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Sample records for intra-abdominal pressure levels

  1. Intra-abdominal pressure during swimming.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, S; Ogita, F; Huang, Z; Kurobe, K; Nagira, A; Tanaka, T; Takahashi, H; Hirano, Y

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to determine the intra-abdominal pressure during front crawl swimming at different velocities in competitive swimmers and to clarify the relationships between stroke indices and changes in intra-abdominal pressure. The subjects were 7 highly trained competitive collegiate male swimmers. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured during front crawl swimming at 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 m · s(-1) and during the Valsalva maneuver. Intra-abdominal pressure was taken as the difference between minimum and maximum values, and the mean of 6 stable front crawl stroke cycles was used. Stroke rate and stroke length were also measured as stroke indices. There were significant differences in stroke rate among all velocities (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in stroke length by velocity. Significant within-subject correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke rate or stroke length (P < 0.01) were observed, although there were no significant correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke indices when controlling for swimming velocity. These findings do not appear to support the effectiveness of trunk training performed by competitive swimmers aimed at increasing intra-abdominal pressure. PMID:23868677

  2. Intra-abdominal pressure during swimming.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, S; Ogita, F; Huang, Z; Kurobe, K; Nagira, A; Tanaka, T; Takahashi, H; Hirano, Y

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to determine the intra-abdominal pressure during front crawl swimming at different velocities in competitive swimmers and to clarify the relationships between stroke indices and changes in intra-abdominal pressure. The subjects were 7 highly trained competitive collegiate male swimmers. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured during front crawl swimming at 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 m · s(-1) and during the Valsalva maneuver. Intra-abdominal pressure was taken as the difference between minimum and maximum values, and the mean of 6 stable front crawl stroke cycles was used. Stroke rate and stroke length were also measured as stroke indices. There were significant differences in stroke rate among all velocities (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in stroke length by velocity. Significant within-subject correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke rate or stroke length (P < 0.01) were observed, although there were no significant correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke indices when controlling for swimming velocity. These findings do not appear to support the effectiveness of trunk training performed by competitive swimmers aimed at increasing intra-abdominal pressure.

  3. Intra-abdominal pressures during activity in women using an intra-vaginal pressure transducer.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Janet M; Hamad, Nadia M; Coleman, Tanner J; Egger, Marlene J; Hsu, Yvonne; Hitchcock, Robert; Nygaard, Ingrid E

    2014-01-01

    Strenuous physical activity has been linked to pelvic floor disorders in women. Using a novel wireless intra-vaginal pressure transducer, intra-abdominal pressure was measured during diverse activities in a laboratory. Fifty-seven women performed a prescribed protocol using the intra-vaginal pressure transducer. We calculated maximal, area under the curve and first moment of the area intra-abdominal pressure for each activity. Planned comparisons of pressure were made between levels of walking and cycling and between activities with reported high pressure in the literature. Findings indicate variability in intra-abdominal pressure amongst individuals doing the same activity, especially in activities that required regulation of effort. There were statistically significant differences in maximal pressure between levels of walking, cycling and high pressure activities. Results for area under the curve and first moment of the area were not always consistent with maximal pressure. Coughing had the highest maximal pressure, but had lower area under the curve and first moment of the area compared to most activities. Our data reflect novel findings of maximal, area under the curve and first moment of the area measures of intra-abdominal pressure, which may have clinical relevance for how physical activity relates to pelvic floor dysfunction. PMID:24575741

  4. Intra-Abdominal Pressure Correlates with Extracellular Water Content

    PubMed Central

    Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Kotlinska-Hasiec, Edyta; Jaroszynski, Andrzej; Zadora, Przemyslaw; Pilat, Jacek; Rzecki, Ziemowit; Zaluska, Wojciech; Schneditz, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background Secondary increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) may result from extra-abdominal pathology, such as massive fluid resuscitation, capillary leak or sepsis. All these conditions increase the extravascular water content. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between IAP and body water volume. Material and Methods Adult patients treated for sepsis or septic shock with acute kidney injury (AKI) and patients undergoing elective pharyngolaryngeal or orthopedic surgery were enrolled. IAP was measured in the urinary bladder. Total body water (TBW), extracellular water content (ECW) and volume excess (VE) were measured by whole body bioimpedance. Among critically ill patients, all parameters were analyzed over three consecutive days, and parameters were evaluated perioperatively in surgical patients. Results One hundred twenty patients were studied. Taken together, the correlations between IAP and VE, TBW, and ECW were measured at 408 time points. In all participants, IAP strongly correlated with ECW and VE. In critically ill patients, IAP correlated with ECW and VE. In surgical patients, IAP correlated with ECW and TBW. IAP strongly correlated with ECW and VE in the mixed population. IAP also correlated with VE in critically ill patients. ROC curve analysis showed that ECW and VE might be discriminative parameters of risk for increased IAP. Conclusion IAP strongly correlates with ECW. PMID:25849102

  5. Intra-abdominal Pressures during Voluntary and Reflex Cough

    PubMed Central

    Addington, W Robert; Stephens, Robert E; Phelipa, Michael M; Widdicombe, John G; Ockey, Robin R

    2008-01-01

    Background Involuntary coughing such as that evoked from the larynx, the laryngeal cough reflex (LCR), triggers a coordinated contraction of the thoracic, abdominal and pelvic muscles, which increases intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), displaces the diaphragm upwards and generates the expiratory force for cough and airway clearance. Changes in the IAP during voluntary cough (VC) and the LCR can be measured via a pressure catheter in the bladder. This study evaluated the physiological characteristics of IAP generated during VC and the LCR including peak and mean pressures and calculations of the area under the curve (AUC) values during the time of the cough event or epoch. Methods Eleven female subjects between the ages of 18 and 75 underwent standard urodynamic assessment with placement of an intravesicular catheter with a fiberoptic strain gauge pressure transducer. The bladder was filled with 200 ml of sterile water and IAP recordings were obtained with VC and the induced reflex cough test (RCT) using nebulized inhaled 20% tartaric acid to induce the LCR. IAP values were used to calculate the area under the curve (AUC) by the numerical integration of intravesicular pressure over time (cm H2O·s). Results The mean (± SEM) AUC values for VC and the LCR were 349.6 ± 55.2 and 986.6 ± 116.8 cm H2O·s (p < 0.01). The mean IAP values were 45.6 ± 4.65 and 44.5 ± 9.31 cm H2O (NS = .052), and the peak IAP values were 139.5 ± 14.2 and 164.9 ± 15.8 cm H2O (p = 0.07) for VC and LCR, respectively. Conclusion The induced LCR is the involuntary rapid and repeated synchronous expiratory muscle activation that causes and sustains an elevated IAP over time, sufficient for airway protection. VC and LCR have different neurophysiological functions. Quantification of the LCR using AUC values and mean or peak IAP values may be useful as a clinical tool for determining neurophysiological airway protection status and provide a quantitative assessment of changes in a patient

  6. Renal failure and abdominal hypertension after liver transplantation: determination of critical intra-abdominal pressure.

    PubMed

    Biancofiore, Gianni; Bindi, Lucia; Romanelli, Anna Maria; Bisà, Massimo; Boldrini, Antonella; Consani, Giovanni; Danella, Augusta; Urbani, Lucio; Filipponi, Franco; Mosca, Franco

    2002-12-01

    There is growing interest in measuring intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in postsurgical and critically ill patients because increased pressure can impair various organs and functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different IAP levels on the postoperative renal function of subjects undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation. IAP was measured every 8 hours with the urinary bladder pressure method for at least 72 hours after surgery. At the end of the study, the patients were classified on the basis of their IAP values: < or = 18 mm Hg (group A), 19 to 24 mm Hg (group B), > or = 25 mm Hg (group C). The three groups were compared in terms of the incidence of acute renal failure (defined as blood creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL or an increase in the same of > 1.1 mg/dL within 72 hours of surgery), hourly diuresis, blood creatinine, the filtration gradient, hemodynamic variations, and outcome. The incidence of renal failure was higher among the subjects in group C (P < .05 versus group A and < .01 versus group B), who also had higher creatinine levels (P < .01), a greater need for diuretics (P < .01) and a worse outcome (P < .05). Receiver Operator Characteristic curve analysis showed that an abdominal pressure of 25 mm Hg had the best sensitivity/specificity ratio for renal failure. An intra-abdominal pressure of > or = 25 mm Hg is an important risk factor for renal failure in subjects undergoing liver transplant.

  7. Effects of intra-abdominal pressure on adrenal gland function and morphology in rats.

    PubMed

    Akkapulu, Nezih; Tirnaksiz, Mehmet Bulent; Kulac, Ibrahim; Tezel, Gaye Guler; Hayran, Mutlu; Dogrul, Ahmet Bulent; Cetinkaya, Erdinc; Yorganci, Kaya

    2015-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome (IAH/ACS) are life-threatening conditions and caused by several clinical status. Although there is insufficient data regarding its effects on adrenal glands. This study aimed to identify whether elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) caused any alteration on the morphology and function of adrenal glands in a rat model. Twenty four Sprague-Dawley male rats were included in the study. Animals were allocated into 4 groups. IAP was elevated to 15 mmHg for one hour and four hours in group 2 and 4. Group 1 and 3 were sham groups. Blood samples were taken for the assessment of plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, and corticosterone levels and adrenalectomies were performed to evaluate apoptosis. Blood adrenaline, noradrenaline and corticosterone levels were significantly higher in the study groups compared with the sham groups. However, there were no significant changes in apoptotic index scores in the study groups as compared to sham groups. These results support that increased IAH leads to discharge of catecholamine and corticosterone from the adrenal glands. Failure to demonstrate similar changes in apoptotic index score may be concluded as apoptosis is not a leading pathway for impairment of adrenal glands during IAH period.

  8. The effect of body position on compartmental intra-abdominal pressure following liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Current assumptions rely on intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) being uniform across the abdominal cavity. The abdominal contents are, however, a heterogeneous mix of solid, liquid and gas, and pressure transmission may not be uniform. The current study examines the upper and lower IAP following liver transplantation. Methods IAP was measured directly via intra-peritoneal catheters placed at the liver and outside the bladder. Compartmental pressure data were recorded at 10-min intervals for up to 72 h following surgery, and the effect of intermittent posture change on compartmental pressures was also studied. Pelvic intra-peritoneal pressure was compared to intra-bladder pressure measured via a FoleyManometer. Results A significant variation in upper and lower IAP of 18% was observed with a range of differences of 0 to 16 mmHg. A sustained difference in inter-compartmental pressure of 4 mmHg or more was present for 23% of the study time. Head-up positioning at 30° provided a protective effect on upper intra-abdominal pressure, resulting in a significant reduction in all patients. There was excellent agreement between intra-bladder and pelvic pressure. Conclusions A clinically significant variation in inter-compartmental pressure exists following liver transplantation, which can be manipulated by changes to body position. The existence of regional pressure differences suggests that IAP monitoring at the bladder alone may under-diagnose intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in these patients. The upper and lower abdomen may need to be considered as separate entities in certain conditions. PMID:22873413

  9. Intra-abdominal pressure: Time ripe to revise management guidelines of acute pancreatitis?

    PubMed Central

    Jaipuria, Jiten; Bhandari, Vimal; Chawla, Avneet Singh; Singh, Mohit

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To systematically review evidence on pathophysiology of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in acute pancreatitis (AP) with its clinical correlates. METHODS: Systematic review of available evidence in English literature with relevant medical subject heading terms on PubMed, Medline and Scopus with further search from open access sources on internet as suggested by articles retrieved. RESULTS: Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is increasingly gaining recognition as a point of specific intervention with potential to alter disease outcome and improve mortality in AP. IAH can be expected in at least 17% of patients presenting with diagnosis of AP to a typical tertiary care hospital (prevalence increasing to 50% in those with severe disease). Abdominal compartment syndrome can be expected in at least 15% patients with severe disease. Recent guidelines on management of AP do not acknowledge utility of surveillance for IAP other than those by Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery. We further outline pathophysiologic mechanisms of IAH; understanding of which advances our knowledge and helps to coherently align common observed variations in management related conundrums (such as fluid therapy, nutrition and antibiotic prophylaxis) with potential to further individualize treatment in AP. CONCLUSION: We suggest that IAP be given its due place in future practice guidelines and that recommendations be formed with help of a broader panel with inclusion of clinicians experienced in management of IAH. PMID:26909242

  10. [Measurement of intra-abdominal pressure with intravesical system Unometer Abdo-Pressure].

    PubMed

    Marín Vivó, G; Revuelta Escuté, M; Rodríguez Martínez, X

    2014-04-01

    The measurement of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) has been incorporated routinely in Critical Units in order to monitor and control those clinical situations that make us suspicious of intraabdominal hypertension (IAH). There are several methods to measure IAP [1-3]: direct measurement, a catheter inserted through suprapubic aspiration, although it is a discouraged procedure by being very invasive; and indirect measurement. In this method there are mainly three different techniques: Through femoral vein puncture: a catheter into the inferior vena cava is channeled. It is a technique being deprecated invasive, associated with venous thrombosis, retroperitoneal hematoma and infection. Through a gastric tube: impractical, requires managing large amounts of water associated with leakage through the pylorus risk. Through intravesical measurement: is the most commonly used method. The bladder catheter allows monitoring the PIA and diuresis and electrolyte control. This method has potential for infection associated with catheterization risk. Although this risk, it is considered the gold standard for the measurement of IAP. Have now been introduced to the market each measuring intravesical kits guaranteeing sterility circuit without disconnections. It is necessary to know the material and the correct procedure for measuring the PIA and how to interpret the results. PMID:24864414

  11. Development of a wireless intra-vaginal transducer for monitoring intra-abdominal pressure in women

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Tanner J.; Thomsen, Jens C.; Maass, Sean D.; Hsu, Yvonne; Nygaard, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Pelvic floor disorders (PFD) affect one of every four women in the United States. Elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during daily activity or strenuous physical activity has been identified as a risk factor in the prevalence of PFD. However, the relationship between IAP and physical activity is poorly understood and oftentimes activity restrictions are prescribed by physicians without clinical evidence linking various activities to elevated IAP. There are currently no pressure transducers capable of monitoring IAP non-invasively out of a clinical environment. To overcome this shortcoming, a novel intra-vaginal pressure transducer (IVT) was developed to continuously monitor IAP. Improvements were made to the first generation IVT by incorporating wireless capability to enhance the device’s mobility while creating a more robust IAP monitoring system. To ensure the changes maintained the functionality of the original device design, comparison testing with standard clinical pressure transducers in both bench top and clinical settings was conducted. The wireless device was found to have high linearity, robust signal transmission, and dynamic response that outperforms the clinical standard rectal transducer and is similar to the original first generation non-wireless design. The wireless IVT presented here is a mobile wireless device capable of measuring, storing and transmitting IAP data during various physical activities. PMID:22147020

  12. REPRODUCIBILITY OF INTRA-ABDOMINAL PRESSURE MEASURED DURING PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES VIA A WIRELESS VAGINAL TRANSDUCER

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Marlene J.; Hamad, Nadia M.; Hitchcock, Robert W.; Coleman, Tanner J.; Shaw, Janet M.; Hsu, Yvonne; Nygaard, Ingrid E.

    2014-01-01

    Aims In the urodynamics laboratory setting, a wireless pressure transducer, developed to facilitate research exploring intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and pelvic floor disorders, was highly accurate. We aimed to study reproducibility of IAP measured using this transducer in women during activities performed in an exercise science laboratory. Methods Fifty seven women (mean ± SD: age 30.4 ±9.3 years; body mass index=22.4 ± 2.68 kg/m2) completed two standardized activity sessions using the same transducer at least three days apart. Pressure data for 31 activities were transmitted wirelessly to a base station and analyzed for mean net maximal IAP, area under the curve (AUC) and first moment of the area (FMA.) Activities included typical exercises, lifting 13.6 to 18.2 kg, and simulated household tasks. Analysis for test-retest reliability included Bland-Altman plots with absolute limits of agreement (ALOA), Wilcoxon signed rank tests to assess significant differences between sessions, intraclass correlations, and kappa statistics to assess inter-session agreement in highest vs. other quintiles of maximal IAP. Results Few activities exhibited significant differences between sessions in maximal IAP, or in AUC and FMA values. For 13 activities, the agreement between repeat measures of maximal IAP was better than ± 10 cm H20; for 20 activities, better than ± 15 cm H20. ALOA increased with mean IAP. The highest quintile of IAP demonstrated fair/substantial agreement between sessions in 25 of 30 activities. Conclusion Reproducibility of IAP depends on the activity undertaken. Interventions geared towards lowering IAP should account for this, and maximize efforts to improve IAP reproducibility. PMID:25730430

  13. More complicated than it looks: The vagaries of calculating intra-abdominal pressure

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Nadia M.; Shaw, Janet M.; Nygaard, Ingrid E.; Coleman, Tanner J.; Hsu, Yvonne; Egger, Marlene; Hitchcock, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Activities thought to induce high intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), such as lifting weights, are restricted in women with pelvic floor disorders. Standardized procedures to assess IAP during activity are lacking and typically only focus on maximal IAP, variably defined. Our intent in this methods paper is to establish the best strategies for calculating maximal IAP and to add area under the curve and first moment of the area as potentially useful measures in understanding biologic effects of IAP. Thirteen women completed a range of activities while wearing an intra-vaginal pressure transducer. We first analyzed various strategies heuristically using data from 3 women. The measure that appeared to best represent maximal IAP was an average of the three, five or ten highest values, depending on activity, determined using a top down approach, with peaks at least 1 second apart using algorithms written for Matlab computer software, we then compared this strategy with others commonly reported in the literature quantitatively using data from 10 additional volunteers. Maximal IAP calculated using the top down approach differed for some, but not all, activities compared to the single highest peak or to averaging all peaks. We also calculated area under the curve, which allows for a time component, and first moment of the area, which maintains the time component while weighting pressure amplitude. We validated methods of assessing IAP using computer-generated sine waves. We offer standardized methods for assessing maximal, area under the curve and first moment of the area for IAP to improve future reporting and application of this clinically relevant measure in exercise science. PMID:23439349

  14. Measurement of intra-abdominal pressure in large incisional hernia repair to prevent abdominal compartmental syndrome

    PubMed Central

    ANGELICI, A.M.; PEROTTI, B.; DEZZI, C.; AMATUCCI, C.; MANCUSO, G.; CARONNA, R.; PALUMBO, P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The repair of large incisional hernias may occasionally lead to a substantial increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), and rarely to abdominal compartmental syndrome (ACS) with subsequent respiratory, vascular, and visceral complications. Measurement of the IAP has recently become a common practice in monitoring critical patients, even though such measurements were obtained in the early 1900s. Patients and Methods A prospective study involving 54 patients undergoing elective abdominal wall gap repair (mean length, 17.4 cm) with a tension-free technique after incisional hernia was conducted. The purpose of the study was to determine whether or not urinary pressure for indirect IAP measurement is a reliable method for the early identification of patients with a higher risk of developing ACS. IAP measurements were performed using a Foley catheter connected to a HOLTECH® medical manometer. IAP values were determined pre-operatively, after anesthetic induction, upon patient awakening, upon patient arrival in the ward after surgery, and 24 h after surgery before removing the catheter. All patients were treated by the same surgical team using a prosthetic composite mesh (PARIETEX®). Results Incisional hernia repair caused an increase in the mean IAP score of 2.68 mmHg in 47 of 54 patients (87.04%); the IAP was decreased in two patients (3.7%) and remained equal in five patients before and 24 h after surgery (9.26%). FEV-1, measured 24 h after surgery, increased in 50 patients (92.6%), remained stable in two patients (3.7%), and decreased in two patients (3.7%). The mean increase in FEV-1 was 0.0676 L (maximum increase = 0.42 L and minimum increase = 0.01 L) in any patient who developed ACS. Conclusions Measurement of urinary bladder pressure has been shown to be easy to perform and free of complications. Measurement of urinary bladder pressure can also be a useful tool to identify patients with a higher risk of developing ACS. PMID:27142823

  15. What's new in medical management strategies for raised intra-abdominal pressure: evacuating intra-abdominal contents, improving abdominal wall compliance, pharmacotherapy, and continuous negative extra-abdominal pressure.

