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Sample records for intra market optimization

  1. Trajectory optimization for intra-operative nuclear tomographic imaging.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Jakob; Lasser, Tobias; Gardiazabal, José; Navab, Nassir

    2013-10-01

    Diagnostic nuclear imaging modalities like SPECT typically employ gantries to ensure a densely sampled geometry of detectors in order to keep the inverse problem of tomographic reconstruction as well-posed as possible. In an intra-operative setting with mobile freehand detectors the situation changes significantly, and having an optimal detector trajectory during acquisition becomes critical. In this paper we propose an incremental optimization method based on the numerical condition of the system matrix of the underlying iterative reconstruction method to calculate optimal detector positions during acquisition in real-time. The performance of this approach is evaluated using simulations. A first experiment on a phantom using a robot-controlled intra-operative SPECT-like setup demonstrates the feasibility of the approach.

  2. Shape optimization of an accommodative intra-ocular lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouve, François; Hanna, Khalil

    2005-03-01

    Cataract surgery consists in replacing the clouded or opacified crystalline lens by an Intra-Ocular Lens (IOL) having the same mean dioptrical power. Clear vision is then achieved at a given distance and glasses are needed in many situations. A new kind of IOL, potentially accommodative, is proposed. Its design is based on the deep understanding of the accommodation mechanism and on the mathematical modeling and the numerical simulation of the IOL's comportment in vivo. A preliminary version of this IOL is now commercialized by the company HumanOptics under the name '1CU'. In a second phase, shape optimization techniques equipped with strong mechanical and physiological constraints, are used to enhance the IOL performance and build a new design. To cite this article: F. Jouve, K. Hanna, C. R. Mecanique 333 (2005).

  3. Intra-day variability of the stock market activity versus stationarity of the financial time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubiec, T.; Wiliński, M.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we propose a new approach to a well-known phenomena of intra-day activity pattern on the stock market. We suggest that seasonality of inter-transaction times has a more significant impact than intra-day pattern of volatility. Our aim is not to remove the intra-day pattern from the data but to describe its impact on autocorrelation function estimators. We obtain an exact, analytical formula relating estimators of the autocorrelation functions of non-stationary (seasonal) process to its stationary counterpart. Hence, we prove that the day seasonality of inter-transaction times extends the memory of the process. That is, autocorrelation of both, price returns and their absolute values, relaxation to zero is longer.

  4. Optimal ranking regime analysis of intra- to multidecadal U.S. climate variability. Part I: Temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Optimal Ranking Regime (ORR) method was used to identify intra- to multi-decadal (IMD) time windows containing significant ranking sequences in U.S. climate division temperature data. The simplicity of the ORR procedure’s output – a time series’ most significant non-overlapping periods of high o...

  5. Using Data to Optimize Community College Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    Marketing is an essential component of an effective enrollment management plan. The broad mission of a comprehensive community college requires multiple, targeted communications campaigns. Institutional research can contribute to marketing success at all phases of decision making.

  6. Portfolio optimization for index tracking modelling in Malaysia stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siew, Lam Weng; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ismail, Hamizun

    2016-06-01

    Index tracking is an investment strategy in portfolio management which aims to construct an optimal portfolio to generate similar mean return with the stock market index mean return without purchasing all of the stocks that make up the index. The objective of this paper is to construct an optimal portfolio using the optimization model which adopts regression approach in tracking the benchmark stock market index return. In this study, the data consists of weekly price of stocks in Malaysia market index which is FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index from January 2010 until December 2013. The results of this study show that the optimal portfolio is able to track FBMKLCI Index at minimum tracking error of 1.0027% with 0.0290% excess mean return over the mean return of FBMKLCI Index. The significance of this study is to construct the optimal portfolio using optimization model which adopts regression approach in tracking the stock market index without purchasing all index components.

  7. Adaptive Portfolio Optimization for Multiple Electricity Markets Participation.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Tiago; Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago M; Sousa, Tiago; Vale, Zita; Praca, Isabel; Faia, Ricardo; Pires, Eduardo Jose Solteiro

    2016-08-01

    The increase of distributed energy resources, mainly based on renewable sources, requires new solutions that are able to deal with this type of resources' particular characteristics (namely, the renewable energy sources intermittent nature). The smart grid concept is increasing its consensus as the most suitable solution to facilitate the small players' participation in electric power negotiations while improving energy efficiency. The opportunity for players' participation in multiple energy negotiation environments (smart grid negotiation in addition to the already implemented market types, such as day-ahead spot markets, balancing markets, intraday negotiations, bilateral contracts, forward and futures negotiations, and among other) requires players to take suitable decisions on whether to, and how to participate in each market type. This paper proposes a portfolio optimization methodology, which provides the best investment profile for a market player, considering different market opportunities. The amount of power that each supported player should negotiate in each available market type in order to maximize its profits, considers the prices that are expected to be achieved in each market, in different contexts. The price forecasts are performed using artificial neural networks, providing a specific database with the expected prices in the different market types, at each time. This database is then used as input by an evolutionary particle swarm optimization process, which originates the most advantage participation portfolio for the market player. The proposed approach is tested and validated with simulations performed in multiagent simulator of competitive electricity markets, using real electricity markets data from the Iberian operator-MIBEL.

  8. A survey over possible intra prediction optimizations in the H.265/HEVC encoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowski, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The H.265/HEVC standard is state-of-the-art solution in the field of video compression. It utilizes various techniques to maximize achieved compression efficiency, including quad-tree syntax organization and powerful prediction algorithms. The quad-tree approach allows the flexible adaptation to various texture characteristics at the expense of the dramatic increase in computational complexity. This results in very long encoding times, especially while using the reference software, known as HM. However, over the years, miscellaneous heuristics were developed to accelerate the selection of the optimal CTU division and the prediction mode. This paper is an overview of the most promising heuristics, designed for intra frames.

  9. Antimicrobials: a global alliance for optimizing their rational use in intra-abdominal infections (AGORA).

    PubMed

    Sartelli, Massimo; Weber, Dieter G; Ruppé, Etienne; Bassetti, Matteo; Wright, Brian J; Ansaloni, Luca; Catena, Fausto; Coccolini, Federico; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Coimbra, Raul; Moore, Ernest E; Moore, Frederick A; Maier, Ronald V; De Waele, Jan J; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Griffiths, Ewen A; Eckmann, Christian; Brink, Adrian J; Mazuski, John E; May, Addison K; Sawyer, Rob G; Mertz, Dominik; Montravers, Philippe; Kumar, Anand; Roberts, Jason A; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Watkins, Richard R; Lowman, Warren; Spellberg, Brad; Abbott, Iain J; Adesunkanmi, Abdulrashid Kayode; Al-Dahir, Sara; Al-Hasan, Majdi N; Agresta, Ferdinando; Althani, Asma A; Ansari, Shamshul; Ansumana, Rashid; Augustin, Goran; Bala, Miklosh; Balogh, Zsolt J; Baraket, Oussama; Bhangu, Aneel; Beltrán, Marcelo A; Bernhard, Michael; Biffl, Walter L; Boermeester, Marja A; Brecher, Stephen M; Cherry-Bukowiec, Jill R; Buyne, Otmar R; Cainzos, Miguel A; Cairns, Kelly A; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrian; Chandy, Sujith J; Che Jusoh, Asri; Chichom-Mefire, Alain; Colijn, Caroline; Corcione, Francesco; Cui, Yunfeng; Curcio, Daniel; Delibegovic, Samir; Demetrashvili, Zaza; De Simone, Belinda; Dhingra, Sameer; Diaz, José J; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Dillip, Angel; Di Saverio, Salomone; Doyle, Michael P; Dorj, Gereltuya; Dogjani, Agron; Dupont, Hervé; Eachempati, Soumitra R; Enani, Mushira Abdulaziz; Egiev, Valery N; Elmangory, Mutasim M; Ferrada, Paula; Fitchett, Joseph R; Fraga, Gustavo P; Guessennd, Nathalie; Giamarellou, Helen; Ghnnam, Wagih; Gkiokas, George; Goldberg, Staphanie R; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Gomi, Harumi; Guzmán-Blanco, Manuel; Haque, Mainul; Hansen, Sonja; Hecker, Andreas; Heizmann, Wolfgang R; Herzog, Torsten; Hodonou, Adrien Montcho; Hong, Suk-Kyung; Kafka-Ritsch, Reinhold; Kaplan, Lewis J; Kapoor, Garima; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar; Kees, Martin G; Kenig, Jakub; Kiguba, Ronald; Kim, Peter K; Kluger, Yoram; Khokha, Vladimir; Koike, Kaoru; Kok, Kenneth Y Y; Kong, Victory; Knox, Matthew C; Inaba, Kenji; Isik, Arda; Iskandar, Katia; Ivatury, Rao R; Labbate, Maurizio; Labricciosa, Francesco M; Laterre, Pierre-François; Latifi, Rifat; Lee, Jae Gil; Lee, Young Ran; Leone, Marc; Leppaniemi, Ari; Li, Yousheng; Liang, Stephen Y; Loho, Tonny; Maegele, Marc; Malama, Sydney; Marei, Hany E; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Marwah, Sanjay; Massele, Amos; McFarlane, Michael; Melo, Renato Bessa; Negoi, Ionut; Nicolau, David P; Nord, Carl Erik; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Omari, AbdelKarim H; Ordonez, Carlos A; Ouadii, Mouaqit; Pereira Júnior, Gerson Alves; Piazza, Diego; Pupelis, Guntars; Rawson, Timothy Miles; Rems, Miran; Rizoli, Sandro; Rocha, Claudio; Sakakhushev, Boris; Sanchez-Garcia, Miguel; Sato, Norio; Segovia Lohse, Helmut A; Sganga, Gabriele; Siribumrungwong, Boonying; Shelat, Vishal G; Soreide, Kjetil; Soto, Rodolfo; Talving, Peep; Tilsed, Jonathan V; Timsit, Jean-Francois; Trueba, Gabriel; Trung, Ngo Tat; Ulrych, Jan; van Goor, Harry; Vereczkei, Andras; Vohra, Ravinder S; Wani, Imtiaz; Uhl, Waldemar; Xiao, Yonghong; Yuan, Kuo-Ching; Zachariah, Sanoop K; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Zakrison, Tanya L; Corcione, Antonio; Melotti, Rita M; Viscoli, Claudio; Viale, Perluigi

    2016-01-01

    Intra-abdominal infections (IAI) are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in high-risk patients. The cornerstones in the management of complicated IAIs are timely effective source control with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is important in the management of intra-abdominal infections and must be broad enough to cover all likely organisms because inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy is associated with poor patient outcomes and the development of bacterial resistance. The overuse of antimicrobials is widely accepted as a major driver of some emerging infections (such as C. difficile), the selection of resistant pathogens in individual patients, and for the continued development of antimicrobial resistance globally. The growing emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms and the limited development of new agents available to counteract them have caused an impending crisis with alarming implications, especially with regards to Gram-negative bacteria. An international task force from 79 different countries has joined this project by sharing a document on the rational use of antimicrobials for patients with IAIs. The project has been termed AGORA (Antimicrobials: A Global Alliance for Optimizing their Rational Use in Intra-Abdominal Infections). The authors hope that AGORA, involving many of the world's leading experts, can actively raise awareness in health workers and can improve prescribing behavior in treating IAIs.

  10. Antagonistic and Bargaining Games in Optimal Marketing Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipovetsky, S.

    2007-01-01

    Game theory approaches to find optimal marketing decisions are considered. Antagonistic games with and without complete information, and non-antagonistic games techniques are applied to paired comparison, ranking, or rating data for a firm and its competitors in the market. Mix strategy, equilibrium in bi-matrix games, bargaining models with…

  11. Optimization of a Multi–Product Intra-Supply Chain System with Failure in Rework

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Globalization has created tremendous opportunities, but also made business environment highly competitive and turbulent. To gain competitive advantage, management of present-day transnational firms always seeks options to trim down various transaction and coordination costs, especially in the area of controllable intra-supply chain system. This study investigates a multi–product intra-supply chain system with failure in rework. To achieve maximum machine utilization, multiple products are fabricated in succession on a single machine. During the process, production of some defective items is inevitable. Reworking of nonconforming items is used to reduce the quality cost in production and achieving the goal of lower overall production cost. Because reworks are sometimes unsuccessful, failures in rework are also considered in this study. Finished goods for each product are transported to the sales offices when the entire production lot is quality assured after rework. A multi-delivery policy is used, wherein fixed quantity n installments of the finished lot are transported at fixed intervals during delivery time. The objective is to jointly determine the common production cycle time and the number of deliveries needed to minimize the long–term expected production–inventory–delivery costs for the problem. With the help of a mathematical model along with optimization technique, the optimal production–shipment policy is obtained. We have used a numerical example to demonstrate applicability of the result of our research. PMID:27918588

  12. Optimization of a Multi-Product Intra-Supply Chain System with Failure in Rework.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Singa Wang; Chen, Shin-Wei; Chang, Chih-Kai; Chiu, Yuan-Shyi Peter

    2016-01-01

    Globalization has created tremendous opportunities, but also made business environment highly competitive and turbulent. To gain competitive advantage, management of present-day transnational firms always seeks options to trim down various transaction and coordination costs, especially in the area of controllable intra-supply chain system. This study investigates a multi-product intra-supply chain system with failure in rework. To achieve maximum machine utilization, multiple products are fabricated in succession on a single machine. During the process, production of some defective items is inevitable. Reworking of nonconforming items is used to reduce the quality cost in production and achieving the goal of lower overall production cost. Because reworks are sometimes unsuccessful, failures in rework are also considered in this study. Finished goods for each product are transported to the sales offices when the entire production lot is quality assured after rework. A multi-delivery policy is used, wherein fixed quantity n installments of the finished lot are transported at fixed intervals during delivery time. The objective is to jointly determine the common production cycle time and the number of deliveries needed to minimize the long-term expected production-inventory-delivery costs for the problem. With the help of a mathematical model along with optimization technique, the optimal production-shipment policy is obtained. We have used a numerical example to demonstrate applicability of the result of our research.

  13. Biological optimization of simultaneous boost on intra-prostatic lesions (DILs): sensitivity to TCP parameters.

    PubMed

    Azzeroni, R; Maggio, A; Fiorino, C; Mangili, P; Cozzarini, C; De Cobelli, F; Di Muzio, N G; Calandrino, R

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this investigation was to explore the potential of biological optimization in the case of simultaneous integrated boost on intra-prostatic dominant lesions (DIL) and evaluating the impact of TCP parameters uncertainty. Different combination of TCP parameters (TD50 and γ50 in the Poisson-like model), were considered for DILs and the prostate outside DILs (CTV) for 7 intermediate/high-risk prostate patients. The aim was to maximize TCP while constraining NTCPs below 5% for all organs at risk. TCP values were highly depending on the parameters used and ranged between 38.4% and 99.9%; the optimized median physical doses were in the range 94-116 Gy and 69-77 Gy for DIL and CTV respectively. TCP values were correlated with the overlap PTV-rectum and the minimum distance between rectum and DIL. In conclusion, biological optimization for selective dose escalation is feasible and suggests prescribed dose around 90-120 Gy to the DILs. The obtained result is critically depending on the assumptions concerning the higher radioresistence in the DILs. In case of very resistant clonogens into the DIL, it may be difficult to maximize TCP to acceptable levels without violating NTCP constraints.

  14. Optimal advanced credit releases in ecosystem service markets.

    PubMed

    BenDor, Todd K; Guo, Tianshu; Yates, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Ecosystem service markets are popular policy tools for ecosystem protection. Advanced credit releases are an important factor affecting the supply side of ecosystem markets. Under an advanced credit release policy, regulators give ecosystem suppliers a fraction of the total ecosystem credits generated by a restoration project before it is verified that the project actually achieves the required ecological thresholds. In spite of their prominent role in ecosystem markets, there is virtually no regulatory or research literature on the proper design of advanced credit release policies. Using U.S. aquatic ecosystem markets as an example, we develop a principal-agent model of the behavior of regulators and wetland/stream mitigation bankers to determine and explore the optimal degree of advance credit release. The model highlights the tension between regulators' desire to induce market participation, while at the same time ensuring that bankers successfully complete ecological restoration. Our findings suggest several simple guidelines for strengthening advanced credit release policy.

  15. Optimal Advanced Credit Releases in Ecosystem Service Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BenDor, Todd K.; Guo, Tianshu; Yates, Andrew J.

    2014-03-01

    Ecosystem service markets are popular policy tools for ecosystem protection. Advanced credit releases are an important factor affecting the supply side of ecosystem markets. Under an advanced credit release policy, regulators give ecosystem suppliers a fraction of the total ecosystem credits generated by a restoration project before it is verified that the project actually achieves the required ecological thresholds. In spite of their prominent role in ecosystem markets, there is virtually no regulatory or research literature on the proper design of advanced credit release policies. Using U.S. aquatic ecosystem markets as an example, we develop a principal-agent model of the behavior of regulators and wetland/stream mitigation bankers to determine and explore the optimal degree of advance credit release. The model highlights the tension between regulators' desire to induce market participation, while at the same time ensuring that bankers successfully complete ecological restoration. Our findings suggest several simple guidelines for strengthening advanced credit release policy.

  16. Multiperiod Mean-Variance Portfolio Optimization via Market Cloning

    SciTech Connect

    Ankirchner, Stefan; Dermoune, Azzouz

    2011-08-15

    The problem of finding the mean variance optimal portfolio in a multiperiod model can not be solved directly by means of dynamic programming. In order to find a solution we therefore first introduce independent market clones having the same distributional properties as the original market, and we replace the portfolio mean and variance by their empirical counterparts. We then use dynamic programming to derive portfolios maximizing a weighted sum of the empirical mean and variance. By letting the number of market clones converge to infinity we are able to solve the original mean variance problem.

  17. Optimizing cosmological surveys in a crowded market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, Bruce A.

    2005-04-01

    Optimizing the major next-generation cosmological surveys (such as SNAP, KAOS, etc.) is a key problem given our ignorance of the physics underlying cosmic acceleration and the plethora of surveys planned. We propose a Bayesian design framework which (1) maximizes the discrimination power of a survey without assuming any underlying dark-energy model, (2) finds the best niche survey geometry given current data and future competing experiments, (3) maximizes the cross section for serendipitous discoveries and (4) can be adapted to answer specific questions (such as “is dark energy dynamical?”). Integrated parameter-space optimization (IPSO) is a design framework that integrates projected parameter errors over an entire dark energy parameter space and then extremizes a figure of merit (such as Shannon entropy gain which we show is stable to off-diagonal covariance matrix perturbations) as a function of survey parameters using analytical, grid or MCMC techniques. We discuss examples where the optimization can be performed analytically. IPSO is thus a general, model-independent and scalable framework that allows us to appropriately use prior information to design the best possible surveys.

  18. Visualization of intra-thalamic nuclei with optimized white-matter-nulled MPRAGE at 7T.

    PubMed

    Tourdias, Thomas; Saranathan, Manojkumar; Levesque, Ives R; Su, Jason; Rutt, Brian K

    2014-01-01

    Novel MR image acquisition strategies have been investigated to elicit contrast within the thalamus, but direct visualization of individual thalamic nuclei remains a challenge because of their small size and the low intrinsic contrast between adjacent nuclei. We present a step-by-step specific optimization of the 3D MPRAGE pulse sequence at 7T to visualize the intra-thalamic nuclei. We first measured T1 values within different sub-regions of the thalamus at 7T in 5 individuals. We used these to perform simulations and sequential experimental measurements (n=17) to tune the parameters of the MPRAGE sequence. The optimal set of parameters was used to collect high-quality data in 6 additional volunteers. Delineation of thalamic nuclei was performed twice by one rater and MR-defined nuclei were compared to the classic Morel histological atlas. T1 values within the thalamus ranged from 1400ms to 1800ms for adjacent nuclei. Using these values for theoretical evaluations combined with in vivo measurements, we showed that a short inversion time (TI) close to the white matter null regime (TI=670ms) enhanced the contrast between the thalamus and the surrounding tissues, and best revealed intra-thalamic contrast. At this particular nulling regime, lengthening the time between successive inversion pulses (TS=6000ms) increased the thalamic signal and contrast and lengthening the α pulse train time (N*TR) further increased the thalamic signal. Finally, a low flip angle during the gradient echo acquisition (α=4°) was observed to mitigate the blur induced by the evolution of the magnetization along the α pulse train. This optimized set of parameters enabled the 3D delineation of 15 substructures in all 6 individuals; these substructures corresponded well with the known anatomical structures of the thalamus based on the classic Morel atlas. The mean Euclidean distance between the centers of mass of MR- and Morel atlas-defined nuclei was 2.67mm (±1.02mm). The reproducibility of

  19. Visualization of intra-thalamic nuclei with optimized white-matter-nulled MPRAGE at 7T

    PubMed Central

    Tourdias, Thomas; Saranathan, Manojkumar; Levesque, Ives R.; Su, Jason; Rutt, Brian K.

    2013-01-01

    Novel MR image acquisition strategies have been investigated to elicit contrast within the thalamus, but direct visualization of individual thalamic nuclei remains a challenge because of their small size and the low intrinsic contrast between adjacent nuclei. We present a step-by-step specific optimization of the 3D MPRAGE pulse sequence at 7T to visualize the intra-thalamic nuclei. We first measured T1 values within different sub-regions of the thalamus at 7T in 5 individuals. We used these to perform simulations and sequential experimental measurements (n=17) to tune the parameters of the MPRAGE sequence. The optimal set of parameters was used to collect high-quality data in 6 additional volunteers. Delineation of thalamic nuclei was performed twice by one rater and MR-defined nuclei were compared to the classic Morel histological atlas. T1 values within the thalamus ranged from 1400ms to 1800ms for adjacent nuclei. Using these values for theoretical evaluations combined with in vivo measurements, we showed that a short inversion time (TI) close to the white matter null regime (TI=670ms) enhanced the contrast between the thalamus and the surrounding tissues, and best revealed intra-thalamic contrast. At this particular nulling regime, lengthening the time between successive inversion pulses (TS=6000ms) increased the thalamic signal and contrast and lengthening the α pulse train time (N*TR) further increased the thalamic signal. Finally, a low flip angle during the gradient echo acquisition (α=4°) was observed to mitigate the blur induced by the evolution of the magnetization along the α pulse train. This optimized set of parameters enabled the 3D delineation of 15 substructures in all 6 individuals; these substructures corresponded well with the known anatomical structures of the thalamus based on the classical Morel atlas. The mean Euclidean distance between the centers of mass of MR- and Morel atlas-defined nuclei was 2.67mm (±1.02mm). The reproducibility

  20. Optimal times above MICs of ceftibuten and cefaclor in experimental intra-abdominal infections.

    PubMed Central

    Onyeji, C O; Nicolau, D P; Nightingale, C H; Quintiliani, R

    1994-01-01

    The duration of time that serum drug levels remain above the MIC (time above the MIC) for the pathogen has been shown to be the most significant parameter determining the efficacies of beta-lactam antibiotics. In the described study, we investigated the optimal time above the MIC of ceftibuten and cefaclor using a nonneutropenic mouse model of intra-abdominal infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The abilities of the drugs to protect mice against the organisms were determined in mouse protection tests, and the doses were fractionated to produce various dosing regimens with different times above the MIC. All drug-organism combinations showed a significant correlation (r > 0.9) between drug efficacy and the time above the MIC. Also, with ceftibuten treatment, the different dosing regimens that produced equal times above the MIC resulted in the same efficacy, whereas with cefaclor, an apparent dose-dependent effect was observed. These results showed that for a 100% recovery from K. pneumoniae and E. coli infections, the optimal times above the MIC with ceftibuten treatment were 2.2 and 1.6 h, respectively. Relatively high doses of both antibiotics were required to ensure recovery from S. pneumoniae infections. In vitro time-kill studies demonstrated that cefaclor exhibits a marked inoculum effect against the pathogens, and there was a concentration-dependent killing at a large inoculum size. On the other hand, ceftibuten showed no inoculum effect. It is suggested that optimization of both dose and time above the MIC appears to be necessary for the treatment of S. aureus infections with cefaclor, and this may apply to other beta-lactams tht exhibit marked inoculum effects. PMID:8067747

  1. Neoliberal Optimism: Applying Market Techniques to Global Health.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yuyang

    2016-09-23

    Global health and neoliberalism are becoming increasingly intertwined as organizations utilize markets and profit motives to solve the traditional problems of poverty and population health. I use field work conducted over 14 months in a global health technology company to explore how the promise of neoliberalism re-envisions humanitarian efforts. In this company's vaccine refrigerator project, staff members expect their investors and their market to allow them to achieve scale and develop accountability to their users in developing countries. However, the translation of neoliberal techniques to the global health sphere falls short of the ideal, as profits are meager and purchasing power remains with donor organizations. The continued optimism in market principles amidst such a non-ideal market reveals the tenacious ideological commitment to neoliberalism in these global health projects.

  2. Optimality problem of network topology in stocks market analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djauhari, Maman Abdurachman; Gan, Siew Lee

    2015-02-01

    Since its introduction fifteen years ago, minimal spanning tree has become an indispensible tool in econophysics. It is to filter the important economic information contained in a complex system of financial markets' commodities. Here we show that, in general, that tool is not optimal in terms of topological properties. Consequently, the economic interpretation of the filtered information might be misleading. To overcome that non-optimality problem, a set of criteria and a selection procedure of an optimal minimal spanning tree will be developed. By using New York Stock Exchange data, the advantages of the proposed method will be illustrated in terms of the power-law of degree distribution.

  3. Optimal pricing and marketing planning for deteriorating items

    PubMed Central

    Moosavi Tabatabaei, Seyed Reza; Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar; Makui, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Optimal pricing and marketing planning plays an essential role in production decisions on deteriorating items. This paper presents a mathematical model for a three-level supply chain, which includes one producer, one distributor and one retailer. The proposed study considers the production of a deteriorating item where demand is influenced by price, marketing expenditure, quality of product and after-sales service expenditures. The proposed model is formulated as a geometric programming with 5 degrees of difficulty and the problem is solved using the recent advances in optimization techniques. The study is supported by several numerical examples and sensitivity analysis is performed to analyze the effects of the changes in different parameters on the optimal solution. The preliminary results indicate that with the change in parameters influencing on demand, inventory holding, inventory deteriorating and set-up costs change and also significantly affect total revenue. PMID:28306750

  4. Modulation of Physical Activity to Optimize Pain Sensation following an Intra-Articular Corticosteroid Injection in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Dessery, Yoann; Belzile, Étienne L.; Turmel, Sylvie; Doré, Jean; Diallo, Binta

    2014-01-01

    Background. Intra-articular corticosteroid injection is often used to relieve pain caused by knee osteoarthritis. This study aims to assess the impact after an intra-articular corticosteroid injection treatment on objective and subjective measurement of physical function in knee osteoarthritis patients. Methods. Fourteen patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis participated in this open-label uncontrolled trial. The intra-articular corticosteroid injection was given at the end of the second week. Physical activity was objectively measured by an accelerometer worn by the participants for eight weeks. Symptoms, quality of life and spatiotemporal parameters of gait were assessed every two weeks. Results. From the injection until six weeks later, pain and stiffness were reduced by approximately 60%. Patients' daily physical activity time was significantly improved after injection: participation in light and moderate physical activities increased during four and two weeks, respectively. Conclusions. The beneficial effects after the intra-articular corticosteroid injection are visible in the duration and intensity of the knee osteoarthritis patients' daily physical activity. However, these effects declined gradually two weeks after injection. Modulating the intensity and duration of physical activity would allow patients to optimize pain sensation over a longer period following an intra-articular corticosteroid injection. Trial Registration. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials: NCT02049879. PMID:25478585

  5. Intra-unit-cell magnetic correlations near optimal doping in YBa2Cu3O6.85

    PubMed Central

    Mangin-Thro, L.; Sidis, Y.; Wildes, A.; Bourges, P.

    2015-01-01

    The pseudo-gap phenomenon in copper oxide superconductors is central to any description of these materials as it prefigures the superconducting state itself. A magnetic intra-unit-cell order was found to occur just at the pseudo-gap temperature in four cuprate high-Tc superconducting families. Here we present polarized neutron-scattering measurements of nearly optimally doped YBa2Cu3O6.85, carried out on two different spectrometers, that reveal several features. The intra-unit-cell order consists of finite-sized planar domains that are very weakly correlated along the c axis. At high temperature, only the out-of-plane magnetic components correlate, indicating a strong Ising anisotropy. An aditional in-plane response develops at low temperature, giving rise to an apparent tilt of the magnetic moment. The discovery of these two regimes puts stringent constraints, which are tightly bound to the pseudo-gap physics, on the intrinsic nature of intra-unit-cell order. PMID:26138869

  6. Optimized measurements of separations and angles between intra-molecular fluorescent markers

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Kim I.; Sung, Jongmin; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Spudich, James A.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel, yet simple tool for the study of structure and function of biomolecules by extending two-colour co-localization microscopy to fluorescent molecules with fixed orientations and in intra-molecular proximity. From each colour-separated microscope image in a time-lapse movie and using only simple means, we simultaneously determine both the relative (x,y)-separation of the fluorophores and their individual orientations in space with accuracy and precision. The positions and orientations of two domains of the same molecule are thus time-resolved. Using short double-stranded DNA molecules internally labelled with two fixed fluorophores, we demonstrate the accuracy and precision of our method using the known structure of double-stranded DNA as a benchmark, resolve 10-base-pair differences in fluorophore separations, and determine the unique 3D orientation of each DNA molecule, thereby establishing short, double-labelled DNA molecules as probes of 3D orientation of anything to which one can attach them firmly. PMID:26509412

  7. Inter and intra-modal deformable registration: continuous deformations meet efficient optimal linear programming.

    PubMed

    Glocker, Ben; Paragios, Nikos; Komodakis, Nikos; Tziritas, Georgios; Navab, Nassir

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel non-rigid volume registration based on discrete labeling and linear programming. The proposed framework reformulates registration as a minimal path extraction in a weighted graph. The space of solutions is represented using a set of a labels which are assigned to predefined displacements. The graph topology corresponds to a superimposed regular grid onto the volume. Links between neighborhood control points introduce smoothness, while links between the graph nodes and the labels (end-nodes) measure the cost induced to the objective function through the selection of a particular deformation for a given control point once projected to the entire volume domain, Higher order polynomials are used to express the volume deformation from the ones of the control points. Efficient linear programming that can guarantee the optimal solution up to (a user-defined) bound is considered to recover the optimal registration parameters. Therefore, the method is gradient free, can encode various similarity metrics (simple changes on the graph construction), can guarantee a globally sub-optimal solution and is computational tractable. Experimental validation using simulated data with known deformation, as well as manually segmented data demonstrate the extreme potentials of our approach.

  8. Pareto-optimal solutions for environmental flow schemes incorporating the intra-annual and interannual variability of the natural flow regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, Jenq-Tzong; Wu, Fu-Chun

    2007-06-01

    The temporal variations of natural flows are essential elements for preserving the ecological health of a river which are addressed in this paper by the environmental flow schemes that incorporate the intra-annual and interannual variability of the natural flow regime. We present an optimization framework to find the Pareto-optimal solutions for various flow schemes. The proposed framework integrates (1) the range of variability approach for evaluating the hydrologic alterations; (2) the standardized precipitation index approach for establishing the variation criteria for the wet, normal, and dry years; (3) a weir operation model for simulating the system of flows; and (4) a multiobjective optimization genetic algorithm for search of the Pareto-optimal solutions. The proposed framework is applied to the Kaoping diversion weir in Taiwan. The results reveal that the time-varying schemes incorporating the intra-annual variability in the environmental flow prescriptions promote the ecosystem and human needs fitness. Incorporation of the interannual flow variability using different criteria established for three types of water year further promotes both fitnesses. The merit of incorporating the interannual variability may be superimposed on that of incorporating only the intra-annual flow variability. The Pareto-optimal solutions searched with a limited range of flows replicate satisfactorily those obtained with a full search range. The limited-range Pareto front may be used as a surrogate of the full-range one if feasible prescriptions are to be found among the regular flows.

  9. Interaction between renewable energy markets and carbon markets: Optimal policies to meet societal goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Ghita Levenstein

    The problem this dissertation addresses is that separate and evolving public policy debates are currently shaping renewable markets and carbon markets without attention to how each market affects the other, yet the markets have overlapping goals with respect to reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Without a better understanding of the roles, limitations, and interactions of these two markets, the larger environmental and economic societal goals that they are meant to achieve may not be fully realized. This research focuses on the electricity sector in the United States because federal regulations do not exist for renewable or carbon markets and thus the rules concerning the interaction between these markets have yet to be defined. The methodology for developing final recommendations consisted of an extensive review of relevant literature and analysis of case studies in which these markets overlap. The methodology also included the use of economic reasoning and analysis to aide in evaluating assumptions and projections about the effect a greenhouse gas ("GHG") cap and trade market may have on renewable energy markets. Finally, tools and concepts from the Policy Sciences tradition were used throughout the dissertation to frame and organize the discussion. Findings are generally that while a GHG cap and trade program will reduce emissions below what would have occurred otherwise, the design of the program will determine the extent to which overall emissions reductions can take place. Furthermore, renewable energy markets could be negatively affected by a GHG cap and trade program if generation from renewables does not reduce emissions below a cap. This dissertation concludes with recommendations for policymakers, so policies defining these markets can accurately reflect intended goals including: decreasing emissions, increasing renewables, and keeping electricity costs low.

  10. The benefits of social influence in optimized cultural markets.

    PubMed

    Abeliuk, Andrés; Berbeglia, Gerardo; Cebrian, Manuel; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Social influence has been shown to create significant unpredictability in cultural markets, providing one potential explanation why experts routinely fail at predicting commercial success of cultural products. As a result, social influence is often presented in a negative light. Here, we show the benefits of social influence for cultural markets. We present a policy that uses product quality, appeal, position bias and social influence to maximize expected profits in the market. Our computational experiments show that our profit-maximizing policy leverages social influence to produce significant performance benefits for the market, while our theoretical analysis proves that our policy outperforms in expectation any policy not displaying social signals. Our results contrast with earlier work which focused on showing the unpredictability and inequalities created by social influence. Not only do we show for the first time that, under our policy, dynamically showing consumers positive social signals increases the expected profit of the seller in cultural markets. We also show that, in reasonable settings, our profit-maximizing policy does not introduce significant unpredictability and identifies "blockbusters". Overall, these results shed new light on the nature of social influence and how it can be leveraged for the benefits of the market.

  11. The Benefits of Social Influence in Optimized Cultural Markets

    PubMed Central

    Abeliuk, Andrés; Berbeglia, Gerardo; Cebrian, Manuel; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Social influence has been shown to create significant unpredictability in cultural markets, providing one potential explanation why experts routinely fail at predicting commercial success of cultural products. As a result, social influence is often presented in a negative light. Here, we show the benefits of social influence for cultural markets. We present a policy that uses product quality, appeal, position bias and social influence to maximize expected profits in the market. Our computational experiments show that our profit-maximizing policy leverages social influence to produce significant performance benefits for the market, while our theoretical analysis proves that our policy outperforms in expectation any policy not displaying social signals. Our results contrast with earlier work which focused on showing the unpredictability and inequalities created by social influence. Not only do we show for the first time that, under our policy, dynamically showing consumers positive social signals increases the expected profit of the seller in cultural markets. We also show that, in reasonable settings, our profit-maximizing policy does not introduce significant unpredictability and identifies “blockbusters”. Overall, these results shed new light on the nature of social influence and how it can be leveraged for the benefits of the market. PMID:25831093

  12. Toward an Agent-Based Model of Socially Optimal Water Rights Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlen, M. A.

    2004-12-01

    There has been considerable interest lately in using public markets for buying and selling the rights to local water usage. Such water rights markets, if designed correctly, should be socially optimal, that is, should sell rights at prices that reflect the true value of water in the region, taking into account that water rights buyers and sellers represent a disparate group of private industry, public authorities, and private users, each having different water needs and different priority to local government. Good market design, however, is hard. As was experienced in California short-run electric power markets, a market design that on paper looks reasonable but in practice is mal-constructed can have devastating effects: firms can learn to manipulate prices by `playing' both sides of the market, and sellers can under-provide so as to create exorbitant prices which buyers have no choice but to pay. Economic theory provides several frameworks for developing a good water rights market design; for example, the structure-conduct-performance paradigm (SCPP) suggests that, among other things, the number and types of buyers and sellers (structure), and transaction clearing rules and government policies (conduct) affect in very particular ways the prices and quantities (performance) in the market. In slow-moving or static markets, SCPP has been a useful predictor of market performance; in faster markets the market dynamics that endogenously develop over time are often too complex to predict with SCPP or other existing modeling techniques. New, more sophisticated combinations of modeling and simulation are needed. Toward developing a good (i.e., socially optimal) water rights market design that can take into account the dynamics inherent in the water sector, we are developing an agent-based model of water rights markets. The model serves two purposes: first, it provides an SCPP-based framework of water rights markets that takes into account the particular structure of

  13. A market-based optimization approach to sensor and resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrage, Dan; Farnham, Christopher; Gonsalves, Paul G.

    2006-05-01

    Dynamic resource allocation for sensor management is a problem that demands solutions beyond traditional approaches to optimization. Market-based optimization applies solutions from economic theory, particularly game theory, to the resource allocation problem by creating an artificial market for sensor information and computational resources. Intelligent agents are the buyers and sellers in this market, and they represent all the elements of the sensor network, from sensors to sensor platforms to computational resources. These agents interact based on a negotiation mechanism that determines their bidding strategies. This negotiation mechanism and the agents' bidding strategies are based on game theory, and they are designed so that the aggregate result of the multi-agent negotiation process is a market in competitive equilibrium, which guarantees an optimal allocation of resources throughout the sensor network. This paper makes two contributions to the field of market-based optimization: First, we develop a market protocol to handle heterogeneous goods in a dynamic setting. Second, we develop arbitrage agents to improve the efficiency in the market in light of its dynamic nature.

  14. An Evolutionary Multi-objective Optimization of Market Structures Using PBIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinyang; Krause, Andreas

    We evaluate an agent-based model featuring near-zero-intelligence traders operating in a call market with a wide range of trading rules governing the determination of prices, which orders are executed as well as a range of parameters regarding market intervention by market makers and the presence of informed traders. We optimize these trading rules using a multi-objective population-based incremental learning (PIBL) algorithm seeking to maximize the trading price and minimize the bid-ask spread. Our results suggest that markets should choose a relatively large tick size unless concerns about either the bid-ask spread or the trading price are dominating. We also find that in contrast to trading rules in actual markets, reverse time priority is an optimal priority rule.

  15. Bidding strategy for microgrid in day-ahead market based on hybrid stochastic/robust optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Xu, Yan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an optimal bidding strategy in the day-ahead market of a microgrid consisting of intermittent distributed generation (DG), storage, dispatchable DG and price responsive loads. The microgrid coordinates the energy consumption or production of its components and trades electricity in both the day-ahead and real-time markets to minimize its operating cost as a single entity. The bidding problem is challenging due to a variety of uncertainties, including power output of intermittent DG, load variation, day-ahead and real-time market prices. A hybrid stochastic/robust optimization model is proposed to minimize the expected net cost, i.e., expected total cost of operation minus total benefit of demand. This formulation can be solved by mixed integer linear programming. The uncertain output of intermittent DG and day-ahead market price are modeled via scenarios based on forecast results, while a robust optimization is proposed to limit the unbalanced power in real-time market taking account of the uncertainty of real-time market price. Numerical simulations on a microgrid consisting of a wind turbine, a PV panel, a fuel cell, a micro-turbine, a diesel generator, a battery and a responsive load show the advantage of stochastic optimization in addition to robust optimization.

  16. Bidding strategy for microgrid in day-ahead market based on hybrid stochastic/robust optimization

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Guodong; Xu, Yan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an optimal bidding strategy in the day-ahead market of a microgrid consisting of intermittent distributed generation (DG), storage, dispatchable DG and price responsive loads. The microgrid coordinates the energy consumption or production of its components and trades electricity in both the day-ahead and real-time markets to minimize its operating cost as a single entity. The bidding problem is challenging due to a variety of uncertainties, including power output of intermittent DG, load variation, day-ahead and real-time market prices. A hybrid stochastic/robust optimization model is proposed to minimize the expected net cost, i.e., expected total costmore » of operation minus total benefit of demand. This formulation can be solved by mixed integer linear programming. The uncertain output of intermittent DG and day-ahead market price are modeled via scenarios based on forecast results, while a robust optimization is proposed to limit the unbalanced power in real-time market taking account of the uncertainty of real-time market price. Numerical simulations on a microgrid consisting of a wind turbine, a PV panel, a fuel cell, a micro-turbine, a diesel generator, a battery and a responsive load show the advantage of stochastic optimization in addition to robust optimization.« less

  17. Optimal Dynamic Advertising Strategy Under Age-Specific Market Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krastev, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    We consider the model proposed by Faggian and Grosset for determining the advertising efforts and goodwill in the long run of a company under age segmentation of consumers. Reducing this model to optimal control sub problems we find the optimal advertising strategy and goodwill.

  18. An implementation of particle swarm optimization to evaluate optimal under-voltage load shedding in competitive electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini-Bioki, M. M.; Rashidinejad, M.; Abdollahi, A.

    2013-11-01

    Load shedding is a crucial issue in power systems especially under restructured electricity environment. Market-driven load shedding in reregulated power systems associated with security as well as reliability is investigated in this paper. A technoeconomic multi-objective function is introduced to reveal an optimal load shedding scheme considering maximum social welfare. The proposed optimization problem includes maximum GENCOs and loads' profits as well as maximum loadability limit under normal and contingency conditions. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) as a heuristic optimization technique, is utilized to find an optimal load shedding scheme. In a market-driven structure, generators offer their bidding blocks while the dispatchable loads will bid their price-responsive demands. An independent system operator (ISO) derives a market clearing price (MCP) while rescheduling the amount of generating power in both pre-contingency and post-contingency conditions. The proposed methodology is developed on a 3-bus system and then is applied to a modified IEEE 30-bus test system. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in implementing the optimal load shedding satisfying social welfare by maintaining voltage stability margin (VSM) through technoeconomic analyses.

  19. Market power, private information and the optimal scale of pollution permit markets with application to North Carolina’s Neuse River

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We extend the analysis of optimal scale in pollution permit markets by allowing for both market power and private information. The effect of these considerations on optimal scale is determined by analyzing pollution of nitrogen from Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP) into North Carolina’s Neuse Riv...

  20. Predicting the Direction of Stock Market Index Movement Using an Optimized Artificial Neural Network Model.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Mingyue; Song, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In the business sector, it has always been a difficult task to predict the exact daily price of the stock market index; hence, there is a great deal of research being conducted regarding the prediction of the direction of stock price index movement. Many factors such as political events, general economic conditions, and traders' expectations may have an influence on the stock market index. There are numerous research studies that use similar indicators to forecast the direction of the stock market index. In this study, we compare two basic types of input variables to predict the direction of the daily stock market index. The main contribution of this study is the ability to predict the direction of the next day's price of the Japanese stock market index by using an optimized artificial neural network (ANN) model. To improve the prediction accuracy of the trend of the stock market index in the future, we optimize the ANN model using genetic algorithms (GA). We demonstrate and verify the predictability of stock price direction by using the hybrid GA-ANN model and then compare the performance with prior studies. Empirical results show that the Type 2 input variables can generate a higher forecast accuracy and that it is possible to enhance the performance of the optimized ANN model by selecting input variables appropriately.

  1. Predicting the Direction of Stock Market Index Movement Using an Optimized Artificial Neural Network Model

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Mingyue; Song, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In the business sector, it has always been a difficult task to predict the exact daily price of the stock market index; hence, there is a great deal of research being conducted regarding the prediction of the direction of stock price index movement. Many factors such as political events, general economic conditions, and traders’ expectations may have an influence on the stock market index. There are numerous research studies that use similar indicators to forecast the direction of the stock market index. In this study, we compare two basic types of input variables to predict the direction of the daily stock market index. The main contribution of this study is the ability to predict the direction of the next day’s price of the Japanese stock market index by using an optimized artificial neural network (ANN) model. To improve the prediction accuracy of the trend of the stock market index in the future, we optimize the ANN model using genetic algorithms (GA). We demonstrate and verify the predictability of stock price direction by using the hybrid GA-ANN model and then compare the performance with prior studies. Empirical results show that the Type 2 input variables can generate a higher forecast accuracy and that it is possible to enhance the performance of the optimized ANN model by selecting input variables appropriately. PMID:27196055

  2. Optimal Dynamics of the Vidale-Wolfe Advertising Model. Part I. Fixed Terminal Market Share.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The optimal control problem consist of the Vidale-Wolfe advertising model as its dynamics; the optimal control being the rate of advertising ...expenditure which must achieve a specified terminal market share in a way which maximizes the present value of net profit streams over a finite horizon. The...problem is completely solved with or without an upper limit on advertising rate. The solution in the later case is obtained by using Green’s theorem

  3. Basic Knowledge for Market Principle: Approaches to the Price Coordination Mechanism by Using Optimization Theory and Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiyoshi, Eitaro; Masuda, Kazuaki

    On the basis of market fundamentalism, new types of social systems with the market mechanism such as electricity trading markets and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission trading markets have been developed. However, there are few textbooks in science and technology which present the explanation that Lagrange multipliers can be interpreted as market prices. This tutorial paper explains that (1) the steepest descent method for dual problems in optimization, and (2) Gauss-Seidel method for solving the stationary conditions of Lagrange problems with market principles, can formulate the mechanism of market pricing, which works even in the information-oriented modern society. The authors expect readers to acquire basic knowledge on optimization theory and algorithms related to economics and to utilize them for designing the mechanism of more complicated markets.

