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Sample records for intra market optimization

  1. Trajectory optimization for intra-operative nuclear tomographic imaging.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Jakob; Lasser, Tobias; Gardiazabal, José; Navab, Nassir

    2013-10-01

    Diagnostic nuclear imaging modalities like SPECT typically employ gantries to ensure a densely sampled geometry of detectors in order to keep the inverse problem of tomographic reconstruction as well-posed as possible. In an intra-operative setting with mobile freehand detectors the situation changes significantly, and having an optimal detector trajectory during acquisition becomes critical. In this paper we propose an incremental optimization method based on the numerical condition of the system matrix of the underlying iterative reconstruction method to calculate optimal detector positions during acquisition in real-time. The performance of this approach is evaluated using simulations. A first experiment on a phantom using a robot-controlled intra-operative SPECT-like setup demonstrates the feasibility of the approach.

  2. Shape optimization of an accommodative intra-ocular lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouve, François; Hanna, Khalil

    2005-03-01

    Cataract surgery consists in replacing the clouded or opacified crystalline lens by an Intra-Ocular Lens (IOL) having the same mean dioptrical power. Clear vision is then achieved at a given distance and glasses are needed in many situations. A new kind of IOL, potentially accommodative, is proposed. Its design is based on the deep understanding of the accommodation mechanism and on the mathematical modeling and the numerical simulation of the IOL's comportment in vivo. A preliminary version of this IOL is now commercialized by the company HumanOptics under the name '1CU'. In a second phase, shape optimization techniques equipped with strong mechanical and physiological constraints, are used to enhance the IOL performance and build a new design. To cite this article: F. Jouve, K. Hanna, C. R. Mecanique 333 (2005).

  3. Intra-day variability of the stock market activity versus stationarity of the financial time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubiec, T.; Wiliński, M.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we propose a new approach to a well-known phenomena of intra-day activity pattern on the stock market. We suggest that seasonality of inter-transaction times has a more significant impact than intra-day pattern of volatility. Our aim is not to remove the intra-day pattern from the data but to describe its impact on autocorrelation function estimators. We obtain an exact, analytical formula relating estimators of the autocorrelation functions of non-stationary (seasonal) process to its stationary counterpart. Hence, we prove that the day seasonality of inter-transaction times extends the memory of the process. That is, autocorrelation of both, price returns and their absolute values, relaxation to zero is longer.

  4. Optimal ranking regime analysis of intra- to multidecadal U.S. climate variability. Part I: Temperature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Optimal Ranking Regime (ORR) method was used to identify intra- to multi-decadal (IMD) time windows containing significant ranking sequences in U.S. climate division temperature data. The simplicity of the ORR procedure’s output – a time series’ most significant non-overlapping periods of high o...

  5. Using Data to Optimize Community College Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    Marketing is an essential component of an effective enrollment management plan. The broad mission of a comprehensive community college requires multiple, targeted communications campaigns. Institutional research can contribute to marketing success at all phases of decision making.

  6. Using Data to Optimize Community College Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    Marketing is an essential component of an effective enrollment management plan. The broad mission of a comprehensive community college requires multiple, targeted communications campaigns. Institutional research can contribute to marketing success at all phases of decision making.

  7. Portfolio optimization for index tracking modelling in Malaysia stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siew, Lam Weng; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ismail, Hamizun

    2016-06-01

    Index tracking is an investment strategy in portfolio management which aims to construct an optimal portfolio to generate similar mean return with the stock market index mean return without purchasing all of the stocks that make up the index. The objective of this paper is to construct an optimal portfolio using the optimization model which adopts regression approach in tracking the benchmark stock market index return. In this study, the data consists of weekly price of stocks in Malaysia market index which is FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index from January 2010 until December 2013. The results of this study show that the optimal portfolio is able to track FBMKLCI Index at minimum tracking error of 1.0027% with 0.0290% excess mean return over the mean return of FBMKLCI Index. The significance of this study is to construct the optimal portfolio using optimization model which adopts regression approach in tracking the stock market index without purchasing all index components.

  8. Adaptive Portfolio Optimization for Multiple Electricity Markets Participation.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Tiago; Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago M; Sousa, Tiago; Vale, Zita; Praca, Isabel; Faia, Ricardo; Pires, Eduardo Jose Solteiro

    2016-08-01

    The increase of distributed energy resources, mainly based on renewable sources, requires new solutions that are able to deal with this type of resources' particular characteristics (namely, the renewable energy sources intermittent nature). The smart grid concept is increasing its consensus as the most suitable solution to facilitate the small players' participation in electric power negotiations while improving energy efficiency. The opportunity for players' participation in multiple energy negotiation environments (smart grid negotiation in addition to the already implemented market types, such as day-ahead spot markets, balancing markets, intraday negotiations, bilateral contracts, forward and futures negotiations, and among other) requires players to take suitable decisions on whether to, and how to participate in each market type. This paper proposes a portfolio optimization methodology, which provides the best investment profile for a market player, considering different market opportunities. The amount of power that each supported player should negotiate in each available market type in order to maximize its profits, considers the prices that are expected to be achieved in each market, in different contexts. The price forecasts are performed using artificial neural networks, providing a specific database with the expected prices in the different market types, at each time. This database is then used as input by an evolutionary particle swarm optimization process, which originates the most advantage participation portfolio for the market player. The proposed approach is tested and validated with simulations performed in multiagent simulator of competitive electricity markets, using real electricity markets data from the Iberian operator-MIBEL.

  9. Antagonistic and Bargaining Games in Optimal Marketing Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipovetsky, S.

    2007-01-01

    Game theory approaches to find optimal marketing decisions are considered. Antagonistic games with and without complete information, and non-antagonistic games techniques are applied to paired comparison, ranking, or rating data for a firm and its competitors in the market. Mix strategy, equilibrium in bi-matrix games, bargaining models with…

  10. Antagonistic and Bargaining Games in Optimal Marketing Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipovetsky, S.

    2007-01-01

    Game theory approaches to find optimal marketing decisions are considered. Antagonistic games with and without complete information, and non-antagonistic games techniques are applied to paired comparison, ranking, or rating data for a firm and its competitors in the market. Mix strategy, equilibrium in bi-matrix games, bargaining models with…

  11. A survey over possible intra prediction optimizations in the H.265/HEVC encoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowski, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The H.265/HEVC standard is state-of-the-art solution in the field of video compression. It utilizes various techniques to maximize achieved compression efficiency, including quad-tree syntax organization and powerful prediction algorithms. The quad-tree approach allows the flexible adaptation to various texture characteristics at the expense of the dramatic increase in computational complexity. This results in very long encoding times, especially while using the reference software, known as HM. However, over the years, miscellaneous heuristics were developed to accelerate the selection of the optimal CTU division and the prediction mode. This paper is an overview of the most promising heuristics, designed for intra frames.

  12. Antimicrobials: a global alliance for optimizing their rational use in intra-abdominal infections (AGORA).

    PubMed

    Sartelli, Massimo; Weber, Dieter G; Ruppé, Etienne; Bassetti, Matteo; Wright, Brian J; Ansaloni, Luca; Catena, Fausto; Coccolini, Federico; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Coimbra, Raul; Moore, Ernest E; Moore, Frederick A; Maier, Ronald V; De Waele, Jan J; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Griffiths, Ewen A; Eckmann, Christian; Brink, Adrian J; Mazuski, John E; May, Addison K; Sawyer, Rob G; Mertz, Dominik; Montravers, Philippe; Kumar, Anand; Roberts, Jason A; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Watkins, Richard R; Lowman, Warren; Spellberg, Brad; Abbott, Iain J; Adesunkanmi, Abdulrashid Kayode; Al-Dahir, Sara; Al-Hasan, Majdi N; Agresta, Ferdinando; Althani, Asma A; Ansari, Shamshul; Ansumana, Rashid; Augustin, Goran; Bala, Miklosh; Balogh, Zsolt J; Baraket, Oussama; Bhangu, Aneel; Beltrán, Marcelo A; Bernhard, Michael; Biffl, Walter L; Boermeester, Marja A; Brecher, Stephen M; Cherry-Bukowiec, Jill R; Buyne, Otmar R; Cainzos, Miguel A; Cairns, Kelly A; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrian; Chandy, Sujith J; Che Jusoh, Asri; Chichom-Mefire, Alain; Colijn, Caroline; Corcione, Francesco; Cui, Yunfeng; Curcio, Daniel; Delibegovic, Samir; Demetrashvili, Zaza; De Simone, Belinda; Dhingra, Sameer; Diaz, José J; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Dillip, Angel; Di Saverio, Salomone; Doyle, Michael P; Dorj, Gereltuya; Dogjani, Agron; Dupont, Hervé; Eachempati, Soumitra R; Enani, Mushira Abdulaziz; Egiev, Valery N; Elmangory, Mutasim M; Ferrada, Paula; Fitchett, Joseph R; Fraga, Gustavo P; Guessennd, Nathalie; Giamarellou, Helen; Ghnnam, Wagih; Gkiokas, George; Goldberg, Staphanie R; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Gomi, Harumi; Guzmán-Blanco, Manuel; Haque, Mainul; Hansen, Sonja; Hecker, Andreas; Heizmann, Wolfgang R; Herzog, Torsten; Hodonou, Adrien Montcho; Hong, Suk-Kyung; Kafka-Ritsch, Reinhold; Kaplan, Lewis J; Kapoor, Garima; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar; Kees, Martin G; Kenig, Jakub; Kiguba, Ronald; Kim, Peter K; Kluger, Yoram; Khokha, Vladimir; Koike, Kaoru; Kok, Kenneth Y Y; Kong, Victory; Knox, Matthew C; Inaba, Kenji; Isik, Arda; Iskandar, Katia; Ivatury, Rao R; Labbate, Maurizio; Labricciosa, Francesco M; Laterre, Pierre-François; Latifi, Rifat; Lee, Jae Gil; Lee, Young Ran; Leone, Marc; Leppaniemi, Ari; Li, Yousheng; Liang, Stephen Y; Loho, Tonny; Maegele, Marc; Malama, Sydney; Marei, Hany E; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Marwah, Sanjay; Massele, Amos; McFarlane, Michael; Melo, Renato Bessa; Negoi, Ionut; Nicolau, David P; Nord, Carl Erik; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Omari, AbdelKarim H; Ordonez, Carlos A; Ouadii, Mouaqit; Pereira Júnior, Gerson Alves; Piazza, Diego; Pupelis, Guntars; Rawson, Timothy Miles; Rems, Miran; Rizoli, Sandro; Rocha, Claudio; Sakakhushev, Boris; Sanchez-Garcia, Miguel; Sato, Norio; Segovia Lohse, Helmut A; Sganga, Gabriele; Siribumrungwong, Boonying; Shelat, Vishal G; Soreide, Kjetil; Soto, Rodolfo; Talving, Peep; Tilsed, Jonathan V; Timsit, Jean-Francois; Trueba, Gabriel; Trung, Ngo Tat; Ulrych, Jan; van Goor, Harry; Vereczkei, Andras; Vohra, Ravinder S; Wani, Imtiaz; Uhl, Waldemar; Xiao, Yonghong; Yuan, Kuo-Ching; Zachariah, Sanoop K; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Zakrison, Tanya L; Corcione, Antonio; Melotti, Rita M; Viscoli, Claudio; Viale, Perluigi

    2016-01-01

    Intra-abdominal infections (IAI) are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in high-risk patients. The cornerstones in the management of complicated IAIs are timely effective source control with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is important in the management of intra-abdominal infections and must be broad enough to cover all likely organisms because inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy is associated with poor patient outcomes and the development of bacterial resistance. The overuse of antimicrobials is widely accepted as a major driver of some emerging infections (such as C. difficile), the selection of resistant pathogens in individual patients, and for the continued development of antimicrobial resistance globally. The growing emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms and the limited development of new agents available to counteract them have caused an impending crisis with alarming implications, especially with regards to Gram-negative bacteria. An international task force from 79 different countries has joined this project by sharing a document on the rational use of antimicrobials for patients with IAIs. The project has been termed AGORA (Antimicrobials: A Global Alliance for Optimizing their Rational Use in Intra-Abdominal Infections). The authors hope that AGORA, involving many of the world's leading experts, can actively raise awareness in health workers and can improve prescribing behavior in treating IAIs.

  13. Optimization of a Multi–Product Intra-Supply Chain System with Failure in Rework

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Globalization has created tremendous opportunities, but also made business environment highly competitive and turbulent. To gain competitive advantage, management of present-day transnational firms always seeks options to trim down various transaction and coordination costs, especially in the area of controllable intra-supply chain system. This study investigates a multi–product intra-supply chain system with failure in rework. To achieve maximum machine utilization, multiple products are fabricated in succession on a single machine. During the process, production of some defective items is inevitable. Reworking of nonconforming items is used to reduce the quality cost in production and achieving the goal of lower overall production cost. Because reworks are sometimes unsuccessful, failures in rework are also considered in this study. Finished goods for each product are transported to the sales offices when the entire production lot is quality assured after rework. A multi-delivery policy is used, wherein fixed quantity n installments of the finished lot are transported at fixed intervals during delivery time. The objective is to jointly determine the common production cycle time and the number of deliveries needed to minimize the long–term expected production–inventory–delivery costs for the problem. With the help of a mathematical model along with optimization technique, the optimal production–shipment policy is obtained. We have used a numerical example to demonstrate applicability of the result of our research. PMID:27918588

  14. Optimization of a Multi-Product Intra-Supply Chain System with Failure in Rework.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Singa Wang; Chen, Shin-Wei; Chang, Chih-Kai; Chiu, Yuan-Shyi Peter

    2016-01-01

    Globalization has created tremendous opportunities, but also made business environment highly competitive and turbulent. To gain competitive advantage, management of present-day transnational firms always seeks options to trim down various transaction and coordination costs, especially in the area of controllable intra-supply chain system. This study investigates a multi-product intra-supply chain system with failure in rework. To achieve maximum machine utilization, multiple products are fabricated in succession on a single machine. During the process, production of some defective items is inevitable. Reworking of nonconforming items is used to reduce the quality cost in production and achieving the goal of lower overall production cost. Because reworks are sometimes unsuccessful, failures in rework are also considered in this study. Finished goods for each product are transported to the sales offices when the entire production lot is quality assured after rework. A multi-delivery policy is used, wherein fixed quantity n installments of the finished lot are transported at fixed intervals during delivery time. The objective is to jointly determine the common production cycle time and the number of deliveries needed to minimize the long-term expected production-inventory-delivery costs for the problem. With the help of a mathematical model along with optimization technique, the optimal production-shipment policy is obtained. We have used a numerical example to demonstrate applicability of the result of our research.

  15. Optimal advanced credit releases in ecosystem service markets.

    PubMed

    BenDor, Todd K; Guo, Tianshu; Yates, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Ecosystem service markets are popular policy tools for ecosystem protection. Advanced credit releases are an important factor affecting the supply side of ecosystem markets. Under an advanced credit release policy, regulators give ecosystem suppliers a fraction of the total ecosystem credits generated by a restoration project before it is verified that the project actually achieves the required ecological thresholds. In spite of their prominent role in ecosystem markets, there is virtually no regulatory or research literature on the proper design of advanced credit release policies. Using U.S. aquatic ecosystem markets as an example, we develop a principal-agent model of the behavior of regulators and wetland/stream mitigation bankers to determine and explore the optimal degree of advance credit release. The model highlights the tension between regulators' desire to induce market participation, while at the same time ensuring that bankers successfully complete ecological restoration. Our findings suggest several simple guidelines for strengthening advanced credit release policy.

  16. Optimal Advanced Credit Releases in Ecosystem Service Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BenDor, Todd K.; Guo, Tianshu; Yates, Andrew J.

    2014-03-01

    Ecosystem service markets are popular policy tools for ecosystem protection. Advanced credit releases are an important factor affecting the supply side of ecosystem markets. Under an advanced credit release policy, regulators give ecosystem suppliers a fraction of the total ecosystem credits generated by a restoration project before it is verified that the project actually achieves the required ecological thresholds. In spite of their prominent role in ecosystem markets, there is virtually no regulatory or research literature on the proper design of advanced credit release policies. Using U.S. aquatic ecosystem markets as an example, we develop a principal-agent model of the behavior of regulators and wetland/stream mitigation bankers to determine and explore the optimal degree of advance credit release. The model highlights the tension between regulators' desire to induce market participation, while at the same time ensuring that bankers successfully complete ecological restoration. Our findings suggest several simple guidelines for strengthening advanced credit release policy.

  17. Multiperiod Mean-Variance Portfolio Optimization via Market Cloning

    SciTech Connect

    Ankirchner, Stefan; Dermoune, Azzouz

    2011-08-15

    The problem of finding the mean variance optimal portfolio in a multiperiod model can not be solved directly by means of dynamic programming. In order to find a solution we therefore first introduce independent market clones having the same distributional properties as the original market, and we replace the portfolio mean and variance by their empirical counterparts. We then use dynamic programming to derive portfolios maximizing a weighted sum of the empirical mean and variance. By letting the number of market clones converge to infinity we are able to solve the original mean variance problem.

  18. Optimizing cosmological surveys in a crowded market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, Bruce A.

    2005-04-01

    Optimizing the major next-generation cosmological surveys (such as SNAP, KAOS, etc.) is a key problem given our ignorance of the physics underlying cosmic acceleration and the plethora of surveys planned. We propose a Bayesian design framework which (1) maximizes the discrimination power of a survey without assuming any underlying dark-energy model, (2) finds the best niche survey geometry given current data and future competing experiments, (3) maximizes the cross section for serendipitous discoveries and (4) can be adapted to answer specific questions (such as “is dark energy dynamical?”). Integrated parameter-space optimization (IPSO) is a design framework that integrates projected parameter errors over an entire dark energy parameter space and then extremizes a figure of merit (such as Shannon entropy gain which we show is stable to off-diagonal covariance matrix perturbations) as a function of survey parameters using analytical, grid or MCMC techniques. We discuss examples where the optimization can be performed analytically. IPSO is thus a general, model-independent and scalable framework that allows us to appropriately use prior information to design the best possible surveys.

  19. Optimal quality reporting in markets for health plans.

    PubMed

    Glazer, Jacob; McGuire, Thomas G

    2006-03-01

    Quality reports about health plans and providers are becoming more prevalent in health care markets. This paper casts the decision about what information to report to consumers about health plans as a policy decision. In a market with adverse selection, complete information about quality leads to inefficient outcomes. In a Rothschild-Stiglitz model, we show that averaging quality information into a summary report can enforce pooling in health insurance, and by choice of the right weights in the averaged report, a payer or regulator can induce first-best quality choices. The optimal quality report is as powerful as optimal risk adjustment in correcting adverse selection inefficiencies.

  20. Operations Optimization of Hybrid Energy Systems under Variable Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jun; Garcia, Humberto E.

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid energy systems (HES) have been proposed to be an important element to enable increasing penetration of clean energy. This paper investigates the operations flexibility of HES, and develops a methodology for operations optimization to maximize its economic value based on predicted renewable generation and market information. The proposed operations optimizer allows systematic control of energy conversion for maximal economic value, and is illustrated by numerical results.

  1. Neoliberal Optimism: Applying Market Techniques to Global Health.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yuyang

    2016-09-23

    Global health and neoliberalism are becoming increasingly intertwined as organizations utilize markets and profit motives to solve the traditional problems of poverty and population health. I use field work conducted over 14 months in a global health technology company to explore how the promise of neoliberalism re-envisions humanitarian efforts. In this company's vaccine refrigerator project, staff members expect their investors and their market to allow them to achieve scale and develop accountability to their users in developing countries. However, the translation of neoliberal techniques to the global health sphere falls short of the ideal, as profits are meager and purchasing power remains with donor organizations. The continued optimism in market principles amidst such a non-ideal market reveals the tenacious ideological commitment to neoliberalism in these global health projects.

  2. Tailored inter and intra layer exchange coupled superlattices for optimized magnetocaloric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Tathagata; Michalski, S.; Skomski, R.; Sellmyer, D. J.; Binek, Ch.

    2012-02-01

    We explore Magnetocaloric (MC) properties of Fe/Cr superlattices with tailored inter- and intra-layer interaction using simple 3d metals. Our multilayers are fabricated by pulsed-laser deposition with emphasis on maximizing magnetic entropy changes near room temperature. NanostructuringootnotetextT. Mukherjee, S. Sahoo, R. Skomski, D. J. Sellmyer, and Ch. Binek, Phys. Rev. B 79, 144406 (2009). allows tailoring ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic coupling. This in concert with finite size scaling of the ferromagnetic Fe films has the potential to lead to optimized MC materials. Thermodynamic and MC properties of such Fe/Cr superlattices are studied with the help of SQUID magnetometry. Entropy changes are deduced via the Maxwell relation in single phase regions, X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity are used to correlate structural data with the magnetic properties.

  3. Optimality problem of network topology in stocks market analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djauhari, Maman Abdurachman; Gan, Siew Lee

    2015-02-01

    Since its introduction fifteen years ago, minimal spanning tree has become an indispensible tool in econophysics. It is to filter the important economic information contained in a complex system of financial markets' commodities. Here we show that, in general, that tool is not optimal in terms of topological properties. Consequently, the economic interpretation of the filtered information might be misleading. To overcome that non-optimality problem, a set of criteria and a selection procedure of an optimal minimal spanning tree will be developed. By using New York Stock Exchange data, the advantages of the proposed method will be illustrated in terms of the power-law of degree distribution.

  4. Biological optimization of simultaneous boost on intra-prostatic lesions (DILs): sensitivity to TCP parameters.

    PubMed

    Azzeroni, R; Maggio, A; Fiorino, C; Mangili, P; Cozzarini, C; De Cobelli, F; Di Muzio, N G; Calandrino, R

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this investigation was to explore the potential of biological optimization in the case of simultaneous integrated boost on intra-prostatic dominant lesions (DIL) and evaluating the impact of TCP parameters uncertainty. Different combination of TCP parameters (TD50 and γ50 in the Poisson-like model), were considered for DILs and the prostate outside DILs (CTV) for 7 intermediate/high-risk prostate patients. The aim was to maximize TCP while constraining NTCPs below 5% for all organs at risk. TCP values were highly depending on the parameters used and ranged between 38.4% and 99.9%; the optimized median physical doses were in the range 94-116 Gy and 69-77 Gy for DIL and CTV respectively. TCP values were correlated with the overlap PTV-rectum and the minimum distance between rectum and DIL. In conclusion, biological optimization for selective dose escalation is feasible and suggests prescribed dose around 90-120 Gy to the DILs. The obtained result is critically depending on the assumptions concerning the higher radioresistence in the DILs. In case of very resistant clonogens into the DIL, it may be difficult to maximize TCP to acceptable levels without violating NTCP constraints.

  5. Optimal pricing and marketing planning for deteriorating items.

    PubMed

    Moosavi Tabatabaei, Seyed Reza; Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar; Makui, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Optimal pricing and marketing planning plays an essential role in production decisions on deteriorating items. This paper presents a mathematical model for a three-level supply chain, which includes one producer, one distributor and one retailer. The proposed study considers the production of a deteriorating item where demand is influenced by price, marketing expenditure, quality of product and after-sales service expenditures. The proposed model is formulated as a geometric programming with 5 degrees of difficulty and the problem is solved using the recent advances in optimization techniques. The study is supported by several numerical examples and sensitivity analysis is performed to analyze the effects of the changes in different parameters on the optimal solution. The preliminary results indicate that with the change in parameters influencing on demand, inventory holding, inventory deteriorating and set-up costs change and also significantly affect total revenue.

  6. Optimal pricing and marketing planning for deteriorating items

    PubMed Central

    Moosavi Tabatabaei, Seyed Reza; Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar; Makui, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Optimal pricing and marketing planning plays an essential role in production decisions on deteriorating items. This paper presents a mathematical model for a three-level supply chain, which includes one producer, one distributor and one retailer. The proposed study considers the production of a deteriorating item where demand is influenced by price, marketing expenditure, quality of product and after-sales service expenditures. The proposed model is formulated as a geometric programming with 5 degrees of difficulty and the problem is solved using the recent advances in optimization techniques. The study is supported by several numerical examples and sensitivity analysis is performed to analyze the effects of the changes in different parameters on the optimal solution. The preliminary results indicate that with the change in parameters influencing on demand, inventory holding, inventory deteriorating and set-up costs change and also significantly affect total revenue. PMID:28306750

  7. Intra-day response of foreign exchange markets after the Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Shuhei; Hirata, Yoshito; Iwayama, Koji; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2015-02-01

    Although an economy is influenced by a natural disaster, the market response to the disaster during the first 24 hours is not clearly understood. Here we show that an earthquake quickly causes temporal changes in a foreign exchange market by examining the case of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Recurrence plots and statistical change point detection independently show that the United States dollar-Japanese yen market responded to the earthquake activity without delay and with the delay of about 2 minutes, respectively. These findings support that the efficient market hypothesis nearly holds now in the time scale of minutes.

  8. Visualization of intra-thalamic nuclei with optimized white-matter-nulled MPRAGE at 7T.

    PubMed

    Tourdias, Thomas; Saranathan, Manojkumar; Levesque, Ives R; Su, Jason; Rutt, Brian K

    2014-01-01

    Novel MR image acquisition strategies have been investigated to elicit contrast within the thalamus, but direct visualization of individual thalamic nuclei remains a challenge because of their small size and the low intrinsic contrast between adjacent nuclei. We present a step-by-step specific optimization of the 3D MPRAGE pulse sequence at 7T to visualize the intra-thalamic nuclei. We first measured T1 values within different sub-regions of the thalamus at 7T in 5 individuals. We used these to perform simulations and sequential experimental measurements (n=17) to tune the parameters of the MPRAGE sequence. The optimal set of parameters was used to collect high-quality data in 6 additional volunteers. Delineation of thalamic nuclei was performed twice by one rater and MR-defined nuclei were compared to the classic Morel histological atlas. T1 values within the thalamus ranged from 1400ms to 1800ms for adjacent nuclei. Using these values for theoretical evaluations combined with in vivo measurements, we showed that a short inversion time (TI) close to the white matter null regime (TI=670ms) enhanced the contrast between the thalamus and the surrounding tissues, and best revealed intra-thalamic contrast. At this particular nulling regime, lengthening the time between successive inversion pulses (TS=6000ms) increased the thalamic signal and contrast and lengthening the α pulse train time (N*TR) further increased the thalamic signal. Finally, a low flip angle during the gradient echo acquisition (α=4°) was observed to mitigate the blur induced by the evolution of the magnetization along the α pulse train. This optimized set of parameters enabled the 3D delineation of 15 substructures in all 6 individuals; these substructures corresponded well with the known anatomical structures of the thalamus based on the classic Morel atlas. The mean Euclidean distance between the centers of mass of MR- and Morel atlas-defined nuclei was 2.67mm (±1.02mm). The reproducibility of

  9. Visualization of intra-thalamic nuclei with optimized white-matter-nulled MPRAGE at 7T

    PubMed Central

    Tourdias, Thomas; Saranathan, Manojkumar; Levesque, Ives R.; Su, Jason; Rutt, Brian K.

    2013-01-01

    Novel MR image acquisition strategies have been investigated to elicit contrast within the thalamus, but direct visualization of individual thalamic nuclei remains a challenge because of their small size and the low intrinsic contrast between adjacent nuclei. We present a step-by-step specific optimization of the 3D MPRAGE pulse sequence at 7T to visualize the intra-thalamic nuclei. We first measured T1 values within different sub-regions of the thalamus at 7T in 5 individuals. We used these to perform simulations and sequential experimental measurements (n=17) to tune the parameters of the MPRAGE sequence. The optimal set of parameters was used to collect high-quality data in 6 additional volunteers. Delineation of thalamic nuclei was performed twice by one rater and MR-defined nuclei were compared to the classic Morel histological atlas. T1 values within the thalamus ranged from 1400ms to 1800ms for adjacent nuclei. Using these values for theoretical evaluations combined with in vivo measurements, we showed that a short inversion time (TI) close to the white matter null regime (TI=670ms) enhanced the contrast between the thalamus and the surrounding tissues, and best revealed intra-thalamic contrast. At this particular nulling regime, lengthening the time between successive inversion pulses (TS=6000ms) increased the thalamic signal and contrast and lengthening the α pulse train time (N*TR) further increased the thalamic signal. Finally, a low flip angle during the gradient echo acquisition (α=4°) was observed to mitigate the blur induced by the evolution of the magnetization along the α pulse train. This optimized set of parameters enabled the 3D delineation of 15 substructures in all 6 individuals; these substructures corresponded well with the known anatomical structures of the thalamus based on the classical Morel atlas. The mean Euclidean distance between the centers of mass of MR- and Morel atlas-defined nuclei was 2.67mm (±1.02mm). The reproducibility

  10. Optimal times above MICs of ceftibuten and cefaclor in experimental intra-abdominal infections.

    PubMed Central

    Onyeji, C O; Nicolau, D P; Nightingale, C H; Quintiliani, R

    1994-01-01

    The duration of time that serum drug levels remain above the MIC (time above the MIC) for the pathogen has been shown to be the most significant parameter determining the efficacies of beta-lactam antibiotics. In the described study, we investigated the optimal time above the MIC of ceftibuten and cefaclor using a nonneutropenic mouse model of intra-abdominal infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The abilities of the drugs to protect mice against the organisms were determined in mouse protection tests, and the doses were fractionated to produce various dosing regimens with different times above the MIC. All drug-organism combinations showed a significant correlation (r > 0.9) between drug efficacy and the time above the MIC. Also, with ceftibuten treatment, the different dosing regimens that produced equal times above the MIC resulted in the same efficacy, whereas with cefaclor, an apparent dose-dependent effect was observed. These results showed that for a 100% recovery from K. pneumoniae and E. coli infections, the optimal times above the MIC with ceftibuten treatment were 2.2 and 1.6 h, respectively. Relatively high doses of both antibiotics were required to ensure recovery from S. pneumoniae infections. In vitro time-kill studies demonstrated that cefaclor exhibits a marked inoculum effect against the pathogens, and there was a concentration-dependent killing at a large inoculum size. On the other hand, ceftibuten showed no inoculum effect. It is suggested that optimization of both dose and time above the MIC appears to be necessary for the treatment of S. aureus infections with cefaclor, and this may apply to other beta-lactams tht exhibit marked inoculum effects. PMID:8067747

  11. Optimizing the scale of markets for water quality trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Martin W.; Patterson, Lauren A.; Chen, Yanyou; Schnier, Kurt E.; Yates, Andrew J.

    2014-09-01

    Applying market approaches to environmental regulations requires establishing a spatial scale for trading. Spatially large markets usually increase opportunities for abatement cost savings but increase the potential for pollution damages (hot spots), vice versa for spatially small markets. We develop a coupled hydrologic-economic modeling approach for application to point source emissions trading by a large number of sources and apply this approach to the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) within the watershed of the second largest estuary in the U.S. We consider two different administrative structures that govern the trade of emission permits: one-for-one trading (the number of permits required for each unit of emission is the same for every WWTP) and trading ratios (the number of permits required for each unit of emissions varies across WWTP). Results show that water quality regulators should allow trading to occur at the river basin scale as an appropriate first-step policy, as is being done in a limited number of cases via compliance associations. Larger spatial scales may be needed under conditions of increased abatement costs. The optimal scale of the market is generally the same regardless of whether one-for-one trading or trading ratios are employed.

  12. Modulation of Physical Activity to Optimize Pain Sensation following an Intra-Articular Corticosteroid Injection in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Dessery, Yoann; Belzile, Étienne L.; Turmel, Sylvie; Doré, Jean; Diallo, Binta

    2014-01-01

    Background. Intra-articular corticosteroid injection is often used to relieve pain caused by knee osteoarthritis. This study aims to assess the impact after an intra-articular corticosteroid injection treatment on objective and subjective measurement of physical function in knee osteoarthritis patients. Methods. Fourteen patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis participated in this open-label uncontrolled trial. The intra-articular corticosteroid injection was given at the end of the second week. Physical activity was objectively measured by an accelerometer worn by the participants for eight weeks. Symptoms, quality of life and spatiotemporal parameters of gait were assessed every two weeks. Results. From the injection until six weeks later, pain and stiffness were reduced by approximately 60%. Patients' daily physical activity time was significantly improved after injection: participation in light and moderate physical activities increased during four and two weeks, respectively. Conclusions. The beneficial effects after the intra-articular corticosteroid injection are visible in the duration and intensity of the knee osteoarthritis patients' daily physical activity. However, these effects declined gradually two weeks after injection. Modulating the intensity and duration of physical activity would allow patients to optimize pain sensation over a longer period following an intra-articular corticosteroid injection. Trial Registration. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials: NCT02049879. PMID:25478585

  13. Intra-unit-cell magnetic correlations near optimal doping in YBa2Cu3O6.85

    PubMed Central

    Mangin-Thro, L.; Sidis, Y.; Wildes, A.; Bourges, P.

    2015-01-01

    The pseudo-gap phenomenon in copper oxide superconductors is central to any description of these materials as it prefigures the superconducting state itself. A magnetic intra-unit-cell order was found to occur just at the pseudo-gap temperature in four cuprate high-Tc superconducting families. Here we present polarized neutron-scattering measurements of nearly optimally doped YBa2Cu3O6.85, carried out on two different spectrometers, that reveal several features. The intra-unit-cell order consists of finite-sized planar domains that are very weakly correlated along the c axis. At high temperature, only the out-of-plane magnetic components correlate, indicating a strong Ising anisotropy. An aditional in-plane response develops at low temperature, giving rise to an apparent tilt of the magnetic moment. The discovery of these two regimes puts stringent constraints, which are tightly bound to the pseudo-gap physics, on the intrinsic nature of intra-unit-cell order. PMID:26138869

  14. Intra-unit-cell magnetic correlations near optimal doping in YBa2Cu3O6.85.

    PubMed

    Mangin-Thro, L; Sidis, Y; Wildes, A; Bourges, P

    2015-07-03

    The pseudo-gap phenomenon in copper oxide superconductors is central to any description of these materials as it prefigures the superconducting state itself. A magnetic intra-unit-cell order was found to occur just at the pseudo-gap temperature in four cuprate high-Tc superconducting families. Here we present polarized neutron-scattering measurements of nearly optimally doped YBa2Cu3O6.85, carried out on two different spectrometers, that reveal several features. The intra-unit-cell order consists of finite-sized planar domains that are very weakly correlated along the c axis. At high temperature, only the out-of-plane magnetic components correlate, indicating a strong Ising anisotropy. An aditional in-plane response develops at low temperature, giving rise to an apparent tilt of the magnetic moment. The discovery of these two regimes puts stringent constraints, which are tightly bound to the pseudo-gap physics, on the intrinsic nature of intra-unit-cell order.

  15. Development of a Market Optimized Condensing Gas Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Pescatore

    2006-01-11

    This program covered the development of a market optimized condensing gas water heater for residential applications. The intent of the program was to develop a condensing design that minimized the large initial cost premium associated with traditional condensing water heater designs. Equally important was that the considered approach utilizes design and construction methods that deliver the desired efficiency without compromising product reliability. Standard condensing water heater approaches in the marketplace utilize high cost materials such as stainless steel tanks and heat exchangers as well as expensive burner systems to achieve the higher efficiencies. The key in this program was to develop a water heater design that uses low-cost, available components and technologies to achieve higher efficiency at a modest cost premium. By doing this, the design can reduce the payback to a more reasonable length, increasing the appeal of the product to the marketplace. Condensing water heaters have been in existence for years, but have not been able to significantly penetrate the market. The issue has typically been cost. The high purchase price associated with existing condensing water heaters, sometimes as much as $2000, has been a very difficult hurdle to overcome in the marketplace. The design developed under this program has the potential to reduce the purchase price of this condensing design by as much as $1000 as compared to traditional condensing units. The condensing water heater design developed over the course of this program led to an approach that delivered the following performance attributes: 90%+ thermal efficiency; 76,000 Btu/hr input rate in a 50 gallon tank; First hour rating greater than 180 gph; Rapid recovery time; and Overall operating condition well matched to combination heat and hot water applications. Over the final three years of the program, TIAX worked very closely with A.O. Smith Water Products Company as our commercial partner to optimize

  16. Market-Based and System-Wide Fuel Cycle Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Paul

    2016-06-02

    The Dynamic Resource Exchange (DRE) gives agency to consumer facilities to determine the preference of any particular trade that is offered by suppliers to satisfy its requests. This provides a natural balance of power in the relationship between consumers and suppliers. However, in situations in which suppliers have flexibility surrounding the way that they respond to individual requests, they have no mechanism to assess how different bids will be received by the consumer. Theoretically, a supplier can offer multiple bids to respond to a given request in an attempt to “cover their bases”, but this introduces more arcs into the underlying network flow problem, increasing the cost to solve the problem. In the extreme, when a supplier can continuously vary the characteristics of the bid, this can represent a large number of additional arcs and have real performance consequences. To remedy this inefficiency in the implementation of the market-level optimization, the definition of a request has been extended to include a function that can be used by the supplier to query the preference that would be assigned by a consumer for a potential bid. The supplier is then free to implement arbitrarily complex algorithms to revise/optimize its bid based on responses to this function. A supplier can chose to not invoke the function at all, mimicking the original DRE behavior, can use it to select among a small set of discrete choices, or can implement an internal algorithm to seek an optimum bid on a continuous parameter space. This capability was demonstrated with a storage facility that preferred material with a specific decay heat that was as close as possible to the maximum allowable decay heat, while requiring the specific decay heat to fall between a minimum and maximum level. This archetype was used to fill multiple storage roles in a simulation that also included a standard recipe reactor: wet storage with no maximum allowable specific decay heat, dry storage with a

  17. Optimized measurements of separations and angles between intra-molecular fluorescent markers

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Kim I.; Sung, Jongmin; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Spudich, James A.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel, yet simple tool for the study of structure and function of biomolecules by extending two-colour co-localization microscopy to fluorescent molecules with fixed orientations and in intra-molecular proximity. From each colour-separated microscope image in a time-lapse movie and using only simple means, we simultaneously determine both the relative (x,y)-separation of the fluorophores and their individual orientations in space with accuracy and precision. The positions and orientations of two domains of the same molecule are thus time-resolved. Using short double-stranded DNA molecules internally labelled with two fixed fluorophores, we demonstrate the accuracy and precision of our method using the known structure of double-stranded DNA as a benchmark, resolve 10-base-pair differences in fluorophore separations, and determine the unique 3D orientation of each DNA molecule, thereby establishing short, double-labelled DNA molecules as probes of 3D orientation of anything to which one can attach them firmly. PMID:26509412

  18. Optimal strategies to identify aberrant intra-epithelial lymphocytes in refractory coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    van Wanrooij, R L J; Müller, D M J; Neefjes-Borst, E A; Meijer, J; Koudstaal, L G; Heideman, D A M; Bontkes, H J; von Blomberg, B M E; Bouma, G; Mulder, C J J

    2014-10-01

    Different strategies have been developed to identify those refractory celiac disease (RCD) patients who are at risk to develop an enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL). Flow cytometric analysis of intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IEL) with an aberrant phenotype is considered the golden standard but is not widely available. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and T-cell receptor (TCR) rearrangement studies are commonly available but may lack sensitivity and specificity. Here, we compared the three different methods in the workup of patients suspected for RCD. Duodenal biopsies from control patient (n = 5), RCD patients with moderately increased aberrant IEL populations (20-50 %: n = 14), and RCD patients with high numbers of aberrant IEL (>50 %: n = 5) as determined by flow cytometry were analysed by IHC and TCR-γ chain rearrangement analysis. Three pathologists scored the slides independently. Sensitivity of IHC and TCR-γ rearrangement analysis in RCD patients with high numbers of aberrant IELs was 100 and 71 %, respectively. RCD patients with aberrant cells between 25 and 50 % however, were missed by IHC and TCR in 50 and 57 % of cases, respectively. In addition, inter-rater reliability analysis of the IHC scoring revealed coder-pair Kappa coefficients between 0.28 and 0.85. Immunohistochemistry and to a lesser extent TCR-γ clonality analysis are sensitive in identifying patients with high numbers of aberrant IEL populations, yet miss half of RCD patients with moderately increased numbers. In addition, IHC has a high inter-observer variability. Therefore, patients suspected for RCD should undergo flow cytometric analysis of the duodenum.

  19. Inter and intra-modal deformable registration: continuous deformations meet efficient optimal linear programming.

    PubMed

    Glocker, Ben; Paragios, Nikos; Komodakis, Nikos; Tziritas, Georgios; Navab, Nassir

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel non-rigid volume registration based on discrete labeling and linear programming. The proposed framework reformulates registration as a minimal path extraction in a weighted graph. The space of solutions is represented using a set of a labels which are assigned to predefined displacements. The graph topology corresponds to a superimposed regular grid onto the volume. Links between neighborhood control points introduce smoothness, while links between the graph nodes and the labels (end-nodes) measure the cost induced to the objective function through the selection of a particular deformation for a given control point once projected to the entire volume domain, Higher order polynomials are used to express the volume deformation from the ones of the control points. Efficient linear programming that can guarantee the optimal solution up to (a user-defined) bound is considered to recover the optimal registration parameters. Therefore, the method is gradient free, can encode various similarity metrics (simple changes on the graph construction), can guarantee a globally sub-optimal solution and is computational tractable. Experimental validation using simulated data with known deformation, as well as manually segmented data demonstrate the extreme potentials of our approach.

  20. Interaction between renewable energy markets and carbon markets: Optimal policies to meet societal goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Ghita Levenstein

    The problem this dissertation addresses is that separate and evolving public policy debates are currently shaping renewable markets and carbon markets without attention to how each market affects the other, yet the markets have overlapping goals with respect to reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Without a better understanding of the roles, limitations, and interactions of these two markets, the larger environmental and economic societal goals that they are meant to achieve may not be fully realized. This research focuses on the electricity sector in the United States because federal regulations do not exist for renewable or carbon markets and thus the rules concerning the interaction between these markets have yet to be defined. The methodology for developing final recommendations consisted of an extensive review of relevant literature and analysis of case studies in which these markets overlap. The methodology also included the use of economic reasoning and analysis to aide in evaluating assumptions and projections about the effect a greenhouse gas ("GHG") cap and trade market may have on renewable energy markets. Finally, tools and concepts from the Policy Sciences tradition were used throughout the dissertation to frame and organize the discussion. Findings are generally that while a GHG cap and trade program will reduce emissions below what would have occurred otherwise, the design of the program will determine the extent to which overall emissions reductions can take place. Furthermore, renewable energy markets could be negatively affected by a GHG cap and trade program if generation from renewables does not reduce emissions below a cap. This dissertation concludes with recommendations for policymakers, so policies defining these markets can accurately reflect intended goals including: decreasing emissions, increasing renewables, and keeping electricity costs low.

  1. The Benefits of Social Influence in Optimized Cultural Markets

    PubMed Central

    Abeliuk, Andrés; Berbeglia, Gerardo; Cebrian, Manuel; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Social influence has been shown to create significant unpredictability in cultural markets, providing one potential explanation why experts routinely fail at predicting commercial success of cultural products. As a result, social influence is often presented in a negative light. Here, we show the benefits of social influence for cultural markets. We present a policy that uses product quality, appeal, position bias and social influence to maximize expected profits in the market. Our computational experiments show that our profit-maximizing policy leverages social influence to produce significant performance benefits for the market, while our theoretical analysis proves that our policy outperforms in expectation any policy not displaying social signals. Our results contrast with earlier work which focused on showing the unpredictability and inequalities created by social influence. Not only do we show for the first time that, under our policy, dynamically showing consumers positive social signals increases the expected profit of the seller in cultural markets. We also show that, in reasonable settings, our profit-maximizing policy does not introduce significant unpredictability and identifies “blockbusters”. Overall, these results shed new light on the nature of social influence and how it can be leveraged for the benefits of the market. PMID:25831093

  2. The benefits of social influence in optimized cultural markets.

    PubMed

    Abeliuk, Andrés; Berbeglia, Gerardo; Cebrian, Manuel; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Social influence has been shown to create significant unpredictability in cultural markets, providing one potential explanation why experts routinely fail at predicting commercial success of cultural products. As a result, social influence is often presented in a negative light. Here, we show the benefits of social influence for cultural markets. We present a policy that uses product quality, appeal, position bias and social influence to maximize expected profits in the market. Our computational experiments show that our profit-maximizing policy leverages social influence to produce significant performance benefits for the market, while our theoretical analysis proves that our policy outperforms in expectation any policy not displaying social signals. Our results contrast with earlier work which focused on showing the unpredictability and inequalities created by social influence. Not only do we show for the first time that, under our policy, dynamically showing consumers positive social signals increases the expected profit of the seller in cultural markets. We also show that, in reasonable settings, our profit-maximizing policy does not introduce significant unpredictability and identifies "blockbusters". Overall, these results shed new light on the nature of social influence and how it can be leveraged for the benefits of the market.

  3. An Optimal Spatial Sampling Design for Intra-Urban Population Exposure Assessment.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Naresh

    2009-02-01

    This article offers an optimal spatial sampling design that captures maximum variance with the minimum sample size. The proposed sampling design addresses the weaknesses of the sampling design that Kanaroglou et al. (2005) used for identifying 100 sites for capturing population exposure to NO(2) in Toronto, Canada. Their sampling design suffers from a number of weaknesses and fails to capture the spatial variability in NO(2) effectively. The demand surface they used is spatially autocorrelated and weighted by the population size, which leads to the selection of redundant sites. The location-allocation model (LAM) available with the commercial software packages, which they used to identify their sample sites, is not designed to solve spatial sampling problems using spatially autocorrelated data. A computer application (written in C++) that utilizes spatial search algorithm was developed to implement the proposed sampling design. This design was implemented in three different urban environments - namely Cleveland, OH; Delhi, India; and Iowa City, IA - to identify optimal sample sites for monitoring airborne particulates.

  4. Toward an Agent-Based Model of Socially Optimal Water Rights Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlen, M. A.

    2004-12-01

    There has been considerable interest lately in using public markets for buying and selling the rights to local water usage. Such water rights markets, if designed correctly, should be socially optimal, that is, should sell rights at prices that reflect the true value of water in the region, taking into account that water rights buyers and sellers represent a disparate group of private industry, public authorities, and private users, each having different water needs and different priority to local government. Good market design, however, is hard. As was experienced in California short-run electric power markets, a market design that on paper looks reasonable but in practice is mal-constructed can have devastating effects: firms can learn to manipulate prices by `playing' both sides of the market, and sellers can under-provide so as to create exorbitant prices which buyers have no choice but to pay. Economic theory provides several frameworks for developing a good water rights market design; for example, the structure-conduct-performance paradigm (SCPP) suggests that, among other things, the number and types of buyers and sellers (structure), and transaction clearing rules and government policies (conduct) affect in very particular ways the prices and quantities (performance) in the market. In slow-moving or static markets, SCPP has been a useful predictor of market performance; in faster markets the market dynamics that endogenously develop over time are often too complex to predict with SCPP or other existing modeling techniques. New, more sophisticated combinations of modeling and simulation are needed. Toward developing a good (i.e., socially optimal) water rights market design that can take into account the dynamics inherent in the water sector, we are developing an agent-based model of water rights markets. The model serves two purposes: first, it provides an SCPP-based framework of water rights markets that takes into account the particular structure of

  5. A market-based optimization approach to sensor and resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrage, Dan; Farnham, Christopher; Gonsalves, Paul G.

    2006-05-01

    Dynamic resource allocation for sensor management is a problem that demands solutions beyond traditional approaches to optimization. Market-based optimization applies solutions from economic theory, particularly game theory, to the resource allocation problem by creating an artificial market for sensor information and computational resources. Intelligent agents are the buyers and sellers in this market, and they represent all the elements of the sensor network, from sensors to sensor platforms to computational resources. These agents interact based on a negotiation mechanism that determines their bidding strategies. This negotiation mechanism and the agents' bidding strategies are based on game theory, and they are designed so that the aggregate result of the multi-agent negotiation process is a market in competitive equilibrium, which guarantees an optimal allocation of resources throughout the sensor network. This paper makes two contributions to the field of market-based optimization: First, we develop a market protocol to handle heterogeneous goods in a dynamic setting. Second, we develop arbitrage agents to improve the efficiency in the market in light of its dynamic nature.

