleost olfactory epithelium harbors ciliated OSNs carrying OR and TAAR gene family receptors (mammals: main olfactory epithelium) and microvillous OSNs with V1R and V2R gene family receptors (mammals: vomeronasal organ). Additionally, teleosts exhibit crypt cells which possess microvilli and cilia. We used the activity marker pERK (phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase) after stimulating 9 day old zebrafish larvae with either non-kin conspecific or food odor. While food odor activated both ciliated and microvillous OSNs, only the latter were activated by conspecific odor, crypt cells showed no activation to both stimuli. Then, we tested imprinted and non-imprinted larvae (full siblings) for kin odor detection. We provide the first direct evidence that crypt cells, and likely a subpopulation of microvillous OSNs, but not ciliated OSNs, play a role in detecting a kin odor related signal.

  2. Crypt cells are involved in kin recognition in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Biechl, Daniela; Tietje, Kristin; Gerlach, Gabriele; Wullimann, Mario F.

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish larvae imprint on visual and olfactory kin cues at day 5 and 6 postfertilization, respectively, resulting in kin recognition later in life. Exposure to non-kin cues prevents imprinting and kin recognition. Imprinting depends on MHC class II related signals and only larvae sharing MHC class II alleles can imprint on each other. Here, we analyzed which type of olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) detects kin odor. The single teleost olfactory epithelium harbors ciliated OSNs carrying OR and TAAR gene family receptors (mammals: main olfactory epithelium) and microvillous OSNs with V1R and V2R gene family receptors (mammals: vomeronasal organ). Additionally, teleosts exhibit crypt cells which possess microvilli and cilia. We used the activity marker pERK (phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase) after stimulating 9 day old zebrafish larvae with either non-kin conspecific or food odor. While food odor activated both ciliated and microvillous OSNs, only the latter were activated by conspecific odor, crypt cells showed no activation to both stimuli. Then, we tested imprinted and non-imprinted larvae (full siblings) for kin odor detection. We provide the first direct evidence that crypt cells, and likely a subpopulation of microvillous OSNs, but not ciliated OSNs, play a role in detecting a kin odor related signal. PMID:27087508

  3. Actinomyces denticolens colonisation identified in equine tonsillar crypts

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, S.; Otaki, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Higuchi, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Torii, Y.; Yokoyama, E.; Azuma, R.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, submandibular abscesses associated with Actinomyces denticolens have been reported in horses. The actinomycotic clumps have been observed in the tonsillar crypts. The aim of this study was to demonstrate colonisation of A denticolens in equine tonsils. Twelve equine tonsils obtained from a slaughterhouse were divided into two parts for histopathological examination and for isolation of A denticolens. When actinomycotic clumps were found in these tonsillar crypts, immunohistochemistry using hyperimmune serum against A denticolens (DMS 20671) was performed on the serial sections. To determine whether Actinomyces-like bacteria isolated using immunoantigenic separation technique were A denticolens, the isolates were analysed for the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Actinomycotic clumps were found in the tonsillar crypts of 11 (91.7 per cent) horses. The clumps were of the saprophytic type accompanied with the feedstuffs, but a few clumps were surrounded by inflammatory cells. A denticolens antigens were immunodetected not only in the clumps of 11 (100 per cent) tonsils, but also in the tonsillar parenchyma. Six isolates obtained from four tonsils showed 99.7–99.9 per cent similarity to A denticolens in the 16S rRNA gene sequence. In horses, the colonisation sites of A denticolens are the tonsils, thus the authors suggest that the tonsils provide the intrinsic infection site for A denticolens. PMID:27651913

  4. Estrogen receptor α or β loss in the colon of Min/+ mice promotes crypt expansion and impairs TGFβ and HNF3β signaling.

    PubMed

    Hasson, Rian M; Briggs, Alexandra; Carothers, Adelaide M; Davids, Jennifer S; Wang, Jiping; Javid, Sara H; Cho, Nancy L; Bertagnolli, Monica M

    2014-01-01

    Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC)-regulated Wnt and transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signaling cooperate in the intestine to maintain normal enterocyte functions. Human clinical trials showed that estrogen [17β-estradiol (E2)], the ligand of nuclear receptors estrogen receptor α (ERα) and ERβ, inhibited colorectal cancer (CRC) in women. Consistent with this finding, we reported that E2, ERα and ERβ suppressed intestinal tumorigenesis in the C57BL/6J-Min/+ (Min/+) mouse, a CRC model. Here, we extended our results with further comparisons of colon and small intestine from intact female Apc (+/+) (WT), Min/+ and ER-deficient Min/+ mice. In the colon of ER-deficient Min/+ mice, ER loss reduced TGFβ signaling in crypt base cells as evidenced by minimal expression of the effectors Smad 2, 3 and 4 in these strains. We also found reduced expression of Indian hedgehog (Ihh), bone morphogenetic protein 4 and hepatocyte nuclear factor 3β or FoxA2, factors needed for paracrine signaling between enterocytes and mesenchyme. In proximal colon, ER loss produced a >10-fold increased incidence of crypt fission, a marker for wound healing and tumor promotion. These data, combined with our previous work detailing the specific roles of E2, ERα and ERβ in the colon, suggest that ER activity helps to maintain the intestinal stem cell (ISC) microenvironment by modulating epithelial-stromal crosstalk in ways that regulate cytokine, Wnt and Ihh availability in the extracellular matrix (ECM).

  5. Survival, growth and toxicity of Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 in experimental conditions mimicking some features of the human gastro-intestinal environment.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Mara; Vichi, Susanna; Stipa, Giuseppe; Funari, Enzo; Testai, Emanuela; Scardala, Simona; Manganelli, Maura

    2014-05-25

    Cyanotoxins (CTX) are widely produced by several cyanobacteria (CB), increasingly spreading in most water bodies and terrestrial habitats, and represent a risk for human health. CB are prokaryotes, and although mostly autotrophic, several examples of heterotrophy in symbiotic relationship with different organisms have been described. In addition to the known routes of exposure, it has been hypothesized that CB might 'colonize' human intestine with relevant implications for human health. Colonization is a complex process and requires specific features of the possible invaders. Still, a short-term persistence as living and toxin-producing organisms within the intestinal lumen of the host could represent an 'internal' source of exposure to CTX. In this work we ran microcosm experiments (4-18days), looking at Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806 resistance and cyanotoxin-producing capabilities in darkness, 37°C, pH 2, and subsequent recovery in a rich medium, in darkness, 37°C, in the presence of enteric bacteria, mimicking few important features of the gastrointestinal environment. We measured cyanobacterial populations and growth, microcystin (MC) production and the presence of mcyB gene. M. aeruginosa could grow in the dark at 37°C up to 17days, and survive at pH 2 at a rate between 30% and 70%, depending on the age and toxicity of the starting culture. Cell lysis resulted in a substantial amounts of MC released, not degraded at gastric pH. Following the acidic passage, still in the dark at 37°C, M. aeruginosa restarted to grow within 24h for the next 3-4days, independently on the presence of intestinal bacteria, maintaining the MC cell quota and mcyB gene. Our results show new features of CB: a significant resistance of M. aeruginosa in conditions far from its optimal one, that is an environment mimicking some of the important characteristics of human gastrointestinal tract, suggesting the possibility of an internal source of exposure to CTX, with implications for

  6. Morphological study of the regeneration mechanism of acetic acid-injured colon crypts in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Araki, K; Furuya, Y; Matsuoka, T; Mashima, K; Kobayashi, M; Matsuura, K

    2000-01-01

    The regeneration mechanism of injured rat colonic mucosa with 1% acetic acid was certified in this study. The injured colons were studied periodically on experimental days 1, 3, 5, 7, 15, and 20 with light and scanning electron microscopy. Specimens were examined in paraffin sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin; crypts were isolated with the HCl digestion method; and three-dimensional stromal collagen tissue was prepared with the NaOH cell maceration method. Damage to the mucosal and submucosal layers peaked between the 1st and 3rd days with edema, regeneration, necrosis, and inflammation. The edema and inflammation subsided, and mucosal atrophy and crypt reduction remained at around 1 week. At 2 weeks the mucosa became thick, and crypts showed many branches in their lower two-thirds; and by 3 weeks the mucosa had recovered to almost normal. The ratio of number of crypts at the base and surface was almost 1.5 on the 15th day and 1.0 on the 20th day, suggesting that each branch progresses upward to create an independent crypt. We believe that the fission mechanism plays an important role in crypt repair after acetic acid injury of the colonic mucosa. As the proliferative zone of the colonic crypt is localized at the crypt base, fission of the crypt starting at the base and progressing up to the surface is the most reasonable and efficient mechanism for repair by increasing the number of crypts.

  7. Epigenetic Regulation of the Intestinal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Ellen N.; Kaestner, Klaus H.

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is an ideal model system for the study of normal and pathological differentiation processes. The mammalian intestinal epithelium is a single cell layer comprised of proliferative crypts and differentiated villi. The crypts contain both proliferating and quiescent stem cell populations that self-renew and produce all the differentiated cell types, which are replaced every 3 to 5 days. The genetics of intestinal development, homeostasis, and disease are well defined, but less is known about the contribution of epigenetics in modulating these processes. Epigenetics refers to heritable phenotypic traits, including gene expression, which are independent of mutations in the DNA sequence. We have known for several decades that human colorectal cancers contain hypomethylated DNA, but the causes and consequences of this phenomenon are not fully understood. In contrast, tumor suppressor gene promoters are often hypermethylated in colorectal cancer, resulting in decreased expression of the associated gene. In this review, we describe the role that epigenetics plays in intestinal homeostasis and disease, with an emphasis on results from mouse models. We highlight the importance of producing and analyzing next-generation sequencing data detailing the epigenome from intestinal stem cell to differentiated intestinal villus cell. PMID:26220502

  8. Only fibres promoting a stable butyrate producing colonic ecosystem decrease the rate of aberrant crypt foci in rats

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, P; Pierre, F; Patry, Y; Champ, M; Berreur, M; Pradal, G; Bornet, F; Meflah, K; Menanteau, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Dietary fibres have been proposed as protective agents against colon cancer but results of both epidemiological and experimental studies are inconclusive.
AIMS—Hypothesising that protection against colon cancer may be restricted to butyrate producing fibres, we investigated the factors needed for long term stable butyrate production and its relation to susceptibility to colon cancer.
METHODS—A two part randomised blinded study in rats, mimicking a prospective study in humans, was performed using a low fibre control diet (CD) and three high fibre diets: starch free wheat bran (WB), type III resistant starch (RS), and short chain fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). Using a randomised block design, 96 inbred rats were fed for two, 16, 30, or 44 days to determine the period of adaptation to the diets, fermentation profiles, and effects on the colon, including mucosal proliferation on day 44. Subsequently, 36 rats fed the same diets for 44 days were injected with azoxymethane and checked for aberrant crypt foci 30 days later.
RESULTS—After fermentation had stabilised (44 days), only RS and FOS produced large amounts of butyrate, with a trophic effect in the large intestine. No difference in mucosal proliferation between the diets was noted at this time. In the subsequent experiment one month later, fewer aberrant crypt foci were present in rats fed high butyrate producing diets (RS, p=0.022; FOS, p=0.043).
CONCLUSION—A stable butyrate producing colonic ecosystem related to selected fibres appears to be less conducive to colon carcinogenesis.


Keywords: fibre; fermentation; butyrate; colon carcinogenesis; aberrant crypt foci; rat PMID:11115823

  9. Closed gastroschisis: total parenteral nutrition-free survival with aggressive attempts at bowel preservation and intestinal adaptation.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Sarah A; Fenton, Stephen J; Scaife, Eric R; Book, Linda S; Jackson, Daniel; Nichol, Peter F; Meyers, Rebecka L

    2008-06-01

    In infants with gastroschisis antenatal closure of the umbilical defect results in a proximal atresia with ischemia and/or volvulus of the extracorporeal midgut. It has been described as "closed gastroschisis" or "vanishing midgut." A 10-year review of 219 gastroschisis patients identified 10 infants with this rare complication. In these 10 infants, the extracorporeal midgut was invariably matted and fibrosed. In 3 cases, the midgut had completely "vanished." In the remaining 7 cases, the remnant midgut was surgically reduced into the abdominal cavity with care not to compromise the diminutive vascular pedicle. Abdominal exploration was performed several weeks later to reestablish bowel continuity; 4 required an ostomy and 2 underwent a serial transverse enteroplasty. Mean residual length of salvaged small bowel was 79 cm with retention of the distal half of the colon. Eight infants survived the initial hospitalization, with a mean length of stay of 121 days and mean hospital charge of $287,094. Six of the 7 long-term survivors have been completely weaned off total parenteral nutrition. A nihilistic attitude toward infants with closed gastroschisis may not be uniformly supported because in the majority of these infants' long-term independence from total parenteral nutrition was achieved.

  10. Chitinase 3-like 1 induces survival and proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells during chronic inflammation and colitis-associated cancer by regulating S100A9

    PubMed Central

    Low, Daren; Subramaniam, Renuka; Lin, Li; Aomatsu, Tomoki; Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Ng, Aylwin; DeGruttola, Arianna K.; Lee, Chun Geun; Elias, Jack A.; Andoh, Akira; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Mizoguchi, Emiko

    2015-01-01

    Many host-factors are inducibly expressed during the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), each having their unique properties, such as immune activation, bacterial clearance, and tissue repair/remodeling. Dysregulation/imbalance of these factors may have pathogenic effects that can contribute to colitis-associated cancer (CAC). Previous reports showed that IBD patients inducibly express colonic chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) that is further upregulated during CAC development. However, little is known about the direct pathogenic involvement of CHI3L1 in vivo. Here we demonstrate that CHI3L1 (aka Brp39) knockout (KO) mice treated with azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) developed severe colitis but lesser incidence of CAC as compared to that in wild-type (WT) mice. Highest CHI3L1 expression was found during the chronic phase of colitis, rather than the acute phase, and is essential to promote intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation in vivo. This CHI3L1-mediated cell proliferation/survival involves partial downregulation of the pro-apoptotic S100A9 protein that is highly expressed during the acute phase of colitis, by binding to the S100A9 receptor, RAGE (Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products). This interaction disrupts the S100A9-associated expression positive feedback loop during early immune activation, creating a CHI3L1hi S100A9low colonic environment, especially in the later phase of colitis, which promotes cell proliferation/survival of both normal IECs and tumor cells. PMID:26431492

  11. Paneth cell differentiation in the developing intestine of normal and transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Bry, L; Falk, P; Huttner, K; Ouellette, A; Midtvedt, T; Gordon, J I

    1994-10-25

    Paneth cells represent one of the four major epithelial lineages in the mouse small intestine. It is the only lineage that migrates downward from the stem-cell zone located in the lower portion of the crypt of Lieberkühn to the crypt base. Mature Paneth cells release growth factors, digestive enzymes, and antimicrobial peptides from their apical secretory granules. Some of these factors may affect the crypt stem cell, its transit-cell descendants, differentiating villus-associated epithelial lineages, and/or the gut microflora. We used single and multilabel immunocytochemical methods to study Paneth cell differentiation during and after completion of gut morphogenesis in normal, gnotobiotic, and transgenic mice as well as in intestinal isografts. This lineage emerges coincident with cytodifferentiation of the fetal small intestinal endoderm, formation of crypts from an intervillus epithelium, and establishment of a stem-cell hierarchy. The initial differentiation program involves sequential expression of cryptdins, a phospholipase A2 (enhancing factor), and lysozyme. A dramatic increase in Paneth cell number per crypt occurs during postnatal days 14-28, when crypts proliferate by fission. Accumulation of fucosylated and sialylated glycoconjugates during this period represents the final evolution of the lineage's differentiation program. Establishment of this lineage is not dependent upon instructive interactions from the microflora. Transgenic mice containing nucleotides -6500 to +34 of the Paneth cell-specific mouse cryptdin 2 gene linked to the human growth hormone gene beginning at its nucleotide +3 inappropriately express human growth hormone in a large population of proliferating and nonproliferating cells in the intervillus epithelium up to postnatal day 5. Transgene expression subsequently becomes restricted to the Paneth cell lineage in the developing crypt. Cryptdin 2 nucleotides -6500 to +34 should be a useful marker of crypt morphogenesis and a valuable

  12. Analysis of Wnt signalling dynamics during colon crypt development in 3D culture

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chin Wee; Hirokawa, Yumiko; Burgess, Antony W.

    2015-01-01

    Many systems biology studies lack context-relevant data and as a consequence the predictive capabilities can be limited in developing targeted cancer therapeutics. Production of colon crypt in vitro is ideal for studying colon systems biology. This report presents the first production of, to our knowledge, physiologically-shaped, functional colon crypts in vitro (i.e. single crypts with cells expressing Mucin 2 and Chromogranin A). Time-lapsed monitoring of crypt formation revealed an increased frequency of single-crypt formation in the absence of noggin. Using quantitative 3D immunofluorescence of β-catenin and E-cadherin, spatial-temporal dynamics of these proteins in normal colon crypt cells stimulated with Wnt3A or inhibited by cycloheximide has been measured. Colon adenoma cultures established from APCmin/+ mouse have developmental differences and β-catenin spatial localization compared to normal crypts. Quantitative data describing the effects of signalling pathways and proteins dynamics for both normal and adenomatous colon crypts is now within reach to inform a systems approach to colon crypt biology. PMID:26087250

  13. Radioprotective effects of oral 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin in mice: bone marrow and small intestine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Our previous research demonstrated that one subcutaneous injection of 17-Dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG) 24 hours (h) before irradiation (8.75 Gy) increased mouse survival by 75%. However, the protective mechanism of 17-DMAG is currently unknown. The present study aimed to investigate whether oral administration of 17-DMAG was also radioprotective and the potential role it may play in radioprotection. Results A single dose of orally pre-administered (24, 48, or 72 h) 17-DMAG (10 mg/kg) increased irradiated mouse survival, reduced body weight loss, improved water consumption, and decreased facial dropsy, whereas orally post-administered 17-DMAG failed. Additional oral doses of pre-treatment did not improve 30-day survival. The protective effect of multiple pre-administrations (2−3 times) of 17-DMAG at 10 mg/kg was equal to the outcome of a single pre-treatment. In 17-DMAG-pretreated mice, attenuation of bone marrow aplasia in femurs 30 days after irradiation with recovered expressions of cluster of differentiation 34, 44 (CD34, CD44), and survivin in bone marrow cells were observed. 17-DMAG also elevated serum granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), decreased serum fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand, and reduced white blood cell depletion. 17-DMAG ameliorated small intestinal histological damage, promoted recovery of villus heights and intestinal crypts including stem cells, where increased leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) was found 30 days after irradiation. Conclusions 17-DMAG is a potential radioprotectant for bone marrow and small intestine that results in survival improvement. PMID:24499553

  14. Evaluation of the chicory inulin efficacy on ameliorating the intestinal morphology and modulating the intestinal electrophysiological properties in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Awad, W A; Ghareeb, K; Böhm, J

    2011-02-01

    Chicory (Cichorium intybus) belongs to plants of the Compositae family accumulating energy in the form of inulin fructan. Chicory, a prebiotic, is a fermentable oligosaccharide and oligofructose that may affect the intestinal mucosal architecture and the electrophysiological parameters. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of adding chicory fructans in feed on the intestinal morphology and electrogenic transport of glucose in broilers. Four hundred, 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into two groups (200 birds per group) for 5 weeks. The dietary treatments were (i) control, (ii) basal diets supplemented with the dried, ground chicory pulp containing inulin (1 kg of chicory/ton of the starter and grower diets). In duodenum, dietary chicory increased the villus height and villus width and villus height to crypt depth ratio (p< 0.05), but the duodenal crypt depth remained unaffected (p > 0.05). However, in jejunum, the villus height, crypt depth and villus height to crypt depth ratio were decreased by dietary chicory compared with control birds (p < 0.05). In ileum, the villus height and villus crypt depth was decreased by dietary chicory supplementation compared with control (p< 0.05), but, the villus height to crypt depth ratio was increased (p< 0.05). Moreover, dietary chicory relatively affected the electrophysiological parameters of the intestine but did not reach significance. The amount of ΔIsc after d-glucose addition to the jejunal mucosa was numerically higher for chicory fed birds (19 μA/cm(2) ) than control birds (10 μA/cm(2) ). The percentage of increase in the Isc after d-glucose addition (ΔIsc %) was higher for chicory group upto (90%) of the control group. In colon, the actual Isc value and Isc after d-glucose addition was numerically higher for chicory fed birds than control birds (p> 0.05). Moreover, the conductance of jejunal and colonic tissues after d-glucose addition remained unaffected by the dietary

  15. Assessment of the mode of action underlying development of rodent small intestinal tumors following oral exposure to hexavalent chromium and relevance to humans

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, Deborah M.; Suh, Mina; Haws, Laurie C.; Kirman, Christopher R.; Harris, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in drinking water causes intestinal adenomas and carcinomas in mice, but not in rats. Cr(VI) causes damage to intestinal villi and crypt hyperplasia in mice after only one week of exposure. After two years of exposure, intestinal damage and crypt hyperplasia are evident in mice (but not rats), as are intestinal tumors. Although Cr(VI) has genotoxic properties, these findings suggest that intestinal tumors in mice arise as a result of chronic mucosal injury. To better understand the mode of action (MOA) of Cr(VI) in the intestine, a 90-day drinking water study was conducted to collect histological, biochemical, toxicogenomic and pharmacokinetic data in intestinal tissues. Using MOA analyses and human relevance frameworks proposed by national and international regulatory agencies, the weight of evidence supports a cytotoxic MOA with the following key events: (a) absorption of Cr(VI) from the intestinal lumen, (b) toxicity to intestinal villi, (c) crypt regenerative hyperplasia and (d) clonal expansion of mutations within the crypt stem cells, resulting in late onset tumorigenesis. This article summarizes the data supporting each key event in the MOA, as well as data that argue against a mutagenic MOA for Cr(VI)-induced intestinal tumors. PMID:23445218

  16. Fbxw7-associated drug resistance is reversed by induction of terminal differentiation in murine intestinal organoid culture

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzi, Federica; Babaei-Jadidi, Roya; Sheard, Jonathan; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Nateri, Abdolrahman S

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the top three cancer-related causes of death worldwide. FBXW7 is a known tumor-suppressor gene, commonly mutated in CRC and in a variety of other epithelial tumors. Low expression of FBXW7 is also associated with poor prognosis. Loss of FBXW7 sensitizes cancer cells to certain drugs, while making them more resistant to other types of chemotherapies. However, is not fully understood how epithelial cells within normal gut and primary tumors respond to potential cancer therapeutics. We have studied genetically engineered mice in which the fbxw7 gene is conditionally knocked-out in the intestine (fbxw7∆G). To further investigate the mechanism of Fbxw7-action, we grew intestinal crypts from floxed-fbxw7 (fbxw7fl/fl) and fbxw7ΔG mice, in a Matrigel-based organoid (mini-gut) culture. The fbxw7ΔG organoids exhibited rapid budding events in the crypt region. Furthermore, to test organoids for drug response, we exposed day 3 intestinal organoids from fbxw7fl/fl and fbxw7∆G mice, to various concentrations of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for 72 hours. 5-FU triggers phenotypic differences in organoids including changing shape, survival, resistance, and death. 5-FU however, rescues the drug-resistance phenotype of fbxw7ΔG through the induction of terminal differentiation. Our results support the hypothesis that a differentiating therapy successfully targets FBXW7-mutated CRC cells. PMID:27110583

  17. Intestine Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Intestine Transplant Although it is possible for a living donor to donate an intestine segment, most intestine transplants involve a whole organ ...

  18. Immunohistochemical detection of human intestinal spirochetosis.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Sho; Shimizu, Ken; Oda, Tomohiro; Tominaga, Susumu; Nakanishi, Kuniaki

    2016-12-01

    Human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS) is a colorectal infection by Brachyspira species of spiral bacteria. Immunohistochemical cross-reaction to an antibody for Treponema pallidum aids its histologic diagnosis. This study's aim was to analyze the immunohistochemical characteristics of HIS. In this analysis, on 223 specimens from 83 HIS cases, we focused on so-called fringe formation (a histologic hallmark of HIS), spiral organisms within mucus or within crypts, and strong immunopositive materials in the mucosa, together with their location and the types of lesions. Fringe formation was found in 81.6% of all specimens and spiral organisms within mucus or within crypts in 97.3% and 57.0%, respectively. Strong immunopositive materials were observed in the surface epithelial layer in 87.9%, in the subepithelial layer in 94.6%, and in deeper mucosa in 2.2% of all specimens. The positive rates in conventional adenomas (24.0%, n = 146) and hyperplastic nodules (100%, n = 17) were each different from that found in inflammation (70.8%, n = 24), and spiral organisms were seen more frequently in the right-side large intestine than in the left (within mucus, 100%, n = 104 versus 95.0%, n = 119; within crypts, 65.4%, n = 104 versus 49.6%, n = 119). Thus, immunohistochemistry was effective not only in supporting the diagnosis of HIS but also in highlighting spiral organisms within mucus or crypts that were invisible in routine histology. Possibly, these spiral organisms may spread throughout the entire large intestine, although there is a potential problem with antibody specificity.

  19. Mast cells in Canine parvovirus-2-associated enteritis with crypt abscess.

    PubMed

    Woldemeskel, M W; Saliki, J T; Blas-Machado, U; Whittington, L

    2013-11-01

    The role of mast cells (MCs) in allergic reactions and parasitic infections is well established. Their involvement in host immune response against bacterial and viral infections is reported. In this study, investigation is made to determine if MCs are associated with Canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2)-induced enteritis with crypt abscess (ECA). Mast cell count (MCC) was made on toluidine blue-stained intestinal sections from a total of 34 dogs. These included 16 dogs exhibiting ECA positive for CPV-2 and negative for Canine distemper virus and Canine coronavirus by immunohistochemistry and fluorescent antibody test, 12 dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and 6 non-ECA/non-IBD (control) dogs. The average total MCC per high-power field in ECA (40.8 ± 2.2) and IBD (24.7 ± 2.1) was significantly higher (P < .05) than in the control (3.4 ± 0.6). Although not significant (P > .05), MCC was also higher in ECA than in IBD. The present study for the first time has documented significantly increased MCs in CPV-2-associated ECA as was previously reported for IBD, showing that MCs may also play an important role in CPV-2-associated ECA. Further studies involving more CPV-infected dogs are recommended to substantiate the findings.