  4. Optimization of a Future RLV Business Case using Multiple Strategic Market Prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charania, A.; Olds, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    There is a lack of depth in the current paradigm of conceptual level economic models used to evaluate the value and viability of future capital projects such as a commercial reusable launch vehicle (RLV). Current modeling methods assume a single price is charged to all customers, public or private, in order to optimize the economic metrics of interest. This assumption may not be valid given the different utility functions for space services of public and private entities. The government's requirements are generally more inflexible than its commercial counterparts. A government's launch schedules are much more rigid, choices of international launch services restricted, and launch specifications generally more stringent as well as numerous. These requirements generally make the government's demand curve more inelastic. Subsequently, a launch vehicle provider will charge a higher price (launch price per kg) to the government and may obtain a higher level of financial profit compared to an equivalent a commercial payload. This profit is not a sufficient condition to enable RLV development by itself but can help in making the financial situation slightly better. An RLV can potentially address multiple payload markets; each market has a different price elasticity of demand for both the commercial and government customer. Thus, a more resilient examination of the economic landscape requires optimization of multiple prices in which each price affects a different demand curve. Such an examination is performed here using the Cost and Business Analysis Module (CABAM), an MS-Excel spreadsheet-based model that attempts to couple both the demand and supply for space transportation services in the future. The demand takes the form of market assumptions (both near-term and far-term) and the supply comes from user-defined vehicles that are placed into the model. CABAM represents RLV projects as commercial endeavors with the possibility to model the effects of government

  5. Optimization models and techniques for implementation and pricing of electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrigal Martinez, Marcelino

    Vertically integrated electric power systems extensively use optimization models and solution techniques to guide their optimal operation and planning. The advent of electric power systems re-structuring has created needs for new optimization tools and the revision of the inherited ones from the vertical integration era into the market environment. This thesis presents further developments on the use of optimization models and techniques for implementation and pricing of primary electricity markets. New models, solution approaches, and price setting alternatives are proposed. Three different modeling groups are studied. The first modeling group considers simplified continuous and discrete models for power pool auctions driven by central-cost minimization. The direct solution of the dual problems, and the use of a Branch-and-Bound algorithm to solve the primal, allows to identify the effects of disequilibrium, and different price setting alternatives over the existence of multiple solutions. It is shown that particular pricing rules worsen the conflict of interest that arise when multiple solutions exist under disequilibrium. A price-setting alternative based on dual variables is shown to diminish such conflict. The second modeling group considers the unit commitment problem. An interior-point/cutting-plane method is proposed for the solution of the dual problem. The new method has better convergence characteristics and does not suffer from the parameter tuning drawback as previous methods The robustness characteristics of the interior-point/cutting-plane method, combined with a non-uniform price setting alternative, show that the conflict of interest is diminished when multiple near optimal solutions exist. The non-uniform price setting alternative is compared to a classic average pricing rule. The last modeling group concerns to a new type of linear network-constrained clearing system models for daily markets for power and spinning reserve. A new model and

  6. Study on Stochastic Optimal Electric Power Procurement Strategies with Uncertain Market Prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakchai, Siripatanakulkhajorn; Saisho, Yuichi; Fujii, Yasumasa; Yamaji, Kenji

    The player in deregulated electricity markets can be categorized into three groups of GENCO (Generator Companies), TRNASCO (Transmission Companies), DISCO (Distribution Companies). This research focuses on the role of Distribution Companies, which purchase electricity from market at randomly fluctuating prices, and provide it to their customers at given fixed prices. Therefore Distribution companies have to take the risk stemming from price fluctuation of electricity instead of the customers. This entails the necessity to develop a certain method to make an optimal strategy for electricity procurement. In such a circumstance, this research has the purpose for proposing the mathematical method based on stochastic dynamic programming to evaluate the value of a long-term bilateral contract of electricity trade, and also a project of combination of the bilateral contract and power generation with their own generators for procuring electric power in deregulated market.

  7. Optimal operational strategies for a day-ahead electricity market in the presence of market power using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo, Deepal

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation introduces a novel approach for optimally operating a day-ahead electricity market not only by economically dispatching the generation resources but also by minimizing the influences of market manipulation attempts by the individual generator-owning companies while ensuring that the power system constraints are not violated. Since economic operation of the market conflicts with the individual profit maximization tactics such as market manipulation by generator-owning companies, a methodology that is capable of simultaneously optimizing these two competing objectives has to be selected. Although numerous previous studies have been undertaken on the economic operation of day-ahead markets and other independent studies have been conducted on the mitigation of market power, the operation of a day-ahead electricity market considering these two conflicting objectives simultaneously has not been undertaken previously. These facts provided the incentive and the novelty for this study. A literature survey revealed that many of the traditional solution algorithms convert multi-objective functions into either a single-objective function using weighting schemas or undertake optimization of one function at a time. Hence, these approaches do not truly optimize the multi-objectives concurrently. Due to these inherent deficiencies of the traditional algorithms, the use of alternative non-traditional solution algorithms for such problems has become popular and widely used. Of these, multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEA) have received wide acceptance due to their solution quality and robustness. In the present research, three distinct algorithms were considered: a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II), a multi-objective tabu search algorithm (MOTS) and a hybrid of multi-objective tabu search and genetic algorithm (MOTS/GA). The accuracy and quality of the results from these algorithms for applications similar to the problem investigated here

  8. Discrete homotopy analysis for optimal trading execution with nonlinear transient market impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curato, Gianbiagio; Gatheral, Jim; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2016-10-01

    Optimal execution in financial markets is the problem of how to trade a large quantity of shares incrementally in time in order to minimize the expected cost. In this paper, we study the problem of the optimal execution in the presence of nonlinear transient market impact. Mathematically such problem is equivalent to solve a strongly nonlinear integral equation, which in our model is a weakly singular Urysohn equation of the first kind. We propose an approach based on Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM), whereby a well behaved initial trading strategy is continuously deformed to lower the expected execution cost. Specifically, we propose a discrete version of the HAM, i.e. the DHAM approach, in order to use the method when the integrals to compute have no closed form solution. We find that the optimal solution is front loaded for concave instantaneous impact even when the investor is risk neutral. More important we find that the expected cost of the DHAM strategy is significantly smaller than the cost of conventional strategies.

  9. Marketing.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  10. Optimal fluorescence excitation wavelengths for detection of squamous intra-epithelial neoplasia: results from an animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coghlan, Lezlee; Utzinger, Urs; Drezek, Rebekah A.; Heintzelmann, Doug; Zuluaga, Andres F.; Brookner, Carrie; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.; Gimenez-Conti, Irma; Follen, Michele

    2000-12-01

    Using the hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model, we explore which fluorescence excitation wavelengths are useful for the detection of neoplasia. 42 hamsters were treated with DMBA to induce carcinogenesis, and 20 control animals were treated only with mineral oil. Fluorescence excitation emission matrices were measured from the cheek pouches of the hamsters weekly. Results showed increased fluorescence near 350-370 nm and 410 nm excitation and decreased fluorescence near 450-470 nm excitation with neoplasia. The optimal diagnostic excitation wavelengths identified using this model - 350-370 nm excitation and 400-450 nm excitation - are similar to those identified for detection of human oral cavity neoplasia.

  11. Method of Power System Suistanable Development Optimization in Liberalized Market Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcik, M.; Oleinikova, I.; Krishans, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The paper is focused on the development of the Baltic Sea region taking into account the new EU energy policy. The authors elucidate the current situation and the power system infrastructure projects of the region. For the economic analysis and optimization of the development plans a method is proposed that takes into account the outlooks for upcoming 20-50 years and the initial information uncertainty. The method makes possible estimation of the technically-economic state, including market conditions, for a given power system.

  12. Evaluation and Verification of Channel Transmission Characteristics of Human Body for Optimizing Data Transmission Rate in Electrostatic-Coupling Intra Body Communication System: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yuhwai; Su, Chauchin; Ho, Yingchieh

    2016-01-01

    Background Intra-body communication is a new wireless scheme for transmitting signals through the human body. Understanding the transmission characteristics of the human body is therefore becoming increasingly important. Electrostatic-coupling intra-body communication system in a ground-free situation that integrate electronic products that are discretely located on individuals, such as mobile phones, PDAs, wearable computers, and biomedical sensors, are of particular interest. Materials and Methods The human body is modeled as a simplified Resistor-Capacitor network. A virtual ground between the transmitter and receiver in the system is represented by a resister-capacitor network. Value of its resistance and capacitance are determined from a system perspective. The system is characterized by using a mathematical unit step function in digital baseband transmission scheme with and without Manchester code. As a result, the signal-to-noise and to-intersymbol-interference ratios are improved by manipulating the load resistor. The data transmission rate of the system is optimized. A battery-powered transmitter and receiver are developed to validate the proposal. Results A ground-free system fade signal energy especially for a low-frequency signal limited system transmission rate. The system transmission rate is maximized by simply manipulating the load resistor. Experimental results demonstrate that for a load resistance of 10k−50k Ω, the high-pass 3 dB frequency of the band-pass channel is 400kHz−2MHz in the worst-case scenario. The system allows a Manchester-coded baseband signal to be transmitted at speeds of up to 20M bit per second with signal-to-noise and signal-to-intersymbol-interference ratio of more than 10 dB. Conclusion The human body can function as a high speed transmission medium with a data transmission rate of 20Mbps in an electrostatic-coupling intra-body communication system. Therefore, a wideband signal can be transmitted directly through the

  13. Co-optimization of RegC and TWINSCAN corrections to improve the intra-field on-product overlay performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorhad, Kujan; Sharoni, Ofir; Dmitriev, Vladimir; Cohen, Avi; van Haren, Richard; Roelofs, Christian; Cekli, Hakki Ergun; Gallagher, Emily; Leray, Philippe; Beyer, Dirk; Trautzsch, Thomas; Steinert, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    Improving wafer On Product Overlay (OPO) is becoming a major challenge in lithography, especially for multipatterning techniques like N-repetitive Litho-Etch steps (LEN, N >= 2). When using different scanner settings and litho processes between inter-layer overlays, intra-field overlay control becomes more complicated. In addition to the Image Placement Error (IPE) contribution, the TWINSCANTM lens fingerprint in combination with the exposure settings is playing a significant role as well. Furthermore the scanner needs to deal with dynamic fingerprints caused by for instance lens and/or reticle heating. This paper will demonstrate the complementary RegC® and TWINSCANTM solution for improving the OPO by cooptimizing the correction capabilities of the individual tools, respectively. As a consequence, the systematic intra-field fingerprints can be decreased along with the overlay (OVL) error at wafer level. Furthermore, the application could be utilized for extending some of the scanner actuators ranges by inducing a pre-determined signatures. These solutions perfectly fit into the ASML Litho InSight (LIS) product in which feedforward and feedback corrections based on YieldStar overlay and other measurements are used to improve the OPO. While the TWINSCANTM scanner corrects for global distortions (up to third order) - scanner Correctable Errors ( CE), the RegC® application can correct for the None Correctable Errors (NCE) by making the high frequency NCE into a CE with low frequency nature. The RegC® induces predictable deformation elements inside the quartz (Qz) material of the reticle, and by doing so it can induce a desired pre-defined signature into the reticle. The deformation introduced by the RegC® is optimized for the actual wafer print taking into account the scale and ortho compensation by the scanner, to correct for the systematic fingerprints and the wafer overlay. These two applications might be very powerful and could contribute to achieve a better

  14. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  15. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maust, Robert N.

    1985-01-01

    Although college administrators may be committed to the concept and need for institutional marketing, even a well-developed marketing plan may not work if it is not clearly organized to address special needs. This article reviews management fads, how to make jargon operational, organizational dynamics, and monitoring fads. (MSE)

  16. Co-optimization of Energy and Demand-Side Reserves in Day-Ahead Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surender Reddy, S.; Abhyankar, A. R.; Bijwe, P. R.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a new multi-objective day-ahead market clearing (DAMC) mechanism with demand-side reserves/demand response (DR) offers, considering realistic voltage-dependent load modeling. The paper proposes objectives such as social welfare maximization (SWM) including demand-side reserves, and load served error (LSE) minimization. In this paper, energy and demand-side reserves are cleared simultaneously through co-optimization process. The paper clearly brings out the unsuitability of conventional SWM for DAMC in the presence of voltage-dependent loads, due to reduction of load served (LS). Under such circumstances multi-objective DAMC with DR offers is essential. Multi-objective Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2+ (SPEA 2+) has been used to solve the optimization problem. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is confirmed with results obtained from IEEE 30 bus system.

  17. Tracing the transition path between optimal strategies combinations within a competitive market of innovative industrial products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.; Pollalis, Yannis A.

    2012-12-01

    In several cases, a competitive market can be simulated by a game, where each company/opponent is referred to as a player. In order to accommodate the fact that each player (alone or with alliances) is working against some others' interest, the rather conservative maximin criterion is frequently used for selecting the strategy or the combination of strategies that yield the best of the worst possible outcomes for each one of the players. Under this criterion, an optimal solution is obtained when neither player finds it beneficial to alter his strategy, which means that an equilibrium has been achieved, giving also the value of the game. If conditions change as regards a player, e.g., because of either achieving an unexpected successful result in developing an innovative industrial product or obtaining higher liquidity permitting him to increase advertisement in order to acquire a larger market share, then a new equilibrium is reached. The identification of the path between the old and the new equilibrium points may prove to be valuable for investigating the robustness of the solution by means of sensitivity analysis, since uncertainty plays a critical role in this situation, where evaluation of the payoff matrix is usually based on experts' estimates. In this work, the development of a standard methodology (including 16 activity stages and 7 decision nodes) for tracing this path is presented while a numerical implementation follows to prove its functionality.

  18. Short-Term Stochastic Optimization of Hydropower Production and Marketing under Meteorological Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanenberg, D.; Naumann, S.; Allen, C.

    2015-12-01

    Hydroelectric power systems are characterized by variability and uncertainty in yield and water resources obligations. Market volatility and the growing number of operational constraints for flood control, navigation, environmental obligations and ancillary services (including load balancing requirements for renewable resources) further the need to quantify sources of uncertainty. This research presents an integrated framework to handle several sources of uncertainty. Main focus is on the meteorological forecast uncertainty represented by a probabilistic Numerical Weather Predictions (NWP), its consistent propagation through load and streamflow forecasts, and the generation of scenario trees with multi-dimensional distance metrics. The short-term management approach adapts to this forecast uncertainty and its resolution by the use of multi-stage stochastic optimization. The Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS), managed by the Bonneville Power Administration, the US Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, serves as a large-scale test case for the application of the new framework. It is used to quantify the operational flexibility of the hydropower system and to propagate the forecast uncertainty through the system. Objectives and constraints enable the operating staff to shape and direct the system such that variability remains in the hydropower system or gets absorbs by the energy market.

  19. Optimal Operation and Value Evaluation of Pumped Storage Power Plants Considering Spot Market Trading and Uncertainty of Bilateral Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kenta; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Jun

    In recent years, as the deregulation in electric power industry has advanced in many countries, a spot market trading of electricity has been done. Generation companies are allowed to purchase the electricity through the electric power market and supply electric power for their bilateral customers. Under this circumstance, it is important for the generation companies to procure the required electricity with cheaper cost to increase their profit. The market price is volatile since it is determined by bidding between buyer and seller. The pumped storage power plant, one of the storage facilities is promising against such volatile market price since it can produce a profit by purchasing electricity with lower-price and selling it with higher-price. This paper discusses the optimal operation of the pumped storage power plants considering bidding strategy to an uncertain spot market. The volatilities in market price and demand are represented by the Vasicek model in our estimation. This paper also discusses the allocation of operational reserve to the pumped storage power plant.

  20. Solving Two-Level Optimization Problems with Applications to Robust Design and Energy Markets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    made up of only robust points otherwise the term is ill-defined. There is also a global counterpart as defined below. Definition 2.6: Globally ...optimal robust: For a robust optimization problem, a globally optimal robust solution x*, is a robust point such that x* is optimal ( xxfxf...Since this dissertation‟s approach is based on gradient-based methods, a globally optimal robust solution can never be guaranteed for the complete

  1. Optimal Dispatch of Competitive Power Markets by Using PowerWorld Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Li, Shuhui

    2013-10-01

    The transition to competitive and retail markets for electric utilities around the world has been a difficult and controversial process. One of the difficulties that hindered the development and growth of competitive power markets is the absence of efficient computational tools to assist the design, analysis, and operation of competitive power markets. PowerWorld simulator is a software package that has strong analytical and visualization functions suitable for extensive power flow study of an electric power system. However, like many other power flow simulators, PowerWorld cannot be used directly for analysis and evaluation of a competitive power market. This article investigates mathematical models associated with a competitive power market and how these models can be converted and transformed in such a way that makes it possible to use PowerWorld for the competitive power market study. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, models of several small-scale competitive power markets are built in MatLab by using conventional approaches. Results generated by both PowerWorld and MatLab are compared. Finally, the article demonstrates how the PowerWorld simulator is used to investigate a larger and practical competitive power system.

  2. A Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Heuristic for Market-Oriented Task-Level Scheduling in Cloud Workflow Systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuejun; Xu, Jia; Yang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Cloud workflow system is a kind of platform service based on cloud computing. It facilitates the automation of workflow applications. Between cloud workflow system and its counterparts, market-oriented business model is one of the most prominent factors. The optimization of task-level scheduling in cloud workflow system is a hot topic. As the scheduling is a NP problem, Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) have been proposed to optimize the cost. However, they have the characteristic of premature convergence in optimization process and therefore cannot effectively reduce the cost. To solve these problems, Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO) algorithm with chaotic sequence and adaptive inertia weight factor is applied to present the task-level scheduling. Chaotic sequence with high randomness improves the diversity of solutions, and its regularity assures a good global convergence. Adaptive inertia weight factor depends on the estimate value of cost. It makes the scheduling avoid premature convergence by properly balancing between global and local exploration. The experimental simulation shows that the cost obtained by our scheduling is always lower than the other two representative counterparts.

  3. Can market-based policies accomplish the optimal floodplain management? A gap between static and dynamic models.

    PubMed

    Mori, Koichiro

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this short article is to set static and dynamic models for optimal floodplain management and to compare policy implications from the models. River floodplains are important multiple resources in that they provide various ecosystem services. It is fundamentally significant to consider environmental externalities that accrue from ecosystem services of natural floodplains. There is an interesting gap between static and dynamic models about policy implications for floodplain management, although they are based on the same assumptions. Essentially, we can derive the same optimal conditions, which imply that the marginal benefits must equal the sum of the marginal costs and the social external costs related to ecosystem services. Thus, we have to internalise the external costs by market-based policies. In this respect, market-based policies seem to be effective in a static model. However, they are not sufficient in the context of a dynamic model because the optimal steady state turns out to be unstable. Based on a dynamic model, we need more coercive regulation policies.

  4. IntraFace

    PubMed Central

    De la Torre, Fernando; Chu, Wen-Sheng; Xiong, Xuehan; Vicente, Francisco; Ding, Xiaoyu; Cohn, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Within the last 20 years, there has been an increasing interest in the computer vision community in automated facial image analysis algorithms. This has been driven by applications in animation, market research, autonomous-driving, surveillance, and facial editing among others. To date, there exist several commercial packages for specific facial image analysis tasks such as facial expression recognition, facial attribute analysis or face tracking. However, free and easy-to-use software that incorporates all these functionalities is unavailable. This paper presents IntraFace (IF), a publicly-available software package for automated facial feature tracking, head pose estimation, facial attribute recognition, and facial expression analysis from video. In addition, IFincludes a newly develop technique for unsupervised synchrony detection to discover correlated facial behavior between two or more persons, a relatively unexplored problem in facial image analysis. In tests, IF achieved state-of-the-art results for emotion expression and action unit detection in three databases, FERA, CK+ and RU-FACS; measured audience reaction to a talk given by one of the authors; and discovered synchrony for smiling in videos of parent-infant interaction. IF is free of charge for academic use at http://www.humansensing.cs.cmu.edu/intraface/. PMID:27346987

  5. Scientific and Technical Serials Holdings Optimization in an Inefficient Market: A LSU Serials Redesign Project Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensman, Stephen J.; Wilder, Stanley J.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the structure of the library market for scientific and technical (ST) serials. Describes an exercise aimed at a theoretical reconstruction of the ST-serials holdings of Louisiana State University (LSU) Libraries. Discusses the set definitions, measures, and algorithms necessary in the design of a computer program to appraise ST serials.…

  6. Antibiotic optimization in the difficult-to-treat patient with complicated intra-abdominal or complicated skin and skin structure infections: focus on tigecycline

    PubMed Central

    Reygaert, Wanda C

    2010-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal and skin and skin structure infections are widely varied in presentation. These infections very often lead to an increase in length of hospital stay, with a resulting increase in costs and mortality. In addition, these infections may be caused by a wide variety of bacteria and are often polymicrobial with the possibility of the presence of antimicrobial-resistant strains, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, extended-spectrum β-lactamase strains (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae), and K. pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing strains. In combination with patients’ immunosuppression or comorbidities, the treatment and management options for initial therapy success are few. Tigecycline, a new glycylcyline antimicrobial from the tetracycline drug class, represents a viable option for the successful treatment of these infections. It has been shown to have activity against a wide variety of bacteria, including the antimicrobial-resistant strains. As with all tetracycline drugs, it is not recommended for pregnant or nursing women. The potential side effects are those typical of tetracycline drugs: nausea, vomiting, and headaches. Drug–drug interactions are not expected, and renal function monitoring is not necessary. PMID:20856688

  7. Optimization of investment portfolio weight of stocks affected by market index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizah, E.; Rusyaman, E.; Supian, S.

    2017-01-01

    Stock price assessment, selection of optimum combination, and measure the risk of a portfolio investment is one important issue for investors. In this paper single index model used for the assessment of the stock price, and formulation optimization model developed using Lagrange multiplier technique to determine the proportion of assets to be invested. The level of risk is estimated by using variance. These models are used to analyse the stock price data Lippo Bank and Bumi Putera.

  8. Optimal Mandates and The Welfare Cost of Asymmetric Information: Evidence from The U.K. Annuity Market*

    PubMed Central

    Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy; Schrimpf, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Much of the extensive empirical literature on insurance markets has focused on whether adverse selection can be detected. Once detected, however, there has been little attempt to quantify its welfare cost, or to assess whether and what potential government interventions may reduce these costs. To do so, we develop a model of annuity contract choice and estimate it using data from the U.K. annuity market. The model allows for private information about mortality risk as well as heterogeneity in preferences over different contract options. We focus on the choice of length of guarantee among individuals who are required to buy annuities. The results suggest that asymmetric information along the guarantee margin reduces welfare relative to a first best symmetric information benchmark by about £127 million per year, or about 2 percent of annuitized wealth. We also find that by requiring that individuals choose the longest guarantee period allowed, mandates could achieve the first-best allocation. However, we estimate that other mandated guarantee lengths would have detrimental effects on welfare. Since determining the optimal mandate is empirically difficult, our findings suggest that achieving welfare gains through mandatory social insurance may be harder in practice than simple theory may suggest. PMID:20592943

  9. Suboptimal and optimal order policies for fixed and varying replenishment interval with declining market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jonas C. P.; Wee, H. M.; Yang, P. C.; Wu, Simon

    2016-06-01

    One of the supply chain risks for hi-tech products is the result of rapid technological innovation; it results in a significant decline in the selling price and demand after the initial launch period. Hi-tech products include computers and communication consumer's products. From a practical standpoint, a more realistic replenishment policy is needed to consider the impact of risks; especially when some portions of shortages are lost. In this paper, suboptimal and optimal order policies with partial backordering are developed for a buyer when the component cost, the selling price, and the demand rate decline at a continuous rate. Two mathematical models are derived and discussed: one model has the suboptimal solution with the fixed replenishment interval and a simpler computational process; the other one has the optimal solution with the varying replenishment interval and a more complicated computational process. The second model results in more profit. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the two replenishment models. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to investigate the relationship between the parameters and the net profit.

  10. Mathematical model of microbicidal flow dynamics and optimization of rheological properties for intra-vaginal drug delivery: Role of tissue mechanics and fluid rheology.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Md Rajib; Camarda, Kyle V; Kieweg, Sarah L

    2015-06-25

    Topically applied microbicide gels can provide a self-administered and effective strategy to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We have investigated the interplay between vaginal tissue elasticity and the yield-stress of non-Newtonian fluids during microbicide deployment. We have developed a mathematical model of tissue deformation driven spreading of microbicidal gels based on thin film lubrication approximation and demonstrated the effect of tissue elasticity and fluid yield-stress on the spreading dynamics. Our results show that both elasticity of tissue and yield-stress rheology of gel are strong determinants of the coating behavior. An optimization framework has been demonstrated which leverages the flow dynamics of yield-stress fluid during deployment to maximize retention while reaching target coating length for a given tissue elasticity.

  11. An Agent-Based Optimization Framework for Engineered Complex Adaptive Systems with Application to Demand Response in Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghnevis, Moeed

    The main objective of this research is to develop an integrated method to study emergent behavior and consequences of evolution and adaptation in engineered complex adaptive systems (ECASs). A multi-layer conceptual framework and modeling approach including behavioral and structural aspects is provided to describe the structure of a class of engineered complex systems and predict their future adaptive patterns. The approach allows the examination of complexity in the structure and the behavior of components as a result of their connections and in relation to their environment. This research describes and uses the major differences of natural complex adaptive systems (CASs) with artificial/engineered CASs to build a framework and platform for ECAS. While this framework focuses on the critical factors of an engineered system, it also enables one to synthetically employ engineering and mathematical models to analyze and measure complexity in such systems. In this way concepts of complex systems science are adapted to management science and system of systems engineering. In particular an integrated consumer-based optimization and agent-based modeling (ABM) platform is presented that enables managers to predict and partially control patterns of behaviors in ECASs. Demonstrated on the U.S. electricity markets, ABM is integrated with normative and subjective decision behavior recommended by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). The approach integrates social networks, social science, complexity theory, and diffusion theory. Furthermore, it has unique and significant contribution in exploring and representing concrete managerial insights for ECASs and offering new optimized actions and modeling paradigms in agent-based simulation.

  12. Fire assisted pastoralism vs. sustainable forestry--the implications of missing markets for carbon in determining optimal land use in the wet-dry tropics of Australia.

    PubMed

    Ockwell, David; Lovett, Jon C

    2005-04-01

    Using Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, Australia as a case study, this paper combines field sampling of woody vegetation with cost-benefit analysis to compare the social optimality of fire-assisted pastoralism with sustainable forestry. Carbon sequestration is estimated to be significantly higher in the absence of fire. Integration of carbon sequestration benefits for mitigating future costs of climate change into cost-benefit analysis demonstrates that sustainable forestry is a more socially optimal land use than fire-assisted pastoralism. Missing markets for carbon, however, imply that fire-assisted pastoralism will continue to be pursued in the absence of policy intervention. Creation of markets for carbon represents a policy solution that has the potential to drive land use away from fire-assisted pastoralism towards sustainable forestry and environmental conservation.

  13. Portfolio-Scale Optimization of Customer Energy Efficiency Incentive and Marketing: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-535

    SciTech Connect

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2016-02-17

    North East utility National Grid (NGrid) is developing a portfolio-scale application of OpenStudio designed to optimize incentive and marketing expenditures for their energy efficiency (EE) programs. NGrid wishes to leverage a combination of geographic information systems (GIS), public records, customer data, and content from the Building Component Library (BCL) to form a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) input file that is consumed by an OpenStudio-based expert system for automated model generation. A baseline model for each customer building will be automatically tuned using electricity and gas consumption data, and a set of energy conservation measures (ECMs) associated with each NGrid incentive program will be applied to the model. The simulated energy performance and return on investment (ROI) will be compared with customer hurdle rates and available incentives to A) optimize the incentive required to overcome the customer hurdle rate and B) determine if marketing activity associated with the specific ECM is warranted for that particular customer. Repeated across their portfolio, this process will enable NGrid to substantially optimize their marketing and incentive expenditures, targeting those customers that will likely adopt and benefit from specific EE programs.

  14. Electric System Intra-hour Operation Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shuai; Meng, PNNL Da; Guillen, PNNL Zoe; PNNL,

    2014-03-07

    ESIOS is a software program developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that performs intra-hour dispatch and automatic generation control (AGC) simulations for electric power system frequency regulation and load/variable generation following. The program dispatches generation resources at minute interval to meet control performance requirements, while incorporating stochastic models of forecast errors and variability with generation, load, interchange and market behaviors. The simulator also contains an operator model that mimics manual actions to adjust resource dispatch and maintain system reserves. Besides simulating generation fleet intra-hour dispatch, ESIOS can also be used as a test platform for the design and verification of energy storage, demand response, and other technologies helping to accommodate variable generation.

  15. Optimism

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Charles S.; Scheier, Michael F.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.

    2010-01-01

    Optimism is an individual difference variable that reflects the extent to which people hold generalized favorable expectancies for their future. Higher levels of optimism have been related prospectively to better subjective well-being in times of adversity or difficulty (i.e., controlling for previous well-being). Consistent with such findings, optimism has been linked to higher levels of engagement coping and lower levels of avoidance, or disengagement, coping. There is evidence that optimism is associated with taking proactive steps to protect one's health, whereas pessimism is associated with health-damaging behaviors. Consistent with such findings, optimism is also related to indicators of better physical health. The energetic, task-focused approach that optimists take to goals also relates to benefits in the socioeconomic world. Some evidence suggests that optimism relates to more persistence in educational efforts and to higher later income. Optimists also appear to fare better than pessimists in relationships. Although there are instances in which optimism fails to convey an advantage, and instances in which it may convey a disadvantage, those instances are relatively rare. In sum, the behavioral patterns of optimists appear to provide models of living for others to learn from. PMID:20170998

  16. Adaptive optimization as a design and management methodology for coal-mining enterprise in uncertain and volatile market environment - the conceptual framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalchenko, V. V.; Rubanik, Yu T.

    2016-10-01

    The work is devoted to the problem of cost-effective adaptation of coal mines to the volatile and uncertain market conditions. Conceptually it can be achieved through alignment of the dynamic characteristics of the coal mining system and power spectrum of market demand for coal product. In practical terms, this ensures the viability and competitiveness of coal mines. Transformation of dynamic characteristics is to be done by changing the structure of production system as well as corporate, logistics and management processes. The proposed methods and algorithms of control are aimed at the development of the theoretical foundations of adaptive optimization as basic methodology for coal mine enterprise management in conditions of high variability and uncertainty of economic and natural environment. Implementation of the proposed methodology requires a revision of the basic principles of open coal mining enterprises design.

  17. High-speed, intra-system networks

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Heather M; Graham, Paul S; Manuzzato, Andrea; Fairbanks, Tom; Dallmann, Nicholas; Desgeorges, Rose

    2010-06-28

    Recently, engineers have been studying on-payload networks for fast communication paths. Using intra-system networks as a means to connect devices together allows for a flexible payload design that does not rely on dedicated communication paths between devices. In this manner, the data flow architecture of the system can be dynamically reconfigured to allow data routes to be optimized for the application or configured to route around devices that are temporarily or permanently unavailable. To use intra-system networks, devices will need network controllers and switches. These devices are likely to be affected by single-event effects, which could affect data communication. In this paper we will present radiation data and performance analysis for using a Broadcom network controller in a neutron environment.

  18. The Use of Market Intelligence Tools to Optimize the Economic Impact of a Chronic Disease in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Jaqueline Alejandra Haces

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical products market in Mexico involves four main actors: health providers, health payers, patients and pharmaceutical companies. The relationship between health providers and the pharmaceutical companies that supply the products required to prevent and treat illnesses is of particular interest. This relationship can be described…

  19. The Intra-S Checkpoint Responses to DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Divya Ramalingam; Rhind, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Faithful duplication of the genome is a challenge because DNA is susceptible to damage by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic genotoxins, such as free radicals and UV light. Cells activate the intra-S checkpoint in response to damage during S phase to protect genomic integrity and ensure replication fidelity. The checkpoint prevents genomic instability mainly by regulating origin firing, fork progression, and transcription of G1/S genes in response to DNA damage. Several studies hint that regulation of forks is perhaps the most critical function of the intra-S checkpoint. However, the exact role of the checkpoint at replication forks has remained elusive and controversial. Is the checkpoint required for fork stability, or fork restart, or to prevent fork reversal or fork collapse, or activate repair at replication forks? What are the factors that the checkpoint targets at stalled replication forks? In this review, we will discuss the various pathways activated by the intra-S checkpoint in response to damage to prevent genomic instability. PMID:28218681

  20. Optimizing anaerobic soil disinfestation for fresh market tomato production: Nematode and weed control, yield, and fruit quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) has potential as an alternative to chemical-fumigation for controlling soilborne pathogens and pests. Previously, control of nutsedge was sub-optimal and the quantity of inputs for commercial production was an impediment to adoption. Field studies were conducted i...

  1. Optimal portfolio strategy with cross-correlation matrix composed by DCCA coefficients: Evidence from the Chinese stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xuelian; Liu, Zixian

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a new estimator of correlation matrix is proposed, which is composed of the detrended cross-correlation coefficients (DCCA coefficients), to improve portfolio optimization. In contrast to Pearson's correlation coefficients (PCC), DCCA coefficients acquired by the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) method can describe the nonlinear correlation between assets, and can be decomposed in different time scales. These properties of DCCA make it possible to improve the investment effect and more valuable to investigate the scale behaviors of portfolios. The minimum variance portfolio (MVP) model and the Mean-Variance (MV) model are used to evaluate the effectiveness of this improvement. Stability analysis shows the effect of two kinds of correlation matrices on the estimation error of portfolio weights. The observed scale behaviors are significant to risk management and could be used to optimize the portfolio selection.

  2. Optimal portfolio selection in a Lévy market with uncontrolled cash flow and only risky assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yan; Li, Zhongfei; Wu, Huiling

    2013-03-01

    This article considers an investor who has an exogenous cash flow evolving according to a Lévy process and invests in a financial market consisting of only risky assets, whose prices are governed by exponential Lévy processes. Two continuous-time portfolio selection problems are studied for the investor. One is a benchmark problem, and the other is a mean-variance problem. The first problem is solved by adopting the stochastic dynamic programming approach, and the obtained results are extended to the second problem by employing the duality theory. Closed-form solutions of these two problems are derived. Some existing results are found to be special cases of our results.

  3. Intra-spike crosslinking overcomes antibody evasion by HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Galimidi, Rachel P.; Klein, Joshua S.; Politzer, Maria S.; Bai, Shiyu; Seaman, Michael S.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; West, Anthony P.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Antibodies developed during HIV-1 infection lose efficacy as the viral spike mutates. We postulated that anti-HIV-1 antibodies primarily bind monovalently because HIV’s low spike density impedes bivalent binding through inter-spike crosslinking, and the spike structure prohibits bivalent binding through intra-spike crosslinking. Monovalent binding reduces avidity and potency, thus expanding the range of mutations permitting antibody evasion. To test this idea, we engineered antibody-based molecules capable of bivalent binding through intra-spike crosslinking. We used DNA as a “molecular ruler” to measure intra-epitope distances on virion-bound spikes and construct intra-spike crosslinking molecules. Optimal bivalent reagents exhibited up to 2.5 orders-of-magnitude increased potency (>100-fold average increases across virus panels) and identified conformational states of virion-bound spikes. The demonstration that intra-spike crosslinking lowers the concentration of antibodies required for neutralization supports the hypothesis that low spike densities facilitate antibody evasion and the use of molecules capable of intra-spike crosslinking for therapy or passive protection. PMID:25635457

  4. Optimization of matrix solid-phase dispersion for the rapid determination of salicylate and benzophenone-type UV absorbing substances in marketed fish.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Dung-Ying; Chen, Chien-Liang; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2014-07-01

    A simple and effective method for the rapid determination of five salicylate and benzophenone-type UV absorbing substances in marketed fish is described. The method involves the use of matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) prior to their determination by on-line silylation gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The parameters that affect the extraction efficiency were optimized using a Box-Behnken design method. The optimal extraction conditions involved dispersing 0.5g of freeze-dried powdered fish with 1.0g of Florisil using a mortar and pestle. This blend was then transferred to a solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge containing 1.0g of octadecyl bonded silica (C18), as the clean-up co-sorbent. The target analytes were then eluted with 7mL of acetonitrile. The extract was derivatized on-line in the GC injection-port by reaction with a trimethylsilylating (TMS) reagent. The TMS-derivatives were then identified and quantitated by GC-MS/MS. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) were less than 0.1ng/g.

  5. Optimization and Management of Naval Hospital Bremerton’s Military-Medicare Population by Market Analysis of the Naval Hospital Bremerton Empanelled Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    Literature Review 4 Marketing 4 Marketing Mix 5...research, segmentation, targeting, positioning, marketing mix , implementation, and control. “An important first step in becoming a customer-focused...and pre-position itself to effectively meet those needs. Marketing Mix “In order to operate in today’s changing environment, health care managers need

  6. On intra-supply chain system with an improved distribution plan, multiple sales locations and quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Singa Wang; Huang, Chao-Chih; Chiang, Kuo-Wei; Wu, Mei-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Transnational companies, operating in extremely competitive global markets, always seek to lower different operating costs, such as inventory holding costs in their intra- supply chain system. This paper incorporates a cost reducing product distribution policy into an intra-supply chain system with multiple sales locations and quality assurance studied by [Chiu et al., Expert Syst Appl, 40:2669-2676, (2013)]. Under the proposed cost reducing distribution policy, an added initial delivery of end items is distributed to multiple sales locations to meet their demand during the production unit's uptime and rework time. After rework when the remaining production lot goes through quality assurance, n fixed quantity installments of finished items are then transported to sales locations at a fixed time interval. Mathematical modeling and optimization techniques are used to derive closed-form optimal operating policies for the proposed system. Furthermore, the study demonstrates significant savings in stock holding costs for both the production unit and sales locations. Alternative of outsourcing product delivery task to an external distributor is analyzed to assist managerial decision making in potential outsourcing issues in order to facilitate further reduction in operating costs.

  7. Phylogenetic Quantification of Intra-tumour Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Roland F.; Trinh, Anne; Sipos, Botond; Brenton, James D.; Goldman, Nick; Markowetz, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Intra-tumour genetic heterogeneity is the result of ongoing evolutionary change within each cancer. The expansion of genetically distinct sub-clonal populations may explain the emergence of drug resistance, and if so, would have prognostic and predictive utility. However, methods for objectively quantifying tumour heterogeneity have been missing and are particularly difficult to establish in cancers where predominant copy number variation prevents accurate phylogenetic reconstruction owing to horizontal dependencies caused by long and cascading genomic rearrangements. To address these challenges, we present MEDICC, a method for phylogenetic reconstruction and heterogeneity quantification based on a Minimum Event Distance for Intra-tumour Copy-number Comparisons. Using a transducer-based pairwise comparison function, we determine optimal phasing of major and minor alleles, as well as evolutionary distances between samples, and are able to reconstruct ancestral genomes. Rigorous simulations and an extensive clinical study show the power of our method, which outperforms state-of-the-art competitors in reconstruction accuracy, and additionally allows unbiased numerical quantification of tumour heterogeneity. Accurate quantification and evolutionary inference are essential to understand the functional consequences of tumour heterogeneity. The MEDICC algorithms are independent of the experimental techniques used and are applicable to both next-generation sequencing and array CGH data. PMID:24743184

  8. Optimization of health-care organization and perceived improvement of patient comfort by switching from intra-venous BU four-times-daily infusions to a once-daily administration scheme in adult hematopoietic stem cell recipients.

    PubMed

    Xhaard, A; Rzepecki, P; Valcarcel, D; Santarone, S; Fürst, S; Serrano, D; De Angelis, G; Krüger, W; Scheid, C

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have shown an equivalent pharmacokinetic profile between four-times-daily (4QD) and once-daily (QD) administration of intra-venous (IV) BU, without increased toxicity. We assess the impact of a switch in IV BU from a 4QD to a QD schedule, in terms of health-care organization, staff working conditions, quality of care dispensed and perceived patient comfort. Clinicians, nurses and pharmacists from nine allogeneic transplantation units in five European countries were interviewed face to face. Overall perception of QD versus 4QD BU was very positive. Both administration schemes were evaluated to be equally efficaciousZ. QD BU was perceived to be safer and more convenient. Clinicians and nurses perceived that patient comfort was improved, due to fewer complications associated with repeated infusions, and avoiding night infusions associated with stress, anxiety and decreased quality of sleep. Switching from 4QD to QD BU had a significant impact on health-care organization, with a better integration in the overall management and usual timelines in the pharmacies and transplantation units. Time spent to prepare and administer BU was significantly reduced, leading to potential financial savings that merit further assessment and would be of particular interest in the current economic climate.

  9. Intra-Company Communication: A Key Element in Marketing Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Fred A.

    Rapid technological development, rising standards of living, and greater pressures of consumerism and consumer expectations have caused shorter product life cycles. Future organizational success will depend on organizations' abilities to respond to the changing opportunities and threats in the marketplace. As companies and products move through…

  10. Livestock Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  11. Fast H.264/AVC FRExt intra coding using belief propagation.

    PubMed

    Milani, Simone

    2011-01-01

    In the H.264/AVC FRExt coder, the coding performance of Intra coding significantly overcomes the previous still image coding standards, like JPEG2000, thanks to a massive use of spatial prediction. Unfortunately, the adoption of an extensive set of predictors induces a significant increase of the computational complexity required by the rate-distortion optimization routine. The paper presents a complexity reduction strategy that aims at reducing the computational load of the Intra coding with a small loss in the compression performance. The proposed algorithm relies on selecting a reduced set of prediction modes according to their probabilities, which are estimated adopting a belief-propagation procedure. Experimental results show that the proposed method permits saving up to 60 % of the coding time required by an exhaustive rate-distortion optimization method with a negligible loss in performance. Moreover, it permits an accurate control of the computational complexity unlike other methods where the computational complexity depends upon the coded sequence.

  12. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  13. Evolution of microbial markets.

    PubMed

    Werner, Gijsbert D A; Strassmann, Joan E; Ivens, Aniek B F; Engelmoer, Daniel J P; Verbruggen, Erik; Queller, David C; Noë, Ronald; Johnson, Nancy Collins; Hammerstein, Peter; Kiers, E Toby

    2014-01-28

    Biological market theory has been used successfully to explain cooperative behavior in many animal species. Microbes also engage in cooperative behaviors, both with hosts and other microbes, that can be described in economic terms. However, a market approach is not traditionally used to analyze these interactions. Here, we extend the biological market framework to ask whether this theory is of use to evolutionary biologists studying microbes. We consider six economic strategies used by microbes to optimize their success in markets. We argue that an economic market framework is a useful tool to generate specific and interesting predictions about microbial interactions, including the evolution of partner discrimination, hoarding strategies, specialized versus diversified mutualistic services, and the role of spatial structures, such as flocks and consortia. There is untapped potential for studying the evolutionary dynamics of microbial systems. Market theory can help structure this potential by characterizing strategic investment of microbes across a diversity of conditions.

  14. Evolution of microbial markets

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Gijsbert D. A.; Strassmann, Joan E.; Ivens, Aniek B. F.; Engelmoer, Daniel J. P.; Verbruggen, Erik; Queller, David C.; Noë, Ronald; Johnson, Nancy Collins; Hammerstein, Peter; Kiers, E. Toby

    2014-01-01

    Biological market theory has been used successfully to explain cooperative behavior in many animal species. Microbes also engage in cooperative behaviors, both with hosts and other microbes, that can be described in economic terms. However, a market approach is not traditionally used to analyze these interactions. Here, we extend the biological market framework to ask whether this theory is of use to evolutionary biologists studying microbes. We consider six economic strategies used by microbes to optimize their success in markets. We argue that an economic market framework is a useful tool to generate specific and interesting predictions about microbial interactions, including the evolution of partner discrimination, hoarding strategies, specialized versus diversified mutualistic services, and the role of spatial structures, such as flocks and consortia. There is untapped potential for studying the evolutionary dynamics of microbial systems. Market theory can help structure this potential by characterizing strategic investment of microbes across a diversity of conditions. PMID:24474743

  15. Mechanical ventilation and intra-abdominal hypertension: 'Beyond Good and Evil'

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension is frequent in surgical and medical critically ill patients. Intra-abdominal hypertension has a serious impact on the function of respiratory as well as peripheral organs. In the presence of alveolar capillary damage, which occurs in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), intra-abdominal hypertension promotes lung injury as well as edema, impedes the pulmonary lymphatic drainage, and increases intra-thoracic pressures, leading to atelectasis, airway closure, and deterioration of respiratory mechanics and gas exchange. The optimal setting of mechanical ventilation and its impact on respiratory function and hemodynamics in ARDS associated with intra-abdominal hypertension are far from being assessed. We suggest that the optimal ventilator management of patients with ARDS and intra-abdominal hypertension would include the following: (a) intra-abdominal, esophageal pressure, and hemodynamic monitoring; (b) ventilation setting with protective tidal volume, recruitment maneuver, and level of positive end-expiratory pressure set according to the 'best' compliance of the respiratory system or the lung; (c) deep sedation with or without neuromuscular paralysis in severe ARDS; and (d) open abdomen in selected patients with severe abdominal compartment syndrome. PMID:23256904

  16. Power systems locational marginal pricing in deregulated markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui-Fung Francis

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, the electricity business is transforming from a vertical integrating business to a competitive market operations. The generation, transmission, distribution subsystem of an electricity utility are operated independently as Genco (generation subsystem), Transco (transmission subsystem), and Distco (distribution subsystem). This trend promotes more economical inter- and intra regional transactions to be made by the participating companies and the users of electricity to achieve the intended objectives of deregulation. There are various types of electricity markets that are implemented in the North America in the past few years. However, transmission congestion management becomes a key issue in the electricity market design as more bilateral transactions are traded across long distances competing for scarce transmission resources. It directly alters the traditional concept of energy pricing and impacts the bottom line, revenue and cost of electricity, of both suppliers and buyers. In this research, transmission congestion problem in a deregulated market environment is elucidated by implementing by the Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) method. With a comprehensive understanding of the LMP method, new mathematical tools will aid electric utilities in exploring new business opportunities are developed and presented in this dissertation. The dissertation focuses on the development of concept of (LMP) forecasting and its implication to the market participants in deregulated market. Specifically, we explore methods of developing fast LMP calculation techniques that are differ from existing LMPs. We also explore and document the usefulness of the proposed LMP in determining electricity pricing of a large scale power system. The developed mathematical tools use of well-known optimization techniques such as linear programming that are support by several flow charts. The fast and practical security constrained unit commitment methods are the

  17. Financial market dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Fredrick; Johnson, M. D.

    2003-03-01

    A necessary precondition for modeling financial markets is a complete understanding of their statistics, including dynamics. Distributions derived from nonextensive Tsallis statistics are closely connected with dynamics described by a nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation. The combination shows promise in describing stochastic processes with power-law distributions and superdiffusive dynamics. We investigate intra-day price changes in the S& P500 stock index within this framework. We find that the power-law tails of the distributions, and the index's anomalously diffusing dynamics, are very accurately described by this approach. Our results show good agreement between market data and Fokker-Planck dynamics. This approach may be applicable in any anomalously diffusing system in which the correlations in time can be accounted for by an Ito-Langevin process with a simple time-dependent diffusion coefficient.

