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Sample records for intestinal enzyme acyl

  1. Deficiency of the intestinal enzyme acyl CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 protects mice from metabolic disorders induced by high-fat feeding

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Cheong, Mei-Leng; Grueter, Carrie; Zhou, Ping; Moriwaki, Junya; Wong, Jinny S; Hubbard, Brian; Marmor, Stephen; Farese, Robert V

    2009-01-01

    Animals are remarkably efficient in absorbing dietary fat and assimilating this energy-dense nutrient into the white adipose tissue (WAT) for storage. Although this metabolic efficiency may confer an advantage in times of calorie deprivation, it contributes to obesity and associated metabolic disorders when dietary fat is abundant1,2. Here we show that the intestinal lipid synthesis enzyme acyl CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (MGAT2) has a crucial role in the assimilation of dietary fat and the accretion of body fat in mice. Mice lacking MGAT2 have a normal phenotype on a low-fat diet. However, on a high-fat diet, MGAT2-deficient mice are protected against developing obesity, glucose intolerance, hypercholesterolemia and fatty livers. Caloric intake is normal in MGAT2-deficient mice, and dietary fat is absorbed fully. However, entry of dietary fat into the circulation occurs at a reduced rate. This altered kinetics of fat absorption apparently results in more partitioning of dietary fat toward energy dissipation rather than toward storage in the WAT. Thus, our studies identify MGAT2 as a key determinant of energy metabolism in response to dietary fat and suggest that the inhibition of this enzyme may prove to be a useful strategy for treating obesity and other metabolic diseases associated with excessive fat intake. PMID:19287392

  2. Acylation of Glucagon-Like Peptide-2: Interaction with Lipid Membranes and In Vitro Intestinal Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Trier, Sofie; Linderoth, Lars; Bjerregaard, Simon; Andresen, Thomas Lars; Rahbek, Ulrik Lytt

    2014-01-01

    Background Acylation of peptide drugs with fatty acid chains has proven beneficial for prolonging systemic circulation as well as increasing enzymatic stability without disrupting biological potency. Acylation has furthermore been shown to increase interactions with the lipid membranes of mammalian cells. The extent to which such interactions hinder or benefit delivery of acylated peptide drugs across cellular barriers such as the intestinal epithelia is currently unknown. The present study investigates the effect of acylating peptide drugs from a drug delivery perspective. Purpose We hypothesize that the membrane interaction is an important parameter for intestinal translocation, which may be used to optimize the acylation chain length for intestinal permeation. This work aims to characterize acylated analogues of the intestinotrophic Glucagon-like peptide-2 by systematically increasing acyl chain length, in order to elucidate its influence on membrane interaction and intestinal cell translocation in vitro. Results Peptide self-association and binding to both model lipid and cell membranes was found to increase gradually with acyl chain length, whereas translocation across Caco-2 cells depended non-linearly on chain length. Short and medium acyl chains increased translocation compared to the native peptide, but long chain acylation displayed no improvement in translocation. Co-administration of a paracellular absorption enhancer was found to increase translocation irrespective of acyl chain length, whereas a transcellular enhancer displayed increased synergy with the long chain acylation. Conclusions These results show that membrane interactions play a prominent role during intestinal translocation of an acylated peptide. Acylation benefits permeation for shorter and medium chains due to increased membrane interactions, however, for longer chains insertion in the membrane becomes dominant and hinders translocation, i.e. the peptides get ‘stuck’ in the cell

  3. Acylation of Glucagon-like peptide-2: interaction with lipid membranes and in vitro intestinal permeability.

    PubMed

    Trier, Sofie; Linderoth, Lars; Bjerregaard, Simon; Andresen, Thomas Lars; Rahbek, Ulrik Lytt

    2014-01-01

    Acylation of peptide drugs with fatty acid chains has proven beneficial for prolonging systemic circulation as well as increasing enzymatic stability without disrupting biological potency. Acylation has furthermore been shown to increase interactions with the lipid membranes of mammalian cells. The extent to which such interactions hinder or benefit delivery of acylated peptide drugs across cellular barriers such as the intestinal epithelia is currently unknown. The present study investigates the effect of acylating peptide drugs from a drug delivery perspective. We hypothesize that the membrane interaction is an important parameter for intestinal translocation, which may be used to optimize the acylation chain length for intestinal permeation. This work aims to characterize acylated analogues of the intestinotrophic Glucagon-like peptide-2 by systematically increasing acyl chain length, in order to elucidate its influence on membrane interaction and intestinal cell translocation in vitro. Peptide self-association and binding to both model lipid and cell membranes was found to increase gradually with acyl chain length, whereas translocation across Caco-2 cells depended non-linearly on chain length. Short and medium acyl chains increased translocation compared to the native peptide, but long chain acylation displayed no improvement in translocation. Co-administration of a paracellular absorption enhancer was found to increase translocation irrespective of acyl chain length, whereas a transcellular enhancer displayed increased synergy with the long chain acylation. These results show that membrane interactions play a prominent role during intestinal translocation of an acylated peptide. Acylation benefits permeation for shorter and medium chains due to increased membrane interactions, however, for longer chains insertion in the membrane becomes dominant and hinders translocation, i.e. the peptides get 'stuck' in the cell membrane. Applying a transcellular absorption

  4. Acylation of salmon calcitonin modulates in vitro intestinal peptide flux through membrane permeability enhancement.

    PubMed

    Trier, Sofie; Linderoth, Lars; Bjerregaard, Simon; Strauss, Holger M; Rahbek, Ulrik L; Andresen, Thomas L

    2015-10-01

    Acylation of peptide drugs with fatty acid chains has proven beneficial for prolonging systemic circulation, as well as increasing enzymatic stability and interactions with lipid cell membranes. Thus, acylation offers several potential benefits for oral delivery of therapeutic peptides, and we hypothesize that tailoring the acylation may be used to optimize intestinal translocation. This work aims to characterize acylated analogues of the therapeutic peptide salmon calcitonin (sCT), which lowers blood calcium, by systematically increasing acyl chain length at two positions, in order to elucidate its influence on intestinal cell translocation and membrane interaction. We find that acylation drastically increases in vitro intestinal peptide flux and confers a transient permeability enhancing effect on the cell layer. The analogues permeabilize model lipid membranes, indicating that the effect is due to a solubilization of the cell membrane, similar to transcellular oral permeation enhancers. The effect is dependent on pH, with larger effect at lower pH, and is impacted by acylation chain length and position. Compared to the unacylated peptide backbone, N-terminal acylation with a short chain provides 6- or 9-fold increase in peptide translocation at pH 7.4 and 5.5, respectively. Prolonging the chain length appears to hamper translocation, possibly due to self-association or aggregation, although the long chain acylated analogues remain superior to the unacylated peptide. For K(18)-acylation a short chain provides a moderate improvement, whereas medium and long chain analogues are highly efficient, with a 12-fold increase in permeability compared to the unacylated peptide backbone, on par with currently employed oral permeation enhancers. For K(18)-acylation the medium chain acylation appears to be optimal, as elongating the chain causes greater binding to the cell membrane but similar permeability, and we speculate that increasing the chain length further may

  5. beta-Lactamase proceeds via an acyl-enzyme intermediate. Interaction of the Escherichia coli RTEM enzyme with cefoxitin.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J; Belasco, J G; Khosla, S; Knowles, J R

    1980-06-24

    The use of cefoxitin, a poor substrate of the RTEM beta-lactamase, has allowed the kinetic and spectroscopic characterization of a covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate in the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. The rate of reappearance of catalytic activity in an enzyme sample diluted from an incubation with cefoxitin is nearly identical with the observed Kcat. Burst kinetics are observed with this substrate, consistent with the rate-limiting deacylation of the cefoxitinoyl-enzyme. That the reaction intermediate involves a covalent link between enzyme and substrate was shown by gel filtration after rapid denaturation of an enzyme-[14C]cefoxitin reaction at the steady state. Fourier transform infrared measurements indicate that the intermediate is an acyl-enzyme involving a hydroxyl group of the beta-lactamase. The evident relationship between the acylation-deacylation sequence of the beta-lactamases and the acylation reaction suffered by the D-Ala-D-Ala-carboxypeptidases is discussed.

  6. Genome-level and biochemical diversity of the acyl-activating enzyme superfamily in plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In higher plants, the superfamily of carboxyl-CoA ligases and related proteins, collectively called acyl activating enzymes (AAEs), has evolved to provide enzymes for many pathways of primary and secondary metabolism and for the conjugation of hormones to amino acids. Across the superfamily there is...

  7. Plant fatty acyl reductases: enzymes generating fatty alcohols for protective layers with potential for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Owen; Domergue, Frédéric

    2012-09-01

    Primary fatty alcohols are found throughout the biological world, either in free form or in a combined state. They are common components of plant surface lipids (i.e. cutin, suberin, sporopollenin, and associated waxes) and their absence can significantly perturb these essential barriers. Fatty alcohols and/or derived compounds are also likely to have direct functions in plant biotic and abiotic interactions. An evolutionarily related set of alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases (FARs) is present in all kingdoms of life. Plant microsomal and plastid-associated FAR enzymes have been characterized, acting on acyl-coenzymeA (acyl-CoA) or acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP) substrates, respectively. FARs have distinct substrate specificities both with regard to chain length and chain saturation. Fatty alcohols and wax esters, which are a combination of fatty alcohol and fatty acid, have a variety of commercial applications. The expression of FARs with desired specificities in transgenic microbes or oilseed crops would provide a novel means of obtaining these valuable compounds. In the present review, we report on recent progress in characterizing plant FAR enzymes and in understanding the biological roles of primary fatty alcohols, as well as describe the biotechnological production and industrial uses of fatty alcohols.

  8. Beta-lactamases as fully efficient enzymes. Determination of all the rate constants in the acyl-enzyme mechanism.

    PubMed

    Christensen, H; Martin, M T; Waley, S G

    1990-03-15

    The rate constants for both acylation and deacylation of beta-lactamase PC1 from Staphylococcus aureus and the RTEM beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli were determined by the acid-quench method [Martin & Waley (1988) Biochem. J. 254, 923-925] with several good substrates, and, for a wider range of substrates, of beta-lactamase I from Bacillus cereus. The values of the acylation and deacylation rate constants for benzylpenicillin were approximately the same (i.e. differing by no more than 2-fold) for each enzyme. The variation of kcat./Km for benzylpenicillin with the viscosity of the medium was used to obtain values for all four rate constants in the acyl-enzyme mechanism for all three enzymes. The reaction is partly diffusion-controlled, and the rate constant for the dissociation of the enzyme-substrate complex has approximately the same value as the rate constants for acylation and deacylation. Thus all three first-order rate constants have comparable values. Here there is no single rate-determining step for beta-lactamase action. This is taken to be a sign of a fully efficient enzyme.

  9. Human carbonyl reductase 1 participating in intestinal first-pass drug metabolism is inhibited by fatty acids and acyl-CoAs.

    PubMed

    Hara, Akira; Endo, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Miura, Takeshi; Nishinaka, Toru; Terada, Tomoyuki

    2017-08-15

    Human carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1), a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily, reduces a variety of carbonyl compounds including endogenous isatin, prostaglandin E2 and 4-oxo-2-nonenal. It is also a major non-cytochrome P450 enzyme in the phase I metabolism of carbonyl-containing drugs, and is highly expressed in the intestine. In this study, we found that long-chain fatty acids and their CoA ester derivatives inhibit CBR1. Among saturated fatty acids, myristic, palmitic and stearic acids were inhibitory, and stearic acid was the most potent (IC50 9µM). Unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, elaidic, γ-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acids) and acyl-CoAs (palmitoyl-, stearoyl- and oleoyl-CoAs) were more potent inhibitors (IC50 1.0-2.5µM), and showed high inhibitory selectivity to CBR1 over its isozyme CBR3 and other SDR superfamily enzymes (DCXR and DHRS4) with CBR activity. The inhibition by these fatty acids and acyl-CoAs was competitive with respect to the substrate, showing the Ki values of 0.49-1.2µM. Site-directed mutagenesis of the substrate-binding residues of CBR1 suggested that the interactions between the fatty acyl chain and the enzyme's Met141 and Trp229 are important for the inhibitory selectivity. We also examined CBR1 inhibition by oleic acid in cellular levels: The fatty acid effectively inhibited CBR1-mediated 4-oxo-2-nonenal metabolism in colon cancer DLD1 cells and increased sensitivity to doxorubicin in the drug-resistant gastric cancer MKN45 cells that highly express CBR1. The results suggest a possible new food-drug interaction through inhibition of CBR1-mediated intestinal first-pass drug metabolism by dietary fatty acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Accumulation of acyl-enzyme in DD-peptidase-catalysed reactions with analogues of peptide substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Jamin, M; Adam, M; Damblon, C; Christiaens, L; Frère, J M

    1991-01-01

    Thioester substrates can be used to study the hydrolysis and transfer reactions catalysed by beta-lactamases and DD-peptidases. With the latter enzymes, accumulation of the acyl-enzyme can be detected directly. The efficiency of various amines as acceptor substrates was in excellent agreement with previous results obtained with peptide substrates of the DD-peptidases. The results indicated the presence of a specific binding site for the acceptor substrates. Although most of the results agreed well with a simple partition model, more elaborate hypotheses will be needed to account for all the data presented. PMID:1747125

  11. Control of Lipid Synthesis during Soybean Seed Development: Enzymic and Immunochemical Assay of Acyl Carrier Protein.

    PubMed

    Ohlrogge, J B; Kuo, T M

    1984-03-01

    During soybean seed (Glycine max, var Am Soy 71) development, the rate of lipid biosynthesis per seed increases greatly. As the seed reaches maturity, lipid synthesis declines. To study the controls over the oil synthesis and storage process, we have chosen acyl carrier protein (ACP) as a representative marker for the fatty acid synthetase pathway. We have quantitated soybean ACP levels by both enzymic and immunochemical methods. Escherichia coli acyl-ACP synthetase was used as an assay for enzymically active ACP. Total ACP protein was determined by immunoassay using antibodies prepared in rabbits against spinach ACP. These antibody preparations also bind ACP isolated from soybeans, allowing development of a radioimmunoassay based on competition with [(3)H]palmitoyl-ACP. The enzymic and immunochemical measurement of ACP at various stages of seed development have indicated that ACP activity and ACP antigen increase markedly in correlation with the in vivo increase in lipid synthesis. These results indicate that a major control over the increase in lipid synthesis arises through regulation of the levels of the fatty acid biosynthetic proteins. However, as the seed reaches maturity and lipid biosynthesis declines, ACP per seed remains relatively high. In the mature seed, we found that more than 95% of the ACP is localized in the cotyledons, less than 5% is in the axis, and less than 1% is in the seed coat.

  12. Enhanced production of polyunsaturated fatty acids by enzyme engineering of tandem acyl carrier proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Shohei; Satoh, Yasuharu; Ujihara, Tetsuro; Takata, Yusuke; Dairi, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    In some microorganisms, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are biosynthesized by PUFA synthases characterized by tandem acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) in subunit A. These ACPs were previously shown to be important for PUFA productivity. In this study, we examined their function in more detail. PUFA productivities increased depending on the number of ACPs without profile changes in each subunit A of eukaryotic and prokaryotic PUFA synthases. We also constructed derivative enzymes from subunit A with 5 × ACPs. Enzymes possessing one inactive ACP at any position produced ~30% PUFAs compared with the parental enzyme but unexpectedly had ~250% productivity compared with subunit A with 4 × ACPs. Enzymes constructed by replacing the 3rd ACP with an inactive ACP from another subunit A or ACP-unrelated sequences produced ~100% and ~3% PUFAs compared with the parental 3rd ACP-inactive enzyme, respectively. These results suggest that both the structure and number of ACP domains are important for PUFA productivity. PMID:27752094

  13. Aldehyde-forming fatty acyl-CoA reductase from cyanobacteria: expression, purification and characterization of the recombinant enzyme.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fengming; Das, Debasis; Lin, Xiaoxia N; Marsh, E Neil G

    2013-10-01

    Long-chain acyl-CoA reductases (ACRs) catalyze a key step in the biosynthesis of hydrocarbon waxes. As such they are attractive as components in engineered metabolic pathways for 'drop in' biofuels. Most ACR enzymes are integral membrane proteins, but a cytosolic ACR was recently discovered in cyanobacteria. The ACR from Synechococcus elongatus was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized. The enzyme was specific for NADPH and catalyzed the reduction of fatty acyl-CoA esters to the corresponding aldehydes, rather than alcohols. Stearoyl-CoA was the most effective substrate, being reduced more rapidly than either longer or shorter chain acyl-CoAs. ACR required divalent metal ions, e.g. Mg(2+), for activity and was stimulated ~ 10-fold by K(+). The enzyme was inactivated by iodoacetamide and was acylated on incubation with stearoyl-CoA, suggesting that reduction occurs through an enzyme-thioester intermediate. Consistent with this, steady state kinetic analysis indicates that the enzyme operates by a 'ping-pong' mechanism with kcat = 0.36 ± 0.023 min(-1), K(m)(stearoyl-CoA) = 31.9 ± 4.2 μM and K(m)(NADPH) = 35.6 ± 4.9 μM. The slow turnover number measured for ACR poses a challenge for its use in biofuel applications where highly efficient enzymes are needed. © 2013 FEBS.

  14. Modulating effects of acyl-CoA synthetase 5-derived mitochondrial Wnt2B palmitoylation on intestinal Wnt activity

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Christina; Schneider, Ursula; Hedberg, Christian; Schütz, Anke K; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Waldmann, Herbert; Gassler, Nikolaus; Kaemmerer, Elke

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of acyl-CoA synthetase 5 (ACSL5) activity in Wnt signaling in intestinal surface epithelia. METHODS: Several cell lines were used to investigate the ACSL5-dependent expression and synthesis of Wnt2B, a mitochondrially expressed protein of the Wnt signaling family. Wnt activity was functionally assessed with a luciferase reporter assay. ACSL5-related biochemical Wnt2B modifications were investigated with a modified acyl-exchange assay. The findings from the cell culture models were verified using an Apcmin/+ mouse model as well as normal and neoplastic diseased human intestinal tissues. RESULTS: In the presence of ACSL5, Wnt2B was unable to translocate into the nucleus and was enriched in mitochondria, which was paralleled by a significant decrease in Wnt activity. ACSL5-dependent S-palmitoylation of Wnt2B was identified as a molecular reason for mitochondrial Wnt2B accumulation. In cell culture systems, a strong relation of ACSL5 expression, Wnt2B palmitoylation, and degree of malignancy were found. Using normal mucosa, the association of ACSL5 and Wnt2B was seen, but in intestinal neoplasias the mechanism was only rudimentarily observed. CONCLUSION: ACSL5 mediates antiproliferative activities via Wnt2B palmitoylation with diminished Wnt activity. The molecular pathway is probably relevant for intestinal homeostasis, overwhelmed by other pathways in carcinogenesis. PMID:25356045

  15. Intrinsic evolutionary constraints on protease structure, enzyme acylation, and the identity of the catalytic triad

    PubMed Central

    Buller, Andrew R.; Townsend, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    The study of proteolysis lies at the heart of our understanding of biocatalysis, enzyme evolution, and drug development. To understand the degree of natural variation in protease active sites, we systematically evaluated simple active site features from all serine, cysteine and threonine proteases of independent lineage. This convergent evolutionary analysis revealed several interrelated and previously unrecognized relationships. The reactive rotamer of the nucleophile determines which neighboring amide can be used in the local oxyanion hole. Each rotamer–oxyanion hole combination limits the location of the moiety facilitating proton transfer and, combined together, fixes the stereochemistry of catalysis. All proteases that use an acyl-enzyme mechanism naturally divide into two classes according to which face of the peptide substrate is attacked during catalysis. We show that each class is subject to unique structural constraints that have governed the convergent evolution of enzyme structure. Using this framework, we show that the γ-methyl of Thr causes an intrinsic steric clash that precludes its use as the nucleophile in the traditional catalytic triad. This constraint is released upon autoproteolysis and we propose a molecular basis for the increased enzymatic efficiency introduced by the γ-methyl of Thr. Finally, we identify several classes of natural products whose mode of action is sensitive to the division according to the face of attack identified here. This analysis of protease structure and function unifies 50 y of biocatalysis research, providing a framework for the continued study of enzyme evolution and the development of inhibitors with increased selectivity. PMID:23382230

  16. Genome-level and biochemical diversity of the acyl-activating enzyme superfamily in plants.

    PubMed

    Shockey, Jay; Browse, John

    2011-04-01

    In higher plants, the superfamily of carboxyl-CoA ligases and related proteins, collectively called acyl activating enzymes (AAEs), has evolved to provide enzymes for many pathways of primary and secondary metabolism and for the conjugation of hormones to amino acids. Across the superfamily there is only limited sequence similarity, but a series of highly conserved motifs, including the AMP-binding domain, make it easy to identify members. These conserved motifs are best understood in terms of the unique domain-rotation architecture that allows AAE enzymes to catalyze the two distinct steps of the CoA ligase reaction. Arabidopsis AAE sequences were used to identify the AAE gene families in the sequenced genomes of green algae, mosses, and trees; the size of the respective families increased with increasing degree of organismal cellular complexity, size, and generation time. Large-scale genome duplications and small-scale tandem gene duplications have contributed to AAE gene family complexity to differing extents in each of the multicellular species analyzed. Gene duplication and evolution of novel functions in Arabidopsis appears to have occurred rapidly, because acquisition of new substrate specificity is relatively easy in this class of proteins. Convergent evolution has also occurred between members of distantly related clades. These features of the AAE superfamily make it difficult to use homology searches and other genomics tools to predict enzyme function. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

  17. [Intestinal resorption with 3H labeled enzyme mixture (wobenzyme)].

    PubMed

    Steffen, C; Menzel, J; Smolen, J

    1979-01-01

    0.2 g of an enzyme mixture (Wobenzym) labelled with 3H-acetic anhydride, were given orally to guinea pigs, which were arranged in 4 groups of 5 animals. The animals of each group were sacrificed at intervals of 30 minutes, 2, 4 and 24 hours after application. Radioactivity of the small and large intestine, plasma, urine, liver, heart, kidney, and skeletal muscle were determined. It could be shown that the labelled mixture of enzymes was absorbed from the intestine and was demonstrable in significant amounts in plasma, urine, heart, kidney, liver and skeletal muscle.

  18. Theoretical approach to the steady-state kinetics of a bi-substrate acyl-transfer enzyme reaction that follows a hydrolysable-acyl-enzyme-based mechanism. Application to the study of lysophosphatidylcholine:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase from rabbit lung.

    PubMed Central

    Martín, J; Pérez-Gil, J; Acebal, C; Arche, R

    1990-01-01

    A kinetic model is proposed for catalysis by an enzyme that has several special characteristics: (i) it catalyses an acyl-transfer bi-substrate reaction between two identical molecules of substrate, (ii) the substrate is an amphiphilic molecule that can be present in two physical forms, namely monomers and micelles, and (iii) the reaction progresses through an acyl-enzyme-based mechanism and the covalent intermediate can react also with water to yield a secondary hydrolytic reaction. The theoretical kinetic equations for both reactions were deduced according to steady-state assumptions and the theoretical plots were predicted. The experimental kinetics of lysophosphatidylcholine:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase from rabbit lung fitted the proposed equations with great accuracy. Also, kinetics of inhibition by products behaved as expected. It was concluded that the competition between two nucleophiles for the covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate, and not a different enzyme action depending on the physical state of the substrate, is responsible for the differences in kinetic pattern for the two activities of the enzyme. This conclusion, together with the fact that the kinetic equation for the transacylation is quadratic, generates a 'hysteretic' pattern that can provide the basis of self-regulatory properties for enzymes to which this model could be applied. PMID:2310381

  19. Carbapenems and SHV-1 β-Lactamase Form Different Acyl-Enzyme Populations in Crystals and Solution

    PubMed Central

    Kalp, Matthew; Carey, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    The reactions between single crystals of the SHV-1 β-lactamase enzyme and the carbapenems, meropenem, imipenem and ertapenem, have been studied by Raman microscopy. Aided by quantum mechanical calculations, major populations of two acyl-enzyme species, a labile Δ2-pyrroline and a more tightly bound Δ1-pyrroline, have been identified for all three compounds. These isomers differ only in the position of the double bond about the carbapenem nucleus. This discovery is consonant with X-ray crystallographic findings that also identified two populations for meropenem bound in SHV-1: one with the acyl C=O group in the oxyanion hole and the second with the acyl group rotated 180 degrees compared to its expected position [Nukaga, M., Bethel, C. R., Thomson, J. M., Hujer, A. M., Distler, A. M., Anderson, V. E., Knox, J. R., and Bonomo, R. A. (2008) Journal of the American Chemical Society]. When crystals of the Δ1 and Δ2 containing acyl-enzymes were exposed to solutions with no carbapenem, rapid deacylation of the Δ2 species was observed by kinetic Raman experiments. However, no change in the Δ1 population was observed over 1 hour, the effective lifetime of the crystal. These observations lead to the hypothesis that the stable Δ1 species is due to the form seen by X-ray with the acyl carbonyl outside the oxyanion hole, while the Δ2 species corresponds to the form with the carbonyl inside the oxyanion hole. Soak-in and soak-out Raman experiments also demonstrated that tautomeric exchange between the Δ1 and Δ2 forms does not occur on the crystalline enzyme. When meropenem or ertapenem were reacted with SHV-1 in solution, the Raman difference spectra demonstrated that only a major population corresponding to the Δ1 acyl-enzyme could be detected. The 1003 cm-1 mode of the phenyl ring positioned on the C3 side chain of ertapenem acts as an effective internal Raman intensity standard and the ratio of its intensity to that of the 1600 cm-1 feature of Δ1 provides an

  20. Role of intestinal cytochrome p450 enzymes in diclofenac-induced toxicity in the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yi; Zhang, Qing-Yu

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of small intestinal (SI) cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes in the metabolic activation of diclofenac (DCF), a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and DCF-induced intestinal toxicity. DCF induces intestinal ulcers in humans and mice, but the underlying mechanisms, including the necessity for drug bioactivation in the target tissues and the sources and identities of reactive intermediates, are not fully understood. We found that the number of DCF-induced (at 50 mg/kg p.o.) intestinal ulcers was significantly smaller in an intestinal epithelium (IE)-specific P450 reductase (CPR) knockout (IE-Cpr-null) mouse model, which has little P450 activity in the IE, than in wild-type (WT) mice, determined at 14 h after DCF administration. The involvement of intestinal P450 enzymes was confirmed by large reductions (>80-90%) in the rates of in vitro formation, in SI microsomal reactions, of hydroxylated DCF metabolites and reactive intermediates, trapped as DCF-glutathione (GSH) conjugates, in the IE-Cpr-null, compared with WT mice. The SI levels of DCF-GSH conjugates (at 4 h after dosing) and DCF-protein adducts (at 14 h after dosing) were significantly lower in IE-Cpr-null than in WT mice. In additional experiments, we found that pretreatment of mice with grapefruit juice, which is known to inhibit SI P450 activity, ameliorated DCF-induced intestinal toxicity in WT mice. Our results not only strongly support the notion that SI P450 enzymes play an important role in DCF-induced intestinal toxicity, but also illustrate the possibility of preventing DCF-induced intestinal toxicity through dietary intervention.

  1. Synthesis of acylated methyl beta-D-xylopyranosides and their enzymic deacylations by rabbit serum esterases.

    PubMed

    Petrović, V; Tomić, S; Ljevaković, D; Tomasić, J

    1997-07-11

    Selective pivaloylations of methyl beta-D-xylopyranoside have been studied under various reaction conditions. Partially pivaloylated products were submitted to additional acetylations. The structures were established by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Representatives of acylated methyl beta-D-xylopyranosides (acyl being pivaloyl, acetyl, or a combination of both) were submitted to hydrolysis catalyzed by rabbit serum and esterases isolated from rabbit serum.

  2. β-Lactamase Inhibition by 7-Alkylidenecephalosporin Sulfones: Allylic Transposition and Formation of an Unprecedented Stabilized Acyl-Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Rodkey, Elizabeth A.; McLeod, David C.; Bethel, Christopher R.; Smith, Kerri M.; Xu, Yan; Chai, Weirui; Che, Tao; Carey, Paul R.; Bonomo, Robert A.; van den Akker, Focco; Buynak, John D.

    2014-01-01

    The inhibition of the class A SHV-1 β-lactamase by 7-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)methylidenecephalosporin sulfone was examined kinetically, spectroscopically, and crystallographically. An 1.14Å X-ray crystal structure shows that the stable acyl-enzyme, which incorporates an eight-membered ring, is a covalent derivative of Ser70 linked to the 7-carboxy group of 2-H-5,8-dihydro-1,1-dioxo-1,5-thiazocine-4,7-dicarboxylic acid. A cephalosporin-derived enzyme complex of this type is unprecedented and the rearrangement leading to its formation may offer new possibilities for inhibitor design. The observed acyl-enzyme derives its stability from the resonance stabilization conveyed by the β-aminoacrylate (i.e. vinylogous urethane) functionality as there is relatively little interaction of the eight-membered ring with active site residues. Two mechanistic schemes are proposed, differing in whether, subsequent to acylation of the active site serine and opening of the β-lactam, the resultant dihydrothiazine fragments on its own, or is assisted by an adjacent nucleophilic atom, in the form of the carbonyl oxygen of the C7 tert-butyloxycarbonyl group. This compound was also found to be a submicromolar inhibitor of the class C ADC-7 and PDC-3 β-lactamases. PMID:24219313

  3. Efficient catalysis by beta-lactamase from Staphylococcus aureus PC1 accompanied by accumulation of an acyl-enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Qi, X; Virden, R

    1996-01-01

    The pH- and temperature-dependence of steady-state kinetic parameters for 6-beta-(2-furyl)-acryloylamido-penicillanic acid showed it to be a good substrate of staphylococcal PC1 beta-lactamase, and the viscosity-dependence of K(m)/k(cat) indicated that steps up to the formation of the acyl-enzyme were partially diffusion-limited. In the pH range 4-9, a pre-steady-state transient blue shift in the UV absorption spectrum of the bound furyl-acryloylamido chromophore was of constant amplitude and decayed to the spectrum of the product with a first-order rate constant equal to k(cat). The spectrum of the isolated denatured acyl-enzyme was similar to that of the methyl ester of furyl-acryloylpenicilloic acid, pointing to non-covalent interactions with the folded protein, possibly associated with the charge on Glu-166, as the source of the blue-shifted spectrum. Taken together, these results point to a rapid acylation and slower deacylation at Ser-70 and imply that ionization of groups affecting enzyme activity at alkaline pH, for which likely candidates are Lys-73 and Lys-234, affect the rate of deacylation. PMID:8615826

  4. Systematic Analysis of Mycobacterial Acylation Reveals First Example of Acylation-mediated Regulation of Enzyme Activity of a Bacterial Phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Anshika; Arora, Gunjan; Virmani, Richa; Kundu, Parijat; Khanna, Tanya; Sajid, Andaleeb; Misra, Richa; Joshi, Jayadev; Yadav, Vikas; Samanta, Sintu; Saini, Neeru; Pandey, Amit K; Visweswariah, Sandhya S; Hentschker, Christian; Becher, Dörte; Gerth, Ulf; Singh, Yogendra

    2015-10-23

    Protein lysine acetylation is known to regulate multiple aspects of bacterial metabolism. However, its presence in mycobacterial signal transduction and virulence-associated proteins has not been studied. In this study, analysis of mycobacterial proteins from different cellular fractions indicated dynamic and widespread occurrence of lysine acetylation. Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins regulating diverse physiological processes were then selected and expressed in the surrogate host Mycobacterium smegmatis. The purified proteins were analyzed for the presence of lysine acetylation, leading to the identification of 24 acetylated proteins. In addition, novel lysine succinylation and propionylation events were found to co-occur with acetylation on several proteins. Protein-tyrosine phosphatase B (PtpB), a secretory phosphatase that regulates phosphorylation of host proteins and plays a critical role in Mycobacterium infection, is modified by acetylation and succinylation at Lys-224. This residue is situated in a lid region that covers the enzyme's active site. Consequently, acetylation and succinylation negatively regulate the activity of PtpB.

  5. Molecular structure of the acyl-enzyme intermediate in beta-lactam hydrolysis at 1.7 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Strynadka, N C; Adachi, H; Jensen, S E; Johns, K; Sielecki, A; Betzel, C; Sutoh, K; James, M N

    1992-10-22

    The X-ray crystal structure of the molecular complex of penicillin G with a deacylation-defective mutant of the RTEM-1 beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli shows how these antibiotics are recognized and destroyed. Penicillin G is covalently bound to Ser 70 0 gamma as an acyl-enzyme intermediate. The deduced catalytic mechanism uses Ser 70 0 gamma as the attacking nucleophile during acylation. Lys 73 N zeta acts as a general base in abstracting a proton from Ser 70 and transferring it to the thiazolidine ring nitrogen atom via Ser 130 0 gamma. Deacylation is accomplished by nucleophilic attack on the penicilloyl carbonyl carbon by a water molecule assisted by the general base, Glu 166.

  6. Anatomy of the β-branching enzyme of polyketide biosynthesis and its interaction with an acyl-ACP substrate

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Finn P.; Gerwick, Lena; Gerwick, William H.; Sherman, David H.; Smith, Janet L.

    2016-01-01

    Alkyl branching at the β position of a polyketide intermediate is an important variation on canonical polyketide natural product biosynthesis. The branching enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl synthase (HMGS), catalyzes the aldol addition of an acyl donor to a β-keto-polyketide intermediate acceptor. HMGS is highly selective for two specialized acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) that deliver the donor and acceptor substrates. The HMGS from the curacin A biosynthetic pathway (CurD) was examined to establish the basis for ACP selectivity. The donor ACP (CurB) had high affinity for the enzyme (Kd = 0.5 μM) and could not be substituted by the acceptor ACP. High-resolution crystal structures of HMGS alone and in complex with its donor ACP reveal a tight interaction that depends on exquisite surface shape and charge complementarity between the proteins. Selectivity is explained by HMGS binding to an unusual surface cleft on the donor ACP, in a manner that would exclude the acceptor ACP. Within the active site, HMGS discriminates between pre- and postreaction states of the donor ACP. The free phosphopantetheine (Ppant) cofactor of ACP occupies a conserved pocket that excludes the acetyl-Ppant substrate. In comparison with HMG-CoA (CoA) synthase, the homologous enzyme from primary metabolism, HMGS has several differences at the active site entrance, including a flexible-loop insertion, which may account for the specificity of one enzyme for substrates delivered by ACP and the other by CoA. PMID:27573844

  7. Deacylation Mechanism and Kinetics of Acyl-Enzyme Complex of Class C β-Lactamase and Cephalothin.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Ravi; Nair, Nisanth N

    2016-03-17

    Understanding the molecular details of antibiotic resistance by the bacterial enzymes β-lactamases is vital for the development of novel antibiotics and inhibitors. In this spirit, the detailed mechanism of deacylation of the acyl-enzyme complex formed by cephalothin and class C β-lactamase is investigated here using hybrid quantum-mechanical/molecular-mechanical molecular dynamics methods. The roles of various active-site residues and substrate in the deacylation reaction are elucidated. We identify the base that activates the hydrolyzing water molecule and the residue that protonates the catalytic serine (Ser64). Conformational changes in the active sites and proton transfers that potentiate the efficiency of the deacylation reaction are presented. We have also characterized the oxyanion holes and other H-bonding interactions that stabilize the reaction intermediates. Together with the kinetic and mechanistic details of the acylation reaction, we analyze the complete mechanism and the overall kinetics of the drug hydrolysis. Finally, the apparent rate-determining step in the drug hydrolysis is scrutinized.

  8. A peroxisomally localized acyl-activating enzyme is required for volatile benzenoid formation in a Petuniaxhybrida cv. 'Mitchell Diploid' flower.

    PubMed

    Colquhoun, Thomas A; Marciniak, Danielle M; Wedde, Ashlyn E; Kim, Joo Young; Schwieterman, Michael L; Levin, Laura A; Van Moerkercke, Alex; Schuurink, Robert C; Clark, David G

    2012-08-01

    Floral volatile benzenoid/phenylpropanoid (FVBP) biosynthesis is a complex and coordinate cellular process executed by petal limb cells of a Petunia×hybrida cv. 'Mitchell Diploid' (MD) plant. In MD flowers, the majority of benzenoid volatile compounds are derived from a core phenylpropanoid pathway intermediate by a coenzyme A (CoA) dependent, β-oxidative scheme. Metabolic flux analysis, reverse genetics, and biochemical characterizations of key enzymes in this pathway have supported this putative concept. However, the theoretical first enzymatic reaction, which leads to the production of cinnamoyl-CoA, has only been physically demonstrated in a select number of bacteria like Streptomyces maritimus through mutagenesis and recombinant protein production. A transcript has been cloned and characterized from MD flowers that shares high homology with an Arabidopsis thaliana transcript ACYL-ACTIVATING ENZYME11 (AtAAE11) and the S. maritimus ACYL-COA:LIGASE (SmEncH). In MD, the PhAAE transcript accumulates in a very similar manner as bona fide FVBP network genes, i.e. high levels in an open flower petal and ethylene regulated. In planta, PhAAE is localized to the peroxisome. Upon reduction of PhAAE transcript through a stable RNAi approach, transgenic flowers emitted a reduced level of all benzenoid volatile compounds. Together, the data suggest that PhAAE may be responsible for the activation of t-cinnamic acid, which would be required for floral volatile benzenoid production in MD.

  9. Enzyme Mechanism and Slow-Onset Inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase by an Inorganic Complex

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros, Patrícia Soares de Maria; Ducati, Rodrigo Gay; Basso, Luiz Augusto; Santos, Diógenes Santiago; da Silva, Luiz Hildebrando Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Malaria continues to be a major cause of children's morbidity and mortality worldwide, causing nearly one million deaths annually. The human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, synthesizes fatty acids employing the Type II fatty acid biosynthesis system (FAS II), unlike humans that rely on the Type I (FAS I) pathway. The FAS II system elongates acyl fatty acid precursors of the cell membrane in Plasmodium. Enoyl reductase (ENR) enzyme is a member of the FAS II system. Here we present steady-state kinetics, pre-steady-state kinetics, and equilibrium fluorescence spectroscopy data that allowed proposal of P. falciparum ENR (PfENR) enzyme mechanism. Moreover, building on previous results, the present study also evaluates the PfENR inhibition by the pentacyano(isoniazid)ferrateII compound. This inorganic complex represents a new class of lead compounds for the development of antimalarial agents focused on the inhibition of PfENR. PMID:21603269

  10. Enzyme Mechanism and Slow-Onset Inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase by an Inorganic Complex.

    PubMed

    de Medeiros, Patrícia Soares de Maria; Ducati, Rodrigo Gay; Basso, Luiz Augusto; Santos, Diógenes Santiago; da Silva, Luiz Hildebrando Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Malaria continues to be a major cause of children's morbidity and mortality worldwide, causing nearly one million deaths annually. The human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, synthesizes fatty acids employing the Type II fatty acid biosynthesis system (FAS II), unlike humans that rely on the Type I (FAS I) pathway. The FAS II system elongates acyl fatty acid precursors of the cell membrane in Plasmodium. Enoyl reductase (ENR) enzyme is a member of the FAS II system. Here we present steady-state kinetics, pre-steady-state kinetics, and equilibrium fluorescence spectroscopy data that allowed proposal of P. falciparum ENR (PfENR) enzyme mechanism. Moreover, building on previous results, the present study also evaluates the PfENR inhibition by the pentacyano(isoniazid)ferrateII compound. This inorganic complex represents a new class of lead compounds for the development of antimalarial agents focused on the inhibition of PfENR.

  11. Site-directed mutants, at position 166, of RTEM-1 beta-lactamase that form a stable acyl-enzyme intermediate with penicillin.

    PubMed

    Adachi, H; Ohta, T; Matsuzawa, H

    1991-02-15

    Class A beta-lactamases are known to hydrolyze substrates through a Ser70-linked acyl-enzyme intermediate, although the detailed mechanism remains unknown. On the basis of the tertiary structure of the active site, the role of Glu166 of class A enzymes was investigated by replacing the residue in RTEM-1 beta-lactamase with Ala, Asp, Gln, or Asn. All the mutants, in contrast to the wild-type, accumulated a covalent complex with benzylpenicillin which corresponds to an acyl-enzyme intermediate. For the Asp mutant, the complex decayed slowly and the hydrolytic activity was slightly retained both in vivo and in vitro. In contrast, the other mutants lost the hydrolytic activity completely and their complexes were stable. These results indicate that the side-chain carboxylate of Glu166 acts as a special catalyst for deacylation. Residues for deacylation have not been identified in other acyl enzymes, such as serine proteases and class C beta-lactamases. Furthermore, the acyl-enzyme intermediates obtained are so stable that they are considered to be ideal materials for crystallographic studies for elucidating the catalytic mechanism in more detail. In addition, the mutants can more easily form inclusion bodies than the wild-type, when they are produced in a large amount, suggesting that the residue also plays an important role in proper folding of the enzyme.

  12. Active-Site Protonation States in an Acyl-Enzyme Intermediate of a Class A β-Lactamase with a Monobactam Substrate

    DOE PAGES

    Cooper, Jonathan B.; Weiss, Kevin L.; Coates, Leighton; ...

    2016-10-24

    The monobactam antibiotic aztreonam is used to treat cystic fibrosis patients with chronic pulmonary infections colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains expressing CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases. Several active site residues in class A β-lactamases have been proposed to play key roles in monobactam hydrolysis. The protonation states of these residues have been determined previously for the apo form of a CTX-M β-lactamase. However, they have not yet been determined for a monobactam acyl-enzyme intermediate. Here we used neutron and high-resolution X-ray crystallography to probe the mechanism by which CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases hydrolyze monobactam antibiotics. In these first reported structures of a classmore » A β-lactamase in acyl enzyme complex with aztreonam we directly observed most of the hydrogen atoms (as deuterium) within the active site in the captured acyl-enzyme state between Toho-1 β-lactamase and aztreonam. Although Lys 234 is fully protonated in the acyl-intermediate, we find that Lys 73 is neutral. These findings are consistent with Lys 73 being able to serve as a general base during the acylation part of the catalytic mechanism, in agreement with previous mechanistic proposals.« less

  13. Active-Site Protonation States in an Acyl-Enzyme Intermediate of a Class A β-Lactamase with a Monobactam Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Jonathan B.; Weiss, Kevin L.; Coates, Leighton; Parks, Jerry M.; Vandavasi, Venu Gopal

    2016-10-24

    The monobactam antibiotic aztreonam is used to treat cystic fibrosis patients with chronic pulmonary infections colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains expressing CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases. Several active site residues in class A β-lactamases have been proposed to play key roles in monobactam hydrolysis. The protonation states of these residues have been determined previously for the apo form of a CTX-M β-lactamase. However, they have not yet been determined for a monobactam acyl-enzyme intermediate. Here we used neutron and high-resolution X-ray crystallography to probe the mechanism by which CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases hydrolyze monobactam antibiotics. In these first reported structures of a class A β-lactamase in acyl enzyme complex with aztreonam we directly observed most of the hydrogen atoms (as deuterium) within the active site in the captured acyl-enzyme state between Toho-1 β-lactamase and aztreonam. Although Lys 234 is fully protonated in the acyl-intermediate, we find that Lys 73 is neutral. These findings are consistent with Lys 73 being able to serve as a general base during the acylation part of the catalytic mechanism, in agreement with previous mechanistic proposals.

  14. Hydrogen-bonding in 2-aminobenzoyl-alpha-chymotrypsin formed by acylation of the enzyme with isatoic anhydride: IR and mass spectroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Goodall, Jonathan J; Booth, Victoria K; Ashcroft, Alison E; Wharton, Christopher W

    2002-01-04

    The acyl-enzyme formed upon acylation of alpha-chymotrypsin with isatoic anhydride has been characterised by infrared spectroscopy. Acylation at pH 7 to yield the 2-aminobenzoyl-enzyme is rapid (k = 5.57x 10(-2)s(-1)), while deacylation is much slower (k =3.7 x 10(-5)10(-2) (s-). The [1C=O]-labelled form of isatoic anhydride has been synthesised, to allow construction of [72C=O]- minus [13C=O]difference spectra; these highlight the carbonyl absorbance of the ligand and eliminate spectral effects that arise from protein perturbation. The ester carbonyl band of the acyl-enzyme absorbs at a wavenumber of 1695cm(-1) and has been shown by deconvolution analysis to represent a single, well-defined conformation. Model studies of ethyl 2-aminobenzoate in a range of solvents show that its carbonyl group is in a hexane-like environment (that is, very nonpolar). It is proposed that the low wavenumber of the carbonyl absorbance arises from the presence of an internal hydrogen bond between the 2-amino group and the ester carbonyl oxygen; this leads to polarisation of the carbonyl group both in the enzyme and in nonpolar solvents. However, in view of the slow deacylation, it is clear that the acyl group is in a nonproductive conformation, with no interaction with the oxyanion hole, and that deacylation occurs from this form or from a minor, invisible form. The infrared data have been supported by kinetic electrospray mass spectroscopic measurements, which demonstrate that the acyl-enzyme is that previously anticipated, and by molecular modelling of 2-aminobenzoyl-alpha-chymotrypsin. It is concluded from pH-dependence measurements that general base catalysis by the 2-amino group is not involved in deacylation.

  15. Genome scale prediction of substrate specificity for acyl adenylate superfamily of enzymes based on active site residue profiles.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Pankaj; Gokhale, Rajesh S; Mohanty, Debasisa

    2010-01-27

    Enzymes belonging to acyl:CoA synthetase (ACS) superfamily activate wide variety of substrates and play major role in increasing the structural and functional diversity of various secondary metabolites in microbes and plants. However, due to the large sequence divergence within the superfamily, it is difficult to predict their substrate preference by annotation transfer from the closest homolog. Therefore, a large number of ACS sequences present in public databases lack any functional annotation at the level of substrate specificity. Recently, several examples have been reported where the enzymes showing high sequence similarity to luciferases or coumarate:CoA ligases have been surprisingly found to activate fatty acyl substrates in experimental studies. In this work, we have investigated the relationship between the substrate specificity of ACS and their sequence/structural features, and developed a novel computational protocol for in silico assignment of substrate preference. We have used a knowledge-based approach which involves compilation of substrate specificity information for various experimentally characterized ACS and derivation of profile HMMs for each subfamily. These HMM profiles can accurately differentiate probable cognate substrates from non-cognate possibilities with high specificity (Sp) and sensitivity (Sn) (Sn = 0.91-1.0, Sp = 0.96-1.0) values. Using homologous crystal structures, we identified a limited number of contact residues crucial for substrate recognition i.e. specificity determining residues (SDRs). Patterns of SDRs from different subfamilies have been used to derive predictive rules for correlating them to substrate preference. The power of the SDR approach has been demonstrated by correct prediction of substrates for enzymes which show apparently anomalous substrate preference. Furthermore, molecular modeling of the substrates in the active site has been carried out to understand the structural basis of substrate selection. A web

  16. Epoxomicin and Eponemycin Biosynthesis Involves gem-Dimethylation and an Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase-Like Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Zettler, Judith; Zubeil, Florian; Kulik, Andreas; Grond, Stephanie; Kaysser, Leonard

    2016-05-03

    The α',β'-epoxyketone moiety of proteasome inhibitors confers high binding specificity to the N-terminal threonine in catalytic proteasome β-subunits. We recently identified the epoxomicin and eponemycin biosynthetic gene clusters and have now conducted isotope-enriched precursor feeding studies and comprehensive gene deletion experiments to shed further light on their biosynthetic pathways. Leucine and two methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine were readily incorporated into the epoxyketone warhead, suggesting decarboxylation of the thioester intermediate. Formation of the α',β'-epoxyketone is likely mediated by conserved acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-like enzymes, as indicated by complete loss of epoxomicin and eponemycin production in the respective knockout mutants. Our results clarify crucial questions in the formation of epoxyketone compounds and lay the foundation for in vitro biochemical studies on the biosynthesis of this pharmaceutically important class of proteasome inhibitors.

  17. Immunodepletion experiments suggest that acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) protein plays a major catalytic role in adult human liver, adrenal gland, macrophages, and kidney, but not in intestines.

    PubMed

    Lee, O; Chang, C C; Lee, W; Chang, T Y

    1998-08-01

    The first acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) cDNA cloned and expressed in 1993 is designated as ACAT-1. In various human tissue homogenates, ACAT-1 protein is effectively solubilized with retention of enzymatic activity by the detergent CHAPS along with high salt. After using anti-ACAT-1 antibodies to quantitatively remove ACAT-1 protein from the solubilized enzyme, measuring the residual ACAT activity remaining in the immunodepleted supernatants allows us to assess the functional significance of ACAT-1 protein in various human tissues. The results showed that ACAT activity was immunodepleted 90% in liver (83% in hepatocytes), 98% in adrenal gland, 91% in macrophages, 80% in kidney, and 19% in intestines, suggesting that ACAT-1 protein plays a major catalytic role in all of the human tissue/cell homogenates examined except intestines. Intestinal ACAT activity is largely resistant to immunodepletion and is much more sensitive to inhibition by the ACAT inhibitor Dup 128 than liver ACAT activity.

  18. Characterization of a fatty acyl-CoA reductase from Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8: a bacterial enzyme catalyzing the reduction of fatty acyl-CoA to fatty alcohol.

    PubMed

    Willis, Robert M; Wahlen, Bradley D; Seefeldt, Lance C; Barney, Brett M

    2011-12-06

    Fatty alcohols are of interest as a renewable feedstock to replace petroleum compounds used as fuels, in cosmetics, and in pharmaceuticals. One biological approach to the production of fatty alcohols involves the sequential action of two bacterial enzymes: (i) reduction of a fatty acyl-CoA to the corresponding fatty aldehyde catalyzed by a fatty acyl-CoA reductase, followed by (ii) reduction of the fatty aldehyde to the corresponding fatty alcohol catalyzed by a fatty aldehyde reductase. Here, we identify, purify, and characterize a novel bacterial enzyme from Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 that catalyzes the reduction of fatty acyl-CoA by four electrons to the corresponding fatty alcohol, eliminating the need for a separate fatty aldehyde reductase. The enzyme is shown to reduce fatty acyl-CoAs ranging from C8:0 to C20:4 to the corresponding fatty alcohols, with the highest rate found for palmitoyl-CoA (C16:0). The dependence of the rate of reduction of palmitoyl-CoA on substrate concentration was cooperative, with an apparent K(m) ~ 4 μM, V(max) ~ 200 nmol NADP(+) min(-1) (mg protein)(-1), and n ~ 3. The enzyme also reduced a range of fatty aldehydes with decanal having the highest activity. The substrate cis-11-hexadecenal was reduced in a cooperative manner with an apparent K(m) of ~50 μM, V(max) of ~8 μmol NADP(+) min(-1) (mg protein)(-1), and n ~ 2.

  19. N-acyl-homoserine lactones from Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.) and their degradation by Bacillus cereus enzymes.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Francisca Diana da Silva; Esper, Luciana Maria Ramires; Kuaye, Arnaldo Yoshiteru; Sircili, Marcelo Palma; Marsaioli, Anita Jocelyne

    2012-01-18

    A chemical study of acyl-homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs) produced by Enterobacter sakazakii resulted in the identification of three molecules: (S)-N-heptanoyl-HSL, (S)-N-dodecanoyl-HSL and (S)-N-tetradecanoyl-HSL. Mixed cultures of E. sakazakii and Bacillus cereus depleted E. sakazakii acyl-HSLs, suggesting acyl-HSL degradation by B. cereus hydrolases (hydrolysis of the lactone or amide moiety). The expression of B. cereus acyl-HSL lactonase and acyl-homoserine acylase was confirmed by monitoring the biotransformation of (S)-N-dodecanoyl-HSL into (S)-N-dodecanoyl-homoserine, dodecanoic acid and homoserine in the presence of B. cereus whole cells, using electrospray-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

  20. An update on the role of intestinal cytochrome P450 enzymes in drug disposition.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fang; Ding, Xinxin; Zhang, Qing-Yu

    2016-09-01

    Oral administration is the most commonly used route for drug treatment. Intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated metabolism can eliminate a large proportion of some orally administered drugs before they reach systemic circulation, while leaving the passage of other drugs unimpeded. A better understanding of the ability of intestinal P450 enzymes to metabolize various clinical drugs in both humans and preclinical animal species, including the identification of the CYP enzymes expressed, their regulation, and the relative importance of intestinal metabolism compared to hepatic metabolism, is important for improving bioavailability of current drugs and new drugs in development. Here, we briefly review the expression of drug-metabolizing P450 enzymes in the small intestine of humans and several preclinical animal species, and provide an update of the various factors or events that regulate intestinal P450 expression, including a cross talk between the liver and the intestine. We further compare various clinical and preclinical approaches for assessing the impact of intestinal drug metabolism on bioavailability, and discuss the utility of the intestinal epithelium-specific NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase-null (IECN) mouse as a useful model for studying in vivo roles of intestinal P450 in the disposition of orally administered drugs.

  1. Pancreatic Digestive Enzyme Blockade in the Intestine Increases Survival After Experimental Shock

    PubMed Central

    DeLano, Frank A.; Hoyt, David B.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.

    2015-01-01

    Shock, sepsis, and multiorgan failure are associated with inflammation, morbidity, and high mortality. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism is unknown, but evidence suggests that pancreatic enzymes in the intestinal lumen autodigest the intestine and generate systemic inflammation. Blocking these enzymes in the intestine reduces inflammation and multiorgan dysfunction. We investigated whether enzymatic blockade also reduces mortality after shock. Three rat shock models were used here: hemorrhagic shock, peritonitis shock induced by placement of cecal material into the peritoneum, and endotoxin shock. One hour after initiation of hemorrhagic, peritonitis, or endotoxin shock, animals were administered one of three different pancreatic enzyme inhibitors—6-amidino-2-naphtyl p-guanidinobenzoate di-methanesulfate, tranexamic acid, or aprotinin—into the lumen of the small intestine. In all forms of shock, blockade of digestive proteases with protease inhibitor attenuated entry of digestive enzymes into the wall of the intestine and subsequent autodigestion and morphological damage to the intestine, lung, and heart. Animals treated with protease inhibitors also survived in larger numbers than untreated controls over a period of 12 weeks. Surviving animals recovered completely and returned to normal weight within 14 days after shock. The results suggest that the active and concentrated digestive enzymes in the lumen of the intestine play a central role in shock and multi-organ failure, which can be treated with protease inhibitors that are currently available for use in the clinic. PMID:23345609

  2. Pancreatic digestive enzyme blockade in the intestine increases survival after experimental shock.

    PubMed

    DeLano, Frank A; Hoyt, David B; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2013-01-23

    Shock, sepsis, and multiorgan failure are associated with inflammation, morbidity, and high mortality. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism is unknown, but evidence suggests that pancreatic enzymes in the intestinal lumen autodigest the intestine and generate systemic inflammation. Blocking these enzymes in the intestine reduces inflammation and multiorgan dysfunction. We investigated whether enzymatic blockade also reduces mortality after shock. Three rat shock models were used here: hemorrhagic shock, peritonitis shock induced by placement of cecal material into the peritoneum, and endotoxin shock. One hour after initiation of hemorrhagic, peritonitis, or endotoxin shock, animals were administered one of three different pancreatic enzyme inhibitors--6-amidino-2-naphtyl p-guanidinobenzoate dimethanesulfate, tranexamic acid, or aprotinin--into the lumen of the small intestine. In all forms of shock, blockade of digestive proteases with protease inhibitor attenuated entry of digestive enzymes into the wall of the intestine and subsequent autodigestion and morphological damage to the intestine, lung, and heart. Animals treated with protease inhibitors also survived in larger numbers than untreated controls over a period of 12 weeks. Surviving animals recovered completely and returned to normal weight within 14 days after shock. The results suggest that the active and concentrated digestive enzymes in the lumen of the intestine play a central role in shock and multiorgan failure, which can be treated with protease inhibitors that are currently available for use in the clinic.

  3. Evolutionary view of acyl-CoA diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), a key enzyme in neutral lipid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Triacylglycerides (TAGs) are a class of neutral lipids that represent the most important storage form of energy for eukaryotic cells. DGAT (acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase; EC 2.3.1.20) is a transmembrane enzyme that acts in the final and committed step of TAG synthesis, and it has been proposed to be the rate-limiting enzyme in plant storage lipid accumulation. In fact, two different enzymes identified in several eukaryotic species, DGAT1 and DGAT2, are the main enzymes responsible for TAG synthesis. These enzymes do not share high DNA or protein sequence similarities, and it has been suggested that they play non-redundant roles in different tissues and in some species in TAG synthesis. Despite a number of previous studies on the DGAT1 and DGAT2 genes, which have emphasized their importance as potential obesity treatment targets to increase triacylglycerol accumulation, little is known about their evolutionary timeline in eukaryotes. The goal of this study was to examine the evolutionary relationship of the DGAT1 and DGAT2 genes across eukaryotic organisms in order to infer their origin. Results We have conducted a broad survey of fully sequenced genomes, including representatives of Amoebozoa, yeasts, fungi, algae, musses, plants, vertebrate and invertebrate species, for the presence of DGAT1 and DGAT2 gene homologs. We found that the DGAT1 and DGAT2 genes are nearly ubiquitous in eukaryotes and are readily identifiable in all the major eukaryotic groups and genomes examined. Phylogenetic analyses of the DGAT1 and DGAT2 amino acid sequences revealed evolutionary partitioning of the DGAT protein family into two major DGAT1 and DGAT2 clades. Protein secondary structure and hydrophobic-transmembrane analysis also showed differences between these enzymes. The analysis also revealed that the MGAT2 and AWAT genes may have arisen from DGAT2 duplication events. Conclusions In this study, we identified several DGAT1 and DGAT2 homologs in eukaryote taxa

  4. Active-Site Protonation States in an Acyl-Enzyme Intermediate of a Class A β-Lactamase with a Monobactam Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Vandavasi, Venu Gopal; Cooper, Jonathan B.; Ginell, Stephan L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The monobactam antibiotic aztreonam is used to treat cystic fibrosis patients with chronic pulmonary infections colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains expressing CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases. The protonation states of active-site residues that are responsible for hydrolysis have been determined previously for the apo form of a CTX-M β-lactamase but not for a monobactam acyl-enzyme intermediate. Here we used neutron and high-resolution X-ray crystallography to probe the mechanism by which CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases hydrolyze monobactam antibiotics. In these first reported structures of a class A β-lactamase in an acyl-enzyme complex with aztreonam, we directly observed most of the hydrogen atoms (as deuterium) within the active site. Although Lys 234 is fully protonated in the acyl intermediate, we found that Lys 73 is neutral. These findings are consistent with Lys 73 being able to serve as a general base during the acylation part of the catalytic mechanism, as previously proposed. PMID:27795378

  5. Effects of age, species difference, antibiotics and toxicants on intestinal enzyme activity and genotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, R.W.; George, S.E.; Kohan, M.J.; Allison, J.C. . Health Effects Research Lab.); Chang, J.; Long, J.E.; Duffy, M.C. ); Dekker, J.P.; Forehand, L.R. )

    1993-08-01

    Altered intestinal enzyme activity significantly affects the biotransformation and toxicity of many xenobiotics. This article summarizes research, supported by the US Air Force Bioenvironmental Hazards Research Program, that employs a novel gas-liquid chromatographic assay to investigate the effects of age, species difference, antibiotics, and environmental chemicals on enzyme activity in various regions of the intestinal tract. Significant research findings include the following: (a) age-dependent alterations in enzyme activity in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of the developing animal that suggest a changing susceptibility to toxicants during this period; (b) discovery of previously unreported mucosal enzymes in the small intestine that are present in germ-free rats and are not susceptible to antibiotics; (c) markedly greater intestinal nitroreductase activity and significantly higher bioactivation of the procarcinogen 2,6-dinitrotoluene (DNT) in CD-1 mice than in Fischer 344 rats; (d) significantly altered intestinal enzyme activity in rats pretreated with lindane, pentachlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), or Aroclor 1254; (e) potentiated DNT genotoxicity by Aroclor 1254 and pentachlorophenol pretreatment; and (f) a transient antagonism of DNT genotoxicity by 2,4,5-T pretreatment. Enzyme activity in the small intestine may have greater toxicological importance than previously thought in the biotransformation of environmental chemicals and as an indicator of change in the microbial flora.

  6. Acyl-CoA synthetase and the peroxisomal enzymes of beta-oxidation in human liver. Quantitative analysis of their subcellular localization.

    PubMed Central

    Bronfman, M; Inestrosa, N C; Nervi, F O; Leighton, F

    1984-01-01

    The presence of acyl-CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.3) in peroxisomes and the subcellular distribution of beta-oxidation enzymes in human liver were investigated by using a single-step fractionation method of whole liver homogenates in metrizamide continuous density gradients and a novel procedure of computer analysis of results. Peroxisomes were found to contain 16% of the liver palmitoyl-CoA synthetase activity, and 21% and 60% of the enzyme activity was localized in mitochondria and microsomal fractions respectively. Fatty acyl-CoA oxidase was localized exclusively in peroxisomes, confirming previous results. Human liver peroxisomes were found to contribute 13%, 17% and 11% of the liver activities of crotonase, beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and thiolase respectively. The absolute activities found in peroxisomes for the enzymes investigated suggest that in human liver fatty acyl-CoA oxidase is the rate-limiting enzyme of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway, when palmitic acid is the substrate. PMID:6240978

  7. Dietary effects of marine food intake on intestinal and hepatic enzyme activities in rats.

    PubMed

    González, M; Caride, B; Lamas, A; Taboada, C

    2001-03-01

    Dietary effects of two diets high in protein from two marine species (Haliotis tuberculata and Anemonia viridis) as compared to a high-quality patron protein such as casein (or casein supplemented with olive oil) on intestinal and hepatic enzymes were studied. After 23 days, the two marine species as diet compared to casein increased the disaccharidase and alkaline phosphatase activities. Feeding Haliotis tuberculata meal produced a decrease on intestinal leucine aminopeptidase activity. The hepatic gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity decreased slightly in animals fed Haliotis tuberculata meal. Supplementation of casein with olive oil tended to decrease the intestinal and hepatic enzyme activity.

  8. A comparative study on the metabolism of Epimedium koreanum Nakai-prenylated flavonoids in rats by an intestinal enzyme (lactase phlorizin hydrolase) and intestinal flora.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Chen, Yan; Wang, Ying; Gao, Xia; Qu, Ding; Liu, Congyan

    2013-12-24

    The aim of this study was to compare the significance of the intestinal hydrolysis of prenylated flavonoids in Herba Epimedii by an intestinal enzyme and flora. Flavonoids were incubated at 37 °C with rat intestinal enzyme and intestinal flora. HPLC-UV was used to calculate the metabolic rates of the parent drug in the incubation and LC/MS/MS was used to determine the chemical structures of metabolites generated by different flavonoid glycosides. Rates of flavonoid metabolism by rat intestinal enzyme were quicker than those of intestinal flora. The sequence of intestinal flora metabolic rates was icariin>epimedin B>epimedin A>epimedin C>baohuoside I, whereas the order of intestinal enzyme metabolic rates was icariin>epimedin A>epimedin C>epimedin B>baohuoside I. Meanwhile, the LC/MS/MS graphs showed that icariin produced three products, epimedin A/B/C had four and baohuoside I yielded one product in incubations of both intestinal enzyme and flora, which were more than the results of HPLC-UV due to the fact LC/MS/MS has lower detectability and higher sensitivity. Moreover, the outcomes indicated that the rate of metabolization of flavonoids by intestinal enzyme were faster than those of intestinal flora, which was consistent with the HPLC-UV results. In conclusion, the metabolic pathways of the same components by intestinal flora and enzyme were the same. What's more, an intestinal enzyme such as lactase phlorizin hydrolase exhibited a more significant metabolic role in prenylated flavonoids of Herba Epimedi compared with intestinal flora.

  9. An Investigation into the Gastrointestinal Stability of Exenatide in the Presence of Pure Enzymes, Everted Intestinal Rings and Intestinal Homogenates.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanan; Wang, Mengshu; Sun, Bingxue; Li, Feng; Liu, Shubo; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Yan; Chen, Yan; Kong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the gastrointestinal stability of exenatide to determine the key factor(s) contributing to peptide degradation during the oral delivery process. The effects of pH and various digestive enzymes on the degradation kinetics of exenatide were determined. Moreover, the degradation clearances of peptide were also examined using rat everted intestinal rings and intestinal homogenates from various intestinal locations. Exenatide was comparatively stable within a pH range of 1.2-8. However, obvious degradation was observed in the presence of digestive enzymes. The order of enzymes, in terms of ability to degradate exenatide, was chymotrypsin>aminopeptidase N>carboxypeptidase A>trypsin>pepsin. Chymotrypsin showed the greatest ability to degrade exenatide (half-life t1/2, 5.784×10(-2) h), whereas aminopeptidase N and carboxylpeptidase A gave t1/2 values of 3.53 and 10.16 h, respectively. The degradation of exenatide was found to be peptide concentration- and intestinal site-dependent, with a lower clearance in the upper part of the duodenum and the lower part of the ileum. When using intestinal homogenates as enzyme sources, the order, in terms of peptide degradation ability, was ileum>jejunum>duodenum. However, no significant difference was observed in the remaining peptide concentrations throughout 2 h of incubation, which may be due to the involvement of cytosolic enzymes. These results revealed key factors contributing to peptide degradation, and suggest that the inhibition of chymotrypsin and site-specific delivery of exenatide might be advantageous in overcoming metabolic obstacles during its oral delivery.

  10. Intestine-specific Deletion of Acyl-CoA:Monoacylglycerol Acyltransferase (MGAT) 2 Protects Mice from Diet-induced Obesity and Glucose Intolerance*

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, David W.; Gao, Yu; Yen, Mei-I; Yen, Chi-Liang Eric

    2014-01-01

    The absorption of dietary fat involves the re-esterification of digested triacylglycerol in the enterocytes, a process catalyzed by acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT) 2. Mice without a functional gene encoding MGAT2 (Mogat2−/−) are protected from diet-induced obesity. Surprisingly, these mice absorb normal amounts of dietary fat but increase their energy expenditure. MGAT2 is expressed in tissues besides intestine, including adipose tissue in both mice and humans. To test the hypothesis that intestinal MGAT2 regulates systemic energy balance, we generated and characterized mice deficient in MGAT2 specifically in the small intestine (Mogat2IKO). We found that, like Mogat2−/− mice, Mogat2IKO mice also showed a delay in fat absorption, a decrease in food intake, and a propensity to use fatty acids as fuel when first exposed to a high fat diet. Mogat2IKO mice increased energy expenditure although to a lesser degree than Mogat2−/− mice and were protected against diet-induced weight gain and associated comorbidities, including hepatic steatosis, hypercholesterolemia, and glucose intolerance. These findings illustrate that intestinal lipid metabolism plays a crucial role in the regulation of systemic energy balance and may be a feasible intervention target. In addition, they suggest that MGAT activity in extraintestinal tissues may also modulate energy metabolism. PMID:24784138

  11. Intestine-specific deletion of acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT) 2 protects mice from diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David W; Gao, Yu; Yen, Mei-I; Yen, Chi-Liang Eric

    2014-06-20

    The absorption of dietary fat involves the re-esterification of digested triacylglycerol in the enterocytes, a process catalyzed by acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT) 2. Mice without a functional gene encoding MGAT2 (Mogat2(-/-)) are protected from diet-induced obesity. Surprisingly, these mice absorb normal amounts of dietary fat but increase their energy expenditure. MGAT2 is expressed in tissues besides intestine, including adipose tissue in both mice and humans. To test the hypothesis that intestinal MGAT2 regulates systemic energy balance, we generated and characterized mice deficient in MGAT2 specifically in the small intestine (Mogat2(IKO)). We found that, like Mogat2(-/-) mice, Mogat2(IKO) mice also showed a delay in fat absorption, a decrease in food intake, and a propensity to use fatty acids as fuel when first exposed to a high fat diet. Mogat2(IKO) mice increased energy expenditure although to a lesser degree than Mogat2(-/-) mice and were protected against diet-induced weight gain and associated comorbidities, including hepatic steatosis, hypercholesterolemia, and glucose intolerance. These findings illustrate that intestinal lipid metabolism plays a crucial role in the regulation of systemic energy balance and may be a feasible intervention target. In addition, they suggest that MGAT activity in extraintestinal tissues may also modulate energy metabolism. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Genomic Analysis Reveals Versatile Organisms for Quorum Quenching Enzymes: Acyl-Homoserine Lactone-Acylase and -Lactonase

    PubMed Central

    Kalia, Vipin Chandra; Raju, Sajan C; Purohit, Hemant J

    2011-01-01

    Microbial virulence and their resistance to multiple drugs have obliged researchers to look for novel drug targets. Virulence of pathogenic microbes is regulated by signal molecules such as acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) produced during a cell density dependent phenomenon of quorum sensing (QS). In contrast, certain microbes produce AHL-lactonases and -acylases to degrade QS signals, also termed as quorum quenching. Mining sequenced genome databases has revealed organisms possessing conserved domains for AHL-lactonases and –acylases: i) Streptomyces (Actinobacteria), ii) Deinococcus (Deinococcus-Thermus), iii) Hyphomonas (α-Proteobacteria), iv) Ralstonia (β-Proteobacteria), v) Photorhabdus (γ-Proteobacteria), and certain marine gamma proteobacterium. Presence of genes for both the enzymes within an organism was observed in the following: i) Deinococcus radiodurans R1, ii) Hyphomonas neptunium ATCC 15444 and iii) Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii TTO1. These observations are supported by the presence motifs for lactonase and acylase in these strains. Phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignment of the gene sequences for AHL-lactonases and –acylases have revealed consensus sequences which can be used to design primers for amplifying these genes even among mixed cultures and metagenomes. Quorum quenching can be exploited to prevent food spoilage, bacterial infections and bioremediation. PMID:21660112

  13. Molecular orbital studies of enzyme activity: I: Charge relay system and tetrahedral intermediate in acylation of serine proteinases.

    PubMed Central

    Scheiner, S; Kleier, D A; Lipscomb, W N

    1975-01-01

    The charge relay ststem and its role in the acylation of serine proteinases is studied using the partial retention of diatomic differential overlap (PRDDO) technique to perform approximate ab initio molecular orbital calculations on a model of the enzyme-substrate complex. The aspartate in the charge relay system is seen to act as the ultimate proton acceptor during the charging of the serine nucleophile. A projection of the potential energy surface is obtained in a subspace corresponding to this charge transfer and to the coupled motions of active site residues and the substrate. These results together with extended basis set results for cruder models suggest that a concerted transfer of protons from Ser-195 to His-57 and from His-57 to Asp-102 occurs with an energy barrier of 20-25 kcal/mole (84-105 kJ/mole). The subsequent nucleophilic attack on the scissile peptide linkage by the charged serine is then seen to proceed energetically downhill to the tetrahedral intermediate. The formation of the tetrahedral intermediate from the Michaelis complex is calculated to be nearly thermoneutral. PMID:1058476

  14. Evolution of Acyl-Substrate Recognition by a Family of Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Synthases

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Quin H.; Brecht, Ryan M.; Dudekula, Dastagiri; Greenberg, E. Peter; Nagarajan, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Members of the LuxI protein family catalyze synthesis of acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) quorum sensing signals from S-adenosyl-L-methionine and an acyl thioester. Some LuxI family members prefer acyl-CoA, and others prefer acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) as the acyl-thioester substrate. We sought to understand the evolutionary history and mechanisms mediating this substrate preference. Our phylogenetic and motif analysis of the LuxI acyl-HSL synthase family indicates that the acyl-CoA-utilizing enzymes evolved from an acyl-ACP-utilizing ancestor. To further understand how acyl-ACPs and acyl-CoAs are recognized by acyl-HSL synthases we studied BmaI1, an octanoyl-ACP-dependent LuxI family member from Burkholderia mallei, and BjaI, an isovaleryl-CoA-dependent LuxI family member from Bradyrhizobium japonicum. We synthesized thioether analogs of their thioester acyl-substrates to probe recognition of the acyl-phosphopantetheine moiety common to both acyl-ACP and acyl-CoA substrates. The kinetics of catalysis and inhibition of these enzymes indicate that they recognize the acyl-phosphopantetheine moiety and they recognize non-preferred substrates with this moiety. We find that CoA substrate utilization arose through exaptation of acyl-phosphopantetheine recognition in this enzyme family. PMID:25401334

  15. Quantitative ADME proteomics - CYP and UGT enzymes in the Beagle dog liver and intestine.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Aki T; Friedlein, Arno; Matondo, Mariette; Hatley, Oliver J D; Petsalo, Aleksanteri; Juvonen, Risto; Galetin, Aleksandra; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Aebersold, Ruedi; Lamerz, Jens; Dunkley, Tom; Cutler, Paul; Parrott, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Beagle dogs are used to study oral pharmacokinetics and guide development of drug formulations for human use. Since mechanistic insight into species differences is needed to translate findings in this species to human, abundances of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) drug metabolizing enzymes have been quantified in dog liver and intestine. Abundances of enzymes were measured in Beagle dog intestine and liver using selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. Seven and two CYPs were present in the liver and intestine, respectively. CYP3A12 was the most abundant CYP in both tissues. Seven UGT enzymes were quantified in the liver and seven in the intestine although UGT1A11 and UGT1A9 were present only in the intestine and UGT1A7 and UGT2B31 were found only in the liver. UGT1A11 and UGT1A2 were the most abundant UGTs in the intestine and UGT2B31 was the most abundant UGT in the liver. Summed abundance of UGT enzymes was similar to the sum of CYP enzymes in the liver whereas intestinal UGTs were up to four times more abundant than CYPs. The estimated coefficients of variation of abundance estimates in the livers of 14 donors were separated into biological and technical components which ranged from 14 to 49% and 20 to 39%, respectively. Abundances of canine CYP enzymes in liver and intestine have been confirmed in a larger number of dogs and UGT abundances have been quantified for the first time. The biological variability in hepatic CYPs and UGTs has also been estimated.

  16. The metabolic profile of acteoside produced by human or rat intestinal bacteria or intestinal enzyme in vitro employed UPLC-Q-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Cui, Qingling; Pan, Yingni; Xu, Xiaotong; Zhang, Wenjie; Wu, Xiao; Qu, Shouhe; Liu, Xiaoqiu

    2016-03-01

    Acteoside, the main and representative phenylethanoid glycosides of Herba Cistanches, possesses wide bioactivities but low oral bioavailability. It may serve as the prodrug and be converted into the active forms in gastrointestinal tract, which mainly occurred in intestinal tract composed of intestinal bacteria and intestinal enzyme. Intestinal bacteria, a new drug target, take a significant role on exerting pharmacological effects of drugs by oral administration. In this paper, acteoside was incubated with human or rat intestinal bacteria or rat intestinal enzyme for 36 h to seek metabolites responsible for pharmacodynamics. The samples were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Besides the parent compound, 14 metabolites were detected and identified based on their retention times and fragmentation patterns in their MS spectra including 8 degradation metabolites, 2 isomers in intestinal bacteria and intestinal enzyme samples and 4 parent metabolites only found in intestinal enzymes. The metabolic pathway of acteoside was thus proposed. Identification of these metabolites of acteoside by the intestinal bacteria or intestinal enzyme gave an insight to clarify pharmacological mechanism of traditional Chinese medicines and identify the real active molecules.