  6. An Evolutionary Multi-objective Optimization of Market Structures Using PBIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinyang; Krause, Andreas

    We evaluate an agent-based model featuring near-zero-intelligence traders operating in a call market with a wide range of trading rules governing the determination of prices, which orders are executed as well as a range of parameters regarding market intervention by market makers and the presence of informed traders. We optimize these trading rules using a multi-objective population-based incremental learning (PIBL) algorithm seeking to maximize the trading price and minimize the bid-ask spread. Our results suggest that markets should choose a relatively large tick size unless concerns about either the bid-ask spread or the trading price are dominating. We also find that in contrast to trading rules in actual markets, reverse time priority is an optimal priority rule.

  7. Bidding strategy for microgrid in day-ahead market based on hybrid stochastic/robust optimization

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Guodong; Xu, Yan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an optimal bidding strategy in the day-ahead market of a microgrid consisting of intermittent distributed generation (DG), storage, dispatchable DG and price responsive loads. The microgrid coordinates the energy consumption or production of its components and trades electricity in both the day-ahead and real-time markets to minimize its operating cost as a single entity. The bidding problem is challenging due to a variety of uncertainties, including power output of intermittent DG, load variation, day-ahead and real-time market prices. A hybrid stochastic/robust optimization model is proposed to minimize the expected net cost, i.e., expected total costmore » of operation minus total benefit of demand. This formulation can be solved by mixed integer linear programming. The uncertain output of intermittent DG and day-ahead market price are modeled via scenarios based on forecast results, while a robust optimization is proposed to limit the unbalanced power in real-time market taking account of the uncertainty of real-time market price. Numerical simulations on a microgrid consisting of a wind turbine, a PV panel, a fuel cell, a micro-turbine, a diesel generator, a battery and a responsive load show the advantage of stochastic optimization in addition to robust optimization.« less

  8. Bidding strategy for microgrid in day-ahead market based on hybrid stochastic/robust optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Xu, Yan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an optimal bidding strategy in the day-ahead market of a microgrid consisting of intermittent distributed generation (DG), storage, dispatchable DG and price responsive loads. The microgrid coordinates the energy consumption or production of its components and trades electricity in both the day-ahead and real-time markets to minimize its operating cost as a single entity. The bidding problem is challenging due to a variety of uncertainties, including power output of intermittent DG, load variation, day-ahead and real-time market prices. A hybrid stochastic/robust optimization model is proposed to minimize the expected net cost, i.e., expected total cost of operation minus total benefit of demand. This formulation can be solved by mixed integer linear programming. The uncertain output of intermittent DG and day-ahead market price are modeled via scenarios based on forecast results, while a robust optimization is proposed to limit the unbalanced power in real-time market taking account of the uncertainty of real-time market price. Numerical simulations on a microgrid consisting of a wind turbine, a PV panel, a fuel cell, a micro-turbine, a diesel generator, a battery and a responsive load show the advantage of stochastic optimization in addition to robust optimization.

  9. Optimal Dynamic Advertising Strategy Under Age-Specific Market Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krastev, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    We consider the model proposed by Faggian and Grosset for determining the advertising efforts and goodwill in the long run of a company under age segmentation of consumers. Reducing this model to optimal control sub problems we find the optimal advertising strategy and goodwill.

  10. Market Dynamics and Optimal Timber Salvage After a Natural Catastrophe

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Thomas P. Holmes

    2004-01-01

    Forest-based natural catastrophes are regular features of timber production in the United States, especially from hurricanes, fires, and insect and disease outbreaks. These catastrophes affect timber prices and result in economic transfers. We develop a model of timber market dynamics after such a catastrophe that shows how timber salvage affects the welfare of...

  11. An implementation of particle swarm optimization to evaluate optimal under-voltage load shedding in competitive electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini-Bioki, M. M.; Rashidinejad, M.; Abdollahi, A.

    2013-11-01

    Load shedding is a crucial issue in power systems especially under restructured electricity environment. Market-driven load shedding in reregulated power systems associated with security as well as reliability is investigated in this paper. A technoeconomic multi-objective function is introduced to reveal an optimal load shedding scheme considering maximum social welfare. The proposed optimization problem includes maximum GENCOs and loads' profits as well as maximum loadability limit under normal and contingency conditions. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) as a heuristic optimization technique, is utilized to find an optimal load shedding scheme. In a market-driven structure, generators offer their bidding blocks while the dispatchable loads will bid their price-responsive demands. An independent system operator (ISO) derives a market clearing price (MCP) while rescheduling the amount of generating power in both pre-contingency and post-contingency conditions. The proposed methodology is developed on a 3-bus system and then is applied to a modified IEEE 30-bus test system. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in implementing the optimal load shedding satisfying social welfare by maintaining voltage stability margin (VSM) through technoeconomic analyses.

  12. Pareto-optimal solutions for environmental flow schemes incorporating the intra-annual and interannual variability of the natural flow regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, Jenq-Tzong; Wu, Fu-Chun

    2007-06-01

    The temporal variations of natural flows are essential elements for preserving the ecological health of a river which are addressed in this paper by the environmental flow schemes that incorporate the intra-annual and interannual variability of the natural flow regime. We present an optimization framework to find the Pareto-optimal solutions for various flow schemes. The proposed framework integrates (1) the range of variability approach for evaluating the hydrologic alterations; (2) the standardized precipitation index approach for establishing the variation criteria for the wet, normal, and dry years; (3) a weir operation model for simulating the system of flows; and (4) a multiobjective optimization genetic algorithm for search of the Pareto-optimal solutions. The proposed framework is applied to the Kaoping diversion weir in Taiwan. The results reveal that the time-varying schemes incorporating the intra-annual variability in the environmental flow prescriptions promote the ecosystem and human needs fitness. Incorporation of the interannual flow variability using different criteria established for three types of water year further promotes both fitnesses. The merit of incorporating the interannual variability may be superimposed on that of incorporating only the intra-annual flow variability. The Pareto-optimal solutions searched with a limited range of flows replicate satisfactorily those obtained with a full search range. The limited-range Pareto front may be used as a surrogate of the full-range one if feasible prescriptions are to be found among the regular flows.

  13. Market power, private information and the optimal scale of pollution permit markets with application to North Carolina’s Neuse River

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We extend the analysis of optimal scale in pollution permit markets by allowing for both market power and private information. The effect of these considerations on optimal scale is determined by analyzing pollution of nitrogen from Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP) into North Carolina’s Neuse Riv...

  14. Optimizing prediction scores for poor outcome after intra-arterial therapy in anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Sarraj, Amrou; Albright, Karen; Barreto, Andrew D; Boehme, Amelia K; Sitton, Clark W; Choi, Jeanie; Lutzker, Steven L; Sun, Chung-Huan J; Bibars, Wafi; Nguyen, Claude B; Mir, Osman; Vahidy, Farhaan; Wu, Tzu-Ching; Lopez, George A; Gonzales, Nicole R; Edgell, Randall; Martin-Schild, Sheryl; Hallevi, Hen; Chen, Peng Roc; Dannenbaum, Mark; Saver, Jeffrey L; Liebeskind, David S; Nogueira, Raul G; Gupta, Rishi; Grotta, James C; Savitz, Sean I

    2013-12-01

    Intra-arterial therapy (IAT) promotes recanalization of large artery occlusions in acute ischemic stroke. Despite high recanalization rates, poor clinical outcomes are common. We attempted to optimize a score that combines clinical and imaging variables to more accurately predict poor outcome after IAT in anterior circulation occlusions. Patients with acute ischemic stroke undergoing IAT at University of Texas (UT) Houston for large artery occlusions (middle cerebral artery or internal carotid artery) were reviewed. Independent predictors of poor outcome (modified Rankin Scale, 4-6) were studied. External validation was performed on IAT-treated patients at Emory University. A total of 163 patients were identified at UT Houston. Independent predictors of poor outcome (P≤0.2) were identified as score variables using sensitivity analysis and logistic regression. Houston Intra-Arterial Therapy 2 (HIAT2) score ranges 0 to 10: age (≤59=0, 60-79=2, ≥80 years=4), glucose (<150=0, ≥150=1), National Institute Health Stroke Scale (≤10=0, 11-20=1, ≥21=2), the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (8-10=0, ≤7=3). Patients with HIAT2≥5 were more likely to have poor outcomes at discharge (odds ratio, 6.43; 95% confidence interval, 2.75-15.02; P<0.001). After adjusting for reperfusion (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction score≥2b) and time from symptom onset to recanalization, HIAT2≥5 remained an independent predictor of poor outcome (odds ratio, 5.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.96-17.64; P=0.02). Results from the cohort of Emory (198 patients) were consistent; patients with HIAT2 score≥5 had 6× greater odds of poor outcome at discharge and at 90 days. HIAT2 outperformed other previously published predictive scores. The HIAT2 score, which combines clinical and imaging variables, performed better than all previous scores in predicting poor outcome after IAT for anterior circulation large artery occlusions.

  15. Predicting the Direction of Stock Market Index Movement Using an Optimized Artificial Neural Network Model.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Mingyue; Song, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In the business sector, it has always been a difficult task to predict the exact daily price of the stock market index; hence, there is a great deal of research being conducted regarding the prediction of the direction of stock price index movement. Many factors such as political events, general economic conditions, and traders' expectations may have an influence on the stock market index. There are numerous research studies that use similar indicators to forecast the direction of the stock market index. In this study, we compare two basic types of input variables to predict the direction of the daily stock market index. The main contribution of this study is the ability to predict the direction of the next day's price of the Japanese stock market index by using an optimized artificial neural network (ANN) model. To improve the prediction accuracy of the trend of the stock market index in the future, we optimize the ANN model using genetic algorithms (GA). We demonstrate and verify the predictability of stock price direction by using the hybrid GA-ANN model and then compare the performance with prior studies. Empirical results show that the Type 2 input variables can generate a higher forecast accuracy and that it is possible to enhance the performance of the optimized ANN model by selecting input variables appropriately.

  16. Predicting the Direction of Stock Market Index Movement Using an Optimized Artificial Neural Network Model

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Mingyue; Song, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In the business sector, it has always been a difficult task to predict the exact daily price of the stock market index; hence, there is a great deal of research being conducted regarding the prediction of the direction of stock price index movement. Many factors such as political events, general economic conditions, and traders’ expectations may have an influence on the stock market index. There are numerous research studies that use similar indicators to forecast the direction of the stock market index. In this study, we compare two basic types of input variables to predict the direction of the daily stock market index. The main contribution of this study is the ability to predict the direction of the next day’s price of the Japanese stock market index by using an optimized artificial neural network (ANN) model. To improve the prediction accuracy of the trend of the stock market index in the future, we optimize the ANN model using genetic algorithms (GA). We demonstrate and verify the predictability of stock price direction by using the hybrid GA-ANN model and then compare the performance with prior studies. Empirical results show that the Type 2 input variables can generate a higher forecast accuracy and that it is possible to enhance the performance of the optimized ANN model by selecting input variables appropriately. PMID:27196055

  17. Optimal Dynamics of the Vidale-Wolfe Advertising Model. Part I. Fixed Terminal Market Share.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The optimal control problem consist of the Vidale-Wolfe advertising model as its dynamics; the optimal control being the rate of advertising ...expenditure which must achieve a specified terminal market share in a way which maximizes the present value of net profit streams over a finite horizon. The...problem is completely solved with or without an upper limit on advertising rate. The solution in the later case is obtained by using Green’s theorem

  18. Effect of C/N ratio and media optimization through response surface methodology on simultaneous productions of intra- and extracellular inulinase and invertase from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611.

    PubMed

    Dinarvand, Mojdeh; Rezaee, Malahat; Masomian, Malihe; Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Zareian, Mohsen; Abbasi, Sahar; Ariff, Arbakariya B

    2013-01-01

    The study is to identify the extraction of intracellular inulinase (exo- and endoinulinase) and invertase as well as optimization medium composition for maximum productions of intra- and extracellular enzymes from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611. From two different methods for extraction of intracellular enzymes, ultrasonic method was found more effective. Response surface methodology (RSM) with a five-variable and three-level central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the medium composition. The effect of five main reaction parameters including sucrose, yeast extract, NaNO₃, Zn⁺², and Triton X-100 on the production of enzymes was analyzed. A modified quadratic model was fitted to the data with a coefficient of determination (R²) more than 0.90 for all responses. The intra-extracellular inulinase and invertase productions increased in the range from 16 to 8.4 times in the optimized medium (10% (w/v) sucrose, 2.5% (w/v) yeast extract, 2% (w/v) NaNO₃, 1.5 mM (v/v) Zn⁺², and 1% (v/v) Triton X-100) by RSM and from around 1.2 to 1.3 times greater than in the medium optimized by one-factor-at-a-time, respectively. The results of bioprocesses optimization can be useful in the scale-up fermentation and food industry.

  19. Effect of C/N Ratio and Media Optimization through Response Surface Methodology on Simultaneous Productions of Intra- and Extracellular Inulinase and Invertase from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611

    PubMed Central

    Dinarvand, Mojdeh; Rezaee, Malahat; Masomian, Malihe; Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Zareian, Mohsen; Abbasi, Sahar; Ariff, Arbakariya B.

    2013-01-01

    The study is to identify the extraction of intracellular inulinase (exo- and endoinulinase) and invertase as well as optimization medium composition for maximum productions of intra- and extracellular enzymes from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611. From two different methods for extraction of intracellular enzymes, ultrasonic method was found more effective. Response surface methodology (RSM) with a five-variable and three-level central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the medium composition. The effect of five main reaction parameters including sucrose, yeast extract, NaNO3, Zn+2, and Triton X-100 on the production of enzymes was analyzed. A modified quadratic model was fitted to the data with a coefficient of determination (R 2) more than 0.90 for all responses. The intra-extracellular inulinase and invertase productions increased in the range from 16 to 8.4 times in the optimized medium (10% (w/v) sucrose, 2.5% (w/v) yeast extract, 2% (w/v) NaNO3, 1.5 mM (v/v) Zn+2, and 1% (v/v) Triton X-100) by RSM and from around 1.2 to 1.3 times greater than in the medium optimized by one-factor-at-a-time, respectively. The results of bioprocesses optimization can be useful in the scale-up fermentation and food industry. PMID:24151605

  20. Economic optimization of operations for hybrid energy systems under variable markets

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Jen; Garcia, Humberto E.

    2016-05-21

    We prosed a hybrid energy systems (HES) which is an important element to enable increasing penetration of clean energy. Our paper investigates the operations flexibility of HES, and develops a methodology for operations optimization for maximizing economic value based on predicted renewable generation and market information. A multi-environment computational platform for performing such operations optimization is also developed. In order to compensate for prediction error, a control strategy is accordingly designed to operate a standby energy storage element (ESE) to avoid energy imbalance within HES. The proposed operations optimizer allows systematic control of energy conversion for maximal economic value. Simulationmore » results of two specific HES configurations are included to illustrate the proposed methodology and computational capability. These results demonstrate the economic viability of HES under proposed operations optimizer, suggesting the diversion of energy for alternative energy output while participating in the ancillary service market. Economic advantages of such operations optimizer and associated flexible operations are illustrated by comparing the economic performance of flexible operations against that of constant operations. Sensitivity analysis with respect to market variability and prediction error, are also performed.« less

  1. Economic optimization of operations for hybrid energy systems under variable markets

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jen; Garcia, Humberto E.

    2016-05-21

    We prosed a hybrid energy systems (HES) which is an important element to enable increasing penetration of clean energy. Our paper investigates the operations flexibility of HES, and develops a methodology for operations optimization for maximizing economic value based on predicted renewable generation and market information. A multi-environment computational platform for performing such operations optimization is also developed. In order to compensate for prediction error, a control strategy is accordingly designed to operate a standby energy storage element (ESE) to avoid energy imbalance within HES. The proposed operations optimizer allows systematic control of energy conversion for maximal economic value. Simulation results of two specific HES configurations are included to illustrate the proposed methodology and computational capability. These results demonstrate the economic viability of HES under proposed operations optimizer, suggesting the diversion of energy for alternative energy output while participating in the ancillary service market. Economic advantages of such operations optimizer and associated flexible operations are illustrated by comparing the economic performance of flexible operations against that of constant operations. Sensitivity analysis with respect to market variability and prediction error, are also performed.

  2. Using genetic algorithms to search for an optimal portfolio strategy and test market efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Haowen; Mandere, Edward

    2008-03-01

    In this numerical experiment we used genetic algorithms to search for an optimal portfolio investment strategy. The algorithm involves having a ``manager'' who divides his capital among various ``experts'' each of whom has a simple fixed investment strategy. The expert strategies act like population of genes which experiencing selection, mutation and crossover during evolution process. The genetic algorithm was run on actual portfolio with stock data (DowJones 30 stocks). We found that the genetic algorithm overwhelmingly selected optimal strategy that closely resembles a simple buy and hold portfolio, that is, evenly distribute the capital among all stocks. This study shows that market is very efficient, and one possible practical way to gauge market efficiency is to measure the difference between an optimal portfolio return and a simple buy and hold portfolio return.

  3. Basic Knowledge for Market Principle: Approaches to the Price Coordination Mechanism by Using Optimization Theory and Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiyoshi, Eitaro; Masuda, Kazuaki

    On the basis of market fundamentalism, new types of social systems with the market mechanism such as electricity trading markets and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission trading markets have been developed. However, there are few textbooks in science and technology which present the explanation that Lagrange multipliers can be interpreted as market prices. This tutorial paper explains that (1) the steepest descent method for dual problems in optimization, and (2) Gauss-Seidel method for solving the stationary conditions of Lagrange problems with market principles, can formulate the mechanism of market pricing, which works even in the information-oriented modern society. The authors expect readers to acquire basic knowledge on optimization theory and algorithms related to economics and to utilize them for designing the mechanism of more complicated markets.

  4. Optimization of a Future RLV Business Case using Multiple Strategic Market Prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charania, A.; Olds, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    There is a lack of depth in the current paradigm of conceptual level economic models used to evaluate the value and viability of future capital projects such as a commercial reusable launch vehicle (RLV). Current modeling methods assume a single price is charged to all customers, public or private, in order to optimize the economic metrics of interest. This assumption may not be valid given the different utility functions for space services of public and private entities. The government's requirements are generally more inflexible than its commercial counterparts. A government's launch schedules are much more rigid, choices of international launch services restricted, and launch specifications generally more stringent as well as numerous. These requirements generally make the government's demand curve more inelastic. Subsequently, a launch vehicle provider will charge a higher price (launch price per kg) to the government and may obtain a higher level of financial profit compared to an equivalent a commercial payload. This profit is not a sufficient condition to enable RLV development by itself but can help in making the financial situation slightly better. An RLV can potentially address multiple payload markets; each market has a different price elasticity of demand for both the commercial and government customer. Thus, a more resilient examination of the economic landscape requires optimization of multiple prices in which each price affects a different demand curve. Such an examination is performed here using the Cost and Business Analysis Module (CABAM), an MS-Excel spreadsheet-based model that attempts to couple both the demand and supply for space transportation services in the future. The demand takes the form of market assumptions (both near-term and far-term) and the supply comes from user-defined vehicles that are placed into the model. CABAM represents RLV projects as commercial endeavors with the possibility to model the effects of government

  5. Optimization models and techniques for implementation and pricing of electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrigal Martinez, Marcelino

    Vertically integrated electric power systems extensively use optimization models and solution techniques to guide their optimal operation and planning. The advent of electric power systems re-structuring has created needs for new optimization tools and the revision of the inherited ones from the vertical integration era into the market environment. This thesis presents further developments on the use of optimization models and techniques for implementation and pricing of primary electricity markets. New models, solution approaches, and price setting alternatives are proposed. Three different modeling groups are studied. The first modeling group considers simplified continuous and discrete models for power pool auctions driven by central-cost minimization. The direct solution of the dual problems, and the use of a Branch-and-Bound algorithm to solve the primal, allows to identify the effects of disequilibrium, and different price setting alternatives over the existence of multiple solutions. It is shown that particular pricing rules worsen the conflict of interest that arise when multiple solutions exist under disequilibrium. A price-setting alternative based on dual variables is shown to diminish such conflict. The second modeling group considers the unit commitment problem. An interior-point/cutting-plane method is proposed for the solution of the dual problem. The new method has better convergence characteristics and does not suffer from the parameter tuning drawback as previous methods The robustness characteristics of the interior-point/cutting-plane method, combined with a non-uniform price setting alternative, show that the conflict of interest is diminished when multiple near optimal solutions exist. The non-uniform price setting alternative is compared to a classic average pricing rule. The last modeling group concerns to a new type of linear network-constrained clearing system models for daily markets for power and spinning reserve. A new model and

  6. Study on Stochastic Optimal Electric Power Procurement Strategies with Uncertain Market Prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakchai, Siripatanakulkhajorn; Saisho, Yuichi; Fujii, Yasumasa; Yamaji, Kenji

    The player in deregulated electricity markets can be categorized into three groups of GENCO (Generator Companies), TRNASCO (Transmission Companies), DISCO (Distribution Companies). This research focuses on the role of Distribution Companies, which purchase electricity from market at randomly fluctuating prices, and provide it to their customers at given fixed prices. Therefore Distribution companies have to take the risk stemming from price fluctuation of electricity instead of the customers. This entails the necessity to develop a certain method to make an optimal strategy for electricity procurement. In such a circumstance, this research has the purpose for proposing the mathematical method based on stochastic dynamic programming to evaluate the value of a long-term bilateral contract of electricity trade, and also a project of combination of the bilateral contract and power generation with their own generators for procuring electric power in deregulated market.

  7. Optimal operational strategies for a day-ahead electricity market in the presence of market power using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo, Deepal

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation introduces a novel approach for optimally operating a day-ahead electricity market not only by economically dispatching the generation resources but also by minimizing the influences of market manipulation attempts by the individual generator-owning companies while ensuring that the power system constraints are not violated. Since economic operation of the market conflicts with the individual profit maximization tactics such as market manipulation by generator-owning companies, a methodology that is capable of simultaneously optimizing these two competing objectives has to be selected. Although numerous previous studies have been undertaken on the economic operation of day-ahead markets and other independent studies have been conducted on the mitigation of market power, the operation of a day-ahead electricity market considering these two conflicting objectives simultaneously has not been undertaken previously. These facts provided the incentive and the novelty for this study. A literature survey revealed that many of the traditional solution algorithms convert multi-objective functions into either a single-objective function using weighting schemas or undertake optimization of one function at a time. Hence, these approaches do not truly optimize the multi-objectives concurrently. Due to these inherent deficiencies of the traditional algorithms, the use of alternative non-traditional solution algorithms for such problems has become popular and widely used. Of these, multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEA) have received wide acceptance due to their solution quality and robustness. In the present research, three distinct algorithms were considered: a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II), a multi-objective tabu search algorithm (MOTS) and a hybrid of multi-objective tabu search and genetic algorithm (MOTS/GA). The accuracy and quality of the results from these algorithms for applications similar to the problem investigated here

  8. Discrete homotopy analysis for optimal trading execution with nonlinear transient market impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curato, Gianbiagio; Gatheral, Jim; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2016-10-01

    Optimal execution in financial markets is the problem of how to trade a large quantity of shares incrementally in time in order to minimize the expected cost. In this paper, we study the problem of the optimal execution in the presence of nonlinear transient market impact. Mathematically such problem is equivalent to solve a strongly nonlinear integral equation, which in our model is a weakly singular Urysohn equation of the first kind. We propose an approach based on Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM), whereby a well behaved initial trading strategy is continuously deformed to lower the expected execution cost. Specifically, we propose a discrete version of the HAM, i.e. the DHAM approach, in order to use the method when the integrals to compute have no closed form solution. We find that the optimal solution is front loaded for concave instantaneous impact even when the investor is risk neutral. More important we find that the expected cost of the DHAM strategy is significantly smaller than the cost of conventional strategies.

  9. Marketing.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  10. Incomplete international climate agreements: Optimal carbon taxes, market failures and welfare effects

    SciTech Connect

    Golombek, R.; Braten, J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper provides an empirical study of optimal carbon taxes and welfare effects under incomplete international climate agreements when there are market failures in the cooperating countries. The objective of the group of countries taking part in the international climate agreement is to design carbon taxes that maximize their aggregate net income, subject to a constraint on global CO{sub 2} emissions. We use a numerical energy model to study scenarios that differ with respect to types of CO{sub 2} taxes and countries taking part in the climate agreement. We also discuss the impact on regional net income following from different international climate agreements. 26 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Method of Power System Suistanable Development Optimization in Liberalized Market Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcik, M.; Oleinikova, I.; Krishans, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The paper is focused on the development of the Baltic Sea region taking into account the new EU energy policy. The authors elucidate the current situation and the power system infrastructure projects of the region. For the economic analysis and optimization of the development plans a method is proposed that takes into account the outlooks for upcoming 20-50 years and the initial information uncertainty. The method makes possible estimation of the technically-economic state, including market conditions, for a given power system.

  12. Co-optimization of Energy and Demand-Side Reserves in Day-Ahead Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surender Reddy, S.; Abhyankar, A. R.; Bijwe, P. R.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a new multi-objective day-ahead market clearing (DAMC) mechanism with demand-side reserves/demand response (DR) offers, considering realistic voltage-dependent load modeling. The paper proposes objectives such as social welfare maximization (SWM) including demand-side reserves, and load served error (LSE) minimization. In this paper, energy and demand-side reserves are cleared simultaneously through co-optimization process. The paper clearly brings out the unsuitability of conventional SWM for DAMC in the presence of voltage-dependent loads, due to reduction of load served (LS). Under such circumstances multi-objective DAMC with DR offers is essential. Multi-objective Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2+ (SPEA 2+) has been used to solve the optimization problem. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is confirmed with results obtained from IEEE 30 bus system.

  13. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  14. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maust, Robert N.

    1985-01-01

    Although college administrators may be committed to the concept and need for institutional marketing, even a well-developed marketing plan may not work if it is not clearly organized to address special needs. This article reviews management fads, how to make jargon operational, organizational dynamics, and monitoring fads. (MSE)

  15. Radiation Optimized Dual-source Dual-energy Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography: Intra-individual and Inter-individual Comparison.

    PubMed

    Li, Xie; Chen, Guo Zhong; Zhao, Yan E; Schoepf, U Joseph; Albrecht, Moritz H; Bickford, Matthew W; Gu, Hai Feng; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to intra-individually and inter-individually compare image quality, radiation dose, and diagnostic accuracy of dual-source dual-energy computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) protocols in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Thirty-three patients with suspected PE underwent initial and follow-up dual-energy CTPA at 80/Sn140 kVp (group A) or 100/Sn140 kVp (group B), which were assigned based on tube voltages. Subjective and objective CTPA image quality and lung perfusion map image quality were evaluated. Diagnostic accuracies of CTPA and perfusion maps were assessed by two radiologists independently. Effective dose (ED) was calculated and compared. Mean computed tomography (CT) values of pulmonary arteries were higher in group A than group B (P = .006). There was no difference in signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio between the two groups (both P > .05). Interobserver agreement for evaluating subjective image quality of CTPA and color-coded perfusion images was either good (κ = 0.784) or excellent (κ = 0.887). Perfusion defect scores and diagnostic accuracy of CTPA showed no difference between both groups (both P > .05). Effective dose of group A was reduced by 45.8% compared to group B (P < .001). Second-generation dual-source dual-energy CTPA with 80/Sn140 kVp allows for sufficient image quality and diagnostic accuracy for detecting PE while substantially reducing radiation dose. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimal fluorescence excitation wavelengths for detection of squamous intra-epithelial neoplasia: results from an animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coghlan, Lezlee; Utzinger, Urs; Drezek, Rebekah A.; Heintzelmann, Doug; Zuluaga, Andres F.; Brookner, Carrie; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.; Gimenez-Conti, Irma; Follen, Michele

    2000-12-01

    Using the hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model, we explore which fluorescence excitation wavelengths are useful for the detection of neoplasia. 42 hamsters were treated with DMBA to induce carcinogenesis, and 20 control animals were treated only with mineral oil. Fluorescence excitation emission matrices were measured from the cheek pouches of the hamsters weekly. Results showed increased fluorescence near 350-370 nm and 410 nm excitation and decreased fluorescence near 450-470 nm excitation with neoplasia. The optimal diagnostic excitation wavelengths identified using this model - 350-370 nm excitation and 400-450 nm excitation - are similar to those identified for detection of human oral cavity neoplasia.

  17. Evaluation and Verification of Channel Transmission Characteristics of Human Body for Optimizing Data Transmission Rate in Electrostatic-Coupling Intra Body Communication System: A Comparative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yuhwai; Su, Chauchin; Ho, Yingchieh

    2016-01-01

    Intra-body communication is a new wireless scheme for transmitting signals through the human body. Understanding the transmission characteristics of the human body is therefore becoming increasingly important. Electrostatic-coupling intra-body communication system in a ground-free situation that integrate electronic products that are discretely located on individuals, such as mobile phones, PDAs, wearable computers, and biomedical sensors, are of particular interest. The human body is modeled as a simplified Resistor-Capacitor network. A virtual ground between the transmitter and receiver in the system is represented by a resister-capacitor network. Value of its resistance and capacitance are determined from a system perspective. The system is characterized by using a mathematical unit step function in digital baseband transmission scheme with and without Manchester code. As a result, the signal-to-noise and to-intersymbol-interference ratios are improved by manipulating the load resistor. The data transmission rate of the system is optimized. A battery-powered transmitter and receiver are developed to validate the proposal. A ground-free system fade signal energy especially for a low-frequency signal limited system transmission rate. The system transmission rate is maximized by simply manipulating the load resistor. Experimental results demonstrate that for a load resistance of 10k-50k Ω, the high-pass 3 dB frequency of the band-pass channel is 400kHz-2MHz in the worst-case scenario. The system allows a Manchester-coded baseband signal to be transmitted at speeds of up to 20M bit per second with signal-to-noise and signal-to-intersymbol-interference ratio of more than 10 dB. The human body can function as a high speed transmission medium with a data transmission rate of 20Mbps in an electrostatic-coupling intra-body communication system. Therefore, a wideband signal can be transmitted directly through the human body with a good signal-to-noise quality of 10 dB if

  18. Evaluation and Verification of Channel Transmission Characteristics of Human Body for Optimizing Data Transmission Rate in Electrostatic-Coupling Intra Body Communication System: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yuhwai; Su, Chauchin; Ho, Yingchieh

    2016-01-01

    Background Intra-body communication is a new wireless scheme for transmitting signals through the human body. Understanding the transmission characteristics of the human body is therefore becoming increasingly important. Electrostatic-coupling intra-body communication system in a ground-free situation that integrate electronic products that are discretely located on individuals, such as mobile phones, PDAs, wearable computers, and biomedical sensors, are of particular interest. Materials and Methods The human body is modeled as a simplified Resistor-Capacitor network. A virtual ground between the transmitter and receiver in the system is represented by a resister-capacitor network. Value of its resistance and capacitance are determined from a system perspective. The system is characterized by using a mathematical unit step function in digital baseband transmission scheme with and without Manchester code. As a result, the signal-to-noise and to-intersymbol-interference ratios are improved by manipulating the load resistor. The data transmission rate of the system is optimized. A battery-powered transmitter and receiver are developed to validate the proposal. Results A ground-free system fade signal energy especially for a low-frequency signal limited system transmission rate. The system transmission rate is maximized by simply manipulating the load resistor. Experimental results demonstrate that for a load resistance of 10k−50k Ω, the high-pass 3 dB frequency of the band-pass channel is 400kHz−2MHz in the worst-case scenario. The system allows a Manchester-coded baseband signal to be transmitted at speeds of up to 20M bit per second with signal-to-noise and signal-to-intersymbol-interference ratio of more than 10 dB. Conclusion The human body can function as a high speed transmission medium with a data transmission rate of 20Mbps in an electrostatic-coupling intra-body communication system. Therefore, a wideband signal can be transmitted directly through the

  19. Co-optimization of RegC and TWINSCAN corrections to improve the intra-field on-product overlay performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorhad, Kujan; Sharoni, Ofir; Dmitriev, Vladimir; Cohen, Avi; van Haren, Richard; Roelofs, Christian; Cekli, Hakki Ergun; Gallagher, Emily; Leray, Philippe; Beyer, Dirk; Trautzsch, Thomas; Steinert, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    Improving wafer On Product Overlay (OPO) is becoming a major challenge in lithography, especially for multipatterning techniques like N-repetitive Litho-Etch steps (LEN, N >= 2). When using different scanner settings and litho processes between inter-layer overlays, intra-field overlay control becomes more complicated. In addition to the Image Placement Error (IPE) contribution, the TWINSCANTM lens fingerprint in combination with the exposure settings is playing a significant role as well. Furthermore the scanner needs to deal with dynamic fingerprints caused by for instance lens and/or reticle heating. This paper will demonstrate the complementary RegC® and TWINSCANTM solution for improving the OPO by cooptimizing the correction capabilities of the individual tools, respectively. As a consequence, the systematic intra-field fingerprints can be decreased along with the overlay (OVL) error at wafer level. Furthermore, the application could be utilized for extending some of the scanner actuators ranges by inducing a pre-determined signatures. These solutions perfectly fit into the ASML Litho InSight (LIS) product in which feedforward and feedback corrections based on YieldStar overlay and other measurements are used to improve the OPO. While the TWINSCANTM scanner corrects for global distortions (up to third order) - scanner Correctable Errors ( CE), the RegC® application can correct for the None Correctable Errors (NCE) by making the high frequency NCE into a CE with low frequency nature. The RegC® induces predictable deformation elements inside the quartz (Qz) material of the reticle, and by doing so it can induce a desired pre-defined signature into the reticle. The deformation introduced by the RegC® is optimized for the actual wafer print taking into account the scale and ortho compensation by the scanner, to correct for the systematic fingerprints and the wafer overlay. These two applications might be very powerful and could contribute to achieve a better

  20. Tracing the transition path between optimal strategies combinations within a competitive market of innovative industrial products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.; Pollalis, Yannis A.

    2012-12-01

    In several cases, a competitive market can be simulated by a game, where each company/opponent is referred to as a player. In order to accommodate the fact that each player (alone or with alliances) is working against some others' interest, the rather conservative maximin criterion is frequently used for selecting the strategy or the combination of strategies that yield the best of the worst possible outcomes for each one of the players. Under this criterion, an optimal solution is obtained when neither player finds it beneficial to alter his strategy, which means that an equilibrium has been achieved, giving also the value of the game. If conditions change as regards a player, e.g., because of either achieving an unexpected successful result in developing an innovative industrial product or obtaining higher liquidity permitting him to increase advertisement in order to acquire a larger market share, then a new equilibrium is reached. The identification of the path between the old and the new equilibrium points may prove to be valuable for investigating the robustness of the solution by means of sensitivity analysis, since uncertainty plays a critical role in this situation, where evaluation of the payoff matrix is usually based on experts' estimates. In this work, the development of a standard methodology (including 16 activity stages and 7 decision nodes) for tracing this path is presented while a numerical implementation follows to prove its functionality.

  1. Short-Term Stochastic Optimization of Hydropower Production and Marketing under Meteorological Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanenberg, D.; Naumann, S.; Allen, C.

    2015-12-01

    Hydroelectric power systems are characterized by variability and uncertainty in yield and water resources obligations. Market volatility and the growing number of operational constraints for flood control, navigation, environmental obligations and ancillary services (including load balancing requirements for renewable resources) further the need to quantify sources of uncertainty. This research presents an integrated framework to handle several sources of uncertainty. Main focus is on the meteorological forecast uncertainty represented by a probabilistic Numerical Weather Predictions (NWP), its consistent propagation through load and streamflow forecasts, and the generation of scenario trees with multi-dimensional distance metrics. The short-term management approach adapts to this forecast uncertainty and its resolution by the use of multi-stage stochastic optimization. The Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS), managed by the Bonneville Power Administration, the US Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, serves as a large-scale test case for the application of the new framework. It is used to quantify the operational flexibility of the hydropower system and to propagate the forecast uncertainty through the system. Objectives and constraints enable the operating staff to shape and direct the system such that variability remains in the hydropower system or gets absorbs by the energy market.

  2. A two-stage method to determine optimal product sampling considering dynamic potential market.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhineng; Lu, Wei; Han, Bing

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops an optimization model for the diffusion effects of free samples under dynamic changes in potential market based on the characteristics of independent product and presents a two-stage method to figure out the sampling level. The impact analysis of the key factors on the sampling level shows that the increase of the external coefficient or internal coefficient has a negative influence on the sampling level. And the changing rate of the potential market has no significant influence on the sampling level whereas the repeat purchase has a positive one. Using logistic analysis and regression analysis, the global sensitivity analysis gives a whole analysis of the interaction of all parameters, which provides a two-stage method to estimate the impact of the relevant parameters in the case of inaccuracy of the parameters and to be able to construct a 95% confidence interval for the predicted sampling level. Finally, the paper provides the operational steps to improve the accuracy of the parameter estimation and an innovational way to estimate the sampling level.

  3. A Two-Stage Method to Determine Optimal Product Sampling considering Dynamic Potential Market

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhineng; Lu, Wei; Han, Bing

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops an optimization model for the diffusion effects of free samples under dynamic changes in potential market based on the characteristics of independent product and presents a two-stage method to figure out the sampling level. The impact analysis of the key factors on the sampling level shows that the increase of the external coefficient or internal coefficient has a negative influence on the sampling level. And the changing rate of the potential market has no significant influence on the sampling level whereas the repeat purchase has a positive one. Using logistic analysis and regression analysis, the global sensitivity analysis gives a whole analysis of the interaction of all parameters, which provides a two-stage method to estimate the impact of the relevant parameters in the case of inaccuracy of the parameters and to be able to construct a 95% confidence interval for the predicted sampling level. Finally, the paper provides the operational steps to improve the accuracy of the parameter estimation and an innovational way to estimate the sampling level. PMID:25821847

  4. Markets

    Treesearch

    David N. Wear; Jeffrey Prestemon; Robert Huggett; Douglas Carter

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsAlthough timber production in the South more than doubled from the 1960s to the late 1990s, output levels have declined over the last 10 years, signaling structural changes in timber markets.For softwood products, production declines are most clearly related to demand issues. Demand for softwood solid wood products...

  5. Dynamic contrast enhancement of experimental glioma an intra-individual comparative study to assess the optimal time delay.

    PubMed

    Engelhorn, Tobias; Schwarz, Marc A; Eyupoglu, Ilker Y; Kloska, Stephan P; Struffert, Tobias; Doerfler, Arnd

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare tumor signal and contrast media uptake characteristics on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences at 3 Tesla over 30 minutes after double-dose administration of different contrast agents in an animal model of brain glioma. Nine rats underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after stereotactic F98 glioma cell implantation before and repetitively for 30 minutes after injection of gadobutrol, gadopentetate, and gadobenate, respectively. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and tumor contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were evaluated and MRI-derived tumor volumes were compared to histology. Postcontrast tumor SNR and CNR peaked at 4 minutes after contrast application. While contrast-enhancement within the tumor was fading, tumor volume increased by continuous contrast-uptake of peripheral parts between 4 minutes (137 + or - 29 mm(3), 126 + or - 16 mm(3), 141 + or - 24 mm(3)) and 20 minutes (182 + or - 35 mm(3), 164 + or - 32 mm(3), 191 + or - 25 mm(3)), respectively. At 8 and 12 minutes, 84% and 91% of the tumor volume were definable, respectively. Optimal correlation between MRI-derived tumor volume and histology is achieved by imaging up to 20 minutes after contrast application. At 4 minutes (this delay is mostly used in clinical routine), only 75% of the enhancing tumor volume is assessable. A delay of 8 minutes already reveals 84% of the tumor and seems to be a practical clinical compromise. Copyright 2010 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Using dental care resources optimally: quality-efficiency trade-offs in a competitive private market.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Banuru Muralidhara; Varatharajan, D

    2011-01-01

    Modern lifestyle changes led to increased dental care needs in India. Consequently, there has been a sharp rise in dentist numbers. Karnataka state alone produces 2,500 dentists annually, who are engaged in the non-government sector owing to inadequate public sector opportunities. This article aims to assess Karnataka private dental clinic quality and efficiency. Dentists were interviewed using a close-ended, structured interview schedule and their clinics were assessed using a checklist adopted from guidelines for providing machinery and equipment under the National Oral Health Care Programme (NOHCP). Dental "hotel" and clinical quality were scored based on this checklist. Clinical quality was "excellent" in 12 per cent of clinics and poor in 49 per cent. Clinics with better infrastructure charged higher price (p < 0.05). Multi-chair clinics charging fixed rates were high (81 per cent). According to 59.5 per cent of dentists, competition did not improve quality while 27 per cent felt that competition increased price, not quality. About 30.9 per cent of the poor quality clinics, 41 per cent average quality clinics and 26 per cent good quality clinics were technically efficient. The multi chair clinics offered better quality at higher prices and single chair clinics provided poorer quality at lower prices. In other words, they had a sub-optimal price-quality mix. Therefore, there is a need to regulate price and quality in all clinics to arrive at an optimal price-quality mix so that clients are not overburdened financially even while receiving good quality dental care. The article advocates that resources are used optimally as a way to achieve value for money and to achieve break-even points thereby providing quality care in a competitive market. Factors that influence dental practitioner behaviour are evaluated.

  7. An optimization-based approach for facility energy management with uncertainties, and, Power portfolio optimization in deregulated electricity markets with risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun

    Topic 1. An Optimization-Based Approach for Facility Energy Management with Uncertainties. Effective energy management for facilities is becoming increasingly important in view of the rising energy costs, the government mandate on the reduction of energy consumption, and the human comfort requirements. This part of dissertation presents a daily energy management formulation and the corresponding solution methodology for HVAC systems. The problem is to minimize the energy and demand costs through the control of HVAC units while satisfying human comfort, system dynamics, load limit constraints, and other requirements. The problem is difficult in view of the fact that the system is nonlinear, time-varying, building-dependent, and uncertain; and that the direct control of a large number of HVAC components is difficult. In this work, HVAC setpoints are the control variables developed on top of a Direct Digital Control (DDC) system. A method that combines Lagrangian relaxation, neural networks, stochastic dynamic programming, and heuristics is developed to predict the system dynamics and uncontrollable load, and to optimize the setpoints. Numerical testing and prototype implementation results show that our method can effectively reduce total costs, manage uncertainties, and shed the load, is computationally efficient. Furthermore, it is significantly better than existing methods. Topic 2. Power Portfolio Optimization in Deregulated Electricity Markets with Risk Management. In a deregulated electric power system, multiple markets of different time scales exist with various power supply instruments. A load serving entity (LSE) has multiple choices from these instruments to meet its load obligations. In view of the large amount of power involved, the complex market structure, risks in such volatile markets, stringent constraints to be satisfied, and the long time horizon, a power portfolio optimization problem is of critical importance but difficulty for an LSE to serve the

  8. Optimal Operation and Value Evaluation of Pumped Storage Power Plants Considering Spot Market Trading and Uncertainty of Bilateral Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kenta; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Jun

    In recent years, as the deregulation in electric power industry has advanced in many countries, a spot market trading of electricity has been done. Generation companies are allowed to purchase the electricity through the electric power market and supply electric power for their bilateral customers. Under this circumstance, it is important for the generation companies to procure the required electricity with cheaper cost to increase their profit. The market price is volatile since it is determined by bidding between buyer and seller. The pumped storage power plant, one of the storage facilities is promising against such volatile market price since it can produce a profit by purchasing electricity with lower-price and selling it with higher-price. This paper discusses the optimal operation of the pumped storage power plants considering bidding strategy to an uncertain spot market. The volatilities in market price and demand are represented by the Vasicek model in our estimation. This paper also discusses the allocation of operational reserve to the pumped storage power plant.

  9. Optimal Dispatch of Competitive Power Markets by Using PowerWorld Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Li, Shuhui

    2013-10-01

    The transition to competitive and retail markets for electric utilities around the world has been a difficult and controversial process. One of the difficulties that hindered the development and growth of competitive power markets is the absence of efficient computational tools to assist the design, analysis, and operation of competitive power markets. PowerWorld simulator is a software package that has strong analytical and visualization functions suitable for extensive power flow study of an electric power system. However, like many other power flow simulators, PowerWorld cannot be used directly for analysis and evaluation of a competitive power market. This article investigates mathematical models associated with a competitive power market and how these models can be converted and transformed in such a way that makes it possible to use PowerWorld for the competitive power market study. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, models of several small-scale competitive power markets are built in MatLab by using conventional approaches. Results generated by both PowerWorld and MatLab are compared. Finally, the article demonstrates how the PowerWorld simulator is used to investigate a larger and practical competitive power system.

  10. A Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Heuristic for Market-Oriented Task-Level Scheduling in Cloud Workflow Systems

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuejun; Xu, Jia; Yang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Cloud workflow system is a kind of platform service based on cloud computing. It facilitates the automation of workflow applications. Between cloud workflow system and its counterparts, market-oriented business model is one of the most prominent factors. The optimization of task-level scheduling in cloud workflow system is a hot topic. As the scheduling is a NP problem, Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) have been proposed to optimize the cost. However, they have the characteristic of premature convergence in optimization process and therefore cannot effectively reduce the cost. To solve these problems, Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO) algorithm with chaotic sequence and adaptive inertia weight factor is applied to present the task-level scheduling. Chaotic sequence with high randomness improves the diversity of solutions, and its regularity assures a good global convergence. Adaptive inertia weight factor depends on the estimate value of cost. It makes the scheduling avoid premature convergence by properly balancing between global and local exploration. The experimental simulation shows that the cost obtained by our scheduling is always lower than the other two representative counterparts. PMID:26357510

  11. A Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Heuristic for Market-Oriented Task-Level Scheduling in Cloud Workflow Systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuejun; Xu, Jia; Yang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Cloud workflow system is a kind of platform service based on cloud computing. It facilitates the automation of workflow applications. Between cloud workflow system and its counterparts, market-oriented business model is one of the most prominent factors. The optimization of task-level scheduling in cloud workflow system is a hot topic. As the scheduling is a NP problem, Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) have been proposed to optimize the cost. However, they have the characteristic of premature convergence in optimization process and therefore cannot effectively reduce the cost. To solve these problems, Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO) algorithm with chaotic sequence and adaptive inertia weight factor is applied to present the task-level scheduling. Chaotic sequence with high randomness improves the diversity of solutions, and its regularity assures a good global convergence. Adaptive inertia weight factor depends on the estimate value of cost. It makes the scheduling avoid premature convergence by properly balancing between global and local exploration. The experimental simulation shows that the cost obtained by our scheduling is always lower than the other two representative counterparts.

  12. Can market-based policies accomplish the optimal floodplain management? A gap between static and dynamic models.

    PubMed

    Mori, Koichiro

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this short article is to set static and dynamic models for optimal floodplain management and to compare policy implications from the models. River floodplains are important multiple resources in that they provide various ecosystem services. It is fundamentally significant to consider environmental externalities that accrue from ecosystem services of natural floodplains. There is an interesting gap between static and dynamic models about policy implications for floodplain management, although they are based on the same assumptions. Essentially, we can derive the same optimal conditions, which imply that the marginal benefits must equal the sum of the marginal costs and the social external costs related to ecosystem services. Thus, we have to internalise the external costs by market-based policies. In this respect, market-based policies seem to be effective in a static model. However, they are not sufficient in the context of a dynamic model because the optimal steady state turns out to be unstable. Based on a dynamic model, we need more coercive regulation policies.

  13. Scientific and Technical Serials Holdings Optimization in an Inefficient Market: A LSU Serials Redesign Project Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensman, Stephen J.; Wilder, Stanley J.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the structure of the library market for scientific and technical (ST) serials. Describes an exercise aimed at a theoretical reconstruction of the ST-serials holdings of Louisiana State University (LSU) Libraries. Discusses the set definitions, measures, and algorithms necessary in the design of a computer program to appraise ST serials.…

  14. Scientific and Technical Serials Holdings Optimization in an Inefficient Market: A LSU Serials Redesign Project Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensman, Stephen J.; Wilder, Stanley J.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the structure of the library market for scientific and technical (ST) serials. Describes an exercise aimed at a theoretical reconstruction of the ST-serials holdings of Louisiana State University (LSU) Libraries. Discusses the set definitions, measures, and algorithms necessary in the design of a computer program to appraise ST serials.…

  15. Optimizing Product Attributes to Gain Competitive Advantage in Markets for Hardwood Lumber

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    One of the ways in which wood-based companies can gain competitive advantage is to concentrate on a particular segment of the market for their products. By meeting the needs of this segment better than its competitors, a company can create switching costs, develop customer loyalty, and the increase profit margins. This article describes a study that was conducted that...