  18. Hospital marketing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  19. DCT/DST-based transform coding for intra prediction in image/video coding.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Ankur; Fernandes, Felix C

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we present a DCT/DST based transform scheme that applies either the conventional DCT or type-7 DST for all the video-coding intra-prediction modes: vertical, horizontal, and oblique. Our approach is applicable to any block-based intra prediction scheme in a codec that employs transforms along the horizontal and vertical direction separably. Previously, Han, Saxena, and Rose showed that for the intra-predicted residuals of horizontal and vertical modes, the DST is the optimal transform with performance close to the KLT. Here, we prove that this is indeed the case for the other oblique modes. The optimal choice of using DCT or DST is based on intra-prediction modes and requires no additional signaling information or rate-distortion search. The DCT/DST scheme presented in this paper was adopted in the HEVC standardization in March 2011. Further simplifications, especially to reduce implementation complexity, which remove the mode-dependency between DCT and DST, and simply always use DST for the 4 × 4 intra luma blocks, were adopted in the HEVC standard in July 2012. Simulation results conducted for the DCT/DST algorithm are shown in the reference software for the ongoing HEVC standardization. Our results show that the DCT/DST scheme provides significant BD-rate improvement over the conventional DCT based scheme for intra prediction in video sequences.

  20. Intra-aortic balloon pumps.

    PubMed

    1997-05-01

    Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABPs) are circulatory assist devices used to treat a number of cardiovascular conditions. IABPs provide temporary circulatory support by reducing the resistance to blood flow out of the heart during systole and by providing added pressure to aid in perfusing the heart during diastole. In this Evaluation, we tested three IABPs from three suppliers. We examined the units' technical performance, safety and monitoring, human factors design, transport operation, and supplier support. Rather than test all the triggering (activation) modes available, we focused our testing on the modes most commonly used on each unit. We also provide information on an IABP currently available only in Japan; although we did not test this unit, we do provide a preliminary judgment based on the information provided to us by the supplier. In the Technology Overview also included in the Evaluation, we describe the basic operation and use of an IABP, as well as review the state of the art of this technology. And in the Selection, Purchasing, and Use Guide at the conclusion of the Evaluation, we discuss such topics as balloon costs and sizing, interfacing IABPs with patient monitors, and the use of IABPs in community hospitals.

  1. Marketing fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.

  2. Intra-fuel cell stack measurements of transient concentration distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partridge, W. P.; Toops, T. J.; Green, J. B.; Armstrong, T. R.

    Intra-fuel-cell measurements are required to understand detailed fuel-cell chemistry and physics, validate models, optimize system design and control, and realize enhanced efficiency regimes; in comparison, conventional integrated fuel-cell supply and effluent measurements are fundamentally limited in value. Intra-reactor measurements are needed for all fuel cell types. This paper demonstrates the ability of a capillary-inlet mass spectrometer to resolve transient species distributions within operating polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) fuel cells and at temperatures typical of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). This is the first such demonstration of a diagnostic that is sufficiently minimally invasive as to allow measurements throughout an operating fuel cell stack. Measurements of transient water, hydrogen, oxygen and diluent concentration dynamics associated with fuel-cell load switching suggest oxygen-limited chemistry. Intra-PEM fuel cell measurements of oxygen distribution at various fuel-cell loads are used to demonstrate concentration gradients, non-uniformities, and anomalous fuel cell operation.

  3. Intra voxel analysis in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosanio, Michele; Baselice, Fabio; Ferraioli, Giampaolo; Pascazio, Vito

    2014-03-01

    A new application of Compressive Sensing (CS) in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) field is presented. In particular, first results of the Intra Voxel Analysis (IVA) technique are reported. The idea is to exploit CS peculiarities in order to distinguish different contributions inside the same resolution cell, instead of reconstructing images from not fully sampled k-space acquisition. Applied to MRI field, this means the possibility of estimating the presence of different tissues inside the same voxel, i.e. in one pixel of the obtained image. In other words, the method is the first attempt, as far as we know, of achieving Spectroscopy-like results starting from each pixel of MR images. In particular, tissues are distinguished each others by evaluating their spin-spin relaxation times. Within this manuscript, first results on clinical dataset, in particular a phantom made by aqueous solution and oil and an occipital brain lesion corresponding to a metastatic breast cancer nodule, are reported. Considering the phantom dataset, in particular focusing on the slice where the separation between water and oil occurs, the methodology is able to distinguish the two components with different spin-spin relaxation times. With respect to clinical dataset,focusing on a voxel of the lesion area, the approach is able to detect the presence of two tissues, namely the healthy and the cancer related ones, while in other location outside the lesion only the healthy tissue is detected. Of course, these are the first results of the proposed methodology, further studies on different types of clinical datasets are required in order to widely validate the approach. Although few datasets have been considered, results seem both interesting and promising.

  4. Empyema following intra-abdominal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, K C; Sethia, B; Reece, I J; Davidson, K G

    1984-09-01

    Over the past 9 years, ten patients have presented to the Thoracic Unit, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, with 12 empyemas secondary to intra-abdominal sepsis. In eight patients, the presenting signs and symptoms were wrongly attributed to primary intra-thoracic pathology. All were subsequently found to have intra-abdominal sepsis. The presence of empyema after recent abdominal surgery or abdominal pain strongly suggests a diagnosis of ipsilateral subphrenic abscess. Adequate surgical drainage is essential. In our experience, limited thoracotomy with subdiaphragmatic extension offers the best access to both pleural and subphrenic spaces and provides the greatest chance of eradicating infection on both sides of the diaphragm.

  5. Effective intra-S checkpoint responses to UVC in primary human melanocytes and melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro-Stone, Marila; McNulty, John J; Sproul, Christopher D; Chastain, Paul D; Gibbs-Flournoy, Eugene; Zhou, Yingchun; Carson, Craig; Rao, Shangbang; Mitchell, David L; Simpson, Dennis A; Thomas, Nancy E; Ibrahim, Joseph G; Kaufmann, William K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess potential functional attenuation or inactivation of the intra-S checkpoint during melanoma development. Proliferating cultures of skin melanocytes, fibroblasts, and melanoma cell lines were exposed to increasing fluences of UVC and intra-S checkpoint responses were quantified. Melanocytes displayed stereotypic intra-S checkpoint responses to UVC qualitatively and quantitatively equivalent to those previously demonstrated in skin fibroblasts. In comparison with fibroblasts, primary melanocytes displayed reduced UVC-induced inhibition of DNA strand growth and enhanced degradation of p21Waf1 after UVC, suggestive of enhanced bypass of UVC-induced DNA photoproducts. All nine melanoma cell lines examined, including those with activating mutations in BRAF or NRAS oncogenes, also displayed proficiency in activation of the intra-S checkpoint in response to UVC irradiation. The results indicate that bypass of oncogene-induced senescence during melanoma development was not associated with inactivation of the intra-S checkpoint response to UVC-induced DNA replication stress.

  6. Marketing 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    A marketing model for camps includes a mix of services, presentation, and communication elements that promote the virtues of camp, convince potential campers and their families of the benefits of camp, and successfully distinguish the camp from others. Includes resources related to marketing strategies, theme merchandise, and market trends…

  7. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-04-15

    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  8. INTRA - BEAM SCATTERING MEASUREMENTS IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,W.; CONNOLLY,R.; TEPIKIAN,S.; VAN ZEIJTS,J.; ZENO,K.

    2002-06-02

    RHIC in gold operation shows significant intra-beam scattering due to the high charge state of the stored ions. Intra-beam scattering leads to longitudinal and transverse emittance growth. The longitudinal emittance growth causes debunching in operation; the transverse emittance growth contributes to the reduction of the beam and luminosity lifetimes. The longitudinal and transverse beam growth was measured. Beam growth measurement are compared with computations.

  9. Intra cranial complications of tuberculous otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, M.; Johnny, J. Carlton

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most common infections in the world. It is seen that tuberculous otitis media (TOM) is almost secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis. In this review we have tried to deal with all the aspects of the intra cranial complications of TOM such as tuberculoma, otitic hydrocephalus, brain abscess and tuberculous meningitis. The aspects covered in this review are the pathology, clinical features, and investigations of the intra cranial manifestations. PMID:26015748

  10. Adaptive use of technical indicators for the prediction of intra-day stock prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka-Yamawaki, Mieko; Tokuoka, Seiji

    2007-09-01

    We examine the effectiveness of frequently used technical indicators for intra-day forecast by applying them on the tick data of various stock prices. We show that the optimal combination of a few indicators chosen for each stock by using evolutional computation provides us a good forecast on the level of the future price at several ticks ahead.

  11. Intra- to Multi-Decadal Temperature Variability over the Continental United States: 1896-2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Optimal Ranking Regime (ORR) method was used to identify intra- to multi-decadal (IMD) time windows containing significant ranking sequences in U.S. climate division temperature data. The simplicity of the ORR procedure’s output – a time series’ most significant non-overlapping periods of high o...

  12. Evaluation of filtering methods for acquiring radial intra-artery blood pressure waveforms.

    PubMed

    Hersh, Lawrence T; Friedman, Bruce; Luczyk, William; Sesing, Jean

    2015-10-01

    The methods for evaluating noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) monitors using an intra-arterial reference are detailed in the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2009 standard. In a recent study, GE Healthcare obtained invasive radial arterial blood pressure waveforms. The work presented here describes the development of filtering strategies for obtaining high fidelity intra-arterial pressure waveforms for NIBP accuracy testing using the 81060-2 standard. The natural frequency and damping factor of each subject-catheter-transducer system was computed from fast-flush transients. These parameters were used to construct filters for removing or reducing resonance artifacts. Additionally, new optimal damping factors were evaluated for designing compensation filters. Theoretical measurement systems using actual damping factors (< 0.4) and natural frequencies were found capable of generating significant systolic resonance artifacts (≥ 8 mmHg). Typical filters that may be standardly available in monitoring equipment were observed to be potentially inadequate in removing resonance artifact. Filters with particular optimal damping factors (0.6-0.7) were effective in removing resonance artifact. Clinicians need to understand that resonance artifacts potentially exist in intra-arterial waveforms and that the adjustments of monitoring systems may not be adequate. Optimal filters for obtaining intra-arterial waveforms should take into account the damping factor and natural frequency of the measuring system. In research and device evaluation studies it is necessary that optimal filtering be done to minimize the effects of under-damping.

  13. Stroke neuroprotection revisited: Intra-arterial verapamil is profoundly neuroprotective in experimental acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Maniskas, Michael E; Roberts, Jill M; Aron, Ishi; Fraser, Justin F; Bix, Gregory J

    2016-04-01

    While clinical trials have now solidified the role of thrombectomy in emergent large vessel occlusive stroke, additional therapies are needed to optimize patient outcome. Using our previously described experimental ischemic stroke model for evaluating adjunctive intra-arterial drug therapy after vessel recanalization, we studied the potential neuroprotective effects of verapamil. A calcium channel blocker, verapamil is often infused intra-arterially by neurointerventionalists to treat cerebral vasospasm. Such a direct route of administration allows for both focused targeting of stroke-impacted brain tissue and minimizes potential systemic side effects. Intra-arterial administration of verapamil at a flow rate of 2.5 µl/min and injection volume of 10 µl immediately after middle cerebral artery recanalization in C57/Bl6 mice was shown to be profoundly neuroprotective as compared to intra-arterial vehicle-treated stroke controls. Specifically, we noted a significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in infarct volume, astrogliosis, and cellular apoptosis as well as a significant increase in neuronal survival and functional outcome over seven days. Furthermore, intra-arterial administration of verapamil was well tolerated with no hemorrhage, systemic side effects, or increased mortality. Thus, verapamil administered intra-arterially immediately following recanalization in experimental ischemic stroke is both safe and neuroprotective and merits further study as a potential therapeutic adjunct to thrombectomy.

  14. Do Polymicrobial Intra-Abdominal Infections Have Worse Outcomes than Monomicrobial Intra-Abdominal Infections?

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Brandy L.; Dietch, Zachary C.; Guidry, Christopher A.; Davies, Stephen W.; Hennessy, Sara A.; Duane, Therese M.; O'Neill, Patrick J.; Coimbra, Raul; Cook, Charles H.; Askari, Reza; Popovsky, Kimberly; Sawyer, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Numerous studies have demonstrated microorganism interaction through signaling molecules, some of which are recognized by other bacterial species. This interspecies synergy can prove detrimental to the human host in polymicrobial infections. We hypothesized that polymicrobial intra-abdominal infections (IAI) have worse outcomes than monomicrobial infections. Methods: Data from the Study to Optimize Peritoneal Infection Therapy (STOP-IT), a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial, were reviewed for all occurrences of IAI having culture results available. Patients in STOP-IT had been randomized to receive four days of antibiotics vs. antibiotics until two days after clinical symptom resolution. Patients with polymicrobial and monomicrobial infections were compared by univariable analysis using the Wilcoxon rank sum, χ2, and Fisher exact tests. Results: Culture results were available for 336 of 518 patients (65%). The durations of antibiotic therapy in polymicrobial (n = 225) and monomicrobial IAI (n = 111) were equal (p = 0.78). Univariable analysis demonstrated similar demographics in the two populations. The 37 patients (11%) with inflammatory bowel disease were more likely to have polymicrobial IAI (p = 0.05). Polymicrobial infections were not associated with a higher risk of surgical site infection, recurrent IAI, or death. Conclusion: Contrary to our hypothesis, polymicrobial IAI do not have worse outcomes than monomicrobial infections. These results suggest polymicrobial IAI can be treated the same as monomicrobial IAI. PMID:26397376

  15. Intra-observer reliability of Prechtl’s method for the qualitative assessment of general movements in Taiwanese infants

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Kuo-Kuang; Liu, Wen-Yu; Wong, Alice May-Kuen; Chung, Chia-Ying; Lien, Reyin; Chuang, Yu-Fen

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the intra-observer reliability for Prechtl’s General Movements Assessment in Taiwanese infants. This includes the global General Movements Assessment, the Optimality List for Preterm General Movements and Writhing Movements, and the Assessment of Motor Repertoire—3 to 5 Months. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-nine videos of 37 infants were observed and rated by one physical therapist twice. [Results] The intra-observer reliability ranged from good to very good for the global General Movements Assessment. The overall intra-observer reliabilities for the total score of the Optimality List from preterm up to postmenstrual age 46 weeks and the total score of the Assessment of Motor Repertoire for postmenstrual age 49 to 60 weeks were both good. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the intra-observer reliability of a certified physical therapist was satisfactory for Prechtl’s method in Taiwanese infants. PMID:27313378

  16. Impact of mask CDU and local CD variation on intra-field CDU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Junji; Mouraille, Orion; Finders, Jo; Higuchi, Masaru; Kojima, Yosuke; Sato, Shunsuke; Morimoto, Hiroaki

    2012-11-01

    The control of critical dimension uniformity (CDU), especially intra-field CDU, is an important aspect for advanced lithography, and this property must be controlled very tightly since it affects all of the exposure fields. It is well known that the influence of the mask CDU on the wafer intra-field CDU is becoming dominant because the mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) is quite high for low-k1 lithography. Additionally, the abovementioned factors impact the CDU through global (field-level) and local (grating-level) variations. In this paper, we analyze in detail CDU budgets by clarifying the impact of local CD variation. The 50-nm staggered hole features using Att-PSM showed a mask global CDU of 1.64 nm (3sigma at the mask level) and a wafer intra-field CDU of 2.30 nm, indicating that the mask global CDU was a major part of the intra-field CDU. By compensating for the contribution of the mask CD, the wafer intra-field CDU can be reduced to 0.986 nm. We analyzed the budgets of wafer intra-field CDU, which is caused by local CD variation (mask and process) and measurement noise. We determined that a primary cause of the wafer intra-field CDU after applying a mask CD correction was these local CD variations, which might disturb the proper use of dose correction for the mask CD. We demonstrated that the impact of mask local CD variation on the correction flow can be greatly reduced by averaging multiple point measurements within a small area, and therefore discuss the optimum conditions allowing for an accurate intra-field CDU determination. We also consider optimization of the CD sampling scheme in order to apply a dose correction on an exposure system to compensate for the mask CDU.

  17. Progress in intra-articular therapy

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Christopher H.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Setton, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Diarthrodial joints are well suited to intra-articular injection, and the local delivery of therapeutics in this fashion brings several potential advantages to the treatment of a wide range of arthropathies. Possible benefits include increased bioavailability, reduced systemic exposure, fewer adverse events, and lower total drug costs. Nevertheless, intra-articular therapy is challenging because of the rapid egress of injected materials from the joint space; this elimination is true of both small molecules, which exit via synovial capillaries, and of macromolecules, which are cleared by the lymphatic system. In general, soluble materials have an intra-articular dwell time measured only in hours. Corticosteroids and hyaluronate preparations constitute the mainstay of FDA-approved intra-articular therapeutics. Recombinant proteins, autologous blood products and analgesics have also found clinical use via intra-articular delivery. Several alternative approaches, such as local delivery of cell and gene therapy, as well as the use of microparticles, liposomes, and modified drugs, are in various stages of preclinical development. PMID:24189839

  18. Enabling Wireless Avionics Intra-Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Omar; Nguyen, Truong; Mackenzie, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The Electromagnetics and Sensors Branch of NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is investigating the potential of an all-wireless aircraft as part of the ECON (Efficient Reconfigurable Cockpit Design and Fleet Operations using Software Intensive, Networked and Wireless Enabled Architecture) seedling proposal, which is funded by the Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) project, Transformative Aeronautics Concepts (TAC) program, and NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI). The project consists of a brief effort carried out by a small team in the Electromagnetic Environment Effects (E3) laboratory with the intention of exposing some of the challenges faced by a wireless communication system inside the reflective cavity of an aircraft and to explore potential solutions that take advantage of that environment for constructive gain. The research effort was named EWAIC for "Enabling Wireless Aircraft Intra-communications." The E3 laboratory is a research facility that includes three electromagnetic reverberation chambers and equipment that allow testing and generation of test data for the investigation of wireless systems in reflective environments. Using these chambers, the EWAIC team developed a set of tests and setups that allow the intentional variation of intensity of a multipath field to reproduce the environment of the various bays and cabins of large transport aircraft. This setup, in essence, simulates an aircraft environment that allows the investigation and testing of wireless communication protocols that can effectively be used as a tool to mitigate some of the risks inherent to an aircraft wireless system for critical functions. In addition, the EWAIC team initiated the development of a computational modeling tool to illustrate the propagation of EM waves inside the reflective cabins and bays of aircraft and to obtain quantifiable information regarding the degradation of signals in aircraft subassemblies. The nose landing gear of a UAV CAD model was used

  19. Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancil, Ronald A., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Marketing Education program at West Haven (CT) High School in West Haven, Connecticut, that promotes skills for life and attributes, enhances the academic program, and develops leaders out of ordinary students through an interactive curriculum. The three components of West Haven's marketing and management program are (1)…

  20. Marketing Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Eric

    1998-01-01

    All of our ideas have been field tested and have proven effective in our environment. Our objectives are: We will share our ideas about marketing training and what we've implemented at Michoud Space Systems. You will go away with at least one new idea or insight about how to more effectively market your training.

  1. Agricultural Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helt, Lawrence; And Others

    Designed for use in farm business management adult programs, this marketing curriculum includes six teaching lessons and professional staff products. The following topics are covered in the lessons: introduction to marketing; interpretation of price/demand/supply cycles and fundamental outlook trends (carryover/projections/disappearance); farmers'…

  2. Tourism Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 6-unit, 1-year distributive education course in marketing tourism offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. Although in general the material presented concerns marketing tourism anywhere, some of it is specifically related to tourism within North Carolina. A purpose statement explains the…

  3. Torsion of an intra-abdominal testis.

    PubMed

    Lewis; Roller; Parra; Cotlar

    2000-09-01

    To present a case of torsion of a nonneoplastic intra-abdominal testis with an unusual clinical presentation.A 26-year-old active duty Navy Petty Officer presented to the emergency department on 3 occasions over a 5-day period with lower abdominal pain. Physical examination demonstrated acute tenderness in the left lower quadrant with sugestion of a normal spermatic cord and atrophic testis in the left scrotum. Computed tomography scan demonstrated an intra-abdominal lesion near the internal inguinal ring. The patient underwent surgical exploration through an inguinal incision. Torsion of a nonviable intra-abdominal testis was present. The scrotum contained only the vas deferens and cremasteric muscle. An orchiectomy was performed with removal of the vas deferens and other cord structures.The unusual clinical finding of acute torsion of an intra-abdominal testis, associated with an apparent atrophic scrotal testis, presented a confusing clinical picture. Computed tomography scan did not clarify the issue sufficiently to establish a definite preoperative diagnosis. Clinical suspicion prompted early surgical intervention. Review of the current literature produced 60 reported cases of torsion of an intra-abdominal testis. Two thirds of these involved testicular neoplasm, usually seminoma. Although the clinical presentation varied, most patients had recent onset of lower abdominal pain associated with tenderness and, in half the cases, a mass. Patients almost always presented with an absent scrotal testis on the involved side, and not infrequently reported previous surgery thought to be an orchiectomy.Diagnosis of an intra-abdominal testicular torsion is rare, particularly when no neoplasm is present. A high index of suspicion must be maintained whenever there is abdominal pain and undescended testis. The surgical history and imaging studies may not clarify a confusing clinical picture.

  4. Design and analysis of electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioshansi, Ramteen Mehr

    Restructured competitive electricity markets rely on designing market-based mechanisms which can efficiently coordinate the power system and minimize the exercise of market power. This dissertation is a series of essays which develop and analyze models of restructured electricity markets. Chapter 2 studies the incentive properties of a co-optimized market for energy and reserves that pays reserved generators their implied opportunity cost---which is the difference between their stated energy cost and the market-clearing price for energy. By analyzing the market as a competitive direct revelation mechanism we examine the properties of efficient equilibria and demonstrate that generators have incentives to shade their stated costs below actual costs. We further demonstrate that the expected energy payments of our mechanism is less than that in a disjoint market for energy only. Chapter 3 is an empirical validation of a supply function equilibrium (SFE) model. By comparing theoretically optimal supply functions and actual generation offers into the Texas spot balancing market, we show the SFE to fit the actual behavior of the largest generators in market. This not only serves to validate the model, but also demonstrates the extent to which firms exercise market power. Chapters 4 and 5 examine equity, incentive, and efficiency issues in the design of non-convex commitment auctions. We demonstrate that different near-optimal solutions to a central unit commitment problem which have similar-sized optimality gaps will generally yield vastly different energy prices and payoffs to individual generators. Although solving the mixed integer program to optimality will overcome such issues, we show that this relies on achieving optimality of the commitment---which may not be tractable for large-scale problems within the allotted timeframe. We then simulate and compare a competitive benchmark for a market with centralized and self commitment in order to bound the efficiency

  5. A novel intra-operative positron imager for rapid localization of tumor margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabet, Hamid; Stack, Brendan C.; Nagarkar, Vivek V.

    2014-03-01

    We have developed an intra-operative and compact imaging tool for surgeons to detect PET- positive lesions. Currently, most such probes on the market are non-imaging, and provide no ancillary information of surveyed areas, such as clear delineations of malignant tissues. Our probe consists of a novel hybrid scintillator coupled to a compact silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) array with associated front-end electronics encapsulated in an ergonomic housing. Pulse shape discrimination electronics has been implemented and integrated into the downstream data acquisition system. The hybrid scintillator consists of a 0.4 mm thick layer of CsI:Tl scintillator coupled to a 1 mm thick LYSO crystal. To achieve high spatial resolution, CsI:Tl is pixelated to 0.5×0.5 mm2 pixels using laser ablation technique. While CsI:Tl act as beta-sensitive scintillator, LYSO senses the gamma radiation and can be used to navigate the probe to the locations of interest. The gamma response is also subtracted from the beta image for improved SNR and contrast. To achieve accurate centroid position estimation and uniform beta sensitivity over the entire imaging area, the LYSO thickness is optimized such that it acts as scintillation light diffuser by spreading CsI:Tl light over multiple SiPM pixels. The results show that the response of the two scintillators exposed to radiation could be easily distinguished based on their pulse shapes. The probe's spatial resolution is <1.5 mm FWHM in its 10×10 mm2 effective imaging area. The probe can rapidly detect and localize nCi levels of F-18 beta radiation even in presence of strong gamma background.

  6. Market trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    A very large segment of the over water, long haul passenger market, 31% of the passengers who provide 42% of the passenger revenue, offers a significant market for an advanced supersonic transport. This is for both the first class and full-fare economy passenger markets. The supersonic transport may be more competitive here in spite of lower costs of subsonic transports, as passenger preference is a more powerful variable than DOC. This latter fact was amply demonstrated in the late fifties when the jets completely replaced the reciprocating engine transports on most world routes, in spite of slightly higher fares.

  7. A psychology of religious plurality: from intra-religious dialogue to intra-psychic reality.

    PubMed

    Kramp, Joseph M

    2012-09-01

    Panikkar's (The intra-religious dialogue, 1978) classic, re-issued by Paulist Press in 1999, grapples with the theological challenges in the disciplines of comparative theology and the theology of religions through what he terms, "intra-religious dialogue." In this psychology of religious plurality, I use works from a variety of disciplines to highlight the achievements of Panikkar's intra-religious dialogue, as well as to critique his work in the hope of finding categories of understanding that can be profitably used to face the inter-personal crises of the contemporary world, namely religious terrorism.

  8. Intra-family distribution in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Behrman, J R

    1994-01-01

    Intra-household allocations are important in the determination of time use, human resource investments, and intra- and inter-generation of transfers in developing countries. During the 1980s through the mid-1990s there has been substantial progress in modeling intra-household allocations despite data limitations regarding the nature of the allocation of unobserved variables and the impact of unobserved heterogeneous endowments. The economic models of intra-household allocations include the pure parental altruism models with unified preferences, and within this the wealth model, which states that parents are concerned with each child's total wealth, but are not concerned with the sources of wealth. The next model is the separable earnings-transfers (SET) model, in which the parental welfare function is separable between their children's distribution of income from labor earnings and their children's distribution of income from physical and financial transfers received from their parents. The wealth model and the SET model have implications for identifying returns to schooling as well as implications for the interpretation of schooling as child quality. Models of qualified parental altruism include the rotten kid theorem, which states that variations in parental transfers to selfish children force such children to consider their parents' interests, as each beneficiary maximizes the total family income available to the altruistic benefactor. Under the strategic bequest or exchange model the parents influence the behavior of their children by holding wealth in bequeathable form. Collective models of household behavior, which focus on decisions between husbands and wives, include Nash bargaining models of intra-household allocations, which generalize the comparative statics of a unified preference constrained maximization. The Pareto-efficient collective household models assume that allocations are Pareto-efficient without assuming any explicit solution process.

  9. Fluzone® intra-dermal (Intanza®/Istivac® Intra-dermal): An updated overview.

    PubMed

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Orsi, Andrea; Ansaldi, Filippo; Gasparini, Roberto; Icardi, Giancarlo

    2016-10-02

    Influenza is a highly contagious respiratory acute viral disease which imposes a very heavy burden both in terms of epidemiology and costs, in the developed countries as well as in the developing ones. It represents a serious public health concern and vaccination constitutes an important tool to reduce or at least mitigate its burden. Despite the existence of a broad armamentarium against influenza and despite all the efforts and recommendations of international organisms to broaden immunization, influenza vaccination coverage is still far from being optimal. This, taken together with logistic and technical difficulties that can result into vaccine shortage, makes intra-dermal (ID) vaccines, such as Fluzone® ID and Intanza®, particularly attractive. ID vaccines are comparable and, in some cases, superior to intra-muscular/sub-cutaneous vaccines in terms of immunogenicity, safety, reactogenicity, tolerability and cross-protection profiles, as well as in terms of patient preference, acceptance and vaccine selection. Further advances, such as Fluzone® ID with alternative B strains and Quadrivalent Fluzone® ID or the possibility of self-administering the vaccines, make influenza ID vaccines even more valuable.

  10. Marketing Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Gale; Kwielford, Merrilee Andersen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses marketing techniques for teacher librarians based on six levels: basic assumptions; library resource program, including attitudes for success; school, including a collaborative environment; administration, including program support; community, including awareness; and state and national, including professional participation. (LRW)

  11. Intra-abdominal pressure: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Rafaela; Caregnato, Rita Catalina Aquino

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing request for measuring intra-abdominal pressure in critically ill patients with acute abdominal pain to be clarified. Summarizing the research results on measurement of vesical intra-abdominal pressure and analyzing the level of evidence were the purposes of this integrative literature review, carried out based on the databases LILACS, MEDLINE and PubMed, from 2005 to July 2012. Twenty articles were identified, in that, 12 literature reviews, 4 descriptive and exploratory studies, 2 expert opinions, one prospective cohort study and one was an experience report. The vesical intra-abdominal pressure measurement was considered gold standard. There are variations in the technique however, but some common points were identified: complete supine position, in absence of abdominal contracture, in the end of expiration and expressed in mmHg. Most research results indicate keeping the transducer zeroed at the level of the mid-axillary line at the iliac crest level, and instill 25mL of sterile saline. Strong evidence must be developed. RESUMO Em pacientes críticos com quadros abdominais agudos a esclarecer é crescente a solicitação da aferição da pressão intra-abdominal. Sintetizar resultados de pesquisas sobre a mensuração da pressão intra-abdominal pela via vesical e analisar o nível de evidência foram os objetivos desta revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada nas bases LILACS, MEDLINE e PubMed, no período de 2005 a julho de 2012. Identificaram-se 20 artigos, sendo 12 revisões de literatura, 4 estudos exploratório-descritivos, 2 opiniões de especialistas, 1 estudo de coorte prospectivo e 1 relato de experiência. O método vesical para mensuração da pressão intra-abdominal foi considerado padrão-ouro. Existem variações na técnica, entretanto pontos em comum foram identificados: posição supina completa, na ausência de contratura abdominal, ao final da expiração e expressa em mmHg. A maioria indica posicionar o ponto zero do

  12. Usability Considerations in Developing a Graphic Interface for Intra Office Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yammiyavar, Pradeep; Jain, Piyush

    This paper outlines the basis of incorporating functional features in a new GUI based software under development for addressing comprehensive communication and interaction needs within an office environment. Bench marking of features in existing communication software products such as Microsoft Outlook, IBM Lotusnotes, Office Communicator, Mozilla Thunderbird etc. was done by asking a set of questions related to the usage of these existing softwares. Usability issues were identified through a user survey involving 30 subjects of varied profiles (domain, designation, age etc.) in a corporate office. It is posited that existing software products that have been developed for a universal market may be highly underutilized or have redundant features especially for use as an intra office (within the same office) communication medium. Simultaneously they may not cater to some very contextual requirements of intra office communications. Based on the findings of the survey of feature preferences & usability of existing products, a simple 'person to person' communicating medium for intra office situations was visualized with a new interactive GUI. Usability issues that need to be considered for a new intra-office product have been brought out.

  13. 78 FR 24282 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... proposal creates a burden on intra-market competition because the Exchange is applying the same Routing... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... given that on April 9, 2013, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') filed with...

  14. 78 FR 26820 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... raise any issues of intra-market competition because it involves inbound routing from an affiliated... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule... NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the ``Exchange'' or ``Nasdaq'') filed with the Securities and...

  15. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae intra-abdominal abscess.

    PubMed

    Feasi, Marcello; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Cappato, Stefano; Pontali, Emanuele; Usiglio, David; Rollandi, Gian Andrea; Filauro, Marco; Mori, Marco; Cassola, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a Gram-positive bacillus that is infrequently responsible for infections in humans. Most human cases present as localized or generalized cutaneous infections. An invasive septic form, usually associated with endocarditis, has rarely been described. We report here an invasive infection caused by E. rhusiopathiae without endocardium involvement. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an intra-abdominal abscess due to this pathogen.

  16. Intra-abdominal pressure: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Milanesi, Rafaela; Caregnato, Rita Catalina Aquino

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is a growing request for measuring intra-abdominal pressure in critically ill patients with acute abdominal pain to be clarified. Summarizing the research results on measurement of vesical intra-abdominal pressure and analyzing the level of evidence were the purposes of this integrative literature review, carried out based on the databases LILACS, MEDLINE and PubMed, from 2005 to July 2012. Twenty articles were identified, in that, 12 literature reviews, 4 descriptive and exploratory studies, 2 expert opinions, one prospective cohort study and one was an experience report. The vesical intra-abdominal pressure measurement was considered gold standard. There are variations in the technique however, but some common points were identified: complete supine position, in absence of abdominal contracture, in the end of expiration and expressed in mmHg. Most research results indicate keeping the transducer zeroed at the level of the mid-axillary line at the iliac crest level, and instill 25mL of sterile saline. Strong evidence must be developed. PMID:26958978

  17. Intra-Engine Trace Species Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waitz, Ian A.; Lukachko, S. P.; Chobot, A.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Brown, R.

    2002-01-01

    Prompted by the needs of downstream plume-wake models, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Aerodyne Research Incorporated (ART) initiated a collaborative effort, with funding from the NASA AEAP, to develop tools that would assist in understanding the fundamental drivers of chemical change within the intra-engine exhaust flow path. Efforts have been focused on the development of a modeling methodology that can adequately investigate the complex intra-engine environment. Over the history of this project, our research has increasingly pointed to the intra-engine environment as a possible site for important trace chemical activity. Modeling studies we initiated for the turbine and exhaust nozzle have contributed several important capabilities to the atmospheric effects of aviation assessment. These include a more complete understanding of aerosol precursor production, improved initial conditions for plume-wake modeling studies, and a more comprehensive analysis of ground-based test cell and in-flight exhaust measurement data. In addition, establishing a physical understanding of important flow and chemical processes through computational investigations may eventually assist in the design of engines to reduce undesirable species.

  18. 2013 WSES guidelines for management of intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high. The 2013 update of the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines for the management of intra-abdominal infections contains evidence-based recommendations for management of patients with intra-abdominal infections. PMID:23294512

  19. Speeding Access to Vaccines and Medicines in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Case for Change and a Framework for Optimized Product Market Authorization

    PubMed Central

    Ahonkhai, Vincent; Portet, Alexandre; Hartman, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Background The United Nations Millennium Development Goals galvanized global efforts to alleviate suffering of the world’s poorest people through unprecedented public-private partnerships. Donor aid agencies have demonstrably saved millions of lives that might otherwise have been lost to disease through increased access to quality-assured vaccines and medicines. Yet, the introduction of these health interventions in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) continues to face a time lag due to factors which remain poorly understood. Methods and Findings A recurring theme from our partnership engagements was that an optimized regulatory process would contribute to improved access to quality health products. Therefore, we investigated the current system for medicine and vaccine registration in LMICs as part of our comprehensive regulatory strategy. Here, we report a fact base of the registration timelines for vaccines and drugs used to treat certain communicable diseases in LMICs. We worked with a broad set of stakeholders, including the World Health Organization’s prequalification team, national regulatory authorities, manufacturers, procurers, and other experts, and collected data on the timelines between first submission and last approval of applications for product registration sub-Saharan Africa. We focused on countries with the highest burden of communicable disease and the greatest need for the products studied. The data showed a typical lag of 4 to 7 years between the first regulatory submission which was usually to a regulatory agency in a high-income country, and the final approval in Sub-Saharan Africa. Two of the three typical registration steps which products undergo before delivery in the countries involve lengthy timelines. Failure to leverage or rely on the findings from reviews already performed by competent regulatory authorities, disparate requirements for product approval by the countries, and lengthy timelines by manufacturers to respond to

  20. Marketing percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldenberg, J.; Libai, B.; Solomon, S.; Jan, N.; Stauffer, D.

    2000-09-01

    A percolation model is presented, with computer simulations for illustrations, to show how the sales of a new product may penetrate the consumer market. We review the traditional approach in the marketing literature, which is based on differential or difference equations similar to the logistic equation (Bass, Manage. Sci. 15 (1969) 215). This mean-field approach is contrasted with the discrete percolation on a lattice, with simulations of "social percolation" (Solomon et al., Physica A 277 (2000) 239) in two to five dimensions giving power laws instead of exponential growth, and strong fluctuations right at the percolation threshold.

  1. Heat Sink Design and Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    hot surfaces to cooler ambient air. Typically, the fins are oriented in a way to permit a natural convection air draft to flow upward through...main objective. Heat transfer from the heat sink consists of radiation and convection from both the intra-fin passages and the unshielded...Natural convection Radiation Design Modeling Optimization 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  2. Assessing the Factors Associated With Iran’s Intra-Industry Trade in Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Yusefzadeh, Hassan; Hadian, Mohammad; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Ghaderi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pharmaceutical industry is a sensitive and profitable industry. If this industry wants to survive, it should be able to compete well in international markets. So, study of Iran’s intra-industry trade (IIT) in pharmaceuticals is essential in order to identify competitiveness potential of country and boost export capability in the global arena. Methods: This study assessed the factors associated with Iran’s intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals with the rest of the world during the 2001–2012 periods using seasonal time series data at the four-digit SITC level. The data was collected from Iran’s pharmaceutical Statistics, World Bank and International Trade Center. Finally, we discussed a number of important policy recommendations to increase Iran’s IIT in pharmaceuticals. Results: The findings indicated that economies of scale, market structure and degree of economic development had a significantly positive impact on Iran’s intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals and tariff trade barriers were negatively related to IIT. Product differentiation and technological advancement didn’t have the expected signs. In addition, we found that Iran’s IIT in pharmaceuticals have shown an increasing trend during the study period. Thus, the composition of Iran trade in pharmaceuticals has changed from inter-industry trade to intra-industry trade. Conclusions: In order to get more prepared for integration into the global economy, the development of Iran’s IIT in pharmaceuticals should be given priority. Therefore, paying attention to IIT could have an important role in serving pharmaceutical companies in relation to pharmaceutical trade. PMID:26156931

  3. Sports Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document presents the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency profile for sports marketing. The profile is to serve as the basis for curriculum development in Ohio's secondary, adult, and postsecondary programs. The profile includes a comprehensive listing of 999 specialty key indicators for evaluating mastery of 113 competencies in…

  4. Marketing Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  5. In Vitro Evaluation of the Dual-Diffuser Design for a Reversible Rotary Intra-Aortic Ventricular Assist Device.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaxin; Smith, P Alex; Timms, Daniel L; Hsu, Po-Lin; McMahon, Richard A

    2016-09-01

    The intra-aortic ventricular assist device (IntraVAD) is a miniature intra-aortic axial-flow ventricular assist device (VAD) that works in series with the left ventricle (LV) to assist the compromised heart. Previous in vitro results have shown that the IntraVAD can successfully increase coronary perfusion and offload ventricular volume by operating in reverse-rotation control (RRc) mode. The RRc mode includes forward rotation in systole and reverse rotation (RR) in diastole. It is necessary to derive a new diffuser design that can be used for the bi-directional rotation of the IntraVAD. In this work, a dual-diffuser set (DDS) was proposed to replace the conventional inducer and diffuser upstream and downstream of the pump. The DDS comprised two diffusers, located on both sides of the impeller, omitting the conventional inducer and diffuser. Different configurations of the DDS were designed and manufactured with various combinations of curved and straight blades. All configurations were initially tested in continuous flow, then in a pulsatile mock circulatory loop. A weighted normalized scalar (WNS) was proposed to comprehensively evaluate the hemodynamic effect of the DDS with different configurations. The results show that the maximum of WNS occurred when the upstream diffuser had equal numbers of curved and straight blades and the downstream diffuser had only curved blades. This indicates such a dual-diffuser design for the IntraVAD can give an optimal cardiac assistance potentially improving ventricular contractility, thereby restoring heart function.

  6. Optimal GENCO bidding strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Feng

    Electricity industries worldwide are undergoing a period of profound upheaval. The conventional vertically integrated mechanism is being replaced by a competitive market environment. Generation companies have incentives to apply novel technologies to lower production costs, for example: Combined Cycle units. Economic dispatch with Combined Cycle units becomes a non-convex optimization problem, which is difficult if not impossible to solve by conventional methods. Several techniques are proposed here: Mixed Integer Linear Programming, a hybrid method, as well as Evolutionary Algorithms. Evolutionary Algorithms share a common mechanism, stochastic searching per generation. The stochastic property makes evolutionary algorithms robust and adaptive enough to solve a non-convex optimization problem. This research implements GA, EP, and PS algorithms for economic dispatch with Combined Cycle units, and makes a comparison with classical Mixed Integer Linear Programming. The electricity market equilibrium model not only helps Independent System Operator/Regulator analyze market performance and market power, but also provides Market Participants the ability to build optimal bidding strategies based on Microeconomics analysis. Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE) is attractive compared to traditional models. This research identifies a proper SFE model, which can be applied to a multiple period situation. The equilibrium condition using discrete time optimal control is then developed for fuel resource constraints. Finally, the research discusses the issues of multiple equilibria and mixed strategies, which are caused by the transmission network. Additionally, an advantage of the proposed model for merchant transmission planning is discussed. A market simulator is a valuable training and evaluation tool to assist sellers, buyers, and regulators to understand market performance and make better decisions. A traditional optimization model may not be enough to consider the distributed

  7. Market efficiency in foreign exchange markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan; Eom, Cheoljun

    2007-08-01

    We investigate the relative market efficiency in financial market data, using the approximate entropy(ApEn) method for a quantification of randomness in time series. We used the global foreign exchange market indices for 17 countries during two periods from 1984 to 1998 and from 1999 to 2004 in order to study the efficiency of various foreign exchange markets around the market crisis. We found that on average, the ApEn values for European and North American foreign exchange markets are larger than those for African and Asian ones except Japan. We also found that the ApEn for Asian markets increased significantly after the Asian currency crisis. Our results suggest that the markets with a larger liquidity such as European and North American foreign exchange markets have a higher market efficiency than those with a smaller liquidity such as the African and Asian markets except Japan.

  8. Does the market maker stabilize the market?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mei; Chiarella, Carl; He, Xue-Zhong; Wang, Duo

    2009-08-01

    The market maker plays an important role in price formation, but his/her behavior and stabilizing impact on the market are relatively unclear, in particular in speculative markets. This paper develops a financial market model that examines the impact on market stability of the market maker, who acts as both a liquidity provider and an active investor in a market consisting of two types of boundedly rational speculative investors-the fundamentalists and trend followers. We show that the market maker does not necessarily stabilize the market when he/she actively manages the inventory to maximize profits, and that rather the market maker’s impact depends on the behavior of the speculators. Numerical simulations show that the model is able to generate outcomes for asset returns and market inventories that are consistent with empirical findings.

  9. Improved lossless intra coding for next generation video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanam, Rahul; He, Yuwen; Ye, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Recently, there have been efforts by the ITU-T VCEG and ISO/IEC MPEG to further improve the compression performance of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard for developing a potential next generation video coding standard. The exploratory codec software of this potential standard includes new coding tools for inter and intra coding. In this paper, we present a new intra prediction mode for lossless intra coding. Our new intra mode derives a prediction filter for each input pixel using its neighboring reconstructed pixels, and applies this filter to the nearest neighboring reconstructed pixels to generate a prediction pixel. The proposed intra mode is demonstrated to improve the performance of the exploratory software for lossless intra coding, yielding a maximum and average bitrate savings of 4.4% and 2.11%, respectively.

  10. Does intra-individual major histocompatibility complex diversity keep a golden mean?

    PubMed Central

    Woelfing, Benno; Traulsen, Arne; Milinski, Manfred; Boehm, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    An adaptive immune response is usually initiated only if a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule presents pathogen-derived peptides to T-cells. Every MHC molecule can present only peptides that match its peptide-binding groove. Thus, it seems advantageous for an individual to express many different MHC molecules to be able to resist many different pathogens. However, although MHC genes are the most polymorphic genes of vertebrates, each individual has only a very small subset of the diversity at the population level. This is an evolutionary paradox. We provide an overview of the current data on infection studies and mate-choice experiments and conclude that overall evidence suggests that intermediate intra-individual MHC diversity is optimal. Selective forces that may set an upper limit to intra-individual MHC diversity are discussed. An updated mathematical model based on recent findings on T-cell selection can predict the natural range of intra-individual MHC diversity. Thus, the aim of our review is to evaluate whether the number of MHC alleles usually present in individuals may be optimal to balance the advantages of presenting an increased range of peptides versus the disadvantages of an increased loss of T-cells. PMID:18926972

  11. Marketing Maps: Illustrating How Marketing Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyure, James F.; Arnold, Susan G.

    2003-01-01

    Today's colleges and universities may tolerate the "idea" of marketing more easily, but marketers must continue to educate campus communities about marketing theories and practice. To promote a useful appreciation of how theories translate into initiatives, we propose incorporating "marketing maps"-user-friendly graphic representations of how…

  12. Intra-layer synchronization in multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambuzza, L. V.; Frasca, M.; Gómez-Gardeñes, J.

    2015-04-01

    We study synchronization of N oscillators indirectly coupled through a medium which is inhomogeneous and has its own dynamics. The system is formalized in terms of a multilayer network, where the top layer is made of disconnected oscillators and the bottom one, modeling the medium, consists of oscillators coupled according to a given topology. The different dynamics of the medium and the top layer is accounted for by including a frequency mismatch between them. We show a novel regime of synchronization as intra-layer coherence does not necessarily require inter-layer coherence. This regime appears under mild conditions on the bottom layer: arbitrary topologies may be considered, provided that they support synchronization of the oscillators of the medium. The existence of a density-dependent threshold as in quorum-sensing phenomena is also demonstrated.

  13. Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity Apollo Spacesuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Kenneth Thomas will discuss the Apollo Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity (IEVA) spacesuits, which supported launch and reentry and extra-vehicular activity. This program was NASA's first attempt to develop a new suit design from requirements and concepts. Mr. Thomas will chronicle the challenges, developments, struggles, and solutions that culminated in the system that allowed the first human exploration of the Moon and deep space (outside low-Earth orbit). Apollo pressure suit designs allowed the heroic repair of the Skylab space station and supported the first U.S. and Russian spacecraft docking during the Apollo Soyuz Test Project. Mr. Thomas will also discuss the IEVA suits' successes and challenges associated with the IEVA developments of the 1960s.

  14. Intra-fraction motion of the prostate is a random walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballhausen, H.; Li, M.; Hegemann, N.-S.; Ganswindt, U.; Belka, C.

