Science.gov

Sample records for intestinal crypt survival

  1. Dietary Pectin Increases Intestinal Crypt Stem Cell Survival following Radiation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sureban, Sripathi M.; May, Randal; Qu, Dongfeng; Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; Weygant, Nathaniel; Ali, Naushad; Lightfoot, Stan A.; Ding, Kai; Umar, Shahid; Schlosser, Michael J.; Houchen, Courtney W.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal damage is a devastating adverse effect of radiation therapy. We have recently reported that expression of Dclk1, a Tuft cell and tumor stem cell (TSC) marker, 24h after high dose total-body gamma-IR (TBI) can be used as a surrogate marker for crypt survival. Dietary pectin has been demonstrated to possess chemopreventive properties, whereas its radioprotective property has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary pectin on ionizing radiation (IR)-induced intestinal stem cell (ISC) deletion, crypt and overall survival following lethal TBI. C57BL/6 mice received a 6% pectin diet and 0.5% pectin drinking water (pre-IR mice received pectin one week before TBI until death; post-IR mice received pectin after TBI until death). Animals were exposed to TBI (14 Gy) and euthanized at 24 and 84h post-IR to assess ISC deletion and crypt survival respectively. Animals were also subjected to overall survival studies following TBI. In pre-IR treatment group, we observed a three-fold increase in ISC/crypt survival, a two-fold increase in Dclk1+ stem cells, increased overall survival (median 10d vs. 7d), and increased expression of Dclk1, Msi1, Lgr5, Bmi1, and Notch1 (in small intestine) post-TBI in pectin treated mice compared to controls. We also observed increased survival of mice treated with pectin (post-IR) compared to controls. Dietary pectin is a radioprotective agent; prevents IR-induced deletion of potential reserve ISCs; facilitates crypt regeneration; and ultimately promotes overall survival. Given the anti-cancer activity of pectin, our data support a potential role for dietary pectin as an agent that can be administered to patients receiving radiation therapy to protect against radiation-induces mucositis. PMID:26270561

  2. Dietary Pectin Increases Intestinal Crypt Stem Cell Survival following Radiation Injury.

    PubMed

    Sureban, Sripathi M; May, Randal; Qu, Dongfeng; Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; Weygant, Nathaniel; Ali, Naushad; Lightfoot, Stan A; Ding, Kai; Umar, Shahid; Schlosser, Michael J; Houchen, Courtney W

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal damage is a devastating adverse effect of radiation therapy. We have recently reported that expression of Dclk1, a Tuft cell and tumor stem cell (TSC) marker, 24h after high dose total-body gamma-IR (TBI) can be used as a surrogate marker for crypt survival. Dietary pectin has been demonstrated to possess chemopreventive properties, whereas its radioprotective property has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary pectin on ionizing radiation (IR)-induced intestinal stem cell (ISC) deletion, crypt and overall survival following lethal TBI. C57BL/6 mice received a 6% pectin diet and 0.5% pectin drinking water (pre-IR mice received pectin one week before TBI until death; post-IR mice received pectin after TBI until death). Animals were exposed to TBI (14 Gy) and euthanized at 24 and 84h post-IR to assess ISC deletion and crypt survival respectively. Animals were also subjected to overall survival studies following TBI. In pre-IR treatment group, we observed a three-fold increase in ISC/crypt survival, a two-fold increase in Dclk1+ stem cells, increased overall survival (median 10d vs. 7d), and increased expression of Dclk1, Msi1, Lgr5, Bmi1, and Notch1 (in small intestine) post-TBI in pectin treated mice compared to controls. We also observed increased survival of mice treated with pectin (post-IR) compared to controls. Dietary pectin is a radioprotective agent; prevents IR-induced deletion of potential reserve ISCs; facilitates crypt regeneration; and ultimately promotes overall survival. Given the anti-cancer activity of pectin, our data support a potential role for dietary pectin as an agent that can be administered to patients receiving radiation therapy to protect against radiation-induces mucositis.

  3. Crypt stem cell survival in the mouse intestinal epithelium is regulated by prostaglandins synthesized through cyclooxygenase-1.

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, S M; Schloemann, S; Tessner, T; Seibert, K; Stenson, W F

    1997-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are important mediators of epithelial integrity and function in the gastrointestinal tract. Relatively little is known, however, about the mechanism by which PGs affect stem cells in the intestine during normal epithelial turnover, or during wound repair. PGs are synthesized from arachidonate by either of two cyclooxygenases, cyclooxygenase-1 (Cox-1) or cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), which are present in a wide variety of mamalian cells. Cox-1 is thought to be a constitutively expressed enzyme, and the expression of Cox-2 is inducible by cytokines or other stimuli in a variety of cell types. We investigated the role of PGs in mouse intestinal stem cell survival and proliferation following radiation injury. The number of surviving crypt stem cells was determined 3.5 d after irradiation by the microcolony assay. Radiation injury induced a dose-dependent decrease in the number of surviving crypts. Indomethacin, an inhibitor of Cox-1 and Cox-2, further reduced the number of surviving crypts in irradiated mice. The indomethacin dose response for inhibition of PGE2 production and reduction of crypt survival were similar. DimethylPGE2 reversed the indomethacin-induced decrease in crypt survival. Selective Cox-2 inhibitors had no effect on crypt survival. PGE2, Cox-1 mRNA, and Cox-1 protein levels all increase in the 3 d after irradiation. Immunohistochemistry for Cox-1 demonstrated localization in epithelial cells of the crypt in the unirradiated mouse, and in the regenerating crypt epithelium in the irradiated mouse. We conclude that radiation injury results in increased Cox-1 levels in crypt stem cells and their progeny, and that PGE2 produced through Cox-1 promotes crypt stem cell survival and proliferation. PMID:9077547

  4. The RBE-LET relationship for rodent intestinal crypt cell survival, testes weight loss, and multicellular spheroid cell survival after heavy-ion irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, A.; Alpen, E. L.; Powers-Risius, P.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents data for survival of mouse intestinal crypt cells, mouse testes weight loss as an indicator of survival of spermatogonial stem cells, and survival of rat 9L spheroid cells after irradiation in the plateau region of unmodified particle beams ranging in mass from 4He to 139La. The LET values range from 1.6 to 953 keV/microns. These studies examine the RBE-LET relationship for two normal tissues and for an in vitro tissue model, multicellular spheroids. When the RBE values are plotted as a function of LET, the resulting curve is characterized by a region in which RBE increases with LET, a peak RBE at an LET value of 100 keV/microns, and a region of decreasing RBE at LETs greater than 100 keV/microns. Inactivation cross sections (sigma) for these three biological systems have been calculated from the exponential terminal slope of the dose-response relationship for each ion. For this determination the dose is expressed as particle fluence and the parameter sigma indicates effect per particle. A plot of sigma versus LET shows that the curve for testes weight loss is shifted to the left, indicating greater radiosensitivity at lower LETs than for crypt cell and spheroid cell survival. The curves for cross section versus LET for all three model systems show similar characteristics with a relatively linear portion below 100 keV/microns and a region of lessened slope in the LET range above 100 keV/microns for testes and spheroids. The data indicate that the effectiveness per particle increases as a function of LET and, to a limited extent, Z, at LET values greater than 100 keV/microns. Previously published results for spread Bragg peaks are also summarized, and they suggest that RBE is dependent on both the LET and the Z of the particle.

  5. Optimality in the Development of Intestinal Crypts

    PubMed Central

    Itzkovitz, Shalev; Blat, Irene C.; Jacks, Tyler; Clevers, Hans; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Intestinal crypts in mammals are comprised of long-lived stem cells and shorter-lived progenies. These two populations are maintained in specific proportions during adult life. Here, we investigate the design principles governing the dynamics of these proportions during crypt morphogenesis. Using optimal control theory, we show that a proliferation strategy known as a “bang-bang” control minimizes the time to obtain a mature crypt. This strategy consists of a surge of symmetric stem cell divisions, establishing the entire stem cell pool first, followed by a sharp transition to strictly asymmetric stem cell divisions, producing nonstem cells with a delay. We validate these predictions using lineage tracing and single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization of intestinal crypts in infant mice, uncovering small crypts that are entirely composed of Lgr5-labeled stem cells, which become a minority as crypts continue to grow. Our approach can be used to uncover similar design principles in other developmental systems. PMID:22304925

  6. STUDIES ON SMALL INTESTINAL CRYPT EPITHELIUM

    PubMed Central

    Trier, Jerry S.

    1963-01-01

    Small intestinal crypt epithelium obtained from normal fasting humans by peroral biopsy of the mucosa was studied with the electron microscope. Paneth cells were identified at the base of the crypts by their elaborate highly organized endoplasmic reticulum, large secretory granules, and small lysosome-like dense bodies within the cytoplasm. Undifferentiated cells were characterized by smaller cytoplasmic membrane-bounded granules which were presumed to be secretory in nature, a less elaborate endoplasmic reticulum, many unattached ribosomes and, in some cells, the presence of glycogen. Some undifferentiated cells at the base of the crypts contained lobulated nuclei and striking paranuclear accumulations of mitochondria. Membrane-bounded cytoplasmic fragments, probably originating from undifferentiated and Paneth cells, were frequently apparent within crypt lumina. Of the goblet cells, some were seen actively secreting mucus. In these, apical mucus appeared to exude into the crypt lumen between gaps in the microvilli. The membrane formerly surrounding the apical mucus appeared to fuse with and become part of the plasma membrane of the cell, suggesting a merocrine secretory mechanism. Enterochromaffin cells were identified by their location between the basal regions of other crypt cells and by their unique intracytoplasmic granules. PMID:14064112

  7. The crypt cycle. Crypt and villus production in the adult intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Totafurno, J; Bjerknes, M; Cheng, H

    1987-01-01

    We propose a model for the growth of individual crypts that is able to account for the observed changes in the number of cells in crypts under normal conditions, after irradiation, and after 30% resection. Parameter values for this model are estimated both for mouse and man, and detailed predictions of crypt growth rates are made. This model does not predict a steady-state crypt size; rather it suggests that crypts grow until they bifurcate. We therefore propose a crypt cycle (analogous to the cell cycle) and present evidence that most if not all crypts in the adult mouse are cycling asynchronously and independently. This evidence consists of four experiments that indicate that branching crypts are randomly distributed over the intestinal epithelium, that the plane of bifurcation of branching crypts is randomly oriented with respect to the villus base, and that the size distribution of crypts is consistent with an expanding crypt population. We also report for the first time evidence of villus production in the adult mouse intestinal epithelium. We conclude that the crypt and villus populations in the adult mouse are not in a steady state. Images FIGURE 4 PMID:3663832

  8. The drug monosodium luminol (GVT) preserves crypt-villus epithelial organization and allows survival of intestinal T cells in mice infected with the ts1 retrovirus.

    PubMed

    Scofield, Virginia L; Yan, Mingshan; Kuang, Xianghong; Kim, Soo-Jin; Wong, Paul K Y

    2009-02-21

    Of the cytopathic retroviruses that affect mammals, including HIV-1, many selectively infect CD4+ T cells and cause immunosuppressive syndromes. These diseases destroy both the thymus and the small and large intestines, after infecting and killing T-lineage cells in both tissues. A mutant of the murine leukemia retrovirus MoMuLV-TB, called ts1, causes this syndrome in susceptible strains of mice. In FVB/N strain mice that are infected at birth, thymic atrophy, CD4+ T cell loss, intestinal collapse, body wasting, and death occur by approximately 30-40 days postinfection (dpi). Apoptosis of ts1-infected T-lineage cells, in the thymus, peripheral lymphoid system and intestines is caused by accumulation of the ts1 mutant viral envelope preprotein gPr80(env), which is inefficiently cleaved into the mature viral proteins gp70 and PrP15E. We show here that ts1 infection in the small intestine is followed by loss of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and cell cycling gradients (along the crypt-villus axes), accumulation of gPr80(env) in intestinal cells, apoptosis of developing T cells in the lamina propria (LP), and intestinal collapse by approximately 30 dpi. In infected mice treated with the antioxidant drug monosodium luminol (GVT), however, normal intestinal epithelial cell gradients are still in place at 30 dpi, and IECs covering both the crypts and villi contain large amounts of the antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2. In addition, no apoptotic cells are present, and accumulated gpr80(env) is absent from the tissue at this time. We conclude that GVT treatment can make ts1 a noncytopathic virus for intestinal lymphoid cells, as it does for thymocytes [25]. As in the thymus, GVT may protect the intestine by reducing oxidant stress in infected intestinal T cells, perhaps by prevention of gPr80(env) accumulation via Nrf2 upregulation in the IECs. These results identify GVT as a potential therapy for intestinal diseases or inflammatory

  9. Bone marrow hypoplasia and intestinal crypt cell necrosis associated with fenbendazole administration in five painted storks.

    PubMed

    Weber, Martha A; Terrell, Scott P; Neiffer, Donald L; Miller, Michele A; Mangold, Barbara J

    2002-08-01

    Five painted storks were treated with fenbendazole for 5 days for internal parasitism. Four birds died following treatment. Profound heteropenia was a consistent finding in all samples evaluated; additionally, the 1 surviving bird had progressive anemia. Consistent necropsy findings in the 4 birds that died were small intestinal crypt cell necrosis and severe bone marrow depletion and necrosis. Fenbendazole has been associated with bone marrow hypoplasia and enteric damage in mammals and other species of birds. The dosages of fenbendazole used in birds are often substantially higher than those recommended for mammals, which may contribute to bone marrow hypoplasia and intestinal crypt cell necrosis associated with fenbendazole administration in birds.

  10. Inhibition of Notch signaling reduces the number of surviving Dclk1+ reserve crypt epithelial stem cells following radiation injury

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Dongfeng; May, Randal; Sureban, Sripathi M.; Weygant, Nathaniel; Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; Ali, Naushad; Li, Linheng; Barrett, Terrence

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported that doublecortin-like kinase 1 (Dclk1) is a putative intestinal stem cell (ISC) marker. In this report, we evaluated the use of Dclk1 as a marker of surviving ISCs in response to treatment with high-dose total body irradiation (TBI). Both apoptotic and mitotic Dclk1+ cells were observed 24 h post-TBI associated with a corresponding loss of intestinal crypts observed at 84 h post-TBI. Although the Notch signaling pathway plays an important role in regulating proliferation and lineage commitment within the intestine, its role in ISC function in response to severe genotoxic injury is not yet fully understood. We employed the microcolony assay to functionally assess the effects of Notch inhibition with difluorophenacetyl-l-alanyl-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT) on intestinal crypt stem cell survival following severe (>8 Gy) radiation injury. Following treatment with DAPT, we observed a nearly 50% reduction in the number of surviving Dclk1+ crypt epithelial cells at 24 h after TBI and similar reduction in the number of surviving small intestinal crypts at 84 h. These data indicate that inhibition of Notch signaling decreases ISC survival following radiation injury, suggesting that the Notch signaling pathway plays an important role in ISC-mediated crypt regeneration. These results also suggest that crypt epithelial cell Dclk1 expression can be used as one potential marker to evaluate the early survival of ISCs following severe radiation injury. PMID:24368703

  11. Opioid receptors on guinea-pig intestinal crypt epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lang, M E; Davison, J S; Bates, S L; Meddings, J B

    1996-01-01

    1. Opioid peptides promote net intestinal absorption via two mechanisms: stimulation of Na+ and Cl- absorption and inhibition of Cl- secretion. Although these transport changes are predominantly mediated by submucosal neurones, it is currently unclear whether opioid peptides can regulate enterocyte function directly. We therefore tested the hypothesis that enterocytes have specific opioid receptors. 2. Villus and crypt jejunal epithelial cells were isolated by the distended sac method from anaesthetized guinea-pigs. Flow cytometry was used to resolve enterocytes from other cell types and to determine whether binding of a fluorescently labelled opioid antagonist, naltrexone-FITC, could be prevented by unlabelled mu- and delta-opioid receptor agonists. A population of crypt enterocytes (approximately 21%) exhibited high-affinity naltrexone-FITC binding to both mu- and delta-type binding sites that was stereoselective and sodium dependent. Villus enterocytes did not exhibit any of these characteristics. 3. Basal cAMP production was elevated in both villus and crypt cells treated with IBMX (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine). Villus cells did not respond to 100 nM vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), nor were they affected by opioid peptides. In contrast, 100 nM VIP significantly increased cAMP production in crypt epithelial cells, which was significantly reduced by both morphiceptin and D-Ser2-Leu-Enk-Thr. This opioid-mediated effect was stereoselective and blocked by the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone. 4. These experiments suggest that enterocytes isolated from the crypt epithelium of guineapigs have both mu- and delta-types of opioid receptors. It is possible that these cells participate in opioid-mediated regulation of intestinal secretion. Images Figure 12 PMID:8951719

  12. Intestinal crypt homeostasis revealed at single-stem-cell level by in vivo live imaging.

    PubMed

    Ritsma, Laila; Ellenbroek, Saskia I J; Zomer, Anoek; Snippert, Hugo J; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Simons, Benjamin D; Clevers, Hans; van Rheenen, Jacco

    2014-03-20

    The rapid turnover of the mammalian intestinal epithelium is supported by stem cells located around the base of the crypt. In addition to the Lgr5 marker, intestinal stem cells have been associated with other markers that are expressed heterogeneously within the crypt base region. Previous quantitative clonal fate analyses have led to the proposal that homeostasis occurs as the consequence of neutral competition between dividing stem cells. However, the short-term behaviour of individual Lgr5(+) cells positioned at different locations within the crypt base compartment has not been resolved. Here we establish the short-term dynamics of intestinal stem cells using the novel approach of continuous intravital imaging of Lgr5- Confetti mice. We find that Lgr5(+) cells in the upper part of the niche (termed 'border cells') can be passively displaced into the transit-amplifying domain, after the division of proximate cells, implying that the determination of stem-cell fate can be uncoupled from division. Through quantitative analysis of individual clonal lineages, we show that stem cells at the crypt base, termed 'central cells', experience a survival advantage over border stem cells. However, through the transfer of stem cells between the border and central regions, all Lgr5(+) cells are endowed with long-term self-renewal potential. These findings establish a novel paradigm for stem-cell maintenance in which a dynamically heterogeneous cell population is able to function long term as a single stem-cell pool.

  13. Intestinal crypt homeostasis revealed at single-stem-cell level by in vivo live imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritsma, Laila; Ellenbroek, Saskia I. J.; Zomer, Anoek; Snippert, Hugo J.; de Sauvage, Frederic J.; Simons, Benjamin D.; Clevers, Hans; van Rheenen, Jacco

    2014-03-01

    The rapid turnover of the mammalian intestinal epithelium is supported by stem cells located around the base of the crypt. In addition to the Lgr5 marker, intestinal stem cells have been associated with other markers that are expressed heterogeneously within the crypt base region. Previous quantitative clonal fate analyses have led to the proposal that homeostasis occurs as the consequence of neutral competition between dividing stem cells. However, the short-term behaviour of individual Lgr5+ cells positioned at different locations within the crypt base compartment has not been resolved. Here we establish the short-term dynamics of intestinal stem cells using the novel approach of continuous intravital imaging of Lgr5-Confetti mice. We find that Lgr5+ cells in the upper part of the niche (termed `border cells') can be passively displaced into the transit-amplifying domain, after the division of proximate cells, implying that the determination of stem-cell fate can be uncoupled from division. Through quantitative analysis of individual clonal lineages, we show that stem cells at the crypt base, termed `central cells', experience a survival advantage over border stem cells. However, through the transfer of stem cells between the border and central regions, all Lgr5+ cells are endowed with long-term self-renewal potential. These findings establish a novel paradigm for stem-cell maintenance in which a dynamically heterogeneous cell population is able to function long term as a single stem-cell pool.

  14. Stem cell self-renewal in intestinal crypt

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, Benjamin D.

    2011-11-15

    As a rapidly cycling tissue capable of fast repair and regeneration, the intestinal epithelium has emerged as a favored model system to explore the principles of adult stem cell biology. However, until recently, the identity and characteristics of the stem cell population in both the small intestine and colon has remained the subject of debate. Recent studies based on targeted lineage tracing strategies, combined with the development of an organotypic culture system, have identified the crypt base columnar cell as the intestinal stem cell, and have unveiled the strategy by which the balance between proliferation and differentiation is maintained. These results show that intestinal stem cells operate in a dynamic environment in which frequent and stochastic stem cell loss is compensated by the proliferation of neighboring stem cells. We review the basis of these experimental findings and the insights they offer into the mechanisms of homeostatic stem cell regulation.

  15. Application of three-dimensional imaging to the intestinal crypt organoids and biopsied intestinal tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Tsai, Ya-Hui; Liu, Yuan-An; Lee, Shih-Hua; Tseng, Sheng-Hong; Tang, Shiue-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) histopathology is the standard analytical method for intestinal biopsied tissues; however, the role of 3-dimensional (3D) imaging system in the analysis of the intestinal tissues is unclear. The 3D structure of the crypt organoids from the intestinal stem cell culture and intestinal tissues from the donors and recipients after intestinal transplantation was observed using a 3D imaging system and compared with 2D histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The crypt organoids and intestinal tissues showed well-defined 3D structures. The 3D images of the intestinal tissues with acute rejection revealed absence of villi and few crypts, which were consistent with the histopathological features. In the intestinal transplant for megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome, the donor's intestinal tissues had well-developed nerve networks and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in the muscle layer, while the recipient's intestinal tissues had distorted nerve network and the ICCs were few and sparsely distributed, relative to those of the donor. The 3D images showed a clear spatial relationship between the microstructures of the small bowel and the features of graft rejection. In conclusion, integration of the 3D imaging and 2D histopathology provided a global view of the intestinal tissues from the transplant patients.

  16. Effects of weaning on intestinal crypt epithelial cells in piglets

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huansheng; Xiong, Xia; Wang, Xiaocheng; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells in the crypt proliferate in piglets in response to weaning. However, the underlying mechanism has been unclear. We examined 40 piglets from eight litters (five piglets per litter) that were weaned at the age of 14 d, and one piglet from each litter was randomly selected for closer investigation. Based on the distended intestinal sac method, we isolated crypt epithelial cells from the mid-jejunum on Days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 post-weaning. Protein expression was analyzed using either isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification or western blotting. Proteins related to the cell cycle, organization of the cellular macromolecular complex subunit, localization of cellular macromolecules, Golgi vesicle transport, fatty acid metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and translational initiation were mainly down-regulated, while those involved in glycolysis, cell cycle arrest, protein catabolism, and cellular amino acid metabolism were up-regulated. The amount of proteins active in the mTOR signaling pathway was generally decreased over time. These results indicate that weaning influences energy metabolism, cellular macromolecule organization and localization, and protein metabolism, thereby affecting the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells in weaned piglets. Moreover, those cellular processes are possibly controlled by that signaling pathway. PMID:27830738

  17. Fluorescent labelling of intestinal epithelial cells reveals independent long-lived intestinal stem cells in a crypt

    SciTech Connect

    Horita, Nobukatsu; Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Hayashi, Ryohei; Fukushima, Keita; Hibiya, Shuji; Fukuda, Masayoshi; Kano, Yoshihito; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Nemoto, Yasuhiro; Yui, Shiro; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • Lentivirus mixed with Matrigel enables direct infection of intestinal organoids. • Our original approach allows the marking of a single stem cell in a crypt. • Time-lapse imaging shows the dynamics of a single stem cell. • Our lentivirus transgene system demonstrates plural long-lived stem cells in a crypt. - Abstract: Background and aims: The dynamics of intestinal stem cells are crucial for regulation of intestinal function and maintenance. Although crypt stem cells have been identified in the intestine by genetic marking methods, identification of plural crypt stem cells has not yet been achieved as they are visualised in the same colour. Methods: Intestinal organoids were transferred into Matrigel® mixed with lentivirus encoding mCherry. The dynamics of mCherry-positive cells was analysed using time-lapse imaging, and the localisation of mCherry-positive cells was analysed using 3D immunofluorescence. Results: We established an original method for the introduction of a transgene into an organoid generated from mouse small intestine that resulted in continuous fluorescence of the mCherry protein in a portion of organoid cells. Three-dimensional analysis using confocal microscopy showed a single mCherry-positive cell in an organoid crypt that had been cultured for >1 year, which suggested the presence of long-lived mCherry-positive and -negative stem cells in the same crypt. Moreover, a single mCherry-positive stem cell in a crypt gave rise to both crypt base columnar cells and transit amplifying cells. Each mCherry-positive and -negative cell contributed to the generation of organoids. Conclusions: The use of our original lentiviral transgene system to mark individual organoid crypt stem cells showed that long-lived plural crypt stem cells might independently serve as intestinal epithelial cells, resulting in the formation of a completely functional villus.

  18. Ballroom dancing with stem cells: placement and displacement in the intestinal crypt.

    PubMed

    Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2014-03-06

    Intestinal homeostasis is dependent upon stem cells that reside in the intestinal crypt, although the identity and dynamics of this population are unclear. Ritsma et al. (2014) recently reported temporal live imaging of mouse intestinal stem cells and their progeny, providing insights into spatial dynamics underlying stem cell behavior.

  19. Mensenchymal stem cells can delay radiation-induced crypt death: impact on intestinal CD44(+) fragments.

    PubMed

    Chang, Peng-Yu; Jin, Xing; Jiang, Yi-Yao; Wang, Li-Xian; Liu, Yong-Jun; Wang, Jin

    2016-05-01

    Intestinal stem cells are primitive cells found within the intestinal epithelium that play a central role in maintaining epithelial homeostasis through self-renewal and commitment into functional epithelial cells. Several markers are available to identify intestinal stem cells, such as Lgr5, CD24 and EphB2, which can be used to sort intestinal stem cells from mammalian gut. Here, we identify and isolate intestinal stem cells from C57BL/6 mice by using a cell surface antigen, CD44. In vitro, some CD44(+) crypt cells are capable of forming "villus-crypt"-like structures (organoids). A subset strongly positive for CD44 expresses high levels of intestinal stem-cell-related genes, including Lgr5, Bmi1, Hopx, Lrig1, Ascl2, Smoc2 and Rnf43. Cells from this subset are more capable of developing into organoids in vitro, compared with the subset weakly positive for CD44. However, the organoids are sensitive to ionizing irradiation. We investigate the specific roles of mesenchymal stem cells in protecting organoids against radiation-induced crypt death. When co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells, the crypt domains of irradiated organoids possess more proliferative cells and fewer apoptotic cells than those not co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells. Cd44v6 continues to be expressed in the crypt domains of irradiated organoids co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells. Our results indicate specific roles of mesenchymal stem cells in delaying radiation-induced crypt death in vitro.

  20. Fermentable dietary fiber potentiates the localization of immune cells in the rat large intestinal crypts.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Seiji; Xu, Hong; Hara, Hiroshi

    2004-10-01

    Intestinal crypts are composed of a well-defined hierarchy of epithelial cells, and proliferating epithelial cells reside close to the bottom of the crypts-even in the large intestine. We investigated whether CD8(+)and CD4(+)intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and CD161(+) natural killer (NK) cells localized in proliferating or differentiated epithelial region of cecum and colon. Both proliferating epithelial layer cells and the immune cells along the longitudinal crypt axis of the large intestine were measured histochemically. Dietary intervention revealed that the physiological localization of the immune cells in the longitudinal crypt axis depended on the immune cell type. CD8(+) IELs were preferentially located among differentiated epithelial cells. In contrast, CD161(+) NK cells were located adjacent to the epithelial cells at the bottom of crypt. Cecal crypts contained significantly larger numbers of CD8(+) IELs than did colonic crypts. However, there was only a minor population of CD4(+) IEL in the cecal and colonic epithelia. Some dietary fibers increased the densities of CD8(+) IELs and CD161(+) NK cells in the cecum, with the magnitude of response varying among the types of fiber. There was a significant relationship between SCFA and the localization of immune cells, especially CD8(+) IEL and CD161(+) NK cells, which are considered to be involved in the maintenance of epithelial homeostasis.

  1. Intestinal tuft cells regulate the ATM mediated DNA Damage response via Dclk1 dependent mechanism for crypt restitution following radiation injury

    PubMed Central

    Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; May, Randal; Weygant, Nathaniel; Qu, Dongfeng; Berry, William L.; Sureban, Sripathi M.; Ali, Naushad; Rao, Chinthalapally; Huycke, Mark; Bronze, Michael S.; Houchen, Courtney W.

    2016-01-01

    Crypt epithelial survival and regeneration after injury require highly coordinated complex interplay between resident stem cells and diverse cell types. The function of Dclk1 expressing tuft cells regulating intestinal epithelial DNA damage response for cell survival/self-renewal after radiation-induced injury is unclear. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) were isolated and purified and utilized for experimental analysis. We found that small intestinal crypts of VillinCre;Dclk1f/f mice were hypoplastic and more apoptotic 24 h post-total body irradiation, a time when stem cell survival is p53-independent. Injury-induced ATM mediated DNA damage response, pro-survival genes, stem cell markers, and self-renewal ability for survival and restitution were reduced in the isolated intestinal epithelial cells. An even greater reduction in these signaling pathways was observed 3.5 days post-TBI, when peak crypt regeneration occurs. We found that interaction with Dclk1 is critical for ATM and COX2 activation in response to injury. We determined that Dclk1 expressing tuft cells regulate the whole intestinal epithelial cells following injury through paracrine mechanism. These findings suggest that intestinal tuft cells play an important role in regulating the ATM mediated DNA damage response, for epithelial cell survival/self-renewal via a Dclk1 dependent mechanism, and these processes are indispensable for restitution and function after severe radiation-induced injury. PMID:27876863

  2. Ex vivo culture of intestinal crypt organoids as a model system for assessing cell death induction in intestinal epithelial cells and enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Grabinger, T; Luks, L; Kostadinova, F; Zimberlin, C; Medema, J P; Leist, M; Brunner, T

    2014-05-15

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) not only have a critical function in the absorption of nutrients, but also act as a physical barrier between our body and the outside world. Damage and death of the epithelial cells lead to the breakdown of this barrier function and inflammation due to access of the immune system to compounds of the intestinal flora. Intestinal epithelial damage is frequently associated with various inflammatory disorders, chemo- and radiotherapy as well as drug-mediated toxicity. Until recently, intestinal epithelial-damaging activities of drugs and treatments could be tested only in vivo in animal models because of the poor survival rate of primary IECs ex vivo. The three-dimensional culture and outgrowth of intestinal crypt stem cells into organoids have offered new possibilities to culture and study IECs ex vivo. Here we demonstrate that intestinal organoids are a useful and physiologically relevant model system to study cell death and survival in IECs. We further describe a number of microscopy-based as well as colorimetric methods to monitor and score survival and death of intestinal organoids. Finally, the comparison of organoids isolated from gene-deficient mice and wild-type mice allows investigating the role of specific genes in the regulation of IEC death. Owing to their comparable structure and behavior, intestinal organoids may serve as an interesting and physiologically relevant surrogate system for large- and mid-scale in vitro testing of intestinal epithelium-damaging drugs and toxins, and for the investigation of cell death pathways.

  3. Structural and mechanical architecture of the intestinal villi and crypts in the rat intestine: integrative reevaluation from ultrastructural analysis.

    PubMed

    Hosoyamada, Yasue; Sakai, Tatsuo

    2005-08-01

    The ultrastructure of the rat intestinal interstitium was analyzed from the viewpoint of mechanical dynamics to stabilize the intestinal villi, crypts and mucosal folds. In the rat, the small intestine lacks circular folds, but the large intestine possesses spiral folds. The intestinal villi, the largest in the duodenum, decreased in size in the jejunum and ileum successively, and were absent in the large intestine. The intestinal interstitium consisted of lamina propria mucosae (LPM) and tela submucosa (TSM) separated by muscularis mucosae (MM), the LPM was subdivided into an upper part within the villi and a lower part among the crypts in the small intestine. The light microscopic density of interstitium in the intestinal wall was lowest in the upper LPM, moderately dense in the lower LPM and highest in the TSM, and that among the intestinal region was highest in the duodenum and decreased successively in the jejunum and ileum. In the large intestine, the TSM bulged to form spiral folds with very low density. The intestinal epithelium in the villi possessed wide intercellular spaces and that in the crypts had closed intercellular spaces. At electron microscopic level, the upper and lower LPM contained subepithelial supportive meshwork that consisted of collagen fibrils and myofibroblast processes. The lower LPM and TSM contained conspicuous bundles of collagen fibrils and, in addition, TSM contained minor populations of scattered collagen fibrils near the smooth muscle layer (SML). The diameter of collagen fibrils was the largest in the bundles of TSM, and decreased from the duodenum through the jejunum and ileum to the large intestine. On the basis of these observations, we hypothesize that the intestinal villi are mechanically stabilized by the balance between the expansive interstitial pressure and inward pull by the subepithelial supportive meshwork. This hypothesis explains the hitherto neglected fact that the intestinal epithelium possesses wide

  4. Energy metabolism in intestinal epithelial cells during maturation along the crypt-villus axis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huansheng; Wang, Xiaocheng; Xiong, Xia; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells continuously migrate and mature along crypt-villus axis (CVA), while the changes in energy metabolism during maturation are unclear in neonates. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the energy metabolism in intestinal epithelial cells would be changed during maturation along CVA in neonates. Eight 21-day-old suckling piglets were used. Intestinal epithelial cells were isolated sequentially along CVA, and proteomics was used to analyze the changes in proteins expression in epithelial cells along CVA. The identified differentially expressed proteins were mainly involved in cellular process, metabolic process, biological regulation, pigmentation, multicellular organizational process and so on. The energy metabolism in intestinal epithelial cells of piglets was increased from the bottom of crypt to the top of villi. Moreover, the expression of proteins related to the metabolism of glucose, most of amino acids, and fatty acids was increased in intestinal epithelial cells during maturation along CVA, while the expression of proteins related to glutamine metabolism was decreased from crypt to villus tip. The expression of proteins involved in citrate cycle was also increased intestinal epithelial cells during maturation along CVA. Moreover, dietary supplementation with different energy sources had different effects on intestinal structure of weaned piglets. PMID:27558220

  5. Interplay between metabolic identities in the intestinal crypt supports stem cell function.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Colman, Maria J; Schewe, Matthias; Meerlo, Maaike; Stigter, Edwin; Gerrits, Johan; Pras-Raves, Mia; Sacchetti, Andrea; Hornsveld, Marten; Oost, Koen C; Snippert, Hugo J; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda; Fodde, Riccardo; Burgering, Boudewijn M T

    2017-03-16

    The small intestinal epithelium self-renews every four or five days. Intestinal stem cells (Lgr5(+) crypt base columnar cells (CBCs)) sustain this renewal and reside between terminally differentiated Paneth cells at the bottom of the intestinal crypt. Whereas the signalling requirements for maintaining stem cell function and crypt homeostasis have been well studied, little is known about how metabolism contributes to epithelial homeostasis. Here we show that freshly isolated Lgr5(+) CBCs and Paneth cells from the mouse small intestine display different metabolic programs. Compared to Paneth cells, Lgr5(+) CBCs display high mitochondrial activity. Inhibition of mitochondrial activity in Lgr5(+) CBCs or inhibition of glycolysis in Paneth cells strongly affects stem cell function, as indicated by impaired organoid formation. In addition, Paneth cells support stem cell function by providing lactate to sustain the enhanced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in the Lgr5(+) CBCs. Mechanistically, we show that oxidative phosphorylation stimulates p38 MAPK activation by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species signalling, thereby establishing the mature crypt phenotype. Together, our results reveal a critical role for the metabolic identity of Lgr5(+) CBCs and Paneth cells in supporting optimal stem cell function, and we identify mitochondria and reactive oxygen species signalling as a driving force of cellular differentiation.

  6. Investigating the Relation between Stochastic Differentiation, Homeostasis and Clonal Expansion in Intestinal Crypts via Multiscale Modeling

    PubMed Central

    De Matteis, Giovanni; Antoniotti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal tumors originate and develop within intestinal crypts. Even though some of the essential phenomena that characterize crypt structure and dynamics have been effectively described in the past, the relation between the differentiation process and the overall crypt homeostasis is still only partially understood. We here investigate this relation and other important biological phenomena by introducing a novel multiscale model that combines a morphological description of the crypt with a gene regulation model: the emergent dynamical behavior of the underlying gene regulatory network drives cell growth and differentiation processes, linking the two distinct spatio-temporal levels. The model relies on a few a priori assumptions, yet accounting for several key processes related to crypt functioning, such as: dynamic gene activation patterns, stochastic differentiation, signaling pathways ruling cell adhesion properties, cell displacement, cell growth, mitosis, apoptosis and the presence of biological noise. We show that this modeling approach captures the major dynamical phenomena that characterize the regular physiology of crypts, such as cell sorting, coordinate migration, dynamic turnover, stem cell niche correct positioning and clonal expansion. All in all, the model suggests that the process of stochastic differentiation might be sufficient to drive the crypt to homeostasis, under certain crypt configurations. Besides, our approach allows to make precise quantitative inferences that, when possible, were matched to the current biological knowledge and it permits to investigate the role of gene-level perturbations, with reference to cancer development. We also remark the theoretical framework is general and may be applied to different tissues, organs or organisms. PMID:24869488

  7. Sodium Selenite Radiosensitizes Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer Xenograft Tumors but Not Intestinal Crypt Cells In Vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Tian Junqiang; Ning Shouchen; Knox, Susan J.

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that sodium selenite (SSE) increases radiation-induced cell killing of human prostate carcinoma cells in vitro. In this study we further evaluated the in vivo radiosensitizing effect of SSE in prostate cancer xenograft tumors and normal radiosensitive intestinal crypt cells. Methods and Materials: Immunodeficient (SCID) mice with hormone-independent LAPC-4 (HI-LAPC-4) and PC-3 xenograft tumors (approximately 200 mm{sup 3}) were divided into four groups: control (untreated), radiation therapy (XRT, local irradiation), SSE (2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, 3 times/week), and XRT plus SSE. The XRT was given at the beginning of the regimen as a single dose of 5 Gy for HI-LAPC-4 tumors and a single dose of 7 Gy followed by a fractional dose of 3 Gy/d for 5 days for PC-3 tumors. The tumor volume was measured 3 times per week. The radiosensitizing effect of SSE on normal intestinal epithelial cells was assessed by use of a crypt cell microcolony assay. Results: In the efficacy study, SSE alone significantly inhibited the tumor growth in HI-LAPC-4 tumors but not PC-3 tumors. Sodium selenite significantly enhanced the XRT-induced tumor growth inhibition in both HI-LAPC-4 and PC-3 tumors. In the toxicity study, SSE did not affect the intestinal crypt cell survival either alone or in combination with XRT. Conclusions: Sodium selenite significantly enhances the effect of radiation on well-established hormone-independent prostate tumors and does not sensitize the intestinal epithelial cells to radiation. These results suggest that SSE may increase the therapeutic index of XRT for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  8. Critical role of microbiota within cecal crypts on the regenerative capacity of the intestinal epithelium following surgical stress

    PubMed Central

    Zaborin, Alexander; Krezalek, Monika; Hyoju, Sanjiv; Defazio, Jennifer R.; Setia, Namrata; Belogortseva, Natalia; Bindokas, Vytautas P.; Guo, Qiti; Zaborina, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Cecal crypts represent a unique niche that are normally occupied by the commensal microbiota. Due to their density and close proximity to stem cells, microbiota within cecal crypts may modulate epithelial regeneration. Here we demonstrate that surgical stress, a process that invariably involves a short period of starvation, antibiotic exposure, and tissue injury, results in cecal crypt evacuation of their microbiota. Crypts devoid of their microbiota display pathophysiological features characterized by abnormal stem cell activation as judged by leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) staining, expansion of the proliferative zone toward the tips of the crypts, and an increase in apoptosis. In addition, crypts devoid of their microbiota display loss of their regenerative capacity as assessed by their ability to form organoids ex vivo. When a four-member human pathogen community isolated from the stool of a critically ill patient is introduced into the cecum of mice with empty crypts, crypts become occupied by the pathogens and further disruption of crypt homeostasis is observed. Fecal microbiota transplantation restores the cecal crypts’ microbiota, normalizes homeostasis within crypts, and reestablishes crypt regenerative capacity. Taken together, these findings define an emerging role for the microbiota within cecal crypts to maintain epithelial cell homeostasis in a manner that may enhance recovery in response to the physiological stress imposed by the process of surgery. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study provides novel insight into the process by which surgical injury places the intestinal epithelium at risk for colonization by pathogenic microbes and impairment of its regenerative capacity via loss of its microbiota. We show that fecal transplant restores crypt homeostasis in association with repopulation of the microbiota within cecal crypts. PMID:27979825

  9. De Novo Formation of Insulin-Producing “Neo-β Cell Islets” from Intestinal Crypts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ju; Finkbeiner, Stacy R.; Weinblatt, Daniel; Emmett, Matthew J.; Tameire, Feven; Yousefi, Maryam; Yang, Chenghua; Maehr, Rene; Zhou, Qiao; Shemer, Ruth; Dor, Yuval; Li, Changhong; Spence, Jason R.; Stanger, Ben Z.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The ability to interconvert terminally differentiated cells could serve as a powerful tool for cell-based treatment of degenerative diseases, including diabetes mellitus. To determine which, if any, adult tissues are competent to activate an islet β cell program, we performed an in vivo screen by expressing three β cell “reprogramming factors” in a wide spectrum of tissues. We report that transient intestinal expression of these factors—Pdx1, MafA, and Ngn3 (PMN)—promotes rapid conversion of intestinal crypt cells into endocrine cells, which coalesce into “neoislets” below the crypt base. Neoislet cells express insulin and show ultrastructural features of β cells. Importantly, intestinal neoislets are glucose-responsive and able to ameliorate hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. Moreover, PMN expression in human intestinal “organoids” stimulates the conversion of intestinal epithelial cells into β-like cells. Our results thus demonstrate that the intestine is an accessible and abundant source of functional insulin-producing cells. PMID:24613355

  10. Scap is required for sterol synthesis and crypt growth in intestinal mucosa[S

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Matthew R.; Cantoria, Mary Jo; Linden, Albert G.; January, Brandon A.; Liang, Guosheng; Engelking, Luke J.

    2015-01-01

    SREBP cleavage-activating protein (Scap) is an endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein required for cleavage and activation of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), which activate the transcription of genes in sterol and fatty acid biosynthesis. Liver-specific loss of Scap is well tolerated; hepatic synthesis of sterols and fatty acids is reduced, but mice are otherwise healthy. To determine whether Scap loss is tolerated in the intestine, we generated a mouse model (Vil-Scap−) in which tamoxifen-inducible Cre-ERT2, a fusion protein of Cre recombinase with a mutated ligand binding domain of the human estrogen receptor, ablates Scap in intestinal mucosa. After 4 days of tamoxifen, Vil-Scap− mice succumb with a severe enteropathy and near-complete collapse of intestinal mucosa. Organoids grown ex vivo from intestinal crypts of Vil-Scap− mice are readily killed when Scap is deleted by 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Death is prevented when culture medium is supplemented with cholesterol and oleate. These data show that, unlike the liver, the intestine requires Scap to sustain tissue integrity by maintaining the high levels of lipid synthesis necessary for proliferation of intestinal crypts. PMID:25896350

  11. Paneth cell marker expression in intestinal villi and colon crypts characterizes dietary induced risk for mouse sporadic intestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Donghai; Peregrina, Karina; Dhima, Elena; Lin, Elaine Y; Mariadason, John M; Augenlicht, Leonard H

    2011-06-21

    Nutritional and genetic risk factors for intestinal tumors are additive on mouse tumor phenotype, establishing that diet and genetic factors impact risk by distinct combinatorial mechanisms. In a mouse model of dietary-induced sporadic small and large intestinal cancer in WT mice in which tumor etiology, lag, incidence, and frequency reflect >90% of intestinal cancer in Western societies, dietary-induced risk altered gene expression profiles predominantly in villus cells of the histologically normal mucosa, in contrast to targeting of crypt cells by inheritance of an Apc(1638N) allele or homozygous inactivation of p21(Waf1/cip1), and profiles induced by each risk factor were distinct at the gene or functional group level. The dietary-induced changes in villus cells encompassed ectopic expression of Paneth cell markers (a lineage normally confined to the bottom of small intestinal crypts), elevated expression of the Wnt receptor Fzd5 and of EphB2 (genes necessary for Paneth cell differentiation and localization to the crypt bottom), and increased Wnt signaling in villus cells. Ectopic elevation of these markers was also present in the colon crypts, which are also sites of sporadic tumors in the nutritional model. Elevating dietary vitamin D(3) and calcium, which prevents tumor development, abrogated these changes in the villus and colon cells. Thus, common intestinal cancer driven by diet involves mechanisms of tumor development distinct from those mechanisms that cause tumors induced by the rare inheritance of a mutant adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) allele. This is fundamental for understanding how common sporadic tumors arise and in evaluating relative risk in the population.

  12. Cell proliferation within small intestinal crypts is the principal driving force for cell migration on villi.

    PubMed

    Parker, Aimee; Maclaren, Oliver J; Fletcher, Alexander G; Muraro, Daniele; Kreuzaler, Peter A; Byrne, Helen M; Maini, Philip K; Watson, Alastair J M; Pin, Carmen

    2017-02-01

    The functional integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier relies on tight coordination of cell proliferation and migration, with failure to regulate these processes resulting in disease. It is not known whether cell proliferation is sufficient to drive epithelial cell migration during homoeostatic turnover of the epithelium. Nor is it known precisely how villus cell migration is affected when proliferation is perturbed. Some reports suggest that proliferation and migration may not be related while other studies support a direct relationship. We used established cell-tracking methods based on thymine analog cell labeling and developed tailored mathematical models to quantify cell proliferation and migration under normal conditions and when proliferation is reduced and when it is temporarily halted. We found that epithelial cell migration velocities along the villi are coupled to cell proliferation rates within the crypts in all conditions. Furthermore, halting and resuming proliferation results in the synchronized response of cell migration on the villi. We conclude that cell proliferation within the crypt is the primary force that drives cell migration along the villus. This methodology can be applied to interrogate intestinal epithelial dynamics and characterize situations in which processes involved in cell turnover become uncoupled, including pharmacological treatments and disease models.-Parker, A., Maclaren, O. J., Fletcher, A. G., Muraro, D., Kreuzaler, P. A., Byrne, H. M., Maini, P. K., Watson, A. J. M., Pin, C. Cell proliferation within small intestinal crypts is the principal driving force for cell migration on villi.

  13. Cell proliferation within small intestinal crypts is the principal driving force for cell migration on villi

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Aimee; Maclaren, Oliver J.; Fletcher, Alexander G.; Muraro, Daniele; Kreuzaler, Peter A.; Byrne, Helen M.; Maini, Philip K.; Watson, Alastair J. M.; Pin, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The functional integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier relies on tight coordination of cell proliferation and migration, with failure to regulate these processes resulting in disease. It is not known whether cell proliferation is sufficient to drive epithelial cell migration during homoeostatic turnover of the epithelium. Nor is it known precisely how villus cell migration is affected when proliferation is perturbed. Some reports suggest that proliferation and migration may not be related while other studies support a direct relationship. We used established cell-tracking methods based on thymine analog cell labeling and developed tailored mathematical models to quantify cell proliferation and migration under normal conditions and when proliferation is reduced and when it is temporarily halted. We found that epithelial cell migration velocities along the villi are coupled to cell proliferation rates within the crypts in all conditions. Furthermore, halting and resuming proliferation results in the synchronized response of cell migration on the villi. We conclude that cell proliferation within the crypt is the primary force that drives cell migration along the villus. This methodology can be applied to interrogate intestinal epithelial dynamics and characterize situations in which processes involved in cell turnover become uncoupled, including pharmacological treatments and disease models.—Parker, A., Maclaren, O. J., Fletcher, A. G., Muraro, D., Kreuzaler, P. A., Byrne, H. M., Maini, P. K., Watson, A. J. M., Pin, C. Cell proliferation within small intestinal crypts is the principal driving force for cell migration on villi. PMID:27811059

  14. In vitro model of intestinal crypt abscess. A novel neutrophil-derived secretagogue activity.

    PubMed Central

    Nash, S; Parkos, C; Nusrat, A; Delp, C; Madara, J L

    1991-01-01

    In order to model crypt abscesses, a histological finding which correlates with disease activity in intestinal inflammation, human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were layered onto monolayers of the human intestinal epithelial cell line T84, a crypt-like epithelium which is capable of Cl- secretion. Such PMN-epithelial interaction had no substantial effect on monolayer integrity or function. However, when PMN were stimulated by conditions including those present naturally in the human colonic lumen, monolayers responded with a bumetanide-sensitive short circuit current (Isc) indicative of Cl- secretion, the basis of secretory diarrhea. This Isc response was induced by a neutrophil-derived secretagogue (NDS), which was only active when applied to the luminal surface of monolayers and did not require PMN-epithelial contact. NDS activity is resistant to boiling, acid, and trypsin and passes a 500 nominal mol wt cutoff filter. NDS activity is not secondary to the respiratory burst products O2- or H2O2 and does not appear to be a myeloperoxidase product. We speculate NDS elicited Cl- secretion may contribute to the secretory diarrhea seen in patients with intestinal inflammation and crypt abscesses. PMID:2010557

  15. IGF1 stimulates crypt expansion via differential activation of 2 intestinal stem cell populations.

    PubMed

    Van Landeghem, Laurianne; Santoro, M Agostina; Mah, Amanda T; Krebs, Adrienne E; Dehmer, Jeffrey J; McNaughton, Kirk K; Helmrath, Michael A; Magness, Scott T; Lund, P Kay

    2015-07-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) has potent trophic effects on normal or injured intestinal epithelium, but specific effects on intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are undefined. We used Sox9-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter mice that permit analyses of both actively cycling ISCs (Sox9-EGFP(Low)) and reserve/facultative ISCs (Sox9-EGFP(High)) to study IGF1 action on ISCs in normal intestine or during crypt regeneration after high-dose radiation-induced injury. We hypothesized that IGF1 differentially regulates proliferation and gene expression in actively cycling and reserve/facultative ISCs. IGF1 was delivered for 5 days using subcutaneously implanted mini-pumps in uninjured mice or after 14 Gy abdominal radiation. ISC numbers, proliferation, and transcriptome were assessed. IGF1 increased epithelial growth in nonirradiated mice and enhanced crypt regeneration after radiation. In uninjured and regenerating intestines, IGF1 increased total numbers of Sox9-EGFP(Low) ISCs and percentage of these cells in M-phase. IGF1 increased percentages of Sox9-EGFP(High) ISCs in S-phase but did not expand this population. Microarray revealed that IGF1 activated distinct gene expression signatures in the 2 Sox9-EGFP ISC populations. In vitro IGF1 enhanced enteroid formation by Sox9-EGFP(High) facultative ISCs but not Sox9-EGFP(Low) actively cycling ISCs. Our data provide new evidence that IGF1 activates 2 ISC populations via distinct regulatory pathways to promote growth of normal intestinal epithelium and crypt regeneration after irradiation.

  16. Impaired Cell Volume Regulation in Intestinal Crypt Epithelia of Cystic Fibrosis Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde, M. A.; O'Brien, J. A.; Sepulveda, F. V.; Ratcliff, R. A.; Evans, M. J.; Colledge, W. H.

    1995-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a disease characterized by abnormalities in the epithelia of the lungs, intestine, salivary and sweat glands, liver, and reproductive systems, often as a result of inadequate hydration of their secretions. The primary defect in cystic fibrosis is the altered activity of a cAMP-activated Cl^- channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel. However, it is not clear how a defect in the CFTR Cl^- channel function leads to the observed pathological changes. Although much is known about the structural properties and regulation of the CFTR, little is known of its relationship to cellular functions other than the cAMP-dependent Cl^- secretion. Here we report that cell volume regulation after hypotonic challenge is also defective in intestinal crypt epithelial cells isolated from CFTR -/- mutant mice. Moreover, the impairment of the regulatory volume decrease in CFTR -/- crypts appears to be related to the inability of a K^+ conductance to provide a pathway for the exit of this cation during the volume adjustments. This provides evidence that the lack of CFTR protein may have additional consequences for the cellular function other than the abnormal cAMP-mediated Cl^- secretion.

  17. The response of murine intestinal crypts to short-range promethium-147 beta irradiation: Deductions concerning clonogenic cell numbers and positions

    SciTech Connect

    Hendry, J.H.; Potten, C.S.; Ghafoor, A.; Moore, J.V.; Roberts, S.A.; Williams, P.C.

    1989-05-01

    An exteriorized loop of mouse intestine was exposed to /sup 147/Pm low-energy electrons, where the dose rate decreased by a factor of 5 from the base of the crypt to the top of the proliferative zone. A crypt survival curve was obtained, expressed in terms of exposure time. The shape of the curve was interpreted in terms of survival parameters for colony-forming cells (clonogens) derived using /sup 137/Cs gamma rays and the depth-dose curve measured for /sup 147/Pm electrons. It is concluded that the shape of the crypt survival curve using /sup 147/Pm electrons is inconsistent with the notion of either the presence of a large number of clonogens or a small number near the top of the proliferative zone. A computer fitting procedure showed that the best agreement between predicted and observed curves was achieved with 2.7 +/- 0.5 clonogens at cell position 5.6 +/- 0.6, in the putative stem-cell zone.

  18. The response of murine intestinal crypts to short-range promethium-147 beta irradiation: deductions concerning clonogenic cell numbers and positions.

    PubMed

    Hendry, J H; Potten, C S; Ghafoor, A; Moore, J V; Roberts, S A; Williams, P C

    1989-05-01

    An exteriorized loop of mouse intestine was exposed to 147Pm low-energy electrons, where the dose rate decreased by a factor of 5 from the base of the crypt to the top of the proliferative zone. A crypt survival curve was obtained, expressed in terms of exposure time. The shape of the curve was interpreted in terms of survival parameters for colony-forming cells (clonogens) derived using 137Cs gamma rays and the depth-dose curve measured for 147Pm electrons. It is concluded that the shape of the crypt survival curve using 147Pm electrons is inconsistent with the notion of either the presence of a large number of clonogens or a small number near the top of the proliferative zone. A computer fitting procedure showed that the best agreement between predicted and observed curves was achieved with 2.7 +/- 0.5 clonogens at cell position 5.6 +/- 0.6, in the putative stem-cell zone.

  19. The Viral Mimetic Polyinosinic:Polycytidylic Acid Alters the Growth Characteristics of Small Intestinal and Colonic Crypt Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Julie M.; Santaolalla, Rebeca; von Furstenberg, Richard J.; Henning, Susan J.; Abreu, Maria T.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The intestinal epithelium is the first line of defense against enteric pathogens. We investigated the response of small intestinal and colonic crypt cultures to a panel of toll-like receptor ligands to assess the impact of microbial pattern recognition on epithelial growth. Methods Primary murine jejunal enteroids and colonoids were cultured with lipopeptide Pam3CSK4, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) for 4 to 6 days. Surface area, budding and survival were assessed. Proliferation and numbers of lysozyme positive cells were quantified by flow cytometry. Gene expression was assessed by Nanostring and qRT-PCR. Results Exposure to Pam3CSK4 and LPS had minimal impact on either enteroids or colonoids. In contrast, Poly I:C increased the surface area of enteroids, while colonoids demonstrated decreased budding. Survival was decreased by Poly I:C in enteroids but not in colonoids. Both enteroids and colonoids exhibited upregulated gene expression of chemokines, but these were increased in magnitude in enteroids. Decreases in gene expression associated with epithelial differentiation and lysozyme positive cells were more apparent in enteroids than in colonoids. Baseline gene expression between enteroids and colonoids differed markedly in levels of stem cell and inflammatory markers. The changes in morphology induced by Poly I:C were mediated by the toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 1 (Ticam1) in enteroids but not in colonoids. Conclusions Poly I:C alters the molecular program of epithelial cells and shifts from absorption and digestion towards defense and inflammation. Diversity of responses to microbial patterns in enteroids and colonoids may underlie differences in susceptibility to infection along the intestinal tract. PMID:26414184

  20. Protein kinase D1 mediates stimulation of DNA synthesis and proliferation in intestinal epithelial IEC-18 cells and in mouse intestinal crypts.

    PubMed

    Sinnett-Smith, James; Rozengurt, Nora; Kui, Robert; Huang, Carlos; Rozengurt, Enrique

    2011-01-07

    We examined whether protein kinase D1 (PKD1), the founding member of a new protein kinase family, plays a critical role in intestinal epithelial cell proliferation. Our results demonstrate that PKD1 activation is sustained, whereas that of PKD2 is transient in intestinal epithelial IEC-18 stimulated with the G(q)-coupled receptor agonists angiotensin II or vasopressin. PKD1 gene silencing utilizing small interfering RNAs dramatically reduced DNA synthesis and cell proliferation in IEC-18 cells stimulated with G(q)-coupled receptor agonists. To clarify the role of PKD1 in intestinal epithelial cell proliferation in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that express elevated PKD1 protein in the intestinal epithelium. Transgenic PKD1 exhibited constitutive catalytic activity and phosphorylation at the activation loop residues Ser(744) and Ser(748) and on the autophosphorylation site, Ser(916). To examine whether PKD1 expression stimulates intestinal cell proliferation, we determined the rate of crypt cell DNA synthesis by detection of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporated into the nuclei of crypt cells of the ileum. Our results demonstrate a significant increase (p < 0.005) in DNA-synthesizing cells in the crypts of two independent lines of PKD1 transgenic mice as compared with non-transgenic littermates. Morphometric analysis showed a significant increase in the length and in the total number of cells per crypt in the transgenic PKD1 mice as compared with the non-transgenic littermates (p < 0.01). Thus, transgenic PKD1 signaling increases the number of cells per crypt by stimulating the rate of crypt cell proliferation. Collectively, our results indicate that PKD1 plays a role in promoting cell proliferation in intestinal epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo.

  1. Survival after total body irradiation: Effects of irradiation of exteriorized small intestine. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Vigneulle, R.M.; Kitto, G.; Pelky, T.; Taylor, P.

    1993-12-31

    Rats receiving lethal irradiation to their exteriorized small intestine with pulsed 18 MVp bremsstrahlung radiation live about 4 days longer than rats receiving a dose of total-body irradiation (TBI) causing intestinal death. The LD50 for intestinal irradiation is approximately 6 Gy higher than the LD50 for intestinal death after TBI. Survival time after exteriorized intestinal irradiation can be decreased, by adding abdominal irradiation. Adding thoracic or pelvic irradiation does not alter survival time. Shielding of large intestine improves survival after irradiation of the rest of the abdomen while the small intestine is also shielded. The kinetics of histological changes in small intestinal tissues implicate the release of humoral factors after irradiation of the abdomen. Radiation injury develops faster in the first (proximal) 40 cm of the small intestine and is expressed predominantly as shortening in villus height. In the last (distal) 40 cm of the small intestine, the most pronounced radiation effect is a decrease in the number of crypts per millimeter. Irradiation (20 Gy) of the proximal small intestine causes 92 % mortality (median survival 10 days). Irradiation (20 Gy) of the distal small intestine causes 27% mortality (median survival > 30 days). In addition to depletion of crypt stem cells in the small intestine, other issues (humoral factors, irradiated subsection of the small intestine and shielding of the large intestine) appear to influence radiation-induced intestinal mortality.

  2. Selection of multipotent stem cells during morphogenesis of small intestinal crypts of Lieberkuhn is perturbed by stimulation of Lef-1/beta-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Wong, Melissa H; Huelsken, Joerg; Birchmeier, Walter; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2002-05-03

    Studies of chimeric mice have disclosed that the stem cell hierarchy in the small intestinal epithelium is established during formation of its proliferative units (crypts of Lieberkühn). This process involves a selection among several multipotential progenitors so that ultimately only one survives to supply descendants to the fully formed crypt. In this report, we examine the hypothesis that the level of beta-catenin (beta-cat)-mediated signaling is an important factor regulating this stem cell selection. In the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, beta-catenin can partner with Lef-1/Tcf high mobility group (HMG) box transcription factors to control gene expression. Both Lef-1 and Tcf-4 mRNAs are produced in the fetal mouse small intestine. Tcf-4 expression is sustained, whereas Lef-1 levels fall as crypt formation is completed during the first two postnatal weeks. A Tcf-4 gene knockout is known to block intestinal epithelial proliferation in late fetal life. Therefore, to test the hypothesis, we enhanced beta-catenin signaling in a chimeric mouse model in which the stem cell selection could be monitored. A fusion protein containing the HMG box domain of Lef-1 linked to the trans-activation domain of beta-catenin (Lef-1/beta-cat) was constructed to promote direct stimulation of signaling without being retained in the cytoplasm through interactions with E-cadherin and Apc/Axin. Lef-1/beta-cat was expressed in 129/Sv embryonic stem cell-derived small intestinal epithelial progenitors present in developing B6-ROSA26<-->129/Sv chimeras. Lef-1/beta-cat stimulated expression of a known beta-catenin target (E-cadherin), suppressed expression of Apc and Axin, and induced apoptosis in 129/Sv but not in neighboring B6-ROSA26 epithelial cells. This apoptotic response was not associated with any detectable changes in cell division within the Lef-1/beta-cat-expressing epithelium. By the time crypt development was completed, all 129/Sv epithelial cells were lost. These results

  3. Saireito (TJ-114), a Japanese traditional herbal medicine, reduces 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in mice by inhibiting cytokine-mediated apoptosis in intestinal crypt cells.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shinichi; Hayashi, Shusaku; Kitahara, Yumeno; Nagasawa, Koyo; Aono, Hitomi; Shibata, Junichiro; Utsumi, Daichi; Amagase, Kikuko; Kadowaki, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Clinical chemotherapy frequently causes intestinal mucositis as a side effect, which is accompanied by severe diarrhea. We recently showed that the cytokine-mediated apoptotic pathway might be important for the development of intestinal mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Saireito, the traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine, is widely used to treat diarrhea and various inflammatory diseases in Japan. In the present study, we investigated the effect of saireito on 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in mice, especially in relation to apoptosis in the intestinal crypt. Male C57BL/6 mice were given 5-FU (50 mg/kg), i.p. once daily for 6 days. Intestinal mucositis was evaluated histochemically. Saireito (100-1000 mg/kg) was administered p.o. twice daily for 6 days. Repeated 5-FU treatment caused severe intestinal mucositis including morphological damage, which was accompanied by body weight loss and diarrhea. Daily administration of saireito reduced the severity of intestinal mucositis in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight loss and diarrhea during 5-FU treatment were also significantly attenuated by saireito administration. The number of apoptotic and caspase-3-activated cells in the intestinal crypt was increased, and was accompanied by up-regulated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β mRNA within 24 h of the first 5-FU injection. However, all of these measures were significantly lower after saireito administration. These results suggest that saireito attenuates 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. This action may come from the reduction of apoptosis in the intestinal crypt via suppression of the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, saireito may be clinically useful for the prevention of intestinal mucositis during cancer chemotherapy.

  4. MicroRNA mir-16 is anti-proliferative in enterocytes and exhibits diurnal rhythmicity in intestinal crypts

    SciTech Connect

    Balakrishnan, Anita; Stearns, Adam T.; Park, Peter J.; Dreyfuss, Jonathan M.; Ashley, Stanley W.; Rhoads, David B.; Tavakkolizadeh, Ali

    2010-12-10

    Background and aims: The intestine exhibits profound diurnal rhythms in function and morphology, in part due to changes in enterocyte proliferation. The regulatory mechanisms behind these rhythms remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that microRNAs are involved in mediating these rhythms, and studied the role of microRNAs specifically in modulating intestinal proliferation. Methods: Diurnal rhythmicity of microRNAs in rat jejunum was analyzed by microarrays and validated by qPCR. Temporal expression of diurnally rhythmic mir-16 was further quantified in intestinal crypts, villi, and smooth muscle using laser capture microdissection and qPCR. Morphological changes in rat jejunum were assessed by histology and proliferation by immunostaining for bromodeoxyuridine. In IEC-6 cells stably overexpressing mir-16, proliferation was assessed by cell counting and MTS assay, cell cycle progression and apoptosis by flow cytometry, and cell cycle gene expression by qPCR and immunoblotting. Results: mir-16 peaked 6 hours after light onset (HALO 6) with diurnal changes restricted to crypts. Crypt depth and villus height peaked at HALO 13-14 in antiphase to mir-16. Overexpression of mir-16 in IEC-6 cells suppressed specific G1/S regulators (cyclins D1-3, cyclin E1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 6) and produced G1 arrest. Protein expression of these genes exhibited diurnal rhythmicity in rat jejunum, peaking between HALO 11 and 17 in antiphase to mir-16. Conclusions: This is the first report of circadian rhythmicity of specific microRNAs in rat jejunum. Our data provide a link between anti-proliferative mir-16 and the intestinal proliferation rhythm and point to mir-16 as an important regulator of proliferation in jejunal crypts. This function may be essential to match proliferation and absorptive capacity with nutrient availability.

  5. Interactions of radiation and 5-fluorouracil, cyclophosphamide or methotrexate in intestinal crypt cells

    SciTech Connect

    von der Maase, H.

    1984-01-01

    The interactions of radiation and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), cyclophosphamide (CTX), or methotrexate (MTX) in mouse jejunal crypt cells were studied using the microcolony survival assay. 5-FU given from 48 hr before to 24 hr after irradiation resulted in an almost constant, increased cell kill except at injection 6 hr after irradiation, which resulted in a more pronounced effect. CTX enhanced the radiation effect only when given simultaneously with or up to 3 hr after irradiation. The effect of MTX, extremely dependent on the sequence and interval between drug administration and irradiation, was most prominent when administered 1 hr before irradiation. At this drug-radiation interval, the D/sub 0/ surprisingly increased by a factor of 2.4, whereas MTX 15 min before irradiation displaced the survival curve to the left without changing the D/sub 0/. The influence of MTX on the radiation response disappeared when the drug was given either 96 hr before or 3 hr after irradiation.

  6. Radiobiological intercomparison of two clinical neutron beams using the regeneration of mouse intestinal crypts.

    PubMed

    Böhm, L; Gueulette, J; Jones, D T; Beauduin, M; Vynckier, S; de Roubaix, S; Yudelev, M; Slabbert, J P; Wambersie, A

    1990-03-01

    Determination of dose modification factor greatly facilitates the introduction of clinically proven neutron therapy schedules at new installations. We have compared the biological performance of the p(66)+Be neutron facility at Faure, South Africa, with the established p(65)+Be installation at Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Filtration, D gamma/DT, dose rate and HVT 5/15 for the Louvain and Faure beam are: 2 cm, 2.5 cm polyethylene; 3%, 5%; 0.2 Gy/min, 0.4 Gy/min; and 20 cm and 19 cm respectively. Dosimetry was done in A-150 plastic. Irradiation of BALB/C mice was carried on according to the dose accumulation method in a perspex phantom at 5 cm depth and at an SSD of 150 cm at a field size of 28 X 28 cm2. Sections of the jejunum were prepared at each centre and analyzed by both. The RBE of the Faure beam determined at a survival level of 50 crypts ranged from 1.64 to 1.69. The dose modification factor RBE of the Louvain beam given by Beauduin et al. was 1.61 +/- 0.14. The dose modification factor of the Faure beam relative to the Louvain beam is thus 1.03 +/- 0.13 which could be expected from the similarity of the physical characteristics. Independent RBE measurements in a variety of systems also suggest similar biological properties. The depth variation of the RBE was found to be 4% (mouse gut) using 3 cm polyethylene filter over the depth range of 2.5 to 13.5 cm. This is in agreement with microdosimetry measurements using polyethylene filters of various thicknesses and with V79 measurements reported by Slabbert et al.

  7. Ratiometric Imaging of Tissue by Two-Photon Microscopy: Observation of a High Level of Formaldehyde around Mouse Intestinal Crypts.

    PubMed

    Singha, Subhankar; Jun, Yong Woong; Bae, Juryang; Ahn, Kyo Han

    2017-03-21

    Ratiometric imaging by two-photon microscopy can offer a viable tool for the relative quantification of biological analytes inside tissue with minimal influence from environmental factors that affect fluorescence signal. We demonstrate the ratiometric imaging of formaldehyde at the suborgan level using a two-photon fluorescent probe, which involves pixel-to-pixel ratiometric data transformation. This study reveals for the first time a high level of formaldehyde around the crypts of mouse small intestine, implicating its possible protective role along with the released antimicrobials from the Paneth cells.

  8. Paneth Cell-Rich Regions Separated by a Cluster of Lgr5+ Cells Initiate Crypt Fission in the Intestinal Stem Cell Niche.

    PubMed

    Langlands, Alistair J; Almet, Axel A; Appleton, Paul L; Newton, Ian P; Osborne, James M; Näthke, Inke S

    2016-06-01

    The crypts of the intestinal epithelium house the stem cells that ensure the continual renewal of the epithelial cells that line the intestinal tract. Crypt number increases by a process called crypt fission, the division of a single crypt into two daughter crypts. Fission drives normal tissue growth and maintenance. Correspondingly, it becomes less frequent in adulthood. Importantly, fission is reactivated to drive adenoma growth. The mechanisms governing fission are poorly understood. However, only by knowing how normal fission operates can cancer-associated changes be elucidated. We studied normal fission in tissue in three dimensions using high-resolution imaging and used intestinal organoids to identify underlying mechanisms. We discovered that both the number and relative position of Paneth cells and Lgr5+ cells are important for fission. Furthermore, the higher stiffness and increased adhesion of Paneth cells are involved in determining the site of fission. Formation of a cluster of Lgr5+ cells between at least two Paneth-cell-rich domains establishes the site for the upward invagination that initiates fission.

  9. Preferential Entry of Botulinum Neurotoxin A Hc Domain through Intestinal Crypt Cells and Targeting to Cholinergic Neurons of the Mouse Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Couesnon, Aurélie; Molgó, Jordi; Connan, Chloé; Popoff, Michel R.

    2012-01-01

    Botulism, characterized by flaccid paralysis, commonly results from botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) absorption across the epithelial barrier from the digestive tract and then dissemination through the blood circulation to target autonomic and motor nerve terminals. The trafficking pathway of BoNT/A passage through the intestinal barrier is not yet fully understood. We report that intralumenal administration of purified BoNT/A into mouse ileum segment impaired spontaneous muscle contractions and abolished the smooth muscle contractions evoked by electric field stimulation. Entry of BoNT/A into the mouse upper small intestine was monitored with fluorescent HcA (half C-terminal domain of heavy chain) which interacts with cell surface receptor(s). We show that HcA preferentially recognizes a subset of neuroendocrine intestinal crypt cells, which probably represent the entry site of the toxin through the intestinal barrier, then targets specific neurons in the submucosa and later (90–120 min) in the musculosa. HcA mainly binds to certain cholinergic neurons of both submucosal and myenteric plexuses, but also recognizes, although to a lower extent, other neuronal cells including glutamatergic and serotoninergic neurons in the submucosa. Intestinal cholinergic neuron targeting by HcA could account for the inhibition of intestinal peristaltism and secretion observed in botulism, but the consequences of the targeting to non-cholinergic neurons remains to be determined. PMID:22438808

  10. A rat decellularized small bowel scaffold that preserves villus-crypt architecture for intestinal regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Totonelli, Giorgia; Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Garriboli, Massimo; Riegler, Johannes; Orlando, Giuseppe; Burns, Alan J.; Sebire, Neil J.; Smith, Virpi V.; Fishman, Jonathan M.; Ghionzoli, Marco; Turmaine, Mark; Birchall, Martin A.; Atala, Anthony; Soker, Shay; Lythgoe, Mark F.; Seifalian, Alexander; Pierro, Agostino; Eaton, Simon; De Coppi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Management of intestinal failure remains a clinical challenge and total parenteral nutrition, intestinal elongation and/or transplantation are partial solutions. In this study, using a detergent-enzymatic treatment (DET), we optimize in rats a new protocol that creates a natural intestinal scaffold, as a base for developing functional intestinal tissue. After 1 cycle of DET, histological examination and SEM and TEM analyses showed removal of cellular elements with preservation of the native architecture and connective tissue components. Maintenance of biomechanical, adhesion and angiogenic properties were also demonstrated strengthen the idea that matrices obtained using DET may represent a valid support for intestinal regeneration. PMID:22305104

  11. Critical role of microbiota within cecal crypts on the regenerative capacity of the intestinal epithelium following surgical stress.

    PubMed

    Zaborin, Alexander; Krezalek, Monika; Hyoju, Sanjiv; Defazio, Jennifer R; Setia, Namrata; Belogortseva, Natalia; Bindokas, Vytautas P; Guo, Qiti; Zaborina, Olga; Alverdy, John C

    2017-02-01

    Cecal crypts represent a unique niche that are normally occupied by the commensal microbiota. Due to their density and close proximity to stem cells, microbiota within cecal crypts may modulate epithelial regeneration. Here we demonstrate that surgical stress, a process that invariably involves a short period of starvation, antibiotic exposure, and tissue injury, results in cecal crypt evacuation of their microbiota. Crypts devoid of their microbiota display pathophysiological features characterized by abnormal stem cell activation as judged by leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) staining, expansion of the proliferative zone toward the tips of the crypts, and an increase in apoptosis. In addition, crypts devoid of their microbiota display loss of their regenerative capacity as assessed by their ability to form organoids ex vivo. When a four-member human pathogen community isolated from the stool of a critically ill patient is introduced into the cecum of mice with empty crypts, crypts become occupied by the pathogens and further disruption of crypt homeostasis is observed. Fecal microbiota transplantation restores the cecal crypts' microbiota, normalizes homeostasis within crypts, and reestablishes crypt regenerative capacity. Taken together, these findings define an emerging role for the microbiota within cecal crypts to maintain epithelial cell homeostasis in a manner that may enhance recovery in response to the physiological stress imposed by the process of surgery.

  12. PepT1 Expression Helps Maintain Intestinal Homeostasis by Mediating the Differential Expression of miRNAs along the Crypt-Villus Axis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuchen; Viennois, Emilie; Zhang, Mingzhen; Xiao, Bo; Han, Moon Kwon; Walter, Lewins; Garg, Pallavi; Merlin, Didier

    2016-01-01

    In the jejunum, PepT1 is particularly enriched in the well-differentiated absorptive epithelial cells in the villi. Studies of expression and function of PepT1 along the crypt-villus axis demonstrated that this protein is crucial to the process of di/tripeptide absorption. We recently exhibited that PepT1 plays an important role in multiple biological functions, including the ability to regulate the expression/secretion of specific microRNAs (miRNAs) and the expression levels of multiple proteins. In this study, we observed that PepT1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited reduced body weight and shorten intestinal microvilli. We then examined the expression levels of various miRNAs and their target proteins along the crypt-villi axis in the jejunum of PepT1 KO mice. We found that PepT1 KO altered the distribution of miRNAs along the crypt-villus axis and changed the miRNA profiles of both villi and crypts. Using miRNA-target prediction and 2D-DIGE/mass spectrometry on villi and crypts samples, we found that ablation of PepT1 further directly or indirectly altered expression levels of certain protein targets. Collectively, our results suggest that PepT1 contributes to maintain balance of homeostasis and proper functions in the small intestine, and dysregulated miRNAs and proteins along the crypt-villus axis are highly related to this process. PMID:27250880

  13. Proliferation and mRNA expression of absorptive villous cell markers and mineral transporters in prolactin-exposed IEC-6 intestinal crypt cells.