  20. Epigenetics in Intestinal Epithelial Cell Renewal

    PubMed Central

    Roostaee, Alireza; Benoit, Yannick D.; Boudjadi, Salah

    2016-01-01

    A controlled balance between cell proliferation and differentiation is essential to maintain normal intestinal tissue renewal and physiology. Such regulation is powered by several intracellular pathways that are translated into the establishment of specific transcription programs, which influence intestinal cell fate along the crypt‐villus axis. One important check‐point in this process occurs in the transit amplifying zone of the intestinal crypts where different signaling pathways and transcription factors cooperate to manage cellular proliferation and differentiation, before secretory or absorptive cell lineage terminal differentiation. However, the importance of epigenetic modifications such as histone methylation and acetylation in the regulation of these processes is still incompletely understood. There have been recent advances in identifying the impact of histone modifications and chromatin remodelers on the proliferation and differentiation of normal intestinal crypt cells. In this review we discuss recent discoveries on the role of the cellular epigenome in intestinal cell fate, development, and tissue renewal. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2361–2367, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27061836

  1. Murine P-glycoprotein Deficiency Alters Intestinal Injury Repair and Blunts Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Radioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Staley, Elizabeth M.; Yarbrough, Vanisha R.; Schoeb, Trenton R.; Daft, Joseph G.; Tanner, Scott M.; Steverson, Dennis; Lorenz, Robin G.

    2012-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has been reported to increase stem cell proliferation and regulate apoptosis. Absence of P-gp results in decreased repair of intestinal epithelial cells after chemical injury. To further explore the mechanisms involved in the effects of P-gp on intestinal injury and repair, we used the well-characterized radiation injury model. In this model, injury repair is mediated by production of prostaglandins (PGE2) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to confer radioprotection. B6.mdr1a−/− mice and wild-type controls were subjected to 12 Gy total body X-ray irradiation and surviving crypts in the proximal jejunum and distal colon were evaluated 3.5 days after irradiation. B6.mdr1a−/−mice exhibited normal baseline stem cell proliferation and COX dependent crypt regeneration after irradiation. However, radiation induced apoptosis was increased and LPS-induced radioprotection was blunted in the C57BL6.mdr1a−/−distal colon, compared to B6 wild-type controls. The LPS treatment induced gene expression of the radioprotective cytokine IL-1α, in B6 wild-type controls but not in B6.mdr1a−/− animals. Lipopolysaccharid-induced radioprotection was absent in IL-1R1−/− animals, indicating a role for IL-1α in radioprotection, and demonstrating that P-gp deficiency interferes with IL-1α gene expression in response to systemic exposure to LPS. PMID:22780103

  2. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein-1 Regulates Tumor Necrosis Factor-Mediated Destruction of Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Grabinger, Thomas; Bode, Konstantin J; Demgenski, Janine; Seitz, Carina; Delgado, M Eugenia; Kostadinova, Feodora; Reinhold, Cindy; Etemadi, Nima; Wilhelm, Sabine; Schweinlin, Matthias; Hänggi, Kay; Knop, Janin; Hauck, Christof; Walles, Heike; Silke, John; Wajant, Harald; Nachbur, Ueli; W Wei-Lynn, Wong; Brunner, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a cytokine that promotes inflammation and contributes to pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. Unlike other cells and tissues, intestinal epithelial cells undergo rapid cell death upon exposure to TNF, by unclear mechanisms. We investigated the roles of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) in the regulation of TNF-induced cell death in the intestinal epithelium of mice and intestinal organoids. RNA from cell lines and tissues was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, protein levels were analyzed by immunoblot assays. BIRC2 (also called cIAP1) was expressed upon induction from lentiviral vectors in young adult mouse colon (YAMC) cells. YAMC cells, the mouse colon carcinoma cell line MC38, the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7, or mouse and human organoids were incubated with second mitochondrial activator of caspases (Smac)-mimetic compound LCL161 or recombinant TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TNFSF12) along with TNF, and cell death was quantified. C57BL/6 mice with disruption of Xiap, Birc2 (encodes cIAP1), Birc3 (encodes cIAP2), Tnfrsf1a, or Tnfrsf1b (Tnfrsf1a and b encode TNF receptors) were injected with TNF or saline (control); liver and intestinal tissues were collected and analyzed for apoptosis induction by cleaved caspase 3 immunohistochemistry. We also measured levels of TNF and alanine aminotransferase in serum from mice. YAMC cells, and mouse and human intestinal organoids, died rapidly in response to TNF. YAMC and intestinal crypts expressed lower levels of XIAP, cIAP1, cIAP2, and cFLIP than liver tissue. Smac-mimetics reduced levels of cIAP1 and XIAP in MC38 and YAMC cells, and Smac-mimetics and TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis increased TNF-induced cell death in YAMC cells and organoids-most likely by sequestering and degrading cIAP1. Injection of TNF greatly increased levels of cell death in intestinal tissue of cIAP1-null mice, compared with wild-type C57BL/6 mice, cIAP2-null mice, or

  3. Tracking the cell hierarchy in the human intestine using biochemical signatures derived by mid-infrared microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Michael J; Hammiche, Azzedine; Fellous, Tariq G; Nicholson, James M; Cotte, Marine; Susini, Jean; Fullwood, Nigel J; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Alison, Malcolm R; Martin, Francis L

    2009-07-01

    Markers of gastrointestinal (GI) stem cells remain elusive. We employed synchrotron Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy to derive mid-infrared (IR) spectra along the length of human GI crypts. Tissue sections (10-μm thick) were floated onto BaF2 windows and image maps were acquired of small intestine and large bowel crypts in transmission mode with an aperture of ≤10 μm×10 μm. Counting upwards in a step-size (≤10 μm) fashion from the crypt base, IR spectra were extracted from the image maps and each spectrum corresponding to a particular location was identified. Spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis plus linear discriminant analysis. Compared to putative crypt base columnar/Paneth cells, those assigned as label-retaining cells were chemically more similar to putative large bowel stem cells and, the small intestine transit-amplifying cells were closest to large bowel transit-amplifying cells; interestingly, the base of small intestine crypts was the most chemically-distinct. This study suggests that in the complex cell lineage of human GI crypts, chemical similarities as revealed by FTIR microspectroscopy between regions putatively assigned as stem cell, transit-amplifying and terminally-differentiated facilitates identification of cell function.

  4. [Food contamination by pathogens of acute intestinal infections and survival of microorganisms in them under some variants of thermal processing and storage].

    PubMed

    Sergevnin, V I

    2013-01-01

    The contamination of the surface of vegetables and fruits with conditionally pathogenic enterobacteria, intestinal protozoa and enteric viruses has been revealed. The experiment showed an opportunity of penetration of enteric viruses inside of vegetables and fruits with intact (without visible damages) surface. S. enteritidis survive on the shells of the eggs 4 months in the refrigerator, in the albumen and yolk--more than 5 months and in the long storage (more than one month) of chicken eggs in the refrigerator S. enteritidis could penetrate into the egg through the intact shell and multiply in the yolk. It was shown in the experiment on the condition laying of chicken eggs of room temperature in cold water and their subsequent cooking S. enteritidis full destruction of pathogens comes on the 5 minute of heat processing, when the temperature inside the eggs reaches more than 80 degrees C. In mayonnaise at the temperature of the refrigerator S. enteritidis reproduce, but remain viable for 13 days. In the egg powder at the room temperature noted smooth death of S. enteritidis, term viability of microorganisms is 5 months. Addition 10% acetic acid to egg powder in the ratio 1:2 provides for the death of S. enteritidis for a minute. In experimental conditions was established that the processing of chicken on the grill in the process of cooking "Shaverma" provides exemption meat from Salmonella only in the thickness of a piece of up to 2 centimeters. The deeper layers of meat and meat juice which accumulates on the pallet grill, throughout the duration of thermal processing may remain contaminated Salmonella.

  5. Epithelial crypts: A complex and enigmatic olfactory organ in African and South American lungfish (Lepidosireniformes, Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Wittmer, Carolin; Nowack, Christine

    2017-06-01

    African lungfish (Protopterus) seem unique among osteognathostomes in possessing a potential vomeronasal organ homolog in form of accessory epithelial crypts within their nasal cavity. Many details regarding structural and functional properties of these crypts are still unexplored. In this study, we reinvestigate the issue and also present the first data on epithelial crypts in the South American lungfish Lepidosiren paradoxa. The nasal cavities of L. paradoxa and Protopterus annectens were studied using histology, scanning electron microscopy, and alcian blue and PAS staining. In both species, the epithelial crypts consist of a pseudostratified sensory epithelium and a monolayer of elongated glandular cells, in accordance with previously published data on Protopterus. In addition, we found a new second and anatomically distinct type of mucous cell within the duct leading into the crypt. These glandular duct cells are PAS positive, whereas the elongated glandular cells are stainable with alcian blue, suggesting distinct functions of their respective secretions. Furthermore, the two lungfish species show differently structured crypt sensory epithelia and external crypt morphology, with conspicuous bilaterally symmetrical stripes of ciliated cells in L. paradoxa. Taken together, our data suggest that stimulus transport into the crypts involves both ciliary movement and odorant binding mucus. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in the murine small intestine.

    PubMed

    Muise, Eleanor D; Gandotra, Neeru; Tackett, John J; Bamdad, Michaela C; Cowles, Robert A

    2017-01-15

    Serotonin stimulates enterocyte turnover in the small intestine and studies suggest this is mediated by neuronal signaling via a cholinergic pathway. Distribution of the five known muscarinic receptor subtypes (mAChRs) in the small intestine has not been fully studied, and their role in intestinal growth is unknown. We hypothesized that mAChRs have distinct anatomic distributions within the bowel, and that mAChRs present within intestinal crypts mediate the effects of acetylcholine on the small intestinal mucosa. Small intestine from male C57BL/6 mice ages 2, 4, 6, and 8weeks were harvested. RNA was isolated and cDNA synthesized for PCR-amplification of subtype specific mAChRs. Ileum was fixed with Nakane, embedded in epon, and immunofluorescence microscopy performed using polyclonal antibodies specific to each mAChR1-5. All five mAChR subtypes were present in the mouse duodenum, jejunum, and ileum at all ages by RT-PCR. Immunofluorescence microscopy suggested the presence of mAChR1-5 in association with mature enterocytes along the villus and within the myenteric plexus. Only mAChR2 clearly localized to the crypt stem cell compartment, specifically co-localizing with Paneth cells at crypt bases. Muscarinic receptors are widely distributed along the entire alimentary tract. mAChR2 appears to localize to the crypt stem cell compartment, suggesting it is a plausible regulator of stem cell activity. The location of mAChR2 to the crypt makes it a potential therapeutic target for treatment of intestinal disease such as short bowel syndrome. The exact cellular location and action of each mAChR requires further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Morphological and molecular evidence for functional organization along the rostrocaudal axis of the adult zebrafish intestine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengyuan; Du, Jianguo; Lam, Siew Hong; Mathavan, Sinnakarupan; Matsudaira, Paul; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2010-06-22

    The zebrafish intestine is a simple tapered tube that is folded into three sections. However, whether the intestine is functionally similar along its length remains unknown. Thus, a systematic structural and functional characterization of the zebrafish intestine is desirable for future studies of the digestive tract and the intestinal biology and development. To characterize the structure and function of the adult zebrafish intestine, we divided the intestine into seven roughly equal-length segments, S1-S7, and systematically examined the morphology of the mucosal lining, histology of the epithelium, and molecular signatures from transcriptome analysis. Prominent morphological features are circumferentially-oriented villar ridges in segments S1-S6 and the absence of crypts. Molecular characterization of the transcriptome from each segment shows that segments S1-S5 are very similar while S6 and S7 unique. Gene ontology analyses reveal that S1-S5 express genes whose functions involve metabolism of carbohydrates, transport of lipids and energy generation, while the last two segments display relatively limited function. Based on comparative Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, the first five segments share strong similarity with human and mouse small intestine while S6 shows similarity with human cecum and rectum, and S7 with human rectum. The intestinal tract does not display the anatomical, morphological, and molecular signatures of a stomach and thus we conclude that this organ is absent from the zebrafish digestive system. Our genome-wide gene expression data indicate that, despite the lack of crypts, the rostral, mid, and caudal portions of the zebrafish intestine have distinct functions analogous to the mammalian small and large intestine, respectively. Organization of ridge structures represents a unique feature of zebrafish intestine, though they produce similar cross sections to mammalian intestines. Evolutionary lack of stomach, crypts, Paneth cells and submucosal

  8. Morphological and molecular evidence for functional organization along the rostrocaudal axis of the adult zebrafish intestine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The zebrafish intestine is a simple tapered tube that is folded into three sections. However, whether the intestine is functionally similar along its length remains unknown. Thus, a systematic structural and functional characterization of the zebrafish intestine is desirable for future studies of the digestive tract and the intestinal biology and development. Results To characterize the structure and function of the adult zebrafish intestine, we divided the intestine into seven roughly equal-length segments, S1-S7, and systematically examined the morphology of the mucosal lining, histology of the epithelium, and molecular signatures from transcriptome analysis. Prominent morphological features are circumferentially-oriented villar ridges in segments S1-S6 and the absence of crypts. Molecular characterization of the transcriptome from each segment shows that segments S1-S5 are very similar while S6 and S7 unique. Gene ontology analyses reveal that S1-S5 express genes whose functions involve metabolism of carbohydrates, transport of lipids and energy generation, while the last two segments display relatively limited function. Based on comparative Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, the first five segments share strong similarity with human and mouse small intestine while S6 shows similarity with human cecum and rectum, and S7 with human rectum. The intestinal tract does not display the anatomical, morphological, and molecular signatures of a stomach and thus we conclude that this organ is absent from the zebrafish digestive system. Conclusions Our genome-wide gene expression data indicate that, despite the lack of crypts, the rostral, mid, and caudal portions of the zebrafish intestine have distinct functions analogous to the mammalian small and large intestine, respectively. Organization of ridge structures represents a unique feature of zebrafish intestine, though they produce similar cross sections to mammalian intestines. Evolutionary lack of stomach, crypts

  9. Endothelin system in intestinal villi: A possible role of endothelin-2/vasoactive intestinal contractor in the maintenance of intestinal architecture.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Mariana; Adur, Javier; Takizawa, Satoshi; Saida, Kaname; Casco, Víctor H

    2012-01-27

    The endothelin system consists of three ligands (ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3) and at least two receptors (ETA and ETB). In mice ET-2 counterpart is a peptide originally called "vasoactive intestinal contractor" (VIC) for this reason, this peptide is frequently named ET-2/VIC. In intestinal villi, fibroblasts-like cells express endothelin's receptors and response to ET-1 and ET-3 peptides, changing their cellular shape. Several functions have been attributed to these peptides in the "architecture" maintenance of intestinal villi acting over sub-epithelial fibroblasts. Despite this, ET-2/VIC has not been analyzed in depth. In this work we show the intestine gene expression and immunolocalization of ET-1, ET-2 and the ETA and ETB receptors from duodenum to rectus and in the villus-crypt axis in mice, allowing a complete analysis of their functions. While ET-1 is expressed uniformly, ET-2 had a particular distribution, being higher at the bottom of the villi of duodenum, ileum and jejunum and reverting this pattern in the crypts of colon and rectus, where the higher expression was at the top. We postulated that ET-2 would act in a cooperative manner with ET-1, giving to the villus the straight enough to withstand mechanical stress.

  10. [Aberrant crypt foci as biomarkers in chemoprevention for colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Katsuki, S; Oui, M; Takayama, T; Takahashi, Y; Shuichi, N; Niitsu, Y

    1998-06-01

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are small lesions identifiable in whole-mount preparations of normal-appearing human colonic mucosa with the aid of methyleneblue staining under stereoscopic microscope. Highly frequent mutations of K-ras genes were found, and increased proliferative activities were also observed. Therefore, K-ras gene mutation may have some role in formation of ACF. Using rat experimental model, formation of ACF was shown to be enhanced by cancer promoters (such as secondary bile acids), and to be suppressed by chemopreventive agents (deoxycholic acid and aspirin). Based on these findings, ACF are considered to be precursors of colon cancer. We demonstrated that ACF are the precursors of adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Moreover, we showed that ACF may be suitable biomarkers of chemopreventive agents for colon cancers.

  11. Intestinal stem cells and their roles during mucosal injury and repair.

    PubMed

    Neal, Matthew D; Richardson, Ward M; Sodhi, Chhinder P; Russo, Anthony; Hackam, David J

    2011-05-01

    The ability of the host to respond to intestinal injury requires the regeneration of native tissue through a highly orchestrated response from the intestinal stem cells, a population of cells located within the intestinal crypts that have the capability to repopulate the entire villous. The field of intestinal stem cell biology is thus of great interest to surgeons and non-surgeons alike, given its relevance to diseases of intestinal injury and inflammation such as inflammatory bowel disease, trauma, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The field of intestinal stem cell research has been advanced recently by the identification of the putative marker, Lgr5, which has allowed for the isolation and further characterization of the intestinal stem cell. Under the control of the WNT signaling pathway, Lgr5 marks the rapidly dividing cells of the intestinal crypt, and identifies a population of cells that is capable of regenerating the entire villous. We now review the identification of Lgr5 as an intestinal stem cell marker, identify controversies in the intestinal stem cell field, and highlight the response of the intestinal stem cell to injury within the intestinal mucosa that may occur clinically.

  12. Grapefruit juice and its constituents augment the effect of low pH on inhibition of survival and adherence to intestinal epithelial cells of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium PT193.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xianhua; Gyles, Carlton L; Gong, Joshua

    2012-09-03

    The present study examined the survival of Salmonella Typhimurium and its adherence to intestinal epithelial cells following inoculation into grapefruit juice and apple cider. Both liquids significantly inactivated S. Typhimurium (0.8-2.2 log reduction compared to the control); surviving Salmonella in grapefruit juice was 1.0-1.4 log lower than in apple cider at 24h incubation. Grapefruit juice contains the antimicrobial substances naringin (NAR) and naringenin (NGE); however, the effect of grapefruit juice on growth and adherence of S. Typhimurium appeared not to be related to NAR. NGE at 100-200 μg/mL reduced the adherence of Salmonella to epithelial cells by 57% and 73% compared to the control (TSB at pH 7.4) after 24 h treatment, but stimulated rather than inhibited growth of Salmonella. However, when NGE at 200 μg/mL was added to TSB at pH 3.5 Salmonella survival and adherence to intestinal epithelial cells were reduced by 2.5 log and 79%, respectively, compared to the control (TSB at pH 3.5). Addition of NGE to apple cider also caused a slight reduction in the survival of S. Typhimurium, but did not enhance the inhibitory effect on adherence due to apple cider. These data showed that low pH augmented the inhibitory effect of NGE on growth and adherence of Salmonella to intestinal epithelial cells, but the mechanism of the observed augmentative effect is not clear. Understanding the mechanism of the interaction between low pH and NGE and its inhibitory effect on growth and adherence of enteric pathogens may lead to the development of new antibacterial agents. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of fat feeding on pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant enzyme systems in rat intestine: possible role in the turnover of enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Turan, Aasma; Gill, Ravinder; Dudeja, Pradeep K; Mohan, Harsh; Mahmood, Akhtar

    2009-06-01

    Immature epithelial cells generated in the crypt base undergo differentiation while progressing to the villus tip, where the cells upon apoptosis are detached from the underlying muscular tissue. We previously reported that lipid peroxidation might be involved in the turnover of enterocytes across the crypt-villus axis in rat intestine (Dig Dis Sci 52:1840-1844, 2007). To examine whether long-term feeding of fat with different fatty-acid composition influences this process, in the present study we investigated the effect of feeding fish oil (n - 3) and corn oil (n - 6) polyunsaturated fatty acids on lipid per-oxidation and anti-oxidant systems in different epithelial cell fractions isolated in rat intestine. Feeding fish oil or corn oil markedly enhanced lipid per-oxidation levels of enterocytes throughout villus height compared with control, but there was no difference in the distribution profile of pro- and anti-oxidant enzyme systems and lipid per-oxidation across the crypt-villus axis under these conditions. Analysis of lipid peroxidation levels in different cell fractions revealed that the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance were 9- to 11-fold higher at the villus tip compared with at the crypt base. The activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase were 2- to 5-fold higher in villus tip compared to the crypt region. However, the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were 6- to 8-fold high at the crypt base compared with at villus tip cells. Immunocytolocalization of superoxide dismutase showed high staining in crypt base compared with that in villus, tip cells. These findings further suggest that generation of reactive oxygen species in enterocytes across the crypt-villus axis may be involved in turnover of enterocytes across the crypt-villus unit in rat intestine.

  14. Intestinal organoids as tissue surrogates for toxicological and pharmacological studies.

    PubMed

    Kuratnik, Anton; Giardina, Charles

    2013-06-15

    Recently developed cell culture protocols have allowed for the derivation of multi-cellular structures dubbed intestinal "organoids" from embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs), and adult intestinal stem cells (ISCs). These structures resemble in vivo intestinal crypts, both in structure and developmental processes, and can be grown quickly and in relatively large quantities. Although much research has focused on developing intestinal organoids for tissue repair, more immediate applications include high-throughput screening for agents that target intestinal epithelium. Here we describe current methods for deriving mouse and human intestinal organoids and discuss some applications aimed at developing novel therapies or preventive agents for diseases of the lower GI tract such as inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer.

  15. Oral Administration of Surface-Deacetylated Chitin Nanofibers and Chitosan Inhibit 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Intestinal Mucositis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Ryo; Azuma, Kazuo; Izawa, Hironori; Morimoto, Minoru; Ochi, Kosuke; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Osaki, Tomohiro; Ito, Norihiko; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Ifuku, Shinsuke

    2017-01-27

    This study investigated the prophylactic effects of orally administered surface-deacetylated chitin nanofibers (SDACNFs) and chitosan against 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced intestinal mucositis, which is a common side effect of 5-FU chemotherapy. SDACNFs and chitosan abolished histological abnormalities associated with intestinal mucositis and suppressed hypoproliferation and apoptosis of intestinal crypt cells. These results indicate that SDACNF and chitosan are useful agents for preventing mucositis induced by anti-cancer drugs.

  16. Oral Administration of Surface-Deacetylated Chitin Nanofibers and Chitosan Inhibit 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Intestinal Mucositis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Koizumi, Ryo; Azuma, Kazuo; Izawa, Hironori; Morimoto, Minoru; Ochi, Kosuke; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Osaki, Tomohiro; Ito, Norihiko; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Ifuku, Shinsuke

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the prophylactic effects of orally administered surface-deacetylated chitin nanofibers (SDACNFs) and chitosan against 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced intestinal mucositis, which is a common side effect of 5-FU chemotherapy. SDACNFs and chitosan abolished histological abnormalities associated with intestinal mucositis and suppressed hypoproliferation and apoptosis of intestinal crypt cells. These results indicate that SDACNF and chitosan are useful agents for preventing mucositis induced by anti-cancer drugs. PMID:28134832

  17. Dietary fucoidan of Acaudina molpadioides and its enzymatically degraded fragments could prevent intestinal mucositis induced by chemotherapy in mice.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Tao; Li, Xuemin; Chang, Yaoguang; Duan, Gaofei; Yu, Long; Zheng, Rong; Xue, Changhu; Tang, Qingjuan

    2015-02-01

    Mucositis is a common problem that results from cancer chemotherapy and is a cause of significant morbidity and occasional mortality. Its prevention and successful treatment can significantly enhance the quality of life of patients and improve their survival. Sea cucumber is a traditional aquatic food that has both nutritional and medicinal value. The polysaccharide fucoidan from the sea cucumber (SC-FUC) has various bioactivities. We examined the protective effect of different molecular weights (MWs 50 kDa-500 kDa) of fucoidan from the sea cucumber, Acaudina molpadioides, in a mouse model of cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced intestinal mucositis. Results showed that the oral administration of SC-FUC markedly reversed Cy-induced damage in the mice. The sea cucumber fucoidan notably increased the ratio of the length of the intestinal villus to the crypt depth and ameliorated the IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio that signifies Th1/Th2 immune balance. Moreover, all the fucoidans in this study enhanced the expression of IgA by accelerating the expression of IL-6 that is probably combined with IL-10. The differing effects of the varied molecular weights of fucoidan may be due to the difference in the efficiency of absorption. This is a novel study on the potential preventive effects of SC-FUC on intestinal mucositis that may be related to the efficiency of its absorption during digestion. Sea cucumber fucoidan (SC-FUC) may be used as a potential food supplement to prevent chemotherapeutic mucositis.

  18. Intestinal Obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    An intestinal obstruction occurs when food or stool cannot move through the intestines. The obstruction can be complete or partial. ... abdomen Inability to pass gas Constipation A complete intestinal obstruction is a medical emergency. It often requires surgery. ...

  19. Intestinal obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    Paralytic ileus; Intestinal volvulus; Bowel obstruction; Ileus; Pseudo-obstruction - intestinal; Colonic ileus ... objects that are swallowed and block the intestines) Gallstones (rare) Hernias Impacted stool Intussusception (telescoping of 1 ...

  20. Intestinal leiomyoma

    MedlinePlus

    Leiomyoma - intestine ... McLaughlin P, Maher MM. The duodenum and small intestine. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ... Roline CE, Reardon RF. Disorders of the small intestine. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  1. Intestinal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  2. Regulation of epithelial differentiation in rat intestine by intraluminal delivery of an adenoviral vector or silencing RNA coding for Schlafen 3.

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, Pavlo L; Yuan, Lisi; Sun, Kelian; Kunovska, Lyudmyla; Seregin, Sergey; Amalfitano, Andrea; Basson, Marc D

    2013-01-01

    Although we stimulate enterocytic proliferation to ameliorate short gut syndrome or mucosal atrophy, less effort has been directed at enterocytic differentiation. Schlafen 3 (Slfn3) is a poorly understood protein induced during IEC-6 enterocytic differentiation. We hypothesized that exogenous manipulation of Slfn3 would regulate enterocytic differentiation in vivo. Adenoviral vector coding for Slfn3 cDNA (Ad-GFP-Slfn3) or silencing RNA for Slfn3 (siSlfn3) was introduced intraluminally into rat intestine. We assessed Slfn3, villin, sucrase-isomaltase (SI), Dpp4, and Glut2 by qRT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. We also studied Slfn3 and these differentiation markers in atrophic defunctionalized jejunal mucosa and the crypt-villus axis of normal jejunum. Ad-GFP-Slfn3 but not Ad-GFP increased Slfn3, villin and Dpp4 expression in human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. Injecting Ad-GFP-Slfn3 into rat jejunum in vivo increased mucosal Slfn3 mRNA three days later vs. intraluminal Ad-GFP. This Slfn3 overexpression was associated with increases in all four differentiation markers. Injecting siSlfn3 into rat jejunum in vivo substantially reduced Slfn3 and all four intestinal mucosal differentiation markers three days later, as well as Dpp4 specific activity. Endogenous Slfn3 was reduced in atrophic mucosa from a blind-end Roux-en-Y anastomosis in parallel with differentiation marker expression together with AKT and p38 signaling. Slfn3 was more highly expressed in the villi than the crypts, paralleling Glut2, SI and Dpp4. Slfn3 is a key intracellular regulator of rat enterocytic differentiation. Understanding how Slfn3 works may identify targets to promote enterocytic differentiation and maintain mucosal function in vivo, facilitating enteral nutrition and improving survival in patients with mucosal atrophy or short gut syndrome.