    2015-01-01

    isocenter during a fraction, and this variance increases with time, such that shorter fractions are beneficial to the problem of intra-fraction motion. As a consequence, fixed safety margins (which would over-compensate at the beginning and under-compensate at the end of a fraction) cannot optimally account for intra-fraction motion. Instead, online tracking and position correction on-the-fly should be considered as the preferred approach to counter intra-fraction motion.

  15. Gain loss asymmetry for emerging stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpio, Krzysztof; Załuska–Kotur, Magdalena A.; Orłowski, Arkadiusz

    2007-03-01

    Stock indexes for some European emerging markets are analyzed using an investment-horizon approach. Austrian ATX index and Dow Jones have been studied and compared with several emerging European markets. The optimal investment horizons are plotted as a function of an absolute return value. Gain-loss asymmetry, originally found for American DJIA index, is observed for all analyzed data. It is shown, that this asymmetry has different character for emerging and for established markets. For established markets, gain curve lies typically above loss curve, whereas in the case of emerging markets the situation is just the opposite. We propose a measure quantifying the gain-loss asymmetry that clearly exhibits a difference between emerging and established markets.

  16. Wireless Intra-Spacecraft Communication: The Benefits and the Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Will H.; Armstrong, John T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a systematic study of how intra-spacecraft wireless communication can be adopted to various subsystems of the spacecraft including C&DH (Command & Data Handling), Telecom, Power, Propulsion, and Payloads, and the interconnects between them. We discuss the advantages of intra-spacecraft wireless communication and the disadvantages and challenges and a proposal to address them.

  17. Marketing in nursing organizations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, S B

    1989-05-01

    The purpose of chapter 3 is to provide a conceptual framework for understanding marketing. Although it is often considered to be, marketing is not really a new activity for nursing organizations. What is perhaps new to most nursing organizations is the conduct of marketing activities as a series of interrelated events that are part of a strategic marketing process. The increasingly volatile nursing environment requires a comprehensive approach to marketing. This chapter presents definitions of marketing, the marketing mix, the characteristics of nonprofit marketing, the relationship of strategic planning and strategic marketing, portfolio analysis, and a detailed description of the strategic marketing process. While this chapter focuses on marketing concepts, essential components, and presentation of the strategic marketing process, chapter 4 presents specific methods and techniques for implementing the strategic marketing process.

  18. Marketing II Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Cheryl

    This combination curriculum and workbook, which was originally developed for use in a training workshop, is intended to assist adult educators in learning to market their adult literacy programs. The first chapter reviews basic marketing concepts (the definition of marketing, 10 truths about marketing, marketing versus promotion, steps in…

  19. The Market Linkage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Victor E.

    The Market Linkage Project (ML) for Special Education and the Basic Skills Validation and Marketing Program are two federally sponsored marketing projects developed under contract by LINC Resources, Inc., a professional marketing organization, for the U.S. Department of Education. LINC developed the marketing programs to provide the option for the…

  20. Markets for compost

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Table of Contents: Introduction; Characteristics and Benefits of Compost and Competing/Complementary Products; Compost Uses and Markets; Factors Pertinent to Developing Compost Markets; Compost Specifications; Compost Testing Requirements; Compost Distribution; Compost Policies; Economic and Noneconomic Barriers to Developing Compost Markets; Strategies to Mitigate/Overcome Barriers to Developing Compost Markets; and Examples of Existing Programs and Markets (as of 1989).

  1. Marketing the College Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoef, Ted; Howe, Nanci

    Theory underlying marketing in the public sector is presented in combination with specific examples of marketing strategies and techniques used in college unions and student activities programs across the country. The subject of marketing is discussed under six major subject headings: (1) why marketing? (2) analyzing marketing opportunities; (3)…

  2. Introduction to Electronic Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilbeck, Lettie

    These materials for a five-unit course were developed to introduce secondary and postsecondary students to the use of electronic equipment in marketing. The units cover the following topics: electronic marketing as a valid marketing approach; telemarketing; radio electronic media marketing; television electronic media marketing; and cable TV…

  3. Optimally Stopped Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinci, Walter; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2016-11-01

    We combine the fields of heuristic optimization and optimal stopping. We propose a strategy for benchmarking randomized optimization algorithms that minimizes the expected total cost for obtaining a good solution with an optimal number of calls to the solver. To do so, rather than letting the objective function alone define a cost to be minimized, we introduce a further cost-per-call of the algorithm. We show that this problem can be formulated using optimal stopping theory. The expected cost is a flexible figure of merit for benchmarking probabilistic solvers that can be computed when the optimal solution is not known and that avoids the biases and arbitrariness that affect other measures. The optimal stopping formulation of benchmarking directly leads to a real-time optimal-utilization strategy for probabilistic optimizers with practical impact. We apply our formulation to benchmark simulated annealing on a class of maximum-2-satisfiability (MAX2SAT) problems. We also compare the performance of a D-Wave 2X quantum annealer to the Hamze-Freitas-Selby (HFS) solver, a specialized classical heuristic algorithm designed for low-tree-width graphs. On a set of frustrated-loop instances with planted solutions defined on up to N =1098 variables, the D-Wave device is 2 orders of magnitude faster than the HFS solver, and, modulo known caveats related to suboptimal annealing times, exhibits identical scaling with problem size.

  4. Greenhouse-gas-trading markets.

    PubMed

    Sandor, Richard; Walsh, Michael; Marques, Rafael

    2002-08-15

    This paper summarizes the extension of new market mechanisms for environmental services, explains of the importance of generating price information indicative of the cost of mitigating greenhouse gases (GHGs) and presents the rationale and objectives for pilot GHG-trading markets. It also describes the steps being taken to define and launch pilot carbon markets in North America and Europe and reviews the key issues related to incorporating carbon sequestration into an emissions-trading market. There is an emerging consensus to employ market mechanisms to help address the threat of human-induced climate changes. Carbon-trading markets are now in development around the world. A UK market is set to launch in 2002, and the European Commission has called for a 2005 launch of an European Union (EU)-wide market, and a voluntary carbon market is now in formation in North America. These markets represent an initial step in resolving a fundamental problem in defining and implementing appropriate policy actions to address climate change. Policymakers currently suffer from two major information gaps: the economic value of potential damages arising from climate changes are highly uncertain, and there is a lack of reliable information on the cost of mitigating GHGs. These twin gaps significantly reduce the quality of the climate policy debate. The Chicago Climate Exchange, for which the authors serve as lead designers, is intended to provide an organized carbon-trading market involving energy, industry and carbon sequestration in forests and farms. Trading among these diverse sectors will provide price discovery that will help clarify the cost of combating climate change when a wide range of mitigation options is employed. By closing the information gap on mitigation costs, society and policymakers will be far better prepared to identify and implement optimal policies for managing the risks associated with climate change. Establishment of practical experience in providing

  5. 14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Islands fare flexibility. 399.34 Section 399.34 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT... Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.34 Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility..., certificated air carriers have the fare flexibility set forth in §§ 399.32 and 399.33, except that: (a)...

  6. 14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Islands fare flexibility. 399.34 Section 399.34 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT... Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.34 Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility..., certificated air carriers have the fare flexibility set forth in §§ 399.32 and 399.33, except that: (a)...

  7. 14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Islands fare flexibility. 399.34 Section 399.34 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT... Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.34 Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility..., certificated air carriers have the fare flexibility set forth in §§ 399.32 and 399.33, except that: (a)...

  8. 14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Islands fare flexibility. 399.34 Section 399.34 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT... Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.34 Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility..., certificated air carriers have the fare flexibility set forth in §§ 399.32 and 399.33, except that: (a)...

  9. 14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Islands fare flexibility. 399.34 Section 399.34 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT... Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.34 Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility..., certificated air carriers have the fare flexibility set forth in §§ 399.32 and 399.33, except that: (a)...

  10. Identification of an intra-cranial intra-axial porcupine quill foreign body with computed tomography in a canine patient.

    PubMed

    Sauvé, Christopher P; Sereda, Nikki C; Sereda, Colin W

    2012-02-01

    An intra-cranial intra-axial foreign body was diagnosed in a golden retriever dog through the use of computed tomography (CT). Confirmed by necropsy, a porcupine quill had migrated to the patient's left cerebral hemisphere, likely through the oval foramen. This case study demonstrates the efficacy of CT in visualizing a quill in the canine brain.

  11. [Intra-uterine device and nulliparous women].

    PubMed

    Trignol-Viguier, N; Blin, E; Marret, H

    2014-06-01

    Intra-uterine device (IUD) is one of the birth control methods, which is available for nulliparous women, even though misconceptions still remain in medical or popular opinion. Only 1.3 % of nulliparous have a IUD as contraception in France while it is the second methods used by all women, after pill. The best contraception is the one chosen by women; however, the choice for a nulliparous of an IUD may be really difficult, despite the increasing number of women wishing to use it. Long-acting reversible contraceptives utilization, including IUD, is probably one of the issues to decrease the unintended pregnancies. An exhaustive and clear information about IUD is necessary to allow an informed and real choice. This prescription must consider contraindications and medical conditions for safe insertion, especially to avoid infection by screening STD (Chlamydia trachomatis and Nesseria gonorrhoeae) in nulliparous women<25 years old. Insertion must be effected with usual precautions and short or SL IUD preferred. Even if side effects such as expulsion, pelvic pains or dysmenorrhea are more frequent by nulliparous, IUD is a first intention choice for contraception to be consider, that women could obtain easily, including in emergency contraception situation.

  12. [Utility of intra-access pressure].

    PubMed

    Caro, P; Delgado, R; Dapena, F; Aguilera, A

    2004-01-01

    Monitoring of vascular access is essential for clinical evaluation on hemodialysis patients, detects early disfunction of access, allows adequate dialysis and decreases the morbidity associated. Although is demonstrated that intra-access pressure (IAP) is a good method of screening to evaluate arterial-venous (AV) fistulas, its utility is uncommon because its measurement requires a complex system. We would like to validate the utility of IAP monitoring using a simplified measure of IAP and its relation with other methods of screening in detecting stenoses prior to thromboses of AV grafts. We studied 24 AV grafts of 24 patients during 18 months we measured arterial pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), dynamic venous pressure, IAP, Kt/v, URR, recirculation index (RI), access flow and color Doppler flow, dividing the patients in two groups, with stenoses or not, if IAP/MAP > 0.5 and stenoses > 0.50 by Doppler we performed arteriography and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stent if stenoses exits. The values of IAP, MAP, RI were higher significantly in the stenoses group with increase of vascular access in grafts were dilation by angioplasty was made. All stenoses detected with IAP were confirmed by Doppler and arteriography but one. We conclude that IAP is an early, useful, easy, effective method in detecting stenoses of AV grafts prior to thrombosis.

  13. Structured Set Intra Prediction With Discriminative Learning in a Max-Margin Markov Network for High Efficiency Video Coding

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wenrui; Xiong, Hongkai; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Chen, Chang Wen

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel model on intra coding for High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), which simultaneously predicts blocks of pixels with optimal rate distortion. It utilizes the spatial statistical correlation for the optimal prediction based on 2-D contexts, in addition to formulating the data-driven structural interdependences to make the prediction error coherent with the probability distribution, which is desirable for successful transform and coding. The structured set prediction model incorporates a max-margin Markov network (M3N) to regulate and optimize multiple block predictions. The model parameters are learned by discriminating the actual pixel value from other possible estimates to maximize the margin (i.e., decision boundary bandwidth). Compared to existing methods that focus on minimizing prediction error, the M3N-based model adaptively maintains the coherence for a set of predictions. Specifically, the proposed model concurrently optimizes a set of predictions by associating the loss for individual blocks to the joint distribution of succeeding discrete cosine transform coefficients. When the sample size grows, the prediction error is asymptotically upper bounded by the training error under the decomposable loss function. As an internal step, we optimize the underlying Markov network structure to find states that achieve the maximal energy using expectation propagation. For validation, we integrate the proposed model into HEVC for optimal mode selection on rate-distortion optimization. The proposed prediction model obtains up to 2.85% bit rate reduction and achieves better visual quality in comparison to the HEVC intra coding. PMID:25505829

  14. Marketing through Video Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhart, Donna

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of using video presentations as marketing tools. Includes information about video news releases, public service announcements, and sales/marketing presentations. Describes the three stages in creating a marketing video: preproduction planning; production; and postproduction. (JOW)

  15. Market Transformation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Through the SunShot Initiative, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with manufacturers, communities, states, utilities, and other partners to enable the solar market by reducing non-hardware balance-of-system (BOS) costs, developing a skilled workforce, and eliminating market barriers to widespread adoption of solar technologies. The DOE SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national initiative to make solar energy technologies cost-competitive with other forms of energy by reducing the cost of solar energy systems by about 75% by the end of the decade. Reducing the total installed cost for utility-scale solar electricity to roughly 6 cents per kilowatt hour without subsidies will result in rapid, large-scale adoption of solar electricity across the United States. Reaching this goal will re-establish American technological leadership, improve the nation's energy security, and strengthen U.S. economic competitiveness in the global clean energy race. SunShot will work to bring down the full cost of solar - including the costs of solar cells and installation by focusing on four main pillars: (1) Technologies for solar cells and arrays that convert sunlight to energy; (2) Electronics that optimize the performance of the installation; (3) Improvements in the efficiency of solar manufacturing processes; and (4) Installation, design, and permitting for solar energy systems.

  16. Marketing is everything.

    PubMed

    McKenna, R

    1991-01-01

    Technology is creating customer choice, and choice is altering the marketplace. Gone are the days of the marketer as salesperson. Gone as well is marketing that tries to trick the customer into buying whatever the company makes. There is a new paradigm for marketing, a model that depends on the marketer's knowledge, experience, and ability to integrate the customer and the company. Six principles are at the heart of the new marketing. The first, "Marketing is everything and everything is marketing," suggests that marketing is like quality. It is not a function but an all-pervasive way of doing business. The second, "The goal of marketing is to own the market, not just to sell the product," is a remedy for companies that adopt a limiting "market-share mentality." When you own a market, you lead the market. The third principle says that "marketing evolves as technology evolves." Programmable technology means that companies can promise customers "any thing, any way, any time." Now marketing is evolving to deliver on that promise. The fourth principle, "Marketing moves from monologue to dialogue," argues that advertising is obsolete. Talking at customers is no longer useful. The new marketing requires a feedback loop--a dialogue between company and customer. The fifth principle says that "marketing a product is marketing a service is marketing a product." The line between the categories is fast eroding: the best manufacturing companies provide great service, the best service companies think of themselves as offering high-quality products. The sixth principle, "Technology markets technology," points out the inevitable marriage of marketing and technology and predicts the emergence of marketing workstations, a marketing counterpart to engineers' CAD/CAM systems.

  17. Marketing Online Services: Product, Market and Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudell, Libby

    1991-01-01

    Describes characteristics of the online marketplace. Topics discussed include technology barriers; data ownership; markets for online services, including libraries and end users; marketing and promotion tactics, including exhibits and conferences, advertising, direct mail, and user groups; international marketing and service; strategic marketing…

  18. Intra-Hour Dispatch and Automatic Generator Control Demonstration with Solar Forecasting - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Coimbra, Carlos F. M.

    2016-02-25

    In this project we address multiple resource integration challenges associated with increasing levels of solar penetration that arise from the variability and uncertainty in solar irradiance. We will model the SMUD service region as its own balancing region, and develop an integrated, real-time operational tool that takes solar-load forecast uncertainties into consideration and commits optimal energy resources and reserves for intra-hour and intra-day decisions. The primary objectives of this effort are to reduce power system operation cost by committing appropriate amount of energy resources and reserves, as well as to provide operators a prediction of the generation fleet’s behavior in real time for realistic PV penetration scenarios. The proposed methodology includes the following steps: clustering analysis on the expected solar variability per region for the SMUD system, Day-ahead (DA) and real-time (RT) load forecasts for the entire service areas, 1-year of intra-hour CPR forecasts for cluster centers, 1-year of smart re-forecasting CPR forecasts in real-time for determination of irreducible errors, and uncertainty quantification for integrated solar-load for both distributed and central stations (selected locations within service region) PV generation.

  19. Compensating measured intra-wafer ring oscillator stage delay with intra-wafer exposure dose corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaegen, Staf; Nackaerts, Axel; Dusa, Mircea; Carpaij, Rene; Vandenberghe, Geert; Finders, Jo

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to use measurements on real working devices to derive more information than typically measured by the classic line-width measurement techniques. The first part of the paper will discuss the principle of the measurements with a ring oscillator, a circuit used to measure the speed of elementary logic gates. These measurements contribute to the understanding of the exact timing dependencies in circuits, which is of utmost importance for the design and simulation of these circuits. When connecting an odd number of digital inverting stages in a ring, the circuit has no stable digital state but acts as an analog oscillator with the oscillation frequency dependent on the analog propagation delay of the signals through the stages. By varying some conditions during a litho step, the delay change caused by the process condition change can be measured very accurately. The response of the ring oscillator delay to exposure dose is measured and presented in this paper together with a comparison of measured line-width values of the poly gate lines. The second part of the paper will focus on improving the intra-wafer variation of the stage delay. A number of ring oscillators are put in a design at different slit and scan locations. 200mm wafers are processed with 48 full dies present. From the intra-wafer delay fingerprint and the dose sensitivity of the delay an intra-wafer dose correction, also called a dose recipe, is calculated. This dose recipe is used on the scanner to compensate for effects that are the root cause for the delay profile; including reticle and processing such as track, etch and annealing.

  20. Mining Marketing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    MarketMiner(R) Products, a line of automated marketing analysis tools manufactured by MarketMiner, Inc., can benefit organizations that perform significant amounts of direct marketing. MarketMiner received a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from NASA's Johnson Space Center to develop the software as a data modeling tool for space mission applications. The technology was then built into the company current products to provide decision support for business and marketing applications. With the tool, users gain valuable information about customers and prospects from existing data in order to increase sales and profitability. MarketMiner(R) is a registered trademark of MarketMiner, Inc.

  1. The Charlotte (TM) intra-vehicular robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swaim, Patrick L.; Thompson, Clark J.; Campbell, Perry D.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has identified telerobotics and telescience as essential technologies to reduce the crew extra-vehicular activity (EVA) and intra-vehicular activity (IVA) workloads. Under this project, we are developing and flight testing a novel IVA robot to relieve the crew of tedious and routine tasks. Through ground telerobotic control of this robot, we will enable ground researchers to routinely interact with experiments in space. Our approach is to develop an IVA robot system incrementally by employing a series of flight tests with increasing complexity. This approach has the advantages of providing an early IVA capability that can assist the crew, demonstrate capabilities that ground researchers can be confident of in planning for future experiments, and allow incremental refinement of system capabilities and insertion of new technology. In parallel with this approach to flight testing, we seek to establish ground test beds, in which the requirements of payload experimenters can be further investigated. In 1993 we reviewed manifested SpaceHab experiments and defined IVA robot requirements to assist in their operation. We also examined previous IVA robot designs and assessed them against flight requirements. We rejected previous design concepts on the basis of threat to crew safety, operability, and maintainability. Based on this insight, we developed an entirely new concept for IVA robotics, the CHARLOTTE robot system. Ground based testing of a prototype version of the system has already proven its ability to perform most common tasks demanded of the crew, including operation of switches, buttons, knobs, dials, and performing video surveys of experiments and switch panels.

  2. The Charlotte (TM) intra-vehicular robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaim, Patrick L.; Thompson, Clark J.; Campbell, Perry D.

    1994-10-01

    NASA has identified telerobotics and telescience as essential technologies to reduce the crew extra-vehicular activity (EVA) and intra-vehicular activity (IVA) workloads. Under this project, we are developing and flight testing a novel IVA robot to relieve the crew of tedious and routine tasks. Through ground telerobotic control of this robot, we will enable ground researchers to routinely interact with experiments in space. Our approach is to develop an IVA robot system incrementally by employing a series of flight tests with increasing complexity. This approach has the advantages of providing an early IVA capability that can assist the crew, demonstrate capabilities that ground researchers can be confident of in planning for future experiments, and allow incremental refinement of system capabilities and insertion of new technology. In parallel with this approach to flight testing, we seek to establish ground test beds, in which the requirements of payload experimenters can be further investigated. In 1993 we reviewed manifested SpaceHab experiments and defined IVA robot requirements to assist in their operation. We also examined previous IVA robot designs and assessed them against flight requirements. We rejected previous design concepts on the basis of threat to crew safety, operability, and maintainability. Based on this insight, we developed an entirely new concept for IVA robotics, the CHARLOTTE robot system. Ground based testing of a prototype version of the system has already proven its ability to perform most common tasks demanded of the crew, including operation of switches, buttons, knobs, dials, and performing video surveys of experiments and switch panels.

  3. Effect of merging levels of locomotion scores for dairy cows on intra- and interrater reliability and agreement.

    PubMed

    Schlageter-Tello, Andrés; Bokkers, Eddie A M; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G; Van Hertem, Tom; Viazzi, Stefano; Romanini, Carlos E B; Halachmi, Ilan; Bahr, Claudia; Berckmans, Daniël; Lokhorst, Kees

    2014-09-01

    Locomotion scores are used for lameness detection in dairy cows. In research, locomotion scores with 5 levels are used most often. Analysis of scores, however, is done after transformation of the original 5-level scale into a 4-, 3-, or 2-level scale to improve reliability and agreement. The objective of this study was to evaluate different ways of merging levels to optimize resolution, reliability, and agreement of locomotion scores for dairy cows. Locomotion scoring was done by using a 5-level scale and 10 experienced raters in 2 different scoring sessions from videos from 58 cows. Intra- and interrater reliability and agreement were calculated as weighted kappa coefficient (κw) and percentage of agreement (PA), respectively. Overall intra- and interrater reliability and agreement and specific intra- and interrater agreement were determined for the 5-level scale and after transformation into 4-, 3-, and 2-level scales by merging different combinations of adjacent levels. Intrarater reliability (κw) ranged from 0.63 to 0.86, whereas intrarater agreement (PA) ranged from 60.3 to 82.8% for the 5-level scale. Interrater κw=0.28 to 0.84 and interrater PA=22.6 to 81.8% for the 5-level scale. The specific intrarater agreement was 76.4% for locomotion level 1, 68.5% for level 2, 65% for level 3, 77.2% for level 4, and 80% for level 5. Specific interrater agreement was 64.7% for locomotion level 1, 57.5% for level 2, 50.8% for level 3, 60% for level 4, and 45.2% for level 5. Specific intra- and interrater agreement suggested that levels 2 and 3 were more difficult to score consistently compared with other levels in the 5-level scale. The acceptance threshold for overall intra- and interrater reliability (κw and κ ≥0.6) and agreement (PA ≥75%) and specific intra- and interrater agreement (≥75% for all levels within locomotion score) was exceeded only for the 2-level scale when the 5 levels were merged as (12)(345) or (123)(45). In conclusion, when locomotion

  4. Emerging intra-articular causes of groin pain in athletes.

    PubMed

    Jagtap, Prajyot; Shetty, Gautam; Mane, Prashant; Shetty, Vijay

    2014-12-01

    Groin pain remains one of the most poorly understood conditions in clinical sports medicine. It may be caused by either extra-articular or intra-articular conditions. While extra-articular causes have been extensively studied and reasonably understood, a number of elusive intra-articular causes are emerging, many of which were previously unknown and therefore undiagnosed, leading to premature ending of many competitive careers. This article makes an attempt to look at various, elusive intra-articular causes of groin pain in athletes. This article also analyses the currently available evidence on trends in diagnosis and treatment for these conditions.

  5. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, T.; Pinson, P.; Morais, H.

    2016-09-01

    The increasing penetration of wind generation in power systems to fulfil the ambitious European targets will make wind power producers to play an even more important role in the future power system. Wind power producers are being incentivized to participate in reserve markets to increase their revenue, since currently wind turbine/farm technologies allow them to provide ancillary services. Thus, wind power producers are to develop offering strategies for participation in both energy and reserve markets, accounting for market rules, while ensuring optimal revenue. We consider a proportional offering strategy to optimally decide upon participation in both markets by maximizing expected revenue from day-ahead decisions while accounting for estimated regulation costs for failing to provide the services. An evaluation of considering the same proportional splitting of energy and reserve in both day- ahead and balancing market is performed. A set of numerical examples illustrate the behavior of such strategy. An important conclusion is that the optimal split of the available wind power between energy and reserve strongly depends upon prices and penalties on both market trading floors.

  6. Unique Presentation of Intra-Abdominal Testis: Small Bowel Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bassiouny, Ibrahim E.; Abbas, Tariq O.; Alansari, Amani N.; Ali, Mansour A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe here a two-year-old male who required urgent laparotomy to relieve a strangulated small bowel caused by internal herniation around an intra-abdominal testis. This clinical presentation has not been reported previously. PMID:22084802

  7. Veterinary practice marketeer.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Justin

    2015-01-24

    Justin Phillips is marketing manager at White Cross Vets and the Veterinary Marketing Association's (VMA's) Young Veterinary Marketeer of the Year. Here, he describes what he does and why he believes other practices should embrace marketing to improve their quality and client care.

  8. Cooperative Market Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carels, Peter; McCullough, Lynette

    A pilot project was developed in which the Advertising and Market Research Center of the Vienna School of Economics and Business in Austria and the German Department as well as the Marketing Department of Miami University in Ohio are working together to collect market research data and formulate a market entry strategy for Roemerquelle, an…

  9. Markets for recovered aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The study describes the operation of the markets for scrap aluminum as an example of how recycling markets are structured, what factors influence the supply of and demand for materials, what projections can be made about recycling markets, and how government policies to increase recycling may affect these markets.

  10. Market review - Market values summary/August market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This article is the August 1995 uranium market review. During this reporting period, there were three transactions in the long-term concentrates sector, no transactions in the UF6 market, and limited activity in the spot conversion market and the enrichment services market. Active supply rose, as did active demand. Prices were stable to slightly increasing.

  11. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  12. Hospital marketing revisited.

    PubMed

    Costello, M M

    1987-05-01

    With more hospitals embracing the marketing function in their organizational management over the past decade, hospital marketing can no longer be considered a fad. However, a review of hospital marketing efforts as reported in the professional literature indicates that hospitals must pay greater attention to the marketing mix elements of service, price and distribution channels as their programs mature.

  13. Strategic Marketing for Agribusiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The steps for strategic market planning are discussed including: (1) assessing the situation with market conditions, customers, competitors, and your firm; and (2) crafting a strategy to prioritize target markets, develop a core strategy, and create a marketing mix. Examples of agribusiness successes are presented. The booklet concludes with a…

  14. Marketing the pathology practice.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, E N

    1995-07-01

    Effective marketing of the pathology practice is essential in the face of an increasingly competitive market. Successful marketing begins with a market-driven planning process. As opposed to the traditional planning process used in health care organizations, a market-driven approach is externally driven. Implementing a market-driven plan also requires recognition of the definition of the service. Each market to which pathologists direct their service defines the service differently. Recognition of these different service definitions and creation of a product to meet these needs could lead to competitive advantages in the marketplace.

  15. Marketing your expertise.

    PubMed

    Czaplewski, L M

    1999-01-01

    Marketing an existing or new venture is a vital part of business. For the nurse entrepreneur, marketing involves applying previously learned skills to new situations. The methods used to market a service may mean the difference between success and failure. Unfortunately many entrepreneurs think that because they have a great idea, clients will beat a path to their door. Marketing requires planning, creativity, time, and money. It is an ongoing process that must be evaluated regularly. When marketing achieves results, clients commit to using the entrepreneur's services and profits are realized. Basic marketing concepts are considered, and strategies for developing a workable marketing plan are presented.

  16. Novel intra prediction modes for VP10 codec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shleifer, Ariel; Lanka, Chinmayi; Setia, Mohit; Agarwal, Shubham; Hadar, Ofer; Mukherjee, Debargha

    2016-09-01

    The demand for high quality video is permanently on the rise and with it the need for more effective compression. Compression scope can be further expanded due to increased spatial correlation of pixels within a high quality video frame. One basic feature that takes advantage of pixels' spatial correlation for video compression is Intra-Prediction, which determines the codec's compression efficiency. Intra-Prediction enables significant reduction of the Intra-frame (I-frame) size and, therefore, contributes to more efficient bandwidth exploitation. It has been observed that the intra frame coding efficiency of VP9 is not as good as that of H.265/MPEG-HEVC. One possible reason is that HEVC's Intra-prediction algorithm uses as many as 35 prediction directions, while VP9 uses only 9 directions including the TM prediction mode. Therefore, there is high motivation to improve the Intra-Prediction scheme with new, original and proprietary algorithms that will enhance the overall performance of Google's future codec and bring its performance closer to that of HEVC. In this work, instead of using different angles for predictions, we introduce four unconventional Intra-Prediction modes for the VP10 codec - Weighted CALIC (WCALIC), Intra-Prediction using System of Linear Equations (ISLE), Prediction of Discrete Cosine Transformations (PrDCT) Coefficients and Reverse Least Power of Three (RLPT). Employed on a selection eleven (11) typical images with a variety of spatial characteristics, by using Mean Square Error (MSE) evaluation criteria, we show that our proposed algorithms (modes) were preferred and thus selected around 57% of the blocks, resulting in a reduced average prediction error, i.e. the MSE of 26%. We believe that our proposed techniques will achieve higher compression without compromising video quality, thus improving the Rate-Distortion (RD) performances of the compressed video stream.

  17. INTRA-CELLULAR STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ALONE CAUSES INFECTION IN VIVO#

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Therwa; Dietz, Matthew; Pham, Danh; Clovis, Nina; Danley, Suzanne; Li, Bingyun

    2013-01-01

    Chronic and recurrent bone infections occur frequently but have not been explained. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is often found among chronic and recurrent infections and may be responsible for such infections. One possible reason is that S. aureus can internalize and survive within host cells and by doing so, S. aureus can evade both host defense mechanisms and most conventional antibiotic treatments. In this study, we hypothesized that intra-cellular S. aureus could induce infections in vivo. Osteoblasts were infected with S. aureus and, after eliminating extra-cellular S. aureus, inoculated into an open fracture rat model. Bacterial cultures and radiographic observations at post-operative day 21 confirmed local bone infections in animals inoculated with intra-cellular S. aureus within osteoblasts alone. We present direct in vivo evidence that intra-cellular S. aureus could be sufficient to induce bone infection in animals; we found that intra-cellular S. aureus inoculation of as low as 102 colony forming units could induce severe bone infections. Our data may suggest that intra-cellular S. aureus can “hide” in host cells during symptom-free periods and, under certain conditions, they may escape and lead to infection recurrence. Intra-cellular S. aureus therefore could play an important role in the pathogenesis of S. aureus infections, especially those chronic and recurrent infections in which disease episodes may be separated by weeks, months, or even years. PMID:23832687

  18. Intra-cellular Staphylococcus aureus alone causes infection in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hamza, T; Dietz, M; Pham, D; Clovis, N; Danley, S; Li, B

    2013-07-08

    Chronic and recurrent bone infections occur frequently but have not been explained. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is often found among chronic and recurrent infections and may be responsible for such infections. One possible reason is that S. aureus can internalize and survive within host cells and by doing so, S. aureus can evade both host defense mechanisms and most conventional antibiotic treatments. In this study, we hypothesized that intra-cellular S. aureus could induce infections in vivo. Osteoblasts were infected with S. aureus and, after eliminating extra-cellular S. aureus, inoculated into an open fracture rat model. Bacterial cultures and radiographic observations at post-operative day 21 confirmed local bone infections in animals inoculated with intra-cellular S. aureus within osteoblasts alone. We present direct in vivo evidence that intra-cellular S. aureus could be sufficient to induce bone infection in animals; we found that intra-cellular S. aureus inoculation of as low as 102 colony forming units could induce severe bone infections. Our data may suggest that intra-cellular S. aureus can "hide" in host cells during symptom-free periods and, under certain conditions, they may escape and lead to infection recurrence. Intra-cellular S. aureus therefore could play an important role in the pathogenesis of S. aureus infections, especially those chronic and recurrent infections in which disease episodes may be separated by weeks, months, or even years.

  19. A Marketing Case History Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weirick, Margaret C.

    1978-01-01

    A current marketing plan from Temple University illustrates many marketing techniques, including those dealing with enrollment objectives, market objectives, demographic characteristics of Temple students, market share analysis, and the marketing plan. Specific guidelines are provided. (LBH)

  20. Gray marketing of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, P E; Walsh, M G

    1995-01-01

    Pharmaceutical marketers in the European Union are constrained by regulated prices, opening up opportunities for gray marketers. The authors investigate the legal framework that regulates gray markets by summarizing and analyzing relevant European Court of Justice decisions that favor gray marketers and actually foster parallel trade. Before marketing managers can develop effective strategies in this marketplace, they must first understand the precedents of the legal system in which they will be operating.

  1. What is the optimum social marketing mix to market energy conservation behaviour: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Sheau-Ting, Low; Mohammed, Abdul Hakim; Weng-Wai, Choong

    2013-12-15

    This study attempts to identify the optimum social marketing mix for marketing energy conservation behaviour to students in Malaysian universities. A total of 2000 students from 5 major Malaysian universities were invited to provide their preferred social marketing mix. A choice-based conjoint analysis identified a mix of five social marketing attributes to promote energy conservation behaviour; the mix is comprised of the attributes of Product, Price, Place, Promotion, and Post-purchase Maintenance. Each attribute of the mix is associated with a list of strategies. The Product and Post-purchase Maintenance attributes were identified by students as the highest priority attributes in the social marketing mix for energy conservation behaviour marketing, with shares of 27.12% and 27.02%, respectively. The least preferred attribute in the mix is Promotion, with a share of 11.59%. This study proposes an optimal social marketing mix to university management when making decisions about marketing energy conservation behaviour to students, who are the primary energy consumers in the campus. Additionally, this study will assist university management to efficiently allocate scarce resources in fulfilling its social responsibility and to overcome marketing shortcomings by selecting the right marketing mix.

  2. A general model of intra-annual tree growth using dendrometer bands

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Sean M; Parker, Geoffrey G

    2015-01-01

    Tree growth is an important indicator of forest health, productivity, and demography. Knowing precisely how trees' grow within a year, instead of across years, can lead to a finer understanding of the mechanisms that drive these larger patterns. The growing use of dendrometer bands in research forests has only rarely been used to measure growth at resolutions finer than yearly, but intra-annual growth patterns can be observed from dendrometer bands using precision digital calipers and weekly measurements. Here we present a workflow to help forest ecologists fit growth models to intra-annual measurements using standard optimization functions provided by the R platform. We explain our protocol, test uncertainty in parameter estimates with respect to sample sizes, extend the optimization protocol to estimate robust lower and upper annual diameter bounds, and discuss potential challenges to optimal fits. We offer R code to implement this workflow. We found that starting values and initial optimization routines are critical to fitting the best functional forms. After using a bounded, broad search method, a more focused search algorithm obtained consistent results. To estimate starting and ending annual diameters, we combined the growth function with early and late estimates of beginning and ending growth. Once we fit the functions, we present extension algorithms that estimate periodic reductions in growth, total growth, and present a method of controlling for the shifting allocation to girth during the growth season. We demonstrate that with these extensions, an analysis of growth response to weather (e.g., the water available to a tree) can be derived in a way that is comparable across trees, years, and sites. Thus, this approach, when applied across broader data sets, offers a pathway to build inference about the effects of seasonal weather on growth, size- and light-dependent patterns of growth, species-specific patterns, and phenology. PMID:25691954

  3. Multiscale Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis of STOCK Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yi; Shang, Pengjian

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we employ the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) to investigate the cross-correlations between different stock markets. We report the results of cross-correlated behaviors in US, Chinese and European stock markets in period 1997-2012 by using DCCA method. The DCCA shows the cross-correlated behaviors of intra-regional and inter-regional stock markets in the short and long term which display the similarities and differences of cross-correlated behaviors simply and roughly and the persistence of cross-correlated behaviors of fluctuations. Then, because of the limitation and inapplicability of DCCA method, we propose multiscale detrended cross-correlation analysis (MSDCCA) method to avoid "a priori" selecting the ranges of scales over which two coefficients of the classical DCCA method are identified, and employ MSDCCA to reanalyze these cross-correlations to exhibit some important details such as the existence and position of minimum, maximum and bimodal distribution which are lost if the scale structure is described by two coefficients only and essential differences and similarities in the scale structures of cross-correlation of intra-regional and inter-regional markets. More statistical characteristics of cross-correlation obtained by MSDCCA method help us to understand how two different stock markets influence each other and to analyze the influence from thus two inter-regional markets on the cross-correlation in detail, thus we get a richer and more detailed knowledge of the complex evolutions of dynamics of the cross-correlations between stock markets. The application of MSDCCA is important to promote our understanding of the internal mechanisms and structures of financial markets and helps to forecast the stock indices based on our current results demonstrated the cross-correlations between stock indices. We also discuss the MSDCCA methods of secant rolling window with different sizes and, lastly, provide some relevant implications and

  4. Market assessment overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib-Agahi, H.

    1981-01-01

    Market assessment, refined with analysis disaggregated from a national level to the regional level and to specific market applications, resulted in more accurate and detailed market estimates. The development of an integrated set of computer simulations, coupled with refined market data, allowed progress in the ability to evaluate the worth of solar thermal parabolic dish systems. In-depth analyses of both electric and thermal market applications of these systems are described. The following market assessment studies were undertaken: (1) regional analysis of the near term market for parabolic dish systems; (2) potential early market estimate for electric applications; (3) potential early market estimate for industrial process heat/cogeneration applications; and (4) selection of thermal and electric application case studies for fiscal year 1981.

  5. HOMER® Micropower Optimization Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lilienthal, P.

    2005-01-01

    NREL has developed the HOMER micropower optimization model. The model can analyze all of the available small power technologies individually and in hybrid configurations to identify least-cost solutions to energy requirements. This capability is valuable to a diverse set of energy professionals and applications. NREL has actively supported its growing user base and developed training programs around the model. These activities are helping to grow the global market for solar technologies.

  6. 7 CFR 1218.11 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1218.11 Section 1218.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of blueberries in any channel...

  7. 7 CFR 1208.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1208.12 Section 1208.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 1208.12 Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of processed...

  8. 7 CFR 1218.11 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1218.11 Section 1218.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of blueberries in any channel...

  9. 7 CFR 1218.11 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1218.11 Section 1218.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of blueberries in any channel...

  10. 7 CFR 1218.11 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1218.11 Section 1218.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of blueberries in any channel...

  11. 7 CFR 1208.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1208.12 Section 1208.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 1208.12 Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of processed...

  12. 7 CFR 1206.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1206.12 Section 1206.12... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.12 Market or marketing. Marketing means the sale or other disposition of mangos in the U.S. domestic market. To market means to...

  13. 21 CFR 870.2855 - Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement... § 870.2855 Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System. (a) Identification. Implantable intra-aneurysm pressure measurement system is a device used to measure the intra-sac pressure in a...

  14. 21 CFR 870.2855 - Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement... § 870.2855 Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System. (a) Identification. Implantable intra-aneurysm pressure measurement system is a device used to measure the intra-sac pressure in a...

  15. 21 CFR 870.2855 - Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement... § 870.2855 Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System. (a) Identification. Implantable intra-aneurysm pressure measurement system is a device used to measure the intra-sac pressure in a...

  16. 21 CFR 870.2855 - Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement... § 870.2855 Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System. (a) Identification. Implantable intra-aneurysm pressure measurement system is a device used to measure the intra-sac pressure in a...

  17. 21 CFR 870.2855 - Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement... § 870.2855 Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System. (a) Identification. Implantable intra-aneurysm pressure measurement system is a device used to measure the intra-sac pressure in a...

  18. Intra-oral PTH administration promotes tooth extraction socket healing.

    PubMed

    Kuroshima, S; Kovacic, B L; Kozloff, K M; McCauley, L K; Yamashita, J

    2013-06-01

    Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) administration increases systemic and craniofacial bone mass. However, the effect of PTH therapy on healing of tooth extraction sites is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of PTH therapy on tooth extraction socket healing and to examine whether PTH intra-oral injection promotes healing. The mandibular first molars were extracted in rats, and subcutaneous PTH was administered intermittently for 7, 14, and 28 days. In a second study, maxillary second molars were extracted, and PTH was administered by either subcutaneous or intra-oral injection to determine the efficacy of intra-oral PTH administration. Healing was assessed by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analyses. PTH therapy accelerated the entire healing process and promoted both hard- and soft-tissue healing by increasing bone fill and connective tissue maturation. PTH therapy by intra-oral injection was as effective as subcutaneous injection in promoting tooth extraction socket healing. The findings suggest that PTH therapy promotes tooth extraction socket healing and that intra-oral injections can be used to administer PTH.

  19. Market Orientation in Universities: A Comparative Study of Two National Higher Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemsley-Brown, Jane; Oplatka, Izhar

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper's purpose is to test: whether there are significant differences between England and Israel, in terms of perceptions of market orientation (MO) in higher education (HE); which MO dimensions (student, competition, intra-functional) indicate more positive attitudes and whether the differences are significant; and the reliability of…

  20. The President As Marketer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickford, Robert I.

    1978-01-01

    Advocates a marketing orientation to community college management as demonstrated by the successful implementation of four-state (service, promotion, delivery, and evaluation) marketing plan at Prince George's Community College in Washington D.C. (TP)

  1. Marketing to maximize profitability.

    PubMed

    Duboff, R S

    1992-01-01

    An effective marketing strategy should focus on serving profitable customers, not just adding new ones. The author offers five steps that marketers can follow to ensure that their efforts provide the greatest boost to the bottom line.

  2. Marketing Your Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Jewell R.

    1978-01-01

    In this conference presentation, the author, contrary to traditional views, offers a marketing definition that is compatible with continuing education goals. She then points out five reasons why continuing education activities for nurses should be marketed. (EM)

  3. Why We Need Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Nancy

    1984-01-01

    An interview with Philip Kotler, the Harold T. Martin Professor of Marketing at Northwestern University, is presented. Three approaches to marketing are identified: product-oriented, hard-sell, and building satisfaction in a long-term clientele. (MLW)

  4. Marketing Youth Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimick, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Marketing techniques in youth services are useful for designing programs, collections, and services and for determining customer needs. The marketing mix--product, place, price, and practice--provides a framework for service analysis. (AEF)

  5. Dynamics of Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Joseph L.

    2004-06-01

    Standard texts and research in economics and finance ignore the absence of evidence from the analysis of real, unmassaged market data to support the notion of Adam Smith's stabilizing Invisible Hand. In stark contrast, this text introduces a new empirically-based model of financial market dynamics that explains the volatility of prices options correctly and clarifies the instability of financial markets. The emphasis is on understanding how real markets behave, not how they hypothetically 'should' behave.

  6. Intra-operative neurophysiology during microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Conejero, I; Ulkatan, S; Sen, C; Deletis, V

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that primary hemifacial spasm (HFS) in the majority of patients is related to a vascular compression of the facial nerve at its root exit zone (REZ). As a consequence, the hyperexcitability of facial nerve generates spasms of the facial muscles. Microvascular decompression (MVD) of the facial nerve near its REZ has been established as an effective treatment of HFS. Intra-operative disappearance of abnormal muscle responses (lateral spread) elicited by stimulating one of the facial nerve branches has been used as a method to predict MVD effectiveness. Other neurophysiologic techniques, such as facial F-wave, blink reflex and facial corticobulbar motor evoked potentials (FCoMEP), are feasible to intra-operatively study changes in excitability of the facial nerve and its nucleus during MVDs. Intra-operative neuromonitoring with the mentioned techniques allows a better understanding of HFS pathophysiology and helps to optimise the MVD.

  7. Intra- and periarticular osteoid osteoma: Percutaneous destruction and alcoholisation.

    PubMed

    El-Mowafi, Hani; El-Hawary, Ahmed; Hegazi, Mona

    2015-03-01

    Intra- or periarticular osteoid osteoma (00) is uncommon, and therefore a diagnostic challenge. Symptoms are: chronic synovitis, decreased range of motion, joint effusion, and joint contracture. Radiographically, the classical perifocal sclerotic margin is often absent, which leads to a significant delay in diagnosis. The authors retrospectively studied 50 cases of intra- and peri-articular OO, treated with percutaneous destruction and alcoholisation. The mean follow-up period was 8.7 years (range, 1 to 15 years). The diagnosis was only made after +/-14 months (range, 8 to 18 months), due to atypical symptoms (nightly pain absent in 38%) and uselessness of plain radiographs (in 100%). CT-scan, contrast enhanced MRI and bone scan brought the solution. The technique was successful in 48 out of 50 cases (96%): incomplete excision occurred in 2 patients. The diagnosis of intra- or periarticular OO should be considered in case of unexplained joint pain where conservative treatment is inefficient.

  8. Strategic Marketing for Presidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Richard J., Ed.

    Designed to inform the marketing efforts of community college presidents, this document describes the importance of marketing, presents a targeted approach, and outlines the specific roles and skills needed by the president to ensure successful efforts and effective institutions. The first chapter, "Developing a Marketing-Strategic…

  9. Marketing University Outreach Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Ralph S., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of 12 essays and model program descriptions addresses issues in the marketing of university extension, outreach, and distance education programs. They include: (1) "Marketing and University Outreach: Parallel Processes" (William I. Sauser, Jr. and others); (2) "Segmenting and Targeting the Organizational Market"…

  10. Marketing home care services.

    PubMed

    Moore, S T

    1987-08-01

    With the decline in inpatients, hospital administrators and marketers are seeking revenue opportunities in meeting the needs of a new market, home care patients. The challenge for managers in the home care arena is to target their marketing efforts towards the important decision makers. Managers who can best meet the goal of patients, families and professionals will be most successful.