    PubMed

    Teerapornpuntakit, Jarinthorn; Wongdee, Kannikar; Thongbunchoo, Jirawan; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2012-06-01

    During pregnancy and lactation, prolactin (PRL) enhances intestinal absorption of calcium and other minerals for fetal development and milk production. Although an enhanced absorptive efficiency is believed to mainly result from the upregulation of mineral transporters in the absorptive villous cells, some other possibilities, such as PRL-enhanced crypt cell proliferation and differentiation to increase the absorptive area, have never been ruled out. Here, we investigated cell proliferation and mRNA expression of mineral absorption-related genes in the PRL-exposed IEC-6 crypt cells. As expected, the cell proliferation was not altered by PRL. Inasmuch as the mRNA expressions of villous cell markers, including dipeptidylpeptidase-4, lactase and glucose transporter-5, were not increased, PRL was not likely to enhance crypt cell differentiation into the absorptive villous cells. In contrast to the previous findings in villous cells, PRL was found to downregulate the expression of calbindin-D(9k), claudin-3 and occludin in IEC-6 crypt cells, while having no effect on transient receptor potential vanilloid family channels-5/6, plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA)-1b and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger-1 expression. In conclusion, IEC-6 crypt cells did not respond to PRL by increasing proliferation or differentiation into villous cells. The present results thus supported the previous hypothesis that PRL enhanced mineral absorption predominantly by increasing transporter expression and activity in the absorptive villous cells.

  14. Lawsonia intracellularis exploits β-catenin/Wnt and Notch signalling pathways during infection of intestinal crypt to alter cell homeostasis and promote cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Yang W.; Bengtsson, Rebecca J.; MacIntyre, Neil; Guthrie, Jack; Finlayson, Heather; Smith, Sionagh H.; Archibald, Alan L.; Ait-Ali, Tahar

    2017-01-01

    Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes proliferative enteropathy (PE) in pigs. L. intracellularis infection causes extensive intestinal crypt cell proliferation and inhibits secretory and absorptive cell differentiation. However, the affected host upstream cellular pathways leading to PE are still unknown. β-catenin/Wnt signalling is essential in maintaining intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation and self-renewal capacity, while Notch signalling governs differentiation of secretory and absorptive lineage specification. Therefore, in this report we used immunofluorescence (IF) and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RTqPCR) to examine β-catenin/Wnt and Notch-1 signalling levels in uninfected and L. intracellularis infected pig ileums at 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post challenge (dpc). We found that while the significant increase in Ki67+ nuclei in crypts at the peak of L. intracellularis infection suggested enhanced cell proliferation, the expression of c-MYC and ASCL2, promoters of cell growth and ISC proliferation respectively, was down-regulated. Peak infection also coincided with enhanced cytosolic and membrane-associated β-catenin staining and induction of AXIN2 and SOX9 transcripts, both encoding negative regulators of β-catenin/Wnt signalling and suggesting a potential alteration to β-catenin/Wnt signalling levels, with differential regulation of the expression of its target genes. We found that induction of HES1 and OLFM4 and the down-regulation of ATOH1 transcript levels was consistent with the increased Notch-1 signalling in crypts at the peak of infection. Interestingly, the significant down-regulation of ATOH1 transcript levels coincided with the depletion of MUC2 expression at 14 dpc, consistent with the role of ATOH1 in promoting goblet cell maturation. The lack of significant change to LGR5 transcript levels at the peak of infection suggested that the crypt hyperplasia was not due to the expansion

  15. CD44 and TLR4 mediate hyaluronic acid regulation of Lgr5+ stem cell proliferation, crypt fission, and intestinal growth in postnatal and adult mice.

    PubMed

    Riehl, Terrence E; Santhanam, Srikanth; Foster, Lynne; Ciorba, Matthew; Stenson, William F

    2015-12-01

    Hyaluronic acid, a glycosaminoglycan in the extracellular matrix, binds to CD44 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). We previously addressed the role of hyaluronic acid in small intestinal and colonic growth in mice. We addressed the role of exogenous hyaluronic acid by giving hyaluronic acid intraperitoneally and the role of endogenous hyaluronic acid by giving PEP-1, a peptide that blocks hyaluronic acid binding to its receptors. Exogenous hyaluronic acid increased epithelial proliferation but had no effect on intestinal length. PEP-1 resulted in a shortened small intestine and colon and diminished epithelial proliferation. In the current study, we sought to determine whether the effects of hyaluronic acid on growth were mediated by signaling through CD44 or TLR4 by giving exogenous hyaluronic acid or PEP-1 twice a week from 3-8 wk of age to wild-type, CD44(-/-), and TLR4(-/-) mice. These studies demonstrated that signaling through both CD44 and TLR4 were important in mediating the effects of hyaluronic acid on growth in the small intestine and colon. Extending our studies to early postnatal life, we assessed the effects of exogenous hyaluronic acid and PEP-1 on Lgr5(+) stem cell proliferation and crypt fission. Administration of PEP-1 to Lgr5(+) reporter mice from postnatal day 7 to day 14 decreased Lgr5(+) cell proliferation and decreased crypt fission. These studies indicate that endogenous hyaluronic acid increases Lgr5(+) stem cell proliferation, crypt fission, and intestinal lengthening and that these effects are dependent on signaling through CD44 and TLR4.

  16. p21waf1/cip1 deficiency does not perturb the intestinal crypt stem cell population after massive small bowel resection

    PubMed Central

    Longshore, Shannon W.; Nair, Rajalakshmi; Perrone, Erin E.; Erwin, Christopher R.; Guo, Jun; Warner, Brad W.

    2009-01-01

    Background After small bowel resection (SBR), adaptation is initiated in intestinal crypts where stem cells reside. Prior studies revealed SBR induced enterocyte proliferation requires the expression of p21waf1/cip1. Since deficient expression of p21waf1/cip1 has been shown to result in reduced numbers of hematopoietic stem cells, we sought to test the hypothesis that p21waf1/cip1 deficiency similarly perturbs the intestinal stem cell population after SBR. Methods Control (n=21; C57Bl/6) and p21waf1/cip1-null mice (n=30) underwent 50% proximal SBR or sham operation. After 3 days, the ileum was harvested and the crypt stem cell population evaluated by counting crypt base columnar (CBC) cells on histological sections, determining the expression of Musashi-1 and Lgr5, and profiling the transcriptional expression of 84 known stem cell genes. Results There were no significant differences in CBC cells, expression of Musashi-1 or Lgr5, or in stem cell gene expression after SBR in control mice. Further, there were no differences in these markers between controls and p21waf1/cip1-null mice. Conclusion In contrast with bone marrow stem cells, the stem cell population of the gut is unaffected by deficient expression of p21waf1/cip1. Additional mechanisms for the role of p21waf1/cip1 in small bowel proliferation and adaptation following massive SBR must be considered. PMID:19524718

  17. Serum and fecal canine α1-proteinase inhibitor concentrations reflect the severity of intestinal crypt abscesses and/or lacteal dilation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, Romy M; Parnell, Nolie K; Grützner, Niels; Mansell, Joanne; Berghoff, Nora; Schellenberg, Stefan; Reusch, Claudia E; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) protein loss, due to lymphangiectasia or chronic inflammation, can be challenging to diagnose. This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of serum and fecal canine α1-proteinase inhibitor (cα1PI) concentrations to detect crypt abscesses and/or lacteal dilation in dogs. Serum and fecal cα1PI concentrations were measured in 120 dogs undergoing GI tissue biopsies, and were compared between dogs with and without crypt abscesses/lacteal dilation. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for dichotomous outcomes. Serial serum cα1PI concentrations were also evaluated in 12 healthy corticosteroid-treated dogs. Serum cα1PI and albumin concentrations were significantly lower in dogs with crypt abscesses and/or lacteal dilation than in those without (both P <0.001), and more severe lesions were associated with lower serum cα1PI concentrations, higher 3 days-mean fecal cα1PI concentrations, and lower serum/fecal cα1PI ratios. Serum and fecal cα1PI, and their ratios, distinguished dogs with moderate or severe GI crypt abscesses/lacteal dilation from dogs with only mild or none such lesions with moderate sensitivity (56-92%) and specificity (67-81%). Serum cα1PI concentrations increased during corticosteroid administration. We conclude that serum and fecal α1PI concentrations reflect the severity of intestinal crypt abscesses/lacteal dilation in dogs. Due to its specificity for the GI tract, measurement of fecal cα1PI appears to be superior to serum cα1PI for diagnosing GI protein loss in dogs. In addition, the serum/fecal cα1PI ratio has an improved accuracy in hypoalbuminemic dogs, but serum cα1PI concentrations should be carefully interpreted in corticosteroid-treated dogs.

  18. A novel in vitro survival assay of small intestinal stem cells after exposure to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Motohiro; Otsuka, Kensuke; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Tomita, Masanori; Takahashi, Masayuki; Nakasono, Satoshi; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Yoshida, Kazuo

    2014-03-01

    The microcolony assay developed by Withers and Elkind has been a gold standard to assess the surviving fraction of small intestinal stem cells after exposure to high (≥8 Gy) doses of ionizing radiation (IR), but is not applicable in cases of exposure to lower doses. Here, we developed a novel in vitro assay that enables assessment of the surviving fraction of small intestinal stem cells after exposure to lower IR doses. The assay includes in vitro culture of small intestinal stem cells, which allows the stem cells to develop into epithelial organoids containing all four differentiated cell types of the small intestine. We used Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-CreERT2/ROSA26-tdTomato mice to identify Lgr5(+) stem cells and their progeny. Enzymatically dissociated single crypt cells from the duodenum and jejunum of mice were irradiated with 7.25, 29, 101, 304, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mGy of X-rays immediately after plating, and the number of organoids was counted on Day 12. Organoid-forming efficiency of irradiated cells relative to that of unirradiated controls was defined as the surviving fraction of stem cells. We observed a significant decrease in the surviving fraction of stem cells at ≥1000 mGy. Moreover, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses and passage of the organoids revealed that proliferation of stem cells surviving IR is significantly potentiated. Together, the present study demonstrates that the in vitro assay is useful for quantitatively assessing the surviving fraction of small intestinal stem cells after exposure to lower doses of IR as compared with previous examinations using the microcolony assay.

  19. Prostaglandin-induced radioprotection of murine intestinal crypts and villi by a PGE diene analog (SC-44932) and a PGI analog (Iloprost)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Wayne R.; Collins, Paul W.

    The aminothiols exemplified by WR-2721 are effective radioprotectors; however, their toxicity associated with hypotension, nausea, and emesis has limited their development for applications in medicine or in hazardous radiation environments. There is a need for new radioprotectors that have fewer toxic side effects when given alone or combined with reduced amounts of thiols. A variety of prostaglandins (PGs) have been shown to be radioprotective agents and some appear to have fewer toxic side effects than the aminothiols. Iloprost, a stable PGI, analog protects the clonogenic epithelial cells of intestinal crypts but does not protect epithelial cells of the villi. In contrast, an E-series omega chain diene analog designated SC-44932 protects epithelial cells of both crypts and villi. When the two are combined, protection of the crypts is additive and the villi are protected to the same degree as when SC-44932 is given alone. Since radioprotection for some PGs has been shown to be dependent upon receptors, we suggest that the pattern of radioprotection seen with these two analogs depend on the location of the respective receptors or on the ability of differentiated villus cells to respond to PGs. By studying different analogs, we hope to identify mechanisms associated with PG-induced radioprotection and to identify the most protective PG analogs for applications of radioprotection.

  20. Stem cell factor enhances the survival of murine intestinal stem cells after photon irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, B.R.; Khan, W.; Hancock, S.L.

    1995-04-01

    Recombinant rat stem cell factor (SCF) has been shown to decrease lethality in mice exposed to total-body irradiation (TBI) in the lower range of lethality through radioprotection of hematopoietic stem cells and acceleration of bone marrow repopulation. This study evaluates the effect of SCF on the survival of the intestinal mucosal stem cell after TBI. This non-hematopoietic cell is clinically relevant. Gastrointestinal toxicity is common during and after abdominal and pelvic radiation therapy and limits the radiation dose in these regions. As observed with bone marrow, the administration of SCF to mice prior to TBI enhanced the survival of mouse duodenal crypt stem cells. The maximum enhancement of survival was seen when 100 {mu}/kg of SCF was given intraperitoneally 8 h before irradiation. This regimen increased the survival of duodenal crypt stem cells after 12.0 Gy TBI from 22.5 {+-} 0.7 per duodenal cross section for controls to 30.0 {+-} 1.7 after treatment with SCF (P=0.03). The TBI dose producing 50% mortality of 6 days (LD{sub 50/6}) was increased from 14.9 Gy for control mice to 19.0 Gy for mice treated with SCF (dose modification factor = 1.28). These findings demonstrate that SCF (dose modification factor = 1.28). These findings demonstrate that SCF has radioprotective effects on a non-hematopoietic stem cell population and suggest that SCF may be of clinical value in preventing radiation injury to the intestine. 29 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Differential expression of proteins involved in energy production along the crypt-villus axis in early-weaning pig small intestine.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xia; Yang, Huansheng; Tan, Bie; Yang, Chengbo; Wu, Miaomiao; Liu, Gang; Kim, Sung Woo; Li, Tiejun; Li, Lili; Wang, Junjun; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2015-08-15

    Weaning of piglets reflects intestinal dysfunction and atrophy and affected the physiological state of enterocytes. However, few studies have defined physiological state of enterocytes along the crypt-villus axis in early-weaning piglets. A total of 16 piglets from 8 litters were used in the experiment. One group of piglets was nursed by sows until age 21 days, and another group was weaned at age 14 days and then fed creep feed instead of breast milk for 7 days. Piglets were killed at 21 days, and the jejunum segments were dissected. After sequential isolation of jejunum epithelial cells along the crypt-villus axis, their proteins were analyzed through the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification, and proteins involved in the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway and proliferating cell nuclear antigen abundances in jejunal epithelial cells of weaning or suckling group were determined by Western blotting. The differential proteins in three cell fractions were identified and analyzed. The results showed that proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, β-oxidation, and the glycolysis pathway were significantly downregulated in the upper and middle villus of the early-weaned group. However, proteins involved in glycolysis were significantly upregulated in crypt cells. In addition, Western blot analysis showed that the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin pathway-related proteins was decreased (P < 0.05) in the early-weaned group. The present results showed that early-weaning differentially affect the expression of proteins involved in energy production of enterocytes along the jejunal crypt-villus axis.

  2. Combined changes in Wnt signaling response and contact inhibition induce altered proliferation in radiation-treated intestinal crypts

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, S.-J.; Osborne, J. M.; Appleton, P. L.; Näthke, I.

    2016-01-01

    Curative intervention is possible if colorectal cancer is identified early, underscoring the need to detect the earliest stages of malignant transformation. A candidate biomarker is the expanded proliferative zone observed in crypts before adenoma formation, also found in irradiated crypts. However, the underlying driving mechanism for this is not known. Wnt signaling is a key regulator of proliferation, and elevated Wnt signaling is implicated in cancer. Nonetheless, how cells differentiate Wnt signals of varying strengths is not understood. We use computational modeling to compare alternative hypotheses about how Wnt signaling and contact inhibition affect proliferation. Direct comparison of simulations with published experimental data revealed that the model that best reproduces proliferation patterns in normal crypts stipulates that proliferative fate and cell cycle duration are set by the Wnt stimulus experienced at birth. The model also showed that the broadened proliferation zone induced by tumorigenic radiation can be attributed to cells responding to lower Wnt concentrations and dividing at smaller volumes. Application of the model to data from irradiated crypts after an extended recovery period permitted deductions about the extent of the initial insult. Application of computational modeling to experimental data revealed how mechanisms that control cell dynamics are altered at the earliest stages of carcinogenesis. PMID:27053661

  3. Effects of epidermal growth factor and dimethylhydrazine on crypt size, cell proliferation, and crypt fission in the rat colon. Cell proliferation and crypt fission are controlled independently.

    PubMed Central

    Park, H. S.; Goodlad, R. A.; Ahnen, D. J.; Winnett, A.; Sasieni, P.; Lee, C. Y.; Wright, N. A.

    1997-01-01

    Crypt fission is now established as an important mechanism of intestinal growth and regeneration. It has been proposed that increased crypt size is the stimulus for crypt fission, because crypts preparing for fission are generally larger. Consequently, we investigated the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and dimethylhydrazine, which are both known to stimulate crypt cell proliferation, on crypt fission in the rat intestine. We also examined whether the effects of EGF on both proliferation and crypt fission are modified by the pretreatment with dimethylhydrazine for 16 weeks, dimethylhydrazine was then discontinued for 8 weeks, followed by intravenous infusion of EGF for 1 week. There were four groups: vehicle alone, EGF alone, dimethylhydrazine alone, and dimethylhydrazine followed by EGF infusion. The rats were killed at 25 weeks and rates of intestinal crypt cell production, crypt size, and crypt fission were determined. Intravenously infused EGF significantly increased crypt cell production rate, but the magnitude of the effect decreased from the proximal to the distal colon. EGF caused an increase in crypt area, possibly reflecting an increase in crypt size. Importantly dimethylhydrazine had no significant effect on crypt cell production rate nor on crypt area in the distal colon, but it did cause an increase in crypt area in the mid-colon. The crypt fission index was significantly decreased by EGF and increased by dimethylhydrazine. There was no qualitative interaction between EGF and dimethylhydrazine. These results demonstrate the marked proliferative effect of intravenously infused EGF in the colon of orally fed rats, with significant site effects (P = 0.0007); the effect was greatest in the proximal colon and disappeared in the distal colon. The observation that EGF reduced crypt fission indicates that increased cell proliferation, per se, is not a stimulus for crypt fission. This is further supported by the observation that dimethylhydrazine

  4. Structural alteration of tight and adherens junctions in villous and crypt epithelium of the small and large intestine of conventional nursing piglets infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwonil; Eyerly, Bryan; Annamalai, Thavamathi; Lu, Zhongyan; Saif, Linda J

    2015-06-12

    Integrity of the intestinal epithelium is critical for proper functioning of the barrier that regulates absorption of water and restricts uptake of luminal bacteria. It is maintained mainly by tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs). We conducted immunofluorescence (IF) staining for in situ identification of zonula occludin (ZO)-1 proteins for TJ and E-Cadherin proteins for AJ in the small and large intestinal villous and crypt epithelium of nursing pigs infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Twenty 9-day-old piglets [PEDV-infected (n=9) and Mock (n=11)] from PEDV seronegative sows, were orally inoculated [8.9 log₁₀ genomic equivalents/pig] with PEDV PC21A strain or mock. At post-inoculation days (PIDs) 1-5, infected pigs showed severe watery diarrhea and/or vomiting and severe atrophic enteritis. By immunohistochemistry, PEDV antigens were evident in enterocytes lining the villous epithelium. At PIDs 1-5, PEDV-infected pigs exhibited mildly to extensively disorganized, irregular distribution and reduced expression of ZO-1 or E-Cadherin in villous, but not crypt epithelial cells of the jejunum and ileum, but not in the large intestine, when compared to the negative controls. The structural destruction and disorganization of TJ and AJ were extensive in PEDV-infected pigs at PIDs 1-3, but then appeared to reversibly recover at PID 5, as evident by increased numbers of ZO-1-positive epithelial cells and markedly improved appearance of E-Cadherin-positive villous epithelium. Our results suggest a possible involvement of structurally impaired TJ and AJ in the pathogenesis of PEDV, potentially leading to secondary bacterial infections.

  5. Food-grade TiO2 impairs intestinal and systemic immune homeostasis, initiates preneoplastic lesions and promotes aberrant crypt development in the rat colon.

    PubMed

    Bettini, Sarah; Boutet-Robinet, Elisa; Cartier, Christel; Coméra, Christine; Gaultier, Eric; Dupuy, Jacques; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Grysan, Patrick; Reguer, Solenn; Thieriet, Nathalie; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Thiaudière, Dominique; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Carrière, Marie; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Pierre, Fabrice H; Guzylack-Piriou, Laurence; Houdeau, Eric

    2017-01-20

    Food-grade titanium dioxide (TiO2) containing a nanoscale particle fraction (TiO2-NPs) is approved as a white pigment (E171 in Europe) in common foodstuffs, including confectionary. There are growing concerns that daily oral TiO2-NP intake is associated with an increased risk of chronic intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis. In rats orally exposed for one week to E171 at human relevant levels, titanium was detected in the immune cells of Peyer's patches (PP) as observed with the TiO2-NP model NM-105. Dendritic cell frequency increased in PP regardless of the TiO2 treatment, while regulatory T cells involved in dampening inflammatory responses decreased with E171 only, an effect still observed after 100 days of treatment. In all TiO2-treated rats, stimulation of immune cells isolated from PP showed a decrease in Thelper (Th)-1 IFN-γ secretion, while splenic Th1/Th17 inflammatory responses sharply increased. E171 or NM-105 for one week did not initiate intestinal inflammation, while a 100-day E171 treatment promoted colon microinflammation and initiated preneoplastic lesions while also fostering the growth of aberrant crypt foci in a chemically induced carcinogenesis model. These data should be considered for risk assessments of the susceptibility to Th17-driven autoimmune diseases and to colorectal cancer in humans exposed to TiO2 from dietary sources.

  6. Food-grade TiO2 impairs intestinal and systemic immune homeostasis, initiates preneoplastic lesions and promotes aberrant crypt development in the rat colon

    PubMed Central

    Bettini, Sarah; Boutet-Robinet, Elisa; Cartier, Christel; Coméra, Christine; Gaultier, Eric; Dupuy, Jacques; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Grysan, Patrick; Reguer, Solenn; Thieriet, Nathalie; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Thiaudière, Dominique; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Carrière, Marie; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Pierre, Fabrice H.; Guzylack-Piriou, Laurence; Houdeau, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Food-grade titanium dioxide (TiO2) containing a nanoscale particle fraction (TiO2-NPs) is approved as a white pigment (E171 in Europe) in common foodstuffs, including confectionary. There are growing concerns that daily oral TiO2-NP intake is associated with an increased risk of chronic intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis. In rats orally exposed for one week to E171 at human relevant levels, titanium was detected in the immune cells of Peyer’s patches (PP) as observed with the TiO2-NP model NM-105. Dendritic cell frequency increased in PP regardless of the TiO2 treatment, while regulatory T cells involved in dampening inflammatory responses decreased with E171 only, an effect still observed after 100 days of treatment. In all TiO2-treated rats, stimulation of immune cells isolated from PP showed a decrease in Thelper (Th)-1 IFN-γ secretion, while splenic Th1/Th17 inflammatory responses sharply increased. E171 or NM-105 for one week did not initiate intestinal inflammation, while a 100-day E171 treatment promoted colon microinflammation and initiated preneoplastic lesions while also fostering the growth of aberrant crypt foci in a chemically induced carcinogenesis model. These data should be considered for risk assessments of the susceptibility to Th17-driven autoimmune diseases and to colorectal cancer in humans exposed to TiO2 from dietary sources. PMID:28106049

  7. The effect of hyperthermia on the radiation response of crypt cells in mouse jejunum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of hyperthermia and/or gamma-radiation on the survival of intestinal crypt cells was studied in BDF sub 1 mice using a microcolony assay. Hyperthermia treatments, which in themselves caused no detectable cell lethality, inhibited the capacity of crypt cells to repair sublethal radiation damage. In addition, heat applied either before or after single radiation exposures potentiated lethal damage to crypt cells; the degree of enhancement was dependent on the time interval between treatments. At the levels of heating employed, DNA synthesis in the intestinal epithelium was significantly reduced immediately following exposure, but returned rapidly to normal levels. No further disturbances in cellular kinetics were observed for up to 10 days after heating.

  8. Fluid absorption in isolated perfused colonic crypts.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, S K; Binder, H J; Boron, W F; Geibel, J P

    1995-01-01

    A spatial segregation of ion transport processes between crypt and surface epithelial cells is well-accepted and integrated into physiological and pathophysiological paradigms of small and large intestinal function: Absorptive processes are believed to be located in surface (and villous) cells, whereas secretory processes are believed to be present in crypt cells. Validation of this model requires direct determination of fluid movement in intestinal crypts. This study describes the adaptation of techniques from renal tubule microperfusion to hand-dissect and perfuse single, isolated crypts from rat distal colon to measure directly fluid movement. Morphologic analyses of the isolated crypt preparation revealed no extraepithelial cellular elements derived from the lamina propria, including myofibroblasts. In the basal state, crypts exhibited net fluid absorption (mean net fluid movement = 0.34 +/- 0.01 nl.mm-1.min-1), which was Na+ and partially HCO3- dependent. Addition of 1 mM dibutyryl-cyclic AMP, 60 nM vasoactive intestinal peptide, or 0.1 mM acetylcholine to the bath (serosal) solution reversibly induced net fluid secretion (net fluid movement approximately -0.35 +/- 0.01 nl.mm-1.min-1). These observations permit speculation that absorption is a constitutive transport function in crypt cells and that secretion by crypt cells is regulated by one or more neurohumoral agonists that are released in situ from lamina propria cells. The functional, intact polarized crypt described here that both absorbs and secretes will permit future studies that dissect the mechanisms that govern fluid and electrolyte movement in the colonic crypt. Images PMID:7593625

  9. The role of the Hes1 crosstalk hub in Notch-Wnt interactions of the intestinal crypt.

    PubMed

    Kay, Sophie K; Harrington, Heather A; Shepherd, Sarah; Brennan, Keith; Dale, Trevor; Osborne, James M; Gavaghan, David J; Byrne, Helen M

    2017-02-28

    The Notch pathway plays a vital role in determining whether cells in the intestinal epithelium adopt a secretory or an absorptive phenotype. Cell fate specification is coordinated via Notch's interaction with the canonical Wnt pathway. Here, we propose a new mathematical model of the Notch and Wnt pathways, in which the Hes1 promoter acts as a hub for pathway crosstalk. Computational simulations of the model can assist in understanding how healthy intestinal tissue is maintained, and predict the likely consequences of biochemical knockouts upon cell fate selection processes. Chemical reaction network theory (CRNT) is a powerful, generalised framework which assesses the capacity of our model for monostability or multistability, by analysing properties of the underlying network structure without recourse to specific parameter values or functional forms for reaction rates. CRNT highlights the role of β-catenin in stabilising the Notch pathway and damping oscillations, demonstrating that Wnt-mediated actions on the Hes1 promoter can induce dynamic transitions in the Notch system, from multistability to monostability. Time-dependent model simulations of cell pairs reveal the stabilising influence of Wnt upon the Notch pathway, in which β-catenin- and Dsh-mediated action on the Hes1 promoter are key in shaping the subcellular dynamics. Where Notch-mediated transcription of Hes1 dominates, there is Notch oscillation and maintenance of fate flexibility; Wnt-mediated transcription of Hes1 favours bistability akin to cell fate selection. Cells could therefore regulate the proportion of Wnt- and Notch-mediated control of the Hes1 promoter to coordinate the timing of cell fate selection as they migrate through the intestinal epithelium and are subject to reduced Wnt stimuli. Furthermore, mutant cells characterised by hyperstimulation of the Wnt pathway may, through coupling with Notch, invert cell fate in neighbouring healthy cells, enabling an aberrant cell to maintain its

  10. The role of the Hes1 crosstalk hub in Notch-Wnt interactions of the intestinal crypt

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Heather A.; Dale, Trevor; Gavaghan, David J.

    2017-01-01

    The Notch pathway plays a vital role in determining whether cells in the intestinal epithelium adopt a secretory or an absorptive phenotype. Cell fate specification is coordinated via Notch’s interaction with the canonical Wnt pathway. Here, we propose a new mathematical model of the Notch and Wnt pathways, in which the Hes1 promoter acts as a hub for pathway crosstalk. Computational simulations of the model can assist in understanding how healthy intestinal tissue is maintained, and predict the likely consequences of biochemical knockouts upon cell fate selection processes. Chemical reaction network theory (CRNT) is a powerful, generalised framework which assesses the capacity of our model for monostability or multistability, by analysing properties of the underlying network structure without recourse to specific parameter values or functional forms for reaction rates. CRNT highlights the role of β-catenin in stabilising the Notch pathway and damping oscillations, demonstrating that Wnt-mediated actions on the Hes1 promoter can induce dynamic transitions in the Notch system, from multistability to monostability. Time-dependent model simulations of cell pairs reveal the stabilising influence of Wnt upon the Notch pathway, in which β-catenin- and Dsh-mediated action on the Hes1 promoter are key in shaping the subcellular dynamics. Where Notch-mediated transcription of Hes1 dominates, there is Notch oscillation and maintenance of fate flexibility; Wnt-mediated transcription of Hes1 favours bistability akin to cell fate selection. Cells could therefore regulate the proportion of Wnt- and Notch-mediated control of the Hes1 promoter to coordinate the timing of cell fate selection as they migrate through the intestinal epithelium and are subject to reduced Wnt stimuli. Furthermore, mutant cells characterised by hyperstimulation of the Wnt pathway may, through coupling with Notch, invert cell fate in neighbouring healthy cells, enabling an aberrant cell to maintain

  11. Hydrolysed inulin alleviates the azoxymethane-induced preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci by altering selected intestinal microbiota in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Pattananandecha, Thanawat; Sirilun, Sasithorn; Duangjitcharoen, Yodsawee; Sivamaruthi, Bhagavathi Sundaram; Suwannalert, Prasit; Peerajan, Sartjin; Chaiyasut, Chaiyavat

    2016-09-01

    Context Inulin, a non-digestible carbohydrate isolated from Helianthus tuberosus L. (Asteraceae), has been shown to alter the gut beneficial bacteria including Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacteria. Inulin also influences the activities of intestinal microbiota that could prevent the colon cancer development. Objective This study determines the effect of hydrolysed inulin with different degrees of polymerisation on alteration of intestinal microbiota and their activities on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. Materials and methods Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups (three control and three AOM-treated groups) and the animal were fed with either a normal diet or diet containing 10% of long-chain inulin (InuL) or short-chain inulin (InuS), respectively, for 17 weeks. Colon cancer was induced in rats by injecting AOM subcutaneously at the 8th and 9th week of the study period. At the end of the experiment, cecal contents of rats were examined for selected microbiota, organic acids, putrefactive compounds and microbial enzymes. ACF formation was microscopically examined. Results The inulin diets significantly increased the weight and decreased the pH of the caecal content. The rats fed with InuL-supplemented diet showed approximately 2.9- and 6.8-fold increases in the biomass of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacteria, respectively. Naive and AOM-treated rats fed with inulin-supplemented diet showed ∼1.3- and ∼2.2-fold decreases in the biomass of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, respectively. Inulins significantly decreased the colonic concentration of phenol, p-cresol and indole. Reduction in the activity of microbial enzymes such as β-glucuronidase, azoreductase and nitroreductase were observed in inulin-treated animals. Reduction in the ACF formation has been observed in inulin-treated groups. Discussion and conclusion The present study demonstrates that dietary

  12. Modelling the dynamics of stem cells in colonic crypts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirio, Orozco-Fuentes; Barrio, Rafael A.

    2017-02-01

    We present a theoretical and computational framework to model the colonic crypt organisation in the human intestine. We construct a theoretical and computational framework to model the colonic crypt behaviour, using a Voronoi tessellation to represent each cell and elastic forces between them we addressed how their dynamical disfunction can lead to tumour masses and cancer. Our results indicate that for certain parameters the crypt is in a homeostatic state, but slight changes on their values can disrupt this behaviour.

  13. Intestine.

    PubMed

    Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Horslen, S P; Edwards, E B; Harper, A M; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2016-01-01

    Intestine and intestine-liver transplant plays an important role in the treatment of intestinal failure, despite decreased morbidity associated with parenteral nutrition. In 2014, 210 new patients were added to the intestine transplant waiting list. Among prevalent patients on the list at the end of 2014, 65% were waiting for an intestine transplant and 35% were waiting for an intestine-liver transplant. The pretransplant mortality rate decreased dramatically over time for all age groups. Pretransplant mortality was highest for adult candidates, at 22.1 per 100 waitlist years compared with less than 3 per 100 waitlist years for pediatric candidates, and notably higher for candidates for intestine-liver transplant than for candidates for intestine transplant without a liver. Numbers of intestine transplants without a liver increased from a low of 51 in 2013 to 67 in 2014. Intestine-liver transplants increased from a low of 44 in 2012 to 72 in 2014. Short-gut syndrome (congenital and other) was the main cause of disease leading to both intestine and intestine-liver transplant. Graft survival improved over the past decade. Patient survival was lowest for adult intestine-liver recipients and highest for pediatric intestine recipients.

  14. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and electrical activity influence neuronal survival

    SciTech Connect

    Brenneman, D.E.; Eiden, L.E.

    1986-02-01

    Blockage of electrical activity in dissociated spinal cord cultures results in a significant loss of neurons during a critical period in development. Decreases in neuronal cell numbers and SVI-labeled tetanus toxin fixation produced by electrical blockage with tetrodotoxin (TTX) were prevented by addition of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) to the nutrient medium. The most effective concentration of VIP was 0.1 nM. At higher concentrations, the survival-enhancing effect of VIP on TTX-treated cultures was attenuated. Addition of the peptide alone had no significant effect on neuronal cell counts or tetanus toxin fixation. With the same experimental conditions, two closely related peptides, PHI-27 (peptide, histidyl-isoleucine amide) and secretin, were found not to increase the number of neurons in TTX-treated cultures. Interference with VIP action by VIP antiserum resulted in neuronal losses that were not significantly different from those observed after TTX treatment. These data indicate that under conditions of electrical blockade a neurotrophic action of VIP on neuronal survival can be demonstrated.

  15. Novel Regenerative Peptide TP508 Mitigates Radiation-Induced Gastrointestinal Damage By Activating Stem Cells and Preserving Crypt Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Kantara, Carla; Moya, Stephanie M.; Houchen, Courtney W.; Umar, Shahid; Ullrich, Robert L.; Singh, Pomila; Carney, Darrell H.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing threats of radiation exposure and nuclear disasters have become a significant concern for the United States and countries worldwide. Exposure to high doses of radiation triggers a number of potentially lethal effects. Among the most severe is the gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity syndrome caused by the destruction of the intestinal barrier, resulting in bacterial translocation, systemic bacteremia, sepsis and death. The lack of effective radioprotective agents capable of mitigating radiation-induced damage has prompted a search for novel countermeasures that can mitigate the effects of radiation post-exposure, accelerate tissue repair in radiation-exposed individuals, and prevent mortality. We report that a single injection of regenerative peptide TP508 (rusalatide acetate, Chrysalin®) 24h after lethal radiation exposure (9Gy, LD100/15) appears to significantly increase survival and delay mortality by mitigating radiation-induced intestinal and colonic toxicity. TP508 treatment post-exposure prevents the disintegration of gastrointestinal crypts, stimulates the expression of adherens junction protein E-cadherin, activates crypt cell proliferation, and decreases apoptosis. TP508 post-exposure treatment also up-regulates the expression of DCLK1 and LGR5 markers of stem cells that have been shown to be responsible for maintaining and regenerating intestinal crypts. Thus, TP508 appears to mitigate the effects of GI toxicity by activating radioresistant stem cells and increasing the stemness potential of crypts to maintain and restore intestinal integrity. These results suggest that TP508 may be an effective emergency nuclear countermeasure that could be delivered within 24h post-exposure to increase survival and delay mortality, giving victims time to reach clinical sites for advanced medical treatment. PMID:26280221

  16. Novel regenerative peptide TP508 mitigates radiation-induced gastrointestinal damage by activating stem cells and preserving crypt integrity.

    PubMed

    Kantara, Carla; Moya, Stephanie M; Houchen, Courtney W; Umar, Shahid; Ullrich, Robert L; Singh, Pomila; Carney, Darrell H

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, increasing threats of radiation exposure and nuclear disasters have become a significant concern for the United States and countries worldwide. Exposure to high doses of radiation triggers a number of potentially lethal effects. Among the most severe is the gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity syndrome caused by the destruction of the intestinal barrier, resulting in bacterial translocation, systemic bacteremia, sepsis, and death. The lack of effective radioprotective agents capable of mitigating radiation-induced damage has prompted a search for novel countermeasures that can mitigate the effects of radiation post exposure, accelerate tissue repair in radiation-exposed individuals, and prevent mortality. We report that a single injection of regenerative peptide TP508 (rusalatide acetate, Chrysalin) 24 h after lethal radiation exposure (9 Gy, LD100/15) appears to significantly increase survival and delay mortality by mitigating radiation-induced intestinal and colonic toxicity. TP508 treatment post exposure prevents the disintegration of GI crypts, stimulates the expression of adherens junction protein E-cadherin, activates crypt cell proliferation, and decreases apoptosis. TP508 post-exposure treatment also upregulates the expression of DCLK1 and LGR5 markers of stem cells that have been shown to be responsible for maintaining and regenerating intestinal crypts. Thus, TP508 appears to mitigate the effects of GI toxicity by activating radioresistant stem cells and increasing the stemness potential of crypts to maintain and restore intestinal integrity. These results suggest that TP508 may be an effective emergency nuclear countermeasure that could be delivered within 24 h post exposure to increase survival and delay mortality, giving victims time to reach clinical sites for advanced medical treatment.

  17. Effect of dietary caraway (Carum carvi L.) on aberrant crypt foci development, fecal steroids, and intestinal alkaline phosphatase activities in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kamaleeswari, Muthaiyan; Deeptha, Kumaraswami; Sengottuvelan, Murugan; Nalini, Namasivayam

    2006-08-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most common malignancies in many regions of the world and is thought to arise from the accumulation of mutations in a single epithelial cell of the colon and rectum. Caraway (Carum carvi L. Umbelliferae) is a shrub with a long history as a medicinal plant since ancient times. The effect of different doses of caraway (CC) on the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and the levels of fecal bile acids, neutral sterols, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were studied in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon cancer in rats. Animals were randomized into 6 groups. Group 1 served as control, and group 2 received 90 mg/kg body weight caraway orally everyday. Groups 3-6 rats were given subcutaneous injections of DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) once a week for the first 4 weeks to induce ACF. Rats in groups 4-6, in addition to DMH injections, received caraway at 30, 60, and 90 mg/kg body weight respectively p.o. everyday until the end of whole experimental period of 15 weeks. Caraway supplementation significantly reduced ACF development and also decreased the levels of fecal bile acids, neutral sterols, and tissue ALP activities. The histological alterations induced by DMH were also significantly improved. Overall, our results showed that all 3 doses of caraway inhibited tumorigenesis though the effect of the intermediary dose of 60 mg/kg body weight was more pronounced.

  18. Differential Salmonella survival against communities of intestinal amoebae.

    PubMed

    Wildschutte, Hans; Lawrence, Jeffrey G

    2007-06-01

    Predation from intestinal amoebae may provide selective pressure for the maintenance of high genetic diversity at the Salmonella enterica rfb locus, whereby serovars better escape predators in particular environments depending on the O-antigens they express. Here, the hypothesis that amoebae from a particular intestinal environment collectively prefer one serovar over another is tested. Collections of Acanthamoeba, Tetramitus, Naegleria and Hartmannella were isolated from the intestinal tracts of several vertebrate hosts, including bullfrog tadpoles, goldfish, turtles and bearded dragons, and their feeding preferences were determined. Congeneric amoebae from the same environment had significantly similar feeding preferences. Strikingly, even unrelated amoebae - such as Naegleria and Tetramitus from goldfish - also had significantly similar feeding preferences. Yet amoebae isolated from different environments showed no similarity in prey choice. Thus, feeding preferences of amoebae appear to reflect their environment, not their taxonomic relationships. A mechanism mediating this phenotypic convergence is discussed.

  19. [Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome: a case of prolonged survival].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Gil de Muro, S T; Moros Peña, M; Gimeno Pita, P; Castejón Ponce, E; Ros Mar, L

    2004-04-01

    Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome is a multisystemic disorder in which impaired intestinal motor activity causes recurrent symptoms of intestinal obstruction in the absence of mechanical occlusion, associated with bladder distention without distal obstruction of the urinary tract. It is an uncommon disorder with high morbidity and mortality, and long-term total parenteral nutrition may be required. We describe an 18-year-old girl with long-term survival, followed-up by our service since birth. With medical, surgical and nutritional management she currently presents a good oral tolerance and good quality of life, only requiring parenteral nutrition during periods of decompensation.

  20. Pancreatic digestive enzyme blockade in the intestine increases survival after experimental shock.

    PubMed

    DeLano, Frank A; Hoyt, David B; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2013-01-23

    Shock, sepsis, and multiorgan failure are associated with inflammation, morbidity, and high mortality. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism is unknown, but evidence suggests that pancreatic enzymes in the intestinal lumen autodigest the intestine and generate systemic inflammation. Blocking these enzymes in the intestine reduces inflammation and multiorgan dysfunction. We investigated whether enzymatic blockade also reduces mortality after shock. Three rat shock models were used here: hemorrhagic shock, peritonitis shock induced by placement of cecal material into the peritoneum, and endotoxin shock. One hour after initiation of hemorrhagic, peritonitis, or endotoxin shock, animals were administered one of three different pancreatic enzyme inhibitors--6-amidino-2-naphtyl p-guanidinobenzoate dimethanesulfate, tranexamic acid, or aprotinin--into the lumen of the small intestine. In all forms of shock, blockade of digestive proteases with protease inhibitor attenuated entry of digestive enzymes into the wall of the intestine and subsequent autodigestion and morphological damage to the intestine, lung, and heart. Animals treated with protease inhibitors also survived in larger numbers than untreated controls over a period of 12 weeks. Surviving animals recovered completely and returned to normal weight within 14 days after shock. The results suggest that the active and concentrated digestive enzymes in the lumen of the intestine play a central role in shock and multiorgan failure, which can be treated with protease inhibitors that are currently available for use in the clinic.

  1. Teduglutide ([Gly2]GLP-2) protects small intestinal stem cells from radiation damage.

    PubMed

    Booth, C; Booth, D; Williamson, S; Demchyshyn, L L; Potten, C S

    2004-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 and its dipeptidyl peptidase (DP-IV) resistant analogue teduglutide are trophic for the gastrointestinal epithelium. Exposure increases villus height and crypt size and results in increased overall intestinal weight. As these effects may be mediated through stimulation of the stem cell compartment, they may promote intestinal healing and act as potential anti-mucositis agents in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy. A study was initiated to investigate the protective effects of teduglutide on the murine small intestinal epithelium following gamma-irradiation using the crypt microcolony assay as a measure of stem cell survival and functional competence. Teduglutide demonstrated intestinotrophic effects in both CD1 and BDF1 mouse strains. In BDF1 mice, subcutaneous injection of GLP-2 or teduglutide (0.2 mg/kg/day, b.i.d.) for 14 days increased intestinal weight by 28% and resulted in comparable increases in crypt size, villus height and area. Teduglutide given daily for 6 or 14 days prior to whole body, gamma-irradiation significantly increased crypt stem cell survival when compared with vehicle-treated controls. The mean levels of protection over a range of doses provided protection factors from 1.3 to 1.5. A protective effect was only observed when teduglutide was given before irradiation. These results suggest that teduglutide has the ability to modulate clonogenic stem cell survival in the small intestine and this may have a useful clinical application in the prevention of cancer therapy-induced mucositis.

  2. Using crypts as iris minutiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Feng; Flynn, Patrick J.

    2013-05-01

    Iris recognition is one of the most reliable biometric technologies for identity recognition and verification, but it has not been used in a forensic context because the representation and matching of iris features are not straightforward for traditional iris recognition techniques. In this paper we concentrate on the iris crypt as a visible feature used to represent the characteristics of irises in a similar way to fingerprint minutiae. The matching of crypts is based on their appearances and locations. The number of matching crypt pairs found between two irises can be used for identity verification and the convenience of manual inspection makes iris crypts a potential candidate for forensic applications.

  3. Somatostatin peptides inhibit basolateral potassium channels in human colonic crypts.

    PubMed

    Sandle, G I; Warhurst, G; Butterfield, I; Higgs, N B; Lomax, R B

    1999-11-01

    Somatostatin is a powerful inhibitor of intestinal Cl(-) secretion. We used patch-clamp recording techniques to investigate the effects of somatostatin on low-conductance (23-pS) K(+) channels in the basolateral membrane of human colonic crypts, which are an important component of the Cl(-) secretory process. Somatostatin (2 microM) elicited a >80% decrease in "spontaneous" K(+) channel activity in cell-attached patches in nonstimulated crypts (50% inhibition = approximately 8 min), which was voltage-independent and was prevented by pretreating crypts for 18 h with pertussis toxin (200 ng/ml), implicating a G protein-dependent mechanism. In crypts stimulated with 100-200 microM dibutyryl cAMP, 2 microM somatostatin and its synthetic analog octreotide (2 microM) both produced similar degrees of K(+) channel inhibition to that seen in nonstimulated crypts, which was also present under low-Cl(-) (5 mM) conditions. In addition, 2 microM somatostatin abolished the increase in K(+) channel activity stimulated by 2 microM thapsigargin but had no effect on the thapsigargin-stimulated rise in intracellular Ca(2+). These results indicate that somatostatin peptides inhibit 23-pS basolateral K(+) channels in human colonic crypt cells via a G protein-dependent mechanism, which may result in loss of the channel's inherent Ca(2+) sensitivity.

  4. Misoprostol in the intestinal lumen protects against radiation injury of the mucosa of the small bowel

    SciTech Connect

    Delaney, J.P.; Bonsack, M.E.; Felemovicius, I. )

    1994-03-01

    Systemically administered misoprostol, a PGE analog, has been shown to be an intestinal radioprotector. The purpose of this study was to determine if administration of misoprostol into the intestinal lumen can also reduce the severity of acute radiation enteritis. The rat small bowel was operatively exteriorized and segmented by means of suture ties. The remainder of the intestine and the rat were shielded in a lead box. Misoprostol was introduced into the lumen in various doses. After 30 min exposure to misoprostol, the isolated, exteriorized, segmented bowel was subjected to 11 Gy X irradiation. Five days later the animals were sacrificed and the intestines harvested for evaluation. Surviving crypt numbers per circumference and mucosal height were the criteria used for quantification of damage. Mucosa exposed to misoprostol at the time of radiation delivery showed significantly increased crypt numbers and mucosal height compared to adjacent saline-filled intestine. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Mesenchymal stem cells stimulate intestinal stem cells to repair radiation-induced intestinal injury

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Wei; Guo, Mengzheng; Han, Zhibo; Wang, Yan; Yang, Ping; Xu, Chang; Wang, Qin; Du, Liqing; Li, Qian; Zhao, Hui; Fan, Feiyue; Liu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The loss of stem cells residing in the base of the intestinal crypt has a key role in radiation-induced intestinal injury. In particular, Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are indispensable for intestinal regeneration following exposure to radiation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have previously been shown to improve intestinal epithelial repair in a mouse model of radiation injury, and, therefore, it was hypothesized that this protective effect is related to Lgr5+ ISCs. In this study, it was found that, following exposure to radiation, transplantation of MSCs improved the survival of the mice, ameliorated intestinal injury and increased the number of regenerating crypts. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in Lgr5+ ISCs and their daughter cells, including Ki67+ transient amplifying cells, Vil1+ enterocytes and lysozyme+ Paneth cells, in response to treatment with MSCs. Crypts isolated from mice treated with MSCs formed a higher number of and larger enteroids than those from the PBS group. MSC transplantation also reduced the number of apoptotic cells within the small intestine at 6 h post-radiation. Interestingly, Wnt3a and active β-catenin protein levels were increased in the small intestines of MSC-treated mice. In addition, intravenous delivery of recombinant mouse Wnt3a after radiation reduced damage in the small intestine and was radioprotective, although not to the same degree as MSC treatment. Our results show that MSCs support the growth of endogenous Lgr5+ ISCs, thus promoting repair of the small intestine following exposure to radiation. The molecular mechanism of action mediating this was found to be related to increased activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:27685631

  6. mTOR disruption causes intestinal epithelial cell defects and intestinal atrophy postinjury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Leesa L.; Davis, Ashley K.; Grogg, Matthew W.; Zheng, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) drive small intestinal epithelial homeostasis and regeneration. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates stem and progenitor cell metabolism and is frequently dysregulated in human disease, but its physiologic functions in the mammalian small intestinal epithelium remain poorly defined. We disrupted the genes mTOR, Rptor, Rictor, or both Rptor and Rictor in mouse ISCs, progenitors, and differentiated intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) using Villin-Cre. Mutant tissues and wild-type or heterozygous littermate controls were analyzed by histologic immunostaining, immunoblots, and proliferation assays. A total of 10 Gy irradiation was used to injure the intestinal epithelium and induce subsequent crypt regeneration. We report that mTOR supports absorptive enterocytes and secretory Paneth and goblet cell function while negatively regulating chromogranin A-positive enteroendocrine cell number. Through additional Rptor, Rictor, and Rptor/Rictor mutant mouse models, we identify mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 as the major IEC regulatory pathway, but mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 also contributes to ileal villus maintenance and goblet cell size. Homeostatic adult small intestinal crypt cell proliferation, survival, and canonical wingless-int (WNT) activity are not mTOR dependent, but Olfm4+ ISC/progenitor population maintenance and crypt regeneration postinjury require mTOR. Overall, we conclude that mTOR regulates multiple IEC lineages and promotes stem and progenitor cell activity during intestinal epithelium repair postinjury.—Sampson, L. L., Davis, A. K., Grogg, M. W., Zheng, Y. mTOR disruption causes intestinal epithelial cell defects and intestinal atrophy postinjury in mice. PMID:26631481

  7. Protective effect of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) on radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Joong Sun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Jong Choon; Park, Hae-Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jang, Jong Sik; Jo, Sung Kee

    2009-12-01

    The protective properties of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) against intestinal damage were examined by evaluating its effects on jejunal crypt survival, morphological changes, and apoptosis in gamma-irradiated mice. The mice were whole-body irradiated with 12 Gy for the examination of jejunal crypt survival and any morphological changes and with 2 Gy for the detection of apoptosis and Ki-67 labeling. Irradiation was conducted using (60)Co gamma-rays. HemoHIM treatment was administered intraperitonially at a dosage of 50 mg/kg of body weight at 36 and 12 hours pre-irradiation and 30 minutes post-irradiation or orally at a dosage of 250 mg/kg of body weight/day for 7 or 11 days before necropsy. The HemoHIM-treated group displayed a significant increase in survival of jejunal crypts, when compared to the irradiation controls. HemoHIM treatment decreased intestinal morphological changes such as crypt depth, villus height, mucosal length, and basal lamina length of 10 enterocytes after irradiation. Furthermore, the administration of HemoHIM protected intestinal cells from irradiation-induced apoptosis. These results suggested that HemoHIM may be therapeutically useful to reduce intestinal injury following irradiation.

  8. Kinetics of changes in the crypts of the jejunal mucosa of dimethylhydrazine-treated rats.

    PubMed Central

    Sunter, J. P.; Appleton, D. R.; Wright, N. A.; Watson, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    When symmetrical 1,2 dimethylhydrazine was administered to rats by weekly s.c. injection, 37% of the animals had developed small intestinal carcinomas after 21-27 weeks. These lesions were largely localized to duodenum and upper jejunum. At the same time there was a diffuse crypt hyperplasia in the jejunum which affected all the treated animals, not just those with neoplasms. This marked hyperplasia was preceded by a modest sustained crypt elongation which was seen soon after DMH injections began. In these hyperplastic jejunal crypts the absolute size of the proliferative compartment was increased, but the growth fraction calculated from labelling studies appeared to fall, probably by reduction in relative size of the proliferating population within the proliferative compartment. No convincing alteration in actual cell-cycle time was observed in the abnormal crypts. There was a slight (25%) increase in cell-production rate in the abnormal crypts. Images Fig. 1 PMID:656298

  9. Intestinal smooth muscle phenotype determines enteric neuronal survival via GDNF expression.

    PubMed

    Han, T Y; Lourenssen, S; Miller, K G; Blennerhassett, M G

    2015-04-02

    Intestinal inflammation causes initial axonal degeneration and neuronal death, as well as the proliferation of intestinal smooth muscle cells (ISMC), but subsequent axonal outgrowth leads to re-innervation. We recently showed that expression of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), the critical neurotrophin for the post-natal enteric nervous system (ENS) is upregulated in ISMC by inflammatory cytokines, leading us to explore the relationship between ISMC growth and GDNF expression. In co-cultures of myenteric neurons and ISMC, GDNF or fetal calf serum (FCS) was equally effective in supporting neuronal survival, with neurons forming extensive axonal networks among the ISMC. However, only GDNF was effective in low-density cultures where neurons lacked contact with ISMC. In early-passage cultures of colonic circular smooth muscle cells (CSMC), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting showed that proliferation was associated with expression of GDNF, and the successful survival of neonatal neurons co-cultured on CSMC was blocked by vandetanib or siGDNF. In tri-nitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis, immunocytochemistry showed the selective expression of GDNF in proliferating CSMC, suggesting that smooth muscle proliferation supports the ENS in vivo as well as in vitro. However, high-passage CSMC expressed significantly less GDNF and failed to support neuronal survival, while expressing reduced amounts of smooth muscle marker proteins. We conclude that in the inflamed intestine, smooth muscle proliferation supports the ENS, and thus its own re-innervation, by expression of GDNF. In chronic inflammation, a compromised smooth muscle phenotype may lead to progressive neural damage. Intestinal stricture formation in human disease, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), may be an endpoint of failure of this homeostatic mechanism.

  10. The Delayed Effects of Acute Radiation Syndrome: Evidence of Long-Term Functional Changes in the Clonogenic Cells of the Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Booth, Catherine; Tudor, Gregory L; Katz, Barry P; MacVittie, Thomas J

    2015-11-01

    Long term or residual damage post-irradiation has been described for many tissues. In hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), this is only revealed when the HSC are stressed and required to regenerate and repopulate a myeloablated host. Such an assay cannot be used to assess the recovery potential of previously irradiated intestinal stem cells (ISC) due to their incompatibility with transplantation. The best approximation to the HSC assay is the crypt microcolony assay, also based on clonogen survival. In the current study, the regenerative capacity of intestinal clonogenic cells in mice that had survived 13 Gy irradiation (with 5% bone marrow shielding to allow survival through the hematopoietic syndrome) and were then aged for 200 d was compared to previously unirradiated age-matched controls. Interestingly, at 200 d following 13 Gy, there remained a statistically significant reduction in crypts present in the various small intestinal regions (illustrating that the gastrointestinal epithelium had not fully recovered despite the 200-d interval). However, upon re-irradiation on day 196, those mice previously irradiated had improved crypt survival and regeneration compared to the age-matched controls. This was evident in all regions of the small intestine following 11-13 Gy re-exposure. Thus, there were either more clonogens per crypt within those previously irradiated and/or those that were present were more radioresistant (possibly because a subpopulation was more quiescent). This is contrary to the popular belief that previously irradiated animals may have an impaired/delayed regenerative response and be more radiosensitive.

  11. Inhibition of CDK4/6 protects against radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Liang; Leibowitz, Brian J.; Wang, Xinwei; Epperly, Michael; Greenberger, Joel; Zhang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy causes dose-limiting toxicity and long-term complications in rapidly renewing tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract. Currently, there is no FDA-approved agent for the prevention or treatment of radiation-induced intestinal injury. In this study, we have shown that PD 0332991 (PD), an FDA-approved selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6), prevents radiation-induced lethal intestinal injury in mice. Treating mice with PD or a structurally distinct CDK4/6 inhibitor prior to radiation blocked proliferation and crypt apoptosis and improved crypt regeneration. PD treatment also enhanced LGR5+ stem cell survival and regeneration after radiation. PD was an on-target inhibitor of RB phosphorylation and blocked G1/S transition in the intestinal crypts. PD treatment strongly but reversibly inhibited radiation-induced p53 activation, which blocked p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis–dependent (PUMA-dependent) apoptosis without affecting p21-dependent suppression of DNA damage accumulation, with a repair bias toward nonhomologous end joining. Further, deletion of PUMA synergized with PD treatment for even greater intestinal radioprotection. Our results demonstrate that the cell cycle critically regulates the DNA damage response and survival of intestinal stem cells and support the concept that pharmacological quiescence is a potentially highly effective and selective strategy for intestinal radioprotection. PMID:27701148

  12. Gastrin attenuates ischemia-reperfusion-induced intestinal injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhihao; Luo, Yongli; Cheng, Yunjiu; Zou, Dezhi; Zeng, Aihong; Yang, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a devastating complication when the blood supply is reflowed in ischemic organs. Gastrin has critical function in regulating acid secretion, proliferation, and differentiation in the gastric mucosa. We aimed to determine whether gastrin has an effect on intestinal I/R damage. Intestinal I/R injury was induced by 60-min occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery followed by 60-min reperfusion, and the rats were induced to be hypergastrinemic by pretreated with omeprazole or directly injected with gastrin. Some hypergastrinemic rats were injected with cholecystokinin-2 (CCK-2) receptor antagonist prior to I/R operation. After the animal surgery, the intestine was collected for histological analysis. Isolated intestinal epithelial cells or crypts were harvested for RNA and protein analysis. CCK-2 receptor expression, intestinal mucosal damage, cell apoptosis, and apoptotic protein caspase-3 activity were measured. We found that high gastrin in serum significantly reduced intestinal hemorrhage, alleviated extensive epithelial disruption, decreased disintegration of lamina propria, downregulated myeloperoxidase activity, tumor necrosis factor-α, and caspase-3 activity, and lead to low mortality in response to I/R injury. On the contrary, CCK-2 receptor antagonist L365260 could markedly impair intestinal protection by gastrin on intestinal I/R. Severe edema of mucosal villi with severe intestinal crypt injury and numerous intestinal villi disintegrated were observed again in the hypergastrinemic rats with L365260. The survival in the hypergastrinemic rats after intestinal I/R injury was shortened by L365260. Finally, gastrin could remarkably upregulated intestinal CCK-2 receptor expression. Our data suggest that gastrin by omeprazole remarkably attenuated I/R induced intestinal injury by enhancing CCK-2 receptor expression and gastrin could be a potential mitigator for intestinal I/R damage in the clinical setting. PMID

  13. Iron homeostasis: new tales from the crypt.

    PubMed

    Roy, C N; Enns, C A

    2000-12-15

    The enterocyte is a highly specialized cell of the duodenal epithelium that coordinates iron uptake and transport into the body. Until recently, the molecular mechanisms underlying iron absorption and iron homeostasis have remained a mystery. This review focuses on the proteins and regulatory mechanisms known to be present in the enterocyte precursor cell and in the mature enterocyte. The recent cloning of a basolateral iron transporter and investigations into its regulation provide new insights into possible mechanisms for iron transport and homeostasis. The roles of proteins such as iron regulatory proteins, the hereditary hemochromatosis protein (HFE)-transferrin receptor complex, and hephaestin in regulating this transporter and in regulating iron transport across the intestinal epithelium are discussed. A speculative, but testable, model for the maintenance of iron homeostasis, which incorporates the changes in the iron-related proteins associated with the life cycle of the enterocyte as it journeys from the crypt to the tip of the villous is proposed.

  14. Case of congenital short small intestine: survival with use of long-term parenteral feeding.

    PubMed

    Dorney, S F; Byrne, W J; Ament, M E

    1986-03-01

    Isolated congenital short small intestine is a rare anomaly. Of six (one male, five females) previously reported cases, four died in infancy from intractable diarrhea. We report the case of 7-year-old boy with this syndrome in whom a 2-year period of parenteral feeding at home allowed normal weight gain, growth, and development while intestinal adaptation occurred. Parenteral feeding was discontinued at age 2 1/3 years, and for the past 5 years his weight has remained between the tenth and 25th percentiles and his stature between the 25th and 50th percentiles. His development has been normal and he functions at or above grade level at school. Coefficient of fat absorption has increased from 54% to 81%. Vitamin B12 absorption has improved but has not normalized. He remains lactose intolerant. We believe his survival, growth, and development would have been compromised if he had not received a prolonged period of parenteral feeding.

  15. Daily variations in colchicine-induced apoptosis in duodenal crypts.

    PubMed

    Norma, V González; Badrán, Amado F; Barbeito, Claudio G

    2005-01-01

    Apoptotic cell death can be induced by several agents, among them colchicine, a microtubule disrupting-drug that affects continuously renewing cell populations, such as the intestinal crypt enterocytes. The objectives of this investigation were (1) to confirm in vivo colchicines-inductive effect and (2) to determine the existence of 24 h variations in the crypt enterocytes apoptotic indices. The study was done on C3H/S male adult mice housed under standardized conditions. Starting at midnight until the end of a circadian period, subgroups of mice were sacrificed after having been injected with colchicine or saline i.p. 4h beforehand. Duodenal samples were processed for hematoxylin-eosin staining and TUNEL technique. In order to score the number of apoptosis, the longitudinal sections of the crypts were divided into three regions comprised, respectively, of tiers 1-4, 5-12, and 13-20, proceeding from the bottom to the top of the crypt. Values of each lot were expressed as mean +/- SEM. A highly significant statistical difference in apoptotic indices was found for colchicine-treated animals. The 24 h curve for colchicine-induced apoptosis displayed qualitative and quantitative differences compared to other inducer agents. Highest apoptotic indices were found in the deepest crypt regions. Daily variations were observed in all the crypt sectors of the colchicine-treated animals and in tiers 5-12 of the saline controls. The present work demonstrates that the colchicine cytotoxicity due to its apoptotic-inducing effect depends on the dosing time during the 24 h in this mouse strain.

  16. Survival and passage of ingested New Zealand mudsnails through the intestinal tract of rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruce, R. Louise; Moffitt, Christine M.; Dennis, Brian

    2009-01-01

    We conducted laboratory trials to determine the transit time and survival of New Zealand mudsnails Potamopyrgus antipodarum in the gastrointestinal tract of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. To assess the rate of snail passage, we force-fed groups of fish a known quantity of snails and then held them in tanks. At selected intervals we removed individual fish from the test tanks and recorded the number of snails, their condition (live or dead), and their location in the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, anterior intestine, and posterior intestine). Feces were removed from tanks and examined for live snails. We repeated evaluations of passage rate and snail survival to determine the effects of varying the number of snails ingested, fish size, snail size, and feeding a commercial diet to fish after snail ingestion. We plotted and modeled gut evacuation using a stochastic model for ordinal data to consider each test variable. Snail passage rates were faster in fish that were fed smaller snails. Surprisingly, fish fed snails and then administered rations of commercial fish feed retained the snails longer in their stomach than did fish that were not administered fish feeds after being fed snails. Increased retention time of snails in the stomach decreased the probability of snail survival when voided in fecal material. Snails that passed through the gastrointestinal tract within 12–24 h of ingestion were often recovered live in fecal samples. However, no live snails were recovered from the posterior intestine or fecal material collected 24 h after ingestion. Using our results we propose potential management options that could reduce the risks of introducing live snails into new locations when stocking fish from infested hatcheries.

  17. Fasting protects mice from lethal DNA damage by promoting small intestinal epithelial stem cell survival.

    PubMed

    Tinkum, Kelsey L; Stemler, Kristina M; White, Lynn S; Loza, Andrew J; Jeter-Jones, Sabrina; Michalski, Basia M; Kuzmicki, Catherine; Pless, Robert; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Piwnica-Worms, David; Piwnica-Worms, Helen

    2015-12-22

    Short-term fasting protects mice from lethal doses of chemotherapy through undetermined mechanisms. Herein, we demonstrate that fasting preserves small intestinal (SI) architecture by maintaining SI stem cell viability and SI barrier function following exposure to high-dose etoposide. Nearly all SI stem cells were lost in fed mice, whereas fasting promoted sufficient SI stem cell survival to preserve SI integrity after etoposide treatment. Lineage tracing demonstrated that multiple SI stem cell populations, marked by Lgr5, Bmi1, or HopX expression, contributed to fasting-induced survival. DNA repair and DNA damage response genes were elevated in SI stem/progenitor cells of fasted etoposide-treated mice, which importantly correlated with faster resolution of DNA double-strand breaks and less apoptosis. Thus, fasting preserved SI stem cell viability as well as SI architecture and barrier function suggesting that fasting may reduce host toxicity in patients undergoing dose intensive chemotherapy.

  18. Fasting protects mice from lethal DNA damage by promoting small intestinal epithelial stem cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Tinkum, Kelsey L.; Stemler, Kristina M.; White, Lynn S.; Loza, Andrew J.; Jeter-Jones, Sabrina; Michalski, Basia M.; Kuzmicki, Catherine; Pless, Robert; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Piwnica-Worms, David; Piwnica-Worms, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Short-term fasting protects mice from lethal doses of chemotherapy through undetermined mechanisms. Herein, we demonstrate that fasting preserves small intestinal (SI) architecture by maintaining SI stem cell viability and SI barrier function following exposure to high-dose etoposide. Nearly all SI stem cells were lost in fed mice, whereas fasting promoted sufficient SI stem cell survival to preserve SI integrity after etoposide treatment. Lineage tracing demonstrated that multiple SI stem cell populations, marked by Lgr5, Bmi1, or HopX expression, contributed to fasting-induced survival. DNA repair and DNA damage response genes were elevated in SI stem/progenitor cells of fasted etoposide-treated mice, which importantly correlated with faster resolution of DNA double-strand breaks and less apoptosis. Thus, fasting preserved SI stem cell viability as well as SI architecture and barrier function suggesting that fasting may reduce host toxicity in patients undergoing dose intensive chemotherapy. PMID:26644583

  19. Use of transgenic mice to map cis-acting elements in the intestinal fatty acid binding protein gene (Fabpi) that control its cell lineage- specific and regional patterns of expression along the duodenal-colonic and crypt-villus axes of the gut epithelium

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The mouse intestinal epithelium is able to establish and maintain complex lineage-specific, spatial, and temporal patterns of gene expression despite its rapid and continuous renewal. A multipotent stem cell located near the base of each intestinal crypt gives rise to progeny which undergo amplification and allocation to either enterocytic, Paneth cell, goblet cell, or enteroendocrine cell lineages. Differentiation of these four lineages occurs during their geographically ordered migration along the crypt-villus axis. Gut stem cells appear to have a "positional address" which is manifested by differences in the differentiation programs of their lineal descendants along the duodenal-colonic (cephalocaudal) axis. We have used the intestinal fatty acid binding protein gene (Fabpi) as a model to identify cis-acting elements which regulate cell- and region-specific patterns of gene expression in the gut. Nucleotides -1178 to +28 of rat Fabpi direct a pattern of expression of a reporter (human growth hormone [hGH]) which mimics that of mouse Fabpi (a) steady-state levels of hGH mRNA are highest in the distal jejunum of adult transgenic mice and fall progressively toward both the duodenum and the mid-colon; and (b) hGH is confined to the enterocytic lineage and first appears as postmitotic, differentiating cells exit the crypt and migrate to the base of small intestinal villi or their colonic homologs, the surface epithelial cuffs. Nucleotides -103 to +28, which are highly conserved in rat, mouse and human Fabpi, are able to correctly initiate transgene expression in late fetal life, restrict hGH to the enterocytic lineage, and establish an appropriate cephalocaudal gradient of reporter expression. This cephalocaudal gradient is also influenced by cis- acting elements located between nucleotides -1178 and -278, and -277 and -185 that enhance and suppress (respectively) expression in the ileum and colon and by element(s) located upstream of nucleotide -277 that are needed

  20. Survival after total-body irradiation. I. Effects of partial small bowel shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Vigneulle, R.M.; Vriesendorp, H.M.; Taylor, P.; Burns, W.; Pelkey, T. )

    1989-08-01

    The small intestine of the rat was shielded during total-body irradiation (TBI) to evaluate the effects of radiation dose and length of intestine shielded on survival. Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized in groups of 10. Using aseptic surgical procedures 80, 40, 20, or 10 cm, or none of the proximal or distal small intestine were temporarily exteriorized and shielded during irradiation with photons from an 18 MeV linear accelerator. Less than 17% of the dose was delivered to the shielded intestines. In unshielded animals deaths occurred from Days 4 to 6 with 13, 15, or 17 Gy and from Days 8 to 30 with 9, 11, and 12 Gy. However, in all animals exposed to 15 Gy with all or part of the small intestine shielded, survival was increased to between 5 and 9 days. Shielding of the distal small intestine was more effective in prolonging survival than shielding of the proximal small intestine. The previously identified target of radiation damage in the small intestine is the crypt stem cell. In this study, the analysis of histological specimens of shielded and irradiated small intestine suggested that humoral factors also influence intestinal histology and survival after irradiation. These humoral factors are thought to originate from the irradiated body tissues, the shielded proximal intestine, and the shielded distal intestine. Further studies are required to identify these factors and to determine their mode of action and their therapeutic potential after radiation damage to the small intestine.

  1. Inhibition of Intestinal Epithelial Apoptosis Improves Survival in a Murine Model of Radiation Combined Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Enjae; Perrone, Erin E.; Brahmamdan, Pavan; McDonough, Jacquelyn S.; Leathersich, Ann M.; Dominguez, Jessica A.; Clark, Andrew T.; Fox, Amy C.; Dunne, W. Michael; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2013-01-01

    World conditions place large populations at risk from ionizing radiation (IR) from detonation of dirty bombs or nuclear devices. In a subgroup of patients, ionizing radiation exposure would be followed by a secondary infection. The effects of radiation combined injury are potentially more lethal than either insult in isolation. The purpose of this study was to determine mechanisms of mortality and possible therapeutic targets in radiation combined injury. Mice were exposed to IR with 2.5 Gray (Gy) followed four days later by intratracheal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). While either IR or MRSA alone yielded 100% survival, animals with radiation combined injury had 53% survival (p = 0.01). Compared to IR or MRSA alone, mice with radiation combined injury had increased gut apoptosis, local and systemic bacterial burden, decreased splenic CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells, and increased BAL and systemic IL-6 and G-CSF. In contrast, radiation combined injury did not alter lymphocyte apoptosis, pulmonary injury, or intestinal proliferation compared to IR or MRSA alone. In light of the synergistic increase in gut apoptosis following radiation combined injury, transgenic mice that overexpress Bcl-2 in their intestine and wild type mice were subjected to IR followed by MRSA. Bcl-2 mice had decreased gut apoptosis and improved survival compared to WT mice (92% vs. 42%; p<0.01). These data demonstrate that radiation combined injury results in significantly higher mortality than could be predicted based upon either IR or MRSA infection alone, and that preventing gut apoptosis may be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:24204769

  2. Gamma tocotrienol, a potent radioprotector, preferentially upregulates expression of anti-apoptotic genes to promote intestinal cell survival.

    PubMed

    Suman, Shubhankar; Datta, Kamal; Chakraborty, Kushal; Kulkarni, Shilpa S; Doiron, Kathryn; Fornace, Albert J; Sree Kumar, K; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Ghosh, Sanchita P

    2013-10-01

    Gamma tocotrienol (GT3) has been reported as a potent ameliorator of radiation-induced gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity when administered prophylactically. This study aimed to evaluate the role of GT3 mediated pro- and anti-apoptotic gene regulation in protecting mice from radiation-induced GI damage. Male 10- to 12-weeks-old CD2F1 mice were administered with a single dose of 200 mg/kg of GT3 or equal volume of vehicle (5% Tween-80) 24 h before exposure to 11 Gy of whole-body γ-radiation. Mouse jejunum was surgically removed 4 and 24h after radiation exposure, and was used for PCR array, histology, immunohistochemistry, and immunoblot analysis. Results were compared among vehicle pre-treated no radiation, vehicle pre-treated irradiated, and GT3 pre-treated irradiated groups. GT3 pretreated irradiated groups, both 4h and 24h after radiation, showed greater upregulation of anti-apoptotic gene expression than vehicle pretreated irradiated groups. TUNEL staining and intestinal crypt analysis showed protection of jejunum after GT3 pre-treatment and immunoblot results were supportive of PCR data. Our study demonstrated that GT3-mediated protection of intestinal cells from a GI-toxic dose of radiation occurred via upregulation of antiapoptotic and downregulation of pro-apoptotic factors, both at the transcript as well as at the protein levels.

  3. Instabilities of Monolayered Epithelia: Shape and Structure of Villi and Crypts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannezo, E.; Prost, J.; Joanny, J.-F.

    2011-08-01

    We study theoretically the shapes of a dividing epithelial monolayer of cells lying on top of an elastic stroma. The negative tension created by cell division provokes a buckling instability at a finite wave vector leading to the formation of periodic arrays of villi and crypts. The instability is similar to the buckling of a metallic plate under compression. We use the results to rationalize the various structures of the intestinal lining observed in vivo. Taking into account the coupling between cell division and local curvature, we obtain different patterns of villi and crypts, which could explain the different morphologies of the small intestine and the colon.

  4. Cellular chloride and bicarbonate retention alters intracellular pH regulation in Cftr KO crypt epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Nancy M.; Liu, Jinghua; Stein, Sydney R.; Stefanski, Casey D.; Strubberg, Ashlee M.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion channel providing a major pathway for Cl− and HCO3− efflux across the apical membrane of the epithelium. In the intestine, CF manifests as obstructive syndromes, dysbiosis, inflammation, and an increased risk for gastrointestinal cancer. Cftr knockout (KO) mice recapitulate CF intestinal disease, including intestinal hyperproliferation. Previous studies using Cftr KO intestinal organoids (enteroids) indicate that crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline intracellular pH (pHi). We hypothesized that Cftr has a cell-autonomous role in downregulating pHi that is incompletely compensated by acid-base regulation in its absence. Here, 2′,7′-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein microfluorimetry of enteroids showed that Cftr KO crypt epithelium sustains an alkaline pHi and resistance to cell acidification relative to wild-type. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that Cftr KO enteroids exhibit downregulated transcription of base (HCO3−)-loading proteins and upregulation of the basolateral membrane HCO3−-unloader anion exchanger 2 (Ae2). Although Cftr KO crypt epithelium had increased Ae2 expression and Ae2-mediated Cl−/HCO3− exchange with maximized gradients, it also had increased intracellular Cl− concentration relative to wild-type. Pharmacological reduction of intracellular Cl− concentration in Cftr KO crypt epithelium normalized pHi, which was largely Ae2-dependent. We conclude that Cftr KO crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline pHi as a consequence of losing both Cl− and HCO3− efflux, which impairs pHi regulation by Ae2. Retention of Cl− and an alkaline pHi in crypt epithelium may alter several cellular processes in the proliferative compartment of Cftr KO intestine. PMID:26542396

  5. Cellular chloride and bicarbonate retention alters intracellular pH regulation in Cftr KO crypt epithelium.

    PubMed

    Walker, Nancy M; Liu, Jinghua; Stein, Sydney R; Stefanski, Casey D; Strubberg, Ashlee M; Clarke, Lane L

    2016-01-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion channel providing a major pathway for Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) efflux across the apical membrane of the epithelium. In the intestine, CF manifests as obstructive syndromes, dysbiosis, inflammation, and an increased risk for gastrointestinal cancer. Cftr knockout (KO) mice recapitulate CF intestinal disease, including intestinal hyperproliferation. Previous studies using Cftr KO intestinal organoids (enteroids) indicate that crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline intracellular pH (pHi). We hypothesized that Cftr has a cell-autonomous role in downregulating pHi that is incompletely compensated by acid-base regulation in its absence. Here, 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein microfluorimetry of enteroids showed that Cftr KO crypt epithelium sustains an alkaline pHi and resistance to cell acidification relative to wild-type. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that Cftr KO enteroids exhibit downregulated transcription of base (HCO3 (-))-loading proteins and upregulation of the basolateral membrane HCO3 (-)-unloader anion exchanger 2 (Ae2). Although Cftr KO crypt epithelium had increased Ae2 expression and Ae2-mediated Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange with maximized gradients, it also had increased intracellular Cl(-) concentration relative to wild-type. Pharmacological reduction of intracellular Cl(-) concentration in Cftr KO crypt epithelium normalized pHi, which was largely Ae2-dependent. We conclude that Cftr KO crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline pHi as a consequence of losing both Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) efflux, which impairs pHi regulation by Ae2. Retention of Cl(-) and an alkaline pHi in crypt epithelium may alter several cellular processes in the proliferative compartment of Cftr KO intestine.