    PubMed

    De Keulenaer, Bart; Regli, Adrian; De Laet, Inneke; Roberts, Derek; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2015-01-01

    In the future, medical management may play an increasingly important role in the prevention and management of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH). A review of different databases was used (PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE) with the search terms 'Intra-abdominal Pressure' (IAP), 'IAH', ' Abdominal Compartment Syndrome' (ACS), 'medical management' and 'non-surgical management'. We also reviewed all papers with the search terms 'IAH', 'IAP' and 'ACS' over the last three years, only extracting those papers which showed a novel approach in the non-surgical management of IAH and ACS.IAH and ACS are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Non-surgical management is an important treatment option in critically ill patients with raised IAP. There are five medical treatment options to be considered to reduce IAP: 1) improvement of abdominal wall compliance; 2) evacuation of intra-luminal contents; 3) evacuation of abdominal fluid collections; 4) optimisation of fluid administration; and 5) optimisation of systemic and regional perfusion. This paper will review the first three treatment arms of the WSACS algorithm: abdominal wall compliance; evacuation of intra-luminal contents and evacuation of abdominal fluid collections. Emerging medical treatments will be analysed and finally some alternative specific treatments will be assessed. Other treatment options with regard to optimising fluid administration and systemic and regional perfusion will be described elsewhere, and are beyond the scope of this review. Medical management of critically ill patients with raised IAP should be instigated early to prevent further organ dysfunction and to avoid progression to ACS. Many treatment options are available and are often part of routine daily management in the ICU (nasogastric, rectal tube, prokinetics, enema, sedation, body position). Some of the newer treatments are very promising options in specific patient populations with raised IAP. Future studies are warranted to confirm

  16. Validity and Reliability of an Instrumented Speculum Designed to Minimize the Effect of Intra-abdominal Pressure on the Measurement of Pelvic Floor Muscle Strength

    PubMed Central

    Ashton-Miller, James A.; Zielinski, Ruth; Miller, Janis M.; DeLancey, John O.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Existing clinical measurements of pelvic floor muscle strength are contaminated by crosstalk from intra-abdominal pressure. We tested an improved instrumented speculum designed to minimize this crosstalk. The hypotheses were that the speculum yields: 1) maximum vaginal closure forces unrelated to intra-abdominal pressure, 2) discriminatory validity between women who have strong vs. weak pelvic floor muscles, and 3) acceptable test-retest reliability. Methods Maximum voluntary vaginal closure force was measured in 40 incontinent women (20–77 years) using the improved instrumented speculum on two visits spaced one month apart. At the baseline visit, intra-abdominal pressure was also estimated via intra-vesical catheterization during the vaginal closure force measurement. Subjective estimate of pelvic floor muscle strength was also assessed using digital palpation by a skilled examiner to determine group placement as “strong” (n=31) or “weak” (n=9). Findings Vaginal closure force was not significantly correlated with intra-abdominal pressure (r = −.26, p = .109). The groups with subjectively scored strong and weak pelvic floor muscles differed significantly by mean [SD] maximum vaginal closure force (3.8 [1.7] vs. 1.9 [0.8] N respectively, p < .01.) Across both time points the mean vaginal closure force was 3.42 [1.67] N with a range of .68 to 9.05 N. Mean Visit 1 and Visit 2 vaginal closure force scores did not differ (3.41 [1.8] and 3.42 [1.6] N, respectively). The vaginal closure force repeatability coefficient was 3.1 N. Interpretation The improved speculum measured maximum vaginal closure force without evidence of crosstalk from intra-abdominal pressure, while retaining acceptable discriminant validity and repeatability. PMID:25307868

  17. Evidence for Negative Effects of Elevated Intra-Abdominal Pressure on Pulmonary Mechanics and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Davarcı, I.; Karcıoğlu, M.; Tuzcu, K.; İnanoğlu, K.; Yetim, T. D.; Motor, S.; Ulutaş, K. T.; Yüksel, R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare the effects of pneumoperitoneum on lung mechanics, end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2), arterial blood gases (ABG), and oxidative stress markers in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) by using lung-protective ventilation strategy. Materials and Methods. Forty-six patients undergoing LC and abdominal wall hernia (AWH) surgery were assigned into 2 groups. Measurements and blood samples were obtained before, during pneumoperitoneum, and at the end of surgery. BALF samples were obtained after anesthesia induction and at the end of surgery. Results. Peak inspiratory pressure, ETCO2, and pCO2 values at the 30th minute were significantly increased, while there was a significant decrease in dynamic lung compliance, pH, and pO2 values in LC group. In BALF samples, total oxidant status (TOS), arylesterase, paraoxonase, and malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased; the glutathione peroxidase levels were significantly decreased in LC group. The serum levels of TOS and paraoxonase were significantly higher at the end of surgery in LC group. In addition, arylesterase level in the 30th minute was increased compared to baseline. Serum paraoxonase level at the end of surgery was significantly increased when compared to AWH group. Conclusions. Our study showed negative effects of pneumoperitoneum in both lung and systemic levels despite lung-protective ventilation strategy. PMID:25685845

  18. Impact of intra-abdominal pressure on retrohepatic vena cava shape and flow in mechanically ventilated pigs.

    PubMed

    Bendjelid, Karim; Viale, Jean-Paul; Duperret, Serge; Colling, Joëlle; Piriou, Vincent; Merlani, Paolo; Jacques, Didier

    2012-04-01

    Conflicting results have been found regarding correlations between right atrial pressure (RAP) and inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter in mechanically ventilated patients. This finding could be related to an increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). This study was designed to clarify whether variations in IVC flow rate caused by positive pressure ventilation are associated with changes in the retrohepatic IVC cross-section (ΔIVC) during major changes in volume status and IAP. Nine pigs were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated and equipped. IAP was set at 0, 15 and 30 mmHg during two conditions, i.e. normovolemia and hypovolemia, generated by blood removal to obtain a mean arterial pressure value lower than 60 mmHg. At each IAP increment, cardiac output, IVC flow and surface area were respectively assessed by flowmeters and transesophageal echocardiography. At normal IAP, even in presence of respiratory changes in IVC flows, no ΔIVC were observed during the two conditions. At high IAP, neither ΔIVC nor modulations of IVC flow were observed whatever the volemic status. The majority of animals with an IVC area of less than 0.65 cm(2) showed evidence of IAP greater than RAP values. Negative RAP-IAP pressure gradients were found to occur with an IVC area of less than 0.65 cm(2), suggesting that IVC dimensions determined using standard ultrasound techniques may indicate the direction of the RAP-IAP gradient. The clinical relevance of the present findings is that volume status should not be estimated from retrohepatic IVC dimensions in cases of high IAP. PMID:22418601

  19. The effect of different types of abdominal binders on intra-abdominal pressure

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua-Yu; Liu, Dong; Tang, Hao; Sun, Shi-Jin; Ai, Shan-Mu; Yang, Wen-Qun; Jiang, Dong-Po; Zhang, Lian-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of non-elastic/elastic abdominal binders on intra-vesical pressure (IVP), physiological functions, and clinical outcomes in laparotomy patients at the perioperative stage. Methods: This prospective study was conducted from May to October 2014 at the Trauma Surgery Department, Daping Hospital, Chongqing, China. Laparotomy patients were randomly divided into non-elastic abdominal binder group (28 patients), and elastic abdominal binder group (29 patients). Binders were applied for 14 days following the operation, or until discharge. Demographic information, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) scores (prior to the operation, on the first day after operation, the day IVP measurement was stopped, and one day before discharge), and outcomes were recorded. The IVP was measured before the operation to postoperative day 7. Results: There were no significant differences in the demographic information, outcomes, SOFA or APACHE-II scores between the 2 groups. Initial out-of-bed mobilization occurred earlier in the elastic binder group (3.2 ± 2.0 versus 5.0 ± 3.7 days, p=0.028). A greater increase in IVP was observed in the non-elastic binder group than in the elastic binder group (2.9 ± 1.1 versus 1.1 ± 0.7 mm Hg, p=0.000). Conclusion: Elastic binders have relatively little effect on IVP and are more helpful at promoting postoperative recovery than non-elastic binders. Therefore, elastic binders are more suitable for clinical use. PMID:26739977

  20. Renal replacement therapy with net fluid removal lowers intra-abdominal pressure and volumetric indices in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effects of renal replacement therapy (RRT) with fluid removal on intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). The global end-diastolic volume index (GEDVI) and extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) can easily be measured bedside by transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD). The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes in IAP, GEDVI and EVLWI in critically ill patients receiving slow extended daily dialysis (SLEDD) or continuous venovenous haemofiltration (CVVH) with the intention of net fluid removal. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study in ICU patients who were treated with SLEDD or CVVH and in whom IAP was also measured, and RRT sessions were excluded when the dose of vasoactive medication needed to be changed between the pre- and post-dialysis TPTD measurements and when net fluid loss did not exceed 500 ml. The TPTD measurements were performed within 2 h before and after SLEDD; in case of CVVH, before and after an interval of 12 h. Results We studied 25 consecutive dialysis sessions in nine patients with acute renal failure and cardiogenic or non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. The GEDVI and EVLWI values before dialysis were 877 ml/m² and 14 ml/kg, respectively. Average net ultrafiltration per session was 3.6 l, with a net fluid loss 1.9 l. The GEDVI decreased significantly during dialysis, but not more than 47.8 ml/m² (p = 0.008), as also did the EVLWI with 1 ml/kg (p = 0.03). The IAP decreased significantly from 12 to 10.5 mmHg (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Net fluid removal by SLEDD or CVVH in the range observed in this study decreased IAP, GEDVI and EVLWI in critically ill patients although EVLWI reduction was modest. PMID:23282287

  1. High Intra-abdominal Pressure Enhances the Penetration and Antitumor Effect of Intraperitoneal Cisplatin on Experimental Peritoneal Carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Esquis, Philippe; Consolo, David; Magnin, Guy; Pointaire, Philippe; Moretto, Philippe; Ynsa, Maria Dolores; Beltramo, Jean-Luc; Drogoul, Carole; Simonet, Michel; Benoit, Laurent; Rat, Patrick; Chauffert, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) on the intratumoral accumulation and the antitumor effect of intraperitoneal cisplatin in rats with advanced peritoneal carcinomatosis. To evaluate the tolerance of IAP in pigs, as it is a large animal with a body size equivalent to humans. Summary Background Data: To investigate if an active convection, driven by a positive IAP, increases cisplatin penetration and antitumor effectiveness in a model of advanced peritoneal carcinomatosis in rats. Experimental Design: BDIX rats with macroscopic peritoneal tumors received cisplatin administered as intravenous injection (IV), conventional intraperitoneal injection (IP), or sustained intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin given in a large volume of solvent for maintaining IAP for 1 hour. Platinum tissue concentration was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and platinum distribution into the tumor nodules was assessed by the particular-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) method. The antitumor effect was assessed in a survival experiment. The hemodynamic, local, and systemic tolerance of IAP, with or without cisplatin, was evaluated in Large White pigs. Results: The maximum tolerated IAP was 22 mm Hg for 1 hour in nonventilated rats. IAP, in comparison with IV or conventional IP injections, resulted in the increased concentration and depth of diffusion of platinum into diaphragm and peritoneal tumor nodules. Consequently, IAP treatment induced an extended survival of rats treated at an advanced stage of carcinomatosis. In 7 50- to 70-kg ventilated pigs, a 40-mm Hg IAP was well tolerated when maintained stable for 2 hours. Renal failure occurred in pigs receiving a total dose of 200 and 400 mg of cisplatin with IAP, but a dose of 100 mg was well tolerated. Conclusions: Intraperitoneal chemotherapy with increased IAP, in comparison with conventional IP or IV chemotherapy, improved the tumor accumulation and the antitumor effect of

  2. Do obese but metabolically normal women differ in intra-abdominal fat and physical activity levels from those with the expected metabolic abnormalities? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Obesity remains a major public health problem, associated with a cluster of metabolic abnormalities. However, individuals exist who are very obese but have normal metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent differences in metabolic health in very obese women are explained by differences in body fat distribution, insulin resistance and level of physical activity. Methods This was a cross-sectional pilot study of 39 obese women (age: 28-64 yrs, BMI: 31-67 kg/m2) recruited from community settings. Women were defined as 'metabolically normal' on the basis of blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure. Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to determine body fat distribution. Detailed lifestyle and metabolic profiles of participants were obtained. Results Women with a healthy metabolic profile had lower intra-abdominal fat volume (geometric mean 4.78 l [95% CIs 3.99-5.73] vs 6.96 l [5.82-8.32]) and less insulin resistance (HOMA 3.41 [2.62-4.44] vs 6.67 [5.02-8.86]) than those with an abnormality. The groups did not differ in abdominal subcutaneous fat volume (19.6 l [16.9-22.7] vs 20.6 [17.6-23.9]). A higher proportion of those with a healthy compared to a less healthy metabolic profile met current physical activity guidelines (70% [95% CIs 55.8-84.2] vs 25% [11.6-38.4]). Intra-abdominal fat, insulin resistance and physical activity make independent contributions to metabolic status in very obese women, but explain only around a third of the variance. Conclusion A sub-group of women exists who are metabolically normal despite being very obese. Differences in fat distribution, insulin resistance, and physical activity level are associated with metabolic differences in these women, but account only partially for these differences. Future work should focus on strategies to identify those obese individuals most at risk of the negative metabolic consequences of obesity and on identifying other factors that contribute to metabolic status

  3. Relationship between intra-abdominal pressure and vaginal wall movements during Valsalva in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse: technique development and early observations

    PubMed Central

    Spahlinger, D. M.; Newcomb, L.; Ashton-Miller, J. A.; DeLancey, J. O. L.; Chen, Luyun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop and test a method for measuring the relationship between the rise in intra-abdominal pressure and sagittal plane movements of the anterior and posterior vaginal walls during Valsalva in a pilot sample of women with and without prolapse. Methods Mid-sagittal MRI images were obtained during Valsalva while changes in intra-abdominal pressure were measured via a bladder catheter in 5 women with cystocele, 5 women with rectocele, and 5 controls. The regional compliance of the anterior and posterior vagina wall support systems were estimated from the ratio of displacement (mm) of equidistant points along the anterior and posterior vaginal walls to intra-abdominal pressure rise (mmHg). Results The compliance of both anterior and posterior vaginal wall support systems varied along different regions of vaginal wall for all three groups, with the highest compliance found near the vaginal apex and the lowest near the introitus. Women with cystocele had more compliant anterior and posterior vaginal wall support systems than women with rectocele. The movement direction differs between cystocele and rectocele. In cystocele, the anterior vaginal wall moves mostly toward the vaginal orifice in the upper vagina, but in a ventral direction in the lower vagina. In rectocele, the direction of the posterior vaginal wall movement is generally toward the vaginal orifice. Conclusions Movement of the vaginal wall and compliance of its support is quantifiable and was found to vary along the length of the vagina. Compliance was greatest in the upper vagina of all groups. Women with cystocele demonstrated the most compliant vaginal wall support. PMID:24474605

  4. The biological effects of higher and lower positive end-expiratory pressure in pulmonary and extrapulmonary acute lung injury with intra-abdominal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mechanical ventilation with high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has been used in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), but the role of PEEP in minimizing lung injury remains controversial. We hypothesized that in the presence of acute lung injury (ALI) with IAH: 1) higher PEEP levels improve pulmonary morphofunction and minimize lung injury; and 2) the biological effects of higher PEEP are more effective in extrapulmonary (exp) than pulmonary (p) ALI. Methods In 48 adult male Wistar rats, ALIp and ALIexp were induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide intratracheally and intraperitoneally, respectively. After 24 hours, animals were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated (tidal volume of 6 mL/kg). IAH (15 mmHg) was induced and rats randomly assigned to PEEP of 5 (PEEP5), 7 (PEEP7) or 10 (PEEP10) cmH2O for 1 hour. Results In both ALIp and ALIexp, higher PEEP levels improved oxygenation. PEEP10 increased alveolar hyperinflation and epithelial cell damage compared to PEEP5, independent of ALI etiology. In ALIp, PEEP7 and PEEP10 increased lung elastance compared to PEEP5 (4.3 ± 0.7 and 4.3 ± 0.9 versus 3.1 ± 0.3 cmH2O/mL, respectively, P <0.01), without changes in alveolar collapse, interleukin-6, caspase-3, type III procollagen, receptor for advanced glycation end-products, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expressions. Moreover, PEEP10 increased diaphragmatic injury compared to PEEP5. In ALIexp, PEEP7 decreased lung elastance and alveolar collapse compared to PEEP5 (2.3 ± 0.5 versus 3.6 ± 0.7 cmH2O/mL, P <0.02, and 27.2 (24.7 to 36.8) versus 44.2 (39.7 to 56.9)%, P <0.05, respectively), while PEEP7 and PEEP10 increased interleukin-6 and type III procollagen expressions, as well as type II epithelial cell damage compared to PEEP5. Conclusions In the current models of ALI with IAH, in contrast to our primary hypothesis, higher PEEP is more effective in

  5. Quantifying the Amount of Bleeding and Associated Changes in Intra-Abdominal Pressure and Mean Airway Pressure in Patients Undergoing Lumbar Fixation Surgeries: A Comparison of Three Positioning Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vikas; Abraham, Mary; Punetha, Pankaj; Bundela, Yashpal

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Prospective, randomised controlled, single centre study of 45 patients posted for two level lumbar fixation surgery in the prone position. Purpose To compare intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), mean airway pressure mean airway pressure and blood loss during the spine surgery in prone position using three different positioning systems. Overview of Literature Studies have correlated IAP with the amount of perioperative bleeding. However, IAP and airway pressures while assessing the bleeding comparing two or more prone positioning systems are unclear. Methods This prospective study was conducted on a cohort of 45 patients scheduled for two-level lumbar fixation. Patients were randomly allocated to a spine table, Wilson's frame, and thermomodulated pads. Bladder pressure as an indicator of IAP, mean and peak airway pressures, and blood loss were monitored. Results IAP increased whenever patient position was changed to prone .The increase in pressure was more in the Wilson's frame group but was statistically significant only on prolonged positioning. Adopting the prone position always increased the mean airway pressure, but the increased was significant only in the Wilson's frame group. Mean airway pressure decreased in the spine table group and was statistically significant. The blood loss in the spine table group was significantly less as compared to the other groups. Conclusions Positioning on a spine table results in less blood loss and low mean airway pressure. The Wilson's frame results in high IAP, increased mean airway pressure, and more blood loss. The thermomodulated frame increases mean airway pressure and produces a moderate increase in IAP and airway pressure. PMID:27114757

  6. Cardiopulmonary monitoring in intra-abdominal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Malbrain, Manu L N G; Ameloot, Koen; Gillebert, Carl; Cheatham, Michael L

    2011-07-01

    Cardiopulmonary dysfunction and failure are commonly encountered in the patient with intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) or abdominal compartment syndrome. Accurate assessment and optimization of preload, contractility, and afterload in conjunction with appropriate goal-directed resuscitation and assessment of fluid responsiveness are essential to restore end-organ perfusion. In patients with IAH, the traditional "barometric" preload indicators such as pulmonary artery occlusion pressure and central venous pressure are erroneously increased. Volumetric monitoring techniques have been proven to be superior in directing the appropriate resuscitation together with targeted abdominal perfusion pressure. If such limitations are not recognized, misinterpretation of the patient's cardiac status is likely, resulting in inappropriate and potentially detrimental therapy. IAH also markedly affects the mechanical properties of the chest wall and consequently also the respiratory function. Altered mechanical properties of the chest wall may limit ventilation, influence the work of breathing, affect the interaction between the respiratory muscles, hasten the development of respiratory failure, and interfere with gas exchange. Pulmonary monitoring is important to understand the relationships between intra-abdominal pressure and chest wall mechanics and the impact of IAH on ventilator-induced lung injury, lung distention, recruitment, and lung edema. PMID:21944448

  7. Change in Intra-Abdominal Fat Predicts the Risk of Hypertension in Japanese Americans.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Catherine A; Kahn, Steven E; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Leonetti, Donna L; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-07-01

    In Japanese Americans, intra-abdominal fat area measured by computed tomography is positively associated with the prevalence and incidence of hypertension. Evidence in other populations suggests that other fat areas may be protective. We sought to determine whether a change in specific fat depots predicts the development of hypertension. We prospectively followed up 286 subjects (mean age, 49.5 years; 50.4% men) from the Japanese American Community Diabetes Study for 10 years. At baseline, subjects did not have hypertension (defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg) and were not taking blood pressure or glucose-lowering medications. Mid-thigh subcutaneous fat area, abdominal subcutaneous fat area, and intra-abdominal fat area were directly measured by computed tomography at baseline and 5 years. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of incident hypertension over 10 years in relation to a 5-year change in fat area. The relative odds of developing hypertension for a 5-year increase in intra-abdominal fat was 1.74 (95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.37), after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, baseline intra-abdominal fat, alcohol use, smoking status, and weekly exercise energy expenditure. This relationship remained significant when adjusted for baseline fasting insulin and 2-hour glucose levels or for diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes mellitus classification. There were no significant associations between baseline and change in thigh or abdominal subcutaneous fat areas and incident hypertension. In conclusion, in this cohort of Japanese Americans, the risk of developing hypertension is related to the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat rather than the accrual of subcutaneous fat in either the thigh or the abdominal areas.