  11. Entering the Corporate Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenshields, Garry W.

    This seminar guide was designed for use with a series of slides in training administrators to market an educational program or service to corporations. The seminar explains the following eight stages in planning entry into the corporate market: identifying appropriate publics; researching the market (analyzing supply and demand, collecting data,…

  12. Marketing Across the Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, Larry D.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines an eight-step approach to launching an integrated college or university marketing/fund-raising program: finding a visionary campus leader; getting presidential support; assembling a three-tier marketing structure; considering new ways of defining quality; developing a marketing "blueprint"; selling the program on campus; embracing…

  13. Rewards for Good Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Carol Anne, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Many professional library associations and affiliates "strongly encourage" the marketing of libraries and their wares. These organizations present awards, certificates, and monetary enticements to honor outstanding marketing programs. For most individuals or teams who are already working on and implementing marketing programs, the added effort of…

  14. Managing Nonprofit Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dennis L.

    1979-01-01

    Nonprofit marketing is an extension of the planning and management process, and a necessary new skill for the community college manager. Management must teach marketing concepts to faculty and all college personnel and communicate their role in the marketing process of the institution for a successful program. (RC)

  15. Marketing Farm Grain Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridenour, Harlan E.

    This vocational agriculture curriculum on grain marketing contains three parts: teacher guide, student manual, and student workbook. All three are coordinated and cross-referenced. The course is designed to give students of grain marketing a thorough background in the subject and provide practical help in developing grain marketing strategies for…

  16. Marketing for Camp Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddle, Alicia

    1998-01-01

    To effectively market a camp, current trends and issues must be considered: specialty programming, the Americans With Disabilities Act, competing recreational programs, changes in the school year, programming for seniors, and accountability. Camps should have a marketing strategy that includes public relations, a marketing plan, a pricing…

  17. Plugging into Marketing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunkenheimer, Gary; Swift, Teri

    This text contains activities that allow marketing education instructors to integrate their curriculum with word-processing, spreadsheet, and presentation software. Their students can gain experience with technology, fulfill marketing education learner outcomes, and meet the demands of a marketing job. The instructor provides an outline for…

  18. Marketing your programs.

    PubMed

    Bothner, Vera

    2002-01-01

    The programs and services that your organization develops can only achieve their desired goals if your clients are aware that they exist and know how to access them. Thus marketing your programs is essential. In this brief we explore the concept of social marketing and walk you through the steps to creating a marketing plan for your organization.

  19. Introduction to Agricultural Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the importance of forecasting in order for a farm family to develop marketing plans. It describes sources of information and includes a glossary of marketing terms and exercises using both fundamental and technical methods to predict prices in order to improve forecasting ability. The unit is organized in the…

  20. Connecticut Marketing Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Haven Board of Education, CT.

    This revised marketing education handbook is intended to assist marketing education teachers and administrators in Connecticut in preparing students to enter meaningful careers in marketing, merchandising, and management positions. The 17 units of this reference guide cover the following topics: introduction; mission and scope of marketing…

  1. Physician’ entrepreneurship explained: a case study of intra-organizational dynamics in Dutch hospitals and specialty clinics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Challenges brought about by developments such as continuing market reforms and budget reductions have strained the relation between managers and physicians in hospitals. By applying neo-institutional theory, we research how intra-organizational dynamics between physicians and managers induce physicians to become entrepreneurs by starting a specialty clinic. In addition, we determine the nature of this change by analyzing the intra-organizational dynamics in both hospitals and clinics. Methods For our research, we interviewed a total of fifteen physicians and eight managers in four hospitals and twelve physicians and seven managers in twelve specialty clinics. Results We found evidence that in becoming entrepreneurs, physicians are influenced by intra-organizational dynamics, including power dependence, interest dissatisfaction, and value commitments, between physicians and managers as well as among physicians’ groups. The precise motivation for starting a new clinic can vary depending on the medical or business logic in which the entrepreneurs are embedded, but also the presence of an entrepreneurial nature or nurture. Finally we found that the entrepreneurial process of starting a specialty clinic is a process of sedimented change or hybridized professionalism in which elements of the business logic are added to the existing logic of medical professionalism, leading to a hybrid logic. Conclusions These findings have implications for policy at both the national and hospital level. Shared ownership and aligned incentives may provide the additional cement in which the developing entrepreneurial values are ‘glued’ to the central medical logic. PMID:24885912

  2. Fournier's gangrene secondary to intra-abdominal processes.

    PubMed

    Gerber, G S; Guss, S P; Pielet, R W

    1994-11-01

    We report 2 cases of necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum, perianal area, and male genitalia (Fournier's gangrene) that arose secondary to intra-abdominal infectious processes (ruptured appendicitis and diverticulitis). Management consisted of immediate debridement of necrotic tissue, exploratory laparotomy, and diverting colostomy. The presence of an acute abdominal process was not immediately evident on initial evaluation of either patient. This demonstrates the critical importance of considering intra-abdominal infection in patients with Fournier's gangrene when the more commonly seen urinary tract, perirectal, and traumatic causes are not readily apparent.

  3. Market segmentation strategy in internet market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yawei; Yang, Deli; Diao, Xinjun

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a model to describe the competitive dynamics of web sites on the WWW market and analyze the stability of the model which is composed of one powerful site and two small sites. One of the most important results that emerge from this simple model is that strong competition among websites does not necessarily lead to the demise of the small website on the WWW market. From the stability analysis of the model, we obtain a series of conditions in which small sites can obtain competitive advantages by using the market segmentation strategy.

  4. The effect of Malaysia general election on stock market returns.

    PubMed

    Liew, Venus Khim-Sen; Rowland, Racquel

    2016-01-01

    During the latest episode of general election held in Malaysia, it is observed that the FBMKLCI index was lifted 62.52 points in a day soon after the announcement of election outcome. Moreover, the index registered a highest gain of 96.29 points in the middle of the intra-day trade. This suggests that investors who had got the right direction could make profitable intra-day trading the next trading day of the general election date. Results from statistical analysis uncover significant before-election-effect and after-election-effect from the most recent general elections held in Malaysia. Different subsets of macroeconomic variables are found to have significant role on stock market return depending on the market situation. Remarkably, when there was close fight between the two major political parties during the 2008 and 2013 election years, political uncertainty showed up its negative and significant role in influencing the stock market return. The major implication of these findings is that while investors may seek abnormal returns before and after the next general election, which is around the corner, they will have to pay attention on the influence of macroeconomic variables and political uncertainty on stock market return during the election year.

  5. Power optimal single-axis articulating strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Renjith R.; Heck, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    Power optimal single axis articulating PV array motion for Space Station Freedom is investigated. The motivation is to eliminate one of the articular joints to reduce Station costs. Optimal (maximum power) Beta tracking is addressed for local vertical local horizontal (LVLH) and non-LVLH attitudes. Effects of intra-array shadowing are also presented. Maximum power availability while Beta tracking is compared to full sun tracking and optimal alpha tracking. The results are quantified in orbital and yearly minimum, maximum, and average values of power availability.

  6. Using conditional probability to identify trends in intra-day high-frequency equity pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechenthin, Michael; Street, W. Nick

    2013-12-01

    By examining the conditional probabilities of price movements in a popular US stock over different high-frequency intra-day timespans, varying levels of trend predictability are identified. This study demonstrates the existence of predictable short-term trends in the market; understanding the probability of price movement can be useful to high-frequency traders. Price movement was examined in trade-by-trade (tick) data along with temporal timespans between 1 s to 30 min for 52 one-week periods for one highly-traded stock. We hypothesize that much of the initial predictability of trade-by-trade (tick) data is due to traditional market dynamics, or the bouncing of the price between the stock’s bid and ask. Only after timespans of between 5 to 10 s does this cease to explain the predictability; after this timespan, two consecutive movements in the same direction occur with higher probability than that of movements in the opposite direction. This pattern holds up to a one-minute interval, after which the strength of the pattern weakens.

  7. Marketing the hospital library.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Many librarians do not see themselves as marketers, but marketing is an essential role for hospital librarians. Library work involves education, and there are parallels between marketing and education as described in this article. It is incumbent upon hospital librarians actively to pursue ways of reminding their customers about library services. This article reinforces the idea that marketing is an element in many of the things that librarians already do, and includes a list of suggested marketing strategies intended to remind administrators, physicians, and other customers that they have libraries in their organizations.

  8. Developing a market orientation.

    PubMed

    Hallums, A

    1994-03-01

    Developing a market-orientated organization is a complex task. An organization's market orientation is reflected in its ability to fulfil its customer's needs. The organization must look outside itself and adopt a flexible response to changing needs. This paper will examine what is meant by the term marketing and why it is necessary for an organization to incorporate the marketing concept. Analysis of the organization's culture and its relevance to the development of market orientation will also be considered. Reference will be made to health care where appropriate.

  9. Market review - Market values summary/October market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This article is the October 1995 uranium market summary. In this reporting period, there were four transactions in the natural uranium market, no activity in the spot UF6 market, no activity in the spot conversion market, and only a single activity in the enrichment services market. Spot uranium volume dropped sharply, and active uranium supply rose. The rise in demand, however, more than offset this increase. Unrestricted exchange prices rose slightly, as did the unrestricted UF6 value. All other prices remained steady.

  10. [Healthcare marketing elements].

    PubMed

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Marketing puts its foundation on a few key concepts: need-demand, product-service, satisfaction, exchange, market, or business structure manufacturing / supply. The combination of these elements allows you to build an effective marketing strategy. Crucial in this respect is to remember the Porter matrix, which shows that for a correct analysis of the relevant market is necessary to refer to the "five forces at play", ie: customers, competitors, new entrants and substitutes threat. Another key lever for proper marketing oriented approach is the continuous and constant monitoring of the application, anticipating their dissatisfactions.

  11. 7 CFR 1212.14 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1212.14 Section 1212.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING..., Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.14 Market or marketing....

  12. 7 CFR 1212.14 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1212.14 Section 1212.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING..., Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.14 Market or marketing....

  13. 7 CFR 1212.14 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1212.14 Section 1212.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING..., Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.14 Market or marketing....

  14. 7 CFR 1212.14 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1212.14 Section 1212.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING..., Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.14 Market or marketing....

  15. 76 FR 3679 - Market Test of Marketing Mail Made Easy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... Market Test of Marketing Mail Made Easy AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... involving the sale of Marketing Mail Made Easy. This document describes the proposed test, addresses... experimental market dominant product, Marketing Mail Made Easy (MMME).\\1\\ The market test will begin on...

  16. UK Higher Education Viewed through the Marketization and Marketing Lenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nedbalová, Eva; Greenacre, Luke; Schulz, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the Economic Market mechanisms and the 4P Marketing Mix as lenses to review the context of UK higher education (HE) and to explore the relationship between the market and marketing disciplines and practice. Four Economic Market mechanisms--autonomy, competition, price and information--are contrasted with the four Ps of marketing:…

  17. Market Research. Cooperative Education Marketing Digest Series 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pride, Cletis G.; Fowler, Joseph S.

    An overview of market research is provided, with advice about conducting market research for the educator. Market research is any kind of research that gives information about the current state of the market and offers guidance in improving one's position in that market. The relative advantages of conducting market research by oneself or by hiring…

  18. 7 CFR 1218.11 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1218.11 Section 1218.11... Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of blueberries in any channel of commerce. (b) To market means to sell or otherwise dispose of blueberries in interstate, foreign,...

  19. Operationalizing strategic marketing.

    PubMed

    Chambers, S B

    1989-05-01

    The strategic marketing process, like any administrative practice, is far simpler to conceptualize than operationalize within an organization. It is for this reason that this chapter focused on providing practical techniques and strategies for implementing the strategic marketing process. First and foremost, the marketing effort needs to be marketed to the various publics of the organization. This chapter advocated the need to organize the marketing analysis into organizational, competitive, and market phases, and it provided examples of possible designs of the phases. The importance and techniques for exhausting secondary data sources and conducting efficient primary data collection methods were explained and illustrated. Strategies for determining marketing opportunities and threats, as well as segmenting markets, were detailed. The chapter provided techniques for developing marketing strategies, including considering the five patterns of coverage available; determining competitor's position and the marketing mix; examining the stage of the product life cycle; and employing a consumer decision model. The importance of developing explicit objectives, goals, and detailed action plans was emphasized. Finally, helpful hints for operationalizing the communication variable and evaluating marketing programs were provided.

  20. Marketing Management Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costoiu, M.; Ioana, A.; Semenescu, A.; Marcu, D.

    2016-11-01

    The article takes as a starting point several complementary definitions of marketing. Also present several key points related to marketing policy: defining the position that the company will occupy on the market with respect to competition, fixing the image with what will approach the market, achieving a balance between turnover rates profit and expenses as a condition for the survival of the company. In below article it is proposed an original concept of marketing management. This concept takes into consideration on the one hand correlations between company position in the market definition and on the other hand the image received by customers. The ultimate goal of this original concept of marketing management is to ensure an effective balance between: the turnover rate of profit and expenses of the company.

  1. A combinatorial approach for analyzing intra-tumor heterogeneity from high-throughput sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Hajirasouliha, Iman; Mahmoody, Ahmad; Raphael, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: High-throughput sequencing of tumor samples has shown that most tumors exhibit extensive intra-tumor heterogeneity, with multiple subpopulations of tumor cells containing different somatic mutations. Recent studies have quantified this intra-tumor heterogeneity by clustering mutations into subpopulations according to the observed counts of DNA sequencing reads containing the variant allele. However, these clustering approaches do not consider that the population frequencies of different tumor subpopulations are correlated by their shared ancestry in the same population of cells. Results: We introduce the binary tree partition (BTP), a novel combinatorial formulation of the problem of constructing the subpopulations of tumor cells from the variant allele frequencies of somatic mutations. We show that finding a BTP is an NP-complete problem; derive an approximation algorithm for an optimization version of the problem; and present a recursive algorithm to find a BTP with errors in the input. We show that the resulting algorithm outperforms existing clustering approaches on simulated and real sequencing data. Availability and implementation: Python and MATLAB implementations of our method are available at http://compbio.cs.brown.edu/software/ Contact: braphael@cs.brown.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24932008

  2. Fast coding unit selection method for high efficiency video coding intra prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Jian

    2013-07-01

    The high efficiency video coding (HEVC) video coding standard under development can achieve higher compression performance than previous standards, such as MPEG-4, H.263, and H.264/AVC. To improve coding performance, a quad-tree coding structure and a robust rate-distortion (RD) optimization technique is used to select an optimum coding mode. Since the RD costs of all possible coding modes are computed to decide an optimum mode, high computational complexity is induced in the encoder. A fast learning-based coding unit (CU) size selection method is presented for HEVC intra prediction. The proposed algorithm is based on theoretical analysis that shows the non-normalized histogram of oriented gradient (n-HOG) can be used to help select CU size. A codebook is constructed offline by clustering n-HOGs of training sequences for each CU size. The optimum size is determined by comparing the n-HOG of the current CU with the learned codebooks. Experimental results show that the CU size selection scheme speeds up intra coding significantly with negligible loss of peak signal-to-noise ratio.

  3. Visualization of hepatic arteries with 3D ultrasound during intra-arterial therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, Maxime; Tang, An; Badoual, Anaïs.; Michaud, François; Bigot, Alexandre; Soulez, Gilles; Kadoury, Samuel

    2016-03-01

    Liver cancer represents the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The prognosis is poor with an overall mortality of 95%. Moreover, most hepatic tumors are unresectable due to their advanced stage at discovery or poor underlying liver function. Tumor embolization by intra-arterial approaches is the current standard of care for advanced cases of hepatocellular carcinoma. These therapies rely on the fact that the blood supply of primary hepatic tumors is predominantly arterial. Feedback on blood flow velocities in the hepatic arteries is crucial to ensure maximal treatment efficacy on the targeted masses. Based on these velocities, the intra-arterial injection rate is modulated for optimal infusion of the chemotherapeutic drugs into the tumorous tissue. While Doppler ultrasound is a well-documented technique for the assessment of blood flow, 3D visualization of vascular anatomy with ultrasound remains challenging. In this paper we present an image-guidance pipeline that enables the localization of the hepatic arterial branches within a 3D ultrasound image of the liver. A diagnostic Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is first processed to automatically segment the hepatic arteries. A non-rigid registration method is then applied on the portal phase of the MRA volume with a 3D ultrasound to enable the visualization of the 3D mesh of the hepatic arteries in the Doppler images. To evaluate the performance of the proposed workflow, we present initial results from porcine models and patient images.

  4. Ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT), a resuscitation option for intra-thoracic foetal pathologies.

    PubMed

    Kern, C; Ange, M; Morales; Peiry, B; Pfister, R E

    2007-05-19

    The ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure is designed to guarantee sufficient oxygenation for a foetus at risk of airway obstruction. This is achieved by improving lung ventilation, usually by establishing an airway during caesarean delivery whilst preserving the foetal-placental circulation temporarily. Indications for the EXIT procedure have extended from its original use in reversing iatrogenic tracheal obstruction in congenital diaphragmatic hernia to naturally occurring upper airway obstructions. We report our experience with a new and rarely mentioned indication for the EXIT procedure, intra-thoracic volume expansions. The elaboration of lowest risk scenarios through balancing risks with alternative options, foetal or neonatal intervention and coordination between professionals from various disciplines are the most important conditions for a successful EXIT procedure. The EXIT procedure requires a caesarean section that specifically differs from the traditional caesarean section during which uterine tone is maintained to minimize maternal bleeding. To guarantee foetal oxygenation during the EXIT procedure, profound uterine relaxation is desired. To gain time with optimal placental oxygenation in order to safely perform an airway intervention in a baby at risk of hypoxia may require deep inhalation anaesthesia and/or tocolytic agents. We review the EXIT procedure and present a case series from the University Hospital of Geneva that contrasts with the common indication for the EXIT procedure usually based on upper airway obstruction by its exclusive indication for intra-thoracic malformations/diseases.

  5. Intra- and intermodal integration of discrepant visual and proprioceptive action effects.

    PubMed

    Ladwig, Stefan; Sutter, Christine; Müsseler, Jochen

    2013-12-01

    Integration of discrepant visual and proprioceptive action effects puts high demands on the human information processing system. The present study aimed to examine the integration mechanisms for the motor (Exp. 1) and visual modality (Exp. 2). According to theories of common coding, we assumed that visual as well as proprioceptive information is represented within the same cognitive domain and is therefore likely to affect each other (multisensory cross talk). Thus, apart from the often-confirmed visual dominance in multisensory integration, we asked about intra- and intermodal recall of either proprioceptive or visual information and whether there were any differences between the motor and visual modality. In a replication paradigm, we perturbed the relation between hand movements and cursor movements. The task required the (intra- vs. intermodal) replication of an initially performed (seen) hand (cursor) movement in a subsequent motor (visual) replication phase. First, mechanisms of integration were found to be dependent on the output modality. Visual action effects interfered the motor modality, but proprioceptive action effects did not have any effects on the visual modality. Second, however, intermodal integration was more susceptible to interference, and this was found to be independent from the output modality. Third, for the motor modality, the locus of perturbation (perturbation of cursor amplitude or perturbation of hand amplitude) was irrelevant, but for the visual modality, perturbation of hand amplitudes reduced the cross talk. Tool use is one field of application of these kinds of results, since the optimized integration of conflicting action effects is a precondition for using tools successfully.

  6. [Community marketing of contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Urrutia, J M

    1987-09-01

    The 5-year-old community contraceptive distribution program developed by PROFAMILIA, Colombia's private family planning organization, has given excellent results, but several cost-effectiveness comparisons with social marketing programs have suggested that commercial distribution programs are superior. The community contraceptive distribution program has a high content of information and education activities, which produced significant increases in knowledge and use of contraception in the communities covered. It has been a fundamental support for the social marketing program, creating much of the demand for contraceptive products that the social marketing program has filled. The social marketing program has given good results in terms of volume of sales and in cost-effectiveness since 1976, prompting calls for replacement of the community contraceptive distribution program by the social marketing program in those sectors where knowledge and use of contraception have achieved acceptable levels. An experiment in the Department of Santander in 1984 and 1985 gave very favorable results, suggesting that community contraceptive distribution programs should be replaced by social marketing programs in all more developed markets. But economic problems in 1985 and the decision of manufacturers to decrease the profit margin for PROFAMILIA jeopardized the social marketing program. The community distribution program covered about 20% of the market. Reduced profits in the social marketing program threatened its continued expansion, at the same time that potential demand was growing because of increases in the fertile aged population and increased use of contraception. To meet the need, PROFAMILIA combined the community contraceptive distribution and social marketing programs into a new entity to be called community marketing. The strategy of the community marketing program will be to maintain PROFAMILIA's participation in the market and aid the growth of demand for

  7. Intra-Word Inconsistency in Apraxic Hebrew-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubul-Lavy, Gila

    2012-01-01

    Intra-word inconsistency in a child is perceived as an indicator of speech impairment. Because the speech of typically developing children is highly variable, the extent and nature of the inconsistency must be defined when used as a diagnostic marker of speech impairment (McLeod, S., & Hewett, S. R. (2008). Variability in the production of words…

  8. Improved lossless intra coding for H.264/MPEG-4 AVC.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yung-Lyul; Han, Ki-Hun; Sullivan, Gary J

    2006-09-01

    A new lossless intra coding method based on sample-by-sample differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) is presented as an enhancement of the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC standard. The H.264/AVC design includes a multidirectional spatial prediction method to reduce spatial redundancy by using neighboring samples as a prediction for the samples in a block of data to be encoded. In the new lossless intra coding method, the spatial prediction is performed based on samplewise DPCM instead of in the block-based manner used in the current H.264/AVC standard, while the block structure is retained for the residual difference entropy coding process. We show that the new method, based on samplewise DPCM, does not have a major complexity penalty, despite its apparent pipeline dependencies. Experiments show that the new lossless intra coding method reduces the bit rate by approximately 12% in comparison with the lossless intra coding method previously included in the H.264/AVC standard. As a result, the new method is currently being adopted into the H.264/AVC standard in a new enhancement project.

  9. Pseudomonas arthritis treated with parenteral and intra-articular ceftazidime.

    PubMed Central

    Walton, K; Hilton, R C; Sen, R A

    1985-01-01

    A 73-year-old diabetic presented with septic arthritis of the knee; Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated. She was successfully treated with a combination of parenteral and intra-articular ceftazidime, after failure to eradicate the organism with adequate serum levels of gentamicin and full doses of azlocillin. PMID:3896166

  10. Teaching Statistics: Creating an Intersection for Intra and Interdisciplinarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savard, Annie; Manuel, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Statistics is taught in mathematics courses in all school levels. We suggest that using rich tasks in statistics can develop statistical reasoning and create both intra and interdisciplinary links in students. In this paper, we present three case studies where middle school mathematics teachers used different tasks in lessons on pie charts. We…

  11. Economic Restructuring and Intra-Generational Class Mobility in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrado, Emilio A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares men's career opportunities and intra-generational class mobility across periods with markedly different development strategies in Mexico. Despite its significance for social stratification and inequality in Mexico, research on mobility has been relatively scant in recent decades. Using data from the National Retrospective…

  12. The Issue of Motivating Entre(Intra)Preneurial Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winslow, Erik K.

    1990-01-01

    Six principles of motivating entre(intra)preneurial behavior are considered including the climate must allow the expression of such activity; motivation is broadly distributed in the general population; behavior is a function of its consequences; and motivating environments have an aura of excitement and experimentation. (DB)

  13. Corrective Osteotomy for Intra-Articular Distal Humerus Malunion

    PubMed Central

    Kinaci, Ahmet; Buijze, Geert A.; Leeuwen, Diederik H.van; Jupiter, Jesse B.; Marti, Rene K.; Kloen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: An intra-articular distal humerus malunion can be disabling. To improve function, reduce pain and/or prevent further secondary osteoarthritis an intra-articular corrective osteotomy can be considered. Herein we present the indications, practical guidelines for pre- operative planning and surgical technique. Subsequently, we provide long-term results in a small series. Methods: We included six consecutive patients operated for intra-articular distal humerus malunion. Mean follow-up was 88 months. At lastest follow up elbow function was assessed according to standardized questionnaires and classification systems. Results: All six patients healed their osteotomies. Three patients had a postoperative complication which were treated succesfully. Range of motion improved significantly and all patients were satisfied with the outcome. The elbow performance scores were good to excellent in all. Correlation analyses showed that age and level of osteoarthritis are very strong predictors for the long-term elbow function and quality of life. Conclusion: An intra-articular corrective osteotomy for a malunited distal humerus fracture is a worthwhile procedure. Based on our results it should particularly be considered in young patients with minimal osteoarthritis and moderate to severe functional disability and/or pain. PMID:27200396

  14. The Measurement of Internal (Intra-Article) Reading Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Earl F.; Hess, Allen K.

    The effects of training on internal reading flexibility (intra-article flexibility) and the relationships between such flexibility and overall reading speed, reading comprehension, anxiety level, and introversion-extraversion were investigated. Flexibility coefficients were computed before and after training for the total group of 255 college…

  15. Advances in Medical Diagnosis of Intra-Amniotic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Buhimschi, Irina A.; Nayeri, Unzila A.; Laky, Christine A.; Razeq, Sonya-Abdel; Dulay, Antonette T.; Buhimschi, Catalin S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Intra-uterine infection is a global problem and a significant contributor to morbidity and perinatal death. The host response to infection causes an inflammatory state that acts synergistically with microbial insult to induce preterm birth and fetal damage. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of intra-amniotic infection in the asymptomatic stage of the disease is critical for improved maternal and neonatal outcomes. Areas Covered This article provides an overview of the most recent progress, challenges and opportunities for discovery and clinical implementation of various maternal serum, cervico-vaginal and amniotic fluid biomarkers in pregnancies complicated by intra-amniotic infection. Expert Opinion Clinically relevant biomarkers are critical to the accurate diagnostic of intra-uterine infection. Front end implementation of such biomarkers will also translate in lower incidence of early-onset neonatal sepsis which is an important determinant of neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with prematurity. However, of the hundreds of differentially expressed proteins, only few may have clinical utility and thus function as biomarkers. The small number of validation studies along with barriers to implementation of technological innovations in the clinical setting are current limitations. PMID:23530840

  16. Adaptive Intra Refresh for Robust H.264/AVC Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bin; Qin, Hao; Jiang, Xiaobing; Ma, Linhua

    An intra refresh matrix, which models the importance of each macroblock, is first created. This matrix can be used to decide the coding mode of the macroblocks. The proposed technique can greatly improve the decoded video quality over the variable and error-prone channel with high packet loss rate.

  17. Optomechatronic System For Automated Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulev, Assen; Tiankov, Tihomir; Ignatova, Detelina; Kostadinov, Kostadin; Roussev, Ilia; Trifonov, Dimitar; Penchev, Valentin

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a complex optomechatronic system for In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF), offering almost complete automation of the Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) procedure. The compound parts and sub-systems, as well as some of the computer vision algorithms, are described below. System capabilities for ICSI have been demonstrated on infertile oocyte cells.

  18. Modeling intra-crown and intra-canopy interactions in red maple: assessment of light transfer on carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange.

    PubMed

    Bauerle, William L; Bowden, Joseph D; McLeod, Michael F; Toler, Joe E

    2004-05-01

    Daily and seasonal net photosynthesis (Anet), transpiration (E), absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (Qa) and light-use efficiency (epsilonc) in a red maple container nursery were simulated with MAESTRA, a three-dimensional canopy model. Effects of canopy heterogeneity were simulated by imposing changes in crown spacing. The light transfer sub-model, a distribution model of incident, direct, diffuse and scattered radiation within MAESTRA, was validated against field measurements of light interception on an intra-crown scale. In the container nursery, we found that a fiber-optic-based method of integrating photosynthetically active radiation (Q) was more suitable for crown-layer light transfer measurements and adjustments than either orthogonal line or individual quantum sensor measurements. The model underestimated intercepted Q by 9.3, 18 and 11.1% for crown layers 1, 2 and 3, respectively; however, there were linear relationships between model estimates and observations made with each of the three measurement methods. We used the validated and parameterized light transfer model to assess intra-crown and intra-canopy light transfer on a layer, crown and canopy basis, and investigated effects of tree size ratio and tree spacing interactions on Anet, E, Qa and epsilonc in the container nursery. Heterogeneous crown and canopy photosynthesis were predicted to exceed values for a uniform canopy under space-limiting conditions. Tree size ratio had large effects on Anet, E, Qa and epsilonc when light to lower-canopy layers was limited by inadequate space between crowns. Increasing Qa at lower-crown layers had the largest impact on whole-crown and whole-canopy Anet, E, Qa and epsilonc. Increases in canopy productivity led to increased water use. Simulations of heterogeneous stands with adequate soil water indicated that light absorption is maximized under space-limiting conditions as a canopy crown moves toward heterogeneity. Nursery and plantation productivity

  19. Correlation between agricultural markets in dynamic perspective-Evidence from China and the US futures markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Rui-Lin; Wang, Dong-Hua; Tu, Jing-Qing; Li, Sai-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Emerging as the earliest futures markets, agricultural futures markets play an important role in risk aversion and price discovery. With the integration of global economy, the linkage between domestic and international futures markets becomes closer than ever. By using the thermal optimal path (TOP) method, this paper selects soybean, corn and wheat as the representatives to study the dynamic lead-lag relationship between the Chinese and American markets in both returns and volatility. The results indicate that: (1) For the futures return, different kinds of agricultural futures lead-lag relationship between China and the US varied before 2014 both in direction and order in different time periods. However, China leads the US for all the three kinds we study after 2014. (2) Agricultural commodities subject to less import restrictions and government regulations in China such as soybean are more susceptible to the fluctuations from the international markets. On the other hand, lower foreign trade openness and more government regulation species such as wheat are less affected by fluctuations from outside. (3) The volatility transmission from the US to China wheat futures market takes longer time than soybean, which suggests that China's soybean futures market is more closely linked to the international agricultural futures market than wheat.

  20. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  1. Line managers as marketers.

    PubMed

    Rynne, T J

    1986-09-01

    Many hospital administrators and boards of directors, having overcome their initial opposition to advertising and hired a marketing professional, are wondering why their marketing programs have not accomplished all that they had hoped. The answer lies in their perception of who is responsible for marketing. Marketing is not a specialty separate from the disciplines of management--it is a basic management skill. Its goal is to satisfy the customer by providing products and services that meet the customer's needs, wants, and preferences. Line managers must understand the hospital's customers and make the critical day-to-day differences in satisfying them. They are the hospital's front-line marketers, and the marketing department's role is to support them in this function. The marketing department should develop the line managers' marketing skills by furnishing them with the appropriate tools: formats, models, examples, and instructions. In addition, the marketing staff should provide such specialized services as marketing research, ad agency management, and development of communications.

  2. Intra-specific competition (crowding) of giant sequoias (Sequoiadendron giganteum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    Information on the size and location of 1916 giant sequoias (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buchholz) in Muir Grove, Sequoia National Park, in the southern Sierra Nevada of California was used to assess intra-specific crowding. Study objectives were to: (1) determine which parameters associated with intra-specific competition (i.e. size and distance to nearest neighbor, crowding/root system area overlap, or number of neighbors) might be important in spatial pattern development, growth, and survivorship of established giant sequoias; (2) quantify the level of intra-specific crowding of different sized live sequoias based on a model of estimated overlapping root system areas (i.e. an index of relative crowding); (3) compare the level of intra-specific crowding of similarly sized live and dead giant sequoias (less than 30 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) at the time of inventory (1969). Mean distances to the nearest live giant sequoia neighbor were not significantly different (at α = 0.05) for live and dead sequoias in similar size classes. A zone of influence competition model (i.e. index of crowding) based on horizontal overlap of estimated root system areas was developed for 1753 live sequoias. The model, based only on the spatial arrangement of live sequoias, was then tested on dead sequoias of less than 30 cm dbh (n = 163 trees; also recorded in 1969). The dead sequoias had a significantly higher crowding index than 561 live trees of similar diameter. Results showed that dead sequoias of less than 16.6 cm dbh had a significantly greater mean number of live neighbors and mean crowding index than live sequoias of similar size. Intra-specific crowding may be an important mechanism in determining the spatial distribution of sequoias in old-growth forests.

  3. Piecewise Mapping in HEVC Lossless Intra-prediction Coding.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Victor; Auli-Llinas, Francesc; Serra-Sagrista, Joan

    2016-05-19

    The lossless intra-prediction coding modality of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard provides high coding performance while allowing frame-by-frame basis access to the coded data. This is of interest in many professional applications such as medical imaging, automotive vision and digital preservation in libraries and archives. Various improvements to lossless intra-prediction coding have been proposed recently, most of them based on sample-wise prediction using Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM). Other recent proposals aim at further reducing the energy of intra-predicted residual blocks. However, the energy reduction achieved is frequently minimal due to the difficulty of correctly predicting the sign and magnitude of residual values. In this paper, we pursue a novel approach to this energy-reduction problem using piecewise mapping (pwm) functions. Specifically, we analyze the range of values in residual blocks and apply accordingly a pwm function to map specific residual values to unique lower values. We encode appropriate parameters associated with the pwm functions at the encoder, so that the corresponding inverse pwm functions at the decoder can map values back to the same residual values. These residual values are then used to reconstruct the original signal. This mapping is, therefore, reversible and introduces no losses. We evaluate the pwm functions on 4×4 residual blocks computed after DPCM-based prediction for lossless coding of a variety of camera-captured and screen content sequences. Evaluation results show that the pwm functions can attain maximum bit-rate reductions of 5.54% and 28.33% for screen content material compared to DPCM-based and block-wise intra-prediction, respectively. Compared to Intra- Block Copy, piecewise mapping can attain maximum bit-rate reductions of 11.48% for camera-captured material.

  4. Generation of the SCF3 Radical by Photoredox Catalysis: Intra- and Intermolecular Carbotrifluoromethylthiolation of Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Dagousset, Guillaume; Simon, Cédric; Anselmi, Elsa; Tuccio, Béatrice; Billard, Thierry; Magnier, Emmanuel

    2017-02-17

    We report herein the first use of N-trifluoromethylthiosaccharin as the source of SCF3 radical under photoredox catalysis. This allowed an efficient and general visible-light-mediated carbotrifluoromethylthiolation of alkenes. Under the optimized conditions using fac-Ir(ppy)3 as the photocatalyst, various N-aryl acrylamides as well as a wide range of substituted styrenes can readily be difunctionalized in an intra- or intermolecular fashion, affording the corresponding SCF3-containing products in good to excellent yield. Importantly, the formation of this SCF3 radical along with other key radical intermediates was unambiguously demonstrated thanks to spin trapping/electron paramagnetic resonance (ST/EPR) experiments, which enabled a clear understanding of the reaction mechanism.

  5. Deformable mirrors for intra-cavity use in high-power thin-disk lasers.

    PubMed

    Piehler, Stefan; Dietrich, Tom; Wittmüss, Philipp; Sawodny, Oliver; Ahmed, Marwan Abdou; Graf, Thomas

    2017-02-20

    We present deformable mirrors for the intra-cavity use in high-power thin-disk laser resonators. The refractive power of these mirrors is continuously adaptable from -0.7 m-1 to 0.3 m-1, corresponding to radii of curvature ranging between 2.86 m (convex) and 6.67 m (concave). The optimized shape of the mirror membrane enables a very low peak-to-valley deviation from a paraboloid deformation over a large area. With the optical performance of our mirrors being equal to that of standard HR mirrors, we were able to demonstrate the tuning of the beam quality of a thin-disk laser in a range of M2 = 3 to M2 = 1 during laser operation at output powers as high as 1.1 kW.

  6. Jagged Tiling for Intra-tile Parallelism and Fine-Grain Multithreading

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Sunil; Manzano Franco, Joseph B.; Marquez, Andres; Feo, John T.; Gao, Guang R.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we have developed a novel methodology that takes into consideration multithreaded many-core designs to better utilize memory/processing resources and improve memory residence on tileable applications. It takes advantage of polyhedral analysis and transformation in the form of PLUTO, combined with a highly optimized finegrain tile runtime to exploit parallelism at all levels. The main contributions of this paper include the introduction of multi-hierarchical tiling techniques that increases intra tile parallelism; and a data-flow inspired runtime library that allows the expression of parallel tiles with an efficient synchronization registry. Our current implementation shows performance improvements on an Intel Xeon Phi board up to 32.25% against instances produced by state-of-the-art compiler frameworks for selected stencil applications.

  7. Parasitised caterpillars suffer reduced predation: potential implications for intra-guild predation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Bin; Vasseur, Liette; You, Min-Sheng; Li, Jian-Yu; Wang, Cheng-Xiang; Meng, Ruo-Xue; Gurr, Geoff M

    2017-02-23

    Intra-guild predation (IGP) is an important phenomenon structuring ecological communities and affects the success of biological control. Here we show that parasitism by the koinobiont wasp Cotesia vestalis is associated with behavioural changes in its larval host (diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella) that reduce risk of IGP. Compared with unparasitised caterpillars, parasitised P. xylostella moved less frequently to new feeding patches on plants and were less likely to fall from the plant. Wolf spiders killed significantly fewer parasitised larvae. Reflecting their reduced movement and capacity to select plant tissue of optimal quality, parasitised caterpillars fed at a lower rate and exhibited delayed development suggesting a trade-off between IGP avoidance and nutrient intake by the host. This change in behaviour to reduce risk may cascade to the first trophic level and help explain the stability of IGP systems.

  8. Parasitised caterpillars suffer reduced predation: potential implications for intra-guild predation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-bin; Vasseur, Liette; You, Min-sheng; Li, Jian-yu; Wang, Cheng-xiang; Meng, Ruo-xue; Gurr, Geoff M.

    2017-01-01

    Intra-guild predation (IGP) is an important phenomenon structuring ecological communities and affects the success of biological control. Here we show that parasitism by the koinobiont wasp Cotesia vestalis is associated with behavioural changes in its larval host (diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella) that reduce risk of IGP. Compared with unparasitised caterpillars, parasitised P. xylostella moved less frequently to new feeding patches on plants and were less likely to fall from the plant. Wolf spiders killed significantly fewer parasitised larvae. Reflecting their reduced movement and capacity to select plant tissue of optimal quality, parasitised caterpillars fed at a lower rate and exhibited delayed development suggesting a trade-off between IGP avoidance and nutrient intake by the host. This change in behaviour to reduce risk may cascade to the first trophic level and help explain the stability of IGP systems. PMID:28230205

  9. How to Optimize Your Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dysart, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Given Google's growing market share--69% of all searches by the close of 2007--it's absolutely critical for any school on the Web to ensure its site is Google-friendly. A Google-optimized site ensures that students and parents can quickly find one's district on the Web even if they don't know the address. Plus, good search optimization simply…

  10. Hierarchical dispatch using two-stage optimisation for electricity markets in smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Guoshan; Ma, Kai

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes a hierarchical dispatch method for the electricity markets consisting of wholesale markets and retail markets. In the wholesale markets, the generators and the retailers decide the generation and the purchase according to the market-clearing price. In the retail markets, the retailers set the retail price to adjust the electricity consumption of the consumers. Due to the two-way communications in smart grid, the retailers can decide the electricity purchase from the wholesale markets based on the information on electricity usage of consumers in the retail markets. We establish the hierarchical dispatch model for the wholesale markets and the retail markets and develop distributed algorithms to search for the optimal generation, purchase, and consumption. Numerical results show the balance between the supply and demand, the profits of the retailers, and the convergence of the distributed algorithms.

  11. 2013 Bioenergy Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, Amy; Moriarty, Kristi; Milbrandt, Anelia; Geiger, Jesse; Lewis, John

    2016-03-28

    This report provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy as it existed at the end of 2013. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets.

  12. Targeting biodefense markets.

    PubMed

    Olinger, Gene Garrard

    2009-10-01

    The "World Vaccine Congress 2009" held in Washington D.C. (April 20-23, 2009) sponsored several sessions focused on the vaccine market targeting biodefense. On day one of the congress, a panel discussion outlined the federal progress in medical countermeasure preparedness that included emerging infections, influenza, and biodefense focuses. The second day, a session focused on the biodefense vaccine market with both government and industry members discussing the opportunities and challenges associated with the budding market.

  13. Communication impacting financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitting Andersen, Jørgen; Vrontos, Ioannis; Dellaportas, Petros; Galam, Serge

    2014-10-01

    Since the attribution of the Nobel prize in 2002 to Kahneman for prospect theory, behavioral finance has become an increasingly important subfield of finance. However the main parts of behavioral finance, prospect theory included, understand financial markets through individual investment behavior. Behavioral finance thereby ignores any interaction between participants. We introduce a socio-financial model (Vitting Andersen J. and Nowak A., An Introduction to Socio-Finance (Springer, Berlin) 2013) that studies the impact of communication on the pricing in financial markets. Considering the simplest possible case where each market participant has either a positive (bullish) or negative (bearish) sentiment with respect to the market, we model the evolution of the sentiment in the population due to communication in subgroups of different sizes. Nonlinear feedback effects between the market performance and changes in sentiments are taken into account by assuming that the market performance is dependent on changes in sentiments (e.g., a large sudden positive change in bullishness would lead to more buying). The market performance in turn has an impact on the sentiment through the transition probabilities to change an opinion in a group of a given size. The idea is that if for example the market has observed a recent downturn, it will be easier for even a bearish minority to convince a bullish majority to change opinion compared to the case where the meeting takes place in a bullish upturn of the market. Within the framework of our proposed model, financial markets stylized facts such as volatility clustering and extreme events may be perceived as arising due to abrupt sentiment changes via ongoing communication of the market participants. The model introduces a new volatility measure which is apt of capturing volatility clustering and from maximum-likelihood analysis we are able to apply the model to real data and give additional long term insight into where a market is

  14. Derived enriched uranium market

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-12-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market.

  15. Historical market data

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Historical financial data is provided for the uranium market in graphic and tabular form. Market data includes restricted and unrestricted uranium price ranges; exchange, transaction, uranium hexafluoride, conversion, and separative work values; and annual world uranium production and requirements. Selected historical economic indicators are listed for Australia, Canada, South Africa, and the United States. Natural uranium deliveries to the European Union and U.S. uranium marketing data are provided.

  16. Market place movements

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    Historical financial data is provided for the uranium market in graphical and tabular form. Data include uranium spot price range, spot conversion price range, and seperative work units price range. Additional spot market information provided is natural uranium by buyers and sellers. Medium- and long-term data includes average natural uranium prices, and natural uranium market by buyers and sellers. Information on US contracted supply and demand and uranium production in Australia, Canada, and the US is given.

  17. Intra-cerebral and intra-nasal melanocortin-4 receptor antagonist blocks withdrawal hyperalgesia in alcohol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Roltsch Hellard, Emily A; Impastato, Renata A; Gilpin, Nicholas W

    2016-01-24

    Humans diagnosed with alcohol use disorder are more sensitive to painful stimuli during withdrawal, which suggests that excessive alcohol drinking worsens pain outcomes. Alcohol-dependent rats exhibit increases in nociceptive sensitivity during withdrawal. Data from animal models suggest that brain melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4Rs) mediate alcohol drinking and nociception. Here we tested: (1) the effect of alcohol dependence on thermal nociception in rats, and (2) the ability of acute alcohol and (3) MC4R antagonists to reverse hyperalgesia during withdrawal in alcohol-dependent rats. Rats were trained to self-administer operant alcohol and were tested for baseline thermal nociception. Half of the rats were made dependent on alcohol, then all rats were cannulated in the lateral ventricle. We tested the effects of acute alcohol drinking, acute fixed-dose alcohol, intra-ventricular agouti-related protein (endogenous MC4R antagonist), intra-ventricular HS014 (synthetic MC4R antagonist) and intra-nasal HS014 on hyperalgesia during withdrawal in alcohol-dependent rats, relative to non-dependent drinkers and alcohol-naïve controls. Alcohol-dependent rats exhibit thermal hyperalgesia that is abolished by alcohol drinking, bolus alcohol and intra-ventricular and intra-nasal MC4R antagonists. These manipulations did not affect thermal nociception in non-dependent drinkers and alcohol-naïve controls, suggesting that alcohol dependence produces neuroadaptations in brain MC4R systems. These results suggest that brain MC4R systems may be an effective therapeutic target for reducing nociception in the alcohol-dependent organism.

  18. World helicopter market study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, B.; Pearson, R. W.; Greenwood, S. W.; Kaplan, L.

    1978-01-01

    The extent of the threat to the US helicopter industry posed by a determined effort by foreign manufacturers, European companies in particular, to supply their own domestic markets and also to penetrate export markets, including the USA is assessed. Available data on US and world markets for civil and military uses are collated and presented in both graphic and tabular form showing the past history of production and markets and, where forecasts are available, anticipated future trends. The data are discussed on an item-by-item basis and inferences are drawn in as much depth as appears justified.

  19. Market review: Market values summary July market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    A summary of financial data for the uranium spot market is provided. Recent transactions are tabulated, including uranium sales, natural uranium loans, conversion sales, and enrichment sales. A market values summary and long-term price indicators are also provided. The July 1996 market review data includes summaries of near-term uranium sales, near-term supply/demand, NUEXCO values, USEC prices, and calculated worth of enriched uranium. Active projects in uranium, conversion, and separative work supply and demand are listed. International market values are tabulated for 22 selected currencies.

  20. Market Review: Market values summary/April market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This article is the April 1996 Uranium transactions summary. Data is presented on the supply, demand, and prices of U3O8, conversion services, and separative work units. During this period, market activity slowed, with only four transactions in the spot market. Prices strengthened slightly. There were five deals in the long-term U3O8 market and one deal in the conversion market. Active demand increased to 1.1 million pounds U3O8, while active supply increased to 4.8 million pounds U3O8.

  1. Marketing veterinary services.

    PubMed

    Lee, David E

    2006-03-01

    Marketing is a holistic process that goes far beyond a Yellow Page advertisement or a glossy brochure. A thorough evaluation of a market before entry, including best and worst case scenarios, is critical to mak-ing good investments. Veterinarians are fortunate to have a market that is largely protected by barriers to entry and characterized by reasonably high rates of return given minimal risk. Our market base continues to expand and, overall, remains fairly price insensitive. The extent to which a practice can align its capabilities with a product mix that ideally meets its clients' needs will ultimately determine its success.

  2. Internet marketing 401.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ryan J

    2010-11-01

    For facial plastic surgeons who are already realizing increased patient consultation requests from their online marketing efforts, the primary concern often becomes implementing additional tactics and strategies that can keep their online marketing fresh, relevant, and effective. This article creates a framework for evaluating advanced online marketing opportunities by analyzing each opportunity according to the variables of possible return, average cost to implement, probability of success, and implementation time. Within this framework, 11 distinct tactics are discussed, with special emphasis on the most common marketing needs and challenges of facial plastic surgery practices.

  3. Marketing a Radiology Practice.

    PubMed

    Levin, David C; Rao, Vijay M; Flanders, Adam E; Sundaram, Baskaran; Colarossi, Margaret

    2016-10-01

    In addition to being a profession, the practice of radiology is a business, and marketing is an important part of that business. There are many facets to marketing a radiology practice. The authors present a number of ideas on how to go about doing this. Some marketing methods can be directed to both patients and referring physicians. Others should be directed just to patients, while still others should be directed just to referring physicians. Aside from marketing, many of them provide value to both target audiences.

  4. 7 CFR 1206.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1206.12 Section 1206.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.12 Market or...