  6. Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS): report of a case with prolonged survival and literature review.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, Eunice; Hernández-Zarco, Adelina; Polanco-Ortiz, Amilcar; Villa-Morales, Judith; Mateos-Sánchez, Leovigildo

    2013-02-01

    Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) was first described in 1976. A rare congenital autosomal recessive alteration that predominantly affects females (4:1 ratio), it is characterized by the presence of distended bladder (without distal urinary tract obstruction), microcolon, and decreased or absent intestinal peristalsis. Inconsistent and non-specific histological changes affecting the bladder and intestinal smooth muscle, and intrinsic innervations, have been reported most frequently. MMIHS usually has a fatal prognosis in the first year of life; nevertheless there are some case reports of longer survival. Here is presented the case report of a boy with a diagnosis of MMIHS who has achieved prolonged survival, followed by a review of the literature.

  7. Intestinal microbes influence the survival, reproduction and protein profile of Trichinella spiralis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hai-yan; Zhao, Na; Zhang, Qiao-ling; Gao, Jiang-ming; Liu, Li-li; Wu, Teng-Fei; Wang, Ying; Huang, Qing-hua; Gou, Qiang; Chen, Wei; Gong, Peng-tao; Li, Jian-hua; Gao, Ying-jie; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Xi-chen

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between intestinal microbes and parasitic worms play an essential role in the development of the host immune system. However, the effects of gut microbes on Trichinella spiralis are unknown. The aim of this work was to explore microbe-induced alterations in the survival and reproduction of T. spiralis in vitro. To further identify the proteins and genes involved in the response of nematodes to microbes, quantitative proteomic analysis of T. spiralis was conducted by iTRAQ-coupled LCMS/MS technology and quantitative real-time-PCR was used to measure changes in mRNA expression. The results showed Lactobacillus acidophilus, and especially Lactobacillus bulgaricus, significantly enhanced the survival and reproductive rates of nematodes. Salmonella enterica, and especially Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC), had opposite effects. Genetic responses were activated mainly by EHEC. A total of 514 proteins were identified and quantified, and carbohydrate metabolism-related proteins existed in a higher proportion. These findings indicated that some gut bacteria are friendly or harmful to humans and in addition they may have similar beneficial or detrimental effects on parasites. This may be due to the regulation of expression of specific genes and proteins. Our studies provide a basis for developing therapies against parasitic infections from knowledge generated by studying the gut microbes of mammals.

  8. Survival after total-body irradiation. 1. Effects of partial small bowel shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Vigneulle, R.M.; Vriesendorp, H.M.; Taylor, P.; Burns, W.; Pelkey, T.

    1989-01-01

    The small intestine of the rat was shielded during total-body irradiation (TBI) to evaluate the effects of radiation dose and length of intestine shielded on survival. Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized in groups of 10. Using aseptic surgical procedures 80, 40, 20, or 10 cm, or none of the proximal or distal small intestine were temporarily exteriorized and shielded during irradiation with photons from an 18-MeV linear accelerator. Less than 17% of the dose was delivered to the shielded intestines. In unshielded animals deaths occurred from Days 4 to 6 with 13, 15, or 17 Gy and from Days 8 to 30 with 9, 11, and 12 Gy. However, in all animals exposed to 15 Gy with all or part of the small intestine shielded, survival was increased to between 5 and 9 days. Shielding of the distal small intestine. The previously identified target of radiation damage in the small intestine is the crypt stem cell. In this study, the analysis of histological specimens of shielded and irradiated small intestine suggested that humoral factors also influence intestinal histology and survival after irradiation. These humoral factors are thought to originate from the irradiated body tissues, the shielded proximal intestine, and the shielded distal intestine. Further studies are required to identify these factors and to determine their mode of action and their therapeutic potential after radiation damage to the small intestine.

  9. Pretreatment with transforming growth factor beta-3 protects small intestinal stem cells against radiation damage in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Potten, C. S.; Booth, D.; Haley, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract, with its rapid cell replacement, is sensitive to cytotoxic damage and can be a site of dose-limiting toxicity in cancer therapy. Here, we have investigated the use of one growth modulator to manipulate the cell cycle status of gastrointestinal stem cells before cytotoxic exposure to minimize damage to this normal tissue. Transforming growth factor beta-3 (TGF-beta3), a known inhibitor of cell cycle progression through G1, was used to alter intestinal crypt stem cell sensitivity before 12-16 Gy of gamma irradiation, which was used as a model cytotoxic agent. Using a crypt microcolony assay as a measure of functional competence of gastrointestinal stem cells, it was shown that the administration of TGF-beta3 over a 24-h period before irradiation increased the number of surviving crypts by four- to six-fold. To test whether changes in crypt survival are reflected in the well-being of the animal, survival time analyses were performed. After 14.5 Gy of radiation, only 35% of the animals survived within a period of about 12 days, while prior treatment with TGF-beta3 provided significant protection against this early gastrointestinal animal death, with 95% of the treated animals surviving for greater than 30 days. PMID:9166937

  10. Apoptosis of ileal crypt epithelia after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation without graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Kreft, Andreas; Russo, Alexandra; Lux, Steffi; Waiz, Lioudmila; Seidmann, Larissa; Faber, Jörg; Kirkpatrick, Charles J

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Intestinal crypt cell apoptosis may occur after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation without clinically overt graft-versus-host disease. We describe this phenomenon in a case of a 12-year-old girl who had segments of the ileum resected because of a relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The diagnostic difficulties are discussed. PMID:25984309

  11. Radioprotection to small intestine of the mice against ionizing radiation by semiquinone glucoside derivative (SQGD) isolated from Bacillus sp. INM-1.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dev Dutt; Bansal, Deen Dayal; Mishra, Saurabh; Arora, Rajesh; Sharma, Ashok; Jain, Swatantra Kumar; Kumar, Raj

    2012-11-01

    Ionizing irradiation induces severe damage to the intestinal crypt cells which are responsible for renovation and maintenance of the intestinal cellular architecture. Therefore, protection of intestinal cells and tissue against lethal irradiation using a semiquinone glucoside derivative (SQGD) isolated from radioresistant bacterium Bacillus sp. INM-1 is the prime focus of the present investigation. BALB/c mice were administered by SQGD (50 mg/kg.b.wt. i.p.) 2 h before whole body irradiation (10 Gy), and histological analysis of the jejunum section was carried out and compared to the irradiated mice. Significant (p < 0.0001) increase in villus length, number of cells per villus, crypts numbers per villus section, total cells counts and mitotic cell counts per crypt and low goblet cells per villus section, and low apoptotic index per crypt section were observed in the irradiated mice pre-treated by SQGD at 48-168 h. Significant induction in NF-kβ at 24 h and Bcl-2/Bax ratio was observed in irradiated mice pre-treated by SQGD compared to only irradiated animals. SQGD pre-treatment before irradiation was found instrumental to reverse the radiation-induced degenerative changes by replenishment of the damaged cells by enhancing mitotic, proliferating, pro-survival, and apoptosis inhibitory activities probably through modulation of cell cycle arrest in G(1)/S phase in the intestinal cellular milieu.

  12. The Vibrio cholerae extracellular chitinase ChiA2 is important for survival and pathogenesis in the host intestine.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Moumita; Nag, Dhrubajyoti; Koley, Hemanta; Saha, Dhira Rani; Chatterjee, Nabendu Sekhar

    2014-01-01

    In aquatic environments, Vibrio cholerae colonizes mainly on the chitinous surface of copepods and utilizes chitin as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. Of the two extracellular chitinases essential for chitin utilization, the expression of chiA2 is maximally up-regulated in host intestine. Recent studies indicate that several bacterial chitinases may be involved in host pathogenesis. However, the role of V. cholerae chitinases in host infection is not yet known. In this study, we provide evidence to show that ChiA2 is important for V. cholerae survival in intestine as well as in pathogenesis. We demonstrate that ChiA2 de-glycosylates mucin and releases reducing sugars like GlcNAc and its oligomers. Deglycosylation of mucin corroborated with reduced uptake of alcian blue stain by ChiA2 treated mucin. Next, we show that V. cholerae could utilize mucin as a nutrient source. In comparison to the wild type strain, ΔchiA2 mutant was 60-fold less efficient in growth in mucin supplemented minimal media and was also ∼6-fold less competent to survive when grown in the presence of mucin-secreting human intestinal HT29 epithelial cells. Similar results were also obtained when the strains were infected in mice intestine. Infection with the ΔchiA2 mutant caused ∼50-fold less fluid accumulation in infant mice as well as in rabbit ileal loop compared to the wild type strain. To see if the difference in survival of the ΔchiA2 mutant and wild type V. cholerae was due to reduced adhesion of the mutant, we monitored binding of the strains on HT29 cells. The initial binding of the wild type and mutant strain was similar. Collectively these data suggest that ChiA2 secreted by V. cholerae in the intestine hydrolyzed intestinal mucin to release GlcNAc, and the released sugar is successfully utilized by V. cholerae for growth and survival in the host intestine.

  13. Pharmacologically blocking p53-dependent apoptosis protects intestinal stem cells and mice from radiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinwei; Wei, Liang; Cramer, Julie M.; Leibowitz, Brian J.; Judge, Colleen; Epperly, Michael; Greenberger, Joel; Wang, Fengchao; Li, Linheng; Stelzner, Matthias G.; Dunn, James C. Y.; Martin, Martin G.; Lagasse, Eric; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation (IR) leads to debilitating and dose-limiting gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Using three-dimensional mouse crypt culture, we demonstrated that p53 target PUMA mediates radiation-induced apoptosis via a cell-intrinsic mechanism, and identified the GSK-3 inhibitor CHIR99021 as a potent radioprotector. CHIR99021 treatment improved Lgr5+ cell survival and crypt regeneration after radiation in culture and mice. CHIR99021 treatment specifically blocked apoptosis and PUMA induction and K120 acetylation of p53 mediated by acetyl-transferase Tip60, while it had no effect on p53 stabilization, phosphorylation or p21 induction. CHIR99021 also protected human intestinal cultures from radiation by PUMA but not p21 suppression. These results demonstrate that p53 posttranslational modifications play a key role in the pathological and apoptotic response of the intestinal stem cells to radiation and can be targeted pharmacologically. PMID:25858503

  14. Survival of Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20 in fermented milk under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    da Conceição, L L; Leandro, E S; Freitas, F S; de Oliveira, M N V; Ferreira-Machado, A B; Borges, A C; de Moraes, C A

    2013-09-01

    The survival of Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20 was assessed in fermented milk, both during the storage period and after exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, as well the detection of the gene fbpA involved in adherence to human gastrointestinal tract. L. delbrueckii UFV H2b20 remained stable and viable for 28 days under refrigerated storage conditions. After one day of storage, that strain exhibited a one-log population reduction following exposure in tandem to simulated gastric and intestinal juices. After 14 days of storage, a two-log reduction was observed following 90 min of exposure to the simulated gastric conditions. However, the strain did not survive following exposure to the simulated intestinal juice. The observed tolerance to storage conditions and resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal conditions confirm the potential use of L. delbrueckii UFV H2b20 as a probiotic, which is further reinforced by the detection of fbpA in this strain.

  15. Survival After Total Body Irradiation: Effects of Irradiation of Exteriorized Small Intestine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    exteriorized small intestine H . M. Vriesendorp 1, R. M. Vigneulle’, G. Kitto ’, T. Pelky t, P. Taylor ’-* and J . Smith ’Armed Forces Radiobiologv...P., Fiedner, T. M. and Archambeau, J . 0. Mare- Schultheiss, T. E. and Jardine, J . H . Acute and late radiation malian Radiation Lethality, a...acute intestinal 4 Dowling, R. H . Update on intestinal adaptation. Triangle radiation syndrome through shielding. Am. J . Physiol. 185, Sandoz J . Med

  16. Microencapsulation of a probiotic and prebiotic in alginate-chitosan capsules improves survival in simulated gastro-intestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Chávarri, María; Marañón, Izaskun; Ares, Raquel; Ibáñez, Francisco C; Marzo, Florencio; Villarán, María del Carmen

    2010-08-15

    Chitosan was used as a coating material to improve encapsulation of a probiotic and prebiotic in calcium alginate beads. Chitosan-coated alginate microspheres were produced to encapsulate Lactobacillus gasseri (L) and Bifidobacterium bifidum (B) as probiotics and the prebiotic quercetin (Q) with the objective of enhancing survival of the probiotic bacteria and keeping intact the prebiotic during exposure to the adverse conditions of the gastro-intestinal tract. The encapsulation yield for viable cells for chitosan-coated alginate microspheres with quercetin (L+Q and B+Q) was very low. These results, together with the study about the survival of microspheres with quercetin during storage at 4 degrees C, demonstrated that probiotic bacteria microencapsulated with quercetin did not survive. Owing to this, quercetin and L. gasseri or B. bifidum were microencapsulated separately. Microencapsulated L. gasseri and microencapsulated B. bifidum were resistant to simulated gastric conditions (pH 2.0, 2h) and bile solution (3%, 2h), resulting in significantly (p<0.05) improved survival when compared with free bacteria. This work showed that the microencapsulation of L. gasseri and B. bifidum with alginate and a chitosan coating offers an effective means of delivery of viable bacterial cells to the colon and maintaining their survival during simulated gastric and intestinal juice.

  17. EFFECTS OF TOPICAL TREATMENT WITH EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI LATEX ON THE SURVIVAL AND INTESTINAL ADHESIONS IN RATS WITH EXPERIMENTAL PERITONITIS

    PubMed Central

    de ARAÚJO, Lilhian Alves; MRUÉ, Fátima; NEVES, Roberpaulo Anacleto; ALVES, Maxley Martins; da SILVA-JÚNIOR, Nelson Jorge; SILVA, Marcelo Seixo de Brito; de MELO-REIS, Paulo Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of plants of the family Euphorbiaceae, particularly Euphorbia tirucalli (avelós) has been popularly widespread for treating a variety of diseases of infectious, tumoral, and inflammatory. Aim: To demonstrated antimicrobial and immunomodulatory effects of these extracts, evaluating the effect of a topical treatment with an aqueous solution of avelós latex on the survival and on intestinal adhesions in rats with experimental peritonitis. Methods: Peritonitis was induced in 24 Wistar rats, that were randomized into four groups of six as follows: (1) Control group (n=6), no treatment; (2) Antibiotic group (n=6), treatment with a single intramuscular dose of antibiotic Unasyn; (3) Saline group (n=6), the abdominal cavity was washed with 0.9% saline; and (4) E.tirucalli group (n=6), the abdominal cavity was washed with E. tirucalli at a concentration of 12 mg/ml. The animals that died were necropsied, and the time of death was recorded. The survivors were killed on postoperative day 11, and necropsy was subsequently performed for evaluation of the intestinal adhesions. Results: Significant differences were observed in the control and antibiotic groups (p<0.01) with respect to the survival hours when compared with the saline and E. tirucalli groups. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the survival of animals in the saline andE. tirucalli groups; however, one animal died in the saline group. Necropsy of the animals in the saline and E. tirucalligroups showed strong adhesions resistant to manipulation, between the intestinal loops and abdominal wall. The remaining groups did not show any adhesions. Conclusions: Topical treatment with E. tirucalli latex stimulated an increased formation of intestinal adhesions and prevented the death of all animals with peritonitis. PMID:26734792

  18. Structural Stability of Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 Is Essential for Protective Effects Against Radiation-Induced Intestinal Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Fumiaki; Umeda, Sachiko; Yasuda, Takeshi; Asada, Masahiro; Motomura, Kaori; Suzuki, Masashi; Zakrzewska, Malgorzata; Imamura, Toru; Imai, Takashi

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Human fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1) has radioprotective effects on the intestine, although its structural instability limits its potential for practical use. Several stable FGF1 mutants were created increasing stability in the order, wild-type FGF1, single mutants (Q40P, S47I, and H93G), Q40P/S47I, and Q40P/S47I/H93G. This study evaluated the contribution of the structural stability of FGF1 to its radioprotective effect. Methods and Materials: Each FGF1 mutant was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 h before or after total body irradiation (TBI) with {gamma}-rays at 8-12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. Results: Q40P/S47I/H93G could activate all subtypes of FGF receptors in vitro much more strongly than the wild-type without endogenous or exogenous heparin. Preirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G significantly increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1 after TBI at 10 or 12 Gy, and postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G was effective in promoting crypt survival after TBI at 10, 11, or 12 Gy. In addition, crypt cell proliferation, crypt depth, and epithelial differentiation were significantly promoted by postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G. The level of stability of FGF1 mutants correlated with their mitogenic activities in vitro in the absence of heparin; however, preirradiation treatment with the mutants increased the crypt number to almost the same level as Q40P/S47I/H93G. When given 24 h after TBI at 10 Gy, all FGF1 mutants increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1, and Q40P/S47I/H93G had the strongest mitogenic effects in intestinal epithelial cells after radiation damage. Moreover, Q40P/S47I/H93G prolonged mouse survival after TBI because of the repair of intestinal damage. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the structural stability of FGF1 can contribute to the enhancement of protective effects against radiation-induced intestinal

  19. Crypt dysplasia in Barrett's oesophagus shows clonal identity between crypt and surface cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shabuddin; McDonald, Stuart A C; Wright, Nicholas A; Graham, Trevor A; Odze, Robert D; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Zeki, Sebastian

    2013-09-01

    Epithelial dysplasia is an important histological diagnosis signifying the presence of pre-invasive disease, usually needing intervention. However, the specific genetic changes responsible for the induction of this phenotypic change are unknown. Moreover, recent reports indicate that the dysplastic phenotype may not be immutable: in basal crypt dysplasia (CD), unequivocal dysplastic changes are seen in the crypts in Barrett's oesophagus and other pre-invasive lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, but the upper crypts and surface epithelium associated with these dysplastic crypts show the definitive morphology of a differentiated epithelium. The genotypic relationship between CD and the differentiated surface epithelium is presently unclear. We obtained 17 examples of CD: the lower and upper crypts and surface epithelium were differentially laser-microdissected from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections and mutations were sought in tumour suppressor genes frequently associated with progression in Barrett's oesophagus. We found two patients who both showed a c. C238T mutation in the CDKN2A (CDKN2AInk4A) gene and where the precise microanatomical relationships could be discerned: this mutation was present in both the CD at the crypt base and in the upper crypt and surface epithelium. We conclude that, in CD, the dysplastic basal crypt epithelium and the upper crypt and surface epithelium show clonal CDKN2A mutations, thus showing definitively that the surface epithelium is derived from the dysplastic crypt epithelium: the dysplastic phenotype is therefore not fixed and can be reversed. The mechanism of this change is unclear but may be related to the possibility that dysplastic cells can, probably early in their progression, respond to differentiation signals. However, it is also clear that a heavy mutational burden can be borne by crypts in the gastrointestinal tract without the development of phenotypic dysplasia. We are evidently some way from understanding

  20. Intestinal Subepithelial Myofibroblasts Support the Growth of Intestinal Epithelial Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Nan Ye; Jabaji, Ziyad; Wang, Jiafang; Joshi, Vaidehi S.; Brinkley, Garrett J.; Khalil, Hassan; Wang, Fengchao; Jaroszewicz, Artur; Pellegrini, Matteo; Li, Linheng; Lewis, Michael; Stelzner, Matthias; Dunn, James C. Y.; Martín, Martín G.

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial stem cells (ISCs) are the focus of recent intense study. Current in vitro models rely on supplementation with the Wnt agonist R-spondin1 to support robust growth, ISC self-renewal, and differentiation. Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs) are important supportive cells within the ISC niche. We hypothesized that co-culture with ISEMF enhances the growth of ISCs in vitro and allows for their successful in vivo implantation and engraftment. ISC-containing small intestinal crypts, FACS-sorted single ISCs, and ISEMFs were procured from C57BL/6 mice. Crypts and single ISCs were grown in vitro into enteroids, in the presence or absence of ISEMFs. ISEMFs enhanced the growth of intestinal epithelium in vitro in a proximity-dependent fashion, with co-cultures giving rise to larger enteroids than monocultures. Co-culture of ISCs with supportive ISEMFs relinquished the requirement of exogenous R-spondin1 to sustain long-term growth and differentiation of ISCs. Mono- and co-cultures were implanted subcutaneously in syngeneic mice. Co-culture with ISEMFs proved necessary for successful in vivo engraftment and proliferation of enteroids; implants without ISEMFs did not survive. ISEMF whole transcriptome sequencing and qPCR demonstrated high expression of specific R-spondins, well-described Wnt agonists that supports ISC growth. Specific non-supportive ISEMF populations had reduced expression of R-spondins. The addition of ISEMFs in intestinal epithelial culture therefore recapitulates a critical element of the intestinal stem cell niche and allows for its experimental interrogation and biodesign-driven manipulation. PMID:24400106

  1. The cellular prion protein PrPc is a partner of the Wnt pathway in intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Besnier, Laura S.; Cardot, Philippe; Da Rocha, Barbara; Simon, Anthony; Loew, Damarys; Klein, Christophe; Riveau, Béatrice; Lacasa, Michel; Clair, Caroline; Rousset, Monique; Thenet, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    We reported previously that the cellular prion protein (PrPc) is a component of desmosomes and contributes to the intestinal barrier function. We demonstrated also the presence of PrPc in the nucleus of proliferating intestinal epithelial cells. Here we sought to decipher the function of this nuclear pool. In human intestinal cancer cells Caco-2/TC7 and SW480 and normal crypt-like HIEC-6 cells, PrPc interacts, in cytoplasm and nucleus, with γ-catenin, one of its desmosomal partners, and with β-catenin and TCF7L2, effectors of the canonical Wnt pathway. PrPc up-regulates the transcriptional activity of the β-catenin/TCF7L2 complex, whereas γ-catenin down-regulates it. Silencing of PrPc results in the modulation of several Wnt target gene expressions in human cells, with different effects depending on their Wnt signaling status, and in mouse intestinal crypt cells in vivo. PrPc also interacts with the Hippo pathway effector YAP, suggesting that it may contribute to the regulation of gene transcription beyond the β-catenin/TCF7L2 complex. Finally, we demonstrate that PrPc is required for proper formation of intestinal organoids, indicating that it contributes to proliferation and survival of intestinal progenitors. In conclusion, PrPc must be considered as a new modulator of the Wnt signaling pathway in proliferating intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:26224313

  2. IL-6 and STAT3 are required for survival of intestinal epithelial cells and development of colitis associated cancer

    PubMed Central

    Grivennikov, Sergei; Karin, Eliad; Terzic, Janos; Mucida, Daniel; Yu, Guann-Yi; Vallabhapurapu, Sivakumar; Scheller, Jürgen; Rose-John, Stefan; Cheroutre, Hilde; Eckmann, Lars; Karin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Summary Colitis associated cancer (CAC) is the most serious complication of inflammatory bowel disease. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were suggested to regulate pre-neoplastic growth during CAC tumorigenesis. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional NF-κB–regulated cytokine which acts on epithelial and immune cells. Using genetic tools we now demonstrate that IL-6 is a critical tumor promoter during early CAC tumorigenesis. In addition to enhancing proliferation of tumor initiating cells, IL-6 produced by lamina propria myeloid cells protects normal and pre-malignant intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) from apoptosis. The proliferative and survival effects of IL-6 are largely mediated by transcription factor STAT3, whose IEC-specific ablation has profound impact on CAC tumorigenesis. Thus, the NF-κB-IL-6-STAT3 cascade is an important regulator of the proliferation and survival of tumor initiating IEC. PMID:19185845

  3. Direct inhibitory effect of nicardipine on basolateral K+ channels in human colonic crypts.

    PubMed

    Sandle, G I; Butterfield, I; Higgs, N B; Warhurst, G

    1999-03-01

    The most abundant basolateral K+ channels in human colonic crypt cells have a low conductance (23 pS), respond to increases in intracellular Ca2+ and cAMP, and have been implicated in intestinal electrogenic Cl- secretion. The effect of nicardipine on the activity of these K+ channels was examined by patch-clamp recording in the cell-attached and excised inside-out configurations from the basolateral membrane of single crypts isolated from biopsied samples of human distal colon. During cell-attached recordings, addition of 2 micromol/l nicardipine to crypts pretreated with 200 micromol/l dibutyryl cAMP decreased single-channel open probability by 87%, but in parallel studies nicardipine had no effect on the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Using inside-out patches from crypts pretreated with dibutyryl cAMP (bathed in 1.2 mmol/l Ca2+), the addition of increasing concentrations of nicardipine (200 nmol/l, 2 micromol/l and 20 micromol/l) decreased single-channel open probability in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 0.47 micromol/l). In additional experiments using stripped rat distal colonic mucosa mounted in conventional Ussing chambers, serosal addition of nicardipine at increasing concentrations (ranging from 200 nmol/l to 20 micromol/l) produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of dibutyryl-cAMP-stimulated electrogenic Cl- secretion (IC50 2 micromol/l). Taken together, these results indicate that nicardipine has a direct inhibitory action on 23-pS basolateral K+ channels in human intestinal crypt cells, which is likely to decrease cAMP-stimulated electrogenic Cl- secretion. These basolateral K+ channels may provide a focal point for the development of new strategies in the treatment of secretory diarrhoeal diseases.

  4. Reg4+ deep crypt secretory cells function as epithelial niche for Lgr5+ stem cells in colon

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Nobuo; Sachs, Norman; Wiebrands, Kay; Ellenbroek, Saskia I. J.; Fumagalli, Arianna; Lyubimova, Anna; Begthel, Harry; van den Born, Maaike; van Es, Johan H.; Karthaus, Wouter R.; Li, Vivian S. W.; López-Iglesias, Carmen; Peters, Peter J.; van Rheenen, Jacco; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-positive (Lgr5+) stem cells reside at crypt bottoms of the small and large intestine. Small intestinal Paneth cells supply Wnt3, EGF, and Notch signals to neighboring Lgr5+ stem cells. Whereas the colon lacks Paneth cells, deep crypt secretory (DCS) cells are intermingled with Lgr5+ stem cells at crypt bottoms. Here, we report regenerating islet-derived family member 4 (Reg4) as a marker of DCS cells. To investigate a niche function, we eliminated DCS cells by using the diphtheria-toxin receptor gene knocked into the murine Reg4 locus. Ablation of DCS cells results in loss of stem cells from colonic crypts and disrupts gut homeostasis and colon organoid growth. In agreement, sorted Reg4+ DCS cells promote organoid formation of single Lgr5+ colon stem cells. DCS cells can be massively produced from Lgr5+ colon stem cells in vitro by combined Notch inhibition and Wnt activation. We conclude that Reg4+ DCS cells serve as Paneth cell equivalents in the colon crypt niche. PMID:27573849

  5. Prostaglandin E2 supports growth of chicken embryo intestinal organoids in Matrigel matrix.

    PubMed

    Pierzchalska, Malgorzata; Grabacka, Maja; Michalik, Marta; Zyla, Krzysztof; Pierzchalski, Piotr

    2012-05-01

    Investigating intestinal physiology in vitro remains challenging due to the lack of an effective primary enterocyte culture system. Recently developed protocols for growing organoids containing crypts and villus from adult mouse intestinal epithelium in Matrigel present an attractive alternative to the classical techniques. However, these approaches require the use of sophisticated and expensive serum-free medium supplemented with epithelial growth factor (EGF), Wnt agonist (R-spondin 1), and bone morphogenetic protein inhibitor (Noggin) in high concentrations. Here we demonstrate that is possible to use an isolated chicken embryonic intestinal epithelium to create such an organoid culture. Structures formed in Matrigel matrix in the first two days following isolation survive and enlarge during ensuing weeks. They have the appearance of empty spheres and comprise cells expressing cytokeratin (an epithelial cell marker), villin (a marker of enterocytes), and Sox-9 (a transcription factor characteristic of progenitors and stem cells of intestinal crypts). With chicken embryonic tissue as a source of organoids, prostaglandin E2 is as effective as R-spondin 1 and Noggin in promoting sustained growth and survival of epithelial spheroids.

  6. ADAR1 is essential for intestinal homeostasis and stem cell maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, W; Wang, X; Buchanan, M; He, K; Sharma, R; Zhang, L; Wang, Q; Yu, J

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) is a double-stranded RNA-editing enzyme that converts adenosine (A) to inosine (I), and essential for normal development. In this study, we reported an essential role of ADAR1 in the survival and maintenance of intestinal stem cells and intestinal homoeostasis by suppressing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and interferon (IFN) signaling. ADAR1 was highly expressed in the Lgr5+ cells, and its deletion in adult mice led to a rapid apoptosis and loss of these actively cycling stem cells in the small intestine and colon. ADAR1 deletion resulted in a drastic expansion of progenitors and Paneth cells but a reduction of three other major epithelial lineages. Moreover, loss of ADAR1 induced ER stress and activation of IFN signaling, and altered expression in WNT targets, followed by intestinal inflammation. An ER stress inhibitor partially suppressed crypt apoptosis. Finally, data from cultured intestinal crypts demonstrated that loss of ADAR1 in the epithelial cells is the primary cause of these effects. These results support an essential role of ADAR1 and RNA editing in tissue homeostasis and stem cells. PMID:23598411

  7. Influence of Ketotifen, Cromolyn Sodium, and Compound 48/80 on the survival rates after intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zi-qing, Hei; Xiao-liang, Gan; Pin-jie, Huang; Jing, Wei; Ning, Shen; Wan-ling, Gao

    2008-01-01

    Background Mast cells were associated with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury, the study was to observe the influence of Ketotifen, Cromolyn Sdium(CS), and Compound 48/80(CP) on the survival rates on the third day after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Methods 120 healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, Sham-operated group (group S), model group (group M), group K, group C and group CP. Intestinal damage was triggered by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 75 minutes, group K, C, and CP were treated with kotifen 1 mg·kg-1, CS 50 mg·kg-1, and CP 0.75 mg·kg-1 i.v. at 5 min before reperfusion and once daily for three days following reperfusion respectively. Survival rate in each group was recorded during the three days after reperfusion. All the surviving rats were killed for determining the concentration of serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase(AST), glutamic pyruvic transaminase(ALT), the ratio of AST compare ALT(S/L), total protein(TP), albumin(ALB), globulin(GLB), the ratio of ALB compare GLB(A/G), phosphocreatine kinase(CK), lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), urea nitrogen(BUN) and creatinine(CRE) at the 3rd day after reperfusion. And ultrastructure of IMMC, Chiu's score, lung histology, IMMC counts, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 of the small intestine were detected at the same time. Results Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury reduced the survival rate. The concentrations of TP, ALB and level of IL-10 in intestine in group M decreased significantly while the concentrations of S/L, LDH and the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in intestine increased significantly compared with group S (P < 0.05). Treatment with Ketotifen and CS increased the survival rate compared with group M (P < 0.05), attenuated the down-regulation or up-regulation of the above index (P < 0.05). Treatment with CP decreased the survival rate on the 3rd day after reperfusion compared with group M(P < 0.05). Group K and C had better

  8. A Crypt-Specific Core Microbiota Resides in the Mouse Colon

    PubMed Central

    Pédron, Thierry; Mulet, Céline; Dauga, Catherine; Frangeul, Lionel; Chervaux, Christian; Grompone, Gianfranco; Sansonetti, Philippe J.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT In an attempt to explore the microbial content of functionally critical niches of the mouse gastrointestinal tract, we targeted molecular microbial diagnostics of the crypts that contain the intestinal stem cells, which account for epithelial regeneration. As current evidence indicates, the gut microbiota affects epithelial regeneration; bacteria that are likely to primarily participate in this essential step of the gut, microbiota cross talk, have been identified. We show in this article that only the cecal and colonic crypts harbor resident microbiota in the mouse and that regardless of the line and breeding origin of these mice, this bacterial population is unexpectedly dominated by aerobic genera. Interestingly, this microbiota resembles the restricted microbiota found in the midgut of invertebrates; thus, the presence of our so-called “crypt-specific core microbiota” (CSCM) in the mouse colon potentially reflects a coevolutionary process under selective conditions that can now be addressed. We suggest that CSCM could play both a protective and a homeostatic role within the colon. This article is setting the bases for such studies, particularly by providing a bona fide—and essentially cultivable—crypt microbiota of reference. PMID:22617141

  9. Intestinal Epithelial Stem/Progenitor Cells Are Controlled by Mucosal Afferent Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Lundgren, Ove; Jodal, Mats; Jansson, Madeleine; Ryberg, Anders T.; Svensson, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    Background The maintenance of the intestinal epithelium is of great importance for the survival of the organism. A possible nervous control of epithelial cell renewal was studied in rats and mice. Methods Mucosal afferent nerves were stimulated by exposing the intestinal mucosa to capsaicin (1.6 mM), which stimulates intestinal external axons. Epithelial cell renewal was investigated in the jejunum by measuring intestinal thymidine kinase (TK) activity, intestinal 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA, and the number of crypt cells labeled with BrdU. The influence of the external gut innervation was minimized by severing the periarterial nerves. Principal Findings Luminal capsaicin increased all the studied variables, an effect nervously mediated to judge from inhibitory effects on TK activity or 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA by exposing the mucosa to lidocaine (a local anesthetic) or by giving four different neurotransmitter receptor antagonists i.v. (muscarinic, nicotinic, neurokinin1 (NK1) or calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) receptors). After degeneration of the intestinal external nerves capsaicin did not increase TK activity, suggesting the involvement of an axon reflex. Intra-arterial infusion of Substance P (SP) or CGRP increased intestinal TK activity, a response abolished by muscarinic receptor blockade. Immunohistochemistry suggested presence of M3 and M5 muscarinic receptors on the intestinal stem/progenitor cells. We propose that the stem/progenitor cells are controlled by cholinergic nerves, which, in turn, are influenced by mucosal afferent neuron(s) releasing acetylcholine and/or SP and/or CGRP. In mice lacking the capsaicin receptor, thymidine incorporation into DNA and number of crypt cells labeled with BrdU was lower than in wild type animals suggesting that nerves are important also in the absence of luminal capsaicin, a conclusion also supported by the observation that atropine lowered thymidine incorporation into DNA by 60% in control

  10. Duodenal crypt health following exposure to Cr(VI): Micronucleus scoring, γ-H2AX immunostaining, and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Chad M.; Wolf, Jeffrey C.; Elbekai, Reem H.; Paranjpe, Madhav G.; Seiter, Jennifer M.; Chappell, Mark A.; Tappero, Ryan V.; Suh, Mina; Proctor, Deborah M.; Bichteler, Anne; Haws, Laurie C.; Harris, Mark A.

    2015-08-01

    Lifetime exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water results in intestinal damage and an increase in duodenal tumors in B6C3F1 mice. To assess whether these tumors could be the result of a direct mutagenic or genotoxic mode of action, we conducted a GLP-compliant 7-day drinking water study to assess crypt health along the entire length of the duodenum. Mice were exposed to water (vehicle control), 1.4, 21, or 180 ppm Cr(VI) via drinking water for 7 consecutive days. Crypt enterocytes in Swiss roll sections were scored as normal, mitotic, apoptotic, karyorrhectic, or as having micronuclei. A single oral gavage of 50 mg/kg cyclophosphamide served as a positive control for micronucleus induction. Exposure to 21 and 180 ppm Cr(VI) significantly increased the number of crypt enterocytes. Micronuclei and γ-H2AX immunostaining were not elevated in the crypts of Cr(VI)-treated mice. In contrast, treatment with cyclophosphamide significantly increased numbers of crypt micronuclei and qualitatively increased γ-H2AX immunostaining. Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy revealed the presence of strong Cr fluorescence in duodenal villi, but negligible Cr fluorescence in the crypt compartment. Together, these data indicate that Cr(VI) does not adversely effect the crypt compartment where intestinal stem cells reside, and provide additional evidence that the mode of action for Cr(VI)-induced intestinal cancer in B6C3F1 mice involves chronic villous wounding resulting in compensatory crypt enterocyte hyperplasia.

  11. Tis7 deletion reduces survival and induces intestinal anastomotic inflammation and obstruction in high-fat diet-fed mice with short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Amy M; Wakeman, Derek; Lu, Jianyun; Rowley, Christopher; Geisman, Taylor; Butler, Catherine; Bala, Shashi; Swietlicki, Elzbieta A; Warner, Brad W; Levin, Marc S; Rubin, Deborah C

    2014-09-15

    Effective therapies are limited for patients with parenteral nutrition-dependent short bowel syndrome. We previously showed that intestinal expression of the transcriptional coregulator tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate-induced sequence 7 (tis7) is markedly increased during the adaptive response following massive small bowel resection and tis7 plays a role in normal gut lipid metabolism. Here, we further explore the functional implications of tis7 deletion in intestinal lipid metabolism and the adaptive response following small bowel resection. Intestinal tis7 transgenic (tis7(tg)), tis7(-/-), and wild-type (WT) littermates were subjected to 50% small bowel resection. Mice were fed a control or a high-saturated-fat (42% energy) diet for 21 days. Survival, body weight recovery, lipid absorption, mucosal lipid analysis, and the morphometric adaptive response were analyzed. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to identify tis7 downstream gene targets. Postresection survival was markedly reduced in high-fat, but not control, diet-fed tis7(-/-) mice. Decreased survival was associated with anastomotic inflammation and intestinal obstruction postresection. High-fat, but not control, diet-fed tis7(-/-) mice had increased intestinal IL-6 expression. Intestinal lipid trafficking was altered in tis7(-/-) compared with WT mice postresection. In contrast, high-fat diet-fed tis7(tg) mice had improved survival postresection compared with WT littermates. High-fat diet feeding in the setting of tis7 deletion resulted in postresection anastomotic inflammation and small bowel obstruction. Tolerance of a calorie-rich, high-fat diet postresection may require tis7 and its target genes. The presence of luminal fat in the setting of tis7 deletion promotes an intestinal inflammatory response postresection.

  12. Intestinal Phospholipid Remodeling Is Required for Dietary-Lipid Uptake and Survival on a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Rong, Xin; Duerr, Mark A; Hermanson, Daniel J; Hedde, Per Niklas; Wong, Jinny S; Vallim, Thomas Q de Aguiar; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Gratton, Enrico; Ford, David A; Tontonoz, Peter

    2016-03-08

    Phospholipids are important determinants of membrane biophysical properties, but the impact of membrane acyl chain composition on dietary-lipid absorption is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the LXR-responsive phospholipid-remodeling enzyme Lpcat3 modulates intestinal fatty acid and cholesterol absorption and is required for survival on a high-fat diet. Mice lacking Lpcat3 in the intestine thrive on carbohydrate-based chow but lose body weight rapidly and become moribund on a triglyceride-rich diet. Lpcat3-dependent incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into phospholipids is required for the efficient transport of dietary lipids into enterocytes. Furthermore, loss of Lpcat3 amplifies the production of gut hormones, including GLP-1 and oleoylethanolamide, in response to high-fat feeding, contributing to the paradoxical cessation of food intake in the setting of starvation. These results reveal that membrane phospholipid composition is a gating factor in passive lipid absorption and implicate LXR-Lpcat3 signaling in a gut-brain feedback loop that couples absorption to food intake.

  13. Campylobacter protein oxidation influences epithelial cell invasion or intracellular survival as well as intestinal tract colonization in chickens.

    PubMed

    Lasica, A M; Wyszynska, A; Szymanek, K; Majewski, P; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, E K

    2010-01-01

    The Dsb family of redox proteins catalyzes disulfide bond formation and isomerization. Since mutations in dsb genes change the conformation and stability of many extracytoplasmic proteins, and since many virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria are extracytoplasmic, inactivation of dsb genes often results in pathogen attenuation. This study investigated the role of 2 membrane-bound oxidoreductases, DsbB and DsbI, in the Campylobacter jejuni oxidative Dsb pathway. Campylobacter mutants, lacking DsbB or DsbI or both, were constructed by allelic replacement and used in the human intestinal epithelial T84 cell line for the gentamicin protection assay (invasion assay) and chicken colonization experiments. In C. coli strain 23/1, the inactivation of the dsbB or dsbI gene separately did not significantly affect the colonization process. However, simultaneous disruption of both membrane-bound oxidoreductase genes significantly decreased the strain’s ability to colonize chicken intestines. Moreover, C. jejuni strain 81-176 with mutated dsbB or dsbI genes showed reduced invasion/intracellular survival abilities. No cells of the double mutants (dsbB⁻ dsbI⁻) of C. jejuni 81-176 were recovered from human cells after 3 h of invasion.

  14. Neurogenic differentiation factor NeuroD confers protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Du, Aonan; Xu, Jing; Ma, Yanchao; Cao, Han; Yang, Chao; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xing, Chun-Gen; Chen, Ming; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Shuyu; Cao, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract, especially the small intestine, is particularly sensitive to radiation, and is prone to radiation-induced injury as a result. Neurogenic differentiation factor (NeuroD) is an evolutionarily-conserved basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor. NeuroD contains a protein transduction domain (PTD), which allows it to be exogenously delivered across the membrane of mammalian cells, whereupon its transcription activity can be unleashed. Whether NeuroD has therapeutic effects for radiation-induced injury remains unclear. In the present study, we prepared a NeuroD-EGFP recombinant protein, and explored its protective effects on the survival and intestinal damage induced by ionizing radiation. Our results showed that NeuroD-EGFP could be transduced into small intestine epithelial cells and tissues. NeuroD-EGFP administration significantly increased overall survival of mice exposed to lethal total body irradiation (TBI). This recombinant NeuroD also reduced radiation-induced intestinal mucosal injury and apoptosis, and improved crypt survival. Expression profiling of NeuroD-EGFP-treated mice revealed upregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), a known inhibitor of apoptosis in mammalian cells. In conclusion, NeuroD confers protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury, and provides a novel therapeutic clinical option for the prevention of intestinal side effects of radiotherapy and the treatment of victims of incidental exposure. PMID:27436572

  15. A bioassay to measure energy metabolism in mouse colonic crypts, organoids, and sorted stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yang-Yi; Davidson, Laurie A.; Callaway, Evelyn S.; Wright, Gus A.; Safe, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that targeting cancer cell energy metabolism might be an effective therapeutic approach for selective ablation of malignancies. Using a Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer, we have demonstrated that select environmental agents can alter colonic mitochondrial function by increasing respiration-induced proton leak, thereby inducing apoptosis, a marker of colon cancer risk. To further probe bioenergetics in primary intestinal cells, we developed methodology that can be modified and adapted to measure the bioenergetic profiles of colonic crypts, the basic functional unit of the colon, and colonic organoids, an ex vivo 3D culture of colonic crypts. Furthermore, in combination with the MoFlo Astrios High-Speed Cell Sorter, we were able to measure the bioenergetic profiles of colonic adult stem and daughter cells from Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-creERT2 transgenic mice. We examined the effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a full arylhydrocarbon receptor agonist, known to affect gastrointestinal function and cancer risk, on the bioenergetic profiles of intestinal epithelial cells. Mouse colonic crypts, organoids, or sorted single cells were seeded onto Matrigel-precoated Seahorse XF24 microplates for extracellular flux analysis. Temporal analyses revealed distinct energy metabolic profiles in crypts and organoids challenged with TCDD. Furthermore, sorted Lgr5+ stem cells exhibited a Warburg-like metabolic profile. This is noteworthy because perturbations in stem cell dynamics are generally believed to represent the earliest step toward colon tumorigenesis. We propose that our innovative methodology may facilitate future in vivo/ex vivo metabolic studies using environmental agents affecting colonocyte energy metabolism. PMID:25977509

  16. A bioassay to measure energy metabolism in mouse colonic crypts, organoids, and sorted stem cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yang-Yi; Davidson, Laurie A; Callaway, Evelyn S; Wright, Gus A; Safe, Stephen; Chapkin, Robert S

    2015-07-01

    Evidence suggests that targeting cancer cell energy metabolism might be an effective therapeutic approach for selective ablation of malignancies. Using a Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer, we have demonstrated that select environmental agents can alter colonic mitochondrial function by increasing respiration-induced proton leak, thereby inducing apoptosis, a marker of colon cancer risk. To further probe bioenergetics in primary intestinal cells, we developed methodology that can be modified and adapted to measure the bioenergetic profiles of colonic crypts, the basic functional unit of the colon, and colonic organoids, an ex vivo 3D culture of colonic crypts. Furthermore, in combination with the MoFlo Astrios High-Speed Cell Sorter, we were able to measure the bioenergetic profiles of colonic adult stem and daughter cells from Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-creER(T2) transgenic mice. We examined the effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a full arylhydrocarbon receptor agonist, known to affect gastrointestinal function and cancer risk, on the bioenergetic profiles of intestinal epithelial cells. Mouse colonic crypts, organoids, or sorted single cells were seeded onto Matrigel-precoated Seahorse XF24 microplates for extracellular flux analysis. Temporal analyses revealed distinct energy metabolic profiles in crypts and organoids challenged with TCDD. Furthermore, sorted Lgr5(+) stem cells exhibited a Warburg-like metabolic profile. This is noteworthy because perturbations in stem cell dynamics are generally believed to represent the earliest step toward colon tumorigenesis. We propose that our innovative methodology may facilitate future in vivo/ex vivo metabolic studies using environmental agents affecting colonocyte energy metabolism.

  17. Farnesoid X Receptor Activation Attenuates Intestinal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Decuypere, Jean-Paul; Farré, Ricard; De Hertogh, Gert; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Jochmans, Ina; Monbaliu, Diethard; Nevens, Frederik; Tack, Jan; Laleman, Wim; Pirenne, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is abundantly expressed in the ileum, where it exerts an enteroprotective role as a key regulator of intestinal innate immunity and homeostasis, as shown in pre-clinical models of inflammatory bowel disease. Since intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is characterized by hyperpermeability, bacterial translocation and inflammation, we aimed to investigate, for the first time, if the FXR-agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) could attenuate intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury. Material and Methods In a validated rat model of intestinal IRI (laparotomy + temporary mesenteric artery clamping), 3 conditions were tested (n = 16/group): laparotomy only (sham group); ischemia 60min+ reperfusion 60min + vehicle pretreatment (IR group); ischemia 60min + reperfusion 60min + OCA pretreatment (IR+OCA group). Vehicle or OCA (INT-747, 2*30mg/kg) was administered by gavage 24h and 4h prior to IRI. The following end-points were analyzed: 7-day survival; biomarkers of enterocyte viability (L-lactate, I-FABP); histology (morphologic injury to villi/crypts and villus length); intestinal permeability (Ussing chamber); endotoxin translocation (Lipopolysaccharide assay); cytokines (IL-6, IL-1-β, TNFα, IFN-γ IL-10, IL-13); apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3); and autophagy (LC3, p62). Results It was found that intestinal IRI was associated with high mortality (90%); loss of intestinal integrity (structurally and functionally); increased endotoxin translocation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production; and inhibition of autophagy. Conversely, OCA-pretreatment improved 7-day survival up to 50% which was associated with prevention of epithelial injury, preserved intestinal architecture and permeability. Additionally, FXR-agonism led to decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine release and alleviated autophagy inhibition. Conclusion Pretreatment with OCA, an FXR-agonist, improves survival in a rodent model of intestinal IRI, preserves the gut barrier

  18. Post Treatment With an FGF Chimeric Growth Factor Enhances Epithelial Cell Proliferation to Improve Recovery From Radiation-Induced Intestinal Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Fumiaki; Hagiwara, Akiko; Umeda, Sachiko; Asada, Masahiro; Goto, Megumi; Oki, Junko; Suzuki, Masashi; Imamura, Toru; Akashi, Makoto

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: A fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 1-FGF2 chimera (FGFC) was created previously and showed greater structural stability than FGF1. This chimera was capable of stimulating epithelial cell proliferation much more strongly than FGF1 or FGF2 even without heparin. Therefore FGFC was expected to have greater biologic activity in vivo. This study evaluated and compared the protective activity of FGFC and FGF1 against radiation-induced intestinal injuries. Methods and Materials: We administered FGFC and FGF1 intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice 24 h before or after total-body irradiation (TBI). The numbers of surviving crypts were determined 3.5 days after TBI with gamma rays at doses ranging from 8 to 12 Gy. Results: The effect of FGFC was equal to or slightly superior to FGF1 with heparin. However, FGFC was significantly more effective in promoting crypt survival than FGF1 (p < 0.01) when 10 {mu}g of each FGF was administered without heparin before irradiation. In addition, FGFC was significantly more effective at promoting crypt survival (p < 0.05) than FGF1 even when administered without heparin at 24 h after TBI at 10, 11, or 12 Gy. We found that FGFC post treatment significantly promoted 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation into crypts and increased crypt depth, resulting in more epithelial differentiation. However, the number of apoptotic cells in FGFC-treated mice decreased to almost the same level as that in FGF1-treated mice. Conclusions: These findings suggest that FGFC strongly enhanced radioprotection with the induction of epithelial proliferation without exogenous heparin after irradiation and is useful in clinical applications for both the prevention and post treatment of radiation injuries.

  19. Human Enteroids/Colonoids and Intestinal Organoids Functionally Recapitulate Normal Intestinal Physiology and Pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Zachos, Nicholas C; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Foulke-Abel, Jennifer; In, Julie; Blutt, Sarah E; de Jonge, Hugo R; Estes, Mary K; Donowitz, Mark

    2016-02-19

    Identification of Lgr5 as the intestinal stem cell marker as well as the growth factors necessary to replicate adult intestinal stem cell division has led to the establishment of the methods to generate "indefinite" ex vivo primary intestinal epithelial cultures, termed "mini-intestines." Primary cultures developed from isolated intestinal crypts or stem cells (termed enteroids/colonoids) and from inducible pluripotent stem cells (termed intestinal organoids) are being applied to study human intestinal physiology and pathophysiology with great expectations for translational applications, including regenerative medicine. Here we discuss the physiologic properties of these cultures, their current use in understanding diarrhea-causing host-pathogen interactions, and potential future applications.

  20. The Leuven immunomodulatory protocol promotes T-regulatory cells and substantially prolongs survival after first intestinal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ceulemans, Laurens J; Braza, Faouzi; Monbaliu, Diethard; Jochmans, Ina; De Hertogh, Gert; Du Plessis, Johannie; Emonds, Marie-Paule; Kitade, Hiroaki; Kawai, Masaru; Li, Ying; Xiangdong, Zhao; Koshiba, Takaaki; Sprangers, Ben; Brouard, Sophie; Waer, Mark; Pirenne, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    Intestinal transplantation (ITx) remains challenged by frequent/severe rejections and immunosuppression-related complications (infections/malignancies/drug-toxicity). We developed in the lab the Leuven Immunomodulatory Protocol (LIP) and translated it to the clinics. LIP consists in experimentally-proven maneuvers, destined to promote T-regulatory (Tregs)-dependent graft-protective mechanisms: Donor-Specific-Blood-Transfusion (DSBT); avoiding high-dose steroids/calcineurin-inhibitors; minimizing reperfusion-injury and endotoxin-translocation. LIP was tested in 13 consecutive ITx from deceased donors (2000-2014) (observational cohort study). Age was 37y(3y-57y). 5y graft/patient survival was 92%. One patient died at 9mo to Aspergillosis, another at 12y to NSAID-induced enteropathy. Early acute rejection (AR) developed in 2(15%); late AR in 3(23%); all were reversible. No chronic rejection occurred. No malignancies developed and eGFR remained stable post-Tx. At last follow-up {3.5y(0.5-12.5y)}, no DSA were detected and 11 survivors were TPN-free with a Karnofsky-score>90% in 8 recipients (follow-up >1y). A high frequency of circulating CD4+CD45RA-FoxP3high memory Tregs was found {1,8%(1.39-2.21)}, comparable to tolerant-Kidney Transplant (KTx) recipients and superior to stable IS-KTx, KTx with CR and healthy volunteers. In this ITx cohort we show that DSBT in a low-inflammatory/pro-regulatory environment activates Tregs at levels similar to tolerant-KTx, without causing sensitization. LIP limits rejection under reduced IS and thereby prolongs long-term survival to an extent not previously attained after ITx. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigation of computer-aided colonic crypt pattern analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xin; Pan, Yinsheng; Sivak, Michael V., Jr.; Olowe, Kayode; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2007-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Approximately 50% of these deaths could be prevented by earlier detection through screening. Magnification chromoendoscopy is a technique which utilizes tissue stains applied to the gastrointestinal mucosa and high-magnification endoscopy to better visualize and characterize lesions. Prior studies have shown that shapes of colonic crypts change with disease and show characteristic patterns. Current methods for assessing colonic crypt patterns are somewhat subjective and not standardized. Computerized algorithms could be used to standardize colonic crypt pattern assessment. We have imaged resected colonic mucosa in vitro (N = 70) using methylene blue dye and a surgical microscope to approximately simulate in vivo imaging with magnification chromoendoscopy. We have developed a method of computerized processing to analyze the crypt patterns in the images. The quantitative image analysis consists of three steps. First, the crypts within the region of interest of colonic tissue are semi-automatically segmented using watershed morphological processing. Second, crypt size and shape parameters are extracted from the segmented crypts. Third, each sample is assigned to a category according to the Kudo criteria. The computerized classification is validated by comparison with human classification using the Kudo classification criteria. The computerized colonic crypt pattern analysis algorithm will enable a study of in vivo magnification chromoendoscopy of colonic crypt pattern correlated with risk of colorectal cancer. This study will assess the feasibility of screening and surveillance of the colon using magnification chromoendoscopy.

  2. Intestinal adaptation following resection.

    PubMed

    Tappenden, Kelly A

    2014-05-01

    Intestinal adaptation is a natural compensatory process that occurs following extensive intestinal resection, whereby structural and functional changes in the intestine improve nutrient and fluid absorption in the remnant bowel. In animal studies, postresection structural adaptations include bowel lengthening and thickening and increases in villus height and crypt depth. Functional changes include increased nutrient transporter expression, accelerated crypt cell differentiation, and slowed transit time. In adult humans, data regarding adaptive changes are sparse, and the mechanisms underlying intestinal adaptation remain to be fully elucidated. Several factors influence the degree of intestinal adaptation that occurs post resection, including site and extent of resection, luminal stimulation with enteral nutrients, and intestinotrophic factors. Two intestinotrophic growth factors, the glucagon-like peptide 2 analog teduglutide and recombinant growth hormone (somatropin), are now approved for clinical use in patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS). Both agents enhance fluid absorption and decrease requirements for parenteral nutrition (PN) and/or intravenous fluid. Intestinal adaptation has been thought to be limited to the first 1-2 years following resection in humans. However, recent data suggest that a significant proportion of adult patients with SBS can achieve enteral autonomy, even after many years of PN dependence, particularly with trophic stimulation.

  3. Improving access to intestinal stem cells as a step toward intestinal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, J W; Lau, C; Jacomino, M; Finegold, M; Henning, S J

    1994-03-01

    In previous studies exploring the intestinal epithelium as a potential site for somatic gene therapy, we concluded that the mucus lining the intestine constitutes a significant barrier to any attempts at gene transfer via the lumenal route. The mucus problem is aggravated by the fact that the epithelial stem cells, which are the logical target for gene transfer, are located deep in the intestinal crypts. The goals of the current study were to develop procedures that would improve accessibility to the intestinal stem cells and which would effect in vivo mucus removal without damaging the underlying epithelium. Initial experiments involved evaluation of the use of distension to improve accessibility to the intestinal crypts and the use of the mucolytic agents dithiothreitol (DTT) and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) versus a control solution of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for mucus removal. Catheters were inserted in each end of 3-cm terminal ileal segments in anesthetized rats. Two milliliters of agent was instilled into the clamped segment for 2 min, removed, and repeated. Lumenal distension resulted in shortened villi with wider intervillus spacing, thereby improving crypt access. Both NAC and DTT washes removed significant mucus between the villi but failed to reach the crypt lumen. To enhance mucus release from the crypt lumen, pilocarpine was selected due to its cholinergic properties and preferential binding to muscarinic receptors on crypt goblet cells. Pilocarpine given intraperitoneally 30 min prior to the mucolytic or PBS wash resulted in significant eradication of mucus down into the crypt lumen. This effect was still evident 3-4 hr later provided the intestine remained undisturbed.

  4. Patterns of Proliferative Activity in the Colonic Crypt Determine Crypt Stability and Rates of Somatic Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Rui; Michor, Franziska

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial cells in the colon are arranged in cylindrical structures called crypts in which cellular proliferation and migration are tightly regulated. We hypothesized that the proliferation patterns of cells may determine the stability of crypts as well as the rates of somatic evolution towards colorectal tumorigenesis. Here, we propose a linear process model of colonic epithelial cells that explicitly takes into account the proliferation kinetics of cells as a function of cell position within the crypt. Our results indicate that proliferation kinetics has significant influence on the speed of cell movement, kinetics of mutation propagation, and sensitivity of the system to selective effects of mutated cells. We found that, of all proliferation curves tested, those with mitotic activities concentrated near the stem cell, including the actual proliferation kinetics determined in in vivo labeling experiments, have a greater ability of delaying the rate of mutation accumulation in colonic stem cells compared to hypothetical proliferation curves with mitotic activities focused near the top of the crypt column. Our model can be used to investigate the dynamics of proliferation and mutation accumulation in spatially arranged tissues. PMID:23785264

  5. Analysis of Cell Death Induction in Intestinal Organoids In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Grabinger, Thomas; Delgado, Eugenia; Brunner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium has an important function in the absorption of nutrients contained in the food. Furthermore, it also has an important barrier function, preventing luminal pathogens from entering the bloodstream. This single cell layer epithelium is quite sensitive to various cell death-promoting triggers, including drugs, irradiation, and TNF family members, leading to loss of barrier integrity, epithelial erosion, inflammation, malabsorption, and diarrhea. In order to assess the intestinal epithelium-damaging potential of treatments and substances specific test systems are required. As intestinal tumor cell lines are a poor substitute for primary intestinal epithelial cells, and in vivo experiments in mice are costly and often unethical, the use of intestinal organoids cultured from intestinal crypts provide an ideal tool to study cell death induction and mechanisms in primary intestinal epithelial cells. This protocol describes the isolation and culture of intestinal organoids from murine small intestinal crypts, and the quantitative assessment of cell death induction in these organoids.

  6. Intestinal-type of differentiation predicts favourable overall survival: confirmatory clinicopathological analysis of 198 periampullary adenocarcinomas of pancreatic, biliary, ampullary and duodenal origin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Periampullary adenocarcinomas comprise pancreatic, distal bile duct, ampullary and duodenal adenocarcinoma. The epithelia of these anatomical structures share a common embryologic origin from the foregut. With steadily increasing numbers of pancreatoduodenectomies over the last decades, pathologists, surgeons and oncologists are more often confronted with the diagnosis of “other than pancreatic” periampullary cancers. The intestinal subtype of ampullary cancer has been shown to correlate with better prognosis. Methods Histological subtype and immunohistochemical staining pattern for CK7, CK20 and CDX2 were assessed for n = 198 cases of pancreatic ductal, distal bile duct, ampullary and duodenal adenocarcinoma with clinical follow-up. Routine pathological parameters were included in survival analysis performed with SPSS 20. Results In univariate analysis, intestinal subtype was associated with better survival in ampullary, pancreatic ductal and duodenal adenocarcinoma. The intestinal type of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma was not associated with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm and could not be reliably diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining pattern alone. Intestinal differentiation and lymph node ratio, but not tumor location were independent predictors of survival when all significant predictor variables from univariate analysis (grade, TNM stage, presence of precursor lesions, surgical margin status, perineural, vascular and lymphatic vessel invasion, CK7 and CDX2 staining pattern) were included in a Cox proportional hazards model. Conclusions Intestinal type differentiation and lymph node ratio but not tumor location are independent prognostic factors in pooled analysis of periampullary adenocarcinomas. We conclude that differentiation is more important than tumor location for prognostic stratification in periampullary adenocarcinomas. PMID:24053229

  7. Effects of glycine betaine on bone marrow death and intestinal damage by gamma rays and carbon ions.

    PubMed

    Monobe, M; Hamano, N; Sumi, M; Mukai, K; Moritake, T; Anzai, K; Uzawa, A; Ando, K

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of glycine betaine (GB) on bone marrow death and intestinal damage by gamma rays or carbon ions. C(3)H/He female mice received an i.p.-injection of GB before or after whole-body irradiation with gamma rays or 50 keV microm(-1) carbon ions. The irradiated mice were observed to determine the mortality for 30 days after exposure. Mice were also killed at 3.5 days after the exposure to determine the intestinal damage. The numbers of crypts per transverse circumference were counted using a microscope. For the bone marrow death, GB (93 mg GB per mouse) significantly (p < 0.05) increased the percentage survival for both radiations. For the intestinal damage, GB (93 mg GB per mouse) significantly (p < 0.05) increased the crypt survival for gamma rays, but not for carbon ions. GB might be a potential protector against normal tissue damage as a side effect in radiotherapy.

  8. The characterization of an intestine-like genomic signature maintained during Barrett’s-associated adenocarcinogenesis reveals an NR5A2-mediated promotion of cancer cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, Shane P.; Behan, Fiona M.; Kirca, Murat; Zaheer, Abdul; McGarrigle, Sarah A.; Reynolds, John V.; Vaz, Gisela M. F.; Senge, Mathias O.; Kelleher, Dermot

    2016-01-01

    Barrett’s oesophagus (BO), an intestinal-type metaplasia (IM), typically arising in conjunction with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, is a prominent risk factor for the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). The molecular similarities between IM and normal intestinal tissues are ill-defined. Consequently, the contribution of intestine-enriched factors expressed within BO to oncogenesis is unclear. Herein, using transcriptomics we define the intestine-enriched genes expressed in meta-profiles of BO and OAC. Interestingly, 77% of the genes differentially expressed in a meta-profile of BO were similarly expressed in intestinal tissues. Furthermore, 85% of this intestine-like signature was maintained upon transition to OAC. Gene networking analysis of transcription factors within this signature revealed a network centred upon NR5A2, GATA6 and FOXA2, whose over-expression was determined in a cohort of BO and OAC patients. Simulated acid reflux was observed to induce the expression of both NR5A2 and GATA6. Using siRNA-mediated silencing and an NR5A2 antagonist we demonstrate that NR5A2-mediated cancer cell survival is facilitated through augmentation of GATA6 and anti-apoptotic factor BCL-XL levels. Abrogation of NR5A2-GATA6 expression in conjunction with BCL-XL co-silencing resulted in synergistically increased sensitivity to chemotherapeutics and photo-dynamic therapeutics. These findings characterize the intestine-like signature associated with IM which may have important consequences to adenocarcinogenesis. PMID:27586588

  9. Short bowel syndrome: highlights of patient management, quality of life, and survival.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Darlene G; Tappenden, Kelly A; Winkler, Marion F

    2014-05-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) occurs as a result of intestinal resection, and in many patients is associated with complications, such as diarrhea, dehydration, weight loss, and nutrition deficiencies. Many individuals with SBS develop intestinal failure and require parenteral nutrition (PN) and/or intravenous (IV) fluids (PN/IV). Although PN is essential for survival, some patients with SBS who require long-term PN experience significant complications that contribute to morbidity and mortality. Consequently, therapies that decrease reliance on PN are of considerable importance. Intestinal adaptation, which results in morphologic and functional changes that increase performance of the remnant bowel, occurs spontaneously after intestinal resection. These effects can be enhanced with nutrition and pharmaceutical approaches. For example, oral or tube-fed nutrients stimulate growth and adaptation of intestinal tissues. In addition, prebiotics support growth of beneficial intestinal microbiota that produce short-chain fatty acids, which have been shown in preclinical studies to enhance intestinal structure and function. Finally, glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is an endogenous peptide that promotes intestinal rehabilitation and improves intestinal absorption. Teduglutide, a recombinant human GLP-2 analog, has recently been approved in the United States for the treatment of adults with SBS who are dependent on PN. In pharmacodynamic and clinical studies, teduglutide has been shown to promote changes in intestinal structure, such as increases in villus height and crypt depth, and to improve intestinal absorption, as indicated by reduced PN/IV dependence. This article presents a brief overview of SBS, including effects on survival and quality of life and current treatment options.

  10. Survival and metabolic activity of the GanedenBC30 strain of Bacillus coagulans in a dynamic in vitro model of the stomach and small intestine.

    PubMed

    Maathuis, A J H; Keller, D; Farmer, S

    2010-03-01

    We have investigated the survival and activity of GanedenBC(30) during passage through the upper gastro-intestinal tract. GanedenBC(30) was tested in a dynamic, validated, in vitro model of the stomach and small intestine (TIM-1) on survival and its potential to aid in digestion of milk protein, lactose and fructose. The survival of GanedenBC(30) was high (70%), although germination of the spores was minimal (<10%) under the conditions tested. Survival of the strain in the presence of lactose and fructose was markedly lower (56-59%) than in the absence of the sugars. The amount of digested milk protein available for absorption was somewhat higher (+0.2 g) when GanedenBC(30) was added to the milk. When GanedenBC(30) was tested with lactose or fructose added to the meal, the cumulative amount of lactate produced was slightly higher (+0.12-0.18 mmol) compared to the GanedenBC(30) alone. In conclusion, although the differences in survival of GanedenBC(30) are small, these results show the potential of GanedenBC(30) to aid in protein digestion and in the digestion of lactose and fructose. If a larger fraction of the Bacillus coagulans cells had germinated, the influence on protein and carbohydrate digestion would probably have been much greater. Importance of the findings: the potential of GanedenBC(30) to aid in the digestion of lactose and fructose could be used to prevent occurrence of intestinal symptoms in individuals sensitive to these carbohydrates.

  11. Macrophage-derived extracellular vesicle-packaged WNTs rescue intestinal stem cells and enhance survival after radiation injury

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Subhrajit; Aranda, Evelyn; Hayakawa, Yoku; Bhanja, Payel; Atay, Safinur; Brodin, N Patrik; Li, Jiufeng; Asfaha, Samuel; Liu, Laibin; Tailor, Yagnesh; Zhang, Jinghang; Godwin, Andrew K.; Tome, Wolfgang A.; Wang, Timothy C.; Guha, Chandan; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2016-01-01

    WNT/β-catenin signalling is crucial for intestinal homoeostasis. The intestinal epithelium and stroma are the major source of WNT ligands but their origin and role in intestinal stem cell (ISC) and epithelial repair remains unknown. Macrophages are a major constituent of the intestinal stroma. Here, we analyse the role of macrophage-derived WNT in intestinal repair in mice by inhibiting their release using a macrophage-restricted ablation of Porcupine, a gene essential for WNT synthesis. Such Porcn-depleted mice have normal intestinal morphology but are hypersensitive to radiation injury in the intestine compared with wild-type (WT) littermates. Porcn-null mice are rescued from radiation lethality by treatment with WT but not Porcn-null bone marrow macrophage-conditioned medium (CM). Depletion of extracellular vesicles (EV) from the macrophage CM removes WNT function and its ability to rescue ISCs from radiation lethality. Therefore macrophage-derived EV-packaged WNTs are essential for regenerative response of intestine against radiation. PMID:27734833

  12. Protective effect of genistein on radiation-induced intestinal injury in tumor bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Radiation therapy is the most widely used treatment for cancer, but it causes the side effect of mucositis due to intestinal damage. We examined the protective effect of genistein in tumor-bearing mice after abdominal irradiation by evaluation of apoptosis and intestinal morphological changes. Methods Mouse colon cancer CT26 cells were subcutaneously injected at the flank of BALB/c mice to generate tumors. The tumor-bearing mice were treated with abdominal radiation at 5 and 10 Gy, and with genistein at 200 mg/kg body weight per day for 1 d before radiation. The changes in intestinal histology were evaluated 12 h and 3.5 d after irradiation. To assess the effect of the combination treatment on the cancer growth, the tumor volume was determined at sacrifice before tumor overgrowth occurred. Results Genistein significantly decreased the number of apoptotic nuclei compared with that in the irradiation group 12 h after 5 Gy irradiation. Evaluation of histological changes showed that genistein ameliorated intestinal morphological changes such as decreased crypt survival, villus shortening, and increased length of the basal lamina 3.5 d after 10 Gy irradiation. Moreover, the genistein-treated group exhibited more Ki-67-positive proliferating cells in the jejunum than the irradiated control group, and crypt depths were greater in the genistein-treated group than in the irradiated control group. The mean weight of the CT26 tumors was reduced in the group treated with genistein and radiation compared with the control group. Conclusion Genistein had a protective effect on intestinal damage induced by irradiation and delayed tumor growth. These results suggest that genistein is a useful candidate for preventing radiotherapy-induced intestinal damage in cancer patients. PMID:23672582

  13. Adenocarcinoma ex-goblet cell carcinoid (appendiceal-type crypt cell adenocarcinoma) is a morphologically distinct entity with highly aggressive behavior and frequent association with peritoneal/intra-abdominal dissemination: an analysis of 77 cases

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Michelle D; Basturk, Olca; Shaib, Walid L; Xue, Yue; Balci, Serdar; Choi, Hye-Jeong; Akkas, Gizem; Memis, Bahar; Robinson, Brian S; El-Rayes, Bassel F; Staley, Charles A; Staley, Christopher A; Winer, Joshua H; Russell, Maria C; Knight, Jessica H; Goodman, Michael; Krasinskas, Alyssa M; Adsay, Volkan

    2016-01-01

    High-grade versions of appendiceal goblet cell carcinoids (‘adenocarcinoma ex-goblet cell carcinoids’) are poorly characterized. We herein document 77 examples. Tumors occurred predominantly in females (74%), mean age 55 years (29–84), most with disseminated abdominal (77% peritoneal, 58% gynecologic tract involvement) and stage IV (65%) disease. Many presented to gynecologic oncologists, and nine had a working diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma. Metastases to liver (n =3) and lung (n =1) were uncommon and none arose in adenomatous lesions. Tumors had various histologic patterns, in variable combinations, most of which were fairly specific, making them recognizable as appendiceal in origin, even at metastatic sites: I: Ordinary goblet cell carcinoid/crypt pattern (rounded, non-luminal acini with well-oriented goblet cells), in variable amounts in all cases. II: Poorly cohesive goblet cell pattern (diffusely infiltrative cords/single files of signet ring-like/goblet cells). III: Poorly cohesive non-mucinous cell (diffuse-infiltrative growth of non-mucinous cells). IV: Microglandular (rosette-like glandular) pattern without goblet cells. V: Mixed ‘other’ carcinoma foci (including ordinary intestinal/mucinous). VI: goblet cell carcinoid pattern with high-grade morphology (marked nuclear atypia). VII: Solid sheet-like pattern punctuated by goblet cells/microglandular units. Ordinary nested/trabecular (‘carcinoid pattern’) was very uncommon. In total, 33(52%) died of disease, with median overall survival 38 months and 5-year survival 32%. On multivariate analysis perineural invasion and younger age (<55) were independently associated with worse outcome while lymph-vascular invasion, stage, and nodal status trended toward, but failed to reach, statistical significance. Worse behavior in younger patients combined with female predilection and ovarian-affinity raise the possibility of hormone-assisted tumor progression. In conclusion, ‘adenocarcinoma ex

  14. Adenocarcinoma ex-goblet cell carcinoid (appendiceal-type crypt cell adenocarcinoma) is a morphologically distinct entity with highly aggressive behavior and frequent association with peritoneal/intra-abdominal dissemination: an analysis of 77 cases.