  8. Change in Intra-Abdominal Fat Predicts the Risk of Hypertension in Japanese Americans.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Catherine A; Kahn, Steven E; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Leonetti, Donna L; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-07-01

    In Japanese Americans, intra-abdominal fat area measured by computed tomography is positively associated with the prevalence and incidence of hypertension. Evidence in other populations suggests that other fat areas may be protective. We sought to determine whether a change in specific fat depots predicts the development of hypertension. We prospectively followed up 286 subjects (mean age, 49.5 years; 50.4% men) from the Japanese American Community Diabetes Study for 10 years. At baseline, subjects did not have hypertension (defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg) and were not taking blood pressure or glucose-lowering medications. Mid-thigh subcutaneous fat area, abdominal subcutaneous fat area, and intra-abdominal fat area were directly measured by computed tomography at baseline and 5 years. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of incident hypertension over 10 years in relation to a 5-year change in fat area. The relative odds of developing hypertension for a 5-year increase in intra-abdominal fat was 1.74 (95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.37), after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, baseline intra-abdominal fat, alcohol use, smoking status, and weekly exercise energy expenditure. This relationship remained significant when adjusted for baseline fasting insulin and 2-hour glucose levels or for diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes mellitus classification. There were no significant associations between baseline and change in thigh or abdominal subcutaneous fat areas and incident hypertension. In conclusion, in this cohort of Japanese Americans, the risk of developing hypertension is related to the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat rather than the accrual of subcutaneous fat in either the thigh or the abdominal areas. PMID:26063668

  9. Intra-abdominal pressure measurement using the FoleyManometer does not increase the risk for urinary tract infection in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) monitoring using the FoleyManometer (Holtech Medical, Charlottenlund, Denmark) increases the risk of urinary tract infection (UTI). Design A retrospective database review was conducted. Setting The study was conducted in the 12-bed medical intensive care unit of ZNA Stuivenberg Hospital (Antwerp, Belgium), a tertiary hospital. Patients There were 5,890 patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit of which 1,097 patients underwent intrabladder pressure (IBP) monitoring as estimate for IAP. Interventions Crude and adjusted UTI rates were compared among patients undergoing IAP measurements with three different intrabladder methods: a modified homemade technique, a FoleyManometer with 35 ml reservoir, and a FoleyManometer low volume (FoleyManometerLV) with less than 10 ml priming volume. Measurements and results Four consecutive time periods of 24 months were defined and compared with regard to IAP measurement: period 1 (2000-2001), during which IAP monitoring was not used routinely (which serves as a control group), was compared with period 2 (2002-2003), using a modified homemade technique; period 3 (2004-2005), introducing the FoleyManometer; and finally period 4 (2006-2007), in which the FoleyManometerLV was introduced. The incidence of IBP measurements increased from 1.4% in period 1 to 45.4% in period 4 (p < 0.001). At the same time, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (version 2) (SAPS-II) increased significantly from 24.4 ± 21.5 to 34.9 ± 18.7 (p < 0.001) together with the percentage of ventilated patients from 18.6% to 40.7% (p < 0.001). In total, 1,097 patients had IAP measurements via the bladder. The UTI rates were adjusted for disease severity by multiplying each crude rate with the ratio of control versus study patient SAPS-II probability of mortality. Crude and adjusted UTI rates per 1,000 catheter days (CD) were on average 16.1 and 12.8/1,000 CD

  10. Pre-eclampsia renamed and reframed: Intra-abdominal hypertension in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sawchuck, Diane J; Wittmann, Bernd K

    2014-11-01

    This hypothesis proposes pre-eclampsia is caused by intra-abdominal hypertension in pregnancy. Sustained or increasing intra-abdominal pressure ⩾12mmHg causes impaired venous return to the heart, systemic vascular resistance, ischemia reperfusion injury, intestinal permeability, translocation of lipopolysaccharide endotoxin to the liver, cytotoxic immune response, systemic inflammatory response, pressure transmission to thoracic and intra-cranial compartments, and multi-organ dysfunction. This hypothesis is predicated on Pascal's law, evidence founded in the intra-abdominal hypertension literature, and the adapted equation ΔIAP-P=ΔIAVF/Cab, where ΔIAP-P=change in intra-abdominal pressure in pregnancy, ΔIAVF=change in intra-abdominal vector force (volume and force direction) and Cab=abdominal compliance. Factors causing increased intra-abdominal pressure in pregnancy include: progressive uterine expansion, obstetrical factors that increase intra-uterine volume excessively or acutely, maternal anthropometric measurements that affect intra-abdominal pressure thresholds, maternal postures that increase abdominal force direction, abdominal compliance that is decreased, diminished with advancing gestation, or has reached maximum expansion, habitation at high altitude, and rapid drops in barometric pressure. We postulate that the threshold for lipopolysaccharide translocation depends on the magnitude of intra-abdominal pressure, the intestinal microbiome complex, and the degree of intestinal permeability. We advance that delivery cures pre-eclampsia through the mechanism of abdominal decompression.

  11. Pre-eclampsia renamed and reframed: Intra-abdominal hypertension in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sawchuck, Diane J; Wittmann, Bernd K

    2014-11-01

    This hypothesis proposes pre-eclampsia is caused by intra-abdominal hypertension in pregnancy. Sustained or increasing intra-abdominal pressure ⩾12mmHg causes impaired venous return to the heart, systemic vascular resistance, ischemia reperfusion injury, intestinal permeability, translocation of lipopolysaccharide endotoxin to the liver, cytotoxic immune response, systemic inflammatory response, pressure transmission to thoracic and intra-cranial compartments, and multi-organ dysfunction. This hypothesis is predicated on Pascal's law, evidence founded in the intra-abdominal hypertension literature, and the adapted equation ΔIAP-P=ΔIAVF/Cab, where ΔIAP-P=change in intra-abdominal pressure in pregnancy, ΔIAVF=change in intra-abdominal vector force (volume and force direction) and Cab=abdominal compliance. Factors causing increased intra-abdominal pressure in pregnancy include: progressive uterine expansion, obstetrical factors that increase intra-uterine volume excessively or acutely, maternal anthropometric measurements that affect intra-abdominal pressure thresholds, maternal postures that increase abdominal force direction, abdominal compliance that is decreased, diminished with advancing gestation, or has reached maximum expansion, habitation at high altitude, and rapid drops in barometric pressure. We postulate that the threshold for lipopolysaccharide translocation depends on the magnitude of intra-abdominal pressure, the intestinal microbiome complex, and the degree of intestinal permeability. We advance that delivery cures pre-eclampsia through the mechanism of abdominal decompression. PMID:25189485

  12. The relationships between intra-abdominal echogenicity, cardiometabolic risk factors and physical performance in obese children.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ji Won; Lee, Nam-Gi; Kim, Hee-Jung; Cho, Hyo-Min; You, Joshua H

    2014-01-01

    While the abdominal adipose tissue has been identified as an important pathomarker for the cardiometabolic syndrome in adults, the relationships between the cardiometabolic risk factors and abdominal adipose morphology or physical performance levels have not been examined in children with obesity. Therefore, the specific aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between risk factors (BMI and physical activity levels and abdominal fat layers including subcutaneous, intra-abdominal preperitoneal and mesenteric fat thickness in children with obesity. 30 children with obesity (mean ± SD = 10.0 ± 4.5 yrs; 9 girls; BMI > 20) underwent physical performance (curl-ups, sit and reach, push-ups, and a 400-m run), ultrasound measurement of thickness of fat composition of the abdomen, blood pressure, oxygen consumption. Pearson correlation analysis showed significant correlations, ranging from -0.523- 0.898 between the intra-abdominal adipose tissue thickness, cardiometabolic risk factors (BMI, blood pressure, heart rate), and the curl-up physical performance test. In conclusion, the present study provides a compelling evidence that the intra-abdominal adipose tissue morphological characteristics were associated with BMI, physical performance, and most importantly cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure and heart rate), which eventually contribute to the development of cardiometabolic syndrome in adulthood.

  13. A focus on intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal infections are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in higher risk patients. Well defined evidence-based recommendations for intra-abdominal infections treatment are partially lacking because of the limited number of randomized-controlled trials. Factors consistently associated with poor outcomes in patients with intra-abdominal infections include increased illness severity, failed source control, inadequate empiric antimicrobial therapy and healthcare-acquired infection. Early prognostic evaluation of complicated intra-abdominal infections is important to select high-risk patients for more aggressive therapeutic procedures. The cornerstones in the management of complicated intra-abdominal infections are both source control and antibiotic therapy. The timing and the adequacy of source control are the most important issues in the management of intra-abdominal infections, because inadequate and late control of septic source may have a negative effect on the outcomes. Recent advances in interventional and more aggressive techniques could significantly decrease the morbidity and mortality of physiologically severe complicated intra-abdominal infections, even if these are still being debated and are yet not validated by limited prospective trials. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is nevertheless important in the overall management of intra-abdominal infections. Inappropriate antibiotic therapy may result in poor patient outcomes and in the appearance of bacterial resistance. Antimicrobial management is generally standardised and many regimens, either with monotherapy or combination therapy, have proven their efficacy. Routine coverage especially against Enterococci and candida spp is not always recommended, but can be useful in particular clinical conditions. A de escalation approach may be recommended in patients with specific risk factors for multidrug resistant infections such as

  14. Laparoscopic excision of intra-abdominal paragonimiasis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Young; Kang, Chang-Moo; Choi, Gi-Hong; Yang, Woo-Ick; Sim, Seo-Bo; Kwon, Ji-Eun; Kim, Kyung-Sik; Choi, Jin-Sub; Lee, Woo-Jung; Kim, Byong-Ro

    2007-12-01

    Lung fluke, Paragonimus westermani of Paragonimus species usually are accompanied by a persistent cough, hemoptysis, and chest pain. Extrapulmonary paragonimiasis caused by ectopic parasites in aberrant locations such as the abdominal wall, abdominal organs, and brain has been reported and the most commonly involved extrapulmonary organ is the brain. We present a case of 56-year-old male patient with intra-abdominal paragonimiasis who underwent laparoscopic excision of abdominal granuloma caused by parasite infection. An intra-abdominal mass associated with eosinophilia might be related to parasite infection. A laparoscopic approach is the most appropriate treatment modality in such benign abdominal pathology.

  15. [INFLUENCE OF THE INTRA-ABDOMINAL HYPERTENSION ON THE BLOOD COAGULATION SYSTEM (EXPERIMENTAL STUDY)].

    PubMed

    Turgunov, Y; Matyushko, D; Nurbekov, A; Kaliyeva, D; Alibekov, A

    2016-07-01

    The analysis of the influence of the intra-abdominal hypertension on the blood coagulation system by carrying out an experimental research with laboratory animals is presented in article. After simulating intra-abdominal hypertension with different degree and exposition we made the laboratory research of blood coagulation system (fibrinogen, PTI, SFMC, APTT) and ELISA research on the concentration of the modern marker of thrombozis - D-dimer. The results in article clearly demonstrate that there is a direct linear dependence of level of fibrinogen and SFMC on degree of intra-abdominal hypertension, and the multidirectional changes of indicators with increase of intra-abdominal hypertension duration - towards hypercoagulation for 3-12 hours, and then by 24 o'clock - in the opposite direction towards hypocoagulation. Perhaps, it is explained with development of organ dysfunction and a coagulopathy of consumption. Indicator D-dimer has also direct linear dependence on the intra-abdominal hypertension level with contents peak at 3 hour exposition, and at all intra-abdominal hypertension levels, more than 2-fold rise of D-dimer level is statistically significant. PMID:27661285

  16. 2013 WSES guidelines for management of intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high. The 2013 update of the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines for the management of intra-abdominal infections contains evidence-based recommendations for management of patients with intra-abdominal infections. PMID:23294512

  17. Effect of changes in intra-abdominal pressure on diameter, cross-sectional area, and distensibility of the lower esophageal sphincter of healthy dogs as determined by use of an endoscopic functional luminal imaging probe.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Philipp D; Pitt, Kathryn A; Steffey, Michele A; Culp, William T N; Kass, Philip H; Marks, Stanley L

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) on morphology and compliance of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) by use of impedance planimetry in healthy dogs and to quantify the effect of changes in IAP. ANIMALS 7 healthy, purpose-bred sexually intact male hound-cross dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized, and cross-sectional area (CSA), minimal diameter (MD), LES length, LES volume, and distensibility index (DI) of the LES were evaluated by use of an endoscopic functional luminal imaging probe. For each dog, measurements were obtained before (baseline) and after creation of a pneumoperitoneum at an IAP of 4, 8, and 15 mm Hg. Order of the IAPs was determined by use of a randomization software program. RESULTS CSA and MD at 4 and 8 mm Hg were not significantly different from baseline measurements; however, CSA and MD at 15 mm Hg were both significantly greater than baseline measurements. The LES length and LES volume did not differ significantly from baseline measurements at any IAP. The DI differed inconsistently from the baseline measurement but was not substantially affected by IAP. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Pneumoperitoneum created with an IAP of 4 or 8 mm Hg did not significantly alter LES morphology in healthy dogs. Pneumoperitoneum at an IAP of 15 mm Hg caused a significant increase in CSA and MD of the LES. Compliance of the LES as measured by the DI was not greatly altered by pneumoperitoneum at an IAP of up to 15 mm Hg. PMID:27463542

  18. Examinations of ascites from prophylactic drains can predict intra-abdominal infections after living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Yukihiro; Kawano, Youichi; Urahashi, Taizen; Ihara, Yoshiyuki; Wakiya, Taiichi; Okada, Noriki; Yamada, Naoya; Hirata, Yuta; Tashiro, Masahisa; Mizuta, Koichi

    2015-09-01

    Studies suggest that prophylactic intra-abdominal drains are unnecessary for cadaveric liver transplantation using whole liver grafts because there is no benefit from drainage. However, no studies have investigated on the necessity of prophylactic drains after LDLT using split-liver grafts or reduced-liver grafts, which may present a high risk of post-transplant intra-abdominal infections. This retrospective study investigated whether the ascitic data on POD 5 after LDLT can predict intra-abdominal infections and on the post-transplant management of prophylactic drains. Between March 2008 and March 2013, 90 LDLTs were performed. We assessed the number of ascitic cells, biochemical examinations, and cultivation tests at POD1 and POD5. The incidence rates of post-transplant intra-abdominal infections were 24.4%. The multivariate analysis showed that left lobe and S2 monosegment grafts were a significant risk factor for intra-abdominal infections (p = 0.006). The patients with intra-abdominal infections had significantly higher acsitic LDH levels and the positive rate of ascitic culture at POD5 in comparison with patients without infections (p < 0.001 and p = 0.014, respectively). LDLT using left lobe and S2 monosegment grafts yields a high risk for post-transplant intra-abdominal infections, and ascitic LDH and cultivation tests at POD5 via prophylactic drains can predict intra-abdominal infections. PMID:26152831

  19. Mechanical Intestinal Obstruction in a Porcine Model: Effects of Intra-Abdominal Hypertension. A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Margallo, F. M.; Latorre, R.; López-Albors, O.; Wise, R.; Malbrain, M. L. N. G.; Castellanos, G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mechanical intestinal obstruction is a disorder associated with intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. As the large intestine intraluminal and intra-abdominal pressures are increased, so the patient’s risk for intestinal ischaemia. Previous studies have focused on hypoperfusion and bacterial translocation without considering the concomitant effect of intra-abdominal hypertension. The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a mechanical intestinal obstruction model in pigs similar to the human pathophysiology. Materials and Methods Fifteen pigs were divided into three groups: a control group (n = 5) and two groups of 5 pigs with intra-abdominal hypertension induced by mechanical intestinal obstruction. The intra-abdominal pressures of 20 mmHg were maintained for 2 and 5 hours respectively. Hemodynamic, respiratory and gastric intramucosal pH values, as well as blood tests were recorded every 30 min. Results Significant differences between the control and mechanical intestinal obstruction groups were noted. The mean arterial pressure, cardiac index, dynamic pulmonary compliance and abdominal perfusion pressure decreased. The systemic vascular resistance index, central venous pressure, pulse pressure variation, airway resistance and lactate increased within 2 hours from starting intra-abdominal hypertension (p<0.05). In addition, we observed increased values for the peak and plateau airway pressures, and low values of gastric intramucosal pH in the mechanical intestinal obstruction groups that were significant after 3 hours. Conclusion The mechanical intestinal obstruction model appears to adequately simulate the pathophysiology of intestinal obstruction that occurs in humans. Monitoring abdominal perfusion pressure, dynamic pulmonary compliance, gastric intramucosal pH and lactate values may provide insight in predicting the effects on endorgan function in patients with mechanical intestinal obstruction. PMID

  20. The effects of intra-abdominal hypertension on the secretory function of canine adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian; Fu, XiaoJuan; Chang, MingTao; Zhang, LiangChao; Chen, ZhiQiang; Zhang, LianYang

    2013-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) can damage multiple organ systems, but the explicit impact on the adrenal gland is unclear. To evaluate the effects of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) on the secretory function of the adrenal glands, we established canine models of IAH. By comparing morphology; hemodynamics; plasma cortisol, aldosterone, epinephrine, and norepinephrine concentrations; and the expression of IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α in adrenal gland tissue from these dogs, we found that hemodynamic instability occurred after IAH and that IAH increased the plasma cortisol, aldosterone, epinephrine, and norepinephrine concentrations. Higher IAPs resulted in more significant changes, and the above indicators gradually returned to normal 2 h after decompression. Compared with the sham-operated group, IAH significantly increased IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in adrenal tissue, with larger increases in the presence of higher IAPs. However, the concentrations of these markers remained higher than those in the sham-operated group despite their decrease after 2 h of decompression. Histopathological examination revealed congestion, red blood cell exudation, and neutrophil infiltration in the adrenal glands when IAP was elevated; these conditions became more significant with more severe IAH. These results suggest that the secretion of adrenal hormones and adrenal gland inflammation are positively correlated with IAP and that abdominal decompression effectively corrects adrenal gland function.