  5. 7 CFR 1206.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1206.12 Section 1206.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.12 Market or...

  6. 7 CFR 1206.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1206.12 Section 1206.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.12 Market or...

  7. 7 CFR 1206.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1206.12 Section 1206.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.12 Market or...

  8. The Marketing Plan: An Integrative Device for Teaching Marketing Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdine, W. R.; Petersen, James C.

    1980-01-01

    The importance of the marketing plan is stressed as an integrative device for teaching marketing management, and a structure is presented to assist students in designing a marketing plan. Components of this plan include marketing objectives, targeting market and buying motives, external environment and competition, product, price, and promotion.…

  9. Labor Market Information for Business and Marketing Occupations. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Dept. of Economics.

    This paper reviews and analyzes labor market trends to provide information for business and marketing program planners. Emphasizing the demand side of the market, the paper considers only those aspects of labor markets that have an impact on the supply of students to business and marketing programs and the demand for graduates of those programs.…

  10. Marketing orientation: how do hospital administrators compare with marketing managers?

    PubMed

    Bartlett, P J; Schewe, C D; Allen, C T

    1984-01-01

    A recent study shows that the marketing orientation of hospital administrators is similar to that of marketing practitioners but that hospital administrators have an underdeveloped sense of market segmentation and market aggressiveness regarding their patients and physicians. Studies such as this one can be helpful in applying marketing techniques to today's hospitals.

  11. Experimental demonstration of time-aware software defined networking for OpenFlow-based intra-datacenter optical interconnection networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yongli; Ji, Yuefeng; Han, Jianrui; Lin, Yi; Qiu, Shaofeng; Lee, Young

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, most service providers offer their services and support their applications through federated sets of data centers which need to be interconnected using high-capacity optical networks in intra-datacenter networks. Many datacenter applications in the environment require lower delay and higher availability with the end-to-end guaranteed quality of service. In this paper, we propose a novel time-aware software defined networking (TaSDN) architecture for OpenFlow-based intra-datacenter optical interconnection networks. Based on the proposed architecture, a time-aware service scheduling (TaSS) strategy is introduced to allocate the network and datacenter resources optimally, which considers the datacenter service scheduling with flexible service time and service bandwidth according to the various time sensitivity requirements. The TaSDN can arrange and accommodate the applications with required QoS considering the time factor, and enhance the data center responsiveness to quickly provide for intra-datacenter service demands. The overall feasibility of the proposed architecture is experimentally verified on our testbed with real OpenFlow-enabled tunable optical modules. The performance of TaSS strategy under heavy traffic load scenario is also evaluated based on TaSDN architecture in terms of blocking probability and resource occupation rate.

  12. Intra- and inter-observer reliability of the Cobb measurement by chiropractic interns using digital evaluation methods

    PubMed Central

    Cracknell, Jesse; Lawson, Douglas M.; Taylor, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: It is important to create a body of evidence surrounding the reliability of certain diagnostic criteria. While the reliability of the Cobb measurement is well established with various licensed health care professionals, this study aims to determine the inter- and intra-observer reliability of the Cobb Measurement among chiropractic interns. Methods: Fourteen chiropractic interns analyzed 10 pre-selected digital spinal radiographs on a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) in two separate rounds of observation. The participants indicated their choice of end vertebra and Cobb Measurement in each round of observation. Agreement on vertebral levels selected was estimated using percentage agreement. Intra-observer reliability was estimated using the Pearson r correlation coefficient, and inter-observer correlation was estimated using the Inter-Class Coefficient (ICC). Results: The range of percentage agreement on vertebral level selection was 0.36 – 0.79. The Pearson r correlation coefficient for round 1 and round 2 was 0.79. The ICC (3,1) was 0.79 (round 1), and 0.70 (round 2). Conclusion: Less than optimal agreement on end vertebrae selection was found between observers. Intra- and inter-observer reliability of the Cobb Measurement was ‘excellent’ (round 1) and ‘good’ (round 2). PMID:26500360

  13. Realizing your marketing influence, Part 2: marketing from the inside out.

    PubMed

    Woods, Dana K; Cardin, Suzette

    2002-06-01

    Do your key stakeholders (staff, physicians, and patients) consider your organization to be exceptional? Has your organization invested the resources necessary to support staff and physicians in delivering the high level of care they strive to give? An organization's managers who can enthusiastically answer "yes" to these questions are in a good position to promote its healthcare system aggressively. Managers who cannot answer affirmatively, in good conscience, must invest in creating a healthy environment for staff that is rich with the resources that will enable all employees to deliver optimal care and service. Until this is achieved, no amount of promotion will be enough to move a healthcare system to a market leadership position. This is the second in a series of three articles that moves readers from broad marketing strategy to specific applications. The first article laid the foundation for developing a market-driven strategic plan; the third will focus on using professional certification as a marketing tool.

  14. Enhanced index tracking modelling in portfolio optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, W. S.; Hj. Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ismail, Hamizun bin

    2013-09-01

    Enhanced index tracking is a popular form of passive fund management in stock market. It is a dual-objective optimization problem, a trade-off between maximizing the mean return and minimizing the risk. Enhanced index tracking aims to generate excess return over the return achieved by the index without purchasing all of the stocks that make up the index by establishing an optimal portfolio. The objective of this study is to determine the optimal portfolio composition and performance by using weighted model in enhanced index tracking. Weighted model focuses on the trade-off between the excess return and the risk. The results of this study show that the optimal portfolio for the weighted model is able to outperform the Malaysia market index which is Kuala Lumpur Composite Index because of higher mean return and lower risk without purchasing all the stocks in the market index.

  15. Emissions markets, power markets and market power: A study of the interactions between contemporary emissions markets and deregulated electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dormady, Noah Christopher

    Chapter 1: A Monte Carlo Approach. The use of auctions to distribute tradeable property rights to firms in already heavily concentrated markets may further exacerbate the problems of market power that exist within those markets. This chapter provides a model of a two-stage emissions market modeled after a contemporary regional permit trading market in the United States, the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, Inc. (RGGI). It then introduces Oligopsony 1.0, a C# software package constructed in the .NET environment that simulates uniform-price auctions using stochastic Monte Carlo simulation for modeling market power in tradeable property rights auctions. Monte Carlo methods add a probabilistic element to standard auction theoretic equilibria. The results of these simulations indicate that there can be significant non-linearities between profit and market power as exercised through strategic demand reduction. This analysis finds the optimum point of strategic demand reduction that enables the firm to exploit these non-linearities, and it determines the probability distributions of these optima using kernel density analysis. Chapter 2: An Experimental Approach. How will emerging auction-based emissions markets function within the context of today's deregulated auction-based electricity markets? This chapter provides an experimental analysis of a joint energy-emissions market. The impact of market power and collusion among dominant firms is evaluated to determine the extent to which an auction-based tradeable permit market influences performance in an adjacent electricity market. The experimental treatment design controls for a variety of real-world institutional features, including variable demand, permit banking, inter-temporal (multi-round) dynamics, a tightening cap, and resale. Results suggest that the exercise of market power significantly increases electricity auction clearing prices, without significantly increasing emissions

  16. Balancing Authority Cooperation Concepts - Intra-Hour Scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, Matthew; Samaan, Nader; Milligan, Michael; Guo, Tao; Liu, Guangjuan; Toolson, Jacob

    2013-03-29

    The overall objective of this study was to understand, on an Interconnection-wide basis, the effects intra-hour scheduling compared to hourly scheduling. Moreover, the study sought to understand how the benefits of intra-hour scheduling would change by altering the input assumptions in different scenarios. This report describes results of three separate scenarios with differing key assumptions and comparing the production costs between hourly scheduling and 10-minute scheduling performance. The different scenarios were chosen to provide insight into how the estimated benefits might change by altering input assumptions. Several key assumptions were different in the three scenarios, however most assumptions were similar and/or unchanged among the scenarios.

  17. A New Wireless Biosensor for Intra-Vaginal Temperature Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Caldeira, João M. L. P.; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Garcia, João F. R.; de la Torre, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Wireless Body Sensors for medical purposes offer valuable contributions to improve patients’ healthcare, including diagnosis and/or therapeutics monitoring. Body temperature is a crucial parameter in healthcare diagnosis. In gynecology and obstetrics it is measured at the skin’s surface, which is very influenced by the environment. This paper proposes a new intra-body sensor for long-term intra-vaginal temperature collection. The embedded IEEE 802.15.4 communication module allows the integration of this sensor in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for remote data access and monitoring. We present the sensor architecture, the construction of the corresponding testbed, and its performance evaluation. This sensor may be used in different medical applications, including preterm labor prevention and fertility and ovulation period detection. The features of the constructed testbed were validated in laboratory tests verifying its accuracy and performance. PMID:22163471

  18. Intra-atomic aspects of magnon-plasmon interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skomski, R.; Dowben, P. A.

    2006-04-01

    Magnon-plasmon interactions are modeled by considering the spin-dependent dielectric response of atoms placed in crystalline environment. Hund's exchange rules favor parallel spin alignment, but the strength of the exchange depends on the displacement of the centers of gravity of the atomic spin-up and spin-down electron charge clouds. The intra-atomic exchange is modeled by considering a Hubbard-type interaction, and interatomic interaction then yields a k-space dispersion. The eigenmodes of the plasma are a mixture of spin-up and spin-down degrees of freedom, described by a 2×2 interaction matrix. Minority and majority bands yield different plasmon frequencies. However, these modes are not orthogonal but coupled by intra-atomic exchange and obtained by explicit matrix diagonalization. The effect is largest for small wave vectors, in agreement with experiment.

  19. Optimizing Locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoi, Anette

    2006-11-01

    In this talk we will discuss two optimization topics related to low Reynolds number locomotion: optimal stroke patterns in linked swimmers and optimal fluid material properties in adhesive locomotion. In contrast to many optimization problems, we do not consider geometry, rather we optimize the swimming kinematics or fluid material properties for a given geometrical configuration. In the first case, we begin by optimizing stroke patterns for Purcell's 3-link swimmer. We model the swimmer as a jointed chain of three slender links moving in an inertialess flow. The swimmer is optimized for both efficiency and speed. In the second case, we analyze the adhesive locomotion used by common gastropods such as snails and slugs. Such organisms crawl on a solid substrate by propagating muscular waves of shear stress on a viscoelastic mucus. Using a simple mechanical model, we derive criteria for favorable fluid material properties to lower the energetic cost of locomotion.

  20. Two essays on problems of deregulated electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perekhodtsev, Dmitri

    Empirical test of models of unilateral and collusive market power in California's electricity market in 2000. The data from California energy crisis of 2000 suggests that the largest departures of observed electricity prices from the estimates of the competitive price occur when demand approaches market capacity. This paper studies models of unilateral and collusive market power applicable to electricity markets. Both suggest a unique mechanism explaining the increase of the price-cost margin with demand. The empirical test of these models provides more evidence for unilateral market power than for behavior suggesting tacit collusion. Economics of hydro generating plants operating in markets for energy and ancillary services. In order to preserve the stability of electricity supply, electric generators have to provide ancillary services in addition to energy production. Hydro generators are believed to be the most efficient source of ancillary services because of their good dynamic flexibility. This paper studies optimal operation decisions for river dams and pumped storage facilities operating in markets for energy and ancillary services as well as the change in the water shadow price in presence of ancillary services markets. The analysis is applied to valuation of the ancillary services provided by hydro resources in the Tennessee Valley Authority. A simulation of ancillary services markets shows that TVA's hydro resources providing ancillary services can allow for substantial savings in total costs of energy provision. Optimal hydro scheduling in markets for energy and ancillary services increases the value of TVA's hydro resources by 9% on average and up to 26% for particular units. As a result of hydro participation in ancillary services markets water shadow prices of river dams drop significantly allowing for tightening hydro constraints in favor of other water uses.

  1. INTRA-BEAM SCATTERING SCALING FOR VERY LARGE HADRON COLLIDERS.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI,J.; PARZEN,G.

    2001-06-18

    For Very Large Hadron Colliders (VLHC), flat hadron beams [2] with their vertical emittance much smaller than their horizontal emittance are proposed to maximize the design luminosity. Emittance growth caused by intra-beam scattering (IBS) is a concern on the realization of such flat-beam conditions. Based on existing IBS formalism on beams of Gaussian distribution, we analytically derive [6] the IBS growth rate and determine the IBS limit on the aspect ratio for a flat beam.

  2. Primary intra-abdominal synovial sarcoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Travaglini, Grazia; Biagetti, Simona; Alfonsi, Simona; Bearzi, Italo; Marmorale, Cristina

    2013-09-03

    Il caso clinico che vi presentiamo riguarda la straordinaria localizzazione intra-addominale di un sinovial-sarcoma. Questo tumore dei tessuti molli generalmente interessa le piccole e grandi articolazioni. Sono state descritte altre localizzazioni a livello intra-addominale e retroperitoneale. La nostra paziente si ricovera per una tumefazione dolente dell’addome, alla TC addome si evidenzia una voluminosa massa intra-addominale che comprime e disloca i parenchimi e visceri circostanti e che affiora ai tessuti più superficiali della parete addominale. La biopsia eco-guidata della lesione, insieme allo studio immunoistochimico, permette di porre la diagnosi di sinovial-sarcoma. La paziente viene candidata ad un trattamento chemioterapico a scopo neoadiuvante. Per il sopraggiungere di anemizzazione da sanguinamento della neoplasia, valutata anche la risposta parziale al trattamento sistemico, si pone indicazione all’intervento chirurgico. La massa con peduncolo vascolare maggiore costituito dai vasi gastroepiploici di destra, viene completamente asportata. L’esame definitivo conferma la diagnosi di Sinovial-Sarcoma bifasico. L’indagine genetica condotta sul campione conservato in formalina non ha permesso, a causa della difficoltà di estrarre ed amplificare un quantitativo adeguato di RNA, di identificare la traslocazione (X; 18) (p 11.2; q 11.2) specifica del Sinovial-Sarcoma. La paziente è stata dimessa dopo un decorso clinico regolare. Il follow-up ad un anno non ha mostrato ripresa di malattia ma dopo 18 mesi alla TC torace-addome di rivalutazione si evidenzia la ripresa di malattia a livello intra-addominale e la presenza di metastasi polmonari bilaterali.

  3. Intra-aortic filtration is effective in collecting hazardous materials.

    PubMed

    Mestres, Carlos-A; Bernabeu, Eduardo; Fernández, Claudio; Colli, Andrea; Josa, Miguel

    2007-04-01

    Neurological complications after cardiac operations are mostly due to particle embolization. This case illustrates the embolic potential of any material. A 77-year-old lady underwent re-operation for homograft aortic regurgitation and mitral valve replacement. Intra-aortic filtration was used. After cardiopulmonary bypass the filter was found to have captured a pledget from a suture used to secure the mitral replacement device.

  4. Historians' Rocky Job Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grafton, Anthony; Townsend, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how the historians' job market is perennially rocky. The history profession had its "golden age" in the 1950s and early 1960s when a generation born in the demographic trench of the Depression entered the market just as the first of the baby boomers began to swell college enrollments. But that moment was…

  5. Buying recycled helps market

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, G.

    1996-08-01

    The waste reduction and recycling program of Thousand Oaks, California is summarized. Descriptions of the program, market development for recycled products, business development, and economic development are provided. The emphasis of the program is on market development for recycled products. Procurement guidelines used by the city are reprinted in the paper.

  6. Outside-Inside Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Susan Rovezzi; Carroll, David

    2001-01-01

    Instead of employing "inside-outside" marketing via inhouse brochures, newsletters, and websites, public schools should begin practicing "outside-inside" marketing in which strategic planning and then action comes from the marketplace (the community) to the school. Public perceptions are gathered through surveys, focus groups, and indepth…

  7. Postmodernism and Educational Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Francis

    2001-01-01

    Explains two problems of the postmodern era-fragmentation (disintegration of social, economic, and political institutions) and symbolic consumption. Discusses two postmodernist epistemological challenges to educational marketers-anti-foundationalism and poststructuralism. Transactional views of marketing must yield to relational and interactive…

  8. Marketing Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This curriculum guide is intended to provide a common core of competencies from which to design an effective secondary marketing education program. Introductory materials include a definition of marketing education, objectives, outline of instructional content, and questions and answers regarding the curriculum guide. These practical materials are…

  9. Export markets gain strength

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-02-15

    The prices for internally traded coal in the USA have reached record levels and the future market fundamentals look very good. This is mainly due to Asian demand. The article discusses recent markets for US coal and summarizes findings of a recent study by Hill & Associates entitled 'International coal trade - supply, demand and prices to 2025'. 1 ref., 2 tabs.

  10. Capturing your marketing ROI.

    PubMed

    Spiegelman, Paul

    2003-08-01

    Accurate measurements of marketing ROI can highlight which marketing projects are most effective in enhancing revenue. Calls to call centers can be documented and matched with patient records. Extensive recordkeeping and reporting capabilities are available with call center software packages. Callers to call centers tend to be more engaged than other healthcare consumers.

  11. Creating a Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazimirski, J.; And Others

    The second in a series of programmed books, "Creating a Market" is published by the International Labour Office as a manual for persons studying marketing. This manual was designed to meet the needs of the labor organization's technical cooperation programs and is primarily concerned with consumer goods industries. Using a fill-in-the-blanks and…

  12. Software Marketing Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Victor E.

    Seven factors that currently affect the potential for marketing and publishing computer software for education are discussed: (1) computers as an inplace technology in education, (2) marketing and distribution patterns for software, (3) consumer demand, (4) quality, (5) timelessenss, (6) basic skills, and (7) the future. The proliferation of…

  13. Marketing Schools for Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Raven

    2007-01-01

    Principals desiring recognition in the community have added marketing to their job description. Faced with falling enrollments and more school choice for parents, they create strategies to market and brand their schools to potential parents and students, from promoting programs in school newsletters and websites to direct mailings and ads in real…

  14. Market Madness: Condition Critical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Playfair, Eddie

    2015-01-01

    For over a quarter of a century there has been a creeping marketization of the English education system. No part of the system remains unscathed. In this article the consequences of marketization are set out clearly and alternative models of the future are presented. The author calls for another "Great Debate"--but one that mobilises…

  15. Marketing ACE in Victoria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This publication presents options raised through various forums for marketing adult and community education (ACE) in Victoria, Australia, and suggested strategies. After an introduction (chapter 1), chapters 2 and 3 provide a broad view of the current situation for marketing ACE. Chapter 2 discusses general issues in the current position--ACE…

  16. Marketing Transformation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-10-13

    Through the SunShot Initiative, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with manufacturers, communities, states, utilities, and other partners to enable the solar market by reducing non-hardware balance-of-system (BOS) costs, developing a skilled workforce, and eliminating market barriers to widespread adoption of solar technologies.

  17. Marketing Your Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A marketing plan outlines the specific actions a person intends to carry out to interest potential customers in his/her service and to persuade them to buy the services he/she offers. In other words, a marketing plan defines what his/her organization will do to interest new families in his/her facility and encourage them to enroll their children…

  18. College Access Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    College Access Marketing (CAM) is a relatively new phenomenon that seeks to positively influence the college-going rate. This report defines CAM, describes CAM examples, and discusses how CAM seeks to counter barriers to college. It explores four main elements of CAM: information, marketing, advocacy, and social mobilization. Further, it…

  19. Demographics: People and Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrick, Thomas W.; Tordella, Stephen J.

    1988-01-01

    Population shifts directly affect the bottom line, so the basics of demography are now basic to business as well. Demographics combine demographic data with socioeconomic and geographic factors to help business and other managers know the market for the goods and services they offer. This guide explains market, product, and site analyses,…

  20. A Stock Market Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Christine; Cook, Stan

    1990-01-01

    Offers a field-tested stock market unit designed to develop mathematical skills involving fractions and decimals, basic understanding of the stock market, and hypothesis testing skills in real world situations. Includes tables displaying questions, tally sheets, and instructions, as well as a list of related activities. (MDH)

  1. Marketing Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Brent; Johnson, Dennis

    1981-01-01

    In a successful college marketing program, students and high-quality instruction are top priorities. Marketing research should investigate student needs and frustrations, the products offered, value received for time and money invested, physical convenience and appeal, and promotional strategies. Program research and development suggestions are…

  2. The Marketing of Margaret.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elebash, Camille

    The 1983 British general election saw greater use than ever before in that country of sophisticated marketing research and techniques in the promotion of a party (the Conservatives) and a personality (Margaret Thatcher). With the help of an outside advertising agency, the Conservative Central Office had more marketing expertise than ever before,…

  3. Deployment & Market Transformation (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    NREL's deployment and market transformation (D and MT) activities encompass the laboratory's full range of technologies, which span the energy efficiency and renewable energy spectrum. NREL staff educates partners on how they can advance sustainable energy applications and also provides clients with best practices for reducing barriers to innovation and market transformation.

  4. Moderate Intra-Group Bias Maximizes Cooperation on Interdependent Populations

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Changbing; Wang, Zhen; Li, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory on spatial structures has received increasing attention during the past decades. However, the majority of these achievements focuses on single and static population structures, which is not fully consistent with the fact that real structures are composed of many interactive groups. These groups are interdependent on each other and present dynamical features, in which individuals mimic the strategy of neighbors and switch their partnerships continually. It is however unclear how the dynamical and interdependent interactions among groups affect the evolution of collective behaviors. In this work, we employ the prisoner's dilemma game to investigate how the dynamics of structure influences cooperation on interdependent populations, where populations are represented by group structures. It is found that the more robust the links between cooperators (or the more fragile the links between cooperators and defectors), the more prevalent of cooperation. Furthermore, theoretical analysis shows that the intra-group bias can favor cooperation, which is only possible when individuals are likely to attach neighbors within the same group. Yet, interestingly, cooperation can be even inhibited for large intra-group bias, allowing the moderate intra-group bias maximizes the cooperation level. PMID:24533084

  5. [Effect of intra-amnial thyroxine administration in the fetus].

    PubMed

    Dudenhausen, J W

    1984-12-01

    Stimulation of the surfactant production in foetal lung cells by thyroxine has been shown in experiments on animals. In humans, too, thyroxine instilled intra-amnially should increase lung maturity. Therefore, amniotic fluid samples were taken from 22 women before the 35th week of gestation before instilling 500 micrograms levothyroxine and then during labour, and blood samples were taken half an hour and also 24 hours after instillation of thyroxine into the amniotic fluid and during labour. The concentration of thyroxine, triiodinethyronine and reversed triiodinethyronine were measured radioimmunologically in the amniotic fluid samples and blood samples, and the lecithin concentration was also determined enzymatically in the amniotic fluid samples. The occurrence of cases of membrane syndrome in the examined group, and the foetal heart rate were subsequently determined after thyroxine had been administered. The results showed that the foetus resorbed the thyroxine administered intra-amnially and--in a manner typical of foetal metabolism--converted it by preference to rT3. The thyroxine dosage leads to only a temporary increase in foetal thyroid gland hormones. The thyroxine given intra-amnially is not absorbed in considerable amounts by the mother. The lecithin content of the amniotic fluid was significantly increased after a dose of thyroxine, possibly a reversible increase. The membrane syndrome rate laid below the expected number; in 5 of the 22 cases a foetal tachycardia was observed about 2 days after thyroxine administration.

  6. Intra-articular scapular fractures: Outcomes after internal fixation

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Sarah; Argintar, Evan; Jahn, Ryan; Zusmanovich, Mike; Itamura, John; Rick Hatch, George F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although operative treatment may offer an appropriate management option for displaced glenoid fractures, there is sparse research assessing post-operative functional outcomes. This study assessed functional outcomes of patients after undergoing open reduction and internal fixation of displaced glenoid fractures. Methods Fifteen patients were treated with open reduction and internal fixation for displaced intra-articular fractures between 2005 and 2010. The indication for operative fixation was intra-articular displacement >4 mm. Post-operative functional outcomes were assessed via retrospective chart review. Evaluation included review of pre-operative imaging for fracture type, review of post-operative plain radiographs for fracture healing, Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeon Assessment (ASES) scores at last follow-up. Results At a mean follow-up of 49 months (24–87 months) all patients had radiographic healing. The mean DASH score was 10 (range 0.83–29.17). Mean ASES score was 90 (range 41.7–100). No patients had evidence of hardware failure or infection. Conclusions Open reduction and internal fixation of displaced intra-articular glenoid fractures results in stable fixation and is associated with good functional outcome. Level of evidence Level IV. Case series. PMID:24396240

  7. Improved intra-species collision models for PIC simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.E.; Lemons, D.S.; Winske, D.

    1998-07-01

    In recent years, the authors have investigated methods to improve the effectiveness of modeling collisional processes in particle-in-cell codes. Through the use of generalized collision models, plasma dynamics can be followed both in the regime of nearly collisionless plasmas as well as in the hydrodynamic limit of collisional plasmas. They have developed a collision-field method to treat both the case of collisions between unlike plasma species (inter-species collisions), through the use of a deterministic, grid-based force, and between particles of the same species (intra-species collisions), through the use of a Langevin equation. While the approach used for inter-species collisions is noise-free in that the collision experienced by a particle does not require any random numbers, such random numbers are used for intra-species collisions. This gives rise to a stochastic cooling effect inherent in the Langevin approach. In this paper, the authors concentrate on intra-species collisions and describe how the accuracy of the model can be improved by appropriate corrections to velocity and spatial moments.

  8. Developmental Differences in Intra-Individual Variability in Children with ADHD and ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belle, Janna; van Hulst, Branko M.; Durston, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intra-individual variability reflects temporal variation within an individual's performance on a cognitive task. Children with developmental disorders, such as ADHD and ASD show increased levels of intra-individual variability. In typical development, intra-individual variability decreases sharply between the ages 6 and 20. The tight…

  9. Space Service Market (Theoretical Aspect)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisniakov, V. F.; Prisniakova, L. M.

    The authors propose a mathematical model of the demand and supply in the market economics and in the market of space services, in particular. A theoretical demand formula and a real curve demand are compared. The market equilibrium price is defined. The space market dynamics is studied. The calculations are carried out for the parameters which are close to the market of space services.

  10. How Can Marketing Academics Serve Marketing Practice? The New Marketing DNA as a Model for Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrigan, Paul; Hulbert, Bev

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to address how marketing academics can best serve marketing practice through marketing education. It is contended that, where technology is driving marketing in practice, it is afforded significantly less attention in both theory and education. Thus, the marketing graduates being produced from universities are often lacking in…

  11. Marketing Prior Learning Assessment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heeger, Gerald A.

    1983-01-01

    Experiential learning programs must be marketed effectively if they are to succeed. The formulation of market strategy is discussed including: strategic planning; identification of a market target; and development of a market mix. A commitment to marketing academic programs is seen as a commitment to self-assessment. (MW)

  12. Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part II - size estimations for selected markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Robert

    2014-04-01

    In a series of two contributions, decisive business-related aspects of the current process status to transfer research results on diffractive optical elements (DOEs) into commercial solutions are discussed. In part I, the focus was on the patent landscape. Here, in part II, market estimations concerning DOEs for selected applications are presented, comprising classical spectroscopic gratings, security features on banknotes, DOEs for high-end applications, e.g., for the semiconductor manufacturing market and diffractive intra-ocular lenses. The derived market sizes are referred to the optical elements, itself, rather than to the enabled instruments. The estimated market volumes are mainly addressed to scientifically and technologically oriented optical engineers to serve as a rough classification of the commercial dimensions of DOEs in the different market segments and do not claim to be exhaustive.

  13. Simulating water markets with transaction costs

    PubMed Central

    Erfani, Tohid; Binions, Olga; Harou, Julien J

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization model to simulate short-term pair-wise spot-market trading of surface water abstraction licenses (water rights). The approach uses a node-arc multicommodity formulation that tracks individual supplier-receiver transactions in a water resource network. This enables accounting for transaction costs between individual buyer-seller pairs and abstractor-specific rules and behaviors using constraints. Trades are driven by economic demand curves that represent each abstractor's time-varying water demand. The purpose of the proposed model is to assess potential hydrologic and economic outcomes of water markets and aid policy makers in designing water market regulations. The model is applied to the Great Ouse River basin in Eastern England. The model assesses the potential weekly water trades and abstractions that could occur in a normal and a dry year. Four sectors (public water supply, energy, agriculture, and industrial) are included in the 94 active licensed water diversions. Each license's unique environmental restrictions are represented and weekly economic water demand curves are estimated. Rules encoded as constraints represent current water management realities and plausible stakeholder-informed water market behaviors. Results show buyers favor sellers who can supply large volumes to minimize transactions. The energy plant cooling and agricultural licenses, often restricted from obtaining water at times when it generates benefits, benefit most from trades. Assumptions and model limitations are discussed. Key Points Transaction tracking hydro-economic optimization models simulate water markets Proposed model formulation incorporates transaction costs and trading behavior Water markets benefit users with the most restricted water access PMID:25598558

  14. Ancillary services market in California

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, T.; Marnay, C.; Siddiqui, A.; Liew, L.; Khavkin, M.

    1999-07-01

    This report includes sections on the following topics: (1) California restructured electricity system overview; (2) Reliability criteria; (3) Design of the California ISO ancillary services market; (4) Operation of ancillary services markets; (5) Ancillary services markets redesign; and (6) Conclusions.

  15. Evolutionary financial market models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponzi, A.; Aizawa, Y.

    2000-12-01

    We study computer simulations of two financial market models, the second a simplified model of the first. The first is a model of the self-organized formation and breakup of crowds of traders, motivated by the dynamics of competitive evolving systems which shows interesting self-organized critical (SOC)-type behaviour without any fine tuning of control parameters. This SOC-type avalanching and stasis appear as realistic volatility clustering in the price returns time series. The market becomes highly ordered at ‘crashes’ but gradually loses this order through randomization during the intervening stasis periods. The second model is a model of stocks interacting through a competitive evolutionary dynamic in a common stock exchange. This model shows a self-organized ‘market-confidence’. When this is high the market is stable but when it gets low the market may become highly volatile. Volatile bursts rapidly increase the market confidence again. This model shows a phase transition as temperature parameter is varied. The price returns time series in the transition region is very realistic power-law truncated Levy distribution with clustered volatility and volatility superdiffusion. This model also shows generally positive stock cross-correlations as is observed in real markets. This model may shed some light on why such phenomena are observed.

  16. Market research for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Shippee, G.

    1999-12-01

    Marketing research is increasing in importance as utilities become more marketing oriented. Marketing research managers need to maintain autonomy from the marketing director or ad agency and make sure their work is relevant to the utility's operation. This article will outline a model marketing research program for an electric utility. While a utility may not conduct each and every type of research described, the programs presented offer a smorgasbord of activities which successful electric utility marketers often use or have access to.

  17. Managing risks of market price uncertainty for a microgrid operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Sriram

    After deregulation of electricity in the United States, the day-ahead and real-time markets allow load serving entities and generation companies to bid and purchase/sell energy under the supervision of the independent system operator (ISO). The electricity market prices are inherently uncertain, and can be highly volatile. The main objective of this thesis is to hedge against the risk from the uncertainty of the market prices when purchasing/selling energy from/to the market. The energy manager can also schedule distributed generators (DGs) and storage of the microgrid to meet the demand, in addition to energy transactions from the market. The risk measure used in this work is the variance of the uncertain market purchase/sale cost/revenue, assuming the price following a Gaussian distribution. Using Markowitz optimization, the risk is minimized to find the optimal mix of purchase from the markets. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer quadratic program. The microgrid at Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) in Chicago, IL was used as a case study. The result of this work reveals the tradeoff faced by the microgrid energy manager between minimizing the risk and minimizing the mean of the total operating cost (TOC) of the microgrid. With this information, the microgrid energy manager can make decisions in the day-ahead and real-time markets according to their risk aversion preference. The assumption of market prices following Gaussian distribution is also verified to be reasonable for the purpose of hedging against their risks. This is done by comparing the result of the proposed formulation with that obtained from the sample market prices randomly generated using the distribution of actual historic market price data.

  18. Demonstrating marketing accountability.

    PubMed

    Gombeski, William R; Britt, Jason; Taylor, Jan; Riggs, Karen; Wray, Tanya; Adkins, Wanda; Springate, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Pressure on health care marketers to demonstrate effectiveness of their strategies and show their contribution to organizational goals is growing. A seven-tiered model based on the concepts of structure (having the right people, systems), process (doing the right things in the right way), and outcomes (results) is discussed. Examples of measures for each tier are provided and the benefits of using the model as a tool for measuring, organizing, tracking, and communicating appropriate information are provided. The model also provides a framework for helping management understand marketing's value and can serve as a vehicle for demonstrating marketing accountability.

  19. a Cultural Market Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HerdaǦDELEN, Amaç; Bingol, Haluk

    Social interactions and personal tastes shape our consumption behavior of cultural products. In this study, we present a computational model of a cultural market and we aim to analyze the behavior of the consumer population as an emergent phenomena. Our results suggest that the final market shares of cultural products dramatically depend on consumer heterogeneity and social interaction pressure. Furthermore, the relation between the resulting market shares and social interaction is robust with respect to a wide range of variation in the parameter values and the type of topology.

  20. Increasing market efficiency in the stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jae-Suk; Kwak, Wooseop; Kaizoji, Taisei; Kim, In-Mook

    2008-01-01

    We study the temporal evolutions of three stock markets; Standard and Poor's 500 index, Nikkei 225 Stock Average, and the Korea Composite Stock Price Index. We observe that the probability density function of the log-return has a fat tail but the tail index has been increasing continuously in recent years. We have also found that the variance of the autocorrelation function, the scaling exponent of the standard deviation, and the statistical complexity decrease, but that the entropy density increases as time goes over time. We introduce a modified microscopic spin model and simulate the model to confirm such increasing and decreasing tendencies in statistical quantities. These findings indicate that these three stock markets are becoming more efficient.

  1. A political economic theory of the dental care market.

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, J; Douglass, C W

    1982-01-01

    A theory of the dental care market is introduced which proposes that the vertically integrated (local/state/national) structure of the profession services as an organizational vehicle both for intra-professional debate and for developing provider-oriented dental care policy. We suggest that a special relationship exists between professionalism and professional regulation. Such regulation has functioned simultaneously to limit competition and to foster a prized consumption commodity for providers: professionalism and professional esteem. The organized pursuit of this commodity inherently dampens competition. Professionalism itself plays a crucial role in: 1) securing for organized dentistry a form of state regulation in which the providers themselves are the principal decision-makers; and 2) influencing provider and consumer market behavior in several significant respects, the net result being the formation of maintenance of a type of "leadership cartel" in the local market. Thus, a political-economic theory of the dental care market formally acknowledges professionalism as valued by established dentists and recent graduates as a central determining influence. Traditional models of pure competition and monopoly emerge as special, extreme cases of the general theory. Hypotheses are offered regarding consumer and provider behavior, market dynamics, and health policy and regulation. PMID:7091455

  2. The Effect of Intra-Abdominal Hypertension Incorporating Severe Acute Pancreatitis in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Lu; Tong, Zhi-hui; Ni, Hai-bin; Ding, Wei-wei; Sun, Jia-kui; Li, Wei-qin; Li, Ning; Li, Jie-shou

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and intra abdominal hypertension(IAH) are common clinical findings in patients with severe acute pancreatitis(SAP). It is thought that an increased intra abdominal pressure(IAP) is associated with poor prognosis in SAP patients. But the detailed effect of IAH/ACS on different organ system is not clear. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of SAP combined with IAH on hemodynamics, systemic oxygenation, and organ damage in a 12 h lasting porcine model. Measurements and Methods Following baseline registrations, a total of 30 animals were divided into 5 groups (6 animals in each group): SAP+IAP30 group, SAP+IAP20 group, SAP group, IAP30 group(sham-operated but without SAP) and sham-operated group. We used a N2 pneumoperitoneum to induce different levels of IAH and retrograde intra-ductal infusion of sodium taurocholate to induce SAP. The investigation period was 12 h. Hemodynamic parameters (CO, HR, MAP, CVP), urine output, oxygenation parameters(e.g., SvO2, PO2, PaCO2), peak inspiratory pressure, as well as serum parameters (e.g., ALT, amylase, lactate, creatinine) were recorded. Histological examination of liver, intestine, pancreas, and lung was performed. Main Results Cardiac output significantly decreased in the SAP+IAH animals compared with other groups. Furthermore, AST, creatinine, SUN and lactate showed similar increasing tendency paralleled with profoundly decrease in SvO2. The histopathological analyses also revealed higher grade injury of liver, intestine, pancreas and lung in the SAP+IAH groups. However, few differences were found between the two SAP+IAH groups with different levels of IAP. Conclusions Our newly developed porcine SAP+IAH model demonstrated that there were remarkable effects on global hemodynamics, oxygenation and organ function in response to sustained IAH of 12 h combined with SAP. Moreover, our model should be helpful to study the mechanisms of IAH/ACS-induced exacerbation and

  3. A SONOGRAPHIC SHORT CERVIX AS THE ONLY CLINICAL MANIFESTATION OF INTRA-AMNIOTIC INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    HASSAN, SONIA; ROMERO, ROBERTO; HENDLER, ISRAEL; GOMEZ, RICARDO; KHALEK, NAHLA; ESPINOZA, JIMMY; NIEN, JYH KAE; BERRY, STANLEY M.; BUJOLD, EMMANUEL; CAMACHO, NATALIA; SOROKIN, YORAM

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE A sonographically short cervix is a powerful predictor of spontaneous preterm delivery. However, the etiology and optimal management of a patient with a short cervix in the mid-trimester of pregnancy remain uncertain. Microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and intra-amniotic inflammation are frequently present in patients with spontaneous preterm labor or acute cervical insufficiency. This study was conducted to determine the rate of MIAC and intra-amniotic inflammation in patients with a cervical length <25 mm in the mid-trimester. STUDY DESIGN A retrospective cohort study was conducted of patients referred to our high risk clinic because of a sonographic short cervix or a history of a previous preterm birth. Amniocenteses were performed for the evaluation of MIAC and for karyotype analysis in patients with a short cervix. Fluid was cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, as well as genital mycoplasmas. Patients with MIAC were treated with antibiotics selected by their physician. RESULTS Of 152 patients with a short cervix at 14–24 weeks, 57 had amniotic fluid analysis. The prevalence of MIAC was 9% (5/57). Among these patients, the rate of preterm delivery (<32 weeks) was 40% (2/5). Microorganisms isolated from amniotic fluid included Ureaplasma urealyticum (n=4) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (n=1). Patients with a positive culture for Ureaplasma urealyticum received intravenous Azithromycin. Three patients with Ureaplasma urealyticum had a sterile amniotic fluid culture after treatment, and subsequently delivered at term. The patient with Fusobacterium nucleatum developed clinical chorioamnionitis and was induced. CONCLUSION 1) Sub-clinical MIAC was detected in 9% of patients with a sonographically short cervix (<25 mm); and 2) maternal parenteral treatment with antibiotics can eradicate MIAC caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum. This was associated with delivery at term in the three patients whose successful treatment was documented by

  4. Intra-specific variation in genome size in maize: cytological and phenotypic correlates

    PubMed Central

    Realini, María Florencia; Poggio, Lidia; Cámara-Hernández, Julián; González, Graciela Esther

    2016-01-01

    Genome size variation accompanies the diversification and evolution of many plant species. Relationships between DNA amount and phenotypic and cytological characteristics form the basis of most hypotheses that ascribe a biological role to genome size. The goal of the present research was to investigate the intra-specific variation in the DNA content in maize populations from Northeastern Argentina and further explore the relationship between genome size and the phenotypic traits seed weight and length of the vegetative cycle. Moreover, cytological parameters such as the percentage of heterochromatin as well as the number, position and sequence composition of knobs were analysed and their relationships with 2C DNA values were explored. The populations analysed presented significant differences in 2C DNA amount, from 4.62 to 6.29 pg, representing 36.15 % of the inter-populational variation. Moreover, intra-populational genome size variation was found, varying from 1.08 to 1.63-fold. The variation in the percentage of knob heterochromatin as well as in the number, chromosome position and sequence composition of the knobs was detected among and within the populations. Although a positive relationship between genome size and the percentage of heterochromatin was observed, a significant correlation was not found. This confirms that other non-coding repetitive DNA sequences are contributing to the genome size variation. A positive relationship between DNA amount and the seed weight has been reported in a large number of species, this relationship was not found in the populations studied here. The length of the vegetative cycle showed a positive correlation with the percentage of heterochromatin. This result allowed attributing an adaptive effect to heterochromatin since the length of this cycle would be optimized via selection for an appropriate percentage of heterochromatin. PMID:26644343

  5. Cargo and Container X-Ray Inspection with Intra-Pulse Multi-Energy Method for Material Discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saverskiy, Aleksandr Y.; Dinca, Dan-Cristian; Rommel, J. Martin

    The Intra-Pulse Multi-Energy (IPME) method of material discrimination mitigates main disadvantages of the traditional "interlaced" approach: ambiguity caused by sampling different regions of cargo and reduction of effective scanning speed. A novel concept of creating multi-energy probing pulses using a standing-wave structure allows maintaining a constant energy spectrum while changing the time duration of each sub-pulse and thus enables adaptive cargo inspection. Depending on the cargo density, the dose delivered to the inspected object is optimized for best material discrimination, maximum material penetration, or lowest dose to cargo. A model based on Monte-Carlo simulation and experimental reference points were developed for the optimization of inspection conditions.

  6. FOOD ACQUISITION AND INTRA-HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS: A STUDY OF LOW AND MIDDLE INCOME URBAN HOUSEHOLDS IN DELHI, INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, MR; Taylor, FC; Agrawal, S; Prabhakaran, D; Ebrahim, S

    2014-01-01

    Background Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI) households in Delhi. Methods Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Results Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure), milk and milk products (16%), and cereal and related products (15%). Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Conclusion Women’s key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs. PMID:25473147

  7. Coupling News Sentiment with Web Browsing Data Improves Prediction of Intra-Day Price Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ranco, Gabriele; Bordino, Ilaria; Bormetti, Giacomo; Caldarelli, Guido; Lillo, Fabrizio; Treccani, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The new digital revolution of big data is deeply changing our capability of understanding society and forecasting the outcome of many social and economic systems. Unfortunately, information can be very heterogeneous in the importance, relevance, and surprise it conveys, affecting severely the predictive power of semantic and statistical methods. Here we show that the aggregation of web users’ behavior can be elicited to overcome this problem in a hard to predict complex system, namely the financial market. Specifically, our in-sample analysis shows that the combined use of sentiment analysis of news and browsing activity of users of Yahoo! Finance greatly helps forecasting intra-day and daily price changes of a set of 100 highly capitalized US stocks traded in the period 2012–2013. Sentiment analysis or browsing activity when taken alone have very small or no predictive power. Conversely, when considering a news signal where in a given time interval we compute the average sentiment of the clicked news, weighted by the number of clicks, we show that for nearly 50% of the companies such signal Granger-causes hourly price returns. Our result indicates a “wisdom-of-the-crowd” effect that allows to exploit users’ activity to identify and weigh properly the relevant and surprising news, enhancing considerably the forecasting power of the news sentiment. PMID:26808833

  8. Coupling News Sentiment with Web Browsing Data Improves Prediction of Intra-Day Price Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ranco, Gabriele; Bordino, Ilaria; Bormetti, Giacomo; Caldarelli, Guido; Lillo, Fabrizio; Treccani, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The new digital revolution of big data is deeply changing our capability of understanding society and forecasting the outcome of many social and economic systems. Unfortunately, information can be very heterogeneous in the importance, relevance, and surprise it conveys, affecting severely the predictive power of semantic and statistical methods. Here we show that the aggregation of web users' behavior can be elicited to overcome this problem in a hard to predict complex system, namely the financial market. Specifically, our in-sample analysis shows that the combined use of sentiment analysis of news and browsing activity of users of Yahoo! Finance greatly helps forecasting intra-day and daily price changes of a set of 100 highly capitalized US stocks traded in the period 2012-2013. Sentiment analysis or browsing activity when taken alone have very small or no predictive power. Conversely, when considering a news signal where in a given time interval we compute the average sentiment of the clicked news, weighted by the number of clicks, we show that for nearly 50% of the companies such signal Granger-causes hourly price returns. Our result indicates a "wisdom-of-the-crowd" effect that allows to exploit users' activity to identify and weigh properly the relevant and surprising news, enhancing considerably the forecasting power of the news sentiment.

  9. Flooding the market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Diane; McShane, Michael

    2013-11-01

    A flood insurance market with risk-based prices in the UK will only stimulate climate change adaptation if it is part of a wider strategy that includes land-use planning, building regulations and water management.

  10. History of Voluntary Markets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  11. Marketing the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragon, Andrea C.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the positive action using marketing strategies that libraries must take to capture their share of the post-Proposition 13 tax dollar. Strategies discussed relate to price, product, promotion, and place. (JD)

  12. Marketing Trends to Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Circle, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This article identifies 13 cultural trends that libraries can turn into opportunites to reach patrons. These trends include: Twitter, online reputation management, value added content, mobile marketing, and emotional connection.

  13. Marketing School Food Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Wilma

    1990-01-01

    Marketing the food service program in an Ohio district is directed toward the students and also at the community, school administrators, teachers, and employees. Students are encouraged to follow a healthier way of eating. (MLF)

  14. Marketing Graduate Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Carol M.

    1985-01-01

    Any systematic, centralized effort devoted to recruitment at the graduate level is relatively uncommon. The essential components of any sound marketing effort include research, strategic planning, communications, and evaluation. The future of graduate recruiting is discussed. (MLW)

  15. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  16. Marketing new medical devices.