  3. Regulation of Epithelial Differentiation in Rat Intestine by Intraluminal Delivery of an Adenoviral Vector or Silencing RNA Coding for Schlafen 3

    PubMed Central

    Kovalenko, Pavlo L.; Yuan, Lisi; Sun, Kelian; Kunovska, Lyudmyla; Seregin, Sergey; Amalfitano, Andrea; Basson, Marc D.

    2013-01-01

    Although we stimulate enterocytic proliferation to ameliorate short gut syndrome or mucosal atrophy, less effort has been directed at enterocytic differentiation. Schlafen 3 (Slfn3) is a poorly understood protein induced during IEC-6 enterocytic differentiation. We hypothesized that exogenous manipulation of Slfn3 would regulate enterocytic differentiation in vivo. Adenoviral vector coding for Slfn3 cDNA (Ad-GFP-Slfn3) or silencing RNA for Slfn3 (siSlfn3) was introduced intraluminally into rat intestine. We assessed Slfn3, villin, sucrase-isomaltase (SI), Dpp4, and Glut2 by qRT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. We also studied Slfn3 and these differentiation markers in atrophic defunctionalized jejunal mucosa and the crypt-villus axis of normal jejunum. Ad-GFP-Slfn3 but not Ad-GFP increased Slfn3, villin and Dpp4 expression in human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. Injecting Ad-GFP-Slfn3 into rat jejunum in vivo increased mucosal Slfn3 mRNA three days later vs. intraluminal Ad-GFP. This Slfn3 overexpression was associated with increases in all four differentiation markers. Injecting siSlfn3 into rat jejunum in vivo substantially reduced Slfn3 and all four intestinal mucosal differentiation markers three days later, as well as Dpp4 specific activity. Endogenous Slfn3 was reduced in atrophic mucosa from a blind-end Roux-en-Y anastomosis in parallel with differentiation marker expression together with AKT and p38 signaling. Slfn3 was more highly expressed in the villi than the crypts, paralleling Glut2, SI and Dpp4. Slfn3 is a key intracellular regulator of rat enterocytic differentiation. Understanding how Slfn3 works may identify targets to promote enterocytic differentiation and maintain mucosal function in vivo, facilitating enteral nutrition and improving survival in patients with mucosal atrophy or short gut syndrome. PMID:24244554

  4. Intestinal Epithelium-Specific MyD88 Signaling Impacts Host Susceptibility to Infectious Colitis by Promoting Protective Goblet Cell and Antimicrobial Responses

    PubMed Central

    Bhinder, Ganive; Stahl, Martin; Sham, Ho Pan; Crowley, Shauna M.; Morampudi, Vijay; Dalwadi, Udit; Ma, Caixia; Jacobson, Kevan

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), including secretory goblet cells, form essential physiochemical barriers that separate luminal bacteria from underlying immune cells in the intestinal mucosa. IECs are common targets for enteric bacterial pathogens, with hosts responding to these microbes through innate toll-like receptors that predominantly signal through the MyD88 adaptor protein. In fact, MyD88 signaling confers protection against several enteric bacterial pathogens, including Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Citrobacter rodentium. Since IECs are considered innately hyporesponsive, it is unclear whether MyD88 signaling within IECs contributes to this protection. We infected mice lacking MyD88 solely in their IECs (IEC-Myd88−/−) with S. Typhimurium. Compared to wild-type (WT) mice, infected IEC-Myd88−/− mice suffered accelerated tissue damage, exaggerated barrier disruption, and impaired goblet cell responses (Muc2 and RELMβ). Immunostaining revealed S. Typhimurium penetrated the IECs of IEC-Myd88−/− mice, unlike in WT mice, where they were sequestered to the lumen. When isolated crypts were assayed for their antimicrobial actions, crypts from IEC-Myd88−/− mice were severely impaired in their antimicrobial activity against S. Typhimurium. We also examined whether MyD88 signaling in IECs impacted host defense against C. rodentium, with IEC-Myd88−/− mice again suffering exaggerated tissue damage, impaired goblet cell responses, and reduced antimicrobial activity against C. rodentium. These results demonstrate that MyD88 signaling within IECs plays an important protective role at early stages of infection, influencing host susceptibility to infection by controlling the ability of the pathogen to reach and survive at the intestinal mucosal surface. PMID:24958710

  5. Bt-maize (MON810) and non-GM soybean meal in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) juveniles--impact on survival, growth performance, development, digestive function, and transcriptional expression of intestinal immune and stress responses.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jinni; Bakke, Anne Marie; Valen, Elin C; Lein, Ingrid; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2014-01-01

    Responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) juveniles (fry) fed diets containing genetically modified maize (Bt-maize, MON810) expressing Cry1Ab protein from first-feeding were investigated during a 99-day feeding trial. Four experimental diets were made; each diet contained ∼20% maize, either Bt-maize or its near-isogenic maternal line (non-GM maize). One pair was fishmeal-based while the other pair included standard (extracted) soybean meal (SBM; 16.7% inclusion level), with the intention of investigating responses to the maize varieties in healthy fish as well as in immunologically challenged fish with SBM-induced distal intestinal inflammation, respectively. Three replicate tanks of fry (0.17±0.01 g; initial mean weight ± SEM) were fed one of the four diets and samples were taken on days 15, 36, 48 and 99. Survival, growth performance, whole body composition, digestive function, morphology of intestine, liver and skeleton, and mRNA expression of some immune and stress response parameters in the distal intestine were evaluated. After 99 days of feeding, survival was enhanced and the intended SBM-induced inflammatory response in the distal intestine of the two groups of SBM-fed fish was absent, indicating that the juvenile salmon were tolerant to SBM. Mortality, growth performance and body composition were similar in fish fed the two maize varieties. The Bt-maize fed fish, however, displayed minor but significantly decreased digestive enzyme activities of leucine aminopeptidase and maltase, as well as decreased concentration of gut bile salts, but significantly increased amylase activity at some sampling points. Histomorphological, radiographic and mRNA expression evaluations did not reveal any biologically relevant effects of Bt-maize in the gastrointestinal tract, liver or skeleton. The results suggest that the Cry1Ab protein or other compositional differences in GM Bt-maize may cause minor alterations in intestinal responses in juvenile salmon, but

  6. Bt-maize (MON810) and Non-GM Soybean Meal in Diets for Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) Juveniles – Impact on Survival, Growth Performance, Development, Digestive Function, and Transcriptional Expression of Intestinal Immune and Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jinni; Bakke, Anne Marie; Valen, Elin C.; Lein, Ingrid; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2014-01-01

    Responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) juveniles (fry) fed diets containing genetically modified maize (Bt-maize, MON810) expressing Cry1Ab protein from first-feeding were investigated during a 99-day feeding trial. Four experimental diets were made; each diet contained ∼20% maize, either Bt-maize or its near-isogenic maternal line (non-GM maize). One pair was fishmeal-based while the other pair included standard (extracted) soybean meal (SBM; 16.7% inclusion level), with the intention of investigating responses to the maize varieties in healthy fish as well as in immunologically challenged fish with SBM-induced distal intestinal inflammation, respectively. Three replicate tanks of fry (0.17±0.01 g; initial mean weight ± SEM) were fed one of the four diets and samples were taken on days 15, 36, 48 and 99. Survival, growth performance, whole body composition, digestive function, morphology of intestine, liver and skeleton, and mRNA expression of some immune and stress response parameters in the distal intestine were evaluated. After 99 days of feeding, survival was enhanced and the intended SBM-induced inflammatory response in the distal intestine of the two groups of SBM-fed fish was absent, indicating that the juvenile salmon were tolerant to SBM. Mortality, growth performance and body composition were similar in fish fed the two maize varieties. The Bt-maize fed fish, however, displayed minor but significantly decreased digestive enzyme activities of leucine aminopeptidase and maltase, as well as decreased concentration of gut bile salts, but significantly increased amylase activity at some sampling points. Histomorphological, radiographic and mRNA expression evaluations did not reveal any biologically relevant effects of Bt-maize in the gastrointestinal tract, liver or skeleton. The results suggest that the Cry1Ab protein or other compositional differences in GM Bt-maize may cause minor alterations in intestinal responses in juvenile salmon, but

  7. Radiation redux: reserve intestinal stem cells miss the call to duty.

    PubMed

    Shivdasani, Ramesh A

    2014-02-06

    Distinct stem cell populations in intestinal crypts mediate tissue homeostasis and responses to epithelial damage such as radiation. Now in Cell Stem Cell, Metcalfe et al. (2014) demonstrate that homeostatic, proliferative Lrg5(+) cells are necessary to regenerate the epithelium after radiation, whereas quiescent Lgr5(-) reserve stem cells are surprisingly radiosensitive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Deletion of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 From Mouse Intestine Causes Loss of Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Koppens, Martijn A J; Bounova, Gergana; Gargiulo, Gaetano; Tanger, Ellen; Janssen, Hans; Cornelissen-Steijger, Paulien; Blom, Marleen; Song, Ji-Ying; Wessels, Lodewyk F A; van Lohuizen, Maarten

    2016-10-01

    The polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) regulates differentiation by contributing to repression of gene expression and thereby stabilizing the fate of stem cells and their progeny. PRC2 helps to maintain adult stem cell populations, but little is known about its functions in intestinal stem cells. We studied phenotypes of mice with intestine-specific deletion of the PRC2 proteins embryonic ectoderm development (EED) (a subunit required for PRC2 function) and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) (a histone methyltransferase). We performed studies of AhCre;EedLoxP/LoxP (EED knockout) mice and AhCre;Ezh2LoxP/LoxP (EZH2 knockout) mice, which have intestine-specific disruption in EED and EZH2, respectively. Small intestinal crypts were isolated and subsequently cultured to grow organoids. Intestines and organoids were analyzed by immunohistochemical, in situ hybridization, RNA sequence, and chromatin immunoprecipitation methods. Intestines of EED knockout mice had massive crypt degeneration and lower numbers of proliferating cells compared with wild-type control mice. Cdkn2a became derepressed and we detected increased levels of P21. We did not observe any differences between EZH2 knockout and control mice. Intestinal crypts from EED knockout mice had signs of aberrant differentiation of uncommitted crypt cells-these differentiated toward the secretory cell lineage. Furthermore, crypts from EED-knockout mice had impaired Wnt signaling and concomitant loss of intestinal stem cells, this phenotype was not reversed upon ectopic stimulation of Wnt and Notch signaling in organoids. Analysis of gene expression patterns from intestinal tissues of EED knockout mice showed dysregulation of several genes involved in Wnt signaling. Wnt signaling was regulated directly by PRC2. In intestinal tissues of mice, PRC2 maintains small intestinal stem cells by promoting proliferation and preventing differentiation in the intestinal stem cell compartment. PRC2 controls gene expression in

  9. Immunohistochemical characterization of cellular proliferation in small intestinal hyperplasia of rats with hepatic Strobilocercus fasciolaris infection.

    PubMed

    Lagapa, J T; Oku, Y; Kamiya, M

    2008-07-01

    Rats infected with the larvae of Taenia taeniaeformis harbour the intermediate stage of the parasite Strobilocercus fasciolaris within the liver. Affected animals also develop gastric and intestinal hyperplasia. The pathogenesis of the gastric hyperplasia has been extensively investigated, but few studies have addressed the nature of the intestinal changes. This study characterizes the proliferation of small intestinal epithelial cells by immunohistochemical labelling for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake. At 6 weeks post-infection (wpi) there was an increase in villous length but crypt depth was normal. At 9 wpi there was evidence of epithelial hyperplasia, increased villous length and crypt depth, and expansion of zones of epithelial proliferation. Immunohistochemical labelling indicated that an increase in the number of proliferating cells produced a greater number of progeny cells. Intestinal hyperplasia during experimental infection with T. taeniaeformis larvae is likely to be related to the associated gastropathy, although the mechanisms underlying both changes remain undefined.

  10. Intestine-Specific Deletion of Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein Increases Mortality in Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhe; Xie, Yan; Dominguez, Jessica A.; Breed, Elise R.; Yoseph, Benyam P.; Burd, Eileen M.; Farris, Alton B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mice with conditional, intestine-specific deletion of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (Mttp-IKO) exhibit a complete block in chylomicron assembly together with lipid malabsorption. Young (8–10 week) Mttp-IKO mice have improved survival when subjected to a murine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced sepsis. However, 80% of deaths in sepsis occur in patients over age 65. The purpose of this study was to determine whether age impacts outcome in Mttp-IKO mice subjected to sepsis. Methods Aged (20–24 months) Mttp-IKO mice and WT mice underwent intratracheal injection with P. aeruginosa. Mice were either sacrificed 24 hours post-operatively for mechanistic studies or followed seven days for survival. Results In contrast to young septic Mttp-IKO mice, aged septic Mttp-IKO mice had a significantly higher mortality than aged septic WT mice (80% vs. 39%, p = 0.005). Aged septic Mttp-IKO mice exhibited increased gut epithelial apoptosis, increased jejunal Bax/Bcl-2 and Bax/Bcl-XL ratios yet simultaneously demonstrated increased crypt proliferation and villus length. Aged septic Mttp-IKO mice also manifested increased pulmonary myeloperoxidase levels, suggesting increased neutrophil infiltration, as well as decreased systemic TNFα compared to aged septic WT mice. Conclusions Blocking intestinal chylomicron secretion alters mortality following sepsis in an age-dependent manner. Increases in gut apoptosis and pulmonary neutrophil infiltration, and decreased systemic TNFα represent potential mechanisms for why intestine-specific Mttp deletion is beneficial in young septic mice but harmful in aged mice as each of these parameters are altered differently in young and aged septic WT and Mttp-IKO mice. PMID:25010671

  11. Body and intestinal growth of broiler chicks on a commercial starter diet. 1. Intestinal weight and mucosal development.

    PubMed

    Iji, P A; Saki, A; Tivey, D R

    2001-09-01

    1. A study was conducted on the pattern of development of the intestinal mucosa of the Steggles x Ross (F1) strain of broiler chickens reared on a commercial starter diet. The mechanisms underlying the structural changes were also assessed. 2. In relation to body weight, small intestinal weight peaked at 7 d of age and declined subsequently. There was also a reduction in the relative weights of the gizzard and yolk sac with age. The length of the small intestine and its regions increased with age. 3. Crypt depth increased with age in the duodenum and jejunum while villus height increased significantly with age in all three regions of the small intestine. There were also significant changes in apparent villus surface area in the three regions, while interactions between age and intestinal region were significant in the case of crypt depth and villus height. 4. There were significant differences between the age groups in the mucosal protein content of jejunal and ileal homogenates, both tending to peak at 7 d of age. The DNA content of the intestinal mucosa declined with age in the three regions of the small intestine. While there was an increase in RNA content in the duodenum and ileum, there was a reduction in the jejunum. 5. Protein: DNA ratio increased between hatch and 21 d of age in all intestinal regions. Protein: RNA ratio decreased with age in the duodenum and ileum but increased in the jejunum. There were significant increases in RNA: DNA ratio in the duodenum and ileum but no changes were observed in the jejunum. The interactions between age and intestinal region were significant for all biochemical indices assessed. 6. At all ages, enterocyte proliferation at the jejunum was completed and quantifiable within 1 h of administration of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrDU). Subsequent assessment revealed an increase in crypt column count and number of BrDU-labelled cells. The rate of cell migration increased with age while there was a decline in the distance

  12. PUMA Suppresses Intestinal Tumorigenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Wei; Carson-Walter, Eleanor B.; Kuan, Shih Fan; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Defective apoptosis contributes to tumorigenesis, although the critical molecular targets remain to be fully characterized. PUMA, a BH3-only protein essential for p53-dependent apoptosis, has been shown to suppress lymphomagenesis. In this study, we investigated the role of PUMA in intestinal tumorigenesis using two animal models. In the azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium salt model, PUMA deficiency increased the multiplicity and size of colon tumors but reduced the frequency of β-catenin hotspot mutations. The absence of PUMA led to a significantly elevated incidence of precursor lesions induced by AOM. AOM was found to induce p53-dependent PUMA expression and PUMA-dependent apoptosis in the colonic crypts and stem cell compartment. Furthermore, PUMA deficiency significantly enhanced the formation of spontaneous macroadenomas and microadenomas in the distal small intestine and colon of APCMin/+ mice. These results show an essential role of PUMA-mediated apoptosis in suppressing intestinal tumorigenesis in mice. PMID:19491259

  13. A mathematical model of the colon crypt capturing compositional dynamic interactions between cell types

    PubMed Central

    Smallbone, Kieran; Corfe, Bernard M

    2014-01-01

    Models of the development and early progression of colorectal cancer are based upon understanding the cycle of stem cell turnover, proliferation, differentiation and death. Existing crypt compartmental models feature a linear pathway of cell types, with little regulatory mechanism. Previous work has shown that there are perturbations in the enteroendocrine cell population of macroscopically normal crypts, a compartment not included in existing models. We show that existing models do not adequately recapitulate the dynamics of cell fate pathways in the crypt. We report the progressive development, iterative testing and fitting of a developed compartmental model with additional cell types, and which includes feedback mechanisms and cross-regulatory mechanisms between cell types. The fitting of the model to existing data sets suggests a need to invoke cross-talk between cell types as a feature of colon crypt cycle models. PMID:24354351

  14. Alanyl-glutamine attenuates 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, C.V.; Lazzarotto, C.R.; Aquino, C.C.; Figueiredo, I.L.; Costa, T.B.; de Oliveira Alves, L.A.; Ribeiro, R.A.; Bertolini, L.R.; Lima, A.A.M.; Brito, G.A.C.; Oriá, R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE=gene, apoE=protein) is a known factor regulating the inflammatory response that may have regenerative effects during tissue recovery from injury. We investigated whether apoE deficiency reduces the healing effect of alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln) treatment, a recognized gut-trophic nutrient, during tissue recovery after 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. APOE-knockout (APOE-/-) and wild-type (APOE+/+) C57BL6J male and female mice (N=86) were given either Ala-Gln (100 mM) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) by gavage 3 days before and 5 days after a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) challenge (450 mg/kg, via intraperitoneal injection). Mouse body weight was monitored daily. The 5-FU cytotoxic effect was evaluated by leukometry. Intestinal villus height, villus/crypt ratio, and villin expression were monitored to assess recovery of the intestinal absorptive surface area. Crypt length, mitotic, apoptotic, and necrotic crypt indexes, and quantitative real-time PCR for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) intestinal mRNA transcripts were used to evaluate intestinal epithelial cell turnover. 5-FU challenge caused significant weight loss and leukopenia (P<0.001) in both mouse strains, which was not improved by Ala-Gln. Villus blunting, crypt hyperplasia, and reduced villus/crypt ratio (P<0.05) were found in all 5-FU-challenged mice but not in PBS controls. Ala-Gln improved villus/crypt ratio, crypt length and mitotic index in all challenged mice, compared with PBS controls. Ala-Gln improved villus height only in APOE-/- mice. Crypt cell apoptosis and necrotic scores were increased in all mice challenged by 5-FU, compared with untreated controls. Those scores were significantly lower in Ala-Gln-treated APOE+/+ mice than in controls. Bcl-2 and IGF-1 mRNA transcripts were reduced only in the APOE-/--challenged mice. Altogether our findings suggest APOE-independent Ala-Gln regenerative effects after 5-FU challenge. PMID:25945744

  15. Overlapping DNA Methylation Dynamics in Mouse Intestinal Cell Differentiation and Early Stages of Malignant Progression

    PubMed Central

    Forn, Marta; Díez-Villanueva, Anna; Merlos-Suárez, Anna; Muñoz, Mar; Lois, Sergi; Carriò, Elvira; Jordà, Mireia; Bigas, Anna; Batlle, Eduard; Peinado, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models of intestinal crypt cell differentiation and tumorigenesis have been used to characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying both processes. DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mark and plays an important role in cell identity and differentiation programs and cancer. To get insights into the dynamics of cell differentiation and malignant transformation we have compared the DNA methylation profiles along the mouse small intestine crypt and early stages of tumorigenesis. Genome-scale analysis of DNA methylation together with microarray gene expression have been applied to compare intestinal crypt stem cells (EphB2high), differentiated cells (EphB2negative), ApcMin/+ adenomas and the corresponding non-tumor adjacent tissue, together with small and large intestine samples and the colon cancer cell line CT26. Compared with late stages, small intestine crypt differentiation and early stages of tumorigenesis display few and relatively small changes in DNA methylation. Hypermethylated loci are largely shared by the two processes and affect the proximities of promoter and enhancer regions, with enrichment in genes associated with the intestinal stem cell signature and the PRC2 complex. The hypermethylation is progressive, with minute levels in differentiated cells, as compared with intestinal stem cells, and reaching full methylation in advanced stages. Hypomethylation shows different signatures in differentiation and cancer and is already present in the non-tumor tissue adjacent to the adenomas in ApcMin/+ mice, but at lower levels than advanced cancers. This study provides a reference framework to decipher the mechanisms driving mouse intestinal tumorigenesis and also the human counterpart. PMID:25933092

  16. Histopathological changes in small and large intestines during hymenolepidosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta I; Kolasa, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    The tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta is a chronic parasite living in the small intestine of rats, mice and humans. The aim of this study was to determine histopathological changes in the rat intestine during experimental hymenolepidosis. Our results showed that in rats infected with H. diminuta slight changes occurred in the length of the villus and crypts in different parts of the digestive tract. The changes were most distinct in the duodenum and jejunum on the 16 days post H. diminuta infection.

  17. Aberrant Crypt Foci and Semiparametric Modeling of Correlated Binary Data

    PubMed Central

    Apanasovich, Tatiyana V.; Ruppert, David; Lupton, Joanne R.; Popovic, Natasa; Turner, Nancy D.; Chapkin, Robert S.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Motivated by the spatial modeling of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in colon carcinogenesis, we consider binary data with probabilities modeled as the sum of a nonparametric mean plus a latent Gaussian spatial process that accounts for short-range dependencies. The mean is modeled in a general way using regression splines. The mean function can be viewed as a fixed effect and is estimated with a penalty for regularization. With the latent process viewed as another random effect, the model becomes a generalized linear mixed model. In our motivating data set and other applications, the sample size is too large to easily accommodate maximum likelihood or restricted maximum likelihood estimation (REML), so pairwise likelihood, a special case of composite likelihood, is used instead. We develop an asymptotic theory for models that are sufficiently general to be used in a wide variety of applications, including, but not limited to, the problem that motivated this work. The splines have penalty parameters that must converge to zero asymptotically: we derive theory for this along with a data-driven method for selecting the penalty parameter, a method that is shown in simulations to improve greatly upon standard devices, such as likelihood crossvalidation. Finally, we apply the methods to the data from our experiment ACF. We discover an unexpected location for peak formation of ACF. PMID:17725810

  18. Aberrant crypt foci and semiparametric modeling of correlated binary data.

    PubMed

    Apanasovich, Tatiyana V; Ruppert, David; Lupton, Joanne R; Popovic, Natasa; Turner, Nancy D; Chapkin, Robert S; Carroll, Raymond J

    2008-06-01

    Motivated by the spatial modeling of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in colon carcinogenesis, we consider binary data with probabilities modeled as the sum of a nonparametric mean plus a latent Gaussian spatial process that accounts for short-range dependencies. The mean is modeled in a general way using regression splines. The mean function can be viewed as a fixed effect and is estimated with a penalty for regularization. With the latent process viewed as another random effect, the model becomes a generalized linear mixed model. In our motivating data set and other applications, the sample size is too large to easily accommodate maximum likelihood or restricted maximum likelihood estimation (REML), so pairwise likelihood, a special case of composite likelihood, is used instead. We develop an asymptotic theory for models that are sufficiently general to be used in a wide variety of applications, including, but not limited to, the problem that motivated this work. The splines have penalty parameters that must converge to zero asymptotically: we derive theory for this along with a data-driven method for selecting the penalty parameter, a method that is shown in simulations to improve greatly upon standard devices, such as likelihood crossvalidation. Finally, we apply the methods to the data from our experiment ACF. We discover an unexpected location for peak formation of ACF.

  19. Aberrant crypt foci in human colons: distribution and histomorphologic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shpitz, B; Bomstein, Y; Mekori, Y; Cohen, R; Kaufman, Z; Neufeld, D; Galkin, M; Bernheim, J

    1998-05-01

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are one of the earliest putative preneoplastic, and in some cases, neoplastic lesions in human colons. These microscopic lesions, identified on methylene blue-stained mucosa with a low-power-magnification microscope, are thought to be closely related to the earliest steps in multistage colonic tumorigenesis. We investigated the distribution pattern and histomorphological features of ACF in 74 patients with sporadic colorectal cancer. The distribution pattern shows a slightly higher prevalence with older age. The prevalence of the ACF in sigmoid colon was significantly higher in patients with colorectal cancer as compared with patients with benign colonic diseases. Also, significantly more ACF were detected in distal parts of the large bowel (descending, sigmoid colon, and rectum) than in proximal parts. Of 42 microdissected lesions, 12 were dysplastic and 30 were hyperplastic foci. The average size of dysplastic lesions was significantly larger than hyperplastic foci. More apoptotic bodies were found in dysplastic lesions. These lesions also showed an upward expansion of proliferative compartment and higher proliferation indices expressed as proliferating cell nuclear antigen-labeling index. Lymphoid follicles were frequently observed in the base of both hyperplastic and dysplastic foci (40% and 66.6%, respectively). The coincidence of lymphoid follicles was 2.5 to 8 times higher than expected. These features may be related to further progression of selected ACF during colorectal tumorigenesis.

  20. Experiment K-6-17. Structural changes and cell turnover in the rats small intestine induced by spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. W.; Sawyer, H. R.; Smirnov, K. V.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to test the hypothesis that the generalized, whole body decrease in synthetic activity associated with microgravity conditions of space flight as evidenced by negative nitrogen balance and muscle atrophy (Nicogossian and Parker, 1982; Oganov, 1981), as well as inhibited lymphocyte proliferation (Bechler and Cogoli, 1986), would be evident in cells characterized by a rapid rate of turnover. As a model, researchers chose to study the turnover of mucosal cells lining the jejunum of the small intestine, since these cells are among the most rapidly proliferating in the body. Under normal conditions, epithelial cells that line the small intestine are continually produced in the crypts of Lieberkuhn. These cells migrate out of the crypts onto intestinal villi, are progressively pushed up the villus as new crypt cells are formed, and ultimately reach the tip of villi where they are then descquamated. In rats, the entire process, from initial proliferation in crypts to desquamation, takes approximately 2 days (Cairnie et al., 1965; Lipkin, 1973). In this study, researchers determined the mitotic index for mucosal cells lining the proximal, middle, and distal regions of the jejunum in rats from three treatment groups (synchronous control, vivarium control and flight), and measured the depth of the crypts of Lieberkuhn and the length of villi present in each of the three jejunal regions sampled.