  17. Structures of the acyl-enzyme complexes of the Staphylococcus aureus beta-lactamase mutant Glu166Asp:Asn170Gln with benzylpenicillin and cephaloridine.

    PubMed

    Chen, C C; Herzberg, O

    2001-02-27

    The serine-beta-lactamases hydrolyze beta-lactam antibiotics in a reaction that proceeds via an acyl-enzyme intermediate. The double mutation, E166D:N170Q, of the class A enzyme from Staphylococcus aureus results in a protein incapable of deacylation. The crystal structure of this beta-lactamase, determined at 2.3 A resolution, shows that except for the mutation sites, the structure is very similar to that of the native protein. The crystal structures of two acyl-enzyme adducts, one with benzylpenicillin and the other with cephaloridine, have been determined at 1.76 and 1.86 A resolution, respectively. Both acyl-enzymes show similar key features, with the carbonyl carbon atom of the cleaved beta-lactam bond covalently bound to the side chain of the active site Ser70, and the carbonyl oxygen atom in an oxyanion hole. The thiadolizine ring of the cleaved penicillin is located in a slightly different position than the dihydrothiazine ring of cephaloridine. Consequently, the carboxylate moieties attached to the rings form different sets of interactions. The carboxylate group of benzylpenicillin interacts with the side chain of Gln237. The carboxylate group of cephaloridine is located between Arg244 and Lys234 side chains and also interacts with Ser235 hydroxyl group. The interactions of the cephaloridine resemble those seen in the structure of the acyl-enzyme of beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli with benzylpenicillin. The side chains attached to the cleaved beta-lactam rings of benzylpenicillin and cephaloridine are located in a similar position, which is different than the position observed in the E. coli benzylpenicillin acyl-enzyme complex. The three modes of binding do not show a trend that explains the preference for benzylpenicillin over cephaloridine in the class A beta-lactamases. Rather, the conformational variation arises because cleavage of the beta-lactam bond provides additional flexibility not available when the fused rings are intact. The structural

  18. Influence of microcystin-LR on the activity of membrane enzymes in rat intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Moreno, I M; Mate, A; Repetto, G; Vázquez, C M; Cameán, A M

    2003-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of microcystin-LR (MCLR) on the activity of membrane enzymes from intestinal mucosa. In addition, serum chemistry and peroxidative status of both serum and intestinal homogenate were evaluated after treatment with MCLR. Wistar rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of either 100 microg pure MCLR/Kg body weight or saline solution. A significant increase in liver weight and altered serum enzyme activities were found in MCLR-treated rats, indicating damage to the liver in these rats, as previously suggested. A higher specific activity of sucrase (1.5-fold) was observed after the administration of MCLR, whereas other intestinal apical membrane enzymes, such as lactase, maltase and alkaline phosphatase were not modified by the treatment. The specific activities of acid phosphatase and succinate dehydrogenase, markers for lysosomal and mitochondrial membranes, respectively, were also increased (32% and 60%, respectively) in treated rats. The analysis of lipid peroxidation showed that the peroxidative status was increased in both serum and intestinal mucosa from MCLR-treated rats, reflecting an excess production of oxygen free radicals induced by this cyanobacterial toxin. In conclusion, this study shows that acute exposure to MCLR affects the intestinal physiology by modifying the intestinal peroxidation status as well as the activity of membrane enzymes.

  19. Structure of a Novel Enzyme That Catalyzes Acyl Transfer to Alcohols in Aqueous Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, I.; Soltis, M.; Saldajeno, M.; Ganshaw, G.; Sala, R.; Weyler, W.; Cervin, M.A.; Whited, G.; Bott, R.

    2009-06-03

    The unusual architecture of the enzyme (MsAcT) isolated from Mycobacterium smegmatis forms the mechanistic basis for favoring alcoholysis over hydrolysis in water. Unlike hydrolases that perform alcoholysis only under anhydrous conditions, MsAcT demonstrates alcoholysis in substantially aqueous media and, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, has a perhydrolysis:hydrolysis ratio 50-fold greater than that of the best lipase tested. The crystal structures of the apoenzyme and an inhibitor-bound form have been determined to 1.5 {angstrom} resolution. MsAcT is an octamer in the asymmetric unit and forms a tightly associated aggregate in solution. Relative to other structurally similar monomers, MsAcT contains several insertions that contribute to the oligomerization and greatly restrict the shape of the active site, thereby limiting its accessibility. These properties create an environment by which MsAcT can catalyze transesterification reactions in an aqueous medium and suggests how a serine hydrolase can be engineered to be an efficient acyltransferase.

  20. Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (Kininase II) of the Brush Border of Human and Swine Intestine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-23

    demonstrated by bioassay. Captopril , the orally active specific inhibitor of ACE, inhibited tt6 enzyme: its I was 3 x 10_9M. Antibody to swine kidney ACE...interference in the functions of this enzyme may occur with chronic captopril therapy. K ngiotensir Iconverting enzyme (ACE; dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase; E.C...intestinal brush border (l0).+ These studies were also prompted by the use of the specific inhibitor of ACE, SQ 14225 or captopril , on a large scale in

  1. Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferases (ACATs/SOATs): enzymes with multiple sterols as substrates and as activators

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Maximillian A.; Liu, Jay; Song, Bao-Liang; Li, Bo-Liang; Chang, Catherine C.Y.; Chang, Ta-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is essential to the growth and viability of cells. The metabolites of cholesterol include: steroids, oxysterols, and bile acids, all of which play important physiological functions. Cholesterol and its metabolites have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple human diseases, including: atherosclerosis, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes. Thus, understanding how cells maintain the homeostasis of cholesterol and its metabolites is an important area of study. Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferases (ACATs, also abbreviated as SOATs) converts cholesterol to cholesteryl esters and play key roles in the regulation of cellular cholesterol homeostasis. ACATs are most unusual enzymes because (i) they metabolize diverse substrates including both sterols and certain steroids; (ii) they contain two different binding sites for steroidal molecules. In mammals, there are two ACAT genes that encode two different enzymes, ACAT1 and ACAT2. Both are allosteric enzymes that can be activated by a variety of sterols. In addition to cholesterol, other sterols that possess the 3-beta OH at C-3, including PREG, oxysterols (such as 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol, etc.), and various plant sterols, could all be ACAT substrates. All sterols that possess the iso-octyl side chain including cholesterol, oxysterols, various plant sterols could all be activators of ACAT. PREG can only be an ACAT substrate because it lacks the isooctyl side chain required to be an ACAT activator. The unnatural cholesterol analogs epi-cholesterol (with 3-alpha OH in steroid ring B) and ent-cholesterol (the mirror image of cholesterol) contain the iso-octyl side chain but do not have the 3-beta OH at C-3. Thus, they can only serve as activators and cannot serve as substrates. Thus, within the ACAT holoenzyme, there are site(s) that bind sterol as substrate and site(s) that bind sterol as activator; these sites are distinct from each other. These features form

  2. Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferases (ACATs/SOATs): Enzymes with multiple sterols as substrates and as activators.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Maximillian A; Liu, Jay; Song, Bao-Liang; Li, Bo-Liang; Chang, Catherine C Y; Chang, Ta-Yuan

    2015-07-01

    Cholesterol is essential to the growth and viability of cells. The metabolites of cholesterol include: steroids, oxysterols, and bile acids, all of which play important physiological functions. Cholesterol and its metabolites have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple human diseases, including: atherosclerosis, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes. Thus, understanding how cells maintain the homeostasis of cholesterol and its metabolites is an important area of study. Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferases (ACATs, also abbreviated as SOATs) converts cholesterol to cholesteryl esters and play key roles in the regulation of cellular cholesterol homeostasis. ACATs are most unusual enzymes because (i) they metabolize diverse substrates including both sterols and certain steroids; (ii) they contain two different binding sites for steroidal molecules. In mammals, there are two ACAT genes that encode two different enzymes, ACAT1 and ACAT2. Both are allosteric enzymes that can be activated by a variety of sterols. In addition to cholesterol, other sterols that possess the 3-beta OH at C-3, including PREG, oxysterols (such as 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol, etc.), and various plant sterols, could all be ACAT substrates. All sterols that possess the iso-octyl side chain including cholesterol, oxysterols, various plant sterols could all be activators of ACAT. PREG can only be an ACAT substrate because it lacks the iso-octyl side chain required to be an ACAT activator. The unnatural cholesterol analogs epi-cholesterol (with 3-alpha OH in steroid ring B) and ent-cholesterol (the mirror image of cholesterol) contain the iso-octyl side chain but do not have the 3-beta OH at C-3. Thus, they can only serve as activators and cannot serve as substrates. Thus, within the ACAT holoenzyme, there are site(s) that bind sterol as substrate and site(s) that bind sterol as activator; these sites are distinct from each other. These features form

  3. PANCREATIC DIGESTIVE ENZYME BLOCKADE IN THE SMALL INTESTINE PREVENTS INSULIN RESISTANCE IN HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK

    PubMed Central

    DeLano, Frank A.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock is associated with metabolic defects, including hyperglycemia and insulin resistance but the mechanisms are unknown. We recently demonstrated that reduction of the extracellular domain of the insulin receptor by degrading proteases may lead to a reduced ability to maintain normal plasma glucose values. In shock, transfer of digestive enzymes from the lumen of the intestine into the systemic circulation after breakdown of the intestinal mucosal barrier causes inflammation and organ dysfunction. Suppression of the digestive enzymes in the lumen of the intestine with protease inhibitors is effective in reducing the level of the inflammatory reactions. To determine the degree to which blockade of digestive enzymes affects insulin resistance in shock, rats were exposed to acute hemorrhagic shock (mean arterial pressure of 30 mmHg for 2 hours) at which time all shed blood volume was returned. Digestive proteases in the intestine were blocked with a serine protease inhibitor (tranexamic acid in polyethylene glycol and physiological electrolyte solution) and the density of the insulin receptor was measured with immunohistochemistry in the mesentery microcirculation. The untreated rat without enzyme blockade had significantly attenuated levels of insulin receptor density as compared to control and treated rats. Blockade of the digestive proteases after 60 min of hypotension in the lumen of the small intestine lead to a lesser decrease in insulin receptor density compared to controls without protease blockade. Glucose tolerance test indicates a significant increase in plasma glucose levels two hours after hemorrhagic shock, which are reduced to control values in the presence of protease inhibition in the lumen of the intestine. The transient reduction of the plasma glucose levels after an insulin bolus is significantly attenuated after shock, but is restored in when digestive enzymes in the lumen of the intestine are blocked. These results suggest that in

  4. Pancreatic digestive enzyme blockade in the small intestine prevents insulin resistance in hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    DeLano, Frank A; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2014-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock is associated with metabolic defects, including hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, but the mechanisms are unknown. We recently demonstrated that reduction of the extracellular domain of the insulin receptor by degrading proteases may lead to a reduced ability to maintain normal plasma glucose values. In shock, transfer of digestive enzymes from the lumen of the intestine into the systemic circulation after breakdown of the intestinal mucosal barrier causes inflammation and organ dysfunction. Suppression of the digestive enzymes in the lumen of the intestine with protease inhibitors is effective in reducing the level of the inflammatory reactions. To determine the degree to which blockade of digestive enzymes affects insulin resistance in shock, rats were exposed to acute hemorrhagic shock (mean arterial pressure of 30 mmHg for 2 h) at which time all shed blood volume was returned. Digestive proteases in the intestine were blocked with a serine protease inhibitor (tranexamic acid in polyethylene glycol and physiological electrolyte solution), and the density of the insulin receptor was measured with immunohistochemistry in the mesentery microcirculation. The untreated rat without enzyme blockade had significantly attenuated levels of insulin receptor density as compared with control and treated rats. Blockade of the digestive proteases after 60 min of hypotension in the lumen of the small intestine led to a lesser decrease in insulin receptor density compared with controls without protease blockade. Glucose tolerance test indicates a significant increase in plasma glucose levels 2 h after hemorrhagic shock, which are reduced to control values in the presence of protease inhibition in the lumen of the intestine. The transient reduction of the plasma glucose levels after an insulin bolus is significantly attenuated after shock but is restored when digestive enzymes in the lumen of the intestine are blocked. These results suggest that in

  5. Examination of digestive enzyme distribution in gut tract and functions of intestinal caecum, in megascolecid earthworms (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Mana; Ito, Katsutoshi; Miura, Chiemi; Miura, Takeshi

    2013-09-01

    Earthworms ingest various materials in addition to food items, such as soil particles. Most earthworms of the family Megascolecidae, a dominant family in Japan, have intestinal caeca connected directly to the intestinal tract. The function of the caeca has not been demonstrated, although it is thought to be associated with digestion. We investigated the activity of the digestive enzymes amylase, phosphatase, cellulase, and protease in different regions of the gut, including the intestinal caeca, in three species of megascolecid earthworms, Pheretima heteropoda, Pheretima hilgendorfi, and Pheretima sieboldi. Activities of several enzymes were high in the intestinal caeca; in particular, protease activity was higher in the caeca than that in the anterior gut, foregut, midgut, and hindgut in all three species. Moreover, the ratio of enzyme activities in the intestinal caeca to whole-gut tended to be higher in manicate intestinal caeca than in simple intestinal caeca. These results suggest that the digestive system of earthworms relies on the intestinal caeca.

  6. ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY AMONG ORPHANS INFECTED WITH INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PATHUM THANI PROVINCE, THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Mahittikorn, Aongart; Prasertbun, Rapeepan; Mori, Hirotake; Popruk, Supaluk

    2014-11-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections can negatively impact growth and nutrition in children. The infections can induce oxidative stress, resulting in a variety of illnesses. We measured antioxidant enzyme levels in orphan children infected with intestinal parasites to investigate the influence of nutritional status on antioxidant enzymes. This cross sectional study was conducted at an orphanage in Thailand. Stool samples were obtained from each subject and examined for intestinal parasites. Anthropometric measurements, complete blood count and biochemical parameters, including serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels, were obtained from studied subjects. One hundred twenty-eight children were included in the study. Intestinal parasites were found on microscopic examination of the stools in 36.7% (47/128); 18% (23/128) had a mixed parasite infection. Intestinal protozoa were found in 34.4% of subjects and intestinal helminthes were found in 2.3%. The median GPx level in children infected with intestinal parasites (2.3 ng/ml) was significantly lower than in non-infected children (7.7 ng/ml) (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in SOD levels between the two groups. When comparing GPx levels in children with 1) pathogenic parasites, 2) non-pathogenic parasites and 3) no intestinal parasite infection, GPx levels differed significantly among three groups (2.2 ng/ml, 2.4 ng/ml and 7.7 ng/ml, respectively) (p < 0.05). When separating children by BMI and type of infection, the median SOD level in underweight children infected with pathogenic parasites (107.2 ng/ml) was significantly higher than in underweight children infected with non-pathogenic parasites (68.6 ng/ml) and without intestinal parasite infections (72.2 ng/ml). The present study identified two key findings: low GPx levels in children with intestinal parasitic infections, and the potential impact of malnutrition on some antioxidants.

  7. Fast, Continuous, and High-Throughput (Bio)Chemical Activity Assay for N-Acyl-l-Homoserine Lactone Quorum-Quenching Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Last, Daniel; Krüger, Georg H. E.; Dörr, Mark

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Quorum sensing, the bacterial cell-cell communication by small molecules, controls important processes such as infection and biofilm formation. Therefore, it is a promising target with several therapeutic and technical applications besides its significant ecological relevance. Enzymes inactivating N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones, the most common class of communication molecules among Gram-negative proteobacteria, mainly belong to the groups of quorum-quenching lactonases or quorum-quenching acylases. However, identification, characterization, and optimization of these valuable biocatalysts are based on a very limited number of fundamentally different methods with their respective strengths and weaknesses. Here, a (bio)chemical activity assay is described, which perfectly complements the other methods in this field. It enables continuous and high-throughput activity measurements of purified and unpurified quorum-quenching enzymes within several minutes. For this, the reaction products released by quorum-quenching lactonases and quorum-quenching acylases are converted either by a secondary enzyme or by autohydrolysis to l-homoserine. In turn, l-homoserine is detected by the previously described calcein assay, which is sensitive to α-amino acids with free N and C termini. Besides its establishment, the method was applied to the characterization of three previously undescribed quorum-quenching lactonases and variants thereof and to the identification of quorum-quenching acylase-expressing Escherichia coli clones in an artificial library. Furthermore, this study indicates that porcine aminoacylase 1 is not active toward N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones as published previously but instead converts the autohydrolysis product N-acyl-l-homoserine. IMPORTANCE In this study, a novel method is presented for the identification, characterization, and optimization of quorum-quenching enzymes that are active toward N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones. These are the most common

  8. Alginate/polymethacrylate copolymer microparticles for the intestinal delivery of enzymes.

    PubMed

    Scocca, Sarah; Faustini, Massimo; Villani, Simona; Munari, Eleonora; Conte, Ubaldo; Russo, Vincenzo; Riccardi, Alessia; Vigo, Daniele; Torre, Maria Luisa

    2007-04-01

    Proteins administered orally must pass through the gastric environment in order to reach their site of absorption in the intestine. How to protect these exogenously administered proteins from the damaging effects of gastric acid and pepsin proteolytic activity, which often induce irreversible structural and functional alterations to the molecules, is an intriguing challenge. Another problem is the physical and chemical instability of proteins during some technological processes, which often involve the use of organic solvents or high temperatures. In this study we investigated the use of alginate microparticles containing one of two enzymes, an enteric polymer and a lyoprotectant for the intestinal delivery of proteins. The two enzymes tested in this protein delivery system were lactate dehydrogenase and alpha-amylase: the former was chosen because of its sensitivity to denaturation, the latter for its relevance in nutrition and medicine. A sodium alginate aqueous solution containing the enteric polymer, a lyoprotectant and the enzyme was either extruded or sprayed into a calcium chloride solution, with the resultant formation of beads and microspheres which were freeze-dried. About 90% of the enzyme activity was maintained during the process of loading the proteins into the microparticles and the subsequent freeze-drying process. The stability of the encapsulated enzyme in an acid medium and the enzymatic activity in an intestinal environment were then investigated by a dissolution test. This consisted of exposing the microparticles to simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) for 2 hours and to simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.5+/-0.1) for 1 hour. The morphology of the microparticles did not change in the acid environment, whereas they completely dissolved within 3 min in the simulated intestinal fluid. Residual enzymatic activity after the test remained satisfactory for both enzymes. In conclusion, these microparticle systems offer promise for applications in human and

  9. Diagnosis of intestinal acariasis with avidin-biotin system enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rong-Bo; Huang, Yong; Li, Chao-Pin; Cui, Yu-Bao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the value of avidin-biotin system enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ABC-ELISA) in diagnosis of intestinal acariasis. METHODS: Mite-specific IgG levels in serum of 48 patients with intestinal acariasis were measured with ABC-ELISA. The sensitivity of this method was compared with that of staphylococcal protein A enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (SPA-ELISA). RESULTS: The positive rate of mite-specific IgG detected with ABC-ELISA and SPA-ELISA was 89.58% (43/48) and 56.25% (27/48), respectively. The positive rate with ABC-ELISA was statistically higher than that with SPA-ELISA (χ2 = 13.50, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: ABC-ELISA is an effective method for the diagnosis of intestinal acariasis. PMID:15112362

  10. Seasonal plasticity of gut morphology and small intestinal enzymes in free-living Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan-Sheng; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Wang, De-Hua

    2013-05-01

    The phenotypic plasticity of the digestive system may determine the diversity of animal diets and, thus, their niche width. This study examines the effects of seasonal fluctuations in food quality and temperature on the gut morphology and the activity of sucrase, maltase, and aminopeptidase-N in the small intestinal brush-border membrane of male Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Based on the adaptive modulation hypothesis and the principle of optimal gut function design, we hypothesize that the gut size, tissue-specific activity, and total hydrolytic capacity of intestinal digestive enzyme are upregulated in winter and downregulated in summer in response to diet shifts and energy demand in free-living Mongolian gerbils. Various seasonal modulation patterns in digestive enzyme activity in different regions of the small intestines were observed. The results show that male gerbils have the longest and heaviest small intestines in winter. This mechanism may be adapted to increase their food intake during winter. Male gerbils also exhibit the highest tissue-specific and total sucrase, maltase, and aminopeptidase-N activity in winter and in spring. Seasonal modulations are more distinct in the jejunum than in the duodenum and the ileum of the small intestines. The digestive phenotypic flexibility of male gerbils effectively corresponded with seasonal diet shifts and temperature fluctuations.

  11. Neutralization of acidic residues in helix II stabilizes the folded conformation of acyl carrier protein and variably alters its function with different enzymes.

    PubMed

    Gong, Huansheng; Murphy, Anne; McMaster, Christopher R; Byers, David M

    2007-02-16

    Acyl carrier protein (ACP), a small protein essential for bacterial growth and pathogenesis, interacts with diverse enzymes during the biosynthesis of fatty acids, phospholipids, and other specialized products such as lipid A. NMR and hydrodynamic studies have previously shown that divalent cations stabilize native helical ACP conformation by binding to conserved acidic residues at two sites (A and B) at either end of the "recognition" helix II. To examine the roles of these amino acids in ACP structure and function, site-directed mutagenesis was used to replace individual site A (Asp-30, Asp-35, Asp-38) and site B (Glu-47, Glu-53, Asp-56) residues in recombinant Vibrio harveyi ACP with the corresponding amides, along with combined mutations at each site (SA, SB) or both sites (SA/SB). Like native V. harveyi ACP, all individual mutants were unfolded at neutral pH but adopted a helical conformation in the presence of millimolar Mg(2+) or upon fatty acylation. Mg(2+) binding to sites A or B independently stabilized native ACP conformation, whereas mutant SA/SB was folded in the absence of Mg(2+), suggesting that charge neutralization is largely responsible for ACP stabilization by divalent cations. Asp-35 in site A was critical for holo-ACP synthase activity, while acyl-ACP synthetase and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase (LpxA) activities were more affected by mutations in site B. Both sites were required for fatty acid synthase activity. Overall, our results indicate that divalent cation binding site mutations have predicted effects on ACP conformation but unpredicted and variable consequences on ACP function with different enzymes.

  12. A peroxisomally localized acyl-activating enzyme is required for volatile benzenoid formation in a Petunia×hybrida cv. ‘Mitchell Diploid’ flower

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Floral volatile benzenoid/phenylpropanoid (FVBP) biosynthesis is a complex and coordinate cellular process executed by petal limb cells of a Petunia×hybrida cv. ‘Mitchell Diploid’ (MD) plant. In MD flowers, the majority of benzenoid volatile compounds are derived from a core phenylpropanoid pathway intermediate by a coenzyme A (CoA) dependent, β-oxidative scheme. Metabolic flux analysis, reverse genetics, and biochemical characterizations of key enzymes in this pathway have supported this putative concept. However, the theoretical first enzymatic reaction, which leads to the production of cinnamoyl-CoA, has only been physically demonstrated in a select number of bacteria like Streptomyces maritimus through mutagenesis and recombinant protein production. A transcript hasbeen cloned and characterized from MD flowers that shares high homology with an Arabidopsis thaliana transcript ACYL-ACTIVATING ENZYME11 (AtAAE11) and the S. maritimus ACYL-COA:LIGASE (SmEncH). In MD, the PhAAE transcript accumulates in a very similar manner as bona fide FVBP network genes, i.e. high levels in an open flower petal and ethylene regulated. In planta, PhAAE is localized to the peroxisome. Upon reduction of PhAAE transcript through a stable RNAi approach, transgenic flowers emitted a reduced level of all benzenoid volatile compounds. Together, the data suggest that PhAAE may be responsible for the activation of t-cinnamic acid, which would be required for floral volatile benzenoid production in MD. PMID:22771854

  13. Identification of an Acyl-Enzyme Intermediate in a meta-Cleavage Product Hydrolase Reveals the Versatility of the Catalytic Triad

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzzini, Antonio C.; Ghosh, Subhangi; Horsman, Geoff P.; Foster, Leonard J.; Bolin, Jeffrey T.; Eltis, Lindsay D.

    2012-03-14

    Meta-cleavage product (MCP) hydrolases are members of the {alpha}/{beta}-hydrolase superfamily that utilize a Ser-His-Asp triad to catalyze the hydrolysis of a C-C bond. BphD, the MCP hydrolase from the biphenyl degradation pathway, hydrolyzes 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoic acid (HOPDA) to 2-hydroxypenta-2,4-dienoic acid (HPD) and benzoate. A 1.6 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of BphD H265Q incubated with HOPDA revealed that the enzyme's catalytic serine was benzoylated. The acyl-enzyme is stabilized by hydrogen bonding from the amide backbone of 'oxyanion hole' residues, consistent with formation of a tetrahedral oxyanion during nucleophilic attack by Ser112. Chemical quench and mass spectrometry studies substantiated the formation and decay of a Ser112-benzoyl species in wild-type BphD on a time scale consistent with turnover and incorporation of a single equivalent of {sup 18}O into the benzoate produced during hydrolysis in H{sub 2}{sup 18}O. Rapid-scanning kinetic studies indicated that the catalytic histidine contributes to the rate of acylation by only an order of magnitude, but affects the rate of deacylation by over 5 orders of magnitude. The orange-colored catalytic intermediate, ES{sup red}, previously detected in the wild-type enzyme and proposed herein to be a carbanion, was not observed during hydrolysis by H265Q. In the newly proposed mechanism, the carbanion abstracts a proton from Ser112, thereby completing tautomerization and generating a serinate for nucleophilic attack on the C6-carbonyl. Finally, quantification of an observed pre-steady-state kinetic burst suggests that BphD is a half-site reactive enzyme. While the updated catalytic mechanism shares features with the serine proteases, MCP hydrolase-specific chemistry highlights the versatility of the Ser-His-Asp triad.

  14. Crystal structure of the VP4 protease from infectious pancreatic necrosis virus reveals the acyl-enzyme complex for an intermolecular self-cleavage reaction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaeyong; Feldman, Anat R; Delmas, Bernard; Paetzel, Mark

    2007-08-24

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), an aquatic birnavirus that infects salmonid fish, encodes a large polyprotein (NH(2)-pVP2-VP4-VP3-COOH) that is processed through the proteolytic activity of its own protease, VP4, to release the proteins pVP2 and VP3. pVP2 is further processed to give rise to the capsid protein VP2 and three peptides that are incorporated into the virion. Reported here are two crystal structures of the IPNV VP4 protease solved from two different crystal symmetries. The electron density at the active site in the triclinic crystal form, refined to 2.2-A resolution, reveals the acyl-enzyme complex formed with an internal VP4 cleavage site. The complex was generated using a truncated enzyme in which the general base lysine was substituted. Inside the complex, the nucleophilic Ser(633)Ogamma forms an ester bond with the main-chain carbonyl of the C-terminal residue, Ala(716), of a neighboring VP4. The structure of this substrate-VP4 complex allows us to identify the S1, S3, S5, and S6 substrate binding pockets as well as other substrate-VP4 interactions and therefore provides structural insights into the substrate specificity of this enzyme. The structure from the hexagonal crystal form, refined to 2.3-A resolution, reveals the free-binding site of the protease. Three-dimensional alignment with the VP4 of blotched snakehead virus, another birnavirus, shows that the overall structure of VP4 is conserved despite a low level of sequence identity ( approximately 19%). The structure determinations of IPNV VP4, the first of an acyl-enzyme complex for a Ser/Lys dyad protease, provide insights into the catalytic mechanism and substrate recognition of this type of protease.

  15. The Secretion and Action of Brush Border Enzymes in the Mammalian Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Hooton, Diane; Lentle, Roger; Monro, John; Wickham, Martin; Simpson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Microvilli are conventionally regarded as an extension of the small intestinal absorptive surface, but they are also, as latterly discovered, a launching pad for brush border digestive enzymes. Recent work has demonstrated that motor elements of the microvillus cytoskeleton operate to displace the apical membrane toward the apex of the microvillus, where it vesiculates and is shed into the periapical space. Catalytically active brush border digestive enzymes remain incorporated within the membranes of these vesicles, which shifts the site of BB digestion from the surface of the enterocyte to the periapical space. This process enables nutrient hydrolysis to occur adjacent to the membrane in a pre-absorptive step. The characterization of BB digestive enzymes is influenced by the way in which these enzymes are anchored to the apical membranes of microvilli, their subsequent shedding in membrane vesicles, and their differing susceptibilities to cleavage from the component membranes. In addition, the presence of active intracellular components of these enzymes complicates their quantitative assay and the elucidation of their dynamics. This review summarizes the ontogeny and regulation of BB digestive enzymes and what is known of their kinetics and their action in the peripheral and axial regions of the small intestinal lumen.

  16. Isolated 2-methylbutyrylglycinuria caused by short/branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: identification of a new enzyme defect, resolution of its molecular basis, and evidence for distinct acyl-CoA dehydrogenases in isoleucine and valine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Andresen, B S; Christensen, E; Corydon, T J; Bross, P; Pilgaard, B; Wanders, R J; Ruiter, J P; Simonsen, H; Winter, V; Knudsen, I; Schroeder, L D; Gregersen, N; Skovby, F

    2000-11-01

    Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD) defects in isoleucine and valine catabolism have been proposed in clinically diverse patients with an abnormal pattern of metabolites in their urine, but they have not been proved enzymatically or genetically, and it is unknown whether one or two ACADs are involved. We investigated a patient with isolated 2-methylbutyrylglycinuria, suggestive of a defect in isoleucine catabolism. Enzyme assay of the patient's fibroblasts, using 2-methylbutyryl-CoA as substrate, confirmed the defect. Sequence analysis of candidate ACADs revealed heterozygosity for the common short-chain ACAD A625 variant allele and no mutations in ACAD-8 but a 100-bp deletion in short/branched-chain ACAD (SBCAD) cDNA from the patient. Our identification of the SBCAD gene structure (11 exons; >20 kb) enabled analysis of genomic DNA. This showed that the deletion was caused by skipping of exon 10, because of homozygosity for a 1228G-->A mutation in the patient. This mutation was not present in 118 control chromosomes. In vitro transcription/translation experiments and overexpression in COS cells confirmed the disease-causing nature of the mutant SBCAD protein and showed that ACAD-8 is an isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase and that both wild-type proteins are imported into mitochondria and form tetramers. In conclusion, we report the first mutation in the SBCAD gene, show that it results in an isolated defect in isoleucine catabolism, and indicate that ACAD-8 is a mitochondrial enzyme that functions in valine catabolism.

  17. Diversity of culturable bacterial communities in the intestinal tracts of goldfish (Carassius auratus) and their ability to produce N-acyl homoserine lactone.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Haruo; Kitao, Shun; Narisawa, Satoshi; Minamishima, Ryosuke; Itoi, Shiro

    2017-01-26

    Intestinal bacteria isolated from goldfish (Carassius auratus) were identified based on 16 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences and screened for their ability to produce N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL), an autoinducer of the quorum sensing (QS) system. The 230 aerobes/facultative anaerobes that were isolated comprised members of the genera Aeromonas (184 isolates), Citrobacter (11), Enterobacter (2), Shewanella (28), Vagococcus (1), and Vibrio (4). Among these genera, the two most abundant species were Aeromonas veronii (163 isolates) and Shewanella xiamenensis (27). In addition, 142 obligate anaerobes consisting of Cetobacterium somerae (139 isolates), Clostridium frigidicarnis (2), and Cetobacterium sp. (1) were also isolated. One hundred seventy isolates (74.2%) belonging to the genera Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Shewanella, and Vibrio produced AHL, while 155 (67.7%) and 91 (39.7%) isolates possessed the luxR and luxI gene homologs, respectively. None of the obligate anaerobes produced AHL or possessed luxRI homologs. Total viable counts ranged from 1.2 × 10(7) to 2.2 × 10(9) CFU/g, which were accounted for 0.8 to 15.2% of direct counts. Aeromonas veronii, S. xiamenensis, and C. somerae were detected from five goldfish at densities ranging from 4.0 × 10(6) to 1.7 × 10(9) CFU/g, indicating that these bacteria are dominant components of the culturable gut flora in goldfish. In addition, members of the genera Aeromonas and Shewanella appeared to communicate with each other by using the QS system to some extent when the concentration of AHL reaches a certain threshold. It is therefore suggested that bacteria with the ability to disrupt AHL secretion in intestinal environments are potential candidates for probionts for preventing opportunistic infections in freshwater fish such as goldfish.

  18. POTENTIAL OF MEAN FORCE CALCULATION FOR THE PROTON AND HYDRIDE TRANSFER REACTIONS CATALYZED BY MEDIUM CHAIN ACYL-COA DEHYDROGENASE: THE EFFECT OF MUTATIONS ON ENZYME CATALYSISa

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sudeep; Ma, Shuhua; Stankovich, Marian T.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Gao, Jiali

    2008-01-01

    Potential of mean force calculations have been performed on the wild-type medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) and two of its mutant forms. Initial simulation and analysis of the active site of the enzyme reveals that an arginine residue (Arg256), conserved in the substrate binding domain of this group of enzymes, exists in two alternate conformations, only one of which makes the enzyme active. This active conformation was used in subsequent computations of the enzymatic reactions. It is known that the catalytic α,β-dehydrogenation of fatty acyl-CoAs consists of two C-H bond dissociation processes: a proton abstraction and a hydride transfer. Energy profiles of the two reaction steps in the wild-type MCAD demonstrate that the reaction proceeds by a stepwise mechanism with a transient species. The activation barriers of the two steps differ by only ∼2 kcal/mol, indicating that both may contribute to the rate-limiting process. Thus this may be a stepwise dissociation mechanism whose relative barriers can be tuned by suitable alterations of the substrate and/or enzyme. Analysis of the structures along the reaction path reveals that Arg256 plays a key role in maintaining the reaction-center hydrogen-bonding network involving the thioester carbonyl group, which stabilizes transition states as well as the intervening transient species. Mutation of this arginine residue to glutamine increases the activation barrier of the hydride transfer reaction by ∼5 kcal/mol, and the present simulations predict a substantial loss of catalytic activity for this mutant. Structural analysis of this mutant reveals that the orientation of the thioester moiety of the substrate has been changed significantly as compared to that in the wild-type enzyme. In contrast, simulation of the active site of the Thr168Ala mutant shows no significant change in the relative orientation of the substrate and the cofactor in the active site; as a result, this mutation has very little effect on

  19. Pomegranate peel extract decreases small intestine lipid peroxidation by enhancing activities of major antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Al-Gubory, Kaïs H; Blachier, François; Faure, Patrice; Garrel, Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Pomegranate peel extract (PPE) contains several compounds with antioxidative properties. PPE added to foods may interact with endogenous antioxidants and promote health. However, little is known about the biochemical mechanisms by which PPE exerts their actions on tissues of biological systems in vivo. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of PPE on activities of antioxidant enzymes. Mice were used to investigate the effects of PPE on plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tissue MDA content and activities of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), SOD2 and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the small intestine, liver and skeletal muscle - different tissues involved in the digestion, absorption and metabolism of dietary nutrients. Control mice were fed a standard diet, whereas treated mice were fed for 40 days with the standard diet containing 5% or 10% PPE. Mice fed the 10% PPE diet exhibited lower plasma MDA concentrations, reduced content of MDA in the small intestine and liver and higher levels of SOD1 and GPX activities in the small intestine compared to mice fed the control diet. These findings demonstrate that intake of PPE in diet attenuates small intestine lipid peroxidation and strengthens the first line of small intestine antioxidant defense by enhancing enzymatic antioxidative pathways. PPE is worthy of further study as a therapeutic approach to prevent peroxidative stress-induced gut pathogenesis. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Angiotensin receptors and angiotensin I-converting enzyme in rat intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, K.A.; Mendelsohn, F.A.; Levens, N.R. )

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to map the distribution of angiotensin II (ANG II) receptors and ANG I-converting enzyme (ACE) in rat intestine. ANG II binding sites were visualized by in vitro autoradiography using iodinated (Sar1, Ile8)ANG II. The distribution of ACE was mapped using an iodinated derivative of lisinopril. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were killed and the interior of the whole intestine washed with ice-cold saline. Segments of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon were quickly frozen in a mixture of isopentane and dry ice. Twenty-micron frozen sections were thaw-mounted onto gelatin-coated slides, incubated with either ligand, and exposed to X-ray film. After exposure and subsequent development, the films were quantitated by computerized densitometry. ANG II receptors were most dense in the colon, followed by the ileum, duodenum, and jejunum. Within each segment of intestine, specific ANG II binding sites were localized exclusively to the muscularis. In contrast, ACE was present in both the mucosa and the muscularis. The colocalization of ANG II receptors and ACE may suggest a role for locally generated ANG II in the control of intestinal function. The luminal orientation of ACE in the mucosa of the small intestine may suggest that at this site ACE serves primarily to hydrolyze dietary peptides.

  1. The hexanoyl-CoA precursor for cannabinoid biosynthesis is formed by an acyl-activating enzyme in Cannabis sativa trichomes.

    PubMed

    Stout, Jake M; Boubakir, Zakia; Ambrose, Stephen J; Purves, Randy W; Page, Jonathan E

    2012-08-01

    The psychoactive and analgesic cannabinoids (e.g. Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) in Cannabis sativa are formed from the short-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) precursor hexanoyl-CoA. Cannabinoids are synthesized in glandular trichomes present mainly on female flowers. We quantified hexanoyl-CoA using LC-MS/MS and found levels of 15.5 pmol g(-1) fresh weight in female hemp flowers with lower amounts in leaves, stems and roots. This pattern parallels the accumulation of the end-product cannabinoid, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA). To search for the acyl-activating enzyme (AAE) that synthesizes hexanoyl-CoA from hexanoate, we analyzed the transcriptome of isolated glandular trichomes. We identified 11 unigenes that encoded putative AAEs including CsAAE1, which shows high transcript abundance in glandular trichomes. In vitro assays showed that recombinant CsAAE1 activates hexanoate and other short- and medium-chained fatty acids. This activity and the trichome-specific expression of CsAAE1 suggest that it is the hexanoyl-CoA synthetase that supplies the cannabinoid pathway. CsAAE3 encodes a peroxisomal enzyme that activates a variety of fatty acid substrates including hexanoate. Although phylogenetic analysis showed that CsAAE1 groups with peroxisomal AAEs, it lacked a peroxisome targeting sequence 1 (PTS1) and localized to the cytoplasm. We suggest that CsAAE1 may have been recruited to the cannabinoid pathway through the loss of its PTS1, thereby redirecting it to the cytoplasm. To probe the origin of hexanoate, we analyzed the trichome expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset for enzymes of fatty acid metabolism. The high abundance of transcripts that encode desaturases and a lipoxygenase suggests that hexanoate may be formed through a pathway that involves the oxygenation and breakdown of unsaturated fatty acids.

  2. Digestive enzyme expression and epithelial structure of small intestine in neonatal rats after 16 days spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, M.; Yamasaki, M.; Hazama, A.; Ijiri, K.; Shimizu, T.

    It is important to assure whether digestive system can develop normally in neonates during spaceflight. Because the small intestine changes its function and structure drastically around weaning known as redifferentiation. Lactase expression declines and sucrase increases in small intestine for digestion of solid food before weaning. In this paper, we compared this enzyme transition and structural development of small intestine in neonatal rats after spaceflight. To find digestive genes differentially expressed in fight rats, DNA membrane macroarray was also used. Eight-day old rats were loaded to Space Shuttle Columbia, and housed in the animal facility for 16 days in space (STS-90, Neurolab mission). Two control groups (AGC; asynchronous ground control and VIV; vivarium) against flight group (FLT) were prepared. There was no difference in structure (crypt depth) and cell differentiation of epithelium between FLT and AGC by immunohistochemical analysis. We found that the amount of sucrase mRNA compared to lactase was decreased in FLT by RT-PCR. It reflected the enzyme transition was inhibited. Increase of 5 genes (APO A-I, APO A-IV, ACE, aFABP and aminopeptidase M) and decrease of carboxypeptidase-D were detected in FLT using macroarray. We think nutrition differences (less nourishment and late weaning) during spaceflight may cause inhibition of enzyme transition at least partly. The weightlessness might contribute to the inhibition through behavioral change.

  3. Coordinated and reversible reduction of enzymes involved in terminal oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle mitochondria from a riboflavin-responsive, multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency patient.

    PubMed

    Gianazza, Elisabetta; Vergani, Lodovica; Wait, Robin; Brizio, Carmen; Brambilla, Daniela; Begum, Shajna; Giancaspero, Teresa A; Conserva, Francesca; Eberini, Ivano; Bufano, Daniela; Angelini, Corrado; Pegoraro, Elena; Tramontano, Anna; Barile, Maria

    2006-03-01

    In this case report we studied alterations in mitochondrial proteins in a patient suffering from recurrent profound muscle weakness, associated with ethylmalonic-adipic aciduria, who had benefited from high dose of riboflavin treatment. Morphological and biochemical alterations included muscle lipid accumulation, low muscle carnitine content, reduction in fatty acid beta-oxidation and reduced activity of complexes I and II of the respiratory chain. Riboflavin therapy partially or totally reversed these symptoms and increased the level of muscle flavin adenine dinucleotide, suggesting that aberrant flavin cofactor metabolism accounted for the disease. Proteomic investigation of muscle mitochondria revealed decrease or absence of several flavoenzymes, enzymes related to flavin cofactor-dependent mitochondrial pathways and mitochondrial or mitochondria-associated calcium-binding proteins. All these deficiencies were completely rescued after riboflavin treatment. This study indicates for the first time a profound involvement of riboflavin/flavin cofactors in modulating the level of a number of functionally coordinated polypeptides involved in fatty acyl-CoA and amino acid metabolism, extending the number of enzymatic pathways altered in riboflavin-responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

  4. Primary structures of the precursor and mature forms of stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase from safflower embryos and requirement of ferredoxin for enzyme activity.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, G A; Scherer, D E; Foxall-Van Aken, S; Kenny, J W; Young, H L; Shintani, D K; Kridl, J C; Knauf, V C

    1991-01-01

    Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (EC 1.14.99.6) catalyzes the principal conversion of saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids in the synthesis of vegetable oils. Stearoyl-ACP desaturase was purified from developing embryos of safflower seed, and extensive amino acid sequence was determined. The amino acid sequence was used in conjunction with polymerase chain reactions to clone a full-length cDNA. The primary structure of the protein, as deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA, includes a 33-amino-acid transit peptide not found in the purified enzyme. Expression in Escherichia coli of a gene encoding the mature form of stearoyl-ACP desaturase did not result in an altered fatty acid composition. However, active enzyme was detected when assayed in vitro with added spinach ferredoxin. The lack of significant activity in vitro without added ferredoxin and the lack of observed change in fatty acid composition indicate that ferredoxin is a required cofactor for the enzyme and that E. coli ferredoxin functions poorly, if at all, as an electron donor for the plant enzyme. Images PMID:2006194

  5. The Effects of Enzyme Complex on Performance, Intestinal Health and Nutrient Digestibility of Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yi, J. Q.; Piao, X. S.; Li, Z. C.; Zhang, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Li, Q. Y.; Liu, J. D.; Zhang, Q.; Ru, Y. J.; Dong, B.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing a corn-soybean meal-based diet with an enzyme complex containing amylase, protease and xylanase on the performance, intestinal health, apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs. In Exp. 1, 108 piglets weaned at 28 d of age were fed one of three diets containing 0 (control), 100, or 150 ppm enzyme complex for 4 wks, based on a two-phase feeding program namely 1 to 7 d (phase 1) and 8 to 28 d (phase 2). At the end of the experiment, six pigs from the control group and the group supplemented with 150 ppm enzyme complex were chosen to collect digesta samples from intestine to measure viscosity and pH in the stomach, ileum, and cecum, as well as volatile fatty acid concentrations and composition of the microflora in the cecum and colon. There were linear increases (p<0.01) in weight gain, gain: feed ratio and digestibility of gross energy with the increasing dose rate of enzyme supplementation during the whole experiment. Supplementation with enzyme complex increased the digesta viscosity in the stomach (p<0.05) and significantly increased (p<0.01) the concentrations of acetic, propionic and butyric acid in the cecum and colon. Enzyme supplementation also significantly increased the population of Lactobacilli (p<0.01) in the cecum and decreased the population of E. coli (p<0.05) in the colon. In Exp. 2, six crossbred barrows (initial body weight: 18.26±1.21 kg), fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum, were assigned to three dietary treatments according to a replicated 3×3 Latin Square design. The experimental diets were the same as the diets used in phase 2 in Exp. 1. Apparent ileal digestibility of isoleucine (p<0.01), valine (p<0.05) and aspartic acid (p<0.05) linearly increased with the increasing dose rate of enzyme supplementation. In conclusion, supplementation of the diet with an enzyme complex containing amylase, protease and xylanase

  6. Release of metabolic enzymes by Giardia in response to interaction with intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ringqvist, Emma; Palm, J E Daniel; Skarin, Hanna; Hehl, Adrian B; Weiland, Malin; Davids, Barbara J; Reiner, David S; Griffiths, William J; Eckmann, Lars; Gillin, Frances D; Svärd, Staffan G

    2008-06-01

    Giardia lamblia, an important cause of diarrheal disease, resides in the small intestinal lumen in close apposition to epithelial cells. Since the disease mechanisms underlying giardiasis are poorly understood, elucidating the specific interactions of the parasite with the host epithelium is likely to provide clues to understanding the pathogenesis. Here we tested the hypothesis that contact of Giardia lamblia with intestinal epithelial cells might lead to release of specific proteins. Using established co-culture models, intestinal ligated loops and a proteomics approach, we identified three G. lamblia proteins (arginine deiminase, ornithine carbamoyl transferase and enolase), previously recognized as immunodominant antigens during acute giardiasis. Release was stimulated by cell-cell interactions, since only small amounts of arginine deiminase and enolase were detected in the medium after culturing of G. lamblia alone. The secreted G. lamblia proteins were localized to the cytoplasm and the inside of the plasma membrane of trophozoites. Furthermore, in vitro studies with recombinant arginine deiminase showed that the secreted Giardia proteins can disable host innate immune factors such as nitric oxide production. These results indicate that contact of Giardia with epithelial cells triggers metabolic enzyme release, which might facilitate effective colonization of the human small intestine.

  7. Enhanced Gastrointestinal Expression of Cytosolic Malic Enzyme (ME1) Induces Intestinal and Liver Lipogenic Gene Expression and Intestinal Cell Proliferation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dwairi, Ahmed; Brown, Adam R.; Pabona, John Mark P.; Van, Trang H.; Hamdan, Hamdan; Mercado, Charles P.; Quick, Charles M.; Wight, Patricia A.; Simmen, Rosalia C. M.; Simmen, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    The small intestine participates in lipid digestion, metabolism and transport. Cytosolic malic enzyme 1 (ME1) is an enzyme that generates NADPH used in fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. Previous work has correlated liver and adipose ME1 expression with susceptibility to obesity and diabetes; however, the contributions of intestine-expressed ME1 to these conditions are unknown. We generated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing rat ME1 in the gastrointestinal epithelium under the control of the murine villin1 promoter/enhancer. Levels of intestinal ME1 protein (endogenous plus transgene) were greater in Tg than wildtype (WT) littermates. Effects of elevated intestinal ME1 on body weight, circulating insulin, select adipocytokines, blood glucose, and metabolism-related genes were examined. Male Tg mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet gained significantly more body weight than WT male littermates and had heavier livers. ME1-Tg mice had deeper intestinal and colon crypts, a greater intestinal 5-bromodeoxyuridine labeling index, and increased expression of intestinal lipogenic (Fasn, Srebf1) and cholesterol biosynthetic (Hmgcsr, Hmgcs1), genes. The livers from HF diet-fed Tg mice also exhibited an induction of cholesterol and lipogenic pathway genes and altered measures (Irs1, Irs2, Prkce) of insulin sensitivity. Results indicate that gastrointestinal ME1 via its influence on intestinal epithelial proliferation, and lipogenic and cholesterologenic genes may concomitantly impact signaling in liver to modify this tissue’s metabolic state. Our work highlights a new mouse model to address the role of intestine-expressed ME1 in whole body metabolism, hepatomegaly, and crypt cell proliferation. Intestinal ME1 may thus constitute a therapeutic target to reduce obesity-associated pathologies. PMID:25402228

  8. Intestine.

    PubMed

    Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Horslen, S P; Edwards, E B; Harper, A M; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2016-01-01

    Intestine and intestine-liver transplant plays an important role in the treatment of intestinal failure, despite decreased morbidity associated with parenteral nutrition. In 2014, 210 new patients were added to the intestine transplant waiting list. Among prevalent patients on the list at the end of 2014, 65% were waiting for an intestine transplant and 35% were waiting for an intestine-liver transplant. The pretransplant mortality rate decreased dramatically over time for all age groups. Pretransplant mortality was highest for adult candidates, at 22.1 per 100 waitlist years compared with less than 3 per 100 waitlist years for pediatric candidates, and notably higher for candidates for intestine-liver transplant than for candidates for intestine transplant without a liver. Numbers of intestine transplants without a liver increased from a low of 51 in 2013 to 67 in 2014. Intestine-liver transplants increased from a low of 44 in 2012 to 72 in 2014. Short-gut syndrome (congenital and other) was the main cause of disease leading to both intestine and intestine-liver transplant. Graft survival improved over the past decade. Patient survival was lowest for adult intestine-liver recipients and highest for pediatric intestine recipients. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  9. Exogenous enzyme complex prevents intestinal soybean meal-induced enteritis in Mugil liza (Valenciennes, 1836) juvenile.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Leonardo R V; Pedrosa, Virgínia F; Mori, Agnes; Andrade, Carlos F F DE; Romano, Luis A; Abreu, Paulo C; Tesser, Marcelo B

    2017-02-09

    Four soybean meal-based diets containing increasing levels of an enzyme complex (E50, E100, E150 and E200 at 50, 100, 150 and 200 g ton-1, respectively) and one soybean meal-based diet without the enzyme complex (E0) were fed in triplicate to M. liza juveniles in a semi-static flow system with 20 fish per tank for 75 days. There were no differences between the treatments for animal performance parameters, but fish fed the enzyme complex treatment exhibited significantly (P<0.05) higher values of calcium bone retention compared with control fish. Although there was no relationship between bacterial counts in different sections of the gastrointestinal tract or enzyme levels, filamentous bacteria were increased in E50 compared with E150. All of the treatments resulted in higher bacterial counts in the stomach than in intestinal segments. Histological screening showed serious to moderate infiltration of inflammatory cells, modification in villus morphology and necrosis in some cases in fish fed the E0 diet. In addition, fish from the E0 treatment exhibited significantly (P<0.05) lower lipid deposition in the peritoneal cavity. Therefore, the use of low levels of exogenous enzyme is recommended in diets for M. liza when soybean meal is used as the main source of protein.

  10. GFP-tagging of Arabidopsis acyl-activating enzymes raises the issue of peroxisome-chloroplast import competition versus dual localization.

    PubMed

    Hooks, Katarzyna B; Turner, James E; Graham, Ian A; Runions, John; Hooks, Mark A

    2012-11-01

    Protein sequence analysis of a subfamily of 18 Arabidopsis acyl-activating enzymes (AAE) for organelle targeting signals revealed that eight of them possessed putative peroxisomal targeting signals (PTS1), five of which belonged to Clade VI of the AAE superfamily. Peroxisomal localization was confirmed by confocal microscopy of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-AAE fusion proteins co-localizing with peroxisomal RFP. The sequence analysis also revealed that all enzymes of Clade VI possess N-terminal regions indicative of chloroplast transit peptides (cTP). Among the five Clade VI peroxisomal enzymes tested, masking the PTS1 signal with GFP redirected three to plastids. In addition, three other peroxisomal AAEs appeared to be redirected to plastids in AAE-GFP fusion constructs. Due to the lack of evidence supporting plastid localization, we propose that competition dictates the exclusive localization to peroxisomes. AAE2 of Clade VI was the only enzyme with a putative mitochondrial targeting sequence, and it appeared to be targeted to mitochondria. The remainder of the AAEs appeared to be localized to plastids or cytosol. The AAE9-GFP fusion protein appeared to be located within discreet structures within plastids that may be plastoglobules. AAE15-GFP, but not AAE16-GFP appeared to be located in the chloroplast envelope. The number of examples is increasing whereby proteins located within other compartments contribute to plastid function. We provide an example of this through the light-sensitive phenotype of mutants of AAE2. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Adaptation of acyl-enzyme kinetic theory and an experimental method for evaluating the kinetics of fast-acting, irreversible protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Leytus, S P; Peltz, S W; Mangel, W F

    1983-01-26

    The theory of acyl-enzyme kinetics (Bender, M.L., Kézdy, F.J. and Wedler, F.C. (1967) J. Chem. Educ. 44, 84-88) has been adapted for use in evaluating the kinetics of inhibition of serine proteases by both natural and synthetic irreversible inhibitors. The new theory is based upon formal analysis of the case of an irreversible, active-site-directed inhibitor competing with an irreversible, active-site-directed substrate for the active site of a serine protease. From this theory, an experimentally simple and accurate method is described to obtain a second-order rate constant that is characteristic of the efficiency with which an irreversible inhibitor reacts. The experimental method is particularly useful for characterizing fast-acting, irreversible inhibitors. The theory and method which are applicable to a wide variety of enzymes are verified by analysis of the inhibition of bovine trypsin by three model inhibitors, p-nitrophenyl p'-guanidinobenzoate, soybean trypsin inhibitor and alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor as well as by human antithrombin III in the presence of heparin and by bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor.

  12. Disruption of the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase gene in mice: Evidence suggesting multiple cholesterol esterification enzymes in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Meiner, Vardiella L.; Cases, Sylvaine; Myers, Heather M.; Sande, Eric R.; Bellosta, Stefano; Schambelan, Morris; Pitas, Robert E.; McGuire, James; Herz, Joachim; Farese, Robert V.

    1996-01-01

    The microsomal enzyme acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT; EC 2.3.1.26) catalyzes the esterification of cellular cholesterol with fatty acids to form cholesterol esters. ACAT activity is found in many tissues, including macrophages, the adrenal glands, and the liver. In macrophages, ACAT is thought to participate in foam cell formation and thereby to contribute to atherosclerotic lesion development. Disruption of the gene for ACAT (Acact) in mice resulted in decreased cholesterol esterification in ACAT-deficient fibroblasts and adrenal membranes, and markedly reduced cholesterol ester levels in adrenal glands and peritoneal macrophages; the latter finding will be useful in testing the role of ACAT and macrophage foam cell formation in atherosclerosis. In contrast, the livers of ACAT-deficient mice contained substantial amounts of cholesterol esters and exhibited no reduction in cholesterol esterification activity. These tissue-specific reductions in cholesterol esterification provide evidence that in mammals this process involves more than one form of esterification enzyme. PMID:8943057

  13. Effects of dietary fructooligosaccharide on digestive enzyme activities, intestinal microflora and morphology of male broilers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z R; Hu, C H; Xia, M S; Zhan, X A; Wang, M Q

    2003-06-01

    Two hundred forty male Avian Farms broiler chicks, 1 d of age, were randomly allocated to four treatments, each of which had five pens of 12 chicks per pen. The chicks were used to investigate the effects of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on digestive enzyme activities and intestinal microflora and morphology. The chicks received the same basal diet based on corn-soybean meal, and FOS was added to the basal diet at 0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 g/kg diet at the expense of corn. Addition of 4.0 g/kg FOS to the basal diet significantly increased average daily gain of broilers. The feed-to-gain ratios were significantly decreased for the birds fed diets with 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg FOS versus the control. Addition of 4.0 g/kg FOS enhanced the growth of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, but inhibited Escherichia coli in the small intestinal and cecal digesta. Supplementation of 2.0 or 4.0 g/kg FOS to chicks significantly improved the activities of amylase compared to the control (12.80 or 14.75 vs. 8.42 Somogyi units). A significant increase in the activities of total protease was observed in 4.0 g/kg FOS-treated birds versus controls (83.91 vs. 65.97 units). Morphology data for the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum showed no significant differences for villus height, crypt depth, or microvillus height at the duodenum. By contrast, addition of 4.0 g/kg FOS significantly increased ileal villus height, jejunal and ileal microvillus height, and villus-height-to-crypt-depth ratios at the jejunum and ileum and decreased crypt depth at the jejunum and ileum. However, addition of 8.0 g/kg FOS had no significant effect on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, intestinal microflora, or morphology.

  14. Reduction of azo dyes and nitroaromatic compounds by bacterial enzymes from the human intestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Rafii, F.; Cerniglia, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    Several anaerobic bacteria from the human intestinal tract are capable of reducing azo dyes and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the corresponding aromatic amines with enzymes that have azoreductase and nitroreductase activities. The majority of bacteria with these activities belong to the genera Clostridium and Eubacterium. The azoreductases and nitroreductases from three Clostridium strains and one Eubacterium strain were studied. Both enzymes were produced constitutively in each of the bacteria; the enzymes from various bacteria had different electrophoretic mobilities. The azoreductases from all of the bacteria had immunological homology, as was evident from the cross-reactivity of an antibody raised against the azoreductase of C perfringens with azoreductases from other bacteria. Comparison of azoreductases and nitroreductases showed that they both had identical electrophoretic mobilities on polyacrylamide gels and reacted with the antibody against the azoreductase from C. perfringens. Furthermore, the nitroaromatic compounds competitively inhibited the azoreductase activity. The data indicate that the reduction of both nitroaromatic compounds and azo dyes may be carried out by the same enzyme, which is possibly a flavin adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase that is synthesized throughout the cell and not associated with any organized subcellular structure. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. Neutron and X-ray Crystal Structures of a Perdeuterated Enzyme Inhibitor Complex Reveal the Catalytic Proton Network of the Toho-1 β-Lactamase for the Acylation Reaction*

    PubMed Central

    Tomanicek, Stephen J.; Standaert, Robert F.; Weiss, Kevin L.; Ostermann, Andreas; Schrader, Tobias E.; Ng, Joseph D.; Coates, Leighton

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism by which class A β-lactamases hydrolyze β-lactam antibiotics has been the subject of intensive investigation using many different experimental techniques. Here, we report on the novel use of both neutron and high resolution x-ray diffraction to help elucidate the identity of the catalytic base in the acylation part of the catalytic cycle, wherein the β-lactam ring is opened and an acyl-enzyme intermediate forms. To generate protein crystals optimized for neutron diffraction, we produced a perdeuterated form of the Toho-1 β-lactamase R274N/R276N mutant. Protein perdeuteration, which involves replacing all of the hydrogen atoms in a protein with deuterium, gives a much stronger signal in neutron diffraction and enables the positions of individual deuterium atoms to be located. We also synthesized a perdeuterated acylation transition state analog, benzothiophene-2-boronic acid, which was also isotopically enriched with 11B, as 10B is a known neutron absorber. Using the neutron diffraction data from the perdeuterated enzyme-inhibitor complex, we were able to determine the positions of deuterium atoms in the active site directly rather than by inference. The neutron diffraction results, along with supporting bond-length analysis from high resolution x-ray diffraction, strongly suggest that Glu-166 acts as the general base during the acylation reaction. PMID:23255594

  16. Effects of dietary supplementation of multi-enzyme on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, small intestinal digestive enzyme activities, and large intestinal selected microbiota in weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G G; Yang, Z B; Wang, Y; Yang, W R; Zhou, H J

    2014-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of an exogenous multi-enzyme (EME) preparation to 35- to 65-d-old piglets on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, and selected microbial populations in feces. In Exp.1, twenty eight 35-d-old piglets were randomly assigned to 7 dietary treatments (corn-soybean based diet supplemented with 0, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, or 350 mg EME/kg) in a 14-d digestibility study. Piglets fed the diets supplemented with EME had greater ATTD of DM, CP, and GE (P = 0.001, 0.005, and 0.009, respectively) than those fed the diet without EME supplementation, and those ATTD values increased linearly and quadratically (P < 0.001) as the levels of supplemented EME increased. In Exp. 2, two hundred 35-d-old weanling piglets were randomly allocated to 20 pens. The pens were then randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments (corn-soybean based diet supplemented with 0, 100, 150, 250, or 350 mg EME/kg) with 4 pens per treatment in a 30-d feeding experiment. Piglets has ad libitum access to diets and water, and they were weighed at the beginning (35-d-old), middle (50-d-old), and end (65-d-old) of the experiment. Fecal samples were grabbed directly from the rectum and digesta samples from duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were taken at the end of the experiment for the analysis of selected bacteria populations and digestive-enzyme activities. The ADG and ADFI tended to be greater with the increasing levels of supplemented EME in both periods, whereas G:F was improved (P = 0.012 and 0.017) by EME in the period of 35 to 50 d of age and during the overall experimental period. Furthermore, inclusion of EME in diet increased the counts of Lactobacilli spp. and Bacillus subtilis spp., but reduced the populations of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli spp. in the feces. The EME supplementation also enhanced (P < 0.05) the activities of amylase, lipase, and protease in the

  17. Enzyme activities and morphological appearance in functioning and excluded segments of the small intestine after shunt operation for obesity.

    PubMed Central

    Asp, N G; Gudmand-Høyer, E; Andersen, B; Berg, N O

    1979-01-01

    Five patients in whom small-intestinal bypass was performed for severe obesity had a second operation 11-19 months later because of insufficient weight loss. Mucosal enzyme activities and histological appearance were investigated in biopsies from different parts of the functioning and excluded small intestine. These were compared with biopsies form corresponding sites obtained at the first operation. In addition to a prominent increase in length, circumference, and mucosal thickness in the functioning shunt, the disaccharidases and two intracellular beta-galactosidases increased in specific activity,, especially in the distal ileal part of the shunt. In the excluded segment of the small intestine different enzymes showed a different response: trehalase increased and alkaline phosphate decreased significantly. Other enzymes that were measured showed a varied pattern. The results indicated that not only the luminal content but also other, presumably hormonal, factors regulated the enzyme activities, and that different regulating factors influenced the various enzymes differently. The marked adaptive increase in mucosal surface of the functioning shunt could be one factor in explaining the weight stabilisation and, in some cases, weight increase after the initial rapid weight loss after the operation for small-intestinal bypass. The increase in specific enzyme activities would further increase the digestive capacity of the shunt. Images Fig. 1 PMID:488750

  18. Acyl-Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Shorrosh, Basil; Beisson, Fred; Andersson, Mats X.; Arondel, Vincent; Bates, Philip D.; Baud, Sébastien; Bird, David; DeBono, Allan; Durrett, Timothy P.; Franke, Rochus B.; Graham, Ian A.; Katayama, Kenta; Kelly, Amélie A.; Larson, Tony; Markham, Jonathan E.; Miquel, Martine; Molina, Isabel; Nishida, Ikuo; Rowland, Owen; Samuels, Lacey; Schmid, Katherine M.; Wada, Hajime; Welti, Ruth; Xu, Changcheng; Zallot, Rémi; Ohlrogge, John

    2013-01-01

    Acyl lipids in Arabidopsis and all other plants have a myriad of diverse functions. These include providing the core diffusion barrier of the membranes that separates cells and subcellular organelles. This function alone involves more than 10 membrane lipid classes, including the phospholipids, galactolipids, and sphingolipids, and within each class the variations in acyl chain composition expand the number of structures to several hundred possible molecular species. Acyl lipids in the form of triacylglycerol account for 35% of the weight of Arabidopsis seeds and represent their major form of carbon and energy storage. A layer of cutin and cuticular waxes that restricts the loss of water and provides protection from invasions by pathogens and other stresses covers the entire aerial surface of Arabidopsis. Similar functions are provided by suberin and its associated waxes that are localized in roots, seed coats, and abscission zones and are produced in response to wounding. This chapter focuses on the metabolic pathways that are associated with the biosynthesis and degradation of the acyl lipids mentioned above. These pathways, enzymes, and genes are also presented in detail in an associated website (ARALIP: http://aralip.plantbiology.msu.edu/). Protocols and methods used for analysis of Arabidopsis lipids are provided. Finally, a detailed summary of the composition of Arabidopsis lipids is provided in three figures and 15 tables. PMID:23505340

  19. Acyl-Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Shorrosh, Basil; Beisson, Fred; Andersson, Mats X.; Arondel, Vincent; Bates, Philip D.; Baud, Sébastien; Bird, David; DeBono, Allan; Durrett, Timothy P.; Franke, Rochus B.; Graham, Ian A.; Katayama, Kenta; Kelly, Amélie A.; Larson, Tony; Markham, Jonathan E.; Miquel, Martine; Molina, Isabel; Nishida, Ikuo; Rowland, Owen; Samuels, Lacey; Schmid, Katherine M.; Wada, Hajime; Welti, Ruth; Xu, Changcheng; Zallot, Rémi; Ohlrogge, John

    2010-01-01

    Acyl lipids in Arabidopsis and all other plants have a myriad of diverse functions. These include providing the core diffusion barrier of the membranes that separates cells and subcellular organelles. This function alone involves more than 10 membrane lipid classes, including the phospholipids, galactolipids, and sphingolipids, and within each class the variations in acyl chain composition expand the number of structures to several hundred possible molecular species. Acyl lipids in the form of triacylglycerol account for 35% of the weight of Arabidopsis seeds and represent their major form of carbon and energy storage. A layer of cutin and cuticular waxes that restricts the loss of water and provides protection from invasions by pathogens and other stresses covers the entire aerial surface of Arabidopsis. Similar functions are provided by suberin and its associated waxes that are localized in roots, seed coats, and abscission zones and are produced in response to wounding. This chapter focuses on the metabolic pathways that are associated with the biosynthesis and degradation of the acyl lipids mentioned above. These pathways, enzymes, and genes are also presented in detail in an associated website (ARALIP: http://aralip.plantbiology.msu.edu/). Protocols and methods used for analysis of Arabidopsis lipids are provided. Finally, a detailed summary of the composition of Arabidopsis lipids is provided in three figures and 15 tables. PMID:22303259

  20. [Important application of intestinal transporters and metabolism enzymes on gastrointestinal disposal of active ingredients of Chinese materia medica].

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiaolin; Du, Qiu; Di, Liuqing

    2010-02-01

    Oral drug bioavailability depends on gastrointestinal absorption, intestinal transporters and metabolism enzymes are the important factors in drug gastrointestinal absorption and they can also be induced or inhibited by the active ingredients of Chinese materia medica. This article presents important application of intestinal transporters and metabolism enzymes on gastrointestinal disposal of the active ingredients of Chinese materia medica, and points out the importance of research on transport and metabolism of the active ingredients of Chinese materia medica in Chinese extract and Chinese medicinal formulae.

  1. Nucleotide sequence of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase mRNA and its expression in enzyme-deficient human tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.P.; Kim, J.J.; Billadello, J.J.; Hainline, B.E.; Chu, T.W.; Strauss, A.W.

    1987-06-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase is one of three similar enzymes that catalyze the initial step of fatty acid ..beta..-oxidation. Definition of the primary structure of MCAD and the tissue distribution of its mRNA is of biochemical and clinical importance because of the recent recognition of inherited MCAD deficiency in humans. The MCAD mRNA nucleotide sequence was determined from two overlapping cDNA clones isolated from human liver and placental cDNA libraries, respectively. The MCAD mRNA includes a 1263-base-pair coding region and a 738-base-pair 3'-nontranslated region. A partial amino acid sequence (137 residues) determined on peptides derived from MCAD purified from porcine liver confirmed the identity of the cDNA clone. Comparison of the amino acid sequence predicted from the human MCAD cDNA with the partial protein sequence of the porcine MCAD revealed a high degree (88%) of interspecies sequence identity. RNA blot analysis shows that MCAD mRNA is expressed in a variety of rat (2.2 kilobases) and human (2.4 kilobases) tissues. Blot hybridization of RNA prepared from cultured skin fibroblasts from a patient with MCAD deficiency disclosed that mRNA was present and of similar size of MCAD mRNA derived from control fibroblasts. The isolation and characterization of MCAD cDNA is an important step in the definition of the defect underlying its metabolic consequences.

  2. In vitro influence of spices and spice-active principles on digestive enzymes of rat pancreas and small intestine.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna Rao, R; Platel, Kalpana; Srinivasan, K

    2003-12-01

    In vitro influence of 14 individual spices (curcumin, capsaicin, piperine, garlic, onion, ginger, mint, coriander, cumin, ajowan, fennel, fenugreek, mustard, and asafoetida) on the activities of digestive enzymes of rat pancreas and small intestine was examined by including them in the reaction mixture at two different concentrations. A majority of spices enhanced the activity of pancreatic lipase and amylase when they are directly in contact with the enzyme. It is inferred that this positive influence on the activity of enzymes may have a supplementary role in the overall digestive stimulant action of spices, besides causing an enhancement of the titres of digestive enzymes in pancreatic tissue.

  3. Effects of xylitol on carbohydrate digesting enzymes activity, intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake: a multi-mode study.

    PubMed

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the possible mechanism(s) behind the effects of xylitol on carbohydrate digesting enzymes activity, muscle glucose uptake and intestinal glucose absorption using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experimental models. The effects of increasing concentrations of xylitol (2.5%-40% or 164.31 mM-2628.99 mM) on alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase activity in vitro and intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake were investigated under ex vivo conditions. Additionally, the effects of an oral bolus dose of xylitol (1 g per kg BW) on gastric emptying and intestinal glucose absorption and digesta transit in the different segments of the intestinal tract were investigated in normal and type 2 diabetic rats at 1 hour after dose administration, when phenol red was used as a recovery marker. Xylitol exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of alpha amylase (IC₅₀ = 1364.04 mM) and alpha glucosidase (IC₅₀ = 1127.52 mM) activity in vitro and small intestinal glucose absorption under ex vivo condition. Xylitol also increased dose dependent muscle glucose uptake with and without insulin, although the uptake was not significantly affected by the addition of insulin. Oral single bolus dose of xylitol significantly delayed gastric emptying, inhibited intestinal glucose absorption but increased the intestinal digesta transit rate in both normal and diabetic rats compared to their respective controls. The data of this study suggest that xylitol reduces intestinal glucose absorption via inhibiting major carbohydrate digesting enzymes, slowing gastric emptying and fastening the intestinal transit rate, but increases muscle glucose uptake in normal and type 2 diabetic rats.

  4. Influence of bacterial N-acyl-homoserine lactones on growth parameters, pigments, antioxidative capacities and the xenobiotic phase II detoxification enzymes in barley and yam bean.

    PubMed

    Götz-Rösch, Christine; Sieper, Tina; Fekete, Agnes; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Hartmann, Anton; Schröder, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria are able to communicate with each other and sense their environment in a population density dependent mechanism known as quorum sensing (QS). N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are the QS signaling compounds of Gram-negative bacteria which are frequent colonizers of rhizospheres. While cross-kingdom signaling and AHL-dependent gene expression in plants has been confirmed, the responses of enzyme activities in the eukaryotic host upon AHLs are unknown. Since AHL are thought to be used as so-called plant boosters or strengthening agents, which might change their resistance toward radiation and/or xenobiotic stress, we have examined the plants' pigment status and their antioxidative and detoxifying capacities upon AHL treatment. Because the yield of a crop plant should not be negatively influenced, we have also checked for growth and root parameters. We investigated the influence of three different AHLs, namely N-hexanoyl- (C6-HSL), N-octanoyl- (C8-HSL), and N-decanoyl- homoserine lactone (C10-HSL) on two agricultural crop plants. The AHL-effects on Hordeum vulgare (L.) as an example of a monocotyledonous crop and on the tropical leguminous crop plant Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) were compared. While plant growth and pigment contents in both plants showed only small responses to the applied AHLs, AHL treatment triggered tissue- and compound-specific changes in the activity of important detoxification enzymes. The activity of dehydroascorbate reductase in barley shoots after C10-HSL treatment for instance increased up to 384% of control plant levels, whereas superoxide dismutase activity in barley roots was decreased down to 23% of control levels upon C6-HSL treatment. Other detoxification enzymes reacted similarly within this range, with interesting clusters of positive or negative answers toward AHL treatment. In general the changes on the enzyme level were more severe in barley than in yam bean which might be due to the different abilities of the plants to

  5. Influence of bacterial N-acyl-homoserine lactones on growth parameters, pigments, antioxidative capacities and the xenobiotic phase II detoxification enzymes in barley and yam bean

    PubMed Central

    Götz-Rösch, Christine; Sieper, Tina; Fekete, Agnes; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Hartmann, Anton; Schröder, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria are able to communicate with each other and sense their environment in a population density dependent mechanism known as quorum sensing (QS). N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are the QS signaling compounds of Gram-negative bacteria which are frequent colonizers of rhizospheres. While cross-kingdom signaling and AHL-dependent gene expression in plants has been confirmed, the responses of enzyme activities in the eukaryotic host upon AHLs are unknown. Since AHL are thought to be used as so-called plant boosters or strengthening agents, which might change their resistance toward radiation and/or xenobiotic stress, we have examined the plants’ pigment status and their antioxidative and detoxifying capacities upon AHL treatment. Because the yield of a crop plant should not be negatively influenced, we have also checked for growth and root parameters. We investigated the influence of three different AHLs, namely N-hexanoyl- (C6-HSL), N-octanoyl- (C8-HSL), and N-decanoyl- homoserine lactone (C10-HSL) on two agricultural crop plants. The AHL-effects on Hordeum vulgare (L.) as an example of a monocotyledonous crop and on the tropical leguminous crop plant Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) were compared. While plant growth and pigment contents in both plants showed only small responses to the applied AHLs, AHL treatment triggered tissue- and compound-specific changes in the activity of important detoxification enzymes. The activity of dehydroascorbate reductase in barley shoots after C10-HSL treatment for instance increased up to 384% of control plant levels, whereas superoxide dismutase activity in barley roots was decreased down to 23% of control levels upon C6-HSL treatment. Other detoxification enzymes reacted similarly within this range, with interesting clusters of positive or negative answers toward AHL treatment. In general the changes on the enzyme level were more severe in barley than in yam bean which might be due to the different abilities of the plants to

  6. Dietary fat effects on brush border membrane composition and enzyme activities in rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Kaur, M; Kaur, J; Ojha, S; Mahmood, A

    1996-01-01

    The effect of dietary fats on the chemical composition and enzyme activities has been studied in intestinal brush border membranes (BBM) or rats. Animals were given commercial rat pellet diet (RP) or semisynthetic diet rich in either saturated [coconut oil (CCO))] or polyunsaturated [n-6, corn oil (CO) or n-3, fish oil (FO)] fat at the 10% level for 5 weeks. The membrane cholesterol/phospholipid ratio was augmented in CO- or RP-fed rats. There was an increase in level of saturated fatty acids in BBM from CCO- or FO-fed animals. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content was raised in FO-fed rats, while the proportion of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid was enhanced in animals given a CO diet. Membrane fluidity was in the order of CCO < RP = CO < FO. The membrane hexose content was high (p < 0.05) in the CCO group. Hexosamines were elevated (p < 0.05) in CCO- or FO-fed rat brush borders. Membrane fucose was unaltered, while sialic acid content was elevated in CO- (p < 0.05) and FO- (p < 0.01) fed vs. CCO-fed rats. Lectin binding to brush borders corroborated these findings. The activities of alkaline phosphatase, sucrase and lactase were augmented (p < 0.001) in CCO-fed animals. Leucine-aminopeptidase and sucrase activities were depressed by FO feeding. The activities of PNP-beta-glycosidases were the highest in FO-fed rats. These results indicate that dietary fat quality markedly affects microvillus membrane lipid composition, glycosylation and enzyme functions in rat intestine.