    PubMed

    LoBuglio, R J

    1988-01-01

    The marketing concept says that a firm should focus all of its efforts on satisfying its customers, at a profit. This is really a a new philosophy of business, replacing a production-oriented philosophy which focused on organizing a firm's resources to make products and then selling them. The marketing concept calls for reorienting the firm's ways of doing things. Instead of trying to get customers to buy what the firm has produced, a marketing-oriented firm would try to sell what the customers want. The underlying principle of the marketing concept is that a firm should seek to meet the needs of customers, at a profit, rather than place its main emphasis on its own internal activities and utilization of its resources. These latter factors are also important, of course, but those who believe in the marketing concept feel that customers' needs should be the firm's primary focus and that resources should be organized to satisfy those needs. Give the customer what he needs--this may seem so obvious and logical that it is difficult to understand why the marketing concept is considered such a breakthrough. However, people haven't always done the logical and obvious. In a typical company, production men thought mainly about getting the product out. Accountants were only interested in balancing the books. Financial people were absorbed in the company's cash position. And salesmen were mainly concerned with getting orders. No one was particularly concerned with whether the whole system made sense. As long as the company made a profit, each department went merrily on its independent way, "doing its own thing." Unfortunately, they still do in the majority of companies today. Finding out customer's attitudes can avoid prejudices and stereotypes commonly found in the typical organization. The need for market research to avoid stereotypes can be dramatized by the following results from a large-scale survey of European adults: The average Frenchman uses almost twice as many

  17. Intra-rater variability in low-grade glioma segmentation.

    PubMed

    Bø, Hans Kristian; Solheim, Ole; Jakola, Asgeir Store; Kvistad, Kjell-Arne; Reinertsen, Ingerid; Berntsen, Erik Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of size and growth are key radiological factors in low-grade gliomas (LGGs), both for prognostication and treatment evaluation, but the reliability of LGG-segmentation is scarcely studied. With a diffuse and invasive growth pattern, usually without contrast enhancement, these tumors can be difficult to delineate. The aim of this study was to investigate the intra-observer variability in LGG-segmentation for a radiologist without prior segmentation experience. Pre-operative 3D FLAIR images of 23 LGGs were segmented three times in the software 3D Slicer. Tumor volumes were calculated, together with the absolute and relative difference between the segmentations. To quantify the intra-rater variability, we used the Jaccard coefficient comparing both two (J2) and three (J3) segmentations as well as the Hausdorff Distance (HD). The variability measured with J2 improved significantly between the two last segmentations compared to the two first, going from 0.87 to 0.90 (p = 0.04). Between the last two segmentations, larger tumors showed a tendency towards smaller relative volume difference (p = 0.07), while tumors with well-defined borders had significantly less variability measured with both J2 (p = 0.04) and HD (p < 0.01). We found no significant relationship between variability and histological sub-types or Apparent Diffusion Coefficients (ADC). We found that the intra-rater variability can be considerable in serial LGG-segmentation, but the variability seems to decrease with experience and higher grade of border conspicuity. Our findings highlight that some criteria defining tumor borders and progression in 3D volumetric segmentation is needed, if moving from 2D to 3D assessment of size and growth of LGGs.

  18. Intra-abdominal drainage following pancreatic resection: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Čečka, Filip; Loveček, Martin; Jon, Bohumil; Skalický, Pavel; Šubrt, Zdeněk; Neoral, Čestmír; Ferko, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study all the aspects of drain management in pancreatic surgery. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review according to the PRISMA guidelines. We searched the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PubMed (MEDLINE) for relevant articles on drain management in pancreatic surgery. The reference lists of relevant studies were screened to retrieve any further studies. We included all articles that reported clinical studies on human subjects with elective pancreatic resection and that compared various strategies of intra-abdominal drain management, such as drain vs no drain, selective drain use, early vs late drain extraction, and the use of different types of drains. RESULTS: A total of 19 studies concerned with drain management in pancreatic surgery involving 4194 patients were selected for this systematic review. We included studies analyzing the outcomes of pancreatic resection with and without intra-abdominal drains, studies comparing early vs late drain removal and studies analyzing different types of drains. The majority of the studies reporting equal or superior results for pancreatic resection without drains were retrospective and observational with significant selection bias. One recent randomized trial reported higher postoperative morbidity and mortality with routine omission of intra-abdominal drains. With respect to the timing of drain removal, all of the included studies reported superior results with early drain removal. Regarding the various types of drains, there is insufficient evidence to determine which type of drain is more suitable following pancreatic resection. CONCLUSION: The prophylactic use of drains remains controversial. When drains are used, early removal is recommended. Further trials comparing types of drains are ongoing. PMID:26523110

  19. Quantifying intra- and inter-fractional motion in breast radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Scott; Fitzgerald, Rhys; Owen, Rebecca; Ramsay, Jonathan

    2015-03-15

    The magnitude of intra- and inter-fractional variation in the set up of breast cancer patients treated with tangential megavoltage photon beams was investigated using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Daily cine-EPID images were captured during delivery of the tangential fields for ten breast cancer patients treated in the supine position. Measurements collected from each image included the central lung distance (CLD), central flash distance (CFD), superior axial measurement (SAM) and the inferior axial measurement (IAM). The variation of motion within a fraction (intra-fraction) and the variation between fractions (inter-fraction) was analysed to quantify set up variation and motion due to respiration. Altogether 3775 EPID images were collected from 10 patients. The effect of respiratory motion during treatment was <0.1 cm standard deviation (SD) in the anterior–posterior (AP) direction. The inter-fraction movement caused by variations in daily set up was larger at 0.28 cm SD in the AP direction. Superior–inferior (SI) variation was more difficult to summarise and proved unreliable as the measurements were taken to an ambiguous point on the images. It was difficult to discern true SI movement from that implicated by AP movement. There is minimal intra-fractional chest wall motion due to respiration during treatment. Inter-fractional variation was larger, however, on average it remained within departmental tolerance (0.5 cm) for set up variations. This review of our current breast technique provides confidence in the feasibility of utilising advanced treatment techniques (field-in-field, intensity modulated radiotherapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy) following a review of the current imaging protocol.

  20. Reliability of Intra-Retinal Layer Thickness Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Oberwahrenbrock, Timm; Weinhold, Maria; Mikolajczak, Janine; Zimmermann, Hanna; Paul, Friedemann; Beckers, Ingeborg; Brandt, Alexander U.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Measurement of intra-retinal layer thickness using optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become increasingly prominent in multiple sclerosis (MS) research. Nevertheless, the approaches used for determining the mean layer thicknesses vary greatly. Insufficient data exist on the reliability of different thickness estimates, which is crucial for their application in clinical studies. This study addresses this lack by evaluating the repeatability of different thickness estimates. Methods Studies that used intra-retinal layer segmentation of macular OCT scans in patients with MS were retrieved from PubMed. To investigate the repeatability of previously applied layer estimation approaches, we generated datasets of repeating measurements of 15 healthy subjects and 13 multiple sclerosis patients using two OCT devices (Cirrus HD-OCT and Spectralis SD-OCT). We calculated each thickness estimate in each repeated session and analyzed repeatability using intra-class correlation coefficients and coefficients of repeatability. Results We identified 27 articles, eleven of them used the Spectralis SD-OCT, nine Cirrus HD-OCT, two studies used both devices and two studies applied RTVue-100. Topcon OCT-1000, Stratus OCT and a research device were used in one study each. In the studies that used the Spectralis, ten different thickness estimates were identified, while thickness estimates of the Cirrus OCT were based on two different scan settings. In the simulation dataset, thickness estimates averaging larger areas showed an excellent repeatability for all retinal layers except the outer plexiform layer (OPL). Conclusions Given the good reliability, the thickness estimate of the 6mm-diameter area around the fovea should be favored when OCT is used in clinical research. Assessment of the OPL was weak in general and needs further investigation before OPL thickness can be used as a reliable parameter. PMID:26349053

  1. Pediatric awake craniotomy and intra-operative stimulation mapping.

    PubMed

    Balogun, James A; Khan, Osaama H; Taylor, Michael; Dirks, Peter; Der, Tara; Carter Snead Iii, O; Weiss, Shelly; Ochi, Ayako; Drake, James; Rutka, James T

    2014-11-01

    The indications for operating on lesions in or near areas of cortical eloquence balance the benefit of resection with the risk of permanent neurological deficit. In adults, awake craniotomy has become a versatile tool in tumor, epilepsy and functional neurosurgery, permitting intra-operative stimulation mapping particularly for language, sensory and motor cortical pathways. This allows for maximal tumor resection with considerable reduction in the risk of post-operative speech and motor deficits. We report our experience of awake craniotomy and cortical stimulation for epilepsy and supratentorial tumors located in and around eloquent areas in a pediatric population (n=10, five females). The presenting symptom was mainly seizures and all children had normal neurological examinations. Neuroimaging showed lesions in the left opercular (n=4) and precentral or peri-sylvian regions (n=6). Three right-sided and seven left-sided awake craniotomies were performed. Two patients had a history of prior craniotomy. All patients had intra-operative mapping for either speech or motor or both using cortical stimulation. The surgical goal for tumor patients was gross total resection, while for all epilepsy procedures, focal cortical resections were completed without any difficulty. None of the patients had permanent post-operative neurologic deficits. The patient with an epileptic focus over the speech area in the left frontal lobe had a mild word finding difficulty post-operatively but this improved progressively. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 27 months. Pediatric awake craniotomy with intra-operative mapping is a precise, safe and reliable method allowing for resection of lesions in eloquent areas. Further validations on larger number of patients will be needed to verify the utility of this technique in the pediatric population.

  2. What value market research?

    PubMed

    Maris, L

    1993-08-07

    Whether you have just left your hotel, purchased a new car or eaten at a roadside café, the chances are someone will have asked your views about their services, products and delivery. Why? Perhaps because the market oriented business knows better than to assume it understands its customers. A safer approach is to seek their views through market research, and that is the approach the new Quality Development Awards initiated by the BDJ, Denplan and Colgate have taken.

  3. Marketing novel therapies.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Eddie

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses how to help veterinarians to (1) understand how consumers think and why they buy or do not buy something and (2) enhance their selling and marketing skills. Specific supplements and nutraceuticals are recommended, and suggestions for marketing them provided. The article emphasizes the importance of the role that veterinarians have in providing advice on the use and efficacy of supplements in their clinics when based on actual experience.

  4. Market review: Market values summary/May market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This article is the May 1996 Uranium transactions summary. Data on Uranium supply and demand is included, as is data on conversion services and separative work units supply and demand. The spot market was active during this period, with 3.6 million pounds U3O8 changing hands in nine transactions. This brought a strengthing of prices. There were also five deals in the long-term market and three deals for natural UF6.

  5. Market review - market values summary/February market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This article is the February 1996 uranium market report. As reflected by the rising demand and decreasing supply of uranium, prices for UF6 and U3O8 increased. Separation services and conversion services prices remained constant. Data is presented for the recent trades, blocks or uranium for sale or loan, inquiries to purchase or borrow uranium, SWUs available and inquiries to purchase SWUs, and market values of U3O8 and UF6 expressed in selected currencies.

  6. Marketing your equine practice.

    PubMed

    Magnus, Robert P

    2009-12-01

    The take-home message in marketing your equine practice is simple: understand your position in the target market and the buying behavior of your current and prospective customers. Time well spent on analysis and evaluation of options can maximize customer value in the services and products you offer. This allows you to capture profit and to attain your personal and professional goals as an equine practitioner.

  7. The preparation and intra- and intermolecular addition reactions of acyclic N-acylimines: application to the synthesis of (+/-)-sertraline.

    PubMed

    DeNinno, M P; Eller, C; Etienne, J B

    2001-10-19

    Intramolecular endo-cyclization reactions of N-acyliminium ions have seen wide application for the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds. The corresponding exocyclic variant, which would provide 1-aminotetralin derivatives, for example, has little precedent. We have discovered that acyclic N-acylcarbamates can be readily reduced to the corresponding N-acylhemiaminal derivatives in high yield using DIBAL as the reducing agent. These intermediates are remarkably stable and, if desired, can be purified and stored. The acyclic N-acylhemiaminals undergo both intra- and intermolecular nucleophilic addition reactions mediated by strong Lewis acids, such as TiCl(4). Diastereoselectivity, induced either by a substituent on the newly formed ring, or by utilizing a chiral ester on the carbamic acid, was disappointingly low. This methodology was successfully applied to the synthesis of the racemic form of the marketed antidepressant sertraline.

  8. Privacy and intra-familiy communication of genetic information.

    PubMed

    Moniz, Helena

    2004-01-01

    The new knowledge (and predictions) created by DNA tests and the family nature of genetic information has already lead to a new problem: the intra-familiar communication of genetic data. This raises questions such as the following. Is there a duty to inform in cases when treatment is possible and the patient does not permit disclosure of genetic results to relatives? Is there an obligation to warn or merely an authorization (that could be used or not)? Could privacy protection be maintain as an individual interest but with some justified violations? A balance needs to be establishes between the interest of privacy and the need to disclose secret information.

  9. Grossesse intra murale à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    de Tové, Kofi-Mensa Savi; Salifou, Kabibou; Imorou, Rachidi Sidi; Biaou, Olivier; Boco, Vicentia

    2015-01-01

    La grossesse intra-murale est la variété la plus rare de grossesse extra-utérine. Il s'agit de la localisation de l’œuf dans l’épaisseur du myomètre. En cas de retard diagnostic, l’évolution peut être catastrophique avec rupture utérine et hémorragie cataclysmique. L’échographie permet dans certains cas un diagnostic pré opératoire. Les auteurs rapportent un cas survenu chez une patiente aux antécédents de curetage. PMID:26448812

  10. Generation of continental crust in intra-oceanic arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazel, E.; Hayes, J. L.; Kelemen, P. B.; Everson, E. D.; Holbrook, W. S.; Vance, E.

    2014-12-01

    The origin of continental crust is still an unsolved mystery in the evolution of our planet. Although the best candidates to produce juvenile continental crust are intra-oceanic arcs these systems are dominated by basaltic lavas, and when silicic magmas are produced, the incompatible-element compositions are generally too depleted to be a good match for continental crust estimates. Others, such as the W. Aleutians, are dominated by andesitic melts with trace element compositions similar to average continental crust. In order to evaluate which intra-oceanic arcs produced modern continental crust, we developed a geochemical continental index (CI) through a statistical analysis that compared all available data from modern intra-oceanic arcs with global estimates of continental crust. Our results suggest that magmas from Costa Rica (<10 Ma) have a CI <50, closer to the CI (~20) computed from available average continental crust estimates. Transitional CI values of 50-100 were found in the Aleutians, the Iwo-Jima segment of Izu-Bonin, the L. Antilles, Panama, Nicaragua, and Vanuatu. The geochemical signature of the Costa Rican lavas is controlled by melts from the subducting Galapagos tracks. Iwo-Jima and Vanuatu are in a similar tectonic scenario with subducting intraplate seamounts. Melts from the subducting oceanic crust are thought to significantly control the geochemical signature in the W. Aleutians and Panama. In the L. Antilles and E. Aleutians the continental signature may reflect recycling of a component derived from subducting continental sediments. Most of Izu-Bonin, Marianas, S. Scotia and Tonga arcs with a CI >100 have the least continent-like geochemical signatures. In these arcs the subducting plate is old (>100 Ma), not overprinted by enriched intraplate volcanism and the geochemistry may be dominated by slab-derived, aqueous fluids. We also found a strong correlation between the CI and average crustal P-wave velocity, validating the geochemical index

  11. Nanomedicine for Intra-Articular Drug Delivery in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    O'Mary, Hannah; Del Rincόn, Inmaculada; Cui, Zhengrong

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by chronic inflammation within the joint. Recent developments in the understanding of inflammation have led to an increased interest in the use of nanomedicine in the treatment and diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. The ability of nanomedicine, such as nanoparticles, to permeate into and/or retain within the inflamed joint after intravenous and/or intra-articular administration has proven to be beneficial in improving rheumatoid arthritis therapy while reducing systemic exposure of patients to potentially toxic anti-arthritic drugs. This review aims at explaining the major applications of nanomedicine in rheumatoid arthritis treatment and diagnosis.

  12. A Unified Approach to Intra-Domain Security

    SciTech Connect

    Shue, Craig A; Kalafut, Andrew J.; Gupta, Prof. Minaxi

    2009-01-01

    While a variety of mechanisms have been developed for securing individual intra-domain protocols, none address the issue in a holistic manner. We develop a unified framework to secure prominent networking protocols within a single domain. We begin with a secure version of the DHCP protocol, which has the additional feature of providing each host with a certificate. We then leverage these certificates to secure ARP, prevent spoofing within the domain, and secure SSH and VPN connections between the domain and hosts which have previously interacted with it locally. In doing so, we also develop an incrementally deployable public key infrastructure which can later be leveraged to support inter-domain authentication.

  13. Wilms' Tumor With Intra-Atrial Extension: Treatment and Management.

    PubMed

    Szymanska, Anna; Augustyn, Cyprian; Stankowski, Tomasz; Walek, Ewa; Kowalski, Jan P; Koltowski, Piotr; Cichon, Romuald

    2016-01-01

    Wilms' tumor is the most common renal cancer in children. It can grow for a long time without any characteristic symptoms, causing only fever, abdominal pain, nausea, or vomiting, which is the reason why it is often discovered accidentally. In 1% to 4% of the cases, nephroblastoma leads to complications in the form of intravascular and intra-atrial extension. We present a case of a five-year-old boy with Wilms' tumor extending into the inferior vena cava, right atrium, and then prolapsing through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle.

  14. Paternal Mitochondrial Transmission in Intra-Species Caenorhabditis briggsae Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Joseph A.; Howe, Dana K.; Coleman-Hulbert, Anna; Denver, Dee R.; Estes, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    To study mitochondrial–nuclear genetic interactions in the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae, our three laboratories independently created 38 intra-species cytoplasmic–nuclear hybrid (cybrid) lines. Although the cross design combines maternal mitotypes with paternal nuclear genotypes, eight lines (21%) unexpectedly contained paternal mitotypes. All eight share in common ancestry of one of two genetically related strains. This unexpected parallel observation of paternal mitochondrial transmission, undesirable given our intent of creating cybrids, provides a serendipitous experimental model and framework to study the molecular and evolutionary basis of uniparental mitochondrial inheritance. PMID:27613821

  15. The safety and efficacy of intra-nasal ethmoidectomy.

    PubMed

    Watson, D J; Griffiths, M V

    1988-09-01

    Each of the three types of ethmoidectomy: intra-nasal, trans-antral and external, has its supporters and detractors who argue about the efficacy and safety of the procedures. One hundred and five ethmoidectomies for nasal polyps are reviewed retrospectively. Regardless of the approach used, approximately half of these had recurrence of polyps and some patients had several revision operations. There were six complications specific to the surgery. None was serious but most occurred with external ethmoidectomy. The limitations of ethmoidectomy for nasal polyps, the reasons for the good safety record and the best means of training juniors in the procedures are discussed.

  16. Marketing and Market Research for Adult and Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckmaster, Annette

    Marketing is an essential part of conducting a continuing education program, but marketing consists of more than just promotion. According to Kotler, exchange is the central concept underlying marketing. Marketing involves understanding, planning, implementing, and controlling this exchange. The exchange situation contains all the elements of the…

  17. 7 CFR 1212.14 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1212.14 Section 1212.14..., Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.14 Market or marketing. (a...) “Market” means to sell or otherwise dispose of honey or honey products in interstate, foreign,...

  18. [Market economy, health economy?].

    PubMed

    De Wever, A

    2002-09-01

    After the definition of the economy and its different types, we have to stress the political economy which integrates pure economy and society. The economical science will gradually introduce the health economy of which the definition urges to seek for a better distribution between public and private means to do more and better for the public health. The market economy is different from the state economy. She is principally conducted by the supply and demand law. The consumer's behaviour in a competitive market has some characteristics which favour the balance of this market. The healthcare market put also a health supply and demand forward but not with the same values. The needs, the supply, the consumption and the consumer's behaviour are different in this particular market which quickly evolves and progressively goes closer to the market economy. Is the healthcare an economical good or duty? The choices' criteria and the priorities are changeable. The role of the valuation studies in health economy is to try to clarify them and to favour a better use of the limited resources to the unlimited needs.

  19. Search for the optimal diet.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Gerard E

    2010-12-01

    Since the beginning of time, we have been searching for diets that satisfy our palates while simultaneously optimizing health and well-being. Every year, there are hundreds of new diet books on the market that make a wide range of promises but rarely deliver. Unfortunately, consumers are gullible and believe much of the marketing hype because they are desperately seeking ways to maximize their health. As a result, they continue to purchase these diet books, sending many of them all the way to the bestseller list. Because many of these meal plans are not sustainable and are questionable in their approaches, the consumer is ultimately left to continue searching, only able to choose from the newest "fad" promoted by publicists rather than being grounded in science. Thus, the search for the optimal diet continues to be the "holy grail" for many of us today, presenting a challenge for nutritionists and practitioners to provide sound advice to consumers.

  20. Empirical investigation of stock price dynamics in an emerging market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palágyi, Zoltán; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    1999-07-01

    We study the development of an emerging market - the Budapest Stock Exchange - by investigating the time evolution of some statistical properties of heavily traded stocks. Moving quarter by quarter over a period of two and a half years we analyze the scaling properties of the standard deviation of intra-day log-price changes. We observe scaling using both seconds and ticks as units of time. For the investigated stocks a Levy shape is a good approximation to the probability density function of tick-by-tick log-price changes in each quarter: the index of the distribution follows an increasing trend, suggesting it could be used as a measure of market efficiency.

  1. [Market and ageing].

    PubMed

    Joël, M-E

    2005-06-01

    Ageing can be defined as growth of the proportion of elderly people in the population, but also as a group of transformations in life cycles: older age at time of first job, marriage, birth of first child, early retirement, longer life expectancy, active retirement, greater number of dependent persons. The economic impact of the ageing population has been extensively studied from the perspective of the social security fund. In France and in most developed countries, population ageing has considerably destabilized social accounting creating a gap between a system thought out after WWII and the present social environment. The current response of social security system to elderly person's needs is considered inadequate. There are however other consequences of ageing. It is important to measure the upheaval caused by longer life expectancy and changing life stages on all markets. Three kinds of markets are involved in different ways: job market, services market for the elderly and all goods market for seniors and golden aged. Many studies have focused on the links between economic production and physiological ageing. The traditional organisation of working conditions stresses working intensity over experience, young workers'capabilities over than those of older workers. The link between age and the job market can also be analyzed by considering supply and demand for employment for workers over 50. Another question is the workforce shortage forecasted in some sectors (health and social sectors in particular) and the role of immigration. Growth in the supply of long-term care will require restructuring of the sector's logistics and financing. Certain trends are appearing: government authorities are reducing their supply of services, private production is increasing, public financing is being maintained, and individual contributions are growing while the role of insurance has remained stagnant. A qualitative analysis of the markets also shows heterogeneous workers

  2. The Importance of Marketing Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    The rationale behind marketing segmentation is to allow businesses to focus on their consumers' behaviors and purchasing patterns. If done effectively, marketing segmentation allows an organization to achieve its highest return on investment (ROI) in turn for its marketing and sales expenses. If an organization markets its products or services to…

  3. Market Segmentation for Information Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halperin, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and limitations of market segmentation as strategy for the marketing of information services made available by nonprofit organizations, particularly libraries. Market segmentation is defined, a market grid for libraries is described, and the segmentation of information services is outlined. A 16-item reference list is…

  4. 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report details the market conditions and trends for photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. Produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the report provides a comprehensive overview of the solar electricity market and identifies successes and trends within the market from both global and national perspectives.

  5. Defining and Analyzing the Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Wendell L.

    1986-01-01

    Market analysis and definition are critical to developing a marketing plan for continuing education. The process begins with assessment of institutional resources and goals, as well as assessment of the competition. A target market is then chosen and a marketing plan is devised. (CH)

  6. Marketing the Health Sciences Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, O. Gene

    The basic activities of marketing are discussed, including gathering information and determining needs, designing a program around the elements of the marketing mix, and managing the marketing program. Following a general discussion, applications of the marketing concepts to a health sciences library are described. The administrator of the health…

  7. Strategic Marketing: The President's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Richard J.; Shaink, M. Richard

    1994-01-01

    Provides a step-by-step guide to developing a college marketing plan. Identifying a target market and determining an appropriate mix of promotional strategies are considered key to the process. Highlights the college president's role in the marketing process, indicating that, although the president is the chief marketer, all employees must be…

  8. Marketing: Educators New Buzz Word.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotoia, Anthony M.

    Many concerned academic administrators are turning to marketing as the cure for shrinking enrollments. These administrators often have unrealistic expectations of what marketing techniques can achieve. Marketing cannot cover up for programs of poor quality, create customers in an over-harvested market, or overcome high attrition when students…

  9. Marketing Continuing Education for Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    This guide presents an overview of marketing and its potential value in continuing education programs for nurses. The first portion of the guide briefly discusses the concept of marketing. It contains definitions of key marketing concepts (product, place, price, and promotion), discussion of the basic tenets of marketing (consumer needs…

  10. Opportunistic Marketing in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wonders, Thomas J.; Gyure, James F.

    1991-01-01

    The experiences of University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown (Pennsylvania) with opportunistic marketing are outlined. Opportunistic marketing takes advantage of reactive decision making within the administration by repeatedly creating marketing situations that force decisions, then eliciting acknowledgment that the marketing efforts worked. Special…

  11. Opitmal Platform Strategies in the Smartphone Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unno, Masaru; Xu, Hua

    In a smartphone market, smartphone makers encourage smartphone application providers (AP) to create more popular smartphone applications through making a revenue-sharing contract with AP and providing application-purchasing support to end users. In this paper, we study revenue-sharing and application-purchasing support problem between a risk-averse smartphone maker and a smartphone application provider. The problem is formulated as the smartphone makers's risk-sensitive stochastic control problem. The sufficient conditions for the existence of the optimal revenue-sharing strategy, the optimal application-purchasing support strategy and the incentive compatible effort recommended to AP are obtained. The effects of the smartphone makers's risk-sensitivity on the optimal strategies are also discussed. A numerical example is solved to show the computation aspects of the problem.

  12. Toxicity from intra-abdominal injection of chlorfenapyr.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jina; Lee, Jun Hyun; Baek, Jong Min; Lee, Do Sang; Park, Il Young; Won, Jong Man; Sung, Ki Young

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Chlorfenapyr is commonly used for food crops in Korea. However, chlorfenapyr toxicity in humans has not yet been studied. Case. A 74-year-old man was admitted to the emergency room after he intra-abdominally injected 20 mL of chlorfenapyr in an attempt to commit suicide. Emergency surgery was performed and accumulation of approximately 500 mL of reactive fluid in the abdomen was observed. The entire small intestine showed congestion. After surgery, additional surgery to drain the fluid was performed on POD 12. But immediately after administration of general anesthesia, flat rhythm was observed by electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring, requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Discussion. The color of the bowel was purple, indicating ischemic injury. This could be attributed to direct absorption of the substance through the peritoneum, leading to chemical injury to the small intestine serosa, unlike in the case of oral ingestion. This resulted in an ischemic change in the small intestine, eventually leading to sepsis. Conclusion. Only a few cases of chlorfenapyr toxicity have been reported in the literature, and death occurred in all cases, including our case. Therefore, careful and aggressive treatments are necessary. This is the first reported case of intra-abdominal injection of chlorfenapyr.

  13. Toxicity from Intra-Abdominal Injection of Chlorfenapyr

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jina; Lee, Jun Hyun; Baek, Jong Min; Lee, Do Sang; Park, Il Young; Won, Jong Man; Sung, Ki Young

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Chlorfenapyr is commonly used for food crops in Korea. However, chlorfenapyr toxicity in humans has not yet been studied. Case. A 74-year-old man was admitted to the emergency room after he intra-abdominally injected 20 mL of chlorfenapyr in an attempt to commit suicide. Emergency surgery was performed and accumulation of approximately 500 mL of reactive fluid in the abdomen was observed. The entire small intestine showed congestion. After surgery, additional surgery to drain the fluid was performed on POD 12. But immediately after administration of general anesthesia, flat rhythm was observed by electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring, requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Discussion. The color of the bowel was purple, indicating ischemic injury. This could be attributed to direct absorption of the substance through the peritoneum, leading to chemical injury to the small intestine serosa, unlike in the case of oral ingestion. This resulted in an ischemic change in the small intestine, eventually leading to sepsis. Conclusion. Only a few cases of chlorfenapyr toxicity have been reported in the literature, and death occurred in all cases, including our case. Therefore, careful and aggressive treatments are necessary. This is the first reported case of intra-abdominal injection of chlorfenapyr. PMID:23691373

  14. Mini gamma cameras for intra-operative nuclear tomographic reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Matthies, Philipp; Gardiazabal, José; Okur, Aslı; Vogel, Jakob; Lasser, Tobias; Navab, Nassir

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear imaging modalities like PET or SPECT are in extensive use in medical diagnostics. In a move towards personalized therapy, we present a flexible nuclear tomographic imaging system to enable intra-operative SPECT-like 3D imaging. The system consists of a miniaturized gamma camera mounted on a robot arm for flexible positioning, while spatio-temporal localization is provided by an optical tracking system. To facilitate statistical tomographic reconstruction of the radiotracer distribution using a maximum likelihood approach, a precise model of the mini gamma camera is generated by measurements. The entire system is evaluated in a series of experiments using a hot spot phantom, with a focus on criteria relevant for the intra-operative workflow, namely the number of required imaging positions as well as the required imaging time. The results show that high quality reconstructed images of simple hot spot configurations with positional errors of less than one millimeter are possible within acquisition times as short as 15s.

  15. Intra-operative implantation errors during Austin Moore Hemiarthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Zohaib Gulzar; Markhand, Javed Ali; Ahmed, Syed Kamran; Chinoy, Amin; Khan, Mansoor Ali

    2016-10-01

    Austin Moore hemiarthroplasty is an established treatment in elderly patients with neck of femur fractures. Being commonly performed, it is also associated with several technical errors of implantation which results in complications and failure requiring revision surgery. This retrospective pre- and post-operative radiographic study to determine the frequency of technical errors was conducted at the Indus Hospital, Karachi, and comprised data of 50 patients who underwent Austin Moore hemiarthroplasty between January and November 2016. Of the total, 29(58%%) patients had no error of implantation. Overhanging of prosthesis was observed in 21(42%) patients, followed by inadequate length of the neck remnant in 18(36%). Moreover, 8(16%) patients sustained intra-operative periprosthetic fractures managed with cerclage wire. Also, 33(66%) patients had a Dorr type-Afemur morphologic pattern. Hemiarthroplasty was found to be a technically demanding procedure associated with avoidable intra-operative implantation errors by proper preoperative planning, careful patient selection, proper training of surgeons, hence avoiding failure.

  16. Birth of a Neotethyan intra-oceanic arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitchison, J.; Gibbons, A.; Müller, R.; Whittaker, J.

    2012-12-01

    How, when and why intra-oceanic island arcs are initiated is a topic of long-standing debate. On-land geological evidence along the Yarlung Tsangpo/Indus suture zone provides strong evidence for the former existence of at least one such arc within Neotethys. This is increasingly accepted and numerous recent diagrammatic reconstructions of Neotethys now depict such an arc. Notably, the arc portrayed in these cartoons is typically shown to be located close to, and orientated parallel with, the assumed location of the southern margin of Eurasia. Nevertheless, how this arc was initiated and why it formed where it is shown are not particularly well constrained by any published geological evidence. In examining existing geodynamic models and from our own University of Sydney paleogeographic reconstruction work using GPlates we have noticed the presence of a major ocean-crossing feature, possibly a fracture zone, that trends approximately North-South from the western margin of India to the Eurasian margin. We will present a new model that directly relates mid-Cretaceous Neotethyan ophiolite genesis to this structure. This interpretation accords with the most recent concepts developed to explain the inception of intra-oceanic island arcs and ophiolite generation. Moreover, it is consistent with the development of metamorphic soles as well as ophiolite emplacement onto passive continental margins

  17. [Intra-oral and peri-oral piercing].

    PubMed

    Zadik, Y; Becker, T; Levin, L

    2007-01-01

    Oral Piercing is a practice that is gaining acceptance in the western world as a sign of individuality, marginality, decoration, or group membership. In a recent large-scale survey among Israeli young adults, more than half of the study population was not aware of any of the complications of oral piercing. Pain, bleeding, edema, inhalation, dental and gingival trauma, allergic reaction, contact lesions, impaired mastication, deglutition, and speech, are all potential complications of intra-oral and peri-oral piercing. Piercing can induce local as well as distant site infection and inflammation such as Ludwig's angina, endocarditis and cerebellar abscess. Moreover, Piercing is recognized as a potential vector of viral transmitting. Nevertheless, not all piercers have adequate knowledge in infection control techniques. With the increase number of patients with pierced intra and peri-oral sites, dentists should be prepared to address issues, such as potential damage to the teeth and gingival, and risk of oral infection that could arise as a result of Piercing, as well as provide appropriate guidance to patients contemplating body piercing that involve the oral sites. Since common knowledge is poor, patients should be educated regarding the dangers that may follow Piercing of the oral cavity.

  18. [No Hodgkin Linfoma diagnosis with intra-atrial infiltration].

    PubMed

    Alcocer Gamba, Marco Antonio; León González, Salvador; Castro Montes, Eliodoro; Loarca Piña, Luis Martín; Lugo Gavidia, Leslie Marisol; García Hernández, Enrique; González Galindo, Ulises; Paredes Serrano, Miguel Isaías

    2012-09-01

    Cardiac tumors are rare entities in clinical practice, with an incidence of 0.05%. Approximately 75% are benign and 25% malignant. Among these, Lymphomas are uncommon, representing about 0.25%. The non-Hodgkin lymphomas can occur in extranodal tissues in 20% of the cases and 80% of these non-Hodgkin lymphomas are composed of diffuse B cells. The extranodal presentation is most frequent in young adults, with a high degree of malignancy and rapid growth. It can present with primary infiltration of various organs; cardiac involvement occurs in 20 to 28% of cases, usually located in the right chambers and with nonspecific symptoms, depending on the location and extent of the tumor. The diagnostic test in these cases is undoubtedly the biopsy of the lymph node or the affected tissue. We present the case of non-Hodgkin disease of diffuse large cells, with right intra-atrial involvement in a 23-year-old-female patient, who presented with progressive dyspnea. A transesophageal echocardiography was performed and an intra-atrial tumor mass was detected. A biopsy was performed, by femoral venous catheterization, allowing the establishment of the histopathological diagnosis and treatment. At a one year follow up, the patient shows complete remission.

  19. Detection of a microbial biofilm in intra-amniotic infection

    PubMed Central

    ROMERO, Roberto; SCHAUDINN, Christoph; KUSANOVIC, Juan Pedro; GORUR, Amita; GOTSCH, Francesca; WEBSTER, Paul; NHAN-CHANG, Chia-Ling; EREZ, Offer; KIM, Chong Jai; ESPINOZA, Jimmy; GONÇALVES, Luis F.; VAISBUCH, Edi; MAZAKI-TOVI, Shali; HASSAN, Sonia S.; COSTERTON, J. William

    2008-01-01

    Objective Microbial biofilms are communities of sessile microorganisms formed by cells that are attached irreversibly to a substratum or interface or to each other and embedded in a hydrated matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Microbial biofilms have been implicated in >80% of human infections such as periodontitis, urethritis, endocarditis, and device-associated infections. Thus far, intra-amniotic infection has been attributed to planktonic (free-floating) bacteria. A case is presented in which “amniotic fluid sludge” was found to contain microbial biofilms. This represents the first report of a microbial biofilm in the amniotic cavity. Study Design “Amniotic fluid sludge” was detected by transvaginal sonography, and retrieved by transvaginal amniotomy. Bacteria were identified using scanning electron microscope and fluorescence in situ hybridization for conserved regions of the microbial genome; and the exopolymeric matrix was identified by histochemistry using the wheat germ agglutinin lectin method. The structure of the biofilm was imaged with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results “Amniotic fluid sludge” was imaged with scanning electron microscopy, which allowed identification of bacteria embedded in an amorphous material and inflammatory cells. Bacteria were demonstrated using fluorescent in situ hybredization using a eubacteria probe. Extracellular matrix was identified with the wheat germ agglutinin lectin stain. Confocal microscopy allowed three-dimensional visualization of the microbial biofilm. Conclusion Microbial biofilms have been identified in a case of intra-amniotic infection with “amniotic fluid sludge.” PMID:18166328

  20. Intra versus interspecific interactions of ladybeetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) attacking aphids.

    PubMed

    Evans, Edward W

    1991-09-01

    The nature and relative strengths of intra versus interspecific interactions among foraging ladybeetle larvae were studied experimentally by measuring short-term growth rates of predators and reductions in population sizes of prey in laboratory microcosms. In these microcosms, ladybeetle larvae foraged singly or as conspecific or heterospecific pairs, for pea aphids on bean plants over a two-day period. Similarly sized third instar larvae ofHippodamia convergens andH. tredecimpunctata, H. convergens andH. sinuata, andH. convergens andCoccinella septempunctata, were tested in experiments designed to ensure that paired larvae experienced moderate competition. Interspecific competition in these experiments did not differ significantly from intraspecific competition, in that an individual's weight gain did not depend on whether its competitor was heterospecific or conspecific. Furthermore, aphid populations were reduced equally by heterospecific and conspecific pairs. These results suggest that there is little or no difference between intra and interspecific interactions among larvae of these ladybeetles when two similarly sized individuals co-occur on a host plant. Thus, the species diversityper se of assemblages of ladybeetle larvae may have little influence over the short term on the reduction of aphid populations by ladybeetle predation.

  1. Simple hierarchical approach to intra/interdomain multicasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shiwen; Karvelas, Dennis; Ma, Qicheng; Yener, Buelent

    1997-10-01

    In this paper, a simple hierarchical approach to inter/intra domain multicasting is introduced. The proposed Hierarchical Tree Multicast Protocol (HTMP) supports sender initiated multicasting, i.e., requires by an application starting a multicast session to provide an initial list of potential receivers. Based on this information, HTMP utilizes the unicast routing information which is currently available in the Internet routers and builds a hierarchical shared tree architecture which consists of separate intra-domain core based trees interconnected by a core based inter-domain tree that may span the entire Internet. Although HTMP requires an initial group of potential receivers, it allows for new hosts to join in supporting three modes of session participation: (a) a restricted mode which allows access only to a specified list of group members, (b) a semi- restricted mode which allows new members to join in but only after authorization from the session manager, (c) an open mode which does not require any authorization. HTMP supports a distribution (one-to-many) mode of multicasting, in which the hierarchical tree is transformed into a source based tree with core the session initiator, as well as an interactive mode (many-to-many) of multicasting. Finally, HTMP provides a receiver oriented resource reservation mechanism which allows for heterogeneity of traffic streams.

  2. Intra-articular Implantation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Kraeutler, Matthew J.; Mitchell, Justin J.; Chahla, Jorge; McCarty, Eric C.; Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) after partial or total meniscectomy is a prevalent issue that patients must face. Various methods of replacing meniscal tissue have been studied to avoid this progression, including meniscal allograft transplantation, meniscal scaffolds, and synthetic meniscus replacement. Studies have shown that meniscal scaffolds may improve symptoms but have not been shown to prevent progression of OA. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proposed as a possible biological therapy for meniscal regeneration. Several animal studies and 1 human study have evaluated the effect of transplanting MSCs into the knee joint after partial meniscectomy. The purpose of this review was to assess the outcomes of intra-articular transplantation of MSCs on meniscal regeneration in animals and humans after partial meniscectomy. Limited results from animal studies suggest that there is some potential for intra-articular injection of MSCs for the regeneration of meniscal tissue. However, further studies are necessary to determine the quality of regenerated meniscal tissue through histological and biomechanical testing. PMID:28203596

  3. Biological trade and markets.

    PubMed

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-05

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  4. Distributed Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macready, William; Wolpert, David

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate a new framework for analyzing and controlling distributed systems, by solving constrained optimization problems with an algorithm based on that framework. The framework is ar. information-theoretic extension of conventional full-rationality game theory to allow bounded rational agents. The associated optimization algorithm is a game in which agents control the variables of the optimization problem. They do this by jointly minimizing a Lagrangian of (the probability distribution of) their joint state. The updating of the Lagrange parameters in that Lagrangian is a form of automated annealing, one that focuses the multi-agent system on the optimal pure strategy. We present computer experiments for the k-sat constraint satisfaction problem and for unconstrained minimization of NK functions.

  5. Optimizing haemodialysate composition

    PubMed Central

    Locatelli, Francesco; La Milia, Vincenzo; Violo, Leano; Del Vecchio, Lucia; Di Filippo, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Survival and quality of life of dialysis patients are strictly dependent on the quality of the haemodialysis (HD) treatment. In this respect, dialysate composition, including water purity, plays a crucial role. A major aim of HD is to normalize predialysis plasma electrolyte and mineral concentrations, while minimizing wide swings in the patient's intradialytic plasma concentrations. Adequate sodium (Na) and water removal is critical for preventing intra- and interdialytic hypotension and pulmonary edema. Avoiding both hyper- and hypokalaemia prevents life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Optimal calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) dialysate concentrations may protect the cardiovascular system and the bones, preventing extraskeletal calcifications, severe secondary hyperparathyroidism and adynamic bone disease. Adequate bicarbonate concentration [HCO3−] maintains a stable pH in the body fluids for appropriate protein and membrane functioning and also protects the bones. An adequate dialysate glucose concentration prevents severe hyperglycaemia and life-threating hypoglycaemia, which can lead to severe cardiovascular complications and a worsening of diabetic comorbidities. PMID:26413285

  6. U.S. Renewable Electricity Market

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The US green energy market is broken up into two main groups: the mandatory markets including state Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) and voluntary markets, also referred to as green power markets.  This page delineates this two markets.

  7. Implementing marketing strategy (Part four).

    PubMed

    Dodson, D C; Dotson, M; McIlwain, T F; Young, D

    1993-01-01

    Every organization must monitor and evaluate the performance of its marketing strategies. The health care marketer must continually develop effective measures related to outcomes so that marketing efforts can be justified and garnish the support and resources they deserve. A major task for the marketing executive for the next decade is to develop marketing strategies and prove that those strategies are being met and that they help the health care organization carry out its objective to meet its mission.

  8. Essays on environmental regulations in electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yanming

    Reducing the Greenhouse Gas pollution and promoting energy efficiency among consumers' energy use have been major public policy issues recently. Currently, both the United States and the European Union have set up explicit percentage requirements that require energy generators or consumers to undertake a certain percentage of their energy production or consumption from renewable sources. To achieve their renewable targets, the Tradable Green Certificates (TGC) system has been introduced in their electricity markets. Moreover, in order to promote energy conservation and achieve energy efficiency targets, price policies and price changes derived from environmental regulations have played a more important role in reducing electricity consumption. My research studies problems associated with these policy implementations. In Chapter 1, I analyze a competitive electricity market with two countries operated under a common TGC system. By using geometric illustrations, I compare the two countries' welfare when the renewable quota is chosen optimally under the common certificate market with three different situations. The policy recommendation is that when the value of damage parameter is sufficiently small, full integration with a TGC market is welfare superior to full integration of an all fossil-fuel based market with an optimal emissions standard. In Chapter 2, by analyzing a stylized theoretical model and numerical examples, I investigate the performance of the optimal renewables policy under full separation and full integration scenarios for two countries' electricity markets operated under TGC systems. In my third chapter, I look at residential electricity consumption responsiveness to increases of electricity price in the U.S. and the different effect of a price increase on electricity use for states of different income levels. My analysis reveals that raising the energy price in the short run will not give consumers much incentive to adjust their appliances and make

  9. Marketing malpractice: the cause and the cure.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Clayton M; Cook, Scott; Hall, Taddy

    2005-12-01

    Ted Levitt used to tell his Harvard Business School students, "People don't want a quarter-inch drill--they want a quarter-inch hole." But 35 years later, marketers are still thinking in terms of products and ever-finer demographic segments. The structure of a market, as seen from customers' point of view, is very simple. When people need to get a job done, they hire a product or service to do it for them. The marketer's task is to understand what jobs periodically arise in customers' lives for which they might hire products the company could make. One job, the "I-need-to-send-this-from-here-to-there-with-perfect-certainty-as-fast-as-possible"job, has existed practically forever. Federal Express designed a service to do precisely that--and do it wonderfully again and again. The FedEx brand began popping into people's minds whenever they needed to get that job done. Most of today's great brands--Crest, Starbucks, Kleenex, eBay, and Kodak, to name a few-started out as just this kind of purpose brand. When a purpose brand is extended to products that target different jobs, it becomes an endorser brand. But, over time, the power of an endorser brand will surely erode unless the company creates a new purpose brand for each new job, even as it leverages the endorser brand as an overall marker of quality. Different jobs demand different purpose brands. New growth markets are created when an innovating company designs a product and then positions its brand on a job for which no optimal product yet exists. In fact, companies that historically have segmented and measured markets by product categories generally find that when they instead segment by job, their market is much larger (and their current share much smaller) than they had thought. This is great news for smart companies hungry for growth.

  10. Quantum spatial-periodic harmonic model for daily price-limited stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiangyi; Zhang, Jian-Wei; Xu, Jingjing; Guo, Hong

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the behaviors of stocks in daily price-limited stock markets by purposing a quantum spatial-periodic harmonic model. The stock price is considered to be oscillating and damping in a quantum spatial-periodic harmonic oscillator potential well. A complicated non-linear relation including inter-band positive correlation and intra-band negative correlation between the volatility and trading volume of a stock is numerically derived with the energy band structure of the model concerned. The effectiveness of price limit is re-examined, with some observed characteristics of price-limited stock markets in China studied by applying our quantum model.

  11. A Study on Market-based Strategic Procurement Planning in Convergent Supply Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opadiji, Jayeola Femi; Kaihara, Toshiya

    We present a market-based decentralized approach which uses a market-oriented programming algorithm to obtain Pareto-optimal allocation of resources traded among agents which represent enterprise units in a supply network. The proposed method divides the network into a series of Walrsian markets in order to obtain procurement budgets for enterprises in the network. An interaction protocol based on market value propagation is constructed to coordinate the flow of resources across the network layers. The method mitigates the effect of product complementarity in convergent network by allowing for enterprises to hold private valuations of resources in the markets.

  12. Nurse education in competitive markets: the case for relationship marketing.

    PubMed

    Roberts, P M

    1998-10-01

    Since the National Health Service reforms of the late 1980s, nurse education has been increasingly subject to market forces. This new competitive environment presents not only threat, but also challenge and opportunity. Providers of nurse education who recognize the need for market orientation and develop responsive marketing strategies will maximize their potential for market retention and growth. Traditional marketing strategies have considerable limitations for public sector services. The new and growing field of relationship marketing offers nurse education an opportunity to retain and develop profitable relationships with both internal and external markets. This paper reviews the marketing arena in nurse education and proposes context-based qualitative research to ascertain definitive constructs of service quality. Such constructs might then be rooted in a theoretical framework of service quality measurement, and be measured within the disconfirmation paradigm of relationship marketing.