  1. Mild to moderate intra-abdominal hypertension: Does it matter?

    PubMed Central

    Maddison, Liivi; Starkopf, Joel; Reintam Blaser, Annika

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the epidemiology, pathophysiological consequences and impact on outcome of mild to moderate (Grade I to II) intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), points out possible pitfalls in available treatment recommendations and focuses on tasks for future research in the field. IAH occurs in about 40% of ICU patients. Whereas the prevalence of abdominal compartment syndrome seems to be decreasing, the prevalence of IAH does not. More than half of IAH patients present with IAH grade I and approximately a quarter with IAH grade II. However, most of the studies have addressed IAH as a yes-or-no variable, with little or no attention to different severity grades. Even mild IAH can have a negative impact on tissue perfusion and microcirculation and be associated with an increased length of stay and duration of mechanical ventilation. However, the impact of IAH and its different grades on mortality is controversial. The influence of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) on outcome most likely depends on patient and disease characteristics and the concomitant macro- and microcirculation. Therefore, management might differ significantly. Today, clear triggers for interventions in different patient groups with mild to moderate IAH are not defined. Further studies are needed to clarify the clinical importance of mild to moderate IAH identifying clear triggers for interventions to lower the IAP. PMID:26855899

  2. Intra-abdominal bronchogenic cyst: report of five cases.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kang Kook; Sung, Ji-Youn; Kim, Jung-Sun; Kim, Min Jung; Park, Hyojun; Choi, Dong Wook; Choi, Seong Ho; Heo, Jin Seok

    2012-05-01

    An intra-abdominal bronchogenic cyst (BC) is a very rare congenital anomaly caused by abnormal budding of the developing tracheobronchial tree. Intra-abdominal BCs are reported as retroperitoneal masses in most cases, many of which are located on the left side of the midline, the perigastric area, the left adrenal gland, or the superior body of the pancreas. Intra-abdominal BCs are frequently misdiagnosed due to the rarity, location, and variable cystic content. We report five patients with intra-abdominal BCs who underwent surgery in a single institution.

  3. Intra-abdominal abscess demonstrating an unusually large intra-abdominal pattern on an indium-111 leukocyte scan

    SciTech Connect

    Black, R.R.; Fernandez-Ulloa, M.; ter Penning, B.; Yellin, J.

    1988-12-01

    Indium-111 WBC imaging of a patient with occult septicemia revealed a large focal pattern of radiopharmaceutical distribution within the abdominal cavity at 24 hours post radiopharmaceutical administration. This finding was felt to represent a large intra-abdominal abscess. A five liter peritoneal abscess was found at surgery. This case illustrates an unusual presentation of an intra-abdominal abscess.

  4. Computed Tomography in the Diagnosis of Intra-abdominal Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Daffner, Richard H.; Halber, Michael D.; Morgan, Carlisle L.; Trought, William S.; Thompson, William M.; Rice, Reed P.

    1979-01-01

    The diagnosis of intra-abdominal abscess by radiographic means often relies on combining the results of several different imaging modalities. Computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be a safe, accurate and rapid diagnostic method of diagnosing these abscesses. Five patients with a variety of intra-abdominal abscesses are presented in whom the CT scan alone provided the correct diagnosis. The various imaging modalities available for the radiologic diagnosis of intra-abdominal abscess are described and are compared to CT diagnosis regarding their pitfalls. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig.5.C. PMID:758860

  5. Expression of ceramide-metabolising enzymes in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal human adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflammation and increased ceramide concentrations characterise adipose tissue of obese women with high liver fat content compared to equally obese women with normal liver fat content. The present study characterises enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue. Methods Pathways leading to increased ceramide concentrations in inflamed versus non-inflamed adipose tissue were investigated by quantifying expression levels of key enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism. Sphingomyelinases (sphingomyelin phosphodiesterases SMPD1-3) were investigated further using immunohistochemistry to establish their location within adipose tissue, and their mRNA expression levels were determined in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue from both non-obese and obese subject. Results Gene expression levels of sphingomyelinases, enzymes that hydrolyse sphingomyelin to ceramide, rather than enzymes involved in de novo ceramide synthesis, were higher in inflamed compared to non-inflamed adipose tissue of obese women (with high and normal liver fat contents respectively). Sphingomyelinases were localised to both macrophages and adipocytes, but also to blood vessels and to extracellular regions surrounding vessels within adipose tissue. Expression levels of SMPD3 mRNA correlated significantly with concentrations of different ceramides and sphingomyelins. In both non-obese and obese subjects SMPD3 mRNA levels were higher in the more inflamed intra-abdominal compared to the subcutaneous adipose tissue depot. Conclusions Generation of ceramides within adipose tissue as a result of sphingomyelinase action may contribute to inflammation in human adipose tissue. PMID:22974251

  6. Intra-Abdominal Infections Due to Comamonas kerstersii

    PubMed Central

    Almuzara, Marisa N.; Cittadini, Rosana; Vera Ocampo, Cecilia; Bakai, Romina; Traglia, German; Ramirez, Maria S.; del Castillo, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we report four cases of Comamonas kerstersii intra-abdominal infections representing the first report of human infections caused by this Comamonas species. In addition, our work demonstrates the association of C. kerstersii with peritonitis secondary to appendix rupture. PMID:23576541

  7. Keratinocyte Growth Factor Combined with a Sodium Hyaluronate Gel Inhibits Postoperative Intra-Abdominal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Guangbing; Zhou, Cancan; Wang, Guanghui; Fan, Lin; Wang, Kang; Li, Xuqi

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion is a very common complication after abdominal surgery. One clinical problem that remains to be solved is to identify an ideal strategy to prevent abdominal adhesions. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) has been proven to improve the proliferation of mesothelial cells, which may enhance fibrinolytic activity to suppress postoperative adhesions. This study investigated whether the combined administration of KGF and a sodium hyaluronate (HA) gel can prevent intra-abdominal adhesions by improving the orderly repair of the peritoneal mesothelial cells. The possible prevention mechanism was also explored. The cecum wall and its opposite parietal peritoneum were abraded after laparotomy to induce intra-abdominal adhesion formation. Animals were randomly allocated to receive topical application of HA, KGF, KGF + HA, or normal saline (Control). On postoperative day 7, the adhesion score was assessed with a visual scoring system. Masson’s trichrome staining, picrosirius red staining and hydroxyproline assays were used to assess the magnitude of adhesion and tissue fibrosis. Cytokeratin, a marker of the mesothelial cells, was detected by immunohistochemistry. The levels of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) in the abdominal fluid were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Western blotting was performed to examine the expression of the TGF-β1, fibrinogen and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) proteins in the rat peritoneal adhesion tissue. The combined administration of KGF and HA significantly reduced intra-abdominal adhesion formation and fibrin deposition and improved the orderly repair of the peritoneal mesothelial cells in the rat model. Furthermore, the combined administration of KGF and HA significantly increased the tPA levels but reduced the levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and TGF-β1 in the abdominal fluid. The expression

  8. Keratinocyte Growth Factor Combined with a Sodium Hyaluronate Gel Inhibits Postoperative Intra-Abdominal Adhesions.

    PubMed

    Wei, Guangbing; Zhou, Cancan; Wang, Guanghui; Fan, Lin; Wang, Kang; Li, Xuqi

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion is a very common complication after abdominal surgery. One clinical problem that remains to be solved is to identify an ideal strategy to prevent abdominal adhesions. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) has been proven to improve the proliferation of mesothelial cells, which may enhance fibrinolytic activity to suppress postoperative adhesions. This study investigated whether the combined administration of KGF and a sodium hyaluronate (HA) gel can prevent intra-abdominal adhesions by improving the orderly repair of the peritoneal mesothelial cells. The possible prevention mechanism was also explored. The cecum wall and its opposite parietal peritoneum were abraded after laparotomy to induce intra-abdominal adhesion formation. Animals were randomly allocated to receive topical application of HA, KGF, KGF + HA, or normal saline (Control). On postoperative day 7, the adhesion score was assessed with a visual scoring system. Masson's trichrome staining, picrosirius red staining and hydroxyproline assays were used to assess the magnitude of adhesion and tissue fibrosis. Cytokeratin, a marker of the mesothelial cells, was detected by immunohistochemistry. The levels of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) in the abdominal fluid were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Western blotting was performed to examine the expression of the TGF-β1, fibrinogen and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) proteins in the rat peritoneal adhesion tissue. The combined administration of KGF and HA significantly reduced intra-abdominal adhesion formation and fibrin deposition and improved the orderly repair of the peritoneal mesothelial cells in the rat model. Furthermore, the combined administration of KGF and HA significantly increased the tPA levels but reduced the levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and TGF-β1 in the abdominal fluid. The expression

  9. [Intra-Abdominal Germ Cell Tumor in Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome].

    PubMed

    Mishima, Takao; Harada, Jiro; Kawa, Gen; Sakurai, Takanori; Okada, Takuya

    2016-08-01

    A 46-year-old man was admitted to hospital presenting with a lower abdominal mass. The patient's testes were not palpable in the scrotum, and the levels of lactic dehydrogenase, α-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin were all elevated. Enhanced computed tomography revealed that the lumen of the mass had penetrated the prostate. Pathological analysis of biopsy tissue indicated that the mass was a seminoma. Residual tumor resection was performed after chemotherapy. On histological examination, the lumen proved to be a Mullerian structure. Our diagnosis was an intra-abdominal germ cell tumor and persistent Mullerian duct syndrome. PMID:27624113

  10. Iliopsoas Bursa-Hip Capsule Connection Leading to Intra-abdominal Fluid Extravasation.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Daniel R; Moya-Angeler, Joaquin; Sierra, Rafael J

    2015-11-01

    Intra-abdominal fluid extravasation is a rare complication of hip arthroscopy, with a reported incidence of 0.16%. Associated risk factors include recent acetabular fracture, extra-articular procedures, iliopsoas tenotomy, and high fluid pump pressure. These previously reported risk factors were not present in the 48-year-old woman reported in this article. The patient elected to undergo hip arthroscopy for mechanical hip pain that persisted for 18 months. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a "normal variant communication [between] the iliopsoas bursa" and the hip capsule. Postoperative examination showed a tense, distended abdomen. After extubation, the patient had severe abdominal and pleuritic chest pain. Postoperative imaging showed significant retro- and intraperitoneal fluid extravasation. Ultrasound-guided paracentesis was used to drain the intraperitoneal fluid collection, with a significant decrease in pain. The patient returned home less than 24 hours later, with no further complications. The authors believe that the preexisting connection between the hip capsule and the iliopsoas bursa allowed the arthroscopy fluid to easily track proximally within the tendon sheath, despite relatively low fluid pump pressure. Surgeons should be aware of this possible "normal variant communication," which may be considered a relative contraindication to hip arthroscopy, especially in patients with arthritic changes on preoperative imaging. This must be addressed with the patient preoperatively, with proper counseling and patient selection. If arthroscopy is pursued, the surgical and anesthesia teams must be vigilant for signs of intra-abdominal fluid extravasation and must be prepared to treat this potentially serious complication.

  11. Morphology-Independent Virulence of Candida Species during Polymicrobial Intra-abdominal Infections with Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Nash, Evelyn E; Peters, Brian M; Fidel, Paul L; Noverr, Mairi C

    2016-01-01

    Intra-abdominal polymicrobial infections cause significant morbidity and mortality. An experimental mouse model of Candida albicans-Staphylococcus aureus intra-abdominal infection (IAI) results in 100% mortality by 48 to 72 h postinoculation, while monomicrobial infections are avirulent. Mortality is associated with robust local and systemic inflammation without a requirement for C. albicans morphogenesis. However, the contribution of virulence factors coregulated during the yeast-to-hypha transition is unknown. This also raised the question of whether other Candida species that are unable to form hyphae are as virulent as C. albicans during polymicrobial IAI. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of non-albicans Candida (NAC) species with various morphologies and C. albicans transcription factor mutants (efg1/efg1 and cph1/cph1) to induce synergistic mortality and the accompanying inflammation. Results showed that S. aureus coinoculated with C. krusei or C. tropicalis was highly lethal, similar to C. albicans, while S. aureus-C. dubliniensis, S. aureus-C. parapsilosis, and S. aureus-C. glabrata coinoculations resulted in little to no mortality. Local and systemic interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels were significantly elevated during symptomatic and/or lethal coinfections, and hypothermia strongly correlated with mortality. Coinoculation with C. albicans strains deficient in the transcription factor Efg1 but not Cph1 reversed the lethal outcome. These results support previous findings and demonstrate that select Candida species, without reference to any morphological requirement, induce synergistic mortality, with IL-6 and PGE2 acting as key inflammatory factors. Mechanistically, signaling pathways controlled by Efg1 are critical for the ability of C. albicans to induce mortality from an intra-abdominal polymicrobial infection. PMID:26483410

  12. Hypothermia Increases Tissue Plasminogen Activator Expression and Decreases Post-Operative Intra-Abdominal Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chien-Chang; Wang, Hsuan-Mao; Chou, Tzung-Hsin; Wu, Meng-Che; Hsueh, Kuang-Lung; Chen, Shyr-Chyr

    2016-01-01

    Background Therapeutic hypothermia during operation decreases postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion formation. We sought to determine the most appropriate duration of hypothermia, and whether hypothermia affects the expression of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Methods 80 male BALB/c mice weighing 25–30 g are randomized into one of five groups: adhesion model with infusion of 15°C saline for 15 minutes (A); 30 minutes (B); 45 minute (C); adhesion model without infusion of cold saline (D); and sham operation without infusion of cold saline (E). Adhesion scores and tPA levels in the peritoneum fluid levels were analyzed on postoperative days 1, 7, and 14. Results On day 14, the cold saline infusion groups (A, B, and C) had lower adhesion scores than the without infusion of cold saline group (D). However, only group B (cold saline infusion for 30 minutes) had a significantly lower adhesion scores than group D. Also, group B was found to have 3.4 fold, 2.3 fold, and 2.2 fold higher levels of tPA than group D on days 1, 7, and 14 respectively. Conclusions Our results suggest that cold saline infusion for 30 minutes was the optimum duration to decrease postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion formation. The decrease in the adhesion formations could be partly due to an increase in the level of tPA. PMID:27583464

  13. Fatal case of inhalational anthrax mimicking intra-abdominal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Quintiliani, Richard; Quintiliani, Richard

    2002-05-01

    In this report, we discuss the second fatal case of inhalational anthrax related to the use of Bacillus anthracis spores as a biological weapon in the United States. This case highlights two of the major characteristics of inhalational anthrax: the fulminating nature of the infection and the difficulty of promptly establishing a diagnosis. In the patient discussed here, gastrointestinal symptoms and findings were so impressive that the patient was thought to have a primary intra-abdominal condition. In the current situation, in which bioterrorism is a real threat, any patient presenting with a flulike or gastrointestinal illness should be queried about their occupation. Anyone with evidence of systemic disease who resides or works in a geographical region where anthrax cases are occurring should be treated until the diagnosis of anthrax is excluded. In the United States, the group that is at high risk for anthrax has shifted from rural farm workers to city dwellers, especially postal workers and public figures. PMID:12071107

  14. Serum procalcitonin in the diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal infections.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Richard R; Lemonovich, Tracy L

    2012-02-01

    The biomarker procalcitonin (PCT) has been used to diagnose and monitor a number of clinically significant infections. Serum levels of PCT are often increased in the presence of bacterial and fungal infections but not viral infections or noninfectious inflammation. Intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) are serious conditions that pose difficult challenges to physicians and the healthcare system. Researchers have evaluated PCT in the management of IAIs, both for diagnosis and for guiding antibiotic therapy. The studies have produced mixed results, leading to controversy on the utility of PCT in IAIs. PCT appears to be most useful in diagnosing postoperative infections and necrotizing pancreatitis. This review aims to summarize these data, explore the pathophysiology of PCT in sepsis from IAIs, discuss the strengths and weaknesses of PCT monitoring in IAIs, and provide guidance for the interpretation of PCT levels.

  15. A Giant Intra Abdominal Mass Mimicking Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Rare Presentation of Renal Angiomyolipoma.

    PubMed

    Haque, M E; Rahman, M A; Kaisar, I; Islam, M F; Salam, M A

    2016-07-01

    Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a benign tumor commonly found in kidney than extra renal sites. Most of the small renal angiomyolipomas are diagnosed incidentally on ultrasound and other imaging studies. Some renal AMLs present clinically when become very big, giant renal angiomyolipoma. Although almost all cases are benign, a relatively rare variant of epitheloid angiomyolipoma has got malignant potential and can even metastasize. Ultrasonography, CT and MRI scan are usually used for diagnosis of angiomyolipoma with high level of accuracy; even though some lesions may be confused as renal cell carcinoma on imaging studies. Here, a 48 year old man presented with a large intra-abdominal mass preoperatively diagnosed as a case of right renal cell carcinoma and radical nephrectomy was performed. Histopathology revealed epitheloid angiomyolipoma (EAML). PMID:27612907

  16. Mesenteric cysts and intra-abdominal cystic lymphangiomas.

    PubMed

    Takiff, H; Calabria, R; Yin, L; Stabile, B E

    1985-11-01

    Although mesenteric cysts and intra-abdominal cystic lymphangiomas are uncommon and clinically confusing lesions, histologic and ultrastructural evidence suggests that they are pathologically distinct. Differentiation of these lesions is important since lymphangiomas may follow a proliferative and invasive course. Of 28 cases documented at laparotomy, histologically eight patients (29%) had cystic lymphangiomas and 20 patients (71%) had mesenteric cysts. Lymphangioma was found to be exclusively a disease of childhood and young adulthood (mean age, 10 years); mesenteric cyst was found in all age groups (mean age, 44 years), and two thirds of these patients were over 40 years old. Patients with lymphangiomas more frequently were male (75% vs 30%), symptomatic (88% vs 35%), and had ascites (50% vs 0%) and larger lesions (mean, 8.8 vs 4.7 cm) when compared with patients with mesenteric cysts. Complete excision was possible in all but four patients, with no operative deaths and a postoperative complication rate of 7%. After a mean follow-up period of four years, there were no recurrences among 16 patients who had undergone complete excision.

  17. Percutaneous Sclerotherapy Using Acetic Acid After Failure of Alcohol Ablation in an Intra-abdominal Lymphangioma

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang Woo Cha, In Ho; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Hong, Suk Joo; Park, Cheol Min; Chung, Hwan Hoon

    2004-09-15

    We report a case of percutaneous sclerotherapy using acetic acid in a 22-year-old woman with an intra-abdominal cystic lymphangioma who was not successfully treated with ethanol despite multiple trials.

  18. The use of anti-gravity suits for the control of critical intra-abdominal hemmorhage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kravik, S.; Landmark, K.

    1980-01-01

    The history and use as well as the physiology of the use of antigravity suits for the control of critical intra-abdominal hemorrhages is reviewed. The use of this suit is highly recommended, especially for first aid.

  19. Intra-abdominal fat is related to metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fat liver disease in obese youth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown an association between adiposity, especially intra-abdominal adipose tissue, and hemodynamic/metabolic comorbidities in adults, however it is not clear in pediatric population. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and components of metabolic syndrome (MS) with values of intra-abdominal (IAAT) and subcutaneous (SCAT) adipose tissue in obese children and adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional study. Subjects: 182 obese sedentary children and adolescents (aged 6 to 16 y), identified by the body mass index (BMI). Measurements: Body composition and trunk fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry- DXA; lipid profile, blood pressure and pubertal stage were also assessed. NAFLD was classified as absent (0), mild (1), moderate (2) and severe (3), and intra-abdominal and subcutaneous abdominal fat thickness were identified by ultrasound. The MS was identified according to the cut offs proposed by World Health Organization adapted for children and adolescents. The chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables, and the binary logistic regression indicated the magnitude of the associations adjusted by potential cofounders (sex, age, maturation, NAFLD and HOMA-IR). Results Higher quartile of SCAT was associated with elevated blood pressure (p = 0.015), but not associated with NAFLD (p = 0.665). Higher IAAT was positively associated with increased dyslipidemia (p = 0.001), MS (p = 0.013) and NAFLD (p = 0.005). Intermediate (p = 0.007) and highest (p = 0.001) quartile of IAAT were also associated with dyslipidemia, independently of age, sex, maturation, NAFLD and HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance). Conclusion Obese children and adolescents, with higher IAAT are more prone to develop MS and NAFLD than those with higher values of SCAT, independent of possible confounding variables. PMID:23919592

  20. Successful medical management of intra-abdominal abscesses in 4 adult horses

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Dalia; Kelmer, Gal; Steinman, Amir; Sutton, Gail A.