  7. The Nucleotide Synthesis Enzyme CAD Inhibits NOD2 Antibacterial Function in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Amy L.; Kabi, Amrita; Homer, Craig R.; García, Noemí Marina; Nickerson, Kourtney P.; NesvizhskiI, Alexey I.; Sreekumar, Arun; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Nuñez, Gabriel; McDonald, Christine

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Polymorphisms that reduce the function of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)2, a bacterial sensor, have been associated with Crohn’s disease (CD). No proteins that regulate NOD2 activity have been identified as selective pharmacologic targets. We sought to discover regulators of NOD2 that might be pharmacologic targets for CD therapies. METHODS Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase/ aspartate transcarbamylase/dihydroorotase (CAD) is an enzyme required for de novo pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis; it was identified as a NOD2-interacting protein by immunoprecipitation-coupled mass spectrometry. CAD expression was assessed in colon tissues from individuals with and without inflammatory bowel disease by immunohistochemistry. The interaction between CAD and NOD2 was assessed in human HCT116 intestinal epithelial cells by immunoprecipitation, immunoblot, reporter gene, and gentamicin protection assays. We also analyzed human cell lines that express variants of NOD2 and the effects of RNA interference, overexpression and CAD inhibitors. RESULTS CAD was identified as a NOD2-interacting protein expressed at increased levels in the intestinal epithelium of patients with CD compared with controls. Overexpression of CAD inhibited NOD2-dependent activation of nuclear factor κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, as well as intracellular killing of Salmonella. Reduction of CAD expression or administration of CAD inhibitors increased NOD2-dependent signaling and antibacterial functions of NOD2 variants that are and are not associated with CD. CONCLUSIONS The nucleotide synthesis enzyme CAD is a negative regulator of NOD2. The antibacterial function of NOD2 variants that have been associated with CD increased in response to pharmacologic inhibition of CAD. CAD is a potential therapeutic target for CD. PMID:22387394

  8. Intestinal morphology, brush border and digesta enzyme activities of broilers fed on a diet containing Cu2+-loaded montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y L; Guo, T

    2008-01-01

    1. A total of 320 1-d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were used to investigate the effect of Cu(2+)-loaded montmorillonite (CM) on the growth performance, intestinal morphology and activities of brush border enzyme in the intestinal mucosa and digestive enzyme in the intestinal digesta of broilers. 2. The chicks were assigned randomly into 4 groups with 80 chicks per treatment. The 4 dietary treatments were: basal diet only (control group), basal diet + 2 g montmorillonite/kg, basal diet + 1 g CM/kg, and basal diet + 2 g CM/kg. The chicks were raised in cages and feed and water were provided ad libitum for a period of 42 d. 3. The addition of CM to the diet of broilers significantly increased body weight and feed efficiency. Similarly, birds receiving montmorillonite had higher feed efficiency than the control after 42 d of feeding. 4. Data on villus height and crypt depth for duodenum, jejunum and ileum indicated that treating the diet of broilers with either CM or montmorillonite improved the mucosal morphology of the small intestine. 5. The presence of CM in the diet of broilers significantly increased the activities of maltase, aminopeptidase N and alkaline phosphatase in small intestinal mucosa. However, the activities of protease, trypsin, chymotrypsin, amylase and lipase in small intestinal digesta of broilers fed on the CM-supplemented diet were slightly higher than control values.

  9. Expression of an antimicrobial peptide, digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in the intestine of E. praecox-infected chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Coccidiosis is a major intestinal disease of poultry, caused by several species of the protozoan Eimeria. The objective of this study was to examine changes in expression of digestive enzymes, nutrient transporters and an antimicrobial peptide following an Eimeria praecox challenge of chickens at d...

  10. Addition of exogenous enzymes to diets containing grape pomace: Effects on intestinal utilization of catechins and antioxidant status of chickens.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, S; Viveros, A; Rebolé, A; Arija, I; Romero, C; Alvarez, I; Rey, A; Brenes, A

    2017-06-01

    Grape pomace (GP) is a rich source of polyphenols with antioxidant capacity. An experiment was conducted to study the effect of GP phenolic compounds included at 5 and 10%, and the addition (individually or combined) of hydrolyzing enzymes (carbohydrase enzyme complex and tannase at 500ppm) on intestinal utilization of catechins and antioxidant status in broiler chickens. A diet supplemented with 200ppm of α-tocopheryl acetate was also used. Our findings demonstrate the capacity of chickens to digest the monomeric (catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, and epicatechin-O-gallate) and dimeric (procyanidin B1 and procyanidin B2) catechins present in grape pomace. The addition of enzymes (mainly tannase) hydrolyzed the polymeric structures into smaller catechins, but also promoted a lower digestibility of the monomeric and dimeric catechins suggesting that polymeric structures might favour the intestinal utilization of these catechins. The intestinal accumulation of phenolic compounds generated with tannase and with 10% GP reversed the antimicrobial effect against Clostridium perfringens observed with 5% of GP. Grape pomace improved the antioxidant status of the bird, increasing the α-tocopherol and reducing the iron content on plasma, not affecting the plasma gluthatione. Enzymes modified the intestinal utilization of catechins but not additional protective effect was detected on any of the parameters analyzed to evaluate the antioxidant status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of dietary stachyose on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and intestinal morphology of juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haibin; Zhang, Yanjiao; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Li, Yanxian; Liu, Jintao

    2015-10-01

    A 12-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary stachyose on the growth performance, digestive enzymes activities and intestinal structures of juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L). Five isonitrogenous (49.58% crude protein) and isolipidic (10.50% crude lipid) diets were formulated to contain 0 (Control), 0.625% (S-0.625), 1.25% (S-1.25), 2.5% (S-2.5) and 5% (S-5) stachyose, respectively. With the increase of stachyose level, the growth performance and feed utilization of turbot, such as the specific growth rate, final mean body weight, weight gain rate and feed efficiency, increased significantly ( P< 0.05) and then stabilized. The feed intake of fish fed S-5 was significantly higher ( P< 0.05) than that of fish in other groups. The activities of trypsin, intestinal caseinolytic, stomach and intestinal amylase were significantly influenced by stachyose ( P<0.05). The highest values of trypsin and intestinal caseinolytic activities were observed in group S-1.25, while the highest activity of stomach amylase and the lowest activity of intestine amylase were observed in group S-5. No lesion or damage was found on the distal intestine structures of fish from all treatments, while the height of simple folds in the distal intestine was significantly increased ( P< 0.05) when 1.25% or 2.5% stachyose was added in the diets. These results indicated that moderate level of stachyose (1.25%) improves the growth performance, feed utilization, digestive enzyme activities and the distal intestine structures of juvenile turbot.

  12. Stereochemistry of the acyl dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyl exchange reaction.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, S J; Satsangi, N; Weintraub, S T

    1991-02-01

    The fatty acid of acyl dihydroxyacetone phosphate can be exchanged enzymatically for another fatty acid. It has been shown that this reaction proceeds by cleavage of the oxygen bound to C-1 of the dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) moiety rather than by the more common cleavage at the acyl to oxygen bond. In the present study, the stereochemistry of this reaction was defined further; using deuterated substrates and fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, it was shown that the fatty acid exchange involves the stereospecific labilization of the pro-R hydrogen at C-1 of the DHAP moiety of acyl DHAP. The mechanism of ether bond formation, in which acyl DHAP is converted to O-alkyl DHAP, also proceeds via labilization of the pro-R hydrogen and cleavage of the fatty acid at the C-1 to oxygen bond. In addition, other workers have provided evidence that the enzyme responsible for the exchange reaction is O-alkyl DHAP synthetase. Therefore, the present results support the hypothesis that the acyl exchange is the reverse reaction of the first step in O-alkyl DHAP synthesis; in both of these reactions the pro-R hydrogen of C-1 of the DHAP moiety of acyl DHAP and the fatty acid moiety are labilized with cleavage of the fatty acid at the DHAP C-1 to oxygen bond.

  13. Intestinal triacylglycerol synthesis in fat absorption and systemic energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Nelson, David W; Yen, Mei-I

    2015-03-01

    The intestine plays a prominent role in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerol (triglyceride; TAG). Digested dietary TAG is repackaged in the intestine to form the hydrophobic core of chylomicrons, which deliver metabolic fuels, essential fatty acids, and other lipid-soluble nutrients to the peripheral tissues. By controlling the flux of dietary fat into the circulation, intestinal TAG synthesis can greatly impact systemic metabolism. Genes encoding many of the enzymes involved in TAG synthesis have been identified. Among TAG synthesis enzymes, acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 and acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)1 are highly expressed in the intestine. Their physiological functions have been examined in the context of whole organisms using genetically engineered mice and, in the case of DGAT1, specific inhibitors. An emerging theme from recent findings is that limiting the rate of TAG synthesis in the intestine can modulate gut hormone secretion, lipid metabolism, and systemic energy balance. The underlying mechanisms and their implications for humans are yet to be explored. Pharmacological inhibition of TAG hydrolysis in the intestinal lumen has been employed to combat obesity and associated disorders with modest efficacy and unwanted side effects. The therapeutic potential of inhibiting specific enzymes involved in intestinal TAG synthesis warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Intestinal triacylglycerol synthesis in fat absorption and systemic energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Nelson, David W.; Yen, Mei-I

    2015-01-01

    The intestine plays a prominent role in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerol (triglyceride; TAG). Digested dietary TAG is repackaged in the intestine to form the hydrophobic core of chylomicrons, which deliver metabolic fuels, essential fatty acids, and other lipid-soluble nutrients to the peripheral tissues. By controlling the flux of dietary fat into the circulation, intestinal TAG synthesis can greatly impact systemic metabolism. Genes encoding many of the enzymes involved in TAG synthesis have been identified. Among TAG synthesis enzymes, acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 and acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)1 are highly expressed in the intestine. Their physiological functions have been examined in the context of whole organisms using genetically engineered mice and, in the case of DGAT1, specific inhibitors. An emerging theme from recent findings is that limiting the rate of TAG synthesis in the intestine can modulate gut hormone secretion, lipid metabolism, and systemic energy balance. The underlying mechanisms and their implications for humans are yet to be explored. Pharmacological inhibition of TAG hydrolysis in the intestinal lumen has been employed to combat obesity and associated disorders with modest efficacy and unwanted side effects. The therapeutic potential of inhibiting specific enzymes involved in intestinal TAG synthesis warrants further investigation. PMID:25231105

  15. Malonyl-CoA Synthetase, Encoded by ACYL ACTIVATING ENZYME13, Is Essential for Growth and Development of Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Kim, Hyun Uk; Weng, Hua; Browse, John

    2011-01-01

    Malonyl-CoA is the precursor for fatty acid synthesis and elongation. It is also one of the building blocks for the biosynthesis of some phytoalexins, flavonoids, and many malonylated compounds. In plants as well as in animals, malonyl-CoA is almost exclusively derived from acetyl-CoA by acetyl-CoA carboxylase (EC 6.4.1.2). However, previous studies have suggested that malonyl-CoA may also be made directly from malonic acid by malonyl-CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.14). Here, we report the cloning of a eukaryotic malonyl-CoA synthetase gene, Acyl Activating Enzyme13 (AAE13; At3g16170), from Arabidopsis thaliana. Recombinant AAE13 protein showed high activity against malonic acid (Km = 529.4 ± 98.5 μM; Vm = 24.0 ± 2.7 μmol/mg/min) but little or no activity against other dicarboxylic or fatty acids tested. Exogenous malonic acid was toxic to Arabidopsis seedlings and caused accumulation of malonic and succinic acids in the seedlings. aae13 null mutants also grew poorly and accumulated malonic and succinic acids. These defects were complemented by an AAE13 transgene or by a bacterial malonyl-CoA synthetase gene under control of the AAE13 promoter. Our results demonstrate that the malonyl-CoA synthetase encoded by AAE13 is essential for healthy growth and development, probably because it is required for the detoxification of malonate. PMID:21642549

  16. The Physiology of Protein S-acylation

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Luke H.; Shipston, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Protein S-acylation, the only fully reversible posttranslational lipid modification of proteins, is emerging as a ubiquitous mechanism to control the properties and function of a diverse array of proteins and consequently physiological processes. S-acylation results from the enzymatic addition of long-chain lipids, most typically palmitate, onto intracellular cysteine residues of soluble and transmembrane proteins via a labile thioester linkage. Addition of lipid results in increases in protein hydrophobicity that can impact on protein structure, assembly, maturation, trafficking, and function. The recent explosion in global S-acylation (palmitoyl) proteomic profiling as a result of improved biochemical tools to assay S-acylation, in conjunction with the recent identification of enzymes that control protein S-acylation and de-acylation, has opened a new vista into the physiological function of S-acylation. This review introduces key features of S-acylation and tools to interrogate this process, and highlights the eclectic array of proteins regulated including membrane receptors, ion channels and transporters, enzymes and kinases, signaling adapters and chaperones, cell adhesion, and structural proteins. We highlight recent findings correlating disruption of S-acylation to pathophysiology and disease and discuss some of the major challenges and opportunities in this rapidly expanding field. PMID:25834228

  17. Effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of the intestine and enzymes of both the intestine and the pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Mawla, Ahmed M. A.; Osman, Husam Eldien H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause gastrointestinal damage both in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, in addition to their undesirable side effects on the pancreas. Meloxicam like all NSAIDs has damaging effects on the gastrointestinal tract including perforations, ulcers and bleeding. Objective: The present work describes the effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine and enzymes of both intestine and Pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on four groups of equally weighed male rats, each group included ten animals; the first group was received a diet containing 0.2 mg/kg bw meloxicam per day; the second was given 1gm Gum acacia per day in its diet; the third was given meloxicam followed by gum in the same doses per day; while the fourth group (control rats) was placed on a normal diet and water. All rats were received their diet for a period of 21 days. Results: A considerable protective effect of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine of albino rats treated with meloxicam was recorded. In addition, the study displayed a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the intestinal enzymes; lipase, amylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the 1st and 3rd groups animals while these enzymes were significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in the 2nd group when compared with the 4th control group. Conclusion: This study concluded that Gum acacia provides a protection and defense against the harmful effects of meloxicam therapy used as one of the novel anti-Cox-1 and Cox-2 NSAIDs. PMID:21772755

  18. Gibbs Free Energy of Hydrolytic Water Molecule in Acyl-Enzyme Intermediates of a Serine Protease: A Potential Application for Computer-Aided Discovery of Mechanism-Based Reversible Covalent Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Yosuke; Yamaotsu, Noriyuki; Hirono, Shuichi

    2017-01-01

    In order to predict the potencies of mechanism-based reversible covalent inhibitors, the relationships between calculated Gibbs free energy of hydrolytic water molecule in acyl-trypsin intermediates and experimentally measured catalytic rate constants (kcat) were investigated. After obtaining representative solution structures by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, hydration thermodynamics analyses using WaterMap™ were conducted. Consequently, we found for the first time that when Gibbs free energy of the hydrolytic water molecule was lower, logarithms of kcat were also lower. The hydrolytic water molecule with favorable Gibbs free energy may hydrolyze acylated serine slowly. Gibbs free energy of hydrolytic water molecule might be a useful descriptor for computer-aided discovery of mechanism-based reversible covalent inhibitors of hydrolytic enzymes.

  19. Alterations of digestive enzyme activities, intestinal morphology and microbiota in juvenile paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, fed dietary probiotics.

    PubMed

    Fang, Cheng; Ma, Mingyang; Ji, Hong; Ren, Tongjun; Mims, Steven D

    2015-02-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation of probiotics on digestive enzymes activities, intestinal morphology and microbiota in juvenile paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) were studied. A total of 400 fish were reared in two cages and fed with a basal diet (control group, CG) or diet supplemented with commercial probiotics (treatment group, TG) for 80 days. Enzymes activities analysis indicated that protease and α-amylase activities increased (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) in TG. Light microscopy observation demonstrated the decrease of wall thickness and muscularis thickness in foregut (P < 0.01), the increase of those in hindgut (P < 0.05), the increase of folds height in foregut (P < 0.01) and midgut in TG (P < 0.05). DGGE results of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA confirmed that the richness and diversity of intestinal microbial species increased in TG. The similarity between the commercial bacteria product and intestinal microbiota of TG were higher than the microbiota from CG. The quantities of bacterium, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, present an increasing trend from foregut to hindgut both in two groups. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo study to reveal the effect of dietary probiotics on intestinal digestive enzymes activities, morphology and microbiota in paddlefish.

  20. Characterizing drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters that are bona fide CAR-target genes in mouse intestine.

    PubMed

    Park, Shinhee; Cheng, Sunny Lihua; Cui, Julia Yue

    2016-09-01

    Intestine is responsible for the biotransformation of many orally-exposed chemicals. The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR/Nr1i3) is known to up-regulate many genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters (drug-processing genes/DPGs) in liver, but less is known regarding its effect in intestine. Sixty-day-old wild-type and Car(-/-) mice were administered the CAR-ligand TCPOBOP or vehicle once daily for 4 days. In wild-type mice, Car mRNA was down-regulated by TCPOBOP in liver and duodenum. Car(-/-) mice had altered basal intestinal expression of many DPGs in a section-specific manner. Consistent with the liver data (Aleksunes and Klaassen, 2012), TCPOBOP up-regulated many DPGs (Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11, Aldh1a1, Aldh1a7, Gsta1, Gsta4, Gstm1-m4, Gstt1, Ugt1a1, Ugt2b34, Ugt2b36, and Mrp2-4) in specific sections of small intestine in a CAR-dependent manner. However, the mRNAs of Nqo1 and Papss2 were previously known to be up-regulated by TCPOBOP in liver but were not altered in intestine. Interestingly, many known CAR-target genes were highest expressed in colon where CAR is minimally expressed, suggesting that additional regulators are involved in regulating their expression. In conclusion, CAR regulates the basal expression of many DPGs in intestine, and although many hepatic CAR-targeted DPGs were bona fide CAR-targets in intestine, pharmacological activation of CAR in liver and intestine are not identical.

  1. Fatty acyl-CoA reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, Steven E.; Somerville, Chris R.

    1998-12-01

    The present invention relates to bacterial enzymes, in particular to an acyl-CoA reductase and a gene encoding an acyl-CoA reductase, the amino acid and nucleic acid sequences corresponding to the reductase polypeptide and gene, respectively, and to methods of obtaining such enzymes, amino acid sequences and nucleic acid sequences. The invention also relates to the use of such sequences to provide transgenic host cells capable of producing fatty alcohols and fatty aldehydes.

  2. Evaluation of enzyme immunoassay techniques for diagnosis of the most common intestinal protozoa in fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Gaafar, Maha R

    2011-08-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the antigen capture enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) Triage parasite panel and TechLab Entamoeba histolytica II in detecting Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium sp, and Entamoeba histolytica in fecal samples in comparison to microscopy, and in differentiating Entamoeba histolytica from Entamoeba dispar. The Triage EIA was evaluated using 100 stool specimens that were tested by standard ova and parasite examination, including staining with both trichrome and modified acid-fast stains. Differentiation between E. histolytica and E. dispar was performed using TechLab. Microscopic examination revealed that 19% of the samples were positive for Giardia, 4% for Cryptosporidium, and 1% for E. histolytica/E. dispar, and other parasites were found in 5%. By Triage, 23% of the samples were infected with Giardia, 5% with Cryptosporidium, and 2% with E. histolytica/E. dispar. Triage showed a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 91.5%. The TechLab assay was negative for both samples diagnosed as E. histolytica/E. dispar by Triage, which suggested that they were E. dispar. Both tests showed no cross-reactivity with other intestinal protozoa. These results indicate that antigen detection by EIA has the potential to become a valuable tool, capable of making stool diagnostics more effective. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A New Marmoset P450 4F12 Enzyme Expressed in Small Intestines and Livers Efficiently Metabolizes Antihistaminic Drug Ebastine.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Yuki, Yukako; Inoue, Takashi; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are attracting attention as animal models in preclinical studies for drug development. However, cytochrome P450s (P450s), major drug-metabolizing enzymes, have not been fully identified and characterized in marmosets. In this study, based on the four novel P450 4F genes found on the marmoset genome, we successfully isolated P450 4F2, 4F3B, 4F11, and 4F12 cDNAs in marmoset livers. Deduced amino acid sequences of the four marmoset P450 4F forms exhibited high sequence identities (87%-93%) to the human and cynomolgus monkey P450 4F homologs. Marmoset P450 4F3B and 4F11 mRNAs were predominantly expressed in livers, whereas marmoset P450 4F2 and 4F12 mRNAs were highly expressed in small intestines and livers. Four marmoset P450 4F proteins heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzed the ω-hydroxylation of leukotriene B4 In addition, marmoset P450 4F12 effectively catalyzed the hydroxylation of antiallergy drug ebastine, a human P450 2J/4F probe substrate. Ebastine hydroxylation activities by small intestine and liver microsomes from marmosets and cynomolgus monkeys showed greatly higher values than those of humans. Ebastine hydroxylation activities by marmoset and cynomolgus monkey small intestine microsomes were inhibited (approximately 60%) by anti-P450 4F antibodies, unlike human small intestine microsomes, suggesting that contribution of P450 4F enzymes for ebastine hydroxylation in the small intestine might be different between marmosets/cynomolgus monkeys and humans. These results indicated that marmoset P450 4F2, 4F3B, 4F11, and 4F12 were expressed in livers and/or small intestines and were functional in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds, similar to those of cynomolgus monkeys and humans.

  4. Mutagenic definition of a papain-like catalytic triad, sufficiency of the N-terminal domain for single-site core catalytic enzyme acylation, and C-terminal domain for augmentative metal activation of a eukaryotic phytochelatin synthase.

    PubMed

    Romanyuk, Nataliya D; Rigden, Daniel J; Vatamaniuk, Olena K; Lang, Albert; Cahoon, Rebecca E; Jez, Joseph M; Rea, Philip A

    2006-07-01

    Phytochelatin (PC) synthases are gamma-glutamylcysteine (gamma-Glu-Cys) dipeptidyl transpeptidases that catalyze the synthesis of heavy metal-binding PCs, (gamma-Glu-Cys)nGly polymers, from glutathione (GSH) and/or shorter chain PCs. Here it is shown through investigations of the enzyme from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; AtPCS1) that, although the N-terminal half of the protein, alone, is sufficient for core catalysis through the formation of a single-site enzyme acyl intermediate, it is not sufficient for acylation at a second site and augmentative stimulation by free Cd2+. A purified N-terminally hexahistidinyl-tagged AtPCS1 truncate containing only the first 221 N-terminal amino acid residues of the enzyme (HIS-AtPCS1_221tr) is competent in the synthesis of PCs from GSH in media containing Cd2+ or the synthesis of S-methyl-PCs from S-methylglutathione in media devoid of heavy metal ions. However, whereas its full-length hexahistidinyl-tagged equivalent, HIS-AtPCS1, undergoes gamma-Glu-Cys acylation at two sites during the Cd2+-dependent synthesis of PCs from GSH and is stimulated by free Cd2+ when synthesizing S-methyl-PCs from S-methylglutathione, HIS-AtPCS1_221tr undergoes gamma-Glu-Cys acylation at only one site when GSH is the substrate and is not directly stimulated, but instead inhibited, by free Cd2+ when S-methylglutathione is the substrate. Through the application of sequence search algorithms capable of detecting distant homologies, work we reported briefly before but not in its entirety, it has been determined that the N-terminal half of AtPCS1 and its equivalents from other sources have the hallmarks of a papain-like, Clan CA Cys protease. Whereas the fold assignment deduced from these analyses, which substantiates and is substantiated by the recent determination of the crystal structure of a distant prokaryotic PC synthase homolog from the cyanobacterium Nostoc, is capable of explaining the strict requirement for a conserved Cys residue, Cys-56

  5. Transient changes of enzyme activities and expression of stress proteins in the small intestine of piglets after weaning.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xin; Xu, Ziwei; Men, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    To determine the transient effects of weaning on the small intestine, 16 piglets were slaughtered at days 0, 1, 4 and 7 after weaning. Jejunal samples were collected to examine different enzyme activities and mRNA expressions of two stress protein families, namely, heat-shock proteins (HSP) and trefoil factors (TFF). Results showed that the activities of ceruloplasmin, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase, were significantly changed at Day 1 and/or Day 4. The mRNA expressions of HSP10, HSP60 and HSP90 showed a pattern of increased expression with time after weaning. Expression significantly differed between Day 0 and Day 7 after weaning. The mRNA expression of HSP70 was significantly increased on Day 1 only. Similarly, the mRNA expressions of TFF1 and TFF2 were significantly increased on Day 7 compared with those on Day 0. Expression of TFF3 was not affected by time after weaning. In conclusion, the present study indicated that weaning induced transient injury to small intestinal morphology and function. Particularly it changed enzyme activities and gene expression of stress proteins in the small intestine of piglets. At first time, a change in the gene expression of HSP10 and a gene overexpression of TFF1 in the small intestine of piglets after weaning was found.

  6. Degradation of coeliac disease-inducing rye secalin by germinating cereal enzymes: diminishing toxic effects in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Stenman, S M; Lindfors, K; Venäläinen, J I; Hautala, A; Männistö, P T; Garcia-Horsman, J A; Kaukovirta-Norja, A; Auriola, S; Mauriala, T; Mäki, M; Kaukinen, K

    2010-08-01

    Currently the only treatment for coeliac disease is a lifelong gluten-free diet excluding food products containing wheat, rye and barley. There is, however, only scarce evidence as to harmful effects of rye in coeliac disease. To confirm the assumption that rye should be excluded from the coeliac patient's diet, we now sought to establish whether rye secalin activates toxic reactions in vitro in intestinal epithelial cell models as extensively as wheat gliadin. Further, we investigated the efficacy of germinating cereal enzymes from oat, wheat and barley to hydrolyse secalin into short fragments and whether secalin-induced harmful effects can be reduced by such pretreatment. In the current study, secalin elicited toxic reactions in intestinal Caco-2 epithelial cells similarly to gliadin: it induced epithelial cell layer permeability, tight junctional protein occludin and ZO-1 distortion and actin reorganization. In high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS), germinating barley enzymes provided the most efficient degradation of secalin and gliadin peptides and was thus selected for further in vitro analysis. After germinating barley enzyme pretreatment, all toxic reactions induced by secalin were ameliorated. We conclude that germinating enzymes from barley are particularly efficient in the degradation of rye secalin. In future, these enzymes might be utilized as a novel medical treatment for coeliac disease or in food processing in order to develop high-quality coeliac-safe food products.

  7. Degradation of coeliac disease-inducing rye secalin by germinating cereal enzymes: diminishing toxic effects in intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Stenman, S M; Lindfors, K; Venäläinen, J I; Hautala, A; Männistö, P T; Garcia-Horsman, J A; Kaukovirta-Norja, A; Auriola, S; Mauriala, T; Mäki, M; Kaukinen, K

    2010-01-01

    Currently the only treatment for coeliac disease is a lifelong gluten-free diet excluding food products containing wheat, rye and barley. There is, however, only scarce evidence as to harmful effects of rye in coeliac disease. To confirm the assumption that rye should be excluded from the coeliac patient's diet, we now sought to establish whether rye secalin activates toxic reactions in vitro in intestinal epithelial cell models as extensively as wheat gliadin. Further, we investigated the efficacy of germinating cereal enzymes from oat, wheat and barley to hydrolyse secalin into short fragments and whether secalin-induced harmful effects can be reduced by such pretreatment. In the current study, secalin elicited toxic reactions in intestinal Caco-2 epithelial cells similarly to gliadin: it induced epithelial cell layer permeability, tight junctional protein occludin and ZO-1 distortion and actin reorganization. In high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS), germinating barley enzymes provided the most efficient degradation of secalin and gliadin peptides and was thus selected for further in vitro analysis. After germinating barley enzyme pretreatment, all toxic reactions induced by secalin were ameliorated. We conclude that germinating enzymes from barley are particularly efficient in the degradation of rye secalin. In future, these enzymes might be utilized as a novel medical treatment for coeliac disease or in food processing in order to develop high-quality coeliac-safe food products. PMID:20560983

  8. Evolutionary matches of enzyme and transporter capacities to dietary substrate loads in the intestinal brush border

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Stacey L.; Lee, Eric A.; Diamond, Jared

    1998-01-01

    Safety factors of enzymes and transporters are defined as the ratio of Vmax (maximal reaction rates at high substrate concentrations) to the reaction rate under actual physiological conditions. Although corresponding safety factors have been measured for macroscopic biological structures and for human-engineered structures, safety factors have been little studied at the molecular level. Some evolutionary considerations suggest that safety factors should be modestly in excess of 1.0 (“enough but not too much”) and should tend to be similar for the various steps of a pathway consisting of two or more elements arranged in series. Hence we used a preparation of intact mouse small intestine to measure Vmax values (capacities) of brush-border sucrase (yielding glucose plus fructose) and of the brush-border glucose transporter, for comparison with each other and with dietary sucrose loads. Load was manipulated by varying dietary sucrose level or by studying lactating mice with increased energy requirements. Capacities both of sucrase and the glucose transporter increased with sucrose load (i.e., both proteins are inducible) and remained approximately matched to each other except on a carbohydrate-free diet. Their safety factors decreased from ca. 2.7 at low load to 1.0 at high load. Thus, neither sucrase nor the glucose transporter is the rate-limiting step for sucrose digestion; both steps are equally limiting. The modest safety factors and matched capacities must be genetically programmed through natural selection, with benefits of excess capacities being balanced against costs of biosynthetic energy and limited membrane space. PMID:9482848

  9. Effect of external abdominal irradiation on intestinal morphology and brush border membrane enzyme and lipid composition

    SciTech Connect

    Keelan, M.; Cheeseman, C.; Walker, K.; Thomson, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that external abdominal irradiation is associated with alterations in intestinal morphology and function. The activity of the jejunal brush border membrane (BBM) enzyme markers sucrase (S) and alkaline phosphate (AP) were not altered by 600 rad irradiation in the rat. In contrast, ileal BBM, AP, and AP/S were increased 3, 7/8, and 28 days postirradiation. The total lipid composition of the jejunal BBM was lower than in control animals only at 3 days postirradiation; this was due to a decrease in the total free fatty acid content. In addition to a lower total free fatty acid content, the ileal BBM contained an increased amount of total phospholipid (PL) which resulted in an increased phospholipid/cholesterol ratio at 3 days following irradiation. Variations in the BBM phospholipid composition occurred in both jejunum and ileum. In the jejunal BBM, the phospholipid composition changes did not alter the choline or amine phospholipid content; therefore, the choline/amine phospholipid ratio was unaffected by irradiation at 600 rad. In the ileal BBM, the phosphatidyl ethanolamine was increased at 3, 7/8, 14, and 28 days following irradiation. The choline/amine phospholipid ratio was not altered in the ileal BBM due to concomitant increases in lecithin content. Jejunal villus height, villus surface area, and the number of cells per villus were decreased at 3 days postirradiation, but increased by day 7/8 and 14 postirradiation to levels much higher than observed in control jejunal villi. The mucosal surface area was decreased at 3 and 7/8 days following irradiation but returned to control values by Day 14. Jejunal microvillus morphology was unaffected by irradiation. Few significant changes were observed in ileal villus morphology following irradiation at 600 rad. (Abstract Truncated)

  10. Local corticosterone production and angiotensin-I converting enzyme shedding in a mouse model of intestinal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Salmenkari, Hanne; Issakainen, Tomi; Vapaatalo, Heikki; Korpela, Riitta

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate local corticosterone production and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) protein expression and their interaction in healthy and inflamed intestine. METHODS: Acute intestinal inflammation was induced to six weeks old male Balb/c mice by administration of either 3% or 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for 7 d (n = 12 in each group). Healthy controls (n = 12) were given tap water. Corticosterone production and ACE protein shedding were measured from ex vivo incubates of the small and large intestine using EIA and ELISA, respectively. Morphological changes of the intestinal wall were assessed in hematoxylin-eosin stained tissue preparations of jejunum and distal colon. Effects of angiotensin II, captopril and metyrapone on corticosterone production was assessed by incubating pieces of small intestine of healthy mice in the presence of 0.1, 1 or 10 μmol/L angiotensin II, 1, 10 or 100 μmol/L captopril or 1, 10 or 100 μmol/L metyrapone solutions and measuring corticosterone released to the incubation buffer after 90 min (n = 5 in each group). RESULTS: Both concentrations of DSS induced inflammation and morphological changes in large intestines but not in small intestines. Changes were observed as distortions of the crypt structure, mucosal erosion, immune cell infiltration to the mucosa and submucosal edema. Ex vivo corticosterone production (2.9 ± 1.0 ng/mL vs 2.0 ± 0.8 ng/mL, P = 0.034) and ACE shedding (269.2 ± 97.1 ng/mL vs 175.7 ± 52.2 ng/mL, P = 0.016) were increased in small intestines in 3% DSS group compared to the controls. In large intestine, corticosterone production was increased compared to the controls in both 3% DSS (229 ± 81 pg/mL vs 158 ± 30 pg/mL, P = 0.017) and 5% DSS groups (366 ± 163 pg/mL vs 158 ± 30 pg/mL, P = 0.002). Large intestine ACE shedding was increased in 5% DSS group (41.5 ± 9.0 ng/mL vs 20.9 ± 5.2 ng/mL, P = 0.034). Angiotensin II treatment augmented corticosterone production in small

  11. Effects of copper-bearing montmorillonite on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, and intestinal microflora and morphology of male broilers.

    PubMed

    Xia, M S; Hu, C H; Xu, Z R

    2004-11-01

    Avian commercial male broiler chicks (n = 240), 1 d of age, were used to investigate the effects of copper-bearing montmorillonite (Cu-MMT) on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, and intestinal microflora and morphology. The chicks were allocated to 4 treatments, each of which had 5 pens of 12 chicks per pen. The 4 treatments were basal diet only (control group), basal diet + 1.5 g/kg montmorillonite (MMT), basal diet + 36.75 mg/kg Cu, in the form of CuSO4, and basal diet + 1.5 g/kg Cu-MMT. The results showed that supplementation with Cu-MMT significantly improved growth performance compared with the control diet, and that chicks fed with Cu-MMT had higher average daily gain (ADG) than those fed with MMT or CuSO4. Supplementation with Cu-MMT significantly reduced the total viable counts of Escherichia coli and Clostridium in the small intestine and cecum. Supplementation with MMT or CuSO4 had no influence on intestinal microflora. Chicks fed with Cu-MMT had lower viable counts of E. coli in cecal contents than those fed with MMT or CuSO4. The addition of either MMT or Cu-MMT to the diet improved the activities of total protease, amylase, and lipase in the small intestinal contents but had no effect on those in the pancreas. Morphological measurements of the small intestinal mucosa of chicks indicated that dietary addition of MMT or Cu-MMT improved intestinal mucosal morphology.

  12. Early Changes in Microbial Colonization Selectively Modulate Intestinal Enzymes, but Not Inducible Heat Shock Proteins in Young Adult Swine

    PubMed Central

    Arnal, Marie-Edith; Zhang, Jing; Messori, Stefano; Bosi, Paolo; Smidt, Hauke; Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic diseases and obesity are developing worldwide in a context of plethoric intake of high energy diets. The intestine may play a pivotal role due to diet-induced alterations in microbiota composition and increased permeability to bacterial lipopolysaccharide inducing metabolic inflammation. Early programming of metabolic disorders appearing in later life is also suspected, but data on the intestine are lacking. Therefore, we hypothesized that early disturbances in microbial colonization have short- and long-lasting consequences on selected intestinal components including key digestive enzymes and protective inducible heat shock proteins (HSP). The hypothesis was tested in swine offspring born to control mothers (n = 12) or mothers treated with the antibiotic amoxicillin around parturition (n = 11), and slaughtered serially at 14, 28 and 42 days of age to assess short-term effects. To evaluate long-term consequences, young adult offspring from the same litters were offered a normal or a fat-enriched diet for 4 weeks between 140 and 169 days of age and were then slaughtered. Amoxicillin treatment transiently modified both mother and offspring microbiota. This was associated with early but transient reduction in ileal alkaline phosphatase, HSP70 (but not HSP27) and crypt depth, suggesting a milder or delayed intestinal response to bacteria in offspring born to antibiotic-treated mothers. More importantly, we disclosed long-term consequences of this treatment on jejunal alkaline phosphatase (reduced) and jejunal and ileal dipeptidylpeptidase IV (increased and decreased, respectively) of offspring born to antibiotic-treated dams. Significant interactions between early antibiotic treatment and later diet were observed for jejunal alkaline phosphatase and sucrase. By contrast, inducible HSPs were not affected. In conclusion, our data suggest that early changes in bacterial colonization not only modulate intestinal architecture and function transiently, but

  13. Enzymes involved in fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis in Streptomyces glaucescens: role of FabH and FabD and their acyl carrier protein specificity.

    PubMed

    Florova, Galina; Kazanina, Galina; Reynolds, Kevin A

    2002-08-20

    Malonyl acyl carrier protein (ACP) is used as an extender unit in each of the elongation steps catalyzed by the type II dissociated fatty acid synthase (FAS) and polyketide synthase (PKS) of Streptomyces glaucescens. Initiation of straight-chain fatty acid biosynthesis by the type II FAS involves a direct condensation of acetyl-CoA with this malonyl-ACP to generate a 3-ketobutyryl-ACP product and is catalyzed by FabH. In vitro experiments with a reconstituted type II PKS system in the absence of FabH have previously shown that the acetyl-ACP (generated by decarboxylation of malonyl-ACP), not acetyl-CoA, is used to initiate tetracenomycin C (TCM C) biosynthesis. We have shown that sgFabH activity is present in S. glaucescens fermentations during TCM C production, suggesting that it could contribute to initiation of TCM C biosynthesis in vivo. Isotope incorporation studies with [CD3]acetate and [13CD3]acetate demonstrated significant intact retention of three deuteriums into the starter unit of palmitate and complete washout of deuterium label into the starter unit of TCM C. These observations provide evidence that acetyl-CoA is not used directly as a starter unit for TCM C biosynthesis in vivo and argue against an involvement of FabH in this process. Consistent with this conclusion, assays of the purified recombinant sgFabH with acetyl-CoA demonstrated activity using malonyl-ACP generated from either FabC (the S. glaucescens FAS ACP) (k(cat) 42.2 min(-1), K(m) 4.5 +/- 0.3 microM) or AcpP (the E. coli FAS ACP) (k(cat) 7.5 min(-1), K(m) 6.3 +/- 0.3 microM) but not TcmM (the S. glaucescens PKS ACP). In contrast, the sgFabD which catalyzes conversion of malonyl-CoA to malonyl-ACP for fatty acid biosynthesis was shown to be active with TcmM (k(cat) 150 min(-1), K(m) 12.2 +/- 1.2 microM), AcpP (k(cat) 141 min(-1), K(m) 13.2 +/- 1.6 microM), and FabC (k(cat) 560 min(-1), K(m) 12.7 +/- 2.6 microM). This enzyme was shown to be present during TCM C production and could play a

  14. Histochemical analyses of digestive enzymes in the intestine of adult large-scaled gurnard (lepidotrigla cavillone, lacepède, 1801).

    PubMed

    Kozarić, Z; Petrinec, Z; Kužir, S; Gjurčević, E; Baždarić, B

    2011-08-01

    Localization and activity levels of the following digestive enzymes in the intestine of free-living large-scaled gurnard were determined: non-specific esterase, alkaline and acid phosphatase as well as aminopeptidase. Enzymatic activity of the four enzymes was confirmed in all intestine parts but with different distribution through the enterocytes and varying in diverse intensity according to intestine part. This research is part of a broader research project on the biology of economically important fish from the Adriatic Sea. Our study reveals that in the large-scaled gurnard, the middle and posterior intestinal segments play the major role in digestion and absorption of proteins, whereas all parts of the intestine participate in lipid absorption and intracellular digestion. The high protein and lipid content in the diet of the large-scaled gurnard is most likely responsible for high activities of esterase, alkaline phosphatase and aminopeptidase, as they are involved in digestion and absorption of proteins and lipids.

  15. Effect of standardized cranberry extract on the activity and expression of selected biotransformation enzymes in rat liver and intestine.

    PubMed

    Bártíková, Hana; Boušová, Iva; Jedličková, Pavla; Lněničková, Kateřina; Skálová, Lenka; Szotáková, Barbora

    2014-09-18

    The use of dietary supplements containing cranberry extract is a common way to prevent urinary tract infections. As consumption of these supplements containing a mixture of concentrated anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins has increased, interest in their possible interactions with drug-metabolizing enzymes has grown. In this in vivo study, rats were treated with a standardized cranberry extract (CystiCran®) obtained from Vaccinium macrocarpon in two dosage schemes (14 days, 0.5 mg of proanthocyanidins/kg/day; 1 day, 1.5 mg of proanthocyanidins/kg/day). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins contained in this extract on the activity and expression of intestinal and hepatic biotransformation enzymes: cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B and CYP3A), carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT). Administration of cranberry extract led to moderate increases in the activities of hepatic CYP3A (by 34%), CYP1A1 (by 38%), UGT (by 40%), CBR1 (by 17%) and GST (by 13%), while activities of these enzymes in the small intestine were unchanged. No changes in the relative amounts of these proteins were found. Taken together, the interactions of cranberry extract with simultaneously administered drugs seem not to be serious.

  16. Histochemical distribution of digestive enzymes in the intestine of the common two-banded seabream, Diplodus vulgaris, Geoffroy St-Hilaire 1817.

    PubMed

    Tlak Gajger, I; Nejedli, S; Kozarić, Z

    2013-06-01

    The histochemical localization of non-specific esterase, alkaline and acid phosphatase as well as aminopeptidase in the intestine of the free-living common two-banded sea bream (Diplodus vulgaris) was investigated. Fish were caught near the town of Zadar (Adriatic Sea, Croatia). Samples of pyloric caeca and three parts of the intestine proper (anterior, middle and posterior) were used for the description of non-specific esterase, alkaline and acid phosphatase as well as aminopeptidase. Non-specific esterase activity was found in the cytoplasm of enterocytes in pyloric caeca and in all investigated intestinal segments. The activity was stronger in the anterior and posterior part of the intestine than in the pyloric caeca and middle segment of the intestine. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase was detected in brush border of enterocytes of all investigated intestinal segments. Enzymatic activity gradually decreased in a posterior direction. Acid phosphatase activity was observed as a fine granular reaction product in the supranuclear region of enterocytes. This activity was almost equal in pyloric caeca as well as in the anterior intestinal segment, while it was stronger in the middle and posterior intestinal segment. Aminopeptidase was present along the intestinal epithelium brush border in all investigated parts of the digestive tube. The intensity of aminopeptidase increased posteriorly. The possible role of investigated enzymes in intracellular digestion and transport is discussed.

  17. Ghrelin acylation and metabolic control.

    PubMed

    Al Massadi, O; Tschöp, M H; Tong, J

    2011-11-01

    Since its discovery, many physiologic functions have been ascribed to ghrelin, a gut derived hormone. The presence of a median fatty acid side chain on the ghrelin peptide is required for the binding and activation of the classical ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)-1a. Ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT) was recently discovered as the enzyme responsible for this acylation process. GOAT is expressed in all tissues that have been found to express ghrelin and has demonstrated actions on several complex endocrine organ systems such as the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal, insular and adrenal axis as well as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, bone and gustatory system. Ghrelin acylation is dependent on the function of GOAT and the availability of substrates such as proghrelin and short- to medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs). This process is governed by GOAT activity and has been shown to be modified by dietary lipids. In this review, we provided evidence that support an important role of GOAT in the regulation of energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism by modulating acyl ghrelin (AG) production. The relevance of GOAT and AG during periods of starvation remains to be defined. In addition, we summarized the recent literature on the metabolic effects of GOAT specific inhibitors and shared our view on the potential of targeting GOAT for the treatment of metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  18. Enzymatic conversion of all-trans-. beta. -carotene to retinal by a cytosolic enzyme from rabbit and rat intestinal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Lakshman, M.R.; Mychkovsky, I.; Attlesey, M. )

    1989-12-01

    Enzymatic conversion of all-trans-{beta}-carotene to retinal by a partially purified enzyme from rabbit and rat intestinal mucosa was demonstrated. The enzymatic product was characterized based on the following evidence: (i) the product gave rise to its O-ethyloxime by treatment with O-ethylhydroxylamine with an absorption maximum at 363 nm in ethanol characteristics of authentic retinal O-ethyloxime. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) of this derivative yielded a sharp peak with a retention time of 7.99 min corresponding to the authentic compound; (ii) the mass spectrum of the O-ethyloxime of the enzymatic product was identical to that of authentic retinal O-ethyloxime; (iii) the specific activity of the enzymatically formed ({sup 14}C)retinal O-ethyloxime remained constant even after repeated crystallization; (iv) the enzymatic product exhibited an absorption maximum at 370 nm in light petroleum characteristic of authentic retinal. This retinol was enzymatically esterified to retinyl palmitate by rat pancreatic esterase with a retention time of 10 min on HPLC corresponding to authentic retinyl palmitate. Thus, the enzymatic product of {beta}-carotene cleavage by the partially purified intestinal enzyme was unequivocally confirmed to be retinal.

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome: contribution of amniotic fluid digestive enzyme assay and fetal urinalysis.

    PubMed

    Muller, Françoise; Dreux, Sophie; Vaast, Pascal; Dumez, Yves; Nisand, Israel; Ville, Yves; Boulot, Pierre; Guibourdenche, Jean; Althusser, Marc; Blin, Gérard; Gautier, Evelyne; Lespinard, Catherine; Perrotin, Franck; Poulain, Patrice; Sarramon, Marie-France

    2005-03-01

    Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a usually lethal disease during the first year of life. There is no specific ultrasound prenatal diagnosis and no identified genetic locus. The value of amniotic fluid digestive enzyme assay and fetal urine biochemistry in the prediction of MMIHS was analysed. Retrospective study of 14 MMIHS cases. Amniotic fluid digestive enzymes and fetal urine biochemistry were compared in MMIHS and megabladder (63 and 264 cases respectively). Abnormal amniotic fluid digestive enzyme profile (vomiting of bile or digestive secretion leakage) was observed in 8/10 MMIHS cases. These profiles were observed in 7/63 controls; 80% sensitivity (95%CI = 55%-100%); 89% specificity (95%CI = 81%-96%). Fetal urinalysis was normal in 12/12 MMIHS cases except high calcium (>0.6 mmol/l). This profile was observed in 33/264 megabladder control cases; 100% sensitivity; 98.7% specificity (95%CI = 83.5%-91.5%). For the first time, we propose a prenatal diagnosis of MMIHS based on amniotic fluid digestive enzyme assay and on fetal urinalysis. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The interactive effect of digesting a meal and thermal acclimation on maximal enzyme activities in the gill, kidney, and intestine of goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Turner, Leah A; Bucking, Carol

    2017-04-05

    Surrounding environmental temperatures affect many aspects of ectotherm physiology. Generally, organisms can compensate at one or more biological levels, or allow temperature to dictate processes such as enzyme activities through kinetic effects on reaction rates. As digestion also alters physiological processes such as enzyme activities, this study determined the interacting effect of thermal acclimation (8 and 20 °C) and digesting a single meal on maximal enzyme activities in three tissues of the goldfish (Carrassius auratus). Acclimation to elevated temperatures decreased branchial Na(+), K(+), ATPase (NKA) activity. In contrast, acclimation to elevated temperatures had no effect on citrate synthase (CS) or pyruvate kinase (PK) activity in any tissue, nor were renal NKA or glutamine synthetase (GS) activities impacted. Warm water-acclimation exaggerated the positive impact of digestion on intestinal and branchial NKA activities and intestinal GS activity only, but digestion had no effect in the kidney. CS and PK did not display intestinal zonation; however, there was a distinct increase towards the distal intestine in NKA and GS activities. Zonation of NKA was more prominent in warm-acclimated animals, while acclimation temperature did not affect intestinal heterogeneity of GS. Finally, the impact of tissue protein content on enzyme activity was discussed. We conclude that the intestine and gill of warm-acclimated goldfish exhibited an augmented capacity for increasing several enzyme activities in response to digestion while the kidney was unaffected by thermal acclimation or digesting a single meal. However, this amplified capacity was ameliorated by alterations in tissue protein content. Amplified increases in NKA activity may ultimately have implications for ATP demand in these tissues, while increased GS activity may beneficially increase ammonia-detoxifying capacity in the intestine.

  1. Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Li, Bo-Liang; Chang, Catherine C. Y.; Urano, Yasuomi

    2009-01-01

    The enzymes acyl-coenzyme A (CoA):cholesterol acyltransferases (ACATs) are membrane-bound proteins that utilize long-chain fatty acyl-CoA and cholesterol as substrates to form cholesteryl esters. In mammals, two isoenzymes, ACAT1 and ACAT2, encoded by two different genes, exist. ACATs play important roles in cellular cholesterol homeostasis in various tissues. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge on ACAT-related research in two areas: 1) ACAT genes and proteins and 2) ACAT enzymes as drug targets for atherosclerosis and for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19141679

  2. Enzymic studies on the animal and intestinal bacterial metabolism of geniposide.

    PubMed

    Akao, T; Kobashi, K; Aburada, M

    1994-12-01

    Geniposide, a main iridoid glucoside of Gardenia fruit, is transformed to genipin, a genuine choleretic, in vivo in rats (Aburada et al., J. Pharmacobio-Dyn., 1, 81 (1978)). As geniposide was not hydrolyzed to any metabolite by rat liver homogenate, which has beta-D-glucosidase and esterase activities, beta-D-glucosidases in intestinal bacteria seem to be required for an exhibition of its choleretic action. The crude extract of Eubacterium sp. A-44, a human intestinal anaerobe, hydrolyzed geniposide, but that of Ruminococcus sp. PO1-3, another human anaerobe, did not, though both extracts had beta-D-glucosidase activities for p-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside. Only one of three beta-D-glucosidases from E. sp. A-44 and none of two from R. sp. PO1-3 hydrolyzed geniposide to genipin. However, carboxylesterases from E. sp. A-44 and pig liver were unable to hydrolyze geniposide to geniposidic acid, but hydrolyzed genipin to an aglycone of geniposidic acid, indicating that geniposide is first hydrolyzed to genipin by beta-D-glucosidases and subsequently to the aglycone of geniposidic acid by esterases. Thus, when geniposide is orally administered, genipin seems to be effectively produced in the intestine and then absorbed to act as a genuine choleretic.

  3. Molecular characterization of the acyl-coenzyme A:isopenicillin N acyltransferase gene (penDE) from Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus nidulans and activity of recombinant enzyme in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, M B; Fleming, M D; Skatrud, P L; Miller, J R

    1990-01-01

    The final step in the biosynthesis of beta-lactam antibiotics in Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus nidulans involves removal of the L-alpha-aminoadipyl side chain from isopenicillin N (IPN) and exchange with a nonpolar side chain. The enzyme catalyzing this reaction, acyl-coenzyme A:isopenicillin N acyltransferase (acyltransferase), was purified from P. chrysogenum and A. nidulans. Based on NH2-terminal amino acid sequence information, the acyltransferase gene (penDE) from P. chrysogenum and A. nidulans were cloned. In both organisms, penDE was located immediately downstream from the isopenicillin N synthetase gene (pcbC) and consisted of four exons encoding an enzyme of 357 amino acids (approximately 40 kilodaltons [kDa]). The DNA coding sequences showed approximately 73% identity, while the amino acid sequences were approximately 76% identical. Noncoding DNA regions (including the region between pcbC and penDE) were not conserved. Acyltransferase activity from Escherichia coli producing the 40-kDa protein accepted either 6-aminopenicillanic acid or IPN as the substrate and made a penicillinase-sensitive antibiotic in the presence of phenylacetyl coenzyme A. Therefore, a single gene is responsible for converting IPN to penicillin G. The active form of the enzyme may result from processing of the 40-kDa monomeric precursor to a heterodimer containing subunits of 11 and 29 kDa. Images PMID:2120195

  4. Enzyme

    MedlinePlus

    Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

  5. Degradation of phytate in the gut of pigs--pathway of gastro-intestinal inositol phosphate hydrolysis and enzymes involved.

    PubMed

    Schlemmer, U; Jany, K D; Berk, A; Schulz, E; Rechkemmer, G

    2001-01-01

    The present study gives an overview on the whole mechanism of phytate degradation in the gut and the enzymes involved. Based on the similarity of the human and pigs gut, the study was carried out in pigs as model for humans. To differentiate between intrinsic feed phytases and endogenous phytases hydrolysing phytate in the gut, two diets, one high (control diet) and the other one very low in intrinsic feed phytases (phytase inactivated diet) were applied. In the chyme of stomach, small intestine and colon inositol phosphate isomers and activities of phytases and alkaline phosphatases were determined. In parallel total tract phytate degradation and apparent phosphorus digestibility were assessed. In the stomach chyme of pigs fed the control diet, comparable high phytase activity and strong phytate degradation were observed. The predominant phytate hydrolysis products were inositol phosphates, typically formed by plant phytases. For the phytase inactivated diet, comparable very low phytase activity and almost no phytate degradation in the stomach were determined. In the small intestine and colon, high activity of alkaline phosphatases and low activity of phytases were observed, irrespective of the diet fed. In the colon, stronger phytate degradation for the phytase inactivated diet than for the control diet was detected. Phytate degradation throughout the whole gut was nearly complete and very similar for both diets while the apparent availability of total phosphorus was significantly higher for the pigs fed the control diet than the phytase inactivated diet. The pathway of inositol phosphate hydrolysis in the gut has been elucidated.

  6. Angiotensin-converting enzyme of the human small intestine. Subunit and quaternary structure, biosynthesis and membrane association.

    PubMed Central

    Naim, H Y

    1992-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was isolated from detergent-derived extracts of human intestinal brush-border membranes (BBMs) by immunoprecipitation using a monoclonal antibody. Analysis of the immunoprecipitates by SDS/PAGE revealed a polypeptide of apparent M(r) 184,000 under reducing and non-reducing conditions, indicating that ACE does not contain intermolecular disulphide bridges. The quaternary structure of ACE was examined using cross-linking experiments with dithiobis[succinimidylpropionate] (DSP) and density gradient centrifugation on sucrose gradients. Both approaches demonstrated that ACE is assembled in the membrane as a monomer. By contrast, the control glycoprotein aminopeptidase N (ApN) exists as a dimer. Biosynthetic labelling experiments in intestinal tissue explants demonstrated that the 184,000-M(r) protein is generated from a single-polypeptide, mannose-rich precursor of ACE (M(r) 175,000) by modification of the carbohydrate side-chains in the Golgi apparatus. The mode of association of the mature form of the enzyme with BBMs was investigated by hydrophobic labelling of right-side-out brush-border vesicles with the photoactivatable carbene-generating reagent 125I-labelled 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m[formylamino]phenyl)diazirine (125I-labelled TID), followed by treatment with trypsin at dilutions that do not cause substantial degradation of ACE. These studies demonstrated that ACE is associated with the membrane via a hydrophobic segment. Furthermore, treatment of 35S-labelled inside-out membrane vesicles with trypsin revealed that ACE possesses a cytoplasmic tail, and therefore has a transmembraneous orientation. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1326943

  7. 3-Ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is not similar to other condensing enzymes of fatty acid synthase.

    PubMed Central

    Tai, H; Jaworski, J G

    1993-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding spinach (Spinacia oleracea) 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (KAS III), which catalyzes the initial condensing reaction in fatty acid biosynthesis, was isolated. Based on the amino acid sequence of tryptic digests of purified spinach KAS III, degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed and used to amplify a 612-bp fragment from first-strand cDNA of spinach leaf RNA. A root cDNA library was probed with the PCR fragment, and a 1920-bp clone was isolated. Its deduced amino acid sequence matched the sequences of the tryptic digests obtained from the purified KAS III. Northern analysis confirmed that it was expressed in both leaf and root. The clone contained a 1218-bp open reading frame coding for 405 amino acids. The identity of the clone was confirmed by expression in Escherichia coli BL 21 as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein. The deduced amino acid sequence was 48 and 45% identical with the putative KAS III of Porphyra umbilicalis and KAS III of E. coli, respectively. It also had a strong local homology to the plant chalcone synthases but had little homology with other KAS isoforms from plants, bacteria, or animals. PMID:8290632

  8. Developmental regulation of nutrient transporter and enzyme mRNA abundance in the small intestine of broilers.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, E R; Li, H; Emmerson, D A; Webb, K E; Wong, E A

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate intestinal nutrient transporter and enzyme mRNA in broilers selected on corn- and soybean-based (line A) or wheat-based (line B) diets. We investigated the peptide transporter PepT1, 10 amino acid transporters (rBAT, b(o,+)AT, ATB(o,+), CAT1, CAT2, LAT1, y(+)LAT1, y(+)LAT2, B(o)AT, and EAAT3), 4 sugar transporters (SGLT1, SGLT5, GLUT5, and GLUT2), and a digestive enzyme (aminopeptidase N). Intestine was collected at embryo d 18 and 20, day of hatch, and d 1, 3, 7, and 14 posthatch. The mRNA abundance of each gene was assayed using real-time PCR and the absolute quantification method. For PepT1, line B had greater quantities of mRNA compared with line A (P = 0.001), suggesting a greater capacity for absorption of amino acids as peptides. Levels of PepT1 mRNA were greatest in the duodenum (P < 0.05), whereas the abundances of SGLT1, GLUT5, and GLUT2 mRNA were greatest in the jejunum (P < 0.05). Abundances of EAAT3, b(o,+)AT, rBAT, B(o)AT, LAT1, CAT2, SGLT5, and aminopeptidase N mRNA were greatest in the ileum (P < 0.05). Quantities of PepT1, EAAT3, B(o)AT, SGLT1, GLUT5, and GLUT2 mRNA increased linearly (P < 0.01), whereas CAT1, CAT2, y(+)LAT1, and LAT1 mRNA decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with age. Abundance of y(+)LAT2 mRNA changed cubically (P = 0.002) with peaks of expression at day of hatch and d 7, and aminopeptidase N and SGLT5 mRNA changed quadratically (P = 0.005) with age. These results provide a comprehensive profile of the temporal and spatial expression of nutrient transporter mRNA in the small intestine of chicks.

  9. Effects of starvation on the maximal activities of some glycolytic and citric acid-cycle enzymes and glutaminase in mucosa of the small intestine of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Budohoski, Leszek; Challis, R. A. John; Newsholme, Eric A.

    1982-01-01

    Starvation decreases activities of some glycolytic and citric acid-cycle enzymes, and increases those of glucose 6-phosphatase and fructose bisphosphatase, whereas that of glutaminase is unchanged. These findings may be of significance for the control of glucose metabolism in the absorptive cells of the intestine. PMID:7126190

  10. Oxidative acylation using thioacids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, R.; Orgel, L. E.

    1997-01-01

    Several important prebiotic reactions, including the coupling of amino acids into polypeptides by the formation of amide linkages, involve acylation. Theae reactions present a challenge to the understanding of prebiotic synthesis. Condensation reactions relying on dehydrating agents are either inefficient in aqueous solution or require strongly acidic conditions and high temperatures. Activated amino acids such as thioester derivatives have therefore been suggested as likely substrates for prebiotic peptide synthesis. Here we propose a closely related route to amide bond formation involving oxidative acylation by thioacids. We find that phenylalanine, leucine and phenylphosphate are acylated efficiently in aqueous solution by thioacetic acid and an oxidizing agent. From a prebiotic point of view, oxidative acylation has the advantage of proceeding efficiently in solution and under mild conditions. We anticipate that oxidative acylation should prove to be a general method for activating carboxylic acids, including amino acids.

  11. Digestive enzyme activity in the intestine of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) under pond and cage farming systems.

    PubMed

    Santos, Juliana Ferreira; Soares, Karollina Lopes Siqueira; Assis, Caio Rodrigo Dias; Guerra, Carlos Augusto Martins; Lemos, Daniel; Carvalho, Luiz Bezerra; Bezerra, Ranilson Souza

    2016-10-01

    The effect of different farming systems (cage, pond) upon digestive enzyme activities of Nile tilapia was evaluated. Juvenile Nile tilapia (87.61 ± 1.52 g) were simultaneously cultured in pond and cage systems during 90 days. Cages used nutritional biphasic plan (35 and 32 % crude protein-CP feeds) and ponds used nutritional triphasic plan (35, 32 and 28 % CP feeds). Biometric measurements were monthly performed for adjustments in feeding regimes and removal of intestine tissues to evaluate the performance of enzyme activities. Total proteolytic, amylase and lipase activities were not statistically different between the treatments throughout the periods analyzed (31, 63 and 94 days of culture). However, trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were higher with 31 and 63 days of culture in fish from pond system, suggesting that natural food may have influenced these activities. A positive correlation was observed between the recommended concentration of essential amino acids for Nile tilapia and specific aminopeptidases activity in fish cage system. Substrate-SDS-PAGE revealed 12 active proteolytic bands in both systems. However, integrated density (ID) values were higher in the bands of ponds. Specimens of either cage or pond exhibited five bands of amylolytic activity. Fish from cage and pond systems showed the highest values of ID within 31 days of cultivation. In this study, the complexity of digestive functions could be verified for animals maintained under commercial conditions. Some of the assessed enzymes may show adaptations of their activities and/or expression that allow the fish to achieve a more efficient nutrient assimilation.

  12. Versatility of acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetases

    DOE PAGES

    Beld, Joris; Finzel, Kara; Burkart, Michael D.

    2014-10-09

    The acyl carrier protein (ACP) requires posttranslational modification with a 4'-phosphopantetheine arm for activity, and this thiol-terminated modification carries cargo between enzymes in ACP-dependent metabolic pathways. In this paper, we show that acyl-ACP synthetases (AasSs) from different organisms are able to load even, odd, and unnatural fatty acids onto E. coli ACP in vitro. Vibrio harveyi AasS not only shows promiscuity for the acid substrate, but also is active upon various alternate carrier proteins. AasS activity also extends to functional activation in living organisms. We show that exogenously supplied carboxylic acids are loaded onto ACP and extended by the E.more » coli fatty acid synthase, including unnatural fatty acid analogs. These analogs are further integrated into cellular lipids. Finally, in vitro characterization of four different adenylate-forming enzymes allowed us to disambiguate CoA-ligases and AasSs, and further in vivo studies show the potential for functional application in other organisms.« less

  13. Effect of prebiotic konjac mannanoligosaccharide on growth performances, intestinal microflora, and digestive enzyme activities in yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-xin; Yu, Yan-mei; Chen, Xi; Liu, Hong; Yuan, Juan-fa; Shi, Yan; Chen, Xiao-xuan

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, konjac mannanoligosaccharide (KMOS) was evaluated as a prebiotic in yellow catfish. The fish were fed with diets containing KMOS in four concentrations: 0 g kg(-1) (C), 1.0 g kg(-1) (KM1), 2.0 g kg(-1) (KM2), and 3.0 g kg(-1) (KM3) for 49 days, respectively. Another group fed with diets containing 3.0 g kg(-1) yeast cell wall mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) (M3) was set as positive control. The results indicated that fish receiving the diets supplemented with KMOS or MOS showed higher relative gain rate (RGR), specific growth rate (SGR), and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) with significantly differences (P < 0.05) than those fed with the basal diets. Moreover, fish receiving the diets with 2.0 g kg(-1) KMOS inclusion showed higher RGR, SGR, and lower FCR (P < 0.05) than that feeding the diets supplemented with 3.0 g kg(-1) MOS. The quantities of Bifidobacterium spp. were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, Escherichia coli and Aeromonas spp. were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in the fish-feeding diets with 2.0 g kg(-1) KMOS supplement. Compared with the control group, the significantly enhancement of protease and amylase activity (P < 0.05) in intestine and pancreas was observed in fish fed with diets containing KMOS or MOS. Collectively, an optimum level of KMOS inclusion in diets could modulate intestinal microflora, induce digestive enzyme activity, and improve the growth performance of yellow catfish significantly.

  14. Comparison of pH-dependent allostery and dissociation for phosphofructokinases from Artemia embryos and rabbit muscle: nature of the enzymes acylated with diethylpyrocarbonate.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, J F; Hand, S C

    1986-07-01

    Purified Artemia phosphofructokinase (PFK), unlike the rabbit skeletal muscle enzyme, displays allosteric kinetics at pH 8, a feature that is functionally significant since the intracellular pH of the developing brine shrimp embryo is greater than or equal to 7.9. Catalytic activity of the Artemia enzyme is severely suppressed by acidic pH even when assayed at the adenylate nucleotide concentrations existing in anaerobic embryos, which is consistent with the lack of a Pasteur effect in these organisms. For both PFK homologs, carbethoxylation reduces the sensitivity to ATP and citrate inhibition, the cooperativity as a function of fructose 6-phosphate concentration and the degree of activation in the presence ADP, AMP, and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. Considering the role of histidine protonation in PFK allosteric control, the capacity for regulatory kinetics seen at pH 8 in the Artemia enzyme could be explained in part by upward shifts in pKa values of ionizable residues. pH-induced dissociation of tetrameric Artemia PFK into inactive subunits does not occur during catalytic inhibition at acidic pH (pH 6.5, 6 degrees C), as judged by 90 degree light scattering. This observation contrasts markedly with the dimerization and inactivation of rabbit PFK, but is shown not to be unique when compared to other selected PFK homologs. Neither the acute pH sensitivity of Artemia PFK nor the pH-induced hysteretic inactivation displayed by the rabbit enzyme are altered by carbethoxylation, suggesting that ionizable residues involved in these two processes are not the same ones involved in allosteric kinetics.

  15. Plasma levels of acylated ghrelin in patients with functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Lee, Joon Seong; Lee, Tae Hee; Cho, Joo Young; Kim, Jin Oh; Kim, Wan Jung; Kim, Hyun Gun; Jeon, Seong Ran; Jeong, Hoe Su

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between plasma acylated ghrelin levels and the pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia. METHODS: Twenty-two female patients with functional dyspepsia and twelve healthy volunteers were recruited for the study. The functional dyspepsia patients were each diagnosed based on the Rome III criteria. Eligible patients completed a questionnaire concerning the severity of 10 symptoms. Plasma acylated ghrelin levels before and after a meal were determined in the study participants using a commercial human acylated enzyme immunoassay kit; electrogastrograms were performed for 50 min before and after a standardized 10-min meal containing 265 kcal. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in plasma acylated ghrelin levels between healthy volunteers and patients with functional dyspepsia. However, in patients with functional dyspepsia, there was a negative correlation between fasting plasma acylated ghrelin levels and the sum score of epigastric pain (r = -0.427, P = 0.047) and a positive correlation between the postprandial/fasting plasma acylated ghrelin ratio and the sum score of early satiety (r = 0.428, P =0.047). Additionally, there was a negative correlation between fasting acylated ghrelin plasma levels and fasting normogastria (%) (r = -0.522, P = 0.013). Interestingly, two functional dyspepsia patients showed paradoxically elevated plasma acylated ghrelin levels after the meal. CONCLUSION: Abnormal plasma acylated ghrelin levels before or after a meal may be related to several of the dyspeptic symptoms seen in patients with functional dyspepsia. PMID:22611317

  16. Evaluation of the synergistic effect of Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, and Psidium guajava on hepatic and intestinal drug metabolizing enzymes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Devendra; Trivedi, Neerja; Dixit, Rakesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Aims/Background: This study was to investigated the synergistic effect of polyherbal formulations (PHF) of Allium sativum L., Eugenia jambolana Lam., Momordica charantia L., Ocimum sanctum Linn., and Psidium guajava L. in the inhibition/induction of hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYPs) and Phase-II conjugated drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs). Consumption of these herbal remedy has been extensively documented for diabetes treatment in Ayurveda. Methodology: PHF of these five herbs was prepared, and different doses were orally administered to Sprague–Dawley rats of different groups except control group. Expression of mRNA and activity of DMEs were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and high performance liquid chromatography in isolated liver and intestine microsomes in PHF pretreated rats. Results: The activities of hepatic and intestinal Phase-II enzyme levels increased along with mRNA levels except CYP3A mRNA level. PHF administration increases the activity of hepatic and intestinal UDP-glucuronyltransferase and glutathione S-transferase in response to dose and time; however, the activity of hepatic sulfotransferase increased at higher doses. Conclusions: CYPs and Phase-II conjugated enzymes levels can be modulated in dose and time dependent manner. Observations suggest that polyherbal formulation might be a possible cause of herb-drug interaction, due to changes in pharmacokinetic of crucial CYPs and Phase-II substrate drug. PMID:27757267

  17. Beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III from pea (Pisum sativum L.): properties, inhibition by a novel thiolactomycin analogue and isolation of a cDNA clone encoding the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Jones, A Lesley; Gane, Andy M; Herbert, Derek; Willey, David L; Rutter, Andrew J; Kille, Peter; Dancer, Jane E; Harwood, John L

    2003-03-01

    A beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase III (KAS III; short-chain condensing enzyme) has been partly purified from pea leaves. The enzyme, which had acetyl-CoA:ACP acyltransferase (ACAT) activity, was resolved from a second, specific, ACAT protein. The KAS III enzyme had a derived molecular mass of 42 kDa (from its cDNA sequence) and operated as a dimer. Its enzymological characteristics were similar to those of two other plant KAS III enzymes except for its inhibition by thiolactomycin. A derivative of thiolactomycin containing a longer (C8 saturated) hydrophobic side-chain (compound 332) was a more effective inhibitor of pea KAS III and showed competitive inhibition towards malonyl-ACP whereas thiolactomycin showed uncompetitive characteristics at high concentrations. This difference may be due to the better fit of compound 332 into a hydrophobic pocket at the active site. A full-length cDNA for the pea KAS III was isolated. This was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase in order to facilitate subsequent purification. Demonstrated activity in preparations from E. coli confirmed that the cDNA encoded a KAS III enzyme. Furthermore, the expressed KAS III had ACAT activity, showing that the latter was inherent. The derived amino acid sequence of the pea cDNA showed 81-87% similarity to that for other plant dicotyledon KAS IIIs, somewhat less for Allium porrum (leek, 71%) and for Porphyra spp. (62%), Synechocystis spp. (65%) and various bacteria (42-65%). The pea KAS III exhibited four areas of homology, three of which were around the active-site Cys(123), His(323) and Asn(353). In addition, a stretch of 23 amino acids (residues 207-229 in the pea KAS III) was almost completely conserved in the plant KAS IIIs. Modelling this stretch showed they belonged to a peptide fragment that fitted over the active site and contained segments suggested to be involved in substrate binding and in conformational changes during

  18. High-Moisture Diet for Laboratory Rats: Complete Blood Counts, Serum Biochemical Values, and Intestinal Enzyme Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battles, August H.; Knapka, Joseph T.; Stevens, Bruce R.; Lewis, Laura; Lang, Marie T.; Gruendel, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    Rats were fed an irradiated high-moisture diet (KSC-25) with or without access to a water bottle. Physiologic values were compared between these two groups and a group of rats fed a purified diet. Hematologic and serum biochemical values, urine specific gravity, and intestinal enzyme activities were determined from samples collected from the three groups of rats. Sprague Dawley rats (n=32) fed the irradiated high-moisture diet with or without a water bottle were the test animals. Rats (n=16) fed an irradiated purified diet and water provided via a water bottle were the control group. The purified diet formulation, modified AIN-76A, is a commonly used purified diet for laboratory rodents. All rats remained alert and healthy throughout the study. A comparison of the physiologic values of rats in this study with reported normal values indicated that all of the rats in the study were in good health. Significant differences (P less than 0.05) of the physiologic values from each rat group are reported.

  19. High-Moisture Diet for Laboratory Rats: Complete Blood Counts, Serum Biochemical Values, and Intestinal Enzyme Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battles, August H.; Knapka, Joseph T.; Stevens, Bruce R.; Lewis, Laura; Lang, Marie T.; Gruendel, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    Rats were fed an irradiated high-moisture diet (KSC-25) with or without access to a water bottle. Physiologic values were compared between these two groups and a group of rats fed a purified diet. Hematologic and serum biochemical values, urine specific gravity, and intestinal enzyme activities were determined from samples collected from the three groups of rats. Sprague Dawley rats (n=32) fed the irradiated high-moisture diet with or without a water bottle were the test animals. Rats (n=16) fed an irradiated purified diet and water provided via a water bottle were the control group. The purified diet formulation, modified AIN-76A, is a commonly used purified diet for laboratory rodents. All rats remained alert and healthy throughout the study. A comparison of the physiologic values of rats in this study with reported normal values indicated that all of the rats in the study were in good health. Significant differences (P less than 0.05) of the physiologic values from each rat group are reported.

  20. Lysine fatty acylation promotes lysosomal targeting of TNF-α.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Lin, Hening

    2016-04-15

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a proinflammation cytokine secreted by various cells. Understanding its secretive pathway is important to understand the biological functions of TNF-α and diseases associated with TNF-α. TNF-α is one of the first proteins known be modified by lysine fatty acylation (e.g. myristoylation). We previously demonstrated that SIRT6, a member of the mammalian sirtuin family of enzymes, can remove the fatty acyl modification on TNF-α and promote its secretion. However, the mechanistic details about how lysine fatty acylation regulates TNF-α secretion have been unknown. Here we present experimental data supporting that lysine fatty acylation promotes lysosomal targeting of TNF-α. The result is an important first step toward understanding the biological functions of lysine fatty acylation.