  16. Economic assessment and optimal operation of CSP systems with TES in California electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, Alexander W.; Dyreson, Ana; Miller, Franklin; Zavala, Victor M.

    2017-06-01

    The economics and performance of concentrated power (CSP) systems with thermal energy storage (TES) inherently depend on operating policies and the surrounding weather conditions and electricity markets. We present an integrated economic assessment framework to quantify the maximum possible revenues from simultaneous energy and ancillary services sales by CSP systems. The framework includes both discrete start-up/shutdown restrictions and detailed physical models. Analysis of coinci-dental historical market and meteorological data reveals provision of ancillary services increases market revenue 18% to 37% relative to energy-only participation. Surprisingly, only 53% to 62% of these revenues are available through sole participation in the day-ahead market, indicating significant opportunities at faster timescales. Motivated by water-usage concerns and permitting requirements, we also describe a new nighttime radiative-enhanced dry-cooling system with cold-side storage that consumes no water and offers higher effciencies than traditional air-cooled designs. Operation of this new system is complicated by the cold-side storage and inherent coupling between the cooling system and power plant, further motivating integrated economic analysis.

  17. Optimizing the Operation of Windfarms, Energy Storage and Flexible Loads in Modern Power Systems and Deregulated Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dar, Zamiyad

    The amount of wind energy in power systems is increasing at a significant rate. With this increased penetration, there are certain problems associated with the operation of windfarms which need careful attention. In the operations side, the wake effects of upstream wind turbines on downstream wind turbines can cause a reduction in the total generated power of a windfarm. On the market side, the fluctuation of real-time prices can make the operation of windfarms less profitable. Similarly, the intermittent nature of wind power prevents the windfarms from participating in the day-ahead and forward markets. On the system side, the volatile nature of wind speeds is also an obstacle for windfarms to provide frequency regulation to the system. In this thesis, we address these issues and optimize the operation of windfarms in power systems and deregulated electricity markets. First, the total power generation in a windfarm is maximized by using yaw angle of wind turbines as a control variable. We extend the existing wake models to include the effects of yaw misalignment and wake deflection of wind turbines. A numerical study is performed to find the optimal values of induction factor and yaw misalignment angle of wind turbines in a single row of a windfarm for achieving the maximum total power with wake effects. The numerical study shows that the maximum power is achieved by keeping the induction factor close to 1/3 and only changing the yaw angle to deflect the wake. We then propose a Dynamic Programming Framework (DPF) to maximize the total power production of a windfarm using yaw angle as the control variable. We compare the windfarm efficiency achieved with our DPF with the efficiency values obtained through greedy control strategy and induction factor optimization. We also extend our expressions to a windfarm with multiple rows and columns of turbines and perform simulations on the 3x3 and 4x4 grid topologies. Our results show that the optimal induction factor for

  18. IntraFace

    PubMed Central

    De la Torre, Fernando; Chu, Wen-Sheng; Xiong, Xuehan; Vicente, Francisco; Ding, Xiaoyu; Cohn, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Within the last 20 years, there has been an increasing interest in the computer vision community in automated facial image analysis algorithms. This has been driven by applications in animation, market research, autonomous-driving, surveillance, and facial editing among others. To date, there exist several commercial packages for specific facial image analysis tasks such as facial expression recognition, facial attribute analysis or face tracking. However, free and easy-to-use software that incorporates all these functionalities is unavailable. This paper presents IntraFace (IF), a publicly-available software package for automated facial feature tracking, head pose estimation, facial attribute recognition, and facial expression analysis from video. In addition, IFincludes a newly develop technique for unsupervised synchrony detection to discover correlated facial behavior between two or more persons, a relatively unexplored problem in facial image analysis. In tests, IF achieved state-of-the-art results for emotion expression and action unit detection in three databases, FERA, CK+ and RU-FACS; measured audience reaction to a talk given by one of the authors; and discovered synchrony for smiling in videos of parent-infant interaction. IF is free of charge for academic use at http://www.humansensing.cs.cmu.edu/intraface/. PMID:27346987

  19. Optimization of investment portfolio weight of stocks affected by market index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizah, E.; Rusyaman, E.; Supian, S.

    2017-01-01

    Stock price assessment, selection of optimum combination, and measure the risk of a portfolio investment is one important issue for investors. In this paper single index model used for the assessment of the stock price, and formulation optimization model developed using Lagrange multiplier technique to determine the proportion of assets to be invested. The level of risk is estimated by using variance. These models are used to analyse the stock price data Lippo Bank and Bumi Putera.

  20. Optimal Mandates and The Welfare Cost of Asymmetric Information: Evidence from The U.K. Annuity Market*

    PubMed Central

    Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy; Schrimpf, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Much of the extensive empirical literature on insurance markets has focused on whether adverse selection can be detected. Once detected, however, there has been little attempt to quantify its welfare cost, or to assess whether and what potential government interventions may reduce these costs. To do so, we develop a model of annuity contract choice and estimate it using data from the U.K. annuity market. The model allows for private information about mortality risk as well as heterogeneity in preferences over different contract options. We focus on the choice of length of guarantee among individuals who are required to buy annuities. The results suggest that asymmetric information along the guarantee margin reduces welfare relative to a first best symmetric information benchmark by about £127 million per year, or about 2 percent of annuitized wealth. We also find that by requiring that individuals choose the longest guarantee period allowed, mandates could achieve the first-best allocation. However, we estimate that other mandated guarantee lengths would have detrimental effects on welfare. Since determining the optimal mandate is empirically difficult, our findings suggest that achieving welfare gains through mandatory social insurance may be harder in practice than simple theory may suggest. PMID:20592943

  1. Suboptimal and optimal order policies for fixed and varying replenishment interval with declining market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jonas C. P.; Wee, H. M.; Yang, P. C.; Wu, Simon

    2016-06-01

    One of the supply chain risks for hi-tech products is the result of rapid technological innovation; it results in a significant decline in the selling price and demand after the initial launch period. Hi-tech products include computers and communication consumer's products. From a practical standpoint, a more realistic replenishment policy is needed to consider the impact of risks; especially when some portions of shortages are lost. In this paper, suboptimal and optimal order policies with partial backordering are developed for a buyer when the component cost, the selling price, and the demand rate decline at a continuous rate. Two mathematical models are derived and discussed: one model has the suboptimal solution with the fixed replenishment interval and a simpler computational process; the other one has the optimal solution with the varying replenishment interval and a more complicated computational process. The second model results in more profit. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the two replenishment models. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to investigate the relationship between the parameters and the net profit.

  2. Antibiotic optimization in the difficult-to-treat patient with complicated intra-abdominal or complicated skin and skin structure infections: focus on tigecycline

    PubMed Central

    Reygaert, Wanda C

    2010-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal and skin and skin structure infections are widely varied in presentation. These infections very often lead to an increase in length of hospital stay, with a resulting increase in costs and mortality. In addition, these infections may be caused by a wide variety of bacteria and are often polymicrobial with the possibility of the presence of antimicrobial-resistant strains, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, extended-spectrum β-lactamase strains (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae), and K. pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing strains. In combination with patients’ immunosuppression or comorbidities, the treatment and management options for initial therapy success are few. Tigecycline, a new glycylcyline antimicrobial from the tetracycline drug class, represents a viable option for the successful treatment of these infections. It has been shown to have activity against a wide variety of bacteria, including the antimicrobial-resistant strains. As with all tetracycline drugs, it is not recommended for pregnant or nursing women. The potential side effects are those typical of tetracycline drugs: nausea, vomiting, and headaches. Drug–drug interactions are not expected, and renal function monitoring is not necessary. PMID:20856688

  3. Intra articular synovial sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Sistla, Radha; Tameem, Afroz; Vidyasagar, J V S

    2010-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a soft tissue neoplasm with a characteristic biphasic pattern. Incidence in soft tissues is 5-10%. Intra articularly synovial sarcoma is extremely rare. Fewer than 5% of all synovial sarcomas arise within the joint space. We report a case of intra articular synovial sarcoma in a young male who presented as internal derangement of the knee.

  4. An Agent-Based Optimization Framework for Engineered Complex Adaptive Systems with Application to Demand Response in Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghnevis, Moeed

    The main objective of this research is to develop an integrated method to study emergent behavior and consequences of evolution and adaptation in engineered complex adaptive systems (ECASs). A multi-layer conceptual framework and modeling approach including behavioral and structural aspects is provided to describe the structure of a class of engineered complex systems and predict their future adaptive patterns. The approach allows the examination of complexity in the structure and the behavior of components as a result of their connections and in relation to their environment. This research describes and uses the major differences of natural complex adaptive systems (CASs) with artificial/engineered CASs to build a framework and platform for ECAS. While this framework focuses on the critical factors of an engineered system, it also enables one to synthetically employ engineering and mathematical models to analyze and measure complexity in such systems. In this way concepts of complex systems science are adapted to management science and system of systems engineering. In particular an integrated consumer-based optimization and agent-based modeling (ABM) platform is presented that enables managers to predict and partially control patterns of behaviors in ECASs. Demonstrated on the U.S. electricity markets, ABM is integrated with normative and subjective decision behavior recommended by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). The approach integrates social networks, social science, complexity theory, and diffusion theory. Furthermore, it has unique and significant contribution in exploring and representing concrete managerial insights for ECASs and offering new optimized actions and modeling paradigms in agent-based simulation.

  5. Mathematical model of microbicidal flow dynamics and optimization of rheological properties for intra-vaginal drug delivery: Role of tissue mechanics and fluid rheology.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Md Rajib; Camarda, Kyle V; Kieweg, Sarah L

    2015-06-25

    Topically applied microbicide gels can provide a self-administered and effective strategy to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We have investigated the interplay between vaginal tissue elasticity and the yield-stress of non-Newtonian fluids during microbicide deployment. We have developed a mathematical model of tissue deformation driven spreading of microbicidal gels based on thin film lubrication approximation and demonstrated the effect of tissue elasticity and fluid yield-stress on the spreading dynamics. Our results show that both elasticity of tissue and yield-stress rheology of gel are strong determinants of the coating behavior. An optimization framework has been demonstrated which leverages the flow dynamics of yield-stress fluid during deployment to maximize retention while reaching target coating length for a given tissue elasticity.

  6. Development and optimization of a method for the determination of Cylindrospermopsin from strains of Aphanizomenon cultures: intra-laboratory assessment of its accuracy by using validation standards.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Prieto Ortega, Ana I; Moreno, I; González, Gustavo; Soria-Díaz, M Eugenia; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Cameán, Ana M

    2012-10-15

    The occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms in aquatic environments is increasing in many regions of the world due to progressive eutrophication of water bodies. Because of the production of toxins such as Cylindrospermopsin (CYN), contamination of water with cyanobacteria is a serious health problem around the world. Therefore it is necessary to develop and validate analytical methods that allow us to quantify CYN in real samples in order to alert the public of this toxin. In this work, an analytical method has been developed an optimized for the determination of CYN from Aphanizomenon ovalisporum cultures. The analytical procedure is based on solvent extraction followed by a purification step with graphitized cartridges and CYN quantification by LC-MS/MS. The extraction and purification steps were optimized using a two-level full factorial design with replications. A suitable and practical procedure for assessing the trueness and precision of the proposed method has been applied by using validation standards. The method has been suitably validated: the regression equation was calculated from standards prepared in extracts from lyophilized M. aeruginosa PCC7820 (r(2)≥0.9999) and the linear range covered is from 5 to 500 μg CYN/L, equivalent to 0.18-18.00 μg CYN/g dry weight lyophilized cells. Limits of detection and quantification were 0.04 and 0.15 μg CYN/g, respectively, the recovery range (%) oscillated between 83 and 94% and intermediate precision (RSD %) values from 5.6 to 11.0%. Moreover, the present method showed to be robust for the three factors considered: the batch of the graphitized carbon cartridges, the flow rate of the sample through the cartridge, and the final re-dissolved water volume after SPE treatment, which permits its validation. The validated method has been applied to different lyophilized cultures of A. ovalisporum (LEGE X-001) to evaluate CYN content. This procedure can be used for determining CYN in lyophilized natural blooms samples

  7. Fire assisted pastoralism vs. sustainable forestry--the implications of missing markets for carbon in determining optimal land use in the wet-dry tropics of Australia.

    PubMed

    Ockwell, David; Lovett, Jon C

    2005-04-01

    Using Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, Australia as a case study, this paper combines field sampling of woody vegetation with cost-benefit analysis to compare the social optimality of fire-assisted pastoralism with sustainable forestry. Carbon sequestration is estimated to be significantly higher in the absence of fire. Integration of carbon sequestration benefits for mitigating future costs of climate change into cost-benefit analysis demonstrates that sustainable forestry is a more socially optimal land use than fire-assisted pastoralism. Missing markets for carbon, however, imply that fire-assisted pastoralism will continue to be pursued in the absence of policy intervention. Creation of markets for carbon represents a policy solution that has the potential to drive land use away from fire-assisted pastoralism towards sustainable forestry and environmental conservation.

  8. Portfolio-Scale Optimization of Customer Energy Efficiency Incentive and Marketing: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-535

    SciTech Connect

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2016-02-17

    North East utility National Grid (NGrid) is developing a portfolio-scale application of OpenStudio designed to optimize incentive and marketing expenditures for their energy efficiency (EE) programs. NGrid wishes to leverage a combination of geographic information systems (GIS), public records, customer data, and content from the Building Component Library (BCL) to form a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) input file that is consumed by an OpenStudio-based expert system for automated model generation. A baseline model for each customer building will be automatically tuned using electricity and gas consumption data, and a set of energy conservation measures (ECMs) associated with each NGrid incentive program will be applied to the model. The simulated energy performance and return on investment (ROI) will be compared with customer hurdle rates and available incentives to A) optimize the incentive required to overcome the customer hurdle rate and B) determine if marketing activity associated with the specific ECM is warranted for that particular customer. Repeated across their portfolio, this process will enable NGrid to substantially optimize their marketing and incentive expenditures, targeting those customers that will likely adopt and benefit from specific EE programs.

  9. Optimism

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Charles S.; Scheier, Michael F.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.

    2010-01-01

    Optimism is an individual difference variable that reflects the extent to which people hold generalized favorable expectancies for their future. Higher levels of optimism have been related prospectively to better subjective well-being in times of adversity or difficulty (i.e., controlling for previous well-being). Consistent with such findings, optimism has been linked to higher levels of engagement coping and lower levels of avoidance, or disengagement, coping. There is evidence that optimism is associated with taking proactive steps to protect one's health, whereas pessimism is associated with health-damaging behaviors. Consistent with such findings, optimism is also related to indicators of better physical health. The energetic, task-focused approach that optimists take to goals also relates to benefits in the socioeconomic world. Some evidence suggests that optimism relates to more persistence in educational efforts and to higher later income. Optimists also appear to fare better than pessimists in relationships. Although there are instances in which optimism fails to convey an advantage, and instances in which it may convey a disadvantage, those instances are relatively rare. In sum, the behavioral patterns of optimists appear to provide models of living for others to learn from. PMID:20170998

  10. Adaptive optimization as a design and management methodology for coal-mining enterprise in uncertain and volatile market environment - the conceptual framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalchenko, V. V.; Rubanik, Yu T.

    2016-10-01

    The work is devoted to the problem of cost-effective adaptation of coal mines to the volatile and uncertain market conditions. Conceptually it can be achieved through alignment of the dynamic characteristics of the coal mining system and power spectrum of market demand for coal product. In practical terms, this ensures the viability and competitiveness of coal mines. Transformation of dynamic characteristics is to be done by changing the structure of production system as well as corporate, logistics and management processes. The proposed methods and algorithms of control are aimed at the development of the theoretical foundations of adaptive optimization as basic methodology for coal mine enterprise management in conditions of high variability and uncertainty of economic and natural environment. Implementation of the proposed methodology requires a revision of the basic principles of open coal mining enterprises design.

  11. Intra-articular therapies for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shirley P; Hunter, David J

    2016-10-01

    Conventional medical therapies for osteoarthritis are mainly palliative in nature, aiming to control pain and symptoms. Traditional intra-articular therapies are not recommended in guidelines as first line therapy, but are potential alternatives, when conventional therapies have failed. Current and future intra-articular drug therapies for osteoarthritis are highlighted, including corticosteroids, hyaluronate, and more controversial treatments marketed commercially, namely platelet rich plasma and mesenchymal cell therapy. Intraarticular disease modifying osteoarthritis drugs are the future of osteoarthritis treatments, aiming at structural modification and altering the disease progression. Interleukin-1β inhibitor, bone morphogenic protein-7, fibroblast growth factor 18, bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist, human serum albumin, and gene therapy are discussed in this review. The evolution of drug development in osteoarthritis is limited by the ability to demonstrate effect. High quality trials are required to justify the use of existing intra-articular therapies and to advocate for newer, promising therapies. Challenges in osteoarthritis therapy research are fundamentally related to the complexity of the pathological mechanisms of osteoarthritis. Novel drugs offer hope in a disease with limited medical therapy options. Whether these future intra-articular therapies will provide clinically meaningful benefits, remains unknown.

  12. The Use of Market Intelligence Tools to Optimize the Economic Impact of a Chronic Disease in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Jaqueline Alejandra Haces

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical products market in Mexico involves four main actors: health providers, health payers, patients and pharmaceutical companies. The relationship between health providers and the pharmaceutical companies that supply the products required to prevent and treat illnesses is of particular interest. This relationship can be described…

  13. Optimizing Technical Education Pathways: Does Dual-Credit Course Completion Predict Students' College and Labor Market Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, L. Allen; Chan, Hsun-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Post-recession Federal policy initiatives, such as secondary/postsecondary career pathways and gainful employment higher education accountability standards, prioritize the alignment of education practices with market-driven outcomes. Using longitudinal student record data merged from college and state K-12 data systems with the Unemployment…

  14. Electric System Intra-hour Operation Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shuai; Meng, PNNL Da; Guillen, PNNL Zoe; PNNL,

    2014-03-07

    ESIOS is a software program developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that performs intra-hour dispatch and automatic generation control (AGC) simulations for electric power system frequency regulation and load/variable generation following. The program dispatches generation resources at minute interval to meet control performance requirements, while incorporating stochastic models of forecast errors and variability with generation, load, interchange and market behaviors. The simulator also contains an operator model that mimics manual actions to adjust resource dispatch and maintain system reserves. Besides simulating generation fleet intra-hour dispatch, ESIOS can also be used as a test platform for the design and verification of energy storage, demand response, and other technologies helping to accommodate variable generation.

  15. Optimizing anaerobic soil disinfestation for fresh market tomato production: Nematode and weed control, yield, and fruit quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) has potential as an alternative to chemical-fumigation for controlling soilborne pathogens and pests. Previously, control of nutsedge was sub-optimal and the quantity of inputs for commercial production was an impediment to adoption. Field studies were conducted i...

  16. Optimizing Household Chlorination Marketing Strategies: A Randomized Controlled Trial on the Effect of Price and Promotion on Adoption in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Michael; Camille, Eveline; Velcine, Christophe; Guillaume, Rose-Kerline; Lantagne, Daniele

    2017-07-01

    Household water treatment can reduce diarrheal morbidity and mortality in developing countries, but adoption remains low and supply is often unreliable. To test effects of marketing strategies on consumers and suppliers, we randomized 1,798 households in rural Haiti and collected data on purchases of a household chlorination product for 4 months. Households received randomly selected prices ($0.11-$0.56 per chlorine bottle), and half received monthly visits from sales agents. Each $0.22 drop in price increased purchases by 0.10 bottles per household per month (P < 0.001). At the mean price, each 1% drop in price increased purchases by 0.45% (elasticity = 0.45). There is suggestive evidence that household visits by some sales agents increased purchases at mid-range prices; however, the additional revenue did not offset visit cost. Choosing the lowest price and conducting visits maximizes chlorine purchase, whereas slightly raising the retail price and not conducting visits maximizes cost recovery. For the equivalent cost, price discounts increase purchases 4.2 times as much as adding visits at the current retail price. In this context, price subsidies may be a more cost-effective use of resources than household visits, though all marketing strategies tested offer cost-effective ways to achieve incremental health impact. Decisions about pricing and promotion for health products in developing countries affect health impact, cost recovery, and cost-effectiveness, and tradeoffs between these goals should be made explicit in program design.

  17. Optimal portfolio strategy with cross-correlation matrix composed by DCCA coefficients: Evidence from the Chinese stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xuelian; Liu, Zixian

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a new estimator of correlation matrix is proposed, which is composed of the detrended cross-correlation coefficients (DCCA coefficients), to improve portfolio optimization. In contrast to Pearson's correlation coefficients (PCC), DCCA coefficients acquired by the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) method can describe the nonlinear correlation between assets, and can be decomposed in different time scales. These properties of DCCA make it possible to improve the investment effect and more valuable to investigate the scale behaviors of portfolios. The minimum variance portfolio (MVP) model and the Mean-Variance (MV) model are used to evaluate the effectiveness of this improvement. Stability analysis shows the effect of two kinds of correlation matrices on the estimation error of portfolio weights. The observed scale behaviors are significant to risk management and could be used to optimize the portfolio selection.

  18. High-speed, intra-system networks

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Heather M; Graham, Paul S; Manuzzato, Andrea; Fairbanks, Tom; Dallmann, Nicholas; Desgeorges, Rose

    2010-06-28

    Recently, engineers have been studying on-payload networks for fast communication paths. Using intra-system networks as a means to connect devices together allows for a flexible payload design that does not rely on dedicated communication paths between devices. In this manner, the data flow architecture of the system can be dynamically reconfigured to allow data routes to be optimized for the application or configured to route around devices that are temporarily or permanently unavailable. To use intra-system networks, devices will need network controllers and switches. These devices are likely to be affected by single-event effects, which could affect data communication. In this paper we will present radiation data and performance analysis for using a Broadcom network controller in a neutron environment.

  19. Optimal portfolio selection in a Lévy market with uncontrolled cash flow and only risky assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yan; Li, Zhongfei; Wu, Huiling

    2013-03-01

    This article considers an investor who has an exogenous cash flow evolving according to a Lévy process and invests in a financial market consisting of only risky assets, whose prices are governed by exponential Lévy processes. Two continuous-time portfolio selection problems are studied for the investor. One is a benchmark problem, and the other is a mean-variance problem. The first problem is solved by adopting the stochastic dynamic programming approach, and the obtained results are extended to the second problem by employing the duality theory. Closed-form solutions of these two problems are derived. Some existing results are found to be special cases of our results.

  20. Optimization of matrix solid-phase dispersion for the rapid determination of salicylate and benzophenone-type UV absorbing substances in marketed fish.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Dung-Ying; Chen, Chien-Liang; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2014-07-01

    A simple and effective method for the rapid determination of five salicylate and benzophenone-type UV absorbing substances in marketed fish is described. The method involves the use of matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) prior to their determination by on-line silylation gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The parameters that affect the extraction efficiency were optimized using a Box-Behnken design method. The optimal extraction conditions involved dispersing 0.5g of freeze-dried powdered fish with 1.0g of Florisil using a mortar and pestle. This blend was then transferred to a solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge containing 1.0g of octadecyl bonded silica (C18), as the clean-up co-sorbent. The target analytes were then eluted with 7mL of acetonitrile. The extract was derivatized on-line in the GC injection-port by reaction with a trimethylsilylating (TMS) reagent. The TMS-derivatives were then identified and quantitated by GC-MS/MS. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) were less than 0.1ng/g. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimization and Management of Naval Hospital Bremerton’s Military-Medicare Population by Market Analysis of the Naval Hospital Bremerton Empanelled Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    Literature Review 4 Marketing 4 Marketing Mix 5...research, segmentation, targeting, positioning, marketing mix , implementation, and control. “An important first step in becoming a customer-focused...and pre-position itself to effectively meet those needs. Marketing Mix “In order to operate in today’s changing environment, health care managers need

  2. The Intra-S Checkpoint Responses to DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Divya Ramalingam; Rhind, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Faithful duplication of the genome is a challenge because DNA is susceptible to damage by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic genotoxins, such as free radicals and UV light. Cells activate the intra-S checkpoint in response to damage during S phase to protect genomic integrity and ensure replication fidelity. The checkpoint prevents genomic instability mainly by regulating origin firing, fork progression, and transcription of G1/S genes in response to DNA damage. Several studies hint that regulation of forks is perhaps the most critical function of the intra-S checkpoint. However, the exact role of the checkpoint at replication forks has remained elusive and controversial. Is the checkpoint required for fork stability, or fork restart, or to prevent fork reversal or fork collapse, or activate repair at replication forks? What are the factors that the checkpoint targets at stalled replication forks? In this review, we will discuss the various pathways activated by the intra-S checkpoint in response to damage to prevent genomic instability. PMID:28218681

  3. Disseminated Intra-Abdominal Hydatidosis

    PubMed Central

    Concha, Fátima; Maguiña, Ciro; Seas, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 26-year-old male Peruvian patient who presented with disseminated intra-abdominal hydatidosis. The patient was treated with surgical removal of the cysts and prolonged medical treatment with albendazole. PMID:24006293

  4. Intra-spike crosslinking overcomes antibody evasion by HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Galimidi, Rachel P.; Klein, Joshua S.; Politzer, Maria S.; Bai, Shiyu; Seaman, Michael S.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; West, Anthony P.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Antibodies developed during HIV-1 infection lose efficacy as the viral spike mutates. We postulated that anti-HIV-1 antibodies primarily bind monovalently because HIV’s low spike density impedes bivalent binding through inter-spike crosslinking, and the spike structure prohibits bivalent binding through intra-spike crosslinking. Monovalent binding reduces avidity and potency, thus expanding the range of mutations permitting antibody evasion. To test this idea, we engineered antibody-based molecules capable of bivalent binding through intra-spike crosslinking. We used DNA as a “molecular ruler” to measure intra-epitope distances on virion-bound spikes and construct intra-spike crosslinking molecules. Optimal bivalent reagents exhibited up to 2.5 orders-of-magnitude increased potency (>100-fold average increases across virus panels) and identified conformational states of virion-bound spikes. The demonstration that intra-spike crosslinking lowers the concentration of antibodies required for neutralization supports the hypothesis that low spike densities facilitate antibody evasion and the use of molecules capable of intra-spike crosslinking for therapy or passive protection. PMID:25635457

  5. To Market, to Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    The institution is part of a national market and its presidential options are dictated by that market, the reputation, the challenges of the position, and the relative compensation for the opportunity to lead the organization. Many in academe are uncomfortable with the idea that hiring in higher education should be governed by the laws of supply…

  6. Livestock Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  7. On intra-supply chain system with an improved distribution plan, multiple sales locations and quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Singa Wang; Huang, Chao-Chih; Chiang, Kuo-Wei; Wu, Mei-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Transnational companies, operating in extremely competitive global markets, always seek to lower different operating costs, such as inventory holding costs in their intra- supply chain system. This paper incorporates a cost reducing product distribution policy into an intra-supply chain system with multiple sales locations and quality assurance studied by [Chiu et al., Expert Syst Appl, 40:2669-2676, (2013)]. Under the proposed cost reducing distribution policy, an added initial delivery of end items is distributed to multiple sales locations to meet their demand during the production unit's uptime and rework time. After rework when the remaining production lot goes through quality assurance, n fixed quantity installments of finished items are then transported to sales locations at a fixed time interval. Mathematical modeling and optimization techniques are used to derive closed-form optimal operating policies for the proposed system. Furthermore, the study demonstrates significant savings in stock holding costs for both the production unit and sales locations. Alternative of outsourcing product delivery task to an external distributor is analyzed to assist managerial decision making in potential outsourcing issues in order to facilitate further reduction in operating costs.

  8. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  9. Optimization of health-care organization and perceived improvement of patient comfort by switching from intra-venous BU four-times-daily infusions to a once-daily administration scheme in adult hematopoietic stem cell recipients.

    PubMed

    Xhaard, A; Rzepecki, P; Valcarcel, D; Santarone, S; Fürst, S; Serrano, D; De Angelis, G; Krüger, W; Scheid, C

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have shown an equivalent pharmacokinetic profile between four-times-daily (4QD) and once-daily (QD) administration of intra-venous (IV) BU, without increased toxicity. We assess the impact of a switch in IV BU from a 4QD to a QD schedule, in terms of health-care organization, staff working conditions, quality of care dispensed and perceived patient comfort. Clinicians, nurses and pharmacists from nine allogeneic transplantation units in five European countries were interviewed face to face. Overall perception of QD versus 4QD BU was very positive. Both administration schemes were evaluated to be equally efficaciousZ. QD BU was perceived to be safer and more convenient. Clinicians and nurses perceived that patient comfort was improved, due to fewer complications associated with repeated infusions, and avoiding night infusions associated with stress, anxiety and decreased quality of sleep. Switching from 4QD to QD BU had a significant impact on health-care organization, with a better integration in the overall management and usual timelines in the pharmacies and transplantation units. Time spent to prepare and administer BU was significantly reduced, leading to potential financial savings that merit further assessment and would be of particular interest in the current economic climate.

  10. Evolution of microbial markets

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Gijsbert D. A.; Strassmann, Joan E.; Ivens, Aniek B. F.; Engelmoer, Daniel J. P.; Verbruggen, Erik; Queller, David C.; Noë, Ronald; Johnson, Nancy Collins; Hammerstein, Peter; Kiers, E. Toby

    2014-01-01

    Biological market theory has been used successfully to explain cooperative behavior in many animal species. Microbes also engage in cooperative behaviors, both with hosts and other microbes, that can be described in economic terms. However, a market approach is not traditionally used to analyze these interactions. Here, we extend the biological market framework to ask whether this theory is of use to evolutionary biologists studying microbes. We consider six economic strategies used by microbes to optimize their success in markets. We argue that an economic market framework is a useful tool to generate specific and interesting predictions about microbial interactions, including the evolution of partner discrimination, hoarding strategies, specialized versus diversified mutualistic services, and the role of spatial structures, such as flocks and consortia. There is untapped potential for studying the evolutionary dynamics of microbial systems. Market theory can help structure this potential by characterizing strategic investment of microbes across a diversity of conditions. PMID:24474743

  11. Evolution of microbial markets.

    PubMed

    Werner, Gijsbert D A; Strassmann, Joan E; Ivens, Aniek B F; Engelmoer, Daniel J P; Verbruggen, Erik; Queller, David C; Noë, Ronald; Johnson, Nancy Collins; Hammerstein, Peter; Kiers, E Toby

    2014-01-28

    Biological market theory has been used successfully to explain cooperative behavior in many animal species. Microbes also engage in cooperative behaviors, both with hosts and other microbes, that can be described in economic terms. However, a market approach is not traditionally used to analyze these interactions. Here, we extend the biological market framework to ask whether this theory is of use to evolutionary biologists studying microbes. We consider six economic strategies used by microbes to optimize their success in markets. We argue that an economic market framework is a useful tool to generate specific and interesting predictions about microbial interactions, including the evolution of partner discrimination, hoarding strategies, specialized versus diversified mutualistic services, and the role of spatial structures, such as flocks and consortia. There is untapped potential for studying the evolutionary dynamics of microbial systems. Market theory can help structure this potential by characterizing strategic investment of microbes across a diversity of conditions.

  12. Intra-Company Communication: A Key Element in Marketing Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Fred A.

    Rapid technological development, rising standards of living, and greater pressures of consumerism and consumer expectations have caused shorter product life cycles. Future organizational success will depend on organizations' abilities to respond to the changing opportunities and threats in the marketplace. As companies and products move through…

  13. Phylogenetic Quantification of Intra-tumour Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Roland F.; Trinh, Anne; Sipos, Botond; Brenton, James D.; Goldman, Nick; Markowetz, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Intra-tumour genetic heterogeneity is the result of ongoing evolutionary change within each cancer. The expansion of genetically distinct sub-clonal populations may explain the emergence of drug resistance, and if so, would have prognostic and predictive utility. However, methods for objectively quantifying tumour heterogeneity have been missing and are particularly difficult to establish in cancers where predominant copy number variation prevents accurate phylogenetic reconstruction owing to horizontal dependencies caused by long and cascading genomic rearrangements. To address these challenges, we present MEDICC, a method for phylogenetic reconstruction and heterogeneity quantification based on a Minimum Event Distance for Intra-tumour Copy-number Comparisons. Using a transducer-based pairwise comparison function, we determine optimal phasing of major and minor alleles, as well as evolutionary distances between samples, and are able to reconstruct ancestral genomes. Rigorous simulations and an extensive clinical study show the power of our method, which outperforms state-of-the-art competitors in reconstruction accuracy, and additionally allows unbiased numerical quantification of tumour heterogeneity. Accurate quantification and evolutionary inference are essential to understand the functional consequences of tumour heterogeneity. The MEDICC algorithms are independent of the experimental techniques used and are applicable to both next-generation sequencing and array CGH data. PMID:24743184

  14. A multi-regional framework for China's electric power market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhijun

    2000-10-01

    China faces the challenging task of substantially increasing its generation of electricity within economic, energy, political, and environmental constraints. Some of the most immediate issues are the decentralization of the utility decision making process, the creation of electricity markets over large geographic areas, the establishment of pricing mechanisms, and the maintenance of reasonable levels of air quality. This research develops a multi-regional optimization model to analyze these issues in the North China Power System. The model minimizes the total delivery cost of electric power for a multi-regional grid subject to the constraints of power flow, generation and transmission capacities and emission limits. Benders' decomposition is used to decompose the model into a two-level structure an inter-regional Power exchange module and an intra-regional power dispatch and transmission module The intra-regional market contains the least cost power dispatch based on bids from generators bidding and on users, insurance of their power consumption, all within local emission limits. The inter-regional market balances power exchange among regions. The results indicate that a decentralized, competitive electricity market has significant economic and environmental benefits to the entire region. Regional competition brings more cheap electric power from remote regions to urban demand centers. The expansion of power exchange reduces sulfur emissions without significantly increasing cost. The results demonstrate that without congestion, the nodal and transmission prices can be effectively separated, an important criterion for decentralization and competition. Transmission prices are related only to the wire and topological characteristics of the network. The effects of electricity loop flow on transmission prices are reflected through a multiplier that is specific to each loop. A priori calculation of the congestion and loop multipliers under congestion is possible with

  15. Power systems locational marginal pricing in deregulated markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui-Fung Francis

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, the electricity business is transforming from a vertical integrating business to a competitive market operations. The generation, transmission, distribution subsystem of an electricity utility are operated independently as Genco (generation subsystem), Transco (transmission subsystem), and Distco (distribution subsystem). This trend promotes more economical inter- and intra regional transactions to be made by the participating companies and the users of electricity to achieve the intended objectives of deregulation. There are various types of electricity markets that are implemented in the North America in the past few years. However, transmission congestion management becomes a key issue in the electricity market design as more bilateral transactions are traded across long distances competing for scarce transmission resources. It directly alters the traditional concept of energy pricing and impacts the bottom line, revenue and cost of electricity, of both suppliers and buyers. In this research, transmission congestion problem in a deregulated market environment is elucidated by implementing by the Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) method. With a comprehensive understanding of the LMP method, new mathematical tools will aid electric utilities in exploring new business opportunities are developed and presented in this dissertation. The dissertation focuses on the development of concept of (LMP) forecasting and its implication to the market participants in deregulated market. Specifically, we explore methods of developing fast LMP calculation techniques that are differ from existing LMPs. We also explore and document the usefulness of the proposed LMP in determining electricity pricing of a large scale power system. The developed mathematical tools use of well-known optimization techniques such as linear programming that are support by several flow charts. The fast and practical security constrained unit commitment methods are the

  16. Fast H.264/AVC FRExt intra coding using belief propagation.

    PubMed

    Milani, Simone

    2011-01-01

    In the H.264/AVC FRExt coder, the coding performance of Intra coding significantly overcomes the previous still image coding standards, like JPEG2000, thanks to a massive use of spatial prediction. Unfortunately, the adoption of an extensive set of predictors induces a significant increase of the computational complexity required by the rate-distortion optimization routine. The paper presents a complexity reduction strategy that aims at reducing the computational load of the Intra coding with a small loss in the compression performance. The proposed algorithm relies on selecting a reduced set of prediction modes according to their probabilities, which are estimated adopting a belief-propagation procedure. Experimental results show that the proposed method permits saving up to 60 % of the coding time required by an exhaustive rate-distortion optimization method with a negligible loss in performance. Moreover, it permits an accurate control of the computational complexity unlike other methods where the computational complexity depends upon the coded sequence.

  17. Intra-amniotic Candida albicans infection induces mucosal injury and inflammation in the ovine fetal intestine

    PubMed Central

    Nikiforou, Maria; Jacobs, Esmee M.R.; Kemp, Matthew W.; Hornef, Mathias W.; Payne, Matthew S.; Saito, Masatoshi; Newnham, John P.; Janssen, Leon E.W.; Jobe, Alan H.; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Kramer, Boris W.; Wolfs, Tim G.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chorioamnionitis is caused by intrauterine infection with microorganisms including Candida albicans (C.albicans). Chorioamnionitis is associated with postnatal intestinal pathologies including necrotizing enterocolitis. The underlying mechanisms by which intra-amniotic C.albicans infection adversely affects the fetal gut remain unknown. Therefore, we assessed whether intra-amniotic C.albicans infection would cause intestinal inflammation and mucosal injury in an ovine model. Additionally, we tested whether treatment with the fungistatic fluconazole ameliorated the adverse intestinal outcome of intra-amniotic C.albicans infection. Pregnant sheep received intra-amniotic injections with 107 colony-forming units C.albicans or saline at 3 or 5 days before preterm delivery at 122 days of gestation. Fetuses were given intra-amniotic and intra-peritoneal fluconazole treatments 2 days after intra-amniotic administration of C.albicans. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal colonization and invasive growth within the fetal gut with mucosal injury and intestinal inflammation, characterized by increased CD3+ lymphocytes, MPO+ cells and elevated TNF-α and IL-17 mRNA levels. Fluconazole treatment in utero decreased intestinal C.albicans colonization, mucosal injury but failed to attenuate intestinal inflammation. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal infection, injury and inflammation. Fluconazole treatment decreased mucosal injury but failed to ameliorate C.albicans-mediated mucosal inflammation emphasizing the need to optimize the applied antifungal therapeutic strategy. PMID:27411776

  18. Intra-amniotic Candida albicans infection induces mucosal injury and inflammation in the ovine fetal intestine.

    PubMed

    Nikiforou, Maria; Jacobs, Esmee M R; Kemp, Matthew W; Hornef, Mathias W; Payne, Matthew S; Saito, Masatoshi; Newnham, John P; Janssen, Leon E W; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G; Kramer, Boris W; Wolfs, Tim G A M

    2016-07-14

    Chorioamnionitis is caused by intrauterine infection with microorganisms including Candida albicans (C.albicans). Chorioamnionitis is associated with postnatal intestinal pathologies including necrotizing enterocolitis. The underlying mechanisms by which intra-amniotic C.albicans infection adversely affects the fetal gut remain unknown. Therefore, we assessed whether intra-amniotic C.albicans infection would cause intestinal inflammation and mucosal injury in an ovine model. Additionally, we tested whether treatment with the fungistatic fluconazole ameliorated the adverse intestinal outcome of intra-amniotic C.albicans infection. Pregnant sheep received intra-amniotic injections with 10(7) colony-forming units C.albicans or saline at 3 or 5 days before preterm delivery at 122 days of gestation. Fetuses were given intra-amniotic and intra-peritoneal fluconazole treatments 2 days after intra-amniotic administration of C.albicans. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal colonization and invasive growth within the fetal gut with mucosal injury and intestinal inflammation, characterized by increased CD3(+) lymphocytes, MPO(+) cells and elevated TNF-α and IL-17 mRNA levels. Fluconazole treatment in utero decreased intestinal C.albicans colonization, mucosal injury but failed to attenuate intestinal inflammation. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal infection, injury and inflammation. Fluconazole treatment decreased mucosal injury but failed to ameliorate C.albicans-mediated mucosal inflammation emphasizing the need to optimize the applied antifungal therapeutic strategy.

  19. Intra prediction with spatial gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Shohei; Takamura, Seishi; Kamikura, Kazuto; Yashima, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Spatial intra prediction has been added recently to the latest video coding standard H.264/AVC. In the intra prediction of H.264/AVC, there are 9, 9 and 4 prediction modes for 4×4, 8×8 and 16×16 blocks, respectively. Prediction signals are generated by using one or several reference pixels. The value of a reference pixel is copied as the prediction value. In some prediction modes, we calculate a weighted mean by averaging several pixels. The same prediction value is copied to several of the pixels lying in the prediction direction. However, if original image has patterns like gradations, the residual energy could increase which would result in low coding efficiency. In this paper, we propose a new intra prediction that generates prediction signals with a spatial gradient to deal with this problem. Simulation results show that it improves the picture quality and reduce the bit-rate by about 0.14 dB and 1.0 % on average for CIF sequences, respectively. It is also confirmed that our method is effective at high bit-rates.

  20. Financial market dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Fredrick; Johnson, M. D.

    2003-03-01

    A necessary precondition for modeling financial markets is a complete understanding of their statistics, including dynamics. Distributions derived from nonextensive Tsallis statistics are closely connected with dynamics described by a nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation. The combination shows promise in describing stochastic processes with power-law distributions and superdiffusive dynamics. We investigate intra-day price changes in the S& P500 stock index within this framework. We find that the power-law tails of the distributions, and the index's anomalously diffusing dynamics, are very accurately described by this approach. Our results show good agreement between market data and Fokker-Planck dynamics. This approach may be applicable in any anomalously diffusing system in which the correlations in time can be accounted for by an Ito-Langevin process with a simple time-dependent diffusion coefficient.

  1. Hospital marketing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  2. Marketing fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.

  3. Mechanical ventilation and intra-abdominal hypertension: 'Beyond Good and Evil'

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension is frequent in surgical and medical critically ill patients. Intra-abdominal hypertension has a serious impact on the function of respiratory as well as peripheral organs. In the presence of alveolar capillary damage, which occurs in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), intra-abdominal hypertension promotes lung injury as well as edema, impedes the pulmonary lymphatic drainage, and increases intra-thoracic pressures, leading to atelectasis, airway closure, and deterioration of respiratory mechanics and gas exchange. The optimal setting of mechanical ventilation and its impact on respiratory function and hemodynamics in ARDS associated with intra-abdominal hypertension are far from being assessed. We suggest that the optimal ventilator management of patients with ARDS and intra-abdominal hypertension would include the following: (a) intra-abdominal, esophageal pressure, and hemodynamic monitoring; (b) ventilation setting with protective tidal volume, recruitment maneuver, and level of positive end-expiratory pressure set according to the 'best' compliance of the respiratory system or the lung; (c) deep sedation with or without neuromuscular paralysis in severe ARDS; and (d) open abdomen in selected patients with severe abdominal compartment syndrome. PMID:23256904

  4. Marketing 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    A marketing model for camps includes a mix of services, presentation, and communication elements that promote the virtues of camp, convince potential campers and their families of the benefits of camp, and successfully distinguish the camp from others. Includes resources related to marketing strategies, theme merchandise, and market trends…

  5. Demystifying Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Cindy

    1993-01-01

    To market their institutions effectively, college advancement professionals need to understand that marketing encompasses several specific activities and begins with the customer's needs, not the institution's. The administrator must know the institution thoroughly before developing a marketing plan and be able to develop and adapt marketing…

  6. Marketing 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    A marketing model for camps includes a mix of services, presentation, and communication elements that promote the virtues of camp, convince potential campers and their families of the benefits of camp, and successfully distinguish the camp from others. Includes resources related to marketing strategies, theme merchandise, and market trends…

  7. [Intra-articular injection of cortisone].

    PubMed

    Hammer, M; Schwarz, T; Ganser, G

    2015-11-01

    Intra-articular injections with glucocorticoids are standard procedures according to therapy guidelines in many rheumatic conditions. There is increasing evidence from clinical trials on the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis that more patients will attain the target of remission using a combination of systemic medication and intra-articular injections with glucocorticoids compared to systemic medication alone. Intra-articular injections with glucocorticoids play an important role in the therapeutic management of pediatric rheumatic diseases. In many countries competency in performing intra-articular injections is among the important skills necessary for certification as a specialist in rheumatology.

  8. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-04-15

    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  9. Information and Pollution Permit Markets: Another View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colander, David

    2006-01-01

    In a recent article, Smith and Yates (2003) argued that regulators could gain additional information about the optimal number of permits to issue from two-sided markets. The author argues that they are incorrect in their assertion because the market they refer to is an asymmetric two-sided market in which individuals are only allowed to decrease…

  10. DCT/DST-based transform coding for intra prediction in image/video coding.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Ankur; Fernandes, Felix C

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we present a DCT/DST based transform scheme that applies either the conventional DCT or type-7 DST for all the video-coding intra-prediction modes: vertical, horizontal, and oblique. Our approach is applicable to any block-based intra prediction scheme in a codec that employs transforms along the horizontal and vertical direction separably. Previously, Han, Saxena, and Rose showed that for the intra-predicted residuals of horizontal and vertical modes, the DST is the optimal transform with performance close to the KLT. Here, we prove that this is indeed the case for the other oblique modes. The optimal choice of using DCT or DST is based on intra-prediction modes and requires no additional signaling information or rate-distortion search. The DCT/DST scheme presented in this paper was adopted in the HEVC standardization in March 2011. Further simplifications, especially to reduce implementation complexity, which remove the mode-dependency between DCT and DST, and simply always use DST for the 4 × 4 intra luma blocks, were adopted in the HEVC standard in July 2012. Simulation results conducted for the DCT/DST algorithm are shown in the reference software for the ongoing HEVC standardization. Our results show that the DCT/DST scheme provides significant BD-rate improvement over the conventional DCT based scheme for intra prediction in video sequences.

  11. Drug use practices among people who inject drugs in a context of drug market changes: Challenges for optimal coverage of harm reduction programs.

    PubMed

    Roy, Élise; Arruda, Nelson; Leclerc, Pascale; Morissette, Carole; Blanchette, Caty; Blouin, Karine; Alary, Michel

    2017-07-01

    Until the early 2000s, people who inject drugs (PWID) in Québec had mainly been injecting powder cocaine and heroin. Since then, ethnographic studies have shown that the drug market has diversified, with crack and prescription opioids (PO) becoming increasingly available. This could have led to changes in drug use practices among PWID. The objectives of our study were to examine annual trends in injection of different drugs, crack smoking and frequent injection (FI), as well as relationships between injected drugs and FI. PWID are participants in the ongoing Québec SurvUDI surveillance system. PWID (past 6 months) were recruited in 2 urban and 6 semi-urban/rural sites. Each visit included a structured interview addressing drug use behaviours. Analyses were carried out using GEE methods. For trend analyses (2003-2014) on drugs and FI (number of injections≥upper quartile, previous month), the first annual interview was selected for PWID with multiple participations per year. Analyses on associations between FI and types of injected drugs were based on all interviews (2004-2014). Crack/cocaine and heroin injection declined significantly, with prevalence ratios (PR) per year of 0.983 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.980-0.986] and 0.979 (95% CI: 0.969-0.990), while PO injection [PR=1.052 (1.045-1.059)], crack smoking [PR=1.006 (1.001-1.012)], and FI (≥120 injections, previous month) significantly increased [PR=1.015 (1.004-1.026)]. Compared to PWID who injected crack/cocaine±other drugs, the proportion of PWID reporting FI was higher among those who injected PO+heroin/speedball, crack/cocaine or other drugs (adjusted PR 2.29; 95% CI: 2.07-2.53) or PO only (aPR 1.72; 95%CI: 1.47-2.01). Changes that have occurred in the drug market are reflected in PWID's practices. The high frequency of injection observed among PO injectors is of particular concern. Drug market variations are a challenge for health authorities responsible for harm reduction programs. Copyright

  12. Intra-aortic balloon pumps.

    PubMed

    1997-05-01

    Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABPs) are circulatory assist devices used to treat a number of cardiovascular conditions. IABPs provide temporary circulatory support by reducing the resistance to blood flow out of the heart during systole and by providing added pressure to aid in perfusing the heart during diastole. In this Evaluation, we tested three IABPs from three suppliers. We examined the units' technical performance, safety and monitoring, human factors design, transport operation, and supplier support. Rather than test all the triggering (activation) modes available, we focused our testing on the modes most commonly used on each unit. We also provide information on an IABP currently available only in Japan; although we did not test this unit, we do provide a preliminary judgment based on the information provided to us by the supplier. In the Technology Overview also included in the Evaluation, we describe the basic operation and use of an IABP, as well as review the state of the art of this technology. And in the Selection, Purchasing, and Use Guide at the conclusion of the Evaluation, we discuss such topics as balloon costs and sizing, interfacing IABPs with patient monitors, and the use of IABPs in community hospitals.