    2013-01-01

    Four adult horses with large intra-abdominal abscesses, suspected to be complications of strangles, were treated with systemic antibiotics alone and made a full recovery. The 100% survival rate is significantly better than other reported survival rates. The median duration of treatment (35 days) was shorter than in most previous reports. This study suggests that penicillin G can be used for successful treatment of strangles associated intra-abdominal abscesses in horses. PMID:23904639

  1. Successful medical management of intra-abdominal abscesses in 4 adult horses.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Dalia; Kelmer, Gal; Steinman, Amir; Sutton, Gail A

    2013-02-01

    Four adult horses with large intra-abdominal abscesses, suspected to be complications of strangles, were treated with systemic antibiotics alone and made a full recovery. The 100% survival rate is significantly better than other reported survival rates. The median duration of treatment (35 days) was shorter than in most previous reports. This study suggests that penicillin G can be used for successful treatment of strangles associated intra-abdominal abscesses in horses.

  2. Dynamics of Albumin Synthetic Response to Intra-Abdominal Abscess in Patients with Gastrointestinal Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bo; Han, Gang; Chen, Yu; A, Jiye; Gu, Guosheng; Chen, Jun; Wang, Gefei; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Low serum albumin concentration is a predictor of failure of source control for intra-abdominal infection. However, data on dynamics of albumin synthesis in these patients and to what extent these changes contribute to hypoalbuminemia are relatively scarce. We investigated in a group of patients with gastrointestinal fistula the dynamic response of liver albumin synthesis to intra-abdominal abscess and how these related to hypoalbuminemia and circulating endocrine hormone profiles. Methods: Eight gastrointestinal fistula patients scheduled to undergo percutaneous abscess sump drainage were enrolled prospectively to measure albumin synthesis rates at different stages of the inflammatory response (immediately after diagnosis and 7 d following sump drainage when clinical signs of intra-abdominal sepsis had been eradicated). Eight age-, sex-, and body mass index–matched intestinal fistula patients were studied as control patients. Consecutive arterial blood samples were drawn during a primed-constant infusion (priming dose: 4 micromol·kg−1, infusion rate: 6 micromol·kg−1·min−1) to determine the incorporation rate of L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine directly into plasma albumin using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Results: Patients suffering from intra-abdominal infection had reduced plasma albumin and total plasma protein concentrations, compared with control patients. Albumin fractional synthesis rates in patients with intra-abdominal abscess were decreased, compared with those in the control group. When the source of infection was removed, albumin synthesis rates returned to control values, whereas albumin concentrations did not differ significantly from the corresponding concentrations in control subjects and patients with intra-abdominal abscess. Conclusion: Despite nutritional intervention, albumin synthesis rate is decreased in intestinal fistula patients with intra-abdominal abscess; albumin synthesis returns to

  3. A necessary evil? Intra-abdominal hypertension complicating burn patient resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective Severe burns are devastating injuries that result in considerable systemic inflammation and often require resuscitation with large volumes of fluid. The result of massive resuscitation is often raised intra-abdominal pressures leading to Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and the secondary abdominal compartment syndrome. The objective of this study is to conduct (1) a 10 year retrospective study to investigate epidemiological factors contributing to burn injuries in Alberta, (2) to characterize fluid management and incidence of IAH and ACS and (3) to review fluid resuscitation with a goal to identify optimal strategies for fluid resuscitation. Design A comprehensive 10-year retrospective review of burn injuries from 1999. Outcome Measures Age, sex, date, mechanism of injury, location of incident, on scene vitals and GCS, type of transport to hospital and routing, ISS, presenting vitals and GCS, diagnoses, procedures, complications, hospital LOS, ICU LOS, and events surrounding the injury. Results One hundred and seventy five patients (79.4% M, 20.6% F) were identified as having traumatic burn injuries with a mean ISS score of 21.8 (±8.3). The mean age was 41.6 (±17.5) (range 14-94) years. Nearly half (49.7%) of patients suffered their injuries at home, 17.7% were related to industrial incidents and 14.3% were MVC related. One hundred and ten patients required ICU admission. ICU LOS 18.5 (±8.8) days. Hospital LOS 38.0 (±37.8) days. The mean extent of burn injury was 31.4 (±20.9) % TBSA. Nearly half of the patients suffered inhalational injuries (mild 12.5%, moderate 13.7%, severe 9.1%). Thirty-nine (22.2%) of patients died from their injuries. Routine IAP monitoring began in September, 2005 with 15 of 28 patients having at least two IAP measurements. The mean IAP was 16.5 (±5.7) cm H2O (range: 1-40) with an average of 58 (±97) IAP measurements per patient. Those patients with IAP monitoring had an average TBSA of 35.0 (±16.0)%, ISS of 47.5 (±7

  4. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in pancreatitis, paediatrics, and trauma.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J; Ejike, Janeth C; Leppäniemi, Ari; De Keulenaer, Bart L; De Laet, Inneke; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Roberts, Derek J; Kimball, Edward; Ivatury, Rao; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2015-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is an important contributor to early organ dysfunction among patients with trauma and sepsis. However, the impact of increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) among pediatric, pregnant, non-septic medical patients, and those with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), obesity, and burns has been studied less extensively. The aim of this review is to outline the pathophysiologic implications and treatment options for IAH and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) for the above patient populations. We searched MEDLINE and PubMed to identify relevant studies. There is an increasing awareness of IAH in general medicine. The incidence of IAH and, to a lesser extent, ACS is high among patients with SAP. IAH should always be suspected and IAP measured routinely. In children, normal IAP in mechanically ventilated patients is approximately 7 ± 3 mm Hg. As an IAP of 10-15 mm Hg has been associated with organ damage in children, an IAP greater than 10 mm Hg should be considered IAH in these patients. Moreover, as ACS may occur in children at an IAP lower than 20 mm Hg, any elevation in IAP higher than 10 mm Hg associated with new organ dysfunction should be considered ACS in children until proven otherwise. Monitor IAP trends and be aware that specific interventions may need to be instituted at lower IAP than the current ACS definitions accommodate. Finally, IAH and ACS can occur both in abdominal trauma and extra-abdominal trauma patients. Early mechanical hemorrhage control and the avoidance of excessive fluid resuscitation are key elements in preventing IAH in trauma patients. IAH and ACS have been associated with many conditions beyond the general ICU patient. In adults and in children, the focus should be on the early recognition of IAH and the prevention of ACS. Patients at risk for IAH should be identified early during their treatment (with a low threshold to initiate IAP monitoring). Appropriate actions should be taken when IAP increases

  5. Laparoscopic Excision of Large Intra-Abdominal Cysts in Children: Needle Hitch Technique

    PubMed Central

    Antao, Brice; Tan, Jeffrey; Quinn, Feargal

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has both diagnostic and therapeutic advantages in the management of intra-abdominal cysts in children. Large cysts in small children pose technical challenges during laparoscopic surgery, requiring multiple incisions and advanced laparoscopic skills. This paper describes a novel laparoscopic technique using minimal manipulation for both aspiration and excision of the cyst. This simple, safe, and effective approach was used to achieve traction and facilitate excision of a large intra-abdominal cyst in a neonate and a young child. PMID:26798349

  6. Antifungal activity of the piroctone olamine in experimental intra-abdominal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    do Couto, Fabíola Maria Marques; do Nascimento, Silene Carneiro; Júnior, Silvio Francisco Pereira; da Silva, Vanessa Karina Alves; Leal, André Ferraz Goiana; Neves, Rejane Pereira

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of piroctone olamine in the treatment of intra-abdominal candidiasis in an experimental model using Swiss mice. The mice (n = 6) were infected by intraperitoneal injection of 0.2 ml of C. albicans (10(7)cells/ml in saline). The animals were observed daily for clinical signs and mortality for 14 days. The treatment with piroctone olamine (0.5 mg/kg) was performed 72 h after infection by intraperitoneal administration. For comparison, a group of animals (n = 6) was treated with amphotericin B (0.5 mg/kg). The mycological diagnosis was made by collecting the liver, spleen and kidneys. Data regarding the fungal growth and mortality were analyzed statistically by Student's t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA), with level of significance set at P < 0.05. The difference in fungal growth scoring between the control group and the treatment groups (piroctone olamine and amphotericin B) was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The difference in fungal growth scoring between the treatment groups (piroctone olamine and amphotericin B) was not statistically significant (P < 0.05). PMID:27119072

  7. Intra-abdominal fat. Part III. Neoplasms lesions of the adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on various cancerous lesions that are found beyond organs in the intra-abdominal fat and can be visualized with ultrasonography. These lesions are divided into five groups. The first group includes primary benign tumors containing adipocytes, such as lipoma, lipoblastoma, hibernoma and other lesions with an adipose tissue component, such as myolipoma, angiomyolipoma, myelolipoma and teratoma. The second group comprises primary malignant adipocytecontaining tumors, including liposarcoma and immature teratoma. The third group contains primary benign tumors without an adipocyte component that are located in intra-abdominal fat. This is a numerous group of lesions represented by cystic and solid tumors. The fourth group encompasses primary malignant tumors without an adipocyte component that are located in intra-abdominal fat. These are rare lesions associated mainly with sarcomas: fibrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, hemangiopericytoma and leiomyosarcoma. An epithelioid tumor at this site is mesothelioma. The last but not least group includes secondary malignant tumors without an adipocyte component located in intra-abdominal fat. This is the most numerous group with prevailing carcinoma foci. For each of these groups, the authors present ultrasound features of individual lesions and discuss their differential diagnosis. In the vast majority of cases, the material for cytological and histological analysis can be obtained during ultrasound-guided procedures. This is the advantage of this imaging modality. PMID:27446599

  8. Atypical presentation of intra-abdominal extralobar pulmonary sequestration detected in prenatal care: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Márcio Rodrigues; Costa, Théo Rodrigues; Leite, Mauricio Sérgio Brasil; de Souza, Fernandes Rodrigues; Reis, Alexandre Magno Bahia; Pereira, Bruno Paiva; de Oliveira, Arthur Magalhães

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To describe an unusual clinical presentation of intra-abdominal extralobar pulmonary sequestration in a 2-year, 9 month-old patient and assess diagnostic and treatment aspects of this pathology. Case description: An undefined intra-abdominal mass was identified in the right adrenal region in a male fetus. Postnatal evaluation with ultrasound images, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and laboratory testing was insufficient to determine the nature of the lesion. After two years, laparoscopic resection of the mass and histopathological examination of the surgical specimen allowed to establish the diagnosis of intra-abdominal extralobar pulmonary sequestration. Comments: This malformation can be monitored clinically; however, surgical excision is often performed, probably due to the impossibility of attaining diagnosis with non-invasive methods, such as in the present case, in which the lesion appeared in an unusual position for intra-abdominal extralobar pulmonary sequestration. Therefore, the surgical approach seems to be the key to attain the diagnosis and establish the conduct for this type of congenital malformation. PMID:26611889

  9. Intra-abdominal pulmonary secuestration as an exceptional cause of abdominal mass in the adult☆

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Sanz, C.; Herrero Bogajo, M.L.; Picazo-Yeste, J.; Morandeira Rivas, A.; Manzanera-Diaz, M.; Sedano-Vizcaino, C.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Pulmonary sequestration (PS) is an extremely rare malformation defined as a portion of lung tissue isolated from the pulmonary system. PSs are classified into intralobar type and intra-abdominal PS that represents only 2.5% of cases. There are 20 cases of PS reported in adults and only two were managed by laparoscopic approach. We report a case of intra-abdominal PS mimicking a gastroesophageal duplication cyst in an adult. Besides its rarity, this is the first intra-abdominal PS in an adult managed by an anterior laparoscopic approach. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 60-year-old female patient had had epigastric and left upper quadrant pain for several days. Physical examination was normal. Image test were consistent with a gastroesophageal duplication. The patient was taken to the operating room for laparoscopic exploration and resection. The pathological diagnosis was extralobar pulmonary sequestration. DISCUSSION Less than 20 cases of PS have been reported in adults and only two cases were managed by a lateral laparoscopic approach. In contrast to these reports, we used an anterior approach due to the GEJ suspected origin of the mass. CONCLUSION Extralobar intra-abdominal PS is an extremely rare condition during adulthood but this diagnosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of a left-sided suprarenal mass. Due to the difficulty in achieving a definitive preoperative diagnosis, surgery is recommended. Laparoscopic resection is safe and effective but careful preoperative imaging studies are recommended in order to plan the most suitable approach. PMID:24091075

  10. Physical activity and reduced intra-abdominal fat in midlife African-American and white women.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Sheila A; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Karavolos, Kelly; Avery, Elizabeth F; Wesley, Deidre E; Powell, Lynda H

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine whether self-reported physical activity (PA), including recreational, household, and exercise activities, is associated with intra-abdominal fat (IAF) in community-dwelling white and black midlife women. We performed a cross-sectional study of 369 women from the Chicago site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) ancillary study, the SWAN Fat Patterning Study. PA level was the independent variable, and IAF, assessed by computerized tomography (CT) scan, was the dependent variable. Measures were obtained at SWAN Fat Patterning Baseline visit between August 2002 and December 2005. Linear regression models explored the association between PA and IAF. The first model included IAF as the outcome and total score PA as the main predictor, adjusting for total percent fat mass, age, and ethnicity. The second model included education, parity, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) level, and depressive symptoms, measured by Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. Each 1-point higher total PA score was associated with a 4.0 cm(2) lower amount of IAF (P = 0.004), independent of total percent fat mass, age, ethnicity, SHBG level, educational level, CES-D, and parity. Associations did not differ between white and black women. This study demonstrates a significant negative association between PA and IAF independent of multiple covariates in midlife women. Our findings suggest that motivating white and black women to increase PA during midlife may lessen IAF, which may have a positive impact on subsequent development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  11. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identification of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more difficult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fluid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that reflect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower reflection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fluid collections. The features that facilitate proper identification of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infiltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identification of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always easy. When in doubt, the

  12. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2015-09-01

    Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identification of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more difficult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fluid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that reflect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower reflection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fluid collections. The features that facilitate proper identification of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infiltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identification of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always easy. When in doubt, the

  13. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2015-09-01

    Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identification of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more difficult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fluid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that reflect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower reflection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fluid collections. The features that facilitate proper identification of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infiltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identification of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always easy. When in doubt, the

  14. Major intra-abdominal complications following extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Van der Eecken, H; Schatteman, P; Carpentier, P; Mottrie, A; Fonteyne, E

    2002-12-01

    A retroperitoneal bleeding is an unusual complication of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), which can be treated in a conservative way most of the time. However, an intra-abdominal bleeding after ESWL is extremely rare, which can cause life-threatening situations and requires an immediate intervention. Probably, only patients with a certain tissue fragility or connective tissue disorder are at risk to develop such an intra-abdominal bleeding. We present a case of a serious intra-abdominal bleeding due to a rupture of the vena mesenterica superior in an Ehlers-Danlos patient, evoked by an ESWL.

  15. Primary Intra-Abdominal Rhabdomyosarcoma in an Adult: an Unusual Presentation and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sanjay Kumar; Sinha, Dipendra Kumar; Ahmed, Aftab; Azhar, T; Sinha, Mini

    2015-06-01

    Rhabdomyosarcomas, the commonest soft tissue sarcoma in paediatric age group, represent 5-10 % of all solid tumors in childhood. These tumors are rare in adult population. There are sporadic case reports of intra-abdominal rhabdomyosarcoma, but mostly in paediatric age group. Here we are reporting an unsual case of intra abdominal rhabdomyosarcoma in an elderly which presented with acute intestinal obstruction. CECT abdomen showed a solid mass in retroperitoneum compressing adjacent bowel loops. Upon emergency exploratory laparotomy a hard mass was found to be compressing the ascending colon and infiltrating into duodenum, pancreas and liver. No specific organ of origin could be identified. Biopsy was taken, as the mass was unresectable and ileostomy was done. Histopthological examination revealed embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Rarity of this disease and unusual presentation prompted us to report this case. PMID:26405418

  16. Intra-abdominal mass associated with gastrointestinal hemorrhage: a new manifestation of bacillary angiomatosis.

    PubMed

    Koehler, J E; Cederberg, L

    1995-12-01

    Bacillary angiomatosis is a recently described vascular proliferative lesion that occurs most commonly in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Cutaneous lesions are the most frequently described manifestations of bacillary angiomatosis. However, as culture techniques and disease recognition have improved, additional manifestations have been identified in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals, including bacillary peliosis hepatis and isolated bacteremia. Two species of the genus Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea), Bartonella henselae or Bartonella quintana, have been cultured from the cutaneous lesions of bacillary angiomatosis. A new manifestation of Bartonella infection is reported: an intra-abdominal mass presenting with massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection. B. quintana was cultured from a percutaneous needle-biopsy specimen obtained from the highly vascularized intra-abdominal mass. The bacillary angiomatosis lesion resolved after 3 months of tetracycline treatment. Recognition of Bartonella infection is extremely important because it is readily treatable with antibiotic therapy.