  1. A Comparative Study on Antioxidant System in Fish Hepatopancreas and Intestine Affected by Choline Deficiency: Different Change Patterns of Varied Antioxidant Enzyme Genes and Nrf2 Signaling Factors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Zhao, Juan; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2017-01-01

    The liver and intestine are susceptible to the oxidative damage which could result in several diseases. Choline deficiency induced oxidative damage in rat liver cells. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms responsible for choline deficiency-induced oxidative damage. Juvenile Jian carp were fed diets differing in choline content [165 (deficient group), 310, 607, 896, 1167 and 1820 mg/kg diet] respectively for 65 days. Oxidative damage, antioxidant enzyme activities and related gene expressions in the hepatopancreas and intestine were measured. Choline deficiency decreased choline and phosphatidylcholine contents, and induced oxidative damage in both organs, as evidenced by increased levels of oxidative-stress markers (malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine), coupled with decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes [Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)]. However, choline deficiency increased glutathione contents in the hepatopancreas and intestine. Furthermore, dietary choline deficiency downregulated mRNA levels of MnSOD, GPx1b, GST-rho, mGST3 and Kelch-like ECH associating protein 1 (Keap1b) in the hepatopancreas, MnSOD, GPx1b, GPx4a, GPx4b, GST-rho, GST-theta, GST-mu, GST-alpha, GST-pi and GST-kappa in the intestine, as well as intestinal Nrf2 protein levels. In contrast, choline deficiency upregulated the mRNA levels of GPx4a, GPx4b, mGST1, mGST2, GST-theta, GST-mu, Keap1a and PKC in the hepatopancreas, mGST3, nuclear factor erythoid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Keap1a in the intestine, as well as hepatopancreatic Nrf2 protein levels. This study provides new evidence that choline deficiency-induced oxidative damage is associated with changes in the transcription of antioxidant enzyme and Nrf2/Keap1 signaling molecules in the hepatopancreas and intestine. Additionally, this study firstly

  2. A Comparative Study on Antioxidant System in Fish Hepatopancreas and Intestine Affected by Choline Deficiency: Different Change Patterns of Varied Antioxidant Enzyme Genes and Nrf2 Signaling Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Zhao, Juan; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2017-01-01

    The liver and intestine are susceptible to the oxidative damage which could result in several diseases. Choline deficiency induced oxidative damage in rat liver cells. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms responsible for choline deficiency-induced oxidative damage. Juvenile Jian carp were fed diets differing in choline content [165 (deficient group), 310, 607, 896, 1167 and 1820 mg/kg diet] respectively for 65 days. Oxidative damage, antioxidant enzyme activities and related gene expressions in the hepatopancreas and intestine were measured. Choline deficiency decreased choline and phosphatidylcholine contents, and induced oxidative damage in both organs, as evidenced by increased levels of oxidative-stress markers (malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine), coupled with decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes [Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)]. However, choline deficiency increased glutathione contents in the hepatopancreas and intestine. Furthermore, dietary choline deficiency downregulated mRNA levels of MnSOD, GPx1b, GST-rho, mGST3 and Kelch-like ECH associating protein 1 (Keap1b) in the hepatopancreas, MnSOD, GPx1b, GPx4a, GPx4b, GST-rho, GST-theta, GST-mu, GST-alpha, GST-pi and GST-kappa in the intestine, as well as intestinal Nrf2 protein levels. In contrast, choline deficiency upregulated the mRNA levels of GPx4a, GPx4b, mGST1, mGST2, GST-theta, GST-mu, Keap1a and PKC in the hepatopancreas, mGST3, nuclear factor erythoid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Keap1a in the intestine, as well as hepatopancreatic Nrf2 protein levels. This study provides new evidence that choline deficiency-induced oxidative damage is associated with changes in the transcription of antioxidant enzyme and Nrf2/Keap1 signaling molecules in the hepatopancreas and intestine. Additionally, this study firstly

  3. Phylogenetic and experimental characterization of an acyl-ACP thioesterase family reveals significant diversity in enzymatic specificity and activity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases (acyl-ACP TEs) catalyze the hydrolysis of the thioester bond that links the acyl chain to the sulfhydryl group of the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of ACP. This reaction terminates acyl chain elongation of fatty acid biosynthesis, and in plant seeds it is the biochemical determinant of the fatty acid compositions of storage lipids. Results To explore acyl-ACP TE diversity and to identify novel acyl ACP-TEs, 31 acyl-ACP TEs from wide-ranging phylogenetic sources were characterized to ascertain their in vivo activities and substrate specificities. These acyl-ACP TEs were chosen by two different approaches: 1) 24 TEs were selected from public databases on the basis of phylogenetic analysis and fatty acid profile knowledge of their source organisms; and 2) seven TEs were molecularly cloned from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), coconut (Cocos nucifera) and Cuphea viscosissima, organisms that produce medium-chain and short-chain fatty acids in their seeds. The in vivo substrate specificities of the acyl-ACP TEs were determined in E. coli. Based on their specificities, these enzymes were clustered into three classes: 1) Class I acyl-ACP TEs act primarily on 14- and 16-carbon acyl-ACP substrates; 2) Class II acyl-ACP TEs have broad substrate specificities, with major activities toward 8- and 14-carbon acyl-ACP substrates; and 3) Class III acyl-ACP TEs act predominantly on 8-carbon acyl-ACPs. Several novel acyl-ACP TEs act on short-chain and unsaturated acyl-ACP or 3-ketoacyl-ACP substrates, indicating the diversity of enzymatic specificity in this enzyme family. Conclusion These acyl-ACP TEs can potentially be used to diversify the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway to produce novel fatty acids. PMID:21831316

  4. Sodium chlorate, a major water disinfection byproduct, alters brush border membrane enzymes, carbohydrate metabolism and impairs antioxidant system of Wistar rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shaikh Nisar; Ansari, Fariheen Aisha; Khan, Aijaz Ahmed; Mahmood, Riaz

    2017-05-01

    Sodium chlorate (NaClO3 ) is a widely used nonselective herbicide. It is also generated as a by-product during disinfection of drinking water by chlorine dioxide. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of NaClO3 on rat intestine. Adult male rats were randomly divided into five groups: control and remaining four groups were administered orally different doses of NaClO3 and sacrificed 24 h after the treatment. The administration of NaClO3 produced acute oxidative stress in the intestine, which manifested in the form of markedly enhanced malondialdehyde levels and carbonyl content and lowered total sulfhydryl groups and glutathione levels. The activities of several brush border membrane (BBM) enzymes were greatly reduced as compared to control. There were alterations in the activities of various enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism and those involved in maintaining the antioxidant defense system. Histological studies support the biochemical results showing NaClO3 dose-dependent increase in tissue damage. Thus, the present study shows that oral administration of NaClO3 decreases the activities of BBM enzymes, induces oxidative stress, alters metabolic pathways, and impairs the antioxidant system of rat intestine. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1607-1616, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Progress toward Understanding Protein S-acylation: Prospective in Plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaxiao; Qi, Baoxiu

    2017-01-01

    S-acylation, also known as S-palmitoylation or palmitoylation, is a reversible post-translational lipid modification in which long chain fatty acid, usually the 16-carbon palmitate, covalently attaches to a cysteine residue(s) throughout the protein via a thioester bond. It is involved in an array of important biological processes during growth and development, reproduction and stress responses in plant. S-acylation is a ubiquitous mechanism in eukaryotes catalyzed by a family of enzymes called Protein S-Acyl Transferases (PATs). Since the discovery of the first PAT in yeast in 2002 research in S-acylation has accelerated in the mammalian system and followed by in plant. However, it is still a difficult field to study due to the large number of PATs and even larger number of putative S-acylated substrate proteins they modify in each genome. This is coupled with drawbacks in the techniques used to study S-acylation, leading to the slower progress in this field compared to protein phosphorylation, for example. In this review we will summarize the discoveries made so far based on knowledge learnt from the characterization of protein S-acyltransferases and the S-acylated proteins, the interaction mechanisms between PAT and its specific substrate protein(s) in yeast and mammals. Research in protein S-acylation and PATs in plants will also be covered although this area is currently less well studied in yeast and mammalian systems.

  6. Progress toward Understanding Protein S-acylation: Prospective in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yaxiao; Qi, Baoxiu

    2017-01-01

    S-acylation, also known as S-palmitoylation or palmitoylation, is a reversible post-translational lipid modification in which long chain fatty acid, usually the 16-carbon palmitate, covalently attaches to a cysteine residue(s) throughout the protein via a thioester bond. It is involved in an array of important biological processes during growth and development, reproduction and stress responses in plant. S-acylation is a ubiquitous mechanism in eukaryotes catalyzed by a family of enzymes called Protein S-Acyl Transferases (PATs). Since the discovery of the first PAT in yeast in 2002 research in S-acylation has accelerated in the mammalian system and followed by in plant. However, it is still a difficult field to study due to the large number of PATs and even larger number of putative S-acylated substrate proteins they modify in each genome. This is coupled with drawbacks in the techniques used to study S-acylation, leading to the slower progress in this field compared to protein phosphorylation, for example. In this review we will summarize the discoveries made so far based on knowledge learnt from the characterization of protein S-acyltransferases and the S-acylated proteins, the interaction mechanisms between PAT and its specific substrate protein(s) in yeast and mammals. Research in protein S-acylation and PATs in plants will also be covered although this area is currently less well studied in yeast and mammalian systems. PMID:28392791

  7. Effect of dietary arginine on growth, intestinal enzyme activities and gene expression in muscle, hepatopancreas and intestine of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Chen, Gangfu; Feng, Lin; Kuang, Shengyao; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Hu, Kai; Jiang, Weidan; Li, Shuhong; Tang, Ling; Zhou, Xiaoqiu

    2012-07-01

    The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that dietary arginine promotes digestion and absorption capacity, and, thus, enhances fish growth. This improvement might be related to the target of rapamycin (TOR) and eIF4E-binding protein (4E-BP). A total of 1200 juvenile Jian carp, Cyprinus carpio var. Jian, with an average initial weight of 6.33 (SE 0.03) g, were fed with diets containing graded concentrations of arginine, namely, 9.8 (control), 12.7, 16.1, 18.5, 21.9 and 24.5 g arginine/kg diet for 9 weeks. An real-time quantitative PCR analysis was performed to determine the relative expression of TOR and 4E-BP in fish muscle, hepatopancreas and intestine. Dietary arginine increased (P < 0.05): (1) glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase activities in muscle and hepatopancreas; (2) intestine and hepatopancreas protein content, folds height, and trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and creatine kinase activities in intestine; (3) Lactobacillus counts; (4) relative expression of TOR in the muscle, hepatopancreas and distal intestine (DI); (5) relative expression of 4E-BP in proximal intestine (PI) and mid-intestine (MI), as compared with the control group. In contrast, dietary arginine reduced (P < 0.05): (1) plasma ammonia content; (2) Aeromonas hydrophila and Escherichia coli counts; (3) relative expression of TOR in PI and MI; (4) relative expression of 4E-BP in the muscle, hepatopancreas and DI. The arginine requirement estimated by specific growth rate using quadratic regression analysis was found to be 18.0 g/kg diet. These results indicate that arginine improved fish growth, digestive and absorptive ability and regulated the expression of TOR and 4E-BP genes.

  8. Mapping the intestinal alpha-glucogenic enzyme specificities of starch digesting maltase-glucoamylase and sucrase-isomaltase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inhibition of intestinal alpha-glucosidases and pancreatic alpha-amylases is an approach to controlling blood glucose and serum insulin levels in individuals with Type II diabetes. The two human intestinal glucosidases are maltase-glucoamylase and sucrase-isomaltase. Each incorporates two family 31 ...

  9. The human neonatal small intestine has the potential for arginine synthesis; developmental changes in the expression of arginine-synthesizing and -catabolizing enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Köhler, Eleonore S; Sankaranarayanan, Selvakumari; van Ginneken, Christa J; van Dijk, Paul; Vermeulen, Jacqueline LM; Ruijter, Jan M; Lamers, Wouter H; Bruder, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Background Milk contains too little arginine for normal growth, but its precursors proline and glutamine are abundant; the small intestine of rodents and piglets produces arginine from proline during the suckling period; and parenterally fed premature human neonates frequently suffer from hypoargininemia. These findings raise the question whether the neonatal human small intestine also expresses the enzymes that enable the synthesis of arginine from proline and/or glutamine. Carbamoylphosphate synthetase (CPS), ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS), arginase-1 (ARG1), arginase-2 (ARG2), and nitric-oxide synthase (NOS) were visualized by semiquantitative immunohistochemistry in 89 small-intestinal specimens. Results Between 23 weeks of gestation and 3 years after birth, CPS- and ASS-protein content in enterocytes was high and then declined to reach adult levels at 5 years. OAT levels declined more gradually, whereas ARG-1 was not expressed. ARG-2 expression increased neonatally to adult levels. Neurons in the enteric plexus strongly expressed ASS, OAT, NOS1 and ARG2, while varicose nerve fibers in the circular layer of the muscularis propria stained for ASS and NOS1 only. The endothelium of small arterioles expressed ASS and NOS3, while their smooth-muscle layer expressed OAT and ARG2. Conclusion The human small intestine acquires the potential to produce arginine well before fetuses become viable outside the uterus. The perinatal human intestine therefore resembles that of rodents and pigs. Enteral ASS behaves as a typical suckling enzyme because its expression all but disappears in the putative weaning period of human infants. PMID:19000307

  10. A Cerulenin Insensitive Short Chain 3-Ketoacyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Synthase in Spinacia oleracea Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Jaworski, Jan G.; Clough, Richard C.; Barnum, Susan R.

    1989-01-01

    A cerulenin insensitive 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase has been assayed in extracts of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaf. The enzyme was active in the 40 to 80% ammonium sulfate precipitate of whole leaf homogenates and catalyzed the synthesis of acetoacetyl-acyl carrier protein. This condensation reaction was five-fold faster than acetyl-CoA:acyl carrier protein transacylase, and the initial rates of acyl-acyl carrier protein synthesis were independent of the presence of cerulenin. In the presence of fatty acid synthase cofactors and 100 micromolar cerulenin, the principal fatty acid product of de novo synthesis was butyric and hexanoic acids. Using conformationally sensitive native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for separation, malonyl-, acetyl-, butyryl-, hexanoyl, and long chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins could be detected by immunoblotting and autoradiography. In the presence of 100 micromolar cerulenin, the accumulation of butyryl- and hexanoyl-acyl carrier protein was observed, with no detectable long chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins or fatty acids being produced. In the absence of cerulenin, the long chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins also accumulated. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16666765

  11. Effects of maternal over- and undernutrition on intestinal morphology, enzyme activity, and gene expression of nutrient transporters in newborn and weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Cao, Meng; Che, Lianqiang; Wang, Jun; Yang, Mei; Su, Guoqi; Fang, Zhengfeng; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Wu, De

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that maternal nutrition during gestation is involved in the offspring's intestinal development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal nutrition on digestive and absorptive function of offspring at both birth and weaning with pig as model. Eighteen primiparous Landrace × Yorkshire gilts (ages 253 ± 9 d; body weight 148.6 ± 6.9 kg) were allocated to a normal nutrition (control) group as recommended by the National Research Council (NRC; 1998), an undernutrition (UN) group (75% of NRC recommendations), and an overnutrition (ON) group (150% of NRC recommendations); the nutritional treatments were introduced from day 1 of gestation to farrowing. By comparison, the small intestine weight (+33%; P < 0.01) and the ratio of small intestine weight to length (+25%; P < 0.05) for the ON group were higher than those for the control group. Meanwhile, the maternal ON treatment had significant effect on the activity of brush border lactase in the jejunum (+125%; P < 0.05) at birth. Expression of mRNA for SGLT1, GLUT2, PEPT1, and GLP2R were significantly increased (+1.7∼9.6-fold; P < 0.05) in jejunum of newborn or weaned piglets from the ON group; whereas maternal UN significantly affected small intestine weight (-28%; P < 0.01), length, and the ratio of weight to length (-11% and -19%; P < 0.05, respectively), and villus height (-29% and -22%; P < 0.05, respectively) in jejunum and ileum. Furthermore, maternal UN enhanced the activity of brush border lactase in the jejunum of newborn piglets (P < 0.05). Maternal ON enhanced intestinal function via up-regulating digestive enzyme activities and gene expression of transporters in both newborn and weaning piglets. Maternal UN impaired fetal intestinal development that could be partially compensated during the neonatal period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Acyl-CoA binding proteins: multiplicity and function.

    PubMed

    Gossett, R E; Frolov, A A; Roths, J B; Behnke, W D; Kier, A B; Schroeder, F

    1996-09-01

    The physiological role of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA is thought to be primarily in intermediary metabolism of fatty acids. However, recent data show that nM to microM levels of these lipophilic molecules are potent regulators of cell functions in vitro. Although long-chain fatty acyl-CoA are present at several hundred microM concentration in the cell, very little long-chain fatty acyl-CoA actually exists as free or unbound molecules, but rather is bound with high affinity to membrane lipids and/or proteins. Recently, there is growing awareness that cytosol contains nonenzymatic proteins also capable of binding long-chain fatty acyl-CoA with high affinity. Although the identity of the cytosolic long-chain fatty acyl-CoA binding protein(s) has been the subject of some controversy, there is growing evidence that several diverse nonenzymatic cytosolic proteins will bind long-chain fatty acyl-CoA. Not only does acyl-CoA binding protein specifically bind medium and long-chain fatty acyl-CoA (LCFA-CoA), but ubiquitous proteins with multiple ligand specificities such as the fatty acid binding proteins and sterol carrier protein-2 also bind LCFA-CoA with high affinity. The potential of these acyl-CoA binding proteins to influence the level of free LCFA-CoA and thereby the amount of LCFA-CoA bound to regulatory sites in proteins and enzymes is only now being examined in detail. The purpose of this article is to explore the identity, nature, function, and pathobiology of these fascinating newly discovered long-chain fatty acyl-CoA binding proteins. The relative contributions of these three different protein families to LCFA-CoA utilization and/or regulation of cellular activities are the focus of new directions in this field.

  13. Inhibition of the gut enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase may explain how aspartame promotes glucose intolerance and obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Gul, Sarah S; Hamilton, A Rebecca L; Munoz, Alexander R; Phupitakphol, Tanit; Liu, Wei; Hyoju, Sanjiv K; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P; Morrison, Sara; Hu, Dong; Zhang, Weifeng; Gharedaghi, Mohammad Hadi; Huo, Haizhong; Hamarneh, Sulaiman R; Hodin, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    Diet soda consumption has not been associated with tangible weight loss. Aspartame (ASP) commonly substitutes sugar and one of its breakdown products is phenylalanine (PHE), a known inhibitor of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), a gut enzyme shown to prevent metabolic syndrome in mice. We hypothesized that ASP consumption might contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome based on PHE's inhibition of endogenous IAP. The design of the study was such that for the in vitro model, IAP was added to diet and regular soda, and IAP activity was measured. For the acute model, a closed bowel loop was created in mice. ASP or water was instilled into it and IAP activity was measured. For the chronic model, mice were fed chow or high-fat diet (HFD) with/without ASP in the drinking water for 18 weeks. The results were that for the in vitro study, IAP activity was lower (p < 0.05) in solutions containing ASP compared with controls. For the acute model, endogenous IAP activity was reduced by 50% in the ASP group compared with controls (0.2 ± 0.03 vs 0.4 ± 0.24) (p = 0.02). For the chronic model, mice in the HFD + ASP group gained more weight compared with the HFD + water group (48.1 ± 1.6 vs 42.4 ± 3.1, p = 0.0001). Significant difference in glucose intolerance between the HFD ± ASP groups (53 913 ± 4000.58 (mg·min)/dL vs 42 003.75 ± 5331.61 (mg·min)/dL, respectively, p = 0.02). Fasting glucose and serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were significantly higher in the HFD + ASP group (1.23- and 0.87-fold increases, respectively, p = 0.006 and p = 0.01). In conclusion, endogenous IAP's protective effects in regard to the metabolic syndrome may be inhibited by PHE, a metabolite of ASP, perhaps explaining the lack of expected weight loss and metabolic improvements associated with diet drinks.

  14. Effect of dietary histamine supplementation on growth, digestive enzyme activities and morphology of intestine and hepatopancreas in the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liulan; Yang, Xiaozhen; Cheng, Yongxu; Yang, Song

    2016-01-01

    A 28-days feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of histamine on digestive physiology of the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. Four experimental diets were supplemented with histamine at 0, 1, 2, 4 g/kg. Histamine supplementation had no effect on growth. The activities of digestive enzyme decreased significantly at first (days 7 and 14) (p < 0.05) and then increased or finally slightly recovered in the hepatopancreas and intestinal tract on the 28th day. Tryptase and amylase activities were inhibited significantly in each histamine-treated group on day 7 as compared to the control (p < 0.05). On day 7, 14 and 28, tryptase mRNA relative expression in the histamine treatments correlated positively with the histamine concentration (p < 0.05). Histopathologic analyses showed serious alterations in hepatopancreas, moderate alterations in the hindgut and intestinal bulb, and no alterations in the midgut. In hepatopancreas, low levels (1 g/kg) of histamine caused an increase in the number of B-cells. High levels (4 g/kg) of histamine increased the number of R-cells, which were also highly vacuolized. In extreme cases, the basal lamina was detached from the tubule. In the intestinal bulb and hindgut, high levels of histamine (4 g/kg) decreased the density of reserve inclusion cells. Thus, this indicated that histamine had dose-dependent effect on the activity of digestive enzymes and the morphology of the intestine and hepatopancreas.

  15. Terfenadine t-butyl hydroxylation catalyzed by human and marmoset cytochrome P450 3A and 4F enzymes in livers and small intestines.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shotaro; Yuki, Yukako; Uno, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Takashi; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2017-05-15

    1. Roles of human cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A4 in oxidation of an antihistaminic drug terfenadine have been previously investigated in association with terfenadine-ketoconazole interaction. Several antihistamine drugs have been recently identified as substrates for multiple P450 enzymes. In this study, overall roles of P450 3A4, 2J2, and 4F12 enzymes in terfenadine t-butyl hydroxylation were investigated in small intestines and livers from humans, marmosets, and/or cynomolgus monkeys. 2. Human liver microsomes and liver and small intestine microsomes from marmosets and cynomolgus monkeys effectively mediated terfenadine t-butyl hydroxylation. Ketoconazole and N-hydroxy-N'-(4-butyl-2-methylphenyl)-formamidine (a P450 4A/F inhibitor) almost completely and moderately inhibited these activities, respectively, in human liver microsomes; however, these chemicals did not show substantially suppression in marmoset liver. Anti-human P450 3A and 4F antibodies showed the roughly supportive inhibitory effects. 3. Recombinant P450 3A4/90 and 4F12 showed high terfenadine t-butyl hydroxylation activities with substrate inhibition constants of 84-144 μM (under 26-76 μM of Km values), in similar manners to liver and intestine microsomes. 4. These results suggest that human and marmoset P450 3A4/90 and 4F12 in livers or small intestines played important roles in terfenadine t-butyl hydroxylation. Marmosets could be a model for humans during first pass extraction of terfenadine and related substrates.

  16. In vitro metabolic stability and intestinal transport of P57AS3 (P57) from Hoodia gordonii and its interaction with drug metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Madgula, Vamsi L M; Avula, Bharathi; Pawar, Rahul S; Shukla, Yatin J; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A; Khan, Shabana I

    2008-08-01

    Hoodia gordonii, a succulent cactus-like plant growing in South Africa, has been used in traditional medicine for its appetite suppressant properties. Its use as a dietary supplement to promote weight loss has recently gained popularity. An oxypregnane steroidal glycoside P57AS3 (P57) is reported to be the active constituent of the sap extract responsible for anorexigenic activity. No information is available about its metabolic stability, intestinal transport and interaction with drug metabolizing enzymes. In the present investigation, the metabolic stability of P57 in human liver microsomes and its interaction with drug metabolizing enzymes (CYP1A2, 2C9, 3A4 and 2D6) were determined. Intestinal transport of P57 was studied in the Caco-2 cell model of intestinal transport and absorption. P57 was metabolically stable in the presence of human liver microsomes. The compound inhibited CYP3A4 activity with an IC50 value of 45 microM, whereas the activity of CYP 1A2, 2C9 and 2D6 was not inhibited. In the Caco-2 model, P57 exhibited a higher transport in the secretory direction than in the absorptive direction with efflux ratios of 3.1 and 3.8 at 100 and 200 microM, respectively. The efflux was inhibited by selective inhibitors of multidrug resistance associated proteins MRP1/MRP2 (MK-571) and P-gp (verapamil). In conclusion, intestinal transport of P57 was mediated by P-gp and MRP transporters. The compound was metabolically stable and showed weak inhibition of CYP 3A4.

  17. Dietary-fiber-degrading enzymes from a human intestinal Clostridium and their application to oligosaccharide production from nonstarchy polysaccharides using immobilized cells.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, N; Ishihara, K; Matsuura, Y

    2002-07-01

    The secretion of nonstarchy polysaccharide-degrading enzymes from an anaerobic human intestinal bacterium, Clostridium butyricum- beijerinckii (isolated from human feces), was investigated. Growth of the bacterium was found when laminarin, konjac glucomannan, and pectic acid were added separately to the culture media as sole carbon source. The corresponding degrading enzymes for these dietary fibers, laminarinase (endo-1,3- beta-glucanase), endo-1,4-beta-mannanase, endo- and exo-pectate lyases, and pectin methylesterase, were then purified and characterized. These extracelluar enzymes, which were secreted by the bacterium in the human large intestine, were considered to contribute to digestion of the ingested dietary fibers to their oligosaccharides, following by short-chain fatty acid fermentation by the bacterium. We have developed cell immobilization techniques of the bacterium on cellulose-foam carriers that are effective for continuous production of the oligosaccharides from the dietary fibers in a fed-batch reactor system. From 9 g of pectic acid, a total of 3.96 g of 4,5-unsaturated digalacturonic acid was produced over 40 h in four 500-ml batchcultures. In the same manner, the corresponding oligosaccharides were obtained from konjac glucomannan and laminarin with average conversion rates of around 30-40%.

  18. Acyl-acyl carrier protein as a source of fatty acids for bacterial bioluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, D.M.; Meighen, E.A.

    1985-09-01

    Pulse-chase experiments with (/sup 3/H)tetradecanoic acid and ATP showed that the bioluminescence-related 32-kDa acyltransferase from Vibrio harveyi can specifically catalyze the deacylation of a /sup 3/H-labeled 18-kDa protein observed in extracts of this bacterium. The 18-kDa protein has been partially purified and its physical and chemical properties strongly indicate that it is fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP). Both this V. harveyi (/sup 3/H)acylprotein and (/sup 3/H)palmitoyl-ACP from Escherichia coli were substrates in vitro for either the V. harveyi 32-kDa acyltransferase or the analogous enzyme (34K) from Photobacterium phosphoreum. TLC analysis indicated that the hexane-soluble product of the reaction is fatty acid. No significant cleavage of either E. coli or V. harveyi tetradecanoyl-ACP was observed in extracts of these bacteria unless the 32-kDa or 34K acyltransferase was present. Since these enzymes are believed to be responsible for the supply of fatty acids for reduction to form the aldehyde substrate of luciferase, the above results suggest that long-chain acyl-ACP is the source of fatty acids for bioluminescence.

  19. Characterization of a structurally and functionally diverged acyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase from milkweed seed.

    PubMed

    Cahoon, E B; Coughlan, S J; Shanklin, J

    1997-04-01

    A cDNA for a structurally variant acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase was isolated from milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) seed, a tissue enriched in palmitoleic (16:1delta9)* and cis-vaccenic (18:1delta11) acids. Extracts of Escherichia coli that express the milkweed cDNA catalyzed delta9 desaturation of acyl-ACP substrates, and the recombinant enzyme exhibited seven- to ten-fold greater specificity for palmitoyl (16:0)-ACP and 30-fold greater specificity for myristoyl (14:0)-ACP than did known delta9-stearoyl (18:0)-ACP desaturases. Like other variant acyl-ACP desaturases reported to date, the milkweed enzyme contains fewer amino acids near its N-terminus compared to previously characterized delta9-18:0-ACP desaturases. Based on the activity of an N-terminal deletion mutant of a delta9-18:0-ACP desaturase, this structural feature likely does not account for differences in substrate specificities.

  20. Pigs that are divergent in feed efficiency, differ in intestinal enzyme and nutrient transporter gene expression, nutrient digestibility and microbial activity.

    PubMed

    Vigors, S; Sweeney, T; O'Shea, C J; Kelly, A K; O'Doherty, J V

    2016-11-01

    Feed efficiency is an important trait in the future sustainability of pig production, however, the mechanisms involved are not fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to examine nutrient digestibility, organ weights, select bacterial populations, volatile fatty acids (VFA's), enzyme and intestinal nutrient transporter gene expression in a pig population divergent in feed efficiency. Male pigs (n=75; initial BW 22.4 kg SEM 2.03 kg) were fed a standard finishing diet for 43 days before slaughter to evaluate feed intake and growth for the purpose of calculating residual feed intake (RFI). Phenotypic RFI was calculated as the residuals from a regression model regressing average daily feed intake (ADFI) on average daily gain (ADG) and midtest BW0.60 (MBW). On day 115, 16 pigs (85 kg SEM 2.8 kg), designated as high RFI (HRFI) and low RFI (LRFI) were slaughtered and digesta was collected to calculate the coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID), total tract nutrient digestibility (CATTD), microbial populations and VFA's. Intestinal tissue was collected to examine intestinal nutrient transporter and enzyme gene expression. The LRFI pigs had lower ADFI (P<0.001), improved feed conversion ratio (P<0.001) and an improved RFI value relative to HRFI pigs (0.19 v. -0.14 SEM 0.08; P<0.001). The LRFI pigs had an increased CAID of gross energy (GE), and an improved CATTD of GE, nitrogen and dry matter compared to HRFI pigs (P<0.05). The LRFI pigs had higher relative gene expression levels of fatty acid binding transporter 2 (FABP2) (P<0.01), the sodium/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1) (P<0.05), the glucose transporter GLUT2 (P<0.10), and the enzyme sucrase-isomaltase (SI) (P<0.05) in the jejunum. The LRFI pigs had increased populations of lactobacillus spp. in the caecum compared with HRFI pigs. In colonic digesta HRFI pigs had increased acetic acid concentrations (P<0.05). Differences in nutrient digestibility, intestinal microbial populations and gene

  1. Short-term oral exposure to aluminium decreases glutathione intestinal levels and changes enzyme activities involved in its metabolism.

    PubMed

    Orihuela, Daniel; Meichtry, Verónica; Pregi, Nicolás; Pizarro, Manuel

    2005-09-01

    To study the effects of aluminium (Al) on glutathione (GSH) metabolism in the small intestine, adult male Wistar rats were orally treated with AlCl3.6H2O at doses of 30, 60, 120 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day, during seven days. Controls received deionized water. At doses above 120 mg/kg b.w., Al produced both a significant reduction of GSH content and an increase of oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio (P < 0.05). The index of oxidative stress of the intestine mucosa in terms of lipid peroxidation evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was significantly increased (52%) at higher Al dose used. The duodenal expression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 in brush border membranes, determined by Western blot technique, was increased 2.7-fold in rats treated with 200mg AlCl3/kg b.w (P < 0.01). Intestine activities of both GSH-synthase (from 60 mg/kg b.w.) and GSSG-reductase (from 120 mg/kg b.w.) were significantly reduced (26% and 31%, respectively) while glutathione-S-transferase showed to be slightly modified in the Al-treated groups. Conversely, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity was significantly increased (P < 0.05) due to the Al treatment. Al reduced in vitro mucosa-to-lumen GSH efflux (P < 0.05). A positive linear correlation between the intestine GSH depletion and reduction of in situ 45Ca intestinal absorption, both produced by Al, was found (r = 0.923, P = 0.038). Taking as a whole, these results show that Al would alter GSH metabolism in small intestine by decreasing its turnover, leading to an unbalance of redox state in the epithelial cells, thus contributing to deteriorate GSH-dependent absorptive functions.

  2. Plant Acyl-CoA:Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferases (LPCATs) Have Different Specificities in Their Forward and Reverse Reactions*

    PubMed Central

    Lager, Ida; Yilmaz, Jenny Lindberg; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Jasieniecka, Katarzyna; Kazachkov, Michael; Wang, Peng; Zou, Jitao; Weselake, Randall; Smith, Mark A.; Bayon, Shen; Dyer, John M.; Shockey, Jay M.; Heinz, Ernst; Green, Allan; Banas, Antoni; Stymne, Sten

    2013-01-01

    Acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) enzymes have central roles in acyl editing of phosphatidylcholine (PC). Plant LPCAT genes were expressed in yeast and characterized biochemically in microsomal preparations of the cells. Specificities for different acyl-CoAs were similar for seven LPCATs from five different species, including species accumulating hydroxylated acyl groups in their seed oil, with a preference for C18-unsaturated acyl-CoA and low activity with palmitoyl-CoA and ricinoleoyl (12-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoyl)-CoA. We showed that Arabidopsis LPCAT1 and LPCAT2 enzymes catalyzed the acylation and de-acylation of both sn positions of PC, with a preference for the sn-2 position. When acyl specificities of the Arabidopsis LPCATs were measured in the reverse reaction, sn-2-bound oleoyl, linoleoyl, and linolenoyl groups from PC were transferred to acyl-CoA to a similar extent. However, a ricinoleoyl group at the sn-2-position of PC was removed 4–6-fold faster than an oleoyl group in the reverse reaction, despite poor utilization in the forward reaction. The data presented, taken together with earlier published reports on in vivo lipid metabolism, support the hypothesis that plant LPCAT enzymes play an important role in regulating the acyl-CoA composition in plant cells by transferring polyunsaturated and hydroxy fatty acids produced on PC directly to the acyl-CoA pool for further metabolism or catabolism. PMID:24189065

  3. Effect of Intestinal Flora on Protein Expression of Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters in the Liver and Kidney of Germ-Free and Antibiotics-Treated Mice.

    PubMed

    Kuno, Takuya; Hirayama-Kurogi, Mio; Ito, Shingo; Ohtsuki, Sumio

    2016-08-01

    Dysbiosis (alteration of intestinal flora) is associated with various host physiologies, including diseases. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of dysbiosis on protein expression levels in mouse liver and kidney by quantitative proteomic analysis, focusing in particular on drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in order to investigate the potential impact of dysbiosis on drug pharmacokinetics. Germ-free (GF) mice and antibiotics-treated mice were used as dysbiosis models. Expression levels of 825 and 357 proteins were significantly changed in the liver and kidney, respectively, of GF mice (vs specific-pathogen-free mice), while 306 and 178 proteins, respectively, were changed in antibiotics-treated mice (vs vehicle controls). Among them, 52 and 16 drug-metabolizing enzyme and transporter proteins were significantly changed in the liver and kidney, respectively, of GF mice, while 25 and 8, respectively were changed in antibiotics-treated mice. Expression of mitochondrial proteins was also changed in the liver and kidney of both model mice. In GF mice, Oatp1a1 was decreased in both the liver and kidney, while Sult1a1 and two Cyp enzymes were increased and Gstp1, four Cyp enzymes, three Ces enzymes, Bcrp1, and Oct1 were decreased in the liver. In antibiotics-treated mice, Cyp51a1 was increased and three Cyp enzymes, Bcrp1, and Bsep were decreased in the liver. Notably, the expression of Cyp2b10 and Cyp3a11 was greatly decreased in the liver of both models. Cyp2b activity in the liver microsomal fraction was also decreased. Our results indicate that dysbiosis changes the protein expression of multiple drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in the liver and kidney and may alter pharmacokinetics in the host.

  4. The Role of Mitochondrial Non-Enzymatic Protein Acylation in Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Shin Yee; Ng, Li Theng; Ng, Li Fang; Inoue, Takao; Tolwinski, Nicholas S.; Hagen, Thilo; Gruber, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, various large-scale proteomic studies have demonstrated that mitochondrial proteins are highly acylated, most commonly by addition of acetyl and succinyl groups. These acyl modifications may be enzyme catalysed but can also be driven non-enzymatically. The latter mechanism is promoted in mitochondria due to the nature of the mitochondrial microenvironment, which is alkaline and contains high concentrations of acyl-CoA species. Protein acylation may modify enzyme activity, typically inhibiting it. We posited that organismal ageing might be accompanied by an accumulation of acylated proteins, especially in mitochondria, and that this might compromise mitochondrial function and contribute to ageing. In this study, we used R. norvegicus, C. elegans and D. melanogaster to compare the acylation status of mitochondrial proteins between young and old animals. We observed a specific age-dependent increase in protein succinylation in worms and flies but not in rat. Rats have two substrate-specific mitochondrial deacylases, SIRT3 and SIRT5 while both flies and worms lack these enzymes. We propose that accumulation of mitochondrial protein acylation contributes to age-dependent mitochondrial functional decline and that SIRT3 and SIRT5 enzymes may promote longevity through regulation of mitochondrial protein acylation during ageing. PMID:28033361

  5. Expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in the small intestine of Eimeria acervulina-infected chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Coccidiosis is a major disease of poultry caused by the intestinal protozoa Eimeria. Eimeria acervulina mainly infects the duodenum, causing lesions in epithelial tissue. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of E. acervulina infection on the expression of 18 nutrient transport...

  6. ACAT-2, a second mammalian acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase. Its cloning, expression, and characterization.

    PubMed

    Cases, S; Novak, S; Zheng, Y W; Myers, H M; Lear, S R; Sande, E; Welch, C B; Lusis, A J; Spencer, T A; Krause, B R; Erickson, S K; Farese, R V

    1998-10-09

    The synthesis of cholesterol esters by acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT, EC 2.3.1.26) is an important component of cellular cholesterol homeostasis. Cholesterol ester formation also is hypothesized to be important in several physiologic processes, including intestinal cholesterol absorption, hepatic lipoprotein production, and macrophage foam cell formation in atherosclerotic lesions. Mouse tissue expression studies and the disruption of the mouse ACAT gene (Acact) have indicated that more than one ACAT exists in mammals and specifically that another enzyme is important in mouse liver and intestine. We now describe a second mammalian ACAT enzyme, designated ACAT-2, that is 44% identical to the first cloned mouse ACAT (henceforth designated ACAT-1). Infection of H5 insect cells with an ACAT-2 recombinant baculovirus resulted in expression of a approximately 46-kDa protein in cell membranes that was associated with high levels of cholesterol esterification activity. Both ACAT-1 and ACAT-2 also catalyzed the esterification of the 3beta-hydroxyl group of a variety of oxysterols. Cholesterol esterification activities for ACAT-1 and ACAT-2 exhibited different IC50 values when assayed in the presence of several ACAT-specific inhibitors, demonstrating that ACAT inhibitors can selectively target specific forms of ACAT. ACAT-2 was expressed primarily in mouse liver and small intestine, supporting the hypothesis that ACAT-2 contributes to cholesterol esterification in these tissues. The mouse ACAT-2 gene (Acact2) maps to chromosome 15 in a region containing a quantitative trait locus influencing plasma cholesterol levels. The identification and cloning of ACAT-2 will facilitate molecular approaches to understanding the role of ACAT enzymes in mammalian biology.

  7. Effect of apelin on mitosis, apoptosis and DNA repair enzyme OGG 1/2 expression in intestinal cell lines IEC-6 and Caco-2.

    PubMed

    Antushevich, Hanna; Krawczynska, Agata; Kapica, Malgorzata; Herman, Andrzej Przemyslaw; Zabielski, Romuald

    2014-01-01

    Apelin is a regulatory peptide, identified as an endogenous ligand of the Apelin receptor (APJ). Both the apelin and the APJ were detected in brain, lung, heart, mammary gland, kidney, placenta, adipose tissues and the gastrointestinal tract. Apelin is considered an important regulatory gut peptide with a potential physiological role in gastrointestinal cytoprotection, regulation of food intake and drinking behaviour. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of the apelin on mitosis, apoptosis and the expression of DNA repair enzyme (OGG 1/2), and APJ receptor in intestinal cell lines: rat crypt (IEC-6) and human enterocyte model (Caco-2). The cell cultures were incubated with the apelin-12 (10-8 M) for 4, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h and the apoptosis (caspase 3), mitosis (Ki-67) and DNA repair enzyme (OGG1/2) markers were studied by Real-Time qRT-PCR and immunofluorescent methods. The results of Real-Time qRT-PCR and immunocytochemical analysis showed that the levels of mRNAs were inversely related to the expression level of corresponding proteins. Immunofluorescent studies revealed inhibitory effect of apelin-12 on apoptosis, mitosis and the expression of OGG1/2 in the intestinal crypt cell line IEC-6. However, in the enterocyte model Caco-2 cells apelin stimulated apoptosis and mitosis, and reduced OGG1/2 expression. These findings suggest that apelin may be involved in the control of epithelial cell turnover in the gastrointestinal tract.

  8. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with the Combination of Zeolite and Attapulgite on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Secretion of Digestive Enzymes and Intestinal Health in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, P.; Tan, Y. Q.; Zhang, L.; Zhou, Y. M.; Gao, F.; Zhou, G. H.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of basal diets supplemented with a clay product consisting of zeolite and attapulgite (ZA) at 1:1 ratio on growth performance, digestibility of feed nutrients, activities of digestive enzymes in small intestine and intestinal health in broiler chickens. In experiment 1, 112 one-day-old male chickens were randomly divided into 2 groups with 8 replicates of 7 chickens each. In experiment 2, 84 one-day-old male chickens were randomly allocated into 2 groups consisting 6 replicates of 7 chickens each. The experimental diets both consisted of a maize-soybean basal control diet supplemented with 0% or 2% ZA. The diets were fed from 1 to 42 days of age. The results showed that ZA supplementation could increase body weight gain (BWG) and feed intake (FI), but had no significant effect on feed conversion ratio. The apparent digestibility values of crude protein and gross energy were significantly increased (p<0.05) by ZA from 14 to 16 d and 35 to 37 d. Dietary ZA treatment significantly increased (p<0.05) the activities of amylase, lipase and trypsin in jejunal digesta and the activities of maltase and sucrase in jejunal mucosa on days 21 and 42. The ZA supplementation also significantly increased (p<0.05) the catalase activity, reduced (p<0.05) the malondialdehyde concentration in the jejunal mucosa. In addition, a decrease of serum diamine oxidase activity and an increase (p<0.05) in concentration of secretory immunoglobulin A in jejunal mucosa were observed in birds treated with ZA on 21 and 42 days. It is concluded that ZA supplementation (2%) could partially improve the growth performance by increasing BWG and FI. This improvement was achieved through increasing the secretion of digestive enzymes, enhancing the digestibilites of nutrients, promoting intestinal health of broiler chickens. PMID:25178375

  9. Effect of zinc-bearing zeolite clinoptilolite on growth performance, nutrient retention, digestive enzyme activities, and intestinal function of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhigang; Wen, Chao; Li, Ping; Wang, Tian; Zhou, Yanmin

    2014-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of zinc-bearing zeolite clinoptilolite (Zn-ZCP) on performance, growth performance, nutrient retention, digestive enzyme activities, and intestinal function in broiler chickens. A total of 180 1-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were randomly divided into three groups with six replicates of ten birds for a 21-day feeding period. Birds were fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet (29.1 mg of Zn per kilogram of diet) without supplemental zinc (control) or the same diet supplemented with 80 mg/kg zinc from ZnSO4 or Zn-ZCP. Zn-ZCP and ZnSO4 treatments had lower feed: gain ratio than that of control group (P < 0.05). Addition of Zn-ZCP increased (P < 0.05) the apparent retention of organic matter and ether extract during 14-17 days, and increased (P < 0.05) pancreatic lipase activity at 14 and 21 days as well as amylase activity at 21 days. Addition of Zn-ZCP increased the villus heights and villus height to crypt depth ratio at the duodenal (P < 0.05) and jejunal (P < 0.05) of broilers at 14 days. Broilers fed the diet supplemented with 80 mg/kg Zn from Zn-ZCP had higher villus heights and villus height to crypt depth ratio of duodenum (P < 0.05) and jejunum (P < 0.05) than those fed with control diet on day 21. Zn-ZCP treatment increased (P < 0.05) IgG and sIgA concentrations in jejunum at 21 days. The results indicated that Zn-ZCP supplementation which might have modified the release of Zn further down in the intestinal tract with the controlled-release characteristic, modulated digestive enzyme activities and intestinal structure and function, increased nutrient retention, and improved feed efficiency.

  10. The enhancement of phase 2 enzyme activities by sodium butyrate in normal intestinal epithelial cells is associated with Nrf2 and p53.

    PubMed

    Yaku, Keisuke; Enami, Yuka; Kurajyo, Chika; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao; Konishi, Yotaro; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko

    2012-11-01

    Dietary fiber fermentation by the colonic bacterial flora produces short-chain fatty acids, acetate, propionate and butyrate. Among them, butyrate is considered to be the major energy substrate for colonocytes and, at least in rats, seems to protect against colonic carcinogenesis. In this study, we examined the effect and the mechanisms of short-chain fatty acids on the activity of phase 2 enzymes. Sodium butyrate increased phase 2 enzyme activities in normal rat small intestine epithelial cells, Glutathione S-transferase and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) in a dose-dependent manner(;) however, other short-chain fatty acids did not increase them. The mechanism of the induction of phase 2 enzymes with sodium butyrate sodium butyrate, but not other short-chain fatty acids was related to the increase of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation and the decrease in the levels of nuclear fraction p53. Sodium butyrate also caused enhancement of Nrf2 mRNA levels and suppression of p53 mRNA levels. Sodium butyrate enhances the activities of phase 2 enzymes via an increase in the Nrf2 protein levels in the nucleus and a decrease in the mRNA and protein levels of p53.

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Synthase Assays.

    PubMed

    Shin, Daniel; Frane, Nicole D; Brecht, Ryan M; Keeler, Jesse; Nagarajan, Rajesh

    2015-12-01

    Quorum sensing is cell-to-cell communication that allows bacteria to coordinate attacks on their hosts by inducing virulent gene expression, biofilm production, and other cellular functions, including antibiotic resistance. AHL synthase enzymes synthesize N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones, commonly referred to as autoinducers, to facilitate quorum sensing in Gram-negative bacteria. Studying the synthases, however, has proven to be a difficult road. Two assays, including a radiolabeled assay and a colorimetric (DCPIP) assay are well-documented in literature to study AHL synthases. In this paper, we describe additional methods that include an HPLC-based, C-S bond cleavage and coupled assays to investigate this class of enzymes. In addition, we compare and contrast each assay for both acyl-CoA- and acyl-ACP-utilizing synthases. The expanded toolkit described in this study should facilitate mechanistic studies on quorum sensing signal synthases and expedite discovery of antivirulent compounds.

  12. The 2.1Å Crystal Structure of an Acyl-CoA Synthetase from Methanosarcina acetivorans reveals an alternate acyl binding pocket for small branched acyl substrates†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Manish B.; Ingram-Smith, Cheryl; Cooper, Leroy L.; Qu, Jun; Meng, Yu; Smith, Kerry S.; Gulick, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    The acyl-AMP forming family of adenylating enzymes catalyze two-step reactions to activate a carboxylate with the chemical energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. X-ray crystal structures have been determined for multiple members of this family and, together with biochemical studies, provide insights into the active site and catalytic mechanisms used by these enzymes. These studies have shown that the enzymes use a domain rotation of 140° to reconfigure a single active site to catalyze the two partial reactions. We present here the crystal structure of a new medium chain acyl-CoA synthetase from Methanosarcina acetivorans. The binding pocket for the three substrates is analyzed, with many conserved residues present in the AMP binding pocket. The CoA binding pocket is compared to the pockets of both acetyl-CoA synthetase and 4-chlorobenzoate:CoA ligase. Most interestingly, the acyl binding pocket of the new structure is compared with other acyl- and aryl-CoA synthetases. A comparison of the acyl-binding pocket of the acyl-CoA synthetase from M. acetivorans with other structures identifies a shallow pocket that is used to bind the medium chain carboxylates. These insights emphasize the high sequence and structural diversity among this family in the area of the acyl binding pocket. PMID:19544569

  13. Direct nonchromatographic assay for 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Rajasekharan, R.; Ray, T.K.; Cronan, J.E. Jr.

    1988-09-01

    1-Acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (also called lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase) which catalyzes the acylation of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate to phosphatidic acid is generally assayed by the use of a radioactive substrate followed by a time-consuming chromatographic separation of substrate and product. We report a direct and highly sensitive nonchromatographic assay for this enzyme based on the ability of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase to dephosphorylate 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate but not phosphatidic acid. This selective hydrolysis coupled with the use of /sup 32/P-labeled 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate as substrate permits measurement of the product, /sup 32/P-labeled phosphatidic acid by solvent extraction or precipitation. We also report a series of enzymatic reactions for the efficient conversion of /sup 32/Pi to /sup 32/P-labeled 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate.

  14. Effect of Potential Probiotic Lactococcus lactis Subsp. lactis on Growth Performance, Intestinal Microbiota, Digestive Enzyme Activities, and Disease Resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Adel, Milad; El-Sayed, Abdel-Fattah M; Yeganeh, Sakineh; Dadar, Maryam; Giri, Sib Sankar

    2016-11-07

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis on the growth, intestinal microbiota, digestive enzyme activity, and disease resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei. Diets containing four different concentrations of L. lactis (0 [basal diet], 10(6), 10(7), and 10(8) CFU g(-1)) were fed to white shrimps L. vannamei (average weight 5.89 ± 0.36 g) for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, shrimps were immersed in Caspian Seawater (10.8 ppt) contaminated with 10(6) CFU ml(-1) pathogenic V. anguillarum for 2 h. Results revealed that growth rate, survival, and body protein level were increased with dietary supplementation of L. lactis. The activities of digestive enzymes (cellulose, lipase, amylase, and protease) were significantly higher in the groups fed with diets containing 10(7) or 10(8) CFU g(-1) L. lactis than those in the control. The Lactobacillus and Bacillus counts were higher (P < 0.05) in the intestine of shrimps fed with L. lactis-supplemented diets. In addition, higher level of L. lactis supplementation decreased the Vibrio counts. Moreover, L. vannamei fed diet supplemented with 10(8) CFU g(-1) of L. lactis exhibited significantly the highest hematocyte count and post-challenge survival rate (79.2 %). Collectively, these results suggest that dietary supplementation of L. lactis subsp. lactis at 10(8) CFU g(-1) can promote growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, and disease resistance of L. vannamei.

  15. Metabolic regulation of histone acetyltransferases by endogenous Acyl-CoA cofactors | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Unraveling the metabolic regulation of lysine acetyltransferases (KATs). Montgomery et al. detail the application of a competitive chemoproteomic strategy to quantitatively characterize the interactions of acyl-CoA metabolites with cellular KAT enzymes.

  16. Fatty Acyl Chains of Mycobacterium marinum Lipooligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Rombouts, Yoann; Alibaud, Laeticia; Carrère-Kremer, Séverine; Maes, Emmanuel; Tokarski, Caroline; Elass, Elisabeth; Kremer, Laurent; Guérardel, Yann

    2011-01-01

    We have recently established the fine structure of the glycan backbone of lipooligosaccharides (LOS-I to LOS-IV) isolated from Mycobacterium marinum, a close relative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These studies culminated with the description of an unusual terminal N-acylated monosaccharide that confers important biological functions to LOS-IV, such as macrophage activation, that may be relevant to granuloma formation. It was, however, also suggested that the lipid moiety was required for LOSs to exert their immunomodulatory activity. Herein, using highly purified LOSs from M. marinum, we have determined through a combination of mass spectrometric and NMR techniques, the structure and localization of the fatty acids composing the lipid moiety. The occurrence of two distinct polymethyl-branched fatty acids presenting specific localizations is consistent with the presence of two highly related polyketide synthases (Pks5 and Pks5.1) in M. marinum and presumably involved in the synthesis of these fatty acyl chains. In addition, a bioinformatic search permitted us to identify a set of enzymes potentially involved in the biosynthesis or transfer of these lipids to the LOS trehalose unit. These include MMAR_2343, a member of the Pap (polyketide-associated protein) family, that acylates trehalose-based glycolipids in M. marinum. The participation of MMAR_2343 to LOS assembly was demonstrated using a M. marinum mutant carrying a transposon insertion in the MMAR_2343 gene. Disruption of MMAR_2343 resulted in a severe LOS breakdown, indicating that MMAR_2343, hereafter designated PapA4, fulfills the requirements for LOS acylation and assembly. PMID:21803773

  17. Zinc oxide nanoparticles as a substitute for zinc oxide or colistin sulfate: Effects on growth, serum enzymes, zinc deposition, intestinal morphology and epithelial barrier in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Ligen; Su, Weipeng; Ying, Zhixiong; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Zhong, Xiang; Wang, Tian

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnOs) as a substitute for colistin sulfate (CS) and/or zinc oxide (ZnO) on growth performance, serum enzymes, zinc deposition, intestinal morphology and epithelial barrier in weaned piglets. A total of 216 crossbred Duroc×(Landrace×Yorkshire) piglets weaned at 23 days were randomly assigned into 3 groups, which were fed with basal diets supplemented with 20 mg/kg CS (CS group), 20mg/kg CS+3000 mg/kg ZnO (CS+ZnO group), and 1200 mg/kg nano-ZnOs (nano-ZnO group) for 14 days. Results indicated that compared to CS group, supplementation of 1200 mg/kg nano-ZnOs (about 30 nm) significantly increased final body weight and average daily gain, and 3000 mg/kg ZnO plus colistin sulfate significantly increased average daily gain and decreased diarrhea rate in weaned piglets. There was no significant difference in growth performance and diarrhea rate between nano-ZnO and CS+ZnO groups. Supplementation of nano-ZnOs did not affect serum enzymes (glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase), but significantly increased plasma and tissue zinc concentrations (liver, tibia), improved intestinal morphology (increased duodenal and ileal villus length, crypt depth, and villus surface), enhanced mRNA expression of ZO-1 in ileal mucosa, and significantly decreased diamine oxidase activity in plasma, total aerobic bacterial population in MLN as compared to CS group. Effects of nano-ZnOs on serum enzymes, intestinal morphology, and mRNA expressions of tight junction were similar to those of high dietary ZnO plus colistin sulfate, while nano-ZnOs significantly reduced zinc concentrations of liver, tibia, and feces, and decreased total aerobic bacterial population in MLN as compared to CS+ZnO group. These results suggested that nano-ZnOs (1200 mg/kg) might be used as a substitute for colistin sulfate and high dietary ZnO in weaned piglets.

  18. Effects of dietary protein and energy levels on digestive enzyme activities and electrolyte composition in the small intestinal fluid of geese.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Yang, Lin; Wang, Yongchang; Zhai, Shuangshuang; Wang, Shenshen; Yang, Zhipeng; Wang, Wence

    2017-02-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein and energy levels on digestive enzymes and electrolyte composition in jejunum of geese. A 3×3 factorial and completely randomized design was adopted with three protein levels and three energy levels. The experiment included four replicates for each treatment, and three geese for each replicate. Isovolumetric supernate from centrifugal jejuna fluid were mixed in each replicate. Activities of digestive enzymes and ions were analyzed. The results showed trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were significantly increased with increasing of dietary protein and energy levels (P<0.05). The concentrations of Ca(2+) and pH value were significantly decreased by increased dietary protein and energy levels. However, no significant differences were found for the activities of amylase and cellulase, as well as the concentration of Na(+) among groups with different protein and energy levels. In conclusion, digesta enzymes and electrolytes in the small intestine adapted to the protein and energy levels. The activities of protease, rather than amylase and cellulase were induced with increasing of protein and energy levels. The imbalance of positive and negative ions was possibly adjusted by the fluctuant concentrations of K(+) , Cl(-) and Ca(2+) for maintaining normal physiological function.

  19. The effect of haem biosynthesis inhibitors and inducers on intestinal iron absorption and liver haem biosynthetic enzyme activities

    SciTech Connect

    Laftah, A.H.; Simpson, R.J. Peters, T.J.; Raja, K.B.

    2008-06-15

    The relation between haem biosynthesis and intestinal iron absorption is not well understood, we therefore investigated the effect of compounds that alter haem metabolism on duodenal iron absorption. CD1 mice were treated with either an inhibitor (succinyl acetone (SA)) or stimulator (2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide (AIA)) of haem biosynthesis. 5-Aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) dehydratase and urinary ALA and porphobilinogen (PBG) levels, were determined. Intestinal iron absorption was assayed with in vivo and in vitro techniques. Liver hepcidin (Hamp1) and duodenal iron transporter mRNA levels were measured using RT-PCR. AIA caused increased hepatic ALA synthase (1.6-fold) and ALA dehydratase (1.4-fold, both p < 0.005) activities and increased urinary ALA and PBG excretion (2.1- and 1.4-fold, p < 0.005, p < 0.05, respectively). In vivo intestinal iron absorption was reduced to 49% of control (p < 0.005). Mice treated with SA showed decreased urinary ALA and PBG levels (75 and 55% control, both p < 0.005) and reductions in both ALA synthase and ALA dehydratase activities (77 and 56% control, p < 0.05, p < 0.005, respectively) in the liver. Liver and duodenal haem and cytochrome oxidase levels were not significantly decreased. Iron absorption was enhanced (1.26-fold, p < 0.05) and hepatic Hamp1 mRNA was reduced (53% of control, p < 0.05). In vitro duodenal iron uptake after mice were injected with SA also demonstrated an increase in Fe(III) reduction and uptake (1.27- and 1.41-fold, p < 0.01 respectively). Simultaneous injections of SA and ALA blocked the enhancing effect on iron absorption seen with SA alone. We conclude that alterations in haem biosynthesis can influence iron absorption and in particular, the intermediate ALA seems to be an inhibitor of iron absorption.

  20. Intestinal α-glucosidase and some pancreatic enzymes inhibitory effect of hydroalcholic extract of Moringa stenopetala leaves.

    PubMed

    Toma, Alemayehu; Makonnen, Eyasu; Mekonnen, Yelamtsehay; Debella, Asfaw; Addisakwattana, Sirichai

    2014-06-03

    Moringa stenopetala has been used in traditional health systems to treat diabetes mellitus. One of the successful methods to prevent of the onset of diabetes is to control postprandial hyperglycemia by the inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase activities, resulting in the aggressive delay of the carbohydrate digestion of absorbable monosaccharides. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of the extract of the leaves of Moringa stenopetala on α-glucosidase, pancreatic α-amylase, pancreatic lipase, and pancreatic cholesterol esterase activities, and, therefore find out the relevance of the plant in controlling blood sugar and lipid levels. The dried leaves of Moringa stenopetala were extracted with hydroalcoholic solvent and dried using rotary vapor under reduced pressure. The dried extracts were determined for the total phenolic compounds, flavonoid content and condensed tannins content by using Folin-Ciocateu's reagent, AlCl3 and vanillin assay, respectively. The dried extract of plant-based food was further quantified with respect to intestinal α-glucosidase (maltase and sucrase) inhibition and pancreatic α-amylase inhibition by glucose oxidase method and dinitrosalicylic (DNS) reagent, respectively. The phytochemical analysis indicated that flavonoid, total phenolic, and condensed tannin contents in the extract were 71.73 ± 2.48 mg quercetin equivalent/g of crude extract, 79.81 ± 2.85 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g of crude extract, 8.82 ± 0.77 mg catechin equivalent/g of crude extract, respectively. The extract inhibited intestinal sucrase more than intestinal maltase with IC50 value of 1.47 ± 0.19 mg/ml. It also slightly inhibited pancreatic α-amylase, pancreatic lipase and pancreatic cholesterol esterase. The result demonstrated the beneficial biochemical effects of Moringa stenopetala by inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidase, pancreatic cholesterol esterase and pancreatic lipase activities. A

  1. Intestinal α-glucosidase and some pancreatic enzymes inhibitory effect of hydroalcholic extract of Moringa stenopetala leaves

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Moringa stenopetala has been used in traditional health systems to treat diabetes mellitus. One of the successful methods to prevent of the onset of diabetes is to control postprandial hyperglycemia by the inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase activities, resulting in the aggressive delay of the carbohydrate digestion of absorbable monosaccharides. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of the extract of the leaves of Moringa stenopetala on α-glucosidase, pancreatic α-amylase, pancreatic lipase, and pancreatic cholesterol esterase activities, and, therefore find out the relevance of the plant in controlling blood sugar and lipid levels. Methods The dried leaves of Moringa stenopetala were extracted with hydroalcoholic solvent and dried using rotary vapor under reduced pressure. The dried extracts were determined for the total phenolic compounds, flavonoid content and condensed tannins content by using Folin-Ciocateu’s reagent, AlCl3 and vanillin assay, respectively. The dried extract of plant-based food was further quantified with respect to intestinal α-glucosidase (maltase and sucrase) inhibition and pancreatic α-amylase inhibition by glucose oxidase method and dinitrosalicylic (DNS) reagent, respectively. Results The phytochemical analysis indicated that flavonoid, total phenolic, and condensed tannin contents in the extract were 71.73 ± 2.48 mg quercetin equivalent/g of crude extract, 79.81 ± 2.85 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g of crude extract, 8.82 ± 0.77 mg catechin equivalent/g of crude extract, respectively. The extract inhibited intestinal sucrase more than intestinal maltase with IC50 value of 1.47 ± 0.19 mg/ml. It also slightly inhibited pancreatic α-amylase, pancreatic lipase and pancreatic cholesterol esterase. Conclusion The result demonstrated the beneficial biochemical effects of Moringa stenopetala by inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidase, pancreatic cholesterol esterase

  2. Influence of dietary inclusion of Bacillus licheniformis on laying performance, egg quality, antioxidant enzyme activities, and intestinal barrier function of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lei, K; Li, Y L; Yu, D Y; Rajput, I R; Li, W F

    2013-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of Bacillus licheniformis on laying performance, egg quality, antioxidant enzyme activities, and intestinal barrier function of laying hens. Hy-Line Variety W-36 hens (n = 540; 28 wk of age) were randomized into 6 groups, each group with 6 replications (n = 15). The control group received the basal diet formulated with maize and soybean meal. The treatment groups received the same basal diets supplemented with 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09% Bacillus licheniformis powder (2 × 10(10) cfu/g) for an 8-wk trial. The results showed that dietary supplementation with 0.01 and 0.03% B. licheniformis significantly increased egg production and egg mass. However, no significant differences were observed in egg weight, feed consumption, and feed conversion efficiency among the 6 groups. Supplementation with different levels of B. licheniformis was found to be effective in improvement of egg quality by increasing egg shell thickness and strength. Compared with control, d-lactate content, diamine oxidase activity, and adrenocorticotropic hormone level in serum decreased significantly, and the level of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone increased significantly in plasma of all the experimental groups. Dietary supplementation with B. licheniformis increased the intestinal villus height and reduced the crypt depth. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of B. licheniformis could improve laying performance and egg quality significantly in a dose-dependent manner by decreasing the stress response, upregulating the growth hormone, and improving intestinal health.

  3. Effect of fat feeding on pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant enzyme systems in rat intestine: possible role in the turnover of enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Turan, Aasma; Gill, Ravinder; Dudeja, Pradeep K; Mohan, Harsh; Mahmood, Akhtar

    2009-06-01

    Immature epithelial cells generated in the crypt base undergo differentiation while progressing to the villus tip, where the cells upon apoptosis are detached from the underlying muscular tissue. We previously reported that lipid peroxidation might be involved in the turnover of enterocytes across the crypt-villus axis in rat intestine (Dig Dis Sci 52:1840-1844, 2007). To examine whether long-term feeding of fat with different fatty-acid composition influences this process, in the present study we investigated the effect of feeding fish oil (n - 3) and corn oil (n - 6) polyunsaturated fatty acids on lipid per-oxidation and anti-oxidant systems in different epithelial cell fractions isolated in rat intestine. Feeding fish oil or corn oil markedly enhanced lipid per-oxidation levels of enterocytes throughout villus height compared with control, but there was no difference in the distribution profile of pro- and anti-oxidant enzyme systems and lipid per-oxidation across the crypt-villus axis under these conditions. Analysis of lipid peroxidation levels in different cell fractions revealed that the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance were 9- to 11-fold higher at the villus tip compared with at the crypt base. The activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase were 2- to 5-fold higher in villus tip compared to the crypt region. However, the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were 6- to 8-fold high at the crypt base compared with at villus tip cells. Immunocytolocalization of superoxide dismutase showed high staining in crypt base compared with that in villus, tip cells. These findings further suggest that generation of reactive oxygen species in enterocytes across the crypt-villus axis may be involved in turnover of enterocytes across the crypt-villus unit in rat intestine.

  4. Mammalian long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases.

    PubMed

    Soupene, Eric; Kuypers, Frans A

    2008-05-01

    Acyl-CoA synthetase enzymes are essential for de novo lipid synthesis, fatty acid catabolism, and remodeling of membranes. Activation of fatty acids requires a two-step reaction catalyzed by these enzymes. In the first step, an acyl-AMP intermediate is formed from ATP. AMP is then exchanged with CoA to produce the activated acyl-CoA. The release of AMP in this reaction defines the superfamily of AMP-forming enzymes. The length of the carbon chain of the fatty acid species defines the substrate specificity for the different acyl-CoA synthetases (ACS). On this basis, five sub-families of ACS have been characterized. The purpose of this review is to report on the large family of mammalian long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL), which activate fatty acids with chain lengths of 12 to 20 carbon atoms. Five genes and several isoforms generated by alternative splicing have been identified and limited information is available on their localization. The structure of these membrane proteins has not been solved for the mammalian ACSLs but homology to a bacterial form, whose structure has been determined, points at specific structural features that are important for these enzymes across species. The bacterial form acts as a dimer and has a conserved short motif, called the fatty acid Gate domain, that seems to determine substrate specificity. We will discuss the characterization and identification of the different spliced isoforms, draw attention to the inconsistencies and errors in their annotations, and their cellular localizations. These membrane proteins act on membrane-bound substrates probably as homo- and as heterodimer complexes but have often been expressed as single recombinant isoforms, apparently purified as monomers and tested in Triton X-100 micelles. We will argue that such studies have failed to provide an accurate assessment of the activity and of the distinct function of these enzymes in mammalian cells.

  5. Mapping the intestinal alpha-glucogenic enzyme specificities of starch digesting maltase-glucoamylase and sucrase-isomaltase.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kyra; Sim, Lyann; Mohan, Sankar; Kumarasamy, Jayakanthan; Liu, Hui; Avery, Stephen; Naim, Hassan Y; Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto; Nichols, Buford L; Pinto, B Mario; Rose, David R

    2011-07-01

    Inhibition of intestinal α-glucosidases and pancreatic α-amylases is an approach to controlling blood glucose and serum insulin levels in individuals with Type II diabetes. The two human intestinal glucosidases are maltase-glucoamylase and sucrase-isomaltase. Each incorporates two family 31 glycoside hydrolases responsible for the final step of starch hydrolysis. Here we compare the inhibition profiles of the individual N- and C-terminal catalytic subunits of both glucosidases by clinical glucosidase inhibitors, acarbose and miglitol, and newly discovered glucosidase inhibitors from an Ayurvedic remedy used for the treatment of Type II diabetes. We show that features of the compounds introduce selectivity towards the subunits. Together with structural data, the results enhance the understanding of the role of each catalytic subunit in starch digestion, helping to guide the development of new compounds with subunit specific antidiabetic activity. The results may also have relevance to other metabolic diseases such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of dietary inclusion of fermented cottonseed meal on growth, cecal microbial population, small intestinal morphology, and digestive enzyme activity of broilers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong; Tang, Jiang-wu; Yao, Xiao-hong; Wu, Yi-fei; Wang, Xin; Feng, Jie

    2013-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the feeding value of fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) in broilers. In experiment 1, 480 1-day-old male yellow-feathered broilers were allocated into 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicates (20 birds per replicate) to examine the effects of FCSM on the growth response of chickens. Experimental feeding was performed for 6 weeks in two phases (starter, days 0 to 21; finisher, days 22 to 42). FCSM was used at 0, 40, 80, and 120 g/kg levels to replace soybean meal in the basal diet. The dietary inclusion of 40 and 80 g/kg FCSM increased (quadratic (Q): p<0.01) the body weight gain of broilers in the starter and in the overall feeding periods. Experiment 2 determined the effect of FCSM on the cecal microbial populations, intestinal morphology, and digestive enzyme activity of broilers. The number of lactobacilli in the cecal digesta increased at day 21 (p<0.01) and day 42 (linear (L): p=0.01). Coliform bacteria counts decreased (L: p<0.05) with the increasing inclusion of FCSM at day 21. The inclusion of FCSM increased (L-Q: p<0.05) villus height in the duodenum and linearly elevated (p<0.05) villus height and the villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum at day 21. Similar improvement (L: p<0.05) was noted in jejunal villus height at day 42. The inclusion of FCSM improved (p<0.05) the activities of amylase and protease at day 21, as well as protease at day 42. In conclusion, the appropriate inclusion of FCSM improves growth, cecal microflora, intestinal morphology, and digestive enzyme activity in yellow-feathered broilers.

  7. Atorvastatin induces bile acid-synthetic enzyme Cyp7a1 by suppressing FXR signaling in both liver and intestine in mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Cui, Julia Yue; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-12-01

    Statins are effective cholesterol-lowering drugs to treat CVDs. Bile acids (BAs), the end products of cholesterol metabolism in the liver, are important nutrient and energy regulators. The present study aims to investigate how statins affect BA homeostasis in the enterohepatic circulation. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with atorvastatin (100 mg/kg/day po) for 1 week, followed by BA profiling by ultra-performance LC-MS/MS. Atorvastatin decreased BA pool size, mainly due to less BA in the intestine. Surprisingly, atorvastatin did not alter total BAs in the serum or liver. Atorvastatin increased the ratio of 12α-OH/non12α-OH BAs. Atorvastatin increased the mRNAs of the BA-synthetic enzymes cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) (over 10-fold) and cytochrome P450 27a1, the BA uptake transporters Na⁺/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and organic anion transporting polypeptide 1b2, and the efflux transporter multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 in the liver. Noticeably, atorvastatin suppressed the expression of BA nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) target genes, namely small heterodimer partner (liver) and fibroblast growth factor 15 (ileum). Furthermore, atorvastatin increased the mRNAs of the organic cation uptake transporter 1 and cholesterol efflux transporters Abcg5 and Abcg8 in the liver. The increased expression of BA-synthetic enzymes and BA transporters appear to be a compensatory response to maintain BA homeostasis after atorvastatin treatment. The Cyp7a1 induction by atorvastatin appears to be due to suppressed FXR signaling in both the liver and intestine.

  8. Effect of γ-aminobutyric acid on digestive enzymes, absorption function, and immune function of intestinal mucosa in heat-stressed chicken.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Xie, J; Wang, B; Tang, J

    2014-10-01

    To explore the effect of dietary γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on digestive enzyme activity, absorption function and immune function of intestinal mucosa in heat-stressed Wenchang chicken were studied. One-day-old male Wenchang chickens were randomly divided into a control group (CK), heat stress group (HS), and GABA+HS group. The chickens from the GABA+HS group were administered with 0.2 mL of GABA solution daily. Chickens from HS and GABA+HS groups were subjected to heat stress treatment at 40 ± 0.5°C for 2 h during 1300 to 1500 h every day. Blood was drawn and 0.5 cm-long duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were collected from the chickens on d 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, and 15. Results showed that the activity of Ca²⁺-Mg²⁺-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), Na⁺-K⁺-ATPase, maltase, sucrase, and alkaline phosphatase, the contents of secretory IgA, glutathione, and d-xylose, and the number of lymphocytes in HS group were significantly lower than those in the CK group. Among them, some were rescued after the treatment of GABA as the time extension. For maltase, d-xylose, alkaline phosphatase, and Na⁺-K⁺-ATPase, it required 5 to 7 d for achieving the significant effect. For sucrase, 12 d for the alleviation effect was required. In the case of other parameters, no alleviation was observed during the whole period of the study. We have concluded that HS can inhibit the activity of digestive enzymes and reduce absorption and immune functions of intestinal mucosa. γ-Aminobutyric acid can effectively alleviate these inhibitory effects.

  9. Quantum chemical study of penicillin: Reactions after acylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Feng, Dacheng; Zhu, Feng

    The density functional theory methods were used on the model molecules of penicillin to determine the possible reactions after their acylation on ?-lactamase, and the results were compared with sulbactam we have studied. The results show that, the acylated-enzyme tetrahedral intermediate can evolves with opening of ?-lactam ring as well as the thiazole ring; the thiazole ring-open products may be formed via ?-lactam ring-open product or from tetrahedral intermediate directly. Those products, in imine or enamine form, can tautomerize via hydrogen migration. In virtue of the water-assisted, their energy barriers are obviously reduced.