    PubMed

    Reid, Michelle D; Basturk, Olca; Shaib, Walid L; Xue, Yue; Balci, Serdar; Choi, Hye-Jeong; Akkas, Gizem; Memis, Bahar; Robinson, Brian S; El-Rayes, Bassel F; Staley, Charles A; Staley, Christopher A; Winer, Joshua H; Russell, Maria C; Knight, Jessica H; Goodman, Michael; Krasinskas, Alyssa M; Adsay, Volkan

    2016-10-01

    High-grade versions of appendiceal goblet cell carcinoids ('adenocarcinoma ex-goblet cell carcinoids') are poorly characterized. We herein document 77 examples. Tumors occurred predominantly in females (74%), mean age 55 years (29-84), most with disseminated abdominal (77% peritoneal, 58% gynecologic tract involvement) and stage IV (65%) disease. Many presented to gynecologic oncologists, and nine had a working diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma. Metastases to liver (n=3) and lung (n=1) were uncommon and none arose in adenomatous lesions. Tumors had various histologic patterns, in variable combinations, most of which were fairly specific, making them recognizable as appendiceal in origin, even at metastatic sites: I: Ordinary goblet cell carcinoid/crypt pattern (rounded, non-luminal acini with well-oriented goblet cells), in variable amounts in all cases. II: Poorly cohesive goblet cell pattern (diffusely infiltrative cords/single files of signet ring-like/goblet cells). III: Poorly cohesive non-mucinous cell (diffuse-infiltrative growth of non-mucinous cells). IV: Microglandular (rosette-like glandular) pattern without goblet cells. V: Mixed 'other' carcinoma foci (including ordinary intestinal/mucinous). VI: goblet cell carcinoid pattern with high-grade morphology (marked nuclear atypia). VII: Solid sheet-like pattern punctuated by goblet cells/microglandular units. Ordinary nested/trabecular ('carcinoid pattern') was very uncommon. In total, 33(52%) died of disease, with median overall survival 38 months and 5-year survival 32%. On multivariate analysis perineural invasion and younger age (<55) were independently associated with worse outcome while lymph-vascular invasion, stage, and nodal status trended toward, but failed to reach, statistical significance. Worse behavior in younger patients combined with female predilection and ovarian-affinity raise the possibility of hormone-assisted tumor progression. In conclusion, 'adenocarcinoma ex-goblet cell carcinoid' is

  15. Corrupted colonic crypt fission in carcinogen-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background The colonic crypts in rats reproduce themselves by symmetric fission at the base of the crypts, and proceeding upwards, generate two separate identical crypts. Recently we reported corrupted colonic crypt fission (CCCF) in rats with colonic carcinoma. Here we investigated whether CCCF also occurred in the colonic mucosa without carcinoma in carcinogen-treated rats. Methods Filed Swiss-roll sections from 35 male rats (25 treated with 1,2-dimethyhydrazine (DMH) suspended in EDTA solution, and 10 EDTA-treated) were reviewed. CCCF were regarded those with either asymmetric basal fission, asymmetric lateral sprouting/lateral fission, basal dilatations, or spatial aberrations of the normal (vertical) axis. Results 202 CCCF (38%) were recorded amongst 533 crypts with fission in DMH-treated rats, and only one CCCF (0.1%) was found amongst 571 crypts with fission in EDTA-treated rats (p<0.05). The basal aspect of four adenomas included in Swiss roll sections exhibited CCCF lined either with indigenous (non-dysplastic) epithelium or with dysplastic epithelium. Conclusion It was demonstrated that CCCF without dysplasia develop in carcinogen-treated SD rats. As judged by the figures presented, the possibility that the epithelium in those corrupted crypts was successively replaced by top-down growing dysplastic cells, could not be totally rejected. This is the first report showing that non-dysplastic CCCF may antedate the very early stages of colonic carcinogenesis in SD rats. PMID:28273142

  16. Elp3 drives Wnt-dependent tumor initiation and regeneration in the intestine.

    PubMed

    Ladang, Aurélie; Rapino, Francesca; Heukamp, Lukas C; Tharun, Lars; Shostak, Kateryna; Hermand, Damien; Delaunay, Sylvain; Klevernic, Iva; Jiang, Zheshen; Jacques, Nicolas; Jamart, Diane; Migeot, Valérie; Florin, Alexandra; Göktuna, Serkan; Malgrange, Brigitte; Sansom, Owen J; Nguyen, Laurent; Büttner, Reinhard; Close, Pierre; Chariot, Alain

    2015-11-16

    Tumor initiation in the intestine can rapidly occur from Lgr5(+) crypt columnar stem cells. Dclk1 is a marker of differentiated Tuft cells and, when coexpressed with Lgr5, also marks intestinal cancer stem cells. Here, we show that Elp3, the catalytic subunit of the Elongator complex, is required for Wnt-driven intestinal tumor initiation and radiation-induced regeneration by maintaining a subpool of Lgr5(+)/Dclk1(+)/Sox9(+) cells. Elp3 deficiency dramatically delayed tumor appearance in Apc-mutated intestinal epithelia and greatly prolonged mice survival without affecting the normal epithelium. Specific ablation of Elp3 in Lgr5(+) cells resulted in marked reduction of polyp formation upon Apc inactivation, in part due to a decreased number of Lgr5(+)/Dclk1(+)/Sox9(+) cells. Mechanistically, Elp3 is induced by Wnt signaling and promotes Sox9 translation, which is needed to maintain the subpool of Lgr5(+)/Dclk1(+) cancer stem cells. Consequently, Elp3 or Sox9 depletion led to similar defects in Dclk1(+) cancer stem cells in ex vivo organoids. Finally, Elp3 deficiency strongly impaired radiation-induced intestinal regeneration, in part because of decreased Sox9 protein levels. Together, our data demonstrate the crucial role of Elp3 in maintaining a subpopulation of Lgr5-derived and Sox9-expressing cells needed to trigger Wnt-driven tumor initiation in the intestine.

  17. Bivariate flow cytometric analysis of murine intestinal epithelial cells for cytokinetic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Pallavicini, M.G.; Ng, C.R.; Gray, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    The heterogeneous nature of the small intestine and the lack of methods to obtain pure crypt populations has, in the past, limited the application of standard flow cytometric analysis for cytokinetic studies of the proliferating crypts. The authors describe a flow cytometric technique to discriminate crypt and villus cells in an epithelial cell suspension on the basis of cell length, and to measure the DNA content of the discriminated subpopulations. These data indicate that bivariate analysis of a mixed epithelial cell suspension can be used to distinguish mature villus cells, G/sub 1/ crypt cells, and S-phase crypt cells. In addition, continuous labeling studies suggest that the position of a cell on the cell length axis reflects epithelial cell maturity. The authors applied this flow cytometric technique to determine the cytokinetic nature of epithelial cells obtained by sequential digestion of the small intestine. 22 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Technological characterization and survival of the exopolysaccharide-producing strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193 and its bile-resistant derivative 193+ in simulated gastric and intestinal juices.

    PubMed

    Burns, Patricia; Vinderola, Gabriel; Reinheimer, Jorge; Cuesta, Isabel; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia

    2011-08-01

    The capacity of lactic acid bacteria to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) conferring microorganisms a ropy phenotype could be an interesting feature from a technological point of view. Progressive adaptation to bile salts might render some lactobacilli able to overcome physiological gut barriers but could also modify functional properties of the strain, including the production of EPS. In this work some technological properties and the survival ability in simulated gastrointestinal conditions of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193, and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193+, a strain with stable bile-resistant phenotype derived thereof, were characterized in milk in order to know whether the acquisition of resistance to bile could modify some characteristics of the microorganism. Both strains were able to grow and acidify milk similarly; however the production of ethanol increased at the expense of the aroma compound acetaldehyde in milk fermented by the strain 193+, with respect to milk fermented by the strain 193. Both microorganisms produced a heteropolysaccharide composed of glucose and galactose, and were able to increase the viscosity of fermented milks. In spite of the higher production yield of EPS by the bile-resistant strain 193+, it displayed a lower ability to increase viscosity than Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193. Milk increased survival in simulated gastric juice; the presence of bile improved adhesion to the intestinal cell line HT29-MTX in both strains. However, the acquisition of a stable resistance phenotype did not improve survival in simulated gastric and intestinal conditions or the adhesion to the intestinal cell line HT29-MTX. Thus, Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis 193 presents suitable technological properties for the manufacture of fermented dairy products; the acquisition of a stable bile-resistant phenotype modified some properties of the microorganism. This suggests that the possible use of bile-resistant derivative strains should be

  19. The Complex Surgical Management of the First Case of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency and Multiple Intestinal Atresias Surviving after the Fourth Year of Life

    PubMed Central

    Garofano, Salvatore; Teruzzi, Elisabetta; Vinardi, Simona; Carbonaro, Giulia; Cerrina, Alessia; Morra, Isabella; Montin, Davide; Mussa, Alessandro; Schleef, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a life-threatening syndrome of recurrent infections and gastrointestinal alterations due to severe compromise of T cells and B cells. Clinically, most patients present symptoms before the age of 3 months and without intervention SCID usually results in severe infections and death by the age of 2 years. Its association with intestinal anomalies as multiple intestinal atresias (MIA) is rare and worsens the prognosis, resulting lethal. We describe the case of a four year-old boy with SCID-MIA. He presented at birth with meconium peritonitis, multiple ileal atresias and underwent several intestinal resections. A targeted Sanger sequencing revealed a homozygous 4-bp deletion (c.313ΔTATC; p.Y105fs) in tetratricopeptide repeat domain 7A (TTC7A). He experienced surgical procedures including resection and stricturoplasty. Despite parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease, the patient is surviving at the time of writing the report. Precocious immune system assessment, scrutiny of TTC7A mutations and prompt surgical procedures are crucial in the management. PMID:25587526

  20. Extent of Small Bowel Resection Does Not Influence the Magnitude of Intestinal Adaptation in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wakeman, Derek; Longshore, Shannon W; McMellen, Mark E; Santos, Jethrina A; Guo, Jun; Erwin, Christopher R; Warner, Brad W

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The magnitude of intestinal adaptation is considered to correlate with the extent of small bowel resection (SBR). However, this association has never been tested in mice. We sought to test the hypothesis that a greater SBR will induce a greater adaptation response. Methods C57/B6 mice underwent 50% SBR, 75% SBR, or sham operation and were sacrificed on postoperative day 7. The magnitude of adaptation was compared between 50% SBR and 75% SBR as changes in villus height, crypt depth, as well as rates of apoptosis and proliferation. Results 75% SBR led to decreased survival and increased weight loss compared to 50% SBR. The remnant ileum of both 50% SBR and 75% SBR displayed similar crypt expansion, enhanced villi, and increased apoptotic indices. Proliferation rates increased after 50% and 75% SBR equally. Conclusion Models of resection greater than 50% in mice result in greater morbidity and mortality and do not magnify the adaptation response to massive SBR. The use of more extreme resection models does not appear to provide added benefit for investigating mechanisms of intestinal adaptation. PMID:20620331

  1. Update on small intestinal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tesori, Valentina; Puglisi, Maria Ausiliatrice; Lattanzi, Wanda; Gasbarrini, Giovanni Battista; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2013-08-07

    Among somatic stem cells, those residing in the intestine represent a fascinating and poorly explored research field. Particularly, somatic stem cells reside in the small intestine at the level of the crypt base, in a constant balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Aim of the present review is to delve into the mechanisms that regulate the delicate equilibrium through which intestinal stem cells orchestrate intestinal architecture. To this aim, special focus will be addressed to identify the integrating signals from the surrounding niche, supporting a model whereby distinct cell populations facilitate homeostatic vs injury-induced regeneration.

  2. Chromoendoscopy with a Standard-Resolution Colonoscope for Evaluation of Rectal Aberrant Crypt Foci

    PubMed Central

    Orłowski, Marcin; Zinkiewicz, Krzysztof; Kurpiewski, Waldemar; Kowalczyk, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of death worldwide. According to the theory by Vogelstein, colorectal carcinogenesis involves a series of successive changes in the normal colonic mucosa, starting with excessive proliferation and focal disorders of intestinal crypts, followed by adenoma and its subsequent malignant transformation. The first identifiable changes in CRC carcinogenesis are aberrant crypt foci (ACF). ACF are invisible during routine colonoscopy yet are well identifiable in chromoendoscopy using methylene blue or indigo carmine. High-resolution colonoscopes are used for assessment of ACF. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of standard-resolution colonoscopy for identification of rectal ACF. The following parameters were evaluated: duration of chromoendoscopy of a given rectal segment, type of ACF, sensitivity and specificity of endoscopy combined with histopathological evaluation. The mean duration of colonoscopy and chromoendoscopy was 26.8 min. In the study population, typical ACF were found in 73 patients (p = 0.489), hyperplastic ACF in 49 (p = 0.328), and dysplastic ACF in 16 patients (p = 0.107). Mixed ACF were observed in 11 individuals (p = 0.073). The sensitivity of the method was found to be 0.96 whereas its specificity 0.99. Identification of rectal ACF using standard-resolution colonoscopy combined with rectal mucosa staining with 0.25% methylene blue is characterised by high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26886097

  3. Soymilk residue (okara) as a natural immobilization carrier for Lactobacillus plantarum cells enhances soymilk fermentation, glucosidic isoflavone bioconversion, and cell survival under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions

    PubMed Central

    Xiudong, Xia; Ying, Wang; Xiaoli, Liu; Ying, Li

    2016-01-01

    Cell immobilization is an alternative to microencapsulation for the maintenance of cells in a liquid medium. However, artificial immobilization carriers are expensive and pose a high safety risk. Okara, a food-grade byproduct from soymilk production, is rich in prebiotics. Lactobacilli could provide health enhancing effects to the host. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of okara as a natural immobilizer for L. plantarum 70810 cells. The study also aimed to evaluate the effects of okara-immobilized L. plantarum 70810 cells (IL) on soymilk fermentation, glucosidic isoflavone bioconversion, and cell resistance to simulated gastric and intestinal stresses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to show cells adherence to the surface of okara. Lactic acid, acetic acid and isoflavone analyses in unfermented and fermented soymilk were performed by HPLC with UV detection. Viability and growth kinetics of immobilized and free L. plantarum 70810 cells (FL) were followed during soymilk fermentation. Moreover, changes in pH, titrable acidity and viscosity were measured by conventional methods. For in vitro testing of simulated gastrointestinal resistance, fermented soymilk was inoculated with FL or IL and an aliquot incubated into acidic MRS broth which was conveniently prepared to simulate gastric, pancreatic juices and bile salts. Survival to simulated gastric and intestinal stresses was evaluated by plate count of colony forming units on MRS agar. SEM revealed that the lactobacilli cells attached and bound to the surface of okara. Compared with FL, IL exhibited a significantly higher specific growth rate, shorter lag phase of growth, higher productions of lactic and acetic acids, a faster decrease in pH and increase in titrable acidity, and a higher soymilk viscosity. Similarly, IL in soymilk showed higher productions of daizein and genistein compared with the control. Compared with FL, IL showed reinforced resistance to simulatedgastric and intestinal

  4. Soymilk residue (okara) as a natural immobilization carrier for Lactobacillus plantarum cells enhances soymilk fermentation, glucosidic isoflavone bioconversion, and cell survival under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Xiudong, Xia; Ying, Wang; Xiaoli, Liu; Ying, Li; Jianzhong, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Cell immobilization is an alternative to microencapsulation for the maintenance of cells in a liquid medium. However, artificial immobilization carriers are expensive and pose a high safety risk. Okara, a food-grade byproduct from soymilk production, is rich in prebiotics. Lactobacilli could provide health enhancing effects to the host. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of okara as a natural immobilizer for L. plantarum 70810 cells. The study also aimed to evaluate the effects of okara-immobilized L. plantarum 70810 cells (IL) on soymilk fermentation, glucosidic isoflavone bioconversion, and cell resistance to simulated gastric and intestinal stresses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to show cells adherence to the surface of okara. Lactic acid, acetic acid and isoflavone analyses in unfermented and fermented soymilk were performed by HPLC with UV detection. Viability and growth kinetics of immobilized and free L. plantarum 70810 cells (FL) were followed during soymilk fermentation. Moreover, changes in pH, titrable acidity and viscosity were measured by conventional methods. For in vitro testing of simulated gastrointestinal resistance, fermented soymilk was inoculated with FL or IL and an aliquot incubated into acidic MRS broth which was conveniently prepared to simulate gastric, pancreatic juices and bile salts. Survival to simulated gastric and intestinal stresses was evaluated by plate count of colony forming units on MRS agar. SEM revealed that the lactobacilli cells attached and bound to the surface of okara. Compared with FL, IL exhibited a significantly higher specific growth rate, shorter lag phase of growth, higher productions of lactic and acetic acids, a faster decrease in pH and increase in titrable acidity, and a higher soymilk viscosity. Similarly, IL in soymilk showed higher productions of daizein and genistein compared with the control. Compared with FL, IL showed reinforced resistance to simulatedgastric and intestinal

  5. A new scaffold containing small intestinal submucosa and mesenchymal stem cells improves pancreatic islet function and survival in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Ding, Xiaoming; Xue, Wujun; Zheng, Jin; Tian, Xiaohui; Li, Yang; Wang, Xiaohong; Song, Huanjin; Liu, Hua; Luo, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    It is unknown whether a scaffold containing both small intestinal submucosa (SIS) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for transplantation may improve pancreatic islet function and survival. In this study, we examined the effects of a SIS-MSC scaffold on islet function and survival in vitro and in vivo. MSCs and pancreatic islets were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats, and SIS was isolated from Bamei pigs. The islets were apportioned among 3 experimental groups as follows: SIS-islets, SIS-MSC-islets and control-islets. In vitro, islet function was measured by a glucose-stimulated insulin secretion test; cytokines in cultured supernatants were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; and gene expression was analyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. In vivo, islet transplantation was performed in rats, and graft function and survival were monitored by measuring the blood glucose levels. In vitro, the SIS-MSC scaffold was associated with improved islet viability and enhanced insulin secretion compared with the controls, as well as with the increased the expression of insulin 1 (Ins1), pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1), platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 [Pecam1; also known as cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31)] and vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) in the islets, increased growth factor secretion, and decreased tumor necrosis factor (TNF) secretion. In vivo, the SIS-MSC scaffold was associated with improved islet function and graft survival compared with the SIS and control groups. On the whole, our findings demonstrate that the SIS-MSC scaffold significantly improved pancreatic islet function and survival in vitro and in vivo. This improvement may be associated with the upregulation of insulin expression, the improvement of islet microcirculation and the secretion of cytokines. PMID:27909715

  6. Apc Restoration Promotes Cellular Differentiation and Reestablishes Crypt Homeostasis in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dow, Lukas E; O'Rourke, Kevin P; Simon, Janelle; Tschaharganeh, Darjus F; van Es, Johan H; Clevers, Hans; Lowe, Scott W

    2015-06-18

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor is mutated in the vast majority of human colorectal cancers (CRC) and leads to deregulated Wnt signaling. To determine whether Apc disruption is required for tumor maintenance, we developed a mouse model of CRC whereby Apc can be conditionally suppressed using a doxycycline-regulated shRNA. Apc suppression produces adenomas in both the small intestine and colon that, in the presence of Kras and p53 mutations, can progress to invasive carcinoma. In established tumors, Apc restoration drives rapid and widespread tumor-cell differentiation and sustained regression without relapse. Tumor regression is accompanied by the re-establishment of normal crypt-villus homeostasis, such that once aberrantly proliferating cells reacquire self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation capability. Our study reveals that CRC cells can revert to functioning normal cells given appropriate signals and provide compelling in vivo validation of the Wnt pathway as a therapeutic target for treatment of CRC.

  7. Determination using synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy of putative stem cells in human adenocarcinoma of the intestine: corresponding benign tissue as a template.

    PubMed

    Ahmadzai, Abdullah A; Patel, Imran I; Veronesi, Giulia; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Llabjani, Valon; Cotte, Marine; Stringfellow, Helen F; Martin, Francis L

    2014-01-01

    The epithelial-cell layer lining the two morphologically and functionally distinct segments of the mammalian intestinal tract, small intestine, and colon is constantly being renewed. This renewal is necessitated by a harsh lumen environment and is hypothesized to be driven by a small population of stem cells (SCs) that are believed to reside at the base of intestinal crypts. A lack of specific markers has hampered previous attempts to identify their exact location. We obtained tissue sections containing small intestine and colon crypts derived from normal (benign) or adenocarcinoma (AC) human intestine. The samples were floated onto BaF2 windows and analyzed using synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy via an aperture size of 10 × 10 μm. Derived infrared (IR) spectral data was then analyzed using principal component analysis and/or linear discriminant analysis. Hypothesized cell types (as a function of aperture location along the length of individual crypts) within benign crypts were classed based on exploratory unsupervised IR spectral point clustering. Scores plots derived from individual small intestine crypts consistently generated one or two distinct spectra that clustered away from the remaining cell categories; these were retrospectively classed as "distinct base region" spectra. In these plots, a clear progression of locations along crypt lengths designated as from putative stem cells (SCs) to transit-amplifying (TA) cells to terminally differentiated (TD) cells was observed in benign small intestine and colon crypts. This progression of spectral points was crypt specific, pointing away from a unifying cell lineage model in human intestinal crypts. On comparison of AC-derived spectra versus corresponding benign, a subpopulation of AC-derived spectra suggested a putative SC-like spectral fingerprint; remaining IR spectra were classed as exhibiting TA cell-like or TD cell-like spectral characteristics. These observations

  8. WNT signaling controls expression of pro-apoptotic BOK and BAX in intestinal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Zeilstra, Jurrit; Joosten, Sander P.J.; Wensveen, Felix M.; Dessing, Mark C.; Schuetze, Denise M.; Eldering, Eric; Spaargaren, Marcel; Pals, Steven T.

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Intestinal adenomas initiated by aberrant activation of the WNT pathway displayed an increased sensitivity to apoptosis. {yields} Expression profiling of apoptosis-related genes in Apc{sup Min/+} mice revealed the differential expression of pro-apoptotic Bok and Bax. {yields} APC-mutant adenomatous crypts in FAP patients showed strongly increased BAX immunoreactivity. {yields} Blocking of {beta}-catenin/TCF-4-mediated signaling in colon cancer cells reduced the expression of BOK and BAX. -- Abstract: In a majority of cases, colorectal cancer is initiated by aberrant activation of the WNT signaling pathway. Mutation of the genes encoding the WNT signaling components adenomatous polyposis coli or {beta}-catenin causes constitutively active {beta}-catenin/TCF-mediated transcription, driving the transformation of intestinal crypts to cancer precursor lesions, called dysplastic aberrant crypt foci. Deregulated apoptosis is a hallmark of adenomatous colon tissue. However, the contribution of WNT signaling to this process is not fully understood. We addressed this role by analyzing the rate of epithelial apoptosis in aberrant crypts and adenomas of the Apc{sup Min/+} mouse model. In comparison with normal crypts and adenomas, aberrant crypts displayed a dramatically increased rate of apoptotic cell death. Expression profiling of apoptosis-related genes along the crypt-villus axis and in Apc mutant adenomas revealed increased expression of two pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members in intestinal adenomas, Bok and Bax. Analysis of the colon of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients along the crypt-to-surface axis, and of dysplastic crypts, corroborated this expression pattern. Disruption of {beta}-catenin/TCF-4-mediated signaling in the colorectal cancer cell line Ls174T significantly decreased BOK and BAX expression, confirming WNT-dependent regulation in intestinal epithelial cells. Our results suggest a feedback mechanism by which

  9. DNA-based watermarks using the DNA-Crypt algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Heider, Dominik; Barnekow, Angelika

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the application of watermarks based on DNA sequences to identify the unauthorized use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) protected by patents. Predicted mutations in the genome can be corrected by the DNA-Crypt program leaving the encrypted information intact. Existing DNA cryptographic and steganographic algorithms use synthetic DNA sequences to store binary information however, although these sequences can be used for authentication, they may change the target DNA sequence when introduced into living organisms. Results The DNA-Crypt algorithm and image steganography are based on the same watermark-hiding principle, namely using the least significant base in case of DNA-Crypt and the least significant bit in case of the image steganography. It can be combined with binary encryption algorithms like AES, RSA or Blowfish. DNA-Crypt is able to correct mutations in the target DNA with several mutation correction codes such as the Hamming-code or the WDH-code. Mutations which can occur infrequently may destroy the encrypted information, however an integrated fuzzy controller decides on a set of heuristics based on three input dimensions, and recommends whether or not to use a correction code. These three input dimensions are the length of the sequence, the individual mutation rate and the stability over time, which is represented by the number of generations. In silico experiments using the Ypt7 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows that the DNA watermarks produced by DNA-Crypt do not alter the translation of mRNA into protein. Conclusion The program is able to store watermarks in living organisms and can maintain the original information by correcting mutations itself. Pairwise or multiple sequence alignments show that DNA-Crypt produces few mismatches between the sequences similar to all steganographic algorithms. PMID:17535434

  10. Aberrant crypt foci in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Roncucci, L.; Modica, S.; Pedroni, M.; Tamassia, M. G.; Ghidoni, M.; Losi, L.; Fante, R.; Di Gregorio, C.; Manenti, A.; Gafa, L.; Ponz de Leon, M.

    1998-01-01

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are clusters of abnormally large colonic crypts identified on the mucosal surface of the human colon. They are thought to be preneoplastic lesions. The aim of the present study was to compare density (number of ACF per square cm of mucosal surface), crypt multiplicity (number of crypts per ACF) and histology of ACF in colonic resections of colorectal cancer patients resident in two Italian provinces with a twofold difference in colorectal cancer incidence rates. Thirty-two and 26 colonic resections were collected after operation in Ragusa (Southern Italy) and Modena (Northern Italy), respectively, and fixed in 10% formalin. Mucosal layers were observed under a light microscope at 25x after staining with methylene blue. Density of ACF was significantly higher in Modena (median 0.101 ACF cm(-2)) than in Ragusa (0.049, P = 0.001), whereas there was no difference in crypt multiplicity. ACF were classified into three groups according to histological features: ACF with mild alterations (hypertrophic ACF, 73%), ACF with hyperplasia (hyperplastic ACF, 17%) and ACF with dysplasia (microadenomas, 10%). The proportions of ACF in the three groups were similar in the two provinces. Density of ACF was higher and crypt multiplicity lower proceeding from proximal to distal large bowel. Microadenomas were observed only in the colon, whereas hyperplastic ACF were more frequent in the rectum. In conclusion, density of ACF correlates with colorectal cancer rates in two Italian provinces, and shows a positive gradient from proximal to distal large bowel. Histology of ACF suggests that they may be precursors of both hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps. These data provide further evidence of the role of ACF in human colorectal carcinogenesis. Images Figure 1 PMID:9649156

  11. Carvacrol reduces irinotecan-induced intestinal mucositis through inhibition of inflammation and oxidative damage via TRPA1 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Elenice M; Souza, Luan K M; Araújo, Thiago S L; Nogueira, Kerolayne M; Sousa, Francisca Beatriz M; Araújo, Alyne R; Martins, Conceição S; Pacífico, Dvison M; de C Brito, Gerly Anne; Souza, Emmanuel P; Sousa, Damião P; Medeiros, Jand Venes R

    2016-12-25

    Intestinal mucositis is an inflammatory process occurring in the intestinal mucosa and is a common side effect of irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11) based anticancer regimens. The transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) receptor is highly expressed in the intestinal mucosa and has the ability to identify cell damage signaling indicates its possible association with intestinal mucositis. Carvacrol is an agonist of the TRPA1 receptor and has anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, the aim of the present study was to verify the supposed anti-inflammatory and protective action of carvacrol via TRPA1 activation against intestinal mucositis induced by CPT-11 in mice. Briefly, mice were treated with either DMSO 2% or CPT-11 (75 mg/kg, per 4 days, i.p.) or the carvacrol (25, 75 or 150 mg/kg, per 8 days, i.p.) before CPT-11. In other group, the animals were pretreated with HC-030031, a TRPA1 antagonist, 30 min before treatment with carvacrol. On day 7, animal survival and bacteremia were assessed, and following euthanasia, samples of the jejunum were obtained for morphometric analysis and measurement of antioxidant and pro-inflammatory markers. Carvacrol was found to exert an anti-inflammatory action against CPT-11-induced intestinal mucositis through strong interactions with TRPA1 receptors; reduction in the production or release or both of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and KC); and decrease in other indicators of inflammation (MPO, NF-κB, COX-2) and oxidative stress (GSH, MDA, and NOx levels). It also contributed to the restoration of the tissue architecture of the villi and crypts in the small intestine, and improved clinical parameters such as survival, body mass variation, leukogram, and blood bacterial count. Thus, TRPA1 could be a target for future therapeutic approaches in the treatment of intestinal mucositis.

  12. Mass transfer characterization of gamma-aminobutyric acid production by Enterococcus faecium CFR 3003: encapsulation improves its survival under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Divyashri, Gangaraju; Prapulla, Siddalingaiya Gurudatt

    2015-03-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production by free and Ca-alginate encapsulated cells of Enterococcus faecium CFR 3003 was investigated. Mass transfer rates characterizing the GABA production process using encapsulated cells were investigated. Experiments were performed to investigate external film and internal pore diffusion mass transfer rates. The Damkohler and Thiele analysis provides a good description of external film and internal pore diffusion resistances, respectively. The experiments revealed that the external film effects could be neglected but the process is affected to the greater extent by internal mass transfer effects and was found to be the principal rate-controlling step. Protective effect of encapsulation on cell survivability was tested under digestive environment, when challenged to salivary α-amylase, simulated gastric fluid and intestinal fluid. Viability of encapsulated cells was significantly higher under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions and could produce higher GABA than those observed with free cells. The results indicate that the Ca-alginate encapsulated probiotics could effectively be delivered to the colonic site for effective inhibitory action.

  13. Shigella's ways of manipulating the host intestinal innate and adaptive immune system: a tool box for survival?

    PubMed

    Phalipon, Armelle; Sansonetti, Philippe J

    2007-01-01

    Shigella, a Gram-negative invasive enteropathogenic bacterium, causes the rupture, invasion and inflammatory destruction of the human colonic epithelium. This complex and aggressive process accounts for the symptoms of bacillary dysentery. The so-called invasive phenotype of Shigella is linked to expression of a type III secretory system (TTSS) injecting effector proteins into the epithelial cell membrane and cytoplasm, thereby inducing local but massive changes in the cell cytoskeleton that lead to bacterial internalization into non-phagocytic intestinal epithelial cells. The invasive phenotype also accounts for the potent pro-inflammatory capacity of the microorganism. Recent evidence indicates that a large part of the mucosal inflammation is initiated by intracellular sensing of bacterial peptidoglycan by cytosolic leucine-rich receptors of the NOD family, particularly NOD1, in epithelial cells. This causes activation of the nuclear factor kappa B and c-JunNH(2)-terminal-kinase pathways, with interleukin-8 appearing as a major chemokine mediating the inflammatory burst that is dominated by massive infiltration of the mucosa by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Not unexpectedly, this inflammatory response, which is likely to be very harmful for the invading microbe, is regulated by the bacterium itself. A group of proteins encoded by Shigella, which are injected into target cells by the TTSS, has been recently recognized as a family of potent regulators of the innate immune response. These enzymes target key cellular functions that are essential in triggering the inflammatory response, and more generally defense responses of the intestinal mucosa. This review focuses on the mechanisms employed by Shigella to manipulate the host innate response in order to escape early bacterial killing, thus ensuring establishment of its infectious process. The escape strategies, the possible direct effect of Shigella on B and T lymphocytes, their impact on the development of

  14. Small intestine histomorphometry of beef cattle with divergent feed efficiency

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The provision of feed is a major cost in beef production. Therefore, the improvement of feed efficiency is warranted. The direct assessment of feed efficiency has limitations and alternatives are needed. Small intestine micro-architecture is associated with function and may be related to feed efficiency. The objective was to verify the potential histomorphological differences in the small intestine of animals with divergent feed efficiency. Methods From a population of 45 feedlot steers, 12 were selected with low-RFI (superior feed efficiency) and 12 with high-RFI (inferior feed efficiency) at the end of the finishing period. The animals were processed at 13.79 ± 1.21 months of age. Within 1.5 h of slaughter the gastrointestinal tract was collected and segments from duodenum and ileum were harvested. Tissue fragments were processed, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Photomicroscopy images were taken under 1000x magnification. For each animal 100 intestinal crypts were imaged, in a cross section view, from each of the two intestinal segments. Images were analyzed using the software ImageJ®. The measurements taken were: crypt area, crypt perimeter, crypt lumen area, nuclei number and the cell size was indirectly calculated. Data were analyzed using general linear model and correlation procedures of SAS®. Results Efficient beef steers (low-RFI) have a greater cellularity (indicated by nuclei number) in the small intestinal crypts, both in duodenum and ileum, than less efficient beef steers (high-RFI) (P < 0.05). The mean values for the nuclei number of the low-RFI and high-RFI groups were 33.16 and 30.30 in the duodenum and 37.21 and 33.65 in the ileum, respectively. The average size of the cells did not differ between feed efficiency groups in both segments (P ≥ 0.10). A trend was observed (P ≤ 0.10) for greater crypt area and crypt perimeter in the ileum for cattle with improved feed efficiency. Conclusion

  15. Calcium transport by rat duodenal villus and crypt basolateral membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, J.R.F.; Weiser, M.M.

    1987-02-01

    Rat duodenal cells were isolated sequentially to give fractions enriched for villus and crypt cells. From each of these fractions, basolateral-enriched membrane vesicles were prepared and ATP-dependent calcium uptake was studied. Calcium uptake was sensitive to temperature, was inhibited by vanadate and by A23187, and was lower in vitamin D-deficient animals. In normal animals, (UVCa)-transport was approximately twofold greater in villus-tip than in crypt cell-fraction basolateral membranes though the affinity of the uptake for calcium was similar (K/sub m/ = 0.3 M). In vitamin D-deficient animals, the crypt-to-villus gradient was reduced, and in all fractions, calcium transport was similar to or lower than that in the crypts of normal animals. Six hours after vitamin D-deficient animals were repleted with 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, a significant increase in calcium transport by everted gut sacs was present; however, basolateral calcium transport was significantly increased in only the mid-villus fractions, and no change was seen in the villus-tip fractions. Thus vitamin D appears necessary for the development of increased basolateral membrane calcium pump activity in duodenal villus cells, but not all cells in vitamin D-deficient rats are able to respond to 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol.

  16. Directional delivery of RSPO1 by mesenchymal stem cells ameliorates radiation-induced intestinal injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Ju, Songwen; Lu, Ting; Xu, Yongfang; Zheng, Xiaocui; Wang, Haiyan; Ge, Yan; Ju, Songguang

    2017-02-16

    Radiation-induced intestinal injury (RIII) commonly occurs in patients who received radiotherapy for pelvic or abdominal cancer, or who suffered from whole-body irradiation during a nuclear accident. RIII can lead to intestinal disorders and even death given its integrity damage that results from intestinal stem cell (ISC) loss. Recovery from RIII relies on the intensity of supportive treatment, which can attenuate lethal infection and give surviving stem cells an opportunity to regenerate. It has been reported that RSPO1 is a cytokine with potent and specific proliferative effects on intestinal crypt cells. MSCs have multiple RIII-healing effects, including anti-inflammatory and anti-irradiation injury properties, due to its negative immune regulation and its homing ability to the damaged intestinal epithelia. To combine the comprehensive anti-injury potential of MSCs, and the potent ability of RSPO1 as a mitogenic factor for ISCs, we constructed RSPO1-modified C3H10 T1/2 cells and expected that RSPO1, the ISC-proliferative cytokine, could be delivered to the site of injury in a targeted manner. In this study, we transferred C3H10/RSPO1 intravenously via the retro-orbital sinus into mice suffering from abdominal irradiation at lethal dosages. Our findings demonstrated that C3H10/RSPO1 cells are able to directionally migrate to the injury site; enhance ISC survival, proliferation, and differentiation; and effectively repair the radiation-damaged intestinal epithelial cells. This study suggests that the directional delivery of RSPO1 by MSCs is a promising strategy to ameliorate, and even cure, RIII.

  17. Developmental morphology of the small intestine of African ostrich chicks.

    PubMed

    Wang, J X; Peng, K M

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the morphological development of the small intestine of African ostrich chicks and to examine the changes in the number of goblet cells therein by observing the gross anatomy and performing histochemistry and morphometry. The BW; length, height, and width of the villi; muscle thickness; depth of the crypts; and number of goblet cells in the intestinal villi and crypts were measured on neonatal d 1, 45, 90, and 334. Our results revealed that the weights of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum (relative to the BW) peaked on d 90, 45, and 45, respectively, and tended to decline thereafter. The villus height and width and muscle thickness in the small intestine were positively correlated with the age of the birds. The ratio of the villus height to the crypt depth differed among the segments of the small intestine and at the different time points. The number of goblet cells in the intestinal villi and crypts increased rapidly up to postnatal d 45 and then decreased rapidly between d 45 and 90. The number of goblet cells in the villi was greatest in the jejunum on d 1 and in the ileum on d 45, whereas that in the crypt was greatest in the ileum on d 1 and 90 and in the duodenum on d 45. These results suggest that the small intestine develops gradually from postnatal d 1 to 90 and that the period up to postnatal d 45 is marked by significant developmental changes in the parameters reflective of the digestive capacity, such as the weight, length, and surface area of the intestine and the number of goblet cells. Therefore, in reared African ostrich chicks, feed management should be enhanced between postnatal d 1 and 45.

  18. Polyphosphate kinases modulate Campylobacter jejuni outer membrane constituents and alter its capacity to invade and survive in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pina-Mimbela, Ruby; Madrid, Jesús Arcos; Kumar, Anand; Torrelles, Jordi B; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-12-30

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Polyphosphate kinases 1 and 2 (PPK1 and PPK2) regulate several cellular processes, including the biosynthesis of the bacterial cell wall. Despite their importance, whether PPK1 and PPK2 modulate the composition of C. jejuni outer membrane constituents (OMCs) and consequently impact its interaction with host cells remains unknown. Our comparative analysis between C. jejuni wild type, Δppk1, and Δppk2 strains showed qualitative and quantitative differences in the total OMC composition among these strains. Importantly, these OMC variations observed on the C. jejuni polyphosphate kinase mutants are directly related to their capacity to invade, survive, and alter the immune response of intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Specifically, sub-fractionation of the C. jejuni OMC indicated that OMC proteins are uniquely associated with bacterial invasion, whereas C. jejuni OMC proteins, lipids, and lipoglycans are all associated with C. jejuni intracellular survival. This study provides new insights regarding the function of polyphosphate kinases and their role in C. jejuni infection.

  19. Polyphosphate kinases modulate Campylobacter jejuni outer membrane constituents and alter its capacity to invade and survive in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pina-Mimbela, Ruby; Madrid, Jesús Arcos; Kumar, Anand; Torrelles, Jordi B; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Polyphosphate kinases 1 and 2 (PPK1 and PPK2) regulate several cellular processes, including the biosynthesis of the bacterial cell wall. Despite their importance, whether PPK1 and PPK2 modulate the composition of C. jejuni outer membrane constituents (OMCs) and consequently impact its interaction with host cells remains unknown. Our comparative analysis between C. jejuni wild type, Δppk1, and Δppk2 strains showed qualitative and quantitative differences in the total OMC composition among these strains. Importantly, these OMC variations observed on the C. jejuni polyphosphate kinase mutants are directly related to their capacity to invade, survive, and alter the immune response of intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Specifically, sub-fractionation of the C. jejuni OMC indicated that OMC proteins are uniquely associated with bacterial invasion, whereas C. jejuni OMC proteins, lipids, and lipoglycans are all associated with C. jejuni intracellular survival. This study provides new insights regarding the function of polyphosphate kinases and their role in C. jejuni infection. PMID:26714783

  20. Identification of a cKit+ Colonic Crypt Base Secretory Cell That Supports Lgr5+ Stem Cells in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, Michael E.; Nusse, Ysbrand; Kalisky, Tomer; Lee, John J.; Dalerba, Piero; Scheeren, Ferenc; Lobo, Neethan; Kulkarni, Subhash; Sim, Sopheak; Qian, Dalong; Beachy, Philip A.; Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Quake, Stephen R.; Clarke, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Paneth cells contribute to the small intestinal niche of Lgr5+ stem cells. Although the colon also contains Lgr5+ stem cells, it does not contain Paneth cells. We investigated the existence of colonic Paneth-like cells that have a distinct transcriptional signature and support Lgr5+ stem cells. Methods We used multicolor fluorescence-activated cell sorting to isolate different subregions of colon crypts, based on known markers, from dissociated colonic epithelium of mice. We performed multiplexed single-cell gene expression analysis with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction followed by hierarchical clustering analysis to characterize distinct cell types. We used immunostaining and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses with in vivo administration of a Notch inhibitor and in vitro organoid cultures to characterize different cell types. Results Multicolor fluorescence-activated cell sorting could isolate distinct regions of colonic crypts. Four major epithelial subtypes or transcriptional states were revealed by gene expression analysis of selected populations of single cells. One of these, the goblet cells, contained a distinct cKit/CD117+ crypt base subpopulation that expressed Dll1, Dll4, and epidermal growth factor, similar to Paneth cells, which were also marked by cKit. In the colon, cKit+ goblet cells were interdigitated with Lgr5+ stem cells. In vivo, this colonic cKit+ population was regulated by Notch signaling; administration of a γ-secretase inhibitor to mice increased the number of cKit+ cells. When isolated from mouse colon, cKit+ cells promoted formation of organoids from Lgr5+ stem cells, which expressed Kitl/stem cell factor, the ligand for cKit. When organoids were depleted of cKit+ cells using a toxin-conjugated antibody, organoid formation decreased. Conclusions cKit marks small intestinal Paneth cells and a subset of colonic goblet cells that are regulated by Notch signaling and support Lgr5+stem

  1. Subversion of human intestinal mucosa innate immunity by a Crohn's disease-associated E. coli.

    PubMed

    Jarry, A; Crémet, L; Caroff, N; Bou-Hanna, C; Mussini, J M; Reynaud, A; Servin, A L; Mosnier, J F; Liévin-Le Moal, V; Laboisse, C L

    2015-05-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), associated with Crohn's disease, are likely candidate contributory factors in the disease. However, signaling pathways involved in human intestinal mucosa innate host response to AIEC remain unknown. Here we use a 3D model of human intestinal mucosa explant culture to explore the effects of the AIEC strain LF82 on two innate immunity platforms, i.e., the inflammasome through evaluation of caspase-1 status, and NFκB signaling. We showed that LF82 bacteria enter and survive within a few intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, without altering the mucosa overall architecture. Although 4-h infection with a Salmonella strain caused crypt disorganization, caspase-1 activation, and mature IL-18 production, LF82 bacteria were unable to activate caspase-1 and induce IL-18 production. In parallel, LF82 bacteria activated NFκB signaling in epithelial cells through IκBα phosphorylation, NFκBp65 nuclear translocation, and TNFα secretion. In addition, NFκB activation was crucial for the maintenance of epithelial homeostasis upon LF82 infection. In conclusion, here we decipher at the whole-mucosa level the mechanisms of the LF82-induced subversion of innate immunity that, by maintaining host cell integrity, ensure intracellular bacteria survival.

  2. Screening in a Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus collection to select a strain able to survive to the human intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Clotilde; Botella-Carretero, José I; García-Albiach, Raimundo; Pozuelo, María J; Rodríguez-Baños, Mercedes; Baquero, Fernando; Baltadjieva, María A; del Campo, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Se determinaron la diversidad genética y la resistencia de una colección de más de 100 cepas de Lactobacillus bulgaricus subespecie delbrueckii, aisladas de diferentes yogures caseros de las áreas rurales de Bulgaria. Métodos: La cepa K98 fue la más resistente a las sales biliares y al pH bajo. La supervivencia y los efectos sobre la producción de ácidos grasos de cadena corta se evaluó en 20 voluntarios sanos. Se observó una alta diversidad genética en la colección de L. bulgaricus mediante RAPD, mientras que la capacidad de tolerar concentraciones altas del ácido desoxicólico y de diferentes niveles de pH fue variable. Se seleccionó la cepa K98 y se usó para preparar un yogur casero que se administró a los 20 voluntarios (500 ml/día durante 15 días). Se recogieron muestras fecales basales y tras la ingesta del yogur. Resultados: Los experimentos DGGE, empleando cebadores universales y para bacterias ácido-lácticas (BAL) demostraron que no hubo cambios significativos en la composición cualitativa de la composición de la microflora intestinal. Se observó una banda correspondiente a L. bulgaricus en las 20 muestras. Sólo se recuperó una cepa viable de L. bulgaricus K98 en un único voluntario. Tras la ingesta de yogur, hallamos un aumento de BAL y de Clostridium perfringens y una disminución de Bacteroides- Prevotella-Porphyromonas. Además, se detectó un aumento en las heces de los ácidos acético, butírico y 2-hidroxibutírico. Conclusiones: La diversidad genética de L. delbrueckii subespecie bulgaricus es alta. Hemos aislado una cepa probiótica resistente a la bilis y a la acidez elevada, L. delbrueckii subesp. bulgaricus-K98. Se hallaron cambios cualitativos y cuantitativos en la microflora intestinal tras la ingesta de yogur casero que contenía esta cepa, con un aumento concomitante en las heces de AGCC. Nuestros hallazgos apoyan el interés por desarrollar estudios futuros con cantidades variables de L. delbrueckii

  3. Colostrum quality affects immune system establishment and intestinal development of neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Yang, M; Zou, Y; Wu, Z H; Li, S L; Cao, Z J

    2015-10-01

    The first meal of a neonatal calf after birth is crucial for survival and health. The present experiment was performed to assess the effects of colostrum quality on IgG passive transfer, immune and antioxidant status, and intestinal morphology and histology in neonatal calves. Twenty-eight Holstein neonatal male calves were used in the current study, 24 of which were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: those that received colostrum (GrC), transitional milk (GrT, which was obtained after the first milking on 2-3 d after calving), and bulk tank milk (GrB) only at birth. The 4 extra neonatal calves who were not fed any milk were assigned to the control group and were killed immediately after birth to be a negative control to small intestinal morphology and histology detection. Calves in GrC gained more body weight than in GrT, whereas GrB calves lost 0.4 kg compared with the birth weight. Serum total protein, IgG, and superoxide dismutase concentrations were highest in GrC, GrT was intermediate, whereas GrB was the lowest on d 2, 3, and 7. Apparent efficiency of absorption at 48 h, serum complement 3 (C3), and complement 4 (C4) on d 2, 3, and 7 in GrB was low compared with GrC and GrT. On the contrary, malondialdehyde on d 7 increased in GrB. Calves in GrC had better villus length and width, crypt depth, villus height/crypt depth (V/C) value, and mucosal thickness in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, whereas GrT calves had lower villus length and width, crypt depth, and mucosal thickness than those fed colostrum. Villi of calves in GrB were nonuniform, sparse, severely atrophied, and apically abscised, and Peyer's patches and hydroncus were detected. Overall, colostrum is the best source for calves in IgG absorption, antioxidant activities, and serum growth metabolites, and promoting intestinal development. The higher quality of colostrum calves ingested, the faster immune defense mechanism and the more healthy intestinal circumstances they established.

  4. Modulatory effect of curcumin on survival of irradiated human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells: role of Akt/mTOR and NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Binion, David G.; Wellner, Michael; Behmaram, Behnaz; Floer, Martin; Mitton, Elizabeth; Nie, Linghui; Zhang, Zhihong; Otterson, Mary F.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an essential modality in the treatment of colorectal cancers. Radiation exerts an antiangiogenic effect on tumors, inhibiting endothelial proliferation and survival in the tumor microvasculature. However, damage from low levels of irradiation can induce a paradoxical effect, stimulating survival in endothelial cells. We used human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (HIMEC) to define effects of radiation on these gut-specific endothelial cells. Low-level irradiation (1–5 Gy) activates NF-κB and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, which is involved in cell cycle reentry and cell survival in HIMEC. A downstream target of PI3K/Akt is mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which contributes to endothelial proliferation and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the signaling molecules involved in the radiosensitizing effects of curcumin on HIMEC subjected to low levels of irradiation. We have demonstrated that exposure of HIMEC to low levels of irradiation induced Akt and mTOR phosphorylation, which was attenuated by curcumin, rapamycin, LY294002, and mTOR small interference RNA (siRNA). Activation of NF-κB by low levels of irradiation was inhibited by curcumin, SN-50, and mTOR siRNA. Curcumin also induced apoptosis by induction of caspase-3 cleavage in irradiated HIMEC. In conclusion, curcumin significantly inhibited NF-κB and attenuated the effect of irradiation-induced prosurvival signaling through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and NF-κB pathways in these gut-specific endothelial cells. Curcumin may be a potential radiosensitizing agent for enhanced antiangiogenic effect in colorectal cancer radiation therapy. PMID:20299603

  5. Synthetic Small Intestinal Scaffolds for Improved Studies of Intestinal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Cait M.; Hongpeng, Jia; Shaffiey, Shahab; Yu, Jiajie; Jain, Nina K.; Hackam, David

    2014-01-01

    In vitro intestinal models can provide new insights into small intestinal function, including cellular growth and proliferation mechanisms, drug absorption capabilities, and host-microbial interactions. These models are typically formed with cells cultured on 2D scaffolds or transwell inserts, but it is widely understood that epithelial cells cultured in 3D environments exhibit different phenotypes that are more reflective of native tissue. Our focus was to develop a porous, synthetic 3D tissue scaffold with villous features that could support the culture of epithelial cell types to mimic the natural microenvironment of the small intestine. We demonstrated that our scaffold could support the co-culture of Caco-2 cells with a mucus-producing cell line, HT29-MTX, as well as small intestinal crypts from mice for extended periods. By recreating the surface topography with accurately sized intestinal villi, we enable cellular differentiation along the villous axis in a similar manner to native intestines. In addition, we show that the biochemical microenvironments of the intestine can be further simulated via a combination of apical and basolateral feeding of intestinal cell types cultured on the 3D models. PMID:24390638

  6. Targeted inhibition of IL-18 attenuates irinotecaninduced intestinal mucositis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Júnior, R C P; Freitas, H C; Wong, D V T; Wanderley, C W S; Nunes, L G; Leite, L L; Miranda, S P; Souza, M H L P; Brito, G A C; Magalhães, P J C; Teixeira, M M; Cunha, F Q; Ribeiro, R A

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Intestinal mucositis is a common side-effect of irinotecan-based cancer chemotherapy regimens. This mucositis is associated with cytokine activation and NO synthesis. Production of IL-18 is up-regulated in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease. Therefore, we have investigated the role of IL-18 in the pathogenesis of irinotecan-induced intestinal mucositis. Experimental Approach Wild type (WT), IL-18 or caspase-1 knockout mice were treated with either saline or irinotecan (60 mg·kg−1 per 4 days, i.p.) or the IL-18 binding protein (IL-18bp, 10 mg·kg−1) before irinotecan. On day 5, diarrhoea was monitored and proximal intestinal strips were obtained for histopathology, in vitro gut contractility, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and inducible NOS (iNOS) activity, and detection of IL-18 expression. Key Results Irinotecan induced severe diarrhoea accompanied by intestinal injury (villi shortening and increased crypt depth). Additionally, irinotecan treatment increased MPO and iNOS activity, iNOS immunostaining and IL-18 expression in WT mice compared with saline treatment. The IL-18 production was associated with macrophages. In vitro, intestinal smooth muscle strips were hyperresponsive to ACh after irinotecan treatment. Increases in MPO and iNOS activity, intestinal contractility and diarrhoea were prevented in caspase-1 knockout and IL-18 knockout mice, and in IL-18bp-treated WT mice. Furthermore, the Survival of irinotecan-treated mice was increased and iNOS immunoexpression and IL-18 production prevented in IL-18 knockout mice. Conclusions and Implications Targeting IL-18 function may be a promising therapeutic approach to decreasing the severity of intestinal mucositis during irinotecan treatment regimens. PMID:24428790

  7. The effects of age on mucosal morphology and epithelial cell production in rat small intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, R M

    1977-01-01

    Six groups of male Wistar rats were used, with mean weights of 29, 63, 97, 161, 249 and 399 g. Pieces of small intestine from three sites were examined after staining in bulk with the Feulgen reaction. Crypt/villus ratio (the number of crypts per villus) rose with age at all three sites, Villus height and crypt depth were measured on microdissected specimens. Villi in the proximal intestine were always taller than those distally. Proximal villi increased in height in successively older rats, except in the oldest group. Villi at the two distal sites tended to be tall in the youngest group of rats, but suffered a temporary reduction in height in the next two age groups. Crypt depth increased markedly within the first three age groups, and more slowly thereafter. Colchicine-metaphase accumulation rate was estimated from counts on microdissected intact crypts. The rate was low in the youngest group (8 cells/crypt/hour) but about 30 cells/crypt/hour in all other groups. After the changes during the early phase of rapid growth, no marked changes were seen during later life. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:885792

  8. Exogenous IL-1Ra attenuates intestinal mucositis induced by oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil through suppression of p53-dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Gao, Jin; Qian, Lan; Gao, Jing; Zhu, Shunying; Wu, Mingyuan; Zhang, Yang; Guan, Wen; Ye, Hao; Yu, Yan; Han, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis (CIM) is a major dose-limiting side effect of many chemoagents, resulting in weight loss, diarrhea, and even death. The current treatments for CIM are palliative and have limited benefit. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist is a natural antagonist of interleukin-1. Our previous studies showed the protective effect of recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1Ra) on the intestine in mice after 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. In this study, we further evaluated rhIL-1Ra in the treatment of CIM induced by different chemoagents and their combination. Normal as well as tumor-bearing mice were administered oxaliplatin (L-OHP), 5-fluorouracil, or their combination to induce intestinal mucositis and mortality. rhIL-1Ra administered after the chemotherapy, but not after the onset of diarrhea, significantly improved mouse survival, attenuated body weight loss, and reduced the incidence, severity, and duration of diarrhea. Histological examination showed that rhIL-1Ra-treated mice had a relatively intact mucosa structure, more proliferating crypt cells, and higher acid mucin content than the vehicle-treated mice. rhIL-1Ra suppressed crypt apoptosis by reducing the levels of proapoptotic proteins in wild-type, but not in IL-1RI or p53 mice. In addition, rhIL-1Ra was as effective as octreotide acetate in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced diarrhea, but with the advantage of reducing the epithelial apoptosis, the major cause of CIM. Importantly, the tumor sensitivity to chemotherapy was not affected by rhIL-1Ra. Thus, our data strongly suggest that rhIL-1Ra may be useful for the treatment of intestinal mucositis and improving the quality of life for cancer patients on chemotherapy.

  9. Intestinal transplantation: a review.

    PubMed

    Desai, Chirag Sureshchandra; Khan, Khalid Mahmood; Girlanda, Raffaele; Fishbein, Thomas M

    2012-09-01

    Parenteral nutrition is a life-saving therapy for patients with intestinal failure. Intestinal transplantation is now recognized as a treatment for patients who develop complications of parenteral nutrition and in whom attempts at intestinal rehabilitation have failed. Patients with parenteral nutrition related liver disease will require a liver graft typically part of a multivisceral transplant. Isolated intestinal transplants are more commonly performed in adults while multivisceral transplants are most commonly performed in infants. Isolated intestinal transplants have the best short-term outcome, with over 80 % survival at 1 year. Patients requiring multivisceral transplants have a high rate of attrition with a 1 year survival less than 70 %. Prognostic factors for a poor outcome include patient hospitalization at the time of transplant and donor age greater than 40 years while systemic sepsis and acute rejection are the major determinant of early postoperative outcome. For patients surviving the first year the outcome of transplantation of the liver in addition to intestine affords some survival advantage though long-term outcome does not yet match other abdominal organs. Outcomes for intestinal retransplantation are poor as a result of immunology and patient debility. Overall intestinal transplantation continues to develop and is a clear indication with cost and quality of life advantages in patients with intestinal failure that do not remain stable on parenteral nutrition.

  10. Study of biological rhythms of small intestinal cryptic epithelial mitosis of different periodicity by fourier analysis.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Yu A; Zharkova, N A; Antochin, A I; Zakharchenko, A V

    2009-05-01

    Rhythms of cell division with different periods in the mouse small intestinal cryptic epithelium were studied using Fourier analysis. It was found that the proliferative system of the crypt is characterized by an intricate spatial and temporal organization. The amplitude of low-frequency rhythms increases, while the amplitude of high-frequency rhythms decreased in the direction from the crypt bottom to the neck.

  11. Memory based active contour algorithm using pixel-level classified images for colon crypt segmentation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Assaf; Rivlin, Ehud; Shimshoni, Ilan; Sabo, Edmond

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel method for detection and segmentation of crypts in colon biopsies. Most of the approaches proposed in the literature try to segment the crypts using only the biopsy image without understanding the meaning of each pixel. The proposed method differs in that we segment the crypts using an automatically generated pixel-level classification image of the original biopsy image and handle the artifacts due to the sectioning process and variance in color, shape and size of the crypts. The biopsy image pixels are classified to nuclei, immune system, lumen, cytoplasm, stroma and goblet cells. The crypts are then segmented using a novel active contour approach, where the external force is determined by the semantics of each pixel and the model of the crypt. The active contour is applied for every lumen candidate detected using the pixel-level classification. Finally, a false positive crypt elimination process is performed to remove segmentation errors. This is done by measuring their adherence to the crypt model using the pixel level classification results. The method was tested on 54 biopsy images containing 4944 healthy and 2236 cancerous crypts, resulting in 87% detection of the crypts with 9% of false positive segments (segments that do not represent a crypt). The segmentation accuracy of the true positive segments is 96%.

  12. Chitinase 3-like 1 induces survival and proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells during chronic inflammation and colitis-associated cancer by regulating S100A9

    PubMed Central

    Low, Daren; Subramaniam, Renuka; Lin, Li; Aomatsu, Tomoki; Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Ng, Aylwin; DeGruttola, Arianna K.; Lee, Chun Geun; Elias, Jack A.; Andoh, Akira; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Mizoguchi, Emiko

    2015-01-01

    Many host-factors are inducibly expressed during the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), each having their unique properties, such as immune activation, bacterial clearance, and tissue repair/remodeling. Dysregulation/imbalance of these factors may have pathogenic effects that can contribute to colitis-associated cancer (CAC). Previous reports showed that IBD patients inducibly express colonic chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) that is further upregulated during CAC development. However, little is known about the direct pathogenic involvement of CHI3L1 in vivo. Here we demonstrate that CHI3L1 (aka Brp39) knockout (KO) mice treated with azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) developed severe colitis but lesser incidence of CAC as compared to that in wild-type (WT) mice. Highest CHI3L1 expression was found during the chronic phase of colitis, rather than the acute phase, and is essential to promote intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation in vivo. This CHI3L1-mediated cell proliferation/survival involves partial downregulation of the pro-apoptotic S100A9 protein that is highly expressed during the acute phase of colitis, by binding to the S100A9 receptor, RAGE (Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products). This interaction disrupts the S100A9-associated expression positive feedback loop during early immune activation, creating a CHI3L1hi S100A9low colonic environment, especially in the later phase of colitis, which promotes cell proliferation/survival of both normal IECs and tumor cells. PMID:26431492

  13. Histomorphology of aberrant crypt foci in colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Norlida, A Ojep; Phang, Koon Seng

    2010-12-01

    Colorectal carcinogenesis is a complex multistep process that includes changes in histomorphological appearance of the colonic mucosa and changes at molecular level. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) was first described by Bird in 1987 on examination of methylene-blue-stained colonic mucosa of azoxymethane-treated mice under light microscopy. Since then ACF was considered as the earliest preneoplastic change that can be seen in the colonic mucosa. The aim of this study was to look at the histomorphology and distribution of ACF in colorectal carcinoma. 50 formalin-fixed archival colectomy specimens for colorectal carcinoma were examined under light microscopy after staining with 0.2% methylene blue. ACF was identified by larger and darker crypts with thickened epithelium, and often elevated from adjacent normal mucosa. ACF was found in 41 of 50 colectomy specimens examined. There were 328 ACF consisting of 36 (11.0%) ACF without hyperplasia or dysplasia, 263 (80.2%) ACF with hyperplasia and 29 (8.8%) ACF with dysplasia. Of these 29 ACF with dysplasia, 25 showed low grade dysplasia and four high grade dysplasia. The density of ACF was higher in the left colon, those older than 65 years of age and among males but these findings were statistically not significant. The crypt multiplicity of hyperplastic ACF (30.149, SD 28.395) was larger than dysplastic ACF (20.613, SD 40.128). The spectrum of histological changes observed probably represent the evolution of ACF in colorectal carcinogenesis.

  14. Crypt cells are involved in kin recognition in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Biechl, Daniela; Tietje, Kristin; Gerlach, Gabriele; Wullimann, Mario F

    2016-04-18

    Zebrafish larvae imprint on visual and olfactory kin cues at day 5 and 6 postfertilization, respectively, resulting in kin recognition later in life. Exposure to non-kin cues prevents imprinting and kin recognition. Imprinting depends on MHC class II related signals and only larvae sharing MHC class II alleles can imprint on each other. Here, we analyzed which type of olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) detects kin odor. The single teleost olfactory epithelium harbors ciliated OSNs carrying OR and TAAR gene family receptors (mammals: main olfactory epithelium) and microvillous OSNs with V1R and V2R gene family receptors (mammals: vomeronasal organ). Additionally, teleosts exhibit crypt cells which possess microvilli and cilia. We used the activity marker pERK (phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase) after stimulating 9 day old zebrafish larvae with either non-kin conspecific or food odor. While food odor activated both ciliated and microvillous OSNs, only the latter were activated by conspecific odor, crypt cells showed no activation to both stimuli. Then, we tested imprinted and non-imprinted larvae (full siblings) for kin odor detection. We provide the first direct evidence that crypt cells, and likely a subpopulation of microvillous OSNs, but not ciliated OSNs, play a role in detecting a kin odor related signal.

  15. Crypt cells are involved in kin recognition in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Biechl, Daniela; Tietje, Kristin; Gerlach, Gabriele; Wullimann, Mario F.

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish larvae imprint on visual and olfactory kin cues at day 5 and 6 postfertilization, respectively, resulting in kin recognition later in life. Exposure to non-kin cues prevents imprinting and kin recognition. Imprinting depends on MHC class II related signals and only larvae sharing MHC class II alleles can imprint on each other. Here, we analyzed which type of olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) detects kin odor. The single teleost olfactory epithelium harbors ciliated OSNs carrying OR and TAAR gene family receptors (mammals: main olfactory epithelium) and microvillous OSNs with V1R and V2R gene family receptors (mammals: vomeronasal organ). Additionally, teleosts exhibit crypt cells which possess microvilli and cilia. We used the activity marker pERK (phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase) after stimulating 9 day old zebrafish larvae with either non-kin conspecific or food odor. While food odor activated both ciliated and microvillous OSNs, only the latter were activated by conspecific odor, crypt cells showed no activation to both stimuli. Then, we tested imprinted and non-imprinted larvae (full siblings) for kin odor detection. We provide the first direct evidence that crypt cells, and likely a subpopulation of microvillous OSNs, but not ciliated OSNs, play a role in detecting a kin odor related signal. PMID:27087508

  16. Bioimage analysis of Shigella infection reveals targeting of colonic crypts.

    PubMed

    Arena, Ellen T; Campbell-Valois, Francois-Xavier; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Nigro, Giulia; Sachse, Martin; Moya-Nilges, Maryse; Nothelfer, Katharina; Marteyn, Benoit; Shorte, Spencer L; Sansonetti, Philippe J

    2015-06-23

    Few studies within the pathogenic field have used advanced imaging and analytical tools to quantitatively measure pathogenicity in vivo. In this work, we present a novel approach for the investigation of host-pathogen processes based on medium-throughput 3D fluorescence imaging. The guinea pig model for Shigella flexneri invasion of the colonic mucosa was used to monitor the infectious process over time with GFP-expressing S. flexneri. A precise quantitative imaging protocol was devised to follow individual S. flexneri in a large tissue volume. An extensive dataset of confocal images was obtained and processed to extract specific quantitative information regarding the progression of S. flexneri infection in an unbiased and exhaustive manner. Specific parameters included the analysis of S. flexneri positions relative to the epithelial surface, S. flexneri density within the tissue, and volume of tissue destruction. In particular, at early time points, there was a clear association of S. flexneri with crypts, key morphological features of the colonic mucosa. Numerical simulations based on random bacterial entry confirmed the bias of experimentally measured S. flexneri for early crypt targeting. The application of a correlative light and electron microscopy technique adapted for thick tissue samples further confirmed the location of S. flexneri within colonocytes at the mouth of crypts. This quantitative imaging approach is a novel means to examine host-pathogen systems in a tailored and robust manner, inclusive of the infectious agent.

  17. Actinomyces denticolens colonisation identified in equine tonsillar crypts

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, S.; Otaki, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Higuchi, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Torii, Y.; Yokoyama, E.; Azuma, R.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, submandibular abscesses associated with Actinomyces denticolens have been reported in horses. The actinomycotic clumps have been observed in the tonsillar crypts. The aim of this study was to demonstrate colonisation of A denticolens in equine tonsils. Twelve equine tonsils obtained from a slaughterhouse were divided into two parts for histopathological examination and for isolation of A denticolens. When actinomycotic clumps were found in these tonsillar crypts, immunohistochemistry using hyperimmune serum against A denticolens (DMS 20671) was performed on the serial sections. To determine whether Actinomyces-like bacteria isolated using immunoantigenic separation technique were A denticolens, the isolates were analysed for the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Actinomycotic clumps were found in the tonsillar crypts of 11 (91.7 per cent) horses. The clumps were of the saprophytic type accompanied with the feedstuffs, but a few clumps were surrounded by inflammatory cells. A denticolens antigens were immunodetected not only in the clumps of 11 (100 per cent) tonsils, but also in the tonsillar parenchyma. Six isolates obtained from four tonsils showed 99.7–99.9 per cent similarity to A denticolens in the 16S rRNA gene sequence. In horses, the colonisation sites of A denticolens are the tonsils, thus the authors suggest that the tonsils provide the intrinsic infection site for A denticolens. PMID:27651913

  18. Morphological study of the regeneration mechanism of acetic acid-injured colon crypts in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Araki, K; Furuya, Y; Matsuoka, T; Mashima, K; Kobayashi, M; Matsuura, K

    2000-01-01

    The regeneration mechanism of injured rat colonic mucosa with 1% acetic acid was certified in this study. The injured colons were studied periodically on experimental days 1, 3, 5, 7, 15, and 20 with light and scanning electron microscopy. Specimens were examined in paraffin sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin; crypts were isolated with the HCl digestion method; and three-dimensional stromal collagen tissue was prepared with the NaOH cell maceration method. Damage to the mucosal and submucosal layers peaked between the 1st and 3rd days with edema, regeneration, necrosis, and inflammation. The edema and inflammation subsided, and mucosal atrophy and crypt reduction remained at around 1 week. At 2 weeks the mucosa became thick, and crypts showed many branches in their lower two-thirds; and by 3 weeks the mucosa had recovered to almost normal. The ratio of number of crypts at the base and surface was almost 1.5 on the 15th day and 1.0 on the 20th day, suggesting that each branch progresses upward to create an independent crypt. We believe that the fission mechanism plays an important role in crypt repair after acetic acid injury of the colonic mucosa. As the proliferative zone of the colonic crypt is localized at the crypt base, fission of the crypt starting at the base and progressing up to the surface is the most reasonable and efficient mechanism for repair by increasing the number of crypts.

  19. Epigenetic Regulation of the Intestinal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Ellen N.; Kaestner, Klaus H.

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is an ideal model system for the study of normal and pathological differentiation processes. The mammalian intestinal epithelium is a single cell layer comprised of proliferative crypts and differentiated villi. The crypts contain both proliferating and quiescent stem cell populations that self-renew and produce all the differentiated cell types, which are replaced every 3 to 5 days. The genetics of intestinal development, homeostasis, and disease are well defined, but less is known about the contribution of epigenetics in modulating these processes. Epigenetics refers to heritable phenotypic traits, including gene expression, which are independent of mutations in the DNA sequence. We have known for several decades that human colorectal cancers contain hypomethylated DNA, but the causes and consequences of this phenomenon are not fully understood. In contrast, tumor suppressor gene promoters are often hypermethylated in colorectal cancer, resulting in decreased expression of the associated gene. In this review, we describe the role that epigenetics plays in intestinal homeostasis and disease, with an emphasis on results from mouse models. We highlight the importance of producing and analyzing next-generation sequencing data detailing the epigenome from intestinal stem cell to differentiated intestinal villus cell. PMID:26220502

  20. Only fibres promoting a stable butyrate producing colonic ecosystem decrease the rate of aberrant crypt foci in rats

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, P; Pierre, F; Patry, Y; Champ, M; Berreur, M; Pradal, G; Bornet, F; Meflah, K; Menanteau, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Dietary fibres have been proposed as protective agents against colon cancer but results of both epidemiological and experimental studies are inconclusive.
AIMS—Hypothesising that protection against colon cancer may be restricted to butyrate producing fibres, we investigated the factors needed for long term stable butyrate production and its relation to susceptibility to colon cancer.
METHODS—A two part randomised blinded study in rats, mimicking a prospective study in humans, was performed using a low fibre control diet (CD) and three high fibre diets: starch free wheat bran (WB), type III resistant starch (RS), and short chain fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). Using a randomised block design, 96 inbred rats were fed for two, 16, 30, or 44 days to determine the period of adaptation to the diets, fermentation profiles, and effects on the colon, including mucosal proliferation on day 44. Subsequently, 36 rats fed the same diets for 44 days were injected with azoxymethane and checked for aberrant crypt foci 30 days later.
RESULTS—After fermentation had stabilised (44 days), only RS and FOS produced large amounts of butyrate, with a trophic effect in the large intestine. No difference in mucosal proliferation between the diets was noted at this time. In the subsequent experiment one month later, fewer aberrant crypt foci were present in rats fed high butyrate producing diets (RS, p=0.022; FOS, p=0.043).
CONCLUSION—A stable butyrate producing colonic ecosystem related to selected fibres appears to be less conducive to colon carcinogenesis.


Keywords: fibre; fermentation; butyrate; colon carcinogenesis; aberrant crypt foci; rat PMID:11115823

  1. Radioprotective effects of oral 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin in mice: bone marrow and small intestine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Our previous research demonstrated that one subcutaneous injection of 17-Dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG) 24 hours (h) before irradiation (8.75 Gy) increased mouse survival by 75%. However, the protective mechanism of 17-DMAG is currently unknown. The present study aimed to investigate whether oral administration of 17-DMAG was also radioprotective and the potential role it may play in radioprotection. Results A single dose of orally pre-administered (24, 48, or 72 h) 17-DMAG (10 mg/kg) increased irradiated mouse survival, reduced body weight loss, improved water consumption, and decreased facial dropsy, whereas orally post-administered 17-DMAG failed. Additional oral doses of pre-treatment did not improve 30-day survival. The protective effect of multiple pre-administrations (2−3 times) of 17-DMAG at 10 mg/kg was equal to the outcome of a single pre-treatment. In 17-DMAG-pretreated mice, attenuation of bone marrow aplasia in femurs 30 days after irradiation with recovered expressions of cluster of differentiation 34, 44 (CD34, CD44), and survivin in bone marrow cells were observed. 17-DMAG also elevated serum granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), decreased serum fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand, and reduced white blood cell depletion. 17-DMAG ameliorated small intestinal histological damage, promoted recovery of villus heights and intestinal crypts including stem cells, where increased leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) was found 30 days after irradiation. Conclusions 17-DMAG is a potential radioprotectant for bone marrow and small intestine that results in survival improvement. PMID:24499553

  2. Fbxw7-associated drug resistance is reversed by induction of terminal differentiation in murine intestinal organoid culture

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzi, Federica; Babaei-Jadidi, Roya; Sheard, Jonathan; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Nateri, Abdolrahman S

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the top three cancer-related causes of death worldwide. FBXW7 is a known tumor-suppressor gene, commonly mutated in CRC and in a variety of other epithelial tumors. Low expression of FBXW7 is also associated with poor prognosis. Loss of FBXW7 sensitizes cancer cells to certain drugs, while making them more resistant to other types of chemotherapies. However, is not fully understood how epithelial cells within normal gut and primary tumors respond to potential cancer therapeutics. We have studied genetically engineered mice in which the fbxw7 gene is conditionally knocked-out in the intestine (fbxw7∆G). To further investigate the mechanism of Fbxw7-action, we grew intestinal crypts from floxed-fbxw7 (fbxw7fl/fl) and fbxw7ΔG mice, in a Matrigel-based organoid (mini-gut) culture. The fbxw7ΔG organoids exhibited rapid budding events in the crypt region. Furthermore, to test organoids for drug response, we exposed day 3 intestinal organoids from fbxw7fl/fl and fbxw7∆G mice, to various concentrations of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for 72 hours. 5-FU triggers phenotypic differences in organoids including changing shape, survival, resistance, and death. 5-FU however, rescues the drug-resistance phenotype of fbxw7ΔG through the induction of terminal differentiation. Our results support the hypothesis that a differentiating therapy successfully targets FBXW7-mutated CRC cells. PMID:27110583

  3. Assessment of the mode of action underlying development of rodent small intestinal tumors following oral exposure to hexavalent chromium and relevance to humans

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, Deborah M.; Suh, Mina; Haws, Laurie C.; Kirman, Christopher R.; Harris, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in drinking water causes intestinal adenomas and carcinomas in mice, but not in rats. Cr(VI) causes damage to intestinal villi and crypt hyperplasia in mice after only one week of exposure. After two years of exposure, intestinal damage and crypt hyperplasia are evident in mice (but not rats), as are intestinal tumors. Although Cr(VI) has genotoxic properties, these findings suggest that intestinal tumors in mice arise as a result of chronic mucosal injury. To better understand the mode of action (MOA) of Cr(VI) in the intestine, a 90-day drinking water study was conducted to collect histological, biochemical, toxicogenomic and pharmacokinetic data in intestinal tissues. Using MOA analyses and human relevance frameworks proposed by national and international regulatory agencies, the weight of evidence supports a cytotoxic MOA with the following key events: (a) absorption of Cr(VI) from the intestinal lumen, (b) toxicity to intestinal villi, (c) crypt regenerative hyperplasia and (d) clonal expansion of mutations within the crypt stem cells, resulting in late onset tumorigenesis. This article summarizes the data supporting each key event in the MOA, as well as data that argue against a mutagenic MOA for Cr(VI)-induced intestinal tumors. PMID:23445218

  4. [Food contamination by pathogens of acute intestinal infections and survival of microorganisms in them under some variants of thermal processing and storage].

    PubMed

    Sergevnin, V I

    2013-01-01

    The contamination of the surface of vegetables and fruits with conditionally pathogenic enterobacteria, intestinal protozoa and enteric viruses has been revealed. The experiment showed an opportunity of penetration of enteric viruses inside of vegetables and fruits with intact (without visible damages) surface. S. enteritidis survive on the shells of the eggs 4 months in the refrigerator, in the albumen and yolk--more than 5 months and in the long storage (more than one month) of chicken eggs in the refrigerator S. enteritidis could penetrate into the egg through the intact shell and multiply in the yolk. It was shown in the experiment on the condition laying of chicken eggs of room temperature in cold water and their subsequent cooking S. enteritidis full destruction of pathogens comes on the 5 minute of heat processing, when the temperature inside the eggs reaches more than 80 degrees C. In mayonnaise at the temperature of the refrigerator S. enteritidis reproduce, but remain viable for 13 days. In the egg powder at the room temperature noted smooth death of S. enteritidis, term viability of microorganisms is 5 months. Addition 10% acetic acid to egg powder in the ratio 1:2 provides for the death of S. enteritidis for a minute. In experimental conditions was established that the processing of chicken on the grill in the process of cooking "Shaverma" provides exemption meat from Salmonella only in the thickness of a piece of up to 2 centimeters. The deeper layers of meat and meat juice which accumulates on the pallet grill, throughout the duration of thermal processing may remain contaminated Salmonella.

  5. Evaluation of the chicory inulin efficacy on ameliorating the intestinal morphology and modulating the intestinal electrophysiological properties in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Awad, W A; Ghareeb, K; Böhm, J

    2011-02-01

    Chicory (Cichorium intybus) belongs to plants of the Compositae family accumulating energy in the form of inulin fructan. Chicory, a prebiotic, is a fermentable oligosaccharide and oligofructose that may affect the intestinal mucosal architecture and the electrophysiological parameters. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of adding chicory fructans in feed on the intestinal morphology and electrogenic transport of glucose in broilers. Four hundred, 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into two groups (200 birds per group) for 5 weeks. The dietary treatments were (i) control, (ii) basal diets supplemented with the dried, ground chicory pulp containing inulin (1 kg of chicory/ton of the starter and grower diets). In duodenum, dietary chicory increased the villus height and villus width and villus height to crypt depth ratio (p< 0.05), but the duodenal crypt depth remained unaffected (p > 0.05). However, in jejunum, the villus height, crypt depth and villus height to crypt depth ratio were decreased by dietary chicory compared with control birds (p < 0.05). In ileum, the villus height and villus crypt depth was decreased by dietary chicory supplementation compared with control (p< 0.05), but, the villus height to crypt depth ratio was increased (p< 0.05). Moreover, dietary chicory relatively affected the electrophysiological parameters of the intestine but did not reach significance. The amount of ΔIsc after d-glucose addition to the jejunal mucosa was numerically higher for chicory fed birds (19 μA/cm(2) ) than control birds (10 μA/cm(2) ). The percentage of increase in the Isc after d-glucose addition (ΔIsc %) was higher for chicory group upto (90%) of the control group. In colon, the actual Isc value and Isc after d-glucose addition was numerically higher for chicory fed birds than control birds (p> 0.05). Moreover, the conductance of jejunal and colonic tissues after d-glucose addition remained unaffected by the dietary

  6. Analysis of Wnt signalling dynamics during colon crypt development in 3D culture

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chin Wee; Hirokawa, Yumiko; Burgess, Antony W.