  17. Antimicrobials: a global alliance for optimizing their rational use in intra-abdominal infections (AGORA).

    PubMed

    Sartelli, Massimo; Weber, Dieter G; Ruppé, Etienne; Bassetti, Matteo; Wright, Brian J; Ansaloni, Luca; Catena, Fausto; Coccolini, Federico; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Coimbra, Raul; Moore, Ernest E; Moore, Frederick A; Maier, Ronald V; De Waele, Jan J; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Griffiths, Ewen A; Eckmann, Christian; Brink, Adrian J; Mazuski, John E; May, Addison K; Sawyer, Rob G; Mertz, Dominik; Montravers, Philippe; Kumar, Anand; Roberts, Jason A; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Watkins, Richard R; Lowman, Warren; Spellberg, Brad; Abbott, Iain J; Adesunkanmi, Abdulrashid Kayode; Al-Dahir, Sara; Al-Hasan, Majdi N; Agresta, Ferdinando; Althani, Asma A; Ansari, Shamshul; Ansumana, Rashid; Augustin, Goran; Bala, Miklosh; Balogh, Zsolt J; Baraket, Oussama; Bhangu, Aneel; Beltrán, Marcelo A; Bernhard, Michael; Biffl, Walter L; Boermeester, Marja A; Brecher, Stephen M; Cherry-Bukowiec, Jill R; Buyne, Otmar R; Cainzos, Miguel A; Cairns, Kelly A; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrian; Chandy, Sujith J; Che Jusoh, Asri; Chichom-Mefire, Alain; Colijn, Caroline; Corcione, Francesco; Cui, Yunfeng; Curcio, Daniel; Delibegovic, Samir; Demetrashvili, Zaza; De Simone, Belinda; Dhingra, Sameer; Diaz, José J; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Dillip, Angel; Di Saverio, Salomone; Doyle, Michael P; Dorj, Gereltuya; Dogjani, Agron; Dupont, Hervé; Eachempati, Soumitra R; Enani, Mushira Abdulaziz; Egiev, Valery N; Elmangory, Mutasim M; Ferrada, Paula; Fitchett, Joseph R; Fraga, Gustavo P; Guessennd, Nathalie; Giamarellou, Helen; Ghnnam, Wagih; Gkiokas, George; Goldberg, Staphanie R; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Gomi, Harumi; Guzmán-Blanco, Manuel; Haque, Mainul; Hansen, Sonja; Hecker, Andreas; Heizmann, Wolfgang R; Herzog, Torsten; Hodonou, Adrien Montcho; Hong, Suk-Kyung; Kafka-Ritsch, Reinhold; Kaplan, Lewis J; Kapoor, Garima; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar; Kees, Martin G; Kenig, Jakub; Kiguba, Ronald; Kim, Peter K; Kluger, Yoram; Khokha, Vladimir; Koike, Kaoru; Kok, Kenneth Y Y; Kong, Victory; Knox, Matthew C; Inaba, Kenji; Isik, Arda; Iskandar, Katia; Ivatury, Rao R; Labbate, Maurizio; Labricciosa, Francesco M; Laterre, Pierre-François; Latifi, Rifat; Lee, Jae Gil; Lee, Young Ran; Leone, Marc; Leppaniemi, Ari; Li, Yousheng; Liang, Stephen Y; Loho, Tonny; Maegele, Marc; Malama, Sydney; Marei, Hany E; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Marwah, Sanjay; Massele, Amos; McFarlane, Michael; Melo, Renato Bessa; Negoi, Ionut; Nicolau, David P; Nord, Carl Erik; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Omari, AbdelKarim H; Ordonez, Carlos A; Ouadii, Mouaqit; Pereira Júnior, Gerson Alves; Piazza, Diego; Pupelis, Guntars; Rawson, Timothy Miles; Rems, Miran; Rizoli, Sandro; Rocha, Claudio; Sakakhushev, Boris; Sanchez-Garcia, Miguel; Sato, Norio; Segovia Lohse, Helmut A; Sganga, Gabriele; Siribumrungwong, Boonying; Shelat, Vishal G; Soreide, Kjetil; Soto, Rodolfo; Talving, Peep; Tilsed, Jonathan V; Timsit, Jean-Francois; Trueba, Gabriel; Trung, Ngo Tat; Ulrych, Jan; van Goor, Harry; Vereczkei, Andras; Vohra, Ravinder S; Wani, Imtiaz; Uhl, Waldemar; Xiao, Yonghong; Yuan, Kuo-Ching; Zachariah, Sanoop K; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Zakrison, Tanya L; Corcione, Antonio; Melotti, Rita M; Viscoli, Claudio; Viale, Perluigi

    2016-01-01

    Intra-abdominal infections (IAI) are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in high-risk patients. The cornerstones in the management of complicated IAIs are timely effective source control with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is important in the management of intra-abdominal infections and must be broad enough to cover all likely organisms because inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy is associated with poor patient outcomes and the development of bacterial resistance. The overuse of antimicrobials is widely accepted as a major driver of some emerging infections (such as C. difficile), the selection of resistant pathogens in individual patients, and for the continued development of antimicrobial resistance globally. The growing emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms and the limited development of new agents available to counteract them have caused an impending crisis with alarming implications, especially with regards to Gram-negative bacteria. An international task force from 79 different countries has joined this project by sharing a document on the rational use of antimicrobials for patients with IAIs. The project has been termed AGORA (Antimicrobials: A Global Alliance for Optimizing their Rational Use in Intra-Abdominal Infections). The authors hope that AGORA, involving many of the world's leading experts, can actively raise awareness in health workers and can improve prescribing behavior in treating IAIs. PMID:27429642

  18. Antimicrobials: a global alliance for optimizing their rational use in intra-abdominal infections (AGORA).

    PubMed

    Sartelli, Massimo; Weber, Dieter G; Ruppé, Etienne; Bassetti, Matteo; Wright, Brian J; Ansaloni, Luca; Catena, Fausto; Coccolini, Federico; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Coimbra, Raul; Moore, Ernest E; Moore, Frederick A; Maier, Ronald V; De Waele, Jan J; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Griffiths, Ewen A; Eckmann, Christian; Brink, Adrian J; Mazuski, John E; May, Addison K; Sawyer, Rob G; Mertz, Dominik; Montravers, Philippe; Kumar, Anand; Roberts, Jason A; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Watkins, Richard R; Lowman, Warren; Spellberg, Brad; Abbott, Iain J; Adesunkanmi, Abdulrashid Kayode; Al-Dahir, Sara; Al-Hasan, Majdi N; Agresta, Ferdinando; Althani, Asma A; Ansari, Shamshul; Ansumana, Rashid; Augustin, Goran; Bala, Miklosh; Balogh, Zsolt J; Baraket, Oussama; Bhangu, Aneel; Beltrán, Marcelo A; Bernhard, Michael; Biffl, Walter L; Boermeester, Marja A; Brecher, Stephen M; Cherry-Bukowiec, Jill R; Buyne, Otmar R; Cainzos, Miguel A; Cairns, Kelly A; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrian; Chandy, Sujith J; Che Jusoh, Asri; Chichom-Mefire, Alain; Colijn, Caroline; Corcione, Francesco; Cui, Yunfeng; Curcio, Daniel; Delibegovic, Samir; Demetrashvili, Zaza; De Simone, Belinda; Dhingra, Sameer; Diaz, José J; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Dillip, Angel; Di Saverio, Salomone; Doyle, Michael P; Dorj, Gereltuya; Dogjani, Agron; Dupont, Hervé; Eachempati, Soumitra R; Enani, Mushira Abdulaziz; Egiev, Valery N; Elmangory, Mutasim M; Ferrada, Paula; Fitchett, Joseph R; Fraga, Gustavo P; Guessennd, Nathalie; Giamarellou, Helen; Ghnnam, Wagih; Gkiokas, George; Goldberg, Staphanie R; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Gomi, Harumi; Guzmán-Blanco, Manuel; Haque, Mainul; Hansen, Sonja; Hecker, Andreas; Heizmann, Wolfgang R; Herzog, Torsten; Hodonou, Adrien Montcho; Hong, Suk-Kyung; Kafka-Ritsch, Reinhold; Kaplan, Lewis J; Kapoor, Garima; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar; Kees, Martin G; Kenig, Jakub; Kiguba, Ronald; Kim, Peter K; Kluger, Yoram; Khokha, Vladimir; Koike, Kaoru; Kok, Kenneth Y Y; Kong, Victory; Knox, Matthew C; Inaba, Kenji; Isik, Arda; Iskandar, Katia; Ivatury, Rao R; Labbate, Maurizio; Labricciosa, Francesco M; Laterre, Pierre-François; Latifi, Rifat; Lee, Jae Gil; Lee, Young Ran; Leone, Marc; Leppaniemi, Ari; Li, Yousheng; Liang, Stephen Y; Loho, Tonny; Maegele, Marc; Malama, Sydney; Marei, Hany E; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Marwah, Sanjay; Massele, Amos; McFarlane, Michael; Melo, Renato Bessa; Negoi, Ionut; Nicolau, David P; Nord, Carl Erik; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Omari, AbdelKarim H; Ordonez, Carlos A; Ouadii, Mouaqit; Pereira Júnior, Gerson Alves; Piazza, Diego; Pupelis, Guntars; Rawson, Timothy Miles; Rems, Miran; Rizoli, Sandro; Rocha, Claudio; Sakakhushev, Boris; Sanchez-Garcia, Miguel; Sato, Norio; Segovia Lohse, Helmut A; Sganga, Gabriele; Siribumrungwong, Boonying; Shelat, Vishal G; Soreide, Kjetil; Soto, Rodolfo; Talving, Peep; Tilsed, Jonathan V; Timsit, Jean-Francois; Trueba, Gabriel; Trung, Ngo Tat; Ulrych, Jan; van Goor, Harry; Vereczkei, Andras; Vohra, Ravinder S; Wani, Imtiaz; Uhl, Waldemar; Xiao, Yonghong; Yuan, Kuo-Ching; Zachariah, Sanoop K; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Zakrison, Tanya L; Corcione, Antonio; Melotti, Rita M; Viscoli, Claudio; Viale, Perluigi

    2016-01-01

    Intra-abdominal infections (IAI) are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in high-risk patients. The cornerstones in the management of complicated IAIs are timely effective source control with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is important in the management of intra-abdominal infections and must be broad enough to cover all likely organisms because inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy is associated with poor patient outcomes and the development of bacterial resistance. The overuse of antimicrobials is widely accepted as a major driver of some emerging infections (such as C. difficile), the selection of resistant pathogens in individual patients, and for the continued development of antimicrobial resistance globally. The growing emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms and the limited development of new agents available to counteract them have caused an impending crisis with alarming implications, especially with regards to Gram-negative bacteria. An international task force from 79 different countries has joined this project by sharing a document on the rational use of antimicrobials for patients with IAIs. The project has been termed AGORA (Antimicrobials: A Global Alliance for Optimizing their Rational Use in Intra-Abdominal Infections). The authors hope that AGORA, involving many of the world's leading experts, can actively raise awareness in health workers and can improve prescribing behavior in treating IAIs.

  19. A Torted Ruptured Intra-abdominal Testicular Seminoma Presenting As An Acute Abdomen.

    PubMed

    Nickalls, Oliver James; Tan, Char Loo; Thian, Yee Liang

    2015-12-01

    The susceptibility of the undescended testis to malignant transformation is well documented. The most common location of the undescended testis is within the inguinal canal, with only a minority located within the abdominal cavity. When a testicular mass develops, the risk of torsion increases. We describe a large intra-abdominal testicular seminoma that had undergone torsion, rupture and haemorrhage, presenting as an acute abdomen. A 30 year old man presented to the emergency department with right iliac fossa pain. Computed tomography in the emergency department showed haemoperitoneum and a torted large left testicular mass, likely malignant. The patient underwent laparotomy and excision of the mass. Histologic examination revealed a grossly enlarged seminomatous testis which had torted and ruptured. While pre-operative imaging diagnosis of an intra-abdominal testicular seminoma has been published, reports are few. To the best of the author's knowledge pre-operative imaging diagnosis of a malignant testicular mass with torsion and intra-abdominal haemorrhage presenting as an acute abdomen has not been described before.

  20. The Incidence, Clinical Outcomes, and Risk Factors of Thrombocytopenia in Intra-Abdominal Infection Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qin; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Li, Guanwei; Gu, Guosheng; Wu, Xiuwen; Li, Yuan; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Yunzhao; Li, Jieshou

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies on the incidence and risk factors of thrombocytopenia among intra-abdominal infection patients remain absent, hindering efficacy assessments regarding thrombocytopenia prevention strategies. Methods We retrospectively studied 267 consecutively enrolled patients with intra-abdominal infections. Occurrence of thrombocytopenia was scanned for all patients. All-cause 28-day mortality was recorded. Variables from univariate analyses that were associated with occurrence of hospital-acquired thrombocytopenia were included in a multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine thrombocytopenia predictors. Results Median APACHE II score and SOFA score of the whole cohort was 12 and 3 respectively. The overall ICU mortality was 7.87% and the 28-day mortality was 8.98%. The incidence of thrombocytopenia among intra-abdominal infection patients was 21.73%. Regardless of preexisting or hospital-acquired one, thrombocytopenia is associated with an increased ICU mortality and 28-day mortality as well as length of ICU or hospital stay. A higher SOFA and ISTH score at admission were significant hospital-acquired thrombocytopenia risk factors. Conclusions This is the first study to identify a high incidence of thrombocytopenia in patients with intra-abdominal infections. Our findings suggest that the inflammatory milieu of intra-abdominal infections may uniquely predispose those patients to thrombocytopenia. More effective thrombocytopenia prevention strategies are necessary in intra-abdominal infection patients. PMID:26808492

  1. Antibiotic time-lag combination therapy with fosfomycin for postoperative intra-abdominal abscesses.

    PubMed

    Kusachi, Shinya; Nagao, Jiro; Saida, Yoshihisa; Watanabe, Manabu; Okamoto, Yasushi; Asai, Koji; Nakamura, Yoichi; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Arima, Yoichi; Kiribayashi, Takaharu; Watanabe, Ryohei; Saito, Tomoaki; Uramatsu, Masashi; Sato, Junko

    2011-02-01

    The first-line treatment for intra-abdominal abscess is source control. Sometimes, however, source control is too invasive for relatively small abscesses and is not feasible due to the risk of injury to some organs. Based on reports that fosfomycin (FOM) can break up biofilms to enhance the permeability of other antibiotics, we investigated the FOM time-lag combination therapy (FOM-TLCT). We enrolled 114 patients who had intra-abdominal abscess after gastrointestinal surgery and examined the efficacy of FOM-TLCT using the same therapeutic antibiotic (TA) as that which had been used previously, but had proven ineffective, at the same dose schedule. The efficacy endpoint determination was carried out as follows: among the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)-positive cases, even after administration of TA, excellent outcome was defined as SIRS negative within 7 days of FOM-TLCT with TA without the need for other treatment, including other antibiotics or drainage. Of the 114 patients enrolled, 104 cases (SIRS positive 73; SIRS negative 31) were assessed. Ten patients were excluded; four had received TA at higher doses, three had received different TAs, and three were considered to have bacteria resistant to TAs. Among these patients, 86.3% (63/73) of the SIRS-positive cases were classified as excellent, and 90.3% (28/31) of the SIRS-negative cases were classified as effective. In total, the efficacy rate was 87.5% (91/104). The total no-response rates were 12.5% (13/104). FOM-TLCT seems to be effective for treating refractory intra-abdominal abscess.

  2. Intra-abdominal adhesions in ultrasound. Part II: The morphology of changes.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Starzyńska, Teresa; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bojko, Stefania; Gałdyńska, Maria; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta; Walecka, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Despite their frequent appearance, intra-abdominal adhesions are rarely the subject of clinical studies and academic discussions. For many years the operators have been trying to reduce such unfavourable consequences of interventions in the abdominal structures. The aim of this article is to present the possibilities of intra-abdominal adhesion diagnostics by means of ultrasound imaging based on authors' own experience and information included in pertinent literature. The anatomy and examination technique of the abdominal wall were discussed in Part I of the article. In order to evaluate intraperitoneal adhesions, one should use a convex transducer with the frequency of 3.5-6 MHz. The article provides numerous examples of US images presenting intra-abdominal adhesions, particularly those which appeared after surgical procedures. The significance of determining their localisation and extensiveness prior to a planned surgical treatment is emphasized. Four types of morphological changes in the ultrasound caused by intra-abdominal adhesions are distinguished and described: visceroperitoneal adhesions, intraperitoneal adhesions, adhesive obstructions as well as adhesions between the liver and abdominal wall with a special form of such changes, i.e. hepatic pseudotumour. Its ultrasound features are as follows:The lesion is localised below the scar in the abdominal wall after their incision.The lesion is localised in the abdominal part of the liver segments III, IV and V.With the US beam focus precisely set, the lack of fascia - peritoneum complex may be noticed. An uneven liver outline or its ventral displacement appears.A hepatic adhesion-related pseudotumour usually has indistinct margins, especially the posterior one, and, gradually, from top to bottom, loses its hypoechogenic nature.In a respiration test, this liver fragment does not present the sliding movement - a neoplastic tumour rarely shows such an effect. The immobility of the liver is a permanent symptom of

  3. Structural characteristics of polysaccharides that induce protection against intra-abdominal abscess formation.

    PubMed Central

    Tzianabos, A O; Onderdonk, A B; Zaleznik, D F; Smith, R S; Kasper, D L

    1994-01-01

    Bacteroides fragilis is the anaerobe most commonly isolated from clinical cases of intra-abdominal sepsis. In a rodent model of this disease process, intraperitoneal injection of the capsular polysaccharide complex (CPC) from B. fragilis provokes abscess formation, while subcutaneous administration of this complex confers protection against B. fragilis-induced intra-abdominal abscesses. The CPC consists of two discrete polysaccharides, polysaccharides A and B (PS A and PS B), each possessing oppositely charged structural groups critical to the ability of these carbohydrates to induce the formation of abscesses. Other bacterial polysaccharides that possess oppositely charged groups (such as the group antigen or capsular polysaccharide from Streptococcus pneumoniae type 1 strains) also exhibited potent abscess-inducing capabilities. We report here that positively and negatively charged groups on polysaccharides are also essential for inducing protection against abscess formation. Vaccination of rats with B. fragilis PS A, PS B, or the S. pneumoniae type 1 capsule protected against intra-abdominal abscesses subsequent to intraperitoneal challenge with each of these polysaccharides. Chemical conversion of the free amino or carboxyl groups on PS A to uncharged N-acetyl or hydroxymethyl groups, respectively, abrogated the ability of this polymer to confer protection against polysaccharide-mediated abscess formation. Adoptive transfer of splenic T cells from polysaccharide-vaccinated rats to naive animals demonstrated that T cells mediated this protective activity. T cells transferred from animals vaccinated with a polysaccharide repeating unit (Salmonella typhi Vi antigen) that normally contains one carboxyl group but was chemically converted to a polymer that possesses both free amino and carboxyl groups (accomplished by de-N-acetylating the Vi antigen) protected naive T-cell recipients against polysaccharide-induced abscesses. These results demonstrate that a distinct

  4. Severe Maternal Pre- and Postpartum Intra-Abdominal Bleeding due to Deciduosis

    PubMed Central

    Lüdders, D. W.; Henke, R.-P.; Saba, M.; Raddatz, L.; Soliman, A.; Malik, E.

    2015-01-01

    The term “deciduosis” is used to describe the severe pregnancy-associated occurrence of ectopic decidua with a usually asymptomatic course. We report on two cases of massive maternal intra-abdominal bleeding due to such symptomatic changes. The complications arose at different time points for the two cases: prepartum (26th week of pregnancy) or, respectively, – reported here for the first time – seven days postpartum. As well as differential diagnostic aspects we describe the management of the disease and its possible effects on subsequent pregnancies. PMID:25914420

  5. The novel use of wooden spoons for control of massive intra-abdominal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Walter, Catherine Jane; Barker, Philip

    2010-03-01

    Massive intra-abdominal hemorrhage represents a challenging operative emergency. Temporary control of the aorta and inferior vena cava (IVC) using intra-luminal balloon occlusion, preemptive trans-thoracic clamping or infra-diaphragmatic clamping has been achieved with variable success. We report the use of wooden spoons with convex arches cut from their bases as a cheap and effective alternative. They can be used to compress the aorta or IVC against the vertebrae, giving vascular control while leaving good surgical access. This equipment requires minimal financial investment and only basic woodworking skills.

  6. Intra-abdominal adhesions in ultrasound. Part II: The morphology of changes

    PubMed Central

    Starzyńska, Teresa; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bojko, Stefania; Gałdyńska, Maria; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta; Walecka, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Despite their frequent appearance, intra-abdominal adhesions are rarely the subject of clinical studies and academic discussions. For many years the operators have been trying to reduce such unfavourable consequences of interventions in the abdominal structures. The aim of this article is to present the possibilities of intra-abdominal adhesion diagnostics by means of ultrasound imaging based on authors’ own experience and information included in pertinent literature. The anatomy and examination technique of the abdominal wall were discussed in Part I of the article. In order to evaluate intraperitoneal adhesions, one should use a convex transducer with the frequency of 3.5–6 MHz. The article provides numerous examples of US images presenting intra-abdominal adhesions, particularly those which appeared after surgical procedures. The significance of determining their localisation and extensiveness prior to a planned surgical treatment is emphasized. Four types of morphological changes in the ultrasound caused by intra-abdominal adhesions are distinguished and described: visceroperitoneal adhesions, intraperitoneal adhesions, adhesive obstructions as well as adhesions between the liver and abdominal wall with a special form of such changes, i.e. hepatic pseudotumour. Its ultrasound features are as follows:The lesion is localised below the scar in the abdominal wall after their incision.The lesion is localised in the abdominal part of the liver segments III, IV and V.With the US beam focus precisely set, the lack of fascia – peritoneum complex may be noticed. An uneven liver outline or its ventral displacement appears.A hepatic adhesion-related pseudotumour usually has indistinct margins, especially the posterior one, and, gradually, from top to bottom, loses its hypoechogenic nature.In a respiration test, this liver fragment does not present the sliding movement – a neoplastic tumour rarely shows such an effect. The immobility of the liver is a permanent

  7. A Rare Case of Intra- Abdominal Bronchogenic Cyst- A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Trehan, Munish; Singla, Sanjeev; Singh, Jaspal; Garg, Nikhil; Mahajan, Anuj

    2015-11-01

    Bronchogenic cysts are developmental foregut anomalies usually located in the mediastinum. A 90% of the bronchogenic cysts occur in the posterior aspect of superior mediastinum. Retroperitoneal location of a bronchogenic cyst is rare. We report a rare case of intra abdominal bronchogenic cyst. A CT scan was done for a 34-year-old female who presented with complains of heaviness in the right flank. CT scan revealed a large cyst of 10 x 6 cm in the right hypochondrium. Cyst was removed laparoscopically and the histopathology revealed a bronchogenic cyst.