  10. Acylation of Ferrocene: A Greener Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdwhistell, Kurt R.; Nguyen, Andy; Ramos, Eric J.; Kobelja, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The acylation of ferrocene is a common reaction used in organic laboratories to demonstrate Friedel-Crafts acylation and the purification of compounds using column chromatography. This article describes an acylation of ferrocene experiment that is more eco-friendly than the conventional acylation experiment. The traditional experiment was modified…

  11. Acylation of Ferrocene: A Greener Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdwhistell, Kurt R.; Nguyen, Andy; Ramos, Eric J.; Kobelja, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The acylation of ferrocene is a common reaction used in organic laboratories to demonstrate Friedel-Crafts acylation and the purification of compounds using column chromatography. This article describes an acylation of ferrocene experiment that is more eco-friendly than the conventional acylation experiment. The traditional experiment was modified…

  12. Acyl-CoA Synthetase Is Located in the Outer Membrane and Acyl-CoA Thioesterase in the Inner Membrane of Pea Chloroplast Envelopes 1

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Jaen; Keegstra, Kenneth

    1983-01-01

    Both acyl-CoA synthetase and acyl-CoA thioesterase activities are present in chloroplast envelope membranes. The functions of these enzymes in lipid metabolism remains unresolved, although the synthetase has been proposed to be involved in either plastid galactolipid synthesis or the export of plastid-synthesized fatty acids to the cytoplasm. We have examined the locations of both enzymes within the two envelope membranes of pea (Pisum sativum var Laxton's Progress No. 9) chloroplasts. Inner and outer envelope membranes were purified from unfractionated envelope preparations by linear density sucrose gradient centrifugation. Acyl-CoA synthetase was located in the outer envelope membrane while acyl-CoA thioesterase was located in the inner envelope membrane. Thus, it seems unlikely that the synthetase is directly involved in galactolipid assembly. Instead, its localization supports the hypothesis that it functions in the transport of plastid-synthesized fatty acids to the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:16663076

  13. A Novel 3-Sulfinopropionyl Coenzyme A (3SP-CoA) Desulfinase from Advenella mimigardefordensis Strain DPN7T Acting as a Key Enzyme during Catabolism of 3,3′-Dithiodipropionic Acid Is a Member of the Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Schürmann, Marc; Deters, Anika; Wübbeler, Jan Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    3-Sulfinopropionyl coenzyme A (3SP-CoA) desulfinase (AcdDPN7) is a new desulfinase that catalyzes the sulfur abstraction from 3SP-CoA in the betaproteobacterium Advenella mimigardefordensis strain DPN7T. During investigation of a Tn5::mob-induced mutant defective in growth on 3,3′-dithiodipropionate (DTDP) and also 3-sulfinopropionate (3SP), the transposon insertion was mapped to an open reading frame with the highest homology to an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (Acd) from Burkholderia phenoliruptrix strain BR3459a (83% identical and 91% similar amino acids). An A. mimigardefordensis Δacd mutant was generated and verified the observed phenotype of the Tn5::mob-induced mutant. For enzymatic studies, AcdDPN7 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)/pLysS by using pET23a::acdDPN7. The purified protein is yellow and contains a noncovalently bound flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor, as verified by high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analyses. Size-exclusion chromatography revealed a native molecular mass of about 173 kDa, indicating a homotetrameric structure (theoretically 179 kDa), which is in accordance with other members of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily. In vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated that the purified enzyme converted 3SP-CoA into propionyl-CoA and sulfite (SO32−). Kinetic studies of AcdDPN7 revealed a Vmax of 4.19 μmol min−1 mg−1, an apparent Km of 0.013 mM, and a kcat/Km of 240.8 s−1 mM−1 for 3SP-CoA. However, AcdDPN7 is unable to perform a dehydrogenation, which is the usual reaction catalyzed by members of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily. Comparison to other known desulfinases showed a comparably high catalytic efficiency of AcdDPN7 and indicated a novel reaction mechanism. Hence, AcdDPN7 encodes a new desulfinase based on an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.8.x) scaffold. Concomitantly, we identified the gene product that is responsible for

  14. A novel 3-sulfinopropionyl coenzyme A (3SP-CoA) desulfinase from Advenella mimigardefordensis strain DPN7T acting as a key enzyme during catabolism of 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid is a member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Schürmann, Marc; Deters, Anika; Wübbeler, Jan Hendrik; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    3-Sulfinopropionyl coenzyme A (3SP-CoA) desulfinase (AcdDPN7) is a new desulfinase that catalyzes the sulfur abstraction from 3SP-CoA in the betaproteobacterium Advenella mimigardefordensis strain DPN7(T). During investigation of a Tn5::mob-induced mutant defective in growth on 3,3'-dithiodipropionate (DTDP) and also 3-sulfinopropionate (3SP), the transposon insertion was mapped to an open reading frame with the highest homology to an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (Acd) from Burkholderia phenoliruptrix strain BR3459a (83% identical and 91% similar amino acids). An A. mimigardefordensis Δacd mutant was generated and verified the observed phenotype of the Tn5::mob-induced mutant. For enzymatic studies, AcdDPN7 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)/pLysS by using pET23a::acdDPN7. The purified protein is yellow and contains a noncovalently bound flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor, as verified by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analyses. Size-exclusion chromatography revealed a native molecular mass of about 173 kDa, indicating a homotetrameric structure (theoretically 179 kDa), which is in accordance with other members of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily. In vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated that the purified enzyme converted 3SP-CoA into propionyl-CoA and sulfite (SO3(2-)). Kinetic studies of AcdDPN7 revealed a Vmax of 4.19 μmol min(-1) mg(-1), an apparent Km of 0.013 mM, and a kcat/Km of 240.8 s(-1) mM(-1) for 3SP-CoA. However, AcdDPN7 is unable to perform a dehydrogenation, which is the usual reaction catalyzed by members of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily. Comparison to other known desulfinases showed a comparably high catalytic efficiency of AcdDPN7 and indicated a novel reaction mechanism. Hence, AcdDPN7 encodes a new desulfinase based on an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.8.x) scaffold. Concomitantly, we identified the gene product that is responsible for the

  15. Utilization of peptide carrier system to improve intestinal absorption: targeting prolidase as a prodrug-converting enzyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, J. P.; Hu, M.; Subramanian, P.; Mosberg, H. I.; Amidon, G. L.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of targeting prolidase as a peptide prodrug-converting enzyme has been examined. The enzymatic hydrolysis by prolidase of substrates for the peptide transporter L-alpha-methyldopa-pro and several dipeptide analogues without an N-terminal alpha-amino group (phenylpropionylproline, phenylacetylproline, N-benzoylproline, and N-acetylproline) was investigated. The Michaelis-Menten parameters Km and Vmax for L-alpha-methyldopa-pro are 0.09 +/- 0.02 mM and 3.98 +/- 0.25 mumol/min/mg protein, respectively. However, no hydrolysis of the dipeptide analogues without an N-terminal alpha-amino group is observed, suggesting that an N-terminal alpha-amino group is required for prolidase activity. These results demonstrate that prolidase may serve as a prodrug-converting enzyme for the dipeptide-type prodrugs, utilizing the peptide carrier for transport of prodrugs into the mucosal cells and prolidase, a cytosolic enzyme, to release the drug. However, a free alpha-amino group appears to be necessary for prolidase hydrolysis.

  16. Performance, intestinal microflora, and amino acid digestibility altered by exogenous enzymes in broilers fed wheat- or sorghum-based diets.

    PubMed

    Wu, D; Wu, S B; Choct, M; Swick, R A

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of dietary enzymes and nutrient restriction on performance and bone mineralization in birds fed wheat- or sorghum-based diets. A total of 720 d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 8 treatments, with 6 replicates per treatment and 15 birds per replicate. Birds were reared in floor pens from 0 to 35 d. The study used a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with 2 grains (sorghum or wheat) and 4 diets: positive control (no enzyme and ME, digestible Lys, Ca, and P sufficient, negative control (NC; no enzyme and reduced ME [-100 kcal/kg], digestible AA [-2%], Ca [-0.12 percentage points], and available P [-0.18 percentage points in the starter phase and -0.22 percentage points in the grower phase]), NC + nonstarch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes + phytase (500 phytase units [FTU]; NCCP), and NC + phytase (1,000 FTU; NCP). From 0 to 35 d, birds fed wheat-based diets had greater G:F (4.5%), BW gain (9.2%), breast meat yield (6.8%), and tibia ash (2.0%) compared with birds fed sorghum-based diets. Across grain types, the NCCP treatment improved BW gain ( < 0.001), feed intake ( < 0.001), G:F ( < 0.05), and livability ( < 0.001) compared with the NC treatment. Birds fed NCP had greater BW gain ( < 0.001), feed intake ( < 0.001), G:F ( < 0.001), and livability ( < 0.001) compared with birds fed NC. Birds fed the NCP diet had greater BW gain ( < 0.001), toe ash ( < 0.01), and tibia ash ( < 0.001) compared with birds fed the NCCP diet. There was a grain × diet interaction for feed intake ( < 0.01), BW gain ( < 0.001), tibia ash ( < 0.01), and tibia breaking strength ( < 0.05). The influence of enzymes was more pronounced in sorghum-based diets than in wheat-based diets. Birds fed wheat-based diets had greater ileal digestibility of His, Met, Val, Phe, Ile, Leu, Trp, Glu, Pro, Ala, Tyr, and Cys compared with those fed sorghum-based diets ( < 0.05). Across grain types, NCP had greater apparent ileal

  17. An annotated database of Arabidopsis mutants of acyl lipid metabolism

    DOE PAGES

    McGlew, Kathleen; Shaw, Vincent; Zhang, Meng; ...

    2014-12-10

    Mutants have played a fundamental role in gene discovery and in understanding the function of genes involved in plant acyl lipid metabolism. The first mutant in Arabidopsis lipid metabolism (fad4) was described in 1985. Since that time, characterization of mutants in more than 280 genes associated with acyl lipid metabolism has been reported. This review provides a brief background and history on identification of mutants in acyl lipid metabolism, an analysis of the distribution of mutants in different areas of acyl lipid metabolism and presents an annotated database (ARALIPmutantDB) of these mutants. The database provides information on the phenotypes ofmore » mutants, pathways and enzymes/proteins associated with the mutants, and allows rapid access via hyperlinks to summaries of information about each mutant and to literature that provides information on the lipid composition of the mutants. Mutants for at least 30 % of the genes in the database have multiple names, which have been compiled here to reduce ambiguities in searches for information. Furthermore, the database should also provide a tool for exploring the relationships between mutants in acyl lipid-related genes and their lipid phenotypes and point to opportunities for further research.« less

  18. Regioselective self-acylating cyclodextrins in organic solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Eunae; Yun, Deokgyu; Jeong, Daham; Im, Jieun; Kim, Hyunki; Dindulkar, Someshwar D.; Choi, Youngjin; Jung, Seunho

    2016-03-01

    Amphiphilic cyclodextrins have been synthesized with self-acylating reaction using vinyl esters in dimethylformamide. In the present study no base, catalyst, or enzyme was used, and the structural analyses using thin layer chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry show that the cyclodextrin is substituted preferentially by one acyl moiety at the C2 position of the glucose unit, suggesting that cyclodextrin functions as a regioselective catalytic carbohydrate in organic solvent. In the self-acylation, the most acidic OH group at the 2-position and the inclusion complexing ability of cyclodextrin were considered to be significant. The substrate preference was also observed in favor of the long-chain acyl group, which could be attributed to the inclusion ability of cyclodextrin cavity. Furthermore, using the model amphiphilic building block, 2-O-mono-lauryl β-cyclodextrin, the self-organized supramolecular architecture with nano-vesicular morphology in water was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The cavity-type nano-assembled vesicle and the novel synthetic methods for the preparation of mono-acylated cyclodextrin should be of great interest with regard to drug/gene delivery systems, functional surfactants, and carbohydrate derivatization methods.

  19. An annotated database of Arabidopsis mutants of acyl lipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    McGlew, Kathleen; Shaw, Vincent; Zhang, Meng; Kim, Ryeo Jin; Yang, Weili; Shorrosh, Basil; Suh, Mi Chung; Ohlrogge, John

    2014-12-10

    Mutants have played a fundamental role in gene discovery and in understanding the function of genes involved in plant acyl lipid metabolism. The first mutant in Arabidopsis lipid metabolism (fad4) was described in 1985. Since that time, characterization of mutants in more than 280 genes associated with acyl lipid metabolism has been reported. This review provides a brief background and history on identification of mutants in acyl lipid metabolism, an analysis of the distribution of mutants in different areas of acyl lipid metabolism and presents an annotated database (ARALIPmutantDB) of these mutants. The database provides information on the phenotypes of mutants, pathways and enzymes/proteins associated with the mutants, and allows rapid access via hyperlinks to summaries of information about each mutant and to literature that provides information on the lipid composition of the mutants. Mutants for at least 30 % of the genes in the database have multiple names, which have been compiled here to reduce ambiguities in searches for information. Furthermore, the database should also provide a tool for exploring the relationships between mutants in acyl lipid-related genes and their lipid phenotypes and point to opportunities for further research.

  20. Determination Trial of Nondigestible Oligosaccharide in Processed Foods by Improved AOAC Method 2009.01 Using Porcine Small Intestinal Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Kenichi; Nakamura, Sadako; Omagari, Katsuhisa; Oku, Tsuneyuki

    2015-06-24

    We have previously shown that the Association of Official Analytical Chemists' (AOAC) methods 2001.03 and 2009.01 were not able to measure accurately nondigestible oligosaccharide because they are incapable of hydrolyzing digestible oligosaccharide, leading to overestimation of nondigestible oligosaccharide. Subsequently, we have proposed improved AOAC methods 2001.03 and 2009.01 using porcine small intestinal disaccharidases instead of amyloglucosidase. In the present study, we tried to determine nondigestible oligosaccharide in marketed processed foods using the improved AOAC method (improved method), and the results were compared with those by AOAC method 2009.01. In the improved method, the percentages of recovery of fructooligosaccharide, galactooligosaccharide, and raffinose to the label of processed food were 103.0, 89.9, and 102.1%, respectively. However, the AOAC method 2009.01 overestimated >30% of the quantity of nondigestible oligosaccharide in processed foods, because the margin of error was accepted ±20% on the contents of nondigestible oligosaccharides in processed foods for Japanese nutrition labeling, the improved method thus provided accurate quantification of nondigestible oligosaccharides in processed food and allows a comprehensive determination of nondigestible oligosaccharides.

  1. Expression of interleukin 1β and interleukin 1β converting enzyme by intestinal macrophages in health and inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    McAlindon, M; Hawkey, C; Mahida, Y

    1998-01-01

    Background—In the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated peripheral blood monocyte, the precursor form of interleukin 1β (IL-1β, 31 kD) is processed by IL-1β converting enzyme (ICE) to the mature, bioactive form (17 kD). IL-1β is a proinflammatory cytokine which is likely to have a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). 
Aims—To investigate the expression and processing of IL-1β and ICE by tissue macrophages from normal and IBD colonic mucosa. 
Methods—Mucosal biopsy specimens and lamina propria cells from normal and IBD colons were studied by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot analysis, and ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay). 
Results—Normal colonic macrophages synthesised only the precursor form of IL-1β whereas in IBD the mature form was also produced. Similarly, cells from normal colonic mucosa synthesised ICE as the precursor (p45) only, whereas macrophages from IBD colons produced active (p20) ICE. Ac-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-CHO, a specific peptide aldehyde inhibitor of ICE, significantly reduced the amount of mature IL-1β released by isolated IBD macrophages (from a median of 1.2 (range 0.78-4.42) ng/ml to 0.43 (0.21-1.6) ng/ml; p<0.01). 
Conclusions—Exposure of normal colonic macrophages to LPS only induces the production of the precursor form of IL-1β, because the cells fail to activate ICE. In contrast, IBD colonic macrophages are able to activate ICE and hence release mature IL-1β in a manner similar to circulating monocytes. This is consistent with IBD macrophages being recently recruited from the circulating monocyte population. Targeted inhibition of ICE may represent a novel form of therapy in IBD. 

 Keywords: interleukin 1β; interleukin 1β converting enzyme; macrophages; lipopolysaccharide; ulcerative colitis; Crohn's disease PMID:9536946

  2. Gene and protein expression and cellular localisation of cytochrome P450 enzymes of the 1A, 2A, 2C, 2D and 2E subfamilies in equine intestine and liver.

    PubMed

    Tydén, Eva; Tjälve, Hans; Larsson, Pia

    2014-10-08

    Among the cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP), families 1-3 constitute almost half of total CYPs in mammals and play a central role in metabolism of a wide range of pharmaceuticals. This study investigated gene and protein expression and cellular localisation of CYP1A, CYP2A, CYP2C, CYP2D and CYP2E in equine intestine and liver. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to analyse gene expression, western blot to examine protein expression and immunohistochemical analyses to investigate cellular localisation. CYP1A and CYP2C were the CYPs with the highest gene expression in the intestine and also showed considerable gene expression in the liver. CYP2E and CYP2A showed the highest gene expression in the liver. CYP2E showed moderate intestinal gene expression, whereas that of CYP2A was very low or undetectable. For CYP2D, rather low gene expression levels were found in both intestine and the liver. In the intestine, CYP gene expression levels, except for CYP2E, exhibited patterns resembling those of the proteins, indicating that intestinal protein expression of these CYPs is regulated at the transcriptional level. For CYP2E, the results showed that the intestinal gene expression did not correlate to any visible protein expression, indicating that intestinal protein expression of this CYP is regulated at the post-transcriptional level. Immunostaining of intestine tissue samples showed preferential CYP staining in enterocytes at the tips of intestinal villi in the small intestine. In the liver, all CYPs showed preferential localisation in the centrilobular hepatocytes. Overall, different gene expression profiles were displayed by the CYPs examined in equine intestine and liver. The CYPs present in the intestine may act in concert with those in the liver to affect the oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficiency of substrate drugs. In addition, they may play a role in first-pass metabolism of feed constituents and of herbal supplements used in equine practice.

  3. Plant acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferases (LPCATs) have different specificities in their forward and reverse reactions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) enzymes have central roles inacyl editing of phosphatidylcholine (PC). Plant LPCAT genes were expressed in yeast and characterized biochemically in microsomal preparations of the cells. Specificities for different acyl-CoAs were similar for se...

  4. Role of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA esters in the regulation of metabolism and in cell signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Faergeman, N J; Knudsen, J

    1997-01-01

    The intracellular concentration of free unbound acyl-CoA esters is tightly controlled by feedback inhibition of the acyl-CoA synthetase and is buffered by specific acyl-CoA binding proteins. Excessive increases in the concentration are expected to be prevented by conversion into acylcarnitines or by hydrolysis by acyl-CoA hydrolases. Under normal physiological conditions the free cytosolic concentration of acyl-CoA esters will be in the low nanomolar range, and it is unlikely to exceed 200 nM under the most extreme conditions. The fact that acetyl-CoA carboxylase is active during fatty acid synthesis (Ki for acyl-CoA is 5 nM) indicates strongly that the free cytosolic acyl-CoA concentration is below 5 nM under these conditions. Only a limited number of the reported experiments on the effects of acyl-CoA on cellular functions and enzymes have been carried out at low physiological concentrations in the presence of the appropriate acyl-CoA-buffering binding proteins. Re-evaluation of many of the reported effects is therefore urgently required. However, the observations that the ryanodine-senstitive Ca2+-release channel is regulated by long-chain acyl-CoA esters in the presence of a molar excess of acyl-CoA binding protein and that acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the AMP kinase kinase and the Escherichia coli transcription factor FadR are affected by low nanomolar concentrations of acyl-CoA indicate that long-chain acyl-CoA esters can act as regulatory molecules in vivo. This view is further supported by the observation that fatty acids do not repress expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase or Delta9-desaturase in yeast deficient in acyl-CoA synthetase. PMID:9173866

  5. Structure of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa acyl-homoserinelactone synthase LasI.

    PubMed

    Gould, Ty A; Schweizer, Herbert P; Churchill, Mair E A

    2004-08-01

    The LasI/LasR quorum-sensing system plays a pivotal role in virulence gene regulation of the opportunistic human pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here we report the crystal structure of the acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) synthase LasI that produces 3-oxo-C12-AHL from the substrates 3-oxo-C12-acyl-carrier protein (acyl-ACP) and S-adenosyl-L-methionine. The LasI six-stranded beta sheet platform, buttressed by three alpha helices, forms a V-shaped substrate-binding cleft that leads to a tunnel passing through the enzyme that can accommodate the acyl-chain of acyl-ACP. This tunnel places no apparent restriction on acyl-chain length, in contrast to a restrictive hydrophobic pocket seen in the AHL-synthase EsaI. Interactions of essential conserved N-terminal residues, Arg23, Phe27 and Trp33, suggest that the N-terminus forms an enclosed substrate-binding pocket for S-adenosyl-L-methionine. Analysis of AHL-synthase surface residues identified a binding site for acyl-ACP, a role that was supported by in vivo reporter assay analysis of the mutated residues, including Arg154 and Lys150. This structure and the novel explanation of AHL-synthase acyl-chain-length selectivity promise to guide the design of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-specific quorum-sensing inhibitors as antibacterial agents.

  6. Spectrophotometric studies of acyl-coenzyme A synthetases of rat liver mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Garland, P. B.; Yates, D. W.; Haddock, B. A.

    1970-01-01

    1. Deca-2,4,6,8-tetraenoic acid is a substrate for both ATP-specific (EC 6.2.1.2 or 3) and GTP-specific (EC 6.2.1.–) acyl-CoA synthetases of rat liver mitochondria. The enzymic synthesis of decatetraenoyl-CoA results in new spectral characteristics. The difference spectrum for the acyl-CoA minus free acid has a maximum at 376nm with εmM 34. Isosbestic points are at 345nm and 440nm. 2. The acylation of CoA by decatetraenoate in mitochondrial suspensions can be continuously measured with a dual-wavelength spectrophotometer. 3. By using this technique, three distinct types of acyl-CoA synthetase activity were demonstrated in rat liver mitochondria. One of these utilized added CoA and ATP, required added Mg2+ and corresponded to a previously described `external' acyl-CoA synthetase. The other two acyl-CoA synthetase activities utilized intramitochondrial CoA and did not require added Mg2+. Of these two `internal' acyl-CoA synthetases, one was insensitive to uncoupling agents, was inhibited by phosphate or arsenate, and corresponded to the GTP-specific enzyme. The other corresponded to the ATP-specific enzyme. 4. Atractylate inhibited the activity of the two internal acyl-CoA synthetases only when the energy source was added ATP. 5. The amount of intramitochondrial CoA acylated by decatetraenoate was independent of whether the internal ATP-specific or GTP-specific acyl-CoA synthetase was active. It is concluded that these two internal acyl-CoA synthetases have access to the same intramitochondrial pool of CoA. 6. The amount of intramitochondrial CoA that could be acylated with decatetraenoate was decreased by the addition of palmitoyl-dl-carnitine, 2-oxoglutarate, or pyruvate. These observations indicated that pyruvate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.4.1), oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.4.2), carnitine palmitoyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.–), citrate synthase (EC 4.1.3.7), and succinyl-CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.4) all have access to the same intramitochondrial pool of CoA as do

  7. A high-throughput screen for quorum-sensing inhibitors that target acyl-homoserine lactone synthases.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Quin H; Grove, Tyler L; Booker, Squire J; Greenberg, E Peter

    2013-08-20

    Many Proteobacteria use N-acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) quorum sensing to control specific genes. Acyl-HSL synthesis requires unique enzymes that use S-adenosyl methionine as an acyl acceptor and amino acid donor. We developed and executed an enzyme-coupled high-throughput cell-free screen to discover acyl-HSL synthase inhibitors. The three strongest inhibitors were equally active against two different acyl-HSL synthases: Burkholderia mallei BmaI1 and Yersinia pestis YspI. Two of these inhibitors showed activity in whole cells. The most potent compound behaves as a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki of 0.7 µM and showed activity in a cell-based assay. Quorum-sensing signal synthesis inhibitors will be useful in attempts to understand acyl-HSL synthase catalysis and as a tool in studies of quorum-sensing control of gene expression. Because acyl-HSL quorum-sensing controls virulence of some bacterial pathogens, anti-quorum-sensing chemicals have been sought as potential therapeutic agents. Our screen and identification of acyl-HSL synthase inhibitors serve as a basis for efforts to target quorum-sensing signal synthesis as an antivirulence approach.

  8. Vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced expression of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage and 17 alpha-hydroxylase enzyme activity in hen granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A L; Li, Z; Gibney, J A; Malamed, S

    1994-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) can regulate expression of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) and P450 17 alpha-hydroxylase (P450 17 alpha-OH) mRNA levels and enzyme activity in granulosa cells from nonhierarchal (6-8-mm) follicles. Initial studies demonstrated that immunoreactive VIP is localized within the theca (but not granulosa) layer of both resting (< 0.5-mm follicles) and 6-8-mm follicles, thus providing a potential paracrine mechanism of action for VIP. While short-term (3 h) incubation of granulosa cells with VIP (0.001-1.0 microM) failed to stimulate progesterone production from 6-8-mm follicle granulosa cells, a 4-h culture period in the presence of VIP resulted in increased cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation, and a 24-h culture period resulted in progesterone synthesis and increased P450scc mRNA levels; control levels of each endpoint measurement were not altered within the period observed. By contrast, culture with the growth factor transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) in the presence of VIP (1 microM) prevented increases in P450scc mRNA levels and progesterone production. Similar effects of VIP and TGF alpha in the presence of VIP were demonstrated for P450 17 alpha-OH mRNA levels and enzyme activity. Finally, there was an additive effect of VIP (0.1 microM) plus recombinant human (rh) FSH (100 mIU) on the initiation of progesterone production in cultured 6-8-mm follicle granulosa cells compared to the addition of VIP or rhFSH alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Effects of Metabolites Produced from (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate by Rat Intestinal Bacteria on Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Activity and Blood Pressure in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Takagaki, Akiko; Nanjo, Fumio

    2015-09-23

    Inhibitory activity of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) was examined with (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) metabolites produced by intestinal bacteria, together with tea catechins. All of the metabolites showed ACE inhibitory activities and the order of IC50 was hydroxyphenyl valeric acids > 5-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone (1) > trihydroxyphenyl 4-hydroxyvaleric acid ≫ dihydroxyphenyl 4-hydroxyvaleric acid ≫ 5-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone (2). Among the catechins, galloylated catechins exhibited stronger ACE inhibitory activity than nongalloylated catechins. Furthermore, the effects of a single oral intake of metabolites 1 and 2 on systolic blood pressure (SBP) were examined with spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Significant decreases in SBP were observed between 2 h after oral administration of 1 (150 mg/kg in SHR) and the control group (p = 0.002) and between 4 h after administration of 2 (200 mg/kg in SHR) and the control group (p = 0.044). These results suggest that the two metabolites have hypotensive effects in vivo.

  10. Effects of endogenous soluble beta-galactoside binding lectins and protein inhibitor of fucosyltransferase on the enzymes involved in the intestinal fucosylation process.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero-Lopez, D; Louisot, P; Martin, A

    1992-06-15

    Soluble beta-galactoside binding lectins were prepared from the rat small intestinal mucosa by chromatography on asialofetuin-Sepharose. The lectin fraction exhibits 3 bands with Mr of 21,5 kDa, 19 kDa and 17 kDa on SDS-PAGE. This fraction inhibits a partially purified soluble alpha(1-2)-fucosyltransferase by interaction with the glycoprotein substrate asialofetuin, whereas the inhibition is non competitive for the donor GDP-fucose. It has no effect on other enzymes of the fucosylation system, namely glycosyl-nucleotide pyrophosphatase and the system synthesizing GDP-fucose from GDP-mannose. A different and specific soluble protein inhibitor of fucosyltransferase activity inhibits this activity by a competitive mechanism for GDP-fucose and a non competitive one for asialofetuin. Unlike the lectins, this inhibitor also inhibits the action of pyrophosphatase and the formation of GDP-fucose by different mechanisms. The possible extension of these in vitro results to the in vivo regulation of glycosylation is discussed.

  11. Metabolic Glycoengineering with N-Acyl Side Chain Modified Mannosamines.

    PubMed

    Wratil, Paul R; Horstkorte, Rüdiger; Reutter, Werner

    2016-08-08

    In metabolic glycoengineering (MGE), cells or animals are treated with unnatural derivatives of monosaccharides. After entering the cytosol, these sugar analogues are metabolized and subsequently expressed on newly synthesized glycoconjugates. The feasibility of MGE was first discovered for sialylated glycans, by using N-acyl-modified mannosamines as precursor molecules for unnatural sialic acids. Prerequisite is the promiscuity of the enzymes of the Roseman-Warren biosynthetic pathway. These enzymes were shown to tolerate specific modifications of the N-acyl side chain of mannosamine analogues, for example, elongation by one or more methylene groups (aliphatic modifications) or by insertion of reactive groups (bioorthogonal modifications). Unnatural sialic acids are incorporated into glycoconjugates of cells and organs. MGE has intriguing biological consequences for treated cells (aliphatic MGE) and offers the opportunity to visualize the topography and dynamics of sialylated glycans in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo (bioorthogonal MGE).

  12. The in vivo infusion of hydrogen peroxide induces oxidative stress and differentially affects the activities of small intestinal carbohydrate digestive enzymes in the neonatal pig.

    PubMed

    Lackeyram, D; Mine, Y; Widowski, T; Archbold, T; Fan, M Z

    2012-12-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterized by persistent and relapsing fatigue that involves oxidative stress in its pathogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that a decrease in key carbohydrate-digesting enzyme activity in the gut is one of the major biological mechanisms of developing CFS in liquid formula-fed neonatal pigs with in vivo infusion of H(2)O(2). Piglets at 7 to 10 d of age were fitted with an intraperitoneal catheter, allowed a 3-d post surgical recovery, and infused with either H(2)O(2) at 5 mmol/kg BW (PER; n = 8) or the same volume of saline (CON; n = 8) in six 20-ml doses daily for a period of 10 d. During this period, animal behavior was monitored, blood samples collected, and jejunal enzyme activity kinetic experiments for lactase, sucrase, maltase, and maltase-glucoamylase were conducted. Plasma concentration of reduced glutathione remained similar (P > 0.05) to the pre-infusion level over the study duration in the CON group whereas this was 65% lower (P < 0.05) than the pre-infusion level in the PER group. Piglets experiencing oxidative stress had an overall lower (P < 0.05) physical mobility and the maximal jejunal specific activities [μmol/(mg protein · min)] for lactase (PER, 6.54 ± 0.68 vs. CON, 12.65 ± 0.69) and maltase (PER, 57.39 ± 1.02 vs. CON, 75.60 ± 1.04), respectively. However, differences were not observed (P > 0.05) in the maximal specific activities [μmol/(mg protein · min)] of sucrase (PER, 10.50 ± 1.37 vs. CON, 12.40 ± 1.55) and maltase-glucoamylase (PER, 0.71 ± 0.08 vs. CON, 0.70 ± 0.07) between the 2 groups. In conclusion, infusion of a suitable dose of H(2)O(2) induced CFS in the neonatal pigs. Oxidative stress in vivo differentially affected the maximal activities of important small intestinal carbohydrate-digesting enzymes in neonatal pigs fed a dairy milk-based liquid formula.

  13. Fatty acyl-CoA reductases of birds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Birds clean and lubricate their feathers with waxes that are produced in the uropygial gland, a holocrine gland located on their back above the tail. The type and the composition of the secreted wax esters are dependent on the bird species, for instance the wax ester secretion of goose contains branched-chain fatty acids and unbranched fatty alcohols, whereas that of barn owl contains fatty acids and alcohols both of which are branched. Alcohol-forming fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FAR) catalyze the reduction of activated acyl groups to fatty alcohols that can be esterified with acyl-CoA thioesters forming wax esters. Results cDNA sequences encoding fatty acyl-CoA reductases were cloned from the uropygial glands of barn owl (Tyto alba), domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and domestic goose (Anser anser domesticus). Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that they encode membrane associated enzymes which catalyze a NADPH dependent reduction of acyl-CoA thioesters to fatty alcohols. By feeding studies of transgenic yeast cultures and in vitro enzyme assays with membrane fractions of transgenic yeast cells two groups of isozymes with different properties were identified, termed FAR1 and FAR2. The FAR1 group mainly synthesized 1-hexadecanol and accepted substrates in the range between 14 and 18 carbon atoms, whereas the FAR2 group preferred stearoyl-CoA and accepted substrates between 16 and 20 carbon atoms. Expression studies with tissues of domestic chicken indicated that FAR transcripts were not restricted to the uropygial gland. Conclusion The data of our study suggest that the identified and characterized avian FAR isozymes, FAR1 and FAR2, can be involved in wax ester biosynthesis and in other pathways like ether lipid synthesis. PMID:22151413

  14. Fatty acyl-CoA reductases of birds.

    PubMed

    Hellenbrand, Janine; Biester, Eva-Maria; Gruber, Jens; Hamberg, Mats; Frentzen, Margrit

    2011-12-12

    Birds clean and lubricate their feathers with waxes that are produced in the uropygial gland, a holocrine gland located on their back above the tail. The type and the composition of the secreted wax esters are dependent on the bird species, for instance the wax ester secretion of goose contains branched-chain fatty acids and unbranched fatty alcohols, whereas that of barn owl contains fatty acids and alcohols both of which are branched. Alcohol-forming fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FAR) catalyze the reduction of activated acyl groups to fatty alcohols that can be esterified with acyl-CoA thioesters forming wax esters. cDNA sequences encoding fatty acyl-CoA reductases were cloned from the uropygial glands of barn owl (Tyto alba), domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and domestic goose (Anser anser domesticus). Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that they encode membrane associated enzymes which catalyze a NADPH dependent reduction of acyl-CoA thioesters to fatty alcohols. By feeding studies of transgenic yeast cultures and in vitro enzyme assays with membrane fractions of transgenic yeast cells two groups of isozymes with different properties were identified, termed FAR1 and FAR2. The FAR1 group mainly synthesized 1-hexadecanol and accepted substrates in the range between 14 and 18 carbon atoms, whereas the FAR2 group preferred stearoyl-CoA and accepted substrates between 16 and 20 carbon atoms. Expression studies with tissues of domestic chicken indicated that FAR transcripts were not restricted to the uropygial gland. The data of our study suggest that the identified and characterized avian FAR isozymes, FAR1 and FAR2, can be involved in wax ester biosynthesis and in other pathways like ether lipid synthesis.

  15. Identification of acylation products in SHAPE chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chaoqi; Poyer, Salomé; Zargarian, Loussiné; Salpin, Jean-Yves; Fossé, Philippe; Mauffret, Olivier; Xie, Juan

    2017-06-01

    SHAPE chemistry (selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension) has been developed to specifically target flexible nucleotides (often unpaired nucleotides) independently to their purine or pyrimidine nature for RNA secondary structure determination. However, to the best of our knowledge, the structure of 2'-O-acylation products has never been confirmed by NMR or X-ray data. We have realized the acylation reactions between cNMP and NMIA under SHAPE chemistry conditions and identified the acylation products using standard NMR spectroscopy and LC-MS/MS experiments. For cAMP and cGMP, the major acylation product is the 2'-O-acylated compound (>99%). A trace amount of N-acylated cAMP has also been identified by LC-UV-MS(2). While for cCMP, the isolated acylation products are composed of 96% of 2'-O-acylated, 4% of N,O-diacylated, and trace amount of N-acylated compounds. In addition, the characterization of the major 2'-O-acylated compound by NMR showed slight differences in the conformation of the acylated sugar between the three cyclic nucleotides. This interesting result should be useful to explain some unexpected reactivity of the SHAPE chemistry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A determinant of substrate specificity predicted from the acyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase of developing cat's claw seed.

    PubMed

    Cahoon, E B; Shah, S; Shanklin, J; Browse, J

    1998-06-01

    Cat's claw (Doxantha unguis-cati L.) vine accumulates nearly 80% palmitoleic acid (16:1Delta9) plus cis-vaccenic acid (18:1Delta11) in its seed oil. To characterize the biosynthetic origin of these unusual fatty acids, cDNAs for acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP) desaturases were isolated from developing cat's claw seeds. The predominant acyl-ACP desaturase cDNA identified encoded a polypeptide that is closely related to the stearoyl (Delta9-18:0)-ACP desaturase from castor (Ricinis communis L.) and other species. Upon expression in Escherichia coli, the cat's claw polypeptide functioned as a Delta9 acyl-ACP desaturase but displayed a distinct substrate specificity for palmitate (16:0)-ACP rather than stearate (18:0)-ACP. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequence of the cat's claw enzyme with that of the castor Delta9-18:0-ACP desaturase suggested that a single amino acid substitution (L118W) might account in large part for the differences in substrate specificity between the two desaturases. Consistent with this prediction, conversion of leucine-118 to tryptophan in the mature castor Delta9-18:0-ACP desaturase resulted in an 80-fold increase in the relative specificity of this enzyme for 16:0-ACP. The alteration in substrate specificity observed in the L118W mutant is in agreement with a crystallographic model of the proposed substrate-binding pocket of the castor Delta9-18:0-ACP desaturase.

  17. A Determinant of Substrate Specificity Predicted from the Acyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Desaturase of Developing Cat's Claw Seed1

    PubMed Central

    Cahoon, Edgar B.; Shah, Salehuzzaman; Shanklin, John; Browse, John

    1998-01-01

    Cat's claw (Doxantha unguis-cati L.) vine accumulates nearly 80% palmitoleic acid (16:1Δ9) plus cis-vaccenic acid (18:1Δ11) in its seed oil. To characterize the biosynthetic origin of these unusual fatty acids, cDNAs for acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP) desaturases were isolated from developing cat's claw seeds. The predominant acyl-ACP desaturase cDNA identified encoded a polypeptide that is closely related to the stearoyl (Δ9–18:0)-ACP desaturase from castor (Ricinis communis L.) and other species. Upon expression in Escherichia coli, the cat's claw polypeptide functioned as a Δ9 acyl-ACP desaturase but displayed a distinct substrate specificity for palmitate (16:0)-ACP rather than stearate (18:0)-ACP. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequence of the cat's claw enzyme with that of the castor Δ9–18:0-ACP desaturase suggested that a single amino acid substitution (L118W) might account in large part for the differences in substrate specificity between the two desaturases. Consistent with this prediction, conversion of leucine-118 to tryptophan in the mature castor Δ9–18:0-ACP desaturase resulted in an 80-fold increase in the relative specificity of this enzyme for 16:0-ACP. The alteration in substrate specificity observed in the L118W mutant is in agreement with a crystallographic model of the proposed substrate-binding pocket of the castor Δ9–18:0-ACP desaturase. PMID:9625712

  18. Intestine Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Intestine Transplant Although it is possible for a living donor to donate an intestine segment, most intestine transplants involve a whole organ ...

  19. Improved mucoadhesive properties of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) by introducing acyl chitosan.

    PubMed

    Efiana, Nuri Ari; Mahmood, Arshad; Lam, Hung Thanh; Zupančič, Ožbej; Leonaviciute, Gintare; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2017-03-15

    This study was aimed to improve the mucoadhesive properties of SNEDDS by the incorporation of acyl chitosan including octanoyl chitosan (OC), lauroyl chitosan (LC) and palmitoyl chitosan (PC). SNEDDS and acyl chitosan SNEDDS were characterized regarding droplet size and zeta potential. Their mucoadhesivity on porcine intestinal mucosa was evaluated by falling liquid film technique using Sudan Red G as marker. Degree of substitution of chitosan was determined to be 52.8%, 64.8 and 48.5% for OC, LC and PC, respectively. SNEDDS and acyl chitosan SNEDDS displayed a droplet size less than 50nm and 80-300nm as well as a zeta potential of -0.2 to -1.6 and 0.05 to 0.99mV, respectively. Introducing 2% acyl chitosan into SNEDDS increased the residence time of SNEDDS on intestinal mucosa 2-fold. It is concluded that due to the incorporation of acyl chitosan into SNEDDS, their mucoadhesive properties can be increased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of enzyme supplement on nutrient digestibility, metabolizable energy, egg production, egg quality and intestinal morphology of the broiler chicks and layer hens fed hull-less barley based diets.

    PubMed

    Yaghobfar, A; Boldaji, F; Shrifi, S D

    2007-07-15

    The effects of beta-glucanase (550 U g(-1)) and xylanase (800 U g(-1)) supplementation on the nutrient digestibility and metabolizable energy of egg production, egg quality intestinal morphology of the broiler chicks and layer hens fed hull-less barley-based diets were examined in three similar experiments. The results of this study showed that the inclusion of beta-glucanase and xylanase in the hull-less barley based diets had no significant improvement on the growth performance of broiler, feed conversion ratio. The results of this experiment showed that beta-glucanase and xylanase had negative effects on egg shell quality as reduced egg shell weight (4.6%) and egg shell thickness (5.32%). The addition of beta-glucanase and xylanase had also no effects on yolk color and Hugh units of eggs either. The results also demonstrated that beta-glucanase and xylanase supplementation did not improve the metabolizable energy, organic matter, protein and starch digestibility of the diet contained hull-less barley. The addition of glucanase and xylanase to the diets significantly reduced villus height, villus width, crypt depth, villus height: crypt depth ratio and goblet cell numbers of the duodenum and jejunum of small intestine compared with the control group. But, the numbers of goblet cells were more in the jejunum than in duodenum of small intestine. On the other hand, these enzymes reduced villus width and crypt depth of the ileum while increased villus length of the ileum receptivity. The goblet cells numbers in the villi of the ileum of birds fed the hull-less based diet; with exogenous enzyme were significantly higher than those in the jejunum and duodenum section of small intestine of layer hens. Goblet cells are responsible for the secretion of mucin that is used for the mucinous lining of the intestinal epithelium. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of exogenous enzyme on the nutrient digestibility, metabolizable energy, intestinal morphology and

  1. Insight into Coenzyme A cofactor binding and the mechanism of acyl-transfer in an acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase from Clostridium phytofermentans

    PubMed Central

    Tuck, Laura R.; Altenbach, Kirsten; Ang, Thiau Fu; Crawshaw, Adam D.; Campopiano, Dominic J.; Clarke, David J.; Marles-Wright, Jon

    2016-01-01

    The breakdown of fucose and rhamnose released from plant cell walls by the cellulolytic soil bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans produces toxic aldehyde intermediates. To enable growth on these carbon sources, the pathway for the breakdown of fucose and rhamnose is encapsulated within a bacterial microcompartment (BMC). These proteinaceous organelles sequester the toxic aldehyde intermediates and allow the efficient action of acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes to produce an acyl-CoA that is ultimately used in substrate-level phosphorylation to produce ATP. Here we analyse the kinetics of the aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme from the fucose/rhamnose utilisation BMC with different short-chain fatty aldehydes and show that it has activity against substrates with up to six carbon atoms, with optimal activity against propionaldehyde. We have also determined the X-ray crystal structure of this enzyme in complex with CoA and show that the adenine nucleotide of this cofactor is bound in a distinct pocket to the same group in NAD+. This work is the first report of the structure of CoA bound to an aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme and our crystallographic model provides important insight into the differences within the active site that distinguish the acylating from non-acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes. PMID:26899032

  2. Palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase and the evolutionary origin of plant acyl-ACP thioesterases.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, A; Davies, H M; Voelker, T A

    1995-01-01

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases play an essential role in chain termination during de novo fatty acid synthesis and in the channeling of carbon flux between the two lipid biosynthesis pathways in plants. We have discovered that there are two distinct but related thioesterase gene classes in higher plants, termed FatA and FatB, whose evolutionary divergence appears to be ancient. FatA encodes the already described 18:1-ACP thioesterase. In contrast, FatB representatives encode thioesterases preferring acyl-ACPs having saturated acyl groups. We unexpectedly obtained a 16:0-ACP thioesterase cDNA from Cuphea hookeriana seed, which accumulate predominantly 8:0 and 10:0. The 16:0 thioesterase transcripts were found in non-seed tissues, and expression in transgenic Brassica napus led to the production of a 16:0-rich oil. We present evidence that this type of FatB gene is ancient and ubiquitous in plants and that specialized plant medium-chain thioesterases have evolved independently from such enzymes several times during angiosperm evolution. Also, the ubiquitous 18:1-ACP thioesterase appears to be a derivative of a 16:0 thioesterase. PMID:7734968

  3. Activation of a Covalent Enzyme-Substrate Bond by Noncovalent Interaction with an Effector

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, O. P.; Bernhard, Sidney A.

    1973-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of an activesite specific chromophoric acyl enzyme, sturgeon β-(2-furyl)-acryloyl-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, is reported. This acyl enzyme undergoes all of the catalyzed reactions characteristic of the intermediate of the physiological acyl enzyme, 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenease. The rates of reactions of both these acyl enzymes depend strongly on the extent of interaction of the acyl enzyme with the oxidized coenzyme, NAD+, even where the “redox” properties of the coenzyme are not required. Likewise, the spectral properties of chromophoric acyl enzyme are affected by the extent of bound NAD. Under the pseudophysiological conditions reported herein, there is a stoichiometric limitation of two furylacryloyl-acyl groups per enzyme molecule containing four covalently-equivalent subunits. The binding of NAD both to the apoenzyme and to the diacyl enzyme is heterogeneous: at low extents of NAD occupancy, NAD binding is stronger. The binding to acyl enzyme can be quantitatively described by an enzyme model involving a tetramer with 2-fold symmetry, and consequently containing equal numbers of two classes of sites. NAD binding to difurylacryloyl-enzyme occurs virtually discretely, first to the two unmodified (tight-binding) sites, followed by looser binding to the two acyl-sites. NAD occupancy at these latter sites transforms the chromophoric acyl spectrum from that characteristic of a model furylacryloyl-thiol ester in H2O to a highly perturbed furylacryloyl spectrum characteristic of monomeric native “active-thiol” furylacryloyl-enzymes. Likewise the acyl reactivity towards arsenolysis depends on the extent of NAD bound to the loose sites. Elimination of the tight binding of NAD to the difurylacryloyl enzyme tetramer by alkylation of the remaining two free SH groups with iodoacetate has no apparent influence on the NAD-dependent furylacryloyl-spectral perturbation at the “two equivalent

  4. Effects of wheat inclusion and xylanase supplementation of the diet on productive performance, nutrient retention, and endogenous intestinal enzyme activity of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Mirzaie, S; Zaghari, M; Aminzadeh, S; Shivazad, M; Mateos, G G

    2012-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of inclusion of a wheat cultivar (high in nonstarch polysaccharides) and xylanase supplementation of the diet on productive performance, pH of the gastrointestinal tract, nutrient retention, and intestinal enzyme activity of Hy-Line W-36 laying hens from 25 to 47 wk of age. The experiment was completely randomized with 8 treatments arranged factorially with 4 levels of wheat (0, 23, 46, and 69%) that corresponded to a dietary arabinoxylan content of 3.0, 3.3, 3.6, and 3.9%, with or without xylanase supplementation. Each treatment was replicated 5 times. For the entire experimental period, egg weight (P < 0.05) and egg mass (P < 0.01) were reduced and the feed conversion ratio was hindered (P < 0.05) with increased levels of wheat in the diet, but ADFI and egg production were not affected. Xylanase supplementation improved egg production (P < 0.05), egg mass (P < 0.01), and the feed conversion ratio (P < 0.01). Diet did not affect egg quality at any age, except for shell thickness at 47 wk that was improved with xylanase supplementation (P < 0.05). Digesta pH of the different organs of the gastrointestinal tract was not affected by wheat inclusion or xylanase supplementation. Ileal viscosity increased (P < 0.001) with wheat inclusion and decreased (P < 0.001) with xylanase supplementation at all ages. Fat digestibility (P < 0.001) decreased with increased levels of wheat but AME(n) content of the diets (P < 0.05) and nitrogen retention were not affected. Wheat inclusion increased (P < 0.001) amylase (33 wk), lipase (33 wk), and aminopeptidase (47 wk) activity in the duodenum as well as lipase activity in the jejunum at 47 wk of age. However, xylanase supplementation did not affect the activity of any of the enzymes studied. It is concluded that most of the negative effects of wheat inclusion in the diet were reduced or even disappeared with xylanase supplementation. Wheat with a high nonstarch polysaccharide content

  5. Chemical Reporters for Exploring Protein Acylation

    PubMed Central

    Thinon, Emmanuelle; Hang, Howard C.

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are acylated by a variety of metabolites that regulates many important cellular pathways in all kingdoms of life. Acyl groups in cells can vary in structure from the smallest unit, acetate, to modified long chain fatty acids, all of which can be activated and covalently attached to diverse amino acid side chains and consequently modulate protein function. For example, acetylation of Lys residues can alter the charge state of proteins and generate new recognition elements for protein–protein interactions. Alternatively, long chain fatty-acylation targets proteins to membranes and enables spatial control of cell signalling. To facilitate the analysis of protein acylation in biology, acyl analogues bearing alkyne or azide tags have been developed that enable fluorescent imaging and proteomic profiling of modified proteins using bioorthogonal ligation methods. Herein, we summarize the currently available acylation chemical reporters and highlight their utility to discover and quantify the roles of protein acylation in biology. PMID:25849926

  6. Acyl-ACP thioesterases from macadamia (Macadamia tetraphylla) nuts: cloning, characterization and their impact on oil composition.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pérez, Antonio J; Sánchez-García, Alicia; Salas, Joaquín J; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms by which macadamia nuts accumulate the unusual palmitoleic and asclepic acyl moieties, which constitute up to 20% of the fatty acids in some varieties, are still unknown. Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases (EC 3.1.2.14) are intraplastidial enzymes that terminate the synthesis of fatty acids in plants and that facilitate the export of the acyl moieties to the endoplasmic reticulum where they can be used in the production of glycerolipids. Here, we have investigated the possible role of acyl-ACP thioesterase activity in the composition of macadamia kernel oil. Accordingly, two acyl-ACP thioesterases were cloned from developing macadamia kernels, one of the FatA type and the other of the FatB type. These enzymes were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant thioesterases were purified, characterized kinetically and assayed with a variety of substrates, demonstrating the high specificity of macadamia FatA towards 16:1-ACP. Acyl-ACP thioesterase activity was also characterized in crude extracts from two different varieties of macadamia, Cate and Beaumont, which accumulate different amounts of n-7 fatty acids. The impact of acyl-ACP thioesterase activities on the oil composition of these kernels is discussed in the light of these results. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolic Regulation of Histone Acetyltransferases by Endogenous Acyl-CoA Cofactors

    PubMed Central

    Guasch, Laura; Nicklaus, Marc C.; Meier, Jordan L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The finding that chromatin modifications are sensitive to changes in cellular cofactor levels potentially links altered tumor cell metabolism and gene expression. However, the specific enzymes and metabolites that connect these two processes remain obscure. Characterizing these metabolic-epigenetic axes is critical to understanding how metabolism supports signaling in cancer, and developing therapeutic strategies to disrupt this process. Here, we describe a chemical approach to define the metabolic regulation of lysine acetyltransferase (KAT) enzymes. Using a novel chemoproteomic probe, we identify a previously unreported interaction between fatty acyl-CoAs and KAT enzymes. Further analysis reveals that palmitoyl-CoA is a potent inhibitor of KAT activity and that fatty acyl-CoA precursors reduce cellular acetylation levels. These studies implicate fatty acyl-CoAs as endogenous regulators of histone acetylation, and suggest novel strategies for the investigation and metabolic modulation of epigenetic signaling. PMID:26190825

  8. Dietary phenylalanine-improved intestinal barrier health in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is associated with increased immune status and regulated gene expression of cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes and related signalling molecules.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Li, Wen; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Jiang, Jun; Tang, Ling; Wu, Pei; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-08-01

    The present work evaluated the effects of dietary phenylalanine (Phe) on the intestinal immune response, tight junction proteins transcript abundance, and the gene expression of immune- and antioxidant-related signalling molecules in the intestine. In addition, the dietary Phe (and Phe + Tyr) requirement of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was also estimated. Fish were fed fish meal-casein-gelatin based diets (302.3 g crude protein kg(-1)) containing 3.4 (basal diet), 6.1, 9.1, 11.5, 14.0 and 16.8 g Phe kg(-1) with a fixed amount of 10.7 g tyrosine kg(-1) for 8 weeks. The results showed that Phe deficiency or excess Phe reduced the lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities and complement C 3 content in the intestine (P < 0.05). Moreover, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin and claudin c mRNA levels were highest in the fish fed the diet containing 11.5 g Phe kg(-1) (P < 0.05). However, claudin 12 and claudin b mRNA levels were not significantly affected by dietary Phe (P > 0.05). Gene expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), target of rapamycin (TOR) and inhibitor of nuclear factor κBα (IκBα) in proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) increased as dietary Phe increased up to 6.1, 9.1, 11.5 and 14.0 g kg(-1), respectively (P < 0.05). However, interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) mRNA levels showed opposite tendencies. In addition, the mRNA level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly lower in the intestinal tissue of the group fed a diet with Phe levels of 16.8 g kg(-1) than in those of other groups (P < 0.05). The expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene was increased as dietary Phe increased up to 9.1 g kg(-1) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, Phe improved intestinal immune status, and regulated gene expression of cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes, NF-κB p65, IκBα, TOR, and Nrf2 in the fish

  9. Discovering Targets of Non-enzymatic Acylation by Thioester Reactivity Profiling.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Rhushikesh A; Worth, Andrew J; Zengeya, Thomas T; Shrimp, Jonathan H; Garlick, Julie M; Roberts, Allison M; Montgomery, David C; Sourbier, Carole; Gibbs, Benjamin K; Mesaros, Clementina; Tsai, Yien Che; Das, Sudipto; Chan, King C; Zhou, Ming; Andresson, Thorkell; Weissman, Allan M; Linehan, W Marston; Blair, Ian A; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Meier, Jordan L

    2017-02-16

    Non-enzymatic protein modification driven by thioester reactivity is thought to play a major role in the establishment of cellular lysine acylation. However, the specific protein targets of this process are largely unknown. Here we report an experimental strategy to investigate non-enzymatic acylation in cells. Specifically, we develop a chemoproteomic method that separates thioester reactivity from enzymatic utilization, allowing selective enrichment of non-enzymatic acylation targets. Applying this method to cancer cell lines identifies numerous candidate targets of non-enzymatic acylation, including several enzymes in lower glycolysis. Functional studies highlight malonyl-CoA as a reactive thioester metabolite that can modify and inhibit glycolytic enzyme activity. Finally, we show that synthetic thioesters can be used as novel reagents to probe non-enzymatic acylation in living cells. Our studies provide new insights into the targets and drivers of non-enzymatic acylation, and demonstrate the utility of reactivity-based methods to experimentally investigate this phenomenon in biology and disease. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Sirt6 regulates TNFα secretion via hydrolysis of long chain fatty acyl lysine

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong; Khan, Saba; Wang, Yi; Charron, Guillaume; He, Bin; Sebastian, Carlos; Du, Jintang; Kim, Ray; Ge, Eva; Mostoslavsky, Raul; Hang, Howard C.; Hao, Quan; Lin, Hening

    2013-01-01

    The Sir2 family of enzymes or sirtuins are known as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylases1 and have been implicated in the regulation of transcription, genome stability, metabolism, and lifespan2, 3. However, four of the seven mammalian sirtuins have very weak deacetylase activity in vitro. Here we show that human Sirt6 efficiently removes long chain fatty acyl groups, such as myristoyl, from lysine residues. The crystal structure of Sirt6 reveals a large hydrophobic pocket that can accommodate long chain fatty acyl groups. We demonstrate further that Sirt6 promotes the secretion of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) by removing the fatty acyl modification on K19 and K20 of TNFα. Protein lysine fatty acylation has been known to occur in mammalian cells, but the function and regulatory mechanisms of this modification were unknown. Our data suggest that protein lysine fatty acylation is a novel mechanism that regulates protein secretion. The discovery of Sirt6 as an enzyme that controls protein lysine fatty acylation provides new opportunities to investigate the physiological function of the previously ignored protein posttranslational modification. PMID:23552949

  11. Acyl carrier proteins from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and their influence on FatA and FatB acyl-ACP thioesterase activities.

    PubMed

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose A; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael; Salas, Joaquín J

    2016-08-01

    The kinetics of acyl-ACP thioesterases from sunflower importantly changed when endogenous ACPs were used. Sunflower FatB was much more specific towards saturated acyl-ACPs when assayed with them. Acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) are small (~9 kDa), soluble, acidic proteins involved in fatty acid synthesis in plants and bacteria. ACPs bind to fatty acids through a thioester bond, generating the acyl-ACP lipoproteins that are substrates for fatty acid synthase (FAS) complexes, and that are required for fatty acid chain elongation, acting as important intermediates in de novo fatty acid synthesis in plants. Plants, usually express several ACP isoforms with distinct functionalities. We report here the cloning of three ACPs from developing sunflower seeds: HaACP1, HaACP2, and HaACP3. These proteins were plastidial ACPs expressed strongly in seeds, and as such they are probably involved in the synthesis of sunflower oil. The recombinant sunflower ACPs were expressed in bacteria but they were lethal to the prokaryote host. Thus, they were finally produced using the GST gene fusion system, which allowed the apo-enzyme to be produced and later activated to the holo form. Radiolabelled acyl-ACPs from the newly cloned holo-ACP forms were also synthesized and used to characterize the activity of recombinant sunflower FatA and FatB thioesterases, important enzymes in plant fatty acids synthesis. The activity of these enzymes changed significantly when the endogenous ACPs were used. Thus, FatA importantly increased its activity levels, whereas FatB displayed a different specificity profile, with much high activity levels towards saturated acyl-CoA derivatives. All these data pointed to an important influence of the ACP moieties on the activity of enzymes involved in lipid synthesis.

  12. Evolution of the acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP)

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Mark; Rose, Timothy M.; Færgeman, Nils J.; Knudsen, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) is a 10 kDa protein that binds C12–C22 acyl-CoA esters with high affinity. In vitro and in vivo experiments suggest that it is involved in multiple cellular tasks including modulation of fatty acid biosynthesis, enzyme regulation, regulation of the intracellular acyl-CoA pool size, donation of acyl-CoA esters for β-oxidation, vesicular trafficking, complex lipid synthesis and gene regulation. In the present study, we delineate the evolutionary history of ACBP to get a complete picture of its evolution and distribution among species. ACBP homologues were identified in all four eukaryotic kingdoms, Animalia, Plantae, Fungi and Protista, and eleven eubacterial species. ACBP homologues were not detected in any other known bacterial species, or in archaea. Nearly all of the ACBP-containing bacteria are pathogenic to plants or animals, suggesting that an ACBP gene could have been acquired from a eukaryotic host by horizontal gene transfer. Many bacterial, fungal and higher eukaryotic species only harbour a single ACBP homologue. However, a number of species, ranging from protozoa to vertebrates, have evolved two to six lineage-specific paralogues through gene duplication and/or retrotransposition events. The ACBP protein is highly conserved across phylums, and the majority of ACBP genes are subjected to strong purifying selection. Experimental evidence indicates that the function of ACBP has been conserved from yeast to humans and that the multiple lineage-specific paralogues have evolved altered functions. The appearance of ACBP very early on in evolution points towards a fundamental role of ACBP in acyl-CoA metabolism, including ceramide synthesis and in signalling. PMID:16018771

  13. Remote control of regioselectivity in acyl-acyl carrier protein-desaturases

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Jodie E.; Whittle, Edward; Moche, Martin; Lengqvist, Johan; Lindqvist, Ylva; Shanklin, John

    2011-01-01

    Regiospecific desaturation of long-chain saturated fatty acids has been described as approaching the limits of the discriminatory power of enzymes because the substrate entirely lacks distinguishing features close to the site of dehydrogenation. To identify the elusive mechanism underlying regioselectivity, we have determined two crystal structures of the archetypal Δ9 desaturase from castor in complex with acyl carrier protein (ACP), which show the bound ACP ideally situated to position C9 and C10 of the acyl chain adjacent to the diiron active site for Δ9 desaturation. Analysis of the structures and modeling of the complex between the highly homologous ivy Δ4 desaturase and ACP, identified a residue located at the entrance to the binding cavity, Asp280 in the castor desaturase (Lys275 in the ivy desaturase), which is strictly conserved within Δ9 and Δ4 enzymes but differs between them. We hypothesized that interaction between Lys275 and the phosphate of the pantetheine, seen in the ivy model, is key to positioning C4 and C5 adjacent to the diiron center for Δ4 desaturation. Mutating castor Asp280 to Lys resulted in a major shift from Δ9 to Δ4 desaturation. Thus, interaction between desaturase side-chain 280 and phospho-serine 38 of ACP, approximately 27 Å from the site of double-bond formation, predisposes ACP binding that favors either Δ9 or Δ4 desaturation via repulsion (acidic side chain) or attraction (positively charged side chain), respectively. Understanding the mechanism underlying remote control of regioselectivity provides the foundation for reengineering desaturase enzymes to create designer chemical feedstocks that would provide alternatives to those currently obtained from petrochemicals. PMID:21930947

  14. Modified acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, Edgar B.; Shanklin, John; Lindgvist, Ylva; Schneider, Gunter

    1998-01-06

    Disclosed is a methods for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity.

  15. Modified Acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, Edgar B.; Shanklin, John; Lindqvist, Ylva; Schneider, Gunter

    1999-03-30

    Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity.

  16. A calcium-dependent acyltransferase that produces N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamines.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yuji; Parsons, William H; Kamat, Siddhesh S; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2016-09-01

    More than 30 years ago, a calcium-dependent enzyme activity was described that generates N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs), which are precursors for N-acyl ethanolamine (NAE) lipid transmitters, including the endocannabinoid anandamide. The identity of this calcium-dependent N-acyltransferase (Ca-NAT) has remained mysterious. Here, we use activity-based protein profiling to identify the poorly characterized serine hydrolase PLA2G4E as a mouse brain Ca-NAT and show that this enzyme generates NAPEs and NAEs in mammalian cells.

  17. A calcium-dependent acyltransferase that produces N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamines

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Yuji; Parsons, William H.; Kamat, Siddhesh S.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2016-01-01

    More than 30 years ago, a calcium-dependent enzyme activity was described that generates N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs), which are precursors for N-acyl ethanolamine (NAE) lipid transmitters, including the endocannabinoid anandamide. The identity of this calcium-dependent N-acyltransferase (Ca-NAT) has remained mysterious. Here, we use activity-based protein profiling to identify the poorly characterized serine hydrolase PLA2G4E as a mouse brain Ca-NAT and show that this enzyme generates NAPEs and NAEs in mammalian cells. PMID:27399000

  18. Deterioration of white croaker (Pennahia argentata) meat thermally-induced gel products caused by proteolytic enzymes in the contaminated intestine and kidney.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Nobuhiko; Wan, Jianrong; Watabe, Shugo

    2016-05-15

    Thermally-induced gels were made from white croaker (Pennahia argentata) meat in the presence of its organ extracts by pre-heating at 40 and 65°C for 20 min and subsequent heating at 85°C for 20 min. The breaking strength of the gels decreased with increasing concentrations of the intestinal extracts accompanying decomposition of myosin heavy chains. However, no significant changes in the gel strength occurred when the kidney extract was added. The proteolytic activity in the intestinal extracts examined in the meat homogenate had a maximum at 60°C and pH 8.90. These results suggest that the intestinal rather than kidney proteolytic activities are responsible for gel softening known as a modori phenomenon. Thus, the removal of intestinal tracts is essential to maintain a high quality of surimi-based products.

  19. Acyl CoA synthetase 5 (ACSL5) ablation in mice increases energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity and delays fat absorption

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: The family of acyl-CoA synthetase enzymes (ACSL) activates fatty acids within cells to generate long chain fatty acyl CoA (FACoA). The differing metabolic fates of FACoAs such as incorporation into neutral lipids, phospholipids, and oxidation pathways are differentially regulated by the ...

  20. Trapping of the Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase–Acyl Carrier Protein Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Tallorin, Lorillee; Finzel, Kara; Nguyen, Quynh G.; Beld, Joris; La Clair, James J.; Burkart, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    An ideal target for metabolic engineering, fatty acid biosynthesis remains poorly understood on a molecular level. These carrier protein-dependent pathways require fundamental protein–protein interactions to guide reactivity and processivity, and their control has become one of the major hurdles in successfully adapting these biological machines. Our laboratory has developed methods to prepare acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) loaded with substrate mimetics and cross-linkers to visualize and trap interactions with partner enzymes, and we continue to expand the tools for studying these pathways. We now describe application of the slow-onset, tight-binding inhibitor triclosan to explore the interactions between the type II fatty acid ACP from Escherichia coli, AcpP, and its corresponding enoyl-ACP reductase, FabI. We show that the AcpP–triclosan complex demonstrates nM binding, inhibits in vitro activity, and can be used to isolate FabI in complex proteomes. PMID:26938266

  1. Large-scale multiplex absolute protein quantification of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in human intestine, liver, and kidney microsomes by SWATH-MS: Comparison with MRM/SRM and HR-MRM/PRM.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kenji; Hirayama-Kurogi, Mio; Ito, Shingo; Kuno, Takuya; Yoneyama, Toshihiro; Obuchi, Wataru; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Ohtsuki, Sumio

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine simultaneously the absolute protein amounts of 152 membrane and membrane-associated proteins, including 30 metabolizing enzymes and 107 transporters, in pooled microsomal fractions of human liver, kidney, and intestine by means of SWATH-MS with stable isotope-labeled internal standard peptides, and to compare the results with those obtained by MRM/SRM and high resolution (HR)-MRM/PRM. The protein expression levels of 27 metabolizing enzymes, 54 transporters, and six other membrane proteins were quantitated by SWATH-MS; other targets were below the lower limits of quantitation. Most of the values determined by SWATH-MS differed by less than 50% from those obtained by MRM/SRM or HR-MRM/PRM. Various metabolizing enzymes were expressed in liver microsomes more abundantly than in other microsomes. Ten, 13, and eight transporters listed as important for drugs by International Transporter Consortium were quantified in liver, kidney, and intestinal microsomes, respectively. Our results indicate that SWATH-MS enables large-scale multiplex absolute protein quantification while retaining similar quantitative capability to MRM/SRM or HR-MRM/PRM. SWATH-MS is expected to be useful methodology in the context of drug development for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of drug absorption, metabolism, and excretion in the human body based on protein profile information.

  2. Intestinal Obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    An intestinal obstruction occurs when food or stool cannot move through the intestines. The obstruction can be complete or partial. ... abdomen Inability to pass gas Constipation A complete intestinal obstruction is a medical emergency. It often requires surgery. ...

  3. Intestinal obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    Paralytic ileus; Intestinal volvulus; Bowel obstruction; Ileus; Pseudo-obstruction - intestinal; Colonic ileus ... objects that are swallowed and block the intestines) Gallstones (rare) Hernias Impacted stool Intussusception (telescoping of 1 ...

  4. Intestinal leiomyoma

    MedlinePlus

    Leiomyoma - intestine ... McLaughlin P, Maher MM. The duodenum and small intestine. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ... Roline CE, Reardon RF. Disorders of the small intestine. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  5. Intestinal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  6. Biochemistry of intestinal development.

    PubMed Central

    Henning, S J

    1979-01-01

    In biochemical terms, the rat small intestine is relatively immature at birth and for the first two postnatal weeks. Then during the third week a dramatic array of enzymic changes begins, and by the end of the fourth week the intestine has the digestive and absorptive properties of the adult. Selective examples of these changes are discussed with emphasis on their implications for toxicological studies. The review also includes a detailed consideration of the roles of the dietary change of weaning and of glucocorticoid and thyroid hormones in the regulation of intestinal development. PMID:575507

  7. Impairments in enzyme activity and biosynthesis of brush border-associated hydrolases in human intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells infected by members of the Afa/Dr family of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, I; Bernet-Camard, M F; Rousset, M; Servin, A L

    2001-05-01

    Wild-type diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) harbouring afimbrial adhesin (Afa) or fimbrial Dr and F1845 adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC) apically infecting the human intestinal epithelial cells promote injuries in the brush border of the cells. We report here that infection by Afa/Dr DAEC wild-type strains C1845 and IH11128 in polarized human fully differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cells dramatically impaired the enzyme activity of functional brush border-associated proteins sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPP IV). Blockers of the transduction signal molecules, previously found to be active against the Afa/Dr DAEC-induced cytoskeleton injury, were inactive against the Afa/Dr-induced decrease in sucrase enzyme activity. In parallel, Afa/Dr DAEC infection promotes the blockade of the biosynthesis of SI and DPP IV without affection enzyme stability. The observation that no changes occurred in mRNA levels of SI and DPP IV upon infection suggested that the decrease in biosynthesis probably resulted from a decrease in the translation rate. When the cells were infected with recombinant E. coli strains expressing homologous adhesins of the wild-type strains, neither a decrease in sucrase and DPP IV enzyme activities nor an inhibition of enzyme biosynthesis were observed. In conclusion, taken together, these data give new insights into the mechanisms by which the wild-type Afa/Dr DAEC strains induce functional injuries in polarized fully differentiated human intestinal cells. Moreover, the results revealed that other pathogenic factor(s) distinct from the Afa/Dr adhesins may play(s) a crucial role in this mechanism of pathogenicity.

  8. Modified acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Lindgvist, Y.; Schneider, G.

    1998-01-06

    Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity. 1 fig.

  9. Modified Acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Lindqvist, Y.; Schneider, G.

    1999-03-30

    Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity. 2 figs.

  10. Retrobiosynthetic Approach Delineates the Biosynthetic Pathway and the Structure of the Acyl Chain of Mycobacterial Glycopeptidolipids*

    PubMed Central

    Vats, Archana; Singh, Anil Kumar; Mukherjee, Raju; Chopra, Tarun; Ravindran, Madhu Sudhan; Mohanty, Debasisa; Chatterji, Dipankar; Reyrat, Jean-Marc; Gokhale, Rajesh S.

    2012-01-01

    Glycopeptidolipids (GPLs) are dominant cell surface molecules present in several non-tuberculous and opportunistic mycobacterial species. GPLs from Mycobacterium smegmatis are composed of a lipopeptide core unit consisting of a modified C26-C34 fatty acyl chain that is linked to a tetrapeptide (Phe-Thr-Ala-alaninol). The hydroxyl groups of threonine and terminal alaninol are further modified by glycosylations. Although chemical structures have been reported for 16 GPLs from diverse mycobacteria, there is still ambiguity in identifying the exact position of the hydroxyl group on the fatty acyl chain. Moreover, the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the fatty acyl component are unknown. In this study we show that a bimodular polyketide synthase in conjunction with a fatty acyl-AMP ligase dictates the synthesis of fatty acyl chain of GPL. Based on genetic, biochemical, and structural investigations, we determine that the hydroxyl group is present at the C-5 position of the fatty acyl component. Our retrobiosynthetic approach has provided a means to understand the biosynthesis of GPLs and also resolve the long-standing debate on the accurate structure of mycobacterial GPLs. PMID:22798073

  11. Metabolism of acyl-lipids in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Beisson, Fred; Riekhof, Wayne

    2015-05-01

    Microalgae are emerging platforms for production of a suite of compounds targeting several markets, including food, nutraceuticals, green chemicals, and biofuels. Many of these products, such as biodiesel or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), derive from lipid metabolism. A general picture of lipid metabolism in microalgae has been deduced from well characterized pathways of fungi and land plants, but recent advances in molecular and genetic analyses of microalgae have uncovered unique features, pointing out the necessity to study lipid metabolism in microalgae themselves. In the past 10 years, in addition to its traditional role as a model for photosynthetic and flagellar motility processes, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has emerged as a model organism to study lipid metabolism in green microalgae. Here, after summarizing data on total fatty acid composition, distribution of acyl-lipid classes, and major acyl-lipid molecular species found in C. reinhardtii, we review the current knowledge on the known or putative steps for fatty acid synthesis, glycerolipid desaturation and assembly, membrane lipid turnover, and oil remobilization. A list of characterized or putative enzymes for the major steps of acyl-lipid metabolism in C. reinhardtii is included, and subcellular localizations and phenotypes of associated mutants are discussed. Biogenesis and composition of Chlamydomonas lipid droplets and the potential importance of lipolytic processes in increasing cellular oil content are also highlighted.

  12. LuxR homolog-independent gene regulation by acyl-homoserine lactones in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Chugani, Sudha; Greenberg, Everett Peter

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum control of gene expression involves three LuxR-type signal receptors LasR, RhlR, and QscR that respond to the LasI- and RhlI-generated acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) signals 3OC12-HSL and C4-HSL. We found that a LasR-RhlR-QscR triple mutant responds to acyl-HSLs by regulating at least 37 genes. LuxR homolog-independent activation of the representative genes antA and catB also occurs in the wild type. Expression of antA was influenced the most by C10-HSL and to a lesser extent by other acyl-HSLs, including the P. aeruginosa 3OC12-HSL and C4-HSL signals. The ant and cat operons encode enzymes for the degradation of anthranilate to tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Our results indicate that LuxR homolog-independent acyl-HSL control of the ant and cat operons occurs via regulation of antR, which codes for the transcriptional activator of the ant operon. Although P. aeruginosa has multiple pathways for anthranilate synthesis, one pathway—the kynurenine pathway for tryptophan degradation—is required for acyl-HSL activation of the ant operon. The kynurenine pathway is also the critical source of anthranilate for energy metabolism via the antABC gene products, as well as the source of anthranilate for synthesis of the P. aeruginosa quinolone signal. Our discovery of LuxR homolog-independent responses to acyl-HSLs provides insight into acyl-HSL signaling. PMID:20498077

  13. The ɛ-Amino Group of Protein Lysine Residues Is Highly Susceptible to Nonenzymatic Acylation by Several Physiological Acyl-CoA Thioesters.

    PubMed

    Simic, Zeljko; Weiwad, Matthias; Schierhorn, Angelika; Steegborn, Clemens; Schutkowski, Mike

    2015-11-02

    Mitochondrial enzymes implicated in the pathophysiology of diabetes, cancer, and metabolic syndrome are highly regulated by acetylation. However, mitochondrial acetyltransferases have not been identified. Here, we show that acetylation and also other acylations are spontaneous processes that depend on pH value, acyl-CoA concentration and the chemical nature of the acyl residue. In the case of a peptide derived from carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1, the rates of succinylation and glutarylation were up to 150 times than for acetylation. These results were confirmed by using the protein substrate cyclophilin A (CypA). Deacylation experiments revealed that SIRT3 exhibits deacetylase activity but is not able to remove any of the succinyl groups from CypA, whereas SIRT5 is an effective protein desuccinylase. Thus, the acylation landscape on lysine residues might largely depend on the enzymatic activity of specific sirtuins, and the availability and reactivity of acyl-CoA compounds. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Novel deletion in a patient with an isolated peroxisoml acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Poll-The, B.T.; Fournier, B.; Clevers, H.; Wanders, R.J.A.

    1994-09-01

    Disorders with defective peroxisome assembly are associated with multiple peroxisomal enzymatic abnormalities. Besides these diseases patients have been described suspected of having a single enzyme defect in the peroxisomal {beta}-oxidation pathway. Laboratory findings for these patients include elevated plasma very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and impaired VLCFA oxidation in fibroblasts. Complementation analysis between these patients and those with a proven single enzyme deficiency, using peroxisomal {beta}-oxidation of VLCFA as the criterion for complementation, has been used to show whether the patients are deficient in acyl-CoA oxidase, peroxisomal trifunctional protein or thiolase activity. Fibroblasts from a patient showing the clinical and biochemical abnormalities of isolated acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency (using cell complementation) were analyzed at the molecular level. Isolation of RNA from patient`s fibroblasts was followed by random reverse transcription of RNA and PCR amplification. PCR products were blotted and hybridized with the human acyl-CoA oxidase cDNA. A fragment 150 bp shorter than normal was found. Upon sequencing, exon 7 was found to be deleted leading to a frameshift in the acyl-CoA oxidase mRNA. Southern blot analysis of the patient`s DNA did not reveal any deletion in contrast to two siblings previously reported as having a deletion of at least 17 kb in the acyl-CoA oxidase gene.

  15. Structural analysis and interaction studies of acyl-carrier protein (acpP) of Staphylococcus aureus, an extraordinarily thermally stable protein.

    PubMed

    Volk, Kathrin; Breunig, Sven D; Rid, Raphaela; Herzog, Julia; Bräuer, Maria; Hundsberger, Harald; Klein, Christian; Müller, Norbert; Önder, Kamil

    2017-01-01

    Acyl-carrier-protein (acpP) is an essential protein in fatty acid biosynthesis of Staphylococcus aureus [Cronan, J.E. and Thomas, J. (2009). Complex enzymes in microbial natural product biosynthesis, part B: polyketides, aminocoumarins and carbohydrates.

  16. Glycosyltransferases from oat (Avena) implicated in the acylation of avenacins.

    PubMed

    Owatworakit, Amorn; Townsend, Belinda; Louveau, Thomas; Jenner, Helen; Rejzek, Martin; Hughes, Richard K; Saalbach, Gerhard; Qi, Xiaoquan; Bakht, Saleha; Roy, Abhijeet Deb; Mugford, Sam T; Goss, Rebecca J M; Field, Robert A; Osbourn, Anne

    2013-02-08

    Plants produce a huge array of specialized metabolites that have important functions in defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. Many of these compounds are glycosylated by family 1 glycosyltransferases (GTs). Oats (Avena spp.) make root-derived antimicrobial triterpenes (avenacins) that provide protection against soil-borne diseases. The ability to synthesize avenacins has evolved since the divergence of oats from other cereals and grasses. The major avenacin, A-1, is acylated with N-methylanthranilic acid. Previously, we have cloned and characterized three genes for avenacin synthesis (for the triterpene synthase SAD1, a triterpene-modifying cytochrome P450 SAD2, and the serine carboxypeptidase-like acyl transferase SAD7), which form part of a biosynthetic gene cluster. Here, we identify a fourth member of this gene cluster encoding a GT belonging to clade L of family 1 (UGT74H5), and show that this enzyme is an N-methylanthranilic acid O-glucosyltransferase implicated in the synthesis of avenacin A-1. Two other closely related family 1 GTs (UGT74H6 and UGT74H7) are also expressed in oat roots. One of these (UGT74H6) is able to glucosylate both N-methylanthranilic acid and benzoic acid, whereas the function of the other (UGT74H7) remains unknown. Our investigations indicate that UGT74H5 is likely to be key for the generation of the activated acyl donor used by SAD7 in the synthesis of the major avenacin, A-1, whereas UGT74H6 may contribute to the synthesis of other forms of avenacin that are acylated with benzoic acid.