    2015-01-01

    Many systems biology studies lack context-relevant data and as a consequence the predictive capabilities can be limited in developing targeted cancer therapeutics. Production of colon crypt in vitro is ideal for studying colon systems biology. This report presents the first production of, to our knowledge, physiologically-shaped, functional colon crypts in vitro (i.e. single crypts with cells expressing Mucin 2 and Chromogranin A). Time-lapsed monitoring of crypt formation revealed an increased frequency of single-crypt formation in the absence of noggin. Using quantitative 3D immunofluorescence of β-catenin and E-cadherin, spatial-temporal dynamics of these proteins in normal colon crypt cells stimulated with Wnt3A or inhibited by cycloheximide has been measured. Colon adenoma cultures established from APCmin/+ mouse have developmental differences and β-catenin spatial localization compared to normal crypts. Quantitative data describing the effects of signalling pathways and proteins dynamics for both normal and adenomatous colon crypts is now within reach to inform a systems approach to colon crypt biology. PMID:26087250

  7. Immunohistochemical detection of human intestinal spirochetosis.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Sho; Shimizu, Ken; Oda, Tomohiro; Tominaga, Susumu; Nakanishi, Kuniaki

    2016-12-01

    Human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS) is a colorectal infection by Brachyspira species of spiral bacteria. Immunohistochemical cross-reaction to an antibody for Treponema pallidum aids its histologic diagnosis. This study's aim was to analyze the immunohistochemical characteristics of HIS. In this analysis, on 223 specimens from 83 HIS cases, we focused on so-called fringe formation (a histologic hallmark of HIS), spiral organisms within mucus or within crypts, and strong immunopositive materials in the mucosa, together with their location and the types of lesions. Fringe formation was found in 81.6% of all specimens and spiral organisms within mucus or within crypts in 97.3% and 57.0%, respectively. Strong immunopositive materials were observed in the surface epithelial layer in 87.9%, in the subepithelial layer in 94.6%, and in deeper mucosa in 2.2% of all specimens. The positive rates in conventional adenomas (24.0%, n = 146) and hyperplastic nodules (100%, n = 17) were each different from that found in inflammation (70.8%, n = 24), and spiral organisms were seen more frequently in the right-side large intestine than in the left (within mucus, 100%, n = 104 versus 95.0%, n = 119; within crypts, 65.4%, n = 104 versus 49.6%, n = 119). Thus, immunohistochemistry was effective not only in supporting the diagnosis of HIS but also in highlighting spiral organisms within mucus or crypts that were invisible in routine histology. Possibly, these spiral organisms may spread throughout the entire large intestine, although there is a potential problem with antibody specificity.

  8. Epigenetics in Intestinal Epithelial Cell Renewal

    PubMed Central

    Roostaee, Alireza; Benoit, Yannick D.; Boudjadi, Salah

    2016-01-01

    A controlled balance between cell proliferation and differentiation is essential to maintain normal intestinal tissue renewal and physiology. Such regulation is powered by several intracellular pathways that are translated into the establishment of specific transcription programs, which influence intestinal cell fate along the crypt‐villus axis. One important check‐point in this process occurs in the transit amplifying zone of the intestinal crypts where different signaling pathways and transcription factors cooperate to manage cellular proliferation and differentiation, before secretory or absorptive cell lineage terminal differentiation. However, the importance of epigenetic modifications such as histone methylation and acetylation in the regulation of these processes is still incompletely understood. There have been recent advances in identifying the impact of histone modifications and chromatin remodelers on the proliferation and differentiation of normal intestinal crypt cells. In this review we discuss recent discoveries on the role of the cellular epigenome in intestinal cell fate, development, and tissue renewal. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2361–2367, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27061836

  9. Mast cells in Canine parvovirus-2-associated enteritis with crypt abscess.

    PubMed

    Woldemeskel, M W; Saliki, J T; Blas-Machado, U; Whittington, L

    2013-11-01

    The role of mast cells (MCs) in allergic reactions and parasitic infections is well established. Their involvement in host immune response against bacterial and viral infections is reported. In this study, investigation is made to determine if MCs are associated with Canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2)-induced enteritis with crypt abscess (ECA). Mast cell count (MCC) was made on toluidine blue-stained intestinal sections from a total of 34 dogs. These included 16 dogs exhibiting ECA positive for CPV-2 and negative for Canine distemper virus and Canine coronavirus by immunohistochemistry and fluorescent antibody test, 12 dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and 6 non-ECA/non-IBD (control) dogs. The average total MCC per high-power field in ECA (40.8 ± 2.2) and IBD (24.7 ± 2.1) was significantly higher (P < .05) than in the control (3.4 ± 0.6). Although not significant (P > .05), MCC was also higher in ECA than in IBD. The present study for the first time has documented significantly increased MCs in CPV-2-associated ECA as was previously reported for IBD, showing that MCs may also play an important role in CPV-2-associated ECA. Further studies involving more CPV-infected dogs are recommended to substantiate the findings.

  10. Epithelial crypts: A complex and enigmatic olfactory organ in African and South American lungfish (Lepidosireniformes, Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Wittmer, Carolin; Nowack, Christine

    2017-03-23

    African lungfish (Protopterus) seem unique among osteognathostomes in possessing a potential vomeronasal organ homolog in form of accessory epithelial crypts within their nasal cavity. Many details regarding structural and functional properties of these crypts are still unexplored. In this study, we reinvestigate the issue and also present the first data on epithelial crypts in the South American lungfish Lepidosiren paradoxa. The nasal cavities of L. paradoxa and Protopterus annectens were studied using histology, scanning electron microscopy, and alcian blue and PAS staining. In both species, the epithelial crypts consist of a pseudostratified sensory epithelium and a monolayer of elongated glandular cells, in accordance with previously published data on Protopterus. In addition, we found a new second and anatomically distinct type of mucous cell within the duct leading into the crypt. These glandular duct cells are PAS positive, whereas the elongated glandular cells are stainable with alcian blue, suggesting distinct functions of their respective secretions. Furthermore, the two lungfish species show differently structured crypt sensory epithelia and external crypt morphology, with conspicuous bilaterally symmetrical stripes of ciliated cells in L. paradoxa. Taken together, our data suggest that stimulus transport into the crypts involves both ciliary movement and odorant binding mucus.

  11. Morphological and molecular evidence for functional organization along the rostrocaudal axis of the adult zebrafish intestine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The zebrafish intestine is a simple tapered tube that is folded into three sections. However, whether the intestine is functionally similar along its length remains unknown. Thus, a systematic structural and functional characterization of the zebrafish intestine is desirable for future studies of the digestive tract and the intestinal biology and development. Results To characterize the structure and function of the adult zebrafish intestine, we divided the intestine into seven roughly equal-length segments, S1-S7, and systematically examined the morphology of the mucosal lining, histology of the epithelium, and molecular signatures from transcriptome analysis. Prominent morphological features are circumferentially-oriented villar ridges in segments S1-S6 and the absence of crypts. Molecular characterization of the transcriptome from each segment shows that segments S1-S5 are very similar while S6 and S7 unique. Gene ontology analyses reveal that S1-S5 express genes whose functions involve metabolism of carbohydrates, transport of lipids and energy generation, while the last two segments display relatively limited function. Based on comparative Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, the first five segments share strong similarity with human and mouse small intestine while S6 shows similarity with human cecum and rectum, and S7 with human rectum. The intestinal tract does not display the anatomical, morphological, and molecular signatures of a stomach and thus we conclude that this organ is absent from the zebrafish digestive system. Conclusions Our genome-wide gene expression data indicate that, despite the lack of crypts, the rostral, mid, and caudal portions of the zebrafish intestine have distinct functions analogous to the mammalian small and large intestine, respectively. Organization of ridge structures represents a unique feature of zebrafish intestine, though they produce similar cross sections to mammalian intestines. Evolutionary lack of stomach, crypts

  12. Endothelin system in intestinal villi: A possible role of endothelin-2/vasoactive intestinal contractor in the maintenance of intestinal architecture.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Mariana; Adur, Javier; Takizawa, Satoshi; Saida, Kaname; Casco, Víctor H

    2012-01-27

    The endothelin system consists of three ligands (ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3) and at least two receptors (ETA and ETB). In mice ET-2 counterpart is a peptide originally called "vasoactive intestinal contractor" (VIC) for this reason, this peptide is frequently named ET-2/VIC. In intestinal villi, fibroblasts-like cells express endothelin's receptors and response to ET-1 and ET-3 peptides, changing their cellular shape. Several functions have been attributed to these peptides in the "architecture" maintenance of intestinal villi acting over sub-epithelial fibroblasts. Despite this, ET-2/VIC has not been analyzed in depth. In this work we show the intestine gene expression and immunolocalization of ET-1, ET-2 and the ETA and ETB receptors from duodenum to rectus and in the villus-crypt axis in mice, allowing a complete analysis of their functions. While ET-1 is expressed uniformly, ET-2 had a particular distribution, being higher at the bottom of the villi of duodenum, ileum and jejunum and reverting this pattern in the crypts of colon and rectus, where the higher expression was at the top. We postulated that ET-2 would act in a cooperative manner with ET-1, giving to the villus the straight enough to withstand mechanical stress.

  13. Intestinal stem cells and their roles during mucosal injury and repair.

    PubMed

    Neal, Matthew D; Richardson, Ward M; Sodhi, Chhinder P; Russo, Anthony; Hackam, David J

    2011-05-01

    The ability of the host to respond to intestinal injury requires the regeneration of native tissue through a highly orchestrated response from the intestinal stem cells, a population of cells located within the intestinal crypts that have the capability to repopulate the entire villous. The field of intestinal stem cell biology is thus of great interest to surgeons and non-surgeons alike, given its relevance to diseases of intestinal injury and inflammation such as inflammatory bowel disease, trauma, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The field of intestinal stem cell research has been advanced recently by the identification of the putative marker, Lgr5, which has allowed for the isolation and further characterization of the intestinal stem cell. Under the control of the WNT signaling pathway, Lgr5 marks the rapidly dividing cells of the intestinal crypt, and identifies a population of cells that is capable of regenerating the entire villous. We now review the identification of Lgr5 as an intestinal stem cell marker, identify controversies in the intestinal stem cell field, and highlight the response of the intestinal stem cell to injury within the intestinal mucosa that may occur clinically.

  14. Effect of fat feeding on pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant enzyme systems in rat intestine: possible role in the turnover of enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Turan, Aasma; Gill, Ravinder; Dudeja, Pradeep K; Mohan, Harsh; Mahmood, Akhtar

    2009-06-01

    Immature epithelial cells generated in the crypt base undergo differentiation while progressing to the villus tip, where the cells upon apoptosis are detached from the underlying muscular tissue. We previously reported that lipid peroxidation might be involved in the turnover of enterocytes across the crypt-villus axis in rat intestine (Dig Dis Sci 52:1840-1844, 2007). To examine whether long-term feeding of fat with different fatty-acid composition influences this process, in the present study we investigated the effect of feeding fish oil (n - 3) and corn oil (n - 6) polyunsaturated fatty acids on lipid per-oxidation and anti-oxidant systems in different epithelial cell fractions isolated in rat intestine. Feeding fish oil or corn oil markedly enhanced lipid per-oxidation levels of enterocytes throughout villus height compared with control, but there was no difference in the distribution profile of pro- and anti-oxidant enzyme systems and lipid per-oxidation across the crypt-villus axis under these conditions. Analysis of lipid peroxidation levels in different cell fractions revealed that the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance were 9- to 11-fold higher at the villus tip compared with at the crypt base. The activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase were 2- to 5-fold higher in villus tip compared to the crypt region. However, the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were 6- to 8-fold high at the crypt base compared with at villus tip cells. Immunocytolocalization of superoxide dismutase showed high staining in crypt base compared with that in villus, tip cells. These findings further suggest that generation of reactive oxygen species in enterocytes across the crypt-villus axis may be involved in turnover of enterocytes across the crypt-villus unit in rat intestine.

  15. Bt-maize (MON810) and non-GM soybean meal in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) juveniles--impact on survival, growth performance, development, digestive function, and transcriptional expression of intestinal immune and stress responses.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jinni; Bakke, Anne Marie; Valen, Elin C; Lein, Ingrid; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2014-01-01

    Responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) juveniles (fry) fed diets containing genetically modified maize (Bt-maize, MON810) expressing Cry1Ab protein from first-feeding were investigated during a 99-day feeding trial. Four experimental diets were made; each diet contained ∼20% maize, either Bt-maize or its near-isogenic maternal line (non-GM maize). One pair was fishmeal-based while the other pair included standard (extracted) soybean meal (SBM; 16.7% inclusion level), with the intention of investigating responses to the maize varieties in healthy fish as well as in immunologically challenged fish with SBM-induced distal intestinal inflammation, respectively. Three replicate tanks of fry (0.17±0.01 g; initial mean weight ± SEM) were fed one of the four diets and samples were taken on days 15, 36, 48 and 99. Survival, growth performance, whole body composition, digestive function, morphology of intestine, liver and skeleton, and mRNA expression of some immune and stress response parameters in the distal intestine were evaluated. After 99 days of feeding, survival was enhanced and the intended SBM-induced inflammatory response in the distal intestine of the two groups of SBM-fed fish was absent, indicating that the juvenile salmon were tolerant to SBM. Mortality, growth performance and body composition were similar in fish fed the two maize varieties. The Bt-maize fed fish, however, displayed minor but significantly decreased digestive enzyme activities of leucine aminopeptidase and maltase, as well as decreased concentration of gut bile salts, but significantly increased amylase activity at some sampling points. Histomorphological, radiographic and mRNA expression evaluations did not reveal any biologically relevant effects of Bt-maize in the gastrointestinal tract, liver or skeleton. The results suggest that the Cry1Ab protein or other compositional differences in GM Bt-maize may cause minor alterations in intestinal responses in juvenile salmon, but

  16. Bt-maize (MON810) and Non-GM Soybean Meal in Diets for Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) Juveniles – Impact on Survival, Growth Performance, Development, Digestive Function, and Transcriptional Expression of Intestinal Immune and Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jinni; Bakke, Anne Marie; Valen, Elin C.; Lein, Ingrid; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2014-01-01

    Responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) juveniles (fry) fed diets containing genetically modified maize (Bt-maize, MON810) expressing Cry1Ab protein from first-feeding were investigated during a 99-day feeding trial. Four experimental diets were made; each diet contained ∼20% maize, either Bt-maize or its near-isogenic maternal line (non-GM maize). One pair was fishmeal-based while the other pair included standard (extracted) soybean meal (SBM; 16.7% inclusion level), with the intention of investigating responses to the maize varieties in healthy fish as well as in immunologically challenged fish with SBM-induced distal intestinal inflammation, respectively. Three replicate tanks of fry (0.17±0.01 g; initial mean weight ± SEM) were fed one of the four diets and samples were taken on days 15, 36, 48 and 99. Survival, growth performance, whole body composition, digestive function, morphology of intestine, liver and skeleton, and mRNA expression of some immune and stress response parameters in the distal intestine were evaluated. After 99 days of feeding, survival was enhanced and the intended SBM-induced inflammatory response in the distal intestine of the two groups of SBM-fed fish was absent, indicating that the juvenile salmon were tolerant to SBM. Mortality, growth performance and body composition were similar in fish fed the two maize varieties. The Bt-maize fed fish, however, displayed minor but significantly decreased digestive enzyme activities of leucine aminopeptidase and maltase, as well as decreased concentration of gut bile salts, but significantly increased amylase activity at some sampling points. Histomorphological, radiographic and mRNA expression evaluations did not reveal any biologically relevant effects of Bt-maize in the gastrointestinal tract, liver or skeleton. The results suggest that the Cry1Ab protein or other compositional differences in GM Bt-maize may cause minor alterations in intestinal responses in juvenile salmon, but

  17. Intestinal organoids as tissue surrogates for toxicological and pharmacological studies.

    PubMed

    Kuratnik, Anton; Giardina, Charles

    2013-06-15

    Recently developed cell culture protocols have allowed for the derivation of multi-cellular structures dubbed intestinal "organoids" from embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs), and adult intestinal stem cells (ISCs). These structures resemble in vivo intestinal crypts, both in structure and developmental processes, and can be grown quickly and in relatively large quantities. Although much research has focused on developing intestinal organoids for tissue repair, more immediate applications include high-throughput screening for agents that target intestinal epithelium. Here we describe current methods for deriving mouse and human intestinal organoids and discuss some applications aimed at developing novel therapies or preventive agents for diseases of the lower GI tract such as inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer.

  18. Dietary fucoidan of Acaudina molpadioides and its enzymatically degraded fragments could prevent intestinal mucositis induced by chemotherapy in mice.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Tao; Li, Xuemin; Chang, Yaoguang; Duan, Gaofei; Yu, Long; Zheng, Rong; Xue, Changhu; Tang, Qingjuan

    2015-02-01

    Mucositis is a common problem that results from cancer chemotherapy and is a cause of significant morbidity and occasional mortality. Its prevention and successful treatment can significantly enhance the quality of life of patients and improve their survival. Sea cucumber is a traditional aquatic food that has both nutritional and medicinal value. The polysaccharide fucoidan from the sea cucumber (SC-FUC) has various bioactivities. We examined the protective effect of different molecular weights (MWs 50 kDa-500 kDa) of fucoidan from the sea cucumber, Acaudina molpadioides, in a mouse model of cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced intestinal mucositis. Results showed that the oral administration of SC-FUC markedly reversed Cy-induced damage in the mice. The sea cucumber fucoidan notably increased the ratio of the length of the intestinal villus to the crypt depth and ameliorated the IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio that signifies Th1/Th2 immune balance. Moreover, all the fucoidans in this study enhanced the expression of IgA by accelerating the expression of IL-6 that is probably combined with IL-10. The differing effects of the varied molecular weights of fucoidan may be due to the difference in the efficiency of absorption. This is a novel study on the potential preventive effects of SC-FUC on intestinal mucositis that may be related to the efficiency of its absorption during digestion. Sea cucumber fucoidan (SC-FUC) may be used as a potential food supplement to prevent chemotherapeutic mucositis.

  19. Oral Administration of Surface-Deacetylated Chitin Nanofibers and Chitosan Inhibit 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Intestinal Mucositis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Koizumi, Ryo; Azuma, Kazuo; Izawa, Hironori; Morimoto, Minoru; Ochi, Kosuke; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Osaki, Tomohiro; Ito, Norihiko; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Ifuku, Shinsuke

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the prophylactic effects of orally administered surface-deacetylated chitin nanofibers (SDACNFs) and chitosan against 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced intestinal mucositis, which is a common side effect of 5-FU chemotherapy. SDACNFs and chitosan abolished histological abnormalities associated with intestinal mucositis and suppressed hypoproliferation and apoptosis of intestinal crypt cells. These results indicate that SDACNF and chitosan are useful agents for preventing mucositis induced by anti-cancer drugs. PMID:28134832

  20. Regulation of Epithelial Differentiation in Rat Intestine by Intraluminal Delivery of an Adenoviral Vector or Silencing RNA Coding for Schlafen 3

    PubMed Central

    Kovalenko, Pavlo L.; Yuan, Lisi; Sun, Kelian; Kunovska, Lyudmyla; Seregin, Sergey; Amalfitano, Andrea; Basson, Marc D.

    2013-01-01

    Although we stimulate enterocytic proliferation to ameliorate short gut syndrome or mucosal atrophy, less effort has been directed at enterocytic differentiation. Schlafen 3 (Slfn3) is a poorly understood protein induced during IEC-6 enterocytic differentiation. We hypothesized that exogenous manipulation of Slfn3 would regulate enterocytic differentiation in vivo. Adenoviral vector coding for Slfn3 cDNA (Ad-GFP-Slfn3) or silencing RNA for Slfn3 (siSlfn3) was introduced intraluminally into rat intestine. We assessed Slfn3, villin, sucrase-isomaltase (SI), Dpp4, and Glut2 by qRT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. We also studied Slfn3 and these differentiation markers in atrophic defunctionalized jejunal mucosa and the crypt-villus axis of normal jejunum. Ad-GFP-Slfn3 but not Ad-GFP increased Slfn3, villin and Dpp4 expression in human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. Injecting Ad-GFP-Slfn3 into rat jejunum in vivo increased mucosal Slfn3 mRNA three days later vs. intraluminal Ad-GFP. This Slfn3 overexpression was associated with increases in all four differentiation markers. Injecting siSlfn3 into rat jejunum in vivo substantially reduced Slfn3 and all four intestinal mucosal differentiation markers three days later, as well as Dpp4 specific activity. Endogenous Slfn3 was reduced in atrophic mucosa from a blind-end Roux-en-Y anastomosis in parallel with differentiation marker expression together with AKT and p38 signaling. Slfn3 was more highly expressed in the villi than the crypts, paralleling Glut2, SI and Dpp4. Slfn3 is a key intracellular regulator of rat enterocytic differentiation. Understanding how Slfn3 works may identify targets to promote enterocytic differentiation and maintain mucosal function in vivo, facilitating enteral nutrition and improving survival in patients with mucosal atrophy or short gut syndrome. PMID:24244554

  1. Intestinal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  2. Intestinal leiomyoma

    MedlinePlus

    Leiomyoma - intestine ... McLaughlin P, Maher MM. The duodenum and small intestine. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ... Roline CE, Reardon RF. Disorders of the small intestine. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  3. Intestinal obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    Paralytic ileus; Intestinal volvulus; Bowel obstruction; Ileus; Pseudo-obstruction - intestinal; Colonic ileus ... objects that are swallowed and block the intestines) Gallstones (rare) Hernias Impacted stool Intussusception (telescoping of 1 ...

  4. Intestinal Obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    An intestinal obstruction occurs when food or stool cannot move through the intestines. The obstruction can be complete or partial. ... abdomen Inability to pass gas Constipation A complete intestinal obstruction is a medical emergency. It often requires surgery. ...

  5. Immunohistochemical characterization of cellular proliferation in small intestinal hyperplasia of rats with hepatic Strobilocercus fasciolaris infection.

    PubMed

    Lagapa, J T; Oku, Y; Kamiya, M

    2008-07-01

    Rats infected with the larvae of Taenia taeniaeformis harbour the intermediate stage of the parasite Strobilocercus fasciolaris within the liver. Affected animals also develop gastric and intestinal hyperplasia. The pathogenesis of the gastric hyperplasia has been extensively investigated, but few studies have addressed the nature of the intestinal changes. This study characterizes the proliferation of small intestinal epithelial cells by immunohistochemical labelling for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake. At 6 weeks post-infection (wpi) there was an increase in villous length but crypt depth was normal. At 9 wpi there was evidence of epithelial hyperplasia, increased villous length and crypt depth, and expansion of zones of epithelial proliferation. Immunohistochemical labelling indicated that an increase in the number of proliferating cells produced a greater number of progeny cells. Intestinal hyperplasia during experimental infection with T. taeniaeformis larvae is likely to be related to the associated gastropathy, although the mechanisms underlying both changes remain undefined.

  6. Body and intestinal growth of broiler chicks on a commercial starter diet. 1. Intestinal weight and mucosal development.

    PubMed

    Iji, P A; Saki, A; Tivey, D R

    2001-09-01

    1. A study was conducted on the pattern of development of the intestinal mucosa of the Steggles x Ross (F1) strain of broiler chickens reared on a commercial starter diet. The mechanisms underlying the structural changes were also assessed. 2. In relation to body weight, small intestinal weight peaked at 7 d of age and declined subsequently. There was also a reduction in the relative weights of the gizzard and yolk sac with age. The length of the small intestine and its regions increased with age. 3. Crypt depth increased with age in the duodenum and jejunum while villus height increased significantly with age in all three regions of the small intestine. There were also significant changes in apparent villus surface area in the three regions, while interactions between age and intestinal region were significant in the case of crypt depth and villus height. 4. There were significant differences between the age groups in the mucosal protein content of jejunal and ileal homogenates, both tending to peak at 7 d of age. The DNA content of the intestinal mucosa declined with age in the three regions of the small intestine. While there was an increase in RNA content in the duodenum and ileum, there was a reduction in the jejunum. 5. Protein: DNA ratio increased between hatch and 21 d of age in all intestinal regions. Protein: RNA ratio decreased with age in the duodenum and ileum but increased in the jejunum. There were significant increases in RNA: DNA ratio in the duodenum and ileum but no changes were observed in the jejunum. The interactions between age and intestinal region were significant for all biochemical indices assessed. 6. At all ages, enterocyte proliferation at the jejunum was completed and quantifiable within 1 h of administration of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrDU). Subsequent assessment revealed an increase in crypt column count and number of BrDU-labelled cells. The rate of cell migration increased with age while there was a decline in the distance

  7. PUMA Suppresses Intestinal Tumorigenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Wei; Carson-Walter, Eleanor B.; Kuan, Shih Fan; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Defective apoptosis contributes to tumorigenesis, although the critical molecular targets remain to be fully characterized. PUMA, a BH3-only protein essential for p53-dependent apoptosis, has been shown to suppress lymphomagenesis. In this study, we investigated the role of PUMA in intestinal tumorigenesis using two animal models. In the azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium salt model, PUMA deficiency increased the multiplicity and size of colon tumors but reduced the frequency of β-catenin hotspot mutations. The absence of PUMA led to a significantly elevated incidence of precursor lesions induced by AOM. AOM was found to induce p53-dependent PUMA expression and PUMA-dependent apoptosis in the colonic crypts and stem cell compartment. Furthermore, PUMA deficiency significantly enhanced the formation of spontaneous macroadenomas and microadenomas in the distal small intestine and colon of APCMin/+ mice. These results show an essential role of PUMA-mediated apoptosis in suppressing intestinal tumorigenesis in mice. PMID:19491259

  8. Alanyl-glutamine attenuates 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, C.V.; Lazzarotto, C.R.; Aquino, C.C.; Figueiredo, I.L.; Costa, T.B.; de Oliveira Alves, L.A.; Ribeiro, R.A.; Bertolini, L.R.; Lima, A.A.M.; Brito, G.A.C.; Oriá, R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE=gene, apoE=protein) is a known factor regulating the inflammatory response that may have regenerative effects during tissue recovery from injury. We investigated whether apoE deficiency reduces the healing effect of alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln) treatment, a recognized gut-trophic nutrient, during tissue recovery after 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. APOE-knockout (APOE-/-) and wild-type (APOE+/+) C57BL6J male and female mice (N=86) were given either Ala-Gln (100 mM) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) by gavage 3 days before and 5 days after a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) challenge (450 mg/kg, via intraperitoneal injection). Mouse body weight was monitored daily. The 5-FU cytotoxic effect was evaluated by leukometry. Intestinal villus height, villus/crypt ratio, and villin expression were monitored to assess recovery of the intestinal absorptive surface area. Crypt length, mitotic, apoptotic, and necrotic crypt indexes, and quantitative real-time PCR for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) intestinal mRNA transcripts were used to evaluate intestinal epithelial cell turnover. 5-FU challenge caused significant weight loss and leukopenia (P<0.001) in both mouse strains, which was not improved by Ala-Gln. Villus blunting, crypt hyperplasia, and reduced villus/crypt ratio (P<0.05) were found in all 5-FU-challenged mice but not in PBS controls. Ala-Gln improved villus/crypt ratio, crypt length and mitotic index in all challenged mice, compared with PBS controls. Ala-Gln improved villus height only in APOE-/- mice. Crypt cell apoptosis and necrotic scores were increased in all mice challenged by 5-FU, compared with untreated controls. Those scores were significantly lower in Ala-Gln-treated APOE+/+ mice than in controls. Bcl-2 and IGF-1 mRNA transcripts were reduced only in the APOE-/--challenged mice. Altogether our findings suggest APOE-independent Ala-Gln regenerative effects after 5-FU challenge. PMID:25945744

  9. Histopathological changes in small and large intestines during hymenolepidosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta I; Kolasa, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    The tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta is a chronic parasite living in the small intestine of rats, mice and humans. The aim of this study was to determine histopathological changes in the rat intestine during experimental hymenolepidosis. Our results showed that in rats infected with H. diminuta slight changes occurred in the length of the villus and crypts in different parts of the digestive tract. The changes were most distinct in the duodenum and jejunum on the 16 days post H. diminuta infection.

  10. A mathematical model of the colon crypt capturing compositional dynamic interactions between cell types

    PubMed Central

    Smallbone, Kieran; Corfe, Bernard M

    2014-01-01

    Models of the development and early progression of colorectal cancer are based upon understanding the cycle of stem cell turnover, proliferation, differentiation and death. Existing crypt compartmental models feature a linear pathway of cell types, with little regulatory mechanism. Previous work has shown that there are perturbations in the enteroendocrine cell population of macroscopically normal crypts, a compartment not included in existing models. We show that existing models do not adequately recapitulate the dynamics of cell fate pathways in the crypt. We report the progressive development, iterative testing and fitting of a developed compartmental model with additional cell types, and which includes feedback mechanisms and cross-regulatory mechanisms between cell types. The fitting of the model to existing data sets suggests a need to invoke cross-talk between cell types as a feature of colon crypt cycle models. PMID:24354351

  11. Experiment K-6-17. Structural changes and cell turnover in the rats small intestine induced by spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. W.; Sawyer, H. R.; Smirnov, K. V.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to test the hypothesis that the generalized, whole body decrease in synthetic activity associated with microgravity conditions of space flight as evidenced by negative nitrogen balance and muscle atrophy (Nicogossian and Parker, 1982; Oganov, 1981), as well as inhibited lymphocyte proliferation (Bechler and Cogoli, 1986), would be evident in cells characterized by a rapid rate of turnover. As a model, researchers chose to study the turnover of mucosal cells lining the jejunum of the small intestine, since these cells are among the most rapidly proliferating in the body. Under normal conditions, epithelial cells that line the small intestine are continually produced in the crypts of Lieberkuhn. These cells migrate out of the crypts onto intestinal villi, are progressively pushed up the villus as new crypt cells are formed, and ultimately reach the tip of villi where they are then descquamated. In rats, the entire process, from initial proliferation in crypts to desquamation, takes approximately 2 days (Cairnie et al., 1965; Lipkin, 1973). In this study, researchers determined the mitotic index for mucosal cells lining the proximal, middle, and distal regions of the jejunum in rats from three treatment groups (synchronous control, vivarium control and flight), and measured the depth of the crypts of Lieberkuhn and the length of villi present in each of the three jejunal regions sampled.

  12. Intestinal stem cell injury and protection during cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Radiation and chemotherapy remain the most effective and widely used cancer treatments. These treatments cause DNA damage and selectively target rapidly proliferating cells such as cancer cells, as well as inevitably cause damage to normal tissues, particularly those undergoing rapid self renewal. The side effects associated with radiation and chemotherapy are most pronounced in the hematopoietic (HP) system and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. These tissues are fast renewing and have a well-defined stem cell compartment that plays an essential role in homeostasis, and in treatment-induced acute injury that is dose limiting. Using recently defined intestinal stem cell markers and mouse models, a great deal of insight has been gained in the biology of intestinal stem cells (ISCs), which will undoubtedly help further mechanistic understanding of their injury. This review will cover historic discoveries and recent advances in the identification and characterization of intestinal stem cells, their responses to genotoxic stress, and a new crypt and intestinal stem cell culture system. The discussion will include key pathways regulating intestinal crypt and stem cell injury and regeneration caused by cancer treatments, and strategies for their protection. The focus will be on the acute phase of cell killing in mouse radiation models, where our understanding of the mechanisms in relation to intestinal stem cells is most advanced and interventions appear most effective. PMID:24683536

  13. Histochemical features of the Muscovy duck small intestine during development.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bao An; Pirone, Andrea; Lenzi, Carla; Xiaoming, Nie; Baglini, Alessandro; Romboli, Isabella

    2011-06-01

    We demonstrated for the first time the distribution and morphology of argyrophil and of goblet cells in the mucosa of the small intestine of the Muscovy duck during development using the Grimelius silver staining and alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff (AB/PAS) staining technique. The argyrophil cells distribution was variable over the length of the small intestine from embryonic day 24 (24E) to post-hatching day 13 (13d). In the villi most argyrophil cells belonged to the open-type, while in the crypts they belonged to the closed-type. In the duodenum the density of argyrophil cells was highest at hatching, while in the jejunum and in the ileum the highest density value was at hatching and 13d. AB/PAS-positive goblet cells appeared on the villi and crypts of the duodenum and jejunum at 30E, and in the ileum at hatching. The density of AB/PAS-positive cells was the highest in the three segments at hatching. The AB-positive cells, compared with the PAS-positive cells, predominated in villi and crypts of the three segments, moreover the rate of AB-positive cells to PAS-positive cells significantly decreased from 30E to 9d. An increase in argyrophil and goblet cells number during the later incubation and at hatching, could indicate the small intestine in that period is being prepared to face a new diet.

  14. Aberrant crypt foci in human colons: distribution and histomorphologic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shpitz, B; Bomstein, Y; Mekori, Y; Cohen, R; Kaufman, Z; Neufeld, D; Galkin, M; Bernheim, J

    1998-05-01

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are one of the earliest putative preneoplastic, and in some cases, neoplastic lesions in human colons. These microscopic lesions, identified on methylene blue-stained mucosa with a low-power-magnification microscope, are thought to be closely related to the earliest steps in multistage colonic tumorigenesis. We investigated the distribution pattern and histomorphological features of ACF in 74 patients with sporadic colorectal cancer. The distribution pattern shows a slightly higher prevalence with older age. The prevalence of the ACF in sigmoid colon was significantly higher in patients with colorectal cancer as compared with patients with benign colonic diseases. Also, significantly more ACF were detected in distal parts of the large bowel (descending, sigmoid colon, and rectum) than in proximal parts. Of 42 microdissected lesions, 12 were dysplastic and 30 were hyperplastic foci. The average size of dysplastic lesions was significantly larger than hyperplastic foci. More apoptotic bodies were found in dysplastic lesions. These lesions also showed an upward expansion of proliferative compartment and higher proliferation indices expressed as proliferating cell nuclear antigen-labeling index. Lymphoid follicles were frequently observed in the base of both hyperplastic and dysplastic foci (40% and 66.6%, respectively). The coincidence of lymphoid follicles was 2.5 to 8 times higher than expected. These features may be related to further progression of selected ACF during colorectal tumorigenesis.

  15. Tales from the crypt: a parasitoid manipulates the behaviour of its parasite host.

    PubMed

    Weinersmith, Kelly L; Liu, Sean M; Forbes, Andrew A; Egan, Scott P

    2017-01-25

    There are many examples of apparent manipulation of host phenotype by parasites, yet few examples of hypermanipulation-where a phenotype-manipulating parasite is itself manipulated by a parasite. Moreover, few studies confirm manipulation is occurring by quantifying whether the host's changed phenotype increases parasite fitness. Here we describe a novel case of hypermanipulation, in which the crypt gall wasp Bassettia pallida (a phenotypic manipulator of its tree host) is manipulated by the parasitoid crypt-keeper wasp Euderus set, and show that the host's changed behaviour increases parasitoid fitness. Bassettia pallida parasitizes sand live oaks and induces the formation of a 'crypt' within developing stems. When parasitized by E. set, B. pallida adults excavate an emergence hole in the crypt wall, plug the hole with their head and die. We show experimentally that this phenomenon benefits E. set, as E. set that need to excavate an emergence hole themselves are about three times more likely to die trapped in the crypt. In addition, we discuss museum and field data to explore the distribution of the crypt-keeping phenomena.

  16. Intestinal Stem Cell Markers in the Intestinal Metaplasia of Stomach and Barrett's Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Jang, Bo Gun; Lee, Byung Lan; Kim, Woo Ho

    2015-01-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) is a highly prevalent preneoplastic lesion; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating its development remain unclear. We have previously shown that a population of cells expressing the intestinal stem cell (ISC) marker LGR5 increases remarkably in IM. In this study, we further investigated the molecular characteristics of these LGR5+ cells in IM by examining the expression profile of several ISC markers. Notably, we found that ISC markers-including OLFM4 and EPHB2-are positively associated with the CDX2 expression in non-tumorous gastric tissues. This finding was confirmed in stomach lesions with or without metaplasia, which demonstrated that OLFM4 and EPHB2 expression gradually increased with metaplastic progression. Moreover, RNA in situ hybridization revealed that LGR5+ cells coexpress several ISC markers and remained confined to the base of metaplastic glands, reminiscent to that of normal intestinal crypts, whereas those in normal antral glands expressed none of these markers. Furthermore, a large number of ISC marker-expressing cells were diffusely distributed in gastric adenomas, suggesting that these markers may facilitate gastric tumorigenesis. In addition, Barrett's esophagus (BE)-which is histologically similar to intestinal metaplasia-exhibited a similar distribution of ISC markers, indicating the presence of a stem cell population with intestinal differentiation potential. In conclusion, we identified that LGR5+ cells in gastric IM and BE coexpress ISC markers, and exhibit the same expression profile as those found in normal intestinal crypts. Taken together, these results implicate an intestinal-like stem cell population in the pathogenesis of IM, and provide an important basis for understanding the development and maintenance of this disease.

  17. Evaluation of an intestinal Lactobacillus reuteri strain expressing rumen fungal xylanase as a probiotic for broiler chickens fed on a wheat-based diet.

    PubMed

    Liu, J R; Lai, S F; Yu, B

    2007-08-01

    1. This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using a transformed Lactobacillus reuteri Pg4 strain harbouring a rumen fungal xylanase gene as a probiotic supplement in a wheat-based poultry diet. 2. A total of 400 broiler chicks was allocated to two treatment groups with or without supplementation with 10(6) colony forming units (cfu)/g of transformed L. reuteri Pg4 in a wheat-based regimen to investigate the performance, intestinal microflora populations, digesta viscosity and excreta ammonia concentrations in these broiler chickens. 3. Supplementation of the wheat-based diet with transformed L. reuteri Pg4 decreased intestinal viscosity, caecal coliform population, and increased body weight gain and ileal villus height and crypt depth from 0 to 21 d of age. It also decreased excreta ammonia concentrations, and increased the caecal total volatile fatty acid (VFA) and lactic acid concentrations from 0 to 21 d and 22 to 37 d of age. 4. Further, it was demonstrated that 40% of the Lactobacillus cells randomly isolated from the digesta of the ileum and caecum of the supplemented group possessed xylanase secretion capability. 5. It appears reasonable to assume, therefore, that the derived benefit is a result of the organism surviving, and the associated performance of some function in the intestinal tract which benefits gut health.

  18. Effect of age on epithelial cell migration in small intestine of chickens.

    PubMed

    Moon, H W; Skartvedt, S M

    1975-02-01

    Villous length, crypt depth, epithelial cell migration rate, and replacement time were studied by autoradiography of histologic sections of small intestine from normal chickens exposed to tritiated thymidine (3-H-TdR). The results indicated that villi and crypts elongate, and epithelial cell migration accelerates between 1 day and 6 months of age. Epithelial replacement time seemed to increase with age of the chickens. Replacement was nearly complete in the 1-day-old group of chickens 5 days after thymidine exposure. In contrast, at this same time, replacement was only approximately 75 and 50% complete in the 3-week-old and 6-month-old groups of chickens, respectively.

  19. Suppressive effects of dietary high fluorine on the intestinal development in broilers.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qin; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Liu, Juan; Deng, Yubing

    2013-12-01

    Fluoride (F) is a well-recognized hazardous substance. Ingested F initially acts locally on the intestines. The small intestine plays a critical role in the digestion, absorption, and defense. In this study, therefore, we investigated the effects of fluorine on the intestinal development by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and histochemistry. A total of 280 one-day-old avian broilers were randomly divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet (fluorine, 22.6 mg/kg) or the same basal diet supplemented with 400, 800, and 1,200 mg/kg fluorine (high fluorine groups I, II, and III) in the form of sodium fluoride for 42 days. The results showed that the intestinal gross, histological, and ultrastructural changes were observed in the high fluorine groups II and III. Meanwhile, the intestinal length, weight, viscera index, villus height, crypt depth, villus height to crypt depth ratio, diameter, muscle layer thickness, and goblet cell numbers were significantly lower (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05), and the intestinal diameter to villus height ratio was markedly higher (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05) in the high fluorine groups II and III than those in control group. In conclusion, dietary fluorine in the range of 800-1,200 mg/kg obviously altered the aforementioned parameters of the intestines, implying that the intestinal development was suppressed and the intestinal functions, such as digestion, absorption, defense, or osmoregulation were impaired in broilers.

  20. Donor-Specific Regulatory T Cells Acquired from Tolerant Mice Bearing Cardiac Allograft Promote Mixed Chimerism and Prolong Intestinal Allograft Survival

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiao-Fei; Jiang, Jin-Peng; Yang, Jian-Jun; Wang, Wei-Zhong; Guan, Wen-Xian; Du, Jun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The induction of donor-specific transplant tolerance has always been a central problem for small bowel transplantation (SBT), which is thought to be the best therapy for end-stage bowel failure. With the development of new tolerance-inducing strategies, mixed chimerism induced by co-stimulation blockade has become most potent for tolerance of allografts, such as skin, kidney, and heart. However, a lack of clinically available co-stimulation blockers has hindered efficient application in humans. Furthermore, unlike those for other types of solid organ transplantation, strategies to induce robust mixed chimerism for intestinal allografts have not been fully developed. To improve current mixed chimerism induction protocols for future clinical application, we developed a new protocol using donor-specific regulatory T (Treg) cells from mice with heart allograft tolerance, immunosuppressive drugs which could be used clinically and low doses of irradiation. Our results demonstrated that donor-specific Treg cells acquired from tolerant mice after in vitro expansion generate stable chimerism and lead to acceptance of intestinal allograft. Increased intragraft Treg cells and clonal deletion contribute to the development of SBT tolerance. PMID:27909438

  1. Current understanding concerning intestinal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Shuang; Chang, Peng-Yu

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, the intestinal epithelium is a tissue that contains two distinct pools of stem cells: active intestinal stem cells and reserve intestinal stem cells. The former are located in the crypt basement membrane and are responsible for maintaining epithelial homeostasis under intact conditions, whereas the latter exhibit the capacity to facilitate epithelial regeneration after injury. These two pools of cells can convert into each other, maintaining their quantitative balance. In terms of the active intestinal stem cells, their development into functional epithelium is precisely controlled by the following signaling pathways: Wnt/β-catenin, Ras/Raf/Mek/Erk/MAPK, Notch and BMP/Smad. However, mutations in some of the key regulator genes associated with these signaling pathways, such as APC, Kras and Smad4, are also highly associated with gut malformations. At this point, clarifying the biological characteristics of intestinal stem cells will increase the feasibility of preventing or treating some intestinal diseases, such as colorectal cancer. Moreover, as preclinical data demonstrate the therapeutic effects of colon stem cells on murine models of experimental colitis, the prospects of stem cell-based regenerative treatments for ulcerous lesions in the gastrointestinal tract will be improved all the same. PMID:27610020

  2. Intestinal Obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wall Hernias Inguinal Hernia Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Appendicitis Ileus Intestinal Obstruction Ischemic Colitis Perforation of the Digestive ... Wall Hernias Inguinal Hernia Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Appendicitis Ileus Intestinal Obstruction Ischemic Colitis Perforation of the Digestive ...

  3. Lgr4 is required for Paneth cell differentiation and maintenance of intestinal stem cells ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Mustata, Roxana C; Van Loy, Tom; Lefort, Anne; Libert, Frédérick; Strollo, Sandra; Vassart, Gilbert; Garcia, Marie-Isabelle

    2011-06-01

    Gene inactivation of the orphan G protein-coupled receptor LGR4, a paralogue of the epithelial-stem-cell marker LGR5, results in a 50% decrease in epithelial cell proliferation and an 80% reduction in terminal differentiation of Paneth cells in postnatal mouse intestinal crypts. When cultured ex vivo, LGR4-deficient crypts or progenitors, but not LGR5-deficient progenitors, die rapidly with marked downregulation of stem-cell markers and Wnt target genes, including Lgr5. Partial rescue of this phenotype is achieved by addition of LiCl to the culture medium, but not Wnt agonists. Our results identify LGR4 as a permissive factor in the Wnt pathway in the intestine and, as such, as a potential target for intestinal cancer therapy.

  4. Intestinal and multivisceral transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Meira, Sérgio Paiva; Guardia, Bianca Della; Evangelista, Andréia Silva; Matielo, Celso Eduardo Lourenço; Neves, Douglas Bastos; Pandullo, Fernando Luis; Felga, Guilherme Eduardo Gonçalves; Alves, Jefferson André da Silva; Curvelo, Lilian Amorim; Diaz, Luiz Gustavo Guedes; Rusi, Marcela Balbo; Viveiros, Marcelo de Melo; de Almeida, Marcio Dias; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Pedroso, Pamella Tung; Salvalaggio, Paolo; Meirelles, Roberto Ferreira; Rocco, Rodrigo Andrey; de Almeida, Samira Scalso; de Rezende, Marcelo Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal transplantation has shown exceptional growth over the past 10 years. At the end of the 1990’s, intestinal transplantation moved out of the experimental realm to become a routine practice in treating patients with severe complications related to total parenteral nutrition and intestinal failure. In the last years, several centers reported an increasing improvement in survival outcomes (about 80%), during the first 12 months after surgery, but long-term survival is still a challenge. Several advances led to clinical application of transplants. Immunosuppression involved in intestinal and multivisceral transplantation was the biggest gain for this procedure in the past decade due to tacrolimus, and new inducing drugs, mono- and polyclonal anti-lymphocyte antibodies. Despite the advancement of rigid immunosuppression protocols, rejection is still very frequent in the first 12 months, and can result in long-term graft loss. The future of intestinal transplantation and multivisceral transplantation appears promising. The major challenge is early recognition of acute rejection in order to prevent graft loss, opportunistic infections associated to complications, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease and graft versus host disease; and consequently, improve results in the long run. PMID:25993080

  5. Interactions between stromal cell--derived keratinocyte growth factor and epithelial transforming growth factor in immune-mediated crypt cell hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj-Elliott, M; Poulsom, R; Pender, S L; Wathen, N C; MacDonald, T T

    1998-01-01

    Immune reactions in the gut are associated with increased epithelial cell proliferation. Here we have studied the role of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF; FGF7) and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) in the epithelial cell hyperplasia seen in explants of fetal human small intestine after activation of lamina propria T cells with the superantigen Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB). After the addition of SEB to the explants there is a 10-fold increase in KGF mRNA by 72 h of culture. KGF transcripts were abundant in the lamina propria using in situ hybridization and the culture supernatants contained elevated amounts of KGF protein. SEB had no direct effect on KGF mRNA and protein production by cultured lamina propria mesenchymal cells, but both were upregulated by TNF-alpha. Accompanying the increase in KGF there was also an increase in TGF-alpha precursor proteins in the culture supernatants and the phosphorylated form of the EGFR receptor was also detected in the tissue. Increased TGF-alpha precursor proteins were also detected in the supernatants of control explants stimulated with KGF alone. The direct addition of KGF and TGF-alpha enhanced epithelial cell proliferation and antibodies against KGF and TGF-alpha partially inhibited SEB-induced crypt hyperplasia. These results suggest molecular cross-talk between the KGF/KGFR and the TGF-alpha/EGFR in immune-mediated crypt cell hyperplasia. PMID:9788959

  6. Tales from the crypt: a parasitoid manipulates the behaviour of its parasite host

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sean M.; Forbes, Andrew A.; Egan, Scott P.

    2017-01-01

    There are many examples of apparent manipulation of host phenotype by parasites, yet few examples of hypermanipulation—where a phenotype-manipulating parasite is itself manipulated by a parasite. Moreover, few studies confirm manipulation is occurring by quantifying whether the host's changed phenotype increases parasite fitness. Here we describe a novel case of hypermanipulation, in which the crypt gall wasp Bassettia pallida (a phenotypic manipulator of its tree host) is manipulated by the parasitoid crypt-keeper wasp Euderus set, and show that the host's changed behaviour increases parasitoid fitness. Bassettia pallida parasitizes sand live oaks and induces the formation of a ‘crypt’ within developing stems. When parasitized by E. set, B. pallida adults excavate an emergence hole in the crypt wall, plug the hole with their head and die. We show experimentally that this phenomenon benefits E. set, as E. set that need to excavate an emergence hole themselves are about three times more likely to die trapped in the crypt. In addition, we discuss museum and field data to explore the distribution of the crypt-keeping phenomena. PMID:28123089

  7. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae exploits cytokeratin 18-positive epithelial cells of porcine tonsillar crypts as an invasion gateway.

    PubMed

    Harada, Tomoyuki; Ogawa, Yohsuke; Eguchi, Masahiro; Shi, Fang; Sato, Masumi; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Shimoji, Yoshihiro

    2013-06-15

    Tonsils are important organs for mucosal immunity and are gateways for various pathogens, including bacteria and viruses. The purpose of the present study was to reveal how Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, the causative agent of swine erysipelas, invades the mucosal epithelium of the tonsils of pigs. Two germ-free piglets were orally infected with E. rhusiopathiae Koganei 65-0.15, an attenuated vaccine strain in Japan, and their tonsils of the soft palate were histologically examined four weeks after infection. Bacterial organisms were observed in dilated crypt lumens and a few epithelial cells of the crypt. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that some epithelial cells of the crypt were positive for cytokeratin (CK) 18, a specific marker for M cells in the Peyer's patches of pigs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that bacterial antigens were present in the cytoplasm of CK 18-positive epithelial cells. Furthermore, an ultramicroscopic examination revealed that the bacteria-containing epithelial cells did not have microfolds or microvilli, both of which are characteristic of membranous epithelial cells (M cells), and that they were in close contact with intraepithelial phagocytes. Thus, the present observations suggest that the tonsillar crypt epithelium is a site of persistent infection for orally administered E. rhusiopathiae, and the bacteria exploit cytokeratin 18-positive epithelial cells of the crypts as portals of entry into the body.

  8. Optical coherence tomography imaging of colonic crypts in a mouse model of colorectal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welge, Weston A.; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2016-03-01

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are abnormal epithelial lesions that precede development of colonic polyps. As the earliest morphological change in the development of colorectal cancer, ACF is a highly studied phenomenon. The most common method of imaging ACF is chromoendoscopy using methylene blue as a contrast agent. Narrow- band imaging is a contrast-agent-free modality for imaging the colonic crypts. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an attractive alternative to chromoendoscopy and narrow-band imaging because it can resolve the crypt structure at sufficiently high sampling while simultaneously providing depth-resolved data. We imaged in vivo the distal 15 mm of colon in the azoxymethane (AOM) mouse model of colorectal cancer using a commercial swept-source OCT system and a miniature endoscope designed and built in-house. We present en face images of the colonic crypts and demonstrate that different patterns in healthy and adenoma tissue can be seen. These patterns correspond to those reported in the literature. We have previously demonstrated early detection of colon adenoma using OCT by detecting minute thickening of the mucosa. By combining mucosal thickness measurement with imaging of the crypt structure, OCT can be used to correlate ACF and adenoma development in space and time. These results suggest that OCT may be a superior imaging modality for studying the connection between ACF and colorectal cancer.

  9. Regeneration of intestinal stem/progenitor cells following doxorubicin treatment of mice

    PubMed Central

    Dekaney, Christopher M.; Gulati, Ajay S.; Garrison, Aaron P.; Helmrath, Michael A.; Henning, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is in a constant state of renewal. The rapid turnover of cells is fed by a hierarchy of transit amplifying and stem/progenitor cells destined to give rise to the four differentiated epithelial lineages of the small intestine. Doxorubicin (Dox) is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent that preferentially induces apoptosis in the intestinal stem cell zone (SCZ). We hypothesized that Dox treatment would initially decrease “+4” intestinal stem cell numbers with a subsequent expansion during mucosal repair. Temporal assessment following Dox treatment demonstrated rapid induction of apoptosis in the SCZ leading to a decrease in the number of intestinal stem/progenitor cells as determined by flow cytometry for CD45(−) SP cells, and immunohistochemistry of cells positive for putative +4 stem cell markers β-catSer552 and DCAMKL1. Between 96 and 168 h postinjection, overall proliferation in the crypts increased concomitant with increases in both absolute and relative numbers of goblet, Paneth, and enteroendocrine cells. This regeneration phase was also associated with increases of CD45(−) SP cells, β-catSer552-positive cells, crypt fission, and crypt number. We used Lgr5-lacZ mice to assess behavior of Lgr5-positive stem cells following Dox and found no change in this cell population. Lgr5 mRNA level was also measured and showed no change immediately after Dox but decreased during the regeneration phase. Together these data suggest that, following Dox-induced injury, expansion of intestinal stem cells occurs during mucosal repair. On the basis of available markers this expansion appears to be predominantly the +4 stem cell population rather than those of the crypt base. PMID:19589945

  10. Depletion of enteric bacteria diminishes leukocyte infiltration following doxorubicin-induced small intestinal damage in mice

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Jacquelyn S.; King, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Background & aims While enteric bacteria have been shown to play a critical role in other forms of intestinal damage, their role in mediating the response to the chemotherapeutic drug Doxorubicin (Doxo) is unclear. In this study, we used a mouse model of intestinal bacterial depletion to evaluate the role enteric bacteria play in mediating Doxo-induced small intestinal damage and, more specifically, in mediating chemokine expression and leukocyte infiltration following Doxo treatment. An understanding of this pathway may allow for development of intervention strategies to reduce chemotherapy-induced small intestinal damage. Methods Mice were treated with (Abx) or without (NoAbx) oral antibiotics in drinking water for four weeks and then with Doxo. Jejunal tissues were collected at various time points following Doxo treatment and stained and analyzed for apoptosis, crypt damage and restitution, and macrophage and neutrophil number. In addition, RNA expression of inflammatory markers (TNFα, IL1-β, IL-10) and cytokines (CCL2, CC7, KC) was assessed by qRT-PCR. Results In NoAbx mice Doxo-induced damage was associated with rapid induction of apoptosis in jejunal crypt epithelium and an increase weight loss and crypt loss. In addition, we observed an increase in immune-modulating chemokines CCL2, CCL7 and KC and infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils. In contrast, while still positive for induction of apoptosis following Doxo treatment, Abx mice showed neither the overall weight loss nor crypt loss seen in NoAbx mice nor the increased chemokine expression and leukocyte infiltration. Conclusion Enteric bacteria play a critical role in Doxo-induced small intestinal damage and are associated with an increase in immune-modulating chemokines and cells. Manipulation of enteric bacteria or the damage pathway may allow for prevention or treatment of chemotherapy-induced small intestinal damage. PMID:28257503

  11. Efficient genetic engineering of human intestinal organoids using electroporation.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Masayuki; Matano, Mami; Nanki, Kosaku; Sato, Toshiro

    2015-10-01

    Gene modification in untransformed human intestinal cells is an attractive approach for studying gene function in intestinal diseases. However, because of the lack of practical tools, such studies have largely depended upon surrogates, such as gene-engineered mice or immortalized human cell lines. By taking advantage of the recently developed intestinal organoid culture method, we developed a methodology for modulating genes of interest in untransformed human colonic organoids via electroporation of gene vectors. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the generation of intestinal organoids by culture with essential growth factors in a basement membrane matrix. We also describe how to stably integrate genes via the piggyBac transposon, as well as precise genome editing using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Beginning with crypt isolation from a human colon sample, genetically modified organoids can be obtained in 3 weeks.

  12. The CSF-1 receptor fashions the intestinal stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    Akcora, Dilara; Huynh, Duy; Lightowler, Sally; Germann, Markus; Robine, Sylvie; de May, Jan R; Pollard, Jeffrey W; Stanley, E Richard; Malaterre, Jordane; Ramsay, Robert G

    2013-03-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) homeostasis requires the action of multiple pathways. There is some controversy regarding whether small intestine (SI) Paneth cells (PCs) play a central role in orchestrating crypt architecture and their relationship with Lgr5+ve stem cells. Nevertheless, we previously showed that germline CSF-1 receptor (Csf1r) knock out (KO) or Csf1 mutation is associated with an absence of mature PC, reduced crypt proliferation and lowered stem cell gene, Lgr5 expression. Here we show the additional loss of CD24, Bmi1 and Olfm4 expression in the KO crypts and a high resolution 3D localization of CSF-1R mainly to PC. The induction of GI-specific Csf1r deletion in young adult mice also led to PC loss over a period of weeks, in accord with the anticipated long life span of PC, changed distribution of proliferating cells and this was with a commensurate loss of Lgr5 and other stem cell marker gene expression. By culturing SI organoids, we further show that the Csf1r(-/-) defect in PC production is intrinsic to epithelial cells as well as definitively affecting stem cell activity. These results show that CSF-1R directly supports PC maturation and that in turn PCs fashion the intestinal stem cell niche.

  13. Spatial organization of bacterial flora in normal and inflamed intestine: A fluorescence in situ hybridization study in mice

    PubMed Central

    Swidsinski, Alexander; Loening-Baucke, Vera; Lochs, Herbert; Hale, Laura P.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the role of intestinal flora in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: The spatial organization of intestinal flora was investigated in normal mice and in two models of murine colitis using fluorescence in situ hybridization. RESULTS: The murine small intestine was nearly bacteria-free. The normal colonic flora was organized in three distinct compartments (crypt, interlaced, and fecal), each with different bacterial compositions. Crypt bacteria were present in the cecum and proximal colon. The fecal compartment was composed of homogeneously mixed bacterial groups that directly contacted the colonic wall in the cecum but were separated from the proximal colonic wall by a dense interlaced layer. Beginning in the middle colon, a mucus gap of growing thickness physically separated all intestinal bacteria from contact with the epithelium. Colonic inflammation was accompanied with a depletion of bacteria within the fecal compartment, a reduced surface area in which feces had direct contact with the colonic wall, increased thickness and spread of the mucus gap, and massive increases of bacterial concentrations in the crypt and interlaced compartments. Adhesive and infiltrative bacteria were observed in inflamed colon only, with dominant Bacteroides species. CONCLUSION: The proximal and distal colons are functionally different organs with respect to the intestinal flora, representing a bioreactor and a segregation device. The highly organized structure of the colonic flora, its specific arrangement in different colonic segments, and its specialized response to inflammatory stimuli indicate that the intestinal flora is an innate part of host immunity that is under complex control. PMID:15754393

  14. A Novel Model of P-Glycoprotein Inhibitor Screening Using Human Small Intestinal Organoids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junfang; Zeng, Zhiyang; Sun, Jialiang; Zhang, Yuanjin; Li, Dali; Zhang, Xueli; Liu, Mingyao; Wang, Xin

    2017-03-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an important efflux transporter in intestine, regulates the bioavailability of orally taken drugs. To develop an in vitro model that preferably mimics the physiological microenvironment of human intestine, we employed the three-dimensionally (3D) cultured organoids from human normal small intestinal epithelium. It was observed that the intestinal crypts could efficiently form cystic organoid structure with the extension of culture time. Furthermore, the physiological expression of ABCB1 was detected at both mRNA and protein levels in cultured organoids. Rhodamine 123 (Rh123), a typical substrate of P-gp, was actively transported across 3D organoids and accumulated in the luminal space. This transport process was also inhibited by verapamil and mitotane. In summary, the above-mentioned model based on human small intestinal 3D organoids is suitable to imitate the small intestinal epithelium and could be used as a novel in vitro model especially for P-gp inhibitor screening.

  15. The Effect of Impaired Angiogenesis on Intestinal Function Following Massive Small Bowel Resection

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Miron, Jose; Sun, Raphael; Choi, Pamela; Sommovilla, Joshua; Guo, Jun; Erwin, Christopher R.; Mei, Junjie; Worthen, G. Scott; Warner, Brad W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Intestinal adaptation involves villus lengthening, crypt deepening, and increased capillary density following small bowel resection (SBR). Mice lacking the proangiogenic chemokine CXCL5 have normal structural adaptation but impaired angiogenesis. This work evaluates the impact of incomplete adaptive angiogenesis on the functional capacity of the intestine after SBR. Methods CXCL5 knockout (KO) and C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice underwent 50% SBR. Magnetic resonance imaging measured weekly body composition. Intestinal absorptive capacity was evaluated through fecal fat analysis. Gene expression profiles for select macronutrient transporters were measured via RT-PCR. Postoperative crypt and villus measurements assessed for structural adaptation. Submucosal capillary density was measured through CD31 immunohistochemistry. Results Comparable postoperative weight gain occurred initially. Diminished weight gain, impaired fat absorption, and elevated steatorrhea occurred in KO mice after instituting high-fat diet. Greater postoperative upregulation of ABCA1 fat transporter occurred in WT mice, while PEPT1 protein transporter was significantly downregulated in KO mice. KO mice had impaired angiogenesis but intact structural adaptation. Conclusion After SBR, KO mice display an inefficient intestinal absorption profile with perturbed macronutrient transporter expression, impaired fat absorption, and slower postoperative weight gain. In addition to longer villi and deeper crypts, an intact angiogenic response may be required to achieve functional adaptation to SBR. PMID:25818317

  16. Influence of high-calorie (cafeteria) diets on the population of Paneth cells in the small intestine of the rat.

    PubMed

    Becerril, Adriana; Castillo-Robles, Guadalupe; González-Hernández, Margarita; Villanueva, Iván

    2005-01-01

    A high-calorie (cafeteria) diet is known to cause changes in the intestinal morphology and functioning that seem to be related to calorie overfeeding. Among the cell lineages found in the small intestine epithelium, the Paneth cell (PC) population is known to be influenced by factors related mainly to the intestinal microbiota. The role of PCs in the intestinal cell concert remains unclear, because experimental evidence suggests PC involvement in local processes other than protection against pathogens. Participation of PC in digestive mechanisms has been proposed on this basis. We have analyzed the effect of high-carbohydrate (HC) and high-fat (HF) cafeteria diets on the PC population in the small intestine of the adult rat. For 8 weeks, both HC and HF diets caused a gain in body weight, but whereas the HC-fed rats showed reduced counts of intestinal crypts per 5-mum section, the HF-fed group showed the opposite. In control rats, the number of crypts per section showed a slight tendency to decrease along the duodenum - ileum axis, whereas the number of PCs per crypt was increased towards the ileum. As a result, the number of PCs per section (calculated from these data) remained constant along the three segments of the intestine. The hypercaloric diets did not modify the general tendencies seen in the crypt and PC counts, but reduced the number of PCs per section in the duodenum by 50%. HC-fed, but not HF-fed, rats showed a similar reduction in jejunum also. These changes do not correlate particularly with any of the predictable effects of diet composition, so that a multifactorial control of PC density is proposed.

  17. Stimulation of butyrate production in the large intestine of weaning piglets by dietary fructooligosaccharides and its influence on the histological variables of the large intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Iwasaki, Yoshie; Nakayama, Keizo; Ushida, Kazunari

    2003-12-01

    Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) reach the large intestine and are fermented into short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), lactate, and carbon dioxide. As the major energy source for the epithelial cells of the large intestine, n-butyrate stimulates the proliferation of cells as well as mineral and water absorption from the lumen. We examined the effect of dietary FOS supplementation on luminal SCFA production and its influence on the morphometrical variables of mucosa of the large intestine in commercially available pigs. Six weaning piglets were used. After 7 d of adaptation, three pigs were given a test diet containing FOS (10%) ad libitum for 10 d. The other three remained on the basal diet and were used as controls. At the end of the experiment, their large intestines were removed, and the cecum, gyri centripetales, gyri centrifugales, and rectum were separated. The contents of each portion were collected and measured for SCFA concentration, pH, and moisture. A micrometer was used to measure the crypt depth. The numbers of epithelial and mitotic cells in the crypt columns were also counted. The concentration of SCFA was significantly higher in piglets fed FOS than in the controls. The concentration of n-butyrate was markedly stimulated by FOS. The number of epithelial. mitotic, and mucin-containing cells was higher in piglets fed FOS than in the controls. Accordingly, the crypt depth was larger in the FOS-fed piglets. The luminal n-butyrate concentration showed a significantly positive correlation with the crypt depth and the number of epithelial, mitotic, and mucin-containing cells.

  18. Type 3 innate lymphoid cells maintain intestinal epithelial stem cells after tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Aparicio-Domingo, Patricia; Romera-Hernandez, Monica; Karrich, Julien J; Cornelissen, Ferry; Papazian, Natalie; Lindenbergh-Kortleve, Dicky J; Butler, James A; Boon, Louis; Coles, Mark C; Samsom, Janneke N; Cupedo, Tom

    2015-10-19

    Disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier allows bacterial translocation and predisposes to destructive inflammation. To ensure proper barrier composition, crypt-residing stem cells continuously proliferate and replenish all intestinal epithelial cells within days. As a consequence of this high mitotic activity, mucosal surfaces are frequently targeted by anticancer therapies, leading to dose-limiting side effects. The cellular mechanisms that control tissue protection and mucosal healing in response to intestinal damage remain poorly understood. Type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) are regulators of homeostasis and tissue responses to infection at mucosal surfaces. We now demonstrate that ILC3s are required for epithelial activation and proliferation in response to small intestinal tissue damage induced by the chemotherapeutic agent methotrexate. Multiple subsets of ILC3s are activated after intestinal tissue damage, and in the absence of ILC3s, epithelial activation is lost, correlating with increased pathology and severe damage to the intestinal crypts. Using ILC3-deficient Lgr5 reporter mice, we show that maintenance of intestinal stem cells after damage is severely impaired in the absence of ILC3s or the ILC3 signature cytokine IL-22. These data unveil a novel function of ILC3s in limiting tissue damage by preserving tissue-specific stem cells.

  19. Expression of apical Na(+)-L-glutamine co-transport activity, B(0)-system neutral amino acid co-transporter (B(0)AT1) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 along the jejunal crypt-villus axis in young pigs fed a liquid formula.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chengbo; Yang, Xiaojian; Lackeyram, Dale; Rideout, Todd C; Wang, Zirong; Stoll, Barbara; Yin, Yulong; Burrin, Douglas G; Fan, Ming Z

    2016-06-01

    Gut apical amino acid (AA) transport activity is high at birth and during suckling, thus being essential to maintain luminal nutrient-dependent mucosal growth through providing AA as essential metabolic fuel, substrates and nutrient stimuli for cellular growth. Because system-B(0) Na(+)-neutral AA co-transporter (B(0)AT1, encoded by the SLC6A19 gene) plays a dominant role for apical uptake of large neutral AA including L-Gln, we hypothesized that high apical Na(+)-Gln co-transport activity, and B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) in co-expression with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) were expressed along the entire small intestinal crypt-villus axis in young animals via unique control mechanisms. Kinetics of Na(+)-Gln co-transport activity in the apical membrane vesicles, prepared from epithelial cells sequentially isolated along the jejunal crypt-villus axis from liquid formula-fed young pigs, were measured with the membrane potential being clamped to zero using thiocyanate. Apical maximal Na(+)-Gln co-transport activity was much higher (p < 0.05) in the upper villus cells than in the middle villus (by 29 %) and the crypt (by 30 %) cells, whereas Na(+)-Gln co-transport affinity was lower (p < 0.05) in the upper villus cells than in the middle villus and the crypt cells. The B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) mRNA abundance was lower (p < 0.05) in the crypt (by 40-47 %) than in the villus cells. There were no significant differences in B(0)AT1 and ACE2 protein abundances on the apical membrane among the upper villus, the middle villus and the crypt cells. Our study suggests that piglet fast growth is associated with very high intestinal apical Na(+)-neutral AA uptake activities via abundantly co-expressing B(0)AT1 and ACE2 proteins in the apical membrane and by transcribing the B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) gene in the epithelia along the entire crypt-villus axis.

  20. Colon Stem Cell and Crypt Dynamics Exposed by Cell Lineage Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Itzkovitz, Shalev; Elbaz, Judith; Maruvka, Yosef E.; Segev, Elad; Shlush, Liran I.; Dekel, Nava; Shapiro, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell dynamics in vivo are often being studied by lineage tracing methods. Our laboratory has previously developed a retrospective method for reconstructing cell lineage trees from somatic mutations accumulated in microsatellites. This method was applied here to explore different aspects of stem cell dynamics in the mouse colon without the use of stem cell markers. We first demonstrated the reliability of our method for the study of stem cells by confirming previously established facts, and then we addressed open questions. Our findings confirmed that colon crypts are monoclonal and that, throughout adulthood, the process of monoclonal conversion plays a major role in the maintenance of crypts. The absence of immortal strand mechanism in crypts stem cells was validated by the age-dependent accumulation of microsatellite mutations. In addition, we confirmed the positive correlation between physical and lineage proximity of crypts, by showing that the colon is separated into small domains that share a common ancestor. We gained new data demonstrating that colon epithelium is clustered separately from hematopoietic and other cell types, indicating that the colon is constituted of few progenitors and ruling out significant renewal of colonic epithelium from hematopoietic cells during adulthood. Overall, our study demonstrates the reliability of cell lineage reconstruction for the study of stem cell dynamics, and it further addresses open questions in colon stem cells. In addition, this method can be applied to study stem cell dynamics in other systems. PMID:21829376

  1. Rapid tissue engineering of biomimetic human corneal limbal crypts with 3D niche architecture.

    PubMed

    Levis, Hannah J; Massie, Isobel; Dziasko, Marc A; Kaasi, Andreas; Daniels, Julie T

    2013-11-01

    Limbal epithelial stem cells are responsible for the maintenance of the human corneal epithelium and these cells reside in a specialised stem cell niche. They are located at the base of limbal crypts, in a physically protected microenvironment in close proximity to a variety of neighbouring niche cells. Design and recreation of elements of various stem cell niches have allowed researchers to simplify aspects of these complex microenvironments for further study in vitro. We have developed a method to rapidly and reproducibly create bioengineered limbal crypts (BLCs) in a collagen construct using a simple one-step method. Liquid is removed from collagen hydrogels using hydrophilic porous absorbers (HPAs) that have custom moulded micro-ridges on the base. The resulting topography on the surface of the thin collagen constructs resembles the dimensions of the stromal crypts of the human limbus. Human limbal epithelial cells seeded onto the surface of the constructs populate these BLCs and form numerous layers with a high proportion of the cells lining the crypts expressing putative stem cell marker, p63α. The HPAs are produced using a moulding process that is flexible and can be adapted depending on the requirements of the end user. Creation of defined topographical features using this process could be applicable to numerous tissue-engineering applications where varied 3-dimensional niche architectures are required.

  2. Intestinal Parasitoses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagardere, Bernard; Dumburgier, Elisabeth

    1994-01-01

    Intestinal parasites have become a serious public health problem in tropical countries because of the climate and the difficulty of achieving efficient hygiene. The objectives of this journal issue are to increase awareness of the individual and collective repercussions of intestinal parasites, describe the current conditions of contamination and…

  3. Existence of serotonin and neuropeptides-immunoreactive endocrine cells in the small and large intestines of the mole-rats (Spalax leucodon).

    PubMed

    Yaman, M; Bayrakdar, A; Tarakçı, B G

    2012-08-01

    The present study was conducted to clarify the regional distribution and relative frequency of endocrine cells secreting serotonin, substance P (SP), cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and neurotensin in the small and large intestine of the mole-rats (Spalax leucodon), by specific immunohistochemical methods. In the small and large intestine of mole-rats (Spalax leucodon), serotonin, SP and VIP were identified with various frequencies, but CCK-8 and neurotensin were not observed. Most of the IR cells in the small and large intestine were located in the intestinal crypt and epithelium however, they were more frequency in the intestinal crypt. Serotonin-IR cells were detected throughout the whole intestinal tract, predominantly in the duodenum and colon. SP-IR cells were demonstrated throughout the whole intestinal tract except for the ileum and rectum with highest frequencies in the cecum. VIP-IR cells were found in all parts of the small intestine except for the large intestine. In conclusion, the general distribution patterns and relative frequency of intestinal endocrine cells of the mole-rats (Spalax leucodon) was similar to those of some rodent species. However, some species-dependent unique distributions and frequencies characteristics of endocrine cells were also observed in the present study.

  4. Potential role of the NADPH oxidase NOX1 in the pathogenesis of 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in mice.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Masashi; Kato, Shinichi; Yamanaka, Naoki; Iimori, Maho; Utsumi, Daichi; Kitahara, Yumeno; Iwata, Kazumi; Matsuno, Kuniharu; Amagase, Kikuko; Yabe-Nishimura, Chihiro; Takeuchi, Koji

    2012-05-15

    Although NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) has been shown to be highly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, the physiological and pathophysiological roles of this enzyme are not yet fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of NOX1 in the pathogenesis of intestinal mucositis induced by the cancer chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in mice. Intestinal mucositis was induced in Nox1 knockout (Nox1KO) and littermate wild-type (WT) mice via single, daily administration of 5-FU for 5 days. In WT mice, 5-FU caused severe intestinal mucositis characterized by a shortening of villus height, a disruption of crypts, a loss of body weight, and diarrhea. In Nox1KO mice, however, the severity of mucositis was significantly reduced, particularly with respect to crypt disruption. The numbers of apoptotic caspase-3- and caspase-8-activated cells in the intestinal crypt increased 24 h after the first 5-FU administration but were overall significantly lower in Nox1KO than in WT mice. Furthermore, the 5-FU-mediated upregulation of TNF-α, IL-1β, and NOX1 and the production of reactive oxygen species were significantly attenuated in Nox1KO mice compared with that in WT mice. These findings suggest that NOX1 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. NOX1-derived ROS production following administration of 5-FU may promote the apoptotic response through upregulation of inflammatory cytokines.

  5. Distribution of neuroendocrine cells in the small and large intestines of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Ali, M Al Haj; Nyberg, Fred; Chandranath, S I; Dhanasekaran, S; Tariq, Saeed; Petroianu, G; Hasan, M Y; Adeghate, Ernest A; Adem, A

    2007-10-01

    The distribution and relative frequency of neuroendocrine cells in the small and large intestines of one-humped camel were studied using antisera against 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), cholecystokinin (CCK-8), somatostatin (SOM), peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), substance P (SP), and neurokinin A (NKA). Among these cell types, CCK-8 immunoreactive (IR) cells were uniformly distributed in the mucosa, while others showed varied distribution in the villi or crypts of the small intestine. Immunoreactive cells like 5HT, CCK-8, and SOM showed peak density in the villi and crypts of the small intestine and in the colonic glands of the large intestine, while cells containing SP were discerned predominately in the crypts. 5-HT, CCK-8 and SOM cells were mainly flask-shaped and of the open-variety, while PYY and SP immunoreactive cells were mainly rounded or basket-shaped and of the closed variety. Basically the distribution pattern of the endocrine cells in the duodenum, jejunum and colon of the one-humped camel is similar to that of other mammals. Finally, the distribution of these bioactive agents may give clues as to how these agents aid in the function of the intestinal tract of this desert animal.