  13. Intra-fuel cell stack measurements of transient concentration distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partridge, W. P.; Toops, T. J.; Green, J. B.; Armstrong, T. R.

    Intra-fuel-cell measurements are required to understand detailed fuel-cell chemistry and physics, validate models, optimize system design and control, and realize enhanced efficiency regimes; in comparison, conventional integrated fuel-cell supply and effluent measurements are fundamentally limited in value. Intra-reactor measurements are needed for all fuel cell types. This paper demonstrates the ability of a capillary-inlet mass spectrometer to resolve transient species distributions within operating polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) fuel cells and at temperatures typical of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). This is the first such demonstration of a diagnostic that is sufficiently minimally invasive as to allow measurements throughout an operating fuel cell stack. Measurements of transient water, hydrogen, oxygen and diluent concentration dynamics associated with fuel-cell load switching suggest oxygen-limited chemistry. Intra-PEM fuel cell measurements of oxygen distribution at various fuel-cell loads are used to demonstrate concentration gradients, non-uniformities, and anomalous fuel cell operation.

  14. Optimal Implantation Depth and Adherence to Guidelines on Permanent Pacing to Improve the Results of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement With the Medtronic CoreValve System: The CoreValve Prospective, International, Post-Market ADVANCE-II Study.

    PubMed

    Petronio, Anna S; Sinning, Jan-Malte; Van Mieghem, Nicolas; Zucchelli, Giulio; Nickenig, Georg; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Bosmans, Johan; Bedogni, Francesco; Branny, Marian; Stangl, Karl; Kovac, Jan; Schiltgen, Molly; Kraus, Stacia; de Jaegere, Peter

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the CoreValve prospective, international, post-market ADVANCE-II study was to define the rates of conduction disturbances and permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement with the Medtronic CoreValve System (Minneapolis, Minnesota) using optimized implantation techniques and application of international guidelines on cardiac pacing. Conduction disturbances are a frequent complication of transcatheter aortic valve replacement. The rates of PPI in the published reports vary according to bioprosthesis type and the indications for PPI. The primary endpoint was the 30-day incidence of PPI with Class I/II indications when the Medtronic CoreValve System was implanted at an optimal depth (≤6 mm below the aortic annulus). The timing and resolution of all new-onset conduction disturbances were analyzed. A total of 194 patients were treated. The overall rate of PPI for Class I/II indications was 18.2%. An optimal depth was reached in 43.2% of patients, with a nonsignificantly lower incidence of PPI in patients with depths ≤6 mm, compared with those with deeper implants (13.3% vs. 21.1%; p = 0.14). In a paired analysis, new-onset left bundle branch block and first-degree atrioventricular block occurred in 45.4% and 39.0% of patients, respectively, and resolved spontaneously within 30 days in 43.2% and 73.9%, respectively. In patients with new PPI, the rate of intrinsic sinus rhythm increased from 25.9% at 7 days to 59.3% at 30 days (p = 0.004). Optimal Medtronic CoreValve System deployment and adherence to international guidelines on cardiac pacing are associated with a lower rate of new PPI after transcatheter aortic valve replacement, compared with results reported in previous studies. (CoreValve Advance-II Study: Prospective International Post-Market Study [ADVANCE II]; NCT01624870). Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tourism Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 6-unit, 1-year distributive education course in marketing tourism offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. Although in general the material presented concerns marketing tourism anywhere, some of it is specifically related to tourism within North Carolina. A purpose statement explains the…

  16. Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancil, Ronald A., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Marketing Education program at West Haven (CT) High School in West Haven, Connecticut, that promotes skills for life and attributes, enhances the academic program, and develops leaders out of ordinary students through an interactive curriculum. The three components of West Haven's marketing and management program are (1)…

  17. Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancil, Ronald A., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Marketing Education program at West Haven (CT) High School in West Haven, Connecticut, that promotes skills for life and attributes, enhances the academic program, and develops leaders out of ordinary students through an interactive curriculum. The three components of West Haven's marketing and management program are (1)…

  18. Marketing Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Eric

    1998-01-01

    All of our ideas have been field tested and have proven effective in our environment. Our objectives are: We will share our ideas about marketing training and what we've implemented at Michoud Space Systems. You will go away with at least one new idea or insight about how to more effectively market your training.

  19. Agricultural Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helt, Lawrence; And Others

    Designed for use in farm business management adult programs, this marketing curriculum includes six teaching lessons and professional staff products. The following topics are covered in the lessons: introduction to marketing; interpretation of price/demand/supply cycles and fundamental outlook trends (carryover/projections/disappearance); farmers'…

  20. Agricultural Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helt, Lawrence; And Others

    Designed for use in farm business management adult programs, this marketing curriculum includes six teaching lessons and professional staff products. The following topics are covered in the lessons: introduction to marketing; interpretation of price/demand/supply cycles and fundamental outlook trends (carryover/projections/disappearance); farmers'…

  1. Intra-abdominal pressure during swimming.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, S; Ogita, F; Huang, Z; Kurobe, K; Nagira, A; Tanaka, T; Takahashi, H; Hirano, Y

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to determine the intra-abdominal pressure during front crawl swimming at different velocities in competitive swimmers and to clarify the relationships between stroke indices and changes in intra-abdominal pressure. The subjects were 7 highly trained competitive collegiate male swimmers. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured during front crawl swimming at 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 m · s(-1) and during the Valsalva maneuver. Intra-abdominal pressure was taken as the difference between minimum and maximum values, and the mean of 6 stable front crawl stroke cycles was used. Stroke rate and stroke length were also measured as stroke indices. There were significant differences in stroke rate among all velocities (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in stroke length by velocity. Significant within-subject correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke rate or stroke length (P < 0.01) were observed, although there were no significant correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke indices when controlling for swimming velocity. These findings do not appear to support the effectiveness of trunk training performed by competitive swimmers aimed at increasing intra-abdominal pressure. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Design and analysis of electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioshansi, Ramteen Mehr

    Restructured competitive electricity markets rely on designing market-based mechanisms which can efficiently coordinate the power system and minimize the exercise of market power. This dissertation is a series of essays which develop and analyze models of restructured electricity markets. Chapter 2 studies the incentive properties of a co-optimized market for energy and reserves that pays reserved generators their implied opportunity cost---which is the difference between their stated energy cost and the market-clearing price for energy. By analyzing the market as a competitive direct revelation mechanism we examine the properties of efficient equilibria and demonstrate that generators have incentives to shade their stated costs below actual costs. We further demonstrate that the expected energy payments of our mechanism is less than that in a disjoint market for energy only. Chapter 3 is an empirical validation of a supply function equilibrium (SFE) model. By comparing theoretically optimal supply functions and actual generation offers into the Texas spot balancing market, we show the SFE to fit the actual behavior of the largest generators in market. This not only serves to validate the model, but also demonstrates the extent to which firms exercise market power. Chapters 4 and 5 examine equity, incentive, and efficiency issues in the design of non-convex commitment auctions. We demonstrate that different near-optimal solutions to a central unit commitment problem which have similar-sized optimality gaps will generally yield vastly different energy prices and payoffs to individual generators. Although solving the mixed integer program to optimality will overcome such issues, we show that this relies on achieving optimality of the commitment---which may not be tractable for large-scale problems within the allotted timeframe. We then simulate and compare a competitive benchmark for a market with centralized and self commitment in order to bound the efficiency

  3. Intra voxel analysis in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosanio, Michele; Baselice, Fabio; Ferraioli, Giampaolo; Pascazio, Vito

    2014-03-01

    A new application of Compressive Sensing (CS) in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) field is presented. In particular, first results of the Intra Voxel Analysis (IVA) technique are reported. The idea is to exploit CS peculiarities in order to distinguish different contributions inside the same resolution cell, instead of reconstructing images from not fully sampled k-space acquisition. Applied to MRI field, this means the possibility of estimating the presence of different tissues inside the same voxel, i.e. in one pixel of the obtained image. In other words, the method is the first attempt, as far as we know, of achieving Spectroscopy-like results starting from each pixel of MR images. In particular, tissues are distinguished each others by evaluating their spin-spin relaxation times. Within this manuscript, first results on clinical dataset, in particular a phantom made by aqueous solution and oil and an occipital brain lesion corresponding to a metastatic breast cancer nodule, are reported. Considering the phantom dataset, in particular focusing on the slice where the separation between water and oil occurs, the methodology is able to distinguish the two components with different spin-spin relaxation times. With respect to clinical dataset,focusing on a voxel of the lesion area, the approach is able to detect the presence of two tissues, namely the healthy and the cancer related ones, while in other location outside the lesion only the healthy tissue is detected. Of course, these are the first results of the proposed methodology, further studies on different types of clinical datasets are required in order to widely validate the approach. Although few datasets have been considered, results seem both interesting and promising.

  4. Empyema following intra-abdominal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, K C; Sethia, B; Reece, I J; Davidson, K G

    1984-09-01

    Over the past 9 years, ten patients have presented to the Thoracic Unit, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, with 12 empyemas secondary to intra-abdominal sepsis. In eight patients, the presenting signs and symptoms were wrongly attributed to primary intra-thoracic pathology. All were subsequently found to have intra-abdominal sepsis. The presence of empyema after recent abdominal surgery or abdominal pain strongly suggests a diagnosis of ipsilateral subphrenic abscess. Adequate surgical drainage is essential. In our experience, limited thoracotomy with subdiaphragmatic extension offers the best access to both pleural and subphrenic spaces and provides the greatest chance of eradicating infection on both sides of the diaphragm.

  5. Effective intra-S checkpoint responses to UVC in primary human melanocytes and melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro-Stone, Marila; McNulty, John J; Sproul, Christopher D; Chastain, Paul D; Gibbs-Flournoy, Eugene; Zhou, Yingchun; Carson, Craig; Rao, Shangbang; Mitchell, David L; Simpson, Dennis A; Thomas, Nancy E; Ibrahim, Joseph G; Kaufmann, William K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess potential functional attenuation or inactivation of the intra-S checkpoint during melanoma development. Proliferating cultures of skin melanocytes, fibroblasts, and melanoma cell lines were exposed to increasing fluences of UVC and intra-S checkpoint responses were quantified. Melanocytes displayed stereotypic intra-S checkpoint responses to UVC qualitatively and quantitatively equivalent to those previously demonstrated in skin fibroblasts. In comparison with fibroblasts, primary melanocytes displayed reduced UVC-induced inhibition of DNA strand growth and enhanced degradation of p21Waf1 after UVC, suggestive of enhanced bypass of UVC-induced DNA photoproducts. All nine melanoma cell lines examined, including those with activating mutations in BRAF or NRAS oncogenes, also displayed proficiency in activation of the intra-S checkpoint in response to UVC irradiation. The results indicate that bypass of oncogene-induced senescence during melanoma development was not associated with inactivation of the intra-S checkpoint response to UVC-induced DNA replication stress.

  6. Market trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    A very large segment of the over water, long haul passenger market, 31% of the passengers who provide 42% of the passenger revenue, offers a significant market for an advanced supersonic transport. This is for both the first class and full-fare economy passenger markets. The supersonic transport may be more competitive here in spite of lower costs of subsonic transports, as passenger preference is a more powerful variable than DOC. This latter fact was amply demonstrated in the late fifties when the jets completely replaced the reciprocating engine transports on most world routes, in spite of slightly higher fares.

  7. Intra- to Multi-Decadal Temperature Variability over the Continental United States: 1896-2012

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Optimal Ranking Regime (ORR) method was used to identify intra- to multi-decadal (IMD) time windows containing significant ranking sequences in U.S. climate division temperature data. The simplicity of the ORR procedure’s output – a time series’ most significant non-overlapping periods of high o...

  8. Evaluation of filtering methods for acquiring radial intra-artery blood pressure waveforms.

    PubMed

    Hersh, Lawrence T; Friedman, Bruce; Luczyk, William; Sesing, Jean

    2015-10-01

    The methods for evaluating noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) monitors using an intra-arterial reference are detailed in the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2009 standard. In a recent study, GE Healthcare obtained invasive radial arterial blood pressure waveforms. The work presented here describes the development of filtering strategies for obtaining high fidelity intra-arterial pressure waveforms for NIBP accuracy testing using the 81060-2 standard. The natural frequency and damping factor of each subject-catheter-transducer system was computed from fast-flush transients. These parameters were used to construct filters for removing or reducing resonance artifacts. Additionally, new optimal damping factors were evaluated for designing compensation filters. Theoretical measurement systems using actual damping factors (< 0.4) and natural frequencies were found capable of generating significant systolic resonance artifacts (≥ 8 mmHg). Typical filters that may be standardly available in monitoring equipment were observed to be potentially inadequate in removing resonance artifact. Filters with particular optimal damping factors (0.6-0.7) were effective in removing resonance artifact. Clinicians need to understand that resonance artifacts potentially exist in intra-arterial waveforms and that the adjustments of monitoring systems may not be adequate. Optimal filters for obtaining intra-arterial waveforms should take into account the damping factor and natural frequency of the measuring system. In research and device evaluation studies it is necessary that optimal filtering be done to minimize the effects of under-damping.

  9. Adaptive use of technical indicators for the prediction of intra-day stock prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka-Yamawaki, Mieko; Tokuoka, Seiji

    2007-09-01

    We examine the effectiveness of frequently used technical indicators for intra-day forecast by applying them on the tick data of various stock prices. We show that the optimal combination of a few indicators chosen for each stock by using evolutional computation provides us a good forecast on the level of the future price at several ticks ahead.

  10. INTRA - BEAM SCATTERING MEASUREMENTS IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,W.; CONNOLLY,R.; TEPIKIAN,S.; VAN ZEIJTS,J.; ZENO,K.

    2002-06-02

    RHIC in gold operation shows significant intra-beam scattering due to the high charge state of the stored ions. Intra-beam scattering leads to longitudinal and transverse emittance growth. The longitudinal emittance growth causes debunching in operation; the transverse emittance growth contributes to the reduction of the beam and luminosity lifetimes. The longitudinal and transverse beam growth was measured. Beam growth measurement are compared with computations.

  11. Estimating the Celestial Reference Frame via Intra-Technique Combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iddink, Andreas; Artz, Thomas; Halsig, Sebastian; Nothnagel, Axel

    2016-12-01

    One of the primary goals of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is the determination of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). Currently the third realization of the internationally adopted CRF, the ICRF3, is under preparation. In this process, various optimizations are planned to realize a CRF that does not benefit only from the increased number of observations since the ICRF2 was published. The new ICRF can also benefit from an intra-technique combination as is done for the Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF). Here, we aim at estimating an optimized CRF by means of an intra-technique combination. The solutions are based on the input to the official combined product of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS), also providing the radio source parameters. We discuss the differences in the setup using a different number of contributions and investigate the impact on TRF and CRF as well as on the Earth Orientation Parameters (EOPs). Here, we investigate the differences between the combined CRF and the individual CRFs from the different analysis centers.

  12. Assessing the Factors Associated With Iran's Intra-Industry Trade in Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Yusefzadeh, Hassan; Hadian, Mohammad; Abolghasem Gorji, Hassan; Ghaderi, Hossein

    2015-03-30

    Pharmaceutical industry is a sensitive and profitable industry. If this industry wants to survive, it should be able to compete well in international markets. So, study of Iran's intra-industry trade (IIT) in pharmaceuticals is essential in order to identify competitiveness potential of country and boost export capability in the global arena. This study assessed the factors associated with Iran's intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals with the rest of the world during the 2001-2012 periods using seasonal time series data at the four-digit SITC level. The data was collected from Iran's pharmaceutical Statistics, World Bank and International Trade Center. Finally, we discussed a number of important policy recommendations to increase Iran's IIT in pharmaceuticals. The findings indicated that economies of scale, market structure and degree of economic development had a significantly positive impact on Iran's intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals and tariff trade barriers were negatively related to IIT. Product differentiation and technological advancement didn't have the expected signs. In addition, we found that Iran's IIT in pharmaceuticals have shown an increasing trend during the study period. Thus, the composition of Iran trade in pharmaceuticals has changed from inter-industry trade to intra-industry trade. In order to get more prepared for integration into the global economy, the development of Iran's IIT in pharmaceuticals should be given priority. Therefore, paying attention to IIT could have an important role in serving pharmaceutical companies in relation to pharmaceutical trade.

  13. Marketing Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Gale; Kwielford, Merrilee Andersen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses marketing techniques for teacher librarians based on six levels: basic assumptions; library resource program, including attitudes for success; school, including a collaborative environment; administration, including program support; community, including awareness; and state and national, including professional participation. (LRW)

  14. Marketing Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Gale; Kwielford, Merrilee Andersen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses marketing techniques for teacher librarians based on six levels: basic assumptions; library resource program, including attitudes for success; school, including a collaborative environment; administration, including program support; community, including awareness; and state and national, including professional participation. (LRW)

  15. Stroke neuroprotection revisited: Intra-arterial verapamil is profoundly neuroprotective in experimental acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Maniskas, Michael E; Roberts, Jill M; Aron, Ishi; Fraser, Justin F; Bix, Gregory J

    2016-04-01

    While clinical trials have now solidified the role of thrombectomy in emergent large vessel occlusive stroke, additional therapies are needed to optimize patient outcome. Using our previously described experimental ischemic stroke model for evaluating adjunctive intra-arterial drug therapy after vessel recanalization, we studied the potential neuroprotective effects of verapamil. A calcium channel blocker, verapamil is often infused intra-arterially by neurointerventionalists to treat cerebral vasospasm. Such a direct route of administration allows for both focused targeting of stroke-impacted brain tissue and minimizes potential systemic side effects. Intra-arterial administration of verapamil at a flow rate of 2.5 µl/min and injection volume of 10 µl immediately after middle cerebral artery recanalization in C57/Bl6 mice was shown to be profoundly neuroprotective as compared to intra-arterial vehicle-treated stroke controls. Specifically, we noted a significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in infarct volume, astrogliosis, and cellular apoptosis as well as a significant increase in neuronal survival and functional outcome over seven days. Furthermore, intra-arterial administration of verapamil was well tolerated with no hemorrhage, systemic side effects, or increased mortality. Thus, verapamil administered intra-arterially immediately following recanalization in experimental ischemic stroke is both safe and neuroprotective and merits further study as a potential therapeutic adjunct to thrombectomy.

  16. Effect of Intra-Medullar and Intra-Venous Infusions of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Cell Engraftment by In-Vivo Cell Tracking and Osteoinductivity in Rabbit Long Bones: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, Akikazu; Ohmine, Ken; Weisbrode, Steve E; Bertone, Alicia L

    2014-01-01

    Objective Stem cell therapy can be an efficacious treatment option for bone fragility disorders (eg, osteogenesis imperfecta, disuse osteopenia, and osteoporosis), and successful cell therapy application may be dependent on optimal cell engraftment in target bones. The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of intra-medullar and intra-venous delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to improve cell engraftment rate, bone mineral density, and micro-architecture. Methods By using six healthy juvenile New Zealand White rabbits, MSC were isolated from cancellous bone harvests and confirmed to have osteogenic capacity by inducing ectopic bone formation. The MSC were cultured, transduced by foamy viral vectors with marker genes for in vivo cell tracking, and expanded. All rabbits had one randomly selected limb receive intra-medullar infusion of 3×107 to 1×108 autologous MSC in the distal femur or the distal femur and proximal tibia. Two of six rabbits also received an intra-venous MSC infusion. At 28 days, MSC bone engraftment was assessed by PCR and the bone density and microstructure assessed by computed tomography and histomorphometry. Results The intra-medullar-infused MSC were detected in epiphysis or diaphysis of the distal femurs and/or proximal tibiae. Infused MSC comprised 0.01 to 0.3% of all cells in the bone tissues. The intra-venous-infused MSC were not detected in any location. Neither intra-medullar nor intra-venous MSC infusion altered bone volume, bone mineral density, or cortical bone porosity/thickness. Systemic biodistribution of intra-medullar-infused MSC was not evident. Conclusions Our results indicated that intra-medullar infusion can be an effective cell delivery route for stem cell therapy potentially for orthopedic disorders, in preference to systemic administration. Further research is warranted to demonstrate an efficacy of intra-medullar MSC infusion on bone density and micro-architecture using animal models of bone disorders

  17. Intra-observer reliability of Prechtl’s method for the qualitative assessment of general movements in Taiwanese infants

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Kuo-Kuang; Liu, Wen-Yu; Wong, Alice May-Kuen; Chung, Chia-Ying; Lien, Reyin; Chuang, Yu-Fen

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the intra-observer reliability for Prechtl’s General Movements Assessment in Taiwanese infants. This includes the global General Movements Assessment, the Optimality List for Preterm General Movements and Writhing Movements, and the Assessment of Motor Repertoire—3 to 5 Months. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-nine videos of 37 infants were observed and rated by one physical therapist twice. [Results] The intra-observer reliability ranged from good to very good for the global General Movements Assessment. The overall intra-observer reliabilities for the total score of the Optimality List from preterm up to postmenstrual age 46 weeks and the total score of the Assessment of Motor Repertoire for postmenstrual age 49 to 60 weeks were both good. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the intra-observer reliability of a certified physical therapist was satisfactory for Prechtl’s method in Taiwanese infants. PMID:27313378

  18. Impact of mask CDU and local CD variation on intra-field CDU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Junji; Mouraille, Orion; Finders, Jo; Higuchi, Masaru; Kojima, Yosuke; Sato, Shunsuke; Morimoto, Hiroaki

    2012-11-01

    The control of critical dimension uniformity (CDU), especially intra-field CDU, is an important aspect for advanced lithography, and this property must be controlled very tightly since it affects all of the exposure fields. It is well known that the influence of the mask CDU on the wafer intra-field CDU is becoming dominant because the mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) is quite high for low-k1 lithography. Additionally, the abovementioned factors impact the CDU through global (field-level) and local (grating-level) variations. In this paper, we analyze in detail CDU budgets by clarifying the impact of local CD variation. The 50-nm staggered hole features using Att-PSM showed a mask global CDU of 1.64 nm (3sigma at the mask level) and a wafer intra-field CDU of 2.30 nm, indicating that the mask global CDU was a major part of the intra-field CDU. By compensating for the contribution of the mask CD, the wafer intra-field CDU can be reduced to 0.986 nm. We analyzed the budgets of wafer intra-field CDU, which is caused by local CD variation (mask and process) and measurement noise. We determined that a primary cause of the wafer intra-field CDU after applying a mask CD correction was these local CD variations, which might disturb the proper use of dose correction for the mask CD. We demonstrated that the impact of mask local CD variation on the correction flow can be greatly reduced by averaging multiple point measurements within a small area, and therefore discuss the optimum conditions allowing for an accurate intra-field CDU determination. We also consider optimization of the CD sampling scheme in order to apply a dose correction on an exposure system to compensate for the mask CDU.

  19. Progress in intra-articular therapy

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Christopher H.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Setton, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Diarthrodial joints are well suited to intra-articular injection, and the local delivery of therapeutics in this fashion brings several potential advantages to the treatment of a wide range of arthropathies. Possible benefits include increased bioavailability, reduced systemic exposure, fewer adverse events, and lower total drug costs. Nevertheless, intra-articular therapy is challenging because of the rapid egress of injected materials from the joint space; this elimination is true of both small molecules, which exit via synovial capillaries, and of macromolecules, which are cleared by the lymphatic system. In general, soluble materials have an intra-articular dwell time measured only in hours. Corticosteroids and hyaluronate preparations constitute the mainstay of FDA-approved intra-articular therapeutics. Recombinant proteins, autologous blood products and analgesics have also found clinical use via intra-articular delivery. Several alternative approaches, such as local delivery of cell and gene therapy, as well as the use of microparticles, liposomes, and modified drugs, are in various stages of preclinical development. PMID:24189839

  20. Enabling Wireless Avionics Intra-Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Omar; Nguyen, Truong; Mackenzie, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The Electromagnetics and Sensors Branch of NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is investigating the potential of an all-wireless aircraft as part of the ECON (Efficient Reconfigurable Cockpit Design and Fleet Operations using Software Intensive, Networked and Wireless Enabled Architecture) seedling proposal, which is funded by the Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) project, Transformative Aeronautics Concepts (TAC) program, and NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI). The project consists of a brief effort carried out by a small team in the Electromagnetic Environment Effects (E3) laboratory with the intention of exposing some of the challenges faced by a wireless communication system inside the reflective cavity of an aircraft and to explore potential solutions that take advantage of that environment for constructive gain. The research effort was named EWAIC for "Enabling Wireless Aircraft Intra-communications." The E3 laboratory is a research facility that includes three electromagnetic reverberation chambers and equipment that allow testing and generation of test data for the investigation of wireless systems in reflective environments. Using these chambers, the EWAIC team developed a set of tests and setups that allow the intentional variation of intensity of a multipath field to reproduce the environment of the various bays and cabins of large transport aircraft. This setup, in essence, simulates an aircraft environment that allows the investigation and testing of wireless communication protocols that can effectively be used as a tool to mitigate some of the risks inherent to an aircraft wireless system for critical functions. In addition, the EWAIC team initiated the development of a computational modeling tool to illustrate the propagation of EM waves inside the reflective cabins and bays of aircraft and to obtain quantifiable information regarding the degradation of signals in aircraft subassemblies. The nose landing gear of a UAV CAD model was used

  1. Speeding Access to Vaccines and Medicines in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Case for Change and a Framework for Optimized Product Market Authorization

    PubMed Central

    Ahonkhai, Vincent; Portet, Alexandre; Hartman, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Background The United Nations Millennium Development Goals galvanized global efforts to alleviate suffering of the world’s poorest people through unprecedented public-private partnerships. Donor aid agencies have demonstrably saved millions of lives that might otherwise have been lost to disease through increased access to quality-assured vaccines and medicines. Yet, the introduction of these health interventions in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) continues to face a time lag due to factors which remain poorly understood. Methods and Findings A recurring theme from our partnership engagements was that an optimized regulatory process would contribute to improved access to quality health products. Therefore, we investigated the current system for medicine and vaccine registration in LMICs as part of our comprehensive regulatory strategy. Here, we report a fact base of the registration timelines for vaccines and drugs used to treat certain communicable diseases in LMICs. We worked with a broad set of stakeholders, including the World Health Organization’s prequalification team, national regulatory authorities, manufacturers, procurers, and other experts, and collected data on the timelines between first submission and last approval of applications for product registration sub-Saharan Africa. We focused on countries with the highest burden of communicable disease and the greatest need for the products studied. The data showed a typical lag of 4 to 7 years between the first regulatory submission which was usually to a regulatory agency in a high-income country, and the final approval in Sub-Saharan Africa. Two of the three typical registration steps which products undergo before delivery in the countries involve lengthy timelines. Failure to leverage or rely on the findings from reviews already performed by competent regulatory authorities, disparate requirements for product approval by the countries, and lengthy timelines by manufacturers to respond to

  2. Speeding Access to Vaccines and Medicines in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Case for Change and a Framework for Optimized Product Market Authorization.

    PubMed

    Ahonkhai, Vincent; Martins, Samuel F; Portet, Alexandre; Lumpkin, Murray; Hartman, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals galvanized global efforts to alleviate suffering of the world's poorest people through unprecedented public-private partnerships. Donor aid agencies have demonstrably saved millions of lives that might otherwise have been lost to disease through increased access to quality-assured vaccines and medicines. Yet, the introduction of these health interventions in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) continues to face a time lag due to factors which remain poorly understood. A recurring theme from our partnership engagements was that an optimized regulatory process would contribute to improved access to quality health products. Therefore, we investigated the current system for medicine and vaccine registration in LMICs as part of our comprehensive regulatory strategy. Here, we report a fact base of the registration timelines for vaccines and drugs used to treat certain communicable diseases in LMICs. We worked with a broad set of stakeholders, including the World Health Organization's prequalification team, national regulatory authorities, manufacturers, procurers, and other experts, and collected data on the timelines between first submission and last approval of applications for product registration sub-Saharan Africa. We focused on countries with the highest burden of communicable disease and the greatest need for the products studied. The data showed a typical lag of 4 to 7 years between the first regulatory submission which was usually to a regulatory agency in a high-income country, and the final approval in Sub-Saharan Africa. Two of the three typical registration steps which products undergo before delivery in the countries involve lengthy timelines. Failure to leverage or rely on the findings from reviews already performed by competent regulatory authorities, disparate requirements for product approval by the countries, and lengthy timelines by manufacturers to respond to regulatory queries were key underlying

  3. A novel intra-operative positron imager for rapid localization of tumor margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabet, Hamid; Stack, Brendan C.; Nagarkar, Vivek V.

    2014-03-01

    We have developed an intra-operative and compact imaging tool for surgeons to detect PET- positive lesions. Currently, most such probes on the market are non-imaging, and provide no ancillary information of surveyed areas, such as clear delineations of malignant tissues. Our probe consists of a novel hybrid scintillator coupled to a compact silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) array with associated front-end electronics encapsulated in an ergonomic housing. Pulse shape discrimination electronics has been implemented and integrated into the downstream data acquisition system. The hybrid scintillator consists of a 0.4 mm thick layer of CsI:Tl scintillator coupled to a 1 mm thick LYSO crystal. To achieve high spatial resolution, CsI:Tl is pixelated to 0.5×0.5 mm2 pixels using laser ablation technique. While CsI:Tl act as beta-sensitive scintillator, LYSO senses the gamma radiation and can be used to navigate the probe to the locations of interest. The gamma response is also subtracted from the beta image for improved SNR and contrast. To achieve accurate centroid position estimation and uniform beta sensitivity over the entire imaging area, the LYSO thickness is optimized such that it acts as scintillation light diffuser by spreading CsI:Tl light over multiple SiPM pixels. The results show that the response of the two scintillators exposed to radiation could be easily distinguished based on their pulse shapes. The probe's spatial resolution is <1.5 mm FWHM in its 10×10 mm2 effective imaging area. The probe can rapidly detect and localize nCi levels of F-18 beta radiation even in presence of strong gamma background.

  4. Smart Markets for Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffensperger, John

    2017-04-01

    Commercial water users often want to trade water, but their trades can hurt other users and the environment. So government has to check every transaction. This checking process is slow and expensive. That's why "free market" water trading doesn't work, especially with trading between a single buyer and a single seller. This talk will describe a water trading mechanism designed to solve these problems. The trading mechanism is called a "smart market". A smart market allows simultaneous many-to-many trades. It can reduce the transaction costs of water trading, while improving environmental outcomes. The smart market depends on a combination of recent technologies: hydrology simulation, computer power, and the Internet. Our smart market design uses standard hydrological models, user bids from a web page, and computer optimization to maximize the economic value of water while meeting all environmental constraints. Before the smart market can be implemented, however, users and the water agency must meet six critical prerequisites. These prerequisites may be viewed as simply good water management that should be done anyway. I will describe these prerequisites, and I will briefly discuss common arguments against water markets. This talk will be an abstract of a forthcoming book, "Smart Markets for Water Resources: A Manual for Implementation," by John F. Raffensperger and Mark W. Milke, from Springer Publishing.

  5. 78 FR 24282 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... proposal creates a burden on intra-market competition because the Exchange is applying the same Routing... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... given that on April 9, 2013, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') filed with...

  6. 78 FR 26820 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... raise any issues of intra-market competition because it involves inbound routing from an affiliated... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule... NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the ``Exchange'' or ``Nasdaq'') filed with the Securities and...

  7. 14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin... Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.34 Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility. For scheduled service within Hawaii, and within and between Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands...

  8. 14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin... Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.34 Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility. For scheduled service within Hawaii, and within and between Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands...

  9. Marketing percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldenberg, J.; Libai, B.; Solomon, S.; Jan, N.; Stauffer, D.

    2000-09-01

    A percolation model is presented, with computer simulations for illustrations, to show how the sales of a new product may penetrate the consumer market. We review the traditional approach in the marketing literature, which is based on differential or difference equations similar to the logistic equation (Bass, Manage. Sci. 15 (1969) 215). This mean-field approach is contrasted with the discrete percolation on a lattice, with simulations of "social percolation" (Solomon et al., Physica A 277 (2000) 239) in two to five dimensions giving power laws instead of exponential growth, and strong fluctuations right at the percolation threshold.

  10. Torsion of an intra-abdominal testis.

    PubMed

    Lewis; Roller; Parra; Cotlar

    2000-09-01

    To present a case of torsion of a nonneoplastic intra-abdominal testis with an unusual clinical presentation.A 26-year-old active duty Navy Petty Officer presented to the emergency department on 3 occasions over a 5-day period with lower abdominal pain. Physical examination demonstrated acute tenderness in the left lower quadrant with sugestion of a normal spermatic cord and atrophic testis in the left scrotum. Computed tomography scan demonstrated an intra-abdominal lesion near the internal inguinal ring. The patient underwent surgical exploration through an inguinal incision. Torsion of a nonviable intra-abdominal testis was present. The scrotum contained only the vas deferens and cremasteric muscle. An orchiectomy was performed with removal of the vas deferens and other cord structures.The unusual clinical finding of acute torsion of an intra-abdominal testis, associated with an apparent atrophic scrotal testis, presented a confusing clinical picture. Computed tomography scan did not clarify the issue sufficiently to establish a definite preoperative diagnosis. Clinical suspicion prompted early surgical intervention. Review of the current literature produced 60 reported cases of torsion of an intra-abdominal testis. Two thirds of these involved testicular neoplasm, usually seminoma. Although the clinical presentation varied, most patients had recent onset of lower abdominal pain associated with tenderness and, in half the cases, a mass. Patients almost always presented with an absent scrotal testis on the involved side, and not infrequently reported previous surgery thought to be an orchiectomy.Diagnosis of an intra-abdominal testicular torsion is rare, particularly when no neoplasm is present. A high index of suspicion must be maintained whenever there is abdominal pain and undescended testis. The surgical history and imaging studies may not clarify a confusing clinical picture.

  11. NOPAL Processor: Intra-Test Sequencing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    1~1 AD—*053 315 MOORE SCHOOL OF ELECTPICAI. ENGINEERING PPIILAOELPIIIA P—ETC F/S lk/2 NOPAL pROCESSOR : INTRA TEST SEQUENCING. 1W JAN 78 R w BERMAN...OAAA25—75—C—0650 UNCLASSIFIED ECOM—75—O65O—F Pt _ _ I U Resea rch and Development Technical Report ECOM 75-0650- F NOPAL PROCESSOR: INTRA TEST...NOPA.L processor. The overall objective of the NOPAL system is to generate a program for computer controlled automatic test equipment for testing an

  12. Sports Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document presents the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency profile for sports marketing. The profile is to serve as the basis for curriculum development in Ohio's secondary, adult, and postsecondary programs. The profile includes a comprehensive listing of 999 specialty key indicators for evaluating mastery of 113 competencies in…

  13. Marketing Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  14. Marketing Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  15. A psychology of religious plurality: from intra-religious dialogue to intra-psychic reality.

    PubMed

    Kramp, Joseph M

    2012-09-01

    Panikkar's (The intra-religious dialogue, 1978) classic, re-issued by Paulist Press in 1999, grapples with the theological challenges in the disciplines of comparative theology and the theology of religions through what he terms, "intra-religious dialogue." In this psychology of religious plurality, I use works from a variety of disciplines to highlight the achievements of Panikkar's intra-religious dialogue, as well as to critique his work in the hope of finding categories of understanding that can be profitably used to face the inter-personal crises of the contemporary world, namely religious terrorism.

  16. Intra-Organizational Conflict in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynn, Richard

    There is no abundance of research on intra-organizational conflict, and there are no simple answers to the tricky business of managing organizational conflicts. This paper states some propositions about conflict and suggests some management stratagems that can be used in sustaining constructive organizational characteristics. The propositions are…

  17. Optimal GENCO bidding strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Feng

    Electricity industries worldwide are undergoing a period of profound upheaval. The conventional vertically integrated mechanism is being replaced by a competitive market environment. Generation companies have incentives to apply novel technologies to lower production costs, for example: Combined Cycle units. Economic dispatch with Combined Cycle units becomes a non-convex optimization problem, which is difficult if not impossible to solve by conventional methods. Several techniques are proposed here: Mixed Integer Linear Programming, a hybrid method, as well as Evolutionary Algorithms. Evolutionary Algorithms share a common mechanism, stochastic searching per generation. The stochastic property makes evolutionary algorithms robust and adaptive enough to solve a non-convex optimization problem. This research implements GA, EP, and PS algorithms for economic dispatch with Combined Cycle units, and makes a comparison with classical Mixed Integer Linear Programming. The electricity market equilibrium model not only helps Independent System Operator/Regulator analyze market performance and market power, but also provides Market Participants the ability to build optimal bidding strategies based on Microeconomics analysis. Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE) is attractive compared to traditional models. This research identifies a proper SFE model, which can be applied to a multiple period situation. The equilibrium condition using discrete time optimal control is then developed for fuel resource constraints. Finally, the research discusses the issues of multiple equilibria and mixed strategies, which are caused by the transmission network. Additionally, an advantage of the proposed model for merchant transmission planning is discussed. A market simulator is a valuable training and evaluation tool to assist sellers, buyers, and regulators to understand market performance and make better decisions. A traditional optimization model may not be enough to consider the distributed

  18. Fluzone® intra-dermal (Intanza®/Istivac® Intra-dermal): An updated overview.

    PubMed

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Orsi, Andrea; Ansaldi, Filippo; Gasparini, Roberto; Icardi, Giancarlo

    2016-10-02

    Influenza is a highly contagious respiratory acute viral disease which imposes a very heavy burden both in terms of epidemiology and costs, in the developed countries as well as in the developing ones. It represents a serious public health concern and vaccination constitutes an important tool to reduce or at least mitigate its burden. Despite the existence of a broad armamentarium against influenza and despite all the efforts and recommendations of international organisms to broaden immunization, influenza vaccination coverage is still far from being optimal. This, taken together with logistic and technical difficulties that can result into vaccine shortage, makes intra-dermal (ID) vaccines, such as Fluzone® ID and Intanza®, particularly attractive. ID vaccines are comparable and, in some cases, superior to intra-muscular/sub-cutaneous vaccines in terms of immunogenicity, safety, reactogenicity, tolerability and cross-protection profiles, as well as in terms of patient preference, acceptance and vaccine selection. Further advances, such as Fluzone® ID with alternative B strains and Quadrivalent Fluzone® ID or the possibility of self-administering the vaccines, make influenza ID vaccines even more valuable.

  19. Assessing restrictiveness of national alcohol marketing policies.

    PubMed

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2014-01-01

    To develop an approach for monitoring national alcohol marketing policies globally, an area of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Alcohol Strategy. Data on restrictiveness of alcohol marketing policies came from the 2002 and 2008 WHO Global Surveys on Alcohol and Health. We included four scales in a sensitivity analysis to determine optimal weights to score countries on their marketing policies and applied the selected scale to assess national marketing policy restrictiveness. Nearly, 36% of countries had no marketing restrictions. The overall restrictiveness levels were not significantly different between 2002 and 2008. The number of countries with strict marketing regulations did not differ across years. This method of monitoring alcohol marketing restrictiveness helps track progress towards implementing WHO'S Global Alcohol Strategy. Findings indicate a consistent lack of restrictive policies over time, making this a priority area for national and global action. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  20. Intra-family distribution in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Behrman, J R

    1994-01-01

    Intra-household allocations are important in the determination of time use, human resource investments, and intra- and inter-generation of transfers in developing countries. During the 1980s through the mid-1990s there has been substantial progress in modeling intra-household allocations despite data limitations regarding the nature of the allocation of unobserved variables and the impact of unobserved heterogeneous endowments. The economic models of intra-household allocations include the pure parental altruism models with unified preferences, and within this the wealth model, which states that parents are concerned with each child's total wealth, but are not concerned with the sources of wealth. The next model is the separable earnings-transfers (SET) model, in which the parental welfare function is separable between their children's distribution of income from labor earnings and their children's distribution of income from physical and financial transfers received from their parents. The wealth model and the SET model have implications for identifying returns to schooling as well as implications for the interpretation of schooling as child quality. Models of qualified parental altruism include the rotten kid theorem, which states that variations in parental transfers to selfish children force such children to consider their parents' interests, as each beneficiary maximizes the total family income available to the altruistic benefactor. Under the strategic bequest or exchange model the parents influence the behavior of their children by holding wealth in bequeathable form. Collective models of household behavior, which focus on decisions between husbands and wives, include Nash bargaining models of intra-household allocations, which generalize the comparative statics of a unified preference constrained maximization. The Pareto-efficient collective household models assume that allocations are Pareto-efficient without assuming any explicit solution process.

  1. Usability Considerations in Developing a Graphic Interface for Intra Office Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yammiyavar, Pradeep; Jain, Piyush

    This paper outlines the basis of incorporating functional features in a new GUI based software under development for addressing comprehensive communication and interaction needs within an office environment. Bench marking of features in existing communication software products such as Microsoft Outlook, IBM Lotusnotes, Office Communicator, Mozilla Thunderbird etc. was done by asking a set of questions related to the usage of these existing softwares. Usability issues were identified through a user survey involving 30 subjects of varied profiles (domain, designation, age etc.) in a corporate office. It is posited that existing software products that have been developed for a universal market may be highly underutilized or have redundant features especially for use as an intra office (within the same office) communication medium. Simultaneously they may not cater to some very contextual requirements of intra office communications. Based on the findings of the survey of feature preferences & usability of existing products, a simple 'person to person' communicating medium for intra office situations was visualized with a new interactive GUI. Usability issues that need to be considered for a new intra-office product have been brought out.

  2. Does the market maker stabilize the market?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mei; Chiarella, Carl; He, Xue-Zhong; Wang, Duo

    2009-08-01

    The market maker plays an important role in price formation, but his/her behavior and stabilizing impact on the market are relatively unclear, in particular in speculative markets. This paper develops a financial market model that examines the impact on market stability of the market maker, who acts as both a liquidity provider and an active investor in a market consisting of two types of boundedly rational speculative investors-the fundamentalists and trend followers. We show that the market maker does not necessarily stabilize the market when he/she actively manages the inventory to maximize profits, and that rather the market maker’s impact depends on the behavior of the speculators. Numerical simulations show that the model is able to generate outcomes for asset returns and market inventories that are consistent with empirical findings.

  3. Market efficiency in foreign exchange markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan; Eom, Cheoljun

    2007-08-01

    We investigate the relative market efficiency in financial market data, using the approximate entropy(ApEn) method for a quantification of randomness in time series. We used the global foreign exchange market indices for 17 countries during two periods from 1984 to 1998 and from 1999 to 2004 in order to study the efficiency of various foreign exchange markets around the market crisis. We found that on average, the ApEn values for European and North American foreign exchange markets are larger than those for African and Asian ones except Japan. We also found that the ApEn for Asian markets increased significantly after the Asian currency crisis. Our results suggest that the markets with a larger liquidity such as European and North American foreign exchange markets have a higher market efficiency than those with a smaller liquidity such as the African and Asian markets except Japan.

  4. Intra-abdominal pressures during activity in women using an intra-vaginal pressure transducer

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Janet M.; Hamad, Nadia M.; Coleman, Tanner J.; Egger, Marlene J.; Hsu, Yvonne; Hitchcock, Robert; Nygaard, Ingrid E.

    2014-01-01

    Strenuous physical activity has been linked to pelvic floor disorders in women. Using a novel wireless intra-vaginal pressure transducer, intra-abdominal pressure was measured during diverse activities in a laboratory. Fifty-seven women performed a prescribed protocol using the intra-vaginal pressure transducer. We calculated maximal, area under the curve and first moment of the area intra-abdominal pressure for each activity. Planned comparisons of pressure were made between levels of walking and cycling and between activities with reported high pressure in the literature. Findings indicate variability in intra-abdominal pressure amongst individuals doing the same activity, especially in activities that required regulation of effort. There were statistically significant differences in maximal pressure between levels of walking, cycling and high pressure activities. Results for area under the curve and first moment of the area were not always consistent with maximal pressure. Coughing had the highest maximal pressure, but had lower area under the curve and first moment of the area compared to most activities. Our data reflect novel findings of maximal, area under the curve and first moment of the area measures of intra-abdominal pressure, which may have clinical relevance for how physical activity relates to pelvic floor dysfunction. PMID:24575741

  5. Intra-abdominal pressure: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Rafaela; Caregnato, Rita Catalina Aquino

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing request for measuring intra-abdominal pressure in critically ill patients with acute abdominal pain to be clarified. Summarizing the research results on measurement of vesical intra-abdominal pressure and analyzing the level of evidence were the purposes of this integrative literature review, carried out based on the databases LILACS, MEDLINE and PubMed, from 2005 to July 2012. Twenty articles were identified, in that, 12 literature reviews, 4 descriptive and exploratory studies, 2 expert opinions, one prospective cohort study and one was an experience report. The vesical intra-abdominal pressure measurement was considered gold standard. There are variations in the technique however, but some common points were identified: complete supine position, in absence of abdominal contracture, in the end of expiration and expressed in mmHg. Most research results indicate keeping the transducer zeroed at the level of the mid-axillary line at the iliac crest level, and instill 25mL of sterile saline. Strong evidence must be developed. RESUMO Em pacientes críticos com quadros abdominais agudos a esclarecer é crescente a solicitação da aferição da pressão intra-abdominal. Sintetizar resultados de pesquisas sobre a mensuração da pressão intra-abdominal pela via vesical e analisar o nível de evidência foram os objetivos desta revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada nas bases LILACS, MEDLINE e PubMed, no período de 2005 a julho de 2012. Identificaram-se 20 artigos, sendo 12 revisões de literatura, 4 estudos exploratório-descritivos, 2 opiniões de especialistas, 1 estudo de coorte prospectivo e 1 relato de experiência. O método vesical para mensuração da pressão intra-abdominal foi considerado padrão-ouro. Existem variações na técnica, entretanto pontos em comum foram identificados: posição supina completa, na ausência de contratura abdominal, ao final da expiração e expressa em mmHg. A maioria indica posicionar o ponto zero do

  6. Fast prediction unit selection method for HEVC intra prediction based on salient regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lei; Dai, Ming; Zhao, Chun-lei; Xiong, Jing-ying

    2016-07-01

    In order to reduce the computational complexity of the high efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard, a new algorithm for HEVC intra prediction, namely, fast prediction unit (PU) size selection method for HEVC based on salient regions is proposed in this paper. We first build a saliency map for each largest coding unit (LCU) to reduce its texture complexity. Secondly, the optimal PU size is determined via a scheme that implements an information entropy comparison among sub-blocks of saliency maps. Finally, we apply the partitioning result of saliency map on the original LCUs, obtaining the optimal partitioning result. Our algorithm can determine the PU size in advance to the angular prediction in intra coding, reducing computational complexity of HEVC. The experimental results show that our algorithm achieves a 37.9% reduction in encoding time, while producing a negligible loss in Bjontegaard delta bit rate ( BDBR) of 0.62%.

  7. Marketing Maps: Illustrating How Marketing Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyure, James F.; Arnold, Susan G.

    2003-01-01

    Today's colleges and universities may tolerate the "idea" of marketing more easily, but marketers must continue to educate campus communities about marketing theories and practice. To promote a useful appreciation of how theories translate into initiatives, we propose incorporating "marketing maps"-user-friendly graphic representations of how…

  8. Marketing Maps: Illustrating How Marketing Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyure, James F.; Arnold, Susan G.

    2003-01-01

    Today's colleges and universities may tolerate the "idea" of marketing more easily, but marketers must continue to educate campus communities about marketing theories and practice. To promote a useful appreciation of how theories translate into initiatives, we propose incorporating "marketing maps"-user-friendly graphic representations of how…

  9. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae intra-abdominal abscess.

    PubMed

    Feasi, Marcello; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Cappato, Stefano; Pontali, Emanuele; Usiglio, David; Rollandi, Gian Andrea; Filauro, Marco; Mori, Marco; Cassola, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a Gram-positive bacillus that is infrequently responsible for infections in humans. Most human cases present as localized or generalized cutaneous infections. An invasive septic form, usually associated with endocarditis, has rarely been described. We report here an invasive infection caused by E. rhusiopathiae without endocardium involvement. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an intra-abdominal abscess due to this pathogen.