  17. Acylation Type Determines Ghrelin's Effects on Energy Homeostasis in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Heppner, Kristy M.; Chaudhary, Nilika; Müller, Timo D.; Kirchner, Henriette; Habegger, Kirk M.; Ottaway, Nickki; Smiley, David L.; DiMarchi, Richard; Hofmann, Susanna M.; Woods, Stephen C.; Sivertsen, Bjørn; Holst, Birgitte; Pfluger, Paul T.; Perez-Tilve, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal polypeptide that acts through the ghrelin receptor (GHSR) to promote food intake and increase adiposity. Activation of GHSR requires the presence of a fatty-acid (FA) side chain on amino acid residue serine 3 of the ghrelin molecule. However, little is known about the role that the type of FA used for acylation plays in the biological action of ghrelin. We therefore evaluated a series of differentially acylated peptides to determine whether alterations in length or stability of the FA side chain have an impact on the ability of ghrelin to activate GHSR in vitro or to differentially alter food intake, body weight, and body composition in vivo. Fatty acids principally available in the diet (such as palmitate C16) and therefore representing potential substrates for the ghrelin-activating enzyme ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) were used for dose-, time-, and administration/route-dependent effects of ghrelin on food intake, body weight, and body composition in rats and mice. Our data demonstrate that altering the length of the FA side chain of ghrelin results in the differential activation of GHSR. Additionally, we found that acylation of ghrelin with a long-chain FA (C16) delays the acute central stimulation of food intake. Lastly, we found that, depending on acylation length, systemic and central chronic actions of ghrelin on adiposity can be enhanced or reduced. Together our data suggest that modification of the FA side-chain length can be a novel approach to modulate the efficacy of pharmacologically administered ghrelin. PMID:22865372

  18. Glycosyltransferases from Oat (Avena) Implicated in the Acylation of Avenacins*

    PubMed Central

    Owatworakit, Amorn; Townsend, Belinda; Louveau, Thomas; Jenner, Helen; Rejzek, Martin; Hughes, Richard K.; Saalbach, Gerhard; Qi, Xiaoquan; Bakht, Saleha; Roy, Abhijeet Deb; Mugford, Sam T.; Goss, Rebecca J. M.; Field, Robert A.; Osbourn, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Plants produce a huge array of specialized metabolites that have important functions in defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. Many of these compounds are glycosylated by family 1 glycosyltransferases (GTs). Oats (Avena spp.) make root-derived antimicrobial triterpenes (avenacins) that provide protection against soil-borne diseases. The ability to synthesize avenacins has evolved since the divergence of oats from other cereals and grasses. The major avenacin, A-1, is acylated with N-methylanthranilic acid. Previously, we have cloned and characterized three genes for avenacin synthesis (for the triterpene synthase SAD1, a triterpene-modifying cytochrome P450 SAD2, and the serine carboxypeptidase-like acyl transferase SAD7), which form part of a biosynthetic gene cluster. Here, we identify a fourth member of this gene cluster encoding a GT belonging to clade L of family 1 (UGT74H5), and show that this enzyme is an N-methylanthranilic acid O-glucosyltransferase implicated in the synthesis of avenacin A-1. Two other closely related family 1 GTs (UGT74H6 and UGT74H7) are also expressed in oat roots. One of these (UGT74H6) is able to glucosylate both N-methylanthranilic acid and benzoic acid, whereas the function of the other (UGT74H7) remains unknown. Our investigations indicate that UGT74H5 is likely to be key for the generation of the activated acyl donor used by SAD7 in the synthesis of the major avenacin, A-1, whereas UGT74H6 may contribute to the synthesis of other forms of avenacin that are acylated with benzoic acid. PMID:23258535

  19. Acylation type determines ghrelin's effects on energy homeostasis in rodents.

    PubMed

    Heppner, Kristy M; Chaudhary, Nilika; Müller, Timo D; Kirchner, Henriette; Habegger, Kirk M; Ottaway, Nickki; Smiley, David L; Dimarchi, Richard; Hofmann, Susanna M; Woods, Stephen C; Sivertsen, Bjørn; Holst, Birgitte; Pfluger, Paul T; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2012-10-01

    Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal polypeptide that acts through the ghrelin receptor (GHSR) to promote food intake and increase adiposity. Activation of GHSR requires the presence of a fatty-acid (FA) side chain on amino acid residue serine 3 of the ghrelin molecule. However, little is known about the role that the type of FA used for acylation plays in the biological action of ghrelin. We therefore evaluated a series of differentially acylated peptides to determine whether alterations in length or stability of the FA side chain have an impact on the ability of ghrelin to activate GHSR in vitro or to differentially alter food intake, body weight, and body composition in vivo. Fatty acids principally available in the diet (such as palmitate C16) and therefore representing potential substrates for the ghrelin-activating enzyme ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) were used for dose-, time-, and administration/route-dependent effects of ghrelin on food intake, body weight, and body composition in rats and mice. Our data demonstrate that altering the length of the FA side chain of ghrelin results in the differential activation of GHSR. Additionally, we found that acylation of ghrelin with a long-chain FA (C16) delays the acute central stimulation of food intake. Lastly, we found that, depending on acylation length, systemic and central chronic actions of ghrelin on adiposity can be enhanced or reduced. Together our data suggest that modification of the FA side-chain length can be a novel approach to modulate the efficacy of pharmacologically administered ghrelin.

  20. Fatty Acid Activation in Cyanobacteria Mediated by Acyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Synthetase Enables Fatty Acid Recycling1[W

    PubMed Central

    Kaczmarzyk, Danuta; Fulda, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In cyanobacteria fatty acids destined for lipid synthesis can be synthesized de novo, but also exogenous free fatty acids from the culture medium can be directly incorporated into lipids. Activation of exogenous fatty acids is likely required prior to their utilization. To identify the enzymatic activity responsible for activation we cloned candidate genes from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 and identified the encoded proteins as acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetases (Aas). The enzymes catalyze the ATP-dependent esterification of fatty acids to the thiol of acyl carrier protein. The two protein sequences are only distantly related to known prokaryotic Aas proteins but they display strong similarity to sequences that can be found in almost all organisms that perform oxygenic photosynthesis. To investigate the biological role of Aas activity in cyanobacteria, aas knockout mutants were generated in the background of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and S. elongatus PCC 7942. The mutant strains showed two phenotypes characterized by the inability to utilize exogenous fatty acids and by the secretion of endogenous fatty acids into the culture medium. The analyses of extracellular and intracellular fatty acid profiles of aas mutant strains as well as labeling experiments indicated that the detected free fatty acids are released from membrane lipids. The data suggest a considerable turnover of lipid molecules and a role for Aas activity in recycling the released fatty acids. In this model, lipid degradation represents a third supply of fatty acids for lipid synthesis in cyanobacteria. PMID:20061450

  1. A special acyl carrier protein for transferring long hydroxylated fatty acids to lipid A in Rhizobium.

    PubMed

    Brozek, K A; Carlson, R W; Raetz, C R

    1996-12-13

    Lipid A, the hydrophobic anchor of lipopolysaccharides in the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, varies in structure among different Rhizobiaceae. The Rhizobium meliloti lipid A backbone, like that of Escherichia coli, is a beta1'-6-linked glucosamine disaccharide that is phosphorylated at positions 1 and 4'. Rhizobium leguminosarum lipid A lacks both phosphates, but contains aminogluconate in place of the proximal glucosamine 1-phosphate, and galacturonic acid instead of the 4'-phosphate. A peculiar feature of the lipid As of all Rhizobiaceae is acylation with 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid, a long hydroxylated fatty acid not found in E. coli. We now describe an in vitro system, consisting of a membrane enzyme and a cytosolic acyl donor from R. leguminosarum, that transfers 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid to (Kdo)2-lipid IVA, a key lipid A precursor common to both E. coli and R. leguminosarum. The 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid moiety was detected in the lipid product by mass spectrometry. The membrane enzyme required the presence of Kdo residues in the acceptor substrate for activity. The cytosolic acyl donor was purified from wild-type R. leguminosarum using the acylation of (Kdo)2-[4'-32P]-lipid IVA as the assay. Amino-terminal sequencing of the purified acyl donor revealed an exact 19-amino acid match with a partially sequenced gene (orf*) of R. leguminosarum. Orf* contains the consensus sequence, DSLD, for attachment of 4'-phosphopantetheine. When the entire orf* gene was sequenced, it was found to encode a protein of 92 amino acids. Orf* is a new kind of acyl carrier protein because it is only approximately 25% identical both to the constitutive acyl carrier protein (AcpP) and to the inducible acyl carrier protein (NodF) of R. leguminosarum. Mass spectrometry of purified active Orf* confirmed the presence of 4'-phosphopantetheine and 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid in the major species. Smaller mass peaks indicative of Orf* acylation with hydroxylated 20, 22, 24

  2. Mutation of the Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Core LPS Biosynthesis Enzyme RfaD Confers Hypersusceptibility to Host Intestinal Innate Immunity In vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Cheng-Ju; Chen, Jenn-Wei; Chiu, Hao-Chieh; Teng, Ching-Hao; Hsu, Tai-I; Lu, Pei-Jung; Syu, Wan-Jr; Wang, Sin-Tian; Chou, Ting-Chen; Chen, Chang-Shi

    2016-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is an important foodborne pathogen causing severe diseases in humans worldwide. Currently, there is no specific treatment available for EHEC infection and the use of conventional antibiotics is contraindicated. Therefore, identification of potential therapeutic targets and development of effective measures to control and treat EHEC infection are needed. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are surface glycolipids found on the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, including EHEC, and LPS biosynthesis has long been considered as potential anti-bacterial target. Here, we demonstrated that the EHEC rfaD gene that functions in the biosynthesis of the LPS inner core is required for the intestinal colonization and pathogenesis of EHEC in vivo. Disruption of the EHEC rfaD confers attenuated toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans and less bacterial colonization in the intestine of C. elegans and mouse. Moreover, rfaD is also involved in the control of susceptibility of EHEC to antimicrobial peptides and host intestinal immunity. It is worth noting that rfaD mutation did not interfere with the growth kinetics when compared to the wild-type EHEC cells. Taken together, we demonstrated that mutations of the EHEC rfaD confer hypersusceptibility to host intestinal innate immunity in vivo, and suggested that targeting the RfaD or the core LPS synthesis pathway may provide alternative therapeutic regimens for EHEC infection. PMID:27570746

  3. Layer-by-Layer Assembled Milk Protein Coated Magnetic Nanoparticle Enabled Oral Drug Delivery with High Stability in Stomach and Enzyme-Responsive Release in Small Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jing; Shu, Qing; Wang, Liya; Wu, Hui; Wang, Andrew Y.; Mao, Hui

    2014-01-01

    We report a novel drug delivery system composed of layer-by-layer (LBL) milk protein casein (CN) coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Doxorubicin (DOX) and indocyanine green (ICG) were selected as model drug molecules, which were incorporated into the inner polymeric layer, and subsequently coated with casein. The resulting casein coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CN-DOX/ICG-IO) were stable in the acidic gastric condition with the presence of gastric protease. On the other hand, the loaded drugs were released when the casein outer layer was gradually degraded by the intestinal protease in the simulated intestine condition. Such unique properties enable maintenance of the bioactivity of the drugs and thus enhance the drug delivery efficiency. Ex vivo experiments showed that the LBL CN-DOX-IO improved the translocation of DOX across microvilli and its absorption in the small intestine sacs. In vivo imaging of mice that were orally administered with these LBL CN-ICG-IO nanostructures further confirmed that the reported drug delivery vehicles could pass the stomach without significant degradation, and then accumulated in the small intestine. In addition, the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle core offered an MRI contrast enhancing capability for in vivo imaging guided drug delivery. Therefore, the reported LBL CN-DOX/ICG-IO is a promising oral drug delivery nanoplatform, especially for drugs that are poorly soluble in water or degradable in the gastric environment. PMID:25477177

  4. RP 64477: a potent inhibitor of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol O-acyltransferase with low systemic bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Bello, A A; Bright, C; Burton, B J; Bush, R C; Casey, J H; Dron, D I; Facchini, V; Joannou, P P; Parrott, D P; Riddell, D; Roberts, S A; Williams, R J

    1996-02-23

    RP 64477 (N-butyl-3-(p-decyloxybenzamido)-4-(methylthio)benzamide) has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of the cholesterol esterifying enzyme Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol O-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.26; ACAT) in intestinal, hepatic, adrenal, and arterial tissue preparations obtained from a range of animal species. Drug concentrations producing 50% inhibition of enzyme activity (IC50 values) ranged from 14-283 nM. Inhibition by RP 64477 in a rabbit intestinal enzyme preparation was shown to be non-competitive with respect to the substrate oleoyl-CoA. In whole cell assays using human intestinal (CaCo-2), hepatic HepG2) and monocytic (THP-1) cell lines, RP 64477 inhibited ACAT activity with IC50s of 113, 503, and 180 nM, respectively. RP 64477 (0.03% w/w by diet) reduced significantly cholesterol absorption in cholesterol/cholic acid-fed rats from 94+/- 8% to 65 +/- 4%. In cholesterol-fed rabbits, cholesterol absorption was reduced from 72 +/- 5% to 50 +/-5% and 44 +/- 5% at dose levels of 10 and 30 mg kg-1 b.i.d., respectively. Plasma cholesterol levels were reduced dose-dependently in both cholesterol/cholic-acid-fed rats and cholesterol-fed rabbits. Neither cholesterol absorption nor plasma cholesterol levels were reduced significantly in animals maintained on standard laboratory diets. Pharmacokinetic studies indicated that RP 64477 were very poorly absorbed following oral administration to rats. Plasma levels of drug were < 2 ng mL-1 following a dose of 2000 mg kg-1 p.o.. When radiolabelled RP 64477 was administered orally, limited absorption was indicated by the overwhelming elimination of radioactivity in the faces (96.4% of administered material) coupled with low renal clearance (0.6% of dose) and biliary excretion (0.05% of dose). In conclusion, this work shows that RP 64477 is a potent inhibitor of ACAT obtained from a range of animal species and man. Inhibition of cholesterol absorption and hypocholesterolaemic activity has been demonstrated in rats and

  5. Biogenesis of ER subdomains containing DGAT2, an enzyme involved in industrial oil biosynthesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) are enzymes that catalyze the committed step in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis by transferring a fatty acyl group from the acyl-CoA pool to the sn-3 position of diacylglycerol. The substrate specificity and overall activity of these enzymes play a key role...

  6. Long chain acyl-CoA synthetases and other acyl activating enzymes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proper synthesis and breakdown of molecules containing carboxylic acids is a vital part of metabolism in all living organisms. Given the relatively inert chemical nature of many carboxylic acids, activation is a necessary step prior to use in the various anabolic and catabolic pathways that utilize...

  7. Macrocyclic prolinyl acyl guanidines as inhibitors of β-secretase (BACE).

    PubMed

    Boy, Kenneth M; Guernon, Jason M; Wu, Yong-Jin; Zhang, Yunhui; Shi, Joe; Zhai, Weixu; Zhu, Shirong; Gerritz, Samuel W; Toyn, Jeremy H; Meredith, Jere E; Barten, Donna M; Burton, Catherine R; Albright, Charles F; Good, Andrew C; Grace, James E; Lentz, Kimberley A; Olson, Richard E; Macor, John E; Thompson, Lorin A

    2015-11-15

    The synthesis, evaluation, and structure-activity relationships of a class of acyl guanidines which inhibit the BACE-1 enzyme are presented. The prolinyl acyl guanidine chemotype (7c), unlike compounds of the parent isothiazole chemotype (1), yielded compounds with good agreement between their enzymatic and cellular potency as well as a reduced susceptibility to P-gp efflux. Further improvements in potency and P-gp ratio were realized via a macrocyclization strategy. The in vivo profile in wild-type mice and P-gp effects for the macrocyclic analog 21c is presented.

  8. Localization of acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase gene to human chromosome 1q25

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.C.Y.; Chang, W.; Chang, T.Y. ); Noll, W.W.; Nutile-McMenemy, N. ); Lindsay, E.A.; Baldini, A. )

    1994-01-01

    Acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is an intracellular enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters from cholesterol and long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A. It is believed that ACAT plays a key role in lipoprotein metabolism and atherogenesis. Recently the authors' laboratory succeeded in molecular cloning and functional expression of human macrophage ACAT cDNA. They have now mapped the ACAT gene to chromosome 1, band q25 by using fluorescence in situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes, and by Southern blotting analysis of human-hamster somatic cell hybrid panels.

  9. Novel role of a triglyceride-synthesizing enzyme: DGAT1 at the crossroad between triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Vinay; Leopold, Christina; Bauer, Raimund; Patankar, Jay V.; Iqbal, Jahangir; Obrowsky, Sascha; Boverhof, Renze; Doktorova, Marcela; Scheicher, Bernhard; Goeritzer, Madeleine; Kolb, Dagmar; Turnbull, Andrew V.; Zimmer, Andreas; Hoefler, Gerald; Hussain, M. Mahmood; Groen, Albert K.; Kratky, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) is a key enzyme in triacylglycerol (TG) biosynthesis. Here we show that genetic deficiency and pharmacological inhibition of DGAT1 in mice alters cholesterol metabolism. Cholesterol absorption, as assessed by acute cholesterol uptake, was significantly decreased in the small intestine and liver upon DGAT1 deficiency/inhibition. Ablation of DGAT1 in the intestine (I-DGAT1−/−) alone is sufficient to cause these effects. Consequences of I-DGAT1 deficiency phenocopy findings in whole-body DGAT1−/− and DGAT1 inhibitor-treated mice. We show that deficiency/inhibition of DGAT1 affects cholesterol metabolism via reduced chylomicron size and increased trans-intestinal cholesterol excretion. These effects are independent of cholesterol uptake at the apical surface of enterocytes but mediated through altered dietary fatty acid metabolism. Our findings provide insight into a novel role of DGAT1 and identify a pathway by which intestinal DGAT1 deficiency affects whole-body cholesterol homeostasis in mice. Targeting intestinal DGAT1 may represent a novel approach for treating hypercholesterolemia. PMID:27344248

  10. Small intestinal ischemia and infarction

    MedlinePlus

    Intestinal necrosis; Ischemic bowel - small intestine; Dead bowel - small intestine; Dead gut - small intestine; Infarcted bowel - small intestine; Atherosclerosis - small intestine; Hardening of the arteries - small intestine

  11. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 inhibition enhances intestinal fatty acid oxidation and reduces energy intake in rats[S

    PubMed Central

    Schober, Gudrun; Arnold, Myrtha; Birtles, Susan; Buckett, Linda K.; Pacheco-López, Gustavo; Turnbull, Andrew V.; Langhans, Wolfgang; Mansouri, Abdelhak

    2013-01-01

    Acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT-1) catalyzes the final step in triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis and is highly expressed in the small intestine. Because DGAT-1 knockout mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity, we investigated the acute effects of intragastric (IG) infusion of a small molecule diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 inhibitor (DGAT-1i) on eating, circulating fat metabolites, indirect calorimetry, and hepatic and intestinal expression of key fat catabolism enzymes in male rats adapted to an 8 h feeding-16 h deprivation schedule. Also, the DGAT-1i effect on fatty acid oxidation (FAO) was investigated in enterocyte cell culture models. IG DGAT-1i infusions reduced energy intake compared with vehicle in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats, but scarcely in chow-fed rats. IG DGAT-1i also blunted the postprandial increase in serum TAG and increased β-hydroxybutyrate levels only in HFD-fed rats, in which it lowered the respiratory quotient and increased intestinal, but not hepatic, protein levels of Complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and of mitochondrial hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase. Finally, the DGAT-1i enhanced FAO in CaCo2 (EC50 = 0.3494) and HuTu80 (EC50 = 0.00762) cells. Thus, pharmacological DGAT-1 inhibition leads to an increase in intestinal FAO and ketogenesis when dietary fat is available. This may contribute to the observed eating-inhibitory effect. PMID:23449193

  12. Intestinal Obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wall Hernias Inguinal Hernia Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Appendicitis Ileus Intestinal Obstruction Ischemic Colitis Perforation of the Digestive ... Wall Hernias Inguinal Hernia Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Appendicitis Ileus Intestinal Obstruction Ischemic Colitis Perforation of the Digestive ...

  13. Acyl hydrolases from trans-AT polyketide synthases target acetyl units on acyl carrier proteins.

    PubMed

    Jenner, Matthew; Afonso, Jose P; Kohlhaas, Christoph; Karbaum, Petra; Frank, Sarah; Piel, Jörn; Oldham, Neil J

    2016-04-18

    Acyl hydrolase (AH) domains are a common feature of trans-AT PKSs. They have been hypothesised to perform a proofreading function by removing acyl chains from stalled sites. This study determines the substrate tolerance of the AH PedC for a range of acyl-ACPs. Clear preference towards short, linear acyl-ACPs is shown, with acetyl-ACP the best substrate. These results imply a more targeted housekeeping role for PedC: namely the removal of unwanted acetyl groups from ACP domains caused by erroneous transfer of acetyl-CoA, or possibly by decarboxylation of malonyl-ACP.

  14. Kinetics of acyl transfer reactions in organic media catalysed by Candida antarctica lipase B.

    PubMed

    Martinelle, M; Hult, K

    1995-09-06

    The acyl transfer reactions catalysed by Candida antartica lipase B in organic media followed a bi-bi ping-pong mechanism, with competitive substrate inhibition by the alcohols used as acyl acceptors. The effect of organic solvents on Vm and Km was investigated. The Vm values in acetonitrile was 40-50% of those in heptane. High Km values in acetonitrile compared to those in heptane could partly be explained by an increased solvation of the substrates in acetonitrile. Substrate solvation caused a 10-fold change in substrate specificity, defined as (Vm/Km)ethyl octanoate/(Vm/Km)octanoic acid, going from heptane to acetonitrile. Deacylation was the rate determining step for the acyl transfer in heptane with vinyl- and ethyl octanoate as acyl donors and (R)-2-octanol as acyl acceptor. With 1-octanol, a rate determining deacylation step in heptane was indicated using the same acyl donors. Using 1-octanol as acceptor in heptane, S-ethyl thiooctanoate had a 25- to 30-fold lower Vm/Km value and vinyl octanoate a 4-fold higher Vm/Km value than that for ethyl octanoate. The difference showed to be a Km effect for vinyl octanoate and mainly a Km effect for S-ethyl thiooctanoate. The Vm values of the esterification of octanoic acid with different alcohols was 10-30-times lower than those for the corresponding transesterification of ethyl octanoate. The low activity could be explained by a low pH around the enzyme caused by the acid or a withdrawing of active enzyme by nonproductive binding by the acid.

  15. Ganglioside glycosyltransferases are S-acylated at conserved cysteine residues involved in homodimerisation.

    PubMed

    Chumpen Ramirez, Sabrina; Ruggiero, Fernando M; Daniotti, Jose Luis; Valdez Taubas, Javier

    2017-08-07

    Ganglioside glycosyltransferases (GGTs) are type II membrane proteins bearing a short N-terminal cytoplasmic tail, a transmembrane domain (TMD), and a lumenal catalytic domain. The expression and activity of these enzymes largely determine the quality of the glycolipids that decorate mammalian cell membranes. Many glycosyltransferases (GTs) are themselves glycosylated, and this is important for their proper localisation, but few if any other post-translational modifications of these proteins have been reported. Here, we show that the GGTs, ST3Gal-V, ST8Sia-I, and β4GalNAcT-I are S-acylated at conserved cysteine residues located close to the cytoplasmic border of their TMDs. ST3Gal-II, a GT that sialylates glycolipids and glycoproteins, is also S-acylated at a conserved cysteine located in the N-terminal cytoplasmic tail. Many other GTs also possess cysteine residues in their cytoplasmic regions, suggesting that this modification occurs also on these GTs. S-acylation, commonly known as palmitoylation, is catalysed by a family of palmitoyltransferases (PATs) that are mostly localised at the Golgi complex but also at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the plasma membrane. Using GT ER retention mutants, we found that S-acylation of β4GalNAcT-I and ST3Gal-II takes place at different compartments, suggesting that these enzymes are not substrates of the same PAT. Finally, we found that cysteines that are the target of S-acylation on β4GalNAcT-I and ST3Gal-II are involved in the formation of homodimers through disulphide bonds. We observed an increase in ST3Gal-II dimers in the presence of the PAT inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate, suggesting that GT homodimerisation may be regulating S-acylation. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  16. Characterisation of acyl-ACP desaturases from Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche and Nerium oleander L.

    PubMed

    Gummeson; Lenman; Lee; Singh; Stymne

    2000-05-15

    The seed oil in Macadamia integrifolia contains about 30% palmitoleic acid (16:1(Delta9)) and Nerium oleander about 12% isoricinoleic acid (Delta9-hydroxy-18:1(Delta12)). It has been shown that palmitoleic acid can be produced by acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturases and it has also been shown that fatty acid hydroxylation can occur via direct substitution of a hydrogen atom. Therefore it seemed possible that the enzymes responsible for the making of these unusual fatty acids in M. integrifolia and N. oleander were of acyl-ACP desaturase type. Extracts from developing M. integrifolia developing seeds showed a relative ratio of 16:0-ACP to 18:0-ACP desaturation that was about 13 times higher than in sunflower seeds. N. oleander seed extracts catalysed conversion of 18:0-ACP to 18:1(Delta9) but only trace amounts of Delta9-hydroxy fatty acids were formed. A total of four cDNAs were isolated from developing seeds, of both species, using a fragment isolated with PCR amplification. The M. integrifolia acyl-ACP desaturase cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli. A partly purified fraction of the enzyme showed a 16:0-ACP to 18:0-ACP desaturation ratio about 90-fold less than that in the Macadamia extracts. Expressed N. oleander acyl-ACP desaturase cDNAs showed predominantly 18:0-ACP desaturase activity and no hydroxylase activity. Thus it is not likely that any of the four acyl-ACP desaturases cloned from M. integrifolia or N. oleander is involved in the production of unusual fatty acids.

  17. A fluorescent assay to quantitatively measure in vitro acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    McFie, Pamela J; Stone, Scot J

    2011-09-01

    Triacylglycerols (TG) are the major storage form of energy in eukaryotic organisms and are synthesized primarily by acyl CoA:1,2-diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes. In vitro DGAT activity has previously been quantified by measuring the incorporation of either radiolabeled fatty acyl CoA or diacylglycerol (DG) into TG. We developed a modified acyltransferase assay using a fluorescent fatty acyl CoA substrate to accurately quantify in vitro DGAT activity. In the modified assay, radioactive fatty acyl CoA is replaced with fluorescent NBD-palmitoyl CoA, which is used as a substrate by DGAT with DG to produce NBD-TG. After extraction with organic solvents and separation by thin layer chromatography, NBD-TG formation can be detected and accurately quantified using a fluorescent imaging system. We demonstrate that this method can be adapted to detect other acyltransferase activities. Because NBD-palmitoyl CoA is commercially available at a much lower cost compared with radioactive acyl CoA substrates, it is a more economical alternative to radioactive tracers. In addition, the exposure of laboratory personnel to radioactivity is greatly reduced.

  18. Immunochemical quantification of cynomolgus CYP2J2, CYP4A and CYP4F enzymes in liver and small intestine.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shotaro; Murayama, Norie; Nakanishi, Yasuharu; Nakamura, Chika; Hashizume, Takanori; Zeldin, Darryl C; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Uno, Yasuhiro

    2015-02-01

    1. An increasing number of studies have indicated the roles of CYP4 proteins in drug metabolism; however, CYP4 expression has not been measured in cynomolgus monkeys, an important animal species for drug metabolism studies. 2. In this study, cynomolgus CYP4A11, CYP4F2/3, CYP4F11 and CYP4F12, along with CYP2J2, were immunoquantified using selective antibodies in 28 livers and 35 small intestines, and their content was compared with CYP1A, CYP2A, CYP2B6, CYP2C9/19, CYP2D, CYP2E1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, previously quantified. 3. In livers, CYP2J2, CYP4A11, CYP4F2/3, CYP4F11 and CYP4F12, varied 1.3- to 4.3-fold, represented 11.2, 14.4, 8.0, 2.7 and 0.3% of total immunoquantified CYP1-4 proteins, respectively. 4. In small intestines, CYP2J2, CYP4F2/3, CYP4F11 and CYP4F12, varied 2.4- to 9.7-fold, represented 6.9, 36.4, 2.4 and 9.3% of total immunoquantified CYP1-4 proteins, respectively, making CYP4F the most abundant P450 subfamily in small intestines. CYP4A11 was under the detection limit in all of the samples analyzed. 5. Significant correlations were found in liver for CYP4A11 with lauric acid 11-/12-hydroxylation and for CYP4F2/3 and CYP4F11 with astemizole hydroxylation. 6. This study revealed the relatively abundant contents of cynomolgus CYP2J2, CYP4A11 and CYP4Fs in liver and/or small intestine, suggesting their potential roles for the metabolism of xenobitotics and endogenous substrates.

  19. Erythritol reduces small intestinal glucose absorption, increases muscle glucose uptake, improves glucose metabolic enzymes activities and increases expression of Glut-4 and IRS-1 in type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Mopuri, Ramgopal; Nagiah, Savania; Chuturgoon, Anil Amichund; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2017-08-02

    Studies have reported that erythritol, a low or non-glycemic sugar alcohol possesses anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic potentials but the underlying mode of actions is not clear. This study investigated the underlying mode of actions behind the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic potentials of erythritol using different experimental models (experiment 1, 2 and 3). Experiment 1 examined the effects of increasing concentrations (2.5-20%) of erythritol on glucose absorption and uptake in isolated rat jejunum and psoas muscle, respectively. Experiments 2 and 3 examined the effects of a single oral dose of erythritol (1 g/kg bw) on intestinal glucose absorption, gastric emptying and postprandial blood glucose increase, glucose tolerance, serum insulin level, muscle/liver hexokinase and liver glucose-6 phosphatase activities, liver and muscle glycogen contents and mRNA and protein expression of muscle Glut-4 and IRS-1 in normal and type 2 diabetic animals. Experiment 1 revealed that erythritol dose dependently enhanced muscle glucose ex vivo. Experiment 2 demonstrated that erythritol feeding delayed gastric emptying and reduced small intestinal glucose absorption as well as postprandial blood glucose rise, especially in diabetic animals. Experiment 3 showed that erythritol feeding improved glucose tolerance, muscle/liver hexokinase and liver glucose-6 phosphatase activities, glycogen storage and also modulated expression of muscle Glut-4 and IRS-1 in diabetic animals. Data suggest that erythritol may exert anti-hyperglycemic effects not only via reducing small intestinal glucose absorption, but also by increasing muscle glucose uptake, improving glucose metabolic enzymes activity and modulating muscle Glut-4 and IRS-1 mRNA and protein expression. Hence, erythritol may be a useful dietary supplement for managing hyperglycemia, particularly for T2D.

  20. Evaluation of the marine alga Ulva rigida as a food supplement: effect of intake on intestinal, hepatic, and renal enzyme activities in rats.

    PubMed

    Taboada, Cristina; Millán, Rosendo; Míguez, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    The use of seaweeds as a food is more widespread in Eastern than in Western countries, although demand for these plants has increased in the West because their possible usefulness as dietary supplements. However, very little is known about the effects of regular consumption of algae. The aim of the present study was to determine the composition of Ulva rigida and to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of the diet with 10% alga for 4 weeks on dietary intake, growth, protein efficiency ratio, diet conversion ratio, and some organ weights in growing male rats. We also studied the effect of inclusion of the alga in the diet on intestinal, hepatic, and renal enzymatic activities. U. rigida was found to be a good source of protein and carbohydrates. Food intake was higher in the U. rigida group than in the control group, but ingestion of alga did not have any effect on the other trophic parameters. The intestinal disaccharidase and leucine aminopeptidase activities were lower in rats fed with alga than in control rats, but γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activity was higher in the kidneys of alga-fed rats than in control rats. U. rigida contains high amounts of protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals and low amounts of lipids. Analysis of the amino acid composition revealed good-quality protein. The addition of alga to the diet inhibited disaccharidase activities, which suggested that alga consumption could be useful in some chronic disorders associated with pertubations of glucose homeostasis caused by carbohydrate absorption.

  1. A novel Dps-type protein from insect gut bacteria catalyses hydrolysis and synthesis of N-acyl amino acids.

    PubMed

    Ping, Liyan; Büchler, Rita; Mithöfer, Axel; Svatos, Ales; Spiteller, Dieter; Dettner, Konrad; Gmeiner, Sophie; Piel, Jörn; Schlott, Bernhard; Boland, Wilhelm

    2007-06-01

    A novel type of a microbial N-acyl amino acid hydrolase (AAH) from insect gut bacteria was purified, cloned and functionally characterized. The enzyme was obtained from Microbacterium arborescens SE14 isolated from the foregut of larvae of the generalist herbivore Spodoptera exigua. The substrates of AAH are N-acyl-glutamines previously reported to elicit plant defence reactions after introduction into the leaf during feeding. The isolated AAH catalyses the hydrolysis of the amide bond (K(m) = 36 micromol l(-1)) and, less efficient, the formation (K(m) = 3 mmol l(-1)) of the elicitor active N-acyl amino acids. The AAH from M. arborescens SE14 shows no homology to known fatty acyl amidases (EC 3.5.1.4) but belongs to the family of Dps proteins (DNA-binding protein from starved cell). In line with other DPS proteins AAH is a homododecamer (monomer 17 181 Da) and contains iron atoms (c. 1-16 iron atoms per subunit). Unlike genuine DPS proteins the enzyme does not significantly bind DNA. Amino acid hydrolase is the first member of the DPS family that catalyses the cleavage or formation of amide bonds. The participation of a microbial enzyme in the homeostasis of N-acyl-glutamines in the insect gut adds further complexity to the interaction between plants and their herbivores.

  2. Unacylated ghrelin promotes adipogenesis in rodent bone marrow via ghrelin O-acyl transferase and GHS-R1a activity: evidence for target cell-induced acylation

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Anna L.; Nelson, Timothy A. S.; Guschina, Irina A.; Parsons, Lydia C.; Lewis, Charlotte L.; Brown, Richard C.; Christian, Helen C.; Davies, Jeffrey S.; Wells, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Despite being unable to activate the cognate ghrelin receptor (GHS-R), unacylated ghrelin (UAG) possesses a unique activity spectrum that includes promoting bone marrow adipogenesis. Since a receptor mediating this action has not been identified, we re-appraised the potential interaction of UAG with GHS-R in the regulation of bone marrow adiposity. Surprisingly, the adipogenic effects of intra-bone marrow (ibm)-infused acylated ghrelin (AG) and UAG were abolished in male GHS-R-null mice. Gas chromatography showed that isolated tibial marrow adipocytes contain the medium-chain fatty acids utilised in the acylation of UAG, including octanoic acid. Additionally, immunohistochemistry and immunogold electron microscopy revealed that tibial marrow adipocytes show prominent expression of the UAG-activating enzyme ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT), which is located in the membranes of lipid trafficking vesicles and in the plasma membrane. Finally, the adipogenic effect of ibm-infused UAG was completely abolished in GOAT-KO mice. Thus, the adipogenic action of exogenous UAG in tibial marrow is dependent upon acylation by GOAT and activation of GHS-R. This suggests that UAG is subject to target cell-mediated activation – a novel mechanism for manipulating hormone activity. PMID:28361877

  3. Purification and Characterization of a Novel Pumpkin Short-Chain Acyl-Coenzyme A Oxidase with Structural Similarity to Acyl-Coenzyme A Dehydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    De Bellis, Luigi; Gonzali, Silvia; Alpi, Amedeo; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Makoto; Nishimura, Mikio

    2000-01-01

    A novel pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) short-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) oxidase (ACOX) was purified to homogeneity by hydrophobic-interaction, hydroxyapatite, affinity, and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme is a tetrameric protein, consisting of apparently identical 47-kD subunits. The protein structure of this oxidase differs from other plant and mammalian ACOXs, but is similar to the protein structure of mammalian mitochondrial acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACDH) and the recently identified plant mitochondrial ACDH. Subcellular organelle separation by sucrose density gradient centrifugation revealed that the enzyme is localized in glyoxysomes, whereas no immunoreactive bands of similar molecular weight were detected in mitochondrial fractions. The enzyme selectively catalyzes the oxidation of CoA esters of fatty acids with 4 to 10 carbon atoms, and exhibits the highest activity on C-6 fatty acids. Apparently, the enzyme has no activity on CoA esters of branched-chain or dicarboxylic fatty acids. The enzyme is slightly inhibited by high concentrations of substrate and it is not inhibited by Triton X-100 at concentrations up to 0.5% (v/v). The characteristics of this novel ACOX enzyme are discussed in relation to other ACOXs and ACDHs. PMID:10806249

  4. Fatty acyl-CoA inhibition of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity.

    PubMed

    Faas, F H; Carter, W J; Wynn, J O

    1978-11-22

    The influence of the fatty acyl-CoA thioesters on rat liver microsomal hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity was tested in vitro to determine if the previously demonstrated inhibition of [14C]acetate incorporation into cholesterol is due to inhibition of this rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis. The polyunsaturated fatty acyl-CoA thioesters caused the greatest inhibition of enzyme activity, 50 micron arachidonoyl-CoA inhibiting 67% and 5 micron inhibiting 22%. 50 micron linoleoyl-CoA inhibited 56% with the more saturated thioesters causing less inhibition. 50--100 micron free fatty acids, free CoA, cholesterol esters, phospholipids, carnitine derivatives, prostaglandins and non-specific detergents caused little or no inhibition of enzyme activity. Kinetic studies revealed the inhibition to be noncompetitive with respect to hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA with a Ki for arachidonoyl CoA of 3.10 micron. Fatty acyl-CoA inhibition of in vitro cholesterol synthesis is due to inhibition of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity. Variation in intracellular concentrations of fatty acyl-CoA thioesters may signficantly alter cholesterol synthesis.

  5. Mechanism of reaction of acyl phosph(on)ates with the beta-lactamase of Enterobacter cloacae P99.

    PubMed

    Kaur, K; Pratt, R F

    2001-04-17

    A series of acyl phosph(on)ates has been prepared to more closely examine the details of the interactions of this class of molecule with beta-lactamases. In general, they were found to react with the class C beta-lactamase of Enterobacter cloacae P99 in two ways, by acylation and by phosphylation. The acyl-enzymes generated by the former reaction were transiently stable with half-lives of between 3 and 45 s, of comparable lifetime therefore to those generated by the inhibitory beta-lactams cefotaxime, cefuroxime, and cefoxitin. On the other hand, phosphylation led to a completely inactive enzyme. In general, the second-order rate constants for acylation (k(cat)/K(m)) were larger than for phosphylation (k(i)). As expected on chemical grounds, phosphylation was found to be relatively more effective for the phosphonates than the phosphates. The acyl phosphates were much more effective acylating agents however. The acylation reaction was found to be enhanced by hydrophobic substituents in both the acyl and leaving group moieties. Thus, the most reactive compound in this series was benzo[b]thiophene-2-carbonyl 2'-naphthyl phosphate with a K(m) value of 0.15 microM and a k(cat) of 0.2 s(-1); k(cat)/K(m) is therefore 1.3 x 10(6) s(-1) M(-1), making this compound the most specific acyclic acylation reagent for this beta-lactamase yet described. Significant substrate inhibition by this compound suggested that further binding regions may be available for exploitation in inhibitor design. A linear free energy analysis showed that the transition states for acylation of the beta-lactamase by aroyl phosphates are analogues of the corresponding aryl boronic acid adducts. Molecular modeling suggested that the aroyl phosphates react with the P99 beta-lactamase with the aroyl group in the side chain/acyl group site of normal substrates and the phosphate in the leaving group site. In this orientation, the phosphate leaving group interacts strongly with Lys 315.

  6. Effects of dietary Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on growth performance, immunological parameters, digestive enzymes, and intestinal morphology of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Zahran, Eman; Risha, Engy; Abdelhamid, Fatma; Mahgoub, Hebata Allah; Ibrahim, Tarek

    2014-05-01

    This work investigated the potential immunomodulatory and growth-promoting effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The dietary supplementation with APS (1500 mg/kg of diet) caused a significant increase in growth parameters (initial and final weight, weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake (FI), when compared to non-supplemented control basal diet. In addition, APS upregulated the phagocytic activity, the respiratory burst activity, plasma lysozyme, the bactericidal activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and amylase activity. However, it had no effect on serum nitric oxide (NO) or Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. While APS had no effect of intestinal histology, a slight increase in the villi length was recorded. Collectively, our results indicate that dietary APS supplementation could improve the growth performance and the immune parameters of cultured tilapia fish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Activities of acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) and phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) in microsomal preparations of developing sunflower and safflower seeds.

    PubMed

    Banaś, Walentyna; Sanchez Garcia, Alicia; Banaś, Antoni; Stymne, Sten

    2013-06-01

    The last step in triacylglycerols (TAG) biosynthesis in oil seeds, the acylation of diacylglycerols (DAG), is catalysed by two types of enzymes: the acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) and phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT). The relative contribution of these enzymes in the synthesis of TAG has not yet been defined in any plant tissue. In the presented work, microsomal preparations were obtained from sunflower and safflower seeds at different stages of development and used in DGAT and PDAT enzyme assays. The ratio between PDAT and DGAT activity differed dramatically between the two different species. DGAT activities were measured with two different acyl acceptors and assay methods using two different acyl-CoAs, and in all cases the ratio of PDAT to DGAT activity was significantly higher in safflower than sunflower. The sunflower DGAT, measured by both methods, showed significant higher activity with 18:2-CoA than with 18:1-CoA, whereas the opposite specificity was seen with the safflower enzyme. The specificities of PDAT on the other hand, were similar in both species with 18:2-phosphatidylcholine being a better acyl donor than 18:1-PC and with acyl groups at the sn-2 position utilised about fourfold the rate of the sn-1 position. No DAG:DAG transacylase activity could be detected in the microsomal preparations.

  8. Remodeling of host phosphatidylcholine by Chlamydia acyltransferase is regulated by acyl-CoA binding protein ACBD6 associated with lipid droplets

    PubMed Central

    Soupene, Eric; Wang, Derek; Kuypers, Frans A

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis invades cells as an infectious elementary body (EB). The EB is internalized into a vacuole that is hidden from the host defense mechanism, and is modified to sustain the development of the replicative reticulate body (RB). Inside this parasitophorous compartment, called the inclusion, the pathogen survives supported by an active exchange of nutrients and proteins with the host cell. We show that host lipids are scavenged and modified into bacterial-specific lipids by the action of a shared human-bacterial acylation mechanism. The bacterial acylating enzymes for the essential lipids 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate and 1-acyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine were identified as CT453 and CT775, respectively. Bacterial CT775 was found to be associated with lipid droplets (LDs). During the development of C. trachomatis, the human acyl-CoA carrier hACBD6 was recruited to cytosolic LDs and translocated into the inclusion. hACBD6 protein modulated the activity of CT775 in an acyl-CoA dependent fashion and sustained the activity of the bacterial acyltransferase by buffering the concentration of acyl-CoAs. We propose that disruption of the binding activity of the acyl-CoA carrier might represent a new drug-target to prevent growth of C. trachomatis. PMID:25604091

  9. Probing the intestinal α-glucosidase enzyme specificities of starch-digesting maltase-glucoamylase and sucrase-isomaltase: synthesis and inhibitory properties of 3'- and 5'-maltose-extended de-O-sulfonated ponkoranol.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Razieh; Jones, Kyra; Reddy, Kongara Ravinder; Jayakanthan, Kumarasamy; Chaudet, Marcia; Rose, David R; Pinto, B Mario

    2011-12-23

    The synthesis and glucosidase inhibitory activities of two C-3'- and C-5'-β-maltose-extended analogues of the naturally occurring sulfonium-ion inhibitor, de-O-sulfonated ponkoranol, are described. The compounds are designed to test the specificity towards four intestinal glycoside hydrolase family 31 (GH31) enzyme activities, responsible for the hydrolysis of terminal starch products and sugars into glucose, in humans. The target sulfonium-ion compounds were synthesized by means of nucleophilic attack of benzyl protected 1,4-anhydro-4-thio-D-arabinitol at the C-6 position of 6-O-trifluoromethanesulfonyl trisaccharides as alkylating agents. The alkylating agents were synthesized from D-glucose by glycosylation at C-4 or C-2 with maltosyl trichloroacetimidate. Deprotection of the coupled products by using a two-step sequence, followed by reduction afforded the final compounds. Evaluation of the target compounds for inhibition of the four glucosidase activities indicated that selective inhibition of one enzyme over the others is possible. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Enzymes involved in the formation of 3 beta, 7 beta-dihydroxy-12-oxo-5 beta-cholanic acid from dehydrocholic acid by Ruminococcus sp. obtained from human intestine.

    PubMed

    Akao, T; Akao, T; Hattori, M; Namba, T; Kobashi, K

    1987-09-25

    Ruminococcus sp. PO1-3 from human intestinal flora reduced dehydrocholic acid to 3 beta-hydroxy-7,12-dioxo-5 beta-cholanic acid by means of the enzyme 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Akao, T., Akao, T., Hattori, M., Namba, T. and Kobashi, K. (1986) J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 99, 1425-1431). This bacterium and its crude extract gave rise to another product, showing a lower RF value on TLC, from dehydrocholic acid. The product was identified as 3 beta, 7 beta-dihydroxy-12-oxo-5 beta-cholanic acid. The crude extract reduced 7-ketolithocholic acid and its methyl ester, but not 6-ketolithocholic acid and 12-ketochenodeoxycholic acid, in the presence of NADPH, and oxidized ursodeoxycholic acid and beta-muricholic acid, but not cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid and hydrocholic acid, in the presence of NADP+. Therefore, besides 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 7 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was shown to be present in this bacterium. The two dehydrogenases were clearly separated from each other by butyl-Toyopearl 650 M column chromatography. From dehydrocholic acid, 7 beta-hydroxy-3,12-dioxo-5 beta-cholanic acid was produced by 7 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 3 beta, 7 beta-dihydroxy-12-oxo-5 beta-cholanic acid was produced by combination of two enzymes, 7 beta- and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

  11. ROMPgel beads in IRORI format: acylations revisited.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Richard S

    2005-01-01

    Functionalized "designer" polymers derived from ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMPgels) are attractive for their high loading, high purity, and ease of synthesis. Their physical state may vary from liquid to gel to granular solid, making a general method of handling these polymers difficult. By incorporating a suitable norbornene-substituted linker on standard Wang beads, ROMPgels can be easily grafted onto the resin, adding the convenience of a bead format while still maintaining the high loading and excellent site accessibility. This advantage is demonstrated by the use of an N-hydroxysuccinimide ROMPgel (3.3 mmol g(-1), a 3-fold increase from the parent linker resin) in IRORI Kan format. Conditions for the acylation of these IRORI-formatted ROMPgels are reported, along with the scope and limitations of the choice of acylating reagents. Yields are greatly improved by the use of perfluorinated solvents as a nonparticipating cosolvent in the acylation process. A simple titration method for the quantification of the acylated ROMPgels is also reported. Spent Kans are regenerated after each use without apparent loss of activity or purity after several cycles. Due to the high loading and reduced swelling of the ROMPgel resin, up to 0.39 mmol acyl group has successfully been recovered from a single IRORI miniKan, demonstrating the high capacity of the resin and applicability to both lead discovery and optimization programs.

  12. Structural Basis for Substrate Specificity in Adenosylcobalamin-dependent Isobutyryl-CoA Mutase and Related Acyl-CoA Mutases.

    PubMed

    Jost, Marco; Born, David A; Cracan, Valentin; Banerjee, Ruma; Drennan, Catherine L

    2015-11-06

    Acyl-CoA mutases are a growing class of adenosylcobalamin-dependent radical enzymes that perform challenging carbon skeleton rearrangements in primary and secondary metabolism. Members of this class of enzymes must precisely control substrate positioning to prevent oxidative interception of radical intermediates during catalysis. Our understanding of substrate specificity and catalysis in acyl-CoA mutases, however, is incomplete. Here, we present crystal structures of IcmF, a natural fusion protein variant of isobutyryl-CoA mutase, in complex with the adenosylcobalamin cofactor and four different acyl-CoA substrates. These structures demonstrate how the active site is designed to accommodate the aliphatic acyl chains of each substrate. The structures suggest that a conformational change of the 5'-deoxyadenosyl group from C2'-endo to C3'-endo could contribute to initiation of catalysis. Furthermore, detailed bioinformatic analyses guided by our structural findings identify critical determinants of acyl-CoA mutase substrate specificity and predict new acyl-CoA mutase-catalyzed reactions. These results expand our understanding of the substrate specificity and the catalytic scope of acyl-CoA mutases and could benefit engineering efforts for biotechnological applications ranging from production of biofuels and commercial products to hydrocarbon remediation.

  13. Structural Basis for Substrate Specificity in Adenosylcobalamin-dependent Isobutyryl-CoA Mutase and Related Acyl-CoA Mutases*♦

    PubMed Central

    Jost, Marco; Born, David A.; Cracan, Valentin; Banerjee, Ruma; Drennan, Catherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Acyl-CoA mutases are a growing class of adenosylcobalamin-dependent radical enzymes that perform challenging carbon skeleton rearrangements in primary and secondary metabolism. Members of this class of enzymes must precisely control substrate positioning to prevent oxidative interception of radical intermediates during catalysis. Our understanding of substrate specificity and catalysis in acyl-CoA mutases, however, is incomplete. Here, we present crystal structures of IcmF, a natural fusion protein variant of isobutyryl-CoA mutase, in complex with the adenosylcobalamin cofactor and four different acyl-CoA substrates. These structures demonstrate how the active site is designed to accommodate the aliphatic acyl chains of each substrate. The structures suggest that a conformational change of the 5′-deoxyadenosyl group from C2′-endo to C3′-endo could contribute to initiation of catalysis. Furthermore, detailed bioinformatic analyses guided by our structural findings identify critical determinants of acyl-CoA mutase substrate specificity and predict new acyl-CoA mutase-catalyzed reactions. These results expand our understanding of the substrate specificity and the catalytic scope of acyl-CoA mutases and could benefit engineering efforts for biotechnological applications ranging from production of biofuels and commercial products to hydrocarbon remediation. PMID:26318610

  14. Cloning of Glycerophosphocholine Acyltransferase (GPCAT) from Fungi and Plants: A NOVEL ENZYME IN PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE SYNTHESIS.

    PubMed

    Głąb, Bartosz; Beganovic, Mirela; Anaokar, Sanket; Hao, Meng-Shu; Rasmusson, Allan G; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Banaś, Antoni; Stymne, Sten; Lager, Ida

    2016-11-25

    Glycero-3-phosphocholine (GPC), the product of the complete deacylation of phosphatidylcholine (PC), was long thought to not be a substrate for reacylation. However, it was recently shown that cell-free extracts from yeast and plants could acylate GPC with acyl groups from acyl-CoA. By screening enzyme activities of extracts derived from a yeast knock-out collection, we were able to identify and clone the yeast gene (GPC1) encoding the enzyme, named glycerophosphocholine acyltransferase (GPCAT). By homology search, we also identified and cloned GPCAT genes from three plant species. All enzymes utilize acyl-CoA to acylate GPC, forming lyso-PC, and they show broad acyl specificities in both yeast and plants. In addition to acyl-CoA, GPCAT efficiently utilizes LPC and lysophosphatidylethanolamine as acyl donors in the acylation of GPC. GPCAT homologues were found in the major eukaryotic organism groups but not in prokaryotes or chordates. The enzyme forms its own protein family and does not contain any of the acyl binding or lipase motifs that are present in other studied acyltransferases and transacylases. In vivo labeling studies confirm a role for Gpc1p in PC biosynthesis in yeast. It is postulated that GPCATs contribute to the maintenance of PC homeostasis and also have specific functions in acyl editing of PC (e.g. in transferring acyl groups modified at the sn-2 position of PC to the sn-1 position of this molecule in plant cells). © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Intestinal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Desrochers, André; Anderson, David E

    2016-11-01

    A wide variety of disorders affecting the intestinal tract in cattle may require surgery. Among those disorders the more common are: intestinal volvulus, jejunal hemorrhage syndrome and more recently the duodenal sigmoid flexure volvulus. Although general principles of intestinal surgery can be applied, cattle has anatomical and behavior particularities that must be known before invading the abdomen. This article focuses on surgical techniques used to optimize outcomes and discusses specific disorders of small intestine. Diagnoses and surgical techniques presented can be applied in field conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 2-Bromopalmitate Reduces Protein Deacylation by Inhibition of Acyl-Protein Thioesterase Enzymatic Activities

    PubMed Central

    Pedro, Maria P.; Vilcaes, Aldo A.; Tomatis, Vanesa M.; Oliveira, Rafael G.; Gomez, Guillermo A.; Daniotti, Jose L.

    2013-01-01

    S-acylation, the covalent attachment of palmitate and other fatty acids on cysteine residues, is a reversible post-translational modification that exerts diverse effects on protein functions. S-acylation is catalyzed by protein acyltransferases (PAT), while deacylation requires acyl-protein thioesterases (APT), with numerous inhibitors for these enzymes having already been developed and characterized. Among these inhibitors, the palmitate analog 2-brompalmitate (2-BP) is the most commonly used to inhibit palmitoylation in cells. Nevertheless, previous results from our laboratory have suggested that 2-BP could affect protein deacylation. Here, we further investigated in vivo and in vitro the effect of 2-BP on the acylation/deacylation protein machinery, with it being observed that 2-BP, in addition to inhibiting PAT activity in vivo, also perturbed the acylation cycle of GAP-43 at the level of depalmitoylation and consequently affected its kinetics of membrane association. Furthermore, 2-BP was able to inhibit in vitro the enzymatic activities of human APT1 and APT2, the only two thioesterases shown to mediate protein deacylation, through an uncompetitive mechanism of action. In fact, APT1 and APT2 hydrolyzed both the monomeric form as well as the micellar state of the substrate palmitoyl-CoA. On the basis of the obtained results, as APTs can mediate deacylation on membrane bound and unbound substrates, this suggests that the access of APTs to the membrane interface is not a necessary requisite for deacylation. Moreover, as the enzymatic activity of APTs was inhibited by 2-BP treatment, then the kinetics analysis of protein acylation using 2-BP should be carefully interpreted, as this drug also inhibits protein deacylation. PMID:24098372

  17. 2-Bromopalmitate reduces protein deacylation by inhibition of acyl-protein thioesterase enzymatic activities.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Maria P; Vilcaes, Aldo A; Tomatis, Vanesa M; Oliveira, Rafael G; Gomez, Guillermo A; Daniotti, Jose L

    2013-01-01

    S-acylation, the covalent attachment of palmitate and other fatty acids on cysteine residues, is a reversible post-translational modification that exerts diverse effects on protein functions. S-acylation is catalyzed by protein acyltransferases (PAT), while deacylation requires acyl-protein thioesterases (APT), with numerous inhibitors for these enzymes having already been developed and characterized. Among these inhibitors, the palmitate analog 2-brompalmitate (2-BP) is the most commonly used to inhibit palmitoylation in cells. Nevertheless, previous results from our laboratory have suggested that 2-BP could affect protein deacylation. Here, we further investigated in vivo and in vitro the effect of 2-BP on the acylation/deacylation protein machinery, with it being observed that 2-BP, in addition to inhibiting PAT activity in vivo, also perturbed the acylation cycle of GAP-43 at the level of depalmitoylation and consequently affected its kinetics of membrane association. Furthermore, 2-BP was able to inhibit in vitro the enzymatic activities of human APT1 and APT2, the only two thioesterases shown to mediate protein deacylation, through an uncompetitive mechanism of action. In fact, APT1 and APT2 hydrolyzed both the monomeric form as well as the micellar state of the substrate palmitoyl-CoA. On the basis of the obtained results, as APTs can mediate deacylation on membrane bound and unbound substrates, this suggests that the access of APTs to the membrane interface is not a necessary requisite for deacylation. Moreover, as the enzymatic activity of APTs was inhibited by 2-BP treatment, then the kinetics analysis of protein acylation using 2-BP should be carefully interpreted, as this drug also inhibits protein deacylation.

  18. Impact of Fusarium mycotoxins on hepatic and intestinal mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes and drug transporters, and on the pharmacokinetics of oral enrofloxacin in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Antonissen, Gunther; Devreese, Mathias; De Baere, Siegrid; Martel, An; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska

    2017-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) drug biotransformation enzymes and multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins may influence drug disposition processes. The first part of the study aimed to evaluate the effect of mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and/or fumonisins (FBs), at contamination levels approaching European Union guidance levels, on intestinal and hepatic CYP450 enzymes and MDR proteins gene expression in broiler chickens. mRNA expression of genes encoding CYP450 enzymes (CYP3A37, CYP1A4 and CYP1A5) and drug transporters (MDR1/ABCB1 and MRP2/ABCC2) was determined using qRT-PCR. A significant up-regulation of CYP1A4 (P = 0.037) and MDR1 (P = 0.036) was observed in the jejunum of chickens fed a diet contaminated with FBs. The second part of this study aimed to investigate the impact of feeding a FBs contaminated diet on the oral absorption of enrofloxacin (10 mg/kg BW), a MDR1 substrate. A significant (P = 0.045), however small, decreased area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-48 h, mean ± SD) was observed for enrofloxacin in chickens fed the FBs contaminated diet compared to the control group, 16.28 ± 1.82 h μg/mL versus 18.27 ± 1.79 h μg/mL. These findings suggest that concurrent administration of drugs with FBs contaminated feed might alter the pharmacokinetic characteristics of CYP1A4 substrate drugs and MDR1 substrates, such as enrofloxacin.

  19. Cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP)-thioesterase B from seeds of Chinese Spicehush (Lindera communis).

    PubMed

    Dong, Shubin; Huang, Jiacong; Li, Yannan; Zhang, Jing; Lin, Shanzhi; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2014-05-25

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases (TE EC 3.1.2.14) are fatty acid biosynthesis key enzymes that determine fatty acid carbon chain length in most plant tissues. A full-length cDNA corresponding to one of the fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase (Fat) genes, designated LcFatB, was isolated from developing Lindera communis seeds using PCR and RACE with degenerate primers based on conserved sequences of multiple TE gene sequences obtained from GenBank. The 1788 bp cDNA had an open reading frame (ORF) of 1260 bp encoding a protein of 419 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 61-73% identity to proteins in the FatB class of plant thioesterases. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that LcFatB was expressed in all tissues of L. communis, with the highest expression in the developing seeds 75days after flowering. Recombinant pET-MLcFatB was constructed using the pET-30 a vector and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)△FadE, a strain that deleted the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (FadE). SDS-PAGE analysis of proteins isolated from pET-MLcFatB E. coli cells after induction with IPTG revealed a protein band at ~40.5kDa, corresponding to the predicted size of LcFatB mature protein. The decanoic acid and lauric acid contents of the pET-MLcFatB transformant were increased significantly. These findings suggest that an LcFatB gene from a non-traditional oil-seed tree could be used to function as a saturated acyl-ACP thioesterase and could potentially be used to modify the fatty acid composition of seed oil from L. communis or other species through transgenic approaches.

  20. Purification and characterization of a fatty acyl-ester hydrolase from post-germinated sunflower seeds.

    PubMed

    Teissère, M; Borel, M; Caillol, B; Nari, J; Gardies, A M; Noat, G

    1995-03-16

    Fatty acyl-ester hydrolase was not detectable in dry sunflower seeds using various p-nitrophenyl-acyl-esters, 1,2-O-didodecyl-rac-glycero-3-glutaric acid-resorufin ester or emulsified sunflower oil as substrate. After inhibition of the seeds, acyl-ester hydrolase activity slowly developed in cotyledon extracts and was maximal after 5 days. No activity was directly measurable on oil bodies. The enzyme was purified 615-fold to apparent homogeneity, as determined by performing SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, and biochemically characterized. With p-nitrophenyl-caprylate the optimum pH was around 8.0. The purification procedure involved an acetone powder from 5-day dark-germinated seedlings, chloroform-butanol extraction and three chromatography steps. We obtained 35 micrograms of pure enzyme from 250 g of fresh cotyledons with an activity yield of around 7%. It should be possible to subsequently improve this low recovery as we gave priority here, in the first instance, to purity at the expense of the yield. The enzyme consisted of one glycosylated polypeptide chain with a molecular mass of approx. 45 kDa and, as far as we could tell, it did not seem to require metal ions to be fully active, as it was not inhibited by EDTA or o-phenanthroline and not activated by various mono or bivalent metal ions. The amino acid composition showed the presence of four cysteine and four tryptophan residues. The enzyme was partially inhibited by dithiothreitol, DTNB and PCMB. The fact that high inhibition was observed in the presence of PMSF indicates that a serine residue may possibly be involved in the catalytic mechanism. The hydrophobicity index was about 53.6% which places this enzyme in the class of the soluble proteins in good agreement with the fact that it was mainly present in the soluble part of the crude extract. Partial characterization of glycan chains, using antiglycan antibodies, showed the presence of complex Asn-linked glycans. The enzyme was active on purified sunflower

  1. In silico prediction of acyl glucuronide reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Tim; Lewis, Richard; Luker, Tim; Bonnert, Roger; Bernstein, Michael A.; Birkinshaw, Timothy N.; Thom, Stephen; Wenlock, Mark; Paine, Stuart

    2011-11-01

    Drugs and drug candidates containing a carboxylic acid moiety, including many widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often metabolized to form acyl glucuronides (AGs). NSAIDs such as Ibuprofen are amongst the most widely used drugs on the market, whereas similar carboxylic acid drugs such as Suprofen have been withdrawn due to adverse events. Although the link between these AG metabolites and toxicity is not proven, there is circumstantial literature evidence to suggest that more reactive acyl glucuronides may, in some cases, present a greater risk of exhibiting toxic effects. We wished therefore to rank the reactivity of potential new carboxylate-containing drug candidates, and performed kinetic studies on synthetic acyl glucuronides to benchmark our key compounds. Driven by the desire to quickly rank the reactivity of compounds without the need for lengthy synthesis of the acyl glucuronide, a correlation was established between the degradation half-life of the acyl glucuronide and the half life for the hydrolysis of the more readily available methyl ester derivative. This finding enabled a considerable broadening of chemical property space to be investigated. The need for kinetic measurements was subsequently eliminated altogether by correlating the methyl ester hydrolysis half-life with the predicted 13C NMR chemical shift of the carbonyl carbon together with readily available steric descriptors in a PLS model. This completely in silico prediction of acyl glucuronide reactivity is applicable within the earliest stages of drug design with low cost and acceptable accuracy to guide intelligent molecular design. This reactivity data will be useful alongside the more complex additional pharmacokinetic exposure and distribution data that is generated later in the drug discovery process for assessing the overall toxicological risk of acidic drugs.

  2. Characterization of soluble acyl-ACP desaturases from Camelina sativa, Macadamia tetraphylla and Dolichandra unguis-cati.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Manuel Fernando Rodríguez; Sánchez-García, Alicia; Salas, Joaquín J; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2015-04-15

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturases (EC 1.14.19.2) are soluble enzymes that catalyse the insertion of a double bond into saturated fatty acid bound in saturated acyl chains bound to ACP in higher plants, producing cis-monounsaturated fatty acids. Three types of soluble acyl-ACP desaturases have been described: Δ(9)-acyl-ACP, Δ(6)-acyl-ACP and Δ(4)-acyl-ACP desaturases, which differ in the substrate specificity and the position in which the double bond is introduced. In the present work, Camelina sativa (CsSAD), Macadamia tetraphylla (MtSAD) and Dolichandra unguis-cati (DuSAD) desaturases were cloned, sequenced and characterized. Single copies of CsSAD, MtSAD and DuSAD with three, one and two different alleles, respectively, were found. The corresponding mature proteins were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli for biochemical characterization in protein extracts. The recombinant CsSAD enzyme showed 300-fold higher specificity towards 18:0-ACP than 16:0-ACP. Similar profile exhibited MtSAD although the differences in the specificity were lower, around 170-fold higher for 18:0-ACP than 16:0-ACP. Furthermore, DuSAD presented a profile showing preference towards 16:0-ACP against 18:0-ACP, around twice more, being so a Δ(9) palmitoyl-ACP desaturase. Also, we reported the expression profile of CsSAD, which showed the highest levels of expression in expanding tissues that typically are very active in lipid biosynthesis such as developing seed endosperm. Moreover, the possibility to express a new desaturase in C. sativa (oilseed crop that store high levels of oil and is easy to transform) to create a new line rich in short monounsaturated fatty acid is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Acyl silicates and acyl aluminates as activated intermediates in peptide formation on clays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. H.; Kennedy, R. M.; Macklin, J.

    1984-01-01

    Glycine reacts with heating on dried clays and other minerals to give peptides in much better yield than in the absence of mineral. This reaction was proposed to occur by way of an activated intermediate such as an acyl silicate or acyl aluminate analogous to acyl phosphates involved in several biochemical reactions including peptide bond synthesis. The proposed mechanism has been confirmed by trapping the intermediate, as well as by direct spectroscopic observation of a related intermediate. The reaction of amino acids on periodically dried mineral surfaces represents a widespead, geologically realistic setting for prebiotic peptide formation via in situ activation.

  4. Acyl chain preference and inhibitor identification of Moraxella catarrhalis LpxA: Insight through crystal structure and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Pratap, Shivendra; Kesari, Pooja; Yadav, Ravi; Dev, Aditya; Narwal, Manju; Kumar, Pravindra

    2017-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an important surface component and a potential virulence factor in the pathogenesis of Gram-negative bacteria. UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase (LpxA) enzyme catalyzes the first reaction of LPS biosynthesis, reversible transfer of R-3-hydroxy-acyl moiety from donor R-3-hydroxy-acyl-acyl carrier protein to the 3' hydroxyl position of UDP-N-acetyl-glucosamine. LpxA enzyme's essentiality in bacterial survival and absence of any homologous protein in humans makes it a promising target for anti-bacterial drug development. Herein, we present the crystal structure of Moraxella catarrhalis LpxA (McLpxA). We propose that L171 is responsible for limiting the acyl chain length in McLpxA to 10C or 12C. The study reveals the plausible interactions between the highly conserved clusters of basic residues at the C-terminal end of McLpxA and acidic residues of acyl carrier protein (ACP). Furthermore, the crystal structure of McLpxA was used to screen potential inhibitors from NCI open database using various computational approaches viz. pharmacophore mapping, virtual screening and molecular docking. Molecules Mol212032, Mol609399 and Mol152546 showed best binding affinity with McLpxA among all screened molecules. These molecules mimic the substrate-LpxA binding interactions.

  5. Sticky swinging arm dynamics: studies of an acyl carrier protein domain from the mycolactone polyketide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Steven; Tkachenko, Olga; Thomas, Ben; Bassuni, Mona; Hong, Hui; Nietlispach, Daniel; Broadhurst, William

    2016-01-01

    Type I modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) produce polyketide natural products by passing a growing acyl substrate chain between a series of enzyme domains housed within a gigantic multifunctional polypeptide assembly. Throughout each round of chain extension and modification reactions, the substrate stays covalently linked to an acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain. In the present study we report on the solution structure and dynamics of an ACP domain excised from MLSA2, module 9 of the PKS system that constructs the macrolactone ring of the toxin mycolactone, cause of the tropical disease Buruli ulcer. After modification of apo ACP with 4′-phosphopantetheine (Ppant) to create the holo form, 15N nuclear spin relaxation and paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) experiments suggest that the prosthetic group swings freely. The minimal chemical shift perturbations displayed by Ppant-attached C3 and C4 acyl chains imply that these substrate-mimics remain exposed to solvent at the end of a flexible Ppant arm. By contrast, hexanoyl and octanoyl chains yield much larger chemical shift perturbations, indicating that they interact with the surface of the domain. The solution structure of octanoyl-ACP shows the Ppant arm bending to allow the acyl chain to nestle into a nonpolar pocket, whereas the prosthetic group itself remains largely solvent exposed. Although the highly reduced octanoyl group is not a natural substrate for the ACP from MLSA2, similar presentation modes would permit partner enzyme domains to recognize an acyl group while it is bound to the surface of its carrier protein, allowing simultaneous interactions with both the substrate and the ACP. PMID:26920023

  6. Sticky swinging arm dynamics: studies of an acyl carrier protein domain from the mycolactone polyketide synthase.

    PubMed

    Vance, Steven; Tkachenko, Olga; Thomas, Ben; Bassuni, Mona; Hong, Hui; Nietlispach, Daniel; Broadhurst, William

    2016-04-15

    Type I modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) produce polyketide natural products by passing a growing acyl substrate chain between a series of enzyme domains housed within a gigantic multifunctional polypeptide assembly. Throughout each round of chain extension and modification reactions, the substrate stays covalently linked to an acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain. In the present study we report on the solution structure and dynamics of an ACP domain excised from MLSA2, module 9 of the PKS system that constructs the macrolactone ring of the toxin mycolactone, cause of the tropical disease Buruli ulcer. After modification of apo ACP with 4'-phosphopantetheine (Ppant) to create the holo form, (15)N nuclear spin relaxation and paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) experiments suggest that the prosthetic group swings freely. The minimal chemical shift perturbations displayed by Ppant-attached C3 and C4 acyl chains imply that these substrate-mimics remain exposed to solvent at the end of a flexible Ppant arm. By contrast, hexanoyl and octanoyl chains yield much larger chemical shift perturbations, indicating that they interact with the surface of the domain. The solution structure of octanoyl-ACP shows the Ppant arm bending to allow the acyl chain to nestle into a nonpolar pocket, whereas the prosthetic group itself remains largely solvent exposed. Although the highly reduced octanoyl group is not a natural substrate for the ACP from MLSA2, similar presentation modes would permit partner enzyme domains to recognize an acyl group while it is bound to the surface of its carrier protein, allowing simultaneous interactions with both the substrate and the ACP. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Transgenic rice seed expressing flavonoid biosynthetic genes accumulate glycosylated and/or acylated flavonoids in protein bodies.

    PubMed

    Ogo, Yuko; Mori, Tetsuya; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Saito, Kazuki; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Plant-specialized (or secondary) metabolites represent an important source of high-value chemicals. In order to generate a new production platform for these metabolites, an attempt was made to produce flavonoids in rice seeds. Metabolome analysis of these transgenic rice seeds using liquid chromatography-photodiode array-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was performed. A total of 4392 peaks were detected in both transgenic and non-transgenic rice, 20-40% of which were only detected in transgenic rice. Among these, 82 flavonoids, including 37 flavonols, 11 isoflavones, and 34 flavones, were chemically assigned. Most of the flavonols and isoflavones were O-glycosylated, while many flavones were O-glycosylated and/or C-glycosylated. Several flavonoids were acylated with malonyl, feruloyl, acetyl, and coumaroyl groups. These glycosylated/acylated flavonoids are thought to have been biosynthesized by endogenous rice enzymes using newly synthesized flavonoids whose biosynthesis was catalysed by exogenous enzymes. The subcellular localization of the flavonoids differed depending on the class of aglycone and the glycosylation/acylation pattern. Therefore, flavonoids with the intended aglycones were efficiently produced in rice seeds via the exogenous enzymes introduced, while the flavonoids were variously glycosylated/acylated by endogenous enzymes. The results suggest that rice seeds are useful not only as a production platform for plant-specialized metabolites such as flavonoids but also as a tool for expanding the diversity of flavonoid structures, providing novel, physiologically active substances.

  8. Ricinus communis contains and acyl-CoA synthetase that preferentially activates ricinoleate to its CoA thioester

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As part of our effort to identify enzymes that are critical for producing large amounts of ricinoleate in castor oil, we have isolated three cDNAs encoding acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) in the castor plant. Analysis of the cDNA sequences reveals that two of them, designated RcACS 2 and RcACS 4, contain...

  9. Biosynthesis of gallotannins: formation of polygalloylglucoses by enzymatic acylation of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloylglucose.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, A S; Gross, G G

    1990-12-01

    Enzyme preparations from leaves of Rhus typhina L. (sumach) catalyzed the galloylation of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose in the presence of the acyl donor beta-glucogallin (1-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose), yielding a variety of oligomeric gallotannins (hexa- to nonagalloylglucoses) as reaction products.

  10. Transgenic rice seed expressing flavonoid biosynthetic genes accumulate glycosylated and/or acylated flavonoids in protein bodies

    PubMed Central

    Ogo, Yuko; Mori, Tetsuya; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Saito, Kazuki; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Plant-specialized (or secondary) metabolites represent an important source of high-value chemicals. In order to generate a new production platform for these metabolites, an attempt was made to produce flavonoids in rice seeds. Metabolome analysis of these transgenic rice seeds using liquid chromatography-photodiode array-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was performed. A total of 4392 peaks were detected in both transgenic and non-transgenic rice, 20–40% of which were only detected in transgenic rice. Among these, 82 flavonoids, including 37 flavonols, 11 isoflavones, and 34 flavones, were chemically assigned. Most of the flavonols and isoflavones were O-glycosylated, while many flavones were O-glycosylated and/or C-glycosylated. Several flavonoids were acylated with malonyl, feruloyl, acetyl, and coumaroyl groups. These glycosylated/acylated flavonoids are thought to have been biosynthesized by endogenous rice enzymes using newly synthesized flavonoids whose biosynthesis was catalysed by exogenous enzymes. The subcellular localization of the flavonoids differed depending on the class of aglycone and the glycosylation/acylation pattern. Therefore, flavonoids with the intended aglycones were efficiently produced in rice seeds via the exogenous enzymes introduced, while the flavonoids were variously glycosylated/acylated by endogenous enzymes. The results suggest that rice seeds are useful not only as a production platform for plant-specialized metabolites such as flavonoids but also as a tool for expanding the diversity of flavonoid structures, providing novel, physiologically active substances. PMID:26438413

  11. Acylation in trypanosomatids: an essential process and potential drug target

    PubMed Central

    Goldston, Amanda M.; Sharma, Aabha I.; Paul, Kimberly S.; Engman, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acylation—the addition of fatty acid moieties such as myristate and palmitate to proteins—is essential for the survival, growth, and infectivity of the trypanosomatids: Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania. Myristoylation and palmitoylation are critical for parasite growth, targeting and localization, and the intrinsic function of some proteins. The trypanosomatids possess a single N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) and multiple palmitoyl acyltransferases, and these enzymes and their cellular targets are only now being characterized. Global inhibition of either process leads to cell death in trypanosomatids, and genetic ablation of NMT compromises virulence. Moreover, NMT inhibitors effectively cure T. brucei infection in rodents. Thus, protein acylation represents an attractive target for the development of trypanocidal drugs. PMID:24954795

  12. Intestinal Parasitoses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagardere, Bernard; Dumburgier, Elisabeth

    1994-01-01

    Intestinal parasites have become a serious public health problem in tropical countries because of the climate and the difficulty of achieving efficient hygiene. The objectives of this journal issue are to increase awareness of the individual and collective repercussions of intestinal parasites, describe the current conditions of contamination and…

  13. Acyl anion free N-heterocyclic carbene organocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Sarah J; Candish, Lisa; Lupton, David W

    2013-06-21

    Reaction discovery using N-heterocyclic carbene organocatalysis has been dominated by the chemistry of acyl anion equivalents. Recent studies demonstrate that NHCs are far more diverse catalysts, with a variety of reactions discovered that proceed without acyl anion equivalent formation. In this tutorial review selected examples of acyl anion free NHC catalysis using carbonyl compounds are presented.