  1. Tales from the crypt: a parasitoid manipulates the behaviour of its parasite host.

    PubMed

    Weinersmith, Kelly L; Liu, Sean M; Forbes, Andrew A; Egan, Scott P

    2017-01-25

    There are many examples of apparent manipulation of host phenotype by parasites, yet few examples of hypermanipulation-where a phenotype-manipulating parasite is itself manipulated by a parasite. Moreover, few studies confirm manipulation is occurring by quantifying whether the host's changed phenotype increases parasite fitness. Here we describe a novel case of hypermanipulation, in which the crypt gall wasp Bassettia pallida (a phenotypic manipulator of its tree host) is manipulated by the parasitoid crypt-keeper wasp Euderus set, and show that the host's changed behaviour increases parasitoid fitness. Bassettia pallida parasitizes sand live oaks and induces the formation of a 'crypt' within developing stems. When parasitized by E. set, B. pallida adults excavate an emergence hole in the crypt wall, plug the hole with their head and die. We show experimentally that this phenomenon benefits E. set, as E. set that need to excavate an emergence hole themselves are about three times more likely to die trapped in the crypt. In addition, we discuss museum and field data to explore the distribution of the crypt-keeping phenomena.

  2. Intestinal stem cell injury and protection during cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Radiation and chemotherapy remain the most effective and widely used cancer treatments. These treatments cause DNA damage and selectively target rapidly proliferating cells such as cancer cells, as well as inevitably cause damage to normal tissues, particularly those undergoing rapid self renewal. The side effects associated with radiation and chemotherapy are most pronounced in the hematopoietic (HP) system and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. These tissues are fast renewing and have a well-defined stem cell compartment that plays an essential role in homeostasis, and in treatment-induced acute injury that is dose limiting. Using recently defined intestinal stem cell markers and mouse models, a great deal of insight has been gained in the biology of intestinal stem cells (ISCs), which will undoubtedly help further mechanistic understanding of their injury. This review will cover historic discoveries and recent advances in the identification and characterization of intestinal stem cells, their responses to genotoxic stress, and a new crypt and intestinal stem cell culture system. The discussion will include key pathways regulating intestinal crypt and stem cell injury and regeneration caused by cancer treatments, and strategies for their protection. The focus will be on the acute phase of cell killing in mouse radiation models, where our understanding of the mechanisms in relation to intestinal stem cells is most advanced and interventions appear most effective. PMID:24683536

  3. Nutrient-induced intestinal adaption and its effect in obesity.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Megan J

    2014-09-01

    Obese and lean individuals respond differently to nutrients with changes in digestion, absorption and hormone release. This may be a result of differences in intestinal epithelial morphology and function driven by the hyperphagia or the type of diet associated with obesity. It is well known that the maintenance and growth of the intestine is driven by the amount of luminal nutrients, with high nutrient content resulting in increases in cell number, villi length and crypt depth. In addition, the type of nutrient appears to contribute to alterations in the morphology and function of the epithelial cells. This intestinal adaptation may be what is driving the differences in nutrient processing in lean versus obese individuals. This review describes how nutrients may be able to induce changes in intestinal epithelial cell proliferation, differentiation and function and the link between intestinal adaptation and obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutrient-induced intestinal adaption and its effect in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Dailey, Megan J.

    2014-01-01

    Obese and lean individuals respond differently to nutrients with changes in digestion, absorption and hormone release. This may be a result of differences in intestinal epithelial morphology and function driven by the hyperphagia or the type of diet associated with obesity. It is well known that the maintenance and growth of the intestine is driven by the amount of luminal nutrients, with high nutrient content resulting in increases in cell number, villi length and crypt depth. In addition, the type of nutrient appears to contribute to alterations in the morphology and function of the epithelial cells. This intestinal adaptation may be what is driving the differences in nutrient processing in lean versus obese individuals. This review describes how nutrients may be able to induce changes in intestinal epithelial cell proliferation, differentiation and function and the link between intestinal adaptation and obesity. PMID:24704111

  5. Histochemical features of the Muscovy duck small intestine during development.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bao An; Pirone, Andrea; Lenzi, Carla; Xiaoming, Nie; Baglini, Alessandro; Romboli, Isabella

    2011-06-01

    We demonstrated for the first time the distribution and morphology of argyrophil and of goblet cells in the mucosa of the small intestine of the Muscovy duck during development using the Grimelius silver staining and alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff (AB/PAS) staining technique. The argyrophil cells distribution was variable over the length of the small intestine from embryonic day 24 (24E) to post-hatching day 13 (13d). In the villi most argyrophil cells belonged to the open-type, while in the crypts they belonged to the closed-type. In the duodenum the density of argyrophil cells was highest at hatching, while in the jejunum and in the ileum the highest density value was at hatching and 13d. AB/PAS-positive goblet cells appeared on the villi and crypts of the duodenum and jejunum at 30E, and in the ileum at hatching. The density of AB/PAS-positive cells was the highest in the three segments at hatching. The AB-positive cells, compared with the PAS-positive cells, predominated in villi and crypts of the three segments, moreover the rate of AB-positive cells to PAS-positive cells significantly decreased from 30E to 9d. An increase in argyrophil and goblet cells number during the later incubation and at hatching, could indicate the small intestine in that period is being prepared to face a new diet.

  6. Intestinal Stem Cell Markers in the Intestinal Metaplasia of Stomach and Barrett's Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Jang, Bo Gun; Lee, Byung Lan; Kim, Woo Ho

    2015-01-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) is a highly prevalent preneoplastic lesion; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating its development remain unclear. We have previously shown that a population of cells expressing the intestinal stem cell (ISC) marker LGR5 increases remarkably in IM. In this study, we further investigated the molecular characteristics of these LGR5+ cells in IM by examining the expression profile of several ISC markers. Notably, we found that ISC markers-including OLFM4 and EPHB2-are positively associated with the CDX2 expression in non-tumorous gastric tissues. This finding was confirmed in stomach lesions with or without metaplasia, which demonstrated that OLFM4 and EPHB2 expression gradually increased with metaplastic progression. Moreover, RNA in situ hybridization revealed that LGR5+ cells coexpress several ISC markers and remained confined to the base of metaplastic glands, reminiscent to that of normal intestinal crypts, whereas those in normal antral glands expressed none of these markers. Furthermore, a large number of ISC marker-expressing cells were diffusely distributed in gastric adenomas, suggesting that these markers may facilitate gastric tumorigenesis. In addition, Barrett's esophagus (BE)-which is histologically similar to intestinal metaplasia-exhibited a similar distribution of ISC markers, indicating the presence of a stem cell population with intestinal differentiation potential. In conclusion, we identified that LGR5+ cells in gastric IM and BE coexpress ISC markers, and exhibit the same expression profile as those found in normal intestinal crypts. Taken together, these results implicate an intestinal-like stem cell population in the pathogenesis of IM, and provide an important basis for understanding the development and maintenance of this disease.

  7. Effect of age on epithelial cell migration in small intestine of chickens.

    PubMed

    Moon, H W; Skartvedt, S M

    1975-02-01

    Villous length, crypt depth, epithelial cell migration rate, and replacement time were studied by autoradiography of histologic sections of small intestine from normal chickens exposed to tritiated thymidine (3-H-TdR). The results indicated that villi and crypts elongate, and epithelial cell migration accelerates between 1 day and 6 months of age. Epithelial replacement time seemed to increase with age of the chickens. Replacement was nearly complete in the 1-day-old group of chickens 5 days after thymidine exposure. In contrast, at this same time, replacement was only approximately 75 and 50% complete in the 3-week-old and 6-month-old groups of chickens, respectively.

  8. BCL-2 Modifying Factor (BMF) Is a Central Regulator of Anoikis in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann, Martin; Leucht, Katharina; Ploner, Christian; Kiessling, Stephan; Villunger, Andreas; Becker, Helen; Hofmann, Claudia; Falk, Werner; Krebs, Michaela; Kellermeier, Silvia; Fried, Michael; Schölmerich, Jürgen; Obermeier, Florian; Rogler, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    BCL-2 modifying factor (BMF) is a sentinel considered to register damage at the cytoskeleton and to convey a death signal to B-cell lymphoma 2. B-cell lymphoma 2 is neutralized by BMF and thereby facilitates cytochrome C release from mitochondria. We investigated the role of BMF for intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) homeostasis. Acute colitis was induced in Bmf-deficient mice (Bmf−/−) with dextran sulfate sodium. Colonic crypt length in Bmf−/− mice was significantly increased as compared with WT mice. Dextran sulfate sodium induced less signs of colitis in Bmf−/− mice, as weight loss was reduced compared with the WT. Primary human IEC exhibited increased BMF in the extrusion zone. Quantitative PCR showed a significant up-regulation of BMF expression after initiation of anoikis in primary human IEC. BMF was found on mitochondria during anoikis, as demonstrated by Western blot analysis. RNAi mediated knockdown of BMF reduced the number of apoptotic cells and led to reduced caspase 3 activity. A significant increase in phospho-AKT was determined after RNAi treatment. BMF knockdown supports survival of IEC. BMF is induced in human IEC by the loss of cell attachment and is likely to play an important role in the regulation of IEC survival. PMID:21673109

  9. Evidence for the involvement of NOD2 in regulating colonic epithelial cell growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, Sheena-M; Wakenshaw, Louise; Cardone, John; Howdle, Peter-D; Murray, Peter-J; Carding, Simon-R

    2008-10-14

    To investigate the function of NOD2 in colonic epithelial cells (CEC). A combination of in vivo and in vitro analyses of epithelial cell turnover in the presence and absence of a functional NOD2 protein and, in response to enteric Salmonella typhimurium infection, were used. shRNA interference was also used to investigate the consequences of knocking down NOD2 gene expression on the growth and survival of colorectal carcinoma cell lines. In the colonic mucosa the highest levels of NOD2 expression were in proliferating crypt epithelial cells. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP), that is recognized by NOD2, promoted CEC growth in vitro. By contrast, the growth of NOD2-deficient CECs was impaired. In vivo CEC proliferation was also reduced and apoptosis increased in Nod2(-/-) mice, which were also evident following enteric Salmonella infection. Furthermore, neutralization of NOD2 mRNA expression in human colonic carcinoma cells by shRNA interference resulted in decreased survival due to increased levels of apoptosis. These findings are consistent with the involvement of NOD2 protein in promoting CEC growth and survival. Defects in proliferation by CECs in cases of CD may contribute to the underlying pathology of disrupted intestinal homeostasis and excessive inflammation.

  10. Evidence for the involvement of NOD2 in regulating colonic epithelial cell growth and survival

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshank, Sheena M; Wakenshaw, Louise; Cardone, John; Howdle, Peter D; Murray, Peter J; Carding, Simon R

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the function of NOD2 in colonic epithelial cells (CEC). METHODS: A combination of in vivo and in vitro analyses of epithelial cell turnover in the presence and absence of a functional NOD2 protein and, in response to enteric Salmonella typhimurium infection, were used. shRNA interference was also used to investigate the consequences of knocking down NOD2 gene expression on the growth and survival of colorectal carcinoma cell lines. RESULTS: In the colonic mucosa the highest levels of NOD2 expression were in proliferating crypt epithelial cells. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP), that is recognized by NOD2, promoted CEC growth in vitro. By contrast, the growth of NOD2-deficient CECs was impaired. In vivo CEC proliferation was also reduced and apoptosis increased in Nod2-/- mice, which were also evident following enteric Salmonella infection. Furthermore, neutralization of NOD2 mRNA expression in human colonic carcinoma cells by shRNA interference resulted in decreased survival due to increased levels of apoptosis. CONCLUSION: These findings are consistent with the involvement of NOD2 protein in promoting CEC growth and survival. Defects in proliferation by CECs in cases of CD may contribute to the underlying pathology of disrupted intestinal homeostasis and excessive inflammation. PMID:18855982

  11. Evaluation of an intestinal Lactobacillus reuteri strain expressing rumen fungal xylanase as a probiotic for broiler chickens fed on a wheat-based diet.

    PubMed

    Liu, J R; Lai, S F; Yu, B

    2007-08-01

    1. This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using a transformed Lactobacillus reuteri Pg4 strain harbouring a rumen fungal xylanase gene as a probiotic supplement in a wheat-based poultry diet. 2. A total of 400 broiler chicks was allocated to two treatment groups with or without supplementation with 10(6) colony forming units (cfu)/g of transformed L. reuteri Pg4 in a wheat-based regimen to investigate the performance, intestinal microflora populations, digesta viscosity and excreta ammonia concentrations in these broiler chickens. 3. Supplementation of the wheat-based diet with transformed L. reuteri Pg4 decreased intestinal viscosity, caecal coliform population, and increased body weight gain and ileal villus height and crypt depth from 0 to 21 d of age. It also decreased excreta ammonia concentrations, and increased the caecal total volatile fatty acid (VFA) and lactic acid concentrations from 0 to 21 d and 22 to 37 d of age. 4. Further, it was demonstrated that 40% of the Lactobacillus cells randomly isolated from the digesta of the ileum and caecum of the supplemented group possessed xylanase secretion capability. 5. It appears reasonable to assume, therefore, that the derived benefit is a result of the organism surviving, and the associated performance of some function in the intestinal tract which benefits gut health.

  12. Small intestinal ischemia and infarction

    MedlinePlus

    Intestinal necrosis; Ischemic bowel - small intestine; Dead bowel - small intestine; Dead gut - small intestine; Infarcted bowel - small intestine; Atherosclerosis - small intestine; Hardening of the arteries - small intestine

  13. HIV enteropathy: crypt stem and transit cell hyperproliferation induces villous atrophy in HIV/Microsporidia-infected jejunal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Batman, Philip A; Kotler, Donald P; Kapembwa, Moses S; Booth, Dawn; Potten, Christopher S; Orenstein, Jan M; Scally, Andrew J; Griffin, George E

    2007-02-19

    The study aim was to analyse the kinetics of stem and transit cells in the crypts of jejunal mucosa infected with HIV and Microsporidia. The size of villi, depth of crypts and proliferative activity of transit and stem cells in jejunal mucosa were measured using morphometric techniques. The surface area/volume ratio (S/V) of jejunal biopsies was estimated under light microscopy using a Weibel graticule. Crypt length was measured by counting enterocytes along the crypt side from the base to the villus junction, and the mean crypt length was calculated. The S/V and crypt lengths of the jejunal mucosa of 21 HIV and Microsporidia-infected test cases were compared with 14 control cases. The labelling index in relation to the crypt cell position of 10 of the test cases was analysed compared with 13 control cases. Differences were found in the S/V and crypt length, and there was a negative correlation between S/V and crypt length in test and control cases combined. Cell labelling indices fell into low and high proliferation groups. There were significant differences in labelling indices between low proliferation test cases and controls, between high proliferation test cases and controls, and between high and low proliferation test cases. Villous atrophy induced by HIV and Microsporidia is attributed to crypt cell hyperplasia and the encroachment of crypt cells onto villi. These infections induce crypt hypertrophy by stimulating cell mitosis predominantly in transit cells but also in stem cells. Increased stem cell proliferation occurs only in high proliferation cases.

  14. Suppressive effects of dietary high fluorine on the intestinal development in broilers.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qin; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Liu, Juan; Deng, Yubing

    2013-12-01

    Fluoride (F) is a well-recognized hazardous substance. Ingested F initially acts locally on the intestines. The small intestine plays a critical role in the digestion, absorption, and defense. In this study, therefore, we investigated the effects of fluorine on the intestinal development by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and histochemistry. A total of 280 one-day-old avian broilers were randomly divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet (fluorine, 22.6 mg/kg) or the same basal diet supplemented with 400, 800, and 1,200 mg/kg fluorine (high fluorine groups I, II, and III) in the form of sodium fluoride for 42 days. The results showed that the intestinal gross, histological, and ultrastructural changes were observed in the high fluorine groups II and III. Meanwhile, the intestinal length, weight, viscera index, villus height, crypt depth, villus height to crypt depth ratio, diameter, muscle layer thickness, and goblet cell numbers were significantly lower (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05), and the intestinal diameter to villus height ratio was markedly higher (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05) in the high fluorine groups II and III than those in control group. In conclusion, dietary fluorine in the range of 800-1,200 mg/kg obviously altered the aforementioned parameters of the intestines, implying that the intestinal development was suppressed and the intestinal functions, such as digestion, absorption, defense, or osmoregulation were impaired in broilers.

  15. Current understanding concerning intestinal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Shuang; Chang, Peng-Yu

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, the intestinal epithelium is a tissue that contains two distinct pools of stem cells: active intestinal stem cells and reserve intestinal stem cells. The former are located in the crypt basement membrane and are responsible for maintaining epithelial homeostasis under intact conditions, whereas the latter exhibit the capacity to facilitate epithelial regeneration after injury. These two pools of cells can convert into each other, maintaining their quantitative balance. In terms of the active intestinal stem cells, their development into functional epithelium is precisely controlled by the following signaling pathways: Wnt/β-catenin, Ras/Raf/Mek/Erk/MAPK, Notch and BMP/Smad. However, mutations in some of the key regulator genes associated with these signaling pathways, such as APC, Kras and Smad4, are also highly associated with gut malformations. At this point, clarifying the biological characteristics of intestinal stem cells will increase the feasibility of preventing or treating some intestinal diseases, such as colorectal cancer. Moreover, as preclinical data demonstrate the therapeutic effects of colon stem cells on murine models of experimental colitis, the prospects of stem cell-based regenerative treatments for ulcerous lesions in the gastrointestinal tract will be improved all the same. PMID:27610020

  16. Interactions between stromal cell--derived keratinocyte growth factor and epithelial transforming growth factor in immune-mediated crypt cell hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj-Elliott, M; Poulsom, R; Pender, S L; Wathen, N C; MacDonald, T T

    1998-01-01

    Immune reactions in the gut are associated with increased epithelial cell proliferation. Here we have studied the role of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF; FGF7) and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) in the epithelial cell hyperplasia seen in explants of fetal human small intestine after activation of lamina propria T cells with the superantigen Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB). After the addition of SEB to the explants there is a 10-fold increase in KGF mRNA by 72 h of culture. KGF transcripts were abundant in the lamina propria using in situ hybridization and the culture supernatants contained elevated amounts of KGF protein. SEB had no direct effect on KGF mRNA and protein production by cultured lamina propria mesenchymal cells, but both were upregulated by TNF-alpha. Accompanying the increase in KGF there was also an increase in TGF-alpha precursor proteins in the culture supernatants and the phosphorylated form of the EGFR receptor was also detected in the tissue. Increased TGF-alpha precursor proteins were also detected in the supernatants of control explants stimulated with KGF alone. The direct addition of KGF and TGF-alpha enhanced epithelial cell proliferation and antibodies against KGF and TGF-alpha partially inhibited SEB-induced crypt hyperplasia. These results suggest molecular cross-talk between the KGF/KGFR and the TGF-alpha/EGFR in immune-mediated crypt cell hyperplasia. PMID:9788959

  17. Intestinal Obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wall Hernias Inguinal Hernia Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Appendicitis Ileus Intestinal Obstruction Ischemic Colitis Perforation of the Digestive ... Wall Hernias Inguinal Hernia Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Appendicitis Ileus Intestinal Obstruction Ischemic Colitis Perforation of the Digestive ...

  18. Transformation of intestinal stem cells into gastric stem cells on loss of transcription factor Cdx2.

    PubMed

    Simmini, Salvatore; Bialecka, Monika; Huch, Meritxell; Kester, Lennart; van de Wetering, Marc; Sato, Toshiro; Beck, Felix; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Clevers, Hans; Deschamps, Jacqueline

    2014-12-11

    The endodermal lining of the adult gastro-intestinal tract harbours stem cells that are responsible for the day-to-day regeneration of the epithelium. Stem cells residing in the pyloric glands of the stomach and in the small intestinal crypts differ in their differentiation programme and in the gene repertoire that they express. Both types of stem cells have been shown to grow from single cells into 3D structures (organoids) in vitro. We show that single adult Lgr5-positive stem cells, isolated from small intestinal organoids, require Cdx2 to maintain their intestinal identity and are converted cell-autonomously into pyloric stem cells in the absence of this transcription factor. Clonal descendants of Cdx2(null) small intestinal stem cells enter the gastric differentiation program instead of producing intestinal derivatives. We show that the intestinal genetic programme is critically dependent on the single transcription factor encoding gene Cdx2.

  19. Transformation of intestinal stem cells into gastric stem cells on loss of transcription factor Cdx2

    PubMed Central

    Simmini, Salvatore; Bialecka, Monika; Huch, Meritxell; Kester, Lennart; van de Wetering, Marc; Sato, Toshiro; Beck, Felix; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Clevers, Hans; Deschamps, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    The endodermal lining of the adult gastro-intestinal tract harbours stem cells that are responsible for the day-to-day regeneration of the epithelium. Stem cells residing in the pyloric glands of the stomach and in the small intestinal crypts differ in their differentiation programme and in the gene repertoire that they express. Both types of stem cells have been shown to grow from single cells into 3D structures (organoids) in vitro. We show that single adult Lgr5-positive stem cells, isolated from small intestinal organoids, require Cdx2 to maintain their intestinal identity and are converted cell-autonomously into pyloric stem cells in the absence of this transcription factor. Clonal descendants of Cdx2null small intestinal stem cells enter the gastric differentiation program instead of producing intestinal derivatives. We show that the intestinal genetic programme is critically dependent on the single transcription factor encoding gene Cdx2. PMID:25500896

  20. Optical coherence tomography imaging of colonic crypts in a mouse model of colorectal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welge, Weston A.; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2016-03-01

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are abnormal epithelial lesions that precede development of colonic polyps. As the earliest morphological change in the development of colorectal cancer, ACF is a highly studied phenomenon. The most common method of imaging ACF is chromoendoscopy using methylene blue as a contrast agent. Narrow- band imaging is a contrast-agent-free modality for imaging the colonic crypts. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an attractive alternative to chromoendoscopy and narrow-band imaging because it can resolve the crypt structure at sufficiently high sampling while simultaneously providing depth-resolved data. We imaged in vivo the distal 15 mm of colon in the azoxymethane (AOM) mouse model of colorectal cancer using a commercial swept-source OCT system and a miniature endoscope designed and built in-house. We present en face images of the colonic crypts and demonstrate that different patterns in healthy and adenoma tissue can be seen. These patterns correspond to those reported in the literature. We have previously demonstrated early detection of colon adenoma using OCT by detecting minute thickening of the mucosa. By combining mucosal thickness measurement with imaging of the crypt structure, OCT can be used to correlate ACF and adenoma development in space and time. These results suggest that OCT may be a superior imaging modality for studying the connection between ACF and colorectal cancer.

  1. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae exploits cytokeratin 18-positive epithelial cells of porcine tonsillar crypts as an invasion gateway.

    PubMed

    Harada, Tomoyuki; Ogawa, Yohsuke; Eguchi, Masahiro; Shi, Fang; Sato, Masumi; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Shimoji, Yoshihiro

    2013-06-15

    Tonsils are important organs for mucosal immunity and are gateways for various pathogens, including bacteria and viruses. The purpose of the present study was to reveal how Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, the causative agent of swine erysipelas, invades the mucosal epithelium of the tonsils of pigs. Two germ-free piglets were orally infected with E. rhusiopathiae Koganei 65-0.15, an attenuated vaccine strain in Japan, and their tonsils of the soft palate were histologically examined four weeks after infection. Bacterial organisms were observed in dilated crypt lumens and a few epithelial cells of the crypt. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that some epithelial cells of the crypt were positive for cytokeratin (CK) 18, a specific marker for M cells in the Peyer's patches of pigs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that bacterial antigens were present in the cytoplasm of CK 18-positive epithelial cells. Furthermore, an ultramicroscopic examination revealed that the bacteria-containing epithelial cells did not have microfolds or microvilli, both of which are characteristic of membranous epithelial cells (M cells), and that they were in close contact with intraepithelial phagocytes. Thus, the present observations suggest that the tonsillar crypt epithelium is a site of persistent infection for orally administered E. rhusiopathiae, and the bacteria exploit cytokeratin 18-positive epithelial cells of the crypts as portals of entry into the body.

  2. Tales from the crypt: a parasitoid manipulates the behaviour of its parasite host

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sean M.; Forbes, Andrew A.; Egan, Scott P.

    2017-01-01

    There are many examples of apparent manipulation of host phenotype by parasites, yet few examples of hypermanipulation—where a phenotype-manipulating parasite is itself manipulated by a parasite. Moreover, few studies confirm manipulation is occurring by quantifying whether the host's changed phenotype increases parasite fitness. Here we describe a novel case of hypermanipulation, in which the crypt gall wasp Bassettia pallida (a phenotypic manipulator of its tree host) is manipulated by the parasitoid crypt-keeper wasp Euderus set, and show that the host's changed behaviour increases parasitoid fitness. Bassettia pallida parasitizes sand live oaks and induces the formation of a ‘crypt’ within developing stems. When parasitized by E. set, B. pallida adults excavate an emergence hole in the crypt wall, plug the hole with their head and die. We show experimentally that this phenomenon benefits E. set, as E. set that need to excavate an emergence hole themselves are about three times more likely to die trapped in the crypt. In addition, we discuss museum and field data to explore the distribution of the crypt-keeping phenomena. PMID:28123089

  3. Lgr4 is required for Paneth cell differentiation and maintenance of intestinal stem cells ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Mustata, Roxana C; Van Loy, Tom; Lefort, Anne; Libert, Frédérick; Strollo, Sandra; Vassart, Gilbert; Garcia, Marie-Isabelle

    2011-06-01

    Gene inactivation of the orphan G protein-coupled receptor LGR4, a paralogue of the epithelial-stem-cell marker LGR5, results in a 50% decrease in epithelial cell proliferation and an 80% reduction in terminal differentiation of Paneth cells in postnatal mouse intestinal crypts. When cultured ex vivo, LGR4-deficient crypts or progenitors, but not LGR5-deficient progenitors, die rapidly with marked downregulation of stem-cell markers and Wnt target genes, including Lgr5. Partial rescue of this phenotype is achieved by addition of LiCl to the culture medium, but not Wnt agonists. Our results identify LGR4 as a permissive factor in the Wnt pathway in the intestine and, as such, as a potential target for intestinal cancer therapy.

  4. Glucagon-like peptide-2 and mouse intestinal adaptation to a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Baldassano, Sara; Amato, Antonella; Cappello, Francesco; Rappa, Francesca; Mulè, Flavia

    2013-04-01

    Endogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP2) is a key mediator of refeeding-induced and resection-induced intestinal adaptive growth. This study investigated the potential role of GLP2 in mediating the mucosal responses to a chronic high-fat diet (HFD). In this view, the murine small intestine adaptive response to a HFD was analyzed and a possible involvement of endogenous GLP2 was verified using GLP2 (3-33) as GLP2 receptor (GLP2R) antagonist. In comparison with animals fed a standard diet, mice fed a HFD for 14 weeks exhibited an increase in crypt-villus mean height (duodenum, 27.5±3.0%; jejunum, 36.5±2.9%; P<0.01), in the cell number per villus (duodenum, 28.4±2.2%; jejunum, 32.0±2.9%; P<0.01), and in Ki67-positive cell number per crypt. No change in the percent of caspase-3-positive cell in the villus-crypt was observed. The chronic exposure to a HFD also caused a significant increase in GLP2 plasma levels and in GLP2R intestinal expression. Daily administration of GLP2 (3-33) (30-60  ng) for 4 weeks did not modify the crypt-villus height in control mice. In HFD-fed mice, chronic treatment with GLP2 (3-33) reduced the increase in crypt-villus height and in the cell number per villus through reduction of cell proliferation and increase in apoptosis. This study provides the first experimental evidence for a role of endogenous GLP2 in the intestinal adaptation to HFD in obese mice and for a dysregulation of the GLP2/GLP2R system after a prolonged HFD.