  6. Small-intestinal manifestations of dextran sulfate sodium consumption in rats and assessment of the effects of Lactobacillus fermentum BR11.

    PubMed

    Geier, Mark S; Smith, Cassie L; Butler, Ross N; Howarth, Gordon S

    2009-06-01

    The dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model has been utilized to screen for novel therapeutics for ulcerative colitis. Evidence suggests the small intestine may also be affected by DSS. We characterized the effects of DSS on the small intestine and assessed the potential for Lactobacillus fermentum BR11 to modify or normalize DSS-induced changes. Rats were allocated to three groups, Water + Vehicle, DSS + Vehicle, and DSS + L. fermentum BR11. BR11 was administered twice daily for 14 days. DSS (2%) was provided from days 7 to 14. Small-intestinal tissue was analyzed for sucrase activity, histology, and crypt cell proliferation. Increased ileum crypt depth and cell proliferation was observed in DSS-treated rats compared to controls (P < 0.05). BR11 normalized these parameters. While DSS predominantly induces colonic damage, minor morphological alterations were also detected in the distal small intestine. L. fermentum BR11 normalized these features.

  7. Cell death (apoptosis) in mouse intestine after continuous irradiation with gamma rays and with beta rays from tritiated water

    SciTech Connect

    Ijiri, K.

    1989-04-01

    Apoptosis is a pattern of cell death involving nuclear pycnosis, cytoplasmic condensation, and karyorrhexis. Apoptosis induced by continuous irradiation with gamma rays (externally given by a 137Cs source) or with beta rays (from tritiated water injected ip) was quantified in the crypts of two portions of mouse bowel, the small intestine and descending colon. The time-course change in the incidence of apoptosis after each type of radiation could be explained on the basis of the innate circadian rhythm of the cells susceptible to apoptotic death and of the excretion of tritiated water (HTO) from the body. For 6-h continuous gamma irradiation at various dose rates (0.6-480 mGy/h) and for 6 h after injection of HTO of various radioactivities (0.15-150 GBq per kg body wt), the relationships between dose and incidence of apoptosis were obtained. Survival curves were then constructed from the curves for dose vs incidence of apoptosis. For the calculation of the absorbed dose from HTO, the water content both of the mouse body and of the cells was assumed to be 70%. One megabecquerel of HTO per mouse (i.e., 40 MBq/kg body wt) gave a dose rate of 0.131 mGy/h. The mean lethal doses (D0) were calculated for gamma rays and HTO, and relative biological effectiveness values of HTO relative to gamma rays were obtained. The D0 values for continuous irradiation with gamma rays were 210 mGy for small intestine and 380 mGy for descending colon, and the respective values for HTO were 130 and 280 mGy, indicating the high radiosensitivity of target cells for apoptotic death. The relative biological effectiveness of HTO relative to 137Cs gamma rays for cell killing in both the small intestine and the descending colon in the mouse was 1.4-2.1.

  8. Enhanced Gastrointestinal Expression of Cytosolic Malic Enzyme (ME1) Induces Intestinal and Liver Lipogenic Gene Expression and Intestinal Cell Proliferation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dwairi, Ahmed; Brown, Adam R.; Pabona, John Mark P.; Van, Trang H.; Hamdan, Hamdan; Mercado, Charles P.; Quick, Charles M.; Wight, Patricia A.; Simmen, Rosalia C. M.; Simmen, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    The small intestine participates in lipid digestion, metabolism and transport. Cytosolic malic enzyme 1 (ME1) is an enzyme that generates NADPH used in fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. Previous work has correlated liver and adipose ME1 expression with susceptibility to obesity and diabetes; however, the contributions of intestine-expressed ME1 to these conditions are unknown. We generated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing rat ME1 in the gastrointestinal epithelium under the control of the murine villin1 promoter/enhancer. Levels of intestinal ME1 protein (endogenous plus transgene) were greater in Tg than wildtype (WT) littermates. Effects of elevated intestinal ME1 on body weight, circulating insulin, select adipocytokines, blood glucose, and metabolism-related genes were examined. Male Tg mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet gained significantly more body weight than WT male littermates and had heavier livers. ME1-Tg mice had deeper intestinal and colon crypts, a greater intestinal 5-bromodeoxyuridine labeling index, and increased expression of intestinal lipogenic (Fasn, Srebf1) and cholesterol biosynthetic (Hmgcsr, Hmgcs1), genes. The livers from HF diet-fed Tg mice also exhibited an induction of cholesterol and lipogenic pathway genes and altered measures (Irs1, Irs2, Prkce) of insulin sensitivity. Results indicate that gastrointestinal ME1 via its influence on intestinal epithelial proliferation, and lipogenic and cholesterologenic genes may concomitantly impact signaling in liver to modify this tissue’s metabolic state. Our work highlights a new mouse model to address the role of intestine-expressed ME1 in whole body metabolism, hepatomegaly, and crypt cell proliferation. Intestinal ME1 may thus constitute a therapeutic target to reduce obesity-associated pathologies. PMID:25402228

  9. Generation of L cells in mouse and human small intestine organoids.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Natalia; Reimann, Frank; Bartfeld, Sina; Farin, Henner F; Ringnalda, Femke C; Vries, Robert G J; van den Brink, Stieneke; Clevers, Hans; Gribble, Fiona M; de Koning, Eelco J P

    2014-02-01

    Upon a nutrient challenge, L cells produce glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a powerful stimulant of insulin release. Strategies to augment endogenous GLP-1 production include promoting L-cell differentiation and increasing L-cell number. Here we present a novel in vitro platform to generate functional L cells from three-dimensional cultures of mouse and human intestinal crypts. We show that short-chain fatty acids selectively increase the number of L cells, resulting in an elevation of GLP-1 release. This is accompanied by the upregulation of transcription factors associated with the endocrine lineage of intestinal stem cell development. Thus, our platform allows us to study and modulate the development of L cells in mouse and human crypts as a potential basis for novel therapeutic strategies in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  10. Intestinal absorptive capacity, intestinal permeability and jejunal histology in HIV and their relation to diarrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Keating, J; Bjarnason, I; Somasundaram, S; Macpherson, A; Francis, N; Price, A B; Sharpstone, D; Smithson, J; Menzies, I S; Gazzard, B G

    1995-01-01

    Intestinal function is poorly defined in patients with HIV infection. Absorptive capacity and intestinal permeability were assessed using 3-O-methyl-D-glucose, D-xylose, L-rhamnose, and lactulose in 88 HIV infected patients and the findings were correlated with the degree of immunosuppression (CD4 counts), diarrhoea, wasting, intestinal pathogen status, and histomorphometric analysis of jejunal biopsy samples. Malabsorption of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose and D-xylose was prevalent in all groups of patients with AIDS but not in asymptomatic, well patients with HIV. Malabsorption correlated significantly (r = 0.34-0.56, p < 0.005) with the degree of immune suppression and with body mass index. Increased intestinal permeability was found in all subgroups of patients. The changes in absorption-permeability were of comparable severity to those found in patients with untreated coeliac disease. Jejunal histology, however, showed only mild changes in the villus height/crypt depth ratio as compared with subtotal villus atrophy in coeliac disease. Malabsorption and increased intestinal permeability are common in AIDS patients. Malabsorption, which has nutritional implications, relates more to immune suppression than jejunal morphological changes. PMID:8549936

  11. Radioprotection and Cell Cycle Arrest of Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Darinaparsin, a Tumor Radiosensitizer

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Junqiang; Doi, Hiroshi; Saar, Matthias; Santos, Jennifer; Li, Xuejun; Peehl, Donna M.; Knox, Susan J.

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: It was recently reported that the organic arsenic compound darinaparsin (DPS) is a cytotoxin and radiosensitizer of tumor cells in vitro and in subcutaneous xenograft tumors. Surprisingly, it was also found that DPS protects normal intestinal crypt epithelial cells (CECs) from clonogenic death after ionizing radiation (IR). Here we tested the DPS radiosensitizing effect in a clinically relevant model of prostate cancer and explored the radioprotective effect and mechanism of DPS on CECs. Methods and Materials: The radiation modification effect of DPS was tested in a mouse model of orthotopic xenograft prostate cancer and of IR-induced acute gastrointestinal syndrome. The effect of DPS on CEC DNA damage and DNA damage responses was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results: In the mouse model of IR-induced gastrointestinal syndrome, DPS treatment before IR accelerated recovery from body weight loss and increased animal survival. DPS decreased post-IR DNA damage and cell death, suggesting that the radioprotective effect was mediated by enhanced DNA damage repair. Shortly after DPS injection, significant cell cycle arrest was observed in CECs at both G1/S and G2/M checkpoints, which was accompanied by the activation of cell cycle inhibitors p21 and growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45 alpha (GADD45A). Further investigation revealed that DPS activated ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), an important inducer of DNA damage repair and cell cycle arrest. Conclusions: DPS selectively radioprotected normal intestinal CECs and sensitized prostate cancer cells in a clinically relevant model. This effect may be, at least in part, mediated by DNA damage response activation and has the potential to significantly increase the therapeutic index of radiation therapy.

  12. A PPAR-gamma agonist protects from radiation-induced intestinal toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sottili, Mariangela; Gerini, Chiara; Desideri, Isacco; Bastida, Cinzia; Pallotta, Stefania; Castiglione, Francesca; Bonomo, Pierluigi; Meattini, Icro; Greto, Daniela; Cappelli, Sabrina; Di Brina, Lucia; Loi, Mauro; Biti, Giampaolo; Livi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Because of its anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, anti-apoptotic and anti-neoplastic properties, the PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone is an interesting drug for investigating for use in the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced intestinal damage. We aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of rosiglitazone in a murine model of acute intestinal damage, assessing whether radioprotection is selective for normal tissues or also occurs in tumour cells. Methods Mice were total-body irradiated (12 Gy), with or without rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg/day). After 24 and 72 hours, mice were sacrificed and the jejunum was collected. HT-29 human colon cancer cells were irradiated with a single dose of 2 (1000 cells), 4 (1500 cells) or 6 (2000 cells) Gy, with or without adding rosiglitazone (20 µM) 1 hour before irradiation. HT-29-xenografted CD1 mice were irradiated (16 Gy) with or without rosiglitazone; tumour volumes were measured for 33 days. Results Rosiglitazone markedly reduced histological signs of altered bowel structures, that is, villi shortening, submucosal thickening, necrotic changes in crypts, oedema, apoptosis, and inflammatory infiltrate induced by irradiation. Rosiglitazone significantly decreased p-NF-kB p65 phosphorylation and TGFβ protein expression at 24 and 72 hours post-irradiation and significantly decreased gene expression of Collagen1, Mmp13, Tnfα and Bax at 24 hours and p53 at 72 hours post-irradiation. Rosiglitazone reduced HT-29 clonogenic survival, but only produced a slight reduction of xenograft tumour growth. Conclusion Rosiglitazone exerts a protective effect on normal tissues and reduces alterations in bowel structures and inflammation in a radiation-induced bowel toxicity model, without interfering with the radiation effect on HT-29 cancer cells. PPAR-γ agonists should be further investigated for their application in abdominal and pelvic irradiation. PMID:28344789

  13. Experimental studies of immunologically mediated enteropathy. Development of cell mediated immunity and intestinal pathology during a graft-versus-host reaction in irradiated mice.

    PubMed Central

    Mowat, A M; Felstein, M V; Borland, A; Parrott, D M

    1988-01-01

    The intestinal component of a graft-versus-host reaction (GvHR) provides a useful experimental model to elucidate the pathogenesis of clinical enteropathies which cause villus atrophy and crypt hyperplasia and which are associated with a local immune response. One to three days after induction of GvHR in heavily irradiated (CBAxBALB/c)F1 mice, a proliferative form of enteropathy developed. Compared with controls, these mice had increased counts of jejunal intraepithelial lymphocytes and had a four-fold increase in crypt cell production rate as well as an increase in crypt length. These changes were accompanied by a marked enhancement of splenic natural killer cell activity. After day three, the crypt cell production rate fell to zero and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) which could lyse targets of host origin appeared. In parallel, mice with GvHR developed significant villus shortening and their clinical condition deteriorated. Further experiments showed that increased counts of intraepithelial lymphocytes, villus atrophy and crypt hyperplasia also occurred in grafts of fetal CBA intestine implanted under the kidney capsule of (CBAxBALB/c)F1 mice with GvHR. As these grafts are syngeneic to the injected CBA spleen cells, they should not be attacked by anti-host cytotoxic T lymphocytes. We suggest that the proliferative and destructive components of enteropathy in GvHR are caused by lymphokines released by an anti-host delayed type hypersensitivity reaction. PMID:3294125

  14. IGF Binding Protein-4 is Required for the Growth Effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 in Murine Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Kaori; Imam, Nuvair A.; Pintar, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is an enteroendocrine hormone that stimulates the growth of the intestinal epithelium. We have previously demonstrated that GLP-2 exerts its intestinotropic effect through an indirect mechanism that requires both IGF-1 and the intestinal epithelial IGF-1 receptor. However, the biological activity of IGF-1 is modulated by IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), including IGFBP-4, which is highly expressed in the intestine. To determine the role of IGFBP-4 in the tropic effects of GLP-2, IGFBP-4 knockout (KO) and control mice were treated with degradation-resistant GLP-2 or vehicle for 10 days. Comparable levels of IGFBP-1–3/5–7 mRNAs were observed in the intestinal mucosa of all animals. IGFBP-4 KO mice had greater small intestinal weight and length, and deeper crypts (P < .05) as compared with controls, suggesting that IGFBP-4 has an inhibitory role in basal intestinal growth. However, small intestinal weight, crypt-villus height and crypt cell proliferation increased in response to GLP-2 in control mice (P < .05), and these changes were abrogated with IGFBP-4 KO. In contrast, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A KO mice, which have increased levels of circulating IGFBP-4, demonstrated a normal intestinotropic response to GLP-2. Finally, GLP-2 treatment of control mice significantly increased IGFBP-4 mRNA expression in the jejunal mucosa (P < .05), a finding that was recapitulated by GLP-2 treatment of fetal rat intestinal cells in culture (10−8M for 2 h; P < .05). Collectively, these results indicate that the IGF-I-modulating protein, IGFBP-4, exerts a negative effect on basal intestinal growth but plays a positive regulatory role in the intestinotropic actions of GLP-2. PMID:25514089

  15. Inflammatory cues acting on the adult intestinal stem cells and the early onset of cancer (Review)

    PubMed Central

    DE LERMA BARBARO, A.; PERLETTI, G.; BONAPACE, I.M.; MONTI, E.

    2014-01-01

    The observation that cancer often arises at sites of chronic inflammation has prompted the idea that carcinogenesis and inflammation are deeply interwoven. In fact, the current literature highlights a role for chronic inflammation in virtually all the steps of carcinogenesis, including tumor initiation, promotion and progression. The aim of the present article is to review the current literature on the involvement of chronic inflammation in the initiation step and in the very early phases of tumorigenesis, in a type of cancer where adult stem cells are assumed to be the cells of origin of neoplasia. Since the gastrointestinal tract is regarded as the best-established model system to address the liaison between chronic inflammation and neoplasia, the focus of this article will be on intestinal cancer. In fact, the anatomy of the intestinal epithelial lining is uniquely suited to study adult stem cells in their niche, and the bowel crypt is an ideal developmental biology system, as proliferation, differentiation and cell migration are all distributed linearly along the long axis of the crypt. Moreover, crypt stem cells are regarded today as the most likely targets of neoplastic transformation in bowel cancer. More specifically, the present review addresses the molecular mechanisms whereby a state of chronic inflammation could trigger the neoplastic process in the intestine, focusing on the generation of inflammatory cues evoking enhanced proliferation in cells not initiated but at risk of neoplastic transformation because of their stemness. Novel experimental approaches, based on triggering an inflammatory stimulus in the neighbourhood of adult intestinal stem cells, are warranted to address some as yet unanswered questions. A possible approach, the targeted transgenesis of Paneth cells, may be aimed at ‘hijacking’ the crypt stem cell niche from a status characterized by the maintenance of homeostasis to local chronic inflammation, with the prospect of initiating

  16. CD34+ mesenchymal cells are a major component of the intestinal stem cells niche at homeostasis and after injury

    PubMed Central

    Stzepourginski, Igor; Nigro, Giulia; Jacob, Jean-Marie; Dulauroy, Sophie; Sansonetti, Philippe J.; Eberl, Gérard; Peduto, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is continuously renewed by intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs) positioned at the base of each crypt. Mesenchymal-derived factors are essential to maintain IESCs; however, the cellular composition and development of such mesenchymal niche remains unclear. Here, we identify pericryptal CD34+ Gp38+ αSMA– mesenchymal cells closely associated with Lgr5+ IESCs. We demonstrate that CD34+ Gp38+ cells are the major intestinal producers of the niche factors Wnt2b, Gremlin1, and R-spondin1, and are sufficient to promote maintenance of Lgr5+ IESCs in intestinal organoids, an effect mainly mediated by Gremlin1. CD34+ Gp38+ cells develop after birth in the intestinal submucosa and expand around the crypts during the third week of life in mice, independently of the microbiota. We further show that pericryptal CD34+gp38+ cells are rapidly activated by intestinal injury, up-regulating niche factors Gremlin1 and R-spondin1 as well as chemokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and growth factors with key roles in gut immunity and tissue repair, including IL-7, Ccl2, Ptgs2, and Amphiregulin. Our results indicate that CD34+ Gp38+ mesenchymal cells are programmed to develop in the intestine after birth to constitute a specialized microenvironment that maintains IESCs at homeostasis and contribute to intestinal inflammation and repair after injury. PMID:28074039

  17. Interleukin-22 promotes intestinal-stem-cell-mediated epithelial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lindemans, Caroline A; Calafiore, Marco; Mertelsmann, Anna M; O'Connor, Margaret H; Dudakov, Jarrod A; Jenq, Robert R; Velardi, Enrico; Young, Lauren F; Smith, Odette M; Lawrence, Gillian; Ivanov, Juliet A; Fu, Ya-Yuan; Takashima, Shuichiro; Hua, Guoqiang; Martin, Maria L; O'Rourke, Kevin P; Lo, Yuan-Hung; Mokry, Michal; Romera-Hernandez, Monica; Cupedo, Tom; Dow, Lukas E; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E; Shroyer, Noah F; Liu, Chen; Kolesnick, Richard; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Hanash, Alan M

    2015-12-24

    Epithelial regeneration is critical for barrier maintenance and organ function after intestinal injury. The intestinal stem cell (ISC) niche provides Wnt, Notch and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signals supporting Lgr5(+) crypt base columnar ISCs for normal epithelial maintenance. However, little is known about the regulation of the ISC compartment after tissue damage. Using ex vivo organoid cultures, here we show that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), potent producers of interleukin-22 (IL-22) after intestinal injury, increase the growth of mouse small intestine organoids in an IL-22-dependent fashion. Recombinant IL-22 directly targeted ISCs, augmenting the growth of both mouse and human intestinal organoids, increasing proliferation and promoting ISC expansion. IL-22 induced STAT3 phosphorylation in Lgr5(+) ISCs, and STAT3 was crucial for both organoid formation and IL-22-mediated regeneration. Treatment with IL-22 in vivo after mouse allogeneic bone marrow transplantation enhanced the recovery of ISCs, increased epithelial regeneration and reduced intestinal pathology and mortality from graft-versus-host disease. ATOH1-deficient organoid culture demonstrated that IL-22 induced epithelial regeneration independently of the Paneth cell niche. Our findings reveal a fundamental mechanism by which the immune system is able to support the intestinal epithelium, activating ISCs to promote regeneration.

  18. SAM pointed domain ETS factor (SPDEF) regulates terminal differentiation and maturation of intestinal goblet cells

    SciTech Connect

    Noah, Taeko K.; Kazanjian, Avedis; Whitsett, Jeffrey; Shroyer, Noah F.

    2010-02-01

    Background and Aims: SPDEF (also termed PDEF or PSE) is an ETS family transcription factor that regulates gene expression in the prostate and goblet cell hyperplasia in the lung. Spdef has been reported to be expressed in the intestine. In this paper, we identify an important role for Spdef in regulating intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis and differentiation. Methods: SPDEF expression was inhibited in colon cancer cells to determine its ability to control goblet cell gene activation. The effects of transgenic expression of Spdef on intestinal differentiation and homeostasis were determined. Results: In LS174T colon cancer cells treated with Notch/{gamma}-secretase inhibitor to activate goblet cell gene expression, shRNAs that inhibited SPDEF also repressed expression of goblet cell genes AGR2, MUC2, RETLNB, and SPINK4. Transgenic expression of Spdef caused the expansion of intestinal goblet cells and corresponding reduction in Paneth, enteroendocrine, and absorptive enterocytes. Spdef inhibited proliferation of intestinal crypt cells without induction of apoptosis. Prolonged expression of the Spdef transgene caused a progressive reduction in the number of crypts that expressed Spdef, consistent with its inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Conclusions: Spdef was sufficient to inhibit proliferation of intestinal progenitors and induce differentiation into goblet cells; SPDEF was required for activation of goblet cell associated genes in vitro. These data support a model in which Spdef promotes terminal differentiation into goblet cells of a common goblet/Paneth progenitor.

  19. Mitochondrial function controls intestinal epithelial stemness and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Emanuel; Rath, Eva; Yuan, Detian; Waldschmitt, Nadine; Khaloian, Sevana; Allgäuer, Michael; Staszewski, Ori; Lobner, Elena M.; Schöttl, Theresa; Giesbertz, Pieter; Coleman, Olivia I.; Prinz, Marco; Weber, Achim; Gerhard, Markus; Klingenspor, Martin; Janssen, Klaus-Peter; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Haller, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Control of intestinal epithelial stemness is crucial for tissue homeostasis. Disturbances in epithelial function are implicated in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Here we report that mitochondrial function plays a critical role in maintaining intestinal stemness and homeostasis. Using intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific mouse models, we show that loss of HSP60, a mitochondrial chaperone, activates the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (MT-UPR) and results in mitochondrial dysfunction. HSP60-deficient crypts display loss of stemness and cell proliferation, accompanied by epithelial release of WNT10A and RSPO1. Sporadic failure of Cre-mediated Hsp60 deletion gives rise to hyperproliferative crypt foci originating from OLFM4+ stem cells. These effects are independent of the MT-UPR-associated transcription factor CHOP. In conclusion, compensatory hyperproliferation of HSP60+ escaper stem cells suggests paracrine release of WNT-related factors from HSP60-deficient, functionally impaired IEC to be pivotal in the control of the proliferative capacity of the stem cell niche. PMID:27786175

  20. Concise review: the yin and yang of intestinal (cancer) stem cells and their progenitors.

    PubMed

    Stange, Daniel E; Clevers, Hans

    2013-11-01

    The intestine has developed over the last few years into a prime model system for adult stem cell research. Intestinal cells have an average lifetime of 5 days, moving within this time from the bottom of intestinal crypts to the top of villi. This rapid self-renewal capacity combined with an easy to follow (mostly) unidirectional movement of cells offers an ideal site to conduct adult stem cell research. The delineation of the active pathways in the intestinal epithelium together with the development of molecular techniques to prove stemness laid the grounds for the identification of the intestinal stem cell. In vitro systems and transgenic mouse models broaden our knowledge on the role of the stem cell niche and those cells that reestablish homeostasis after perturbation of the system. These insights expedited also research on the role of normal adult stem cells in cancer initiation and the factors influencing the maintenance of cancer stem cells.

  1. Intestinal Capillariasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    bhIll inenais, the tiny nematode causing Intestinal capillariasis In humans, Is a Iunique parasite. It is one of the newest parasites that has been...Capillariaphilippinensis, the tiny nematode causing intestinal capillariasis in humans, is a unique parasite. It is one of the newest parasites that has been shown to...stichocytes surrounding the oesophagus. The posterior half of the nematode is wider than the anterior half and contains the digestive tract and the

  2. Proximal enterectomy provides a stronger systemic stimulus to intestinal adaptation than distal enterectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Appleton, G V; Bristol, J B; Williamson, R C

    1987-01-01

    Enteroglucagon has been implicated as a tropic hormone in the control of intestinal adaptation. Because cells producing enteroglucagon are located mainly in the distal small bowel (and colon), ileal resection might be expected to produce less adaptive change than a jejunal resection of equivalent length. This hypothesis was tested in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 40) weighing 184.0 +/- 7.3 g and receiving a Thiry-Vella fistula (TVF) of the mid-60% of the small intestine. One group had concomitant resection of the jejunum proximal to the TVF (n = 12), another had resection of the ileum distal to the TVF (n = 13), while controls had a TVF alone (n = 15). When killed 10 days postoperatively rats with ileal resection weighed only 81% of controls (p less than 0.001) and 85% of those with jejunal resection (p less than 0.01). Jejunal resection produced an 81% increase in crypt cell production rate (measured by a stathmokinetic technique) over control values (28.5 +/- 4.2 v 15.8 +/- 2.3 cells/crypt/h: p = 0.025), whereas ileal resection had no demonstrable effect (17.5 +/- 2.3 cells/crypt/h). Adaptive hyperplasia in isolated small bowel is modulated by factors localised to the distal small intestine, enteroglucagon being a plausible candidate. PMID:3692304

  3. Oral administration of live Bifidobacterium substrains isolated from centenarians enhances intestinal function in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haiying; Liu, Aiping; Zhang, Ming; Ibrahim, Salam A; Pang, Zhihua; Leng, Xiaojing; Ren, Fazheng

    2009-10-01

    We studied the effects of two bifidobacteria strains isolated from healthy centenarians on intestinal function in mice. Bifidobacterium adolescentis BBMN23 and Bifidobacterium longum BBMN68 were orally administrated to specific pathogen-free BALB/c mice at different doses (2 x 10(11), 2 x 10(9), or 2 x 10(7) CFU/kg body weight) each day for 4 weeks. Villus height, crypt depth, villus width, and villus/crypt ratio (V/C) were determined. The content of duodenal secreted immunoglobulin A (sIgA) was also evaluated. There were clear increases in height and width of duodenal villi in both treated groups. Crypt depths were deeper in animals treated with BBMN23 than in controls, while depths were reduced in animals receiving BBMN68. The V/C ratio was increased after feeding with BBMN68, while BBMN23 had no significant effect. Both strains improved the sIgA content of the duodenum. These results suggest that BBMN23 and BBMN68 may improve intestinal digestion and ability and enhance immune barrier function in the intestine.

  4. Both the anti- and pro-apoptotic functions of villin regulate cell turnover and intestinal homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaohong; George, Sudeep P.; Roy, Swati; Pham, Eric; Esmaeilniakooshkghazi, Amin; Khurana, Seema

    2016-01-01

    In the small intestine, epithelial cells are derived from stem cells in the crypts, migrate up the villus as they differentiate and are ultimately shed from the villus tips. This process of proliferation and shedding is tightly regulated to maintain the intestinal architecture and tissue homeostasis. Apoptosis regulates both the number of stem cells in the crypts as well as the sloughing of cells from the villus tips. Previously, we have shown that villin, an epithelial cell-specific actin-binding protein functions as an anti-apoptotic protein in the gastrointestinal epithelium. The expression of villin is highest in the apoptosis-resistant villus cells and lowest in the apoptosis-sensitive crypts. In this study we report that villin is cleaved in the intestinal mucosa to generate a pro-apoptotic fragment that is spatially restricted to the villus tips. This cleaved villin fragment severs actin in an unregulated fashion to initiate the extrusion and subsequent apoptosis of effete cells from the villus tips. Using villin knockout mice, we validate the physiological role of villin in apoptosis and cell extrusion from the gastrointestinal epithelium. Our study also highlights the potential role of villin’s pro-apoptotic function in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, ischemia-reperfusion injury, enteroinvasive bacterial and parasitic infections. PMID:27765954

  5. Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 attenuates cyclophosphamide-induced intestinal mucosal injury, metabolism and intestinal microbiota disorders in mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun-Hua; Fan, Song-Tao; Nie, Shao-Ping; Yu, Qiang; Xiong, Tao; Gong, Deming; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2016-03-01

    Anticancer drugs at high doses often damage the intestinal mucosa and metabolism. Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 (NCU116) isolated from pickled vegetables was orally given to cyclophosphamide-treated mice to determine its effects on intestinal mucosal injury, nutrient metabolism and colon microbiota, and investigate the mechanisms accounting for its effects. Mice treated with the bacterium were found to favorably recover intestine morphology of villus height and crypt depth, and have improved mucins expression and quantity of goblet cells, as well as intestinal metabolism by increasing the level of short-chain fatty acids and reducing the concentration of ammonia in the colon feces. In addition, NCU116-treated mice showed a higher diversity of colonic microbiota than the group without bacterium supplementation. The number of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in the mouse colon was increased after bacterium intake, which decreased the number of potentially pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas. These results indicated that NCU116 could be of significant advantage in reducing intestinal mucosal injury and improving the intestinal metabolism and the intestinal microbiota.

  6. Intestinal genetic inactivation of caspase-8 diminishes migration of enterocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kaemmerer, Elke; Kuhn, Paula; Schneider, Ursula; Jeon, Min Kyung; Klaus, Christina; Schiffer, Miriam; Weisner, Danika; Liedtke, Christian; Jäkel, Jörg; Kennes, Lieven Nils; Hilgers, Ralf-Dieter; Wagner, Norbert; Gassler, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To verify the hypothesis that caspase-8 (Casp8), which regulates cellular apoptosis and necroptosis, is critically involved in enterocyte migration. METHODS: Casp8-silenced Caco2 cells were used in migration assays. In addition, enterocyte-specific Casp8 heterozygous (Casp8+/∆int) or homozygous knockout mice (Casp8∆int) were generated by crossing genetically modified mice carrying loxP recombination sites in intron 2 and 4 of the murine Casp8 gene with transgenic animals expressing a cre-transgene under control of the villin promoter in a pure C57/BL6 genetic background. The nucleoside analog BrdU was injected i.p. in male Casp8+/∆int and Casp8∆int animals 4 h, 20 h, or 40 h before performing morphometric studies. Locations of anti-BrdU-immunostained cells (cellmax) in at least 50 hemi-crypts of 6 histoanatomically distinct intestinal mucosal regions were numbered and extracted for statistical procedures. For the mice cohort (n = 28), the walking distance of enterocytes was evaluated from cellmax within crypt (n = 57), plateau (n = 19), and villus (n = 172) positions, resulting in a total of 6838 observations. Data analysis was performed by fitting a three-level mixed effects model to the data. RESULTS: In cell culture experiments with Caco2 cells, Casp8 knockdown efficiency mediated by RNA interference on Casp8 transcripts was 80% controlled as determined by Western blotting. In the scratch assay, migration of Casp8-deleted Caco2 cells was significantly diminished when compared with controls (Casp8∆scramble and Caco2). In BrdU-labeled Casp8∆int mice, cellmax locations were found along the hemi-crypts in a lower position than it was for Casp8+/∆int or control (cre-negative) animals. Statistical data analysis with a three-level mixed effects model revealed that in the six different intestinal locations (distinct segments of the small and large intestine), cell movement between the three mice groups differed widely. Especially in duodenal hemi-crypts

  7. Goblet cells and intestinal Alkaline phosphatase expression (IAP) during the development of the rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Gomes, José Rosa; Ayub, Laís Costa; Dos Reis, Camila Audrey; Machado, Miriam Joice; da Silva, Jéssica; Omar, Nádia Fayez; de Miranda Soares, Maria Albertina

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the temporal and spacial distribution of the mucins produced by goblet cells and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) expression during the development of the small intestine of the rat. Intestines were removed from rats on the 15th, 17th and 18th days of intratuterine life (i.u.) and on the 3rd, 10th, 17th and 25th days after birth (a.b.). Intestines were processed for routine histological procedures and sections were submitted to histochemistry using PAS to stain neutral glycoproteins and Alcian blue for acidic glycoproteins, as well as immunohistochemistry to detect IAP. In rats, glycoprotein production was seen to begin in the intestinal epithelium cell at around the 17th day of i.u. life; however, this production was not accompanied by morphological indications of the presence of goblet cells. By the 18th i.u. day, the villus epithelium was undergoing differentiation and the first goblet cells could be identified from this time. At around the 10th day a.b., both compartments of the small intestine were detected; i.e. the villi and the crypts. At this timepoint, goblet cells were present in the villi, and also in the upper regions of the crypts. On the 3rd, 10th 17th and 25th days a.b., the presence of the goblet cells increased and presented regional differences in the sections evaluated. IAP was not detected during i.u. life, but was weakly detected in the cells of the villi from the 3rd day a.b., along the entire extension of the villi. On the 10th day, IAP was detected at the tip of the villi, while on the 25th day, it was detected along the extension of the villi, but with a weaker intensity. In conclusion, a temporal and spacial distribution of goblet cells and IAP activity occurs during the development of the small intestine, suggesting a possible regulatory control in accordance with the suckling and weaning phases of food intake in the rat's life.

  8. Role of Red Meat and Resistant Starch in Promutagenic Adduct Formation, MGMT Repair, Thymic Lymphoma and Intestinal Tumourigenesis in Msh2 -Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Winter, Jean M; Hu, Ying; Young, Graeme P; Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J; Le Leu, Richard K

    2014-01-01

    Red meat may increase promutagenic lesions in the colon. Resistant starch (RS) can reduce these lesions and chemically induced colon tumours in rodents. Msh2 is a mismatch repair (MMR) protein, recognising unrepaired promutagenic adducts for removal. We determined if red meat and/or RS modulated DNA adducts or oncogenesis in Msh2-deficient mice. A total of 100 Msh2-/- and 60 wild-type mice consumed 1 of 4 diets for 6 months: control, RS, red meat and red meat+RS. Survival time, aberrant crypt foci (ACF), colon and small intestinal tumours, lymphoma, colonic O6-methyl-2-deoxyguanosine (O6MeG) adducts, methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) and cell proliferation were examined. In Msh2-/- mice, red meat enhanced survival compared to control (p<0.01) and lowered total tumour burden compared to RS (p<0.167). Msh2-/- mice had more ACF than wild-type mice (p<0.014), but no colon tumours developed. Msh2-/- increased cell proliferation (p<0.001), lowered DNA O6MeG adducts (p<0.143) and enhanced MGMT protein levels (p<0.001) compared to wild-type mice, with RS supplementation also protecting against DNA adducts (p<0.01). No link between red meat-induced promutagenic adducts and risk for colorectal cancer was observed after 6 months' feeding. Colonic epithelial changes after red meat and RS consumption with MMR deficiency will differ from normal epithelial cells.

  9. Polyethylene glycol, unique among laxatives, suppresses aberrant crypt foci, by elimination of cells

    PubMed Central

    Taché, Sylviane; Parnaud, Géraldine; Van Beek, Erik; Corpet, Denis E.

    2006-01-01

    Background Polyethylene glycol (PEG), an osmotic laxative, is a very potent inhibitor of colon cancer in rats. In a search for mechanisms, we tested the hypothesis that fecal bulking and moisture decreases colon carcinogenesis. We also looked for PEG effects on crypt cells in vivo. Methods Fischer 344 rats (N=272) were given an injection of the colon carcinogen azoxymethane. They were then randomized to a standard AIN76 diet containing one of 19 laxative agents (5% w/w in most cases): PEG 8000 and other PEG-like compounds, carboxymethylcellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone, sodium polyacrylate, calcium polycarbophil, karaya gum, psyllium, mannitol, sorbitol, lactulose, propylene glycol, magnesium hydroxide, sodium phosphate, bisacodyl, docusate, and paraffin oil. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and fecal values were measured blindly after a 30-day treatment. Proliferation, apoptosis, and the removal of cells from crypts were studied in control and PEG-fed rats by various methods, including TUNEL and fluorescein dextran labeling. Results PEG 8000 reduced nine-fold the number of ACF in rats (p<0.001). The other PEGs and magnesium-hydroxide modestly suppressed ACF, but not the other laxatives. ACF number did not correlate with fecal weight or moisture. PEG doubled the apoptotic bodies per crypt (p<0.05), increased proliferation by 25–50% (p<0.05) and strikingly increased (>40-fold) a fecal marker of epitheliolysis in the gut (p<0.001). PEG normalized the percentage of fluorescein dextran labeled cells on the top of ACF (p<0.001). Conclusions Among laxatives, only PEG afforded potent chemoprevention. PEG protection was not due to increased fecal bulking, but likely to the elimination of cells from precancerous lesions. PMID:16716974

  10. Foci of aberrant crypts in the colons of mice and rats exposed to carcinogens associated with foods

    SciTech Connect

    Tudek, B.; Bird, R.P.; Bruce, W.R.

    1989-03-01

    Aberrant crypt foci can be identified in the colons of rodents treated 3 wk earlier with azoxymethane, a known colon carcinogen. These crypts can easily be visualized in the unsectioned methylene blue-stained colons under light microscopy, where they are distinguished by their increased size, more prominent epithelial cells, and pericryptal space. They occur as single aberrant crypts or as two, three, or four aberrant crypts in a cluster. We compared the reported ability of carcinogens associated with the human diet to induce colon cancer with the measured rate of induction of aberrant crypts in female CF1 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats. The carcinogens used were 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, methyl nitrosourea, N-nitrosodimethylamine, benzo(a)pyrene, aflatoxin B1, 2-amino-6-methyldipyrido(1,2-alpha:3',2'-d)imidazole, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo(4,5-P)quinoline, 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo(4,5-P)quinoline, and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido(4,3-b)indole. Graded doses of these compounds were given to the animals by gavage twice with a 4-day interval, and the animals were terminated 3 wk later. All colon carcinogens induced aberrant crypts in a dose-related fashion. N-Nitrosodimethylamine and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido(4,3-b)indole, carcinogenic compounds that do not induce colon cancer, did not induce them. The ability of the studied compounds to induce aberrant crypts was species specific; e.g., aflatoxin B1 and 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo(4,5-P)quinoline induce about 20 times more in rats than mice. This relationship was consistent with their reported ability to induce colon cancer in these species. Results of the present study support the use of the aberrant crypt assays to screen colon-specific carcinogens and to study the process of colon carcinogenesis.

  11. A water-soluble extract from cultured medium of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) mycelia attenuates the small intestinal injury induced by anti-cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Kashimoto, Naoki; Ishii, Satomi; Myojin, Yuki; Ushijima, Mitsuyasu; Hayama, Minoru; Watanabe, Hiromitsu

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a water-soluble extract from the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) mycelia (MAK) is able to protect the small intestine against damage induced by anti-cancer drugs. Six-week-old male B6C3F1/Crlj mice were fed a basal diet (MF) alone or with various doses of MAK or Agarics blazei Murrill (AGA) beginning one week before treatment with the anti-cancer drugs. Mice were sacrificed 3.5 days after injection of the anti-cancer drug, the small intestine was removed and tissue specimens were examined for the regeneration of small intestinal crypts. In experiment 1, the number of regenerative crypts after the administration of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) intravenously (250 mg/kg) or intraperitoneally (250 or 500 mg/kg) was compared after treatment with MAK or AGA. MAK protected against 5FU-induced small intestinal injury whereas AGA did not. In experiment 2, we investigated the protective effect of MAK against small intestinal injury induced by the anti-cancer drugs: UFT (tegafur with uracil; 1,000 mg/kg, orally), cisplatin (CDDP; 12.5 and 25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), cyclophosphamide (CPA; 250 mg/kg, orally) and gefitinib (Iressa; 2,000 and 4,000 mg/kg, orally). UFT and CDDP decreased the number of regenerative crypts, but treatment with MAK attenuated the extent of UFT- or CDDP-induced small intestinal injury. CPA or Iressa plus MAK up-regulated crypt regeneration. The present results indicate that MAK ameliorates the small intestinal injury caused by several anti-cancer drugs, suggesting that MAK is a potential preventive agent against this common adverse effect of chemotherapy.

  12. Effect of Two Macrocephala Flavored Powder supplementation on intestinal morphology and intestinal microbiota in weaning pigs.

    PubMed

    Ye, Gang; Qiu, Yin; He, Xiaoli; Zhao, Ling; Shi, Fei; Lv, Cheng; Jing, Bo; Li, Yinglun

    2015-01-01

    A total of 75 pigs were used to investigate effects of feeding Two Macrocephala Flavored Powder (TMFP) on small intestinal morphology, intestinal microbiota in weaning pigs. The dietary treatments were: a control diet; control diet + 3 g/kg TMFP; control diet + 0.3 g/kg colistin sulfate (ANT). The results showed that supplementation with TMFP increased (P < 0.05) villus height at duodenum, jejunum at 3 time points, increased (P < 0.05) crypt depth at duodenum, jejunum at day 14, improved villus height: crypt depth ratio (P < 0.05) in jejunum at day 21 as compared with ANT. Supplementation of TMFP and ANT had lower (P < 0.05) E. coli counts in the ileum, cecum and colon at day 7 as compared with control. Supplementation of TMFP had higher (P < 0.05) bifidobacteria counts in the ileum, cecum and colon compared with ANT, except for colon at day 21. No effect (P > 0.05) on lactobacilli in colon has been seen with supplementation of TMFP and ANT at 3 time points, while both of supplementations showed increased the number of lactobacilli in cecum at day 14 and day 21. Analysis of DGGE fingerprints indicated that a highest similarity was observed for profiles from samples taken 14 d, 21 d from TMFP. The diversity of DGGE fingerprints of TMFP was higher than those of ANT and control. The results suggest that TMFP is potential to enhancing intestinal morphology and microbiota of weaning pigs, and can be served as an effective and safe dietary additive for weaning pigs.

  13. Effect of Two Macrocephala Flavored Powder supplementation on intestinal morphology and intestinal microbiota in weaning pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Gang; Qiu, Yin; He, Xiaoli; Zhao, Ling; Shi, Fei; Lv, Cheng; Jing, Bo; Li, Yinglun

    2015-01-01

    A total of 75 pigs were used to investigate effects of feeding Two Macrocephala Flavored Powder (TMFP) on small intestinal morphology, intestinal microbiota in weaning pigs. The dietary treatments were: a control diet; control diet + 3 g/kg TMFP; control diet + 0.3 g/kg colistin sulfate (ANT). The results showed that supplementation with TMFP increased (P < 0.05) villus height at duodenum, jejunum at 3 time points, increased (P < 0.05) crypt depth at duodenum, jejunum at day 14, improved villus height: crypt depth ratio (P < 0.05) in jejunum at day 21 as compared with ANT. Supplementation of TMFP and ANT had lower (P < 0.05) E. coli counts in the ileum, cecum and colon at day 7 as compared with control. Supplementation of TMFP had higher (P < 0.05) bifidobacteria counts in the ileum, cecum and colon compared with ANT, except for colon at day 21. No effect (P > 0.05) on lactobacilli in colon has been seen with supplementation of TMFP and ANT at 3 time points, while both of supplementations showed increased the number of lactobacilli in cecum at day 14 and day 21. Analysis of DGGE fingerprints indicated that a highest similarity was observed for profiles from samples taken 14 d, 21 d from TMFP. The diversity of DGGE fingerprints of TMFP was higher than those of ANT and control. The results suggest that TMFP is potential to enhancing intestinal morphology and microbiota of weaning pigs, and can be served as an effective and safe dietary additive for weaning pigs. PMID:25785165

  14. OPTN/SRTR 2015 Annual Data Report: Intestine.

    PubMed

    Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Horslen, S P; Edwards, E B; Harper, A M; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2017-01-01

    Intestine and intestine-liver transplant remains important in the treatment of intestinal failure, despite decreased morbidity associated with parenteral nutrition. In 2015, 196 new patients were added to the intestine transplant waiting list, with equal numbers waiting for intestine and intestine-liver transplant. Among prevalent patients on the list at the end of 2015, 63.3% were waiting for an intestine transplant and 36.7% were waiting for an intestine-liver transplant. The pretransplant mortality rate decreased dramatically over time for all age groups. Pretransplant mortality was notably higher for intestine-liver than for intestine transplant candidates (respectively, 19.9 vs. 2.8 deaths per 100 waitlist years in 2014-2015). By age, pretransplant mortality was highest for adult candidates, at 19.6 per 100 waitlist years, and lowest for children aged younger than 6 years, at 3.6 per 100 waitlist years. Pretransplant mortality by etiology was highest for candidates with non-congenital types of short-gut syndrome. Numbers of intestine transplants without a liver increased from a low of 51 in 2013 to 70 in 2015. Intestine-liver transplants increased from a low of 44 in 2012 to 71 in 2015. Short-gut syndrome (congenital and non-congenital) was the main cause of disease leading to intestine and to intestine-liver transplant. Patient survival was lowest for adult intestine-liver recipients and highest for pediatric intestine recipients.

  15. Chemopreventive effect of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) blume tuber against aberrant crypt foci and cell proliferation in 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ansil, Puthuparampil Nazarudeen; Prabha, Santhibhavan Prabhakaran; Nitha, Anand; Latha, Mukalel Sankunni

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death, both in men and women. This study investigated the effects of Amorphophallus campanulatus tuber methanolic extract (ACME) on aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation, colonic cell proliferation, lipid peroxidative damage and the antioxidant status in a long term preclinical model of 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups, viz., group I rats served as controls; group II rats treated as drug controls receiving 250 mg/ kg body weight of ACME orally; group III rats received DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) subcutaneously once a week for the first 15 weeks; groups IV, V and VI rats received ACME along with DMH during the initiation, post- initiation stages and the entire period of the study, respectively. All the rats were sacrificed at the end of 30 weeks and the intestinal and colonic tissues from different groups were subjected to biochemical and histological studies. Administration of DMH resulted in significant (p ≤ 0.05) intestinal and colonic lipid peroxidation (MDA) and reduction of antioxidants such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S- transferase and reduced glutathione. Whereas the supplementation of ACME significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved the intestinal and colonic MDA and reduced glutathione levels and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in DMH intoxicated rats. ACME administration also significantly suppressed the formation and multiplicity of ACF. In addition, the DMH administered rats showed amplified expression of PCNA in the colon and decreased expression of this proliferative marker was clearly noted with initiation, post-initiation and entire period of ACME treatment regimens. These results indicate that ACME could exert a significant chemopreventive effect on colon carcinogenesis induced by DMH.

  16. Mucositis and non-invasive markers of small intestinal function.

    PubMed

    Tooley, Katie L; Howarth, Gordon S; Butler, Ross N

    2009-05-01

    Mucositis is a common and debilitating side effect of chemotherapy that manifests due to the inability of chemotherapy agents to discriminate between normal and neoplastic cells. This results in ulcerating lesions lining the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, the development of efficacious treatments for small intestinal mucositis has been hindered as the pathobiology of mucositis is still not fully understood. The small intestine is an extensive organ which is largely inaccessible by conventional means. Non-invasive biomarkers such as small intestinal permeability, H(2) breath tests, serum citrulline tests and the (13)C-sucrose breath test (SBT) have emerged as potential markers of small intestinal function. The SBT is emerging as the more appropriate biomarker to assess chemotherapy-induced mucositis in cancer patients and animal models, where it measures the decrease in sucrase activity associated with villus blunting and crypt disruption. The SBT has been successfully applied to detect mucositis induced by different classes of chemotherapy agents and has been used successfully to monitor small intestinal function with a range of candidate anti-mucositis treatments. We propose the SBT a superior biomarker of small intestinal function that could be successfully applied in clinical practice for monitoring the development of mucositis in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  17. Breeder age affects small intestine development of broiler chicks with immediate or delayed access to feed.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, K Z; Edens, F W

    2012-01-01

    1. The relationship between breeder age and chick gastrointestinal tract development to 21 days of age, as influenced by immediate or delayed access to feed, was examined in three consecutive trials. 2. Ross 708 chicks, derived from breeder flocks at 31 (young), 40 (middle) and 63 (old) weeks of age were placed randomly into either a control group with immediate access to feed and water, or a 48 h feed delayed (FD) group with free access to water. 3. FD negatively affected body weight (BW) of chicks derived from young and old flocks through the first and second weeks of age, respectively. Chicks from the older flock absorbed more yolk in the first 48 h with no FD effect. When feed was made available, chicks from the FD group showed a large increase in small intestine weight relative to BW, surpassing (P < 0·05) the control groups across all breeder flock ages. 4. Morphological measurements in all intestinal sections had higher values in chicks derived from the middle age breeder flock. FD to newly hatched chicks from the young breeder flock shortened villi (P < 0·01), decreased crypt depth and villus surface area (P < 0·001) in the duodenum through the first week post hatch. 5. Crypt depths were maximised between 7 and 14 d post-hatch in chicks from young and old breeder flocks, but crypt depths in chicks from the middle aged flocks continued to deepen. 6. The increased crypt depth may augment the number of enterocytes available for villus growth, and facilitate longer villi and greater villus surface area, in chicks from the middle age flocks. Intestinal morphological variation was associated with breeder flock age, which accounted for differential growth in chicks derived from young, middle, and old aged breeder flocks.

  18. Phloroglucinol Protects Small Intestines of Mice from Ionizing Radiation by Regulating Apoptosis-Related Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Danbee; Bing, So Jin; Cho, Jinhee; Ahn, Ginnae; Kim, Dae Seung; Al-Amin, Mohammad; Park, Suk Jae

    2013-01-01

    Phloroglucinol (PG) is a phenolic compound isolated from Ecklonia cava, a brown algae abundant on Jeju island, Korea. Previous reports have suggested that PG exerts antioxidative and cytoprotective effects against oxidative stress. In this study, we confirmed that PG protected against small intestinal damage caused by ionizing radiation, and we investigated its protective mechanism in detail. Regeneration of intestinal crypts in the PG-treated irradiated group was significantly promoted compared with that in irradiated controls. The expression level of proapoptotic molecules such as p53, Bax, and Bak in the small intestine was downregulated and that of antiapoptotic molecules such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-XS/L was augmented in the PG-treated group. On histological observation of the small intestine, PG inhibited the immunoreactivity of p53, Bax, and Bak and increased that of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XS/L. These results demonstrate the protective mechanisms of PG in mice against intestinal damage from ionizing radiation, providing the benefit of raising the apoptosis threshold of jejunal crypt cells. PMID:23117934

  19. Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) with simultaneous intestinal Giardia sp., Spironucleus sp., and trichomonad infections.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Barbara J; Stockdale Walden, Heather D; Kondo, Hirotaka

    2013-11-01

    A commercial facility producing hamsters with a history of infection by dwarf tapeworm (Hymenolepis nana) submitted 15 animals for necropsy and postmortem parasitological and microscopic examination. No tapeworms were detected grossly or microscopically. Fecal examination including gastrointestinal mucosal smears demonstrated mixed intestinal bacteria and low numbers of Giardia sp. Histologic examination of small intestine demonstrated filling of the small intestinal crypts by large numbers of 7-9 µm × 3 µm, rod to crescent or teardrop-shaped flagellates consistent with Spironucleus sp. These organisms had two 1-µm, basophilic, oval nuclei and multiple superficial flagella-like structures. Much larger 10-15 µm × 8-10 µm, oval to pear-shaped organisms were also present in lower numbers and usually located with the crypts. These larger flagellates had multiple flagella and a basophilic rod-shaped nucleus. The larger flagellates included Giardia sp., which had an intimate interface with the surface of the mucosal epithelium, bilaterally symmetry, and binucleation. Lower numbers of trichomonads were also present and were distinguished by an undulating surface membrane and a single nucleus. The mucosa was hyperplastic and moderately inflamed. Although the tapeworm infection was resolved, diagnosis of multiple intestinal flagellates by fecal examination is complicated by the varying sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of different types of fecal analysis for different flagellate types. Key differences in the morphology and location of the different types of flagellates as observed by histology of intestinal tissues provide important additional diagnostic information to distinguish trichomonads, Spironucleus sp., and Giardia sp.

  20. Epidermal Growth Factor and Intestinal Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hu; Yang, Shufen; Li, Zuohua; Zhong, Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a 53-amino acid peptide that plays an important role in regulating cell growth, survival, migration, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, EGF has been established to be an effective intestinal regulator helping to protect intestinal barrier integrity, which was essential for the absorption of nutrients and health in humans and animals. Several researches have demonstrated that EGF via binding to the EGF receptor and subsequent activation of Ras/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, PLC-γ/PKC, and STATS signal pathways regulates intestinal barrier function. In this review, the relationship between epidermal growth factor and intestinal development and intestinal barrier is described, to provide a better understanding of the effects of EGF on intestine development and health. PMID:27524860

  1. Fructo-oligosaccharides and iron bioavailability in anaemic rats: the effects on iron species distribution, ferroportin-1 expression, crypt bifurcation and crypt cell proliferation in the caecum.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Alexandre R; Gaievski, Eduardo H S; De Carli, Eduardo; Alvares, Eliana P; Colli, Célia

    2014-10-28

    The present study investigated the effects of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) on the bioavailability of Fe from ferric pyrophosphate (FP), a water-insoluble compound, in Fe-deficient anaemic rats that were subjected to a Hb repletion assay. Male Wistar rats (n 64) were fed adequate or low (8 mg/kg) Fe diets for 15 d followed by 1 or 2 weeks of Fe repletion with diets providing 35 mg Fe/kg as ferrous sulphate (FS), FP or FP that was mixed with 7·5% FOS in the form of yacon flour or Raftilose P95 (RAF), a purified source of FOS. The effects of FOS were observed within the 1st week of the repletion period. Fe bioavailability was improved by FOS supplementation, as measured by Hb regeneration efficiency and hepatic Fe stores, which were more pronounced in the RAF group. Moreover, RAF supplementation resulted in a higher biological value relative to that of the FP group. FOS supplementation resulted in caecal enlargement, in addition to acidification and Fe species redistribution in the caecal contents relative to the control rats. These effects occurred concomitantly with decreased ferroportin (FPN)-1 expression in the caecal mucosa, which was similar in magnitude to that observed in the FS group. Caecum mucosal morphometry was influenced by FOS supplementation, whereas crypt fission and cell proliferation were highest in the caecum of the RAF group. These results reinforce the effects of FOS as Fe bioavailability enhancers in anaemic rats that are sustained by early changes in their caecal environment (decreased mucosal FPN-1 expression and increased Fe absorbability, crypt fission and cellularity).

  2. Sustained glucagon-like peptide-2 infusion is required for intestinal adaptation, and cessation reverses increased cellularity in rats with intestinal failure

    PubMed Central

    Koopmann, Matthew C.; Chen, Xueyan; Holst, Jens J.

    2010-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a nutrient-dependent, proglucagon-derived hormone that is a proposed treatment for human short bowel syndrome (SBS). The objective was to determine how the timing, duration, and cessation of GLP-2 administration affect intestinal adaptation and enterocyte kinetics in a rat model of human SBS that results in intestinal failure requiring total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Rats underwent 60% jejunoileal resection plus cecectomy and jugular vein cannulation and were maintained exclusively with TPN for 18 days in these treatments: TPN control (no GLP-2); sustained GLP-2 (1–18 days); early GLP-2 (1–7 days, killed at 7 or 18 days); and delayed GLP-2 (12–18 days). Body weight gain was similar across groups, and plasma bioactive GLP-2 was significantly increased with coinfusion of GLP-2 (100 μg·kg−1·day−1) with TPN. GLP-2-treated rats showed significant increases in duodenum and jejunum mucosal dry mass, protein, DNA, and sucrase activity compared with TPN control. The increased jejunum cellularity reflected significantly decreased apoptosis and increased crypt mitosis and crypt fission due to GLP-2. When GLP-2 infusion stopped at 7 days, these effects were reversed at 18 days. Sustained GLP-2 infusion significantly increased duodenum length and decreased 18-day mortality to 0% from 37.5% deaths in TPN control (P = 0.08). Colon proglucagon expression quantified by real-time RT-qPCR was increased in TPN controls and attenuated by GLP-2 infusion; jejunal expression of the GLP-2 receptor did not differ among groups. In summary, early, sustained GLP-2 infusion reduces mortality, induces crypt fission, and is required for intestinal adaptation, whereas cessation of GLP-2 reverses gains in mucosal cellularity in a rat model of intestinal failure. PMID:20864657

  3. Polycomb complex PRC1 as gatekeeper of intestinal stem cell identity

    PubMed Central

    Léveillé, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are adult multipotent cells essential for the maintenance of intestinal epithelial homeostasis. Wnt signaling activity ensures that the pool of ISCs at the basis of the intestinal crypts is preserved. Dysregulation of the Wnt pathway is often observed in cancer and supports malignant progression. Chiacchiera and colleagues recently demonstrated the implication of the polycomb complex PRC1 in the regulation of the Wnt pathway in adult ISCs. The authors show that PRC1 maintains intestinal homeostasis by repressing the expression of ZICs, a family of transcription factors inactivating the β-catenin/TCF complex. Importantly, interfering with PRC1 activity completely inhibits the formation of Wnt-dependent tumors. These findings reveal a new layer of epigenetic regulation of the Wnt pathway and open novel opportunities for cancer stem cell targeted therapy. PMID:27488310

  4. Toxoplasma gondii Oral Infection Induces Intestinal Inflammation and Retinochoroiditis in Mice Genetically Selected for Immune Oral Tolerance Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Raul Ramos Furtado; de Carvalho, Eulógio Carlos Queiroz; Leite, Carla Cristina da Silva; Tedesco, Roberto Carlos; Calabrese, Katia da Silva; Silva, Antonio Carlos; DaMatta, Renato Augusto; de Fatima Sarro-Silva, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide disease with most of the infections originating through the oral route and generates various pathological manifestations, ranging from meningoencephalitis to retinochoroiditis and inflammatory bowel disease. Animal models for these pathologies are scarce and have limitations. We evaluated the outcome of Toxoplasma gondii oral infection with 50 or 100 cysts of the ME-49 strain in two lines of mice with extreme phenotypes of susceptibility (TS) or resistance (TR) to immune oral tolerance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of TS and TR mice, orally infected by T. gondii, and determine its value as a model for inflammatory diseases study. Mortality during the acute stage of the infection for TR was 50% for both dosages, while 10 and 40% of the TS died after infection with these respective dosages. In the chronic stage, the remaining TS succumbed while TR survived for 90 days. The TS displayed higher parasite load with lower intestinal inflammation and cellular proliferation, notwithstanding myocarditis, pneumonitis and meningoencephalitis. TR presented massive necrosis of villi and crypt, comparable to inflammatory bowel disease, with infiltration of lymphoid cells in the lamina propria of the intestines. Also, TR mice infected with 100 cysts presented intense cellular infiltrate within the photoreceptor layer of the eyes, changes in disposition and morphology of the retina cell layers and retinochoroiditis. During the infection, high levels of IL-6 were detected in the serum of TS mice and TR mice presented high amounts of IFN-γ and TNF-α. Both mice lineages developed different disease outcomes, but it is emphasized that TR and TS mice presented acute and chronic stages of the infection, demonstrating that the two lineages offer an attractive model for studying toxoplasmosis. PMID:25437299

  5. Toxoplasma gondii oral infection induces intestinal inflammation and retinochoroiditis in mice genetically selected for immune oral tolerance resistance.

    PubMed

    Dias, Raul Ramos Furtado; Carvalho, Eulógio Carlos Queiroz de; Leite, Carla Cristina da Silva; Tedesco, Roberto Carlos; Calabrese, Katia da Silva; Silva, Antonio Carlos; DaMatta, Renato Augusto; de Fatima Sarro-Silva, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide disease with most of the infections originating through the oral route and generates various pathological manifestations, ranging from meningoencephalitis to retinochoroiditis and inflammatory bowel disease. Animal models for these pathologies are scarce and have limitations. We evaluated the outcome of Toxoplasma gondii oral infection with 50 or 100 cysts of the ME-49 strain in two lines of mice with extreme phenotypes of susceptibility (TS) or resistance (TR) to immune oral tolerance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of TS and TR mice, orally infected by T. gondii, and determine its value as a model for inflammatory diseases study. Mortality during the acute stage of the infection for TR was 50% for both dosages, while 10 and 40% of the TS died after infection with these respective dosages. In the chronic stage, the remaining TS succumbed while TR survived for 90 days. The TS displayed higher parasite load with lower intestinal inflammation and cellular proliferation, notwithstanding myocarditis, pneumonitis and meningoencephalitis. TR presented massive necrosis of villi and crypt, comparable to inflammatory bowel disease, with infiltration of lymphoid cells in the lamina propria of the intestines. Also, TR mice infected with 100 cysts presented intense cellular infiltrate within the photoreceptor layer of the eyes, changes in disposition and morphology of the retina cell layers and retinochoroiditis. During the infection, high levels of IL-6 were detected in the serum of TS mice and TR mice presented high amounts of IFN-γ and TNF-α. Both mice lineages developed different disease outcomes, but it is emphasized that TR and TS mice presented acute and chronic stages of the infection, demonstrating that the two lineages offer an attractive model for studying toxoplasmosis.

  6. Intestinal stem cell replacement follows a pattern of neutral drift.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Garcia, Carlos; Klein, Allon M; Simons, Benjamin D; Winton, Douglas J

    2010-11-05

    With the capacity for rapid self-renewal and regeneration, the intestinal epithelium is stereotypical of stem cell-supported tissues. Yet the pattern of stem cell turnover remains in question. Applying analytical methods from population dynamics and statistical physics to an inducible genetic labeling system, we showed that clone size distributions conform to a distinctive scaling behavior at short times. This result demonstrates that intestinal stem cells form an equipotent population in which the loss of a stem cell is compensated by the multiplication of a neighbor, leading to neutral drift dynamics in which clones expand and contract at random until they either take over the crypt or they are lost. Combined with long-term clonal fate data, we show that the rate of stem cell replacement is comparable to the cell division rate, implying that neutral drift and symmetrical cell divisions are central to stem cell homeostasis.

  7. Effects of dose rates on radiation-induced replenishment of intestinal stem cells determined by Lgr5 lineage tracing.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Kensuke; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu

    2015-07-01

    An understanding of the dynamics of intestinal Lgr5(+) stem cells is important for elucidating the mechanism of colonic cancer development. We previously established a method for evaluating Lgr5(+) stem cells by tamoxifen-dependent Lgr5-lineage tracing and showed that high-dose-rate radiation stimulated replenishment of colonic stem cells. In this study, we evaluated the effects of low-dose-rate radiation on stem cell maintenance. Tamoxifen (4OHT)-injected Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-Cre(ERT2) × ROSA-LSL-LacZ mice were used, LacZ-labeled colonic crypts were enumerated, and the loss of LacZ(+) crypts under low-dose-rate radiation was estimated. After 4OHT treatment, the number of LacZ-labeled Lgr5(+) stem cells was higher in the colon of infant mice than in adult mice. The percentage of LacZ-labeled crypts in infant mice rapidly decreased after 4OHT treatment. However, the percentage of labeled crypts plateaued at ∼2% at 4 weeks post-treatment and remained unchanged for up to 7 months. Thus, it will be advantageous to evaluate the long-term effects of low-dose-rate radiation. Next, we determined the percentages of LacZ-labeled crypts irradiated with 1 Gy administered at different dose rates. As reported in our previous study, mice exposed to high-dose-rate radiation (30 Gy/h) showed a marked replenishment (P = 0.04). However, mice exposed to low-dose-rate radiation (0.003 Gy/h) did not exhibit accelerated stem-cell replenishment (P = 0.47). These findings suggest the percentage of labeled crypts can serve as a useful indicator of the effects of dose rate on the stem cell pool.

  8. Mutual reinforcement between telomere capping and canonical Wnt signalling in the intestinal stem cell niche

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ting-Lin B.; Chen, Qijun; Deng, Jennifer T.; Jagannathan, Geetha; Tobias, John W.; Schultz, David C.; Wang, Shan; Lengner, Christopher J.; Rustgi, Anil K.; Lynch, John P.; Johnson, F. Brad

    2017-01-01

    Critical telomere shortening (for example, secondary to partial telomerase deficiency in the rare disease dyskeratosis congenita) causes tissue pathology, but underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Mice lacking telomerase (for example, mTR−/− telomerase RNA template mutants) provide a model for investigating pathogenesis. In such mice, after several generations of telomerase deficiency telomeres shorten to the point of uncapping, causing defects most pronounced in high-turnover tissues including intestinal epithelium. Here we show that late-generation mTR−/− mutants experience marked downregulation of Wnt pathway genes in intestinal crypt epithelia, including crypt base columnar stem cells and Paneth cells, and in underlying stroma. The importance of these changes was revealed by rescue of crypt apoptosis and Wnt pathway gene expression upon treatment with Wnt pathway agonists. Rescue was associated with reduced telomere-dysfunction-induced foci and anaphase bridges, indicating improved telomere capping. Thus a mutually reinforcing feedback loop exists between telomere capping and Wnt signalling, and telomere capping can be impacted by extracellular cues in a fashion independent of telomerase. PMID:28303901

  9. Wnt Signaling Inhibition Deprives Small Intestinal Stem Cells of Clonogenic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Janeckova, Lucie; Fafilek, Bohumil; Krausova, Michaela; Horazna, Monika; Vojtechova, Martina; Alberich‐Jorda, Meritxell; Sloncova, Eva; Galuskova, Katerina; Sedlacek, Radislav; Anderova, Miroslava

    2016-01-01

    Summary The Wnt pathway plays a crucial role in self‐renewal and differentiation of cells in the adult gut. In the present study, we revealed the functional consequences of inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling in the intestinal epithelium. The study was based on generation of a novel transgenic mouse strain enabling inducible expression of an N‐terminally truncated variant of nuclear Wnt effector T cell factor 4 (TCF4). The TCF4 variant acting as a dominant negative (dn) version of wild‐type (wt) TCF4 protein decreased transcription of β‐catenin‐TCF4‐responsive genes. Interestingly, suppression of Wnt/β‐catenin signaling affected asymmetric division of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) rather than proliferation. ISCs expressing the transgene underwent several rounds of division but lost their clonogenic potential and migrated out of the crypt. Expression profiling of crypt cells revealed that besides ISC‐specific markers, the dnTCF4 production downregulated expression levels of epithelial genes produced in other crypt cells including markers of Paneth cells. Additionally, in Apc conditional knockout mice, dnTCF activation efficiently suppressed growth of Apc‐deficient tumors. In summary, the generated mouse strain represents a convenient tool to study cell‐autonomous inhibition of β‐catenin‐Tcf‐mediated transcription. genesis 54:101–114, 2016. © 2016 The Authors genesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26864984

  10. An in vivo model of human small intestine using pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Watson, Carey L; Mahe, Maxime M; Múnera, Jorge; Howell, Jonathan C; Sundaram, Nambirajan; Poling, Holly M; Schweitzer, Jamie I; Vallance, Jefferson E; Mayhew, Christopher N; Sun, Ying; Grabowski, Gregory; Finkbeiner, Stacy R; Spence, Jason R; Shroyer, Noah F; Wells, James M; Helmrath, Michael A

    2014-11-01

    Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into organ-specific subtypes offers an exciting avenue for the study of embryonic development and disease processes, for pharmacologic studies and as a potential resource for therapeutic transplant. To date, limited in vivo models exist for human intestine, all of which are dependent upon primary epithelial cultures or digested tissue from surgical biopsies that include mesenchymal cells transplanted on biodegradable scaffolds. Here, we generated human intestinal organoids (HIOs) produced in vitro from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that can engraft in vivo. These HIOs form mature human intestinal epithelium with intestinal stem cells contributing to the crypt-villus architecture and a laminated human mesenchyme, both supported by mouse vasculature ingrowth. In vivo transplantation resulted in marked expansion and maturation of the epithelium and mesenchyme, as demonstrated by differentiated intestinal cell lineages (enterocytes, goblet cells, Paneth cells, tuft cells and enteroendocrine cells), presence of functional brush-border enzymes (lactase, sucrase-isomaltase and dipeptidyl peptidase 4) and visible subepithelial and smooth muscle layers when compared with HIOs in vitro. Transplanted intestinal tissues demonstrated digestive functions as shown by permeability and peptide uptake studies. Furthermore, transplanted HIO-derived tissue was responsive to systemic signals from the host mouse following ileocecal resection, suggesting a role for circulating factors in the intestinal adaptive response. This model of the human small intestine may pave the way for studies of intestinal physiology, disease and translational studies.

  11. Influence of Butyrate Loaded Clinoptilolite Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Development of Intestine and Antioxidant Capacity in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanan; Zhou, Yanmin; Lu, Changhui; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appearing as an important feed additive for the poultry industry.

  12. Influence of Butyrate Loaded Clinoptilolite Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Development of Intestine and Antioxidant Capacity in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanan; Zhou, Yanmin; Lu, Changhui; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appearing as an important feed additive for the poultry industry. PMID:27104860

  13. ID1 is a functional marker for intestinal stem and progenitor cells required for normal response to injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Yantiss, Rhonda K; Nam, Hyung-Song; Chin, Yvette; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Scherl, Ellen J; Bosworth, Brian P; Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Benezra, Robert

    2014-11-11

    LGR5 and BMI1 mark intestinal stem cells in crypt base columnar cells and +4 position cells, respectively, but characterization of functional markers in these cell populations is limited. ID1 maintains the stem cell potential of embryonic, neural, and long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells. Here, we show in both human and mouse intestine that ID1 is expressed in cycling columnar cells, +4 position cells, and transit-amplifying cells in the crypt. Lineage tracing revealed ID1+ cells to be self-renewing, multipotent stem/progenitor cells that are responsible for the long-term renewal of the intestinal epithelium. Single ID1+ cells can generate long-lived organoids resembling mature intestinal epithelium. Complete knockout of Id1 or selective deletion of Id1 in intestinal epithelium or in LGR5+ stem cells sensitizes mice to chemical-induced colon injury. These experiments identify ID1 as a marker for intestinal stem/progenitor cells and demonstrate a role for ID1 in maintaining the potential for repair in response to colonic injury.

  14. Expression and localization of aquaporin-1 on the apical membrane of enterocytes in the small intestine of bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Miwa

    2010-02-01

    The small and large intestines are primary sites for water intake in mammals. To reveal how water is absorbed in the intestines of cetaceans, histological and molecular-biological studies were performed on the small intestine of the bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. In histological studies using fresh specimens, obvious villi and deep crypts of Lieberkühn, lined by abundant enterocytes with microvilli and goblet cells, were observed in the mucosa. Expressions and immunolocalizations of aquaporin-1 (AQP1), a member of the water-selective channel termed AQP, were also investigated in the intestine. By reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA ends using RNA extracted from the dolphins' small intestines, the full length of mRNA for AQP1 was sequenced. The deductive amino acid sequence for an open reading frame showed high homologies with other mammals' AQP1, and water permeability of the protein was certified by cRNA injection to Xenopus oocytes. Immunohistochemistry showed AQP1 distribution on the apical membrane of the enterocytes, especially in the crypts. These data suggest that AQP1 is a channel protein responsible for water absorption in the small intestine of dolphins.

  15. Inflammation enhances resection-induced intestinal adaptive growth in IL-10 null mice

    PubMed Central

    Speck, Karen E.; Garrison, Aaron P.; Rigby, Rachael J.; von Allmen, Doug C.; Lund, P. Kay; Helmrath, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Surgical resection of the ileum, cecum and proximal right colon (ICR) is common in the management of Crohn’s disease, yet little is known about the effect of active inflammation on the adaptive response following intestinal loss. We recently developed a surgical model of ICR in germ-free (GF) IL-10 null mice that develop small intestinal inflammation only when mice undergo conventionalization with normal fecal microflora (CONV) before surgical intervention. In this study, we examined the effects of post-surgical small bowel inflammation on adaptive growth after ICR. Methods 8-10 week old GF 129SvEv IL-10 null mice were allocated to GF or CONV groups. Non-operated GF and CONV mice provided baseline controls. Two weeks later GF and CONV mice were further allocated to ICR or sham operation. Small intestine and colon were harvested 7d after surgery for histological analysis. Results All mice within the gnotobiotic facility maintained GF status and did not develop small intestinal or colonic inflammation. CONV resulted in colitis in all groups, whereas small intestinal inflammation was only observed following ICR. Resection-induced small intestinal inflammation in CONV mice was associated with increases in proliferation, crypt depth and villus height when compared to GF mice after ICR. Resection-induced increases in crypt fission only occurred in CONV mice. Conclusion ICR-dependent small intestinal inflammation in CONV IL-10 null mice dramatically enhances early adaptive growth of the small intestine. Additional studies utilizing our model may provide clinical insight leading to optimal therapies in managing IBD patients after surgical resection. PMID:20074747

  16. One-hit effects in cancer: Altered proteome of morphologically normal colon crypts in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Anthony T.; Patel, Bhavinkumar B.; Li, Xin-Ming; Seeholzer, Steven H.; Coudry, Renata A.; Cooper, Harry S.; Bellacosa, Alfonso; Boman, Bruce M.; Zhang, Tao; Litwin, Samuel; Ross, Eric A.; Conrad, Peggy; Crowell, James A.; Kopelovich, Levy; Knudson, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    We studied patients with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP), because they are virtually certain to develop colon cancer, and because much is known about the causative APC gene. We hypothesized that the inherited heterozygous mutation itself leads to changes in the proteome of morphologically normal crypts and the proteins that changed may represent targets for preventive and therapeutic agents. We determined the differential protein expression of morphologically normal colon crypts of FAP patients versus those of individuals without the mutation, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and validation by 2D gel Western blotting. Approximately 13% of 1,695 identified proteins were abnormally expressed in the morphologically normal crypts of APC mutation carriers, indicating that a colon crypt cell under the one-hit state is already abnormal. Many of the expression changes affect pathways consistent with the function of the APC protein, including apoptosis, cell adhesion, cell motility, cytoskeletal organization and biogenesis, mitosis, transcription and oxidative stress response. Thus, heterozygosity for a mutant APC tumor suppressor gene alters the proteome of normal-appearing crypt cells in a gene-specific manner, consistent with a detectable one-hit event. These changes may represent the earliest biomarkers of colorectal cancer development, potentially leading to the identification of molecular targets for cancer prevention. PMID:18794146

  17. Both epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor receptors are dispensable for structural intestinal adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Raphael C.; Diaz-Miron, Jose L.; Choi, Pamela M.; Sommovilla, Joshua; Guo, Jun; Erwin, Christopher R.; Warner, Brad W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Intestinal adaptation structurally represents increases in crypt depth and villus height in response to small bowel resection (SBR). Previously, we found that neither epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nor insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) function was individually required for normal adaptation. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of disrupting both EGFR and IGF1R expression on resection-induced adaptation. Methods Intestinal-specific EGFR and IGF1R double knockout mice (EGFR/IGF1R-IKO) (n=6) and wild-type (WT) control mice (n=7) underwent 50% proximal SBR. On postoperative day (POD) 7, structural adaptation was scored by measuring crypt depth and villus height. Rates of crypt cell proliferation, apoptosis, and submucosal capillary density were also compared. Results After 50% SBR, normal adaptation occurred in both WT and EGFR/IGF1R-IKO. Rates of proliferation and apoptosis were no different between the two groups. The angiogenic response was less in the EGFR/IGF1R-IKO compared to WT mice. Conclusion Disrupted expression of EGFR and IGF1R in the intestinal epithelial cells does not affect resection-induced structural adaptation but attenuates angiogenesis after SBR. These findings suggest that villus growth is driven by receptors and pathways that occur outside the epithelial cell component, while angiogenic responses may be influenced by epithelial-endothelial crosstalk. PMID:25818318

  18. Chemopreventive Effects of an HDAC2-Selective Inhibitor on Rat Colon Carcinogenesis and APCmin/+ Mouse Intestinal Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ravillah, Durgadevi; Mohammed, Altaf; Qian, Li; Brewer, Misty; Zhang, Yuting; Biddick, Laura; Steele, Vernon E.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic modulators, particularly histone deacetylases (HDACs), are valid targets for cancer prevention and therapy. Recent studies report that HDAC2 overexpression is associated with colon tumor progression and is a potential target for colon cancer prevention. This study tested chemopreventive and dose-response effects of Ohio State University HDAC42 (OSU-HDAC42), a selective HDAC2 inhibitor, using a rat colon carcinogenesis model to assess aberrant crypt foci inhibition and a familial adenomatous polyposis model to assess intestinal tumor inhibition. Colonic aberrant crypt foci were induced by azoxymethane (AOM) (15 mg/kg body weight, once-weekly subcutaneous injections at 8 and 9 weeks age). One week after AOM treatment, groups of rats were fed an AIN-76A diet containing 0, 75, 150, and 300 ppm OSU-HDAC42 for 8 weeks, and colonic aberrant crypt foci were evaluated. To assess the inhibitory effect of OSU-HDAC42 on small-intestinal polyps and colon tumor growth, 6-week-old male C57Bl/6J-APCmin/+mice were fed an AIN-76A diet containing 150 ppm OSU-HADC42 or 300 ppm pan-HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxyamic acid (SAHA) for 80 days. Our results demonstrate that dietary OSU-HDAC42 produced dose-dependent inhibition of AOM-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci formation (13–50%; P < 0.01 to < 0.0001) and reduced multiple crypts with ≥4 crypts per focus (25–57%; P < 0.01 to < 0.0001) in F344 rats. Our findings show that 150 ppm OSU-HDAC42 significantly inhibited small-intestinal polyps (>46%; P < 0.001), with polyp size measuring >1 mm (P < 0.001), and colon tumors (>26%) in APCmin/+mice, whereas 300 ppm SAHA showed nonsignificant inhibition. Mice fed 150 ppm OSU-HDAC42 had significantly decreased HDAC2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, B cell lymphoma 2, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, and cell division cycle homolog 25C expression levels and increased p53 expression levels. These observations demonstrate the chemopreventive efficacy of OSU-HDAC42 against

  19. Effects of Streptococcus thermophilus TH-4 on intestinal mucositis induced by the chemotherapeutic agent, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU).