  14. Lip1p: a novel subunit of acyl-CoA ceramide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Vallée, Béatrice; Riezman, Howard

    2005-01-01

    Ceramide plays a crucial role as a basic building block of sphingolipids, but also as a signalling molecule mediating the fate of the cell. Although Lac1p and Lag1p have been shown recently to be involved in acyl-CoA-dependent ceramide synthesis, ceramide synthase is still poorly characterized. In this study, we expressed tagged versions of Lac1p and Lag1p and purified them to near homogeneity. They copurified with ceramide synthase activity, giving unequivocal evidence that they are subunits of the enzyme. In purified form, the acyl-CoA dependence, fatty acyl-CoA chain length specificity, and Fumonisin B1/Australifungin sensitivity of the ceramide synthase were the same as in cells, showing that these are properties of the enzyme and do not depend upon the membrane environment or other factors. SDS–PAGE analysis of purified ceramide synthase revealed the presence of a novel subunit of the enzyme, Lip1p. Lip1p is a single-span ER membrane protein that is required for ceramide synthesis in vivo and in vitro. The Lip1p regions required for ceramide synthesis are localized within the ER membrane or lumen. PMID:15692566

  15. DGAT enzymes and triacylglycerol biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Stone, Scot J.; Koliwad, Suneil; Harris, Charles; Farese, Robert V.

    2008-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (triglycerides) (TGs) are the major storage molecules of metabolic energy and FAs in most living organisms. Excessive accumulation of TGs, however, is associated with human diseases, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and steatohepatitis. The final and the only committed step in the biosynthesis of TGs is catalyzed by acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes. The genes encoding two DGAT enzymes, DGAT1 and DGAT2, were identified in the past decade, and the use of molecular tools, including mice deficient in either enzyme, has shed light on their functions. Although DGAT enzymes are involved in TG synthesis, they have distinct protein sequences and differ in their biochemical, cellular, and physiological functions. Both enzymes may be useful as therapeutic targets for diseases. Here we review the current knowledge of DGAT enzymes, focusing on new advances since the cloning of their genes, including possible roles in human health and diseases. PMID:18757836

  16. Functional reconstitution of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis long-chain acyl-CoA carboxylase from multiple acyl-CoA subunits.

    PubMed

    Bazet Lyonnet, Bernardo; Diacovich, Lautaro; Gago, Gabriela; Spina, Lucie; Bardou, Fabienne; Lemassu, Anne; Quémard, Annaïk; Gramajo, Hugo

    2017-02-21

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces a large number of structurally diverse lipids that have been implicated in the pathogenicity, persistence and antibiotic resistance of this organism. Most building blocks involved in the biosynthesis of all these lipids are generated by acyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCase) whose subunit composition and physiological roles have not yet been clearly established. A rather controversial data in the literature refers to the exact protein composition and substrate specificity of the enzyme complex that produces the long-chain α-carboxy-acyl-CoAs; one of the substrates involved in the last step of condensation mediated by the polyketide synthase Pks13 to synthesize mature mycolic acids. Here we have successfully reconstituted the so called long-chain acyl-CoA carboxylase complex (LCC) from its purified components: the α-subunit AccA3, the ε-subunit AccE5 and the two β-subunits AccD4 and AccD5, and demonstrated that the four subunits are essential for its LCC activity. Furthermore, we also showed by substrate competition experiments and the use of a specific inhibitor of the AccD5 subunit, that its role in the carboxylation of the long acyl-CoAs, as part of the LCC complex, was structural rather than catalytic. Moreover, AccD5 was also able to carboxylate its natural substrates, acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA, in the context of the LCC enzyme complex. Thus, the supercomplex formed by these four subunits has the potential to generate the main substrates, malonyl-CoA, methylmalonyl-CoA and α-carboxy-C24-26 -CoA, used as condensing units for the biosynthesis of all the lipids present in this pathogen. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Acyl-homoserine lactones suppresses IEC-6 cell proliferation and increase permeability of isolated rat colon.

    PubMed

    Joe, Ga-Hyun; Andoh, Midori; Nomura, Mikako; Iwaya, Hitoshi; Lee, Jae-Sung; Shimizu, Hidehisa; Tsuji, Youhei; Maseda, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Hara, Hiroshi; Ishizuka, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated to determine whether a variety of acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) influences epithelial cell proliferation and mucosal permeability. 3-Oxo-C12-homoserine lactone (HSL) and 3-oxo-C14-HSL significantly suppressed IEC-6 cell proliferation. A significant increase in mucosal permeability was observed in isolated rat colon tissue exposed to C12-HSL, 3-oxo-C12-HSL, and 3-oxo-C14-HSL. These data indicate that AHLs suppress epithelial proliferation and disrupt barrier function in intestinal mucosa.

  18. Synthesis and mass spectrometry of 1-acyl and 3-acyl-sn-glycerol carbonates.

    PubMed

    Oehlenschläger, J; Gercken, G

    1978-08-01

    sn-Glycerol-1,2-carbonate was prepared fromD-serine,sn-glycerol-2,3-carbonate fromL-serine, via 1-0- or 3-0-benzyl-sn-glycerol, respectively.sn-Glycerol-2,3-carbonate was also prepared fromD-mannitol orD-serine following thesn-glycerol-3-β,β,β-trichloroethylcarbonate route.sn-Glycerol-1,2-carbonate andsn-glycerol-2,3-carbonate were acylated with saturated and unsaturated fatty acid chlorides to form 3-acyl-sn-glycerol-1,2-carbonates and 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-2,3-carbonates, respectively. The mass spectra of the enantiomeric monoacyl-sn-glycerol carbonates showed molecular ions and acyl cations (RCO(+)) of high intensity. The heterocyclic dioxolan-2-one ring was remarkably stable during electron impact.

  19. Acylated pregnane glycosides from Caralluma russeliana.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Sattar, Essam; Ahmed, Ahmed A; Hegazy, Mohamed-Elamir F; Farag, Mohamed A; Al-Yahya, Mohammad Abdul-Aziz

    2007-05-01

    The chloroform extract of the aerial parts of Caralluma russeliana yielded four acylated pregnane glycosides, namely russeliosides E-H, three were found now. The structures of the compounds were elucidated using MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY, HMQC, NOESY and HMBC experiments.

  20. Expanding the Reader Landscape of Histone Acylation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abid; Bridgers, Joseph B; Strahl, Brian D

    2017-04-04

    In this issue of Structure,Klein et al. (2017) expand our understanding of what reader domains bind to by showing that MORF, a double PHD domain containing lysine acetyltransferase, is a preferential reader of histone lysine acylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High acyl gellan as an emulsion stabilizer.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Joice Aline Pires; da Cunha, Rosiane Lopes

    2016-03-30

    High acyl gellan (0.01-0.2% w/w) was used as stabilizer in oil in water emulsions containing 30% (w/w) of sunflower oil and prepared under different process conditions. Stable emulsions to phase separation could be obtained using high acyl gellan (HA) content above 0.05% (w/w), while low acyl gellan (LA) prepared at the same conditions could not stabilize emulsions. Emulsions properties depended on the process used to mix the oil and gellan dispersion since high pressure homogenization favored stabilization while very high energy density applied by ultrasound led to systems destabilization. Emulsions prepared using high pressure homogenization showed zeta potential values ranging from -50 up to -59 mV, suggesting that electrostatic repulsion could be contributing to the systems stability. Rheological properties of continuous phase were also responsible for emulsions stabilization, since HA gellan dispersions showed high viscosity and gel-like behavior. The high viscosity of the continuous phase could be associated to the presence of high acyl gellan microgels/aggregates. Disentanglement of these aggregates performed by ultrasound strongly decreased the viscosity and consequently affected the emulsions behavior, reducing the stability to phase separation.

  2. Crystal structures of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase from pig liver mitochondria with and without substrate.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J J; Wang, M; Paschke, R

    1993-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase from pig mitochondria in the native form and that of a complex of the enzyme and a substrate (product) have been solved and refined by x-ray crystallographic methods at 2.4-A resolution to R factors of 0.172 and 0.173, respectively. The overall polypeptide folding and the quaternary structure of the tetramer are essentially unchanged upon binding of the ligand, octanoyl (octenoyl)-CoA. The ligand binds to the enzyme at the rectus (re) face of the FAD in the crevice between the two alpha-helix domains and the beta-sheet domain of the enzyme. The fatty acyl chain of the thioester substrate is buried inside of the polypeptide and the 3'-AMP moiety is close to the surface of the tetrameric enzyme molecule. The alkyl chain displaces the tightly bound water molecules found in the native enzyme and the carbonyl oxygen of the thioester interacts with the ribityl 2'-hydroxyl group of the FAD and the main-chain carbonyl oxygen of Glu-376. The C alpha--C beta of the fatty acyl moiety lies between the flavin and the gamma-carboxylate of Glu-376, supporting the role of Glu-376 as the base that abstracts the alpha proton in the alpha--beta dehydrogenation reaction catalyzed by the enzyme. Trp-166 and Met-165 are located at the sinister (si) side of the flavin ring at the surface of the enzyme, suggesting that they might be involved in the interactions with electron transferring flavoprotein. Lys-304, the prevalent mutation site found in patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, is located approximately 20 A away from the active site of the enzyme. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8356049

  3. Structure of YciA from Haemophilus influenzae (HI0827), a Hexameric Broad Specificity Acyl-Coenzyme A Thioesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, Mark A.; Zhuang, Zhihao; Song, Feng; Howard, Andrew; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Herzberg, Osnat

    2008-04-02

    The crystal structure of HI0827 from Haemophilus influenzae Rd KW20, initially annotated 'hypothetical protein' in sequence databases, exhibits an acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) thioesterase 'hot dog' fold with a trimer of dimers oligomeric association, a novel assembly for this enzyme family. In studies described in the preceding paper [Zhuang, Z., Song, F., Zhao, H., Li, L., Cao, J., Eisenstein, E., Herzberg, O., and Dunaway-Mariano, D. (2008) Biochemistry 47, 2789-2796], HI0827 is shown to be an acyl-CoA thioesterase that acts on a wide range of acyl-CoA compounds. Two substrate binding sites are located across the dimer interface. The binding sites are occupied by two CoA molecules, one with full occupancy and the second only partially occupied. The CoA molecules, acquired from HI0827-expressing Escherichia coli cells, remained tightly bound to the enzyme through the protein purification steps. The difference in CoA occupancies indicates a different substrate affinity for each of the binding sites, which in turn implies that the enzyme might be subject to allosteric regulation. Mutagenesis studies have shown that the replacement of the putative catalytic carboxylate Asp44 with an alanine residue abolishes activity. The impact of this mutation is seen in the crystal structure of D44A HI0827. Whereas the overall fold and assembly of the mutant protein are the same as those of the wild-type enzyme, the CoA ligands are absent. The dimer interface is perturbed, and the channel that accommodates the thioester acyl chain is more open and wider than that observed in the wild-type enzyme. A model of intact substrate bound to wild-type HI0827 provides a structural rationale for the broad substrate range.

  4. Degradation of endogenous bacterial cell wall polymers by the muralytic enzyme mutanolysin prevents hepatobiliary injury in genetically susceptible rats with experimental intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed Central

    Lichtman, S N; Okoruwa, E E; Keku, J; Schwab, J H; Sartor, R B

    1992-01-01

    Jejunal self-filling blind loops with subsequent small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO) induce hepatobiliary injury in genetically susceptible Lewis rats. Lesions consist of portal tract inflammation, bile duct proliferation, and destruction. To determine the pathogenesis of SBBO-induced hepatobiliary injury, we treated Lewis rats with SBBO by using several agents with different mechanisms of activity. Buffer treatment, ursodeoxycholic acid, prednisone, methotrexate, and cyclosporin A failed to prevent SBBO-induced injury as demonstrated by increased plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and elevated histology scores. However, hepatic injury was prevented by mutanolysin, a muralytic enzyme whose only known activity is to split the beta 1-4 N-acetylmuramyl-N-acetylglucosamine linkage of peptidoglycan-polysaccharide (PG-PS), a bacterial cell wall polymer with potent inflammatory and immunoregulatory properties. Mutanolysin therapy started on the day blind loops were surgically created and continued for 8 wk significantly diminished AST (101 +/- 37 U/liter) and liver histology scores (2.2 +/- 2.7) compared to buffer-treated rats (228 +/- 146 U/liter, P < 0.05, 8.2 +/- 1.9, P < 0.001 respectively). Mutanolysin treatment started during the early phase of hepatic injury, 16-21 d after surgery, decreased AST in 7 of 11 rats from 142 +/- 80 to 103 +/- 24 U/liter contrasted to increased AST in 9 of 11 buffer-treated rats from 108 +/- 52 to 247 +/- 142 U/liter, P < 0.05. Mutanolysin did not change total bacterial numbers within the loop, eliminate Bacteroides sp., have in vitro antibiotic effects, or diminish mucosal PG-PS transport. However, mutanolysin treatment prevented elevation of plasma anti-PG antibodies and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) levels which occurred in buffer treated rats with SBBO and decreased TNF alpha production in isolated Kupffer cells stimulated in vitro with PG-PS. Based on the preventive and therapeutic activity of this highly specific

  5. Acylation of the Type 3 Secretion System Translocon Using a Dedicated Acyl Carrier Protein

    PubMed Central

    Agrebi, Rym; Canestrari, Mickaël J.; Mignot, Tâm; Lebrun, Régine; Bouveret, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens often deliver effectors into host cells using type 3 secretion systems (T3SS), the extremity of which forms a translocon that perforates the host plasma membrane. The T3SS encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) is genetically associated with an acyl carrier protein, IacP, whose role has remained enigmatic. In this study, using tandem affinity purification, we identify a direct protein-protein interaction between IacP and the translocon protein SipB. We show, by mass spectrometry and radiolabelling, that SipB is acylated, which provides evidence for a modification of the translocon that has not been described before. A unique and conserved cysteine residue of SipB is identified as crucial for this modification. Although acylation of SipB was not essential to virulence, we show that this posttranslational modification promoted SipB insertion into host-cell membranes and pore-forming activity linked to the SPI-1 T3SS. Cooccurrence of acyl carrier and translocon proteins in several γ- and β-proteobacteria suggests that acylation of the translocon is conserved in these other pathogenic bacteria. These results also indicate that acyl carrier proteins, known for their involvement in metabolic pathways, have also evolved as cofactors of new bacterial protein lipidation pathways. PMID:28085879

  6. Molar absorptivity and color characteristics of acylated and non-acylated pelargonidin-based anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Giusti, M M; Rodríguez-Saona, L E; Wrolstad, R E

    1999-11-01

    The effects of glycosylation and acylation on the spectral characteristics, molar absorptivity, and color attributes of purified acylated and non-acylated pelargonidin derivatives were compared. Pigments were obtained from strawberries, radishes, red-fleshed potatoes, and partially hydrolyzed radish pigments. Individual pigments were isolated by using semipreparative HPLC. Spectral and color (CIELch) attributes of purified pigments were measured. Molar absorptivity ranged from 15 600 to 39 590 for pelargonidin-3-glucoside (pg-3-glu) and pg-3-rutinoside-5-glucoside acylated with p-coumaric acid, respectively. The presence of cinnamic acid acylation had a considerable impact on spectral and color characteristics, causing a bathochromic shift of lambda(max). Sugar substitution also played an important role, with a hypsochromic shift caused by the presence of glycosylation. Pg-3, 5-diglu and pg-3,5-triglu possessed a higher hue angle (>40 degrees ) than the other pg derivatives at pH 1.0, corresponding to the yellow-orange region of the color solid. Acylation with malonic acid did not affect lambda(max) and showed little effect on color characteristics. The solvent system had an effect not only on the molar absorptivity, but also on the visual color characteristic of the pigments.

  7. The peroxisome proliferator-induced cytosolic type I acyl-CoA thioesterase (CTE-I) is a serine-histidine-aspartic acid alpha /beta hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Huhtinen, Kaisa; O'Byrne, James; Lindquist, Per J G; Contreras, Juan A; Alexson, Stefan E H

    2002-02-01

    Long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterases hydrolyze long-chain acyl-CoAs to the corresponding free fatty acid and CoASH and may therefore play important roles in regulation of lipid metabolism. We have recently cloned four members of a highly conserved acyl-CoA thioesterase multigene family expressed in cytosol (CTE-I), mitochondria (MTE-I), and peroxisomes (PTE-Ia and -Ib), all of which are regulated via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (Hunt, M. C., Nousiainen, S. E. B., Huttunen, M. K., Orii, K. E., Svensson, L. T., and Alexson, S. E. H. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 34317-34326). Sequence comparison revealed the presence of putative active-site serine motifs (GXSXG) in all four acyl-CoA thioesterases. In the present study we have expressed CTE-I in Escherichia coli and characterized the recombinant protein with respect to sensitivity to various amino acid reactive compounds. The recombinant CTE-I was inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and diethyl pyrocarbonate, suggesting the involvement of serine and histidine residues for the activity. Extensive sequence analysis pinpointed Ser(232), Asp(324), and His(358) as the likely components of a catalytic triad, and site-directed mutagenesis verified the importance of these residues for the catalytic activity. A S232C mutant retained about 2% of the wild type activity and incubation with (14)C-palmitoyl-CoA strongly labeled this mutant protein, in contrast to wild-type enzyme, indicating that deacylation of the acyl-enzyme intermediate becomes rate-limiting in this mutant protein. These data are discussed in relation to the structure/function of acyl-CoA thioesterases versus acyltransferases. Furthermore, kinetic characterization of recombinant CTE-I showed that this enzyme appears to be a true acyl-CoA thioesterase being highly specific for C(12)-C(20) acyl-CoAs.

  8. Peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, P A; Chen, W W; Harris, C J; Hoefler, G; Hoefler, S; Blake, D C; Balfe, A; Kelley, R I; Moser, A B; Beard, M E

    1989-01-01

    Peroxisomal function was evaluated in a male infant with clinical features of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy. Very long chain fatty acid levels were elevated in both plasma and fibroblasts, and beta-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids in cultured fibroblasts was significantly impaired. Although the level of the bile acid intermediate trihydroxycoprostanoic acid was slightly elevated in plasma, phytanic acid and L-pipecolic acid levels were normal, as was plasmalogen synthesis in cultured fibroblasts. The latter three parameters distinguish this case from classical neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy. In addition, electron microscopy and catalase subcellular distribution studies revealed that, in contrast to neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy, peroxisomes were present in the patient's tissues. Immunoblot studies of peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes revealed that the bifunctional enzyme (enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) was deficient in postmortem liver samples, whereas acyl-CoA oxidase and the mature form of beta-ketothiolase were present. Density gradient centrifugation of fibroblast homogenates confirmed that intact peroxisomes were present. Immunoblots of fibroblasts peroxisomal fractions showed that they contained acyl-CoA oxidase and beta-ketothiolase, but bifunctional enzyme was not detected. Northern analysis, however, revealed that mRNA coding for the bifunctional enzyme was present in the patient's fibroblasts. These results indicate that the primary biochemical defect in this patient is a deficiency of peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme. It is of interest that the phenotype of this patient resembled neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy and would not have been distinguished from this disorder by clinical study alone. Images PMID:2921319

  9. A severe genotype with favourable outcome in very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Touma, E; Rashed, M; Vianey-Saban, C; Sakr, A; Divry, P; Gregersen, N; Andresen, B

    2001-01-01

    A patient with very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is reported. He had a severe neonatal presentation and cardiomyopathy. He was found to be homozygous for a severe mutation with no residual enzyme activity. Tandem mass spectrometry on dried blood spots revealed increased long chain acylcarnitines. VLCAD enzyme activity was severely decreased to 2% of control levels. Dietary management consisted of skimmed milk supplemented with medium chain triglycerides and L-carnitine. Outcome was good and there was no acute recurrence.

 PMID:11124787

  10. Mechanisms involved in the intestinal absorption of dietary vitamin A and provitamin A carotenoids☆

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Earl H.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin A is an essential nutrient for humans and is converted to the visual chromophore, 11-cis-retinal, and to the hormone, retinoic acid. Vitamin A in animal-derived foods is found as long chain acyl esters of retinol and these are digested to free fatty acids and retinol before uptake by the intestinal mucosal cell. The retinol is then reesterified to retinyl esters for incorporation into chlylomicrons and absorbed via the lymphatics or effluxed into the portal circulation facilitated by the lipid transporter, ABCA1. Provitamin A carotenoids such as β-carotene are found in plant-derived foods. These and other carotenoids are transported into the mucosal cell by scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Provitamin A carotenoids are partly converted to retinol by oxygenase and reductase enzymes and the retinol so produced is available for absorption via the two pathways described above. The efficiency of vitamin A and carotenoid intestinal absorption is determined by the regulation of a number of proteins involved in the process. Polymorphisms in genes for these proteins lead to individual variability in the metabolism and transport of vitamin A and carotenoids. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Retinoid and Lipid Metabolism. PMID:21718801

  11. Identification and characterization of a fatty acyl reductase from a Spodoptera littoralis female gland involved in pheromone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Carot-Sans, G; Muñoz, L; Piulachs, M D; Guerrero, A; Rosell, G

    2015-02-01

    Fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FARs), the enzymes that catalyse reduction of a fatty acyl-CoA to the corresponding alcohol in insect pheromone biosynthesis, are postulated to play an important role in determining the proportion of each component in the pheromone blend. For the first time, we have isolated and characterized from the Egyptian cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) a FAR cDNA (Slit-FAR1), which appeared to be expressed only in the pheromone gland and was undetectable in other female tissues, such as fat body, ovaries, wings, legs or thorax. The encoded protein has been successfully expressed in a recombinant system, and the recombinant enzyme is able to produce the intermediate fatty acid alcohols of the pheromone biosynthesis of S. littoralis from the corresponding acyl-CoA precursors. The kinetic variables Km and Vmax, which have been calculated for each acyl-CoA pheromone precursor, suggest that in S. littoralis pheromone biosynthesis other biosynthetic enzymes (e.g. desaturases, acetyl transferase) should also contribute to the final ratio of components of the pheromone blend. In a phylogenetic analysis, Slit-FAR1 appeared grouped in a cluster of other FARs involved in the pheromone biosynthesis of other insects, with little or non-specificity for the natural pheromone precursors.

  12. Intestinal Ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... and hormone medications, such as estrogen Cocaine or methamphetamine use Vigorous exercise, such as long-distance running ... anti-phospholipid syndrome. Illegal drug use. Cocaine and methamphetamine use have been linked to intestinal ischemia. Complications ...

  13. Head-group acylation of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol is a common stress response, and the acyl-galactose acyl composition varies with the plant species and applied stress.

    PubMed

    Vu, Hieu Sy; Roth, Mary R; Tamura, Pamela; Samarakoon, Thilani; Shiva, Sunitha; Honey, Samuel; Lowe, Kaleb; Schmelz, Eric A; Williams, Todd D; Welti, Ruth

    2014-04-01

    Formation of galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols has been shown to be induced by leaf homogenization, mechanical wounding, avirulent bacterial infection and thawing after snap-freezing. Here, lipidomic analysis using mass spectrometry showed that galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols, formed in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves upon wounding, have acyl-galactose profiles that differ from those of wounded Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating that different plant species accumulate different acyl-galactose components in response to the same stress. Additionally, the composition of the acyl-galactose component of Arabidopsis acMGDG (galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerol) depends on the stress treatment. After sub-lethal freezing treatment, acMGDG contained mainly non-oxidized fatty acids esterified to galactose, whereas mostly oxidized fatty acids accumulated on galactose after wounding or bacterial infection. Compositional data are consistent with acMGDG being formed in vivo by transacylation with fatty acids from digalactosyldiacylglycerols. Oxophytodienoic acid, an oxidized fatty acid, was more concentrated on the galactosyl ring of acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols than in galactolipids in general. Also, oxidized fatty acid-containing acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols increased cumulatively when wounded Arabidopsis leaves were wounded again. These findings suggest that, in Arabidopsis, the pool of galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols may serve to sequester oxidized fatty acids during stress responses.

  14. Intestinal Capillariasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    bhIll inenais, the tiny nematode causing Intestinal capillariasis In humans, Is a Iunique parasite. It is one of the newest parasites that has been...Capillariaphilippinensis, the tiny nematode causing intestinal capillariasis in humans, is a unique parasite. It is one of the newest parasites that has been shown to...stichocytes surrounding the oesophagus. The posterior half of the nematode is wider than the anterior half and contains the digestive tract and the

  15. Individual S-acylated cysteines differentially contribute to H-Ras endomembrane trafficking and acylation/deacylation cycles

    PubMed Central

    Pedro, Maria P.; Vilcaes, Aldo A.; Gomez, Guillermo A.; Daniotti, Jose L.

    2017-01-01

    S-acylation/deacylation cycles and vesicular transport are critical for an adequate subcellular distribution of S-acylated Ras proteins. H-Ras is dually acylated on cysteines 181 and 184, but it is unknown how these residues individually contribute to H-Ras trafficking. In this study, we characterized the acylation and deacylation rates and membrane trafficking of monoacylated H-Ras mutants to analyze their contributions to H-Ras plasma membrane and endomembrane distribution. We demonstrated that dually acylated H-Ras interacts with acyl-protein thioesterases (APTs) 1 and 2 at the plasma membrane. Moreover, single-acylation mutants of H-Ras differed not only in their subcellular distribution, where both proteins localized to different extents at both the Golgi complex and plasma membrane, but also in their deacylation rates, which we showed to be due to different sensitivities to APT1 and APT2. Fluorescence photobleaching and photoactivation experiments also revealed that 1) although S-acylated, single-acylation mutants are incorporated with different efficiencies into Golgi complex to plasma membrane vesicular carriers, and 2) the different deacylation rates of single-acylated H-Ras influence differentially its overall exchange between different compartments by nonvesicular transport. Taken together, our results show that individual S-acylation sites provide singular information about H-Ras subcellular distribution that is required for GTPase signaling. PMID:28179458

  16. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the mouse brain cytosolic long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase

    PubMed Central

    Serek, Robert; Forwood, Jade K.; Hume, David A.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Kobe, Bostjan

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase, the enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs to free fatty acids, contains two fused 4HBT (4-­hydroxybenzoyl-CoA thioesterase) motifs. The C-terminal domain of the mouse long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase (Acot7) has been expressed in bacteria and crystallized. The crystals were obtained by vapour diffusion using PEG 2000 MME as precipitant at pH 7.0 and 290 K. The crystals have the symmetry of space group R32 (unit-cell parameters a = b = 136.83, c = 99.82 Å, γ = 120°). Two molecules are expected in the asymmetric unit. The crystals diffract to 2.4 Å resolution using the laboratory X-ray source and are suitable for crystal structure determination. PMID:16511283

  17. Characterization of acyl-ACP thioesterases of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) seed and high levels of stearate production in transgenic canola.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, D J; Kridl, J C

    1998-03-01

    Acyl-acyl-carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases are, at least in part, responsible for the fatty acyl chain length composition of seed storage oils. Acyl-ACP thioesterases with specificity for each of the saturated acyl-ACP substrates from 8:0 through 16:0 have been cloned, with the exception of 18:0, and are members of the FatB class of thioesterases. The authors have determined that the tropical tree species mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) stores 18:0 (stearate) in its seed oil in amounts of up to 56% by weight. Acyl-ACP thioesterase activity as measured in crude mangosteen seed extracts showed a preference for 18:1-ACP substrates, but had significant activity with 18:0 relative to that with 16:0-ACP, suggesting a thioesterase might be involved in the production of stearate. Three distinct acyl-ACP thioesterases were cloned from mangosteen seed cDNA; two representative of the FatA class and one representative of the FatB class. When expressed in vitro, the enzyme encoded by one of the FatAs (Garm FatA1) while preferring 18:1-ACP showed relatively low activity with 16:0-ACP as compared to 18:0-ACP, similar to the substrate preferences shown by the crude seed extract. Expression of Garm FatA1 in Brassica seeds led to the accumulation of stearate up to 22% in seed oil. These results suggest that Garm FatA1 is at least partially responsible for determining the high stearate composition of mangosteen seed oil and that FatA as well FatB thioesterases have evolved for specialized roles.

  18. Kinetic and Structural Basis for Acyl-Group Selectivity and NAD(+) Dependence in Sirtuin-Catalyzed Deacylation.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Jessica L; Dittenhafer-Reed, Kristin E; Kudo, Norio; Thelen, Julie N; Ito, Akihiro; Yoshida, Minoru; Denu, John M

    2015-05-19

    Acylation of lysine is an important protein modification regulating diverse biological processes. It was recently demonstrated that members of the human Sirtuin family are capable of catalyzing long chain deacylation, in addition to the well-known NAD(+)-dependent deacetylation activity [Feldman, J. L., Baeza, J., and Denu, J. M. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288, 31350-31356]. Here we provide a detailed kinetic and structural analysis that describes the interdependence of NAD(+)-binding and acyl-group selectivity for a diverse series of human Sirtuins, SIRT1-SIRT3 and SIRT6. Steady-state and rapid-quench kinetic analyses indicated that differences in NAD(+) saturation and susceptibility to nicotinamide inhibition reflect unique kinetic behavior displayed by each Sirtuin and depend on acyl substrate chain length. Though the rate of nucleophilic attack of the 2'-hydroxyl on the C1'-O-alkylimidate intermediate varies with acyl substrate chain length, this step remains rate-determining for SIRT2 and SIRT3; however, for SIRT6, this step is no longer rate-limiting for long chain substrates. Cocrystallization of SIRT2 with myristoylated peptide and NAD(+) yielded a co-complex structure with reaction product 2'-O-myristoyl-ADP-ribose, revealing a latent hydrophobic cavity to accommodate the long chain acyl group, and suggesting a general mechanism for long chain deacylation. Comparing two separately determined co-complex structures containing either a myristoylated peptide or 2'-O-myristoyl-ADP-ribose indicates there are conformational changes at the myristoyl-ribose linkage with minimal structural differences in the enzyme active site. During the deacylation reaction, the fatty acyl group is held in a relatively fixed position. We describe a kinetic and structural model to explain how various Sirtuins display unique acyl substrate preferences and how different reaction kinetics influence NAD(+) dependence. The biological implications are discussed.

  19. Novel Strategies for Upstream and Downstream Processing of Tannin Acyl Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Durán, Luis V.; Valdivia-Urdiales, Blanca; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C.; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal N.

    2011-01-01

    Tannin acyl hydrolase also referred as tannase is an enzyme with important applications in several science and technology fields. Due to its hydrolytic and synthetic properties, tannase could be used to reduce the negative effects of tannins in beverages, food, feed, and tannery effluents, for the production of gallic acid from tannin-rich materials, the elucidation of tannin structure, and the synthesis of gallic acid esters in nonaqueous media. However, industrial applications of tannase are still very limited due to its high production cost. Thus, there is a growing interest in the production, recovery, and purification of this enzyme. Recently, there have been published a number of papers on the improvement of upstream and downstream processing of the enzyme. These papers dealt with the search for new tannase producing microorganisms, the application of novel fermentation systems, optimization of culture conditions, the production of the enzyme by recombinant microorganism, and the design of efficient protocols for tannase recovery and purification. The present work reviews the state of the art of basic and biotechnological aspects of tannin acyl hydrolase, focusing on the recent advances in the upstream and downstream processing of the enzyme. PMID:21941633

  20. Gallotannin biosynthesis: two new galloyltransferases from Rhus typhina leaves preferentially acylating hexa- and heptagalloylglucoses.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Brigitte; Niemetz, Ruth; Gross, Georg G

    2002-11-01

    Current enzyme studies on the biosynthesis of gallotannins with cell-free extracts from leaves of staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina L.) revealed the existence of two new beta-glucogallin-dependent galloyltransferases (EC 2.3.1.-) that preferentially catalyzed the acylation of hexa- and heptagalloylglucoses. One enzyme was most active with the hexagalloylglucose, 3-O-digalloyl-1,2,4,6-tetra-O-galloylglucose, to form the corresponding heptagalloylglucose, 3-O-trigalloyl-1,2,4,6-tetra-O-galloylglucose. This polyester, in turn, was the preferred substrate for a second enzyme that catalyzed its conversion to higher substituted derivatives. This latter enzyme also displayed considerable affinity towards 2-O-digalloyl-1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloylglucose which was acylated to various hepta- and octagalloylglucoses. These recent findings, together with data from earlier reported related enzymes, allowed the presentation of a scheme that summarizes the major transitions in the biogenetic routes from 1,2,3,4,6-pentagalloylglucose to complex gallotannins.

  1. Structural and Functional Studies of Fatty Acyl Adenylate Ligases from E. coli and L. pneumophila

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Swaminathan, S.; Zhou, R.; Sauder, J. M.; Tonge, P. J.; Burley, S. K.

    2011-02-18

    Fatty acyl-AMP ligase (FAAL) is a new member of a family of adenylate-forming enzymes that were recently discovered in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They are similar in sequence to fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) ligases (FACLs). However, while FACLs perform a two-step catalytic reaction, AMP ligation followed by CoA ligation using ATP and CoA as cofactors, FAALs produce only the acyl adenylate and are unable to perform the second step. We report X-ray crystal structures of full-length FAAL from Escherichia coli (EcFAAL) and FAAL from Legionella pneumophila (LpFAAL) bound to acyl adenylate, determined at resolution limits of 3.0 and 1.85 {angstrom}, respectively. The structures share a larger N-terminal domain and a smaller C-terminal domain, which together resemble the previously determined structures of FAAL and FACL proteins. Our two structures occur in quite different conformations. EcFAAL adopts the adenylate-forming conformation typical of FACLs, whereas LpFAAL exhibits a unique intermediate conformation. Both EcFAAL and LpFAAL have insertion motifs that distinguish them from the FACLs. Structures of EcFAAL and LpFAAL reveal detailed interactions between this insertion motif and the interdomain hinge region and with the C-terminal domain. We suggest that the insertion motifs support sufficient interdomain motions to allow substrate binding and product release during acyl adenylate formation, but they preclude CoA binding, thereby preventing CoA ligation.

  2. Structural and Functional Studies of Fatty Acyl Adenylate Ligases from E. coli and L. pneumophila

    SciTech Connect

    Z Zhang; R Zhou; J Sauder; P Tonge; S Burley; S Swaminathan

    2011-12-31

    Fatty acyl-AMP ligase (FAAL) is a new member of a family of adenylate-forming enzymes that were recently discovered in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They are similar in sequence to fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) ligases (FACLs). However, while FACLs perform a two-step catalytic reaction, AMP ligation followed by CoA ligation using ATP and CoA as cofactors, FAALs produce only the acyl adenylate and are unable to perform the second step. We report X-ray crystal structures of full-length FAAL from Escherichia coli (EcFAAL) and FAAL from Legionella pneumophila (LpFAAL) bound to acyl adenylate, determined at resolution limits of 3.0 and 1.85 {angstrom}, respectively. The structures share a larger N-terminal domain and a smaller C-terminal domain, which together resemble the previously determined structures of FAAL and FACL proteins. Our two structures occur in quite different conformations. EcFAAL adopts the adenylate-forming conformation typical of FACLs, whereas LpFAAL exhibits a unique intermediate conformation. Both EcFAAL and LpFAAL have insertion motifs that distinguish them from the FACLs. Structures of EcFAAL and LpFAAL reveal detailed interactions between this insertion motif and the interdomain hinge region and with the C-terminal domain. We suggest that the insertion motifs support sufficient interdomain motions to allow substrate binding and product release during acyl adenylate formation, but they preclude CoA binding, thereby preventing CoA ligation.

  3. The acylation of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate and the metabolism of phosphatidate in microsomal preparations from the developing cotyledons of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seed.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, G; Stobart, A K; Stymne, S

    1985-09-01

    Microsomal preparations from the developing cotyledons of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) catalysed the acylation of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate in the presence of acyl-CoA. The resulting phosphatidate was further utilized in the synthesis of diacyl- and tri-acylglycerol by the reactions of the so-called 'Kennedy pathway' [Kennedy (1961) Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 20, 934-940]. Diacylglycerol equilibrated with the phosphatidylcholine pool when glycerol backbone, with the associated acyl groups, flowed from phosphatidate to triacylglycerol. The formation of diacylglycerol from phosphatidate through the action of a phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (phosphatidase) was substantially inhibited by EDTA and, under these conditions, phosphatidate accumulated in the microsomal membranes. The inhibition of the phosphatidase by EDTA was alleviated by Mg2+. The presence of Mg2+ in all incubation mixtures stimulated quite considerably the synthesis of triacylglycerol in vitro. Microsomal preparations incubated with acyl-CoA, sn-glycerol 3-phosphate and EDTA synthesized sufficient phosphatidate for the reliable analysis of its intramolecular fatty acid distribution. In the presence of mixed acyl-CoA substrates the sn-glycerol 3-phosphate was acylated exclusively in position 1 with the saturated fatty acids, palmitate and stearate. The polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleate was, however, utilized largely in the acylation of position 2 of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. The affinity of the enzymes involved in the acylation of positions 1 and 2 of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate for specific species of acyl-CoA therefore governs the non-random distribution of the different acyl groups in the seed triacylglycerols. The acylation of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate in position 1 with saturated acyl components also accounts for the presence of these groups in position 1 of sn-phosphatidylcholine through the equilibration of diacylglycerol with the phosphatidylcholine pool, which occurs when phosphatidate

  4. The acylation of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate and the metabolism of phosphatidate in microsomal preparations from the developing cotyledons of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seed.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, G; Stobart, A K; Stymne, S

    1985-01-01

    Microsomal preparations from the developing cotyledons of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) catalysed the acylation of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate in the presence of acyl-CoA. The resulting phosphatidate was further utilized in the synthesis of diacyl- and tri-acylglycerol by the reactions of the so-called 'Kennedy pathway' [Kennedy (1961) Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 20, 934-940]. Diacylglycerol equilibrated with the phosphatidylcholine pool when glycerol backbone, with the associated acyl groups, flowed from phosphatidate to triacylglycerol. The formation of diacylglycerol from phosphatidate through the action of a phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (phosphatidase) was substantially inhibited by EDTA and, under these conditions, phosphatidate accumulated in the microsomal membranes. The inhibition of the phosphatidase by EDTA was alleviated by Mg2+. The presence of Mg2+ in all incubation mixtures stimulated quite considerably the synthesis of triacylglycerol in vitro. Microsomal preparations incubated with acyl-CoA, sn-glycerol 3-phosphate and EDTA synthesized sufficient phosphatidate for the reliable analysis of its intramolecular fatty acid distribution. In the presence of mixed acyl-CoA substrates the sn-glycerol 3-phosphate was acylated exclusively in position 1 with the saturated fatty acids, palmitate and stearate. The polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleate was, however, utilized largely in the acylation of position 2 of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. The affinity of the enzymes involved in the acylation of positions 1 and 2 of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate for specific species of acyl-CoA therefore governs the non-random distribution of the different acyl groups in the seed triacylglycerols. The acylation of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate in position 1 with saturated acyl components also accounts for the presence of these groups in position 1 of sn-phosphatidylcholine through the equilibration of diacylglycerol with the phosphatidylcholine pool, which occurs when phosphatidate

  5. Base- and acid-catalyzed interconversions of O-acyl- and N-acyl-ethanolamines: a cautionary note for lipid analyses.

    PubMed

    Markey, S P; Dudding, T; Wang, T C

    2000-04-01

    The isolation and quantification of ethanolamine containing lipids from animal tissues may expose neutral lipid extracts to acidic or basic conditions during chromatographic separations or derivatization chemistry. While investigating the acid- and base-catalyzed production of anandamide in chromatographic fractions of rat brain extracts not containing anandamide, we observed that O,N-acyl migrations are facile. O,N-acyl migrations are well documented in synthetic organic chemistry literature, but are not well described or recognized with regard to methods in lipid isolation or lipid enzyme studies. We report here the synthesis and characterization of O- and N-acyl (palmitoyl- or arachidonoyl-)ethanolamines. Their rearrangements in base and acid are quantified by liquid chromatography;-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The rearrangements proceed through a cyclic intermediate that is also formed during chemical reactions commonly used for derivatization of acylethanolamines for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The isolation and characterization of N- or O-acylethanolamines and their enzymatic formation requires awareness and consideration of the proclivity of these compounds to chemically rearrange.

  6. Fatty acid transport by vectorial acylation in mammals: roles played by different isoforms of rat long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fumin; Black, Paul N; Coleman, Rosalind A; DiRusso, Concetta C

    2006-03-01

    Mammals express multiple isoforms of acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL1 and ACSL3-6) in various tissues. These enzymes are essential for fatty acid metabolism providing activated intermediates for complex lipid synthesis, protein modification, and beta-oxidation. Yeast in contrast express four major ACSLs, which have well-defined functions. Two, Faa1p and Faa4p, are specifically required for fatty acid transport by vectorial acylation. Four ACSLs from the rat were expressed in a yeast faa1delta faa4delta strain and their roles in fatty acid transport and trafficking characterized. All four restored ACS activity yet varied in substrate preference. ACSL1, 4, and 6 were able to rescue fatty acid transport activity and triglyceride synthesis. ACSL5, however, was unable to facilitate fatty acid transport despite conferring robust oleoyl-CoA synthetase activity. This is the first study evaluating the role of the mammalian ACSLs in fatty acid transport and supports a role for ACSL1, 4, and 6 in transport by vectorial acylation.

  7. Stress-related alterations of acyl and desacyl ghrelin circulating levels: mechanisms and functional implications

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, Andreas; Wang, Lixin; Taché, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Ghrelin is the only known peripherally produced and centrally acting peptide hormone that stimulates food intake and digestive functions. Ghrelin circulates as acylated and desacylated forms and recently the acylating enzyme, ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) and the de-acylating enzyme, thioesterase 1/lysophospholipase 1 have been identified adding new layers of complexity to the regulation of ghrelin. Stress is known to alter gastrointestinal motility and food intake and was recently shown to modify circulating ghrelin and GOAT levels with differential responses related to the type of stressors including a reduction induced by physical stressors (abdominal surgery and immunological/endotoxin injection, exercise) and elevation by metabolic (cold exposure, fasting and caloric restriction) and psychological stressors. However, the pathways underlying the alterations of ghrelin under these various stress conditions are still largely to be defined and may relate to stress-associated autonomic changes. There is evidence that alterations of circulating ghrelin may contribute to the neuroendocrine and behavioral responses along with sustaining the energetic requirement needed upon repeated exposure to stressors. A better understanding of these mechanisms will allow targeting components of ghrelin signaling that may improve food intake and gastric motility alterations induced by stress. PMID:21782868

  8. Expression, purification and characterization of the acyl carrier protein phosphodiesterase from Pseudomonas Aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Elavazhagan; Kong, Rong; Sun, Huihua; Rao, Feng; Liang, Zhao-Xun

    2010-06-01

    Acyl carrier protein phosphodiesterases (AcpH) are the only enzymes known to remove the 4'-phosphopantetheinyl moiety from holo acyl carrier proteins (ACP), which are a large family of proteins essential for the biosynthesis of lipid and other cellular metabolites. Here we report that the AcpH (paAcpH) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be overexpressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble and stable protein after optimization of the expression and purification conditions. This marks an improvement from the aggregation-prone E. coli AcpH that could only be obtained by refolding the polypeptide obtained from the inclusion body. With the soluble recombinant protein, we found that PaAcpH exhibits preferred substrate specificity towards the ACPs from the fatty acid synthesis pathway among eight carrier proteins. We further showed that PaAcpH hydrolyzes and releases the 4'-phosphopantetheinyl group-linked products from a multidomain polyketide synthase, demonstrating that the enzyme is fully capable of hydrolyzing acylated ACP substrates.

  9. Purification of Pseudomonas putida acyl coenzyme A ligase active with a range of aliphatic and aromatic substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Valverde, M; Reglero, A; Martinez-Blanco, H; Luengo, J M

    1993-01-01

    Acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) ligase (acyl-CoA synthetase [ACoAS]) from Pseudomonas putida U was purified to homogeneity (252-fold) after this bacterium was grown in a chemically defined medium containing octanoic acid as the sole carbon source. The enzyme, which has a mass of 67 kDa, showed maximal activity at 40 degrees C in 10 mM K2PO4H-NaPO4H2 buffer (pH 7.0) containing 20% (wt/vol) glycerol. Under these conditions, ACoAS showed hyperbolic behavior against acetate, CoA, and ATP; the Kms calculated for these substrates were 4.0, 0.7, and 5.2 mM, respectively. Acyl-CoA ligase recognizes several aliphatic molecules (acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric, hexanoic, heptanoic, and octanoic acids) as substrates, as well as some aromatic compounds (phenylacetic and phenoxyacetic acids). The broad substrate specificity of ACoAS from P. putida was confirmed by coupling it with acyl-CoA:6-aminopenicillanic acid acyltransferase from Penicillium chrysogenum to study the formation of several penicillins. Images PMID:8476289

  10. Continuous recording of long-chain acyl-coenzyme a synthetase activity using fluorescently labeled bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Demant, E J; Nystrøm, B T

    2001-08-01

    The fluorescence-based long-chain fatty acid probe BSA-HCA (bovine serum albumin labeled with 7-hydroxycoumarin-4-acetic acid) is shown to respond to binding of long-chain acyl-CoA thioesters by quenching of the 450 nm fluorescence emission. As determined by spectrofluorometric titration, binding affinities for palmitoyl-, stearoyl-, and oleoyl-CoA (Kd = 0.2-0.4 microM) are 5-10 times lower than those for the corresponding nonesterified fatty acids. In the presence of detergent (Chaps, Triton X-100, n-octylglucoside) above the critical micelle concentration, acyl-CoA partitions from BSA-HCA and into the detergent micelles. This allows BSA-HCA to be used as a fluorescent probe for continuous recording of fatty acid concentrations in detergent solution with little interference from acyl-CoA. Using a calibration of the fluorescence signal with fatty acids in the C14 to C20 chain-length range, fatty acid consumption by Pseudomonas fragi and rat liver microsomal acyl-CoA synthetase activities are measured down to 0.05 microM/min with a data sampling rate of 10 points per second. This new method provides a very promising spectrofluorometric approach to the study of acyl-CoA synthetase reaction kinetics at physiologically relevant (nM) aqueous phase concentrations of fatty acid substrates and at a time resolution that cannot be obtained in isotopic sampling or enzyme-coupled assays.

  11. Isolation and properties of a glycerophosphate acylating fraction in the fat body of Schistocerca gregaria (Forskäl).

    PubMed

    Marchand, C; Lemonde, A; Beaudoin, A R

    1977-11-01

    An acyl-CoA-L-alpha-glycerophosphate acyltransferase system has been found in the fat body of the locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forskäl). After homogenization and differential centrifugation the enzyme system has been localized in two distinct particulate fractions. In both fractions phosphatidic acid was the main reaction product. The 10 000 g -30 000 g particulate fraction was further studied. The enzyme system is very sensitive to pH and Mg2+ concentration. An apparent Km of 0.3-0.5 mM for glycerophosphate was measured. The substrate concentration curve for palmitoyl-CoA is influenced by the protein concentration in the assay medium. This effect would partly explain the non-lineariy of the acylation reactions with respect to enzyme concentration. These observations are correlated with physiological phenomena.

  12. Acyl glucuronides: the good, the bad and the ugly.

    PubMed

    Regan, Sophie L; Maggs, James L; Hammond, Thomas G; Lambert, Craig; Williams, Dominic P; Park, B Kevin

    2010-10-01

    Acyl glucuronidation is the major metabolic conjugation reaction of most carboxylic acid drugs in mammals. The physiological consequences of this biotransformation have been investigated incompletely but include effects on drug metabolism, protein binding, distribution and clearance that impact upon pharmacological and toxicological outcomes. In marked contrast, the exceptional but widely disparate chemical reactivity of acyl glucuronides has attracted far greater attention. Specifically, the complex transacylation and glycation reactions with proteins have provoked much inconclusive debate over the safety of drugs metabolised to acyl glucuronides. It has been hypothesised that these covalent modifications could initiate idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions. However, despite a large body of in vitro data on the reactions of acyl glucuronides with protein, evidence for adduct formation from acyl glucuronides in vivo is limited and potentially ambiguous. The causal connection of protein adduction to adverse drug reactions remains uncertain. This review has assessed the intrinsic reactivity, metabolic stability and pharmacokinetic properties of acyl glucuronides in the context of physiological, pharmacological and toxicological perspectives. Although numerous experiments have characterised the reactions of acyl glucuronides with proteins, these might be attenuated substantially in vivo by rapid clearance of the conjugates. Consequently, to delineate a relationship between acyl glucuronide formation and toxicological phenomena, detailed pharmacokinetic analysis of systemic exposure to the acyl glucuronide should be undertaken adjacent to determining protein adduct concentrations in vivo. Further investigation is required to ascertain whether acyl glucuronide clearance is sufficient to prevent covalent modification of endogenous proteins and consequentially a potential immunological response. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein synthase III (mtFabH) assay: principles and method.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Sarbjot; Reynolds, Kevin A

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis is one of the relatively newer targets in antibacterial drug discovery. The presence of distinct fatty acid synthases (FAS) in mammals and bacteria and the fact that most bacterial FAS enzymes are essential for viability make this a very attractive antimicrobial drug target. The enzyme beta-ketoacyl ACP synthase (KASIII or FabH) is the key enzyme that initiates fatty acid biosynthesis in a type II dissociated FAS. This enzyme catalyzes the condensation of acyl CoA and malonyl ACP (acyl carrier protein) to form a beta-ketoacyl ACP product, which is further processed to form mature fatty acids that are involved in various essential cellular processes and structures like phospholipid biosynthesis, cell wall formation, etc. Herein we describe a new assay for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis FabH (mtFabH) enzyme involved in a key initiation step in the synthesis of mycolic acids, which are an integral component of the cell wall. The assay eliminates the need for the cumbersome washing steps or specialty scintillation proximity assay beads and the preparation of acyl carrier proteins required in other assay formats. This discontinuous assay involves the reduction of radiolabled long-chain beta-ketoacyl CoA product to its dihydroxy derivative, which partitions into a nonpolar phase for quantitation, while the reduced radiolabeled substrate derivative remains in the aqueous phase.

  14. Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency as decreased acyl-carnitine profile in serum.

    PubMed

    Wen, Bing; Li, Duoling; Li, Wei; Zhao, Yuying; Yan, Chuanzhu

    2015-06-01

    We report a case with late onset riboflavin-responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD) characterized by decreased acyl-carnitine profile in serum which is consistent with primary systemic carnitine deficiency (CDSP) while just the contrary to a typical MADD. This patient complained with muscle weakness, muscle pain and intermittent vomiting, and was diagnosed as polymyositis, received prednisone therapy before consulted with us. Muscle biopsy revealed mild lipid storage. The findings of serum acyl-carnitines were consistent with CDSP manifesting as decreased free and total carnitines in serum. But oral L-carnitine supplementation was not very effective to this patient and mutation analysis of the SLC22A5 gene for CDSP was normal. Later, another acyl-carnitine analysis revealed a typical MADD profile in serum, which was characterized by increased multiple acyl-carnitines. Compound heterozygous mutations were identified in electron transferring-flavoprotein dehydrogenase (ETFDH) gene which confirmed the diagnosis of MADD. After administration of riboflavin, he improved dramatically, both clinically and biochemically. Thus, late onset riboflavin-responsive MADD should be included in the differential diagnosis for adult carnitine deficiency.

  15. Regulation of intestinal calcium absorption by luminal calcium content: role of intestinal alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Brun, Lucas R; Brance, María L; Lombarte, Mercedes; Lupo, Maela; Di Loreto, Verónica E; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2014-07-01

    Intestinal alkaline phosphatase is a brush border enzyme that is stimulated by calcium. Inhibition of intestinal alkaline phosphatase increases intestinal calcium absorption. We hypothesized that intestinal alkaline phosphatase acts as a minute-to-minute regulatory mechanism of calcium entry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanism by which intestinal luminal calcium controls intestinal calcium absorption. We performed kinetic studies with purified intestinal alkaline phosphatase and everted duodenal sacs and showed that intestinal alkaline phosphatase modifies the luminal pH as a function of enzyme concentration and calcium luminal content. A decrease in pH occurred simultaneously with a decrease in calcium absorption. The inhibition of intestinal alkaline phosphatase by l-phenylalanine caused an increase in calcium absorption. This effect was also confirmed in calcium uptake experiments with isolated duodenal cells. Changes in luminal pH arising from intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity induced by luminal calcium concentration modulate intestinal calcium absorption. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The Acyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Synthetase from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Mediates Fatty Acid Import1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    von Berlepsch, Simon; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Brodesser, Susanne; Fink, Patrick; Marin, Kay; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo; Gierth, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The transfer of fatty acids across biological membranes is a largely uncharacterized process, although it is essential at membranes of several higher plant organelles like chloroplasts, peroxisomes, or the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we analyzed loss-of-function mutants of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 as a model system to circumvent redundancy problems encountered in eukaryotic organisms. Cells deficient in the only cytoplasmic Synechocystis acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (SynAas) were highly resistant to externally provided α-linolenic acid, whereas wild-type cells bleached upon this treatment. Bleaching of wild-type cells was accompanied by a continuous increase of α-linolenic acid in total lipids, whereas no such accumulation could be observed in SynAas-deficient cells (Δsynaas). When SynAas was disrupted in the tocopherol-deficient, α-linolenic acid-hypersensitive Synechocystis mutant Δslr1736, double mutant cells displayed the same resistance phenotype as Δsynaas. Moreover, heterologous expression of SynAas in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mutants lacking the major yeast fatty acid import protein Fat1p (Δfat1) led to the restoration of wild-type sensitivity against exogenous α-linolenic acid of the otherwise resistant Δfat1 mutant, indicating that SynAas is functionally equivalent to Fat1p. In addition, liposome assays provided direct evidence for the ability of purified SynAas protein to mediate α-[14C]linolenic acid retrieval from preloaded liposome membranes via the synthesis of [14C]linolenoyl-acyl carrier protein. Taken together, our data show that an acyl-activating enzyme like SynAas is necessary and sufficient to mediate the transfer of fatty acids across a biological membrane. PMID:22535424

  17. Multiple complexes of long aliphatic N-acyltransferases lead to synthesis of 2,6-diacylated/2-acyl-substituted glycopeptide antibiotics, effectively killing vancomycin-resistant enterococcus.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Syue-Yi; Liu, Yu-Chen; Chang, Chin-Yuan; Huang, Chuen-Jiuan; Chiu, Ya-Huang; Huang, Chun-Man; Hsu, Ning-Shian; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Wu, Chang-Jer; Tsai, Ming-Daw; Li, Tsung-Lin

    2014-08-06

    Teicoplanin A2-2 (Tei)/A40926 is the last-line antibiotic to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections, e.g., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE). This class of antibiotics is powered by the N-acyltransferase (NAT) Orf11*/Dbv8 through N-acylation on glucosamine at the central residue of Tei/A40926 pseudoaglycone. The NAT enzyme possesses enormous value in untapped applications; its advanced development is hampered largely due to a lack of structural information. In this report, we present eight high-resolution X-ray crystallographic unary, binary, and ternary complexes in order to decipher the molecular basis for NAT's functionality. The enzyme undergoes a multistage conformational change upon binding of acyl-CoA, thus allowing the uploading of Tei pseudoaglycone to enable the acyl-transfer reaction to take place in the occlusion between the N- and C-halves of the protein. The acyl moiety of acyl-CoA can be bulky or lengthy, allowing a large extent of diversity in new derivatives that can be formed upon its transfer. Vancomycin/synthetic acyl-N-acetyl cysteamine was not expected to be able to serve as a surrogate for an acyl acceptor/donor, respectively. Most strikingly, NAT can catalyze formation of 2-N,6-O-diacylated or C6→C2 acyl-substituted Tei analogues through an unusual 1,4-migration mechanism under stoichiometric/solvational reaction control, wherein selected representatives showed excellent biological activities, effectively counteracting major types (VanABC) of VRE.

  18. Efficient regioselective acylation of quercetin using Rhizopus oryzae lipase and its potential as antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Jahan, Firdaus; Mahajan, Richi V; Saxena, Rajendra Kumar

    2016-10-01

    The present investigation describes the regioselective enzymatic acylation of quercetin with ferulic acid using Rhizopus oryzae lipase. Optimization of reaction parameters resulted in 93.2% yield of the ester synthesized using 750IU of lipase in cyclo-octane at a temperature of 45°C. The reaction was successfully carried out upto 25g scale. The ester synthesized was analyzed by (1)H Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The ester synthesized (quercetin ferulate) showed higher antiradical activity as compared to ascorbic acid using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical method. These results on enzyme-catalyzed acylation of quercetin might be used to prepare and scale-up other flavonoids derivatives.

  19. Defining the structure and function of acyl-homoserine lactone autoinducers

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Mair E.A.; Sibhatu, Hiruy M.; Uhlson, Charis L.

    2012-01-01

    Quorum sensing plays a central role in regulating many community derived symbiotic and pathogenic relationships of bacteria, and as such has attracted much attention in recent years. Acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are important signaling molecules in the quorum sensing gene regulatory processes found in numerous gram-negative species of bacteria that interact with eukaryotic organisms. AHLs are produced by acyl-homoserine lactone synthases. Bacteria can have multiple genes for AHL synthase enzymes, and such species are likely to produce several different types of AHLs. Determination of the types and the relative amounts of AHLs produced by AHL synthases in bacteria under varied conditions provides important insights into the mechanism of AHL synthase function and the regulation of transcriptional cascades initiated by quorum sensing signaling. This chapter describes a mass spectrometry method for determining the types and relative amounts of AHLs present in a sample. PMID:21031311

  20. Acyl migration evaluation in monoacylglycerols from Echium plantagineum seed oil and Marinol.

    PubMed

    Rincón Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Venegas Venegas, Elena; Ramos Bueno, Rebeca; Rodríguez García, Ignacio; Guil-Guerrero, José Luis

    2013-05-01

    Production of 2-monoacylglycerols (2-MAGs) by selective hydrolysis of the triacylglycerols (TAGs) of Echium plantagineum seed oil and Marinol and further purification was carried out. Three purification methods, including silica gel column chromatography, liquid-liquid extraction and low-temperature crystallization were assayed. Partial acyl migration during the purification step is always observed. Acyl migration rates were similar both for the column chromatography and for the liquid-liquid extraction methods, and resulted in 1-MAG/2-MAG ratios higher than 1.0. Fatty acid (FA) profiles of 2-MAGs after enzyme hydrolysis showed that the major FAs were stearidonic acid (56.9% of total FA in 2-position) and docosahexaenoic acid (63.6% of total FA in 2-position) for E. plantagineum seed oil and Marinol, respectively.

  1. Defining the structure and function of acyl-homoserine lactone autoinducers.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Mair E A; Sibhatu, Hiruy M; Uhlson, Charis L

    2011-01-01

    Quorum sensing plays a central role in regulating many community-derived symbiotic and pathogenic relationships of bacteria, and as such has attracted much attention in recent years. Acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are important signaling molecules in the quorum sensing gene-regulatory processes found in numerous gram-negative species of bacteria that interact with eukaryotic organisms. AHLs are produced by acyl-homoserine lactone synthases. Bacteria can have multiple genes for AHL synthase enzymes, and such species are likely to produce several different types of AHLs. Determination of the types and the relative amounts of AHLs produced by AHL synthases in bacteria under varied conditions provides important insights into the mechanism of AHL synthase function and the regulation of transcriptional cascades initiated by quorum sensing signaling. This chapter describes a mass spectrometry method for determining the types and relative amounts of AHLs present in a sample.

  2. N-Acyl-phosphoramidates as potential novel form of gemcitabine prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Baraniak, Janina; Pietkiewicz, Aleksandra; Kaczmarek, Renata; Radzikowska, Ewa; Kulik, Katarzyna; Krolewska, Karolina; Cieslak, Marcin; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Nawrot, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    Gemcitabine (dFdC) is a cytidine analog remarkably active against a wide range of solid tumors. Inside a cell, gemcitabine is phosphorylated by deoxycytidine kinase to yield gemcitabine monophosphate, further converted to gemcitabine di- and triphosphate. The most frequent form of acquired resistance to gemcitabine in vitro is the deoxycytidine kinase deficiency. Thus, proper prodrugs carrying the 5'-pdFdC moiety may help to overcome this problem. A series of new derivatives of gemcitabine possessing N-acyl(thio)phosphoramidate moieties were prepared and their cytotoxic properties were determined. N-Acyl-phosphoramidate derivatives of gemcitabine have similar cytotoxicity as gemcitabine itself, and have been found accessible to the cellular enzymes. The nicotinic carboxamide derivative of gemcitabine 5'-O-phosphorothioate occurred to be the best inhibitor of bacterial DNA polymerase I and human DNA polymerase α.

  3. The solution structure of acyl carrier protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hing C; Liu, Gaohua; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Rock, Charles O; Zheng, Jie

    2002-05-03

    Acyl carrier protein (ACP) performs the essential function of shuttling the intermediates between the enzymes that constitute the type II fatty acid synthase system. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is unique in producing extremely long mycolic acids, and tubercular ACP, AcpM, is also unique in possessing a longer carboxyl terminus than other ACPs. We determined the solution structure of AcpM using protein NMR spectroscopy to define the similarities and differences between AcpM and the typical structures. The amino-terminal region of the structure is well defined and consists of four helices arranged in a right-handed bundle held together by interhelical hydrophobic interactions similar to the structures of other bacterial ACPs. The unique carboxyl-terminal extension from helix IV has a "melted down" feature, and the end of the molecule is a random coil. A comparison of the apo- and holo-forms of AcpM revealed that the 4'-phosphopantetheine group oscillates between two states; in one it is bound to a hydrophobic groove on the surface of AcpM, and in another it is solvent-exposed. The similarity between AcpM and other ACPs reveals the conserved structural motif that is recognized by all type II enzymes. However, the function of the coil domain extending from helix IV to the carboxyl terminus remains enigmatic, but its structural characteristics suggest that it may interact with the very long chain intermediates in mycolic acid biosynthesis or control specific protein-protein interactions.

  4. Solubilization, purification and characterization of fatty acyl-CoA reductase from duck uropygial gland.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Kolattukudy, P E

    1995-03-08

    Membrane-bound fatty acyl-CoA reductase from the uropygial gland of duck has been solubilized from the microsomal preparation with 20% glycerol and 3 M NaCl and purified to homogeneity by Blue A agarose and Palmitoyl-CoA agarose affinity column chromatography followed by Suprose-6 gel filtration. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated by SDS-PAGE to be 56 kDa. The enzyme was stable in the presence of 20% glycerol and 1M NaCl and required NADPH for activity. The apparent Kms of the purified enzyme for palmitoyl-CoA and NADPH were 29 microM and 67 microM, respectively. The enzyme activity could be enhanced by the addition of lipid, and the presence of 2 mg/ml BSA enhanced the reductase activity by 5-fold.

  5. Decarboxylation of malonyl-(acyl carrier protein) by 3-oxoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) synthases in plant fatty acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Winter, E; Brummel, M; Schuch, R; Spener, F

    1997-01-01

    In order to identify regulatory steps in fatty acid biosynthesis, the influence of intermediate 3-oxoacyl-(acyl carrier proteins) (3-oxoacyl-ACPs) and end-product acyl-ACPs of the fatty acid synthase reaction on the condensation reaction was investigated in vitro, using total fatty acid synthase preparations and purified 3-oxoacyl-ACP synthases (KASs; EC 2.3.1.41) from Cuphea lanceolata seeds. KAS I and II in the fatty acid synthase preparations were assayed for the elongation of octanoyl- and hexadecanoyl-ACP respectively, and the accumulation of the corresponding condensation product 3-oxoacyl-ACP was studied by modulating the content of the reducing equivalentS NADH and NADPH. Complete omission of reducing equivalents resulted with either KAS in the abnormal synthesis of acetyl-ACP from malonyl-ACP by a decarboxylation reaction. Supplementation with NADPH or NADH, separately or in combination with recombinant 3-oxoacyl-ACP reductase (EC 1.1.1.100), led to a decrease in the amount of acetyl-ACP and a simultaneous increase in elongation products. This demonstrates that the accumulation of 3-oxoacyl-ACP inhibits the condensation reaction on the one hand, and induces the decarboxylation of malonyl-ACP on the other. By carrying out similar experiments with purified enzymes, this decarboxylation was attributed to the action of KAS. Our data point to a regulatory mechanism for the degradation of malonyl-ACP in plants which is activated by the accumulation of the fatty acid synthase intermediate 3-oxoacyl-ACP. PMID:9020860

  6. Head-group acylation of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol is a common stress response, and the acyl-galactose acyl composition varies with the plant species and applied stress

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Hieu Sy; Roth, Mary R.; Tamura, Pamela; Samarakoon, Thilani; Shiva, Sunitha; Honey, Samuel; Lowe, Kaleb; Schmelz, Eric A.; Williams, Todd D.; Welti, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Formation of galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols has been shown to be induced by leaf homogenization, mechanical wounding, avirulent bacterial infection, and thawing after snap-freezing. Here, lipidomic analysis using mass spectrometry showed that galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols, formed in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves upon wounding, have acyl-galactose profiles that differ from those of wounded Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating that different plant species accumulate different acyl-galactose components in response to the same stress. Additionally, the composition of the acyl-galactose component of Arabidopsis acMGDG depends on the stress treatment. After sub-lethal freezing treatment, acMGDG contained mainly non-oxidized fatty acids esterified to galactose, whereas mostly oxidized fatty acids accumulated on galactose after wounding or bacterial infection. Compositional data are consistent with acMGDG being formed in vivo by transacylation with fatty acids from digalactosyldiacylglycerols. Oxophytodienoic acid, an oxidized fatty acid, was more concentrated on the galactosyl ring of acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols than in galactolipids in general. Also, oxidized fatty acid-containing acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols increased cumulatively when wounded Arabidopsis leaves were wounded again. These findings suggest that, in Arabidopsis, the pool of galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols may serve to sequester oxidized fatty acids during stress responses. PMID:24286212

  7. Mass-Tag Labeling Using Acyl-PEG Exchange for the Determination of Endogenous Protein S-Fatty Acylation.

    PubMed

    Percher, Avital; Thinon, Emmanuelle; Hang, Howard

    2017-08-01

    The covalent coupling of fatty acids to proteins provides an important mechanism of regulation in cells. In eukaryotes, cysteine fatty acylation (S-fatty acylation) has been shown to be critical for protein function in a variety of cellular pathways as well as microbial pathogenesis. While methods developed over the past decade have improved the detection and profiling of S-fatty acylation, these are hampered in their ability to characterize endogenous protein S-fatty acylation levels under physiological conditions. Furthermore, understanding the contribution of specific sites and levels of S-fatty acylation remains a major challenge. To evaluate S-fatty acylation of endogenous proteins as well as to determine the number of S-fatty acylation events, we developed the acyl-PEG exchange (APE) that utilizes cysteine-specific chemistry to exchange S-fatty acylation sites with mass-tags of defined size, which can be readily observed by western blotting. APE provides a readily accessible approach to investigate endogenous S-fatty acylation from any sample source, with high sensitivity and broad applicability that complements the current toolbox of methods for thioester-based post-translational modifications. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Effects of dietary supplementation of probiotic, Clostridium butyricum, on growth performance, immune response, intestinal barrier function, and digestive enzyme activity in broiler chickens challenged with Escherichia coli K88.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Lingling; Zhan, Xiu'an; Zeng, Xinfu; Zhou, Lin; Cao, Guangtian; Chen, An'guo; Yang, Caimei

    2016-01-01

    Colibacillosis caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) results in economic losses in the poultry industry. Antibiotics are usually used to control colibacillosis, however, E. coli has varying degrees of resistance to different antibiotics. Therefore the use of probiotics is becoming accepted as an alternative to antibiotics. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Clostridium butyricum (C. butyricum) on growth performance, immune response, intestinal barrier function, and digestive enzyme activity in broiler chickens challenged with Escherichia coli (E. coli) K88. The chickens were randomly divided into four treatment groups for 28 days. Negative control treatment (NC) consisted of birds fed a basal diet without E. coli K88 challenge and positive control treatment (PC) consisted of birds fed a basal diet and challenged with E. coli K88. C. butyricum probiotic treatment (CB) consisted of birds fed a diet containing 2 × 10(7) cfu C. butyricum/kg of diet and challenged with E. coli K88. Colistin sulfate antibiotic treatment (CS) consisted of birds fed a diet containing 20 mg colistin sulfate/kg of diet and challenged with E. coli K88. The body weight (BW) and average day gain (ADG) in the broilers of CB group were higher (P < 0.05) than the broilers in the PC group overall except the ADG in the 14-21 d post-challenge. The birds in CB treatment had higher (P < 0.05) concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at 3 and 7 d post-challenge, and higher (P < 0.05) concentration of interleukin-4 (IL-4) at 14 d post-challenge than those in the PC treatment group. The concentration of serum endotoxin in CB birds was lower (P < 0.05) at 21 d post-challenge, and the concentrations of serum diamine oxidase in CB birds were lower (P < 0.05) at 14 and 21 d post-challenge than in PC birds. Birds in CB treatment group had higher (P < 0.05) jejunum villi height than those in PC, NC, or CS treatment at 7, 14, and 21 d post

  9. Physiological Consequences of Compartmentalized Acyl-CoA Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Daniel E.; Young, Pamela A.; Klett, Eric L.; Coleman, Rosalind A.

    2015-01-01

    Meeting the complex physiological demands of mammalian life requires strict control of the metabolism of long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs because of the multiplicity of their cellular functions. Acyl-CoAs are substrates for energy production; stored within lipid droplets as triacylglycerol, cholesterol esters, and retinol esters; esterified to form membrane phospholipids; or used to activate transcriptional and signaling pathways. Indirect evidence suggests that acyl-CoAs do not wander freely within cells, but instead, are channeled into specific pathways. In this review, we will discuss the evidence for acyl-CoA compartmentalization, highlight the key modes of acyl-CoA regulation, and diagram potential mechanisms for controlling acyl-CoA partitioning. PMID:26124277

  10. Mechanistic and Structural Insights into the Regioselectivity of an Acyl-CoA Fatty Acid Desaturase via Directed Molecular Evolution*

    PubMed Central

    Vanhercke, Thomas; Shrestha, Pushkar; Green, Allan G.; Singh, Surinder P.

    2011-01-01

    Membrane-bound fatty acid desaturases and related enzymes play a pivotal role in the biosynthesis of unsaturated and various unusual fatty acids. Structural insights into the remarkable catalytic diversity and wide range of substrate specificities of this class of enzymes remain limited due to the lack of a crystal structure. To investigate the structural basis of the double bond positioning (regioselectivity) of the desaturation reaction in more detail, we relied on a combination of directed evolution in vitro and a powerful yeast complementation assay to screen for Δx regioselectivity. After two selection rounds, variants of the bifunctional Δ12/Δ9-desaturase from the house cricket (Acheta domesticus) exhibited increased Δ9-desaturation activity on shorter chain fatty acids. This change in specificity was the result of as few as three mutations, some of them near the putative active site. Subsequent analysis of individual substitutions revealed an important role of residue Phe-52 in facilitating Δ9-desaturation of shorter chain acyl substrates and allowed for the redesign of the cricket Δ12/Δ9-desaturase into a 16:0-specific Δ9-desaturase. Our results demonstrate that a minimal number of mutations can have a profound impact on the regioselectivity of acyl-CoA fatty acid desaturases and include the first biochemical data supporting the acyl-CoA acyl carrier specificity of a desaturase able to carry out Δ12-desaturation. PMID:21300802

  11. Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase: molecular biology, biochemistry and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qin; Siloto, Rodrigo M P; Lehner, Richard; Stone, Scot J; Weselake, Randall J

    2012-10-01

    Triacylglycerol (TG) is a storage lipid which serves as an energy reservoir and a source of signalling molecules and substrates for membrane biogenesis. TG is essential for many physiological processes and its metabolism is widely conserved in nature. Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT, EC 2.3.1.20) catalyzes the final step in the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate pathway leading to TG. DGAT activity resides mainly in two distinct membrane bound polypeptides, known as DGAT1 and DGAT2 which have been identified in numerous organisms. In addition, a few other enzymes also hold DGAT activity, including the DGAT-related acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferases (MGAT). Progress on understanding structure/function in DGATs has been limited by the lack of detailed three-dimensional structural information due to the hydrophobic properties of theses enzymes and difficulties associated with purification. This review examines several aspects of DGAT and MGAT genes and enzymes, including current knowledge on their gene structure, expression pattern, biochemical properties, membrane topology, functional motifs and subcellular localization. Recent progress in probing structural and functional aspects of DGAT1 and DGAT2, using a combination of molecular and biochemical techniques, is emphasized. Biotechnological applications involving DGAT enzymes ranging from obesity therapeutics to oilseed engineering are also discussed.