  13. Mixed-Integer Nonconvex Quadratic Optimization Relaxations and Performance Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-11

    portfolio deleveraging with market impact,” (Jingnan Chen, Liming Feng, Jiming Peng, Yinyu Ye), Operations Research, 62(1) (2014) 195-206. In this...Stanley 2012 Prize for Excellence in Financial Markets , First runner-up. “Space tensor conic programming,” (L Qi and Y Ye), Computational Optimization...portfolio deleveraging with market impact," (J. Chen, L. Feng, J. Peng, Y. Ye), Operations Research, 62(1) (2014) 195-206. "Simultaneous Beam Sampling

  14. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  15. Improving the Energy Market: Algorithms, Market Implications, and Transmission Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipka, Paula Ann

    This dissertation aims to improve ISO operations through a better real-time market solution algorithm that directly considers both real and reactive power, finds a feasible Alternating Current Optimal Power Flow solution, and allows for solving transmission switching problems in an AC setting. Most of the IEEE systems do not contain any thermal limits on lines, and the ones that do are often not binding. Chapter 3 modifies the thermal limits for the IEEE systems to create new, interesting test cases. Algorithms created to better solve the power flow problem often solve the IEEE cases without line limits. However, one of the factors that makes the power flow problem hard is thermal limits on the lines. The transmission networks in practice often have transmission lines that become congested, and it is unrealistic to ignore line limits. Modifying the IEEE test cases makes it possible for other researchers to be able to test their algorithms on a setup that is closer to the actual ISO setup. This thesis also examines how to convert limits given on apparent power---as is in the case in the Polish test systems---to limits on current. The main consideration in setting line limits is temperature, which linearly relates to current. Setting limits on real or apparent power is actually a proxy for using the limits on current. Therefore, Chapter 3 shows how to convert back to the best physical representation of line limits. A sequential linearization of the current-voltage formulation of the Alternating Current Optimal Power Flow (ACOPF) problem is used to find an AC-feasible generator dispatch. In this sequential linearization, there are parameters that are set to the previous optimal solution. Additionally, to improve accuracy of the Taylor series approximations that are used, the movement of the voltage is restricted. The movement of the voltage is allowed to be very large at the first iteration and is restricted further on each subsequent iteration, with the restriction

  16. Biological trade and markets

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other ‘commodities’. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten ‘terms of contract’ that ‘self-stabilize’ trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models—often called ‘Walrasian’ markets—are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying ‘principal–agent’ problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists

  17. Cryopegs as destabilization factor of intra-permafrost gas hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvilin, Evgeny; Bukhanov, Boris; Istomin, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    A characteristic feature of permafrost soils in the Arctic is widespread intra-permafrost unfrozen brine lenses - cryopegs. They are often found in permafrost horizons in the north part of Western Siberia, in particular, on the Yamal Peninsula. Cryopegs depths in permafrost zone can be tens and hundreds of meters from the top of frozen strata. The chemical composition of natural cryopegs is close to sea waters, but is characterized by high mineralization. They have a sodium-chloride primary composition with a minor amount of sulphate. Mineralization of cryopegs brine is often hundreds of grams per liter, and the temperature is around -6…-8 °C. The formation of cryopegs in permafrost is associated with processes of long-term freezing of sediments and cryogenic concentration of salts and salt solutions in local areas. The cryopegs' formation can take place in the course of permafrost evolution at the sea transgressions and regressions during freezing of saline sea sediments. Very important feature of cryopegs in permafrost is their transformation in the process of changing temperature and pressure conditions. As a result, the salinity and chemical composition are changed and in addition the cryopegs' location can be changed during their migration. The cryopegs migration violates the thermodynamic conditions of existence intra-permafrost gas hydrate formations, especially the relic gas hydrates deposits, which are situated in the shallow permafrost up to 100 meters depth in a metastable state [1]. The interaction cryopegs with gas hydrates accumulations can cause decomposition of intra-permafrost hydrates. Moreover, the increasing of salt and unfrozen water content in sedimentary rocks sharply reduce the efficiency of gas hydrates self-preservation in frozen soils. It is confirmed by experimental investigations of interaction of frozen gas hydrate bearing sediments with salt solutions [2]. So, horizons with elevated pressure can appear, as a result of gas hydrate

  18. TU-AB-303-12: Towards Inter and Intra Fraction Plan Adaptation for the MR-Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Kontaxis, C; Bol, G; Lagendijk, J; Raaymakers, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a new sequencer for IMRT that during treatment can account for anatomy changes provided by online and real-time MRI. This sequencer employs a novel inter and intra fraction scheme that converges to the prescribed dose without a final segment weight optimization (SWO) and enables immediate optimization and delivery of radiation adapted to the deformed anatomy. Methods: The sequencer is initially supplied with a voxel-based dose prescription and during the optimization iteratively generates segments that provide this prescribed dose. Every iteration selects the best segment for the current anatomy state, calculates the dose it will deliver, warps it back to the reference prescription grid and subtracts it from the remaining prescribed dose. This process continues until a certain percentage of dose or a number of segments has been delivered. The anatomy changes that occur during treatment require that convergence is achieved without a final SWO. This is resolved by adding the difference between the prescribed and delivered dose up to this fraction to the prescription of the subsequent fraction. This process is repeated for all fractions of the treatment. Results: Two breast cases were selected to stress test the pipeline by producing artificial inter and intra fraction anatomy deformations using a combination of incrementally applied rigid transformations. The dose convergence of the adaptive scheme over the entire treatment, relative to the prescribed dose, was on average 8.6% higher than the static plans delivered to the respective deformed anatomies and only 1.6% less than the static segment weighted plans on the static anatomy. Conclusion: This new adaptive sequencing strategy enables dose convergence without the need of SWO while adapting the plan to intermediate anatomies, which is a prerequisite for online plan adaptation. We are now testing our pipeline on prostate cases using clinical anatomy deformation data from our department. This work

  19. Intra-articular osteoid osteoma at the femoral trochlea treated with osteochondral autograft transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Joshua J; Motamedi, Daria; Wildman-Tobriner, Ben; O’Donnell, Richard J; Link, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of an intra-articular osteoid osteoma at the femoral trochlea. Intra-articular osteoid osteoma can present a diagnostic challenge both clinically and with imaging because it presents differently from the classic cortical osteoid osteoma. Given the lesion’s proximity to overlying cartilage, the patient underwent resection of the lesion with osteochondral autograft transplantation at the surgical defect. A comprehensive literature review and discussion of intra-articular osteoma will be provided. PMID:27761182

  20. Intra-articular osteoid osteoma at the femoral trochlea treated with osteochondral autograft transplantation.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Joshua J; Motamedi, Daria; Wildman-Tobriner, Ben; O'Donnell, Richard J; Link, Thomas M

    2016-06-01

    We present the case of an intra-articular osteoid osteoma at the femoral trochlea. Intra-articular osteoid osteoma can present a diagnostic challenge both clinically and with imaging because it presents differently from the classic cortical osteoid osteoma. Given the lesion's proximity to overlying cartilage, the patient underwent resection of the lesion with osteochondral autograft transplantation at the surgical defect. A comprehensive literature review and discussion of intra-articular osteoma will be provided.

  1. Intra-articular haemangioma of the knee in the skeletally immature.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kai Ann; Singh, Vivek Ajit; Pailoor, Jayalakshmi

    2013-11-01

    Intra-articular haemangioma is a rare and uncommon condition that sometimes presents in infants. The lesion can be a diagnostic challenge, with misdiagnosis often leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment. It is essential to establish and treat the condition early, as intra-articular haemangioma can lead to destruction of the joint and secondary arthrosis. Herein, we report the case of a five-year-old boy who presented with intra-articular haemangioma and discuss the management of his condition.

  2. The use of a volumetric infusion pump for the intra-arterial infusion of drugs.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A M; Lilliman, M

    1985-01-01

    Volumetric infusion pumps are widely used for intravenous infusions. We have extended their use to the intra-arterial infusion of drugs. An in vitro evaluation of the performance of such devices, under experimental conditions comparable to an intra-arterial infusion, was carried out. The results obtained confirmed the accuracy of volumetric infusion pumps for intra-arterial infusions. The system was found to be safe, reliable and simple in clinical practice.

  3. Simulating water markets with transaction costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfani, Tohid; Binions, Olga; Harou, Julien J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents an optimization model to simulate short-term pair-wise spot-market trading of surface water abstraction licenses (water rights). The approach uses a node-arc multicommodity formulation that tracks individual supplier-receiver transactions in a water resource network. This enables accounting for transaction costs between individual buyer-seller pairs and abstractor-specific rules and behaviors using constraints. Trades are driven by economic demand curves that represent each abstractor's time-varying water demand. The purpose of the proposed model is to assess potential hydrologic and economic outcomes of water markets and aid policy makers in designing water market regulations. The model is applied to the Great Ouse River basin in Eastern England. The model assesses the potential weekly water trades and abstractions that could occur in a normal and a dry year. Four sectors (public water supply, energy, agriculture, and industrial) are included in the 94 active licensed water diversions. Each license's unique environmental restrictions are represented and weekly economic water demand curves are estimated. Rules encoded as constraints represent current water management realities and plausible stakeholder-informed water market behaviors. Results show buyers favor sellers who can supply large volumes to minimize transactions. The energy plant cooling and agricultural licenses, often restricted from obtaining water at times when it generates benefits, benefit most from trades. Assumptions and model limitations are discussed. This article was corrected on 13 JUN 2014. See the end of the full text for details.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  5. Medical spa marketing.

    PubMed

    Sadick, Neil S; Dinkes, Adam; Oskin, Larry

    2008-07-01

    Medical spas are different. We are not just selling medical and dermatology services; we are offering clients viable new solutions to their skin care, body care, and hair care challenges. Traditional medical marketing becomes blurred today, as the expansion and acceptance of medical spas helps you to effectively compete with traditional skin care clinics, salons, and spas, while offering more therapeutic treatments from professionally licensed doctors, nurses, aestheticians, massage therapists, spa professionals, and medical practitioners. We recommend that you make the choice to successfully and competitively become a market-driven medical spa with an annual strategic plan, rather than an operationally driven business.

  6. Green Pricing Program Marketing Expenditures: Finding the Right Balance

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, B.; Miller, M.

    2009-09-01

    In practice, it is difficult to determine the optimal amount to spend on marketing and administering a green pricing program. Budgets for marketing and administration of green pricing programs are a function of several factors: the region of the country; the size of the utility service area; the customer base and media markets encompassed within that service area; the point or stage in the lifespan of the program; and certainly, not least, the utility's commitment to and goals for the program. All of these factors vary significantly among programs. This report presents data on programs that have funded both marketing and program administration. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) gathers the data annually from utility green pricing program managers. Programs reporting data to NREL spent a median of 18.8% of program revenues on marketing their programs in 2008 and 16.6% in 2007. The smallest utilities (those with less than 25,000 in their eligible customer base) spent 49% of revenues on marketing, significantly more than the overall median. This report addresses the role of renewable energy credit (REC) marketers and start-up costs--and the role of marketing, generally, in achieving program objectives, including expansion of renewable energy.

  7. 7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946...

  8. 7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946...

  9. Prospective Optimization.

    PubMed

    Sejnowski, Terrence J; Poizner, Howard; Lynch, Gary; Gepshtein, Sergei; Greenspan, Ralph J

    2014-05-01

    Human performance approaches that of an ideal observer and optimal actor in some perceptual and motor tasks. These optimal abilities depend on the capacity of the cerebral cortex to store an immense amount of information and to flexibly make rapid decisions. However, behavior only approaches these limits after a long period of learning while the cerebral cortex interacts with the basal ganglia, an ancient part of the vertebrate brain that is responsible for learning sequences of actions directed toward achieving goals. Progress has been made in understanding the algorithms used by the brain during reinforcement learning, which is an online approximation of dynamic programming. Humans also make plans that depend on past experience by simulating different scenarios, which is called prospective optimization. The same brain structures in the cortex and basal ganglia that are active online during optimal behavior are also active offline during prospective optimization. The emergence of general principles and algorithms for goal-directed behavior has consequences for the development of autonomous devices in engineering applications.

  10. Prospective Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard; Lynch, Gary; Gepshtein, Sergei; Greenspan, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Human performance approaches that of an ideal observer and optimal actor in some perceptual and motor tasks. These optimal abilities depend on the capacity of the cerebral cortex to store an immense amount of information and to flexibly make rapid decisions. However, behavior only approaches these limits after a long period of learning while the cerebral cortex interacts with the basal ganglia, an ancient part of the vertebrate brain that is responsible for learning sequences of actions directed toward achieving goals. Progress has been made in understanding the algorithms used by the brain during reinforcement learning, which is an online approximation of dynamic programming. Humans also make plans that depend on past experience by simulating different scenarios, which is called prospective optimization. The same brain structures in the cortex and basal ganglia that are active online during optimal behavior are also active offline during prospective optimization. The emergence of general principles and algorithms for goal-directed behavior has consequences for the development of autonomous devices in engineering applications. PMID:25328167

  11. Clinical Relevance Of Systematic CRT Device Optimization.

    PubMed

    Lunati, Maurizio; Magenta, Giovanni; Cattafi, Giuseppe; Moreo, Antonella; Falaschi, Giacomo; Contardi, Danilo; Locati, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) is known as a highly effective therapy in advanced heart failure patients with cardiac dyssynchrony. However, still one third of patients do not respond (or sub-optimally respond) to CRT. Among the many contributors for the high rate of non-responders, the lack of procedures dedicated to CRT device settings optimization (parameters to regulate AV synchrony and VV synchrony) is known as one of the most frequent. The most recent HF/CRT Guidelines do not recommend to carry-out optimization procedures in every CRT patient; they simply state those procedures "could be useful in selected patients", even though their role in improving response has not been proven. Echocardiography techniques still remain the gold-standard reference method to the purpose of CRT settings optimization. However, due to its severe limitations in the routine of CRT patients management (time and resource consuming, scarce reproducibility, inter and intra-operator dependency), echocardiography optimization is widely under-utilized in the real-world of CRT follow-up visits. As a consequence, device-based techniques have been developed to by-pass the need for repeated echo examinations to optimize CRT settings. In this report the available device-based optimization techniques onboard on CRT devices are shortly reviewed, with a specific focus on clinical outcomes observed in trials comparing these methods vs. clinical practice or echo-guided optimization methods. Particular emphasis is dedicated to hemodynamic methods and automaticity of optimization algorithms (making real the concept of "ambulatory CRT optimization"). In fact a hemodynamic-based approach combined with a concept of frequent re-optimization has been associated - although retrospectively - with a better clinical outcome on the long-term follow-up of CRT patients. Large randomized trials are ongoing to prospectively clarify the impact of automatic optimization procedures.

  12. Minimally Invasive Surgery Combined with Regenerative Biomaterials in Treating Intra-Bony Defects: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Wenyang; Song, Jinlin

    2016-01-01

    Background With the popularity of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in periodontics, numerous publications have evaluated the benefits of MIS with or without various regenerative biomaterials in the treatment of periodontal intra-bony defects. However, it is unclear if it is necessary to use biomaterials in MIS. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials in patients with intra-bony defects to compare the clinical outcomes of MIS with regenerative biomaterials for MIS alone. Methods The authors retrieved English publications on relevant studies from Cochrane CENTRAL, PubMed, Medline, Embase, Clinical Evidence, and ClinicalTrails.gov (up to June 30, 2015). The main clinical outcomes were the reduction of probing pocket depths (PPDs), gain of clinical attachment level (CAL), recession of gingival margin (REC) and radiographic bone fill. Review Manager 5.2 (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, England) was used to calculate the heterogeneity and mean differences of the main clinical outcomes. Results In total, 464 studies in the literature were identified but only four were ultimately feasible. The results showed no significant difference regarding CAL gain (P = 0.32) and PPD reduction (P = 0.40) as well as REC increase (P = 0.81) and radiographic bone fill (P = 0.64) between the MIS plus biomaterials group and the MIS alone group. Conclusions The meta-analysis suggested no significant difference in treatment of intra-bony defects between the MIS plus biomaterials group and the MIS alone group, indicating that it is important to take costs and benefits into consideration when a decision is made about a therapeutic approach. There needs to be an in-depth exploration of the induction of intrinsic tissue healing of MIS without biomaterials to achieve optimal outcomes. PMID:26785405

  13. Intra-beam Scattering Theory and RHIC Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.; Fedotov, A.; Fischer, W.; Malitsky, N.; Parzen, G.; Qiang, J.

    2005-06-08

    Intra-beam scattering is the leading mechanism limiting the luminosity in heavy-ion storage rings like the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The multiple Coulomb scattering among the charged particles causes transverse emittance growth and longitudinal beam de-bunching and beam loss, compromising machine performance during collision. Theoretically, the original theories developed by Piwinski, Bjorken, and Mtingwa only describe the rms beam size growth of an unbounded Gaussian distribution. Equations based on the Fokker-Planck approach are developed to further describe the beam density profile evolution and beam loss. During the 2004 RHIC heavy-ion operation, dedicated IBS experiments were performed to bench-mark the rms beam size growth, beam loss, and profile evolution both for a Gaussian-like and a longitudinal hollow beam. This paper summarizes the IBS theory and discusses the experimental bench-marking results.

  14. Intra-bronchial migration of peritoneal catheter of lumboperitoneal shunt

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Takashi; Yanagi, Masakazu; Hirano, Hirofumi; Arita, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Background: A rare case of intra-bronchial migration of peritoneal catheter of lumboperitoneal (LP) shunt was treated under the bronchoscopic and fluoroscopic observation. Case Description: A 71-year-old man, who underwent LP shunt installation due to idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus a year before, presented with history of high fever and sputum production. Roentgenography and computed tomography of the chest revealed migration of distal end of the peritoneal catheter into the left main bronchus. Migrated catheter was gently extracted through the abdominal wound incision under the bronchoscopic and fluoroscopic observation. Contrast material infused into the catheter did not spread into the pleural cavity. The patient was free of the symptoms within 2 postoperative weeks. Moreover, he underwent the ventriculo-peritoneal shunt surgery 1-month later. Conclusion: This is the first case of the migration of peritoneal catheter of LP shunt into the main bronchus. PMID:26962468

  15. Intra-beam scattering studies for low emittance at BAPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Sai-Ke; Wang, Jiu-Qing; Xu, Gang; Jiao, Yi

    2015-06-01

    The target parameters of modern ultra-low emittance storage ring light sources are entering into a regime where intra-beam scattering (IBS) becomes important and, in the case of the Beijing Advanced Photon Source (BAPS), which is being designed at the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), even a limitation for achieving the desired emittances in both transverse planes at the diffraction limit for X-ray wavelengths (≈10 pm). Due to the low emittance, the IBS effect will be very strong. Accurate calculations are needed to check if the design goal (ɛh+ɛv = 20 pm) can be reached. In this paper, we present the results of numerical simulation studies of the IBS effect on a BAPS temporary design lattice.

  16. Intra-grain conduction of self-doped polyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usami, Yuki; Imamura, Kentaro; Akai, Tomoki; Che, Dock-Chil; Ohoyama, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2016-08-01

    The conduction behavior of ultrathin films (about 10 nm thick) composed of self-doped water-soluble polyaniline sulfonate (SPAN) was investigated using nano-gap electrodes under vacuum conditions. The conductance was found to be ohmic even in the high field regime up to 105 V cm-1 over a temperature range of 10-300 K. The temperature dependence of the conductance indicated that SPAN gave the extremely high value of localization length ( L ) = 300 nm without secondary doping, in comparison with conventional polyaniline. We propose that SPAN forms long-range highly crystalline metallic grains, and we observed intra-grain conduction due to some grains directly bridging the two nano-gap electrodes at low temperature. We conclude that inter-grain conduction becomes dominant as the temperature increases.

  17. Intra-shot MSE Calibration Technique For LHCD Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Jinseok; Scott, Steve; Shiraiwa, Syun'ichi; Greenwald, Martin; Parker, Ronald; Wallace, Gregory

    2009-11-23

    The spurious drift in pitch angle of order several degrees measured by the Motional Stark Effect (MSE) diagnostic in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak1 over the course of an experimental run day has precluded direct utilization of independent absolute calibrations. Recently, the underlying cause of the drift has been identified as thermal stress-induced birefringence in a set of in-vessel lenses. The shot-to-shot drift can be avoided by using MSE to measure only the change in pitch angle between a reference phase and a phase of physical interest within a single plasma discharge. This intra-shot calibration technique has been applied to the Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) experiments and the measured current profiles qualitatively demonstrate several predictions of LHCD theory such as an inverse dependence of current drive efficiency on the parallel refractive index and the presence of off-axis current drive.

  18. Intra-Articular Hip Injection Using Anatomic Surface Landmarks

    PubMed Central

    Masoud, Mohammad A.; Said, Hatem G.

    2013-01-01

    Intra-articular hip injection is a frequently used technique for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and is gaining more importance for the early diagnosis of hip disease. It is commonly performed with imaging guidance such as ultrasonographic or fluoroscopic control. We describe our technique of injection of the hip using relative distances from anatomic surface landmarks, with the needle insertion point at the site of the proximal anterolateral portal for hip arthroscopy, with a posterior direction of 30° and targeted toward a junctional point between 2 perpendicular lines, 1 distal from the anterior superior iliac spine and the second anterior from the tip of the greater trochanter. This technique can be used without imaging guidance in the outpatient clinic. Moreover, it minimizes the need for radiographic exposure for more critical injections, such as the injection of contrast material before conducting magnetic resonance arthrogaphy of the hip. PMID:23875141

  19. Relating Land Use and Human Intra-City Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minjin; Holme, Petter

    2015-01-01

    Understanding human mobility patterns—how people move in their everyday lives—is an interdisciplinary research field. It is a question with roots back to the 19th century that has been dramatically revitalized with the recent increase in data availability. Models of human mobility often take the population distribution as a starting point. Another, sometimes more accurate, data source is land-use maps. In this paper, we discuss how the intra-city movement patterns, and consequently population distribution, can be predicted from such data sources. As a link between land use and mobility, we show that the purposes of people’s trips are strongly correlated with the land use of the trip’s origin and destination. We calibrate, validate and discuss our model using survey data. PMID:26445147

  20. Understanding Financial Market States Using an Artificial Double Auction Market.

    PubMed

    Yim, Kyubin; Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate value of theories describing the fundamental mechanisms behind asset prices in financial systems is reflected in the capacity of such theories to understand these systems. Although the models that explain the various states of financial markets offer substantial evidence from the fields of finance, mathematics, and even physics, previous theories that attempt to address the complexities of financial markets in full have been inadequate. We propose an artificial double auction market as an agent-based model to study the origin of complex states in financial markets by characterizing important parameters with an investment strategy that can cover the dynamics of the financial market. The investment strategies of chartist traders in response to new market information should reduce market stability based on the price fluctuations of risky assets. However, fundamentalist traders strategically submit orders based on fundamental value and, thereby stabilize the market. We construct a continuous double auction market and find that the market is controlled by the proportion of chartists, Pc. We show that mimicking the real state of financial markets, which emerges in real financial systems, is given within the range Pc = 0.40 to Pc = 0.85; however, we show that mimicking the efficient market hypothesis state can be generated with values less than Pc = 0.40. In particular, we observe that mimicking a market collapse state is created with values greater than Pc = 0.85, at which point a liquidity shortage occurs, and the phase transition behavior is described at Pc = 0.85.

  1. Recommendations for intra-abdominal infections consensus report

    PubMed Central

    Avkan-Oğuz, Vildan; Baykam, Nurcan; Sökmen, Selman; Güner, Rahmet; Agalar, Fatih; Alp, Emine; Doğrul, Ahmet; Turhan, Özge; Ağalar, Canan; Kurtaran, Behice; Geçim, İbrahim Ethem; Özaras, Reşat; Yılmaz, Gürdal; Akbulut, Ayhan; Koksal, İftihar

    2016-01-01

    Guidelines include the recommendations of experts from various specialties within a topic in consideration of data specific to each country. However, to date there has not been a guideline standardizing the nomenclature and offering recommendations for intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in Turkey. This is mainly due to the paucity of laboratory studies regarding the clinical diagnosis and treatment of IAIs or the sensitivity of microorganisms isolated from patients with IAIs. However, due to the diversification of host characteristics and advancements in technological treatment methods, it has become imperative to ‘speak a common language’. For this purpose May 2015, a group of 15 experts in intra-abdominal infections, under the leadership of the Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Specialty Society of Turkey (EKMUD) and with representatives from the Turkish Surgical Association, Turkish Society of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Hernia Society, Turkish Society of Hepato-pancreato-biliary Surgery, and the Turkish Society of Hospital Infections and Control, was formed to analyze relevant studies in the literature. Ultimately, the suggestions for adults found in this consensus report were developed using available data from Turkey, referring predominantly to the 2010 guidelines for diagnosing and managing complicated IAIs in adults and children by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the Surgical Infection Society. The recommendations are presented in two sections, from the initial diagnostic evaluation of patients to the treatment approach for IAI. This Consensus Report was presented at the EKMUD 2016 Congress in Antalya and was subsequently opened for suggestions on the official websites of the Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Specialty Society of Turkey and Turkish Surgical Association for one month. The manuscript was revised according to the feedback received. PMID:28149134

  2. Intra-population dental morphological variability among the Prehispanic Maya.

    PubMed

    Cucina, A

    2016-10-01

    The present paper proposes a new approach to the estimation of intra-site variability of dental morphological traits when they are dichotomized into presence vs absence. It rests on the assumption that (1) higher intra-site variability is the expression of intense population dynamics and gene flow; and (2) maximum variability is reached when each trait is expressed in the population with a frequency of 50%. The approach simulates the calculation of frequency of heterozygotes in Mendelian traits (2xiyi), where xi and yi are the frequency of presence and absence of the trait. For every population, the final value corresponds to the average of (2xiyi) calculated from all the scored traits. Two separate analyses were performed using 50 and 40 traits recorded in 11 Prehispanic Maya skeletal collections from the Yucatán Peninsula. Resulting average values were related to the sites' positions within the region's social, political and economic sphere of influence. Dental collections that were obtained from important city centers or by grouping many sites from a single region present the highest values of internal variability, followed by sites known to have played an important role in trade activities or in other socio-political contexts. At the other end, dental collections that represent smaller communities or more isolated, kin-related groups are set at the lower ranks of internal variability. One-way ANOVA tests for both 50 and 40 variables show that sample means present significant differences between the extreme ends of the ranked set of samples.

  3. Separation of intra- and intermolecular contributions to the PELDOR signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöps, Philipp; Plackmeyer, Jörn; Marko, Andriy

    2016-08-01

    Pulsed Electron-electron Double Resonance (PELDOR) is commonly used to measure distances between native paramagnetic centers or spin labels attached to complex biological macromolecules. In PELDOR the energies of electron magnetic dipolar interactions are measured by analyzing the oscillation frequencies of the recorded time resolved signal. Since PELDOR is an ensemble method, the detected signal contains contributions from intramolecular, as well as intermolecular electron spin interactions. The intramolecular part of the signal contains the information about the structure of the studied molecules, thus it is very important to accurately separate intra- and intermolecular contributions to the total signal. This separation can become ambiguous, when the length of the PELDOR signal is not much longer than twice the oscillation period of the signal. In this work we suggest a modulation depth scaling method, which can use short PELDOR signals in order to extract the intermolecular contribution. Using synthetic data we demonstrate the advantages of the new approach and analyze its stability with regard to signal noise. The method was also successfully tested on experimental data of three systems measured at Q-Band frequencies, two model compounds in deuterated and protonated solvents and one biological sample, namely BetP. The application of the new method with an assigned value of the signal modulation depth enables us to determine the interspin distances in all cases. This is especially interesting for the model compound with an interspin distance of 5.2 nm in the protonated solvent and the biological sample, since an accurate separation of the intra- and intermolecular PELDOR signal contributions would be difficult with the standard approach in those cases.

  4. Electricity market design for the prosumer era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parag, Yael; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2016-04-01

    Prosumers are agents that both consume and produce energy. With the growth in small and medium-sized agents using solar photovoltaic panels, smart meters, vehicle-to-grid electric automobiles, home batteries and other ‘smart’ devices, prosuming offers the potential for consumers and vehicle owners to re-evaluate their energy practices. As the number of prosumers increases, the electric utility sector of today is likely to undergo significant changes over the coming decades, offering possibilities for greening of the system, but also bringing many unknowns and risks that need to be identified and managed. To develop strategies for the future, policymakers and planners need knowledge of how prosumers could be integrated effectively and efficiently into competitive electricity markets. Here we identify and discuss three promising potential prosumer markets related to prosumer grid integration, peer-to-peer models and prosumer community groups. We also caution against optimism by laying out a series of caveats and complexities.

  5. Wholesale marginal prices in competitive generation markets

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Arriaga, I.J.; Meseguer, C.

    1997-05-01

    Wholesale marginal electricity prices are being used in several actual competitive generation markets worldwide, both to remunerate generators and to charge consumption. These prices must account not only for energy, but also for guarantee of supply in the long and the short term. This paper: (a) provides a sound conceptual and quantitative foundation for wholesale pricing based on generation services, where any existing restrictions in operation or planning in real power markets are accounted for, (b) clearly establishes the relationship between short term marginal costs, long term marginal costs and optimal wholesale electricity prices, and (c) identifies the reasons for mismatches in cost recovery with marginal generation prices. The theoretical results are verified with a detailed realistic power system model.

  6. [Marketing mix in health service].

    PubMed

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The marketing mix is the combination of the marketing variables that a firm employs with the purpose to achieve the expected volume of business within its market. In the sale of goods, four variables compose the marketing mix (4 Ps): Product, Price, Point of sale and Promotion. In the case of providing services, three further elements play a role: Personnel, Physical Evidence and Processes (7 Ps). The marketing mix must be addressed to the consumers as well as to the employees of the providing firm. Furthermore, it must be interpreted as employees ability to satisfy customers (interactive marketing).

  7. Optimal Fluoridation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, John R.

    1975-01-01

    Optimal fluoridation has been defined as that fluoride exposure which confers maximal cariostasis with minimal toxicity and its values have been previously determined to be 0.5 to 1 mg per day for infants and 1 to 1.5 mg per day for an average child. Total fluoride ingestion and urine excretion were studied in Marin County, California, children in 1973 before municipal water fluoridation. Results showed fluoride exposure to be higher than anticipated and fulfilled previously accepted criteria for optimal fluoridation. Present and future water fluoridation plans need to be reevaluated in light of total environmental fluoride exposure. PMID:1130041

  8. Customized Training Marketing Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lay, Ted

    This report outlines Oregon's Lane Community College's (LCC's) plan for marketing its customized training program for business, community organizations, public agencies, and their employees. Following a mission statement for the customized training program, a brief analysis is provided of the economic environment; of competition from educational…

  9. Marketing Network Centric Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    must transition from a Navy concept to a joint product. NCW advocates can effect this transition by using basic business principles to market NCW...They can tailor a solid mix of product, price, place, and promotion to target and win over operational commanders. This is the first and vital step to successfully introduce NCW as the way of the future.

  10. Marketing through Usability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Eric Lease

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that one of the best ways to get word-of-mouth marketing of library technology is to provide "usable" products and services. Provides an international standards definition on usability and notes that understanding usability combines an understanding of user needs/wants with an understanding of goals, functions, and limitations…

  11. Targeting New Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Craig A.

    1990-01-01

    Often necessary to meet enrollment goals in a competitive age, student recruitment from new sources requires a sound knowledge of marketing, solid research, effective organization, and institutional activities that will attract the desired populations. Experience at Westminster College (Utah) illustrates that the process is not particularly…

  12. Marketing the Maori Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Rangi

    Although the New Zealand government is spending millions of dollars to teach the Maori language in preschool language nests and immersion primary schools, its language policies are unlikely to succeed because they do not address the perceived low social status of the language. A marketing paradigm outlines how language can be viewed as a product…

  13. Marketing Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallon, Melissa, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Ask any academic librarian if marketing their library and its services is an important task, and the answer will most likely be a resounding "yes!" Particularly in economically troubled times, librarians are increasingly called upon to promote their services and defend their library's worth. Since few academic libraries have in-house marketing…

  14. Air Cargo Marketing Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kersey, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The factors involved in developing a market for air cargo services are discussed. A comparison is made between the passenger traffic problems and those of cargo traffic. Emphasis is placed on distribution analyses which isolates total distribution cost, including logistical costs such as transportation, inventory, materials handling, packaging, and processing. Specific examples of methods for reducing air cargo costs are presented.

  15. Marketing Strategy and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-31

    This report documents the marketing campaign that has been designed for middle and high school students in New Mexico to increase interest in participation in national security careers at the National Nuclear Security Administration. This marketing campaign builds on the research that was previously conducted, as well as the focus groups that were conducted. This work is a part of the National Nuclear Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) being performed under a Department of Energy (DOE) / National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. Outcome analysis was performed to determine appropriate marketing strategies. The analysis was based upon focus groups with middle school and high school students, student interactions, and surveys completed by students to understand and gauge student interest in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) subjects, interest in careers at NNSA, future job considerations, and student desire to pursue post-secondary education. Further, through the focus groups, students were asked to attend a presentation on NNSA job opportunities and employee requirements. The feedback received from the students was utilized to develop the focus and components of the marketing campaign.

  16. Market Intelligence Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-05

    Utility Systems (O&M) Heating/Cooling Plants Water Treatment Waste Management Pest Control Security Services Dining Facility Equipment Maintenance...Journal of Supply Chain Management , the Journal of Business Research, the International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management ...Industrial Marketing Management , the Journal of Business Ethics, the International Journal of Logistics Management , Supply Chain Management : An

  17. Free market environmentalism

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.L.; Leal, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Free Market Environmentalism by Terry L. Anderson and Donald R. Leal is a call to action rather than an empirical study. These authors argue that the environment and the market are inextricably connected in a positive rather than negative way. In their view, individual property owners, who are in a position and have an incentive to obtain time- and place-specific information about their resource endowments, are better suited than centralized bureaucracies to manage resources. Government should strive as much as possible to encourage and facilitate the working of the market through the enforcement of property rights, including clearly specified titles, strict liability rules and adjudication of disputed property rights in court. Markets could then be created in a variety of environmental policy domains. For example, Yellowstone National park currently has a problem with migrating bison who wander off the park premises and infect the cattle of adjoining ranches with deadly viruses. To Anderson and Leal, this problem could be solved if park officials owned the bison and could be sued for damages. Overfishing could be solved through the allocation of property rights to specific people who would be allowed to trade their rights. This property rights model is applied to a wide variety of environmental circumstances and problems including land policy, outdoor recreation, energy development, groundwater pollution, garbage disposal, and global warming.

  18. Labor Market Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haupert, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a class experiment where students search a hypothetical job market for jobs paying wages in a known range but with an unknown wage distribution. The experiment is divided into three "trials", each one introducing different variables (unemployment insurance, search costs, and recession). Includes experiment instructions and a…

  19. Marketing Occupations. Cluster Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This cluster guide, which is designed to show teachers what specific knowledge and skills qualify high school students for entry-level employment (or postsecondary training) in marketing occupations, is organized into three sections: (1) cluster organization and implementation, (2) instructional emphasis areas, and (3) assessment. The first…

  20. Broadening the Recruiting Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Central All-Volunteer Force Task Force, Washington, DC.

    The purpose of the study is to broaden the enlisted recruiting market, especially for high school graduates and describe measures to complete or expedite actions initiated by ASD (M and RA) (Assistant Secretary of Defense Manpower and Reserve Affairs) and the military services and to take additional actions to enhance recruiting. (Author)

  1. Strategic planning for marketers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, I

    1978-12-01

    The merits of strategic planning as a marketing tool are discussed in this article which takes the view that although marketers claim to be future-oriented, they focus too little attention on long-term planning and forecasting. Strategic planning, as defined by these authors, usually encompasses periods of between five and twenty-five years and places less emphasis on the past as an absolute predictor of the future. It takes a more probabilistic view of the future than conventional marketing strategy and looks at the corporation as but one component interacting with the total environment. Inputs are examined in terms of environmental, social, political, technological and economic importance. Because of its futuristic orientation, an important tenant of strategic planning is the preparation of several alternative scenarios ranging from most to least likely. By planning for a wide-range of future market conditions, a corporation is more able to be flexible by anticipating the course of future events, and is less likely to become a captive reactor--as the authors believe is now the case. An example of strategic planning at General Elecric is cited.

  2. Capturing the Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2009-01-01

    Digital lecture capture and broadcast solutions have been around for only about 10 years, but are poised for healthy growth. Frost & Sullivan research analysts estimate that the market (which amounts to $25 million currently) will quadruple by 2013. It's still dominated by a few key players, however: Sonic Foundry holds a hefty 40 percent-plus…

  3. Theme: Marketing Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staller, Bernie L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Consists of six articles on marketing agricultural education. Topics include (1) being consumer conscious, (2) cooperating with agribusiness, (3) preparing students for postsecondary education, (4) allowing concurrent enrollments, (5) saving the failing agricultural program, and (6) refocusing the curriculum toward agrimarketing. (CH)

  4. Labor Market Progeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodeheaver, Dean

    1990-01-01

    Social ambivalence toward women's roles, sexuality, appearance, and aging combine with social standards of attractiveness to create both age and sex discrimination in the workplace. The life expectancy of presentability is shorter among women than men, thus creating an accelerated aging process termed labor market progeria. (SK)

  5. Job-Market Blues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magner, Denise K.

    1994-01-01

    Graduate students told a few years ago that the academic job market would open up significantly are disappointed in the shortage of tenure-track openings and glut of candidates. White males feel women and minorities are favored. Some observers find it unethical for departments to continue producing doctoral recipients. (MSE)

  6. Designing by market.

    PubMed

    As competition heats up, facility owners and developers are creating new facilities and additions to answer market demands--and that means paying increasing heed to the needs of their buildings' end users: residents, their families, and long term care staff. Here's how a handful of architects responded to this diverse constituency in recent projects.

  7. Marketing coprovided activities.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Pamela S

    2014-05-01

    Coproviding is a wonderful way for two or more organizations to work together to provide continuing nursing education. To be transparent to the learners, marketing materials identify the parties involved and prominently note the name of the organization accountable for developing the activity and awarding the contact hours.

  8. Marketing Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Thomas, Jr.; Batty, Burt F.

    1978-01-01

    Student financial assistance services are becoming a major part of the institutional marketing plan as traditional college-age students decline in numbers and price competition among institutions increases. The effect of financial aid on enrollment and admissions processes is discussed along with the role of the financial aid officer. (Author/LBH)

  9. Marketing for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ian G.

    To guarantee their funding, schools in Great Britain must compete to attract students. This handbook describes how marketing is critical to a school's economic survival and offers guidelines for those in educational management who must make long-range decisions regarding the direction and position of their institution. Part 1 covers basic…

  10. Marketing's Intellectual Odyssey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Paul F.

    1990-01-01

    A specialist in marketing traces the evolution of the study of consumer behavior as a discipline and distills from it some lessons learned in the process. Topics examined include establishing legitimacy, using scientific procedures, and borrowing from other disciplines. Literature on the philosophy, sociology, and history of science is reviewed.…

  11. Marketing the College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodossin, Ernest

    This document is one of three texts which comprise the written components of The Responsive College Programme dissemination materials. The program is designed to help colleges in the United Kingdom market themselves and their courses effectively, and this volume, which is freestanding and directed at both the general reader and the specialist,…

  12. Marketing and population problems.

    PubMed

    Farley, J U; Leavitt, H J

    1971-07-01

    There are many elements in population programs that are more familiar to marketing men than to some population experts. Advertising is essential to reach the target population, and advertising evaluation techniques (e.g., surrogate indexes or audience measures) might be useful for evaluating both population information activities and the import of the entire program. Fundamental research on basid demand for fertility control is needed and a marketer's experience with planning and evaluating test markets can be useful in assessing potential selling targets and evaluating alternative promotional and distributional strategies. Special family planning clinics have certain disadvantages: expensive and scarce personnel are needed; red tape may be present; the network is based on the assumption that the client is willing to travel relatively great distances repeatedly; and clinics lack anonymity which may scare potential acceptors away. Most developing cultures have an intensively functioning distribution structure which delivers basic commodities to the most remote areas, providing relatively anonymous outlets that are physically close to the customs. Materials requiring a prescription might be distributed in exchange for script issued at and ultimately redeemed by clinics, this requiring only an occasional visit to a clinic. Mail-order service can be used to supplement a clinic's distribution of some contraceptives. It should be remembered that population administrators often have an antipathetic view toward business and marketing and "suspect" the profit motive.

  13. Measuring for Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The Career and Technical Education (CTE) Center at the Oneida-Herkimer-Madison (OHM) BOCES (Board of Cooperative Educational Services) in New Hartford, New York, has seen enrollments increase almost 17 percent in the past four years. However, the center is always looking ways to improve its marketing strategies. The center conducted a survey of…

  14. Stock Market Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Distel, Brenda D.

    This project is designed to teach students the process of buying stocks and to tracking their investments over the course of a semester. The goals of the course are to teach students about the relationships between conditions in the economy and the stock market; to predict the effect of an economic event on a specific stock or industry; to relate…

  15. Stock Market Savvy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okula, Susan

    2003-01-01

    This issue of Keying In, the newsletter of the National Business Education Association, focuses upon teaching young adults how to develop both investment strategies and an understanding of the stock market. The first article, "Sound Investing Know-How: A Must for Today's Young Adults," describes how young adults can plan for their own…

  16. Integrated Marketing Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Integration has become a cliche in enrollment management and student services circles. The term is used to describe everything from integrated marketing to seamless services. Often, it defines organizational structures, processes, student information systems, and even communities. In Robert Sevier's article in this issue of "College and…

  17. Anesthesia for intra-articular corticosteroid injections in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: A survey of pediatric rheumatologists

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the methods of anesthesia currently being used by pediatric rheumatologists when performing intra-articular corticosteroid injections (IACI). Study design A questionnaire was emailed to all members of the Childhood Arthritis & Rheumatology Research Alliance, a pediatric rheumatology research network in North America. The questionnaire consisted of 11 questions ranging from procedure technique, treatments prescribed for topical anesthesia and oral analgesia, and factors that might affect procedural pain. Results Seventy-four of 161 physicians (46%) responded to the questionnaire. On average, each physician injected 33 children (median 25, range 1-160) and 43 joints (median 30, range 1-150) yearly. Local anesthesia was used in children on average ≥ 8 years (range 2-16 years), with general anesthesia being more frequently used for younger children. All respondents used local anesthesia. The most commonly used methods of local anesthesia were EMLA® cream plus subcutaneous lidocaine (58.8%), ethyl chloride spray only (39.7%), EMLA® cream only (33.8%), subcutaneous lidocaine only (25%), and lidocaine iontophoresis only (11.8%). Buffering of the lidocaine was routinely done only 7.4% of the time. Conclusion Although pediatric rheumatologists in North America perform IACI on a large number of patients each year, a wide variety of methods are used to deliver local anesthesia with no accepted standard of care. More studies are needed to determine the optimal method of local anesthesia delivery to minimize pain associated with IACI. PMID:20142994

  18. POCI: A compact high resolution {gamma} camera for intra-operative surgical use

    SciTech Connect

    Menard, L.; Charon, Y.; Solal, M.; Laniece, P.; Mastrippolito, R.; Pinot, L.; Ploux, L.; Valentin, L. |; Ricard, M.

    1998-06-01

    The development of a hand-held {gamma} imaging probe for inside body localization of small tumors is of first interest for radio-guided operative cancer surgery. In that context, the authors have developed a sub-millimeter spatial resolution, small field of view, {gamma} per-operative compact imager (POCI). It consists of a head module composed of a high resolution tungsten collimator and a YAP:Ce crystal plate, optically coupled to an intensified position sensitive diode (IPSD). The authors report here the essential imaging performance characteristics of the POCI camera (spatial resolution, position linearity, efficiency and energy response). These were obtained by studying the influence of the collimator and the crystal design to evaluate the optimal configuration. The present version of POCI has a 24 mm diameter usable field of view and an intrinsic spatial resolution of 0.9 mm to 1.2 mm FWHM at 120 keV. These good detection performance characteristics combined with the small size of the camera make the device well suited to provide intra-operative monitoring in several medical procedures, such as thyroid and breast tumor removal.

  19. Quasi-static modeling of human limb for intra-body communications with experiments.

    PubMed

    Pun, Sio Hang; Gao, Yue Ming; Mak, PengUn; Vai, Mang I; Du, Min

    2011-11-01

    In recent years, the increasing number of wearable devices on human has been witnessed as a trend. These devices can serve for many purposes: personal entertainment, communication, emergency mission, health care supervision, delivery, etc. Sharing information among the devices scattered across the human body requires a body area network (BAN) and body sensor network (BSN). However, implementation of the BAN/BSN with the conventional wireless technologies cannot give optimal result. It is mainly because the high requirements of light weight, miniature, energy efficiency, security, and less electromagnetic interference greatly limit the resources available for the communication modules. The newly developed intra-body communication (IBC) can alleviate most of the mentioned problems. This technique, which employs the human body as a communication channel, could be an innovative networking method for sensors and devices on the human body. In order to encourage the research and development of the IBC, the authors are favorable to lay a better and more formal theoretical foundation on IBC. They propose a multilayer mathematical model using volume conductor theory for galvanic coupling IBC on a human limb with consideration on the inhomogeneous properties of human tissue. By introducing and checking with quasi-static approximation criteria, Maxwell's equations are decoupled and capacitance effect is included to the governing equation for further improvement. Finally, the accuracy and potential of the model are examined from both in vitro and in vivo experimental results.

  20. Effect of varying heart rate on intra-ventricular filling fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Okafor, Ikechukwu; Angirish, Yagna; Yoganathan, Ajit

    2013-11-01

    Impaired exercise tolerance is used to delineate asymptomatic patients during the clinical diagnosis of diastolic left heart failure. Examining the effects of varying heart rate on intra-ventricular filling can provide a physical understanding of the specific flow characteristics that are impacted during exercise. In this study, diastolic filling was investigated with an anatomical left ventricle (LV) physical model under normal heart rate of 70 bpm, and varying exercise conditions of 100 bpm and 120 bpm. The LV model was incorporated into a flow loop and tuned for physiological inflow rates and outflow pressures. 2D PIV measurements were conducted along 3 parallel longitudinal planes. The systemic pressure was maintained the same across all test conditions. The E/A ratio was maintained within 1.0-1.2 across all heart rates. The strength of the mitral vortex ring formed during E-wave, as well as the peak incoming jet velocity, decreased with increasing heart rate. During peak flow of the A-wave, the vortex ring propagated farther into the LV for 120 bpm as compared to 70 bpm. The results point to the heightened role of the atrial kick for optimal LV filling during exercise conditions. This study was funded by a grant from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (RO1HL70262).