  5. Hypersensitivity reactions in small intestine. I Thymus dependence of experimental 'partial villous atrophy'.

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, A; Jarrett, E E

    1975-01-01

    Rats infected with the intestinal nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis have crypt hyperplasia with villous atrophy in affected areas of the small intestine. In thymus-deprived (B) rats the course of infection is prolonged but, despite the presence of many worms in the intestinal lumen, villi and crypts appear largely normal. This suggests that the tissue damaged associated with N. brasilliensis infection is caused, not by the worms, but by a local thymus-dependent immune reaction. There is some evidence to implicate lymphocytes rather than antibodies in this reaction. It is already know that T-cell-associated damage to the small intestine, such as occurs in allograft rejection, produces subtotal villous atrophy. The present findings suggest that when T cell react locally with helminth antigens a similar type of damage occurs. The presence of a local cell-mediated immune reaction may be the common factor which causes villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia in many small intestinal diseases, eg, viral enteritis, giardiasis, cow's milk allergy, and coeliac disease. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:1079195

  6. Activation of AMPK Inhibits Cholera Toxin Stimulated Chloride Secretion in Human and Murine Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Hoekstra, Nadia; Collins, Danielle; Collaco, Anne; Baird, Alan W.; Winter, Desmond C.; Ameen, Nadia; Geibel, John P.; Kopic, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Increased intestinal chloride secretion through chloride channels, such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), is one of the major molecular mechanisms underlying enterotoxigenic diarrhea. It has been demonstrated in the past that the intracellular energy sensing kinase, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), can inhibit CFTR opening. We hypothesized that pharmacological activation of AMPK can abrogate the increased chloride flux through CFTR occurring during cholera toxin (CTX) mediated diarrhea. Chloride efflux was measured in isolated rat colonic crypts using real-time fluorescence imaging. AICAR and metformin were used to activate AMPK in the presence of the secretagogues CTX or forskolin (FSK). In order to substantiate our findings on the whole tissue level, short-circuit current (SCC) was monitored in human and murine colonic mucosa using Ussing chambers. Furthermore, fluid accumulation was measured in excised intestinal loops. CTX and forskolin (FSK) significantly increased chloride efflux in isolated colonic crypts. The increase in chloride efflux could be offset by using the AMPK activators AICAR and metformin. In human and mouse mucosal sheets, CTX and FSK increased SCC. AICAR and metformin inhibited the secretagogue induced rise in SCC, thereby confirming the findings made in isolated crypts. Moreover, AICAR decreased CTX stimulated fluid accumulation in excised intestinal segments. The present study suggests that pharmacological activation of AMPK effectively reduces CTX mediated increases in intestinal chloride secretion, which is a key factor for intestinal water accumulation. AMPK activators may therefore represent a supplemental treatment strategy for acute diarrheal illness. PMID:23935921

  7. Intestinal and multivisceral transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Meira, Sérgio Paiva; Guardia, Bianca Della; Evangelista, Andréia Silva; Matielo, Celso Eduardo Lourenço; Neves, Douglas Bastos; Pandullo, Fernando Luis; Felga, Guilherme Eduardo Gonçalves; Alves, Jefferson André da Silva; Curvelo, Lilian Amorim; Diaz, Luiz Gustavo Guedes; Rusi, Marcela Balbo; Viveiros, Marcelo de Melo; de Almeida, Marcio Dias; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Pedroso, Pamella Tung; Salvalaggio, Paolo; Meirelles, Roberto Ferreira; Rocco, Rodrigo Andrey; de Almeida, Samira Scalso; de Rezende, Marcelo Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal transplantation has shown exceptional growth over the past 10 years. At the end of the 1990’s, intestinal transplantation moved out of the experimental realm to become a routine practice in treating patients with severe complications related to total parenteral nutrition and intestinal failure. In the last years, several centers reported an increasing improvement in survival outcomes (about 80%), during the first 12 months after surgery, but long-term survival is still a challenge. Several advances led to clinical application of transplants. Immunosuppression involved in intestinal and multivisceral transplantation was the biggest gain for this procedure in the past decade due to tacrolimus, and new inducing drugs, mono- and polyclonal anti-lymphocyte antibodies. Despite the advancement of rigid immunosuppression protocols, rejection is still very frequent in the first 12 months, and can result in long-term graft loss. The future of intestinal transplantation and multivisceral transplantation appears promising. The major challenge is early recognition of acute rejection in order to prevent graft loss, opportunistic infections associated to complications, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease and graft versus host disease; and consequently, improve results in the long run. PMID:25993080

  8. Requirement of Gαq/Gα11 Signaling in the Preservation of Mouse Intestinal Epithelial Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Noboru; Mashima, Hirosato; Miura, Kouichi; Goto, Takashi; Yoshida, Makoto; Goto, Akiteru; Ohnishi, Hirohide

    2016-11-01

    Proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis of the intestinal epithelium are tightly regulated by a number of molecular pathways. Coordinated action of intestine is achieved by gastrointestinal hormones, most of which exert these actions through G-protein-coupled receptors. We herein investigated the role of Gαq/11-mediated signaling in intestinal homeostasis. Intestinal tissues from control (Gnaq(flox/flox)Gna11(+/+) ), Int-Gq knock-out (KO) (VilCre(+/-)Gnaq(flox/flox)Gna11(+/+) ), G11 KO (Gnaq(flox/flox)Gna11(-/-) ), and Int-Gq/G11 double knock-out (DKO) (VilCre(+/-)Gnaq(flox/flox)Gna11(-/-) ) mice were examined by microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. The effect of Gαq/11-mediated signaling was studied in the cell lineage, proliferation, and apoptosis. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis was induced to study the role of Gαq/11 in colon. Paneth cells were enlarged, increased in number, and mislocalized in Int-Gq/G11 DKO small intestine. Paneth cells also reacted with PAS and Muc2 antibody, indicating an intermediate character of Paneth and goblet cells. The nuclear β-catenin, T-cell factor 1, and Sox9 expression were reduced severely in the crypt base of Int-Gq/G11 DKO intestine. Proliferation was activated in the crypt base and apoptosis was enhanced along the crypt. Int-Gq/G11 DKO mice were susceptible to DSS colitis. Proliferation was inhibited in the crypt of unaffected and regenerative areas. Cystic crypts, periodic acid-Schiff-positive cells, and Muc2-positive cells were unusually observed in the ulcerative region. The Gαq/11-mediated pathway plays a pivotal role in the preservation of intestinal homeostasis, especially in Paneth cell maturation and positioning. Wnt/β-catenin signaling was reduced significantly in the crypt base in Gαq/G11-deficient mice, resulting in the defective maturation of Paneth cells, induction of differentiation toward goblet cells, and susceptibility to DSS colitis.

  9. Donor-Specific Regulatory T Cells Acquired from Tolerant Mice Bearing Cardiac Allograft Promote Mixed Chimerism and Prolong Intestinal Allograft Survival

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiao-Fei; Jiang, Jin-Peng; Yang, Jian-Jun; Wang, Wei-Zhong; Guan, Wen-Xian; Du, Jun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The induction of donor-specific transplant tolerance has always been a central problem for small bowel transplantation (SBT), which is thought to be the best therapy for end-stage bowel failure. With the development of new tolerance-inducing strategies, mixed chimerism induced by co-stimulation blockade has become most potent for tolerance of allografts, such as skin, kidney, and heart. However, a lack of clinically available co-stimulation blockers has hindered efficient application in humans. Furthermore, unlike those for other types of solid organ transplantation, strategies to induce robust mixed chimerism for intestinal allografts have not been fully developed. To improve current mixed chimerism induction protocols for future clinical application, we developed a new protocol using donor-specific regulatory T (Treg) cells from mice with heart allograft tolerance, immunosuppressive drugs which could be used clinically and low doses of irradiation. Our results demonstrated that donor-specific Treg cells acquired from tolerant mice after in vitro expansion generate stable chimerism and lead to acceptance of intestinal allograft. Increased intragraft Treg cells and clonal deletion contribute to the development of SBT tolerance. PMID:27909438

  10. Depletion of enteric bacteria diminishes leukocyte infiltration following doxorubicin-induced small intestinal damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Carr, Jacquelyn S; King, Stephanie; Dekaney, Christopher M

    2017-01-01

    While enteric bacteria have been shown to play a critical role in other forms of intestinal damage, their role in mediating the response to the chemotherapeutic drug Doxorubicin (Doxo) is unclear. In this study, we used a mouse model of intestinal bacterial depletion to evaluate the role enteric bacteria play in mediating Doxo-induced small intestinal damage and, more specifically, in mediating chemokine expression and leukocyte infiltration following Doxo treatment. An understanding of this pathway may allow for development of intervention strategies to reduce chemotherapy-induced small intestinal damage. Mice were treated with (Abx) or without (NoAbx) oral antibiotics in drinking water for four weeks and then with Doxo. Jejunal tissues were collected at various time points following Doxo treatment and stained and analyzed for apoptosis, crypt damage and restitution, and macrophage and neutrophil number. In addition, RNA expression of inflammatory markers (TNFα, IL1-β, IL-10) and cytokines (CCL2, CC7, KC) was assessed by qRT-PCR. In NoAbx mice Doxo-induced damage was associated with rapid induction of apoptosis in jejunal crypt epithelium and an increase weight loss and crypt loss. In addition, we observed an increase in immune-modulating chemokines CCL2, CCL7 and KC and infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils. In contrast, while still positive for induction of apoptosis following Doxo treatment, Abx mice showed neither the overall weight loss nor crypt loss seen in NoAbx mice nor the increased chemokine expression and leukocyte infiltration. Enteric bacteria play a critical role in Doxo-induced small intestinal damage and are associated with an increase in immune-modulating chemokines and cells. Manipulation of enteric bacteria or the damage pathway may allow for prevention or treatment of chemotherapy-induced small intestinal damage.

  11. Regeneration of intestinal stem/progenitor cells following doxorubicin treatment of mice

    PubMed Central

    Dekaney, Christopher M.; Gulati, Ajay S.; Garrison, Aaron P.; Helmrath, Michael A.; Henning, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is in a constant state of renewal. The rapid turnover of cells is fed by a hierarchy of transit amplifying and stem/progenitor cells destined to give rise to the four differentiated epithelial lineages of the small intestine. Doxorubicin (Dox) is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent that preferentially induces apoptosis in the intestinal stem cell zone (SCZ). We hypothesized that Dox treatment would initially decrease “+4” intestinal stem cell numbers with a subsequent expansion during mucosal repair. Temporal assessment following Dox treatment demonstrated rapid induction of apoptosis in the SCZ leading to a decrease in the number of intestinal stem/progenitor cells as determined by flow cytometry for CD45(−) SP cells, and immunohistochemistry of cells positive for putative +4 stem cell markers β-catSer552 and DCAMKL1. Between 96 and 168 h postinjection, overall proliferation in the crypts increased concomitant with increases in both absolute and relative numbers of goblet, Paneth, and enteroendocrine cells. This regeneration phase was also associated with increases of CD45(−) SP cells, β-catSer552-positive cells, crypt fission, and crypt number. We used Lgr5-lacZ mice to assess behavior of Lgr5-positive stem cells following Dox and found no change in this cell population. Lgr5 mRNA level was also measured and showed no change immediately after Dox but decreased during the regeneration phase. Together these data suggest that, following Dox-induced injury, expansion of intestinal stem cells occurs during mucosal repair. On the basis of available markers this expansion appears to be predominantly the +4 stem cell population rather than those of the crypt base. PMID:19589945

  12. Depletion of enteric bacteria diminishes leukocyte infiltration following doxorubicin-induced small intestinal damage in mice

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Jacquelyn S.; King, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Background & aims While enteric bacteria have been shown to play a critical role in other forms of intestinal damage, their role in mediating the response to the chemotherapeutic drug Doxorubicin (Doxo) is unclear. In this study, we used a mouse model of intestinal bacterial depletion to evaluate the role enteric bacteria play in mediating Doxo-induced small intestinal damage and, more specifically, in mediating chemokine expression and leukocyte infiltration following Doxo treatment. An understanding of this pathway may allow for development of intervention strategies to reduce chemotherapy-induced small intestinal damage. Methods Mice were treated with (Abx) or without (NoAbx) oral antibiotics in drinking water for four weeks and then with Doxo. Jejunal tissues were collected at various time points following Doxo treatment and stained and analyzed for apoptosis, crypt damage and restitution, and macrophage and neutrophil number. In addition, RNA expression of inflammatory markers (TNFα, IL1-β, IL-10) and cytokines (CCL2, CC7, KC) was assessed by qRT-PCR. Results In NoAbx mice Doxo-induced damage was associated with rapid induction of apoptosis in jejunal crypt epithelium and an increase weight loss and crypt loss. In addition, we observed an increase in immune-modulating chemokines CCL2, CCL7 and KC and infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils. In contrast, while still positive for induction of apoptosis following Doxo treatment, Abx mice showed neither the overall weight loss nor crypt loss seen in NoAbx mice nor the increased chemokine expression and leukocyte infiltration. Conclusion Enteric bacteria play a critical role in Doxo-induced small intestinal damage and are associated with an increase in immune-modulating chemokines and cells. Manipulation of enteric bacteria or the damage pathway may allow for prevention or treatment of chemotherapy-induced small intestinal damage. PMID:28257503

  13. Intestinal lineage commitment of embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Li; Gibson, Jason D; Miyamoto, Shingo; Sail, Vibhavari; Verma, Rajeev; Rosenberg, Daniel W; Nelson, Craig E; Giardina, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Generating lineage-committed intestinal stem cells from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) could provide a tractable experimental system for understanding intestinal differentiation pathways and may ultimately provide cells for regenerating damaged intestinal tissue. We tested a two-step differentiation procedure in which ESCs were first cultured with activin A to favor formation of definitive endoderm, and then treated with fibroblast-conditioned medium with or without Wnt3A. The definitive endoderm expressed a number of genes associated with gut-tube development through mouse embryonic day 8.5 (Sox17, Foxa2, and Gata4 expressed and Id2 silent). The intestinal stem cell marker Lgr5 gene was also activated in the endodermal cells, whereas the Msi1, Ephb2, and Dcamkl1 intestinal stem cell markers were not. Exposure of the endoderm to fibroblast-conditioned medium with Wnt3A resulted in the activation of Id2, the remaining intestinal stem cell markers and the later gut markers Cdx2, Fabp2, and Muc2. Interestingly, genes associated with distal gut-associated mesoderm (Foxf2, Hlx, and Hoxd8) were also simulated by Wnt3A. The two-step differentiation protocol generated gut bodies with crypt-like structures that included regions of Lgr5-expressing proliferating cells and regions of cell differentiation. These gut bodies also had a smooth muscle component and some underwent peristaltic movement. The ability of the definitive endoderm to differentiate into intestinal epithelium was supported by the vivo engraftment of these cells into mouse colonic mucosa. These findings demonstrate that definitive endoderm derived from ESCs can carry out intestinal cell differentiation pathways and may provide cells to restore damaged intestinal tissue.

  14. Efficient genetic engineering of human intestinal organoids using electroporation.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Masayuki; Matano, Mami; Nanki, Kosaku; Sato, Toshiro

    2015-10-01

    Gene modification in untransformed human intestinal cells is an attractive approach for studying gene function in intestinal diseases. However, because of the lack of practical tools, such studies have largely depended upon surrogates, such as gene-engineered mice or immortalized human cell lines. By taking advantage of the recently developed intestinal organoid culture method, we developed a methodology for modulating genes of interest in untransformed human colonic organoids via electroporation of gene vectors. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the generation of intestinal organoids by culture with essential growth factors in a basement membrane matrix. We also describe how to stably integrate genes via the piggyBac transposon, as well as precise genome editing using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Beginning with crypt isolation from a human colon sample, genetically modified organoids can be obtained in 3 weeks.

  15. The protective effects of Resveratrol against radiation-induced intestinal injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Yan, Hao; Zhou, Xiaoliang; Wang, Huaqing; Yang, Yiling; Zhang, Junling; Wang, Hui

    2017-08-16

    Intestinal injury is a potential cause of death after high-dose radiation exposure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of resveratrol against radiation-induced small intestine injury. C57BL/6 N mice were irradiated and treated with resveratrol and/or Ex527 (a potent Sirt1 inhibitor), and subsequent examining intestinal morphological changes, and crypt cell apoptosis. Then, the expression and enzyme activity of SOD2 in the small intestine were examined. Furthermore, Sirt1 and acetylated p53 expression was analysed. Compared to the vehicle control, treatment with resveratrol improved intestinal morphology, decreased apoptosis of crypt cells, maintained cell regeneration, and ameliorated SOD2 expression and activity. Resveratrol also regulated Sirt1 and acetylated p53 expression perturbed by irradiation in the small intestine. The protective effect of resveratrol against ionizing radiation induced small intestine injury was significantly inhibited by Ex527. Our results suggest that resveratrol decreases the effects of radiation on intestinal injury at least partly via activation of Sirt1.

  16. The CSF-1 receptor fashions the intestinal stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    Akcora, Dilara; Huynh, Duy; Lightowler, Sally; Germann, Markus; Robine, Sylvie; de May, Jan R; Pollard, Jeffrey W; Stanley, E Richard; Malaterre, Jordane; Ramsay, Robert G

    2013-03-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) homeostasis requires the action of multiple pathways. There is some controversy regarding whether small intestine (SI) Paneth cells (PCs) play a central role in orchestrating crypt architecture and their relationship with Lgr5+ve stem cells. Nevertheless, we previously showed that germline CSF-1 receptor (Csf1r) knock out (KO) or Csf1 mutation is associated with an absence of mature PC, reduced crypt proliferation and lowered stem cell gene, Lgr5 expression. Here we show the additional loss of CD24, Bmi1 and Olfm4 expression in the KO crypts and a high resolution 3D localization of CSF-1R mainly to PC. The induction of GI-specific Csf1r deletion in young adult mice also led to PC loss over a period of weeks, in accord with the anticipated long life span of PC, changed distribution of proliferating cells and this was with a commensurate loss of Lgr5 and other stem cell marker gene expression. By culturing SI organoids, we further show that the Csf1r(-/-) defect in PC production is intrinsic to epithelial cells as well as definitively affecting stem cell activity. These results show that CSF-1R directly supports PC maturation and that in turn PCs fashion the intestinal stem cell niche.

  17. Spatial organization of bacterial flora in normal and inflamed intestine: A fluorescence in situ hybridization study in mice

    PubMed Central

    Swidsinski, Alexander; Loening-Baucke, Vera; Lochs, Herbert; Hale, Laura P.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the role of intestinal flora in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: The spatial organization of intestinal flora was investigated in normal mice and in two models of murine colitis using fluorescence in situ hybridization. RESULTS: The murine small intestine was nearly bacteria-free. The normal colonic flora was organized in three distinct compartments (crypt, interlaced, and fecal), each with different bacterial compositions. Crypt bacteria were present in the cecum and proximal colon. The fecal compartment was composed of homogeneously mixed bacterial groups that directly contacted the colonic wall in the cecum but were separated from the proximal colonic wall by a dense interlaced layer. Beginning in the middle colon, a mucus gap of growing thickness physically separated all intestinal bacteria from contact with the epithelium. Colonic inflammation was accompanied with a depletion of bacteria within the fecal compartment, a reduced surface area in which feces had direct contact with the colonic wall, increased thickness and spread of the mucus gap, and massive increases of bacterial concentrations in the crypt and interlaced compartments. Adhesive and infiltrative bacteria were observed in inflamed colon only, with dominant Bacteroides species. CONCLUSION: The proximal and distal colons are functionally different organs with respect to the intestinal flora, representing a bioreactor and a segregation device. The highly organized structure of the colonic flora, its specific arrangement in different colonic segments, and its specialized response to inflammatory stimuli indicate that the intestinal flora is an innate part of host immunity that is under complex control. PMID:15754393

  18. Human Enteroids as a Model of Upper Small Intestinal Ion Transport Physiology and Pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Foulke-Abel, Jennifer; In, Julie; Yin, Jianyi; Zachos, Nicholas C; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Estes, Mary K; de Jonge, Hugo; Donowitz, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Human intestinal crypt-derived enteroids are a model of intestinal ion transport that require validation by comparison with cell culture and animal models. We used human small intestinal enteroids to study neutral Na(+) absorption and stimulated fluid and anion secretion under basal and regulated conditions in undifferentiated and differentiated cultures to show their functional relevance to ion transport physiology and pathophysiology. Human intestinal tissue specimens were obtained from an endoscopic biopsy or surgical resections performed at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Crypts were isolated, enteroids were propagated in culture, induced to undergo differentiation, and transduced with lentiviral vectors. Crypt markers, surface cell enzymes, and membrane ion transporters were characterized using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunoblot, or immunofluorescence analyses. We used multiphoton and time-lapse confocal microscopy to monitor intracellular pH and luminal dilatation in enteroids under basal and regulated conditions. Enteroids differentiated upon withdrawal of WNT3A, yielding decreased crypt markers and increased villus-like characteristics. Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 activity was similar in undifferentiated and differentiated enteroids, and was affected by known inhibitors, second messengers, and bacterial enterotoxins. Forskolin-induced swelling was completely dependent on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and partially dependent on Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 and Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 inhibition in undifferentiated and differentiated enteroids. Increases in cyclic adenosine monophosphate with forskolin caused enteroid intracellular acidification in HCO3(-)-free buffer. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-induced enteroid intracellular pH acidification as part of duodenal HCO3(-) secretion appears to require cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and electrogenic Na(+)/HCO3(-) cotransporter 1

  19. Injury-associated reacquiring of intestinal stem cell function.

    PubMed

    Sipos, Ferenc; Műzes, Györgyi

    2015-02-21

    Epithelial layer of the intestine relies upon stem cells for maintaining homeostasis and regeneration. Two types of stem cells are currently defined in intestinal crypts: the cycling crypt base columnar cells and quiescent cells. Though several candidate markers and regulators of rapidly cycling and quiescent stem cells have been identified so far, the exact nature of quiescent cells is still questionable since investigations mainly focused on candidate markers rather than the label-retaining population itself. Recent results, however, have strengthened the argument for functional plasticity. Using a lineage tracing strategy label-retaining cells (LRCs) of the intestinal epithelium were marked, then followed by a pulse-chase analysis it was found that during homeostasis, LRCs were Lgr5-positive and were destined to become Paneth and neuroendocrine cells. Nevertheless, it was demonstrated that LRCs are capable of clonogenic growth by recall to the self-renewing pool of stem cells in case of epithelial injury. These new findings highlight on the hierarchical and spatial organization of intestinal epithelial homeostasis and the important plasticity of progenitors during tissue regeneration, moreover, provide a motivation for studying their role in disorders like colorectal cancer.

  20. Effects of porcine bile on survival of Bacillus cereus vegetative cells and Haemolysin BL enterotoxin production in reconstituted human small intestine media.

    PubMed

    Clavel, T; Carlin, F; Dargaignaratz, C; Lairon, D; Nguyen-The, C; Schmitt, P

    2007-11-01

    To determine the effects of porcine bile (PB) on Bacillus cereus vegetative cells and Haemolysin BL (HBL) enterotoxin production in reconstituted small intestine media (IM). The effects of PB on the growth of B. cereus vegetative cells in reconstituted IM at PB concentrations ranging between 0 and 3.0 g l(-1) were examined. Four gastric media (GM) named GM-J broth (JB), GM-chicken, GM-milk and GM-pea were prepared by mixing equal volumes of a gastric electrolyte solution containing pepsin with JB, chicken, semi-skimmed milk and pea soup, respectively. Bacillus cereus was inoculated at approx. 2 x 10(4) CFU ml(-1) into each GM at pH 5.0 for 30 min at 37 degrees C, then mixed to the same volume of double-strength JB (IM) and PB to give concentrations of between 0 and 3.0 g of PB per litre at pH 6.5 and incubated at 37 degrees C. The diarrhoeal B. cereus strain F4430/73 grew in IM-JB, IM-chicken and IM-milk at PB concentrations of up to 0.6, 1.5 and 1.2 g l(-1), respectively. Growth was observed in IM-pea at all concentrations tested. The highest PB concentrations allowing a 3 log B. cereus increase in IM-JB, IM-chicken, IM-milk and IM-pea after a 7-10 h incubation period were 0.3, 0.9, 0.9 and 3.0 g l(-1), respectively. The effect of PB on B. cereus cells was strongest in IM-JB, followed by IM-chicken, IM-milk and IM-pea. Haemolysin BL enterotoxin was detectable in IM-chicken, IM-whole milk, IM-semi-skimmed milk and IM-pea up to PB concentrations of only 0.6, 0.6, 0.3 and 0.9 g l(-1), respectively. The diarrhoeal B. cereus strain F4433/73 behaved similarly to B. cereus strain F4430/73, whereas the food strain TZ415 was markedly more susceptible to bile. The tolerance of B. cereus cells to PB strongly depends on the type of food contained in the IM. Bile tolerance is also subject to strain variation. The probability that B. cereus cells will grow in the small intestine, produce toxins and cause diarrhoea is likely to depend on the food they are ingested with, on the

  1. Intestinal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Desrochers, André; Anderson, David E

    2016-11-01

    A wide variety of disorders affecting the intestinal tract in cattle may require surgery. Among those disorders the more common are: intestinal volvulus, jejunal hemorrhage syndrome and more recently the duodenal sigmoid flexure volvulus. Although general principles of intestinal surgery can be applied, cattle has anatomical and behavior particularities that must be known before invading the abdomen. This article focuses on surgical techniques used to optimize outcomes and discusses specific disorders of small intestine. Diagnoses and surgical techniques presented can be applied in field conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Novel Model of P-Glycoprotein Inhibitor Screening Using Human Small Intestinal Organoids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junfang; Zeng, Zhiyang; Sun, Jialiang; Zhang, Yuanjin; Li, Dali; Zhang, Xueli; Liu, Mingyao; Wang, Xin

    2017-03-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an important efflux transporter in intestine, regulates the bioavailability of orally taken drugs. To develop an in vitro model that preferably mimics the physiological microenvironment of human intestine, we employed the three-dimensionally (3D) cultured organoids from human normal small intestinal epithelium. It was observed that the intestinal crypts could efficiently form cystic organoid structure with the extension of culture time. Furthermore, the physiological expression of ABCB1 was detected at both mRNA and protein levels in cultured organoids. Rhodamine 123 (Rh123), a typical substrate of P-gp, was actively transported across 3D organoids and accumulated in the luminal space. This transport process was also inhibited by verapamil and mitotane. In summary, the above-mentioned model based on human small intestinal 3D organoids is suitable to imitate the small intestinal epithelium and could be used as a novel in vitro model especially for P-gp inhibitor screening.