  8. Antibiotic management of complicated intra-abdominal infections in adults: The Asian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kurup, Asok; Liau, Kui-Hin; Ren, Jianan; Lu, Min-Chi; Navarro, Narciso S.; Farooka, Muhammad Waris; Usman, Nurhayat; Destura, Raul V.; Sirichindakul, Boonchoo; Tantawichien, Terapong; Lee, Christopher K.C.; Solomkin, Joseph S.

    2014-01-01

    Regional epidemiological data and resistance profiles are essential for selecting appropriate antibiotic therapy for intra-abdominal infections (IAIs). However, such information may not be readily available in many areas of Asia and current international guidelines on antibiotic therapy for IAIs are for Western countries, with the most recent guidance for the Asian region dating from 2007. Therefore, the Asian Consensus Taskforce on Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections (ACT-cIAI) was convened to develop updated recommendations for antibiotic management of complicated IAIs (cIAIs) in Asia. This review article is based on a thorough literature review of Asian and international publications related to clinical management, epidemiology, microbiology, and bacterial resistance patterns in cIAIs, combined with the expert consensus of the Taskforce members. The microbiological profiles of IAIs in the Asian region are outlined and compared with Western data, and the latest available data on antimicrobial resistance in key pathogens causing IAIs in Asia is presented. From this information, antimicrobial therapies suitable for treating cIAIs in patients in Asian settings are proposed in the hope that guidance relevant to Asian practices will prove beneficial to local physicians managing IAIs. PMID:25568794

  9. Experimental Intra-Abdominal Abscesses in Rats: Development of an Experimental Model

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, William M.; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Bartlett, John G.; Gorbach, Sherwood L.

    1974-01-01

    An animal model has been developed to study the evolution of intra-abdominal abscesses. Gelatin capsules containing pooled colonic contents and barium sulfate were prepared in an anaerobic chamber and implanted into the pelvic region of Wistar rats. The natural course of the ensuing disease was studied in various groups according to the source of the inoculum and sex of the recipient. Colonic contents derived from rats fed a grain diet produced a highly lethal disease with an 80% mortality rate for males and 100% for females. Most deaths occurred within 3 days of implantation, and autopsies showed generalized peritonitis. The addition of blood to the inoculum caused a rapidly fatal peritonitis in all animals. With an inoculum derived from meat-fed rats implanted in male recipients, there was a biphasic disease. Initially, there was peritonitis associated with 43% mortality. All animals that survived this acute period developed discrete intra-abdominal abscesses by the seventh postoperative day. The latter stage was characterized by an indolent course and progressive enlargement of abscesses. PMID:4611922

  10. Risk Factors for the Development of Intra-Abdominal Fungal Infections in Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Schwender, Brian J.; Gordon, Stuart R.; Gardner, Timothy B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Intra-abdominal fungal infections (AFI) complicating acute pancreatitis arise in the context of pancreatic necrosis. Our goal was to determine which risk factors contribute to AFI in patients with acute pancreatitis. Methods Records were reviewed from 479 non-transfer patients admitted to our medical center with acute pancreatitis from 1985–2009. Using multivariable regression models, risk factors for AFI were identified. Results Out of 479 patients admitted with acute pancreatitis, 17 patients were subsequently found to have an AFI and 3 of these patients expired. The mean length of stay for patients with an AFI was 24 days and 76% were admitted to the intensive care unit. Patients with AFI were more likely to have received prophylactic antibiotics on admission (OR 1.7, 95% C.I. 1.2–2.3), TPN within 7 days of admission (OR 1.4, 95% C.I. 1.1–1.7) or to have necrosis on CT scan within 7 days of admission (OR 1.4, 95% C.I. 1.1–1.7). Multivariable regression models identified admission antibiotic use (OR 1.6, 95% C.I. 1.4–1.8) as the strongest predictor of AFI. Conclusion Admission antibiotics are the biggest risk factor for the development of intra-abdominal fungal infections in acute pancreatitis. Prophylactic antibiotics to prevent infected necrosis should therefore be discouraged. PMID:25872170

  11. Primary aortoenteric fistula to the sigmoid colon in association with intra-abdominal abscess.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonho; Jung, Chul Min; Cho, Eun-Hee; Ryu, Dong Ryeol; Choi, Daehee; Kim, Jaihwan

    2014-04-01

    Primary aortoenteric fistula (PAEF) is a rare but catastrophic cause of massive gastrointestinal bleeding. Diagnosis of PAEF is difficult to make and is frequently delayed without strong clinical suspicion. Timely surgical intervention is essential for patient's survival. We report on a case of an 86-year-old woman with no history of abdominal surgery, who presented with abdominal pain. Initially, computed tomography scan showed an intra-abdominal abscess, located anterior to the aortic bifurcation. However, she was discharged without treatment because of spontaneous improvement on a follow-up computed tomography scan, which showed a newly developed right common iliac artery aneurysm. One week later, she was readmitted due to recurrent abdominal pain. On the second day of admission, sudden onset of gastrointestinal bleeding occurred for the first time. After several endoscopic examinations, an aortoenteric fistula bleeding site was found in the sigmoid colon, and aortography showed progression of a right common iliac artery aneurysm. We finally concluded that intra-abdominal abscess induced an infected aortic aneurysm and enteric fistula to the sigmoid colon. This case demonstrated an extremely rare type of PAEF to the sigmoid colon caused by an infected abdominal aortic aneurysm, which has rarely been reported. PMID:24755749

  12. Selected overview of nongynecologic surgical intra-abdominal infections. Prophylaxis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Levin, S; Goodman, L J

    1985-11-29

    True prophylaxis of intra-abdominal nongynecologic infections is limited to elective, nonemergency surgery and is best shown in three clean-contaminated surgical procedures. All of these have an infection rate of approximately 10 to 20 percent and include all colon resection surgery, most gastric surgery, and about one third of the cholecystectomies for chronic calculous cholecystitis. Each of these three surgical procedures has a somewhat different pattern of bacterial pathogens. The most useful comparative studies of early preoperative therapy have been performed in cases of suspected appendicitis (50 percent of which usually show perforation or gangrene at the time of surgery) and penetrating abdominal wounds (80 percent of which usually enter some part of the bowel and theoretically soil the peritoneum). These procedures are usually classified as contaminated, with a 20 to 30 percent infection rate, or dirty, with a more than 30 percent infection rate, depending upon several factors. Comparative investigations of intraoperative and postoperative antibiotic therapy of established intra-abdominal infections are more difficult to obtain because of the heterogeneity of the sites, organisms, and medical and surgical therapy. The initial pathogens causing secondary peritonitis and hepatic, perirectal, diverticular, and most other types of intraperitoneal abscesses are mixed coliforms and anaerobes, with emphasis on the anaerobes. Retroperitoneal abscesses, pancreatic abscesses, and biliary tract infections are predominantly caused by coliforms. The organisms responsible for these early infections are usually community-acquired rather than more antibiotic-resistant hospital-acquired bacteria. Considering the availability of a large number of effective broad-spectrum antibacterial agents and therapeutic combinations, it has become increasingly difficult to assess the rightful place of any new prospective antimicrobial regimen unless it has quite unique characteristics

  13. Implanting intra-abdominal radiotransmitters with external whip antennas in ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, C.E.; Kenow, K.P.; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, A.; Green, W.L.; Dein, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a surgical procedure for implanting intra-abdominal radiotransmitters with external whip antennas in captive mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Transmitters were implanted in the abdominal cavity and the antennas exited through the caudal abdominal wall and skin. Birds with implanted transmitters developed mild to moderate localized air sac reactions. These reactions involved adhesions of the right anterior abdominal air sac to the liver with contractions around the transmitters and antenna catheters. The adhesions were reinforced by a proliferation of connective tissue and lined by multinucleated giant cells (foreign body reaction). Casual observation indicated that neither behavior nor activity of the birds was altered by the histological reaction to the transmitter implant. No increase in systemic lesions (particularly liver or kidney) could be correlated with the histological reactions. Our evaluations indicate that the procedure is a reliable method for radiomarking ducks and the technique has been successfully used in 2 field studies.

  14. Therapeutic Role of Interleukin 22 in Experimental Intra-abdominal Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Mingquan; Horne, William; McAleer, Jeremy P.; Pociask, Derek; Eddens, Taylor; Good, Misty; Gao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin 22 (IL-22) is an IL-10-related cytokine produced by T helper 17 (Th17) cells and other immune cells that signals via IL-22 receptor alpha 1 (IL-22Ra1), which is expressed on epithelial tissues, as well as hepatocytes. IL-22 has been shown to have hepatoprotective effects that are mediated by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling. However, it is unclear whether IL-22 can directly regulate antimicrobial programs in the liver. To test this hypothesis, hepatocyte-specific IL-22Ra1 knockout (Il22Ra1Hep−/−) and Stat3 knockout (Stat3Hep−/−) mice were generated and subjected to intra-abdominal infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae, which results in liver injury and necrosis. We found that overexpression of IL-22 or therapeutic administration of recombinant IL-22 (rIL-22), given 2 h postinfection, significantly reduced the bacterial burden in both the liver and spleen. The antimicrobial activity of rIL-22 required hepatic Il22Ra1 and Stat3. Serum from rIL-22-treated mice showed potent bacteriostatic activity against K. pneumoniae, which was dependent on lipocalin 2 (LCN2). However, in vivo, rIL-22-induced antimicrobial activity was only partially reduced in LCN2-deficient mice. We found that rIL-22 also induced serum amyloid A2 (SAA2) and that SAA2 had anti-K. pneumoniae bactericidal activity in vitro. These results demonstrate that IL-22, through IL-22Ra1 and STAT3 singling, can induce intrinsic antimicrobial activity in the liver, which is due in part to LCN2 and SAA2. Therefore, IL-22 may be a useful adjunct in treating hepatic and intra-abdominal infections. PMID:26729763

  15. Complicated intra-abdominal infections worldwide: the definitive data of the CIAOW Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The CIAOW study (Complicated intra-abdominal infections worldwide observational study) is a multicenter observational study underwent in 68 medical institutions worldwide during a six-month study period (October 2012-March 2013). The study included patients older than 18 years undergoing surgery or interventional drainage to address complicated intra-abdominal infections (IAIs). 1898 patients with a mean age of 51.6 years (range 18-99) were enrolled in the study. 777 patients (41%) were women and 1,121 (59%) were men. Among these patients, 1,645 (86.7%) were affected by community-acquired IAIs while the remaining 253 (13.3%) suffered from healthcare-associated infections. Intraperitoneal specimens were collected from 1,190 (62.7%) of the enrolled patients. 827 patients (43.6%) were affected by generalized peritonitis while 1071 (56.4%) suffered from localized peritonitis or abscesses. The overall mortality rate was 10.5% (199/1898). According to stepwise multivariate analysis (PR = 0.005 and PE = 0.001), several criteria were found to be independent variables predictive of mortality, including patient age (OR = 1.1; 95%CI = 1.0-1.1; p < 0.0001), the presence of small bowel perforation (OR = 2.8; 95%CI = 1.5-5.3; p < 0.0001), a delayed initial intervention (a delay exceeding 24 hours) (OR = 1.8; 95%CI = 1.5-3.7; p < 0.0001), ICU admission (OR = 5.9; 95%CI = 3.6-9.5; p < 0.0001) and patient immunosuppression (OR = 3.8; 95%CI = 2.1-6.7; p < 0.0001). PMID:24883079

  16. Role of radiological-assisted cytology in intra-abdominal lesions: A 3 years’ experience in a tertiary care center

    PubMed Central

    Dosi, Shilpi; Gupta, Garima; Kawatra, Mallika; Chakrabarti, Preeti Rihal; Agrawal, Purti; Jain, Mukul Raj

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) with assistance of radiological tools such as ultrasonography (USG) and computed tomography (CT) is an effective and safe technique for diagnosing intra-abdominal neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions. Aims and Objectives: (1) To assess the utility of image-guided cytology in the diagnosis of intra-abdominal lesions. (2) To categorize various intra-abdominal lesions according to their site of occurrence and study their cytomorphological features. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Pathology between January 2012 and January 2015. A total of 174 cases with intra-abdominal lesions were included in the study. Results: In our study, diagnostic yield was 84.5%. The mean age was found to be 52 years with M: F ratio 1.1:1. We found that 92 (52.87%) cases were in hepatobiliary region, 33 (18.96%) in adnexa, 13 (7.47%) in pancreatic-ampullary region, 14 (8.04%) in unknown abdominal lumps, 8 (4.6%) in lymph nodes, 6 (3.4%) in renal, 5 (2.87%) in retroperitoneum, 2 (1.1%) in omental nodules, and 1 (0.5%) in splenic mass. Of total 174 cases, 106 (61%) cases were malignant, 10 (5.7%) benign, 16 (9.1%) inflammatory, 27 (15.5%) inadequate, and 15 (8.7%) suspicious for malignancy. Conclusion: Ultrasound and CT-guided FNA cytology had a significant role in diagnosis of palpable and nonpalpable intra-abdominal lesions. Being a relatively quick and safe method, it also avoids invasive diagnostic procedures. PMID:27127738

  17. Prediction of Pharmacokinetics and Penetration of Moxifloxacin in Human with Intra-Abdominal Infection Based on Extrapolated PBPK Model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, LiQin; Yang, JianWei; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, YongMing; Zhang, JianLei; Zhao, YuanYuan; Dong, WeiLin

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model in intra-abdominal infected rats, and extrapolate it to human to predict moxifloxacin pharmacokinetics profiles in various tissues in intra-abdominal infected human. 12 male rats with intra-abdominal infections, induced by Escherichia coli, received a single dose of 40 mg/kg body weight of moxifloxacin. Blood plasma was collected at 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 120, 240, 480, 1440 min after drug injection. A PBPK model was developed in rats and extrapolated to human using GastroPlus software. The predictions were assessed by comparing predictions and observations. In the plasma concentration versus time profile of moxifloxcinin rats, Cmax was 11.151 µg/mL at 5 min after the intravenous injection and t1/2 was 2.936 h. Plasma concentration and kinetics in human were predicted and compared with observed datas. Moxifloxacin penetrated and accumulated with high concentrations in redmarrow, lung, skin, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, muscle tissues in human with intra-abdominal infection. The predicted tissue to plasma concentration ratios in abdominal viscera were between 1.1 and 2.2. When rat plasma concentrations were known, extrapolation of a PBPK model was a method to predict drug pharmacokinetics and penetration in human. Moxifloxacin has a good penetration into liver, kidney, spleen, as well as other tissues in intra-abdominal infected human. Close monitoring are necessary when using moxifloxacin due to its high concentration distribution. This pathological model extrapolation may provide reference to the PK/PD study of antibacterial agents.

  18. Is there still a need for prophylactic intra-abdominal drainage in elective major gastro-intestinal surgery?

    PubMed

    Messager, M; Sabbagh, C; Denost, Q; Regimbeau, J M; Laurent, C; Rullier, E; Sa Cunha, A; Mariette, C

    2015-11-01

    Prophylactic drainage of the abdominal cavity after gastro-intestinal surgery is widely used. The rationale is that intra-abdominal drainage enhances early detection of complications (gastro-intestinal leakage, hemorrhage, bile leak), prevents collection of fluid or pus, reduces morbidity and mortality, and decreases the duration of hospital stay. However, dogmatic attitudes favoring systematic drain placement should be questioned. The aim of this review was to evaluate the evidence supporting systematic use of prophylactic abdominal drainage following gastrectomy, pancreatectomy, liver resection, and rectal resection. Based on this review of the literature: (i) there was no evidence in favor of intra-peritoneal drainage following total or sub-total gastrectomy with respect to morbidity-mortality, nor was it helpful in the diagnosis or management of leakage, however the level of evidence is low, (ii) following pancreatic resection, data are conflicting but, overall, suggest that the absence of drainage is prejudicial, and support the notion that short-term drainage is better than long-term drainage, (iii) after liver resection without hepatico-intestinal anastomosis, high level evidence supports that there is no need for abdominal drainage, and (iv) following rectal resection, data are insufficient to establish recommendations. However, results from the French multicenter randomized controlled trial GRECCAR5 (NCT01269567) should provide new evidence this coming year. Accumulating data support that systematic drainage of the abdominal cavity in digestive surgery is a non-beneficial and obsolete practice, except following pancreatectomy where the consensus appears to indicate the usefulness of short-term drainage. While the level of evidence is high for liver resections, new randomized controlled trials are awaited regarding gastric, pancreatic and rectal surgery.

  19. Comparison of Melatonin, Hypertonic Saline, and Hydroxyethyl Starch for Resuscitation of Secondary Intra-Abdominal Hypertension in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Li, Yang; Zhang, Lianyang

    2016-01-01

    A variety of agents may have a beneficial effect in reducing injury-induced intestinal edema of fluid, but studies confirming the efficacy and mechanisms of these agents in secondary intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) are lacking. This study was to compare the effectiveness of melatonin, 7.5% hypertonic saline (HS), and hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (HES) on the resuscitation of secondary IAH in a rat model. Female SD rats were divided into: sham group, shock group, lactated Ringer solution (LR) group, melatonin group, HS group, and HES group. Except for the sham group, all rats underwent a combination of inducing portal hypertension, hemorrhaging to a MAP of 40 mmHg for 2 hr, and using an abdominal restraint device. The collected blood was reinfused and the rats were treated with LR (30ml/h), melatonin (50 mg/kg) + LR, HS (6 ml/kg) + LR, and HES (30 ml/kg) + LR, respectively. The shock group received no fluids. LR was continuously infused for 6hr. The intestinal permeability, immunofluorescence of tight junction proteins, transmission electron microscopy, level of inflammatory mediators (TNF-a, IL-1β, IL-6) and of biochemical markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase activity, and glutathione peroxidase) were assessed. Expressions of the protein kinase B (Akt) and of tight junction proteins were detected by Western blot. Compared with LR, HS, and HES, melatonin was associated with less inflammatory and oxidative injury, less intestinal permeability and injury, and lower incidence of secondary IAH in this model. The salutary effect of melatonin in this model was associated with the upregulation of intestinal Akt phosphorylation. PMID:27560478

  20. Comparison of Melatonin, Hypertonic Saline, and Hydroxyethyl Starch for Resuscitation of Secondary Intra-Abdominal Hypertension in an Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mingtao; Tang, Hao; Liu, Dong; Li, Yang; Zhang, Lianyang

    2016-01-01

    A variety of agents may have a beneficial effect in reducing injury-induced intestinal edema of fluid, but studies confirming the efficacy and mechanisms of these agents in secondary intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) are lacking. This study was to compare the effectiveness of melatonin, 7.5% hypertonic saline (HS), and hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (HES) on the resuscitation of secondary IAH in a rat model. Female SD rats were divided into: sham group, shock group, lactated Ringer solution (LR) group, melatonin group, HS group, and HES group. Except for the sham group, all rats underwent a combination of inducing portal hypertension, hemorrhaging to a MAP of 40 mmHg for 2 hr, and using an abdominal restraint device. The collected blood was reinfused and the rats were treated with LR (30ml/h), melatonin (50 mg/kg) + LR, HS (6 ml/kg) + LR, and HES (30 ml/kg) + LR, respectively. The shock group received no fluids. LR was continuously infused for 6hr. The intestinal permeability, immunofluorescence of tight junction proteins, transmission electron microscopy, level of inflammatory mediators (TNF-a, IL-1β, IL-6) and of biochemical markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase activity, and glutathione peroxidase) were assessed. Expressions of the protein kinase B (Akt) and of tight junction proteins were detected by Western blot. Compared with LR, HS, and HES, melatonin was associated with less inflammatory and oxidative injury, less intestinal permeability and injury, and lower incidence of secondary IAH in this model. The salutary effect of melatonin in this model was associated with the upregulation of intestinal Akt phosphorylation. PMID:27560478

  1. What is the ideal surgical approach for intra-abdominal testes? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wayne, Carolyn; Chan, Emily; Nasr, Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    There is controversy regarding the ideal surgical management of intra-abdominal testes (IAT) to preserve fertility; we conducted a systematic review to address this problem. We performed a comprehensive electronic search of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL from 2008 to September 2014 (the date range was limited due to an abundance of literature), as well as reference lists of included studies. Two researchers screened all studies for inclusion, and quality assessed each relevant study using AMSTAR for systematic reviews (SRs), Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and MINORS for non-randomized studies. We identified two relevant SRs and 29 non-randomized studies. Due to the heterogeneity of the data, meta-analysis was not possible. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are insufficient for identification or localization of IAT; laparoscopic or surgical exploration is necessary. Primary orchiopexy is effective for low IAT, and Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy (FSO) is effective for high IAT. There is no clear benefit of one- vs. two-stage FSO, or of open vs. laparoscopic technique. Several alternative or modified techniques also show promise. RCTs are needed to confirm the validity of these findings, and to assess long-term outcomes.