    PubMed

    Whitford, Eleanor J; Cummins, Adrian G; Butler, Ross N; Prisciandaro, Luca D; Fauser, Jane K; Yazbeck, Roger; Lawrence, Andrew; Cheah, Ker Y; Wright, Tessa H; Lymn, Kerry A; Howarth, Gordon S

    2009-03-15

    Beneficial bacteria (probiotics) and probiotic-derived factors have the potential to ameliorate disorders of the intestine. The aim of this study was to compare live Streptococcus thermophilus TH-4 (TH-4), dead TH-4 and TH-4 supernatant in rats treated with 5-Fluorouracil. Rats were randomly allocated to five treatment groups (n=8-10): Saline+Water; 5-FU+Skim Milk; 5-FU+Live TH-4; 5-FU+Supernatant TH-4; and 5-FU+Dead TH-4. 5-FU (150mg.kg(-1)) was administered by a single intraperitoneal injection on day 0; animals were killed on day 4. Treatments were administered daily from days -2 to 3 via oro-gastric gavage. Metabolic parameters were measured daily. Blood was obtained by cardiac puncture, and intestinal tissues removed for quantitative and qualitative histological assessment, including: villous height and area; crypt depth and area, mitotic count and crypt fission; biochemical determination of sucrase and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity; and disease severity scoring. One-way ANOVA statistical analyses were conducted for the majority of outcome measures. Live TH-4 significantly reduced disease severity score by 13% (p< 0.05), and partially normalised mitotic counts compared with 5-FU+Skim milk controls. Live and supernatant TH-4 reduced crypt fission by 69% and 48% (p< 0.05), respectively, compared to 5-FU+Skim Milk controls. No significant differences (p> 0.05) in the occurrence of bacteraemia were evident across all groups. Live TH-4 partially normalised mitotic count and histological severity score in 5-FU treated rats. The inhibitory effect of live TH-4 and TH-4 supernatant on crypt fission suggests therapeutic utility in the prevention of disorders characterised by increased crypt fission, such as colorectal carcinoma.

  20. Effects of Streptococcus thermophilus TH-4 on intestinal mucositis induced by the chemotherapeutic agent 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU).

    PubMed

    Whitford, Eleanor J; Cummins, Adrian G; Butler, Ross N; Prisciandaro, Luca D; Fauser, Jane K; Yazbeck, Roger; Lawrence, Andrew; Cheah, Ker Y; Wright, Tessa H; Lymn, Kerry A; Howarth, Gordon S

    2009-03-15

    Beneficial bacteria (probiotics) and probiotic-derived factors have the potential to ameliorate disorders of the intestine. The aim of this study was to compare live Streptococcus thermophilus TH-4 (TH-4), dead TH-4 and TH-4 supernatant in rats treated with 5-Fluorouracil. Rats were randomly allocated to five treatment groups (n = 8–10): Saline + Water; 5-FU + Skim Milk; 5-FU+ Live TH-4; 5-FU + Supernatant TH-4; and 5-FU + Dead TH-4.5-FU (150 mg.kg-1) was administered by a single intraperitoneal injection on day zero; animals were killed on day four. Treatments were administered daily from days -2 to +3 via oro-gastric gavage. Metabolic parameters were measured daily. Blood was obtained by cardiac puncture, and intestinal tissues removed for quantitative and qualitative histological assessment, including: villus height and area; crypt depth and area, mitotic count and crypt fission;biochemical determination of sucrase and myeloperoxidase (MPO)activity; and disease severity scoring. One-way ANOVA statistical analyses were conducted for the majority of outcome measures. Live TH-4 significantly reduced disease severity score by 13% (p< 0.05), and partially normalized mitotic counts compared with 5-FU + Skim Milk controls. Live and Supernatant TH-4 reduced crypt fission by 69% and 48% (p < 0.05), respectively, compared to 5-FU + Skim Milk controls. No significant differences (p > 0.05) in the occurrence of bacteraemia were evident across all groups. Live TH-4 partially normalized mitotic count and histological severity score in 5-FU treated rats. The inhibitory effect of live TH-4 and TH-4 Supernatant on crypt fission suggests therapeutic utility in the prevention of disorders characterized by increased crypt fission,such as colorectal carcinoma.

  1. [Intestinal microbiota].

    PubMed

    Debré, Patrice; Le Gall, Jean-Yves

    2014-12-01

    The human body normally lives in symbiosis with a considerable microscopic environment present on all interfaces with the external environment; it hosts ten times more microbes (microbiota) that it has somatic or germ cells, representing a gene diversity (microbiome) 100-150 times higher than the human genome. These germs are located mainly in the gut, where they represent a mass of about one kilogram. The primary colonization of the gastrointestinal tract depends on the delivery route, the bacterial flora rewarding then depending on the environment, food hygiene, medical treatments. The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the maturation of the immune system and in different physiological functions: digestion of polysaccharides, glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins, vitamins biosynthesis, bile salt metabolism of some amino acids and xenobiotics. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the microbiota are observed in a wide range of diseases: obesity, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune diseases, allergies... pharmacobiotics aim to modify the intestinal microbiota in a therapeutic goal and this by various means: prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics or fecal transplants. Intestinal flora also plays a direct role in the metabolism of certain drugs and the microbiota should be considered as a predictive parameter of response to some chemotherapies.

  2. Evidence of amiloride-sensitive fluid absorption in rat descending colonic crypts from fluorescence recovery of FITC-labelled dextran after photobleaching

    PubMed Central

    Thiagarajah, Jay R; Pedley, Kevin C; Naftalin, Richard J

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled 10 and 250 kDa dextran (FITC dextran) in isolated rat descending colonic crypts was measured at 35 °C using laser scanning confocal microscopy. FRAP of either 10 or 250 kDa FITC dextran in crypt lumens was almost complete within 2–3 min. In the presence of amiloride (0.1 mm), or in the absence of Na+, the rate of FITC dextran uptake into the crypt lumens was reduced by 70–80 %. The rate of fluid uptake into the crypt lumen, as estimated from the rate of total FITC dextran uptake into the crypt lumen and its adjacent pericryptal region after FRAP, was between 1.3 × 10−3 and 1.7 × 10−3 cm s−1. Convective flow during FRAP was also determined from the initial rate of FITC dextran advance along the crypt lumen. This effect was almost completely blocked by amiloride (0.1 mm). The permeability of 10 kDa FITC dextran across the descending colonic crypt wall was found to be higher than that of 250 kDa FITC dextran (3.7 (± 0.6) × 10−5 and 1.8 (± 0.3) × 10−6 cm s−1, respectively; n = 3 for both, P < 0.01). The permeability of the caecal crypt wall to 10 kDa dextran was higher than that of the descending crypt wall (2.03 (± 0.21) × 10−5 cm s−1; n = 3, P < 0.025). Simulation of the flow of Na+, water and FITC dextran into the crypt lumen and across the crypt wall and pericryptal sheath corroborates the observed parameters of water and Na+ flows. PMID:11600688

  3. ERBB3 Positively Correlates with Intestinal Stem Cell Markers but Marks a Distinct Non Proliferative Cell Population in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jardé, Thierry; Kass, Lisa; Staples, Margaret; Lescesen, Helen; Carne, Peter; Oliva, Karen; McMurrick, Paul J.; Abud, Helen E.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have suggested ERBB3/HER3 may be a useful prognostic marker for colorectal cancer. Tumours with an intestinal stem cell signature have also been shown to be more aggressive. Here, we investigate whether ERBB3 is associated with intestinal stem cell markers in colorectal cancer and if cancer stem cells within tumours are marked by expression of ERBB3. Expression of ERBB3 and intestinal stem cell markers (LGR5, EPHB2, CD44s and CD44v6) was assessed by qRT-PCR in primary colorectal tumours (stages 0 to IV) and matched normal tissues from 53 patients. The localisation of ERBB3, EPHB2 and KI-67 within tumours was investigated using co-immunofluorescence. Expression of ERBB3 and intestinal stem cell markers were significantly elevated in adenomas and colorectal tumours compared to normal tissue. Positive correlations were found between ERBB3 and intestinal stem cell markers. However, co-immunofluorescence analysis showed that ERBB3 and EPHB2 marked specific cell populations that were mutually exclusive within tumours with distinct proliferative potentials, the majority of ERBB3+ve cells being non-proliferative. This pattern resembles cellular organisation within normal colonic epithelium where EPHB2 labelled proliferative cells reside at the crypt base and ERBB3+ve cells mark differentiated cells at the top of crypts. Our results show that ERBB3 and intestinal stem cell markers correlate in colorectal cancers. ERBB3 localises to differentiated cell populations within tumours that are non-proliferative and distinct from cancer stem cells. These data support the concept that tumours contain discrete stem, proliferative and differentiation compartments similar to that present in normal crypts. PMID:26367378

  4. ERBB3 Positively Correlates with Intestinal Stem Cell Markers but Marks a Distinct Non Proliferative Cell Population in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jardé, Thierry; Kass, Lisa; Staples, Margaret; Lescesen, Helen; Carne, Peter; Oliva, Karen; McMurrick, Paul J; Abud, Helen E

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have suggested ERBB3/HER3 may be a useful prognostic marker for colorectal cancer. Tumours with an intestinal stem cell signature have also been shown to be more aggressive. Here, we investigate whether ERBB3 is associated with intestinal stem cell markers in colorectal cancer and if cancer stem cells within tumours are marked by expression of ERBB3. Expression of ERBB3 and intestinal stem cell markers (LGR5, EPHB2, CD44s and CD44v6) was assessed by qRT-PCR in primary colorectal tumours (stages 0 to IV) and matched normal tissues from 53 patients. The localisation of ERBB3, EPHB2 and KI-67 within tumours was investigated using co-immunofluorescence. Expression of ERBB3 and intestinal stem cell markers were significantly elevated in adenomas and colorectal tumours compared to normal tissue. Positive correlations were found between ERBB3 and intestinal stem cell markers. However, co-immunofluorescence analysis showed that ERBB3 and EPHB2 marked specific cell populations that were mutually exclusive within tumours with distinct proliferative potentials, the majority of ERBB3+ve cells being non-proliferative. This pattern resembles cellular organisation within normal colonic epithelium where EPHB2 labelled proliferative cells reside at the crypt base and ERBB3+ve cells mark differentiated cells at the top of crypts. Our results show that ERBB3 and intestinal stem cell markers correlate in colorectal cancers. ERBB3 localises to differentiated cell populations within tumours that are non-proliferative and distinct from cancer stem cells. These data support the concept that tumours contain discrete stem, proliferative and differentiation compartments similar to that present in normal crypts.

  5. Identification, visualization and clonal analysis of intestinal stem cells in fish

    PubMed Central

    Gruhl, Franziska; Schaefer, Colin Q.; Wernet, Tobias; Weinhardt, Venera; Centanin, Lázaro; Loosli, Felix; Baumbach, Tilo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a stochastic model of symmetrical stem cell division followed by neutral drift has been proposed for intestinal stem cells (ISCs), which has been suggested to represent the predominant mode of stem cell progression in mammals. In contrast, stem cells in the retina of teleost fish show an asymmetric division mode. To address whether the mode of stem cell division follows phylogenetic or ontogenetic routes, we analysed the entire gastrointestinal tract of the teleost medaka (Oryzias latipes). X-ray microcomputed tomography shows a correlation of 3D topography with the functional domains. Analysis of ISCs in proliferation assays and via genetically encoded lineage tracing highlights a stem cell niche in the furrow between the long intestinal folds that is functionally equivalent to mammalian intestinal crypts. Stem cells in this compartment are characterized by the expression of homologs of mammalian ISC markers – sox9, axin2 and lgr5 – emphasizing the evolutionary conservation of the Wnt pathway components in the stem cell niche of the intestine. The stochastic, sparse initial labelling of ISCs ultimately resulted in extended labelled or unlabelled domains originating from single stem cells in the furrow niche, contributing to both homeostasis and growth. Thus, different modes of stem cell division co-evolved within one organism, and in the absence of physical isolation in crypts, ISCs contribute to homeostatic growth. PMID:27578784

  6. Fluorescence-based SMC and OCT endoscope to study aberrant crypt foci in the mouse colon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, Molly; Leung, Sarah; Rice, Faith; Wall, R. Andrew; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2013-03-01

    The accepted model of colorectal cancer assumes the paradigm that aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are the earliest events in tumorigenesis and develop into adenoma, which further develop into adenocarcinoma. Under this assumption, basic research and drug studies have been performed using ACF as substitute markers for fully developed carcinoma. While studies have shown a correlation between the number of ACF present and the presence of adenoma/adenocarcinoma, a causal relationship has yet to be determined. The mouse has shown to be an excellent model for colorectal cancer; however, the outcomes of such experiments require sacrifice and histologic examination of ex vivo tissue. To better utilize the mouse model to study ACF and adenoma development, an endoscope was constructed for non-destructive in vivo surface visualization, molecular imaging and cross-sectional imaging of the colon. Our system combines surface magnifying chromoendoscopy (SMC) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to image colon microstructure. Sixteen mice, treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane, were imaged at 2 week intervals, to visualize carcinogenesis events. With this dual-modality system we are able to visualize crypt structure alteration over time as well as adenoma development over time.

  7. Chronic Administration of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Intestinal Anti-Inflammatory MicroRNA Expression during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Lawrance C.; Kumar, Vinay; Torben, Workineh; Stouwe, Curtis Vande; Winsauer, Peter; Amedee, Angela; Molina, Patricia E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recreational and medical use of cannabis among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals has increased in recent years. In simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques, chronic administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) inhibited viral replication and intestinal inflammation and slowed disease progression. Persistent gastrointestinal disease/inflammation has been proposed to facilitate microbial translocation and systemic immune activation and promote disease progression. Cannabinoids including Δ9-THC attenuated intestinal inflammation in mouse colitis models and SIV-infected rhesus macaques. To determine if the anti-inflammatory effects of Δ9-THC involved differential microRNA (miRNA) modulation, we profiled miRNA expression at 14, 30, and 60 days postinfection (days p.i.) in the intestine of uninfected macaques receiving Δ9-THC (n = 3) and SIV-infected macaques administered either vehicle (VEH/SIV; n = 4) or THC (THC/SIV; n = 4). Chronic Δ9-THC administration to uninfected macaques significantly and positively modulated intestinal miRNA expression by increasing the total number of differentially expressed miRNAs from 14 to 60 days p.i. At 60 days p.i., ∼28% of miRNAs showed decreased expression in the VEH/SIV group compared to none showing decrease in the THC/SIV group. Furthermore, compared to the VEH/SIV group, THC selectively upregulated the expression of miR-10a, miR-24, miR-99b, miR-145, miR-149, and miR-187, previously been shown to target proinflammatory molecules. NOX4, a potent reactive oxygen species generator, was confirmed as a direct miR-99b target. A significant increase in NOX4+ crypt epithelial cells was detected in VEH/SIV macaques compared to the THC/SIV group. We speculate that miR-99b-mediated NOX4 downregulation may protect the intestinal epithelium from oxidative stress-induced damage. These results support a role for differential miRNA induction in THC-mediated suppression of intestinal

  8. I’m Not Dead Yet:Bacterial Tales from the Crypt and Survival After Heat Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heat stress has been used as a method of killing bacteria for many years, and is one approach promulgated by federal regulations to reduce pathogens in biosolids (40 CFR 503). However, recent studies have suggested that heat stressed organisms may be able to recover and re-grow ...

  9. Chemically induced mouse models of intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Stefan; Neufert, Clemens; Weigmann, Benno; Neurath, Markus F

    2007-01-01

    Animal models of intestinal inflammation are indispensable for our understanding of the pathogenesis of Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis, the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease in humans. Here, we provide protocols for establishing murine 2,4,6-trinitro benzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-, oxazolone- and both acute and chronic dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis, the most widely used chemically induced models of intestinal inflammation. In the former two models, colitis is induced by intrarectal administration of the covalently reactive reagents TNBS/oxazolone, which are believed to induce a T-cell-mediated response against hapten-modified autologous proteins/luminal antigens. In the DSS model, mice are subjected several days to drinking water supplemented with DSS, which seems to be directly toxic to colonic epithelial cells of the basal crypts. The procedures for the hapten models of colitis and acute DSS colitis can be accomplished in about 2 weeks but the protocol for chronic DSS colitis takes about 2 months.

  10. Enteral peptide formulas inhibit radiation induced enteritis and apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells and suppress the expression and function of Alzheimer's and cell division control gene products

    SciTech Connect

    Cope, F.O. ); Issinger, O.G. ); McArdle, A.H. ); Shapiro, J.; Tomei, L.D. )

    1991-03-15

    Studies have shown that patients receiving enteral peptide formulas prior to irradiation have a significantly reduced incidence of enteritis and express a profound increase in intestinal cellularity. Two conceptual approaches were taken to describe this response. First was the evaluation in changes in programmed intestinal cell death and secondly the evaluation of a gene product controlling cell division cycling. This study provided a relationship between the ratio of cell death to cell formulations. The results indicate that in the canine and murine models, irradiation induces expression of the Alzheimer's gene in intestinal crypt cells, while the incidence of apoptosis in apical cells is significantly increased. The use of peptide enteral formulations suppresses the expression of the Alzheimer's gene in crypt cells, while apoptosis is eliminated in the apical cells of the intestine. Concomitantly, enteral peptide formulations suppress the function of the CK-II gene product in the basal and baso-lateral cells of the intestine. These data indicate that although the mitotic index is significantly reduced in enterocytes, this phenomenon alone is not sufficient to account for the peptide-induced radio-resistance of the intestine. The data also indicate a significant reduction of normal apoptosis in the upper lateral and apical cells of the intestinal villi. Thus, the ratio of cell death to cell replacement is significantly decreased resulting in an increase in villus height and hypertrophy of the apical villus cells. Thus, peptide solutions should be considered as an adjunct treatment both in radio- and chemotherapy.

  11. Age Dependent Resistance to Transmissible Gastroenteritis of Swine (TGE) I. Clinical Signs and Some Mucosal Dimensions in Small Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Moon, H. W.; Norman, J. O.; Lambert, G.

    1973-01-01

    Pigs were exposed to transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus when three days old or when 21 days old. Diarrhea was earliest in onset, most frequent, most profuse and most prolonged in the youngest group. Pigs exposed when three days old also had a higher case fatality rate than those exposed when 21 days old. The histological response of both groups to exposure was atrophy of villi and hyperplasia of crypts in jejunum and ileum. However, from days three to seven post-exposure, when most fatalities occurred in the younger group, atrophy of villi was both more intensive and extensive in the younger group. Hyperplasia of crypts was also greater and more prolonged in the younger group. Regeneration of atrophic villi was more rapid in jejunum than ileum in both groups. Results were interpreted to indicate two populations, with different rates of regeneration, in the 21-day old group. Based on this interpretation, regeneration of villi was more rapid in one population from the 21-day old group than in the three-day old group. The length of villi and depth of crypts in control pigs varied longitudinally (i.e. from site to site) in the intestine, within each age group. Length of villi and depth of crypts in control pigs also varied with age. ImagesFig. 3. PMID:4266695

  12. Intestinal immune cells in Strongyloides stercoralis infection.

    PubMed Central

    Trajman, A; MacDonald, T T; Elia, C C

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strongyloides stercoralis can cause a wide spectrum of disease in man, ranging from a chronic asymptomatic infection to a hyperinfective, often fatal syndrome. In rodents, spontaneous expulsion of Strongyloides spp occurs after experimental infection. Mast cells, goblet cells, and eosinophils have been identified as possible effectors of this expulsion. AIMS: To investigate intestinal histopathology and mucosal immunity in immunocompetent patients with chronic S stercoralis infection. METHODS: Jejunal biopsies were performed in 19 immunocompetent patients with a positive stool examination for S stercoralis and few or no symptoms, and in seven healthy controls. Specimens were processed for histopathological analysis and stained by the immunoperoxidase technique, using the following monoclonal antibodies: CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, anti-T cell receptor (TcR) gamma/delta, RFD1 and RFD7 (two different macrophage markers), Ki67+ (proliferating) cells, antihuman leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, and anticollagen IV. In addition, CD25+ cells, mast cells, IgE expressing cells, calprotectin containing cells, and neutrophil elastase positive cells were stained by the alkaline phosphatase method. RESULTS: Jejunal morphology and the numbers of different T cell subsets, mast cells, IgE expressing cells, eosinophils, and goblet cells were unaffected by S stercoralis infection. Conversely, the numbers of mature macrophages and dividing enterocytes in the crypts were reduced significantly. Crypt enterocytes did not express HLA-DR in both groups. The expression of HLA-DR by villus enterocytes was also comparable in patients and controls. There were no activated (CD25+) cells in the mucosa of either patients or controls. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with seven healthy uninfected volunteers, a group of 19 Brazilians with clinically mild strongyloides infection showed no abnormality of mucosal structure and no increase in non-specific inflammatory cells. Likewise, there was no increase in

  13. Intestinotrophic Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 (GLP-2) Activates Intestinal Gene Expression and Growth Factor-Dependent Pathways Independent of the Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Gene in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yusta, Bernardo; Holland, Dianne; Waschek, James A.

    2012-01-01

    The enteroendocrine and enteric nervous systems convey signals through an overlapping network of regulatory peptides that act either as circulating hormones or as localized neurotransmitters within the gastrointestinal tract. Because recent studies invoke an important role for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) as a downstream mediator of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) action in the gut, we examined the importance of the VIP-GLP-2 interaction through analysis of Vip−/− mice. Unexpectedly, we detected abnormal villous architecture, expansion of the crypt compartment, increased crypt cell proliferation, enhanced Igf1 and Kgf gene expression, and reduced expression of Paneth cell products in the Vip−/− small bowel. These abnormalities were not reproduced by antagonizing VIP action in wild-type mice, and VIP administration did not reverse the intestinal phenotype of Vip−/− mice. Exogenous administration of GLP-2 induced the expression of ErbB ligands and immediate-early genes to similar levels in Vip+/+ vs. Vip−/− mice. Moreover, GLP-2 significantly increased crypt cell proliferation and small bowel growth to comparable levels in Vip+/+ vs. Vip−/− mice. Unexpectedly, exogenous GLP-2 administration had no therapeutic effect in mice with dextran sulfate-induced colitis; the severity of colonic injury and weight loss was modestly reduced in female but not male Vip−/− mice. Taken together, these findings extend our understanding of the complex intestinal phenotype arising from loss of the Vip gene. Furthermore, although VIP action may be important for the antiinflammatory actions of GLP-2, the Vip gene is not required for induction of a gene expression program linked to small bowel growth after enhancement of GLP-2 receptor signaling. PMID:22535770

  14. Intestinal capillariasis.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, J H

    1992-01-01

    Intestinal capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis appeared first in the Philippines and subsequently in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Egypt, and Taiwan, but most infections occur in the Philippines and Thailand. As established experimentally, the life cycle involves freshwater fish as intermediate hosts and fish-eating birds as definitive hosts. Embryonated eggs from feces fed to fish hatch and grow as larvae in the fish intestines. Infective larvae fed to monkeys, Mongolian gerbils, and fish-eating birds develop into adults. Larvae become adults in 10 to 11 days, and the first-generation females produce larvae. These larvae develop into males and egg-producing female worms. Eggs pass with the feces, reach water, embryonate, and infect fish. Autoinfection is part of the life cycle and leads to hyperinfection. Humans acquire the infection by eating small freshwater fish raw. The parasite multiplies, and symptoms of diarrhea, borborygmus, abdominal pain, and edema develop. Chronic infections lead to malabsorption and hence to protein and electrolyte loss, and death results from irreversible effects of the infection. Treatment consists of electrolyte replacement and administration of an antidiarrheal agent and mebendazole or albendazole. Capillariasis philippinensis is considered a zoonotic disease of migratory fish-eating birds. The eggs are disseminated along flyways and infect the fish, and when fish are eaten raw, the disease develops. Images PMID:1576584

  15. Intestinal capillariasis.

    PubMed

    Cross, J H

    1992-04-01

    Intestinal capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis appeared first in the Philippines and subsequently in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Egypt, and Taiwan, but most infections occur in the Philippines and Thailand. As established experimentally, the life cycle involves freshwater fish as intermediate hosts and fish-eating birds as definitive hosts. Embryonated eggs from feces fed to fish hatch and grow as larvae in the fish intestines. Infective larvae fed to monkeys, Mongolian gerbils, and fish-eating birds develop into adults. Larvae become adults in 10 to 11 days, and the first-generation females produce larvae. These larvae develop into males and egg-producing female worms. Eggs pass with the feces, reach water, embryonate, and infect fish. Autoinfection is part of the life cycle and leads to hyperinfection. Humans acquire the infection by eating small freshwater fish raw. The parasite multiplies, and symptoms of diarrhea, borborygmus, abdominal pain, and edema develop. Chronic infections lead to malabsorption and hence to protein and electrolyte loss, and death results from irreversible effects of the infection. Treatment consists of electrolyte replacement and administration of an antidiarrheal agent and mebendazole or albendazole. Capillariasis philippinensis is considered a zoonotic disease of migratory fish-eating birds. The eggs are disseminated along flyways and infect the fish, and when fish are eaten raw, the disease develops.

  16. 5-HT induces cAMP production in crypt colonocytes at a 5-HT4 receptor.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, F C; Smith, E H; Kellum, J M

    1998-07-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that both 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and cyclic AMP (cAMP) induce chloride efflux from crypt colonocytes in the rat distal colon; antagonist studies suggest that the 5-HT response is mediated primarily by the 5-HT4 receptor. Since this receptor is known to be positively coupled to adenylate cyclase, we postulated that 5-HT should induce generation of cAMP, which should be inhibited by 5-HT4 antagonists. Method. Mucosal cells from rat distal colon were taken by a sequential calcium chelation technique for enrichment of crypt cells. Cytokeratin stains demonstrated that >99% of cells were colonocytes. [3H]Thymidine uptake studies demonstrate a fivefold increased incorporation in this cell preparation compared to earlier fractions. 3-Isobutyl-l-methylxanthine (IBMX, 100 microM) was added to all cell suspensions in order to prevent cAMP metabolism. Cell suspensions were incubated for 2 min at 37 degreesC with different concentrations of 5-HT (n = 7). cAMP was measured by enzyme immunoassay. In another series of experiments, 5-HT (0.3 microM) stimulation of cAMP was similarly measured in the presence and absence of 5-HT receptor antagonists: 10 microM 5-HTP-DP (5-HT1P; n = 4), 0.1 microM ketanserin (5-HT2A; n = 4), 0.3 microM ondansetron (5-HT3; n = 4), 3 microM tropisetron (5-HT3 and 5-HT4; n = 4), and 10 nM GR-113808 (5-HT4; n = 5). Results. 5-HT produced a dose-dependent increase in cAMP. The increase was significant at concentrations >/=0.3 microM when compared to cells incubated with IBMX alone. In the second series of experiment, 5-HT-induced generation of cAMP at a dose of 0.3 microM was significantly inhibited in the presence of GR-113808 and tropisetron. Conclusion. 5-HT acts at a 5-HT4 receptor to induce production of cAMP in rat distal crypt colonocytes.

  17. Loss of intestinal O-glycans promotes spontaneous duodenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Nan; Bergstrom, Kirk; Fu, Jianxin; Xie, Biao; Chen, Weichang; Xia, Lijun

    2016-07-01

    Mucin-type O-glycans, primarily core 1- and core 3-derived O-glycans, are the major mucus barrier components throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Previous reports identified the biological role of O-glycans in the stomach and colon. However, the biological function of O-glycans in the small intestine remains unknown. Using mice lacking intestinal core 1- and core 3-derived O-glycans [intestinal epithelial cell C1galt1(-/-);C3GnT(-/-) or double knockout (DKO)], we found that loss of O-glycans predisposes DKO mice to spontaneous duodenal tumorigenesis by ∼1 yr of age. Tumor incidence did not increase with age; however, tumors advanced in aggressiveness by 20 mo. O-glycan deficiency was associated with reduced luminal mucus in DKO mice before tumor development. Altered intestinal epithelial homeostasis with enhanced baseline crypt proliferation characterizes these phenotypes as assayed by Ki67 staining. In addition, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis reveals a significantly lower bacterial burden in the duodenum compared with the large intestine. This phenotype is not reduced with antibiotic treatment, implying O-glycosylation defects, rather than bacterial-induced inflammation, which causes spontaneous duodenal tumorigenesis. Moreover, inflammatory responses in DKO duodenal mucosa are mild as assayed with histology, quantitative PCR for inflammation-associated cytokines, and immunostaining for immune cells. Importantly, inducible deletion of intestinal O-glycans in adult mice leads to analogous spontaneous duodenal tumors, although with higher incidence and heightened severity compared with mice with O-glycans constitutive deletion. In conclusion, these studies reveal O-glycans within the small intestine are critical determinants of duodenal cancer risk. Future studies will provide insights into the pathogenesis in the general population and those at risk for this rare but deadly cancer.

  18. Histological and electrophysiological properties of crypt cells from the olfactory epithelium of the marine teleost Trachurus symmetricus.

    PubMed

    Schmachtenberg, Oliver

    2006-03-01

    Crypt cells from the olfactory epithelium of the Pacific jack mackerel Trachurus symmetricus were characterized by light and electron microscopy and analyzed in dissociation with the patch-clamp technique in its cell-attached, perforated patch and normal whole-cell mode. Isolated crypt cells remained united with their supporting cells, and both were electrically coupled through gap junctions. Under voltage-clamp, depolarizing voltage steps triggered a transient sodium current, a sustained calcium current, and two types of potassium currents with fast and slow inactivation kinetics. No calcium-dependent potassium current could be observed. The sodium current was blocked by saxitoxin, the calcium current by cobalt and furnidipine, and the potassium currents by tetraethylammonium chloride. In the cell-attached configuration, crypt cells displayed spontaneous spike activity and responded to amino acid solutions with dose-dependent excitation, followed by a period of spike inhibition. These first recordings of individual crypt cells provide the basis for future studies of their odorant specificity, transduction mechanism, and overall function in the fish olfactory epithelium.

  19. Intestinal protozoa.

    PubMed

    Juckett, G

    1996-06-01

    Giardia is the best known cause of protozoal gastrointestinal disease in North America, producing significant but not life-threatening gastrointestinal distress and diarrhea. Although diagnosis of giardiasis may be challenging, treatment is usually successful. Entamoeba histolytica poses a rarer but far more difficult clinical challenge. Dysentery caused by E. histolytica may be the most feared intestinal protozoal infection, although Cryptosporidium parvum, Balantidium coli, Isospora belli, Sarcocystis species and other newly described protozoa also may cause diarrhea in healthy individuals and may result in intractable, life-threatening illness in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or other immunosuppressive diseases. Certain protozoa once considered relatively unimportant, such as Cryptosporidium, are now recognized as significant causes of morbidity even in the United States, since transmission readily occurs through contaminated water.

  20. Keratins Are Altered in Intestinal Disease-Related Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Helenius, Terhi O.; Antman, Cecilia A.; Asghar, Muhammad Nadeem; Nyström, Joel H.; Toivola, Diana M.

    2016-01-01

    Keratin (K) intermediate filaments can be divided into type I/type II proteins, which form obligate heteropolymers. Epithelial cells express type I-type II keratin pairs, and K7, K8 (type II) and K18, K19 and K20 (type I) are the primary keratins found in the single-layered intestinal epithelium. Keratins are upregulated during stress in liver, pancreas, lung, kidney and skin, however, little is known about their dynamics in the intestinal stress response. Here, keratin mRNA, protein and phosphorylation levels were studied in response to murine colonic stresses modeling human conditions, and in colorectal cancer HT29 cells. Dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-colitis was used as a model for intestinal inflammatory stress, which elicited a strong upregulation and widened crypt distribution of K7 and K20. K8 levels were slightly downregulated in acute DSS, while stress-responsive K8 serine-74 phosphorylation (K8 pS74) was increased. By eliminating colonic microflora using antibiotics, K8 pS74 in proliferating cells was significantly increased, together with an upregulation of K8 and K19. In the aging mouse colon, most colonic keratins were upregulated. In vitro, K8, K19 and K8 pS74 levels were increased in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in HT29 cells. In conclusion, intestinal keratins are differentially and dynamically upregulated and post-translationally modified during stress and recovery. PMID:27626448

  1. Know your neighbor: Microbiota and host epithelial cells interact locally to control intestinal function and physiology.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Felix; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2016-05-01

    Interactions between the host and its associated microbiota differ spatially and the local cross talk determines organ function and physiology. Animals and their organs are not uniform but contain several functional and cellular compartments and gradients. In the intestinal tract, different parts of the gut carry out different functions, tissue structure varies accordingly, epithelial cells are differentially distributed and gradients exist for several physicochemical parameters such as nutrients, pH, or oxygen. Consequently, the microbiota composition also differs along the length of the gut, but also between lumen and mucosa of the same intestinal segment, and even along the crypt-villus axis in the epithelium. Thus, host-microbiota interactions are highly site-specific and the local cross talk determines intestinal function and physiology. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of site-specific host-microbiota interactions and discuss their functional relevance for host physiology.

  2. Beta-lactoglobulin as a potential modulator of intestinal activity and morphology in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Leonard F; Alston-Mills, Brenda

    2006-06-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effects of the whey protein beta-lactoglobulin (blg) on the intestinal development and intestinal morphology in neonatal piglets. Two trials (5 and 28 days) were conducted on piglets in three separate groups. One group served as a control group while the remaining two were experimental groups based on diets. The two experimental diets were a bovine colostrum powder, one with supplementation with blg and the other without. The control group remained suckling on a sow. All groups were weaned on day 20 and placed onto a solid commercial piglet diet. Enzymatic activity, total DNA synthesis, crypt depth, and villus height were all parameters used to evaluate the effect of blg. Piglets fed a diet supplement with blg had the greatest total DNA after 5 days. Sow-reared piglets had the greatest intestinal morphology development with regards to villus height. No significant differences were found in enzymatic activity between treatments.

  3. Effective suppression of azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci formation in mice with citrus peel flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ching-Shu; Li, Shiming; Liu, Cheng Bin; Miyauchi, Yutaka; Suzawa, Michiko; Ho, Chi-Tang; Pan, Min-Hsiung

    2013-03-01

    Citrus peel or its extract has been reported to exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activity. Herein, we report the first investigation of inhibitory effects of a formulated product from citrus peel extract, gold lotion (GL), on azoxymethane-induced colonic tumorigenesis. We have demonstrated that oral feeding of GL decreased the number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), particularly large size of ACF in colonic tissues of mice. Both gene and protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were suppressed by GL treatment. The in vivo data have revealed for the first time that the citrus peel extract-GL-is an effective antitumor agent mechanistically downregulating the protein levels of iNOS, COX-2, ornithine decarboxylase, vascular endothelial growth factor, and matrix metallopeptidase 9 in colonic tissues of mice, suggesting that GL is a novel functional natural product capable of preventing inflammation-associated colon tumorigenesis.

  4. Effect of feed particle size and feed processing on morphological characteristics in the small and large intestine of pigs and on adhesion of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT12 in the ileum in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hedemann, M S; Mikkelsen, L L; Naughton, P J; Jensen, B B

    2005-07-01

    A 2 x 2 factorial experiment with pigs was undertaken to investigate the effect of particle size (fine and coarse) and feed processing (pelleted and nonpelleted) on morphological characteristics in the small intestine, cecum, and colon of pigs and on the adhesion of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT12 to the ileum in vitro. Ninety-six pigs (average BW = 33 +/- 7 kg) were fed the experimental diets. After 4 wk, 24 pigs were selected (six pigs per diet) and euthanized, and tissue samples were taken from the mid and distal small intestine, cecum, and distal colon. The effects of particle size and feed processing on villus height and crypt depth in the small intestine were minor. Feeding coarse diets increased (P = 0.05) the crypt depth in the colon. The crypt depth was 420 +/- 12 and 449 +/- 12 microm in pigs fed finely and coarsely ground feed, respectively. Pigs fed pelleted diets had a larger (P = 0.01) staining area for neutral mucins, as well as for acidic and sulfomucins on the villi of the distal small intestine than pigs fed nonpelleted diets. The area was 41, 46, and 33% larger for neutral, acidic, and sulfomucins, respectively. The mucin-staining areas of the crypts in the cecum and the colon were not affected by the experimental diets. Examination of lectin binding characteristics of the distal small intestine and the cecum did not reveal any differences between the experimental diets. Using a pig intestine organ culture model, Salmonella adhered less (P < 0.05) to the ileal tissue of pigs fed the nonpelleted diets than to those fed pelleted diets; the adherence was 60% less in these pigs. Results of this study suggest that pigs fed pelleted diets secrete mucins that are capable of binding Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT12 and thereby allowing for colonization. Therefore, pigs fed a nonpelleted diet are better protected against Salmonella infections than pigs fed a pelleted diet.

  5. Evaluation of blueberry juice in mouse azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypts and oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-González, Isela; Garcia-Melo, Fernando; Vásquez-Garzón, Verónica R; Villa-Treviño, Saúl; Madrigal-Santillán, E Osiris; Morales-González, José A; Mendoza-Pérez, Jorge A; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Blueberry is a plant with a number of nutritional and biomedical capabilities. In the present study we initially evaluated the capacity of its juice (BJ) to inhibit the number of aberrant crypts (AC) induced with azoxymethane (AOM) in mouse. BJ was administered daily by the oral route to three groups of animals during four weeks (1.6, 4.1, and 15.0 μL/g), respectively, while AOM (10 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected to the mentioned groups, twice a week, in weeks two and three of the assay. We also included two control groups of mice, one administered distilled water and the other the high dose of BJ. A significant increase of AC was observed in the AOM treated animals, and a mean protection of 75.6% was determined with the two low doses of BJ tested; however, the high dose of the juice administered together with AOM increased the number of crypts more than four times the value observed in animals administered only AOM. Furthermore, we determined the antioxidant potential of BJ with an ex vivo DPPH assay and found a dose-dependent decrease with a mean of 19.5%. We also determined the DNA oxidation/antioxidation by identifying 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine adducts and found a mean decrease of 44.3% with the BJ administration with respect to the level induced by AOM. Our results show a complex differential effect of BJ related to the tested doses, opening the need to further evaluate a number of factors so as to determine the possibility of a cocarcinogenic potential.

  6. Evaluation of Blueberry Juice in Mouse Azoxymethane-Induced Aberrant Crypts and Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-González, Isela; Garcia-Melo, Fernando; Vásquez-Garzón, Verónica R.; Villa-Treviño, Saúl; Madrigal-Santillán, E. Osiris; Morales-González, José A.; Mendoza-Pérez, Jorge A.; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Blueberry is a plant with a number of nutritional and biomedical capabilities. In the present study we initially evaluated the capacity of its juice (BJ) to inhibit the number of aberrant crypts (AC) induced with azoxymethane (AOM) in mouse. BJ was administered daily by the oral route to three groups of animals during four weeks (1.6, 4.1, and 15.0 μL/g), respectively, while AOM (10 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected to the mentioned groups, twice a week, in weeks two and three of the assay. We also included two control groups of mice, one administered distilled water and the other the high dose of BJ. A significant increase of AC was observed in the AOM treated animals, and a mean protection of 75.6% was determined with the two low doses of BJ tested; however, the high dose of the juice administered together with AOM increased the number of crypts more than four times the value observed in animals administered only AOM. Furthermore, we determined the antioxidant potential of BJ with an ex vivo DPPH assay and found a dose-dependent decrease with a mean of 19.5%. We also determined the DNA oxidation/antioxidation by identifying 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine adducts and found a mean decrease of 44.3% with the BJ administration with respect to the level induced by AOM. Our results show a complex differential effect of BJ related to the tested doses, opening the need to further evaluate a number of factors so as to determine the possibility of a cocarcinogenic potential. PMID:25258642

  7. Protein source and nutrient density in the diets of male broilers from 8 to 21 d of age: Effects on small intestine morphology.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Peebles, E D; Morgan, T W; Harkess, R L; Zhai, W

    2015-01-01

    In a companion study, high amino acid (AA) or apparent metabolizable energy (AME) densities in the diets of broilers from 8 to 21 d of age were found to improve feed conversion. A total of 1,120 male Ross×Ross 708 chicks were randomly allocated to 80 pens (8 treatments, 10 replications per treatment, 14 chicks per pen). A 2×2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the interaction among the protein source (high distillers dried grains with solubles diet [hDDGS] or high meat and bone meal diet [hMBM]), AA density (moderate or high), and AME density (2,998 or 3,100 kcal/kg) of diets on small intestine morphology. Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum samples from 2 chicks per pen were collected and measured individually at 21 d. Jejunum sections were processed for histological analysis. Chicks fed hDDGS diets exhibited longer small intestines than did chicks fed hMBM diets. Particularly, when chicks were fed high AA density diets, jejuna were longer in groups fed hDDGS diets than groups fed hMBM diets. Dietary treatments did not affect jejunum villus height, width, area, crypt depth, villus to crypt ratio, goblet cell size, or cell density. In birds fed diets containing a moderate AA and a high AME density, jejunum muscle layers of chicks fed hDDGS diets were thicker than those fed hMBM diets. Chicks exhibited a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) and a higher BW gain when their crypts were shorter. In conclusion, an hDDGS diet may facilitate small intestine longitudinal growth in broilers, which may subsequently improve dietary nutrient absorption. In addition, broiler chicks with shallow intestinal crypts exhibited better growth performance.

  8. Porcine milk-derived exosomes promote proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ting; Xie, Mei-Ying; Sun, Jia-Jie; Ye, Rui-Song; Cheng, Xiao; Sun, Rui-Ping; Wei, Li-Min; Li, Meng; Lin, De-Lin; Jiang, Qing-Yan; Xi, Qian-Yun; Zhang, Yong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Milk-derived exosomes were identified as a novel mechanism of mother-to-child transmission of regulatory molecules, but their functions in intestinal tissues of neonates are not well-studied. Here, we characterized potential roles of porcine milk-derived exosomes in the intestinal tract. In vitro, treatment with milk-derived exosomes (27 ± 3 ng and 55 ± 5 ng total RNA) significantly promoted IPEC-J2 cell proliferation by MTT, CCK8, EdU fluorescence and EdU flow cytometry assays. The qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses indicated milk-derived exosomes (0.27 ± 0.03 μg total RNA) significantly promoted expression of CDX2, IGF-1R and PCNA, and inhibited p53 gene expression involved in intestinal proliferation. Additionally, six detected miRNAs were significantly increased in IPEC-J2 cell, while FAS and SERPINE were significantly down-regulated relative to that in control. In vivo, treated groups (0.125 μg and 0.25 μg total RNA) significantly raised mice’ villus height, crypt depth and ratio of villus length to crypt depth of intestinal tissues, significantly increased CDX2, PCNA and IGF-1R’ expression and significantly inhibited p53′ expression. Our study demonstrated that milk-derived exosomes can facilitate intestinal cell proliferation and intestinal tract development, thus giving a new insight for milk nutrition and newborn development and health. PMID:27646050

  9. OPTN/SRTR 2013 Annual Data Report: intestine.

    PubMed

    Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Horslen, S P; Edwards, E B; Harper, A M; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2015-01-01

    Despite improvements in medical and surgical treatment of intestinal failure over the past decade, intestine transplant continues to play an important role. Of 171 new patients added to the intestine transplant waiting list in 2013, 49% were listed for intestine-liver transplant and 51% for intestine transplant alone or with an organ other than liver. The pretransplant mortality rate decreased dramatically over time for all age groups, from 30.3 per 100 waitlist years in 2002-2003 to 6.9 for patients listed in 2012-2013. The number of intestine transplants decreased from 91 in 2009 to 51 in 2013; intestine-liver transplants decreased from 135 in 2007 to a low of 44 in 2012, but increased slightly to 58 in 2013. Ages of intestine and intestineliver transplant recipients have changed substantially; the number of adult recipients was double the number of pediatric recipients in 2013. Graft survival improved over the past decade. Graft failure in the first 90 days posttransplant occurred in 14.1% of intestine recipients and in 11.2% of intestine-liver recipients in 2013. The number of recipients alive with a functioning intestine graft has steadily increased since 2002, to 1012 in 2013; almost half were pediatric intestine-liver transplant recipients.

  10. Morphological differences in the response of mouse small intestine to radiobiologically equivalent doses of X and neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, K.E.; Hamlet, R.; Nias, A.H.; Watt, C.

    1984-01-01

    A scale has been developed to describe the effects of radiation on small intestinal villi. The scale has been used to compare the damage done to the villi in the period 0-5 days after irradiation by X-irradiation or neutron irradiation, using 10 Gy X-rays and 5 Gy neutrons, doses which are radiobiologically equivalent when assessed by the microcolony assay method. Use of the scale indicates that the damage done to the villi by neutrons is greater than that produced by X-rays. This has implications for the interpretation of radiobiological equivalent doses (R.B.E.). Resin light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (T.E.M.) have also been used to examine small intestinal damage after 10 Gy X-irradiation and 5 Gy neutron irradiation. Differences include variations in crypt shape, mitotic activity and the proportion of crypts which are heavily parasitised. As well as the differences in villous shape which have been reflected in the different values on the scoring system, there are also variations in the response of the constituent cells of the epithelial compartment of the villi. In general, the effect of the neutron irradiation is more severe than that of the X-rays, particularly as would be suggested by a simple quantitation of crypt regeneration.

  11. Diet effects on glucose absorption in the small intestine of neonatal calves: importance of intestinal mucosal growth, lactase activity, and glucose transporters.

    PubMed

    Steinhoff-Wagner, Julia; Zitnan, Rudolf; Schönhusen, Ulrike; Pfannkuche, Helga; Hudakova, Monika; Metges, Cornelia C; Hammon, Harald M

    2014-10-01

    Colostrum (C) feeding in neonatal calves improves glucose status and stimulates intestinal absorptive capacity, leading to greater glucose absorption when compared with milk-based formula feeding. In this study, diet effects on gut growth, lactase activity, and glucose transporters were investigated in several gut segments of the small intestine. Fourteen male German Holstein calves received either C of milkings 1, 3, and 5 (d 1, 2, and 3 in milk) or respective formulas (F) twice daily from d 1 to d 3 after birth. Nutrient content, and especially lactose content, of C and respective F were the same. On d 4, calves were fed C of milking 5 or respective F and calves were slaughtered 2h after feeding. Tissue samples from duodenum and proximal, mid-, and distal jejunum were taken to measure villus size and crypt depth, mucosa and brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were taken to determine protein content, and mRNA expression and activity of lactase and mRNA expression of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-1 (SGLT1) and facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT2) were determined from mucosal tissue. Additionally, protein expression of SGLT1 in BBMV and GLUT2 in crude mucosal membranes and BBMV were determined, as well as immunochemically localized GLUT2 in the intestinal mucosa. Villus circumference, area, and height were greater, whereas crypt depth was smaller in C than in F. Lactase activity tended to be greater in C than in F. Protein expression of SGLT1 was greater in F than in C. Parameters of villus size, lactase activity, SGLT1 protein expression, as well as apical and basolateral GLUT2 localization in the enterocytes differed among gut segments. In conclusion, C feeding, when compared with F feeding, enhances glucose absorption in neonatal calves primarily by stimulating mucosal growth and increasing absorptive capacity in the small intestine, but not by stimulating abundance of intestinal glucose transporters.

  12. Curriculum vitae of intestinal intraepithelial T cells: their developmental and behavioral characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hiromichi; Naito, Tomoaki; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Takahashi-Iwanaga, Hiromi; Suematsu, Makoto; Hibi, Toshifumi; Nanno, Masanobu

    2007-02-01

    The alimentary tract has an epithelial layer, consisting mainly of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), that is exposed to the exterior world through the intestinal lumen. The IEC layer contains many intestinal intraepithelial T cells (IELs), and the total number of IELs constitutes the largest population in the peripheral T-cell pool. Virtually all gammadelta-IELs and many alphabeta-IELs in the mouse small intestine are known to express CD8 alpha alpha homodimers. A wide range of evidence that supports extrathymic development of these CD8 alpha alpha(+) IELs has been collected. In addition, while several studies identified cells with precursor T-cell phenotypes within the gut epithelium, how these precursors, which are dispersed along the length of the intestine, develop into gammadelta-IELs and/or alphabeta-IELs has not been clarified. The identification of lymphoid cell aggregations named 'cryptopatches' (CPs) in the intestinal crypt lamina propria of mice as sites rich in T-cell precursors in 1996 by our research group, however, provided evidence for a central site, whereby precursor IELs could give rise to T-cell receptor-bearing IELs. In this review, we discuss the development of IELs in the intestinal mucosa and examine the possibility that CPs serve as a production site of extrathymic IELs.

  13. Human mini-guts: new insights into intestinal physiology and host-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    In, Julie G; Foulke-Abel, Jennifer; Estes, Mary K; Zachos, Nicholas C; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Donowitz, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The development of indefinitely propagating human 'mini-guts' has led to a rapid advance in gastrointestinal research related to transport physiology, developmental biology, pharmacology, and pathophysiology. These mini-guts, also called enteroids or colonoids, are derived from LGR5(+) intestinal stem cells isolated from the small intestine or colon. Addition of WNT3A and other growth factors promotes stemness and results in viable, physiologically functional human intestinal or colonic cultures that develop a crypt-villus axis and can be differentiated into all intestinal epithelial cell types. The success of research using human enteroids has highlighted the limitations of using animals or in vitro, cancer-derived cell lines to model transport physiology and pathophysiology. For example, curative or preventive therapies for acute enteric infections have been limited, mostly due to the lack of a physiological human intestinal model. However, the human enteroid model enables specific functional studies of secretion and absorption in each intestinal segment as well as observations of the earliest molecular events that occur during enteric infections. This Review describes studies characterizing these human mini-guts as a physiological model to investigate intestinal transport and host-pathogen interactions.

  14. Adult stem cells in the small intestine are intrinsically programmed with their location-specific function.

    PubMed

    Middendorp, Sabine; Schneeberger, Kerstin; Wiegerinck, Caroline L; Mokry, Michal; Akkerman, Ronald D L; van Wijngaarden, Simone; Clevers, Hans; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S

    2014-05-01

    Differentiation and specialization of epithelial cells in the small intestine are regulated in two ways. First, there is differentiation along the crypt-villus axis of the intestinal stem cells into absorptive enterocytes, Paneth, goblet, tuft, enteroendocrine, or M cells, which is mainly regulated by WNT. Second, there is specialization along the cephalocaudal axis with different absorptive and digestive functions in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum that is controlled by several transcription factors such as GATA4. However, so far it is unknown whether location-specific functional properties are intrinsically programmed within stem cells or if continuous signaling from mesenchymal cells is necessary to maintain the location-specific identity of the small intestine. Using the pure epithelial organoid technique, we show that region-specific gene expression profiles are conserved throughout long-term cultures of both mouse and human intestinal stem cells and correlated with differential Gata4 expression. Furthermore, the human organoid culture system demonstrates that Gata4-regulated gene expression is only allowed in absence of WNT signaling. These data show that location-specific function is intrinsically programmed in the adult stem cells of the small intestine and that their differentiation fate is independent of location-specific extracellular signals. In light of the potential future clinical application of small intestine-derived organoids, our data imply that it is important to generate GATA4-positive and GATA4-negative cultures to regenerate all essential functions of the small intestine.

  15. A protocol for lentiviral transduction and downstream analysis of intestinal organoids.

    PubMed

    Van Lidth de Jeude, Jooske F; Vermeulen, Jacqueline L M; Montenegro-Miranda, Paula S; Van den Brink, Gijs R; Heijmans, Jarom

    2015-04-20

    Intestinal crypt-villus structures termed organoids, can be kept in sustained culture three dimensionally when supplemented with the appropriate growth factors. Since organoids are highly similar to the original tissue in terms of homeostatic stem cell differentiation, cell polarity and presence of all terminally differentiated cell types known to the adult intestinal epithelium, they serve as an essential resource in experimental research on the epithelium. The possibility to express transgenes or interfering RNA using lentiviral or retroviral vectors in organoids has increased opportunities for functional analysis of the intestinal epithelium and intestinal stem cells, surpassing traditional mouse transgenics in speed and cost. In the current video protocol we show how to utilize transduction of small intestinal organoids with lentiviral vectors illustrated by use of doxycylin inducible transgenes, or IPTG inducible short hairpin RNA for overexpression or gene knockdown. Furthermore, considering organoid culture yields minute cell counts that may even be reduced by experimental treatment, we explain how to process organoids for downstream analysis aimed at quantitative RT-PCR, RNA-microarray and immunohistochemistry. Techniques that enable transgene expression and gene knock down in intestinal organoids contribute to the research potential that these intestinal epithelial structures hold, establishing organoid culture as a new standard in cell culture.

  16. Zinc Transporter SLC39A7/ZIP7 Promotes Intestinal Epithelial Self-Renewal by Resolving ER Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Wakana; Kimura, Shunsuke; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Furusawa, Yukihiro; Irié, Tarou; Izumi, Hironori; Watanabe, Takashi; Hara, Takafumi; Ohara, Osamu; Koseki, Haruhiko; Sato, Toshiro; Robine, Sylvie; Mori, Hisashi; Hattori, Yuichi; Mishima, Kenji; Ohno, Hiroshi; Hase, Koji; Fukada, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Zinc transporters play a critical role in spatiotemporal regulation of zinc homeostasis. Although disruption of zinc homeostasis has been implicated in disorders such as intestinal inflammation and aberrant epithelial morphology, it is largely unknown which zinc transporters are responsible for the intestinal epithelial homeostasis. Here, we show that Zrt-Irt-like protein (ZIP) transporter ZIP7, which is highly expressed in the intestinal crypt, is essential for intestinal epithelial proliferation. Mice lacking Zip7 in intestinal epithelium triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in proliferative progenitor cells, leading to significant cell death of progenitor cells. Zip7 deficiency led to the loss of Olfm4+ intestinal stem cells and the degeneration of post-mitotic Paneth cells, indicating a fundamental requirement for Zip7 in homeostatic intestinal regeneration. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the importance of ZIP7 in maintenance of intestinal epithelial homeostasis through the regulation of ER function in proliferative progenitor cells and maintenance of intestinal stem cells. Therapeutic targeting of ZIP7 could lead to effective treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:27736879

  17. Effects of dietary fructooligosaccharide on digestive enzyme activities, intestinal microflora and morphology of male broilers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z R; Hu, C H; Xia, M S; Zhan, X A; Wang, M Q

    2003-06-01

    Two hundred forty male Avian Farms broiler chicks, 1 d of age, were randomly allocated to four treatments, each of which had five pens of 12 chicks per pen. The chicks were used to investigate the effects of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on digestive enzyme activities and intestinal microflora and morphology. The chicks received the same basal diet based on corn-soybean meal, and FOS was added to the basal diet at 0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 g/kg diet at the expense of corn. Addition of 4.0 g/kg FOS to the basal diet significantly increased average daily gain of broilers. The feed-to-gain ratios were significantly decreased for the birds fed diets with 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg FOS versus the control. Addition of 4.0 g/kg FOS enhanced the growth of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, but inhibited Escherichia coli in the small intestinal and cecal digesta. Supplementation of 2.0 or 4.0 g/kg FOS to chicks significantly improved the activities of amylase compared to the control (12.80 or 14.75 vs. 8.42 Somogyi units). A significant increase in the activities of total protease was observed in 4.0 g/kg FOS-treated birds versus controls (83.91 vs. 65.97 units). Morphology data for the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum showed no significant differences for villus height, crypt depth, or microvillus height at the duodenum. By contrast, addition of 4.0 g/kg FOS significantly increased ileal villus height, jejunal and ileal microvillus height, and villus-height-to-crypt-depth ratios at the jejunum and ileum and decreased crypt depth at the jejunum and ileum. However, addition of 8.0 g/kg FOS had no significant effect on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, intestinal microflora, or morphology.

  18. STORM: A General Model to Determine the Number and Adaptive Changes of Epithelial Stem Cells in Teleost, Murine and Human Intestinal Tracts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhengyuan; Matsudaira, Paul; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2010-01-01

    Intestinal stem cells play a pivotal role in the epithelial tissue renewal, homeostasis and cancer development. The lack of a general marker for intestinal stem cells across species has hampered analysis of stem cell number in different species and their adaptive changes upon intestinal lesions or during development of cancer. Here a two-dimensional model, named STORM, has been developed to address this issue. By optimizing epithelium renewal dynamics, the model examines the epithelial stem cell number by taking experimental input information regarding epithelium proliferation and differentiation. As the results suggest, there are 2.0–4.1 epithelial stem cells on each pocket section of zebrafish intestine, 2.0–4.1 stem cells on each crypt section of murine small intestine and 1.8–3.5 stem cells on each crypt section of human duodenum. The model is able to provide quick results for stem cell number and its adaptive changes, which is not easy to measure through experiments. Its general applicability to different species makes it a valuable tool for analysis of intestinal stem cells under various pathological conditions. PMID:21124758

  19. Effect of weaning on small intestinal structure and function in the piglet.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xianhong; Li, Defa; She, Ruiping

    2002-08-01

    Fifty-four piglets were selected from 12 litters weaned at 17 (Treatment 1), 21 (Treatment 2), 28 (Treatment 3) and 35 (Treatment 4) days old, respectively, to determine the effect of weaning age on small intestinal villus morphology, immunology and histochemistry. From proximal duodenum, proximal jejunum, distal jejunum and middle ileum, intestinal samples with three replicates (piglets) in each treatment were taken at 18, 22, 28 and 36; 22, 28, 36 and 43; 28, 36, 43, and 50; and 18, 22, 28, 36, 43 and 50 d of age in Treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. This was equivalent to 12 h, 3 d, 1 week, 2 week postweaning in Treatment 1; 12 h, 1 week, 2 week, 3 week postweaning in Treatment 2 and 3, and all the same age in Treatment 4 as in Treatment 1, 2, 3, respectively. The results showed that villous height of duodenum and proximal jejunum decreased significantly in Treatment 1 and 3. Crypt depth in the duodenum, proximal jejunum and ileum also decreased significantly in Treatment 1. Date had significant effect on villous height of the duodenum, distal jejunum and ileum with the shortest on day 29 and crypt depth of all positions increased with piglet age except the crypt depth in proximal jejunum decreased on day 50. Weaning age and day of age had significant effects on intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) number and goblet cell (GC) number at all positions of small intestinal mucosa in piglets. The number of IEL at all segments of small intestinal mucosa in Treatment 3 increased significantly compared to those in other treatments, but IEL number at all locations of small intestinal mucosa in Treatment 2 decreased significantly compared to those in other treatments. The number of GC in small intestinal mucosa increased significantly in early-weaned (< day 21) piglets. It appears that providing fluid milk replacer for a few days postweaning could dramatically reduce the negative impact of weaning on villous morphology and digestive and absorptive function, especially in

  20. Regulation and expression of multidrug resistance (MDR) transcripts in the intestinal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Li, M; Hurren, R; Zastawny, R L; Ling, V; Buick, R N

    1999-01-01

    A paucity of information exists on the regulation of gene expression in the undifferentiated intestine. The intestinal epithelium is one of the few normal tissues expressing the multidrug resistance (MDR) genes that confer the multidrug resistant phenotype to a variety of tumours. Expression of mdr1a has been observed in the primitive rat intestinal epithelial cell line, IEC-18. It is hypothesized that characterization of MDR gene expression in IEC-18 cells will provide insight into gene regulation in undifferentiated intestinal cells. A series of hamster mdr1a promoter deletion constructs was studied in IEC-18 and a region with 12–13-fold enhancer activity was identified. This region was shown to function in an orientation- and promoter context-independent manner, specifically in IEC-18 cells. Unexpectedly, Northern probing revealed a greater expression of mdr1b than mdr1a in IEC-18 cells. A quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was used to compare the relative expression of MDR genes in IEC cells, fetal intestine, and in the undifferentiated and differentiated components of adult intestinal epithelium. MDR transcript levels in IEC cells were found to resemble those of fetal intestine and small intestinal crypts, where a conversion from mixed mdr1a/mdr1b to predominantly mdr1a expression occurs as cells mature. This work describes two contributions to the field of gene regulation in the undifferentiated intestine – first, the initial characterization of a putative mdr1a enhancer region with specificity for primitive intestinal cells and secondly, the first report of mdr1b detection in the intestine and its expression in primitive cell types. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10376961

  1. Macropinocytosis in Shiga toxin 1 uptake by human intestinal epithelial cells and transcellular transcytosis.

    PubMed

    Malyukova, Irina; Murray, Karen F; Zhu, Chengru; Boedeker, Edgar; Kane, Anne; Patterson, Kathleen; Peterson, Jeffrey R; Donowitz, Mark; Kovbasnjuk, Olga

    2009-01-01

    Shiga toxin 1 and 2 production is a cardinal virulence trait of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection that causes a spectrum of intestinal and systemic pathology. However, intestinal sites of enterohemorrhagic E. coli colonization during the human infection and how the Shiga toxins are taken up and cross the globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) receptor-negative intestinal epithelial cells remain largely uncharacterized. We used samples of human intestinal tissue from patients with E. coli O157:H7 infection to detect the intestinal sites of bacterial colonization and characterize the distribution of Shiga toxins. We further used a model of largely Gb3-negative T84 intestinal epithelial monolayers treated with B-subunit of Shiga toxin 1 to determine the mechanisms of non-receptor-mediated toxin uptake. We now report that E. coli O157:H7 were found at the apical surface of epithelial cells only in the ileocecal valve area and that both toxins were present in large amounts inside surface and crypt epithelial cells in all tested intestinal samples. Our in vitro data suggest that macropinocytosis mediated through Src activation significantly increases toxin endocytosis by intestinal epithelial cells and also stimulates toxin transcellular transcytosis. We conclude that Shiga toxin is taken up by human intestinal epithelial cells during E. coli O157:H7 infection regardless of the presence of bacterial colonies. Macropinocytosis might be responsible for toxin uptake by Gb3-free intestinal epithelial cells and transcytosis. These observations provide new insights into the understanding of Shiga toxin contribution to enterohemorrhagic E. coli-related intestinal and systemic diseases.

  2. Effects of dietary inclusion of probiotic and synbiotic on growth performance, organ weights, and intestinal histomorphology of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Awad, W A; Ghareeb, K; Abdel-Raheem, S; Böhm, J

    2009-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementations of synbiotic and probiotic on broiler performance, carcass yield, organs weights, and histomorphological measurements of small intestine. Six hundred 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments for 5 wk. The dietary treatments were 1) control, 2) basal diets supplemented with synbiotic (1 kg of Biomin IMBO/ ton of the starter diets and 0.5 kg/ton of the grower diets), 3) basal diets supplemented with probiotic (1 kg of a homofermentative and a heterofermentative Lacto-bacillus sp./ton of feed). The BW, average daily weight gain, carcass yield percentage, and feed conversion rate were significantly (P < 0.05) increased by the dietary inclusion of the synbiotic compared with the control and probiotic-fed broilers. Moreover, a slight improvement in performance traits was observed in broilers fed the probiotic compared with control birds. The absolute and relative weight of spleen and thymus tended to be greater (P < 0.1) for the probiotic-supplemented group compared with the synbiotic-supplemented group. The relative liver weight was greater (P < 0.05) for probiotic-fed birds compared with synbiotic-fed birds. Additionally, the weight of small intestine was greater for either probiotic- (3.17) or synbiotic-fed birds (3.11) than the controls (2.89). Furthermore, dietary treatments influenced the histomorphological measurements of small intestinal villi. The addition of either probiotic or synbiotic increased (P < 0.05) the villus height:crypt depth ratio and villus height in both duodenum and ileum. The duodenal crypt depth remained unaffected (P > 0.05). However, the ileal crypt depth was decreased by dietary supplementations compared with control. In conclusion, synbiotic or probiotic displayed a greater efficacy as growth promoters for broilers. Furthermore, the dietary supplementations resulted in an increase in the villus height and crypt depth of

  3. [Intestinal microbiota].

    PubMed

    Perez, Horacio Joaquín; Menezes, Maria Elisabeth; d'Acâmpora, Armando José

    2014-01-01

    There is accumulative evidence on the multiple functions of the intestinal microflora in relation to the homeostasis of the host. At first considered as a simple mutualism, today this relationship proves to be essential to the health and to pathologic processes, particularly metabolic (eg, obesity) and gastrointestinal (eg, inflammatory bowel disease and functional disorders). The first studies were conducted on the microbiota from fecal material cultured anaerobically. With the advent of molecular biology, it has become possible to determine qualitative and quantitatively the dominant, subdominant and transients species. In recent years, there were advances in the understanding of the relationship betwen the microbiota and the host, as well as among the microorganisms in their respective niches. These advances result from translational integration of microbiology with specialities such as molecular biology, cell phisiology, immunology and ecology. There are few studies on the spatial distribution of the microflora in the gut. Unravelling the topography of the microflora in mammals is a way to validate new animal models for the study of microflora.

  4. Morphology of the large intestine of the pig: haustra versus taenia.

    PubMed

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Kristiansen, Eva; Brunsgaard, Grete

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the morphological characteristics of the taenia and haustra of the large intestine in pigs. Ten pigs were fed a barley/wheat-based diet for a period of five weeks. Tissue samples were taken from the cecum and the proximal part of the colon at slaughter and processed histologically for determination of crypt volume, depth and density of the crypts, thickness of muscularis externa, and carbohydrate histochemistry. In all parameters examined regional differences in mucosal architecture of the cecum and proximal colon were demonstrated. Apparently, the regional differences in mucosal architecture between taenia and haustra were more pronounced in the cecum than in the proximal colon. The regional variation in mucin characteristics and in crypt parameters could be explained by differences in functional status and/or in the local environment. As all the parameters investigated in this study are not only dependent on sampling site, but also, e.g., on type of diet and its physical form, great care must be taken to obtain tissue from comparable sites in all animals in experimental studies to avoid incorrect conclusions.

  5. Loss of NHE8 expression impairs intestinal mucosal integrity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Aiping; Li, Jing; Zhao, Yang; Johansson, Malin E. V.; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    The newest member of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) family, NHE8, is abundantly expressed at the apical membrane of the intestinal epithelia. We previously reported that mucin 2 expression was significantly decreased in the colon in NHE8−/− mice, suggesting that NHE8 is involved in intestinal mucosal protection. In this study, we further evaluated the role of NHE8 in intestinal epithelial protection after dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) challenge. Compared with wild-type mice, NHE8−/− mice have increased bacterial adhesion and inflammation, especially in the distal colon. NHE8−/− mice are also susceptible to DSS treatment. Real-time PCR detected a remarkable increase in the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-4 in DSS-treated NHE8−/− mice compared with DSS-treated wild-type littermates. Immunohistochemistry showed a disorganized epithelial layer in the colon of NHE8−/− mice. Periodic acid-Schiff staining showed a reduction in the number of mature goblet cells and the area of the goblet cell theca in NHE8−/− mice. Phyloxine/tartrazine staining revealed a decrease in functional Paneth cell population in the NHE8−/− small intestinal crypt. The expression of enteric defensins was also decreased in NHE8−/− mice. The reduced mucin production in goblet cells and antimicrobial peptides production in Paneth cells lead to disruption of the intestinal mucosa protection. Therefore, NHE8 may be involved in the establishment of intestinal mucosal integrity by regulating the functions of goblet and Paneth cells. PMID:26505975

  6. The 'de novo' DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3b compensates the Dnmt1-deficient intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Ellen N; Sheaffer, Karyn L; Kaestner, Klaus H

    2016-01-25

    Dnmt1 is critical for immediate postnatal intestinal development, but is not required for the survival of the adult intestinal epithelium, the only rapidly dividing somatic tissue for which this has been shown. Acute Dnmt1 deletion elicits dramatic hypomethylation and genomic instability. Recovery of DNA methylation state and intestinal health is dependent on the de novo methyltransferase Dnmt3b. Ablation of both Dnmt1 and Dnmt3b in the intestinal epithelium is lethal, while deletion of either Dnmt1 or Dnmt3b has no effect on survival. These results demonstrate that Dnmt1 and Dnmt3b cooperate to maintain DNA methylation and genomic integrity in the intestinal epithelium.

  7. Radiation induced cytochrome c release causes loss of rat colonic fluid absorption by damage to crypts and pericryptal myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Thiagarajah, J; Gourmelon, P; Griffiths, N; Lebrun, F; Naftalin, R; Pedley, K

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Therapeutic or accidental exposure to radiation commonly causes gastrointestinal disturbances, including diarrhoea. Rats subjected to whole body ionising radiation at a dose of 8 Gy lose their capacity to absorb fluid via the descending colon after four days. After seven days, fluid absorption recovers to control levels.
AIMS—To investigate the effect of ionising radiation on colonic permeability together with its effect on mitochondria dependent apoptotic signals and intercellular adhesion molecules.
METHODS—Rats were irradiated with doses of 0-12 Gy. Colonic permeability was measured by accumulation of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) dextran in crypt lumens. Changes in levels of cytochrome c, caspase 3, E and OB cadherin, β-catenin smooth muscle actin, and collagen IV were assessed using immunocytochemistry with confocal microscopy.
RESULTS—Cytosolic cytochrome c increased after 8 Gy (t1/2 1.4 (0.6) hours) and peaked at approximately six hours. Caspase 3 increased more slowly, particularly in crypt epithelial cells (t1/2 57 (14.5) hours). Pericryptal myofibroblasts disintegrated within 24 hours as was evident from loss of OB cadherin and smooth muscle actin. This coincided with increased crypt permeability to dextran. Intercellular adhesion between crypt luminal cells was not lost until day 4 when both β-catenin and E-cadherin were minimal. The half maximal dose-response for these effects was in the range 2-4 Gy. Recovery of colonic transport was concurrent with recovery of pericryptal smooth muscle actin and OB cadherin. The pan caspase inhibitor Z-Val-Ala-Asp.fluoromethylketone (1 mg/kg per day) had a small effect in conserving the pericryptal sheath myofibroblasts and sheath permeability but had no systemic therapeutic effects.
CONCLUSIONS—These data suggest that radiation damage to the colon may be initiated by mitochondrial events. Loss of crypt fluid absorption and increased permeability coincided with decreased

  8. An organotypic slice model for ex vivo study of neural, immune, and microbial interactions of mouse intestine.

    PubMed

    Schwerdtfeger, Luke A; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Tobet, Stuart A

    2016-02-15

    Organotypic tissue slices provide seminatural, three-dimensional microenvironments for use in ex vivo study of specific organs and have advanced investigative capabilities compared with isolated cell cultures. Several characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract have made in vitro models for studying the intestine challenging, such as maintaining the intricate structure of microvilli, the intrinsic enteric nervous system, Peyer's patches, the microbiome, and the active contraction of gut muscles. In the present study, an organotypic intestinal slice model was developed that allows for functional investigation across regions of the intestine. Intestinal tissue slices were maintained ex vivo for several days in a physiologically relevant environment that preserved normal enterocyte structure, intact and proliferating crypt cells, submucosal organization, and muscle wall composure. Cell death was measured by a membrane-impermeable DNA binding indicator, ethidium homodimer, and less than 5% of cells were labeled in all regions of the villi and crypt epithelia at 24 h ex vivo. This tissue slice model demonstrated intact myenteric and submucosal neuronal plexuses and functional interstitial cells of Cajal to the extent that nonstimulated, segmental contractions occurred for up to 48 h ex vivo. To detect changes in physiological responses, slices were also assessed for segmental contractions in the presence and absence of antibiotic treatment, which resulted in slices with lesser or greater amounts of commensal bacteria, respectively. Segmental contractions were significantly greater in slices without antibiotics and increased native microbiota. This model renders mechanisms of neuroimmune-microbiome interactions in a complex gut environment available to direct observation and controlled perturbation.