  3. Insights into Vibrio cholerae Intestinal Colonization from Monitoring Fluorescently Labeled Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Yves A.; Alvarez, David; Ringgaard, Simon; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Davis, Brigid M.; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the agent of cholera, is a motile non-invasive pathogen that colonizes the small intestine (SI). Most of our knowledge of the processes required for V. cholerae intestinal colonization is derived from enumeration of wt and mutant V. cholerae recovered from orogastrically infected infant mice. There is limited knowledge of the distribution of V. cholerae within the SI, particularly its localization along the villous axis, or of the bacterial and host factors that account for this distribution. Here, using confocal and intravital two-photon microscopy to monitor the localization of fluorescently tagged V. cholerae strains, we uncovered unexpected and previously unrecognized features of V. cholerae intestinal colonization. Direct visualization of the pathogen within the intestine revealed that the majority of V. cholerae microcolonies attached to the intestinal epithelium arise from single cells, and that there are notable regiospecific aspects to V. cholerae localization and factors required for colonization. In the proximal SI, V. cholerae reside exclusively within the developing intestinal crypts, but they are not restricted to the crypts in the more distal SI. Unexpectedly, V. cholerae motility proved to be a regiospecific colonization factor that is critical for colonization of the proximal, but not the distal, SI. Furthermore, neither motility nor chemotaxis were required for proper V. cholerae distribution along the villous axis or in crypts, suggesting that yet undefined processes enable the pathogen to find its niches outside the intestinal lumen. Finally, our observations suggest that host mucins are a key factor limiting V. cholerae intestinal colonization, particularly in the proximal SI where there appears to be a more abundant mucus layer. Collectively, our findings demonstrate the potent capacity of direct pathogen visualization during infection to deepen our understanding of host pathogen interactions. PMID:25275396

  4. Insights into Vibrio cholerae intestinal colonization from monitoring fluorescently labeled bacteria.

    PubMed

    Millet, Yves A; Alvarez, David; Ringgaard, Simon; von Andrian, Ulrich H; Davis, Brigid M; Waldor, Matthew K

    2014-10-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the agent of cholera, is a motile non-invasive pathogen that colonizes the small intestine (SI). Most of our knowledge of the processes required for V. cholerae intestinal colonization is derived from enumeration of wt and mutant V. cholerae recovered from orogastrically infected infant mice. There is limited knowledge of the distribution of V. cholerae within the SI, particularly its localization along the villous axis, or of the bacterial and host factors that account for this distribution. Here, using confocal and intravital two-photon microscopy to monitor the localization of fluorescently tagged V. cholerae strains, we uncovered unexpected and previously unrecognized features of V. cholerae intestinal colonization. Direct visualization of the pathogen within the intestine revealed that the majority of V. cholerae microcolonies attached to the intestinal epithelium arise from single cells, and that there are notable regiospecific aspects to V. cholerae localization and factors required for colonization. In the proximal SI, V. cholerae reside exclusively within the developing intestinal crypts, but they are not restricted to the crypts in the more distal SI. Unexpectedly, V. cholerae motility proved to be a regiospecific colonization factor that is critical for colonization of the proximal, but not the distal, SI. Furthermore, neither motility nor chemotaxis were required for proper V. cholerae distribution along the villous axis or in crypts, suggesting that yet undefined processes enable the pathogen to find its niches outside the intestinal lumen. Finally, our observations suggest that host mucins are a key factor limiting V. cholerae intestinal colonization, particularly in the proximal SI where there appears to be a more abundant mucus layer. Collectively, our findings demonstrate the potent capacity of direct pathogen visualization during infection to deepen our understanding of host pathogen interactions.

  5. The Effect of Impaired Angiogenesis on Intestinal Function Following Massive Small Bowel Resection

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Miron, Jose; Sun, Raphael; Choi, Pamela; Sommovilla, Joshua; Guo, Jun; Erwin, Christopher R.; Mei, Junjie; Worthen, G. Scott; Warner, Brad W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Intestinal adaptation involves villus lengthening, crypt deepening, and increased capillary density following small bowel resection (SBR). Mice lacking the proangiogenic chemokine CXCL5 have normal structural adaptation but impaired angiogenesis. This work evaluates the impact of incomplete adaptive angiogenesis on the functional capacity of the intestine after SBR. Methods CXCL5 knockout (KO) and C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice underwent 50% SBR. Magnetic resonance imaging measured weekly body composition. Intestinal absorptive capacity was evaluated through fecal fat analysis. Gene expression profiles for select macronutrient transporters were measured via RT-PCR. Postoperative crypt and villus measurements assessed for structural adaptation. Submucosal capillary density was measured through CD31 immunohistochemistry. Results Comparable postoperative weight gain occurred initially. Diminished weight gain, impaired fat absorption, and elevated steatorrhea occurred in KO mice after instituting high-fat diet. Greater postoperative upregulation of ABCA1 fat transporter occurred in WT mice, while PEPT1 protein transporter was significantly downregulated in KO mice. KO mice had impaired angiogenesis but intact structural adaptation. Conclusion After SBR, KO mice display an inefficient intestinal absorption profile with perturbed macronutrient transporter expression, impaired fat absorption, and slower postoperative weight gain. In addition to longer villi and deeper crypts, an intact angiogenic response may be required to achieve functional adaptation to SBR. PMID:25818317

  6. Influence of high-calorie (cafeteria) diets on the population of Paneth cells in the small intestine of the rat.

    PubMed

    Becerril, Adriana; Castillo-Robles, Guadalupe; González-Hernández, Margarita; Villanueva, Iván

    2005-01-01

    A high-calorie (cafeteria) diet is known to cause changes in the intestinal morphology and functioning that seem to be related to calorie overfeeding. Among the cell lineages found in the small intestine epithelium, the Paneth cell (PC) population is known to be influenced by factors related mainly to the intestinal microbiota. The role of PCs in the intestinal cell concert remains unclear, because experimental evidence suggests PC involvement in local processes other than protection against pathogens. Participation of PC in digestive mechanisms has been proposed on this basis. We have analyzed the effect of high-carbohydrate (HC) and high-fat (HF) cafeteria diets on the PC population in the small intestine of the adult rat. For 8 weeks, both HC and HF diets caused a gain in body weight, but whereas the HC-fed rats showed reduced counts of intestinal crypts per 5-mum section, the HF-fed group showed the opposite. In control rats, the number of crypts per section showed a slight tendency to decrease along the duodenum - ileum axis, whereas the number of PCs per crypt was increased towards the ileum. As a result, the number of PCs per section (calculated from these data) remained constant along the three segments of the intestine. The hypercaloric diets did not modify the general tendencies seen in the crypt and PC counts, but reduced the number of PCs per section in the duodenum by 50%. HC-fed, but not HF-fed, rats showed a similar reduction in jejunum also. These changes do not correlate particularly with any of the predictable effects of diet composition, so that a multifactorial control of PC density is proposed.

  7. Rapid tissue engineering of biomimetic human corneal limbal crypts with 3D niche architecture.

    PubMed

    Levis, Hannah J; Massie, Isobel; Dziasko, Marc A; Kaasi, Andreas; Daniels, Julie T

    2013-11-01

    Limbal epithelial stem cells are responsible for the maintenance of the human corneal epithelium and these cells reside in a specialised stem cell niche. They are located at the base of limbal crypts, in a physically protected microenvironment in close proximity to a variety of neighbouring niche cells. Design and recreation of elements of various stem cell niches have allowed researchers to simplify aspects of these complex microenvironments for further study in vitro. We have developed a method to rapidly and reproducibly create bioengineered limbal crypts (BLCs) in a collagen construct using a simple one-step method. Liquid is removed from collagen hydrogels using hydrophilic porous absorbers (HPAs) that have custom moulded micro-ridges on the base. The resulting topography on the surface of the thin collagen constructs resembles the dimensions of the stromal crypts of the human limbus. Human limbal epithelial cells seeded onto the surface of the constructs populate these BLCs and form numerous layers with a high proportion of the cells lining the crypts expressing putative stem cell marker, p63α. The HPAs are produced using a moulding process that is flexible and can be adapted depending on the requirements of the end user. Creation of defined topographical features using this process could be applicable to numerous tissue-engineering applications where varied 3-dimensional niche architectures are required.

  8. Colon Stem Cell and Crypt Dynamics Exposed by Cell Lineage Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Itzkovitz, Shalev; Elbaz, Judith; Maruvka, Yosef E.; Segev, Elad; Shlush, Liran I.; Dekel, Nava; Shapiro, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell dynamics in vivo are often being studied by lineage tracing methods. Our laboratory has previously developed a retrospective method for reconstructing cell lineage trees from somatic mutations accumulated in microsatellites. This method was applied here to explore different aspects of stem cell dynamics in the mouse colon without the use of stem cell markers. We first demonstrated the reliability of our method for the study of stem cells by confirming previously established facts, and then we addressed open questions. Our findings confirmed that colon crypts are monoclonal and that, throughout adulthood, the process of monoclonal conversion plays a major role in the maintenance of crypts. The absence of immortal strand mechanism in crypts stem cells was validated by the age-dependent accumulation of microsatellite mutations. In addition, we confirmed the positive correlation between physical and lineage proximity of crypts, by showing that the colon is separated into small domains that share a common ancestor. We gained new data demonstrating that colon epithelium is clustered separately from hematopoietic and other cell types, indicating that the colon is constituted of few progenitors and ruling out significant renewal of colonic epithelium from hematopoietic cells during adulthood. Overall, our study demonstrates the reliability of cell lineage reconstruction for the study of stem cell dynamics, and it further addresses open questions in colon stem cells. In addition, this method can be applied to study stem cell dynamics in other systems. PMID:21829376

  9. Expression of apical Na(+)-L-glutamine co-transport activity, B(0)-system neutral amino acid co-transporter (B(0)AT1) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 along the jejunal crypt-villus axis in young pigs fed a liquid formula.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chengbo; Yang, Xiaojian; Lackeyram, Dale; Rideout, Todd C; Wang, Zirong; Stoll, Barbara; Yin, Yulong; Burrin, Douglas G; Fan, Ming Z

    2016-06-01

    Gut apical amino acid (AA) transport activity is high at birth and during suckling, thus being essential to maintain luminal nutrient-dependent mucosal growth through providing AA as essential metabolic fuel, substrates and nutrient stimuli for cellular growth. Because system-B(0) Na(+)-neutral AA co-transporter (B(0)AT1, encoded by the SLC6A19 gene) plays a dominant role for apical uptake of large neutral AA including L-Gln, we hypothesized that high apical Na(+)-Gln co-transport activity, and B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) in co-expression with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) were expressed along the entire small intestinal crypt-villus axis in young animals via unique control mechanisms. Kinetics of Na(+)-Gln co-transport activity in the apical membrane vesicles, prepared from epithelial cells sequentially isolated along the jejunal crypt-villus axis from liquid formula-fed young pigs, were measured with the membrane potential being clamped to zero using thiocyanate. Apical maximal Na(+)-Gln co-transport activity was much higher (p < 0.05) in the upper villus cells than in the middle villus (by 29 %) and the crypt (by 30 %) cells, whereas Na(+)-Gln co-transport affinity was lower (p < 0.05) in the upper villus cells than in the middle villus and the crypt cells. The B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) mRNA abundance was lower (p < 0.05) in the crypt (by 40-47 %) than in the villus cells. There were no significant differences in B(0)AT1 and ACE2 protein abundances on the apical membrane among the upper villus, the middle villus and the crypt cells. Our study suggests that piglet fast growth is associated with very high intestinal apical Na(+)-neutral AA uptake activities via abundantly co-expressing B(0)AT1 and ACE2 proteins in the apical membrane and by transcribing the B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) gene in the epithelia along the entire crypt-villus axis.

  10. Stimulation of butyrate production in the large intestine of weaning piglets by dietary fructooligosaccharides and its influence on the histological variables of the large intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Iwasaki, Yoshie; Nakayama, Keizo; Ushida, Kazunari

    2003-12-01

    Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) reach the large intestine and are fermented into short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), lactate, and carbon dioxide. As the major energy source for the epithelial cells of the large intestine, n-butyrate stimulates the proliferation of cells as well as mineral and water absorption from the lumen. We examined the effect of dietary FOS supplementation on luminal SCFA production and its influence on the morphometrical variables of mucosa of the large intestine in commercially available pigs. Six weaning piglets were used. After 7 d of adaptation, three pigs were given a test diet containing FOS (10%) ad libitum for 10 d. The other three remained on the basal diet and were used as controls. At the end of the experiment, their large intestines were removed, and the cecum, gyri centripetales, gyri centrifugales, and rectum were separated. The contents of each portion were collected and measured for SCFA concentration, pH, and moisture. A micrometer was used to measure the crypt depth. The numbers of epithelial and mitotic cells in the crypt columns were also counted. The concentration of SCFA was significantly higher in piglets fed FOS than in the controls. The concentration of n-butyrate was markedly stimulated by FOS. The number of epithelial. mitotic, and mucin-containing cells was higher in piglets fed FOS than in the controls. Accordingly, the crypt depth was larger in the FOS-fed piglets. The luminal n-butyrate concentration showed a significantly positive correlation with the crypt depth and the number of epithelial, mitotic, and mucin-containing cells.

  11. Type 3 innate lymphoid cells maintain intestinal epithelial stem cells after tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Aparicio-Domingo, Patricia; Romera-Hernandez, Monica; Karrich, Julien J; Cornelissen, Ferry; Papazian, Natalie; Lindenbergh-Kortleve, Dicky J; Butler, James A; Boon, Louis; Coles, Mark C; Samsom, Janneke N; Cupedo, Tom

    2015-10-19

    Disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier allows bacterial translocation and predisposes to destructive inflammation. To ensure proper barrier composition, crypt-residing stem cells continuously proliferate and replenish all intestinal epithelial cells within days. As a consequence of this high mitotic activity, mucosal surfaces are frequently targeted by anticancer therapies, leading to dose-limiting side effects. The cellular mechanisms that control tissue protection and mucosal healing in response to intestinal damage remain poorly understood. Type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) are regulators of homeostasis and tissue responses to infection at mucosal surfaces. We now demonstrate that ILC3s are required for epithelial activation and proliferation in response to small intestinal tissue damage induced by the chemotherapeutic agent methotrexate. Multiple subsets of ILC3s are activated after intestinal tissue damage, and in the absence of ILC3s, epithelial activation is lost, correlating with increased pathology and severe damage to the intestinal crypts. Using ILC3-deficient Lgr5 reporter mice, we show that maintenance of intestinal stem cells after damage is severely impaired in the absence of ILC3s or the ILC3 signature cytokine IL-22. These data unveil a novel function of ILC3s in limiting tissue damage by preserving tissue-specific stem cells.

  12. Flow cytometric assessment of the protectants for enhanced in vitro survival of probiotic lactic acid bacteria through simulated human gastro-intestinal stresses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Song; Cao, Yu; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Shu, Quan; Garg, Sanjay

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to apply flow cytometric (FCM) analysis to assess the use of sucrose and lecithin vesicles for the protection of probiotic lactic acid bacteria in response to the challenge of gastric acidity and bile salts. FCM analysis in combination with fluorescent probes carboxyfluorescein (cF) and propidium iodide was used to reveal the physiological heterogeneity in the stressed bacteria population. Three subpopulations (intact, stressed, and damaged) were differentiated by FCM in all six examined strains. Significant changes were observed in the presence of the selected protectants. The addition of 20 mM sucrose in the simulated gastric fluid substantially increased the number of intact cells over 20 folds and reduced the damaged subpopulation by half. The presence of 2 % (w/v) lecithin vesicles was shown to protect 50 % more intact cells from the challenge of bile salts. The improved survival as evaluated by FCM analysis was further assessed for the proliferation capacity by sorting a number of cells from each subpopulation on nutrient agar plate. The result confirmed conformity between the proliferation-based cultivability and the probe-indicated viability in the samples of the intact and the damaged subpopulations. However, it also revealed the complexities of the stressed (injured) subpopulation. In conclusion, FCM analysis confirmed that the selected protectants could improve the survival of the probiotic strains in the simulated GI environments. The FCM analysis also proved to be a useful analytical tool for the probiotics research.

  13. Intestinal Parasitoses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagardere, Bernard; Dumburgier, Elisabeth

    1994-01-01

    Intestinal parasites have become a serious public health problem in tropical countries because of the climate and the difficulty of achieving efficient hygiene. The objectives of this journal issue are to increase awareness of the individual and collective repercussions of intestinal parasites, describe the current conditions of contamination and…

  14. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Bioavailability Regulates Angiogenesis and Intestinal Stem and Progenitor Cell Proliferation during Postnatal Small Intestinal Development.

    PubMed

    Schlieve, Christopher R; Mojica, Salvador Garcia; Holoyda, Kathleen A; Hou, Xiaogang; Fowler, Kathryn L; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a highly conserved, master regulatory molecule required for endothelial cell proliferation, organization, migration and branching morphogenesis. Podocoryne carnea and drosophila, which lack endothelial cells and a vascular system, express VEGF homologs, indicating potential roles beyond angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. The role of VEGF in the development and homeostasis of the postnatal small intestine is unknown. We hypothesized regulating VEGF bioavailability in the postnatal small intestine would exhibit effects beyond the vasculature and influence epithelial cell stem/progenitor populations. VEGF mutant mice were created that overexpressed VEGF in the brush border of epithelium via the villin promotor following doxycycline treatment. To decrease VEGF bioavailability, sFlt-1 mutant mice were generated that overexpressed the soluble VEGF receptor sFlt-1 upon doxycycline administration in the intestinal epithelium. Mice were analyzed after 21 days of doxycycline administration. Increased VEGF expression was confirmed by RT-qPCR and ELISA in the intestine of the VEGF mutants compared to littermates. The VEGF mutant duodenum demonstrated increased angiogenesis and vascular leak as compared to littermate controls. The VEGF mutant duodenum revealed taller villi and increased Ki-67-positive cells in the transit-amplifying zone with reduced Lgr5 expression. The duodenum of sFlt-1 mutants revealed shorter villi and longer crypts with reduced proliferation in the transit-amplifying zone, reduced expression of Dll1, Bmp4 and VE-cadherin, and increased expression of Sox9 and EphB2. Manipulating VEGF bioavailability leads to profound effects on not only the intestinal vasculature, but epithelial stem and progenitor cells in the intestinal crypt. Elucidation of the crosstalk between VEGF signaling in the vasculature, mesenchyme and epithelial stem/progenitor cell populations may direct future cell therapies for intestinal

  15. Existence of serotonin and neuropeptides-immunoreactive endocrine cells in the small and large intestines of the mole-rats (Spalax leucodon).

    PubMed

    Yaman, M; Bayrakdar, A; Tarakçı, B G

    2012-08-01

    The present study was conducted to clarify the regional distribution and relative frequency of endocrine cells secreting serotonin, substance P (SP), cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and neurotensin in the small and large intestine of the mole-rats (Spalax leucodon), by specific immunohistochemical methods. In the small and large intestine of mole-rats (Spalax leucodon), serotonin, SP and VIP were identified with various frequencies, but CCK-8 and neurotensin were not observed. Most of the IR cells in the small and large intestine were located in the intestinal crypt and epithelium however, they were more frequency in the intestinal crypt. Serotonin-IR cells were detected throughout the whole intestinal tract, predominantly in the duodenum and colon. SP-IR cells were demonstrated throughout the whole intestinal tract except for the ileum and rectum with highest frequencies in the cecum. VIP-IR cells were found in all parts of the small intestine except for the large intestine. In conclusion, the general distribution patterns and relative frequency of intestinal endocrine cells of the mole-rats (Spalax leucodon) was similar to those of some rodent species. However, some species-dependent unique distributions and frequencies characteristics of endocrine cells were also observed in the present study.

  16. Distribution of neuroendocrine cells in the small and large intestines of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Ali, M Al Haj; Nyberg, Fred; Chandranath, S I; Dhanasekaran, S; Tariq, Saeed; Petroianu, G; Hasan, M Y; Adeghate, Ernest A; Adem, A

    2007-10-01

    The distribution and relative frequency of neuroendocrine cells in the small and large intestines of one-humped camel were studied using antisera against 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), cholecystokinin (CCK-8), somatostatin (SOM), peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), substance P (SP), and neurokinin A (NKA). Among these cell types, CCK-8 immunoreactive (IR) cells were uniformly distributed in the mucosa, while others showed varied distribution in the villi or crypts of the small intestine. Immunoreactive cells like 5HT, CCK-8, and SOM showed peak density in the villi and crypts of the small intestine and in the colonic glands of the large intestine, while cells containing SP were discerned predominately in the crypts. 5-HT, CCK-8 and SOM cells were mainly flask-shaped and of the open-variety, while PYY and SP immunoreactive cells were mainly rounded or basket-shaped and of the closed variety. Basically the distribution pattern of the endocrine cells in the duodenum, jejunum and colon of the one-humped camel is similar to that of other mammals. Finally, the distribution of these bioactive agents may give clues as to how these agents aid in the function of the intestinal tract of this desert animal.

  17. Potential role of the NADPH oxidase NOX1 in the pathogenesis of 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in mice.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Masashi; Kato, Shinichi; Yamanaka, Naoki; Iimori, Maho; Utsumi, Daichi; Kitahara, Yumeno; Iwata, Kazumi; Matsuno, Kuniharu; Amagase, Kikuko; Yabe-Nishimura, Chihiro; Takeuchi, Koji

    2012-05-15

    Although NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) has been shown to be highly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, the physiological and pathophysiological roles of this enzyme are not yet fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of NOX1 in the pathogenesis of intestinal mucositis induced by the cancer chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in mice. Intestinal mucositis was induced in Nox1 knockout (Nox1KO) and littermate wild-type (WT) mice via single, daily administration of 5-FU for 5 days. In WT mice, 5-FU caused severe intestinal mucositis characterized by a shortening of villus height, a disruption of crypts, a loss of body weight, and diarrhea. In Nox1KO mice, however, the severity of mucositis was significantly reduced, particularly with respect to crypt disruption. The numbers of apoptotic caspase-3- and caspase-8-activated cells in the intestinal crypt increased 24 h after the first 5-FU administration but were overall significantly lower in Nox1KO than in WT mice. Furthermore, the 5-FU-mediated upregulation of TNF-α, IL-1β, and NOX1 and the production of reactive oxygen species were significantly attenuated in Nox1KO mice compared with that in WT mice. These findings suggest that NOX1 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. NOX1-derived ROS production following administration of 5-FU may promote the apoptotic response through upregulation of inflammatory cytokines.

  18. Small-intestinal manifestations of dextran sulfate sodium consumption in rats and assessment of the effects of Lactobacillus fermentum BR11.

    PubMed

    Geier, Mark S; Smith, Cassie L; Butler, Ross N; Howarth, Gordon S

    2009-06-01

    The dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model has been utilized to screen for novel therapeutics for ulcerative colitis. Evidence suggests the small intestine may also be affected by DSS. We characterized the effects of DSS on the small intestine and assessed the potential for Lactobacillus fermentum BR11 to modify or normalize DSS-induced changes. Rats were allocated to three groups, Water + Vehicle, DSS + Vehicle, and DSS + L. fermentum BR11. BR11 was administered twice daily for 14 days. DSS (2%) was provided from days 7 to 14. Small-intestinal tissue was analyzed for sucrase activity, histology, and crypt cell proliferation. Increased ileum crypt depth and cell proliferation was observed in DSS-treated rats compared to controls (P < 0.05). BR11 normalized these parameters. While DSS predominantly induces colonic damage, minor morphological alterations were also detected in the distal small intestine. L. fermentum BR11 normalized these features.

  19. Enhanced Gastrointestinal Expression of Cytosolic Malic Enzyme (ME1) Induces Intestinal and Liver Lipogenic Gene Expression and Intestinal Cell Proliferation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dwairi, Ahmed; Brown, Adam R.; Pabona, John Mark P.; Van, Trang H.; Hamdan, Hamdan; Mercado, Charles P.; Quick, Charles M.; Wight, Patricia A.; Simmen, Rosalia C. M.; Simmen, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    The small intestine participates in lipid digestion, metabolism and transport. Cytosolic malic enzyme 1 (ME1) is an enzyme that generates NADPH used in fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. Previous work has correlated liver and adipose ME1 expression with susceptibility to obesity and diabetes; however, the contributions of intestine-expressed ME1 to these conditions are unknown. We generated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing rat ME1 in the gastrointestinal epithelium under the control of the murine villin1 promoter/enhancer. Levels of intestinal ME1 protein (endogenous plus transgene) were greater in Tg than wildtype (WT) littermates. Effects of elevated intestinal ME1 on body weight, circulating insulin, select adipocytokines, blood glucose, and metabolism-related genes were examined. Male Tg mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet gained significantly more body weight than WT male littermates and had heavier livers. ME1-Tg mice had deeper intestinal and colon crypts, a greater intestinal 5-bromodeoxyuridine labeling index, and increased expression of intestinal lipogenic (Fasn, Srebf1) and cholesterol biosynthetic (Hmgcsr, Hmgcs1), genes. The livers from HF diet-fed Tg mice also exhibited an induction of cholesterol and lipogenic pathway genes and altered measures (Irs1, Irs2, Prkce) of insulin sensitivity. Results indicate that gastrointestinal ME1 via its influence on intestinal epithelial proliferation, and lipogenic and cholesterologenic genes may concomitantly impact signaling in liver to modify this tissue’s metabolic state. Our work highlights a new mouse model to address the role of intestine-expressed ME1 in whole body metabolism, hepatomegaly, and crypt cell proliferation. Intestinal ME1 may thus constitute a therapeutic target to reduce obesity-associated pathologies. PMID:25402228

  20. Suppression of preneoplastic changes in the intestine of rats fed low levels of polyamines.

    PubMed

    Duranton, B; Nsi-Emvo, E; Schleiffer, R; Gossé, F; Galluser, M; Raul, F

    1997-02-15

    Administration for 7 days of an enteral diet that is naturally deficient in polyamines strikingly reduces the preneoplastic changes observed in the intestines of adult Wistar rats previously treated with the carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. On the contrary, supplementing the enteral diet with spermidine favors preneoplastic development. The effects of the low-polyamine diet included a 40% decline in the putrescine content of the intestinal mucosa, a significant decrease in the turnover rate of the epithelial cells from the crypts to villus tip in the ileum, and a 2-fold reduction in the number of abnormal colonic crypts. The experimental data support the view that it might be of interest to control the dietary intake of polyamines in the clinical management of cancer patients.