  10. Intra-tumour heterogeneity - going beyond genetics.

    PubMed

    Caiado, Francisco; Silva-Santos, Bruno; Norell, Håkan

    2016-06-01

    Cancer patients die primarily due to disease recurrence after transient treatment responses. The emergence of therapy-resistant escape variants is fuelled by intra-tumour heterogeneity, underpinned by interference and Darwinian evolution among continuously developing sub-clones in the mutating tumour. Novel cancer cell variants build upon the pre-existing genetic landscape and tumour heterogeneity is often ascribed largely to genetic variability. While mutations are required for cancer development and studies of genetic evolution of tumours have improved our understanding of cancer biology, genetics only represents one dimension of the fitness of each cancer cell. Beyond the mutations, several non-genetic factors also add significant variability, resulting in a complex and highly dynamic tumour cell population that can drive disease under almost any condition. This viewpoint article summarizes the genetic basis of intra-tumour heterogeneity, before dissecting four major interdependent non-genetic factors we think critically contribute to the overall variability of tumour cells in all types of cancer: epigenetic regulation, cellular differentiation hierarchies, gene expression stochasticity and tumour microenvironment. We finally present the relevant technological approaches to address the combined contribution of both genetic and non-genetic factors to intra-tumour heterogeneity, focusing on genomic profiling, cellular lineage tracing and single-cell RNA sequencing technologies. This strategy will ultimately allow dissection of the full range and depth of intra-tumour heterogeneity. We thus believe that understanding how cancer genetics synergize with the emerging non-genetic factors will be key for development of therapies able to tackle tumour escape and thereby improve cancer patient survival. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  11. Development of an MRI-Guided Intra-Prostatic Needle Placement System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Page Introduction…………………………………………………………….………..….. 4 Body ...system in standard closed high-field magnets, optimized for transperineal prostate biopsy and brachytherapy seed placement. 4 BODY : Please see...required to build robust and durable sensors. For intra- body applications, sensor miniaturization and tool integrability are essential for surgical

  12. 2013 WSES guidelines for management of intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high. The 2013 update of the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines for the management of intra-abdominal infections contains evidence-based recommendations for management of patients with intra-abdominal infections. PMID:23294512

  13. Intra-abdominal pressure: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Milanesi, Rafaela; Caregnato, Rita Catalina Aquino

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is a growing request for measuring intra-abdominal pressure in critically ill patients with acute abdominal pain to be clarified. Summarizing the research results on measurement of vesical intra-abdominal pressure and analyzing the level of evidence were the purposes of this integrative literature review, carried out based on the databases LILACS, MEDLINE and PubMed, from 2005 to July 2012. Twenty articles were identified, in that, 12 literature reviews, 4 descriptive and exploratory studies, 2 expert opinions, one prospective cohort study and one was an experience report. The vesical intra-abdominal pressure measurement was considered gold standard. There are variations in the technique however, but some common points were identified: complete supine position, in absence of abdominal contracture, in the end of expiration and expressed in mmHg. Most research results indicate keeping the transducer zeroed at the level of the mid-axillary line at the iliac crest level, and instill 25mL of sterile saline. Strong evidence must be developed. PMID:26958978

  14. Hepatic imaging following intra-arterial embolotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kallini, Joseph Ralph; Miller, Frank H; Gabr, Ahmed; Salem, Riad; Lewandowski, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    To discuss guidelines and salient imaging findings of solid tumors treated with common intra-arterial procedures used in interventional oncology. A meticulous literature search of PubMed-indexed articles was conducted. Key words included "imaging + embolization," "imaging + TACE," "imaging + radioembolization," "imaging + Y90," "mRECIST," and "EASL." Representative post-treatment cross-sectional images were obtained from past cases in this institution. Intra-arterial therapy (IAT) in interventional oncology includes bland embolization, chemoembolization, and radioembolization. Solid tumors of the liver are the primary focus of these procedures. Cross-sectional CT and/or MR are the main modalities used to image tumors after treatment. Traditional size-based response criteria (WHO and RECIST) alone are of limited utility in determining response to IAT; tumoral necrosis and enhancement must be considered. Specifically for HCC, the EASL and mRECIST guidelines are becoming widely adopted response criteria to assess these factors. DWI, FDG-PET, and CEUS are modalities that play an adjunctive but controversial role. Radiologists must be aware that the different forms of intra-arterial therapy yield characteristic findings on cross-sectional imaging. Knowledge of these findings is integral to accurate assessment of tumor response and progression.

  15. Intra-Engine Trace Species Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waitz, Ian A.; Lukachko, S. P.; Chobot, A.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Brown, R.

    2002-01-01

    Prompted by the needs of downstream plume-wake models, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Aerodyne Research Incorporated (ART) initiated a collaborative effort, with funding from the NASA AEAP, to develop tools that would assist in understanding the fundamental drivers of chemical change within the intra-engine exhaust flow path. Efforts have been focused on the development of a modeling methodology that can adequately investigate the complex intra-engine environment. Over the history of this project, our research has increasingly pointed to the intra-engine environment as a possible site for important trace chemical activity. Modeling studies we initiated for the turbine and exhaust nozzle have contributed several important capabilities to the atmospheric effects of aviation assessment. These include a more complete understanding of aerosol precursor production, improved initial conditions for plume-wake modeling studies, and a more comprehensive analysis of ground-based test cell and in-flight exhaust measurement data. In addition, establishing a physical understanding of important flow and chemical processes through computational investigations may eventually assist in the design of engines to reduce undesirable species.

  16. Assessing the Factors Associated With Iran’s Intra-Industry Trade in Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Yusefzadeh, Hassan; Hadian, Mohammad; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Ghaderi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pharmaceutical industry is a sensitive and profitable industry. If this industry wants to survive, it should be able to compete well in international markets. So, study of Iran’s intra-industry trade (IIT) in pharmaceuticals is essential in order to identify competitiveness potential of country and boost export capability in the global arena. Methods: This study assessed the factors associated with Iran’s intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals with the rest of the world during the 2001–2012 periods using seasonal time series data at the four-digit SITC level. The data was collected from Iran’s pharmaceutical Statistics, World Bank and International Trade Center. Finally, we discussed a number of important policy recommendations to increase Iran’s IIT in pharmaceuticals. Results: The findings indicated that economies of scale, market structure and degree of economic development had a significantly positive impact on Iran’s intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals and tariff trade barriers were negatively related to IIT. Product differentiation and technological advancement didn’t have the expected signs. In addition, we found that Iran’s IIT in pharmaceuticals have shown an increasing trend during the study period. Thus, the composition of Iran trade in pharmaceuticals has changed from inter-industry trade to intra-industry trade. Conclusions: In order to get more prepared for integration into the global economy, the development of Iran’s IIT in pharmaceuticals should be given priority. Therefore, paying attention to IIT could have an important role in serving pharmaceutical companies in relation to pharmaceutical trade. PMID:26156931

  17. Intra-operative visualization of brain tumors with 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Widhalm, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Precise histopathological diagnosis of brain tumors is essential for the correct patient management. Furthermore, complete resection of brain tumors is associated with an improved patient prognosis. However, histopathological undergrading and incomplete tumor removal are not uncommon, especially due to insufficient intra-operative visualization of brain tumor tissue. The fluorescent dye 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is currently applied for fluorescence-guided resections of high-grade gliomas. The value of 5-ALA-induced protoporphyrin (PpIX) fluorescence for intra-operative visualization of other tumors than high-grade gliomas remains unclear. Within the frame of this thesis, we found a significantly higher rate of complete resections of our high-grade gliomas as compared to control cases by using the newly established 5-ALA fluorescence technology at our department. Additionally, we showed that MRI spectroscopy-based chemical shift imaging (CSI) is capable to identify intratumoral high-grade glioma areas (= anaplastic foci) during navigation guided resections to avoid histopathological undergrading. However, the accuracy of navigation systems with integrated pre-operative imaging data such as CSI declines during resections due to intra-operative brainshift. In two further studies, we found that 5-ALA induced PpIX fluorescence is capable as a novel intra-operative marker to detect anaplastic foci within initially suspected low-grade gliomas independent of brainshift. Finally, we showed that the application of 5-ALA is also of relevance in needle biopsies for intra-operative identification of representative brain tumor tissue. These data indicate that 5-ALA is not only of major importance for resection of high-grade gliomas, but also for intra-operative visualization of anaplastic foci as well as representative brain tumor tissue in needle biopsies unaffected by brainshift. Consequently, this new technique might become a novel standard in brain tumor surgery that

  18. Gain loss asymmetry for emerging stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpio, Krzysztof; Załuska–Kotur, Magdalena A.; Orłowski, Arkadiusz

    2007-03-01

    Stock indexes for some European emerging markets are analyzed using an investment-horizon approach. Austrian ATX index and Dow Jones have been studied and compared with several emerging European markets. The optimal investment horizons are plotted as a function of an absolute return value. Gain-loss asymmetry, originally found for American DJIA index, is observed for all analyzed data. It is shown, that this asymmetry has different character for emerging and for established markets. For established markets, gain curve lies typically above loss curve, whereas in the case of emerging markets the situation is just the opposite. We propose a measure quantifying the gain-loss asymmetry that clearly exhibits a difference between emerging and established markets.

  19. Marketing in nursing organizations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, S B

    1989-05-01

    The purpose of chapter 3 is to provide a conceptual framework for understanding marketing. Although it is often considered to be, marketing is not really a new activity for nursing organizations. What is perhaps new to most nursing organizations is the conduct of marketing activities as a series of interrelated events that are part of a strategic marketing process. The increasingly volatile nursing environment requires a comprehensive approach to marketing. This chapter presents definitions of marketing, the marketing mix, the characteristics of nonprofit marketing, the relationship of strategic planning and strategic marketing, portfolio analysis, and a detailed description of the strategic marketing process. While this chapter focuses on marketing concepts, essential components, and presentation of the strategic marketing process, chapter 4 presents specific methods and techniques for implementing the strategic marketing process.

  20. Optimally Stopped Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinci, Walter; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2016-11-01

    We combine the fields of heuristic optimization and optimal stopping. We propose a strategy for benchmarking randomized optimization algorithms that minimizes the expected total cost for obtaining a good solution with an optimal number of calls to the solver. To do so, rather than letting the objective function alone define a cost to be minimized, we introduce a further cost-per-call of the algorithm. We show that this problem can be formulated using optimal stopping theory. The expected cost is a flexible figure of merit for benchmarking probabilistic solvers that can be computed when the optimal solution is not known and that avoids the biases and arbitrariness that affect other measures. The optimal stopping formulation of benchmarking directly leads to a real-time optimal-utilization strategy for probabilistic optimizers with practical impact. We apply our formulation to benchmark simulated annealing on a class of maximum-2-satisfiability (MAX2SAT) problems. We also compare the performance of a D-Wave 2X quantum annealer to the Hamze-Freitas-Selby (HFS) solver, a specialized classical heuristic algorithm designed for low-tree-width graphs. On a set of frustrated-loop instances with planted solutions defined on up to N =1098 variables, the D-Wave device is 2 orders of magnitude faster than the HFS solver, and, modulo known caveats related to suboptimal annealing times, exhibits identical scaling with problem size.

  1. In Vitro Evaluation of the Dual-Diffuser Design for a Reversible Rotary Intra-Aortic Ventricular Assist Device.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaxin; Smith, P Alex; Timms, Daniel L; Hsu, Po-Lin; McMahon, Richard A

    2016-09-01

    The intra-aortic ventricular assist device (IntraVAD) is a miniature intra-aortic axial-flow ventricular assist device (VAD) that works in series with the left ventricle (LV) to assist the compromised heart. Previous in vitro results have shown that the IntraVAD can successfully increase coronary perfusion and offload ventricular volume by operating in reverse-rotation control (RRc) mode. The RRc mode includes forward rotation in systole and reverse rotation (RR) in diastole. It is necessary to derive a new diffuser design that can be used for the bi-directional rotation of the IntraVAD. In this work, a dual-diffuser set (DDS) was proposed to replace the conventional inducer and diffuser upstream and downstream of the pump. The DDS comprised two diffusers, located on both sides of the impeller, omitting the conventional inducer and diffuser. Different configurations of the DDS were designed and manufactured with various combinations of curved and straight blades. All configurations were initially tested in continuous flow, then in a pulsatile mock circulatory loop. A weighted normalized scalar (WNS) was proposed to comprehensively evaluate the hemodynamic effect of the DDS with different configurations. The results show that the maximum of WNS occurred when the upstream diffuser had equal numbers of curved and straight blades and the downstream diffuser had only curved blades. This indicates such a dual-diffuser design for the IntraVAD can give an optimal cardiac assistance potentially improving ventricular contractility, thereby restoring heart function.

  2. Marketing the College Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoef, Ted; Howe, Nanci

    Theory underlying marketing in the public sector is presented in combination with specific examples of marketing strategies and techniques used in college unions and student activities programs across the country. The subject of marketing is discussed under six major subject headings: (1) why marketing? (2) analyzing marketing opportunities; (3)…

  3. The Market Linkage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Victor E.

    The Market Linkage Project (ML) for Special Education and the Basic Skills Validation and Marketing Program are two federally sponsored marketing projects developed under contract by LINC Resources, Inc., a professional marketing organization, for the U.S. Department of Education. LINC developed the marketing programs to provide the option for the…

  4. Markets for compost

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Table of Contents: Introduction; Characteristics and Benefits of Compost and Competing/Complementary Products; Compost Uses and Markets; Factors Pertinent to Developing Compost Markets; Compost Specifications; Compost Testing Requirements; Compost Distribution; Compost Policies; Economic and Noneconomic Barriers to Developing Compost Markets; Strategies to Mitigate/Overcome Barriers to Developing Compost Markets; and Examples of Existing Programs and Markets (as of 1989).

  5. Marketing II Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Cheryl

    This combination curriculum and workbook, which was originally developed for use in a training workshop, is intended to assist adult educators in learning to market their adult literacy programs. The first chapter reviews basic marketing concepts (the definition of marketing, 10 truths about marketing, marketing versus promotion, steps in…

  6. Marketing II Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Cheryl

    This combination curriculum and workbook, which was originally developed for use in a training workshop, is intended to assist adult educators in learning to market their adult literacy programs. The first chapter reviews basic marketing concepts (the definition of marketing, 10 truths about marketing, marketing versus promotion, steps in…

  7. Marketing Manual: Workplace Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanshawe Coll., Strathroy (Ontario).

    This manual applies marketing concepts and methods, selling techniques and principles to the workplace literacy program for the purpose of assisting individuals involved in promoting and selling these programs. Part I provides a rationale for marketing and discusses the following: the role of the sponsor in marketing, market versus marketing,…

  8. Introduction to Electronic Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilbeck, Lettie

    These materials for a five-unit course were developed to introduce secondary and postsecondary students to the use of electronic equipment in marketing. The units cover the following topics: electronic marketing as a valid marketing approach; telemarketing; radio electronic media marketing; television electronic media marketing; and cable TV…

  9. Transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells: intra-arterial versus intravenous administration impacts stroke outcomes in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Yukiko; Yamahara, Kenichi; Soma, Toshihiro; Stern, David M; Nakagomi, Takayuki; Matsuyama, Tomohiro; Taguchi, Akihiko

    2016-10-01

    Based on results of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in animal models of stroke, clinical trials with hematopoietic stem cells administered intra-arterially or intravenously have been initiated in patients. Although intra-arterial injection is expected to deliver transplanted cells more directly to the ischemic tissue, the optimal route for enhancing clinical outcomes has not been identified in the setting of stroke. In this study, we compared the therapeutic potential of intra-arterial versus intravenous injection of bone marrow derived-mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) and CD133-positive (CD133(+)) cells in a murine stroke model. We have found that intra-arterial injection of BM-MNCs exaggerates inflammation with accompanying loss of microvascular structures in poststroke brain and no improvement in cortical function. In contrast, intravenous injection of BM-MNCs did not similarly enhance inflammation and improved cortical function. Our results indicate that the optimal route of cell transplantation can vary with different cell populations and highlight possible issues that might arise with intra-arterial cell administration for acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Intra-axiom redundancies in SNOMED CT.

    PubMed

    Dentler, Kathrin; Cornet, Ronald

    2015-09-01

    Intra-axiom redundancies are elements of concept definitions that are redundant as they are entailed by other elements of the concept definition. While such redundancies are harmless from a logical point of view, they make concept definitions hard to maintain, and they might lead to content-related problems when concepts evolve. The objective of this study is to develop a fully automated method to detect intra-axiom redundancies in OWL 2 EL and apply it to SNOMED Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT). We developed a software program in which we implemented, adapted and extended readily existing rules for redundancy elimination. With this, we analysed occurence of redundancy in 11 releases of SNOMED CT (January 2009 to January 2014). We used the ELK reasoner to classify SNOMED CT, and Pellet for explanation of equivalence. We analysed the completeness and soundness of the results by an in-depth examination of the identified redundant elements in the July 2012 release of SNOMED CT. To determine if concepts with redundant elements lead to maintenance issues, we analysed a small sample of solved redundancies. Analyses showed that the amount of redundantly defined concepts in SNOMED CT is consistently around 35,000. In the July 2012 version of SNOMED CT, 35,010 (12%) of the 296,433 concepts contained redundant elements in their definitions. The results of applying our method are sound and complete with respect to our evaluation. Analysis of solved redundancies suggests that redundancies in concept definitions lead to inadequate maintenance of SNOMED CT. Our analysis revealed that redundant elements are continuously introduced and removed, and that redundant elements may be overlooked when concept definitions are corrected. Applying our redundancy detection method to remove intra-axiom redundancies from the stated form of SNOMED CT and to point knowledge modellers to newly introduced redundancies can support creating and maintaining a redundancy-free version of SNOMED CT. Copyright

  11. Greenhouse-gas-trading markets.

    PubMed

    Sandor, Richard; Walsh, Michael; Marques, Rafael

    2002-08-15

    This paper summarizes the extension of new market mechanisms for environmental services, explains of the importance of generating price information indicative of the cost of mitigating greenhouse gases (GHGs) and presents the rationale and objectives for pilot GHG-trading markets. It also describes the steps being taken to define and launch pilot carbon markets in North America and Europe and reviews the key issues related to incorporating carbon sequestration into an emissions-trading market. There is an emerging consensus to employ market mechanisms to help address the threat of human-induced climate changes. Carbon-trading markets are now in development around the world. A UK market is set to launch in 2002, and the European Commission has called for a 2005 launch of an European Union (EU)-wide market, and a voluntary carbon market is now in formation in North America. These markets represent an initial step in resolving a fundamental problem in defining and implementing appropriate policy actions to address climate change. Policymakers currently suffer from two major information gaps: the economic value of potential damages arising from climate changes are highly uncertain, and there is a lack of reliable information on the cost of mitigating GHGs. These twin gaps significantly reduce the quality of the climate policy debate. The Chicago Climate Exchange, for which the authors serve as lead designers, is intended to provide an organized carbon-trading market involving energy, industry and carbon sequestration in forests and farms. Trading among these diverse sectors will provide price discovery that will help clarify the cost of combating climate change when a wide range of mitigation options is employed. By closing the information gap on mitigation costs, society and policymakers will be far better prepared to identify and implement optimal policies for managing the risks associated with climate change. Establishment of practical experience in providing

  12. Marketing through Video Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhart, Donna

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of using video presentations as marketing tools. Includes information about video news releases, public service announcements, and sales/marketing presentations. Describes the three stages in creating a marketing video: preproduction planning; production; and postproduction. (JOW)

  13. Marketing is everything.

    PubMed

    McKenna, R

    1991-01-01

    Technology is creating customer choice, and choice is altering the marketplace. Gone are the days of the marketer as salesperson. Gone as well is marketing that tries to trick the customer into buying whatever the company makes. There is a new paradigm for marketing, a model that depends on the marketer's knowledge, experience, and ability to integrate the customer and the company. Six principles are at the heart of the new marketing. The first, "Marketing is everything and everything is marketing," suggests that marketing is like quality. It is not a function but an all-pervasive way of doing business. The second, "The goal of marketing is to own the market, not just to sell the product," is a remedy for companies that adopt a limiting "market-share mentality." When you own a market, you lead the market. The third principle says that "marketing evolves as technology evolves." Programmable technology means that companies can promise customers "any thing, any way, any time." Now marketing is evolving to deliver on that promise. The fourth principle, "Marketing moves from monologue to dialogue," argues that advertising is obsolete. Talking at customers is no longer useful. The new marketing requires a feedback loop--a dialogue between company and customer. The fifth principle says that "marketing a product is marketing a service is marketing a product." The line between the categories is fast eroding: the best manufacturing companies provide great service, the best service companies think of themselves as offering high-quality products. The sixth principle, "Technology markets technology," points out the inevitable marriage of marketing and technology and predicts the emergence of marketing workstations, a marketing counterpart to engineers' CAD/CAM systems.

  14. Market review - Market values summary/July market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This article is the July 1995 uranium market review. Data for current uranium market is presented, and a summary of recent transactions is also given. During this reporting period, there was one concentrate deal, two transactions in the long-term natural uranium market and conversion market, and three spot market transactions in the enrichment market. Active uranium supply fell, as did demand, and prices in all sectors were relatively stable.

  15. Marketing Online Services: Product, Market and Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudell, Libby

    1991-01-01

    Describes characteristics of the online marketplace. Topics discussed include technology barriers; data ownership; markets for online services, including libraries and end users; marketing and promotion tactics, including exhibits and conferences, advertising, direct mail, and user groups; international marketing and service; strategic marketing…

  16. Market Transformation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Through the SunShot Initiative, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with manufacturers, communities, states, utilities, and other partners to enable the solar market by reducing non-hardware balance-of-system (BOS) costs, developing a skilled workforce, and eliminating market barriers to widespread adoption of solar technologies. The DOE SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national initiative to make solar energy technologies cost-competitive with other forms of energy by reducing the cost of solar energy systems by about 75% by the end of the decade. Reducing the total installed cost for utility-scale solar electricity to roughly 6 cents per kilowatt hour without subsidies will result in rapid, large-scale adoption of solar electricity across the United States. Reaching this goal will re-establish American technological leadership, improve the nation's energy security, and strengthen U.S. economic competitiveness in the global clean energy race. SunShot will work to bring down the full cost of solar - including the costs of solar cells and installation by focusing on four main pillars: (1) Technologies for solar cells and arrays that convert sunlight to energy; (2) Electronics that optimize the performance of the installation; (3) Improvements in the efficiency of solar manufacturing processes; and (4) Installation, design, and permitting for solar energy systems.

  17. Mining Marketing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    MarketMiner(R) Products, a line of automated marketing analysis tools manufactured by MarketMiner, Inc., can benefit organizations that perform significant amounts of direct marketing. MarketMiner received a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from NASA's Johnson Space Center to develop the software as a data modeling tool for space mission applications. The technology was then built into the company current products to provide decision support for business and marketing applications. With the tool, users gain valuable information about customers and prospects from existing data in order to increase sales and profitability. MarketMiner(R) is a registered trademark of MarketMiner, Inc.

  18. Does intra-individual major histocompatibility complex diversity keep a golden mean?

    PubMed

    Woelfing, Benno; Traulsen, Arne; Milinski, Manfred; Boehm, Thomas

    2009-01-12

    An adaptive immune response is usually initiated only if a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule presents pathogen-derived peptides to T-cells. Every MHC molecule can present only peptides that match its peptide-binding groove. Thus, it seems advantageous for an individual to express many different MHC molecules to be able to resist many different pathogens. However, although MHC genes are the most polymorphic genes of vertebrates, each individual has only a very small subset of the diversity at the population level. This is an evolutionary paradox. We provide an overview of the current data on infection studies and mate-choice experiments and conclude that overall evidence suggests that intermediate intra-individual MHC diversity is optimal. Selective forces that may set an upper limit to intra-individual MHC diversity are discussed. An updated mathematical model based on recent findings on T-cell selection can predict the natural range of intra-individual MHC diversity. Thus, the aim of our review is to evaluate whether the number of MHC alleles usually present in individuals may be optimal to balance the advantages of presenting an increased range of peptides versus the disadvantages of an increased loss of T-cells.

  19. Does intra-individual major histocompatibility complex diversity keep a golden mean?

    PubMed Central

    Woelfing, Benno; Traulsen, Arne; Milinski, Manfred; Boehm, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    An adaptive immune response is usually initiated only if a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule presents pathogen-derived peptides to T-cells. Every MHC molecule can present only peptides that match its peptide-binding groove. Thus, it seems advantageous for an individual to express many different MHC molecules to be able to resist many different pathogens. However, although MHC genes are the most polymorphic genes of vertebrates, each individual has only a very small subset of the diversity at the population level. This is an evolutionary paradox. We provide an overview of the current data on infection studies and mate-choice experiments and conclude that overall evidence suggests that intermediate intra-individual MHC diversity is optimal. Selective forces that may set an upper limit to intra-individual MHC diversity are discussed. An updated mathematical model based on recent findings on T-cell selection can predict the natural range of intra-individual MHC diversity. Thus, the aim of our review is to evaluate whether the number of MHC alleles usually present in individuals may be optimal to balance the advantages of presenting an increased range of peptides versus the disadvantages of an increased loss of T-cells. PMID:18926972

  20. Improved lossless intra coding for next generation video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanam, Rahul; He, Yuwen; Ye, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Recently, there have been efforts by the ITU-T VCEG and ISO/IEC MPEG to further improve the compression performance of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard for developing a potential next generation video coding standard. The exploratory codec software of this potential standard includes new coding tools for inter and intra coding. In this paper, we present a new intra prediction mode for lossless intra coding. Our new intra mode derives a prediction filter for each input pixel using its neighboring reconstructed pixels, and applies this filter to the nearest neighboring reconstructed pixels to generate a prediction pixel. The proposed intra mode is demonstrated to improve the performance of the exploratory software for lossless intra coding, yielding a maximum and average bitrate savings of 4.4% and 2.11%, respectively.

  1. Extracting a shape function for a signal with intra-wave frequency modulation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Thomas Y; Shi, Zuoqiang

    2016-04-13

    In this paper, we develop an effective and robust adaptive time-frequency analysis method for signals with intra-wave frequency modulation. To handle this kind of signals effectively, we generalize our data-driven time-frequency analysis by using a shape function to describe the intra-wave frequency modulation. The idea of using a shape function in time-frequency analysis was first proposed by Wu (Wu 2013 Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal. 35, 181-199. (doi:10.1016/j.acha.2012.08.008)). A shape function could be any smooth 2π-periodic function. Based on this model, we propose to solve an optimization problem to extract the shape function. By exploring the fact that the shape function is a periodic function with respect to its phase function, we can identify certain low-rank structure of the signal. This low-rank structure enables us to extract the shape function from the signal. Once the shape function is obtained, the instantaneous frequency with intra-wave modulation can be recovered from the shape function. We demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of our method by applying it to several synthetic and real signals. One important observation is that this approach is very stable to noise perturbation. By using the shape function approach, we can capture the intra-wave frequency modulation very well even for noise-polluted signals. In comparison, existing methods such as empirical mode decomposition/ensemble empirical mode decomposition seem to have difficulty in capturing the intra-wave modulation when the signal is polluted by noise. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Evaluation of 3D multi-contrast joint intra- and extracranial vessel wall cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zechen; Li, Rui; Zhao, Xihai; He, Le; Wang, Xiaole; Wang, Jinnan; Balu, Niranjan; Yuan, Chun

    2015-05-27

    Multi-contrast vessel wall cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has demonstrated its capability for atherosclerotic plaque morphology measurement and component characterization in different vasculatures. However, limited coverage and partial volume effect with conventional two-dimensional (2D) techniques might cause lesion underestimation. The aim of this work is to evaluate the performance in a) blood suppression and b) vessel wall delineation of three-dimensional (3D) multi-contrast joint intra- and extracranial vessel wall imaging at 3T. Three multi-contrast 3D black blood (BB) sequences with T1, T2 and heavy T1 weighting and a custom designed 36-channel neurovascular coil covering the entire intra- and extracranial vasculature have been used and investigated in this study. Two healthy subjects were recruited for sequence parameter optimization and twenty-five patients were consecutively scanned for image quality and blood suppression assessment. Qualitative image scores of vessel wall delineation as well as quantitative Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and Contrast-to-Noise Ratio (CNR) were evaluated at five typical locations ranging from common carotid arteries to middle cerebral arteries. The 3D multi-contrast images acquired within 15mins allowed the vessel wall visualization with 0.8 mm isotropic spatial resolution covering intra- and extracranial segments. Quantitative wall and lumen SNR measurements for each sequence showed effective blood suppression at all selected locations (P < 0.0001). Although the wall-lumen CNR varied across measured locations, each sequence provided good or adequate image quality in both intra- and extracranial segments. The proposed 3D multi-contrast vessel wall technique provides isotropic resolution and time efficient solution for joint intra- and extracranial vessel wall CMR.

  3. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, T.; Pinson, P.; Morais, H.

    2016-09-01

    The increasing penetration of wind generation in power systems to fulfil the ambitious European targets will make wind power producers to play an even more important role in the future power system. Wind power producers are being incentivized to participate in reserve markets to increase their revenue, since currently wind turbine/farm technologies allow them to provide ancillary services. Thus, wind power producers are to develop offering strategies for participation in both energy and reserve markets, accounting for market rules, while ensuring optimal revenue. We consider a proportional offering strategy to optimally decide upon participation in both markets by maximizing expected revenue from day-ahead decisions while accounting for estimated regulation costs for failing to provide the services. An evaluation of considering the same proportional splitting of energy and reserve in both day- ahead and balancing market is performed. A set of numerical examples illustrate the behavior of such strategy. An important conclusion is that the optimal split of the available wind power between energy and reserve strongly depends upon prices and penalties on both market trading floors.

  4. Frontiers of finance: evolution and efficient markets.

    PubMed

    Farmer, J D; Lo, A W

    1999-08-31

    In this review article, we explore several recent advances in the quantitative modeling of financial markets. We begin with the Efficient Markets Hypothesis and describe how this controversial idea has stimulated a number of new directions of research, some focusing on more elaborate mathematical models that are capable of rationalizing the empirical facts, others taking a completely different tack in rejecting rationality altogether. One of the most promising directions is to view financial markets from a biological perspective and, specifically, within an evolutionary framework in which markets, instruments, institutions, and investors interact and evolve dynamically according to the "law" of economic selection. Under this view, financial agents compete and adapt, but they do not necessarily do so in an optimal fashion. Evolutionary and ecological models of financial markets is truly a new frontier whose exploration has just begun.

  5. Frontiers of finance: Evolution and efficient markets

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, J. Doyne; Lo, Andrew W.

    1999-01-01

    In this review article, we explore several recent advances in the quantitative modeling of financial markets. We begin with the Efficient Markets Hypothesis and describe how this controversial idea has stimulated a number of new directions of research, some focusing on more elaborate mathematical models that are capable of rationalizing the empirical facts, others taking a completely different tack in rejecting rationality altogether. One of the most promising directions is to view financial markets from a biological perspective and, specifically, within an evolutionary framework in which markets, instruments, institutions, and investors interact and evolve dynamically according to the “law” of economic selection. Under this view, financial agents compete and adapt, but they do not necessarily do so in an optimal fashion. Evolutionary and ecological models of financial markets is truly a new frontier whose exploration has just begun. PMID:10468547

  6. Intra-layer synchronization in multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambuzza, L. V.; Frasca, M.; Gómez-Gardeñes, J.

    2015-04-01

    We study synchronization of N oscillators indirectly coupled through a medium which is inhomogeneous and has its own dynamics. The system is formalized in terms of a multilayer network, where the top layer is made of disconnected oscillators and the bottom one, modeling the medium, consists of oscillators coupled according to a given topology. The different dynamics of the medium and the top layer is accounted for by including a frequency mismatch between them. We show a novel regime of synchronization as intra-layer coherence does not necessarily require inter-layer coherence. This regime appears under mild conditions on the bottom layer: arbitrary topologies may be considered, provided that they support synchronization of the oscillators of the medium. The existence of a density-dependent threshold as in quorum-sensing phenomena is also demonstrated.

  7. Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity Apollo Spacesuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Kenneth Thomas will discuss the Apollo Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity (IEVA) spacesuits, which supported launch and reentry and extra-vehicular activity. This program was NASA's first attempt to develop a new suit design from requirements and concepts. Mr. Thomas will chronicle the challenges, developments, struggles, and solutions that culminated in the system that allowed the first human exploration of the Moon and deep space (outside low-Earth orbit). Apollo pressure suit designs allowed the heroic repair of the Skylab space station and supported the first U.S. and Russian spacecraft docking during the Apollo Soyuz Test Project. Mr. Thomas will also discuss the IEVA suits' successes and challenges associated with the IEVA developments of the 1960s.

  8. Political motivations for intra-European migration

    PubMed Central

    Flipo, Aurore

    2016-01-01

    Motivations for migrating within the European Union have mainly been attributed to economic, career and lifestyle choices. This article suggests that political dissatisfaction is also an important motivator of recent intra-European migration. In our analysis of in-depth interviews with Romanian migrants in Spain and with Spanish migrants in Norway, we found a common emphasis on the political dimensions of their decision to migrate. In the interviews, the economic component of migration was often related to bad governance and negative perceptions of the state. The similarities of Spanish and Romanian migration narratives are especially striking because Spain and Romania represent substantially different migratory, political and economic contexts. However, migration is more obviously intertwined with conventional acts of political protest in the Spanish case. We suggest that differences in democratic contexts are pivotal in people’s reactions to and framing of their deep dissatisfaction with domestic politics, as found in many European countries today. PMID:28751786

  9. Intra-operative robotics: NeuroArm.

    PubMed

    Lang, Michael J; Greer, Alexander D; Sutherland, Garnette R

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript describes the development and ongoing integration of neuroArm, an image-guided MR-compatible robot. A neurosurgical robotics platform was developed, including MR-compatible manipulators, or arms, with seven degrees of freedom, a main system controller, and a human-machine interface. This system was evaluated during pre-clinical trials and subsequent clinical application, combined with intra-operative MRI, at both 1.5 and 3.0 T. An MR-compatible surgical robot was successfully developed and merged with ioMRI at both 1.5 or 3.0 T. Image-guidance accuracy and microsurgical capability were established in pre-clinical trials. Early clinical experience demonstrated feasibility and showed the importance of a master-slave configuration. Surgeon-directed manipulator control improved performance and safety. NeuroArm successfully united the precision and accuracy of robotics with the executive decision-making capability of the surgeon.

  10. Intra-abdominal actinomycetoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Mellora J; Goh, Clara S; Kuipers von Lande, Richard G; Hodgson, Jennifer L

    2009-08-01

    A 5-year-old, female Ragdoll cat was diagnosed with an intra-abdominal mycetoma involving the ileocaecal region. Diagnosis was obtained via histopathological examination following surgical resection of the mass and an ileocolic anastomosis. The initial surgery was complicated by lymphangiectasia, chylous abdominal effusion and mild bacterial leakage from the anastomosis site. A second, exploratory laparotomy was performed to augment the anastomosis with serosal patching and omentalisation and to investigate a cystic structure observed on follow-up abdominal ultrasound. Initial amoxycillin clavulanate (Clavulox; Pfizer Animal Health) therapy was ineffective, but clindamycin (Antirobe; Pfizer Animal Health) proved successful in resolving the infection. Abdominal actinomycetoma in the cat may be an under-diagnosed condition due to its close resemblance to neoplastic disease. Standard diagnostic and therapeutic regimens are commonly ineffective in Actinomyces species infections. Surgical resection along with adjunctive, long-term, selective antimicrobial therapy is effective and prognosis is good for localised lesions.

  11. Intra-fraction motion of the prostate is a random walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballhausen, H.; Li, M.; Hegemann, N.-S.; Ganswindt, U.; Belka, C.

    2015-01-01

    isocenter during a fraction, and this variance increases with time, such that shorter fractions are beneficial to the problem of intra-fraction motion. As a consequence, fixed safety margins (which would over-compensate at the beginning and under-compensate at the end of a fraction) cannot optimally account for intra-fraction motion. Instead, online tracking and position correction on-the-fly should be considered as the preferred approach to counter intra-fraction motion.

  12. Strategic Marketing for Agribusiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The steps for strategic market planning are discussed including: (1) assessing the situation with market conditions, customers, competitors, and your firm; and (2) crafting a strategy to prioritize target markets, develop a core strategy, and create a marketing mix. Examples of agribusiness successes are presented. The booklet concludes with a…

  13. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  14. Hospital marketing revisited.

    PubMed

    Costello, M M

    1987-05-01

    With more hospitals embracing the marketing function in their organizational management over the past decade, hospital marketing can no longer be considered a fad. However, a review of hospital marketing efforts as reported in the professional literature indicates that hospitals must pay greater attention to the marketing mix elements of service, price and distribution channels as their programs mature.

  15. Market review - Market values summary/August market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This article is the August 1995 uranium market review. During this reporting period, there were three transactions in the long-term concentrates sector, no transactions in the UF6 market, and limited activity in the spot conversion market and the enrichment services market. Active supply rose, as did active demand. Prices were stable to slightly increasing.

  16. Markets for recovered aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The study describes the operation of the markets for scrap aluminum as an example of how recycling markets are structured, what factors influence the supply of and demand for materials, what projections can be made about recycling markets, and how government policies to increase recycling may affect these markets.

  17. Veterinary practice marketeer.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Justin

    2015-01-24

    Justin Phillips is marketing manager at White Cross Vets and the Veterinary Marketing Association's (VMA's) Young Veterinary Marketeer of the Year. Here, he describes what he does and why he believes other practices should embrace marketing to improve their quality and client care.

  18. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  19. Cooperative Market Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carels, Peter; McCullough, Lynette

    A pilot project was developed in which the Advertising and Market Research Center of the Vienna School of Economics and Business in Austria and the German Department as well as the Marketing Department of Miami University in Ohio are working together to collect market research data and formulate a market entry strategy for Roemerquelle, an…

  20. Marketing your expertise.

    PubMed

    Czaplewski, L M

    1999-01-01

    Marketing an existing or new venture is a vital part of business. For the nurse entrepreneur, marketing involves applying previously learned skills to new situations. The methods used to market a service may mean the difference between success and failure. Unfortunately many entrepreneurs think that because they have a great idea, clients will beat a path to their door. Marketing requires planning, creativity, time, and money. It is an ongoing process that must be evaluated regularly. When marketing achieves results, clients commit to using the entrepreneur's services and profits are realized. Basic marketing concepts are considered, and strategies for developing a workable marketing plan are presented.

  1. Marketing the pathology practice.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, E N

    1995-07-01

    Effective marketing of the pathology practice is essential in the face of an increasingly competitive market. Successful marketing begins with a market-driven planning process. As opposed to the traditional planning process used in health care organizations, a market-driven approach is externally driven. Implementing a market-driven plan also requires recognition of the definition of the service. Each market to which pathologists direct their service defines the service differently. Recognition of these different service definitions and creation of a product to meet these needs could lead to competitive advantages in the marketplace.

  2. A Marketing Case History Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weirick, Margaret C.

    1978-01-01

    A current marketing plan from Temple University illustrates many marketing techniques, including those dealing with enrollment objectives, market objectives, demographic characteristics of Temple students, market share analysis, and the marketing plan. Specific guidelines are provided. (LBH)

  3. A Marketing Case History Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weirick, Margaret C.

    1978-01-01

    A current marketing plan from Temple University illustrates many marketing techniques, including those dealing with enrollment objectives, market objectives, demographic characteristics of Temple students, market share analysis, and the marketing plan. Specific guidelines are provided. (LBH)

  4. Gray marketing of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, P E; Walsh, M G

    1995-01-01

    Pharmaceutical marketers in the European Union are constrained by regulated prices, opening up opportunities for gray marketers. The authors investigate the legal framework that regulates gray markets by summarizing and analyzing relevant European Court of Justice decisions that favor gray marketers and actually foster parallel trade. Before marketing managers can develop effective strategies in this marketplace, they must first understand the precedents of the legal system in which they will be operating.

  5. Intra-articular corticosteroid for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Jüni, Peter; Hari, Roman; Rutjes, Anne W S; Fischer, Roland; Silletta, Maria G; Reichenbach, Stephan; da Costa, Bruno R

    2015-10-22

    Knee osteoarthritis is a leading cause of chronic pain, disability, and decreased quality of life. Despite the long-standing use of intra-articular corticosteroids, there is an ongoing debate about their benefits and safety. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2005. To determine the benefits and harms of intra-articular corticosteroids compared with sham or no intervention in people with knee osteoarthritis in terms of pain, physical function, quality of life, and safety. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, and EMBASE (from inception to 3 February 2015), checked trial registers, conference proceedings, reference lists, and contacted authors. We included randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared intra-articular corticosteroids with sham injection or no treatment in people with knee osteoarthritis. We applied no language restrictions. We calculated standardised mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for pain, function, quality of life, joint space narrowing, and risk ratios (RRs) for safety outcomes. We combined trials using an inverse-variance random-effects meta-analysis. We identified 27 trials (13 new studies) with 1767 participants in this update. We graded the quality of the evidence as 'low' for all outcomes because treatment effect estimates were inconsistent with great variation across trials, pooled estimates were imprecise and did not rule out relevant or irrelevant clinical effects, and because most trials had a high or unclear risk of bias. Intra-articular corticosteroids appeared to be more beneficial in pain reduction than control interventions (SMD -0.40, 95% CI -0.58 to -0.22), which corresponds to a difference in pain scores of 1.0 cm on a 10-cm visual analogue scale between corticosteroids and sham injection and translates into a number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) of 8 (95% CI 6 to 13). An I(2) statistic of 68

  6. What is the optimum social marketing mix to market energy conservation behaviour: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Sheau-Ting, Low; Mohammed, Abdul Hakim; Weng-Wai, Choong

    2013-12-15

    This study attempts to identify the optimum social marketing mix for marketing energy conservation behaviour to students in Malaysian universities. A total of 2000 students from 5 major Malaysian universities were invited to provide their preferred social marketing mix. A choice-based conjoint analysis identified a mix of five social marketing attributes to promote energy conservation behaviour; the mix is comprised of the attributes of Product, Price, Place, Promotion, and Post-purchase Maintenance. Each attribute of the mix is associated with a list of strategies. The Product and Post-purchase Maintenance attributes were identified by students as the highest priority attributes in the social marketing mix for energy conservation behaviour marketing, with shares of 27.12% and 27.02%, respectively. The least preferred attribute in the mix is Promotion, with a share of 11.59%. This study proposes an optimal social marketing mix to university management when making decisions about marketing energy conservation behaviour to students, who are the primary energy consumers in the campus. Additionally, this study will assist university management to efficiently allocate scarce resources in fulfilling its social responsibility and to overcome marketing shortcomings by selecting the right marketing mix.

  7. Intra-specific association between carbon isotope composition and productivity in woody plants: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fardusi, Most Jannatul; Ferrio, Juan Pedro; Comas, Carles; Voltas, Jordi; Resco de Dios, Víctor; Serrano, Luis

    2016-10-01

    The study of intra-specific variations in growth and plant physiological response to drought is crucial to understand the potential for plant adaptation to global change. Carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) in plant tissues offers an integrated measure of intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi). The intra-specific association between δ(13)C and productivity has been extensively studied in herbaceous crops, but species-specific information on woody plants is still limited and has so far provided contradictory results. In this work we explored the general patterns of the relationship between δ(13)C and growth traits (height, diameter and biomass) using a meta-analysis. We compiled information from 49 articles, including 176 studies performed on 34 species from 16 genera. We found a positive global intra-specific correlation between δ(13)C and growth (Gr=0.28, P<0.0001), stronger for biomass than for height, and non-significant for diameter. The extent of this intra-specific association increased from Mediterranean to subtropical, temperate and boreal biomes, i.e. from water-limited to energy-limited environments. Conifers and shrubs, but not broadleaves, showed consistent positive intra-specific correlations. The meta-analysis also revealed that the relationship between δ(13)C and growth is better characterized at juvenile stages, under near-optimal and controlled conditions, and by analyzing δ(13)C in leaves rather than in wood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Intra-Generational Education: Imagining a Post-Age Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Joanna; Murris, Karin

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the idea of intra-generational education. Drawing on Braidotti's nomadic subject and Barad's conception of agency, we consider what intra-generational education might look like ontologically, in the light of critical posthumanism, in terms of natureculture world, nomadism and a vibrant indeterminacy of knowing subjects. In…

  9. Wireless Intra-Spacecraft Communication: The Benefits and the Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Will H.; Armstrong, John T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a systematic study of how intra-spacecraft wireless communication can be adopted to various subsystems of the spacecraft including C&DH (Command & Data Handling), Telecom, Power, Propulsion, and Payloads, and the interconnects between them. We discuss the advantages of intra-spacecraft wireless communication and the disadvantages and challenges and a proposal to address them.

  10. Wireless Intra-Spacecraft Communication: The Benefits and the Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Will H.; Armstrong, John T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a systematic study of how intra-spacecraft wireless communication can be adopted to various subsystems of the spacecraft including C&DH (Command & Data Handling), Telecom, Power, Propulsion, and Payloads, and the interconnects between them. We discuss the advantages of intra-spacecraft wireless communication and the disadvantages and challenges and a proposal to address them.

  11. HOMER® Micropower Optimization Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lilienthal, P.

    2005-01-01

    NREL has developed the HOMER micropower optimization model. The model can analyze all of the available small power technologies individually and in hybrid configurations to identify least-cost solutions to energy requirements. This capability is valuable to a diverse set of energy professionals and applications. NREL has actively supported its growing user base and developed training programs around the model. These activities are helping to grow the global market for solar technologies.

  12. Structured Set Intra Prediction With Discriminative Learning in a Max-Margin Markov Network for High Efficiency Video Coding

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wenrui; Xiong, Hongkai; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Chen, Chang Wen

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel model on intra coding for High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), which simultaneously predicts blocks of pixels with optimal rate distortion. It utilizes the spatial statistical correlation for the optimal prediction based on 2-D contexts, in addition to formulating the data-driven structural interdependences to make the prediction error coherent with the probability distribution, which is desirable for successful transform and coding. The structured set prediction model incorporates a max-margin Markov network (M3N) to regulate and optimize multiple block predictions. The model parameters are learned by discriminating the actual pixel value from other possible estimates to maximize the margin (i.e., decision boundary bandwidth). Compared to existing methods that focus on minimizing prediction error, the M3N-based model adaptively maintains the coherence for a set of predictions. Specifically, the proposed model concurrently optimizes a set of predictions by associating the loss for individual blocks to the joint distribution of succeeding discrete cosine transform coefficients. When the sample size grows, the prediction error is asymptotically upper bounded by the training error under the decomposable loss function. As an internal step, we optimize the underlying Markov network structure to find states that achieve the maximal energy using expectation propagation. For validation, we integrate the proposed model into HEVC for optimal mode selection on rate-distortion optimization. The proposed prediction model obtains up to 2.85% bit rate reduction and achieves better visual quality in comparison to the HEVC intra coding. PMID:25505829

  13. 7 CFR 1208.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1208.12 Section 1208.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 1208.12 Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of processed...

  14. 7 CFR 1208.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1208.12 Section 1208.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 1208.12 Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of processed...

  15. Market assessment overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib-Agahi, H.

    1981-01-01

    Market assessment, refined with analysis disaggregated from a national level to the regional level and to specific market applications, resulted in more accurate and detailed market estimates. The development of an integrated set of computer simulations, coupled with refined market data, allowed progress in the ability to evaluate the worth of solar thermal parabolic dish systems. In-depth analyses of both electric and thermal market applications of these systems are described. The following market assessment studies were undertaken: (1) regional analysis of the near term market for parabolic dish systems; (2) potential early market estimate for electric applications; (3) potential early market estimate for industrial process heat/cogeneration applications; and (4) selection of thermal and electric application case studies for fiscal year 1981.

  16. Intra-abdominal abscess demonstrating an unusually large intra-abdominal pattern on an indium-111 leukocyte scan

    SciTech Connect

    Black, R.R.; Fernandez-Ulloa, M.; ter Penning, B.; Yellin, J.

    1988-12-01

    Indium-111 WBC imaging of a patient with occult septicemia revealed a large focal pattern of radiopharmaceutical distribution within the abdominal cavity at 24 hours post radiopharmaceutical administration. This finding was felt to represent a large intra-abdominal abscess. A five liter peritoneal abscess was found at surgery. This case illustrates an unusual presentation of an intra-abdominal abscess.

  17. Identification of an intra-cranial intra-axial porcupine quill foreign body with computed tomography in a canine patient.