  12. Acquired causes of intestinal malabsorption.

    PubMed

    van der Heide, F

    2016-04-01

    This review focuses on the acquired causes, diagnosis, and treatment of intestinal malabsorption. Intestinal absorption is a complex process that depends on many variables, including the digestion of nutrients within the intestinal lumen, the absorptive surface of the small intestine, the membrane transport systems, and the epithelial absorptive enzymes. Acquired causes of malabsorption are classified by focussing on the three phases of digestion and absorption: 1) luminal/digestive phase, 2) mucosal/absorptive phase, and 3) transport phase. Most acquired diseases affect the luminal/digestive phase. These include short bowel syndrome, extensive small bowel inflammation, motility disorders, and deficiencies of digestive enzymes or bile salts. Diagnosis depends on symptoms, physical examination, and blood and stool tests. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of malabsorption. Further testing should be based on the specific clinical context and the suspected underlying disease. Therapy is directed at nutritional support by enteral or parenteral feeding and screening for and supplementation of deficiencies in vitamins and minerals. Early enteral feeding is important for intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome. Medicinal treatment options for diarrhoea in malabsorption include loperamide, codeine, cholestyramine, or antibiotics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring the Mechanism of β-Lactam Ring Protonation in the Class A β-lactamase Acylation Mechanism Using Neutron and X-ray Crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Vandavasi, Venu Gopal; Weiss, Kevin L.; Cooper, Jonathan B.; Erskine, Peter T.; Tomanicek, Stephen J.; Ostermann, Andreas; Schrader, Tobias E.; Ginell, Stephan L.; Coates, Leighton

    2016-01-14

    The catalytic mechanism of class A beta-lactamases is often debated due in part to the large number of amino acids that interact with bound beta-lactam substrates. The role and function of the conserved residue Lys 73 in the catalytic mechanism of class A type beta-lactamase enzymes is still not well understood after decades of scientific research. To better elucidate the functions of this vital residue, we used both neutron and high-resolution X-ray diffraction to examine both the structures of the ligand free protein and the acyl-enzyme complex of perdeuterated E166A Toho-1 beta-lactamase with the antibiotic cefotaxime. The E166A mutant lacks a critical glutamate residue that has a key role in the deacylation step of the catalytic mechanism, allowing the acyl-enzyme adduct to be captured for study. In our ligand free structures, Lys 73 is present in a single conformation, however in all of our acyl-enzyme structures, Lys 73 is present in two different conformations, in which one conformer is closer to Ser 70 while the other conformer is positioned closer to Ser 130, which supports the existence of a possible pathway by which proton transfer from Lys 73 to Ser 130 can occur. This and further clarifications of the role of Lys 73 in the acylation mechanism may facilitate the design of inhibitors that capitalize on the enzymes native machinery.

  14. Exploring the Mechanism of β-Lactam Ring Protonation in the Class A β-lactamase Acylation Mechanism Using Neutron and X-ray Crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Vandavasi, Venu Gopal; Weiss, Kevin L.; Cooper, Jonathan B.; Erskine, Peter T.; Tomanicek, Stephen J.; Ostermann, Andreas; Schrader, Tobias E.; Ginell, Stephan L.; Coates, Leighton

    2015-12-02

    The catalytic mechanism of class A beta-lactamases is often debated due in part to the large number of amino acids that interact with bound beta-lactam substrates. The role and function of the conserved residue Lys 73 in the catalytic mechanism of class A type beta-lactamase enzymes is still not well understood after decades of scientific research. To better elucidate the functions of this vital residue, we used both neutron and high-resolution X-ray diffraction to examine both the structures of the ligand free protein and the acyl-enzyme complex of perdeuterated E166A Toho-1 beta-lactamase with the antibiotic cefotaxime. The E166A mutant lacks a critical glutamate residue that has a key role in the deacylation step of the catalytic mechanism, allowing the acyl-enzyme adduct to be captured for study. In our ligand free structures, Lys 73 is present in a single conformation, however in all of our acyl-enzyme structures, Lys 73 is present in two different conformations, in which one conformer is closer to Ser 70 while the other conformer is positioned closer to Ser 130, which supports the existence of a possible pathway by which proton transfer from Lys 73 to Ser 130 can occur. This and further clarifications of the role of Lys 73 in the acylation mechanism may facilitate the design of inhibitors that capitalize on the enzymes native machinery.

  15. Exploring the Mechanism of β-Lactam Ring Protonation in the Class A β-lactamase Acylation Mechanism Using Neutron and X-ray Crystallography

    DOE PAGES

    Vandavasi, Venu Gopal; Weiss, Kevin L.; Cooper, Jonathan B.; ...

    2015-12-02

    The catalytic mechanism of class A beta-lactamases is often debated due in part to the large number of amino acids that interact with bound beta-lactam substrates. The role and function of the conserved residue Lys 73 in the catalytic mechanism of class A type beta-lactamase enzymes is still not well understood after decades of scientific research. To better elucidate the functions of this vital residue, we used both neutron and high-resolution X-ray diffraction to examine both the structures of the ligand free protein and the acyl-enzyme complex of perdeuterated E166A Toho-1 beta-lactamase with the antibiotic cefotaxime. The E166A mutant lacksmore » a critical glutamate residue that has a key role in the deacylation step of the catalytic mechanism, allowing the acyl-enzyme adduct to be captured for study. In our ligand free structures, Lys 73 is present in a single conformation, however in all of our acyl-enzyme structures, Lys 73 is present in two different conformations, in which one conformer is closer to Ser 70 while the other conformer is positioned closer to Ser 130, which supports the existence of a possible pathway by which proton transfer from Lys 73 to Ser 130 can occur. This and further clarifications of the role of Lys 73 in the acylation mechanism may facilitate the design of inhibitors that capitalize on the enzymes native machinery.« less

  16. Construction of Global Acyl Lipid Metabolic Map by Comparative Genomics and Subcellular Localization Analysis in the Red Alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

    PubMed

    Mori, Natsumi; Moriyama, Takashi; Toyoshima, Masakazu; Sato, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Pathways of lipid metabolism have been established in land plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, but the information on exact pathways is still under study in microalgae. In contrast with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which is currently studied extensively, the pathway information in red algae is still in the state in which enzymes and pathways are estimated by analogy with the knowledge in plants. Here we attempt to construct the entire acyl lipid metabolic pathways in a model red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae, as an initial basis for future genetic and biochemical studies, by exploiting comparative genomics and localization analysis. First, the data of whole genome clustering by Gclust were used to identify 121 acyl lipid-related enzymes. Then, the localization of 113 of these enzymes was analyzed by GFP-based techniques. We found that most of the predictions on the subcellular localization by existing tools gave erroneous results, probably because these tools had been tuned for plants or green algae. The experimental data in the present study as well as the data reported before in our laboratory will constitute a good training set for tuning these tools. The lipid metabolic map thus constructed show that the lipid metabolic pathways in the red alga are essentially similar to those in A. thaliana, except that the number of enzymes catalyzing individual reactions is quite limited. The absence of fatty acid desaturation to produce oleic and linoleic acids within the plastid, however, highlights the central importance of desaturation and acyl editing in the endoplasmic reticulum, for the synthesis of plastid lipids as well as other cellular lipids. Additionally, some notable characteristics of lipid metabolism in C. merolae were found. For example, phosphatidylcholine is synthesized by the methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine as in yeasts. It is possible that a single 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase is involved in the condensation reactions of fatty acid

  17. Construction of Global Acyl Lipid Metabolic Map by Comparative Genomics and Subcellular Localization Analysis in the Red Alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Natsumi; Moriyama, Takashi; Toyoshima, Masakazu; Sato, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Pathways of lipid metabolism have been established in land plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, but the information on exact pathways is still under study in microalgae. In contrast with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which is currently studied extensively, the pathway information in red algae is still in the state in which enzymes and pathways are estimated by analogy with the knowledge in plants. Here we attempt to construct the entire acyl lipid metabolic pathways in a model red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae, as an initial basis for future genetic and biochemical studies, by exploiting comparative genomics and localization analysis. First, the data of whole genome clustering by Gclust were used to identify 121 acyl lipid-related enzymes. Then, the localization of 113 of these enzymes was analyzed by GFP-based techniques. We found that most of the predictions on the subcellular localization by existing tools gave erroneous results, probably because these tools had been tuned for plants or green algae. The experimental data in the present study as well as the data reported before in our laboratory will constitute a good training set for tuning these tools. The lipid metabolic map thus constructed show that the lipid metabolic pathways in the red alga are essentially similar to those in A. thaliana, except that the number of enzymes catalyzing individual reactions is quite limited. The absence of fatty acid desaturation to produce oleic and linoleic acids within the plastid, however, highlights the central importance of desaturation and acyl editing in the endoplasmic reticulum, for the synthesis of plastid lipids as well as other cellular lipids. Additionally, some notable characteristics of lipid metabolism in C. merolae were found. For example, phosphatidylcholine is synthesized by the methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine as in yeasts. It is possible that a single 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase is involved in the condensation reactions of fatty acid

  18. Acyl-ACP thioesterases from Camelina sativa: cloning, enzymatic characterization and implication in seed oil fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Manuel Fernando; Salas, Joaquín J; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2014-11-01

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases are intraplastidial enzymes that terminate de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in the plastids of higher plants by hydrolyzing the thioester bond between ACP and the fatty acid synthesized. Free fatty acids are then esterified with coenzyme A prior to being incorporated into the glycerolipids synthesized through the eukaryotic pathway. Acyl-ACP thioesterases belong to the TE14 family of thioester-active enzymes and can be classified as FatAs and FatBs, which differ in their amino acid sequence and substrate specificity. Here, the FatA and FatB thioesterases from Camelina sativa seeds, a crop of interest in plant biotechnology, were cloned, sequenced and characterized. The mature proteins encoded by these genes were characterized biochemically after they were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. C. sativa contained three different alleles of both the FatA and FatB genes. These genes were expressed most strongly in expanding tissues in which lipids are very actively synthesized, such as developing seed endosperm. The CsFatA enzyme displayed high catalytic efficiency on oleoyl-ACP and CsFatB acted efficiently on palmitoyl-ACP. The contribution of these two enzymes to the synthesis of C. sativa oil was discussed in the light of these results.

  19. Energetics of beta-oxidation. Reduction potentials of general fatty acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, electron transfer flavoprotein, and fatty acyl-CoA substrates.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, W G; Feinberg, B A; McFarland, J T

    1986-06-15

    We have determined reduction potentials for porcine mitochondrial general fatty acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (GAD) and electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) using an anaerobic spectroelectrochemical titration method. Computer simulation techniques were used to analyze the absorbance data. Nernst plots of the simulated data gave E'0, 7.1, quinone/semiquinone = -0.014 V and E'0, 7.1, semiquinone/hydroquinone = -0.036 V for ETF and E'0, 7.1, quinone/semiquinone = -0.155 V and E'0, 7.1, semiquinone/hydroquinone = -0.122 V for GAD. Using these techniques we have also determined a conditional reduction potential of -0.156 V for the chromophore producing fatty acyl-CoA substrate beta-2-furylpropionyl-CoA. From this value and our previous determination of the equilibrium constant for the transhydrogenation reaction between beta-2-furylpropionyl-CoA and the oxidized substrate crotonyl-CoA (Keq = 10.4), we have determined a reduction potential of -0.126 V for the butyryl-CoA/crotonyl-CoA couple. In light of the structural similarity between butyryl-CoA and octanoyl-CoA, the optimal substrate for GAD, the reduction potential for octanoyl-CoA should be similar to that for butyryl-CoA; i.e. fatty acyl-CoA substrates and GAD are essentially isopotential. The ability of octanoyl-CoA to reduce GAD quantitatively (Keq = 9.0) poses a dilemma in light of the nearly equal reduction potentials. We postulate that the stable charge-transfer complex formed between enzyme and optimal product is significantly lower in energy than enzyme and product and thus is responsible for pulling the reaction toward completion.

  20. Human acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and its potential as a target for pharmaceutical intervention against atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Catherine; Dong, Ruhong; Miyazaki, Akira; Sakashita, Naomi; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Jay; Guo, Michael; Li, Bo-Liang; Chang, Ta-Yuan

    2006-03-01

    Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) catalyzes the formation of cholesteryl esters from cholesterol and long-chain fatty-acyl-coenzyme A. At the single-cell level, ACAT serves as a regulator of intracellular cholesterol homeostasis. In addition, ACAT supplies cholesteryl esters for lipoprotein assembly in the liver and small intestine. Under pathological conditions, the accumulation of cholesteryl esters produced by ACAT in macrophages contributes to foam cell formation, a hallmark of the early stage of atherosclerosis. Several reviews addressing various aspects of ACAT and ACAT inhibitors are available. This review briefly outlines the current knowledge on the biochemical properties of human ACATs, and then focuses on discussing the merit of ACAT as a drug target for pharmaceutical interventions against atherosclerosis.

  1. Acyl hydrazides as acyl donors for the synthesis of diaryl and aryl alkyl ketones.

    PubMed

    Akhbar, Ahmed R; Chudasama, Vijay; Fitzmaurice, Richard J; Powell, Lyn; Caddick, Stephen

    2014-01-21

    In this communication we describe a novel strategy for the formation of valuable diaryl and aryl alkyl ketones from acyl hydrazides. A wide variety of ketones are prepared and the mild reaction conditions allow for the use of a range of functionalities, especially in the synthesis of diaryl ketones.

  2. Compared with Acyl-CoA:cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT) 1 and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase, ACAT2 displays the greatest capacity to differentiate cholesterol from sitosterol.

    PubMed

    Temel, Ryan E; Gebre, Abraham K; Parks, John S; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2003-11-28

    The capacity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT) 2 to differentiate cholesterol from the plant sterol, sitosterol, was compared with that of the sterol esterifying enzymes, ACAT1 and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). Cholesterol-loaded microsomes from transfected cells containing either ACAT1 or ACAT2 exhibited significantly more ACAT activity than their sitosterol-loaded counterparts. In sitosterol-loaded microsomes, both ACAT1 and ACAT2 were able to esterify sitosterol albeit with lower efficiencies than cholesterol. The mass ratios of cholesterol ester to sitosterol ester formed by ACAT1 and ACAT2 were 1.6 and 7.2, respectively. Compared with ACAT1, ACAT2 selectively esterified cholesterol even when sitosterol was loaded into the microsomes. To further characterize the difference in sterol specificity, ACAT1 and ACAT2 were compared in intact cells loaded with either cholesterol or sitosterol. Despite a lower level of ACAT activity, the ACAT1-expressing cells esterified 4-fold more sitosterol than the ACAT2 cells. The data showed that compared with ACAT1, ACAT2 displayed significantly greater selectively for cholesterol compared with sitosterol. The plasma cholesterol esterification enzyme lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase was also compared. With recombinant high density lipoprotein particles, the esterification rate of cholesterol by LCAT was only 15% greater than for sitosterol. Thus, LCAT was able to efficiently esterify both cholesterol and sitosterol. In contrast, ACAT2 demonstrated a strong preference for cholesterol rather than sitosterol. This sterol selectivity by ACAT2 may reflect a role in the sorting of dietary sterols during their absorption by the intestine in vivo.

  3. Estrogen elevates the peak overnight production rate of acylated ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Remberto C; Brundage, Richard; Cosma, Mihaela; Mielke, Kristi L; Bowers, Cyril Y; Veldhuis, Johannes D

    2008-11-01

    Acylated ghrelin is the putatively bioactive GH secretagogue. Estradiol (E2) stimulates the synthesis rather than inhibits the metabolic clearance of acylated ghrelin. The study took place at an academic medical center. Healthy postmenopausal women participated. Interventions included prospectively randomized, double-blind separate-day iv infusions of saline or five graded doses of ghrelin in estrogen-deficient (n=12) and E2-supplemented (n=8) women. Metabolic clearance rate (MCR), volume of distribution, half-life, and secretion rate of acylated ghrelin were assessed. In pilot iv bolus ghrelin infusions, the median half-lives of acylated and total ghrelin were 21 and 36 min (P<0.01), MCRs 58 and 8.1 liters/kg.d (P<0.01), and volumes of distribution of 1.0 and 0.32 liters/kg (P<0.01), respectively. Transdermal E2 supplementation for 3 wk increased peak nighttime acylated ghrelin concentrations from 99+/-12 to 141+/-34 pg/ml (P=0.039). Exposure to E2 did not alter the linear relationships between 1) plasma acylated ghrelin concentration and ghrelin infusion rate (638+/-12 slope units), 2) MCR of acylated ghrelin and ghrelin infusion rate (10+/-2.5 slope units), and 3) MCR and plasma concentration of acylated ghrelin (0.017+/-0.004 slope units). These data predict peak nighttime production rates of acylated ghrelin of 3.8+/-0.9 (E2) and 1.9+/-0.2 (no E2) ng/kg.min (P=0.039). Acylated ghrelin has a multifold larger distribution volume and MCR than total ghrelin. An estrogenic milieu augments synthesis and/or acylation of ghrelin peptide without altering its MCR.

  4. Acylated flavonol glycoside from Platanus orientalis.

    PubMed

    Tantry, Mudasir A; Akbar, Seema; Dar, Javid A; Irtiza, Syed; Galal, Ahmed; Khuroo, Mohammad A; Ghazanfar, Khalid

    2012-03-01

    The ethylacetate and n-butanol fractions of ethanolic extract of Platanus orientalis leaves led to the isolation of new acylated flavonol glycoside as 3',5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavonol 3-[O-2-O-(2,4-Dihydroxy)-E-cinnamoyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside, along with seven known compounds. All the compounds were characterized by NMR including 2D NMR techniques. The isolates were evaluated for NF-κB, nitric oxide (NO), aromatase and QR2 chemoprevention activities and some of them appeared to be modestly active.

  5. Structural studies of acyl esters of entacapone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leppänen, J.; Wegelius, E.; Nevalainen, T.; Järvinen, T.; Gynther, J.; Huuskonen, J.

    2001-05-01

    The crystal structures of entacapone [( E)-2-cyano- N, N-diethyl-3-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-nitrophenyl)propenamide] and three of its acyl esters were solved. Entacapone, and its monopivaloate and diacetate derivatives, exist in the E-form while its dibenzoate derivative adopts the Z-form in the crystalline state. The ethyl substituents of the E-form are not freely rotating, as demonstrated by the broad signals in the 1H and 13C NMR spectra. The rotation barrier for the E-form was defined by the crystal structures, which show that free rotation of the ethyl substituents is blocked by the cyano-group.

  6. Two Predicted Transmembrane Domains Exclude Very Long Chain Fatty acyl-CoAs from the Active Site of Mouse Wax Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Kawelke, Steffen; Feussner, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Wax esters are used as coatings or storage lipids in all kingdoms of life. They are synthesized from a fatty alcohol and an acyl-CoA by wax synthases. In order to get insights into the structure-function relationships of a wax synthase from Mus musculus, a domain swap experiment between the mouse acyl-CoA:wax alcohol acyltransferase (AWAT2) and the homologous mouse acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) was performed. This showed that the substrate specificity of AWAT2 is partially determined by two predicted transmembrane domains near the amino terminus of AWAT2. Upon exchange of the two domains for the respective part of DGAT2, the resulting chimeric enzyme was capable of incorporating up to 20% of very long acyl chains in the wax esters upon expression in S. cerevisiae strain H1246. The amount of very long acyl chains in wax esters synthesized by wild type AWAT2 was negligible. The effect was narrowed down to a single amino acid position within one of the predicted membrane domains, the AWAT2 N36R variant. Taken together, we provide first evidence that two predicted transmembrane domains in AWAT2 are involved in determining its acyl chain length specificity. PMID:26714272

  7. Expression of Cyanobacterial Acyl-ACP Reductase Elevates the Triacylglycerol Level in the Red Alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

    PubMed

    Sumiya, Nobuko; Kawase, Yasuko; Hayakawa, Jumpei; Matsuda, Mami; Nakamura, Mami; Era, Atsuko; Tanaka, Kan; Kondo, Akihiko; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Imamura, Sousuke; Miyagishima, Shin-ya

    2015-10-01

    Nitrogen starvation is known to induce the accumulation of triacylglycerol (TAG) in many microalgae, and potential use of microalgae as a source of biofuel has been explored. However, nitrogen starvation also stops cellular growth. The expression of cyanobacterial acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase in the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae chloroplasts resulted in an accumulation of TAG, which led to an increase in the number and size of lipid droplets while maintaining cellular growth. Transcriptome and metabolome analyses showed that the expression of acyl-ACP reductase altered the activities of several metabolic pathways. The activities of enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis in chloroplasts, such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase and pyruvate dehydrogenase, were up-regulated, while pyruvate decarboxylation in mitochondria and the subsequent consumption of acetyl-CoA by the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were down-regulated. Aldehyde dehydrogenase, which oxidizes fatty aldehydes to fatty acids, was also up-regulated in the acyl-ACP reductase expresser. This activation was required for the lipid droplet accumulation and metabolic changes observed in the acyl-ACP reductase expresser. Nitrogen starvation also resulted in lipid droplet accumulation in C. merolae, while cell growth ceased as in the case of other algal species. The metabolic changes that occur upon the expression of acyl-ACP reductase are quite different from those caused by nitrogen starvation. Therefore, there should be a method for further increasing the storage lipid level while still maintaining cell growth that is different from the metabolic response to nitrogen starvation.

  8. Quorum quenching enzymes.

    PubMed

    Fetzner, Susanne

    2015-05-10

    Bacteria use cell-to-cell communication systems based on chemical signal molecules to coordinate their behavior within the population. These quorum sensing systems are potential targets for antivirulence therapies, because many bacterial pathogens control the expression of virulence factors via quorum sensing networks. Since biofilm maturation is also usually influenced by quorum sensing, quenching these systems may contribute to combat biofouling. One possibility to interfere with quorum sensing is signal inactivation by enzymatic degradation or modification. Such quorum quenching enzymes are wide-spread in the bacterial world and have also been found in eukaryotes. Lactonases and acylases that hydrolyze N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signaling molecules have been investigated most intensively, however, different oxidoreductases active toward AHLs or 2-alkyl-4(1H)-quinolone signals as well as other signal-converting enzymes have been described. Several approaches have been assessed which aim at alleviating virulence, or biofilm formation, by reducing the signal concentration in the bacterial environment. These involve the application or stimulation of signal-degrading bacteria as biocontrol agents in the protection of crop plants against soft-rot disease, the use of signal-degrading bacteria as probiotics in aquaculture, and the immobilization or entrapment of quorum quenching enzymes or bacteria to control biofouling in membrane bioreactors. While most approaches to use quorum quenching as antivirulence strategy are still in the research phase, the growing number of organisms and enzymes known to interfere with quorum sensing opens up new perspectives for the development of innovative antibacterial strategies.

  9. An oleate 12-hydroxylase from Ricinus communis L. is a fatty acyl desaturase homolog

    SciTech Connect

    Van De Loo, F.J.; Broun, P.; Turner, S.; Somerville, C.

    1995-07-18

    Recent spectroscopic evidence implicating a binuclear iron site at the reaction center of fatty acyl desaturases suggested to us that certain fatty acyl hydroxylases may share significant amino acid sequence similarity with desaturases. To test this theory, we prepared a cDNA library from developing endosperm of the castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis L.) and obtained partial nucleotide sequences for 468 anonymous clones that were not expressed at high levels in leaves, a tissue deficient in 12-hydroxyoleic acid. This resulted in the identification of several cDNA clones encoding a polypeptide of 387 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 44,407 and with {approx}67% sequence homology to microsomal oleate desaturase from Arabidopsis. Expression of a full-length clone under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic tobacco resulted in the accumulation of low levels of 12-hydroxyoleic acid in seeds, indicating that the clone encodes the castor oleate hydroxylase. These results suggest that fatty acyl desaturases and hydroxylases share similar reaction mechanisms and provide an example of enzyme evolution. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. An oleate 12-hydroxylase from Ricinus communis L. is a fatty acyl desaturase homolog.

    PubMed Central

    van de Loo, F J; Broun, P; Turner, S; Somerville, C

    1995-01-01

    Recent spectroscopic evidence implicating a binuclear iron site at the reaction center of fatty acyl desaturases suggested to us that certain fatty acyl hydroxylases may share significant amino acid sequence similarity with desaturases. To test this theory, we prepared a cDNA library from developing endosperm of the castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis L.) and obtained partial nucleotide sequences for 468 anonymous clones that were not expressed at high levels in leaves, a tissue deficient in 12-hydroxyoleic acid. This resulted in the identification of several cDNA clones encoding a polypeptide of 387 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 44,407 and with approximately 67% sequence homology to microsomal oleate desaturase from Arabidopsis. Expression of a full-length clone under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic tobacco resulted in the accumulation of low levels of 12-hydroxyoleic acid in seeds, indicating that the clone encodes the castor oleate hydroxylase. These results suggest that fatty acyl desaturases and hydroxylases share similar reaction mechanisms and provide an example of enzyme evolution. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7624314

  11. Poly specific trans-acyltransferase machinery revealed via engineered acyl-CoA synthetases.

    PubMed

    Koryakina, Irina; McArthur, John; Randall, Shan; Draelos, Matthew M; Musiol, Ewa M; Muddiman, David C; Weber, Tilmann; Williams, Gavin J

    2013-01-18

    Polyketide synthases construct polyketides with diverse structures and biological activities via the condensation of extender units and acyl thioesters. Although a growing body of evidence suggests that polyketide synthases might be tolerant to non-natural extender units, in vitro and in vivo studies aimed at probing and utilizing polyketide synthase specificity are severely limited to only a small number of extender units, owing to the lack of synthetic routes to a broad variety of acyl-CoA extender units. Here, we report the construction of promiscuous malonyl-CoA synthetase variants that can be used to synthesize a broad range of malonyl-CoA extender units substituted at the C2-position, several of which contain handles for chemoselective ligation and are not found in natural biosynthetic systems. We highlighted utility of these enzymes by probing the acyl-CoA specificity of several trans-acyltransferases, leading to the unprecedented discovery of poly specificity toward non-natural extender units, several of which are not found in naturally occurring biosynthetic pathways. These results reveal that polyketide biosynthetic machinery might be more tolerant to non-natural substrates than previously established, and that mutant synthetases are valuable tools for probing the specificity of biosynthetic machinery. Our data suggest new synthetic biology strategies for harnessing this promiscuity and enabling the regioselective modification of polyketides.

  12. Endothelial cell palmitoylproteomics identifies novel lipid modified targets and potential substrates for protein acyl transferases

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Ethan P.; Derakhshan, Behrad; Lam, TuKiet T.; Davalos, Alberto; Sessa, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Protein S-palmitoylation is the post-translational attachment of a saturated 16-carbon palmitic acid to a cysteine side chain via a thioester bond. Palmitoylation can affect protein localization, trafficking, stability, and function. The extent and roles of palmitoylation in endothelial cell (EC) biology is not well understood, in part due to technological limits on palmitoylprotein detection. Objective To develop a method using acyl-biotinyl exchange (ABE) technology coupled with mass spectrometry to globally isolate and identify palmitoylproteins in EC. Methods and Results More than 150 putative palmitoyl proteins were identified in EC using ABE and mass spectrometry. Among the novel palmitoylproteins identified is superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), an intensively studied enzyme that protects all cells from oxidative damage. Mutation of cysteine 6 prevents palmitoylation, leads to reduction in SOD1 activity in vivo and in vitro, and inhibits nuclear localization, thereby supporting a functional role for SOD1 palmitoylation. Moreover, we used ABE to search for substrates of particular protein acyl transferases in EC. We found that palmitoylation of the cell adhesion protein PECAM1 is dependent on the protein acyl transferase ZDHHC21. We show that knockdown of ZDHHC21 leads to reduced levels of PECAM1 at the cell surface. Conclusions Our data demonstrate the utility of EC palmitoylproteomics to reveal new insights into the role of this important post-translational lipid modification in EC biology. PMID:22496122

  13. Role of acyl carrier protein isoforms in plant lipid metabolism: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlrogge, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Previous research from my lab has revealed that several higher plant species have multiple isoforms of acyl carrier protein (ACP) and therefore this trait appears highly conserved among higher plants. This level of conservation suggests that the existence of ACP isoforms is not merely the results of neutral gene duplications. We have developed techniques to examine a wider range of species. Acyl carrier proteins can be labelled very specifically and to high specific activity using H-palmitate and the E. coli enzyme acyl-ACP synthetase. Isoforms were then resolved by western blotting and native PAGE of H-palmitate labelled ACP's. Multiple isoforms of ACP were observed the leaf tissue of the monocots Avena sativa and Hordeum vulgare and dicots including Arabidopsis thallina, Cuphea wrightii, and Brassica napus. Lower vascular plants including the cycad, Dioon edule, Ginkgo biloba, the gymnosperm Pinus, the fern Anernia phyllitidis and Psilotum nudum, the most primitive known extant vascular plant, were also found to have multiple ACP isoforms as were the nonvascular liverwort, Marchantia and moss, Polytrichum. Therefore, the development of ACP isoforms occurred early in evolution. However, the uniellular alge Chlamydomonas and Dunaliella and the photosynthetic cyanobacteria Synechocystis and Agmnellum have only a single elecrophotetic form of ACP. Thus, multiple forms of ACP do not occur in all photosynthetic organisms but may be associated with multicellular plants.

  14. Intestinal Phospholipid Remodeling Is Required for Dietary-Lipid Uptake and Survival on a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Rong, Xin; Duerr, Mark A; Hermanson, Daniel J; Hedde, Per Niklas; Wong, Jinny S; Vallim, Thomas Q de Aguiar; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Gratton, Enrico; Ford, David A; Tontonoz, Peter

    2016-03-08

    Phospholipids are important determinants of membrane biophysical properties, but the impact of membrane acyl chain composition on dietary-lipid absorption is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the LXR-responsive phospholipid-remodeling enzyme Lpcat3 modulates intestinal fatty acid and cholesterol absorption and is required for survival on a high-fat diet. Mice lacking Lpcat3 in the intestine thrive on carbohydrate-based chow but lose body weight rapidly and become moribund on a triglyceride-rich diet. Lpcat3-dependent incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into phospholipids is required for the efficient transport of dietary lipids into enterocytes. Furthermore, loss of Lpcat3 amplifies the production of gut hormones, including GLP-1 and oleoylethanolamide, in response to high-fat feeding, contributing to the paradoxical cessation of food intake in the setting of starvation. These results reveal that membrane phospholipid composition is a gating factor in passive lipid absorption and implicate LXR-Lpcat3 signaling in a gut-brain feedback loop that couples absorption to food intake.

  15. Acyl-CoA binding protein expression is fiber type- specific and elevated in muscles from the obese insulin-resistant Zucker rat.

    PubMed

    Franch, Jesper; Knudsen, Jens; Ellis, Bronwyn A; Pedersen, Preben K; Cooney, Gregory J; Jensen, Jørgen

    2002-02-01

    Accumulation of acyl-CoA is hypothesized to be involved in development of insulin resistance. Acyl-CoA binds to acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) with high affinity, and therefore knowledge about ACBP concentration is important for interpreting acyl-CoA data. In the present study, we used a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantify ACBP concentration in different muscle fiber types. Furthermore, ACBP concentration was compared in muscles from lean and obese Zucker rats. Expression of ACBP was highest in the slow-twitch oxidative soleus muscle and lowest in the fast-twitch glycolytic white gastrocnemius (0.46 +/- 0.02 and 0.16 +/- 0.005 microg/mg protein, respectively). Expression of ACBP was soleus > red gastrocnemius > extensor digitorum longus > white gastrocnemius. Similar fiber type differences were found for carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT)-1, and a correlation was observed between ACBP and CPT-1. Muscles from obese Zucker rats had twice the triglyceride content, had approximately twice the long-chain acyl CoA content, and were severely insulin resistant. ACBP concentration was approximately 30% higher in all muscles from obese rats. Activities of CPT-1 and 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase were increased in muscles from obese rats, whereas citrate synthase activity was similar. In conclusion, ACBP expression is fiber type-specific with the highest concentration in oxidative muscles and the lowest in glycolytic muscles. The 90% increase in the concentration of acyl-CoA in obese Zucker muscle compared with only a 30% increase in the concentration of ACBP supports the hypothesis that an increased concentration of free acyl-CoA is involved in the development of insulin resistance.

  16. Crystal structure of human mitochondrial acyl-CoA thioesterase (ACOT2)

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, Corey R.; Tweel, Benjamin; Tong, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Acyl-CoA thioesterases (ACOTs) catalyze the hydrolysis of CoA esters to free CoA and carboxylic acids and have important functions in lipid metabolism and other cellular processes. Type I ACOTs are found only in animals and contain an α/β hydrolase domain, through currently no structural information is available on any of these enzymes. We report here the crystal structure at 2.1 Å resolution of human mitochondrial ACOT2, a type I enzyme. The structure contains two domains, N and C domains. The C domain has the α/β hydrolase fold, with the catalytic triad Ser294-His422-Asp388. The N domain contains a seven-stranded β-sandwich, which has some distant structural homologs in other proteins. The active site is located in a large pocket at the interface between the two domains. The structural information has significant relevance for other type I ACOTs and related enzymes. PMID:19497300

  17. Crystal structure of human mitochondrial acyl-CoA thioesterase (ACOT2).

    PubMed

    Mandel, Corey R; Tweel, Benjamin; Tong, Liang

    2009-08-07

    Acyl-CoA thioesterases (ACOTs) catalyze the hydrolysis of CoA esters to free CoA and carboxylic acids and have important functions in lipid metabolism and other cellular processes. Type I ACOTs are found only in animals and contain an alpha/beta hydrolase domain, through currently no structural information is available on any of these enzymes. We report here the crystal structure at 2.1A resolution of human mitochondrial ACOT2, a type I enzyme. The structure contains two domains, N and C domains. The C domain has the alpha/beta hydrolase fold, with the catalytic triad Ser294-His422-Asp388. The N domain contains a seven-stranded beta-sandwich, which has some distant structural homologs in other proteins. The active site is located in a large pocket at the interface between the two domains. The structural information has significant relevance for other type I ACOTs and related enzymes.

  18. Characterization of the "Escherichia Coli" Acyl Carrier Protein Phosphodiesterase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a small essential protein that functions as a carrier of the acyl intermediates of fatty acid synthesis. ACP requires the posttranslational attachment of a 4'phosphopantetheine functional group, derived from CoA, in order to perform its metabolic function. A Mn[superscript 2+] dependent enzymatic activity that removes…

  19. Understanding Acyl Chain and Glycerolipid Metabolism in Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlrogge, John B.

    2013-11-05

    Progress is reported in these areas: acyl-editing in initial eukaryotic lipid assembly in soybean seeds; identification and characterization of two Arabidopsis thaliana lysophosphatidyl acyltransferases with preference for lysophosphatidylethanolamine; and characterization and subcellular distribution of lysolipid acyl transferase activity of pea leaves.

  20. Characterization of the "Escherichia Coli" Acyl Carrier Protein Phosphodiesterase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a small essential protein that functions as a carrier of the acyl intermediates of fatty acid synthesis. ACP requires the posttranslational attachment of a 4'phosphopantetheine functional group, derived from CoA, in order to perform its metabolic function. A Mn[superscript 2+] dependent enzymatic activity that removes…

  1. Probing the Mechanism of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis [beta]-Ketoacyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Synthase III mtFabH: Factors Influencing Catalysis and Substrate Specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Alistair K.; Sridharan, Sudharsan; Kremer, Laurent; Lindenberg, Sandra; Dover, Lynn G.; Sacchettini, James C.; Besra, Gurdyal S.

    2010-11-30

    Mycolic acids are the dominant feature of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall. These {alpha}-alkyl, {beta}-hydroxy fatty acids are formed by the condensation of two fatty acids, a long meromycolic acid and a shorter C{sub 24}-C{sub 26} fatty acid. The component fatty acids are produced via a combination of type I and II fatty acid synthases (FAS) with FAS-I products being elongated by FAS-II toward meromycolic acids. The {beta}-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase III encoded by mtfabH (mtFabH) links FAS-I and FAS-II, catalyzing the condensation of FAS-I-derived acyl-CoAs with malonyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP). The acyl-CoA chain length specificity of mtFabH was assessed in vitro; the enzyme extended longer, physiologically relevant acyl-CoA primers when paired with AcpM, its natural partner, than with Escherichia coli ACP. The ability of the enzyme to use E. coli ACP suggests that a similar mode of binding is likely with both ACPs, yet it is clear that unique factors inherent to AcpM modulate the substrate specificity of mtFabH. Mutation of proposed key mtFabH residues was used to define their catalytic roles. Substitution of supposed acyl-CoA binding residues reduced transacylation, with double substitutions totally abrogating activity. Mutation of Arg{sup 46} revealed its more critical role in malonyl-AcpM decarboxylation than in the acyl-CoA binding role. Interestingly, this effect was suppressed intragenically by Arg{sup 161} {yields} Ala substitution. Our structural studies suggested that His{sup 258}, previously implicated in malonyl-ACP decarboxylation, also acts as an anchor point for a network of water molecules that we propose promotes deprotonation and transacylation of Cys{sup 122}.

  2. Release of angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor peptides during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of Parmigiano Reggiano PDO cheese and their absorption through an in vitro model of intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Basiricò, L; Catalani, E; Morera, P; Cattaneo, S; Stuknytė, M; Bernabucci, U; De Noni, I; Nardone, A

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence of 8 bovine casein-derived peptides (VPP, IPP, RYLGY, RYLG, AYFYPEL, AYFYPE, LHLPLP, and HLPLP) reported as angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitors (ACE-I) was investigated in the 3-kDa ultrafiltered water-soluble extract (WSE) of Parmigiano Reggiano (PR) cheese samples by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry via an electrospray ionization source. Only VPP, IPP, LHLPLP, and HLPLP were revealed in the WSE, and their total amount was in the range of 8.46 to 21.55 mg/kg of cheese. Following in vitro static gastrointestinal digestion, the same ACE-I peptides along with the newly formed AYFYPEL and AYFYPE were found in the 3 kDa WSE of PR digestates. Digestates presented high amounts (1,880-3,053 mg/kg) of LHLPLP, whereas the remaining peptides accounted for 69.24 to 82.82 mg/kg. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values decreased from 7.92 ± 2.08 in undigested cheese to 3.20 ± 1.69 after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The 3-kDa WSE of digested cheeses were used to study the transport of the 8 ACE-I peptides across the monolayers of the Caco-2 cell culture grown on a semipermeable membrane of the transwells. After 1h of incubation, 649.20 ± 148.85 mg/kg of LHLPLP remained in the apical compartment, whereas VPP, IPP, AYFYPEL, AYFYPE, and HLPLP accounted in total for less than 36.78 mg/kg. On average, 0.6% of LHLPLP initially present in the digestates added to the apical compartment were transported intact to the basolateral chamber after the same incubation time. Higher transport rate (2.9%) was ascertained for the peptide HLPLP. No other intact ACE-I peptides were revealed in the basolateral compartment. For the first time, these results demonstrated that the ACE-I peptides HLPLP and LHLPLP present in the in vitro digestates of PR cheese are partially absorbed through an in vitro model of human intestinal epithelium.

  3. Protein lysine acylation and cysteine succination by intermediates of energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiaoyang; He, Bin

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years, several new protein post-translational modifications that use intermediates in metabolism have been discovered. These include various acyl lysine modifications (formylation, propionylation, butyrylation, crotonylation, malonylation, succinylation, myristoylation) and cysteine succination. Here, we review the discovery and the current understanding of these modifications. Several of these modifications are regulated by the deacylases, sirtuins, which use nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), an important metabolic small molecule. Interestingly, several of these modifications in turn regulate the activity of metabolic enzymes. These new modifications reveal interesting connections between metabolism and protein post-translational modifications and raise many questions for future investigations. PMID:22571489

  4. Heterocyclic acyl-phosphate bioisostere-based inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus biotin protein ligase.

    PubMed

    Tieu, William; Jarrad, Angie M; Paparella, Ashleigh S; Keeling, Kelly A; Soares da Costa, Tatiana P; Wallace, John C; Booker, Grant W; Polyak, Steven W; Abell, Andrew D

    2014-10-01

    Inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus biotin protein ligase (SaBPL) are generated by replacing the acyl phosphate group of biotinyl-5'-AMP with either a 1,2,3-triazole (see 5/10a/10b) or a 1,2,4-oxadiazole (see 7) bioisostere. Importantly, the inhibitors are inactive against the human BPL. The nature of the 5-substituent in the component benzoxazolone of the optimum 1,2,3-triazole series is critical to activity, where this group binds in the ATP binding pocket of the enzyme. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acyl-CoA oxidase complexes control the chemical message produced by Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinxing; Feng, Likui; Chinta, Satya; Singh, Prashant; Wang, Yuting; Nunnery, Joshawna K; Butcher, Rebecca A

    2015-03-31

    Caenorhabditis elegans uses ascaroside pheromones to induce development of the stress-resistant dauer larval stage and to coordinate various behaviors. Peroxisomal β-oxidation cycles are required for the biosynthesis of the fatty acid-derived side chains of the ascarosides. Here we show that three acyl-CoA oxidases, which catalyze the first step in these β-oxidation cycles, form different protein homo- and heterodimers with distinct substrate preferences. Mutations in the acyl-CoA oxidase genes acox-1, -2, and -3 led to specific defects in ascaroside production. When the acyl-CoA oxidases were expressed alone or in pairs and purified, the resulting acyl-CoA oxidase homo- and heterodimers displayed different side-chain length preferences in an in vitro activity assay. Specifically, an ACOX-1 homodimer controls the production of ascarosides with side chains with nine or fewer carbons, an ACOX-1/ACOX-3 heterodimer controls the production of those with side chains with seven or fewer carbons, and an ACOX-2 homodimer controls the production of those with ω-side chains with less than five carbons. Our results support a biosynthetic model in which β-oxidation enzymes act directly on the CoA-thioesters of ascaroside biosynthetic precursors. Furthermore, we identify environmental conditions, including high temperature and low food availability, that induce the expression of acox-2 and/or acox-3 and lead to corresponding changes in ascaroside production. Thus, our work uncovers an important mechanism by which C. elegans increases the production of the most potent dauer pheromones, those with the shortest side chains, under specific environmental conditions.

  6. Acyl-CoA oxidase complexes control the chemical message produced by Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinxing; Feng, Likui; Chinta, Satya; Singh, Prashant; Wang, Yuting; Nunnery, Joshawna K.; Butcher, Rebecca A.

    2015-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans uses ascaroside pheromones to induce development of the stress-resistant dauer larval stage and to coordinate various behaviors. Peroxisomal β-oxidation cycles are required for the biosynthesis of the fatty acid-derived side chains of the ascarosides. Here we show that three acyl-CoA oxidases, which catalyze the first step in these β-oxidation cycles, form different protein homo- and heterodimers with distinct substrate preferences. Mutations in the acyl-CoA oxidase genes acox-1, -2, and -3 led to specific defects in ascaroside production. When the acyl-CoA oxidases were expressed alone or in pairs and purified, the resulting acyl-CoA oxidase homo- and heterodimers displayed different side-chain length preferences in an in vitro activity assay. Specifically, an ACOX-1 homodimer controls the production of ascarosides with side chains with nine or fewer carbons, an ACOX-1/ACOX-3 heterodimer controls the production of those with side chains with seven or fewer carbons, and an ACOX-2 homodimer controls the production of those with ω-side chains with less than five carbons. Our results support a biosynthetic model in which β-oxidation enzymes act directly on the CoA-thioesters of ascaroside biosynthetic precursors. Furthermore, we identify environmental conditions, including high temperature and low food availability, that induce the expression of acox-2 and/or acox-3 and lead to corresponding changes in ascaroside production. Thus, our work uncovers an important mechanism by which C. elegans increases the production of the most potent dauer pheromones, those with the shortest side chains, under specific environmental conditions. PMID:25775534

  7. Interaction of GCAP1 with retinal guanylyl cyclase and calcium: sensitivity to fatty acylation

    PubMed Central

    Peshenko, Igor V.; Olshevskaya, Elena V.; Dizhoor, Alexander M.

    2012-01-01

    Guanylyl cyclase activating proteins (GCAPs) are calcium/magnesium binding proteins within neuronal calcium sensor proteins group (NCS) of the EF-hand proteins superfamily. GCAPs activate retinal guanylyl cyclase (RetGC) in vertebrate photoreceptors in response to light-dependent fall of the intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations. GCAPs consist of four EF-hand domains and contain N-terminal fatty acylated glycine, which in GCAP1 is required for the normal activation of RetGC. We analyzed the effects of a substitution prohibiting N-myristoylation (Gly2 → Ala) on the ability of the recombinant GCAP1 to co-localize with its target enzyme when heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells. We also compared Ca2+ binding and RetGC-activating properties of the purified non-acylated G2A mutant and C14:0 acylated GCAP1 in vitro. The G2A GCAP1 expressed with a C-terminal GFP tag was able to co-localize with the cyclase, albeit less efficiently than the wild type, but much less effectively stimulated cyclase activity in vitro. Ca2+ binding isotherm of the G2A GCAP1 was slightly shifted toward higher free Ca2+ concentrations and so was Ca2+ sensitivity of RetGC reconstituted with the G2A mutant. At the same time, myristoylation had little effect on the high-affinity Ca2+-binding in the EF-hand proximal to the myristoyl residue in three-dimensional GCAP1 structure. These data indicate that the N-terminal fatty acyl group may alter the activity of EF-hands in the distal portion of the GCAP1 molecule via presently unknown intramolecular mechanism. PMID:22371697

  8. Acyl peptidic siderophores: structures, biosyntheses and post-assembly modifications.

    PubMed

    Kem, Michelle P; Butler, Alison

    2015-06-01

    Acyl peptidic siderophores are produced by a variety of bacteria and possess unique amphiphilic properties. Amphiphilic siderophores are generally produced in a suite where the iron(III)-binding headgroup remains constant while the fatty acid appendage varies by length and functionality. Acyl peptidic siderophores are commonly synthesized by non-ribosomal peptide synthetases; however, the method of peptide acylation during biosynthesis can vary between siderophores. Following biosynthesis, acyl siderophores can be further modified enzymatically to produce a more hydrophilic compound, which retains its ferric chelating abilities as demonstrated by pyoverdine from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the marinobactins from certain Marinobacter species. Siderophore hydrophobicity can also be altered through photolysis of the ferric complex of certain β-hydroxyaspartic acid-containing acyl peptidic siderophores.

  9. Enzymatic preparation of arbutin derivatives: lipase-catalyzed direct acylation without the need of vinyl ester as an acyl donor.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Kohji; Katsube, Yasuko; Kumazawa, Nozomi; Kuratani, Mari; Masuoka, Noriyoshi; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi

    2010-06-01

    Direct and regioselective acylation of arbutin with aromatic or aliphatic acid using a lipase obtained from Candida antarctica in an organic solvent was investigated. We achieved the enzymatic synthesis of feruloyl arbutin and lipoyl arbutin without the need of vinyl ferulate and vinyl lipoate as acyl donors, respectively. (c) 2009 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cysteine-286 as the site of acylation of the Lux-specific fatty acyl-CoA reductase.

    PubMed

    Lee, C Y; Meighen, E A

    1997-04-04

    The channelling of fatty acids into the fatty aldehyde substrate for the bacterial bioluminescence reaction is catalyzed by a fatty acid reductase multienzyme complex, which channels fatty acids through the thioesterase (LuxD), synthetase (LuxE) and reductase (LuxC) components. Although all three components can be readily acylated in extracts of different luminescent bacteria, this complex has been successfully purified only from Photobacterium phosphoreum and the sites of acylation identified on LuxD and LuxE. To identify the acylation site on LuxC, the nucleotide sequence of P. phosphoreum luxC has been determined and the gene expressed in a mutant Escherichia coli strain. Even in crude extracts, the acylated reductase intermediate as well as acyl-CoA reductase activity could be readily detected, providing the basis for analysis of mutant reductases. Comparison of the amino-acid sequences of LuxC from P. phosphoreum, P. leiognathi and other luminescent bacteria, showed that only three cysteine residues (C171, C279, and C286) were conserved. As a cysteine residue on LuxC has been implicated in fatty acyl transfer, each of the conserved cysteine residues of the P. phosphoreum and P. leiognathi reductases was converted to a serine residue, and the properties of the mutant proteins examined. Only mutation of C286-blocked reductase activity and prevented formation of the acylated reductase intermediate, showing that C286 is the site of acylation on LuxC.

  11. Enzymes in Fermented Fish.

    PubMed

    Giyatmi; Irianto, H E

    Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Enzymatic hydrolysis of molecules associated with bacterial quorum sensing using an acyl homoserine lactonase from a novel Bacillus thuringiensis strain.

    PubMed

    Pedroza, Carmen Julia; Flórez, Alvaro Mauricio; Ruiz, Orlando S; Orduz, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    N-acyl homoserine lactones are key components of quorum sensing, the bacterial communication system. This communication mechanism regulates the expression of genes, including those involved in virulence and biofilm formation. This system can be interrupted by the action of enzymes that hydrolyze the signaling molecules. In this work, we studied the enzymatic properties of a recombinant AHL-lactonase from Bacillus thuringiensis strain 147-11516, using substrates with acyl chains of different length (C4-HSL, C6-HSL, C7-HSL, C8-HSL and C10-HSL), we also investigated the effect of pH (5.0–9.0), temperature (20–70 °C), concentration of monovalent, divalent and trivalent metals ions (0.2 and 2.0 mM) and EDTA. The results showed that the recombinant AHL-lactonase had biological activity in alkaline pH conditions (8.0) and high temperature (47 % of hydrolyzed substrate at 60 °C). The recombinant AHL-lactonase has activity on substrates with different acyl chain length. However, the activity of the recombinant enzyme was decreased in the two concentrations of all metal ions evaluated but was not inhibited by EDTA. The affinity of the enzyme for all substrates tested and its performance, in the evaluated conditions, suggest that the AHL-lactonase from B. thuringiensis strain 147-11516 could be used as a strategy for disruption of the Gram-negative bacteria communication system under normal and challenging conditions.

  13. Environmental contaminants and intestinal function

    PubMed Central

    Banwell, John G.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental contaminants which have their major effects on the small intestine may be classified into five major categories: (1) bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents, (2) food and plant substances, (3) environmental and industrial products, (4) pharmaceutical agents, and (5) toxic agents whose metabolic effects are dependent on interreaction with intestinal bacterial flora, other physical agents (detergents), human intestinal enzyme deficiency states, and the nutritional state of the host. Bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents are the most important of all such agents, being responsible for significant mortality and morbidity in association with diarrheal diseases of adults and children. Several plant substances ingested as foods have unique effects on the small bowel as well as from contaminants such as fungi on poorly preserved grains and cereals. Environmental and industrial products, in spite of their widespread prevalence in industrial societies as contaminants, are less important unless unexpectedly intense exposure occurs to the intestinal tract. Pharmaceutical agents of several types interreact with the small bowel mucosa causing impairment of transport processes for fluid and electrolytes, amino acid, lipid and sugars as well as vitamins. These interreactions may be dependent on bacterial metabolic activity, association with detergents, mucosal enzyme deficiency state (disaccharidases), and the state of nutrition of the subject. PMID:540611

  14. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the mouse brain cytosolic long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Serek, Robert; Forwood, Jade K.; Hume, David A.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Kobe, Bostjan

    2006-02-01

    The C-terminal domain of the mouse long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase has been expressed in bacteria and crystallized by vapour diffusion. The crystals diffract to 2.4 Å resolution. The mammalian long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase, the enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs to free fatty acids, contains two fused 4HBT (4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA thioesterase) motifs. The C-terminal domain of the mouse long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase (Acot7) has been expressed in bacteria and crystallized. The crystals were obtained by vapour diffusion using PEG 2000 MME as precipitant at pH 7.0 and 290 K. The crystals have the symmetry of space group R32 (unit-cell parameters a = b = 136.83, c = 99.82 Å, γ = 120°). Two molecules are expected in the asymmetric unit. The crystals diffract to 2.4 Å resolution using the laboratory X-ray source and are suitable for crystal structure determination.

  15. Intestinal absorption and metabolism of xenobiotics

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Rajendra S.

    1979-01-01

    There are five possible processes of intestinal absorption of xenobiotics. These are active transport, passive diffusions, pinocytosis, filtration through “pores,” and lymphatic absorption. The passive diffusion is major process for transport of foreign chemicals across the intestine. Though the lymphatic absorption of drugs is not of any major therapeutic significance, the uptake of toxic chemicals such as 3-MC, benzpyrene, and DDT through lymphatics may enhance their toxicity, since they are distributed to other organ systems in the body without being metabolized by liver. A number of factors such as diet, motility of intestine, interference with gastrointestinal flora, changes in the rate of gastric emptying, age of the animal, and dissolution rate of xenobiotic can alter the rate of absorption of chemicals. Liver is the major site of metabolism of xenobiotics, but the contribution of intestinal metabolism of xenobiotic can influence the overall bioavailability of chemicals. The xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes located in endoplasmic reticulum of intestine possess biochemical characteristics similar to that of liver. In general, the rate of metabolism of xenobiotics by intestinal microsomal preparation is lower than that observed with similar hepatic microsomal preparations. The in vitro intestinal metabolism of xenobiotics is affected by several factors including age, sex, diurnal variations, species, and nutritional status of the animal. The intestinal xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes are stimulated by the pretreatment of animals with foreign chemicals, but this depends on the route of administration of chemicals, drug substrate and the animal species used. Rabbit intestinal drug metabolizing enzymes seem to be resistant to induction by foreign chemicals. PMID:540626

  16. INTESTINAL CAPILLARIES

    PubMed Central

    Clementi, Francesco; Palade, George E.

    1969-01-01

    Perfusion of the fenestrated capillaries of the intestinal mucosa of the rat with 0.05–0.1 M EDTA removes the diaphragms of the endothelial cells and detaches these cells from one another and from the basement membrane. The latter, even when completely denuded, retains effectively particles of 340 A (average) diameter. Perfusion with histamine (1 µg/ml) results in partial removal of fenestral diaphragms, occasional detachment of the endothelium from the basement membrane, and focal separation of endothelial intercellular junctions. PMID:4979362

  17. Glycoprotein biosynthesis in small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young S.; Perdomo, Jose

    1972-01-01

    Rat small intestinal mucosa was examined for ability to produce mucins with human blood group A, B, and H activity. Blood group activity of the mucins was compared to antigenic activity of red blood cells in individual rats and the enzymatic basis for differences was investigated. Red cells in all the rats examined contained human blood group A and B antigens. All rats synthesized intestinal mucins having B and H antigenic activity but 57% failed to produce mucins with blood group A activity (A-); the remaining 43% (A+) produced A substance. The activities of five glycosyltransferases including α(1→2) fucosyltransferase, the determinant of human secretor status, were measured in the intestine of A+ and A- rats. Four enzymes were the same in both groups, while the fifth, N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, was present only in A+ rats. The specificity of this latter enzyme, as found in the rat, appeared similar to that in humans, since it catalyzed addition of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine only to acceptors which had the H determinant structure. In the presence of the enzyme, A- mucin could be converted to A+ mucin; this was shown both by hemagglutination inhibition and immunoprecipitin studies of the products of incubation of A- mucin with UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and the enzyme. These studies indicate that the difference between A+ and A- rats is due to the apparent absence of N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase in the intestinal mucosa of A- rats. These rats may provide experimental models for studies on the effect of ABO and secretor status on susceptibility to ulceration and carcinogenesis. Images PMID:4112001

  18. Glycosphingolipids are essential for intestinal endocytic function.

    PubMed

    Jennemann, Richard; Kaden, Sylvia; Sandhoff, Roger; Nordström, Viola; Wang, Shijun; Volz, Martina; Robine, Sylvie; Amen, Nicole; Rothermel, Ulrike; Wiegandt, Herbert; Gröne, Hermann-Josef

    2012-09-21

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) constitute major components of enterocytes and were hypothesized to be potentially important for intestinal epithelial polarization. The enzyme UDP-glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase (Ugcg) catalyzes the initial step of GSL biosynthesis. Newborn and adult mice with enterocyte-specific genetic deletion of the gene Ugcg were generated. In newborn mutants lacking GSLs at day P0, intestinal epithelia were indistinguishable from those in control littermates displaying an intact polarization with regular brush border. However, those mice were not consistently able to absorb nutritional lipids from milk. Between postnatal days 5 and 7, severe defects in intestinal epithelial differentiation occurred accompanied by impaired intestinal uptake of nutrients. Villi of mutant mice became stunted, and enterocytes lacked brush border. The defects observed in mutant mice caused diarrhea, malabsorption, and early death. In this study, we show that GSLs are essential for enterocyte resorptive function but are primarily not for polarization; GSLs are required for intracellular vesicular transport in resorption-active intestine.

  19. Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 (ACAD 9) is the long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase in human embryonic and fetal brain.

    PubMed

    Oey, N A; Ruiter, J P N; Ijlst, L; Attie-Bitach, T; Vekemans, M; Wanders, R J A; Wijburg, F A

    2006-07-21

    We recently reported the expression and activity of several fatty acid oxidation enzymes in human embryonic and fetal tissues including brain and spinal cord. Liver and heart showed expression of both very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) and long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) mRNA. However, while mRNA expression of LCHAD could be clearly detected in the retina and spinal cord, expression of VLCAD mRNA was low to undetectable in these tissues. Nevertheless, abundant acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD) activity was detected with palmitoyl-CoA as substrate in fetal central nervous tissue. These conflicting data suggested the presence of a different long-chain ACAD in human embryonic and fetal brain. In this study, using in situ hybridization as well as enzymatic studies, we identified acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 (ACAD 9) as the long-chain ACAD in human embryonic and fetal central nervous tissue. Until now, no clinical signs and symptoms of central nervous system involvement have been reported in VLCAD deficiency. A novel long-chain FAO defect, i.e., ACAD 9 deficiency with only central nervous system involvement, could, if not lethal during intra uterine development, easily escape proper diagnosis, since probably no classical signs and symptoms of FAO deficiency will be observed. Screening for ACAD 9 deficiency in patients with undefined neurological symptoms and/or impairment in neurological development of unknown origin is necessary to establish if ACAD 9 deficiency exists as a separate disease entity.

  20. Acyl CoA synthetase 5 (ACSL5) ablation in mice increases energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity and delays fat absorption

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Thomas A.; O'Keeffe, Kayleigh R.; D'Aquila, Theresa; Yan, Qing Wu; Griffin, John D.; Killion, Elizabeth A.; Salter, Deanna M.; Mashek, Douglas G.; Buhman, Kimberly K.; Greenberg, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The family of acyl-CoA synthetase enzymes (ACSL) activates fatty acids within cells to generate long chain fatty acyl CoA (FACoA). The differing metabolic fates of FACoAs such as incorporation into neutral lipids, phospholipids, and oxidation pathways are differentially regulated by the ACSL isoforms. In vitro studies have suggested a role for ACSL5 in triglyceride synthesis; however, we have limited understanding of the in vivo actions of this ACSL isoform. Methods To elucidate the in vivo actions of ACSL5 we generated a line of mice in which ACSL5 expression was ablated in all tissues (ACSL5−/−). Results Ablation of ACSL5 reduced ACSL activity by ∼80% in jejunal mucosa, ∼50% in liver, and ∼37% in brown adipose tissue lysates. Body composition studies revealed that ACSL5−/−, as compared to control ACSL5loxP/loxP, mice had significantly reduced fat mass and adipose fat pad weights. Indirect calorimetry studies demonstrated that ACSL5−/− had increased metabolic rates, and in the dark phase, increased respiratory quotient. In ACSL5−/− mice, fasting glucose and serum triglyceride were reduced; and insulin sensitivity was improved during an insulin tolerance test. Both hepatic mRNA (∼16-fold) and serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) (∼13-fold) were increased in ACSL5−/− as compared to ACSL5loxP/loxP. Consistent with increased FGF21 serum levels, uncoupling protein-1 gene (Ucp1) and PPAR-gamma coactivator 1-alpha gene (Pgc1α) transcript levels were increased in gonadal adipose tissue. To further evaluate ACSL5 function in intestine, mice were gavaged with an olive oil bolus; and the rate of triglyceride appearance in serum was found to be delayed in ACSL5−/− mice as compared to control mice. Conclusions In summary, ACSL5−/− mice have increased hepatic and serum FGF21 levels, reduced adiposity, improved insulin sensitivity, increased energy expenditure and delayed triglyceride absorption. These studies

  1. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Professional Small Intestine Cancer Treatment Research Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Intestine Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  2. Characterization of Novel Acyl Coenzyme A Dehydrogenases Involved in Bacterial Steroid Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Ruprecht, Amanda; Maddox, Jaymie; Stirling, Alexander J.; Visaggio, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenases (ACADs) FadE34 and CasC, encoded by the cholesterol and cholate gene clusters of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, respectively, were successfully purified. Both enzymes differ from previously characterized ACADs in that they contain two fused acyl-CoA dehydrogenase domains in a single polypeptide. Site-specific mutagenesis showed that only the C-terminal ACAD domain contains the catalytic glutamate base required for enzyme activity, while the N-terminal ACAD domain contains an arginine required for ionic interactions with the pyrophosphate of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor. Therefore, the two ACAD domains must associate to form a single active site. FadE34 and CasC were not active toward the 3-carbon side chain steroid metabolite 3-oxo-23,24-bisnorchol-4-en-22-oyl-CoA (4BNC-CoA) but were active toward steroid CoA esters containing 5-carbon side chains. CasC has similar specificity constants for cholyl-CoA, deoxycholyl-CoA, and 3β-hydroxy-5-cholen-24-oyl-CoA, while FadE34 has a preference for the last compound, which has a ring structure similar to that of cholesterol metabolites. Knockout of the casC gene in R. jostii RHA1 resulted in a reduced growth on cholate as a sole carbon source and accumulation of a 5-carbon side chain cholate metabolite. FadE34 and CasC represent unique members of ACADs with primary structures and substrate specificities that are distinct from those of previously characterized ACADs. IMPORTANCE We report here the identification and characterization of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs) involved in the metabolism of 5-carbon side chains of cholesterol and cholate. The two homologous enzymes FadE34 and CasC, from M. tuberculosis and Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, respectively, contain two ACAD domains per polypeptide, and we show that these two domains interact to form a single active site. FadE34 and CasC are therefore representatives of a new class of

  3. Preparation of acetylsalicylic acid-acylated chitosan as a novel polymeric drug for drug controlled release.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changkun; Wu, Yiguang; Zhao, Liyan; Huang, Xinzheng

    2015-01-01

    The acetylsalicylic acid-acylated chitosan (ASACTS) with high degree of substitution (DS) was successfully synthesized, and characterized with FTIR, (1)H NMR and elemental analysis methods. The optimum synthesis conditions were obtained which gave the highest DS (about 60%) for ASACTS. Its drug release experiments were carried out in simulated gastric and intestine fluids. The results show that the drugs in the form of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and salicylic acid (SA) were released in a controlled manner from ASACTS only in simulated gastric fluid. The release profile can be best fitted with logistic and Weibull model. The research results reveal that ASACTS can be a potential polymeric drug for the controlled release of ASA and SA in the targeted gastric environment.

  4. Intestinal capillariasis.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, J H

    1992-01-01

    Intestinal capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis appeared first in the Philippines and subsequently in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Egypt, and Taiwan, but most infections occur in the Philippines and Thailand. As established experimentally, the life cycle involves freshwater fish as intermediate hosts and fish-eating birds as definitive hosts. Embryonated eggs from feces fed to fish hatch and grow as larvae in the fish intestines. Infective larvae fed to monkeys, Mongolian gerbils, and fish-eating birds develop into adults. Larvae become adults in 10 to 11 days, and the first-generation females produce larvae. These larvae develop into males and egg-producing female worms. Eggs pass with the feces, reach water, embryonate, and infect fish. Autoinfection is part of the life cycle and leads to hyperinfection. Humans acquire the infection by eating small freshwater fish raw. The parasite multiplies, and symptoms of diarrhea, borborygmus, abdominal pain, and edema develop. Chronic infections lead to malabsorption and hence to protein and electrolyte loss, and death results from irreversible effects of the infection. Treatment consists of electrolyte replacement and administration of an antidiarrheal agent and mebendazole or albendazole. Capillariasis philippinensis is considered a zoonotic disease of migratory fish-eating birds. The eggs are disseminated along flyways and infect the fish, and when fish are eaten raw, the disease develops. Images PMID:1576584

  5. Intestinal capillariasis.

    PubMed

    Cross, J H

    1992-04-01

    Intestinal capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis appeared first in the Philippines and subsequently in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Egypt, and Taiwan, but most infections occur in the Philippines and Thailand. As established experimentally, the life cycle involves freshwater fish as intermediate hosts and fish-eating birds as definitive hosts. Embryonated eggs from feces fed to fish hatch and grow as larvae in the fish intestines. Infective larvae fed to monkeys, Mongolian gerbils, and fish-eating birds develop into adults. Larvae become adults in 10 to 11 days, and the first-generation females produce larvae. These larvae develop into males and egg-producing female worms. Eggs pass with the feces, reach water, embryonate, and infect fish. Autoinfection is part of the life cycle and leads to hyperinfection. Humans acquire the infection by eating small freshwater fish raw. The parasite multiplies, and symptoms of diarrhea, borborygmus, abdominal pain, and edema develop. Chronic infections lead to malabsorption and hence to protein and electrolyte loss, and death results from irreversible effects of the infection. Treatment consists of electrolyte replacement and administration of an antidiarrheal agent and mebendazole or albendazole. Capillariasis philippinensis is considered a zoonotic disease of migratory fish-eating birds. The eggs are disseminated along flyways and infect the fish, and when fish are eaten raw, the disease develops.

  6. Differential turnover of phospholipid acyl groups in mouse peritoneal macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwae, T.; Schmid, P.C.; Johnson, S.B.; Schmid, H.H. )

    1990-03-25

    Phospholipid acyl turnover was assessed in mouse peritoneal exudate cells which consisted primarily of macrophages. The cells were incubated for up to 5 h in media containing 40% H218O, and uptake of 18O into ester carbonyls of phospholipids was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of hydrogenated methyl esters. The uptake was highest in choline phospholipids and phosphatidylinositol, less in ethanolamine phospholipids, and much less in phosphatidylserine. Acyl groups at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions of diacyl glycerophospholipids, including arachidonic and other long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, acquired 18O at about the same rate. Acyl groups of alkylacyl glycerophosphocholine exhibited lower rates of 18O uptake, and acyl groups of ethanolamine plasmalogens (alkenylacyl glycerophosphoethanolamines) acquired only minimal amounts of 18O within 5 h, indicating a low average acyl turnover via free fatty acids. Pulse experiments with exogenous 3H-labeled arachidonic acid supported the concept that acylation of alkenyl glycerophosphoethanolamine occurs by acyl transfer from other phospholipids rather than via free fatty acids and acyl-CoA. The 18O content of intracellular free fatty acids increased gradually over a 5-h period, whereas in extracellular free fatty acids it reached maximal 18O levels within the first hour. Arachidonate and other long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids were found to participate readily in deacylation-reacylation reactions but were present only in trace amounts in the free fatty acid pools inside and outside the cells. We conclude that acyl turnover of macrophage phospholipids through hydrolysis and reacylation is rapid but tightly controlled so that appreciable concentrations of free arachidonic acid do not occur.

  7. Adipose triglyceride lipase is a TG hydrolase of the small intestine and regulates intestinal PPARα signaling

    PubMed Central

    Obrowsky, Sascha; Chandak, Prakash G.; Patankar, Jay V.; Povoden, Silvia; Schlager, Stefanie; Kershaw, Erin E.; Bogner-Strauss, Juliane G.; Hoefler, Gerald; Levak-Frank, Sanja; Kratky, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme mediating triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis. The lack of ATGL results in TG accumulation in multiple tissues, underscoring the critical role of ATGL in maintaining lipid homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that ATGL affects TG metabolism via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). To investigate specific effects of intestinal ATGL on lipid metabolism we generated mice lacking ATGL exclusively in the intestine (ATGLiKO). We found decreased TG hydrolase activity and increased intracellular TG content in ATGLiKO small intestines. Intragastric administration of [3H]trioleate resulted in the accumulation of radioactive TG in the intestine, whereas absorption into the systemic circulation was unchanged. Intraperitoneally injected [3H]oleate also accumulated within TG in ATGLiKO intestines, indicating that ATGL mobilizes fatty acids from the systemic circulation absorbed by the basolateral side from the blood. Down-regulation of PPARα target genes suggested modulation of cholesterol absorption by intestinal ATGL. Accordingly, ATGL deficiency in the intestine resulted in delayed cholesterol absorption. Importantly, this study provides evidence that ATGL has no impact on intestinal TG absorption but hydrolyzes TGs taken up from the intestinal lumen and systemic circulation. Our data support the role of ATGL in modulating PPARα-dependent processes also in the small intestine. PMID:23220585

  8. Adipose triglyceride lipase is a TG hydrolase of the small intestine and regulates intestinal PPARα signaling.

    PubMed

    Obrowsky, Sascha; Chandak, Prakash G; Patankar, Jay V; Povoden, Silvia; Schlager, Stefanie; Kershaw, Erin E; Bogner-Strauss, Juliane G; Hoefler, Gerald; Levak-Frank, Sanja; Kratky, Dagmar

    2013-02-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme mediating triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis. The lack of ATGL results in TG accumulation in multiple tissues, underscoring the critical role of ATGL in maintaining lipid homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that ATGL affects TG metabolism via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). To investigate specific effects of intestinal ATGL on lipid metabolism we generated mice lacking ATGL exclusively in the intestine (ATGLiKO). We found decreased TG hydrolase activity and increased intracellular TG content in ATGLiKO small intestines. Intragastric administration of [(3)H]trioleate resulted in the accumulation of radioactive TG in the intestine, whereas absorption into the systemic circulation was unchanged. Intraperitoneally injected [(3)H]oleate also accumulated within TG in ATGLiKO intestines, indicating that ATGL mobilizes fatty acids from the systemic circulation absorbed by the basolateral side from the blood. Down-regulation of PPARα target genes suggested modulation of cholesterol absorption by intestinal ATGL. Accordingly, ATGL deficiency in the intestine resulted in delayed cholesterol absorption. Importantly, this study provides evidence that ATGL has no impact on intestinal TG absorption but hydrolyzes TGs taken up from the intestinal lumen and systemic circulation. Our data support the role of ATGL in modulating PPARα-dependent processes also in the small intestine.

  9. Synthesis of coenzyme A thioesters using methyl acyl phosphates in an aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Pal, Mohan; Bearne, Stephen L

    2014-12-28

    Regioselective S-acylation of coenzyme A (CoA) is achieved under aqueous conditions using various aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids activated as their methyl acyl phosphate monoesters. Unlike many hydrophobic activating groups, the anionic methyl acyl phosphate mixed anhydride is more compatible with aqueous solvents, making it useful for conducting acylation reactions in an aqueous medium.

  10. Role of acyl carrier protein isoforms in plant lipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Although acyl carrier protein (ACP) is the best studied protein in plant fatty acid biosynthesis, the in vivo forms of ACPs and their steady state pools have not been examined previously in either seed or leaf. Information about the relative pool sizes of free ACP and its acyl-ACP intermediates is essential for understanding regulation of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plants. In this study we utilized antibodies directed against spinach ACP as a sensitive assay to analyze the acyl groups while they were still covalently attached to ACPs. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Silencing the expression of mitochondrial acyl-CoA thioesterase I and acyl-CoA synthetase 4 inhibits hormone-induced steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Maloberti, Paula; Castilla, Rocío; Castillo, Fernanda; Cornejo Maciel, Fabiana; Mendez, Carlos F; Paz, Cristina; Podestá, Ernesto J

    2005-04-01

    Arachidonic acid and its lypoxygenated metabolites play a fundamental role in the hormonal regulation of steroidogenesis. Reduction in the expression of the mitochondrial acyl-CoA thioesterase (MTE-I) by antisense or small interfering RNA (siRNA) and of the arachidonic acid-preferring acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS4) by siRNA produced a marked reduction in steroid output of cAMP-stimulated Leydig cells. This effect was blunted by a permeable analog of cholesterol that bypasses the rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis, the transport of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane. The inhibition of steroidogenesis was overcome by addition of exogenous arachidonic acid, indicating that the enzymes are part of the mechanism responsible for arachidonic acid release involved in steroidogenesis. Knocking down the expression of MTE-I leads to a significant reduction in the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. This protein is induced by arachidonic acid and controls the rate-limiting step. Overexpression of MTE-I resulted in an increase in cAMP-induced steroidogenesis. In summary, our results demonstrate a critical role for ACS4 and MTE-I in the hormonal regulation of steroidogenesis as a new pathway of arachidonic acid release different from the classical phospholipase A2 cascade.

  12. The activity of Rhizomuchor miehei lipase as a biocatalyst in enzymatic acylation of cyclic alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftitah, Elvina Dhiaul; Srihardyastuti, Arie; Ariefin, Mokhamat

    2017-03-01

    We report the activity of Rhizomuchor miehei lipase (RML) as a biocatalyst, in particular the investigations concerning the effort of substrate-structure reactivity on the enzymatic acylation. The acylation was studied using acetic anhydride as an acyl donor and performed in n-hexane as a solvent. The selectivity of the enzymatic acylation was revealed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectra. We observed that, RML has shown different behavior when catalyzing the acylation of isopulegol and mixture of isopulegol and citronellal (ratio 1:1). The chemoselectivity for the O-acylation was improved when the acyl acceptor included mixture of isopulegol and citronellal

  13. AidP, a novel N-Acyl homoserine lactonase gene from Antarctic Planococcus sp.

    PubMed

    See-Too, Wah Seng; Ee, Robson; Lim, Yan-Lue; Convey, Peter; Pearce, David A; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2017-02-22

    Planococcus is a Gram-positive halotolerant bacterial genus in the phylum Firmicutes, commonly found in various habitats in Antarctica. Quorum quenching (QQ) is the disruption of bacterial cell-to-cell communication (known as quorum sensing), which has previously been described in mesophilic bacteria. This study demonstrated the QQ activity of a psychrotolerant strain, Planococcus versutus strain L10.15(T), isolated from a soil sample obtained near an elephant seal wallow in Antarctica. Whole genome analysis of this bacterial strain revealed the presence of an N-acyl homoserine lactonase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes the ester bond of the homoserine lactone of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHLs). Heterologous gene expression in E. coli confirmed its functions for hydrolysis of AHLs, and the gene was designated as aidP (autoinducer degrading gene from Planococcus sp.). The low temperature activity of this enzyme suggested that it is a novel and uncharacterized class of AHL lactonase. This study is the first report on QQ activity of bacteria isolated from the polar regions.

  14. AidP, a novel N-Acyl homoserine lactonase gene from Antarctic Planococcus sp.

    PubMed Central

    See-Too, Wah Seng; Ee, Robson; Lim, Yan-Lue; Convey, Peter; Pearce, David A.; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2017-01-01

    Planococcus is a Gram-positive halotolerant bacterial genus in the phylum Firmicutes, commonly found in various habitats in Antarctica. Quorum quenching (QQ) is the disruption of bacterial cell-to-cell communication (known as quorum sensing), which has previously been described in mesophilic bacteria. This study demonstrated the QQ activity of a psychrotolerant strain, Planococcus versutus strain L10.15T, isolated from a soil sample obtained near an elephant seal wallow in Antarctica. Whole genome analysis of this bacterial strain revealed the presence of an N-acyl homoserine lactonase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes the ester bond of the homoserine lactone of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHLs). Heterologous gene expression in E. coli confirmed its functions for hydrolysis of AHLs, and the gene was designated as aidP (autoinducer degrading gene from Planococcus sp.). The low temperature activity of this enzyme suggested that it is a novel and uncharacterized class of AHL lactonase. This study is the first report on QQ activity of bacteria isolated from the polar regions. PMID:28225085

  15. Actinobacterial Acyl Coenzyme A Synthetases Involved in Steroid Side-Chain Catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Casabon, Israël; Swain, Kendra; Crowe, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial steroid catabolism is an important component of the global carbon cycle and has applications in drug synthesis. Pathways for this catabolism involve multiple acyl coenzyme A (CoA) synthetases, which activate alkanoate substituents for β-oxidation. The functions of these synthetases are poorly understood. We enzymatically characterized four distinct acy