  9. Effect of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin on cell volume and intracellular inorganic ions of rat intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Gilles-Baillien, M; Gerday, C; Kaeckenbeeck, A; Flamee, P A; Duchesne, P Y

    1987-11-01

    1.--Electron micrographs of rat jejunum mucosa incubated for 1 h in the presence of Escheria coli heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) in the lumen shows alterations of villous cells as well as of crypt cells. The brush border of mature enterocytes is partially desintegrated and covered with a thick mucus. Crypts are occupied on half of their height by cells very similar to Paneth cells, loaded with numerous large dark inclusions. 2.--Cell volume and intracellular inorganic ion concentrations have been estimated in mucosal scrapings of jejunum sacs, incubated in vitro for 1 or 3 h. The quick action (1 h of incubation) of STa is a swelling of the intestinal calls accompanied by an increase in Na+, Cl- and Ca2+ intracellular concentrations and a decrease in the K+ and Mg2+ ones. The delayed action (3 h of incubation) is an increase of extracellular space and a decrease in cell volume; and at the same time the intracellular concentration of Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ is augmented. 3.--After 3 h of incubation intestinal cells from the other levels of intestine (duodenum, ileum and colon) show the same variations in cell volume and intracellular inorganic ion concentrations under the influence of STa, as those recorded in the jejunum. 4.--The present work favours the hypothesis that all intestinal cells, villous or cryptic, are involved in the alteration of fluid ion transport ending in diarrhea.

  10. Dietary aloe vera gel powder and extract inhibit azoxymethane- induced colorectal aberrant crypt foci in mice fed a high- fat diet.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Takeshi; Shimpo, Kan; Kaneko, Takaaki; Beppu, Hidehiko; Higashiguchi, Takashi; Sonoda, Shigeru; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yamada, Muneo; Abe, Fumiaki

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera gel exhibits protective effects against insulin resistance as well as lipid-lowering and anti-diabetic effects. The anti-diabetic compounds in this gel were identified as Aloe-sterols. Aloe vera gel extract (AVGE) containing Aloe-sterols has recently been produced using a new procedure. We previously reported that AVGE reduced large-sized intestinal polyps in Apc-deficient Min mice fed a high fat diet (HFD), suggesting that Aloe vera gel may protect against colorectal cancer. In the present study, we examined the effects of Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP) and AVGE on azoxymethane-induced colorectal preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in mice fed a HFD. Male C57BL/6J mice were given a normal diet (ND), HFD, HFD containing 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose solution, which was used as a solvent for AVGE (HFDC), HFD containing 3% or 1% AVGP, and HFDC containing 0.0125% (H-) or 0.00375% (L-) AVGE. The number of ACF was significantly lower in mice given 3% AVGP and H-AVGE than in those given HFD or HFDC alone. Moreover, 3% AVGP, H-AVGE and L-AVGE significantly decreased the mean Ki-67 labeling index, assessed as a measure of cell proliferation in the colonic mucosa. In addition, hepatic phase II enzyme glutathione S-transferase mRNA levels were higher in the H-AVGE group than in the HFDC group. These results suggest that both AVGP and AVGE may have chemopreventive effects on colorectal carcinogenesis under the HFD condition. Furthermore, the concentration of Aloe-sterols was similar between 3% AVGP and H-AVGE, suggesting that Aloe-sterols were the main active ingredients in this experiment.

  11. Bile loss in the acute intestinal radiation syndrome in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Geraci, J.P.; Dunston, S.G.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.; Holeski, C.; Eaton, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of bile duct ligation (BDL), choledochostomy, bile acid sequestering within the intestinal lumen by cholestyramine, and fluid and electrolyte replacement on survival time and development of diarrhea after whole-body exposure to doses of ionizing radiation that result in death from acute intestinal injury were studied. BDL significantly prolonged survival and delayed the onset of diarrhea after exposure to /sup 137/Cs gamma rays, fission neutrons, or cyclotron-produced neutrons in the range of doses that produce intestinal death or death from a combination of intestinal and hematopoietic injuries. Cannulation of the bile duct with exteriorized bile flow (choledochostomy) to protect the irradiated intestine from the mucolytic action of bile salts did not duplicate the effect of BDL in increasing survival time. Choledochostomy without fluid replacement eliminated the occurrence of diarrhea in 15.4 Gy irradiated rats. Diarrhea did occur in irradiated animals with choledochostomy if they received duodenal injections of fluid and electrolytes to replace the fluid lost as a result of bile drainage. Duodenal injection of fluid and electrolytes had no significant effect on survival time in irradiated rats. Injection of fluid and electrolytes into the peritoneal cavity of irradiated rats resulted in an increase in survival time that was comparable to that observed after BDL. Addition of antibiotics to the peritoneally injected fluid and electrolytes further increased survival time (up to 9 days). This survival time approached that seen in animals receiving the same radiation dose but which had the intestine exteriorized and shielded to minimize radiation injury to the intestine. Postmortem histological examinations of the irradiated small intestine showed mucosal regeneration in these long-term survivors receiving fluid and antibiotic therapy.

  12. Analysis of the morphology and distribution of argentaffin, argyrophil and insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells in the small intestine of the adult opossum Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied, 1826).

    PubMed

    Basile, D R S; Novaes, R D; Marques, D C S; Fialho, M C Q; Neves, C A; Fonseca, C C

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the argyrophil, argentaffin and insulin-immunoreactive cells (IIC) in the small intestine of the opossum Didelphis aurita. Seven adult male specimens of opossums were investigated. The animals were captured, and their blood insulin levels were determined. After euthanasia, fragments of the small intestine were processed for light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and submitted to histochemistry and immunohistochemistry for identification of argyrophil and argentaffin endocrine cells, and IIC. Argyrophil and argentaffin cells were identified in the intestinal villi and Liberkühn crypts, whereas IIC were present exclusively in the crypts. Ultrastructure of the IIC revealed cytoplasmic granules of different sizes and electron densities. The numbers of IIC per mm(2) in the duodenum and jejunum were higher than in the ileum (p<0.05). The animals had low levels of blood insulin (2.8 ± 0.78 μIU/ml). There was no correlation between insulin levels and the number of IIC in the small intestine. The IIC presented secretory granules, elongated and variable morphology. It is believed that insulin secretion by the IIC may influence the proliferation of cells in the Liberkühn crypts, and local glucose homeostasis, primarily in animals with low serum insulin levels, such as the opossum.

  13. Ground-penetrating radar investigation of St. Leonard's Crypt under the Wawel Cathedral (Cracow, Poland) - COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, Andrea; Pajewski, Lara; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Avlonitou, Pepi; Konstantakis, Yannis; Musiela, Małgorzata; Mitka, Bartosz; Lambot, Sébastien; Żakowska, Lidia

    2016-04-01

    The Wawel ensemble, including the Royal Castle, the Wawel Cathedral and other monuments, is perched on top of the Wawel hill immediately south of the Cracow Old Town, and is by far the most important collection of buildings in Poland. St. Leonard's Crypt is located under the Wawel Cathedral of St Stanislaus BM and St Wenceslaus M. It was built in the years 1090-1117 and was the western crypt of the pre-existing Romanesque Wawel Cathedral, so-called Hermanowska. Pope John Paul II said his first Mass on the altar of St. Leonard's Crypt on November 2, 1946, one day after his priestly ordination. The interior of the crypt is divided by eight columns into three naves with vaulted ceiling and ended with one apse. The tomb of Bishop Maurus, who died in 1118, is in the middle of the crypt under the floor; an inscription "+ MAVRVS EPC MCXVIII +" indicates the burial place and was made in 1938 after the completion of archaeological works which resulted in the discovery of this tomb. Moreover, the crypt hosts the tombs of six Polish kings and heroes: Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki (King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), Jan III Sobieski (King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Commander at the Battle of Vienna), Maria Kazimiera (Queen of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and consort to Jan III Sobieski), Józef Poniatowski (Prince of Poland and Marshal of France), Tadeusz Kościuszko (Polish general, revolutionary and a Brigadier General in the American Revolutionary War) and Władysław Sikorski (Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile and Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Armed Forces). The adjacent six crypts and corridors host the tombs of the other Polish kings, from Sigismund the Old to Augustus II the Strong, their families and several Polish heroes. In May 2015, the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil engineering applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" organised and offered a Training School (TS) on the

  14. {beta}-Catenin stabilization imparts crypt progenitor phenotype to hyperproliferating colonic epithelia

    SciTech Connect

    Sellin, Joseph H.; Wang Yu; Singh, Pomila; Umar, Shahid

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing the Citrobacter rodentium (CR)-induced transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia (TMCH) model, we provide mechanistic basis of changes in {beta}-catenin/APC/CKI{epsilon} leading to progression and/or regression of hyperplasia in vivo. In response to CR-induced TMCH, crypt lengths increased significantly between days 6-27 post-infection, followed by a steep decline by day 34. {beta}-Cat{sup 45}/total {beta}-catenin were elevated on day 1 post-infection, preceding changes in crypt length, and persisted for 27 days before declining by day 34. Importantly, cellular CKI{epsilon} and {beta}-catenin co-immunoprecipitated and exhibited remarkable parallel changes in kinetics during hyperplasia/regression phases. {beta}-catenin, phosphorylated at Ser33,37 and Thr41 ({beta}-cat{sup 33,37/41}), was low till day 12, followed by gradual increase until day 27 before declining by day 34. GSK-3{beta} exhibited significant Ser{sup 9}-phosphorylation/inactivation at days 6-12 with partial recovery at days 27-34. Wild type (wt) APC (p312) levels increased at day 6 with transient proteolysis/truncation to p130 form between days 12 and 15; p312 reappeared by day 19 and returned to baseline by day 34. The kinetics of {beta}-Cat{sup 45}/{beta}-catenin nuclear accumulation and acetylation (Ac-{beta}-Cat{sup Lys49}) from days 6 to 27, followed by loss of phosphorylation/acetylation by day 34 was almost identical; Tcf-4 co-immunoprecipitated with {beta}-Cat{sup 45}/{beta}-catenin and localized immunohistochemically to {beta}-Cat{sup 41/45}-positive regions leading to elevated cyclin D1 expression, during the hyperproliferative, but not regression phases of TMCH. CKI{epsilon} mediated phosphorylation of {beta}-Cat{sup 45}, resulting in stabilization/nuclear translocation of {beta}-Cat{sup 45} may be critical for maintaining proliferation at days 6-27. Reversal of GSK-3{beta} phosphorylation and APC changes may be equally critical during the regression phase from days 27 to 34.

  15. Long-term culture-induced phenotypic difference and efficient cryopreservation of small intestinal organoids by treatment timing of Rho kinase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Sehwan; Kim, Min-Jung; Shin, Hye-Yun; Jang, Won-Suk; Lee, Sun-Joo; Jin, Young-Woo; Lee, Seung-Sook; Lee, Seung Bum; Park, Sunhoo

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate a suitable long-term culture system and optimal cryopreservation of intestinal organoid to improve organoid-based therapy by acquiring large numbers of cells. METHODS Crypts were isolated from jejunum of C57BL/6 mouse. Two hundred crypts were cultured in organoid medium with either epidermal growth factor/Noggin/R-spondin1 (ENR) or ENR/CHIR99021/VPA (ENR-CV). For subculture, organoids cultured on day 7 were passaged using enzyme-free cell dissociation buffer (STEMCELL Technologies). The passage was performed once per week until indicated passage. For cryopreservation, undissociated and dissociated organoids were resuspended in freezing medium with or without Rho kinase inhibitor subjected to different treatment times. The characteristics of intestinal organoids upon extended passage and freeze-thaw were analyzed using EdU staining, methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay, qPCR and time-lapse live cell imaging. RESULTS We established a three-dimensional culture system for murine small intestinal organoids using ENR and ENR-CV media. Both conditions yielded organoids with a crypt-villus architecture exhibiting Lgr5+ cells and differentiated intestinal epithelial cells as shown by morphological and biochemical analysis. However, during extended passage (more than 3 mo), a comparative analysis revealed that continuous passaging under ENR-CV conditions, but not ENR conditions induced phenotypic changes as observed by morphological transition, reduced numbers of Lgr5+ cells and inconsistent expression of markers for differentiated intestinal epithelial cell types. We also found that recovery of long-term cryopreserved organoids was significantly affected by the organoid state, i.e., whether dissociation was applied, and the timing of treatment with the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632. Furthermore, the retention of typical morphological characteristics of intestinal organoids such as the crypt-villus structure from freeze-thawed cells was observed by live cell

  16. Regulation of early and delayed radiation responses in rat small intestine by capsaicin-sensitive nerves

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Junru; Zheng Huaien; Kulkarni, Ashwini; Ou Xuemei; Hauer-Jensen, Martin . E-mail: mhjensen@life.uams.edu

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: Mast cells protect against the early manifestations of intestinal radiation toxicity, but promote chronic intestinal wall fibrosis. Intestinal sensory nerves are closely associated with mast cells, both anatomically and functionally, and serve an important role in the regulation of mucosal homeostasis. This study examined the effect of sensory nerve ablation on the intestinal radiation response in an established rat model. Methods and Materials: Rats underwent sensory nerve ablation with capsaicin or sham ablation. Two weeks later, a localized segment of ileum was X-irradiated or sham irradiated. Structural, cellular, and molecular changes were examined 2 weeks (early injury) and 26 weeks (chronic injury) after irradiation. The mast cell dependence of the effect of sensory nerve ablation on intestinal radiation injury was assessed using c-kit mutant (Ws/Ws) mast cell-deficient rats. Results: Capsaicin treatment caused a baseline reduction in mucosal mast cell density, crypt cell proliferation, and expression of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, two neuropeptides released by sensory neurons. Sensory nerve ablation strikingly exacerbated early intestinal radiation toxicity (loss of mucosal surface area, inflammation, intestinal wall thickening), but attenuated the development of chronic intestinal radiation fibrosis (collagen I accumulation and transforming growth factor {beta} immunoreactivity). In mast cell-deficient rats, capsaicin treatment exacerbated postradiation epithelial injury (loss of mucosal surface area), but none of the other aspects of radiation injury were affected by capsaicin treatment. Conclusions: Ablation of capsaicin-sensitive enteric neurons exacerbates early intestinal radiation toxicity, but attenuates development of chronic fibroproliferative changes. The effect of capsaicin treatment on the intestinal radiation response is partly mast cell dependent.

  17. Preterm infant gut microbiota affects intestinal epithelial development in a humanized microbiome gnotobiotic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yueyue; Lu, Lei; Sun, Jun; Petrof, Elaine O; Claud, Erika C

    2016-09-01

    Development of the infant small intestine is influenced by bacterial colonization. To promote establishment of optimal microbial communities in preterm infants, knowledge of the beneficial functions of the early gut microbiota on intestinal development is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of early preterm infant microbiota on host gut development using a gnotobiotic mouse model. Histological assessment of intestinal development was performed. The differentiation of four epithelial cell lineages (enterocytes, goblet cells, Paneth cells, enteroendocrine cells) and tight junction (TJ) formation was examined. Using weight gain as a surrogate marker for health, we found that early microbiota from a preterm infant with normal weight gain (MPI-H) induced increased villus height and crypt depth, increased cell proliferation, increased numbers of goblet cells and Paneth cells, and enhanced TJs compared with the changes induced by early microbiota from a poor weight gain preterm infant (MPI-L). Laser capture microdissection (LCM) plus qRT-PCR further revealed, in MPI-H mice, a higher expression of stem cell marker Lgr5 and Paneth cell markers Lyz1 and Cryptdin5 in crypt populations, along with higher expression of the goblet cell and mature enterocyte marker Muc3 in villus populations. In contrast, MPI-L microbiota failed to induce the aforementioned changes and presented intestinal characteristics comparable to a germ-free host. Our data demonstrate that microbial communities have differential effects on intestinal development. Future studies to identify pioneer settlers in neonatal microbial communities necessary to induce maturation may provide new insights for preterm infant microbial ecosystem therapeutics.

  18. Radioprotective potential of histamine on rat small intestine and uterus.

    PubMed

    Carabajal, E; Massari, N; Croci, M; Martinel Lamas, D J; Prestifilippo, J P; Bergoc, R M; Rivera, E S; Medina, V A

    2012-12-18

    The aim of this study was to improve knowledge about histamine radioprotective potential investigating its effect on reducing ionising radiation-induced injury and genotoxic damage on the rat small intestine and uterus. Forty 10-week-old male and 40 female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Histamine and histamine-5Gy groups received a daily subcutaneous histamine injection (0.1 mg/kg) starting 24 h before irradiation. Histamine-5Gy and untreated-5Gy groups were irradiated with a dose of whole-body Cesium-137 irradiation. Three days after irradiation animals were sacrificed and tissues were removed, fixed, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and histological characteristics were evaluated. Proliferation, apoptosis and oxidative DNA markers were studied by immunohistochemistry, while micronucleus assay was performed to evaluate chromosomal damage. Histamine treatment reduced radiation-induced mucosal atrophy, oedema and vascular damage produced by ionising radiation, increasing the number of crypts per circumference (239 ± 12 vs 160 ± 10; P<0.01). This effect was associated with a reduction of radiation-induced intestinal crypts apoptosis. Additionally, histamine decreased the frequency of micronuclei formation and also significantly attenuated 8-OHdG immunoreactivity, a marker of DNA oxidative damage. Furthermore, radiation induced flattening of the endometrial surface, depletion of deep glands and reduced mitosis, effects that were completely blocked by histamine treatment. The expression of a proliferation marker in uterine luminal and glandular cells was markedly stimulated in histamine treated and irradiated rats. The obtained evidences indicate that histamine is a potential candidate as a safe radioprotective agent that might increase the therapeutic index of radiotherapy for intra-abdominal and pelvic cancers. However, its efficacy needs to be carefully investigated in prospective clinical trials.

  19. Non-ionic diffusion and carrier-mediated transport drive extracellullar pH regulation of mouse colonic crypts.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, S; Montrose, M H

    1996-01-01

    1. Extracellular pH (pHo) regulation within mouse colonic crypt lumens is stimulated by transepithelial gradients of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Current work assesses underlying mechanisms contributing to pHo regulation. 2. Crypt luminal alkalinization was saturable by apical SCFA (substrate concentration activating half-maximal transport (KT) of isobutyrate = 45 mM). However, saturation was consistent with either carrier-mediated SCFA flux or non-ionic diffusion, because the non-ionized form was titrated by luminal alkalinization. Direct acidification of apical perfusates increased the magnitude of SCFA-induced luminal alkalinization, roughly in the same proportion to the increased concentration of non-ionized SCFA in the crypt lumen. 3. Transepithelial gradients of an alternative weak acid (CO2) produce pHo changes similar to SCFA. In contrast, a weak base (NH3) changes pHo with reverse dependence on the orientation of the transepithelial gradient compared with SCFA. Results implicate non-ionic diffusion in pHo regulation, and suggest that pHo changes may underly SCFA-stimulated bicarbonate secretion and ammonium absorption. 4. SCFA metabolism plays a minor role in extracellular pH regulation. An avidly metabolized SCFA (N-butyrate) augments crypt luminal alkalinization only slightly (0.08 pH units) versus a poorly metabolized SCFA (isobutyrate). 5. Apical addition of 1 mM 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) partially inhibits luminal alkalinization caused by apical SCFA. DIDS has no effect on luminal alkalinization caused by transepithelial CO2 gradients. Probenecid (1 mM), alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4 mM) or basolateral DIDS (1 mM) do not affect pHo regulation. Results suggest that DIDS-sensitive, SCFA-dependent transport in the colonocyte apical membrane contributes to pHo regulation. Images Figure 7 PMID:8865074

  20. Biliary Phospholipids Sustain Enterocyte Proliferation and Intestinal Tumor Progression via Nuclear Receptor Lrh1 in mice

    PubMed Central

    Petruzzelli, Michele; Piccinin, Elena; Pinto, Claudio; Peres, Claudia; Bellafante, Elena; Moschetta, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The proliferative-crypt compartment of the intestinal epithelium is enriched in phospholipids and accumulation of phospholipids has been described in colorectal tumors. Here we hypothesize that biliary phospholipid flow could directly contribute to the proliferative power of normal and dysplastic enterocytes. We used Abcb4−/− mice which lack biliary phospholipid secretion. We first show that Abcb4−/− mice are protected against intestinal tumorigenesis. At the molecular level, the transcriptional activity of the nuclear receptor Liver Receptor Homolog-1 (Lrh1) is reduced in Abcb4−/− mice and its re-activation re-establishes a tumor burden comparable to control mice. Feeding Abcb4−/− mice a diet supplemented with phospholipids completely overcomes the intestinal tumor protective phenotype, thus corroborating the hypothesis that the absence of biliary phospholipids and not lack of Abcb4 gene per se is responsible for the protection. In turn, phospholipids cannot re-establish intestinal tumorigenesis in Abcb4−/− mice crossed with mice with intestinal specific ablation of Lrh1, a nuclear hormone receptor that is activates by phospholipids. Our data identify the key role of biliary phospholipids in sustaining intestinal mucosa proliferation and tumor progression through the activation of nuclear receptor Lrh1. PMID:27995969

  1. Immunological quantitation and localization of ACAT-1 and ACAT-2 in human liver and small intestine.

    PubMed

    Chang, C C; Sakashita, N; Ornvold, K; Lee, O; Chang, E T; Dong, R; Lin, S; Lee, C Y; Strom, S C; Kashyap, R; Fung, J J; Farese, R V; Patoiseau, J F; Delhon, A; Chang, T Y

    2000-09-08

    By using specific anti-ACAT-1 antibodies in immunodepletion studies, we previously found that ACAT-1, a 50-kDa protein, plays a major catalytic role in the adult human liver, adrenal glands, macrophages, and kidneys but not in the intestine. Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity in the intestine may be largely derived from a different ACAT protein. To test this hypothesis, we produced specific polyclonal anti-ACAT-2 antibodies that quantitatively immunodepleted human ACAT-2, a 46-kDa protein expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. In hepatocyte-like HepG2 cells, ACAT-1 comprises 85-90% of the total ACAT activity, with the remainder attributed to ACAT-2. In adult intestines, most of the ACAT activity can be immunodepleted by anti-ACAT-2. ACAT-1 and ACAT-2 do not form hetero-oligomeric complexes. In differentiating intestinal enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells, ACAT-2 protein content increases by 5-10-fold in 6 days, whereas ACAT-1 protein content remains relatively constant. In the small intestine, ACAT-2 is concentrated at the apices of the villi, whereas ACAT-1 is uniformly distributed along the villus-crypt axis. In the human liver, ACAT-1 is present in both fetal and adult hepatocytes. In contrast, ACAT-2 is evident in fetal but not adult hepatocytes. Our results collectively suggest that in humans, ACAT-2 performs significant catalytic roles in the fetal liver and in intestinal enterocytes.

  2. Transplantation of Expanded Fetal Intestinal Progenitors Contributes to Colon Regeneration after Injury

    PubMed Central

    Fordham, Robert P.; Yui, Shiro; Hannan, Nicholas R.F.; Soendergaard, Christoffer; Madgwick, Alison; Schweiger, Pawel J.; Nielsen, Ole H.; Vallier, Ludovic; Pedersen, Roger A.; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Mamoru; Jensen, Kim B.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Regeneration and homeostasis in the adult intestinal epithelium is driven by proliferative resident stem cells, whose functional properties during organismal development are largely unknown. Here, we show that human and mouse fetal intestine contains proliferative, immature progenitors, which can be expanded in vitro as Fetal Enterospheres (FEnS). A highly similar progenitor population can be established during intestinal differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells. Established cultures of mouse fetal intestinal progenitors express lower levels of Lgr5 than mature progenitors and propagate in the presence of the Wnt antagonist Dkk1, and new cultures can be induced to form mature intestinal organoids by exposure to Wnt3a. Following transplantation in a colonic injury model, FEnS contribute to regeneration of colonic epithelium by forming epithelial crypt-like structures expressing region-specific differentiation markers. This work provides insight into mechanisms underlying development of the mammalian intestine and points to future opportunities for patient-specific regeneration of the digestive tract. PMID:24139758

  3. Sox9 regulates cell proliferation and is required for Paneth cell differentiation in the intestinal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Bastide, Pauline; Darido, Charbel; Pannequin, Julie; Kist, Ralf; Robine, Sylvie; Marty-Double, Christiane; Bibeau, Frédéric; Scherer, Gerd; Joubert, Dominique; Hollande, Frédéric; Blache, Philippe; Jay, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    The HMG-box transcription factor Sox9 is expressed in the intestinal epithelium, specifically, in stem/progenitor cells and in Paneth cells. Sox9 expression requires an active β-catenin–Tcf complex, the transcriptional effector of the Wnt pathway. This pathway is critical for numerous aspects of the intestinal epithelium physiopathology, but processes that specify the cell response to such multipotential signals still remain to be identified. We inactivated the Sox9 gene in the intestinal epithelium to analyze its physiological function. Sox9 inactivation affected differentiation throughout the intestinal epithelium, with a disappearance of Paneth cells and a decrease of the goblet cell lineage. Additionally, the morphology of the colon epithelium was severely altered. We detected general hyperplasia and local crypt dysplasia in the intestine, and Wnt pathway target genes were up-regulated. These results highlight the central position of Sox9 as both a transcriptional target and a regulator of the Wnt pathway in the regulation of intestinal epithelium homeostasis. PMID:17698607

  4. Effects of early feeding and exogenous putrescine on growth and small intestinal development in posthatch ducks.

    PubMed

    Peng, P; Xu, J; Chen, W; Tangara, M; Qi, Z L; Peng, J

    2010-02-01

    1. Effects of early feeding with a diet containing added putrescine on duck intestinal development and growth performance were examined by a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with two different feeding times (6 and 48 h) and two levels of putrescine (0 and 025%). 2. A significant main effect of early feeding on increasing body weight (BW) was observed from hatch to 35 d, whereas dietary putrescine had no significant effect on BW. 3. In the first week posthatch, enhanced small intestinal weight and intestinal density (weight of intestinal tissue/unit length of intestine), increased villus length and reduced crypt depth were observed in the early feeding group, while no effect was observed when putrescine was added to the diet. 4. Maltase and sucrase activity and protein/DNA ratio in jejunum were increased by early feeding in the first week, while decreased by putrescine supplementation. 5. In conclusion, early feeding methods have great potential for small intestine development and thereafter enhanced the growth performance of ducks, but dietary putrescine used during this period should be used cautiously to avoid toxicity.

  5. Adhesion of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli to pediatric intestinal mucosa in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, S; Candy, D C; Phillips, A D

    1996-01-01

    Organ cultures of small- and large-intestinal mucosa from children were used to examine the interactions of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) with human intestine. Mucosae from patients aged between 3 and 190 months were cultured with five EAEC strains isolated from infants with diarrhea in the United Kingdom and with two well-described prototype EAEC strains, 17-2 and 221. The prototype strains adhered to jejunal, ileal, and colonic mucosae. The wild-type strains also adhered to this tissue but showed a variable pattern of adhesion: two adhered to all intestinal levels, one adhered to jejunum and ileum, one adhered to ileum only, and one adhered to ileum and colon. Adherence was in an aggregative or stacked-brick pattern, resembling that seen on HEp-2 cells. Electron microscopy of infected small intestinal mucosa revealed bacteria in association with a thick mucus layer above an intact enterocyte brush border, which contained extruded cell fragments. This mucus layer was not present on controls. EAEC adherence to colonic mucosa was associated with cytotoxic effects including microvillous vesiculation (but without evidence of an attaching/effacing lesion), enlarged crypt openings, the presence of intercrypt crevices, and increased epithelial cell extrusion. These results demonstrate that in vitro organ culture of intestinal mucosa from children can be used to investigate EAEC pathogenesis in childhood directly. EAEC strains appear able to colonize many regions of the gastrointestinal tract, without overt changes to small intestinal mucosa but with cytotoxic effects on colonic mucosa. PMID:8890236

  6. Intestinal absorption and histomorphometry of Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) experimentally infected with Lawsonia intracellularis.

    PubMed

    Vannucci, Fabio Augusto; Borges, Elizabeth Lage; de Oliveira, Juliana Saes Vilaça; Guedes, Roberto Mauricio Carvalho

    2010-10-26

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the intestinal absorption and histomorphometry of hamsters experimentally infected with Lawsonia intracellularis and correlate these parameters with severity of infection based on immunohistochemistry. Sixty hamsters were equally divided into control and inoculated groups which were orally infected with intestinal mucosa homogenate from pigs naturally infected with L. intracellularis. The intestinal absorption of glucose, sodium, potassium and chloride was evaluated in live animals (25 inoculated and 25 control) on day 26 after inoculation. In this procedure, a standard solution was infused into the cranial jejunum and collected at the terminal ileum. The experimental infection was confirmed by gross and histopathological examination and L. intracellularis antigen labeling by immunohistochemistry. Histomorphometry analysis demonstrated positive correlation between intestinal crypt depth and severity of infection based on immunohistochemistry. Infected animals had significantly lower intestinal absorption of glucose, potassium and chloride. These results indicate a lower intestinal absorption as an important mechanism of diarrhea in hamsters experimentally infected with L. intracellularis. Therefore, malabsorption should be considered as the main mechanism involved in the physiopathology of the diarrhea in L. intracellularis infected animals.

  7. The human milk oligosaccharide 2′-fucosyllactose augments the adaptive response to extensive intestinal

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Jennifer A.; Ollberding, Nicholas J.; Karns, Rebekah; Morrow, Ardythe L.; Helmrath, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal resection resulting in short bowel syndrome (SBS) carries a heavy burden of long-term morbidity, mortality, and cost of care, which can be attenuated with strategies that improve intestinal adaptation. SBS infants fed human milk, compared with formula, have more rapid intestinal adaptation. We tested the hypothesis that the major noncaloric human milk oligosaccharide 2′-fucosyllactose (2′-FL) contributes to the adaptive response after intestinal resection. Using a previously described murine model of intestinal adaptation, we demonstrated increased weight gain from 21 to 56 days (P < 0.001) and crypt depth at 56 days (P < 0.0095) with 2′-FL supplementation after ileocecal resection. Furthermore, 2′-FL increased small bowel luminal content microbial alpha diversity following resection (P < 0.005) and stimulated a bloom in organisms of the genus Parabacteroides (log2-fold = 4.1, P = 0.035). Finally, transcriptional analysis of the intestine revealed enriched ontologies and pathways related to antimicrobial peptides, metabolism, and energy processing. We conclude that 2′-FL supplementation following ileocecal resection increases weight gain, energy availability through microbial community modulation, and histological changes consistent with improved adaptation. PMID:26702137

  8. Sequential cancer mutations in cultured human intestinal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Drost, Jarno; van Jaarsveld, Richard H; Ponsioen, Bas; Zimberlin, Cheryl; van Boxtel, Ruben; Buijs, Arjan; Sachs, Norman; Overmeer, René M; Offerhaus, G Johan; Begthel, Harry; Korving, Jeroen; van de Wetering, Marc; Schwank, Gerald; Logtenberg, Meike; Cuppen, Edwin; Snippert, Hugo J; Medema, Jan Paul; Kops, Geert J P L; Clevers, Hans

    2015-05-07

    Crypt stem cells represent the cells of origin for intestinal neoplasia. Both mouse and human intestinal stem cells can be cultured in medium containing the stem-cell-niche factors WNT, R-spondin, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and noggin over long time periods as epithelial organoids that remain genetically and phenotypically stable. Here we utilize CRISPR/Cas9 technology for targeted gene modification of four of the most commonly mutated colorectal cancer genes (APC, P53 (also known as TP53), KRAS and SMAD4) in cultured human intestinal stem cells. Mutant organoids can be selected by removing individual growth factors from the culture medium. Quadruple mutants grow independently of all stem-cell-niche factors and tolerate the presence of the P53 stabilizer nutlin-3. Upon xenotransplantation into mice, quadruple mutants grow as tumours with features of invasive carcinoma. Finally, combined loss of APC and P53 is sufficient for the appearance of extensive aneuploidy, a hallmark of tumour progression.

  9. Small Intestine Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your small intestine is the longest part of your digestive system - about twenty feet long! It connects your stomach to ... many times to fit inside your abdomen. Your small intestine does most of the digesting of the foods ...

  10. Small intestine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The small intestine is the portion of the digestive system most responsible for absorption of nutrients from food into the ... the duodenum. This short first portion of the small intestine is followed by the jejunum and the ileum. ...

  11. Preventive effects of chrysin on the development of azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in rats.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Shingo; Kohno, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Rikako; Sugie, Shigeyuki; Murakami, Akira; Ohigashi, Hajime; Tanaka, Takuji

    2006-05-01

    The modifying effects of dietary feeding with chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) on the development of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were investigated in male F344 rats. We also assessed the effect of chrysin on mitosis and apoptosis in 'normal appearing' crypts. To induce ACF, rats were given two weekly subcutaneous injections of AOM (20 mg/kg body weight). They also received an experimental diet containing chrysin (0.001 or 0.01%) for 4 weeks, starting 1 week before the first dose of AOM. AOM exposure produced a substantial number of ACF (73+/-13/rat) at the end of the study (week 4). Dietary administration of chrysin caused significant reduction in the frequency of ACF: 0.001% chrysin, 37+/-17/rat (49% reduction, P<0.001); and 0.01% chrysin, 40+/-10/rat (45% reduction, P<0.001). In addition, chrysin administration significantly reduced the mitotic index and significantly increased the apoptotic index in 'normal appearing' crypts. These findings might suggest a possible chemopreventive activity of chrysin in the early step of colon tumorigenesis through modulation of cryptal cell proliferation activity and apoptosis.

  12. Induction of colonic aberrant crypts in mice by feeding apparent N-nitroso compounds derived from hot dogs

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Michael E; Lisowyj, Michal P; Zhou, Lin; Wisecarver, James L; Gulizia, James M; Shostrom, Valerie K; Naud, Nathalie; Corpet, Denis E; Mirvish, Sidney S

    2012-01-01

    Nitrite-preserved meats (e.g., hot dogs) may help cause colon cancer because they contain N-nitroso compounds. We tested whether purified hot-dog-derived total apparent N-nitroso compounds (ANC) could induce colonic aberrant crypts, which are putative precursors of colon cancer. We purified ANC precursors in hot dogs and nitrosated them to produce ANC. In preliminary tests, CF1 mice received 1 or 3 i.p. injections of 5mg azoxymethane (AOM)/kg. In Experiments 1 and 2, female A/J mice received ANC in diet. In Experiment 1, ANC dose initially dropped sharply because the ANC precursors had mostly decomposed but, later in Experiment 1 and throughout Experiment 2, ANC remained at 85 nmol/g diet. Mice were killed after 8 (AOM tests) or 17–34 (ANC tests) wk. Median numbers of aberrant crypts in the distal 2 cm of the colon for 1 and 3 AOM injections, CF1 controls, ANC (Experiment 1), ANC (Experiment 2),and untreated A/J mice were 31, 74, 12, 20, 12, and 5–6, with P < 0.01 for both ANC tests. Experiment 2 showed somewhat increased numbers of colonic mucin-depleted foci in the ANC-treated group. We conclude that hot-dog-derived ANC induced significant numbers of aberrant crypts in the mouse colon. PMID:22293095

  13. Induction of colonic aberrant crypts in mice by feeding apparent N-nitroso compounds derived from hot dogs.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michael E; Lisowyj, Michal P; Zhou, Lin; Wisecarver, James L; Gulizia, James M; Shostrom, Valerie K; Naud, Nathalie; Corpet, Denis E; Mirvish, Sidney S

    2012-01-01

    Nitrite-preserved meats (e.g., hot dogs) may help cause colon cancer because they contain N-nitroso compounds. We tested whether purified hot-dog-derived total apparent N-nitroso compounds (ANC) could induce colonic aberrant crypts, which are putative precursors of colon cancer. We purified ANC precursors in hot dogs and nitrosated them to produce ANC. In preliminary tests, CF1 mice received 1 or 3 i.p. injections of 5 mg azoxymethane (AOM)/kg. In Experiments 1 and 2, female A/J mice received ANC in diet. In Experiment 1, ANC dose initially dropped sharply because the ANC precursors had mostly decomposed but, later in Experiment 1 and throughout Experiment 2, ANC remained at 85 nmol/g diet. Mice were killed after 8 (AOM tests) or 17-34 (ANC tests) wk. Median numbers of aberrant crypts in the distal 2 cm of the colon for 1 and 3 AOM injections, CF1 controls, ANC (Experiment 1), ANC (Experiment 2),and untreated A/J mice were 31, 74, 12, 20, 12, and 5-6, with P < 0.01 for both ANC tests. Experiment 2 showed somewhat increased numbers of colonic mucin-depleted foci in the ANC-treated group. We conclude that hot-dog-derived ANC induced significant numbers of aberrant crypts in the mouse colon.

  14. Effects of dark chocolate on azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci.

    PubMed

    Hong, Mee Young; Nulton, Emily; Shelechi, Mahshid; Hernández, Lisa M; Nemoseck, Tricia

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence supports that diets rich in polyphenols promote health and may delay the onset of colon cancer. Cocoa and chocolate products have some of the highest polyphenolic concentrations compared to other polyphenolic food sources. This study tested the hypothesis that a diet including dark chocolate can protect against colon cancer by inhibiting aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation, downregulating gene expression of inflammatory mediators, and favorably altering cell kinetics. We also investigated whether bloomed dark chocolate retains the antioxidant capacity and protects against colon cancer. Forty-eight rats received either a diet containing control (no chocolate), regular dark chocolate, or bloomed dark chocolate and were injected subcutaneously with saline or azoxymethane. Relative to control, both regular and bloomed dark chocolate diets lowered the total number of ACF (P = 0.022). Chocolate diet-fed animals downregulated transcription levels of COX-2 (P = 0.035) and RelA (P = 0.045). Both chocolate diets lowered the proliferation index (P = 0.001). These results suggest that a diet including dark chocolate can reduce cell proliferation and some gene expression involving inflammation, which may explain the lower number of early preneoplastic lesions. These results provide new insight on polyphenol-rich chocolate foods and colon cancer prevention.

  15. Lack of chemoprevention of dietary Agaricus blazei against rat colonic aberrant crypt foci.

    PubMed

    Ziliotto, L; Barbisan, L F; Rodrigues, M A M

    2008-06-01

    The mushroom Agaricus blazei (Ab) has been widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases including cancer. No information is available on its possible protective effects on the development of colon cancer. The potential blocking effect of Ab intake on the initiation stage of colon carcinogenesis was investigated in a short-term (4-week) bioassay using aberrant crypt foci (ACF) as biomarker. Male Wistar rats were given four subcutaneous injections of the carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 40 mg/kg bw, twice a week), during 2 weeks to induce ACF. The diet containing Ab at 5% was given 2 weeks before and during carcinogen treatment to investigate the potential beneficial effects of this edible mushroom on DMH-induced ACF. All groups were killed at the end of the fourth week. The colons were analyzed for ACF formation in 1% methylene blue whole-mount preparations and for cell proliferation in histological sections immunohistochemically stained for the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). All DMH-treated rats developed ACF mainly in the middle and distal colon. Agaricus blazei intake at 5% did not alter the number of ACF induced by DMH or the PCNA indices in the colonic mucosa. Thus, the results of the present study did not confirm a chemopreventive activity of Ab on the initiation stage of rat colon carcinogenesis.

  16. Risk factors for colorectal cancer in man induce aberrant crypt foci in rats: Preliminary findings

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai; Fard, Sara; Furrer, Rudolf; Archer, Michael C.; Bruce, W. Robert; Lip, HoYin; Mehta, Rhea; O'Brien, Peter J.; Giacca, Adria; Ward, Wendy E.; Femia, A. Pietro; Caderni, Giovanna; Medline, Alan; Banks, Kate

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies have demonstrated clear associations between specific dietary and environmental risk factors and incidence of colorectal cancer, but the mechanisms responsible for these associations are not known. An animal model could facilitate such an understanding. Both genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens induce aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colons of F344 rats. F344 rats were provided with diets that contained putative risk factors for CRC: low calcium and low vitamin D, high iron, high fructose, and decreased light (UV) exposure or a control diet for 14 wk. The rats were then assessed with biochemical measures and by topological examination for evidence of colon abnormalities. Circulating ionized calcium was decreased from 2.85 to 1.69 mmol/L, and ACF were increased from 0.7 to 13.6 lesions/colon (both P < 0.001). Rats exposed to the multiple environmental conditions associated with colon cancer, developed ACF similar to the heterogeneous or ill-defined ACF in the human colon. Heterogeneous ACF are the most frequently seen in humans and are also seen in rats shortly after exposure to the non-genotoxic colon carcinogen, dextransulfate sodium. The rodent model could be used to assess the pathways from diet and environment to colon cancer and to provide guidance for clinical studies. PMID:26709971

  17. Chemopreventive Efficacy of Andrographis paniculata on Azoxymethane-Induced Aberrant Colon Crypt Foci In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Al-Henhena, Nawal; Ying, Rozaida Poh Yuen; Ismail, Salmah; Najm, Wala; Khalifa, Shaden A. M.; El-Seedi, Hesham; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is a grass-shaped medicinal herb, traditionally used in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemoprotective effects of A. paniculata on colorectal cancer. A. paniculata ethanol extract was tested on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in vivo and in vitro. A. paniculata treated groups showed a significant reduction in the number of ACF of the treated rats. Microscopically, ACF showed remarkably elongated and stratified cells, and depletion of the submucosal glands of AOM group compared to the treated groups. Histologically, staining showed slightly elevated masses above the surrounding mucosa with oval or slit-like orifices. Immunohistochemically, expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and β-catenin protein were down-regulated in the A. paniculata treated groups compared to the AOM group. When colon tissue was homogenized, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were significantly decreased, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased in the treated groups compared to the AOM group. A. paniculata ethanol extract showed antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity, as elucidated by the measure of oxidative stress markers. Further, the active fractions were assessed against cell lines of CCD841 and HT29 colon cancer cells. PMID:25390042

  18. Chemopreventive efficacy of Andrographis paniculata on azoxymethane-induced aberrant colon crypt foci in vivo.

    PubMed

    Al-Henhena, Nawal; Ying, Rozaida Poh Yuen; Ismail, Salmah; Najm, Walaa; Najm, Wala; Khalifa, Shaden A M; El-Seedi, Hesham; Ameen Abdulla, Mahmood; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is a grass-shaped medicinal herb, traditionally used in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemoprotective effects of A. paniculata on colorectal cancer. A. paniculata ethanol extract was tested on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in vivo and in vitro. A. paniculata treated groups showed a significant reduction in the number of ACF of the treated rats. Microscopically, ACF showed remarkably elongated and stratified cells, and depletion of the submucosal glands of AOM group compared to the treated groups. Histologically, staining showed slightly elevated masses above the surrounding mucosa with oval or slit-like orifices. Immunohistochemically, expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and β-catenin protein were down-regulated in the A. paniculata treated groups compared to the AOM group. When colon tissue was homogenized, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were significantly decreased, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased in the treated groups compared to the AOM group. A. paniculata ethanol extract showed antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity, as elucidated by the measure of oxidative stress markers. Further, the active fractions were assessed against cell lines of CCD841 and HT29 colon cancer cells.

  19. Increased small intestinal apoptosis in coeliac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Moss, S F; Attia, L; Scholes, J V; Walters, J R; Holt, P R

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coeliac disease (CD) mucosa is flattened despite epithelial hyperproliferation. AIMS: To establish mechanisms of cell loss in CD. PATIENTS: 14 controls, 17 active CD patients, and 16 maintained with gluten free diet. METHODS: Programmed cell death was examined in small intestinal biopsy specimens by staining fragmented DNA using terminal uridine deoxynucleotidyl nick end labelling (TUNEL), in comparison with haematoxylin and eosin stained adjacent sections. Double staining with anti-CD45 antibodies determined the origin of apoptotic cells. Apoptosis was graded from 1-3 (< 5, 5-20, > 20% respectively). Proliferating cells, immunostained by Ki-67 (MIB-1) antibody, were counted. RESULTS: Apoptotic cells were seen rarely by haematoxylin and eosin but more readily by TUNEL. In controls, 1.4 +/- 0.2% of epithelial cells were apoptotic (mean grade 1.1), mainly located in the upper villus. In active CD, frequent apoptotic cells were distributed throughout the crypt-villus unit (mean grade 2.4), decreasing after treatment to 1.1 (p < 0.001) even when still histologically abnormal. CD45 antibodies rarely stained apoptotic cells in active CD. The number of TUNEL positive cells correlated with proliferating cell number (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Enterocyte apoptosis is greatly increased in untreated CD, correlates with proliferation, and falls to normal with a gluten free diet, before histological improvement. Increased apoptosis may be responsible for villous atrophy in CD. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9038662

  20. The effect of hibernation on the morphology and histochemistry of the intestine of the greater mouse-eared bat, Myotis myotis.

    PubMed

    Paksuz, Emine Pinar

    2014-10-01

    Seasonal variations in morphometry and histochemistry of the intestine have been examined in the active and hibernating greater mouse-eared bat, Myotis myotis, using histological and histochemical techniques. The results of morphometric analyses indicated that hibernation affected the villus height, villus width, crypt depth and crypt width of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Histochemical analysis showed that goblet cells of the small and large intestine contain acidic and neutral mucosubstances. According to the results obtained with Alcian Blue (pH 5.8)/PAS staining, hyaluronic acid is dominant in the goblet cells of the small and large intestine during both the hibernation and active periods. Chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate, which are sulfated GAGs, were dominant, and very little heparan sulfate, heparin and keratan sulfate were present. Moreover, sulfated glycoproteins were also detected in the goblet cells of the small intestine in the active animals. The present study demonstrates that hibernation altered the examined morphometric and histochemical parameters of the intestine.

  1. Total Body Irradiation in the "Hematopoietic" Dose Range Induces Substantial Intestinal Injury in Non-Human Primates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junru; Shao, Lijian; Hendrickson, Howard P; Liu, Liya; Chang, Jianhui; Luo, Yi; Seng, John; Pouliot, Mylene; Authier, Simon; Zhou, Daohong; Allaben, William; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The non-human primate has been a useful model for studies of human acute radiation syndrome (ARS). However, to date structural changes in various parts of the intestine after total body irradiation (TBI) have not been systematically studied in this model. Here we report on our current study of TBI-induced intestinal structural injury in the non-human primate after doses typically associated with hematopoietic ARS. Twenty-four non-human primates were divided into three groups: sham-irradiated control group; and total body cobalt-60 (60Co) 6.7 Gy gamma-irradiated group; and total body 60Co 7.4 Gy gamma-irradiated group. After animals were euthanized at day 4, 7 and 12 postirradiation, sections of small intestine (duodenum, proximal jejunum, distal jejunum and ileum) were collected and fixed in 10% formalin. The intestinal mucosal surface length, villus height and crypt depths were assessed by computer-assisted image analysis. Plasma citrulline levels were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Total bone marrow cells were counted and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow were analyzed by flow cytometer. Histopathologically, all segments exhibited conspicuous disappearance of plicae circulares and prominent atrophy of crypts and villi. Intestinal mucosal surface length was significantly decreased in all intestinal segments on day 4, 7 and 12 after irradiation (P < 0.02-P < 0.001). Villus height was significantly reduced in all segments on day 4 and 7 (P = 0.02-0.005), whereas it had recovered by day 12 (P > 0.05). Crypt depth was also significantly reduced in all segments on day 4, 7 and 12 after irradiation (P < 0.04-P < 0.001). Plasma citrulline levels were dramatically reduced after irradiation, consistent with intestinal mucosal injury. Both 6.7 and 7.4 Gy TBI reduced total number of bone marrow cells. And further analysis showed that the number and function of CD45(+)CD34(+) hematopoietic stem/progenitors in bone

  2. Pathogenesis of intestinal cryptosporidiosis in conventional and gnotobiotic piglets.

    PubMed

    Vítovec, J; Koudela, B

    1992-06-01

    The pathogenesis of intestinal cryptosporidiosis was studied in 52 conventionally reared and 20 gnotobiotically reared piglets by inoculation with different doses of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. The prepatent period of C. parvum in both groups of animals were variable, depending on the number of oocysts administered. The patent period of C. parvum in conventionally reared piglets was 8 or 9 days; in gnotobiotic piglets cryptosporidia were found in feces until Day post infection (DPI) 16, when the last piglet was necropsied. Cryptosporidiosis in conventionally reared piglets is a self-limited diarrheal disease associated with morphological changes within the intestine. The most severe lesion was seen in the posterior jejunum and ileum from DPI 3 to DPI 7, and consisted of villous atrophy, crypt hyperplasia and inflammatory infiltration in the lamina propria. In gnotobiotic piglets cryptosporidia induced severe enterocolitis which occurred at least until DPI 16. The characteristics of enteric lesions were similar to those found in conventionally reared piglets. Intestinal cryptosporidiosis in both groups of animals shifted in the course of infection in the caudal direction and terminated in the large intestine. Examination by scanning electron microscope showed that infected absorptive cells had thicker and longer microvilli than those on non-infected cells; neighboring non-infected cells were hypertrophic, bulbously protuberant with minute microvilli with no distinct intercellular borders. Numerous cryptosporidia in the heterotopic glandular epithelium in the submucosa of cecum and colon on DPI 9 and 10 were found. No differences in the location and degree of cryptosporidial infection between colostrum-fed and colostrum-deprived conventionally reared piglets were found. Sow's colostrum does not appear to protect piglets from C. parvum infection. The role of intestinal microflora in the pathogenesis of cryptosporidiosis in piglets is discussed.

  3. Intestinal morphology and enzymatic activity in newly weaned pigs fed contrasting fiber concentrations and fiber properties.

    PubMed

    Hedemann, M S; Eskildsen, M; Laerke, H N; Pedersen, C; Lindberg, J E; Laurinen, P; Knudsen, K E Bach

    2006-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of fiber source and concentration on morphological characteristics, mucin staining pattern, and mucosal enzyme activities in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. The experiment included 50 pigs from 10 litters weaned at 4 wk of age (BW 8.6 +/- 1.4 kg) and divided into 5 treatment groups. Diets containing fiber of various physico-chemical properties and concentrations were formulated to contain 73, 104, or 145 g of dietary fiber/kg of DM. The diets were based on raw wheat and barley flours. Pectin and barley hulls, representing soluble and insoluble fiber sources, respectively, were used to increase the fiber concentration. The pigs were fed the experimental diets for 9 d, and then the pigs were euthanized and the entire gastrointestinal tract was removed. Tissue samples were taken from the mid and distal small intestine and from the mid colon. Inclusion of pectin in the diets significantly decreased (P < 0.001) ADFI and ADG compared with pigs fed no pectin. The villi and the crypts were shorter in pigs fed pectin-containing diets, but the villous height/crypt depth ratio was unaltered. Pectin significantly decreased the area of mucins in the crypts of the small intestine, indicating that the pigs fed the pectin-containing diet would probably be more susceptible to pathogenic bacteria, although this cannot be separated from the impact on ADFI. The lectin-binding pattern of the intestinal mucosa was unaffected by diet. The activity of lactase and maltase was increased in pigs fed diets with high fiber content, whereas sucrase activity was increased in pigs fed the pectin-containing diets. The activity of the peptidases, aminopeptidase N and dipeptidylpeptidase IV, was increased when feeding high fiber diets, whereas the activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase remained unaffected by the experimental diets. In conclusion, the reduced feed intake observed with the pectin-containing diets could explain the

  4. Acute effects of rotavirus and malnutrition on intestinal barrier function in neonatal piglets

    PubMed Central

    Jacobi, Sheila K; Moeser, Adam J; Blikslager, Anthony T; Rhoads, J Marc; Corl, Benjamin A; Harrell, Robert J; Odle, Jack

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of protein-energy malnutrition on intestinal barrier function during rotavirus enteritis in a piglet model. METHODS: Newborn piglets were allotted at day 4 of age to the following treatments: (1) full-strength formula (FSF)/noninfected; (2) FSF/rotavirus infected; (3) half-strength formula (HSF)/noninfected; or (4) HSF/rotavirus infected. After one day of adjustment to the feeding rates, pigs were infected with rotavirus and acute effects on growth and diarrhea were monitored for 3 d and jejunal samples were collected for Ussing-chamber analyses. RESULTS: Piglets that were malnourished or infected had lower body weights on days 2 and 3 post-infection (P < 0.05). Three days post-infection, marked diarrhea and weight loss were accompanied by sharp reductions in villus height (59%) and lactase activity (91%) and increased crypt depth (21%) in infected compared with non-infected pigs (P < 0.05). Malnutrition also increased crypt depth (21%) compared to full-fed piglets. Villus:crypt ratio was reduced (67%) with viral infection. There was a trend for reduction in transepithelial electrical resistance with rotavirus infection and malnutrition (P = 0.1). 3H-mannitol flux was significantly increased (50%; P < 0.001) in rotavirus-infected piglets compared to non-infected piglets, but there was no effect of nutritional status. Furthermore, rotavirus infection reduced localization of the tight junction protein, occludin, in the cell membrane and increased localization in the cytosol. CONCLUSION: Overall, malnutrition had no additive effects to rotavirus infection on intestinal barrier function at day 3 post-infection in a neonatal piglet model. PMID:23964143

  5. The effect of dietary carbohydrates and Trichuris suis infection on pig large intestine tissue structure, epithelial cell proliferation and mucin characteristics.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, L E; Knudsen, K E Bach; Hedemann, M S; Roepstorff, A

    2006-11-30

    Two experiments (Exps. 1 and 2) were performed to study the influence of Trichuris suis infection and type of dietary carbohydrates on large intestine morphology, epithelial cell proliferation and mucin characteristics. Two experimental diets based on barley flour were used; Diet 1 was supplemented with resistant carbohydrates from oat hull meal, while Diet 2 was supplemented with fermentable carbohydrates from sugar beet fibre and inulin. In Experiment 1, 32 pigs were allocated randomly into four groups. Two groups were fed Diet 1 and two groups Diet 2. Pigs from one of each diet group were inoculated with a single dose of 2000 infective T. suis eggs and the other two groups remained uninfected controls. In Experiment 2, 12 pigs were allocated randomly into two groups and fed Diet 1 or Diet 2, respectively, and inoculated with a single dose of 2000 infective T. suis eggs. All the pigs were slaughtered 8 weeks post inoculation (p.i.). The worm counts were lower in pigs fed Diet 2 in both experiments, but not significantly so. Both diet and infection status significantly influenced the tissue weight of the large intestine. In both experiments, pigs fed Diet 2 had heavier large intestines than pigs fed Diet 1 and in Experiment1 the infected pigs of both diets had heavier large intestines than their respective control groups. Diet and infection also significantly affected the morphological architecture and mucin production in both experiments. Pigs fed Diet 1 had larger crypts both in terms of area and height than pigs fed Diet 2 and T. suis infected pigs on both diets in Experiment 1 had larger crypts than their respective control groups. The area of the mucin granules in the crypts constituted 22-53% of the total crypt area and was greatest in the T. suis infected pigs fed Diet 1. Epithelial cell proliferation was affected neither by diet nor infection in any of the experiments. The study showed that both T. suis infection and dietary carbohydrates significantly

  6. Mucosal necrosis of the small intestine in myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Keita; Ishikawa, Yasuhide; Ogino, Tetsuro; Inoue, Hidenobu; Yamaoka, Ryoya; Hirose, Tetsuro; Nishihira, Tomohiko

    2012-11-07

    This report presents a case of massive mucosal necrosis of the small intestine in a patient with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), which particularly affects the brain, nervous system and muscles. A 45-year-old Japanese female, with an established diagnosis of MELAS, presented with vomiting. Computed tomography showed portomesenteric venous gas and pneumatosis intestinalis. She underwent a resection of the small intestine. A microscopic study showed necrosis of the mucosa and vacuolar degeneration of smooth muscle cells in the arterial wall. Immunohistochemistry showed anti-mitochondrial antibody to be highly expressed in the crypts adjacent the necrotic mucosa. The microscopic and immunohistochemical findings suggested the presence of a large number of abnormal mitochondria in MELAS to be closely linked to mucosal necrosis of the small intestine.

  7. Infections in intestinal and multivisceral transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Timpone, Joseph G; Girlanda, Raffaele; Rudolph, Lauren; Fishbein, Thomas M

    2013-06-01

    Intestinal and multivisceral transplantation has become an effective treatment option for patients with intestinal failure. More potent immunosuppressive therapy has resulted in a decreased incidence of acute rejection and has improved patient survival. However, infectious complications can cause significant morbidity both before and after transplantation. In comparison with other solid organ transplant recipients, these patients experience higher rates of acute allograft rejection, thus requiring higher levels of immunosuppression and escalating the risk of infection. This article reviews the most common infectious disease complications encountered, and proposes a potential temporal association for types of infections in this patient population.

  8. OPTN/SRTR 2012 Annual Data Report: intestine.

    PubMed

    Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Horslen, S P; Edwards, E B; Harper, A M; Snyderf, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the medical and surgical treatments of intestinal failure have led to a decrease in the number of transplants over the past decade. In 2012, 152 candidates were added to the intestinal transplant waiting list, a new low. Of these, 64 were listed for intestine-liver transplant and 88 for intestinal transplant alone or with an organ other than liver. Historically, the most common organ transplanted with the intestine was the liver; this practice decreased substantially from a peak of 52.9% in 2007 to 30.0% in 2012. Short-gut syndrome, which encompasses a large group of diagnoses, is the most common etiology of intestinal failure. The pretransplant mortality rate decreased dramatically over time for all age groups, from 51.0 per 100 wait-list years in 1998-1999 to 6.7 for patients listed in 2010-2012. Numbers of intestinal and intestine-liver transplants steadily decreased from 198 in 2007 to 106 in 2012. By age, intestinal transplant recipients have changed substantially; the number of adult recipients now approximately equals the number of pediatric recipients. Graft survival has improved over the past decade. Graft failure in the first 90 days after transplant occurred in 15.7% of 2011-2012 intestinal transplant recipients, compared with 21% in 2001-2002.

  9. Ghrelin Attenuates Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yijun; Wei, Yongxu; Yang, Wenlei; Cai, Yu; Chen, Bin; Yang, Guoyuan; Shang, Hanbing; Zhao, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal barrier dysfunction remains a critical problem in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and is associated with poor prognosis. Ghrelin, a brain-gut peptide, has been shown to exert protection in animal models of gastrointestinal injury. However, the effect of ghrelin on intestinal barrier dysfunction post-ICH and its possible underlying mechanisms are still unknown. This study was designed to investigate whether ghrelin administration attenuates intestinal barrier dysfunction in experimental ICH using an intrastriatal autologous blood infusion mouse model. Our data showed that treatment with ghrelin markedly attenuated intestinal mucosal injury at both histomorphometric and ultrastructural levels post-ICH. Ghrelin reduced ICH-induced intestinal permeability according to fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated-dextran (FITC-D) and Evans blue extravasation assays. Concomitantly, the intestinal tight junction-related protein markers, Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-5 were upregulated by ghrelin post-ICH. Additionally, ghrelin reduced intestinal intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression at the mRNA and protein levels following ICH. Furthermore, ghrelin suppressed the translocation of intestinal endotoxin post-ICH. These changes were accompanied by improved survival rates and an attenuation of body weight loss post-ICH. In conclusion, our results suggest that ghrelin reduced intestinal barrier dysfunction, thereby reducing mortality and weight loss, indicating that ghrelin is a potential therapeutic agent in ICH-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction therapy. PMID:27929421

  10. PROMOTION OF TRIHALOMETHANE-INDUCED COLON, ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI (ACF) BY A HIGH FAT DIET

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract:

    Bromodichloromethane (BOCM) and tribromomethane (TBM) enhanced neoplasia in the large intestine of rats when given by corn oil gavage; BOCM in the drinking water to male rats did not induce colon tumors, but did increase liver tumors. However, TBM and a mixture o...

  11. Generation of tissue-engineered small intestine using embryonic stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids

    PubMed Central

    Finkbeiner, Stacy R.; Freeman, Jennifer J.; Wieck, Minna M.; El-Nachef, Wael; Altheim, Christopher H.; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Huang, Sha; Dyal, Rachel; White, Eric S.; Grikscheit, Tracy C.; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.; Spence, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is characterized by poor nutrient absorption due to a deficit of healthy intestine. Current treatment practices rely on providing supportive medical therapy with parenteral nutrition; while life saving, such interventions are not curative and are still associated with significant co-morbidities. As approaches to lengthen remaining intestinal tissue have been met with only limited success and intestinal transplants have poor survival outcomes, new approaches to treating SBS are necessary. Human intestine derived from embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), called human intestinal organoids (HIOs), have the potential to offer a personalized and scalable source of intestine for regenerative therapies. However, given that HIOs are small three-dimensional structures grown in vitro, methods to generate usable HIO-derived constructs are needed. We investigated the ability of hESCs or HIOs to populate acellular porcine intestinal matrices and artificial polyglycolic/poly L lactic acid (PGA/PLLA) scaffolds, and examined the ability of matrix/scaffolds to thrive when transplanted in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the acellular matrix alone is not sufficient to instruct hESC differentiation towards an endodermal or intestinal fate. We observed that while HIOs reseed acellular porcine matrices in vitro, the HIO-reseeded matrices do not thrive when transplanted in vivo. In contrast, HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds thrive in vivo and develop into tissue that looks nearly identical to adult human intestinal tissue. Our results suggest that HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds are a promising avenue for developing the mucosal component of tissue engineered human small intestine, which need to be explored further to develop them into fully functional tissue. PMID:26459240

  12. Generation of tissue-engineered small intestine using embryonic stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids.

    PubMed

    Finkbeiner, Stacy R; Freeman, Jennifer J; Wieck, Minna M; El-Nachef, Wael; Altheim, Christopher H; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Huang, Sha; Dyal, Rachel; White, Eric S; Grikscheit, Tracy C; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Spence, Jason R

    2015-10-12

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is characterized by poor nutrient absorption due to a deficit of healthy intestine. Current treatment practices rely on providing supportive medical therapy with parenteral nutrition; while life saving, such interventions are not curative and are still associated with significant co-morbidities. As approaches to lengthen remaining intestinal tissue have been met with only limited success and intestinal transplants have poor survival outcomes, new approaches to treating SBS are necessary. Human intestine derived from embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), called human intestinal organoids (HIOs), have the potential to offer a personalized and scalable source of intestine for regenerative therapies. However, given that HIOs are small three-dimensional structures grown in vitro, methods to generate usable HIO-derived constructs are needed. We investigated the ability of hESCs or HIOs to populate acellular porcine intestinal matrices and artificial polyglycolic/poly L lactic acid (PGA/PLLA) scaffolds, and examined the ability of matrix/scaffolds to thrive when transplanted in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the acellular matrix alone is not sufficient to instruct hESC differentiation towards an endodermal or intestinal fate. We observed that while HIOs reseed acellular porcine matrices in vitro, the HIO-reseeded matrices do not thrive when transplanted in vivo. In contrast, HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds thrive in vivo and develop into tissue that looks nearly identical to adult human intestinal tissue. Our results suggest that HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds are a promising avenue for developing the mucosal component of tissue engineered human small intestine, which need to be explored further to develop them into fully functional tissue.

  13. Establishment of Intestinal Bacteriology

    PubMed Central

    MITSUOKA, Tomotari

    2014-01-01

    Research on intestinal bacteria began around the end of the 19th century. During the last 5 decades of the 20th century, research on the intestinal microbiota made rapid progress. At first, in my work, I first developed a method of comprehensive analysis of the intestinal microbiota, and then I established classification and identification methods for intestinal anaerobes. Using these methods I discovered a number of ecological rules governing the intestinal microbiota and the role of the intestinl microbiota in health and disease. Moreover, using germfree animals, it was proven that the intestinal microbiota has a role in carcinogenesis and aging in the host. Thus, a new interdisciplinary field, “intestinal bacteriology” was established. PMID:25032084

  14. Effect of High Dietary Tryptophan on Intestinal Morphology and Tight Junction Protein of Weaned Pig

    PubMed Central

    Tossou, Myrlene Carine B.; Bai, Miaomiao; Chen, Shuai; Cai, Yinghua; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Liu, Hongbin; Adebowale, Tolulope O.; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Long, Lina; Tarique, Hussain; Oso, Abimbola O.; Liu, Gang; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Tryptophan (Trp) plays an essential role in pig behavior and growth performances. However, little is known about Trp's effects on tight junction barrier and intestinal health in weaned pigs. In the present study, twenty-four (24) weaned pigs were randomly assigned to one of the three treatments with 8 piglets/treatments. The piglets were fed different amounts of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) as follows: 0.0%, 0.15, and 0.75%, respectively, named zero Trp (ZTS), low Trp (LTS), and high Trp (HTS), respectively. No significant differences were observed in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain: feed (G/F) ratio between the groups. After 21 days of the feeding trial, results showed that dietary Trp significantly increased (P < 0.05) crypt depth and significantly decreased (P < 0.05) villus height to crypt depth ratio (VH/CD) in the jejunum of pig fed HTS. In addition, pig fed HTS had higher (P < 0.05) serum diamine oxidase (DAO) and D-lactate. Furthermore, pig fed HTS significantly decreased mRNA expression of tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1 but not claudin-1 in the jejunum. The number of intraepithelial lymphocytes and goblet cells were not significantly different (P > 0.05) between the groups. Collectively, these data suggest that dietary Trp supplementation at a certain level (0.75%) may negatively affect the small intestinal structure in weaned pig. PMID:27366740

  15. DES2 protein is responsible for phytoceramide biosynthesis in the mouse small intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Omae, Fumio; Miyazaki, Masao; Enomoto, Ayako; Suzuki, Minoru; Suzuki, Yusuke; Suzuki, Akemi

    2004-01-01

    The C-4 hydroxylation of sphinganine and dihydroceramide is a rate-limiting reaction in the biosynthesis of phytosphingolipids. Mouse DES1 (MDES1) cDNA homologous to the Drosophila melanogaster degenerative spermatocyte gene-1 (des-1) cDNA leads to sphingosine Delta4-desaturase activity, and another mouse homologue, MDES2, has bifunctional activity, producing C-4 hydroxysphinganine and Delta4-sphingenine in yeast [Ternes, Franke, Zahringer, Sperling and Heinz (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 25512-25518]. Here, we report the characterization of mouse DES2 (MDES2) using an in vitro assay with a homogenate of COS-7 cells transfected with MDES2 cDNA and N -octanoyl-sphinganine and sphinganine as substrates. MDES2 protein prefers dihydroceramide as a substrate to sphinganine, and exhibits dihydroceramide Delta4-desaturase and C-4 hydroxylase activities. MDES2 mRNA content was high in the small intestine and abundant in the kidney. In situ hybridization detected signals of MDES2 mRNA in the crypt cells. Immunohistochemistry using an anti-MDES2 peptide antibody stained the crypt cells and the adjacent epithelial cells. These results suggest that MDES2 is the dihydroceramide C-4 hydroxylase responsible for the biosynthesis of enriched phytosphingoglycolipids in the microvillous membranes of intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:14731113

  16. Adult zebrafish intestine resection: a novel model of short bowel syndrome, adaptation, and intestinal stem cell regeneration.

    PubMed

    Schall, K A; Holoyda, K A; Grant, C N; Levin, D E; Torres, E R; Maxwell, A; Pollack, H A; Moats, R A; Frey, M R; Darehzereshki, A; Al Alam, D; Lien, C; Grikscheit, T C

    2015-08-01

    Loss of significant intestinal length from congenital anomaly or disease may lead to short bowel syndrome (SBS); intestinal failure may be partially offset by a gain in epithelial surface area, termed adaptation. Current in vivo models of SBS are costly and technically challenging. Operative times and survival rates have slowed extension to transgenic models. We created a new reproducible in vivo model of SBS in zebrafish, a tractable vertebrate model, to facilitate investigation of the mechanisms of intestinal adaptation. Proximal intestinal diversion at segment 1 (S1, equivalent to jejunum) was performed in adult male zebrafish. SBS fish emptied distal intestinal contents via stoma as in the human disease. After 2 wk, S1 was dilated compared with controls and villus ridges had increased complexity, contributing to greater villus epithelial perimeter. The number of intervillus pockets, the intestinal stem cell zone of the zebrafish increased and contained a higher number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells after 2 wk of SBS. Egf receptor and a subset of its ligands, also drivers of adaptation, were upregulated in SBS fish. Igf has been reported as a driver of intestinal adaptation in other animal models, and SBS fish exposed to a pharmacological inhibitor of the Igf receptor failed to demonstrate signs of intestinal adaptation, such as increased inner epithelial perimeter and BrdU incorporation. We describe a technically feasible model of human SBS in the zebrafish, a faster and less expensive tool to investigate intestinal stem cell plasticity as well as the mechanisms that drive intestinal adaptation.

  17. The current state of intestine transplantation: indications, techniques, outcomes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sudan, D

    2014-09-01

    Intestine transplantation is the least common form of organ transplantation in the United States and often deemed one of the most difficult. Patient and graft survival have historically trailed well behind other organ transplants. Over the past 5-10 years registry reports and single center series have demonstrated improvements to patient survival after intestinal transplantation that now match patient survival for those without life-threatening complications on parenteral nutrition. For various reasons including improvements in medical care of patients with intestinal failure and difficulty accessing transplant care, the actual number of intestine transplants has declined by 25% over the past 6 years. In light of the small numbers of intestine transplants, many physicians and the lay public are often unaware that this is a therapeutic option. The aim of this review is to describe the current indications, outcomes and advances in the field of intestine transplantation and to explore concerns over future access to this important and life-saving therapy.

  18. Dietary milk fat globule membrane reduces the incidence of aberrant crypt foci in Fischer-344 rats.

    PubMed

    Snow, Dallin R; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Ward, Robert E; Cambell, Jesse; Young, Michael J; Nemere, Ilka; Hintze, Korry J

    2010-02-24

    Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is a biopolymer composed primarily of membrane proteins and lipids that surround the fat globules in milk. Although it is considered to have potential as a bioactive ingredient, few feeding studies have been conducted to measure its potential benefits. The aim of this investigation was to determine if dietary MFGM confers protection against colon carcinogenesis compared to diets containing corn oil (CO) or anhydrous milk fat (AMF). Male, weanling Fischer-344 rats were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments that differed only in the fat source: (1) AIN-76A diet, corn oil; (2) AIN-76A diet, AMF; and (3) AIN-76A diet, 50% MFGM, 50% AMF. Each diet contained 50 g/kg diet of fat. With the exception of the fat source, diets were formulated to be identical in macro and micro nutrient content. Animals were injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine once per week at weeks 3 and 4, and fed experimental diets for a total of 13 weeks. Over the course of the study dietary treatment did not affect food consumption, weight gain or body composition. After 13 weeks animals were sacrificed, colons were removed and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were counted by microscopy. Rats fed the MFGM diet (n = 16) had significantly fewer ACF (20.9 +/- 5.7) compared to rats fed corn oil (n = 17) or AMF (n = 16) diets (31.3 +/- 9.5 and 29.8 +/- 11.4 respectively; P < 0.05). Gene expression analysis of colonic mucosa did not reveal differential expression of candidate colon cancer genes, and the sphingolipid profile of the colonic mucosa was not affected by diet. While there were notable and significant differences in plasma and red blood cell lipids, there was no relationship to the cancer protection. These results support previous findings that dietary sphingolipids are protective against colon carcinogenesis yet extend this finding to MFGM, a milk fat fraction available as a food ingredient.

  19. Endogenous expression of type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase mRNA and protein in rat intestine. Implications for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator.

    PubMed Central

    Markert, T; Vaandrager, A B; Gambaryan, S; Pöhler, D; Häusler, C; Walter, U; De Jonge, H R; Jarchau, T; Lohmann, S M

    1995-01-01

    Certain pathogenic bacteria produce a family of heat stable enterotoxins (STa) which activate intestinal guanylyl cyclases, increase cGMP, and elicit life-threatening secretory diarrhea. The intracellular effector of cGMP actions has not been clarified. Recently we cloned the cDNA for a rat intestinal type II cGMP dependent protein kinase (cGK II) which is highly enriched in intestinal mucosa. Here we show that cGK II mRNA and protein are restricted to the intestinal segments from the duodenum to the proximal colon, with the highest amounts of cGK II protein in duodenum and jejunum. cGK II mRNA and protein decreased along the villus to crypt axis in the small intestine, whereas substantial amounts of both were found in the crypts of cecum. In intestinal epithelia, cGK II was specifically localized in the apical membrane, a major site of ion transport regulation. In contrast to cGK II, cGK I was localized in smooth muscle cells of the villus lamina propria. Short circuit current (ISC), a measure of Cl- secretion, was increased to a similar extent by STa and by 8-Br-cGMP, a selective activator of cGK, except in distal colon and in monolayers of T84 human colon carcinoma cells in which cGK II was not detected. In human and mouse intestine, the cyclic nucleotide-regulated Cl- conductance can be exclusively accounted for by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel. Viewed collectively, the data suggest that cGK II is the mediator of STa and cGMP effects on Cl- transport in intestinal-epithelia. Images PMID:7543493

  20. Administration of a DPP-IV Inhibitor Enhances the Intestinal Adaptation in a Mouse Model of Short Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Okawada, Manabu; Holst, Jens J.; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Glucagon-like peptide-2(GLP-2) induces small intestine mucosal epithelial cell (EC) proliferation; and may have benefit for patients suffering from short bowel syndrome (SBS). However, GLP-2 is rapidly inactivated in vivo by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV). Therefore, we hypothesized that selectively inhibiting DPPIV would prolong the circulating life of GLP-2 and lead to increased intestinal adaptation after development of SBS. Methods 8-week old C57BL/6J mice underwent a 50% proximal small bowel resection and were treated with either sitagliptin, a DPPIV-inhibitor (DPPIV-I), starting 1 day before surgery versus placebo. DPPIV-I efficacy was assessed 3 days after resection, including intestinal morphology, EC apoptosis and EC proliferation. Adaptive mechanisms were assessed with quantitative real-time PCR, and plasma bioactive GLP-2 was measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULT Body weight loss and peripheral blood glucose levels did not change compared to SBS controls. DPPIV-I treatment led to significant increases in villus height and crypt depth. DPPIV-I treatment did not significantly change EC apoptosis rates, but significantly increased crypt EC proliferation versus placebo-SBS controls. DPPIV-I treatment markedly increased mRNA expression of β-catenin and c-myc in ileal mucosa. Plasma GLP-2 levels significantly increased(~40.9%) in DPPIV-I-SBS mice. Conclusions DPPIV- I treatment increased SBS adaptation, and may potentially be useful for SBS patients. PMID:21719060

  1. Intestinal development and growth performance of early-weaned piglets fed a low-threonine diet.

    PubMed

    Hamard, A; Sève, B; Le Floc'h, N

    2007-09-01

    High dietary threonine extraction by the digestive tract suggests that threonine contributes to maintain gut integrity. The aims of this study were to investigate the intestine development and the growth performance of early-weaned piglets pair-fed either a control well-balanced (C: 9.3 g threonine/kg diet) or a low-threonine diet (LT: 6.5 g threonine/kg diet) for 2 weeks. As expected, LT piglets presented lower plasma free threonine compared with C piglets (118 v. 356 ± 12