    PubMed

    Sauvé, Christopher P; Sereda, Nikki C; Sereda, Colin W

    2012-02-01

    An intra-cranial intra-axial foreign body was diagnosed in a golden retriever dog through the use of computed tomography (CT). Confirmed by necropsy, a porcupine quill had migrated to the patient's left cerebral hemisphere, likely through the oval foramen. This case study demonstrates the efficacy of CT in visualizing a quill in the canine brain.

  18. [Utility of intra-access pressure].

    PubMed

    Caro, P; Delgado, R; Dapena, F; Aguilera, A

    2004-01-01

    Monitoring of vascular access is essential for clinical evaluation on hemodialysis patients, detects early disfunction of access, allows adequate dialysis and decreases the morbidity associated. Although is demonstrated that intra-access pressure (IAP) is a good method of screening to evaluate arterial-venous (AV) fistulas, its utility is uncommon because its measurement requires a complex system. We would like to validate the utility of IAP monitoring using a simplified measure of IAP and its relation with other methods of screening in detecting stenoses prior to thromboses of AV grafts. We studied 24 AV grafts of 24 patients during 18 months we measured arterial pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), dynamic venous pressure, IAP, Kt/v, URR, recirculation index (RI), access flow and color Doppler flow, dividing the patients in two groups, with stenoses or not, if IAP/MAP > 0.5 and stenoses > 0.50 by Doppler we performed arteriography and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stent if stenoses exits. The values of IAP, MAP, RI were higher significantly in the stenoses group with increase of vascular access in grafts were dilation by angioplasty was made. All stenoses detected with IAP were confirmed by Doppler and arteriography but one. We conclude that IAP is an early, useful, easy, effective method in detecting stenoses of AV grafts prior to thrombosis.

  19. Intra voxel analysis in magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ambrosanio, Michele; Baselice, Fabio; Ferraioli, Giampaolo; Lenti, Flavia; Pascazio, Vito

    2017-04-01

    A technique for analyzing the composition of each voxel, in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) framework, is presented. By combining different acquisitions, a novel methodology, called intra voxel analysis (IVA), for the detection of multiple tissues and the estimation of their spin-spin relaxation times is proposed. The methodology exploits the sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) approach in order to solve a highly underdetermined problem imposing the solution sparsity. IVA, developed for spin echo imaging sequence, can be easily extended to any acquisition scheme. For validating the approach, simulated and real data sets are considered. Monte Carlo simulations have been implemented for evaluating the performances of IVA compared to methods existing in literature. Two clinical datasets acquired with a 3T scanner have been considered for validating the approach. With respect to other approaches presented in literature, IVA has proved to be more effective in the voxel composition analysis, in particular in the case of few acquired images. Results are interesting and very promising: IVA is expected to have a remarkable impact on the research community and on the diagnostic field. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiscale Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis of STOCK Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yi; Shang, Pengjian

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we employ the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) to investigate the cross-correlations between different stock markets. We report the results of cross-correlated behaviors in US, Chinese and European stock markets in period 1997-2012 by using DCCA method. The DCCA shows the cross-correlated behaviors of intra-regional and inter-regional stock markets in the short and long term which display the similarities and differences of cross-correlated behaviors simply and roughly and the persistence of cross-correlated behaviors of fluctuations. Then, because of the limitation and inapplicability of DCCA method, we propose multiscale detrended cross-correlation analysis (MSDCCA) method to avoid "a priori" selecting the ranges of scales over which two coefficients of the classical DCCA method are identified, and employ MSDCCA to reanalyze these cross-correlations to exhibit some important details such as the existence and position of minimum, maximum and bimodal distribution which are lost if the scale structure is described by two coefficients only and essential differences and similarities in the scale structures of cross-correlation of intra-regional and inter-regional markets. More statistical characteristics of cross-correlation obtained by MSDCCA method help us to understand how two different stock markets influence each other and to analyze the influence from thus two inter-regional markets on the cross-correlation in detail, thus we get a richer and more detailed knowledge of the complex evolutions of dynamics of the cross-correlations between stock markets. The application of MSDCCA is important to promote our understanding of the internal mechanisms and structures of financial markets and helps to forecast the stock indices based on our current results demonstrated the cross-correlations between stock indices. We also discuss the MSDCCA methods of secant rolling window with different sizes and, lastly, provide some relevant implications and

  1. Intra-Hour Dispatch and Automatic Generator Control Demonstration with Solar Forecasting - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Coimbra, Carlos F. M.

    2016-02-25

    In this project we address multiple resource integration challenges associated with increasing levels of solar penetration that arise from the variability and uncertainty in solar irradiance. We will model the SMUD service region as its own balancing region, and develop an integrated, real-time operational tool that takes solar-load forecast uncertainties into consideration and commits optimal energy resources and reserves for intra-hour and intra-day decisions. The primary objectives of this effort are to reduce power system operation cost by committing appropriate amount of energy resources and reserves, as well as to provide operators a prediction of the generation fleet’s behavior in real time for realistic PV penetration scenarios. The proposed methodology includes the following steps: clustering analysis on the expected solar variability per region for the SMUD system, Day-ahead (DA) and real-time (RT) load forecasts for the entire service areas, 1-year of intra-hour CPR forecasts for cluster centers, 1-year of smart re-forecasting CPR forecasts in real-time for determination of irreducible errors, and uncertainty quantification for integrated solar-load for both distributed and central stations (selected locations within service region) PV generation.

  2. Intra-fetal Compared With Intra-amniotic Digoxin Before Dilation and Evacuation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    White, Katharine OʼConnell; Nucatola, Deborah L; Westhoff, Carolyn

    2016-11-01

    To compare the effectiveness of 1.0 mg intra-fetal or intra-amniotic digoxin to achieve fetal asystole before second-trimester surgical pregnancy termination. In a randomized trial, women received 1.0 mg transabdominal intra-fetal or intra-amniotic digoxin on the day of laminaria placement before dilation and evacuation between 20 and 24 weeks of gestation. The primary outcome was incidence of fetal asystole, documented immediately before dilation and evacuation. We planned to analyze the primary outcome by original group assignment as well as by as-treated and per-protocol populations. A sample size of 270 was needed to detect an 8% difference in failure rates between groups. Prespecified secondary outcomes included the incidence of adverse events, side effects, and procedural differences. Between January 2012 and January 2013, we screened 381 women and randomized 270 women to receive intra-fetal (n=136) or intra-amniotic (n=134) digoxin. Characteristics were similar across groups; the mean gestational age was 21.6 weeks (standard deviation 1.2). The proportion of fetal asystole was higher in the intra-fetal group (128/135 [94.8%]) than the intra-amniotic group (107/130, 82.3%; relative risk of failure to achieve asystole 3.41, 95% confidence interval 1.52-7.68). Results were similar in the as-treated and per-protocol populations. There were no significant differences in adverse events or side effects and no differences in injection duration, operative time, or estimated blood loss. Administration of intra-fetal injection of digoxin led to a higher proportion of participants achieving fetal asystole within 24 hours than intra-amniotic injection. ClinicalTrials.gov, https://clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01047748.

  3. A simple technique to increase profits in wood products marketing

    Treesearch

    George B. Harpole

    1971-01-01

    Mathematical models can be used to solve quickly some simple day-to-day marketing problems. This note explains how a sawmill production manager, who has an essentially fixed-capacity mill, can solve several optimization problems by using pencil and paper, a forecast of market prices, and a simple algorithm. One such problem is to maximize profits in an operating period...

  4. Compensating measured intra-wafer ring oscillator stage delay with intra-wafer exposure dose corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaegen, Staf; Nackaerts, Axel; Dusa, Mircea; Carpaij, Rene; Vandenberghe, Geert; Finders, Jo

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to use measurements on real working devices to derive more information than typically measured by the classic line-width measurement techniques. The first part of the paper will discuss the principle of the measurements with a ring oscillator, a circuit used to measure the speed of elementary logic gates. These measurements contribute to the understanding of the exact timing dependencies in circuits, which is of utmost importance for the design and simulation of these circuits. When connecting an odd number of digital inverting stages in a ring, the circuit has no stable digital state but acts as an analog oscillator with the oscillation frequency dependent on the analog propagation delay of the signals through the stages. By varying some conditions during a litho step, the delay change caused by the process condition change can be measured very accurately. The response of the ring oscillator delay to exposure dose is measured and presented in this paper together with a comparison of measured line-width values of the poly gate lines. The second part of the paper will focus on improving the intra-wafer variation of the stage delay. A number of ring oscillators are put in a design at different slit and scan locations. 200mm wafers are processed with 48 full dies present. From the intra-wafer delay fingerprint and the dose sensitivity of the delay an intra-wafer dose correction, also called a dose recipe, is calculated. This dose recipe is used on the scanner to compensate for effects that are the root cause for the delay profile; including reticle and processing such as track, etch and annealing.

  5. A Novel Intra-body Sensor for Vaginal Temperature Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Caldeira, João; Vaidya, Binod

    2009-01-01

    Over the years some medical studies have tried to better understand the internal behavior of human beings. Many researchers in this domain have been striving to find relationships between intra-vaginal temperature and certain female health conditions, such as ovulation and fertile period since woman’s intra-vaginal temperature is one of the body parameters most preferred in such studies. However, due to lack of a appropriate technology, medical research devoted to studying correlations of such body parameters with certain womans’ body phenomena could not obtain better results. This article presents the design and implementation of a novel intra-body sensor for acquisition and monitoring of intra-vaginal temperatures. This novel intra-body sensor provides data collection that is used for studying the relation between temperature variations and female health conditions, such as anticipation and monitoring of the ovulation period, detection of pregnancy contractions, preterm labor prevention, etc.. The motivation for this work focuses on the development of this new intra-body sensor that will represent a major step in medical technology. The novel sensor was tested and validated on hospitalized women as well as normal healthy women. Finally our medical team has attested to the accuracy, usability and performance of this novel intra-body sensor. PMID:22574046

  6. Marketing Youth Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimick, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Marketing techniques in youth services are useful for designing programs, collections, and services and for determining customer needs. The marketing mix--product, place, price, and practice--provides a framework for service analysis. (AEF)

  7. Marketing Youth Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimick, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Marketing techniques in youth services are useful for designing programs, collections, and services and for determining customer needs. The marketing mix--product, place, price, and practice--provides a framework for service analysis. (AEF)

  8. Measuring marketing effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Gluckman, J; Michaelis, T

    1987-09-01

    The most frequent question about the marketing function in hospitals today is, What are we getting for our money? To answer this, marketing directors must convince the board first of the need for marketing, then of marketing's effectiveness. To measure marketing effectiveness, some basic needs are a staff, equipment, cooperation between departments, utilization data, and a research budget. Some steps to be followed include developing a marketing data base--consisting of demographic projections, demand projections, and market share--testing a marketing strategy through experimentation, documenting the expected results and measurement techniques, and calculating the expected return on investments. In dealing with those "impossible-to-measure" cases, such as a physician who is not advertising but finds that a competitor is, a decision tree can help determine whether to advertise and how much to spend by indicating what the return on investment might be.

  9. Going to Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topor, Robert S.

    1985-01-01

    Ways to create and implement a master marketing plan for college campuses are described. The best marketing plans describe both objectives and methods for all appropriate areas within the institution. (MLW)

  10. Why We Need Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Nancy

    1984-01-01

    An interview with Philip Kotler, the Harold T. Martin Professor of Marketing at Northwestern University, is presented. Three approaches to marketing are identified: product-oriented, hard-sell, and building satisfaction in a long-term clientele. (MLW)

  11. The President As Marketer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickford, Robert I.

    1978-01-01

    Advocates a marketing orientation to community college management as demonstrated by the successful implementation of four-state (service, promotion, delivery, and evaluation) marketing plan at Prince George's Community College in Washington D.C. (TP)

  12. Marketing to maximize profitability.

    PubMed

    Duboff, R S

    1992-01-01

    An effective marketing strategy should focus on serving profitable customers, not just adding new ones. The author offers five steps that marketers can follow to ensure that their efforts provide the greatest boost to the bottom line.

  13. Marketing Your Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Jewell R.

    1978-01-01

    In this conference presentation, the author, contrary to traditional views, offers a marketing definition that is compatible with continuing education goals. She then points out five reasons why continuing education activities for nurses should be marketed. (EM)

  14. Why We Need Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Nancy

    1984-01-01

    An interview with Philip Kotler, the Harold T. Martin Professor of Marketing at Northwestern University, is presented. Three approaches to marketing are identified: product-oriented, hard-sell, and building satisfaction in a long-term clientele. (MLW)

  15. Effect of merging levels of locomotion scores for dairy cows on intra- and interrater reliability and agreement.

    PubMed

    Schlageter-Tello, Andrés; Bokkers, Eddie A M; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G; Van Hertem, Tom; Viazzi, Stefano; Romanini, Carlos E B; Halachmi, Ilan; Bahr, Claudia; Berckmans, Daniël; Lokhorst, Kees

    2014-09-01

    Locomotion scores are used for lameness detection in dairy cows. In research, locomotion scores with 5 levels are used most often. Analysis of scores, however, is done after transformation of the original 5-level scale into a 4-, 3-, or 2-level scale to improve reliability and agreement. The objective of this study was to evaluate different ways of merging levels to optimize resolution, reliability, and agreement of locomotion scores for dairy cows. Locomotion scoring was done by using a 5-level scale and 10 experienced raters in 2 different scoring sessions from videos from 58 cows. Intra- and interrater reliability and agreement were calculated as weighted kappa coefficient (κw) and percentage of agreement (PA), respectively. Overall intra- and interrater reliability and agreement and specific intra- and interrater agreement were determined for the 5-level scale and after transformation into 4-, 3-, and 2-level scales by merging different combinations of adjacent levels. Intrarater reliability (κw) ranged from 0.63 to 0.86, whereas intrarater agreement (PA) ranged from 60.3 to 82.8% for the 5-level scale. Interrater κw=0.28 to 0.84 and interrater PA=22.6 to 81.8% for the 5-level scale. The specific intrarater agreement was 76.4% for locomotion level 1, 68.5% for level 2, 65% for level 3, 77.2% for level 4, and 80% for level 5. Specific interrater agreement was 64.7% for locomotion level 1, 57.5% for level 2, 50.8% for level 3, 60% for level 4, and 45.2% for level 5. Specific intra- and interrater agreement suggested that levels 2 and 3 were more difficult to score consistently compared with other levels in the 5-level scale. The acceptance threshold for overall intra- and interrater reliability (κw and κ ≥0.6) and agreement (PA ≥75%) and specific intra- and interrater agreement (≥75% for all levels within locomotion score) was exceeded only for the 2-level scale when the 5 levels were merged as (12)(345) or (123)(45). In conclusion, when locomotion

  16. Real-Time, In Vivo Monitoring, and Quantitative Assessment of Intra-Arterial Vasospasm Therapy.

    PubMed

    Gölitz, Philipp; Kaschka, Iris; Lang, Stefan; Roessler, Karl; Knossalla, Frauke; Doerfler, Arnd

    2016-08-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate whether the effect of an intra-arterial vasospasm therapy can be assessed quantitatively by in vivo blood flow analysis using the postprocessing algorithm parametric color coding (PCC). We evaluated 17 patients presenting with acute clinical deterioration due to vasospasm following subarachnoidal hemorrhage treated with intra-arterial nimodipine application. Pre- and post-interventional DSA series were post-processed by PCC. The relative time to maximum opacification (rTmax) was calculated in 14 arterially and venously located points of interest. From that data, the pre- and post-interventional cerebral circulation time (CirT) was calculated. Additionally, the arterial vessel diameters were measured. Pre- and post-interventional values were compared and tested for significance, respectively. Flow analysis revealed in all arterial vessel segments a non-statistically significant prolongation of rTmax after treatment. The mean CirT was 5.62 s (±1.19 s) pre-interventionally and 5.16 s (±0.81 s) post-interventionally, and the difference turned out as statistically significant (p = 0.039). A significantly increased diameter was measurable in all arterial segments post-interventionally. PCC is a fast applicable imaging technique that allows via real-time and in vivo blood flow analysis a quantitative assessment of the effect of intra-arterial vasospasm therapy. Our results seem to validate in vivo that an intra-arterial nimodipine application induces not only vasodilatation of the larger vessels, but also improves the microcirculatory flow, leading to a shortened cerebral CirT that reaches normal range post-interventionally. Procedural monitoring via PCC offers the option to compare quantitatively different therapy regimes, which allows optimization of existing approaches and implementation of individualized treatment strategies.

  17. Dynamics of Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Joseph L.

    2004-06-01

    Standard texts and research in economics and finance ignore the absence of evidence from the analysis of real, unmassaged market data to support the notion of Adam Smith's stabilizing Invisible Hand. In stark contrast, this text introduces a new empirically-based model of financial market dynamics that explains the volatility of prices options correctly and clarifies the instability of financial markets. The emphasis is on understanding how real markets behave, not how they hypothetically 'should' behave.

  18. The Charlotte (TM) intra-vehicular robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaim, Patrick L.; Thompson, Clark J.; Campbell, Perry D.

    1994-10-01

    NASA has identified telerobotics and telescience as essential technologies to reduce the crew extra-vehicular activity (EVA) and intra-vehicular activity (IVA) workloads. Under this project, we are developing and flight testing a novel IVA robot to relieve the crew of tedious and routine tasks. Through ground telerobotic control of this robot, we will enable ground researchers to routinely interact with experiments in space. Our approach is to develop an IVA robot system incrementally by employing a series of flight tests with increasing complexity. This approach has the advantages of providing an early IVA capability that can assist the crew, demonstrate capabilities that ground researchers can be confident of in planning for future experiments, and allow incremental refinement of system capabilities and insertion of new technology. In parallel with this approach to flight testing, we seek to establish ground test beds, in which the requirements of payload experimenters can be further investigated. In 1993 we reviewed manifested SpaceHab experiments and defined IVA robot requirements to assist in their operation. We also examined previous IVA robot designs and assessed them against flight requirements. We rejected previous design concepts on the basis of threat to crew safety, operability, and maintainability. Based on this insight, we developed an entirely new concept for IVA robotics, the CHARLOTTE robot system. Ground based testing of a prototype version of the system has already proven its ability to perform most common tasks demanded of the crew, including operation of switches, buttons, knobs, dials, and performing video surveys of experiments and switch panels.

  19. The Charlotte (TM) intra-vehicular robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swaim, Patrick L.; Thompson, Clark J.; Campbell, Perry D.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has identified telerobotics and telescience as essential technologies to reduce the crew extra-vehicular activity (EVA) and intra-vehicular activity (IVA) workloads. Under this project, we are developing and flight testing a novel IVA robot to relieve the crew of tedious and routine tasks. Through ground telerobotic control of this robot, we will enable ground researchers to routinely interact with experiments in space. Our approach is to develop an IVA robot system incrementally by employing a series of flight tests with increasing complexity. This approach has the advantages of providing an early IVA capability that can assist the crew, demonstrate capabilities that ground researchers can be confident of in planning for future experiments, and allow incremental refinement of system capabilities and insertion of new technology. In parallel with this approach to flight testing, we seek to establish ground test beds, in which the requirements of payload experimenters can be further investigated. In 1993 we reviewed manifested SpaceHab experiments and defined IVA robot requirements to assist in their operation. We also examined previous IVA robot designs and assessed them against flight requirements. We rejected previous design concepts on the basis of threat to crew safety, operability, and maintainability. Based on this insight, we developed an entirely new concept for IVA robotics, the CHARLOTTE robot system. Ground based testing of a prototype version of the system has already proven its ability to perform most common tasks demanded of the crew, including operation of switches, buttons, knobs, dials, and performing video surveys of experiments and switch panels.

  20. Emerging intra-articular causes of groin pain in athletes.

    PubMed

    Jagtap, Prajyot; Shetty, Gautam; Mane, Prashant; Shetty, Vijay

    2014-12-01

    Groin pain remains one of the most poorly understood conditions in clinical sports medicine. It may be caused by either extra-articular or intra-articular conditions. While extra-articular causes have been extensively studied and reasonably understood, a number of elusive intra-articular causes are emerging, many of which were previously unknown and therefore undiagnosed, leading to premature ending of many competitive careers. This article makes an attempt to look at various, elusive intra-articular causes of groin pain in athletes. This article also analyses the currently available evidence on trends in diagnosis and treatment for these conditions.

  1. [Procalcitonin as a marker of intra-abdominal infection].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Comesaña, Elías; Ballinas-Miranda, Julio Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Procalcitonin is a quite specific biomarker of infection and in recent years has shown its superiority to others markers of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein, for the diagnosis and monitoring of a variety of infections. For this reason, several researchers have studied the potential role of procalcitonin for diagnosis and management of these infections. Intra-abdominal infections are a heterogeneous group of infections that, sometimes, pose difficult challenges to physicians. The published studies have produced mixed results, leading to controversy on the utility of this marker in intra-abdominal infections. This review summarizes these data and discuss the utility of procalcitonin in several intra abdominal infections, including postoperative infections.

  2. Negative pressure device for intra-abdominal pressure reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, M.; Geido, D.; Pracca, F.; Sánchez, G.; Simini, F.; Zoppolo, C.

    2007-11-01

    A device that generates negative extra-abdominal pressure (ABDOPRE) for treatment of patients with high intra-abdominal pressure was developed. It includes pressure sensors for transducing intra-abdominal pressure through an intra-vesical catheter and negative pressure in the vacuum bell which is placed over the abdomen. By means of a control system, a pattern for reducing IAP is set, according to a clinical protocol. The external negative pressure is generated using a vacuum pump connected to the bell. The system registers the values of interest for the medical history. The system is being tested over ICU patients, registering a satisfactory IAP reduction.

  3. Marketing and Selective Admissions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, James C.

    1980-01-01

    Marketing techniques have proven useful in several types of admissions situations. The results of a 1979 study of admissions officers' use of marketing techniques indicate that several marketing techniques have been used successfully in situations where selective admissions procedures pertain. (Author)

  4. Plugging into Marketing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunkenheimer, Gary; Swift, Teri

    This text contains activities that allow marketing education instructors to integrate their curriculum with word-processing, spreadsheet, and presentation software. Their students can gain experience with technology, fulfill marketing education learner outcomes, and meet the demands of a marketing job. The instructor provides an outline for…

  5. Non-Market Valuation

    Treesearch

    Thomas P. Holmes

    2003-01-01

    In addition to commodities such as timber, forest ecosystems provide an array of goods and services that are not priced in markets but maintain, to a large degree, the characteristics of public goods (non-rivalry and non-excludability). Markets do not recognize scarcity of non-market resources and cannot be relied upon to allocate these resources to their highest and...

  6. Marketing for Camp Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddle, Alicia

    1998-01-01

    To effectively market a camp, current trends and issues must be considered: specialty programming, the Americans With Disabilities Act, competing recreational programs, changes in the school year, programming for seniors, and accountability. Camps should have a marketing strategy that includes public relations, a marketing plan, a pricing…

  7. Strategic Marketing for Presidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Richard J., Ed.

    Designed to inform the marketing efforts of community college presidents, this document describes the importance of marketing, presents a targeted approach, and outlines the specific roles and skills needed by the president to ensure successful efforts and effective institutions. The first chapter, "Developing a Marketing-Strategic…

  8. Creating a Marketing Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevier, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    A guide to developing a college marketing plan defines key marketing terms, outlines the development of a plan (including institutional analysis, market research, strategy formation and execution, and program evaluation), and provides a list of important principles with which to operate a program. (MSE)

  9. Marketing University Outreach Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Ralph S., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of 12 essays and model program descriptions addresses issues in the marketing of university extension, outreach, and distance education programs. They include: (1) "Marketing and University Outreach: Parallel Processes" (William I. Sauser, Jr. and others); (2) "Segmenting and Targeting the Organizational Market"…

  10. Marketing Across the Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, Larry D.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines an eight-step approach to launching an integrated college or university marketing/fund-raising program: finding a visionary campus leader; getting presidential support; assembling a three-tier marketing structure; considering new ways of defining quality; developing a marketing "blueprint"; selling the program on campus; embracing…

  11. Strategic Marketing for Presidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Richard J., Ed.

    Designed to inform the marketing efforts of community college presidents, this document describes the importance of marketing, presents a targeted approach, and outlines the specific roles and skills needed by the president to ensure successful efforts and effective institutions. The first chapter, "Developing a Marketing-Strategic…

  12. Marketing Farm Grain Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridenour, Harlan E.

    This vocational agriculture curriculum on grain marketing contains three parts: teacher guide, student manual, and student workbook. All three are coordinated and cross-referenced. The course is designed to give students of grain marketing a thorough background in the subject and provide practical help in developing grain marketing strategies for…

  13. Entering the Corporate Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenshields, Garry W.

    This seminar guide was designed for use with a series of slides in training administrators to market an educational program or service to corporations. The seminar explains the following eight stages in planning entry into the corporate market: identifying appropriate publics; researching the market (analyzing supply and demand, collecting data,…

  14. Connecticut Marketing Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Haven Board of Education, CT.

    This revised marketing education handbook is intended to assist marketing education teachers and administrators in Connecticut in preparing students to enter meaningful careers in marketing, merchandising, and management positions. The 17 units of this reference guide cover the following topics: introduction; mission and scope of marketing…

  15. Connecticut Marketing Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Haven Board of Education, CT.

    This revised marketing education handbook is intended to assist marketing education teachers and administrators in Connecticut in preparing students to enter meaningful careers in marketing, merchandising, and management positions. The 17 units of this reference guide cover the following topics: introduction; mission and scope of marketing…

  16. Managing Nonprofit Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dennis L.

    1979-01-01

    Nonprofit marketing is an extension of the planning and management process, and a necessary new skill for the community college manager. Management must teach marketing concepts to faculty and all college personnel and communicate their role in the marketing process of the institution for a successful program. (RC)

  17. Rewards for Good Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Carol Anne, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Many professional library associations and affiliates "strongly encourage" the marketing of libraries and their wares. These organizations present awards, certificates, and monetary enticements to honor outstanding marketing programs. For most individuals or teams who are already working on and implementing marketing programs, the added effort of…

  18. Entering the Corporate Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenshields, Garry W.

    This seminar guide was designed for use with a series of slides in training administrators to market an educational program or service to corporations. The seminar explains the following eight stages in planning entry into the corporate market: identifying appropriate publics; researching the market (analyzing supply and demand, collecting data,…

  19. Marketing home care services.

    PubMed

    Moore, S T

    1987-08-01

    With the decline in inpatients, hospital administrators and marketers are seeking revenue opportunities in meeting the needs of a new market, home care patients. The challenge for managers in the home care arena is to target their marketing efforts towards the important decision makers. Managers who can best meet the goal of patients, families and professionals will be most successful.

  20. Rewards for Good Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Carol Anne, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Many professional library associations and affiliates "strongly encourage" the marketing of libraries and their wares. These organizations present awards, certificates, and monetary enticements to honor outstanding marketing programs. For most individuals or teams who are already working on and implementing marketing programs, the added effort of…

  1. Marketing your programs.

    PubMed

    Bothner, Vera

    2002-01-01

    The programs and services that your organization develops can only achieve their desired goals if your clients are aware that they exist and know how to access them. Thus marketing your programs is essential. In this brief we explore the concept of social marketing and walk you through the steps to creating a marketing plan for your organization.

  2. Introduction to Agricultural Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the importance of forecasting in order for a farm family to develop marketing plans. It describes sources of information and includes a glossary of marketing terms and exercises using both fundamental and technical methods to predict prices in order to improve forecasting ability. The unit is organized in the…

  3. Special Education Market Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Carol B., Comp.

    The booklet provides general information on the special education market, with attention given to the relationship to the overall education market. Statistics are presented which relate to the amount of dollars spent in the field; reasons for difficulty in marketing media and materials for handicapped learners; allocation of funds as specified by…

  4. Intra-abdominal hypertension--an experimental study of early effects on intra-abdominal metabolism.

    PubMed

    Skoog, Per; Hörer, Tal; Nilsson, Kristofer F; Agren, Göran; Norgren, Lars; Jansson, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this experimental study was to investigate the early effects of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) on intra-abdominal metabolism and intestinal mucosal blood flow to evaluate whether metabolites can serve as markers for organ dysfunction during IAH. A swine model was used, and the animals were anesthetized and ventilated. Fifteen animals were subjected to IAH of 30 mm Hg for 4 hr by carbon dioxide insufflation. Seven animals served as controls. Hemodynamic data, arterial blood samples, and urine output were analyzed. Intraluminal laser Doppler flowmetry measured intestinal mucosal blood flow. Glucose, glycerol, lactate, and pyruvate concentrations and lactate-to-pyruvate (l/p) ratio were measured intraperitoneally and intramurally in the small intestine and rectum using microdialysis. IAH lowered the abdominal perfusion pressure by 12-18 mm Hg, reduced the intestinal mucosal blood flow by 45-63%, and decreased urine output by 50-80%. In the intervention group, glycerol concentrations increased at all locations, pyruvate concentrations decreased, and the l/p ratio increased intraperitoneally and intramurally in the small intestine. Control animals remained metabolically stable. Glucose and lactate concentrations were only slightly affected or unchanged in both the groups. IAH reduces intestinal blood flow and urinary output and causes early metabolic changes, indicating a discrete shift toward anaerobic metabolism. Intraperitoneal microdialysis may be useful in the early detection of impaired organ dysfunction with metabolic consequences in IAH and abdominal compartment syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Microstructure and Execution Strategies in the Global Spot FX Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Anatoly B.

    Modern global inter-bank spot foreign exchange is essentially a limit-order market. Execution strategies in such a market may differ from those in markets that permit market orders. Here we describe microstructure and dynamics of the EBS market (EBS being an ICAP company is the leading institutional spot FX electronic brokerage). In order to illustrate specifics of the limit-order market, we discuss two problems. First, we describe our simulations of maker loss in case when the EUR/USD maker order is pegged to the market best price. We show that the expected maker loss is lower than the typical bid/offer spread. Second, we discuss the problem of optimal slicing of large orders for minimizing execution costs. We start with analysis of the expected execution times for the EUR/USD orders submitted at varying market depth. Then we introduce a loss function that accounts for the market volatility risk and the order's P/L in respect to the market best price. This loss function can be optimized for given risk aversion. Finally, we apply this approach to slicing large limit orders.

  6. Market segmentation strategy in internet market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yawei; Yang, Deli; Diao, Xinjun

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a model to describe the competitive dynamics of web sites on the WWW market and analyze the stability of the model which is composed of one powerful site and two small sites. One of the most important results that emerge from this simple model is that strong competition among websites does not necessarily lead to the demise of the small website on the WWW market. From the stability analysis of the model, we obtain a series of conditions in which small sites can obtain competitive advantages by using the market segmentation strategy.

  7. UK Higher Education Viewed through the Marketization and Marketing Lenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nedbalová, Eva; Greenacre, Luke; Schulz, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the Economic Market mechanisms and the 4P Marketing Mix as lenses to review the context of UK higher education (HE) and to explore the relationship between the market and marketing disciplines and practice. Four Economic Market mechanisms--autonomy, competition, price and information--are contrasted with the four Ps of marketing:…

  8. UK Higher Education Viewed through the Marketization and Marketing Lenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nedbalová, Eva; Greenacre, Luke; Schulz, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the Economic Market mechanisms and the 4P Marketing Mix as lenses to review the context of UK higher education (HE) and to explore the relationship between the market and marketing disciplines and practice. Four Economic Market mechanisms--autonomy, competition, price and information--are contrasted with the four Ps of marketing:…

  9. 7 CFR 1212.14 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1212.14 Section 1212.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING..., Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.14 Market or marketing....

  10. 7 CFR 1212.14 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1212.14 Section 1212.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING..., Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.14 Market or marketing....

  11. Market Research. Cooperative Education Marketing Digest Series 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pride, Cletis G.; Fowler, Joseph S.

    An overview of market research is provided, with advice about conducting market research for the educator. Market research is any kind of research that gives information about the current state of the market and offers guidance in improving one's position in that market. The relative advantages of conducting market research by oneself or by hiring…

  12. [Healthcare marketing elements].

    PubMed

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Marketing puts its foundation on a few key concepts: need-demand, product-service, satisfaction, exchange, market, or business structure manufacturing / supply. The combination of these elements allows you to build an effective marketing strategy. Crucial in this respect is to remember the Porter matrix, which shows that for a correct analysis of the relevant market is necessary to refer to the "five forces at play", ie: customers, competitors, new entrants and substitutes threat. Another key lever for proper marketing oriented approach is the continuous and constant monitoring of the application, anticipating their dissatisfactions.

  13. Developing a market orientation.

    PubMed

    Hallums, A

    1994-03-01

    Developing a market-orientated organization is a complex task. An organization's market orientation is reflected in its ability to fulfil its customer's needs. The organization must look outside itself and adopt a flexible response to changing needs. This paper will examine what is meant by the term marketing and why it is necessary for an organization to incorporate the marketing concept. Analysis of the organization's culture and its relevance to the development of market orientation will also be considered. Reference will be made to health care where appropriate.

  14. Market review - Market values summary/October market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This article is the October 1995 uranium market summary. In this reporting period, there were four transactions in the natural uranium market, no activity in the spot UF6 market, no activity in the spot conversion market, and only a single activity in the enrichment services market. Spot uranium volume dropped sharply, and active uranium supply rose. The rise in demand, however, more than offset this increase. Unrestricted exchange prices rose slightly, as did the unrestricted UF6 value. All other prices remained steady.

  15. Marketing the hospital library.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Many librarians do not see themselves as marketers, but marketing is an essential role for hospital librarians. Library work involves education, and there are parallels between marketing and education as described in this article. It is incumbent upon hospital librarians actively to pursue ways of reminding their customers about library services. This article reinforces the idea that marketing is an element in many of the things that librarians already do, and includes a list of suggested marketing strategies intended to remind administrators, physicians, and other customers that they have libraries in their organizations.

  16. Unique Presentation of Intra-Abdominal Testis: Small Bowel Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bassiouny, Ibrahim E.; Abbas, Tariq O.; Alansari, Amani N.; Ali, Mansour A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe here a two-year-old male who required urgent laparotomy to relieve a strangulated small bowel caused by internal herniation around an intra-abdominal testis. This clinical presentation has not been reported previously. PMID:22084802

  17. Intra-Operative Indocyanine Green Angiography of the Parathyroid Gland.

    PubMed

    Vidal Fortuny, Jordi; Karenovics, Wolfram; Triponez, Frederic; Sadowski, Samira M

    2016-10-01

    Major complications of thyroid and parathyroid surgery are recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries and definitive hypoparathyroidism. The use of intra-operative Indocyanine Green Angiography for confirmation of vascular status of the parathyroid gland is reported here.

  18. Effect of religious fasting on intra-ocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Dadeya, S; Kamlesh; Shibal, F; Khurana, C; Khanna, A

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the effect of religious fasting on intra-ocular pressure. Intra-ocular pressure by applanation tonometer was measured four times a day in 38 healthy young adult male patients. The mean age of patients was 29 years. Body weight was measured to assess the extent of dehydration caused by fasting. There was a statistically significant difference between the intra-ocular pressure during fasting and the non-fasting period (P < 0.001). There was weight loss ranging from 0.4 to 1.5 kg. Fasting alters the diurnal intra-ocular pressure in the study population, ie young males 22-38 years.

  19. Market Orientation in Universities: A Comparative Study of Two National Higher Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemsley-Brown, Jane; Oplatka, Izhar

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper's purpose is to test: whether there are significant differences between England and Israel, in terms of perceptions of market orientation (MO) in higher education (HE); which MO dimensions (student, competition, intra-functional) indicate more positive attitudes and whether the differences are significant; and the reliability of…

  20. Market Orientation in Universities: A Comparative Study of Two National Higher Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemsley-Brown, Jane; Oplatka, Izhar

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper's purpose is to test: whether there are significant differences between England and Israel, in terms of perceptions of market orientation (MO) in higher education (HE); which MO dimensions (student, competition, intra-functional) indicate more positive attitudes and whether the differences are significant; and the reliability of…

  1. Operationalizing strategic marketing.

    PubMed

    Chambers, S B

    1989-05-01

    The strategic marketing process, like any administrative practice, is far simpler to conceptualize than operationalize within an organization. It is for this reason that this chapter focused on providing practical techniques and strategies for implementing the strategic marketing process. First and foremost, the marketing effort needs to be marketed to the various publics of the organization. This chapter advocated the need to organize the marketing analysis into organizational, competitive, and market phases, and it provided examples of possible designs of the phases. The importance and techniques for exhausting secondary data sources and conducting efficient primary data collection methods were explained and illustrated. Strategies for determining marketing opportunities and threats, as well as segmenting markets, were detailed. The chapter provided techniques for developing marketing strategies, including considering the five patterns of coverage available; determining competitor's position and the marketing mix; examining the stage of the product life cycle; and employing a consumer decision model. The importance of developing explicit objectives, goals, and detailed action plans was emphasized. Finally, helpful hints for operationalizing the communication variable and evaluating marketing programs were provided.

  2. Marketing Management Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costoiu, M.; Ioana, A.; Semenescu, A.; Marcu, D.

    2016-11-01

    The article takes as a starting point several complementary definitions of marketing. Also present several key points related to marketing policy: defining the position that the company will occupy on the market with respect to competition, fixing the image with what will approach the market, achieving a balance between turnover rates profit and expenses as a condition for the survival of the company. In below article it is proposed an original concept of marketing management. This concept takes into consideration on the one hand correlations between company position in the market definition and on the other hand the image received by customers. The ultimate goal of this original concept of marketing management is to ensure an effective balance between: the turnover rate of profit and expenses of the company.

  3. [Intra and extra-familiar sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Taveira, Francisco; Frazão, Sofia; Dias, Ricardo; Matos, Eduarda; Magalhães, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The sexual abuse of a child or young person constitutes a major social and public health problem and there is recent evidence that intra-familial (IF) sexual abuses are more serious in their consequences than extra-familial (EF). However, there are no studies on this phenomenon in Portugal. Thus, the aim of the present study is to contribute to a better characterization of these types of abuses and to identify possible differences between IF and EF cases. A retrospective study was preformed based on medico-legal reports related to victims below the age of 18, suspected of being sexually abused (n = 764), corresponding to 67% of the total of observed sexual crimes. Results revealed that 34.9% of the abuses are IF and they show statistically significant differences when compared to EF cases. These are due to the following factors found in IF situations: a) lower victim age; b) closeness between victim and abuser; c) abusers with a higher rate of previous sexual abuse; d) sexual practices of reduced physical intrusion; e) decreased physical violence but increased emotional violence; f) greater delay between last abuse and the forensic exam; g) reduced number of injuries or biological evidence (none in the great majority of the cases). Results point out the existence of several characteristics in IF abuse that have been identified as factors that influence the severity of the abuse consequences. Among them are: a) lower victim age; b) greater proximity to the abuser; c) increased amount of emotional violence. These factors account for the reduced visibility of this kind of cases and therefore explain their delayed disclosure and diagnosis. The association of this fact with the reduced intrusiveness of this sort of practice and the consequent decrease in number of injuries and other evidence leads to a marked reduction of the number of cases where evidence of the abuse can be found by physical examination alone. The above aspects underlie the need of using different

  4. Lobbying as Marketing. Marketing Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Phylis A. W.

    1990-01-01

    The secret of marketing community education effectively at various government levels is unification, both of people and purpose. Although lobbying for community education may constitute a lengthy political process, the benefits derived may far exceed the labor expended. (Author)

  5. Novel intra prediction modes for VP10 codec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shleifer, Ariel; Lanka, Chinmayi; Setia, Mohit; Agarwal, Shubham; Hadar, Ofer; Mukherjee, Debargha

    2016-09-01

    The demand for high quality video is permanently on the rise and with it the need for more effective compression. Compression scope can be further expanded due to increased spatial correlation of pixels within a high quality video frame. One basic feature that takes advantage of pixels' spatial correlation for video compression is Intra-Prediction, which determines the codec's compression efficiency. Intra-Prediction enables significant reduction of the Intra-frame (I-frame) size and, therefore, contributes to more efficient bandwidth exploitation. It has been observed that the intra frame coding efficiency of VP9 is not as good as that of H.265/MPEG-HEVC. One possible reason is that HEVC's Intra-prediction algorithm uses as many as 35 prediction directions, while VP9 uses only 9 directions including the TM prediction mode. Therefore, there is high motivation to improve the Intra-Prediction scheme with new, original and proprietary algorithms that will enhance the overall performance of Google's future codec and bring its performance closer to that of HEVC. In this work, instead of using different angles for predictions, we introduce four unconventional Intra-Prediction modes for the VP10 codec - Weighted CALIC (WCALIC), Intra-Prediction using System of Linear Equations (ISLE), Prediction of Discrete Cosine Transformations (PrDCT) Coefficients and Reverse Least Power of Three (RLPT). Employed on a selection eleven (11) typical images with a variety of spatial characteristics, by using Mean Square Error (MSE) evaluation criteria, we show that our proposed algorithms (modes) were preferred and thus selected around 57% of the blocks, resulting in a reduced average prediction error, i.e. the MSE of 26%. We believe that our proposed techniques will achieve higher compression without compromising video quality, thus improving the Rate-Distortion (RD) performances of the compressed video stream.

  6. Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity (IEVA) Russian and Gemini Spacesuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Kenneth Thomas will discuss the Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity Russian and Gemini spacesuits. While the United States and Russia adapted to existing launch- and reentry-type suits to allow the first human ventures into the vacuum of space, there were differences in execution and capabilities. Mr. Thomas will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this approach compared to exclusively intra-vehicular or extra-vehicular suit systems.

  7. Intra Frame Coding In Advanced Video Coding Standard (H.264) to Obtain Consistent PSNR and Reduce Bit Rate for Diagonal Down Left Mode Using Gaussian Pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjanaik, N.; Parameshachari, B. D.; Hanumanthappa, S. N.; Banu, Reshma

    2017-08-01

    Intra prediction process of H.264 video coding standard used to code first frame i.e. Intra frame of video to obtain good coding efficiency compare to previous video coding standard series. More benefit of intra frame coding is to reduce spatial pixel redundancy with in current frame, reduces computational complexity and provides better rate distortion performance. To code Intra frame it use existing process Rate Distortion Optimization (RDO) method. This method increases computational complexity, increases in bit rate and reduces picture quality so it is difficult to implement in real time applications, so the many researcher has been developed fast mode decision algorithm for coding of intra frame. The previous work carried on Intra frame coding in H.264 standard using fast decision mode intra prediction algorithm based on different techniques was achieved increased in bit rate, degradation of picture quality(PSNR) for different quantization parameters. Many previous approaches of fast mode decision algorithms on intra frame coding achieved only reduction of computational complexity or it save encoding time and limitation was increase in bit rate with loss of quality of picture. In order to avoid increase in bit rate and loss of picture quality a better approach was developed. In this paper developed a better approach i.e. Gaussian pulse for Intra frame coding using diagonal down left intra prediction mode to achieve higher coding efficiency in terms of PSNR and bitrate. In proposed method Gaussian pulse is multiplied with each 4x4 frequency domain coefficients of 4x4 sub macro block of macro block of current frame before quantization process. Multiplication of Gaussian pulse for each 4x4 integer transformed coefficients at macro block levels scales the information of the coefficients in a reversible manner. The resulting signal would turn abstract. Frequency samples are abstract in a known and controllable manner without intermixing of coefficients, it avoids

  8. [Community marketing of contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Urrutia, J M

    1987-09-01

    The 5-year-old community contraceptive distribution program developed by PROFAMILIA, Colombia's private family planning organization, has given excellent results, but several cost-effectiveness comparisons with social marketing programs have suggested that commercial distribution programs are superior. The community contraceptive distribution program has a high content of information and education activities, which produced significant increases in knowledge and use of contraception in the communities covered. It has been a fundamental support for the social marketing program, creating much of the demand for contraceptive products that the social marketing program has filled. The social marketing program has given good results in terms of volume of sales and in cost-effectiveness since 1976, prompting calls for replacement of the community contraceptive distribution program by the social marketing program in those sectors where knowledge and use of contraception have achieved acceptable levels. An experiment in the Department of Santander in 1984 and 1985 gave very favorable results, suggesting that community contraceptive distribution programs should be replaced by social marketing programs in all more developed markets. But economic problems in 1985 and the decision of manufacturers to decrease the profit margin for PROFAMILIA jeopardized the social marketing program. The community distribution program covered about 20% of the market. Reduced profits in the social marketing program threatened its continued expansion, at the same time that potential demand was growing because of increases in the fertile aged population and increased use of contraception. To meet the need, PROFAMILIA combined the community contraceptive distribution and social marketing programs into a new entity to be called community marketing. The strategy of the community marketing program will be to maintain PROFAMILIA's participation in the market and aid the growth of demand for

  9. Intra-Operative Dosimetry in Prostate Brachytherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    additional cost to the existing clinical installation. 1 Introduction With an approximate annual incidence of 220,000 new cases and 33,000 deaths...isocentric C-arm, at negligible additional cost to the existing clinical installation. Furthermore, the proposed system is the first of its kind that...PC050042, DoD PC050170 and NIH 2R44CA099374. optimal solution has a near-zero cost when the pose error is low , and is actu- ally zero without pose error

  10. Intra-cellular Staphylococcus aureus alone causes infection in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hamza, T; Dietz, M; Pham, D; Clovis, N; Danley, S; Li, B

    2013-07-08

    Chronic and recurrent bone infections occur frequently but have not been explained. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is often found among chronic and recurrent infections and may be responsible for such infections. One possible reason is that S. aureus can internalize and survive within host cells and by doing so, S. aureus can evade both host defense mechanisms and most conventional antibiotic treatments. In this study, we hypothesized that intra-cellular S. aureus could induce infections in vivo. Osteoblasts were infected with S. aureus and, after eliminating extra-cellular S. aureus, inoculated into an open fracture rat model. Bacterial cultures and radiographic observations at post-operative day 21 confirmed local bone infections in animals inoculated with intra-cellular S. aureus within osteoblasts alone. We present direct in vivo evidence that intra-cellular S. aureus could be sufficient to induce bone infection in animals; we found that intra-cellular S. aureus inoculation of as low as 102 colony forming units could induce severe bone infections. Our data may suggest that intra-cellular S. aureus can "hide" in host cells during symptom-free periods and, under certain conditions, they may escape and lead to infection recurrence. Intra-cellular S. aureus therefore could play an important role in the pathogenesis of S. aureus infections, especially those chronic and recurrent infections in which disease episodes may be separated by weeks, months, or even years.

  11. INTRA-CELLULAR STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ALONE CAUSES INFECTION IN VIVO#

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Therwa; Dietz, Matthew; Pham, Danh; Clovis, Nina; Danley, Suzanne; Li, Bingyun

    2013-01-01

    Chronic and recurrent bone infections occur frequently but have not been explained. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is often found among chronic and recurrent infections and may be responsible for such infections. One possible reason is that S. aureus can internalize and survive within host cells and by doing so, S. aureus can evade both host defense mechanisms and most conventional antibiotic treatments. In this study, we hypothesized that intra-cellular S. aureus could induce infections in vivo. Osteoblasts were infected with S. aureus and, after eliminating extra-cellular S. aureus, inoculated into an open fracture rat model. Bacterial cultures and radiographic observations at post-operative day 21 confirmed local bone infections in animals inoculated with intra-cellular S. aureus within osteoblasts alone. We present direct in vivo evidence that intra-cellular S. aureus could be sufficient to induce bone infection in animals; we found that intra-cellular S. aureus inoculation of as low as 102 colony forming units could induce severe bone infections. Our data may suggest that intra-cellular S. aureus can “hide” in host cells during symptom-free periods and, under certain conditions, they may escape and lead to infection recurrence. Intra-cellular S. aureus therefore could play an important role in the pathogenesis of S. aureus infections, especially those chronic and recurrent infections in which disease episodes may be separated by weeks, months, or even years. PMID:23832687

  12. A general model of intra-annual tree growth using dendrometer bands

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Sean M; Parker, Geoffrey G

    2015-01-01

    Tree growth is an important indicator of forest health, productivity, and demography. Knowing precisely how trees' grow within a year, instead of across years, can lead to a finer understanding of the mechanisms that drive these larger patterns. The growing use of dendrometer bands in research forests has only rarely been used to measure growth at resolutions finer than yearly, but intra-annual growth patterns can be observed from dendrometer bands using precision digital calipers and weekly measurements. Here we present a workflow to help forest ecologists fit growth models to intra-annual measurements using standard optimization functions provided by the R platform. We explain our protocol, test uncertainty in parameter estimates with respect to sample sizes, extend the optimization protocol to estimate robust lower and upper annual diameter bounds, and discuss potential challenges to optimal fits. We offer R code to implement this workflow. We found that starting values and initial optimization routines are critical to fitting the best functional forms. After using a bounded, broad search method, a more focused search algorithm obtained consistent results. To estimate starting and ending annual diameters, we combined the growth function with early and late estimates of beginning and ending growth. Once we fit the functions, we present extension algorithms that estimate periodic reductions in growth, total growth, and present a method of controlling for the shifting allocation to girth during the growth season. We demonstrate that with these extensions, an analysis of growth response to weather (e.g., the water available to a tree) can be derived in a way that is comparable across trees, years, and sites. Thus, this approach, when applied across broader data sets, offers a pathway to build inference about the effects of seasonal weather on growth, size- and light-dependent patterns of growth, species-specific patterns, and phenology. PMID:25691954

  13. The effect of Malaysia general election on stock market returns.

    PubMed

    Liew, Venus Khim-Sen; Rowland, Racquel

    2016-01-01

    During the latest episode of general election held in Malaysia, it is observed that the FBMKLCI index was lifted 62.52 points in a day soon after the announcement of election outcome. Moreover, the index registered a highest gain of 96.29 points in the middle of the intra-day trade. This suggests that investors who had got the right direction could make profitable intra-day trading the next trading day of the general election date. Results from statistical analysis uncover significant before-election-effect and after-election-effect from the most recent general elections held in Malaysia. Different subsets of macroeconomic variables are found to have significant role on stock market return depending on the market situation. Remarkably, when there was close fight between the two major political parties during the 2008 and 2013 election years, political uncertainty showed up its negative and significant role in influencing the stock market return. The major implication of these findings is that while investors may seek abnormal returns before and after the next general election, which is around the corner, they will have to pay attention on the influence of macroeconomic variables and political uncertainty on stock market return during the election year.