  1. Generation of L cells in mouse and human small intestine organoids.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Natalia; Reimann, Frank; Bartfeld, Sina; Farin, Henner F; Ringnalda, Femke C; Vries, Robert G J; van den Brink, Stieneke; Clevers, Hans; Gribble, Fiona M; de Koning, Eelco J P

    2014-02-01

    Upon a nutrient challenge, L cells produce glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a powerful stimulant of insulin release. Strategies to augment endogenous GLP-1 production include promoting L-cell differentiation and increasing L-cell number. Here we present a novel in vitro platform to generate functional L cells from three-dimensional cultures of mouse and human intestinal crypts. We show that short-chain fatty acids selectively increase the number of L cells, resulting in an elevation of GLP-1 release. This is accompanied by the upregulation of transcription factors associated with the endocrine lineage of intestinal stem cell development. Thus, our platform allows us to study and modulate the development of L cells in mouse and human crypts as a potential basis for novel therapeutic strategies in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  2. Melatonin alleviates weanling stress in mice: involvement of intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wenkai; Wang, Peng; Yan, Jiameng; Liu, Gang; Zeng, Benhua; Hussain, Tarique; Peng, Can; Yin, Jie; Tan, Bie; Li, Tiejun; Wei, Hong; Zhu, Guoqiang; Reiter, Russel J; Yin, Yulong

    2017-09-05

    Melatonin influences intestinal microbiota, and the pathogenesis of various diseases. This study was conducted to explore whether melatonin alleviates weanling stress through intestinal microbiota in a weanling mouse model. Melatonin supplementation in weanling mice (provided in the drinking water at a dosage of 0.2mg/ml for 2 weeks) significantly improved body weight gain (1.4±0.03 g/day in melatonin group vs. 1.2±0.06 g/day in control group) and intestinal morphology [i.e., villus length (258.1±12.2 um in melatonin group vs. 219.5±5.5 um in control group), crypt depth (105.9±0.2 um in melatonin group vs. 119.3±3.6 um in control group) and villus to crypt ratio (2.5±0.03 in melatonin group vs. 1.8±0.06 in control group)], but had little effect on the proliferation or apoptosis of intestinal cells, the numbers of Paneth cells and goblet cells, as well as the expression of makers related to enterocytes (sucrase) and endocrine cells (chromogranin A and peptide YY) in the ileum. Melatonin supplementation had little effect on serum levels of amino acids or stress-related parameters (e.g., SOD, TNF-α, and angiotensin I). 16S rRNA sequencing suggested that melatonin supplementation increased the richness indices of intestinal microbiota (observed species, Chao 1 and ACE), and shaped the composition of intestinal microbiota [e.g., increase in the abundance of Lactobacillus (19±3% in melatonin group vs. 6±2% in control group)], which was demonstrated using an ex vivo proliferation assay and colonic loop proliferation assay. Melatonin supplementation also significantly influenced the metabolism of intestinal microbiota, such as amino acids metabolism and drug metabolism. More importantly, in antibiotic-treated weanling mice and germ-free weanling mice, melatonin failed to affect body weight gain or intestinal morphology. Melatonin significantly reduced (by about 60%) the bacterial load of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-infected weanling mice, but had

  3. Potato fiber protects the small intestinal wall against the toxic influence of acrylamide.

    PubMed

    Dobrowolski, Piotr; Huet, Pauline; Karlsson, Patrik; Eriksson, Sune; Tomaszewska, Ewa; Gawron, Antoni; Pierzynowski, Stefan G

    2012-04-01

    Acrylamide is a neurotoxic, genotoxic substance present in many commonly consumed food products and has been shown to have carcinogenic effects in rodents. The protective effects (if any) of potato fiber preparations, composed of cell wall material from potatoes, against the toxic influence of dietary acrylamide on the small intestinal wall were investigated. Male mice of the BALB/c strain were used in the study. Acrylamide was administered to the mice in their drinking water (0.5 mg/kg of body weight per day) and one of two types of potato fiber preparations (heated or raw potato fiber preparation) was added to their feed (2% addition to their feed). Histomorphometry of the small intestinal wall, hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide, animal weight, and feed and water consumption analyses were performed. Acrylamide altered the morphology and histology of the small intestinal wall, decreasing proliferation, myenteron and submucosal thicknesses, villus length, fractal dimension, crypt depth, crypt number, and the small intestinal absorptive surface. Conversely, apoptosis, hemoglobin adduct levels, intensity of epithelium staining, enterocyte number, villus epithelial thickness, and crypt width and parameters associated with nerve ganglia were increased. The two potato fiber preparations that were used abolished the negative influences of acrylamide on the small intestinal wall and had no influence on the hemoglobin adduct levels of acrylamide. The negative impact of acrylamide on the histologic structure, regeneration, and innervation of the small intestinal wall and the absorptive function of the small intestinal mucosa can be abolished by dietary potato fiber preparations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cell death (apoptosis) in mouse intestine after continuous irradiation with gamma rays and with beta rays from tritiated water

    SciTech Connect

    Ijiri, K.

    1989-04-01

    Apoptosis is a pattern of cell death involving nuclear pycnosis, cytoplasmic condensation, and karyorrhexis. Apoptosis induced by continuous irradiation with gamma rays (externally given by a 137Cs source) or with beta rays (from tritiated water injected ip) was quantified in the crypts of two portions of mouse bowel, the small intestine and descending colon. The time-course change in the incidence of apoptosis after each type of radiation could be explained on the basis of the innate circadian rhythm of the cells susceptible to apoptotic death and of the excretion of tritiated water (HTO) from the body. For 6-h continuous gamma irradiation at various dose rates (0.6-480 mGy/h) and for 6 h after injection of HTO of various radioactivities (0.15-150 GBq per kg body wt), the relationships between dose and incidence of apoptosis were obtained. Survival curves were then constructed from the curves for dose vs incidence of apoptosis. For the calculation of the absorbed dose from HTO, the water content both of the mouse body and of the cells was assumed to be 70%. One megabecquerel of HTO per mouse (i.e., 40 MBq/kg body wt) gave a dose rate of 0.131 mGy/h. The mean lethal doses (D0) were calculated for gamma rays and HTO, and relative biological effectiveness values of HTO relative to gamma rays were obtained. The D0 values for continuous irradiation with gamma rays were 210 mGy for small intestine and 380 mGy for descending colon, and the respective values for HTO were 130 and 280 mGy, indicating the high radiosensitivity of target cells for apoptotic death. The relative biological effectiveness of HTO relative to 137Cs gamma rays for cell killing in both the small intestine and the descending colon in the mouse was 1.4-2.1.

  5. Intestinal absorptive capacity, intestinal permeability and jejunal histology in HIV and their relation to diarrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Keating, J; Bjarnason, I; Somasundaram, S; Macpherson, A; Francis, N; Price, A B; Sharpstone, D; Smithson, J; Menzies, I S; Gazzard, B G

    1995-01-01

    Intestinal function is poorly defined in patients with HIV infection. Absorptive capacity and intestinal permeability were assessed using 3-O-methyl-D-glucose, D-xylose, L-rhamnose, and lactulose in 88 HIV infected patients and the findings were correlated with the degree of immunosuppression (CD4 counts), diarrhoea, wasting, intestinal pathogen status, and histomorphometric analysis of jejunal biopsy samples. Malabsorption of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose and D-xylose was prevalent in all groups of patients with AIDS but not in asymptomatic, well patients with HIV. Malabsorption correlated significantly (r = 0.34-0.56, p < 0.005) with the degree of immune suppression and with body mass index. Increased intestinal permeability was found in all subgroups of patients. The changes in absorption-permeability were of comparable severity to those found in patients with untreated coeliac disease. Jejunal histology, however, showed only mild changes in the villus height/crypt depth ratio as compared with subtotal villus atrophy in coeliac disease. Malabsorption and increased intestinal permeability are common in AIDS patients. Malabsorption, which has nutritional implications, relates more to immune suppression than jejunal morphological changes. PMID:8549936

  6. Experimental studies of immunologically mediated enteropathy. Development of cell mediated immunity and intestinal pathology during a graft-versus-host reaction in irradiated mice.

    PubMed Central

    Mowat, A M; Felstein, M V; Borland, A; Parrott, D M

    1988-01-01

    The intestinal component of a graft-versus-host reaction (GvHR) provides a useful experimental model to elucidate the pathogenesis of clinical enteropathies which cause villus atrophy and crypt hyperplasia and which are associated with a local immune response. One to three days after induction of GvHR in heavily irradiated (CBAxBALB/c)F1 mice, a proliferative form of enteropathy developed. Compared with controls, these mice had increased counts of jejunal intraepithelial lymphocytes and had a four-fold increase in crypt cell production rate as well as an increase in crypt length. These changes were accompanied by a marked enhancement of splenic natural killer cell activity. After day three, the crypt cell production rate fell to zero and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) which could lyse targets of host origin appeared. In parallel, mice with GvHR developed significant villus shortening and their clinical condition deteriorated. Further experiments showed that increased counts of intraepithelial lymphocytes, villus atrophy and crypt hyperplasia also occurred in grafts of fetal CBA intestine implanted under the kidney capsule of (CBAxBALB/c)F1 mice with GvHR. As these grafts are syngeneic to the injected CBA spleen cells, they should not be attacked by anti-host cytotoxic T lymphocytes. We suggest that the proliferative and destructive components of enteropathy in GvHR are caused by lymphokines released by an anti-host delayed type hypersensitivity reaction. PMID:3294125

  7. IGF Binding Protein-4 is Required for the Growth Effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 in Murine Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Kaori; Imam, Nuvair A.; Pintar, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is an enteroendocrine hormone that stimulates the growth of the intestinal epithelium. We have previously demonstrated that GLP-2 exerts its intestinotropic effect through an indirect mechanism that requires both IGF-1 and the intestinal epithelial IGF-1 receptor. However, the biological activity of IGF-1 is modulated by IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), including IGFBP-4, which is highly expressed in the intestine. To determine the role of IGFBP-4 in the tropic effects of GLP-2, IGFBP-4 knockout (KO) and control mice were treated with degradation-resistant GLP-2 or vehicle for 10 days. Comparable levels of IGFBP-1–3/5–7 mRNAs were observed in the intestinal mucosa of all animals. IGFBP-4 KO mice had greater small intestinal weight and length, and deeper crypts (P < .05) as compared with controls, suggesting that IGFBP-4 has an inhibitory role in basal intestinal growth. However, small intestinal weight, crypt-villus height and crypt cell proliferation increased in response to GLP-2 in control mice (P < .05), and these changes were abrogated with IGFBP-4 KO. In contrast, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A KO mice, which have increased levels of circulating IGFBP-4, demonstrated a normal intestinotropic response to GLP-2. Finally, GLP-2 treatment of control mice significantly increased IGFBP-4 mRNA expression in the jejunal mucosa (P < .05), a finding that was recapitulated by GLP-2 treatment of fetal rat intestinal cells in culture (10−8M for 2 h; P < .05). Collectively, these results indicate that the IGF-I-modulating protein, IGFBP-4, exerts a negative effect on basal intestinal growth but plays a positive regulatory role in the intestinotropic actions of GLP-2. PMID:25514089

  8. Autoradiographic localization of opioid receptor types in the rat small intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Dashwood, M.R.; Sykes, R.M.; Thompson, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    The selective mu and delta ligands (/sup 3/H)DAGO and (/sup 3/H)DPDPE have been used to investigate the distribution of specific opioid subtypes in the rat small intestine by in vitro autoradiography. There was a greater density of (/sup 3/H)DPDPE binding at regions of the villi and crypts than (/sup 3/H)DAGO binding. These results suggest that the opioid receptors located in these regions are predominantly of the delta subtype.

  9. Inflammatory cues acting on the adult intestinal stem cells and the early onset of cancer (Review)

    PubMed Central

    DE LERMA BARBARO, A.; PERLETTI, G.; BONAPACE, I.M.; MONTI, E.

    2014-01-01

    The observation that cancer often arises at sites of chronic inflammation has prompted the idea that carcinogenesis and inflammation are deeply interwoven. In fact, the current literature highlights a role for chronic inflammation in virtually all the steps of carcinogenesis, including tumor initiation, promotion and progression. The aim of the present article is to review the current literature on the involvement of chronic inflammation in the initiation step and in the very early phases of tumorigenesis, in a type of cancer where adult stem cells are assumed to be the cells of origin of neoplasia. Since the gastrointestinal tract is regarded as the best-established model system to address the liaison between chronic inflammation and neoplasia, the focus of this article will be on intestinal cancer. In fact, the anatomy of the intestinal epithelial lining is uniquely suited to study adult stem cells in their niche, and the bowel crypt is an ideal developmental biology system, as proliferation, differentiation and cell migration are all distributed linearly along the long axis of the crypt. Moreover, crypt stem cells are regarded today as the most likely targets of neoplastic transformation in bowel cancer. More specifically, the present review addresses the molecular mechanisms whereby a state of chronic inflammation could trigger the neoplastic process in the intestine, focusing on the generation of inflammatory cues evoking enhanced proliferation in cells not initiated but at risk of neoplastic transformation because of their stemness. Novel experimental approaches, based on triggering an inflammatory stimulus in the neighbourhood of adult intestinal stem cells, are warranted to address some as yet unanswered questions. A possible approach, the targeted transgenesis of Paneth cells, may be aimed at ‘hijacking’ the crypt stem cell niche from a status characterized by the maintenance of homeostasis to local chronic inflammation, with the prospect of initiating

  10. Radioprotection and Cell Cycle Arrest of Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Darinaparsin, a Tumor Radiosensitizer

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Junqiang; Doi, Hiroshi; Saar, Matthias; Santos, Jennifer; Li, Xuejun; Peehl, Donna M.; Knox, Susan J.

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: It was recently reported that the organic arsenic compound darinaparsin (DPS) is a cytotoxin and radiosensitizer of tumor cells in vitro and in subcutaneous xenograft tumors. Surprisingly, it was also found that DPS protects normal intestinal crypt epithelial cells (CECs) from clonogenic death after ionizing radiation (IR). Here we tested the DPS radiosensitizing effect in a clinically relevant model of prostate cancer and explored the radioprotective effect and mechanism of DPS on CECs. Methods and Materials: The radiation modification effect of DPS was tested in a mouse model of orthotopic xenograft prostate cancer and of IR-induced acute gastrointestinal syndrome. The effect of DPS on CEC DNA damage and DNA damage responses was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results: In the mouse model of IR-induced gastrointestinal syndrome, DPS treatment before IR accelerated recovery from body weight loss and increased animal survival. DPS decreased post-IR DNA damage and cell death, suggesting that the radioprotective effect was mediated by enhanced DNA damage repair. Shortly after DPS injection, significant cell cycle arrest was observed in CECs at both G1/S and G2/M checkpoints, which was accompanied by the activation of cell cycle inhibitors p21 and growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45 alpha (GADD45A). Further investigation revealed that DPS activated ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), an important inducer of DNA damage repair and cell cycle arrest. Conclusions: DPS selectively radioprotected normal intestinal CECs and sensitized prostate cancer cells in a clinically relevant model. This effect may be, at least in part, mediated by DNA damage response activation and has the potential to significantly increase the therapeutic index of radiation therapy.

  11. A PPAR-gamma agonist protects from radiation-induced intestinal toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sottili, Mariangela; Gerini, Chiara; Desideri, Isacco; Bastida, Cinzia; Pallotta, Stefania; Castiglione, Francesca; Bonomo, Pierluigi; Meattini, Icro; Greto, Daniela; Cappelli, Sabrina; Di Brina, Lucia; Loi, Mauro; Biti, Giampaolo; Livi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Because of its anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, anti-apoptotic and anti-neoplastic properties, the PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone is an interesting drug for investigating for use in the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced intestinal damage. We aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of rosiglitazone in a murine model of acute intestinal damage, assessing whether radioprotection is selective for normal tissues or also occurs in tumour cells. Methods Mice were total-body irradiated (12 Gy), with or without rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg/day). After 24 and 72 hours, mice were sacrificed and the jejunum was collected. HT-29 human colon cancer cells were irradiated with a single dose of 2 (1000 cells), 4 (1500 cells) or 6 (2000 cells) Gy, with or without adding rosiglitazone (20 µM) 1 hour before irradiation. HT-29-xenografted CD1 mice were irradiated (16 Gy) with or without rosiglitazone; tumour volumes were measured for 33 days. Results Rosiglitazone markedly reduced histological signs of altered bowel structures, that is, villi shortening, submucosal thickening, necrotic changes in crypts, oedema, apoptosis, and inflammatory infiltrate induced by irradiation. Rosiglitazone significantly decreased p-NF-kB p65 phosphorylation and TGFβ protein expression at 24 and 72 hours post-irradiation and significantly decreased gene expression of Collagen1, Mmp13, Tnfα and Bax at 24 hours and p53 at 72 hours post-irradiation. Rosiglitazone reduced HT-29 clonogenic survival, but only produced a slight reduction of xenograft tumour growth. Conclusion Rosiglitazone exerts a protective effect on normal tissues and reduces alterations in bowel structures and inflammation in a radiation-induced bowel toxicity model, without interfering with the radiation effect on HT-29 cancer cells. PPAR-γ agonists should be further investigated for their application in abdominal and pelvic irradiation. PMID:28344789

  12. CD34+ mesenchymal cells are a major component of the intestinal stem cells niche at homeostasis and after injury

    PubMed Central

    Stzepourginski, Igor; Nigro, Giulia; Jacob, Jean-Marie; Dulauroy, Sophie; Sansonetti, Philippe J.; Eberl, Gérard; Peduto, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is continuously renewed by intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs) positioned at the base of each crypt. Mesenchymal-derived factors are essential to maintain IESCs; however, the cellular composition and development of such mesenchymal niche remains unclear. Here, we identify pericryptal CD34+ Gp38+ αSMA– mesenchymal cells closely associated with Lgr5+ IESCs. We demonstrate that CD34+ Gp38+ cells are the major intestinal producers of the niche factors Wnt2b, Gremlin1, and R-spondin1, and are sufficient to promote maintenance of Lgr5+ IESCs in intestinal organoids, an effect mainly mediated by Gremlin1. CD34+ Gp38+ cells develop after birth in the intestinal submucosa and expand around the crypts during the third week of life in mice, independently of the microbiota. We further show that pericryptal CD34+gp38+ cells are rapidly activated by intestinal injury, up-regulating niche factors Gremlin1 and R-spondin1 as well as chemokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and growth factors with key roles in gut immunity and tissue repair, including IL-7, Ccl2, Ptgs2, and Amphiregulin. Our results indicate that CD34+ Gp38+ mesenchymal cells are programmed to develop in the intestine after birth to constitute a specialized microenvironment that maintains IESCs at homeostasis and contribute to intestinal inflammation and repair after injury. PMID:28074039

  13. Interleukin-22 Promotes Intestinal Stem Cell-Mediated Epithelial Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Dudakov, Jarrod A.; Jenq, Robert R.; Velardi, Enrico; Young, Lauren F.; Smith, Odette M.; Lawrence, Gillian; Ivanov, Juliet A.; Fu, Ya-Yuan; Takashima, Shuichiro; Hua, Guoqiang; Martin, Maria L.; O'Rourke, Kevin P.; Lo, Yuan-Hung; Mokry, Michal; Romera-Hernandez, Monica; Cupedo, Tom; Dow, Lukas; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E.; Shroyer, Noah F.; Liu, Chen; Kolesnick, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial regeneration is critical for barrier maintenance and organ function after intestinal injury. The intestinal stem cell (ISC) niche provides Wnt, Notch, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signals supporting Lgr5+ crypt base columnar ISCs for normal epithelial maintenance1,2. However, little is known about the regulation of the ISC compartment after tissue damage. Utilizing ex vivo organoid cultures, we provide evidence that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), potent producers of Interleukin-22 (IL-22) after intestinal injury3,4, increased the growth of murine small intestine (SI) organoids in an IL-22-dependent fashion. Recombinant IL-22 directly targeted ISCs, augmenting the growth of both murine and human intestinal organoids, increasing proliferation, and promoting ISC expansion. IL-22 induced Stat3 phosphorylation in Lgr5+ ISCs, and Stat3 was critical for both organoid formation and IL-22-mediated regeneration. Treatment with IL-22 in vivo after murine allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) enhanced recovery of ISCs, increased epithelial regeneration, and reduced intestinal pathology and mortality from graft vs. host disease (GVHD). Atoh1-deficient organoid culture demonstrated that IL-22 induced epithelial regeneration independent of the Paneth cell niche. Our findings reveal a fundamental mechanism by which the immune system is able to support intestinal epithelium, activating ISCs to promote regeneration. PMID:26649819

  14. Interleukin-22 promotes intestinal-stem-cell-mediated epithelial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lindemans, Caroline A; Calafiore, Marco; Mertelsmann, Anna M; O'Connor, Margaret H; Dudakov, Jarrod A; Jenq, Robert R; Velardi, Enrico; Young, Lauren F; Smith, Odette M; Lawrence, Gillian; Ivanov, Juliet A; Fu, Ya-Yuan; Takashima, Shuichiro; Hua, Guoqiang; Martin, Maria L; O'Rourke, Kevin P; Lo, Yuan-Hung; Mokry, Michal; Romera-Hernandez, Monica; Cupedo, Tom; Dow, Lukas E; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E; Shroyer, Noah F; Liu, Chen; Kolesnick, Richard; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Hanash, Alan M

    2015-12-24

    Epithelial regeneration is critical for barrier maintenance and organ function after intestinal injury. The intestinal stem cell (ISC) niche provides Wnt, Notch and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signals supporting Lgr5(+) crypt base columnar ISCs for normal epithelial maintenance. However, little is known about the regulation of the ISC compartment after tissue damage. Using ex vivo organoid cultures, here we show that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), potent producers of interleukin-22 (IL-22) after intestinal injury, increase the growth of mouse small intestine organoids in an IL-22-dependent fashion. Recombinant IL-22 directly targeted ISCs, augmenting the growth of both mouse and human intestinal organoids, increasing proliferation and promoting ISC expansion. IL-22 induced STAT3 phosphorylation in Lgr5(+) ISCs, and STAT3 was crucial for both organoid formation and IL-22-mediated regeneration. Treatment with IL-22 in vivo after mouse allogeneic bone marrow transplantation enhanced the recovery of ISCs, increased epithelial regeneration and reduced intestinal pathology and mortality from graft-versus-host disease. ATOH1-deficient organoid culture demonstrated that IL-22 induced epithelial regeneration independently of the Paneth cell niche. Our findings reveal a fundamental mechanism by which the immune system is able to support the intestinal epithelium, activating ISCs to promote regeneration.

  15. Intestinal Ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... and hormone medications, such as estrogen Cocaine or methamphetamine use Vigorous exercise, such as long-distance running ... anti-phospholipid syndrome. Illegal drug use. Cocaine and methamphetamine use have been linked to intestinal ischemia. Complications ...

  16. SAM pointed domain ETS factor (SPDEF) regulates terminal differentiation and maturation of intestinal goblet cells

    SciTech Connect

    Noah, Taeko K.; Kazanjian, Avedis; Whitsett, Jeffrey; Shroyer, Noah F.

    2010-02-01

    Background and Aims: SPDEF (also termed PDEF or PSE) is an ETS family transcription factor that regulates gene expression in the prostate and goblet cell hyperplasia in the lung. Spdef has been reported to be expressed in the intestine. In this paper, we identify an important role for Spdef in regulating intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis and differentiation. Methods: SPDEF expression was inhibited in colon cancer cells to determine its ability to control goblet cell gene activation. The effects of transgenic expression of Spdef on intestinal differentiation and homeostasis were determined. Results: In LS174T colon cancer cells treated with Notch/{gamma}-secretase inhibitor to activate goblet cell gene expression, shRNAs that inhibited SPDEF also repressed expression of goblet cell genes AGR2, MUC2, RETLNB, and SPINK4. Transgenic expression of Spdef caused the expansion of intestinal goblet cells and corresponding reduction in Paneth, enteroendocrine, and absorptive enterocytes. Spdef inhibited proliferation of intestinal crypt cells without induction of apoptosis. Prolonged expression of the Spdef transgene caused a progressive reduction in the number of crypts that expressed Spdef, consistent with its inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Conclusions: Spdef was sufficient to inhibit proliferation of intestinal progenitors and induce differentiation into goblet cells; SPDEF was required for activation of goblet cell associated genes in vitro. These data support a model in which Spdef promotes terminal differentiation into goblet cells of a common goblet/Paneth progenitor.

  17. Mitochondrial function controls intestinal epithelial stemness and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Emanuel; Rath, Eva; Yuan, Detian; Waldschmitt, Nadine; Khaloian, Sevana; Allgäuer, Michael; Staszewski, Ori; Lobner, Elena M.; Schöttl, Theresa; Giesbertz, Pieter; Coleman, Olivia I.; Prinz, Marco; Weber, Achim; Gerhard, Markus; Klingenspor, Martin; Janssen, Klaus-Peter; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Haller, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Control of intestinal epithelial stemness is crucial for tissue homeostasis. Disturbances in epithelial function are implicated in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Here we report that mitochondrial function plays a critical role in maintaining intestinal stemness and homeostasis. Using intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific mouse models, we show that loss of HSP60, a mitochondrial chaperone, activates the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (MT-UPR) and results in mitochondrial dysfunction. HSP60-deficient crypts display loss of stemness and cell proliferation, accompanied by epithelial release of WNT10A and RSPO1. Sporadic failure of Cre-mediated Hsp60 deletion gives rise to hyperproliferative crypt foci originating from OLFM4+ stem cells. These effects are independent of the MT-UPR-associated transcription factor CHOP. In conclusion, compensatory hyperproliferation of HSP60+ escaper stem cells suggests paracrine release of WNT-related factors from HSP60-deficient, functionally impaired IEC to be pivotal in the control of the proliferative capacity of the stem cell niche. PMID:27786175

  18. Intestinal Capillariasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    bhIll inenais, the tiny nematode causing Intestinal capillariasis In humans, Is a Iunique parasite. It is one of the newest parasites that has been...Capillariaphilippinensis, the tiny nematode causing intestinal capillariasis in humans, is a unique parasite. It is one of the newest parasites that has been shown to...stichocytes surrounding the oesophagus. The posterior half of the nematode is wider than the anterior half and contains the digestive tract and the

  19. Concise review: the yin and yang of intestinal (cancer) stem cells and their progenitors.

    PubMed

    Stange, Daniel E; Clevers, Hans

    2013-11-01

    The intestine has developed over the last few years into a prime model system for adult stem cell research. Intestinal cells have an average lifetime of 5 days, moving within this time from the bottom of intestinal crypts to the top of villi. This rapid self-renewal capacity combined with an easy to follow (mostly) unidirectional movement of cells offers an ideal site to conduct adult stem cell research. The delineation of the active pathways in the intestinal epithelium together with the development of molecular techniques to prove stemness laid the grounds for the identification of the intestinal stem cell. In vitro systems and transgenic mouse models broaden our knowledge on the role of the stem cell niche and those cells that reestablish homeostasis after perturbation of the system. These insights expedited also research on the role of normal adult stem cells in cancer initiation and the factors influencing the maintenance of cancer stem cells.