  14. Correlation between agricultural markets in dynamic perspective-Evidence from China and the US futures markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Rui-Lin; Wang, Dong-Hua; Tu, Jing-Qing; Li, Sai-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Emerging as the earliest futures markets, agricultural futures markets play an important role in risk aversion and price discovery. With the integration of global economy, the linkage between domestic and international futures markets becomes closer than ever. By using the thermal optimal path (TOP) method, this paper selects soybean, corn and wheat as the representatives to study the dynamic lead-lag relationship between the Chinese and American markets in both returns and volatility. The results indicate that: (1) For the futures return, different kinds of agricultural futures lead-lag relationship between China and the US varied before 2014 both in direction and order in different time periods. However, China leads the US for all the three kinds we study after 2014. (2) Agricultural commodities subject to less import restrictions and government regulations in China such as soybean are more susceptible to the fluctuations from the international markets. On the other hand, lower foreign trade openness and more government regulation species such as wheat are less affected by fluctuations from outside. (3) The volatility transmission from the US to China wheat futures market takes longer time than soybean, which suggests that China's soybean futures market is more closely linked to the international agricultural futures market than wheat.

  15. Power optimal single-axis articulating strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Renjith R.; Heck, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    Power optimal single axis articulating PV array motion for Space Station Freedom is investigated. The motivation is to eliminate one of the articular joints to reduce Station costs. Optimal (maximum power) Beta tracking is addressed for local vertical local horizontal (LVLH) and non-LVLH attitudes. Effects of intra-array shadowing are also presented. Maximum power availability while Beta tracking is compared to full sun tracking and optimal alpha tracking. The results are quantified in orbital and yearly minimum, maximum, and average values of power availability.

  16. Market concentration and marketing power among electricity generators in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Zarnikau, J.; Lam, A.

    1998-11-01

    Policy initiatives designed to foster competition among electricity generators in Texas face a special challenge due to the relative isolation of that system. This isolation contributes to high levels of market concentration and market power that could hinder the development of a truly competitive market. This paper examines market concentration and market power in the ERCOT market for electricity generation by calculating the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI) under various assumptions to gauge the degree of market concentration among generators in ERCOT. In addition, some ongoing studies of market power in ERCOT are discussed. The distinction between market concentration and market power is highlighted.

  17. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  18. Line managers as marketers.

    PubMed

    Rynne, T J

    1986-09-01

    Many hospital administrators and boards of directors, having overcome their initial opposition to advertising and hired a marketing professional, are wondering why their marketing programs have not accomplished all that they had hoped. The answer lies in their perception of who is responsible for marketing. Marketing is not a specialty separate from the disciplines of management--it is a basic management skill. Its goal is to satisfy the customer by providing products and services that meet the customer's needs, wants, and preferences. Line managers must understand the hospital's customers and make the critical day-to-day differences in satisfying them. They are the hospital's front-line marketers, and the marketing department's role is to support them in this function. The marketing department should develop the line managers' marketing skills by furnishing them with the appropriate tools: formats, models, examples, and instructions. In addition, the marketing staff should provide such specialized services as marketing research, ad agency management, and development of communications.

  19. Intra-uterine insemination for male subfertility.

    PubMed

    Bensdorp, A J; Cohlen, B J; Heineman, M J; Vandekerckhove, P

    2007-07-18

    Intra-uterine insemination (IUI) is one of the most frequently used fertility treatments for couples with male subfertility. Its use, especially when combined with ovarian hyperstimulation (OH) has been subject of discussion. Although the treatment itself is less invasive and expensive than others, its efficacy has not been proven. Furthermore, the adverse effects of OH such as ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS ) and multiple pregnancy are a concern. The aim of this review is to determine whether for couples with male subfertility, IUI improves the live birth rates or ongoing pregnancy rates compared with timed intercourse (TI), with or without OH. We searched the Cochrane Menstrual and Disorders Subfertility Group Trials Special Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (the Cochrane Library, 2006, issue 3), MEDLINE (1966 to May 2006), EMBASE (1980 to May 2006), SCIsearch and the reference lists of articles. We hand searched abstracts of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology. Authors of identified articles were contacted for unpublished data. Randomised controlled trials (RCT's) with at least one of the following comparisons were included: 1) IUI versus TI or expectant management both in natural cycles 2) IUI versus TI both in cycles with OH 3) IUI in natural cycles versus TI + OH 4) IUI + OH versus TI in natural cycles 5) IUI in natural cycles versus IUI + OH Couples with abnormal sperm parameters only were included. Two co-reviewers independently performed quality assessment and data extraction. Where possible data were pooled, and a meta-analysis was performed. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were carried out where possible and appropriate. Three trials of parallel design, and five trials of cross-over design with pre-cross-over data were included in the meta-analysis. Three compared IUI with TI both in stimulated cycles. The remaining four of these studies compared

  20. Intra-uterine insemination for male subfertility.

    PubMed

    Bensdorp, A J; Cohlen, B J; Heineman, M J; Vandekerckhove, P

    2007-10-17

    Intra-uterine insemination (IUI) is one of the most frequently used fertility treatments for couples with male subfertility. Its use, especially when combined with ovarian hyperstimulation (OH) has been subject of discussion. Although the treatment itself is less invasive and expensive than others, its efficacy has not been proven. Furthermore, the adverse effects of OH such as ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS ) and multiple pregnancy are a concern. The aim of this review was to determine whether for couples with male subfertility, IUI improves the live birth rates or ongoing pregnancy rates compared with timed intercourse (TI), with or without OH. We searched the Cochrane Menstrual and Disorders Subfertility Group Trials Special Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (the Cochrane Library, 2006, issue 3), MEDLINE (1966 to May 2006), EMBASE (1980 to May 2006), SCIsearch and the reference lists of articles. We hand searched abstracts of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology. Authors of identified articles were contacted for unpublished data. Randomised controlled trials (RCT's) with at least one of the following comparisons were included: 1) IUI versus TI or expectant management both in natural cycles 2) IUI versus TI both in cycles with OH 3) IUI in natural cycles versus TI + OH 4) IUI + OH versus TI in natural cycles 5) IUI in natural cycles versus IUI + OH. Couples with abnormal sperm parameters only were included. Two co-reviewers independently performed quality assessment and data extraction. Where possible data were pooled, and a meta-analysis was performed. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were carried out where possible and appropriate. Three trials of parallel design, and five trials of cross-over design with pre-cross-over data were included in the meta-analysis. Three compared IUI with TI both in stimulated cycles. The remaining four of these studies

  1. How to Optimize Your Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dysart, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Given Google's growing market share--69% of all searches by the close of 2007--it's absolutely critical for any school on the Web to ensure its site is Google-friendly. A Google-optimized site ensures that students and parents can quickly find one's district on the Web even if they don't know the address. Plus, good search optimization simply…

  2. How to Optimize Your Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dysart, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Given Google's growing market share--69% of all searches by the close of 2007--it's absolutely critical for any school on the Web to ensure its site is Google-friendly. A Google-optimized site ensures that students and parents can quickly find one's district on the Web even if they don't know the address. Plus, good search optimization simply…

  3. Hierarchical dispatch using two-stage optimisation for electricity markets in smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Guoshan; Ma, Kai

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes a hierarchical dispatch method for the electricity markets consisting of wholesale markets and retail markets. In the wholesale markets, the generators and the retailers decide the generation and the purchase according to the market-clearing price. In the retail markets, the retailers set the retail price to adjust the electricity consumption of the consumers. Due to the two-way communications in smart grid, the retailers can decide the electricity purchase from the wholesale markets based on the information on electricity usage of consumers in the retail markets. We establish the hierarchical dispatch model for the wholesale markets and the retail markets and develop distributed algorithms to search for the optimal generation, purchase, and consumption. Numerical results show the balance between the supply and demand, the profits of the retailers, and the convergence of the distributed algorithms.

  4. Complexity analysis of the stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joongwoo Brian; Won Lee, Jeong; Yang, Jae-Suk; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Moon, Hie-Tae

    2007-06-01

    We study the complexity of the stock market by constructing ε-machines of Standard and Poor's 500 index from February 1983 to April 2006 and by measuring the statistical complexities. It is found that both the statistical complexity and the number of causal states of constructed ε-machines have decreased for last 20 years and that the average memory length needed to predict the future optimally has become shorter. These results support that the information is delivered to the economic agents and applied to the market prices more rapidly in year 2006 than in year 1983.

  5. Dynamic Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, Philip

    1992-01-01

    We distinguish static and dynamic optimization of programs: whereas static optimization modifies a program before runtime and is based only on its syntactical structure, dynamic optimization is based on the statistical properties of the input source and examples of program execution. Explanation-based generalization is a commonly used dynamic optimization method, but its effectiveness as a speedup-learning method is limited, in part because it fails to separate the learning process from the program transformation process. This paper describes a dynamic optimization technique called a learn-optimize cycle that first uses a learning element to uncover predictable patterns in the program execution and then uses an optimization algorithm to map these patterns into beneficial transformations. The technique has been used successfully for dynamic optimization of pure Prolog.

  6. Managing the NHS market.

    PubMed Central

    Ham, C.; Maynard, A.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the present NHS reforms is to introduce a managed market; developing some of the incentives for greater efficiency that are often found in markets while still being able to regulate proceedings to prevent market failures. If government intervenes too much there will be no incentive to improve efficiency and streamline operations: too little intervention may result in some areas having inadequate health service cover or monopoly powers abusing their position. Effective management of the NHS market requires eight core elements: openness of information, control of labour and capital markets, regulation of mergers and takeovers, arbitrating in disputes, protection of unprofitable functions such as research and development, overseeing national provision of health services, protection of basic principles of the NHS, and handling of closures and redundancy. Management of the market would best be performed by the NHS management executive and health authority purchasers acting within a framework set by politicians. Images p846-a p847-a PMID:8167496

  7. Marketing and health libraries.

    PubMed

    Wakeham, Maurice

    2004-12-01

    To present an overview of the concepts of marketing and to examine ways in which they can be applied to health libraries. A review was carried out of literature relating to health libraries using LISA, CINAHL, BNI and Google. Marketing is seen as a strategic management activity aimed at developing customer relationships. Concepts such as the 'four Ps' (product, price, place and promotion), marketing plans, the marketing mix, segmentation, promotion and evaluation are identified and discussed in relation to health libraries. In increasingly complex health service and information environments, the marketing and promotion of library services is becoming more important if those services are to justify the resources given to them. Marketing techniques are equally applicable to physical and digital library services.

  8. Morals and markets.

    PubMed

    Falk, Armin; Szech, Nora

    2013-05-10

    The possibility that market interaction may erode moral values is a long-standing, but controversial, hypothesis in the social sciences, ethics, and philosophy. To date, empirical evidence on decay of moral values through market interaction has been scarce. We present controlled experimental evidence on how market interaction changes how human subjects value harm and damage done to third parties. In the experiment, subjects decide between either saving the life of a mouse or receiving money. We compare individual decisions to those made in a bilateral and a multilateral market. In both markets, the willingness to kill the mouse is substantially higher than in individual decisions. Furthermore, in the multilateral market, prices for life deteriorate tremendously. In contrast, for morally neutral consumption choices, differences between institutions are small.

  9. Clinical benefits of intra-articular anakinra for arthrofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christopher A; Toth, Alison P; Magnussen, Bob

    2010-12-01

    Postoperative inflammation and stiffness, as well as the struggle to achieve full range of motion (ROM), following knee surgery is a significant clinical challenge. Interleukin-1 is a crucial mediator of the inflammatory response and development of pathological conditions leading to chronic inflammation. We hypothesized that intra-articular injection of intra-articular anakinra, an IL-1 antagonist, would result in sustained improvements of chronic refractory arthrofibrosis and limited arthrofibrosis of the knee joint. We retrospectively reviewed 8 patients who underwent injection of intra-articular anakinra, 200 mg. Four patients (3 women, 1 man) had intra-articular anakinra for treatment of chronic refractory arthrofibrosis, and 4 patients (4 women) had intra-articular anakinra for limited arthrofibrosis. All 4 of the refractory arthrofibrosis patients had failed conservative treatment with intensive physical therapy, corticosteroid injections, and anti-inflammatory medication. Three of the 4 patients had failed a prior manipulation under anesthesia with lysis of adhesions. All 4 reported improvement in ROM (10°-45°) and swelling, with 75% reporting improvement in pain. Seventy-five percent of these patients returned to prior activity level. All 4 of the limited arthrofibrosis also failed similar attempts at conservative treatment, and 2 of the 4 had failed a prior manipulation under anesthesia with lysis of adhesions. After intra-articular anakinra, all 4 reported improvement in ROM (20°-45°) and swelling, with 80% reporting improvement in pain. Seventy-five percent of these patients were able to return to prior activity level. We found intra-articular anakinra to be effective in this small cohort of patients with refractory arthrofibrosis and limited arthrofibrosis. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Seeing difference: market health reform in Europe.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, A

    1998-02-01

    The comparative literature on health care reform has identified a convergence upon market models as nations respond to similar economic, technological, social, and demographic pressures. In this article I first challenge the conventional view by comparing "market" reforms of the late 1980s and early 1990s in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Though these nations did indeed converge upon the instrument of the market incentive, there was considerable divergence in the content and aims of their reform strategies. These nations designed their respective markets to make different tradeoffs among competing values. While all three exploited the principle of provider competition, they appointed different actors to judge the contest: the cost-conscious public authority in the United Kingdom, the quality-conscious patient in Sweden, and the optimizing consumer in the Netherlands. I argue that these countries were thus using common market tools to promote different health policy goals. Distinguishing these reforms further is the fact that--particularly in the Netherlands--there was a gap between market plans and the reality of implemented change. I then ask why nations responded so differently to such similar objective pressures. My contention is that this divergence reflects, in part, the different ideological orientations of the ruling party or coalition in each nation. Yet divergence is also the result of differences in both the design of political institutions and the structure of the pre-reform health system in each country.

  11. 2013 Bioenergy Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, Amy; Moriarty, Kristi; Milbrandt, Anelia; Geiger, Jesse; Lewis, John

    2016-03-28

    This report provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy as it existed at the end of 2013. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets.

  12. Social marketing in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Aras, Radha

    2011-01-01

    Social marketing is an important tool in the delivery of healthcare services. For any healthcare programme or project to be successful, community/consumer participation is required. The four principles of social marketing can guide policymakers and healthcare providers to successfully plan and implement health programmes. To review the existing literature in order to project the benefits of social marketing in healthcare. A search of periodical literature by the author involving social marketing and marketing concepts in health was carried out. Items were identified initially through health-oriented indexing services such as Medline, Health STAR and Cinahl, using the identifiers "social marketing" and "marketing in health". An extensive search was also carried out on educational database ERIC. A literature review of various studies on social marketing indicated that the selection of the right product (according to the community need) at the right place, with the right strategy for promotion and at the right price yields good results. However, along with technical sustainability (product, price, promotion and place), financial sustainability, institutional sustainability and market sustainability are conducive factors for the success of social marketing. The purpose of this literature review was to ascertain the likely effectiveness of social marketing principles and approaches and behaviour change communication towards health promotion. It is important for all healthcare workers to understand and respond to the public's desires and needs and routinely use consumer research to determine how best to help the public to solve problems and realise aspirations. Social marketing can optimise public health by facilitating relationship-building with consumers and making their lives healthier.

  13. Historical market data

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Historical financial data is provided for the uranium market in graphic and tabular form. Market data includes restricted and unrestricted uranium price ranges; exchange, transaction, uranium hexafluoride, conversion, and separative work values; and annual world uranium production and requirements. Selected historical economic indicators are listed for Australia, Canada, South Africa, and the United States. Natural uranium deliveries to the European Union and U.S. uranium marketing data are provided.

  14. Derived enriched uranium market

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-12-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market.

  15. Market place movements

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    Historical financial data is provided for the uranium market in graphical and tabular form. Data include uranium spot price range, spot conversion price range, and seperative work units price range. Additional spot market information provided is natural uranium by buyers and sellers. Medium- and long-term data includes average natural uranium prices, and natural uranium market by buyers and sellers. Information on US contracted supply and demand and uranium production in Australia, Canada, and the US is given.

  16. Communication impacting financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitting Andersen, Jørgen; Vrontos, Ioannis; Dellaportas, Petros; Galam, Serge

    2014-10-01

    Since the attribution of the Nobel prize in 2002 to Kahneman for prospect theory, behavioral finance has become an increasingly important subfield of finance. However the main parts of behavioral finance, prospect theory included, understand financial markets through individual investment behavior. Behavioral finance thereby ignores any interaction between participants. We introduce a socio-financial model (Vitting Andersen J. and Nowak A., An Introduction to Socio-Finance (Springer, Berlin) 2013) that studies the impact of communication on the pricing in financial markets. Considering the simplest possible case where each market participant has either a positive (bullish) or negative (bearish) sentiment with respect to the market, we model the evolution of the sentiment in the population due to communication in subgroups of different sizes. Nonlinear feedback effects between the market performance and changes in sentiments are taken into account by assuming that the market performance is dependent on changes in sentiments (e.g., a large sudden positive change in bullishness would lead to more buying). The market performance in turn has an impact on the sentiment through the transition probabilities to change an opinion in a group of a given size. The idea is that if for example the market has observed a recent downturn, it will be easier for even a bearish minority to convince a bullish majority to change opinion compared to the case where the meeting takes place in a bullish upturn of the market. Within the framework of our proposed model, financial markets stylized facts such as volatility clustering and extreme events may be perceived as arising due to abrupt sentiment changes via ongoing communication of the market participants. The model introduces a new volatility measure which is apt of capturing volatility clustering and from maximum-likelihood analysis we are able to apply the model to real data and give additional long term insight into where a market is

  17. Targeting biodefense markets.

    PubMed

    Olinger, Gene Garrard

    2009-10-01

    The "World Vaccine Congress 2009" held in Washington D.C. (April 20-23, 2009) sponsored several sessions focused on the vaccine market targeting biodefense. On day one of the congress, a panel discussion outlined the federal progress in medical countermeasure preparedness that included emerging infections, influenza, and biodefense focuses. The second day, a session focused on the biodefense vaccine market with both government and industry members discussing the opportunities and challenges associated with the budding market.

  18. Operation MARKET-GARDEN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF RC’PORT & 1ERIOO COVERED 6. PERFORMING 01G. REPORT NUMBER OPERATION MARKET -GARDEN...Continue on reverse aide if n.ceUFmy and Identify by block number) .,7-Presents an summary of Operation MARKET -GARDEN. Ue xmlsfo this operation to...will prove very he’lpful to analyze previous operations which have involved airborne forces. This paper will discuss)Operation MARKET -GARDEN, which

  19. Marketing veterinary services.

    PubMed

    Lee, David E

    2006-03-01

    Marketing is a holistic process that goes far beyond a Yellow Page advertisement or a glossy brochure. A thorough evaluation of a market before entry, including best and worst case scenarios, is critical to mak-ing good investments. Veterinarians are fortunate to have a market that is largely protected by barriers to entry and characterized by reasonably high rates of return given minimal risk. Our market base continues to expand and, overall, remains fairly price insensitive. The extent to which a practice can align its capabilities with a product mix that ideally meets its clients' needs will ultimately determine its success.

  20. Marketing a Radiology Practice.

    PubMed

    Levin, David C; Rao, Vijay M; Flanders, Adam E; Sundaram, Baskaran; Colarossi, Margaret

    2016-10-01

    In addition to being a profession, the practice of radiology is a business, and marketing is an important part of that business. There are many facets to marketing a radiology practice. The authors present a number of ideas on how to go about doing this. Some marketing methods can be directed to both patients and referring physicians. Others should be directed just to patients, while still others should be directed just to referring physicians. Aside from marketing, many of them provide value to both target audiences.

  1. Market review: Market values summary July market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    A summary of financial data for the uranium spot market is provided. Recent transactions are tabulated, including uranium sales, natural uranium loans, conversion sales, and enrichment sales. A market values summary and long-term price indicators are also provided. The July 1996 market review data includes summaries of near-term uranium sales, near-term supply/demand, NUEXCO values, USEC prices, and calculated worth of enriched uranium. Active projects in uranium, conversion, and separative work supply and demand are listed. International market values are tabulated for 22 selected currencies.

  2. Market Review: Market values summary/April market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This article is the April 1996 Uranium transactions summary. Data is presented on the supply, demand, and prices of U3O8, conversion services, and separative work units. During this period, market activity slowed, with only four transactions in the spot market. Prices strengthened slightly. There were five deals in the long-term U3O8 market and one deal in the conversion market. Active demand increased to 1.1 million pounds U3O8, while active supply increased to 4.8 million pounds U3O8.

  3. Internet marketing 401.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ryan J

    2010-11-01

    For facial plastic surgeons who are already realizing increased patient consultation requests from their online marketing efforts, the primary concern often becomes implementing additional tactics and strategies that can keep their online marketing fresh, relevant, and effective. This article creates a framework for evaluating advanced online marketing opportunities by analyzing each opportunity according to the variables of possible return, average cost to implement, probability of success, and implementation time. Within this framework, 11 distinct tactics are discussed, with special emphasis on the most common marketing needs and challenges of facial plastic surgery practices.

  4. World helicopter market study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, B.; Pearson, R. W.; Greenwood, S. W.; Kaplan, L.

    1978-01-01

    The extent of the threat to the US helicopter industry posed by a determined effort by foreign manufacturers, European companies in particular, to supply their own domestic markets and also to penetrate export markets, including the USA is assessed. Available data on US and world markets for civil and military uses are collated and presented in both graphic and tabular form showing the past history of production and markets and, where forecasts are available, anticipated future trends. The data are discussed on an item-by-item basis and inferences are drawn in as much depth as appears justified.

  5. 21 CFR 870.2855 - Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement... § 870.2855 Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System. (a) Identification. Implantable intra-aneurysm pressure measurement system is a device used to measure the intra-sac pressure in a...

  6. 21 CFR 870.2855 - Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement... § 870.2855 Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System. (a) Identification. Implantable intra-aneurysm pressure measurement system is a device used to measure the intra-sac pressure in a...

  7. 21 CFR 870.2855 - Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement... § 870.2855 Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System. (a) Identification. Implantable intra-aneurysm pressure measurement system is a device used to measure the intra-sac pressure in a...

  8. 21 CFR 870.2855 - Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement... § 870.2855 Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System. (a) Identification. Implantable intra-aneurysm pressure measurement system is a device used to measure the intra-sac pressure in a...

  9. 21 CFR 870.2855 - Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement... § 870.2855 Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System. (a) Identification. Implantable intra-aneurysm pressure measurement system is a device used to measure the intra-sac pressure in a...

  10. Enhanced index tracking modelling in portfolio optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, W. S.; Hj. Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ismail, Hamizun bin

    2013-09-01

    Enhanced index tracking is a popular form of passive fund management in stock market. It is a dual-objective optimization problem, a trade-off between maximizing the mean return and minimizing the risk. Enhanced index tracking aims to generate excess return over the return achieved by the index without purchasing all of the stocks that make up the index by establishing an optimal portfolio. The objective of this study is to determine the optimal portfolio composition and performance by using weighted model in enhanced index tracking. Weighted model focuses on the trade-off between the excess return and the risk. The results of this study show that the optimal portfolio for the weighted model is able to outperform the Malaysia market index which is Kuala Lumpur Composite Index because of higher mean return and lower risk without purchasing all the stocks in the market index.

  11. Modelling Market Dynamics with a "Market Game"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katahira, Kei; Chen, Yu

    In the financial market, traders, especially speculators, typically behave as to yield capital gains by the difference between selling and buying prices. Making use of the structure of Minority Game, we build a novel market toy model which takes account of such the speculative mind involving a round-trip trade to analyze the market dynamics as a system. Even though the micro-level behavioral rules of players in this new model is quite simple, its macroscopic aggregational output has the reproducibility of the well-known stylized facts such as volatility clustering and heavy tails. The proposed model may become a new alternative bottom-up approach in order to study the emerging mechanism of those stylized qualitative properties of asset returns.

  12. 14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...—United States-Puerto Rico Entity Market Ratemaking mileage DPFI formula fare July 1977 July 1977 normal... Fare and Service Data for Seattle-Alaska Markets Market Ratemaking mileage Actual July 1977 Y fare DPFI... WA Fare. 9 Via Kodiak ($24.40). 10 July 1977 fare increased by cumulative adjustment factor of 1.5558...

  13. 14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...—United States-Puerto Rico Entity Market Ratemaking mileage DPFI formula fare July 1977 July 1977 normal... Fare and Service Data for Seattle-Alaska Markets Market Ratemaking mileage Actual July 1977 Y fare DPFI... WA Fare. 9 Via Kodiak ($24.40). 10 July 1977 fare increased by cumulative adjustment factor of 1.5558...

  14. Intra-oral PTH administration promotes tooth extraction socket healing.

    PubMed

    Kuroshima, S; Kovacic, B L; Kozloff, K M; McCauley, L K; Yamashita, J

    2013-06-01

    Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) administration increases systemic and craniofacial bone mass. However, the effect of PTH therapy on healing of tooth extraction sites is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of PTH therapy on tooth extraction socket healing and to examine whether PTH intra-oral injection promotes healing. The mandibular first molars were extracted in rats, and subcutaneous PTH was administered intermittently for 7, 14, and 28 days. In a second study, maxillary second molars were extracted, and PTH was administered by either subcutaneous or intra-oral injection to determine the efficacy of intra-oral PTH administration. Healing was assessed by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analyses. PTH therapy accelerated the entire healing process and promoted both hard- and soft-tissue healing by increasing bone fill and connective tissue maturation. PTH therapy by intra-oral injection was as effective as subcutaneous injection in promoting tooth extraction socket healing. The findings suggest that PTH therapy promotes tooth extraction socket healing and that intra-oral injections can be used to administer PTH.

  15. Intra-articular capacity of the elbow joint.

    PubMed

    Van Den Broek, Mathias; Van Riet, Roger

    2017-09-01

    The intra-articular capacity of the elbow joint is reported to be 23 ± 4 ml on cadaveric elbows. During years, this value was the standard. The aim of this observational study was to reanalyze the volume of the elbow joint on live patients. Measurement of the intra-articular capacity and pressure of the elbow joint was performed on 30 patients (mean age: 43.8 years) undergoing elbow arthroscopy. Intra-articular capacity was recorded when the elbow moved to the maximum lose packed position and/or when there was a sudden drop in pressure, indicating a capsular rupture (maximum capacity). Indications for arthroscopy were loose bodies, osteoarthritis, synovitis, radial head resection, and lateral collateral ligament repair. Mean intra-articular capacity and pressure were 35.8 ml and 557.5 mm Hg, respectively. Mean maximal capacity was 40.5 ml. We conclude that the intra-articular capacity of the elbow joint is substantially greater than reported in previous studies. Clin. Anat. 30:795-798, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Intra-oral PTH Administration Promotes Tooth Extraction Socket Healing

    PubMed Central

    Kuroshima, S.; Kovacic, B.L.; Kozloff, K.M.; McCauley, L.K.; Yamashita, J.

    2013-01-01

    Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) administration increases systemic and craniofacial bone mass. However, the effect of PTH therapy on healing of tooth extraction sites is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of PTH therapy on tooth extraction socket healing and to examine whether PTH intra-oral injection promotes healing. The mandibular first molars were extracted in rats, and subcutaneous PTH was administered intermittently for 7, 14, and 28 days. In a second study, maxillary second molars were extracted, and PTH was administered by either subcutaneous or intra-oral injection to determine the efficacy of intra-oral PTH administration. Healing was assessed by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analyses. PTH therapy accelerated the entire healing process and promoted both hard- and soft-tissue healing by increasing bone fill and connective tissue maturation. PTH therapy by intra-oral injection was as effective as subcutaneous injection in promoting tooth extraction socket healing. The findings suggest that PTH therapy promotes tooth extraction socket healing and that intra-oral injections can be used to administer PTH. PMID:23611925

  17. 7 CFR 1206.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.12 Market or marketing. Marketing means the sale or other disposition of mangos in the U.S. domestic market. To market means to...

  18. 7 CFR 1206.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.12 Market or marketing. Marketing means the sale or other disposition of mangos in the U.S. domestic market. To market means to...

  19. 7 CFR 1206.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.12 Market or marketing. Marketing means the sale or other disposition of mangos in the U.S. domestic market. To market means to...

  20. 7 CFR 1206.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.12 Market or marketing. Marketing means the sale or other disposition of mangos in the U.S. domestic market. To market means to...

  1. 7 CFR 1206.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.12 Market or marketing. Marketing means the sale or other disposition of mangos in the U.S. domestic market. To market means to...

  2. The Marketing Plan: An Integrative Device for Teaching Marketing Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdine, W. R.; Petersen, James C.

    1980-01-01

    The importance of the marketing plan is stressed as an integrative device for teaching marketing management, and a structure is presented to assist students in designing a marketing plan. Components of this plan include marketing objectives, targeting market and buying motives, external environment and competition, product, price, and promotion.…

  3. Labor Market Information for Business and Marketing Occupations. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Dept. of Economics.

    This paper reviews and analyzes labor market trends to provide information for business and marketing program planners. Emphasizing the demand side of the market, the paper considers only those aspects of labor markets that have an impact on the supply of students to business and marketing programs and the demand for graduates of those programs.…

  4. Labor Market Information for Business and Marketing Occupations. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Dept. of Economics.

    This paper reviews and analyzes labor market trends to provide information for business and marketing program planners. Emphasizing the demand side of the market, the paper considers only those aspects of labor markets that have an impact on the supply of students to business and marketing programs and the demand for graduates of those programs.…

  5. Marketing orientation: how do hospital administrators compare with marketing managers?

    PubMed

    Bartlett, P J; Schewe, C D; Allen, C T

    1984-01-01

    A recent study shows that the marketing orientation of hospital administrators is similar to that of marketing practitioners but that hospital administrators have an underdeveloped sense of market segmentation and market aggressiveness regarding their patients and physicians. Studies such as this one can be helpful in applying marketing techniques to today's hospitals.

  6. The Marketing Plan: An Integrative Device for Teaching Marketing Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdine, W. R.; Petersen, James C.

    1980-01-01

    The importance of the marketing plan is stressed as an integrative device for teaching marketing management, and a structure is presented to assist students in designing a marketing plan. Components of this plan include marketing objectives, targeting market and buying motives, external environment and competition, product, price, and promotion.…

  7. Realizing your marketing influence, Part 2: marketing from the inside out.

    PubMed

    Woods, Dana K; Cardin, Suzette

    2002-06-01

    Do your key stakeholders (staff, physicians, and patients) consider your organization to be exceptional? Has your organization invested the resources necessary to support staff and physicians in delivering the high level of care they strive to give? An organization's managers who can enthusiastically answer "yes" to these questions are in a good position to promote its healthcare system aggressively. Managers who cannot answer affirmatively, in good conscience, must invest in creating a healthy environment for staff that is rich with the resources that will enable all employees to deliver optimal care and service. Until this is achieved, no amount of promotion will be enough to move a healthcare system to a market leadership position. This is the second in a series of three articles that moves readers from broad marketing strategy to specific applications. The first article laid the foundation for developing a market-driven strategic plan; the third will focus on using professional certification as a marketing tool.

  8. Physician’ entrepreneurship explained: a case study of intra-organizational dynamics in Dutch hospitals and specialty clinics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Challenges brought about by developments such as continuing market reforms and budget reductions have strained the relation between managers and physicians in hospitals. By applying neo-institutional theory, we research how intra-organizational dynamics between physicians and managers induce physicians to become entrepreneurs by starting a specialty clinic. In addition, we determine the nature of this change by analyzing the intra-organizational dynamics in both hospitals and clinics. Methods For our research, we interviewed a total of fifteen physicians and eight managers in four hospitals and twelve physicians and seven managers in twelve specialty clinics. Results We found evidence that in becoming entrepreneurs, physicians are influenced by intra-organizational dynamics, including power dependence, interest dissatisfaction, and value commitments, between physicians and managers as well as among physicians’ groups. The precise motivation for starting a new clinic can vary depending on the medical or business logic in which the entrepreneurs are embedded, but also the presence of an entrepreneurial nature or nurture. Finally we found that the entrepreneurial process of starting a specialty clinic is a process of sedimented change or hybridized professionalism in which elements of the business logic are added to the existing logic of medical professionalism, leading to a hybrid logic. Conclusions These findings have implications for policy at both the national and hospital level. Shared ownership and aligned incentives may provide the additional cement in which the developing entrepreneurial values are ‘glued’ to the central medical logic. PMID:24885912

  9. Physician' entrepreneurship explained: a case study of intra-organizational dynamics in Dutch hospitals and specialty clinics.

    PubMed

    Koelewijn, Wout T; de Rover, Matthijs; Ehrenhard, Michel L; van Harten, Wim H

    2014-05-19

    Challenges brought about by developments such as continuing market reforms and budget reductions have strained the relation between managers and physicians in hospitals. By applying neo-institutional theory, we research how intra-organizational dynamics between physicians and managers induce physicians to become entrepreneurs by starting a specialty clinic. In addition, we determine the nature of this change by analyzing the intra-organizational dynamics in both hospitals and clinics. For our research, we interviewed a total of fifteen physicians and eight managers in four hospitals and twelve physicians and seven managers in twelve specialty clinics. We found evidence that in becoming entrepreneurs, physicians are influenced by intra-organizational dynamics, including power dependence, interest dissatisfaction, and value commitments, between physicians and managers as well as among physicians' groups. The precise motivation for starting a new clinic can vary depending on the medical or business logic in which the entrepreneurs are embedded, but also the presence of an entrepreneurial nature or nurture. Finally we found that the entrepreneurial process of starting a specialty clinic is a process of sedimented change or hybridized professionalism in which elements of the business logic are added to the existing logic of medical professionalism, leading to a hybrid logic. These findings have implications for policy at both the national and hospital level. Shared ownership and aligned incentives may provide the additional cement in which the developing entrepreneurial values are 'glued' to the central medical logic.

  10. Emissions markets, power markets and market power: A study of the interactions between contemporary emissions markets and deregulated electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dormady, Noah Christopher

    Chapter 1: A Monte Carlo Approach. The use of auctions to distribute tradeable property rights to firms in already heavily concentrated markets may further exacerbate the problems of market power that exist within those markets. This chapter provides a model of a two-stage emissions market modeled after a contemporary regional permit trading market in the United States, the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, Inc. (RGGI). It then introduces Oligopsony 1.0, a C# software package constructed in the .NET environment that simulates uniform-price auctions using stochastic Monte Carlo simulation for modeling market power in tradeable property rights auctions. Monte Carlo methods add a probabilistic element to standard auction theoretic equilibria. The results of these simulations indicate that there can be significant non-linearities between profit and market power as exercised through strategic demand reduction. This analysis finds the optimum point of strategic demand reduction that enables the firm to exploit these non-linearities, and it determines the probability distributions of these optima using kernel density analysis. Chapter 2: An Experimental Approach. How will emerging auction-based emissions markets function within the context of today's deregulated auction-based electricity markets? This chapter provides an experimental analysis of a joint energy-emissions market. The impact of market power and collusion among dominant firms is evaluated to determine the extent to which an auction-based tradeable permit market influences performance in an adjacent electricity market. The experimental treatment design controls for a variety of real-world institutional features, including variable demand, permit banking, inter-temporal (multi-round) dynamics, a tightening cap, and resale. Results suggest that the exercise of market power significantly increases electricity auction clearing prices, without significantly increasing emissions

  11. Two essays on problems of deregulated electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perekhodtsev, Dmitri

    Empirical test of models of unilateral and collusive market power in California's electricity market in 2000. The data from California energy crisis of 2000 suggests that the largest departures of observed electricity prices from the estimates of the competitive price occur when demand approaches market capacity. This paper studies models of unilateral and collusive market power applicable to electricity markets. Both suggest a unique mechanism explaining the increase of the price-cost margin with demand. The empirical test of these models provides more evidence for unilateral market power than for behavior suggesting tacit collusion. Economics of hydro generating plants operating in markets for energy and ancillary services. In order to preserve the stability of electricity supply, electric generators have to provide ancillary services in addition to energy production. Hydro generators are believed to be the most efficient source of ancillary services because of their good dynamic flexibility. This paper studies optimal operation decisions for river dams and pumped storage facilities operating in markets for energy and ancillary services as well as the change in the water shadow price in presence of ancillary services markets. The analysis is applied to valuation of the ancillary services provided by hydro resources in the Tennessee Valley Authority. A simulation of ancillary services markets shows that TVA's hydro resources providing ancillary services can allow for substantial savings in total costs of energy provision. Optimal hydro scheduling in markets for energy and ancillary services increases the value of TVA's hydro resources by 9% on average and up to 26% for particular units. As a result of hydro participation in ancillary services markets water shadow prices of river dams drop significantly allowing for tightening hydro constraints in favor of other water uses.

  12. Operations Optimization of Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jun; Garcia, Humberto E.; Kim, Jong Suk; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.

    2016-08-01

    We proposed a plan for nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) as an effective element to incorporate high penetration of clean energy. Our paper focuses on the operations optimization of two specific NHES configurations to address the variability raised from various markets and renewable generation. Both analytical and numerical approaches are used to obtain the optimization solutions. Furthermore, key economic figures of merit are evaluated under optimized and constant operations to demonstrate the benefit of the optimization, which also suggests the economic viability of considered NHES under proposed operations optimizer. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis on commodity price is conducted for better understanding of considered NHES.

  13. Operations Optimization of Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Jun; Garcia, Humberto E.; Kim, Jong Suk; ...

    2016-08-01

    We proposed a plan for nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) as an effective element to incorporate high penetration of clean energy. Our paper focuses on the operations optimization of two specific NHES configurations to address the variability raised from various markets and renewable generation. Both analytical and numerical approaches are used to obtain the optimization solutions. Furthermore, key economic figures of merit are evaluated under optimized and constant operations to demonstrate the benefit of the optimization, which also suggests the economic viability of considered NHES under proposed operations optimizer. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis on commodity price is conducted for better understandingmore » of considered NHES.« less

  14. Using conditional probability to identify trends in intra-day high-frequency equity pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechenthin, Michael; Street, W. Nick

    2013-12-01

    By examining the conditional probabilities of price movements in a popular US stock over different high-frequency intra-day timespans, varying levels of trend predictability are identified. This study demonstrates the existence of predictable short-term trends in the market; understanding the probability of price movement can be useful to high-frequency traders. Price movement was examined in trade-by-trade (tick) data along with temporal timespans between 1 s to 30 min for 52 one-week periods for one highly-traded stock. We hypothesize that much of the initial predictability of trade-by-trade (tick) data is due to traditional market dynamics, or the bouncing of the price between the stock’s bid and ask. Only after timespans of between 5 to 10 s does this cease to explain the predictability; after this timespan, two consecutive movements in the same direction occur with higher probability than that of movements in the opposite direction. This pattern holds up to a one-minute interval, after which the strength of the pattern weakens.

  15. Intra- and periarticular osteoid osteoma: Percutaneous destruction and alcoholisation.

    PubMed

    El-Mowafi, Hani; El-Hawary, Ahmed; Hegazi, Mona

    2015-03-01

    Intra- or periarticular osteoid osteoma (00) is uncommon, and therefore a diagnostic challenge. Symptoms are: chronic synovitis, decreased range of motion, joint effusion, and joint contracture. Radiographically, the classical perifocal sclerotic margin is often absent, which leads to a significant delay in diagnosis. The authors retrospectively studied 50 cases of intra- and peri-articular OO, treated with percutaneous destruction and alcoholisation. The mean follow-up period was 8.7 years (range, 1 to 15 years). The diagnosis was only made after +/-14 months (range, 8 to 18 months), due to atypical symptoms (nightly pain absent in 38%) and uselessness of plain radiographs (in 100%). CT-scan, contrast enhanced MRI and bone scan brought the solution. The technique was successful in 48 out of 50 cases (96%): incomplete excision occurred in 2 patients. The diagnosis of intra- or periarticular OO should be considered in case of unexplained joint pain where conservative treatment is inefficient.

  16. Intra-operative neurophysiology during microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Conejero, I; Ulkatan, S; Sen, C; Deletis, V

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that primary hemifacial spasm (HFS) in the majority of patients is related to a vascular compression of the facial nerve at its root exit zone (REZ). As a consequence, the hyperexcitability of facial nerve generates spasms of the facial muscles. Microvascular decompression (MVD) of the facial nerve near its REZ has been established as an effective treatment of HFS. Intra-operative disappearance of abnormal muscle responses (lateral spread) elicited by stimulating one of the facial nerve branches has been used as a method to predict MVD effectiveness. Other neurophysiologic techniques, such as facial F-wave, blink reflex and facial corticobulbar motor evoked potentials (FCoMEP), are feasible to intra-operatively study changes in excitability of the facial nerve and its nucleus during MVDs. Intra-operative neuromonitoring with the mentioned techniques allows a better understanding of HFS pathophysiology and helps to optimise the MVD.

  17. Intra-venous chlorpromazine with fluid treatment in status migrainosus.

    PubMed

    Utku, Uygar; Gokce, Mustafa; Benli, Elif Muruvvet; Dinc, Aytaç; Tuncel, Deniz

    2014-04-01

    To present the results of the intra-venous chlorpromazine with fluid treatment in patients with status migrainosus. Consecutive 21 patients with status migrainosus were received intra-venous chlorpromazine (maximum 25mg) with fluid treatment and their results were documented. Complete recovery of headache and nausea were seen in 20/21 and 17/21 of the patients respectively. 15/21 of patients were headache free following at 10mg chlorpromazine infusion. Most patients went on sleep after 10mg chlorpromazine infusion and when they wake already up headache free. Side effects such as tachycardia, palpitation, flushing and hypertension were seen only one of 21 patients following first dose 5mg injection. This study showed that intra-venous chlorpromazine with fluid treatment for status migrainosus seems a good option. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Marketing technology in macroeconomics.

    PubMed

    Tamegawa, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we incorporate a marketing technology into a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model by assuming a matching friction for consumption. An improvement in matching can be interpreted as an increase in matching technology, which we call marketing technology because of similar properties. Using a simulation analysis, we confirm that a positive matching technology shock can increase output and consumption.

  19. Deployment & Market Transformation (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    NREL's deployment and market transformation (D and MT) activities encompass the laboratory's full range of technologies, which span the energy efficiency and renewable energy spectrum. NREL staff educates partners on how they can advance sustainable energy applications and also provides clients with best practices for reducing barriers to innovation and market transformation.

  20. College Access Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    College Access Marketing (CAM) is a relatively new phenomenon that seeks to positively influence the college-going rate. This report defines CAM, describes CAM examples, and discusses how CAM seeks to counter barriers to college. It explores four main elements of CAM: information, marketing, advocacy, and social mobilization. Further, it…

  1. Timber Production and Markets

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Brian C. Murray

    2003-01-01

    Timber production has been the foundation of active forest management for over a century. The science and economics of forest management were developed 1.50 years ago, but for years, the focus was on activity at the stand level, with very little attention to market phenomena such as price behavior, demand factors, substitution, and market structure. That has changed as...

  2. Software Marketing Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Victor E.

    Seven factors that currently affect the potential for marketing and publishing computer software for education are discussed: (1) computers as an inplace technology in education, (2) marketing and distribution patterns for software, (3) consumer demand, (4) quality, (5) timelessenss, (6) basic skills, and (7) the future. The proliferation of…

  3. Historians' Rocky Job Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grafton, Anthony; Townsend, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how the historians' job market is perennially rocky. The history profession had its "golden age" in the 1950s and early 1960s when a generation born in the demographic trench of the Depression entered the market just as the first of the baby boomers began to swell college enrollments. But that moment was…

  4. The Marketing of Margaret.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elebash, Camille

    The 1983 British general election saw greater use than ever before in that country of sophisticated marketing research and techniques in the promotion of a party (the Conservatives) and a personality (Margaret Thatcher). With the help of an outside advertising agency, the Conservative Central Office had more marketing expertise than ever before,…

  5. Marketing Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This curriculum guide is intended to provide a common core of competencies from which to design an effective secondary marketing education program. Introductory materials include a definition of marketing education, objectives, outline of instructional content, and questions and answers regarding the curriculum guide. These practical materials are…

  6. Demographics: People and Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrick, Thomas W.; Tordella, Stephen J.

    1988-01-01

    Population shifts directly affect the bottom line, so the basics of demography are now basic to business as well. Demographics combine demographic data with socioeconomic and geographic factors to help business and other managers know the market for the goods and services they offer. This guide explains market, product, and site analyses,…

  7. Outside-Inside Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Susan Rovezzi; Carroll, David

    2001-01-01

    Instead of employing "inside-outside" marketing via inhouse brochures, newsletters, and websites, public schools should begin practicing "outside-inside" marketing in which strategic planning and then action comes from the marketplace (the community) to the school. Public perceptions are gathered through surveys, focus groups, and indepth…

  8. Historians' Rocky Job Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grafton, Anthony; Townsend, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how the historians' job market is perennially rocky. The history profession had its "golden age" in the 1950s and early 1960s when a generation born in the demographic trench of the Depression entered the market just as the first of the baby boomers began to swell college enrollments. But that moment was…

  9. Marketing hydronic comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Holohan, D.

    1997-02-01

    Methods for selling hydronic radiant heating are described. People who are good at marketing hydronic heat do that. They paint beautiful Word Pictures that connect things people know intuitively with the technical aspects of hydronic heat. They focus on the benefits, the way the system makes you feel. They market what hydronic heat does, not what it is.

  10. College Access Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    College Access Marketing (CAM) is a relatively new phenomenon that seeks to positively influence the college-going rate. This report defines CAM, describes CAM examples, and discusses how CAM seeks to counter barriers to college. It explores four main elements of CAM: information, marketing, advocacy, and social mobilization. Further, it…

  11. Export markets gain strength

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-02-15

    The prices for internally traded coal in the USA have reached record levels and the future market fundamentals look very good. This is mainly due to Asian demand. The article discusses recent markets for US coal and summarizes findings of a recent study by Hill & Associates entitled 'International coal trade - supply, demand and prices to 2025'. 1 ref., 2 tabs.

  12. Buying recycled helps market

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, G.

    1996-08-01

    The waste reduction and recycling program of Thousand Oaks, California is summarized. Descriptions of the program, market development for recycled products, business development, and economic development are provided. The emphasis of the program is on market development for recycled products. Procurement guidelines used by the city are reprinted in the paper.

  13. Capturing your marketing ROI.

    PubMed

    Spiegelman, Paul

    2003-08-01

    Accurate measurements of marketing ROI can highlight which marketing projects are most effective in enhancing revenue. Calls to call centers can be documented and matched with patient records. Extensive recordkeeping and reporting capabilities are available with call center software packages. Callers to call centers tend to be more engaged than other healthcare consumers.