  20. Marked changes in endogenous antioxidant expression precede vitamin A, C and E-protectable, radiation-induced reductions in small intestinal nutrient transport

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Marjolaine; Kemp, Francis W; Agrawal, Amit; Attanasio, Alicia; Neti, Prasad VSV; Howell, Roger W; Ferraris, Ronaldo P

    2010-01-01

    Rapidly proliferating epithelial crypt cells of the small intestine are susceptible to radiation-induced oxidative stress, yet there is a dearth of data linking this stress to expression of antioxidant enzymes and to alterations of intestinal nutrient absorption. We previously showed that 5 – 14 d after acute γ-irradiation, intestinal sugar absorption decreased without change in antioxidant enzyme expression. In the present study, we measured antioxidant mRNA and protein expression in mouse intestines taken at early times postirradiation. Observed changes in antioxidant expression are characterized by a rapid decrease within 1 h postirradiation, followed by dramatic upregulation within 4 h, and then downregulation a few days later. The cell type and location expressing the greatest changes in levels of the oxidative stress marker 4HNE and in antioxidant enzymes are, respectively, epithelial cells responsible for nutrient absorption and the crypt region comprised mainly of undifferentiated cells. Consumption of a cocktail of antioxidant vitamins A, C and E, before irradiation, prevents reductions in transport of intestinal sugars, amino acids, bile acids and peptides. Ingestion of antioxidants may blunt radiation-induced decreases in nutrient transport, perhaps by reducing acute oxidative stress in crypt cells, thereby allowing the small intestine to retain its absorptive function when those cells migrate to the villus days after the insult. PMID:20970494

  1. Protective effects of alanyl-glutamine supplementation against nelfinavir-induced epithelial impairment in IEC-6 cells and in mouse intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Braga-Neto, Manuel B; Oliveira, Bruna M C; Rodrigues, Raphael S; Noronha, Francisco J; Leitao, Renata F; Brito, Gerly A C; Lima, Aldo A; Guerrant, Richard L; Warren, Cirle A

    2012-12-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) protease inhibitors (PI) remain a crucial component of highly active therapy (HAART) and recently have been demonstrated to have potent antitumor effect on a wide variety of tumor cell lines. However, discontinuation of therapy is an important issue, which may be related to various side-effects, especially diarrhea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of nelfinavir (NFV), an HIV PI, and of alanyl-glutamine (AQ) supplementation, on intestinal cell migration, proliferation, apoptosis and necrosis, using IEC-6 cells and on intestinal crypt depth, villus length, villus area, mitotic index and apoptosis in Swiss mice. Migration was evaluated at 12 and 24 h after injury using a wound healing assay. Cellular proliferation was measured indirectly at 24 and 48 h using tetrazolium salt WST-1. Apoptosis and necrosis were measured by flow cytometry using the Annexin V assay. Intestinal morphometry and mitotic index in vivo were assessed following a seven-day treatment with 100 mg/kg of NFV, given orally. In vivo proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by intestinal crypt mitotic index and immunohistochemistry, respectively. In vitro, AQ supplementation enhanced IEC-6 cell migration and proliferation, following challenge with NFV. In vivo, AQ increased intestinal villus length, villus area, crypt depth and cell proliferation and cell migration, following treatment with NFV. AQ did not decrease cell death induced by NFV both in vivo and in vitro. AQ supplementation is potentially beneficial in preventing the effects of PIs, such as NFV, in the intestinal tract.

  2. Both the anti- and pro-apoptotic functions of villin regulate cell turnover and intestinal homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaohong; George, Sudeep P.; Roy, Swati; Pham, Eric; Esmaeilniakooshkghazi, Amin; Khurana, Seema

    2016-01-01

    In the small intestine, epithelial cells are derived from stem cells in the crypts, migrate up the villus as they differentiate and are ultimately shed from the villus tips. This process of proliferation and shedding is tightly regulated to maintain the intestinal architecture and tissue homeostasis. Apoptosis regulates both the number of stem cells in the crypts as well as the sloughing of cells from the villus tips. Previously, we have shown that villin, an epithelial cell-specific actin-binding protein functions as an anti-apoptotic protein in the gastrointestinal epithelium. The expression of villin is highest in the apoptosis-resistant villus cells and lowest in the apoptosis-sensitive crypts. In this study we report that villin is cleaved in the intestinal mucosa to generate a pro-apoptotic fragment that is spatially restricted to the villus tips. This cleaved villin fragment severs actin in an unregulated fashion to initiate the extrusion and subsequent apoptosis of effete cells from the villus tips. Using villin knockout mice, we validate the physiological role of villin in apoptosis and cell extrusion from the gastrointestinal epithelium. Our study also highlights the potential role of villin’s pro-apoptotic function in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, ischemia-reperfusion injury, enteroinvasive bacterial and parasitic infections. PMID:27765954

  3. Proximal enterectomy provides a stronger systemic stimulus to intestinal adaptation than distal enterectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Appleton, G V; Bristol, J B; Williamson, R C

    1987-01-01

    Enteroglucagon has been implicated as a tropic hormone in the control of intestinal adaptation. Because cells producing enteroglucagon are located mainly in the distal small bowel (and colon), ileal resection might be expected to produce less adaptive change than a jejunal resection of equivalent length. This hypothesis was tested in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 40) weighing 184.0 +/- 7.3 g and receiving a Thiry-Vella fistula (TVF) of the mid-60% of the small intestine. One group had concomitant resection of the jejunum proximal to the TVF (n = 12), another had resection of the ileum distal to the TVF (n = 13), while controls had a TVF alone (n = 15). When killed 10 days postoperatively rats with ileal resection weighed only 81% of controls (p less than 0.001) and 85% of those with jejunal resection (p less than 0.01). Jejunal resection produced an 81% increase in crypt cell production rate (measured by a stathmokinetic technique) over control values (28.5 +/- 4.2 v 15.8 +/- 2.3 cells/crypt/h: p = 0.025), whereas ileal resection had no demonstrable effect (17.5 +/- 2.3 cells/crypt/h). Adaptive hyperplasia in isolated small bowel is modulated by factors localised to the distal small intestine, enteroglucagon being a plausible candidate. PMID:3692304

  4. Oral administration of live Bifidobacterium substrains isolated from centenarians enhances intestinal function in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haiying; Liu, Aiping; Zhang, Ming; Ibrahim, Salam A; Pang, Zhihua; Leng, Xiaojing; Ren, Fazheng

    2009-10-01

    We studied the effects of two bifidobacteria strains isolated from healthy centenarians on intestinal function in mice. Bifidobacterium adolescentis BBMN23 and Bifidobacterium longum BBMN68 were orally administrated to specific pathogen-free BALB/c mice at different doses (2 x 10(11), 2 x 10(9), or 2 x 10(7) CFU/kg body weight) each day for 4 weeks. Villus height, crypt depth, villus width, and villus/crypt ratio (V/C) were determined. The content of duodenal secreted immunoglobulin A (sIgA) was also evaluated. There were clear increases in height and width of duodenal villi in both treated groups. Crypt depths were deeper in animals treated with BBMN23 than in controls, while depths were reduced in animals receiving BBMN68. The V/C ratio was increased after feeding with BBMN68, while BBMN23 had no significant effect. Both strains improved the sIgA content of the duodenum. These results suggest that BBMN23 and BBMN68 may improve intestinal digestion and ability and enhance immune barrier function in the intestine.

  5. Ultrastructural study of postnatal development of the tonsillar crypt epithelium of the musk shrew, Suncus murinus.

    PubMed

    Tohya, K; Kimura, M

    1992-09-01

    An ultrastructural study was made of the postnatal development of the tonsillar crypt epithelium in the musk shrew, Suncus murinus. On day 3 after birth, a particular kind of large lymphoid cell was first seen to move through the basement membrane into the epithelium. The next migration was that of lymphocytes, which passed through holes in the basement membrane. On days 5 to 7, the lymphocytes formed clusters, and pale epithelial cells of low electron density appeared. The cell clusters and pale epithelial cells fused on day 10. By day 14, these epithelial cells extended cytoplasmic projections to the surface of the epithelium, which had many heterophagic vacuoles and some microvilli-like structures. These findings suggest that the lymphoepithelial relationship is important for the organization of the immunological microenvironment in tonsillar crypt epithelium of the neonatal musk shrew.

  6. Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 attenuates cyclophosphamide-induced intestinal mucosal injury, metabolism and intestinal microbiota disorders in mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun-Hua; Fan, Song-Tao; Nie, Shao-Ping; Yu, Qiang; Xiong, Tao; Gong, Deming; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2016-03-01

    Anticancer drugs at high doses often damage the intestinal mucosa and metabolism. Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 (NCU116) isolated from pickled vegetables was orally given to cyclophosphamide-treated mice to determine its effects on intestinal mucosal injury, nutrient metabolism and colon microbiota, and investigate the mechanisms accounting for its effects. Mice treated with the bacterium were found to favorably recover intestine morphology of villus height and crypt depth, and have improved mucins expression and quantity of goblet cells, as well as intestinal metabolism by increasing the level of short-chain fatty acids and reducing the concentration of ammonia in the colon feces. In addition, NCU116-treated mice showed a higher diversity of colonic microbiota than the group without bacterium supplementation. The number of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in the mouse colon was increased after bacterium intake, which decreased the number of potentially pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas. These results indicated that NCU116 could be of significant advantage in reducing intestinal mucosal injury and improving the intestinal metabolism and the intestinal microbiota.

  7. Polyethylene glycol, unique among laxatives, suppresses aberrant crypt foci, by elimination of cells

    PubMed Central

    Taché, Sylviane; Parnaud, Géraldine; Van Beek, Erik; Corpet, Denis E.

    2006-01-01

    Background Polyethylene glycol (PEG), an osmotic laxative, is a very potent inhibitor of colon cancer in rats. In a search for mechanisms, we tested the hypothesis that fecal bulking and moisture decreases colon carcinogenesis. We also looked for PEG effects on crypt cells in vivo. Methods Fischer 344 rats (N=272) were given an injection of the colon carcinogen azoxymethane. They were then randomized to a standard AIN76 diet containing one of 19 laxative agents (5% w/w in most cases): PEG 8000 and other PEG-like compounds, carboxymethylcellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone, sodium polyacrylate, calcium polycarbophil, karaya gum, psyllium, mannitol, sorbitol, lactulose, propylene glycol, magnesium hydroxide, sodium phosphate, bisacodyl, docusate, and paraffin oil. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and fecal values were measured blindly after a 30-day treatment. Proliferation, apoptosis, and the removal of cells from crypts were studied in control and PEG-fed rats by various methods, including TUNEL and fluorescein dextran labeling. Results PEG 8000 reduced nine-fold the number of ACF in rats (p<0.001). The other PEGs and magnesium-hydroxide modestly suppressed ACF, but not the other laxatives. ACF number did not correlate with fecal weight or moisture. PEG doubled the apoptotic bodies per crypt (p<0.05), increased proliferation by 25–50% (p<0.05) and strikingly increased (>40-fold) a fecal marker of epitheliolysis in the gut (p<0.001). PEG normalized the percentage of fluorescein dextran labeled cells on the top of ACF (p<0.001). Conclusions Among laxatives, only PEG afforded potent chemoprevention. PEG protection was not due to increased fecal bulking, but likely to the elimination of cells from precancerous lesions. PMID:16716974

  8. Clonality assessment and clonal ordering of individual neoplastic crypts shows polyclonality of colorectal adenomas.

    PubMed

    Thirlwell, Christina; Will, Olivia C C; Domingo, E; Graham, Trevor A; McDonald, Stuart A C; Oukrif, Dahmane; Jeffrey, Rosemary; Gorman, Maggie; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Chin-Aleong, Joanne; Clark, Sue K; Novelli, Marco R; Jankowski, Janusz A; Wright, Nicholas A; Tomlinson, Ian P M; Leedham, Simon J

    2010-04-01

    According to the somatic mutation theory, monoclonal colorectal lesions arise from sequential mutations in the progeny of a single stem cell. However, studies in a sex chromosome mixoploid mosaic (XO/XY) patient indicated that colorectal adenomas were polyclonal. We assessed adenoma clonality on an individual crypt basis and completed a genetic dependency analysis in carcinomas-in-adenomas to assess mutation order and timing. Polyp samples were analyzed from the XO/XY individual, patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis, patients with small sporadic adenomas, and patients with sporadic carcinoma-in-adenomas. Clonality was analyzed using X/Y chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization, analysis of 5q loss of heterozygosity in XO/XY tissue, and sequencing of adenomatous polyposis coli. Individual crypts and different phenotypic areas of carcinoma-in-adenoma lesions were analyzed for mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli, p53, and K-RAS; loss of heterozygosity at 5q, 17p, and 18q; and aneuploidy. Phylogenetic trees were constructed. All familial adenomatous polyposis-associated adenomas and some sporadic lesions had polyclonal genetic defects. Some independent clones appeared to be maintained in advanced adenomas. No clear obligate order of genetic events was established. Top-down growth of dysplastic tissue into neighboring crypts was a possible mechanism of clonal competition. Human colorectal microadenomas are polyclonal and may arise from a combination of host genetic features, mucosal exposures, and active crypt interactions. Analyses of tumor phylogenies show that most lesions undergo intermittent genetic homogenization, but heterotypic mutation patterns indicate that independent clonal evolution can occur throughout adenoma development. Based on observations of clonal ordering the requirement and timing of genetic events during neoplastic progression may be more variable than previously thought. 2010 AGA

  9. Intestinal genetic inactivation of caspase-8 diminishes migration of enterocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kaemmerer, Elke; Kuhn, Paula; Schneider, Ursula; Jeon, Min Kyung; Klaus, Christina; Schiffer, Miriam; Weisner, Danika; Liedtke, Christian; Jäkel, Jörg; Kennes, Lieven Nils; Hilgers, Ralf-Dieter; Wagner, Norbert; Gassler, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To verify the hypothesis that caspase-8 (Casp8), which regulates cellular apoptosis and necroptosis, is critically involved in enterocyte migration. METHODS: Casp8-silenced Caco2 cells were used in migration assays. In addition, enterocyte-specific Casp8 heterozygous (Casp8+/∆int) or homozygous knockout mice (Casp8∆int) were generated by crossing genetically modified mice carrying loxP recombination sites in intron 2 and 4 of the murine Casp8 gene with transgenic animals expressing a cre-transgene under control of the villin promoter in a pure C57/BL6 genetic background. The nucleoside analog BrdU was injected i.p. in male Casp8+/∆int and Casp8∆int animals 4 h, 20 h, or 40 h before performing morphometric studies. Locations of anti-BrdU-immunostained cells (cellmax) in at least 50 hemi-crypts of 6 histoanatomically distinct intestinal mucosal regions were numbered and extracted for statistical procedures. For the mice cohort (n = 28), the walking distance of enterocytes was evaluated from cellmax within crypt (n = 57), plateau (n = 19), and villus (n = 172) positions, resulting in a total of 6838 observations. Data analysis was performed by fitting a three-level mixed effects model to the data. RESULTS: In cell culture experiments with Caco2 cells, Casp8 knockdown efficiency mediated by RNA interference on Casp8 transcripts was 80% controlled as determined by Western blotting. In the scratch assay, migration of Casp8-deleted Caco2 cells was significantly diminished when compared with controls (Casp8∆scramble and Caco2). In BrdU-labeled Casp8∆int mice, cellmax locations were found along the hemi-crypts in a lower position than it was for Casp8+/∆int or control (cre-negative) animals. Statistical data analysis with a three-level mixed effects model revealed that in the six different intestinal locations (distinct segments of the small and large intestine), cell movement between the three mice groups differed widely. Especially in duodenal hemi-crypts

  10. Goblet cells and intestinal Alkaline phosphatase expression (IAP) during the development of the rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Gomes, José Rosa; Ayub, Laís Costa; Dos Reis, Camila Audrey; Machado, Miriam Joice; da Silva, Jéssica; Omar, Nádia Fayez; de Miranda Soares, Maria Albertina

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the temporal and spacial distribution of the mucins produced by goblet cells and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) expression during the development of the small intestine of the rat. Intestines were removed from rats on the 15th, 17th and 18th days of intratuterine life (i.u.) and on the 3rd, 10th, 17th and 25th days after birth (a.b.). Intestines were processed for routine histological procedures and sections were submitted to histochemistry using PAS to stain neutral glycoproteins and Alcian blue for acidic glycoproteins, as well as immunohistochemistry to detect IAP. In rats, glycoprotein production was seen to begin in the intestinal epithelium cell at around the 17th day of i.u. life; however, this production was not accompanied by morphological indications of the presence of goblet cells. By the 18th i.u. day, the villus epithelium was undergoing differentiation and the first goblet cells could be identified from this time. At around the 10th day a.b., both compartments of the small intestine were detected; i.e. the villi and the crypts. At this timepoint, goblet cells were present in the villi, and also in the upper regions of the crypts. On the 3rd, 10th 17th and 25th days a.b., the presence of the goblet cells increased and presented regional differences in the sections evaluated. IAP was not detected during i.u. life, but was weakly detected in the cells of the villi from the 3rd day a.b., along the entire extension of the villi. On the 10th day, IAP was detected at the tip of the villi, while on the 25th day, it was detected along the extension of the villi, but with a weaker intensity. In conclusion, a temporal and spacial distribution of goblet cells and IAP activity occurs during the development of the small intestine, suggesting a possible regulatory control in accordance with the suckling and weaning phases of food intake in the rat's life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Foci of aberrant crypts in the colons of mice and rats exposed to carcinogens associated with foods

    SciTech Connect

    Tudek, B.; Bird, R.P.; Bruce, W.R.

    1989-03-01

    Aberrant crypt foci can be identified in the colons of rodents treated 3 wk earlier with azoxymethane, a known colon carcinogen. These crypts can easily be visualized in the unsectioned methylene blue-stained colons under light microscopy, where they are distinguished by their increased size, more prominent epithelial cells, and pericryptal space. They occur as single aberrant crypts or as two, three, or four aberrant crypts in a cluster. We compared the reported ability of carcinogens associated with the human diet to induce colon cancer with the measured rate of induction of aberrant crypts in female CF1 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats. The carcinogens used were 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, methyl nitrosourea, N-nitrosodimethylamine, benzo(a)pyrene, aflatoxin B1, 2-amino-6-methyldipyrido(1,2-alpha:3',2'-d)imidazole, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo(4,5-P)quinoline, 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo(4,5-P)quinoline, and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido(4,3-b)indole. Graded doses of these compounds were given to the animals by gavage twice with a 4-day interval, and the animals were terminated 3 wk later. All colon carcinogens induced aberrant crypts in a dose-related fashion. N-Nitrosodimethylamine and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido(4,3-b)indole, carcinogenic compounds that do not induce colon cancer, did not induce them. The ability of the studied compounds to induce aberrant crypts was species specific; e.g., aflatoxin B1 and 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo(4,5-P)quinoline induce about 20 times more in rats than mice. This relationship was consistent with their reported ability to induce colon cancer in these species. Results of the present study support the use of the aberrant crypt assays to screen colon-specific carcinogens and to study the process of colon carcinogenesis.

  12. A Study of Appendiceal Crypt Cell Adenocarcinoma (So-Called Goblet Cell Carcinoid and Its Related Adenocarcinoma).

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Daisuke; Papaxoinis, George; Lamarca, Angela; Fulford, Paul; Valle, Juan; Chakrabarty, Bipasha

    2017-08-17

    Goblet cell carcinoids (GCCs) of the appendix are rare tumors, characterized by a carcinoid-like organoid growth pattern. Despite the term carcinoid, neuroendocrine features are inconspicuous, and its behavior is distinct from carcinoid. Its high grade counterpart is designated as adenocarcinoma ex GCC. We conducted a retrospective study of 105 tumors to find prognostic values of a variety of clinico-pathologic features. The tumors were subclassified as low grade, equivalent to classic type, and high grade, defined as loss of organoid pattern, and a proportion (%) of low and high grades were documented in each tumor. Correlations between survival and various clinico-pathologic parameters were investigated. One-third were pure low grade while the remainder contained variable high grade component ranging 5-95%. Neuroendocrine cell component ranged 0-90% (median 5) while mucus cell component ranged 5-100% (median 70). By univariate analysis, size, stage, high grade component, nuclear grade, surgery and chemotherapy correlated with cancer-related survival (CSS), and by multivariate analysis, stage (P=.001), high grade component (P=.008) and tumor size (P=.005) correlated with CSS. There was significant difference in CSS when the cases were grouped in high grade component <40%, 40-90 and ≤90% (P<.001). Our results indicate that staging and proportion of high grade histology may provide important prognostic information. Neuroendocrine component was insignificant in both low and high grade areas. In light of our findings, this tumor type is best regarded as a variant of adenocarcinoma, and the term crypt cell adenocarcinoma more appropriately reflects the nature and origin of this tumor group. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Integrated prospecting in the crypt of the Basilica of Saint Nicholas in Bari, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calia, Angela; Leucci, Giovanni; Masini, Nicola; Matera, Loredana; Persico, Raffaele; Sileo, Maria

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we present the results of non-destructive integrated geophysical surveys (ground penetrating radar (GPR) and seismic sonic) performed in the crypt of the Basilica of St Nicholas in Bari, Italy. The aim was twofold, namely to investigate the consistency of restoration work performed in 1950 and the presence of features of archaeological interest. The GPR technique has also been exploited to characterize the subsurface water content under the crypt. In particular, the existence of buried anomalies, probably due to the restoration work, has been identified. Moreover, by means of an electromagnetic-wave velocity analysis, an estimation of the volumetric water content under the floor has been achieved. The results indicate the main causes of the deterioration and have provided significant information for the safeguard of this historical building. Furthermore, the GPR survey allowed us to identify some anomalies buried under the crypt that are probably of archaeological interest. Finally, both sonic tomography and a GPR survey have been performed on an important mosaic, and have enabled us to identify probable ‘internal’ reasons for its decay.

  14. Newly defined aberrant crypt foci as a marker for dysplasia in the rat colon

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Masako; Hippo, Yoshitaka; Izumiya, Masashi; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Nakagama, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Dysplasia represents a preneoplastic status in multistep colon carcinogenesis. Whereas laborious preparation of thin sections is required for its diagnosis, we here show that newly defined aberrant crypt foci (ACF) simply mark the majority of the dysplasia on the whole colon. Specifically, decoloring of the azoxymethane-treated rat colon after scoring classical ACF (cACF) resulted in visualization of a subset of aberrant crypts that remained densely stained. They were morphologically classified into three subtypes, of which two with compressed luminal openings proved highly correlated with dysplasia. Accordingly, we designated those foci harboring either of the two crypt subtypes as dysplasia-associated ACF (dACF). By serially applying different detection methods for known preneoplastic lesions to the same colon, we showed that most dACF had already been identified as cACF, and a few newly identified dACF contained an entire population of more advanced lesions, such as flat ACF and mucin-depleted foci. Consequently, integrative scoring of cACF and dACF enabled capture of all early lesions of the colon. Furthermore, 94% of the dACF showed dysplasia and 90% of the dysplastic lesions proved to be dACF. Thus, dACF is a promising marker for dysplasia, likely facilitating precise identification of the early stages of colon carcinogenesis. PMID:24827115

  15. Extracellular pH regulation in microdomains of colonic crypts: effects of short-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, S; Montrose, M H

    1995-01-01

    It has been suggested that transepithelial gradients of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs; the major anions in the colonic lumen) generate pH gradients across the colonic epithelium. Quantitative confocal microscopy was used to study extracellular pH in mouse distal colon with intact epithelial architecture, by superfusing tissue with carboxy SNARF-1 (a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye). Results demonstrate extracellular pH regulation in two separate microdomains surrounding colonic crypts: the crypt lumen and the subepithelial tissue adjacent to crypt colonocytes. Apical superfusion with (i) a poorly metabolized SCFA (isobutyrate), (ii) an avidly metabolized SCFA (n-butyrate), or (iii) a physiologic mixture of acetate/propionate/n-butyrate produced similar results: alkalinization of the crypt lumen and acidification of subepithelial tissue. Effects were (i) dependent on the presence and orientation of a transepithelial SCFA gradient, (ii) not observed with gluconate substitution, and (iii) required activation of sustained vectorial acid/base transport by SCFAs. Results suggest that the crypt lumen functions as a pH microdomain due to slow mixing with bulk superfusates and that crypts contribute significant buffering capacity to the lumen. In conclusion, physiologic SCFA gradients cause polarized extracellular pH regulation because epithelial architecture and vectorial transport synergize to establish regulated microenvironments. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7724557

  16. An agent-based model of anoikis in the colon crypt displays novel emergent behaviour consistent with biological observations.

    PubMed

    Ingham-Dempster, Tim; Walker, Dawn C; Corfe, Bernard M

    2017-04-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer mortality. Colon crypts are multi-cellular flask-shaped invaginations of the colonic epithelium, with stem cells at their base which support the continual turnover of the epithelium with loss of cells by anoikis from the flat mucosa. Mutations in these stem cells can become embedded in the crypts, a process that is strongly implicated in CRC initiation. We describe a computational model which includes novel features, including an accurate representation of the geometry of the crypt mouth. Model simulations yield previously unseen emergent phenomena, such as localization of cell death to a small region of the crypt mouth which corresponds with that observed in vivo. A mechanism emerges in the model for regulation of crypt cellularity in response to changes in either cell proliferation rates or membrane adhesion strengths. We show that cell shape assumptions influence this behaviour, with cylinders recapitulating biology better than spheres. Potential applications of the model include determination of roles of mutations in neoplasia and exploring factors for altered crypt morphodynamics.

  17. Quantitative analysis of crypt cell population during postnatal development of the olfactory organ of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Teleostei, Poecilidae), from birth to sexual maturity.

    PubMed

    Bettini, Simone; Lazzari, Maurizio; Franceschini, Valeria

    2012-08-01

    Crypt cells are one of three types of olfactory sensory neuron, differing from ciliated and microvillar cells in shape, localization and number, and found only in fish. Although crypt cells are morphologically well characterized, their function remains unclear. They were hypothesized to be involved in reproductive behaviours by detecting sex pheromones, but electrophysiological investigations revealed sensitivity to only amino acids. However, the number of crypt cells in adult guppies is not the same in the two sexes. In this study, we compared the size of the crypt cell population in juvenile guppies during the first 90 days after birth. The purpose of our study was to clarify whether a correlation exists between sex and the number of these olfactory neurons. The data show that guppies reach adult crypt cell density when they become sexually mature. Despite a constant increment in volume during development of the olfactory organ, the minimum density of crypt neurons occurs at ~45 days. Moreover, in the early weeks, the density of crypt neurons is greater in males than in females because in females the total number of cells decreases significantly after just 7 days. In adults, however, crypt neurons are found in higher density in females than in males. These findings suggest that the number of crypt cells is sex specific, with independent developmental dynamics between males and females. A role in pheromone detection could explain such a difference, but the early appearance of crypt cells in the first days of life is suggestive of other, not sexually related, functions.