  14. Creating a Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazimirski, J.; And Others

    The second in a series of programmed books, "Creating a Market" is published by the International Labour Office as a manual for persons studying marketing. This manual was designed to meet the needs of the labor organization's technical cooperation programs and is primarily concerned with consumer goods industries. Using a fill-in-the-blanks and…

  15. Software Marketing Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Victor E.

    Seven factors that currently affect the potential for marketing and publishing computer software for education are discussed: (1) computers as an inplace technology in education, (2) marketing and distribution patterns for software, (3) consumer demand, (4) quality, (5) timelessenss, (6) basic skills, and (7) the future. The proliferation of…

  16. Marketing Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This handbook contains a competency-based curriculum for teaching marketing education in Alaska. The handbook is organized in seven sections. Section 1 introduces the competency-based curriculum, while Section 2 provides the scope and sequence and hierarchy of marketing education competencies. Section 3, the core of the curriculum, includes the…

  17. Marketing Schools for Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Raven

    2007-01-01

    Principals desiring recognition in the community have added marketing to their job description. Faced with falling enrollments and more school choice for parents, they create strategies to market and brand their schools to potential parents and students, from promoting programs in school newsletters and websites to direct mailings and ads in real…

  18. Stennis Farmer's Market

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-24

    The Stennis Space Center Farmer's Market marked its move to a new onsite location and its six-month anniversary with a spring celebration event April 24, 2012. Activities included entertainment by local musicians and dance groups, such as the Coastal County Pickers and Diamondhead Line Dancers. The NASA Exchange sponsors the twice-monthly market.

  19. Stennis Farmer's Market

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-24

    The Stennis Space Center mascot, Orbie, participated in the Stennis Farmer's Market spring celebration April 24, 2012. The market marked its move to a new onsite location and its six-month anniversary with a spring celebration event that included door prizes, vendor discounts and entertainment by local musicians and dance groups.

  20. Marketing Your Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A marketing plan outlines the specific actions a person intends to carry out to interest potential customers in his/her service and to persuade them to buy the services he/she offers. In other words, a marketing plan defines what his/her organization will do to interest new families in his/her facility and encourage them to enroll their children…

  1. Marketing Schools for Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Raven

    2007-01-01

    Principals desiring recognition in the community have added marketing to their job description. Faced with falling enrollments and more school choice for parents, they create strategies to market and brand their schools to potential parents and students, from promoting programs in school newsletters and websites to direct mailings and ads in real…

  2. Marketing Transformation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-10-13

    Through the SunShot Initiative, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with manufacturers, communities, states, utilities, and other partners to enable the solar market by reducing non-hardware balance-of-system (BOS) costs, developing a skilled workforce, and eliminating market barriers to widespread adoption of solar technologies.

  3. Marketing Your Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A marketing plan outlines the specific actions a person intends to carry out to interest potential customers in his/her service and to persuade them to buy the services he/she offers. In other words, a marketing plan defines what his/her organization will do to interest new families in his/her facility and encourage them to enroll their children…

  4. Marketing Folk Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Phillips, Jr., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    "Marketing Folk Art" is a special section (pages 43-89) of this serial issue addressing the folklorists' role in developing marketing strategies to improve the lot of folk artists and protect their traditional forms of expression from commercial exploitation. The following six articles, introduced by Rosemary Joyce, focus on these…

  5. Postmodernism and Educational Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Francis

    2001-01-01

    Explains two problems of the postmodern era-fragmentation (disintegration of social, economic, and political institutions) and symbolic consumption. Discusses two postmodernist epistemological challenges to educational marketers-anti-foundationalism and poststructuralism. Transactional views of marketing must yield to relational and interactive…

  6. Marketing Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This curriculum guide is intended to provide a common core of competencies from which to design an effective secondary marketing education program. Introductory materials include a definition of marketing education, objectives, outline of instructional content, and questions and answers regarding the curriculum guide. These practical materials are…

  7. Outside-Inside Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Susan Rovezzi; Carroll, David

    2001-01-01

    Instead of employing "inside-outside" marketing via inhouse brochures, newsletters, and websites, public schools should begin practicing "outside-inside" marketing in which strategic planning and then action comes from the marketplace (the community) to the school. Public perceptions are gathered through surveys, focus groups, and indepth…

  8. The Academic Common Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    Opportunities available to residents of Southern states through the Academic Common Market are listed in this book. The Market is an interstate agreement among Southern states for sharing uncommon programs. Participating states are able to make arrangements for their residents who qualify for admission to enroll in specific programs in other…

  9. Market Madness: Condition Critical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Playfair, Eddie

    2015-01-01

    For over a quarter of a century there has been a creeping marketization of the English education system. No part of the system remains unscathed. In this article the consequences of marketization are set out clearly and alternative models of the future are presented. The author calls for another "Great Debate"--but one that mobilises…

  10. A Stock Market Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Christine; Cook, Stan

    1990-01-01

    Offers a field-tested stock market unit designed to develop mathematical skills involving fractions and decimals, basic understanding of the stock market, and hypothesis testing skills in real world situations. Includes tables displaying questions, tally sheets, and instructions, as well as a list of related activities. (MDH)

  11. Market Madness: Condition Critical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Playfair, Eddie

    2015-01-01

    For over a quarter of a century there has been a creeping marketization of the English education system. No part of the system remains unscathed. In this article the consequences of marketization are set out clearly and alternative models of the future are presented. The author calls for another "Great Debate"--but one that mobilises…

  12. Ignoring the Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chubb, John E.

    2003-01-01

    Argues that market-driven education (charter schools, vouchers) is the most effective, albeit overlooked, reform strategy since publication of "A Nation at Risk." Describes corresponding growth of for-profit school management. Offers several recommendations to improve effectiveness of market-based reforms, such as state' continuing…

  13. A Stock Market Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Christine; Cook, Stan

    1990-01-01

    Offers a field-tested stock market unit designed to develop mathematical skills involving fractions and decimals, basic understanding of the stock market, and hypothesis testing skills in real world situations. Includes tables displaying questions, tally sheets, and instructions, as well as a list of related activities. (MDH)

  14. Coping with Marketing Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Ralph E.; Ross, Herbert L.

    1975-01-01

    The effective teacher-coordinator is actively aware of changes occurring in marketing today: impact of ethnic group purchasing power, retailing response to variables, marketing of services, and using data processing in decision-making. Teaching strategies and instructional materials should be chosen accordingly. (BP)

  15. Marketing Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Brent; Johnson, Dennis

    1981-01-01

    In a successful college marketing program, students and high-quality instruction are top priorities. Marketing research should investigate student needs and frustrations, the products offered, value received for time and money invested, physical convenience and appeal, and promotional strategies. Program research and development suggestions are…

  16. The Marketing of Margaret.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elebash, Camille

    The 1983 British general election saw greater use than ever before in that country of sophisticated marketing research and techniques in the promotion of a party (the Conservatives) and a personality (Margaret Thatcher). With the help of an outside advertising agency, the Conservative Central Office had more marketing expertise than ever before,…

  17. Marketing ACE in Victoria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This publication presents options raised through various forums for marketing adult and community education (ACE) in Victoria, Australia, and suggested strategies. After an introduction (chapter 1), chapters 2 and 3 provide a broad view of the current situation for marketing ACE. Chapter 2 discusses general issues in the current position--ACE…

  18. Marketing Prior Learning Assessment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heeger, Gerald A.

    1983-01-01

    Experiential learning programs must be marketed effectively if they are to succeed. The formulation of market strategy is discussed including: strategic planning; identification of a market target; and development of a market mix. A commitment to marketing academic programs is seen as a commitment to self-assessment. (MW)

  19. Marketing Prior Learning Assessment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heeger, Gerald A.

    1983-01-01

    Experiential learning programs must be marketed effectively if they are to succeed. The formulation of market strategy is discussed including: strategic planning; identification of a market target; and development of a market mix. A commitment to marketing academic programs is seen as a commitment to self-assessment. (MW)

  20. How Can Marketing Academics Serve Marketing Practice? The New Marketing DNA as a Model for Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrigan, Paul; Hulbert, Bev

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to address how marketing academics can best serve marketing practice through marketing education. It is contended that, where technology is driving marketing in practice, it is afforded significantly less attention in both theory and education. Thus, the marketing graduates being produced from universities are often lacking in…

  1. How Can Marketing Academics Serve Marketing Practice? The New Marketing DNA as a Model for Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrigan, Paul; Hulbert, Bev

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to address how marketing academics can best serve marketing practice through marketing education. It is contended that, where technology is driving marketing in practice, it is afforded significantly less attention in both theory and education. Thus, the marketing graduates being produced from universities are often lacking in…

  2. Space Service Market (Theoretical Aspect)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisniakov, V. F.; Prisniakova, L. M.

    The authors propose a mathematical model of the demand and supply in the market economics and in the market of space services, in particular. A theoretical demand formula and a real curve demand are compared. The market equilibrium price is defined. The space market dynamics is studied. The calculations are carried out for the parameters which are close to the market of space services.

  3. The Topical Application of Rosuvastatin in Preventing Knee Intra-Articular Adhesion in Rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haixiao; Germanov, Alexey V; Goryaeva, Galina L; Yachmenev, Alexander N; Gordienko, Dmitriy I; Kuzin, Victor V; Skoroglyadov, Alexander V

    2016-04-26

    BACKGROUND Intra-articular adhesion is one of the common complications of post knee surgery and injury. The formation of joint adhesion can lead to serious dysfunction. Rosuvastatin (ROS) is a new 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, with multiple biological effects. In our study, the object was to evaluate the effectiveness of ROS in the prevention of post-operative knee adhesion in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS Femoral condyle exposing surgery was performed on 45 healthy Sprague Dawley rats. Gelatin sponges soaked with 20 mg/kg of ROS, 10 mg/kg of ROS, or saline were used to cover the surgical site. The post-operative knee joints were fixed in a flexed position with micro Kirschner wires for four weeks. ROS effectiveness for treating intra-articular adhesion was determined with visual score evaluation, hydroxyproline content, histological analyses, immunohistochemistry, and inflammatory and vascular endothelial growth factors expression. RESULTS The animals' recovery was stable after surgery. The hydroxyproline content, visual score, and inflammatory vascular growth factors expression levels suggested that, compared with the control group, the ROS treatment groups showed better outcomes. ROS prevented joint adhesion formation, collagen deposition, and vascularization at the surgical site, and also inhibited inflammatory activity post-operatively. Compared with the 10 mg/kg ROS group, the 20 mg/kg ROS group showed significantly better outcomes. CONCLUSIONS The local application of ROS reduced intra-articular adhesion formation, collagen deposition, and vascularization at the surgical site, and inhibited inflammatory activity post-operatively. These results suggested optimal concentration of ROS to be 20 mg/kg.

  4. Effect of inter- and intra-annual thermohaline variability on acoustic propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Peter C.; McDonald, Colleen M.; Kucukosmanoglu, Murat; Judono, Albert; Margolina, Tetyana; Fan, Chenwu

    2017-05-01

    This paper is to answer the question "How can inter- and intra-annual variability in the ocean be leveraged by the submarine Force?" through quantifying inter- and intra-annual variability in (T, S) fields and in turn underwater acoustic characteristics such as transmission loss, signal excess, and range of detection. The Navy's Generalized Digital Environmental Model (GDEM) is the climatological monthly mean data and represents mean annual variability. An optimal spectral decomposition method is used to produce a synoptic monthly gridded (SMG) (T, S) dataset for the world oceans with 1° ×1° horizontal resolution, 28 vertical levels (surface to 3,000 m depth), monthly time increment from January 1945 to December 2014 now available at the NOAA/NCEI website: http://data.nodc.noaa.gov/cgibin/iso?id=gov.noaa.nodc:0140938. The sound velocity decreases from 1945 to 1975 and increases afterwards due to global climate change. Effect of the inter- and intra-annual (T, S) variability on acoustic propagation in the Yellow Sea is investigated using a well-developed acoustic model (Bellhop) in frequencies from 3.5 kHz to 5 kHz with sound velocity profile (SVP) calculated from GDEM and SMG datasets, various bottom types (silty clay, fine sand, gravelly mud, sandy mud, and cobble or gravel) from the NAVOCEANO`s High Frequency Environmental Algorithms (HFEVA), source and receiver depths. Acoustic propagation ranges are extended drastically due to the inter-annual variability in comparison with the climatological SVP (from GDEM). Submarines' vulnerability of detection as its depth varies and avoidance of short acoustic range due to inter-annual variability are also discussed.

  5. Intra-articular clonidine analgesia after knee arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Buerkle, H; Huge, V; Wolfgart, M; Steinbeck, J; Mertes, N; Van Aken, H; Prien, T

    2000-05-01

    Recently, it was suggested that peripherally-mediated analgesia can be accomplished by the intra-articular delivery of the mu-opioid morphine or of the a2-agonist clonidine. This clinical study assesses the potential peripheral analgesic effect of the combination of morphine and clonidine after intra-articular administration. Sixty patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists status I or II) undergoing arthroscopic repair of the knee during general anaesthesia were randomized to receive after operation, in a double-blind manner, either 1 mg morphine intra-articularly (group 1); 150 microg clonidine intra-articularly (group 2); or 1 mg morphine + 150 microg clonidine intra-articularly (group 3); or normal saline intra-articularly (group 4) in a volume of 30 mL, respectively. Visual analogue pain scores (VAS), duration of analgesia as defined by first demand for supplemental analgesics, subsequent 24 h consumption of postoperative supplementary analgesics, and patient satisfaction were evaluated. Co-administration of morphine + clonidine (group 3) resulted in a significant VAS reduction at 2 h after injection compared with the other groups. There was a tendency towards a lower need for supplementary rescue analgesia and towards a more prolonged analgesia in group 3 (211 min +/- 224 min SD) compared with group 1 (173 min +/- 197 min SD) and group 4 (91 min +/- 21 min SD). More patients were very satisfied with the postoperative analgesic regimen receiving the combination of morphine and clonidine (group 3) at 24 h postoperatively. Thus we conclude, that the peripheral co-delivery of an opioid and an a2-agonist will result in improved postoperative pain relief, when compared with each single agent given alone.

  6. Optimizing the technological and informational relationship of the health care process and of the communication between physician and patient. The impact of Preventive Medicine and social marketing applied in Health Care on youth awareness- preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Petrescu, C M; Gheorghe, I R; Petrescu, G D

    2011-01-01

    In this case study we wanted to find out the impact of Preventive Medicine and implicitly social marketing upon young students with the average age of 19, belonging to the academic environment in Romania. The study lasted one month and consisted of a questionnaire that was conceived and applied to 304 adolescents. The questionnaire contained demographic and personal information, such as age, origin, gender, marital status and some questions related to the respondents' attitude towards several issues that are inserted in the preventive medicine discipline, such as the date of their last consultation, if the respondents were registered to a family physician, suffered from chronic diseases, what was the rate of doing physical exercises, if they ate salty and fat meals, if they were on a diet, their rate of alcohol, caffeine and tobacco consumption. The panel was made up of more female respondents than male, with the average age rate of 19, who had medical consultations in the last 3 months, are included in the evidence of a family physician, had no chronic diseases, usually do workout exercises moderately, are not on a diet and have 3 meals per day. The meals are medium salty and rarely rich in fats. They drink 2 cups of tea per day and are non-alcohol drinkers and non-smokers. After applying several statistical tests to find a correlation between our variables, we reached the conclusion that even if the results are encouraging; there is no correlation between the impact of Preventive Medicine and the respondents' health behavior.

  7. Optimization of inclusive fitness.

    PubMed

    Grafen, Alan

    2006-02-07

    The first fully explicit argument is given that broadly supports a widespread belief among whole-organism biologists that natural selection tends to lead to organisms acting as if maximizing their inclusive fitness. The use of optimization programs permits a clear statement of what this belief should be understood to mean, in contradistinction to the common mathematical presumption that it should be formalized as some kind of Lyapunov or even potential function. The argument reveals new details and uncovers latent assumptions. A very general genetic architecture is allowed, and there is arbitrary uncertainty. However, frequency dependence of fitnesses is not permitted. The logic of inclusive fitness immediately draws together various kinds of intra-genomic conflict, and the concept of 'p-family' is introduced. Inclusive fitness is thus incorporated into the formal Darwinism project, which aims to link the mathematics of motion (difference and differential equations) used to describe gene frequency trajectories with the mathematics of optimization used to describe purpose and design. Important questions remain to be answered in the fundamental theory of inclusive fitness.

  8. Fournier's gangrene secondary to intra-abdominal processes.

    PubMed

    Gerber, G S; Guss, S P; Pielet, R W

    1994-11-01

    We report 2 cases of necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum, perianal area, and male genitalia (Fournier's gangrene) that arose secondary to intra-abdominal infectious processes (ruptured appendicitis and diverticulitis). Management consisted of immediate debridement of necrotic tissue, exploratory laparotomy, and diverting colostomy. The presence of an acute abdominal process was not immediately evident on initial evaluation of either patient. This demonstrates the critical importance of considering intra-abdominal infection in patients with Fournier's gangrene when the more commonly seen urinary tract, perirectal, and traumatic causes are not readily apparent.

  9. Intra-cranial Toxoplasmosis in an Immunocompetent Female.

    PubMed

    Hoti, Yaser Ud Din; Aziz, Amir; Ishaque, Khurram; Abbas, Sadia; Ud Din, Tariq Salah

    2016-06-01

    Intra-cranial toxoplasmosis is a rare entity occurring mostly in immunosuppressed individuals. It is extremely rare in an immune competent patient. Toxoplasmosis is the third leading cause of food borne illness. Depending upon the site, degree of inflammation and local damage, toxoplasmosis encephalitis and cranial abscess can cause long lasting neurologic sequel. With modern imaging techniques, toxoplasmosis antibody titers, slit lamp examination and brain biopsy, there is improvement in diagnosis along with reduction in the mortality rate. We present a case illustrating the radiological manifestations, complications, potential pitfalls in diagnosis and treatment of intra-cranial toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patient.

  10. Simulating water markets with transaction costs

    PubMed Central

    Erfani, Tohid; Binions, Olga; Harou, Julien J

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization model to simulate short-term pair-wise spot-market trading of surface water abstraction licenses (water rights). The approach uses a node-arc multicommodity formulation that tracks individual supplier-receiver transactions in a water resource network. This enables accounting for transaction costs between individual buyer-seller pairs and abstractor-specific rules and behaviors using constraints. Trades are driven by economic demand curves that represent each abstractor's time-varying water demand. The purpose of the proposed model is to assess potential hydrologic and economic outcomes of water markets and aid policy makers in designing water market regulations. The model is applied to the Great Ouse River basin in Eastern England. The model assesses the potential weekly water trades and abstractions that could occur in a normal and a dry year. Four sectors (public water supply, energy, agriculture, and industrial) are included in the 94 active licensed water diversions. Each license's unique environmental restrictions are represented and weekly economic water demand curves are estimated. Rules encoded as constraints represent current water management realities and plausible stakeholder-informed water market behaviors. Results show buyers favor sellers who can supply large volumes to minimize transactions. The energy plant cooling and agricultural licenses, often restricted from obtaining water at times when it generates benefits, benefit most from trades. Assumptions and model limitations are discussed. Key Points Transaction tracking hydro-economic optimization models simulate water markets Proposed model formulation incorporates transaction costs and trading behavior Water markets benefit users with the most restricted water access PMID:25598558

  11. Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part II - size estimations for selected markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Robert

    2014-04-01

    In a series of two contributions, decisive business-related aspects of the current process status to transfer research results on diffractive optical elements (DOEs) into commercial solutions are discussed. In part I, the focus was on the patent landscape. Here, in part II, market estimations concerning DOEs for selected applications are presented, comprising classical spectroscopic gratings, security features on banknotes, DOEs for high-end applications, e.g., for the semiconductor manufacturing market and diffractive intra-ocular lenses. The derived market sizes are referred to the optical elements, itself, rather than to the enabled instruments. The estimated market volumes are mainly addressed to scientifically and technologically oriented optical engineers to serve as a rough classification of the commercial dimensions of DOEs in the different market segments and do not claim to be exhaustive.

  12. Intra- and intermodal integration of discrepant visual and proprioceptive action effects.

    PubMed

    Ladwig, Stefan; Sutter, Christine; Müsseler, Jochen

    2013-12-01

    Integration of discrepant visual and proprioceptive action effects puts high demands on the human information processing system. The present study aimed to examine the integration mechanisms for the motor (Exp. 1) and visual modality (Exp. 2). According to theories of common coding, we assumed that visual as well as proprioceptive information is represented within the same cognitive domain and is therefore likely to affect each other (multisensory cross talk). Thus, apart from the often-confirmed visual dominance in multisensory integration, we asked about intra- and intermodal recall of either proprioceptive or visual information and whether there were any differences between the motor and visual modality. In a replication paradigm, we perturbed the relation between hand movements and cursor movements. The task required the (intra- vs. intermodal) replication of an initially performed (seen) hand (cursor) movement in a subsequent motor (visual) replication phase. First, mechanisms of integration were found to be dependent on the output modality. Visual action effects interfered the motor modality, but proprioceptive action effects did not have any effects on the visual modality. Second, however, intermodal integration was more susceptible to interference, and this was found to be independent from the output modality. Third, for the motor modality, the locus of perturbation (perturbation of cursor amplitude or perturbation of hand amplitude) was irrelevant, but for the visual modality, perturbation of hand amplitudes reduced the cross talk. Tool use is one field of application of these kinds of results, since the optimized integration of conflicting action effects is a precondition for using tools successfully.

  13. Fast coding unit selection method for high efficiency video coding intra prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Jian

    2013-07-01

    The high efficiency video coding (HEVC) video coding standard under development can achieve higher compression performance than previous standards, such as MPEG-4, H.263, and H.264/AVC. To improve coding performance, a quad-tree coding structure and a robust rate-distortion (RD) optimization technique is used to select an optimum coding mode. Since the RD costs of all possible coding modes are computed to decide an optimum mode, high computational complexity is induced in the encoder. A fast learning-based coding unit (CU) size selection method is presented for HEVC intra prediction. The proposed algorithm is based on theoretical analysis that shows the non-normalized histogram of oriented gradient (n-HOG) can be used to help select CU size. A codebook is constructed offline by clustering n-HOGs of training sequences for each CU size. The optimum size is determined by comparing the n-HOG of the current CU with the learned codebooks. Experimental results show that the CU size selection scheme speeds up intra coding significantly with negligible loss of peak signal-to-noise ratio.

  14. Visualization of hepatic arteries with 3D ultrasound during intra-arterial therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, Maxime; Tang, An; Badoual, Anaïs.; Michaud, François; Bigot, Alexandre; Soulez, Gilles; Kadoury, Samuel

    2016-03-01

    Liver cancer represents the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The prognosis is poor with an overall mortality of 95%. Moreover, most hepatic tumors are unresectable due to their advanced stage at discovery or poor underlying liver function. Tumor embolization by intra-arterial approaches is the current standard of care for advanced cases of hepatocellular carcinoma. These therapies rely on the fact that the blood supply of primary hepatic tumors is predominantly arterial. Feedback on blood flow velocities in the hepatic arteries is crucial to ensure maximal treatment efficacy on the targeted masses. Based on these velocities, the intra-arterial injection rate is modulated for optimal infusion of the chemotherapeutic drugs into the tumorous tissue. While Doppler ultrasound is a well-documented technique for the assessment of blood flow, 3D visualization of vascular anatomy with ultrasound remains challenging. In this paper we present an image-guidance pipeline that enables the localization of the hepatic arterial branches within a 3D ultrasound image of the liver. A diagnostic Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is first processed to automatically segment the hepatic arteries. A non-rigid registration method is then applied on the portal phase of the MRA volume with a 3D ultrasound to enable the visualization of the 3D mesh of the hepatic arteries in the Doppler images. To evaluate the performance of the proposed workflow, we present initial results from porcine models and patient images.

  15. Compression of Multiple DNA Sequences Using Intra-Sequence and Inter-Sequence Similarities.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kin-On; Wu, Paula; Law, Ngai-Fong; Siu, Wan-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, intra-sequence similarity is exploited for compressing a single DNA sequence. Recently, remarkable compression performance of individual DNA sequence from the same population is achieved by encoding its difference with a nearly identical reference sequence. Nevertheless, there is lack of general algorithms that also allow less similar reference sequences. In this work, we extend the intra-sequence to the inter-sequence similarity in that approximate matches of subsequences are found between the DNA sequence and a set of reference sequences. Hence, a set of nearly identical DNA sequences from the same population or a set of partially similar DNA sequences like chromosome sequences and DNA sequences of related species can be compressed together. For practical compressors, the compressed size is usually influenced by the compression order of sequences. Fast search algorithms for the optimal compression order are thus developed for multiple sequences compression. Experimental results on artificial and real datasets demonstrate that our proposed multiple sequences compression methods with fast compression order search are able to achieve good compression performance under different levels of similarity in the multiple DNA sequences.

  16. A combinatorial approach for analyzing intra-tumor heterogeneity from high-throughput sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Hajirasouliha, Iman; Mahmoody, Ahmad; Raphael, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: High-throughput sequencing of tumor samples has shown that most tumors exhibit extensive intra-tumor heterogeneity, with multiple subpopulations of tumor cells containing different somatic mutations. Recent studies have quantified this intra-tumor heterogeneity by clustering mutations into subpopulations according to the observed counts of DNA sequencing reads containing the variant allele. However, these clustering approaches do not consider that the population frequencies of different tumor subpopulations are correlated by their shared ancestry in the same population of cells. Results: We introduce the binary tree partition (BTP), a novel combinatorial formulation of the problem of constructing the subpopulations of tumor cells from the variant allele frequencies of somatic mutations. We show that finding a BTP is an NP-complete problem; derive an approximation algorithm for an optimization version of the problem; and present a recursive algorithm to find a BTP with errors in the input. We show that the resulting algorithm outperforms existing clustering approaches on simulated and real sequencing data. Availability and implementation: Python and MATLAB implementations of our method are available at http://compbio.cs.brown.edu/software/ Contact: braphael@cs.brown.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24932008

  17. Ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT), a resuscitation option for intra-thoracic foetal pathologies.

    PubMed

    Kern, C; Ange, M; Morales; Peiry, B; Pfister, R E

    2007-05-19

    The ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure is designed to guarantee sufficient oxygenation for a foetus at risk of airway obstruction. This is achieved by improving lung ventilation, usually by establishing an airway during caesarean delivery whilst preserving the foetal-placental circulation temporarily. Indications for the EXIT procedure have extended from its original use in reversing iatrogenic tracheal obstruction in congenital diaphragmatic hernia to naturally occurring upper airway obstructions. We report our experience with a new and rarely mentioned indication for the EXIT procedure, intra-thoracic volume expansions. The elaboration of lowest risk scenarios through balancing risks with alternative options, foetal or neonatal intervention and coordination between professionals from various disciplines are the most important conditions for a successful EXIT procedure. The EXIT procedure requires a caesarean section that specifically differs from the traditional caesarean section during which uterine tone is maintained to minimize maternal bleeding. To guarantee foetal oxygenation during the EXIT procedure, profound uterine relaxation is desired. To gain time with optimal placental oxygenation in order to safely perform an airway intervention in a baby at risk of hypoxia may require deep inhalation anaesthesia and/or tocolytic agents. We review the EXIT procedure and present a case series from the University Hospital of Geneva that contrasts with the common indication for the EXIT procedure usually based on upper airway obstruction by its exclusive indication for intra-thoracic malformations/diseases.

  18. MRI evaluation of frequent complications after intra-arterial transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namestnikova, D.; Gubskiy, I.; Gabashvili, A.; Sukhinich, K.; Melnikov, P.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Soloveva, A.; Vitushev, E.; Chekhonin, V.; Gubsky, L.; Yarygin, K.

    2017-08-01

    Intra-arterial transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is an effective delivery route for treatment of ischemic brain injury. Despite significant therapeutic effects and targeted cells delivery to the brain infraction, serious adverse events such as cerebral embolism have been reported and may restrict potential clinical applications of this method. In current study, we evaluate potential complications of intra-arterial MSCs administration and determine the optimum parameters for cell transplantation. We injected SPIO-labeled human MSCs via internal carotid artery with different infusion parameters and cell dose in intact rats and in rats with the middle cerebral occlusion stroke model. Cerebrovascular complications and labeled cells were visualized in vivo using MRI. We have shown that the incidence of cerebral embolic events depends on such parameters as cell dose, infusion rate and maintenance of blood flow in the internal carotid artery (ICA). Optimal parameters were considered to be 5×105 hMSC in 1 ml of PBS by syringe pump with velocity 100 μ/min and maintenance of blood flow in the ICA. Obtained data should be considered before planning experiments in rats and, potentially, can help in planning clinical trials in stroke patients.

  19. Correlation between trans and intra-thoracic impedance and conductance in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Malfatto, Gabriella; Villani, Alessandra; Rosa, Francesco Della; Rella, Valeria; Oldani, Matteo; Giglio, Alessia; Facchini, Mario; Parati, Gianfranco

    2016-04-01

    In chronic heart failure, changes of intra-thoracic impedance (Z0IT) may suggest impending pulmonary congestion; a similar result has been found by measuring trans-thoracic conductance (TFCTT = 1/Z0 = 1/kΩ). We assumed that a relationship could exist between Z0IT and TFCTT. We collected 140 measurements from 70 patients carrying an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator/cardiac resynchronization device with the CareLink function (71 ± 9 years, New York Heart Association (NYHA) 2.4 ± 0.9, ejection fraction 31 ± 8%, optimal treatment); they were studied during system alarms and after appropriate treatment (diuretics and/or vasodilators, n = 42) or during clinical stability and at the time of a system alarm (n = 28); correspondent BNP values were obtained. We related Z0IT obtained by the device, with TFCTT obtained with a commercial system. A strong relationship was found between Z0IT and TFCTT. Changes in the variables after treatment or during worsening conditions were of the same direction and order of magnitude, and were related to BNP levels obtained simultaneously. Trans-thoracic conductance, similarly to intra-thoracic impedance, may noninvasively point to pulmonary congestion and be useful in patients not carrying an implanted device. The possibility of remotely obtaining this variable should be evaluated for the telemonitoring of heart failure patients.

  20. Ancillary services market in California

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, T.; Marnay, C.; Siddiqui, A.; Liew, L.; Khavkin, M.

    1999-07-01

    This report includes sections on the following topics: (1) California restructured electricity system overview; (2) Reliability criteria; (3) Design of the California ISO ancillary services market; (4) Operation of ancillary services markets; (5) Ancillary services markets redesign; and (6) Conclusions.

  1. Optimizing the technological and informational relationship of the health care process and of the communication between physician and patient. The impact of Preventive Medicine and social marketing applied in Health Care on youth awareness–Preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Gheorghe, IR; Petrescu, GD

    2011-01-01

    Rationale. In this case study we wanted to find out the impact of Preventive Medicine and implicitly social marketing upon young students with the average age of 19, belonging to the academic environment in Romania. Methods The study lasted one month and consisted of a questionnaire that was conceived and applied to 304 adolescents. The questionnaire contained demographic and personal information, such as age, origin, gender, marital status and some questions related to the respondents' attitude towards several issues that are inserted in the preventive medicine discipline, such as the date of their last consultation, if the respondents were registered to a family physician, suffered from chronic diseases, what was the rate of doing physical exercises, if they ate salty and fat meals, if they were on a diet, their rate of alcohol, caffeine and tobacco consumption. Discussion. Ostium secundum defect is the most common type of atrial septal defect and accounts for 60–70% of all cases. The malformation often goes unnoticed for decades because symptoms may be absent and because physical signs are subtle. Symptoms usually take 30–40 years to develop. They are the consequences of pulmonary hypertension, atrial tachyarrhythmias and, sometimes, associated mitral valve disease. ResultsThe panel was made up of more female respondents than male, with the average age rate of 19, who had medical consultations in the last 3 months, are included in the evidence of a family physician, had no chronic diseases, usually do workout exercises moderately, are not on a diet and have 3 meals per day. The meals are medium salty and rarely rich in fats. They drink 2 cups of tea per day and are non–alcohol drinkers and non-smokers. DiscussionAfter applying several statistical tests to find a correlation between our variables, we reached the conclusion that even if the results are encouraging; there is no correlation between the impact of Preventive Medicine and the respondents' health

  2. Marketing on a shoestring.

    PubMed

    Sutton, J

    1999-01-01

    Marketing includes the many steps taken to sell a product or service from its conception to its purchase or use. In healthcare, three cost-effective audiences to target are referring physicians and their staffs, local HMOs and PPOs, facility employees and patients. The potential users of such services--your target audience--should be made aware of new offerings such as the addition of special procedures, a new piece of equipment, or perhaps a new physician with special capabilities. To ensure a productive effort, a marketing attempt must follow two cardinal rules: first, the product or service offered must be of high quality and, second, the marketing effort must be carried out consistently. An effective marketing campaign should create an impression within the community about the facility by emphasizing those aspects of the department or facility that make it unique. Are its hours of operation adequate? Do its personnel project a professional attitude and demeanor? Does it have a specialty that makes it unique within the healthcare community? The most powerful marketing tool of all is word of mouth, which is based on the judgments clients make after visiting the facility-department or facility employees smile and greet visitors, they are polite and helpful on the telephone, their attitudes are professional, and so forth. Such impressions are worth millions in goodwill and can be used as a marketing tool. Last, an actual case study from my hospital explains how we determined the need for and marketed an open MRI system.

  3. Evolutionary financial market models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponzi, A.; Aizawa, Y.

    2000-12-01

    We study computer simulations of two financial market models, the second a simplified model of the first. The first is a model of the self-organized formation and breakup of crowds of traders, motivated by the dynamics of competitive evolving systems which shows interesting self-organized critical (SOC)-type behaviour without any fine tuning of control parameters. This SOC-type avalanching and stasis appear as realistic volatility clustering in the price returns time series. The market becomes highly ordered at ‘crashes’ but gradually loses this order through randomization during the intervening stasis periods. The second model is a model of stocks interacting through a competitive evolutionary dynamic in a common stock exchange. This model shows a self-organized ‘market-confidence’. When this is high the market is stable but when it gets low the market may become highly volatile. Volatile bursts rapidly increase the market confidence again. This model shows a phase transition as temperature parameter is varied. The price returns time series in the transition region is very realistic power-law truncated Levy distribution with clustered volatility and volatility superdiffusion. This model also shows generally positive stock cross-correlations as is observed in real markets. This model may shed some light on why such phenomena are observed.

  4. Market research for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Shippee, G.

    1999-12-01

    Marketing research is increasing in importance as utilities become more marketing oriented. Marketing research managers need to maintain autonomy from the marketing director or ad agency and make sure their work is relevant to the utility's operation. This article will outline a model marketing research program for an electric utility. While a utility may not conduct each and every type of research described, the programs presented offer a smorgasbord of activities which successful electric utility marketers often use or have access to.

  5. Managing risks of market price uncertainty for a microgrid operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Sriram

    After deregulation of electricity in the United States, the day-ahead and real-time markets allow load serving entities and generation companies to bid and purchase/sell energy under the supervision of the independent system operator (ISO). The electricity market prices are inherently uncertain, and can be highly volatile. The main objective of this thesis is to hedge against the risk from the uncertainty of the market prices when purchasing/selling energy from/to the market. The energy manager can also schedule distributed generators (DGs) and storage of the microgrid to meet the demand, in addition to energy transactions from the market. The risk measure used in this work is the variance of the uncertain market purchase/sale cost/revenue, assuming the price following a Gaussian distribution. Using Markowitz optimization, the risk is minimized to find the optimal mix of purchase from the markets. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer quadratic program. The microgrid at Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) in Chicago, IL was used as a case study. The result of this work reveals the tradeoff faced by the microgrid energy manager between minimizing the risk and minimizing the mean of the total operating cost (TOC) of the microgrid. With this information, the microgrid energy manager can make decisions in the day-ahead and real-time markets according to their risk aversion preference. The assumption of market prices following Gaussian distribution is also verified to be reasonable for the purpose of hedging against their risks. This is done by comparing the result of the proposed formulation with that obtained from the sample market prices randomly generated using the distribution of actual historic market price data.

  6. Modeling intra-crown and intra-canopy interactions in red maple: assessment of light transfer on carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange.

    PubMed

    Bauerle, William L; Bowden, Joseph D; McLeod, Michael F; Toler, Joe E

    2004-05-01

    Daily and seasonal net photosynthesis (Anet), transpiration (E), absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (Qa) and light-use efficiency (epsilonc) in a red maple container nursery were simulated with MAESTRA, a three-dimensional canopy model. Effects of canopy heterogeneity were simulated by imposing changes in crown spacing. The light transfer sub-model, a distribution model of incident, direct, diffuse and scattered radiation within MAESTRA, was validated against field measurements of light interception on an intra-crown scale. In the container nursery, we found that a fiber-optic-based method of integrating photosynthetically active radiation (Q) was more suitable for crown-layer light transfer measurements and adjustments than either orthogonal line or individual quantum sensor measurements. The model underestimated intercepted Q by 9.3, 18 and 11.1% for crown layers 1, 2 and 3, respectively; however, there were linear relationships between model estimates and observations made with each of the three measurement methods. We used the validated and parameterized light transfer model to assess intra-crown and intra-canopy light transfer on a layer, crown and canopy basis, and investigated effects of tree size ratio and tree spacing interactions on Anet, E, Qa and epsilonc in the container nursery. Heterogeneous crown and canopy photosynthesis were predicted to exceed values for a uniform canopy under space-limiting conditions. Tree size ratio had large effects on Anet, E, Qa and epsilonc when light to lower-canopy layers was limited by inadequate space between crowns. Increasing Qa at lower-crown layers had the largest impact on whole-crown and whole-canopy Anet, E, Qa and epsilonc. Increases in canopy productivity led to increased water use. Simulations of heterogeneous stands with adequate soil water indicated that light absorption is maximized under space-limiting conditions as a canopy crown moves toward heterogeneity. Nursery and plantation productivity

  7. Demonstrating marketing accountability.

    PubMed

    Gombeski, William R; Britt, Jason; Taylor, Jan; Riggs, Karen; Wray, Tanya; Adkins, Wanda; Springate, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Pressure on health care marketers to demonstrate effectiveness of their strategies and show their contribution to organizational goals is growing. A seven-tiered model based on the concepts of structure (having the right people, systems), process (doing the right things in the right way), and outcomes (results) is discussed. Examples of measures for each tier are provided and the benefits of using the model as a tool for measuring, organizing, tracking, and communicating appropriate information are provided. The model also provides a framework for helping management understand marketing's value and can serve as a vehicle for demonstrating marketing accountability.

  8. a Cultural Market Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HerdaǦDELEN, Amaç; Bingol, Haluk

    Social interactions and personal tastes shape our consumption behavior of cultural products. In this study, we present a computational model of a cultural market and we aim to analyze the behavior of the consumer population as an emergent phenomena. Our results suggest that the final market shares of cultural products dramatically depend on consumer heterogeneity and social interaction pressure. Furthermore, the relation between the resulting market shares and social interaction is robust with respect to a wide range of variation in the parameter values and the type of topology.

  9. Intra-operative optical diagnostics with vibrational spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Stelling, Allison; Salzer, Reiner; Kirsch, Matthias; Sobottka, Stephan B; Geiger, Kathrin; Koch, Edmund; Schackert, Gabriele; Steiner, Gerald

    2011-07-01

    Established methods for characterization of tissue and diagnostics, for example histochemistry, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray tomography, or positron emission tomography (PET), are mostly not suitable for intra-operative use. However, there is a clear need for an intra-operative diagnostics especially to identify the borderline between normal and tumor tissue. Currently, vibrational spectroscopy techniques (both Raman and infrared) complement the standard methods for tissue diagnostics. Vibrational spectroscopy has the potential for intra-operative use, because it can provide a biochemically based profile of tissue in real time and without requiring additional contrast agents, which may perturb the tissue under investigation. In addition, no electric potential needs to be applied, and the measurements are not affected by electromagnetic fields. Currently, promising approaches include Raman fiber techniques and nonlinear Raman spectroscopy. Infrared spectroscopy is also being used to examine freshly resected tissue ex vivo in the operating theater. The immense volume of information contained in Raman and infrared spectra requires multivariate analysis to extract relevant information to distinguish different types of tissue. The promise and limitations of vibrational spectroscopy methods as intra-operative tools are surveyed in this review.

  10. Intra-Word Inconsistency in Apraxic Hebrew-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubul-Lavy, Gila

    2012-01-01

    Intra-word inconsistency in a child is perceived as an indicator of speech impairment. Because the speech of typically developing children is highly variable, the extent and nature of the inconsistency must be defined when used as a diagnostic marker of speech impairment (McLeod, S., & Hewett, S. R. (2008). Variability in the production of words…

  11. Corrective Osteotomy for Intra-Articular Distal Humerus Malunion

    PubMed Central

    Kinaci, Ahmet; Buijze, Geert A.; Leeuwen, Diederik H.van; Jupiter, Jesse B.; Marti, Rene K.; Kloen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: An intra-articular distal humerus malunion can be disabling. To improve function, reduce pain and/or prevent further secondary osteoarthritis an intra-articular corrective osteotomy can be considered. Herein we present the indications, practical guidelines for pre- operative planning and surgical technique. Subsequently, we provide long-term results in a small series. Methods: We included six consecutive patients operated for intra-articular distal humerus malunion. Mean follow-up was 88 months. At lastest follow up elbow function was assessed according to standardized questionnaires and classification systems. Results: All six patients healed their osteotomies. Three patients had a postoperative complication which were treated succesfully. Range of motion improved significantly and all patients were satisfied with the outcome. The elbow performance scores were good to excellent in all. Correlation analyses showed that age and level of osteoarthritis are very strong predictors for the long-term elbow function and quality of life. Conclusion: An intra-articular corrective osteotomy for a malunited distal humerus fracture is a worthwhile procedure. Based on our results it should particularly be considered in young patients with minimal osteoarthritis and moderate to severe functional disability and/or pain. PMID:27200396

  12. Advances in Medical Diagnosis of Intra-Amniotic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Buhimschi, Irina A.; Nayeri, Unzila A.; Laky, Christine A.; Razeq, Sonya-Abdel; Dulay, Antonette T.; Buhimschi, Catalin S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Intra-uterine infection is a global problem and a significant contributor to morbidity and perinatal death. The host response to infection causes an inflammatory state that acts synergistically with microbial insult to induce preterm birth and fetal damage. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of intra-amniotic infection in the asymptomatic stage of the disease is critical for improved maternal and neonatal outcomes. Areas Covered This article provides an overview of the most recent progress, challenges and opportunities for discovery and clinical implementation of various maternal serum, cervico-vaginal and amniotic fluid biomarkers in pregnancies complicated by intra-amniotic infection. Expert Opinion Clinically relevant biomarkers are critical to the accurate diagnostic of intra-uterine infection. Front end implementation of such biomarkers will also translate in lower incidence of early-onset neonatal sepsis which is an important determinant of neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with prematurity. However, of the hundreds of differentially expressed proteins, only few may have clinical utility and thus function as biomarkers. The small number of validation studies along with barriers to implementation of technological innovations in the clinical setting are current limitations. PMID:23530840

  13. Testicular ascent as a mechanism for intra-abdominal torsion.

    PubMed

    Plitt, David C; Fotos, Joseph S; Hulse, Michael A; Neutze, Janet A

    2010-01-01

    Testicular ascent, while uncommon, can occur. A testicle that has ascended out of the scrotum can torse and may present as an acute inguinal mass or acute abdomen. Testicle ascent can occur even if previous intra-scrotal location has been documented.

  14. The Measurement of Internal (Intra-Article) Reading Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Earl F.; Hess, Allen K.

    The effects of training on internal reading flexibility (intra-article flexibility) and the relationships between such flexibility and overall reading speed, reading comprehension, anxiety level, and introversion-extraversion were investigated. Flexibility coefficients were computed before and after training for the total group of 255 college…

  15. Teaching to the Golem: A Pedagogical Intra-Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Samuel Jaye

    2017-01-01

    This article considers the pedagogical nature of an intra-action involving the author, his high school student's final project in an English class (a golem), and his school administrators. The author relies on narrative scholarship to both tell and interpret a story of his experience as a high school English and drama teacher, to illustrate the…

  16. Rapid intra-adrenal feedback regulation of glucocorticoid synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Walker, J. J.; Spiga, F.; Gupta, R.; Zhao, Z.; Lightman, S. L.; Terry, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis is a vital neuroendocrine system that regulates the secretion of glucocorticoid hormones from the adrenal glands. This system is characterized by a dynamic ultradian hormonal oscillation, and in addition is highly responsive to stressful stimuli. We have recently shown that a primary mechanism generating this ultradian rhythm is a systems-level interaction where adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) released from the pituitary stimulates the secretion of adrenal glucocorticoids, which in turn feedback at the level of the pituitary to rapidly inhibit ACTH secretion. In this study, we combine experimental physiology and mathematical modelling to investigate intra-adrenal mechanisms regulating glucocorticoid synthesis. Our modelling results suggest that glucocorticoids can inhibit their own synthesis through a very rapid (within minutes), presumably non-genomic, intra-adrenal pathway. We present further evidence for the existence of a short time delay in this intra-adrenal inhibition, and also that at the initiation of each ACTH stimulus, this local feedback mechanism is rapidly antagonized, presumably via activation of the specific ACTH receptor (MC2R) signalling pathway. This mechanism of intra-adrenal inhibition enables the gland to rapidly release glucocorticoids while at the same time preventing uncontrolled release of glucocorticoids in response to large surges in ACTH associated with stress. PMID:25392395

  17. Improved lossless intra coding for H.264/MPEG-4 AVC.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yung-Lyul; Han, Ki-Hun; Sullivan, Gary J

    2006-09-01

    A new lossless intra coding method based on sample-by-sample differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) is presented as an enhancement of the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC standard. The H.264/AVC design includes a multidirectional spatial prediction method to reduce spatial redundancy by using neighboring samples as a prediction for the samples in a block of data to be encoded. In the new lossless intra coding method, the spatial prediction is performed based on samplewise DPCM instead of in the block-based manner used in the current H.264/AVC standard, while the block structure is retained for the residual difference entropy coding process. We show that the new method, based on samplewise DPCM, does not have a major complexity penalty, despite its apparent pipeline dependencies. Experiments show that the new lossless intra coding method reduces the bit rate by approximately 12% in comparison with the lossless intra coding method previously included in the H.264/AVC standard. As a result, the new method is currently being adopted into the H.264/AVC standard in a new enhancement project.

  18. Intra-individual variation in G2 chromosomal radiosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Curwen, Gillian B; Cadwell, Kevin K; Tawn, E Janet; Winther, Jeanette F; Boice, John D

    2012-07-01

    Intra-individual variation in G(2) chromosomal radiosensitivity was examined by repeatedly taking blood samples from two individuals. Two healthy female volunteers provided a total of 44 blood samples, Donor 1 gave 28 samples in four time periods between 2001 and 2006 and Donor 2 gave 16 samples in two of the same time periods. Lymphocytes were cultured for 72 h prior to irradiation with 0.5 Gy, 300 kV X-rays. Colcemid was added 30 min post-irradiation. Cultures were harvested 90 min post-irradiation and analysed for chromatid gaps and breaks. Donor 1 exhibited significant intra-individual variation in G(2) chromosomal radiosensitivity for two of the four time periods. Variation was not significant for Period 1 (13 samples, P = 0.111) and Period 2 (six samples, P = 0.311) but was significant for Period 3 (two samples, P = 0.030) and Period 4 (seven samples, P = 0.005). Significant intra-individual variation was observed for both time periods involving Donor 2, these being Period 2 (nine samples, P = 0.002) and Period 4 (seven samples, P < 0.001). The combined data from all time periods exhibited a significant intra-individual variation for Donor 1 (P < 0.001) and Donor 2 (P < 0.001). These findings led to the conclusion that too much reliance should not be placed on the result from a single sample when assessing individual radiosensitivity status.

  19. Teaching Statistics: Creating an Intersection for Intra and Interdisciplinarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savard, Annie; Manuel, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Statistics is taught in mathematics courses in all school levels. We suggest that using rich tasks in statistics can develop statistical reasoning and create both intra and interdisciplinary links in students. In this paper, we present three case studies where middle school mathematics teachers used different tasks in lessons on pie charts. We…

  20. The Issue of Motivating Entre(Intra)Preneurial Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winslow, Erik K.

    1990-01-01

    Six principles of motivating entre(intra)preneurial behavior are considered including the climate must allow the expression of such activity; motivation is broadly distributed in the general population; behavior is a function of its consequences; and motivating environments have an aura of excitement and experimentation. (DB)