  2. Intra-Abdominal Abscess and Primary Peritonitis Caused by Streptococcus anginosus

    PubMed Central

    Terzi, Huseyin Agah; Demiray, Tayfur; Koroglu, Mehmet; Cakmak, Guner; Hakki Ciftci, Ihsan; Ozbek, Ahmet; Altindis, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Streptococcus anginosus group of bacteria are low-virulence bacteria existing as commensals in the oral flora and gastrointestinal tracts of humans. S. anginosus may spread to the blood in individuals with poor oral hygiene in cases of oral infections, such as gingivitis and tooth abscesses, that develop following the loss of mucosal unity. This may lead to infections in the whole body, primarily as brain and liver abscesses. Case Presentation A 32-year-old male patient presented with complaints of nausea, vomiting, and diffuse abdominal pain. Diffuse abdominal tenderness and rebound tenderness were detected particularly in the epigastrium and right upper quadrant. Laboratory assessment revealed a leukocyte count of 20,500/mm3. Free fluid around the liver and heterogeneous areas of abscess formation in the right lateral gallbladder were revealed on abdominal computed tomography. Diffuse adhesions between the bowel and seropurulent free liquid in the abdomen were detected on surgical exploration, and a sample was taken for cultures. The patient was discharged without complications on the sixth postoperative day and his antibiotic course was completed with 4 weeks of oral treatment. We reviewed the literature for similar cases of disseminated pyogenic infections caused by the S. anginosus group. Conclusions It should be kept in mind that the oral flora bacterium S. anginosus may cause transient bacteremia and deep-seated organ abscesses in immunodeficient patients with poor oral hygiene. Such patients with intra-abdominal abscesses should be treated with antibiotics and surgery. PMID:27630763

  3. [A Case of Intra-Abdominal Desmoid Tumor with Abacterial Peritonitis].

    PubMed

    Sumiyama, Fusao; Inada, Ryo; Nakamura, Fumiko; Ryota, Hironori; Miki, Hirokazu; Oishi, Masaharu; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Iwamoto, Shigeyoshi; Mukaide, Yumi; Ozaki, Takeshi; Michiura, Taku; Inoue, Kentaro; Kon, Masanori; Miyasaka, Chika; Uemura, Yoshiko; Hamada, Madoka

    2016-03-01

    A woman in her 50s visited our hospital in February 2015 with a complaint of dull abdominal pain in the right lower quadrant. She had a medical history of appendectomy for appendicitis in her 20s. Computed tomography(CT)revealed a tumor 90 mm in diameter near the ileocecum. Elective surgery was planned under the suspicion of gastrointestinal tumor, malignant lymphoma, or ileal cancer. She was emergently hospitalized 1 day earlier than scheduled because of high fever and severe abdominal pain. CT revealed that the tumor had increased to 120 mm in diameter without free air. Her white blood cell count was not elevated, and her symptoms improved readily with medical treatment. Thus, we performed the operation as scheduled. A tumor with a dark red recess on the surface had invaded the transverse colon intraoperatively, and a small amount of purulent ascites was present at the pouch of Douglas. We performed ileocecal resection with partial transverse colectomy. Histopathological examination led to the diagnosis of desmoid tumor in the mesentery of the terminal ileum. The surgical margins were negative for tumor cells. The tumor surface around the recess showed peritonitis, and the ascites showed no bacteria or tumor cells. The patient had been doing well without recurrence after discharge. Some cases of desmoid tumor with peritonitis have been reported, but most were caused by tumor penetration into the intestinal tract. We report herein a rare case of intra-abdominal desmoid tumor with abacterial peritonitis.

  4. [A case of polyarteritis nodosa with intra-abdominal bleeding due to rupture of the hepatic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Teraoka, Hitoshi; Takeuchi, Kazuhiro; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Nitta, Atsunori

    2006-06-01

    A 39-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of abdominal pain. She was diagnosed as intra-abdominal bleeding and an emergency laparotomy was performed. On laparotomy, massive bleeding in the abdominal cavity due to a ruptured aneurysm of the intrahepatic artery was found. We also verified small aneurysm of the common hepatic artery, tinged with red, and was suspected systemic vasculitis. The post-operative course was uneventful, but the subsequent angiography revealed many other small aneurysm of hepatic, renal and lumbar aytery. Then it was diagnosed as polyarteritis nodosa. A case of polyarteritis nodosa presenting with intra-abdominal homorrhage like this case is rare, so we presented here together with a review of the literature.

  5. Ceftazidime-avibactam (CTZ-AVI) as a treatment for hospitalized adult patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Bradley J; Golan, Yoav

    2016-01-01

    Avibactam, a novel β-lactamase inhibitor, has recently been co-formulated with ceftazidime and approved for use in patients with complicated intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections, where no better treatment alternative exists. The basis for its FDA approval has been the extensive clinical experience with ceftazidime and the demonstration in vitro and in animal models that the addition of avibactam reverses resistance to ceftazidime in extended-spectrum β-lactamase and some carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Early clinical data are promising, with efficacy demonstrated in patients with complicated intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections. This review will summarize the in vitro, animal and clinical data available on this agent to date. PMID:27042762

  6. Patients with Risk Factors for Complications Do Not Require Longer Antimicrobial Therapy for Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infection.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Rishi; Allen, Casey J; Sawyer, Robert G; Mazuski, John; Duane, Therese M; Askari, Reza; Banton, Kaysie L; Claridge, Jeffrey A; Coimbra, Raul; Cuschieri, Joseph; Dellinger, E Patchen; Evans, Heather L; Guidry, Christopher A; Miller, Preston R; O'Neill, Patrick J; Rotstein, Ori D; West, Michaela A; Popovsky, Kimberley; Namias, Nicholas

    2016-09-01

    A prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial found that four days of antibiotics for source-controlled complicated intra-abdominal infection resulted in similar outcomes when compared with a longer duration. We hypothesized that patients with specific risk factors for complications also had similar outcomes. Short-course patients with obesity, diabetes, or Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II ≥15 from the STOP-IT trial were compared with longer duration patients. Outcomes included incidence of and days to infectious complications, mortality, and length of stay. Obese and diabetic patients had similar incidences of and days to surgical site infection, recurrent intra-abdominal infection, extra-abdominal infection, and Clostridium difficile infection. Short- and long-course patients had similar incidences of complications among patients with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II ≥15. However, there were fewer days to the diagnosis of surgical site infection (9.5 ± 3.4 vs 21.6 ± 6.2, P = 0.010) and extra-abdominal infection (12.4 ± 6.9 vs 21.8 ± 6.1, P = 0.029) in the short-course group. Mortality and length of stay was similar for all groups. A short course of antibiotics in complicated intra-abdominal infection with source control seems to have similar outcomes to a longer course in patients with diabetes, obesity, or increased severity of illness.

  7. Patients with Risk Factors for Complications Do Not Require Longer Antimicrobial Therapy for Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infection.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Rishi; Allen, Casey J; Sawyer, Robert G; Mazuski, John; Duane, Therese M; Askari, Reza; Banton, Kaysie L; Claridge, Jeffrey A; Coimbra, Raul; Cuschieri, Joseph; Dellinger, E Patchen; Evans, Heather L; Guidry, Christopher A; Miller, Preston R; O'Neill, Patrick J; Rotstein, Ori D; West, Michaela A; Popovsky, Kimberley; Namias, Nicholas

    2016-09-01

    A prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial found that four days of antibiotics for source-controlled complicated intra-abdominal infection resulted in similar outcomes when compared with a longer duration. We hypothesized that patients with specific risk factors for complications also had similar outcomes. Short-course patients with obesity, diabetes, or Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II ≥15 from the STOP-IT trial were compared with longer duration patients. Outcomes included incidence of and days to infectious complications, mortality, and length of stay. Obese and diabetic patients had similar incidences of and days to surgical site infection, recurrent intra-abdominal infection, extra-abdominal infection, and Clostridium difficile infection. Short- and long-course patients had similar incidences of complications among patients with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II ≥15. However, there were fewer days to the diagnosis of surgical site infection (9.5 ± 3.4 vs 21.6 ± 6.2, P = 0.010) and extra-abdominal infection (12.4 ± 6.9 vs 21.8 ± 6.1, P = 0.029) in the short-course group. Mortality and length of stay was similar for all groups. A short course of antibiotics in complicated intra-abdominal infection with source control seems to have similar outcomes to a longer course in patients with diabetes, obesity, or increased severity of illness. PMID:27670577

  8. [Intra-abdominal pressure as a surgery predictor in patients with acute abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Campos-Muñoz, Manuel Alejandro; Villarreal-Ríos, Enrique; Chimal-Torres, Mariano; Pozas-Medina, Josué Atila

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la presión intraabdominal es el estado de equilibrio de la presión de la cavidad abdominal en reposo y puede presentar cambios durante la ventilación mecánica o espontánea. El objetivo fue determinar la presión intraabdominal como predictor de cirugía en el paciente con dolor abdominal agudo. Métodos: se llevó a cabo un estudio de casos y controles anidado en una cohorte de pacientes con dolor abdominal agudo en el servicio de urgencias de un hospital de segundo nivel, en el periodo comprendido entre abril y diciembre de 2013. Se incluyeron 37 pacientes, todos fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente con previa toma de la presión intraabdominal. Se formaron los grupos con el resultado del estudio anatomopatológico: con evidencia de proceso inflamatorio abdominal agudo (n = 28) y sin evidencia de proceso inflamatorio abdominal agudo (n = 9). Resultados: en los casos el 100 % presentó presión intraabdominal alta con una p = 0.01, RM: 5 (IC 95 %: 2.578-9.699). En los casos la media de la presión intraabdominal fue de 11.46 y en los controles de 9.2 (p = 0.183). Conclusiones: el dolor abdominal que requiere cirugía para su resolución tiene relación directa con una presión intraabdominal > 5 mmHg.

  9. Inhibition of skeletal muscle protein synthesis in septic intra-abdominal abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Vary, T.C.; Siegel, J.H.; Tall, B.D.; Morris, J.G.; Smith, J.A.

    1988-07-01

    Chronic sepsis is always associated with profound wasting leading to increased release of amino acids from skeletal muscle. Net protein catabolism may be due to decreased rate of synthesis, increased rate of degradation, or both. To determine whether protein synthesis is altered in chronic sepsis, the rate of protein synthesis in vivo was estimated by measuring the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)-phenylalanine in skeletal muscle protein in a chronic (5-day) septic rat model induced by creation of a stable intra-abdominal abscess using an E. coli + B. fragilis-infected sterile fecal-agar pellet as foreign body nidus. Septic rats failed to gain weight at rates similar to control animals, therefore control animals were weight matched to the septic animals. The skeletal muscle protein content in septic animals was significantly reduced relative to control animals (0.18 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.21 +/- 0.01 mg protein/gm wet wt; p less than 0.02). The rate of incorporation of (/sup 3/H)-phenylalanine into skeletal muscle protein from control animals was 39 +/- 4 nmole/gm wet wt/hr or a fractional synthetic rate of 5.2 +/- 0.5%/day. In contrast to control animals, the fractional synthetic rate in septic animals (2.6 +/- 0.2%/day) was reduced by 50% compared to control animals (p less than 0.005). The decreased rate of protein synthesis in sepsis was not due to an energy deficit, as high-energy phosphates and ATP/ADP ratio were not altered. This decrease in protein synthesis occurred even though septic animals consumed as much food as control animals.

  10. Critical evaluation of ceftolozane–tazobactam for complicated urinary tract and intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    Giancola, Stephanie E; Mahoney, Monica V; Bias, Tiffany E; Hirsch, Elizabeth B

    2016-01-01

    The rise in resistant Gram-negative pathogens continues to challenge clinicians treating infections. These resistant infections have inspired the development of new antimicrobial agents, including ceftolozane–tazobactam, a novel β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combination approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs) and complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) in combination with metronidazole. Ceftolozane exhibits bactericidal activity by inhibiting penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), with high affinity for PBP1b, PBP1c, and PBP3. The addition of tazobactam protects ceftolozane from hydrolysis by irreversibly binding to some β-lactamase enzymes. Ceftolozane–tazobactam is active against a wide range of Gram-negative pathogens, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae and multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, several streptococcal species, and Bacteroides fragilis. When anaerobic coverage is needed, it should be used in combination with metronidazole. Ceftolozane demonstrates linear pharmacokinetics, low protein binding, and minimal accumulation with repeated dosing. The major pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic index for ceftolozane is the percentage of the dosing interval in which the plasma free drug concentration remains higher than the minimum inhibitory concentration (%T.MIC). Phase III clinical trials for the treatment of cUTIs and cIAIs have been completed, showing that it is an effective and safe alternative for the treatment of these infections. The approved dose for cUTIs and cIAIs is 1.5 g (1 g ceftolozane and 500 mg tazobactam) infused over 1 hour every 8 hours. A higher 3 g dose is currently in Phase III trials for the treatment of ventilated nosocomial pneumonia. Dosage adjustments are necessary for patients with moderate-to-severe renal impairment. Current data suggest that ceftolozane–tazobactam is a promising carbapenem

  11. Effects of Intraperitoneal Administration of Simvastatin in Prevention of Postoperative Intra-abdominal Adhesion Formation in Animal Model of Rat

    PubMed Central

    Javaherzadeh, Mojtaba; Shekarchizadeh, Ali; Kafaei, Marjan; Mirafshrieh, Abass; Mosaffa, Nariman; Sabet, Babak

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the preventive effects of local administration of simvastatin for postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion formation in animal model of rat.  Methods: In this experimental study, 32 Wistar albino rats as the animal model of intra-abdominal adhesion formation were included. Adhesions were induced in all the animals via abrasion of the peritoneal and intestinal surface during laparotomy. Afterwards, the rats were randomly assigned to receive simvastatin (30 mg/kg body weight) as a single intraperitoneal dose at the time of laparotomy (n=16) or normal saline in same volume at the same time (n=16). At the day 21, animals were euthanized and the adhesions were quantified clinically (via repeated laparotomy) and pathologically and compared between the two groups. Results: The baseline characteristics of the animals were comparable between two study groups. Clinically, in simvastatin group, 10 rats (62.5%) did not develop any adhesion and 6 (37.5%) had first-grade adhesion; whereas in the control group, 11 (68.8%) rats had first- and 5 (31.2%) had second-grade adhesions (p<0.001). Pathologically, in simvastatin group, 6 rats (37.5%) had first-grade adhesion, while in control group, 11 rats (68.8%) had first- and 5 (31.2%) had second-grade adhesions (p<0.001). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that intraperitoneal administration of simvastatin is an effective method for prevention of postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion formation in animal model of rat.   PMID:27540550

  12. Spectrally selective UV bactericidal effect for curative treatment of post-surgical intra-abdominal abscesses and other infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudelzak, Alexander E.; Miller, Mark A.; Babichenko, Sergey M.

    2004-07-01

    Results of in-vitro studies of bactericidal effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on strains causing drug-resistant endo-cavital infections (Enterococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and others) are presented. An original technique to measure effects of UV-irradiation on bacterial growth at different wavelengths has been developed. Spectral dependences of the bactericidal effect have been observed, and spectral maxima of bactericidal efficiency have been found. Applications to curative treatments of wounds, post-surgical intra-abdominal abscesses and other diseases are discussed.

  13. Profile of ceftolozane/tazobactam and its potential in the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    Skalweit, Marion J

    2015-01-01

    Drug-resistant pathogens have gained a foothold especially in the most vulnerable patient populations, hospitalized and immunocompromised individuals. Furthermore, extended-spectrum β-lactamase and carbapenemase-producing organisms are finding their way even into the community, with patients presenting to the hospital with established colonization and infection with resistant Enterobacteriaceae in particular. Recently, a novel antipseudomonal cephalosporin in combination with an established Class A β-lactamase inhibitor, ceftolozane/tazobactam has been approved by the FDA for use in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections. Ceftolozane is a uniquely potent antipseudomonal cephalosporin because of its high affinity for the penicillin-binding proteins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, its low affinity for the intrinsic Class C β-lactamases of P. aeruginosa, its ability to enter P. aeruginosa through the outer membrane without the utilization of OprD protein, and the fact that it is not a substrate of the often upregulated MexAB/OprM efflux system of P. aeruginosa. The biological chemistry, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, microbiologic spectrum, and clinical trials that led to the approval of ceftolozane is reviewed. A discussion regarding its potential role in the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections and other infectious disease syndromes associated with drug-resistant pathogens follows. PMID:26082619

  14. Association of intra-abdominal pathologies and vascular anomalies with infrarenal aortic aneurysm: a computed tomographic study.

    PubMed

    Matano, R; Gennaro, M; Mohan, C; Ascer, E

    1993-02-01

    The prevalence of potentially significant intra-abdominal pathologies or vascular anomalies in candidates for infrarenal aortic aneurysm repair remains unclear. This study retrospectively reviewed 130 consecutive patients with aortic aneurysms (4.5-10.0 cm in largest diameter) who had undergone contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography. The overall incidence of potentially significant pathologies was 31.5%. Gallstones were detected in 25 patients (19.2%), adrenal masses in six (4.6%), pancreatic tumors in two (1.5%), renal stones in two (1.5%), liver metastases in one (0.8%), retroperitoneal lymphoma in one (0.8%) and left gastric artery aneurysm in one (0.8%). Other pathologies included renal cysts in 42 patients (32.3%), colonic diverticulosis in nine (6.9%) and hepatic cysts in three (2.3%). Major vascular anomalies were encountered in only three of the 130 patients (2.3%) and these included two with a left-sided inferior vena cava and one case of retroaortic left renal vein. This study emphasizes the high incidence of potentially significant intra-abdominal pathologies and the low incidence of major vascular anomalies associated with infrarenal aortic aneurysm. The impact of such findings on the management of aortic aneurysms is discussed.

  15. Severe retroperitoneal and intra-abdominal bleeding after stapling procedure for prolapsed haemorrhoids (PPH); diagnosis, treatment and 6-year follow-up of the case.

    PubMed

    Safadi, Wajdi; Altshuler, Alexander; Kiv, Sakal; Waksman, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Procedure for prolapsed haemorrhoids (PPH) is a popular treatment of haemorrhoids. PPH has the advantages of a shorter operation time, minor degree of postoperative pain, shorter hospital stay and quicker recovery but may be followed by several postoperative complications. Rectal bleeding, acute pain, chronic pain, rectovaginal fistula, complete rectal obliteration, rectal stenosis, rectal pocket, tenesmus, faecal urgency, faecal incontinence, rectal perforation, pelvic sepsis and rectal haematoma have all been reported as postoperative complications of PPH. Additionally, one rare complication of the procedure is intra-abdominal bleeding. There are a few case reports describing intra-abdominal bleeding after the procedure. We report a case of a 26-year-old man who developed severe intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal haemorrhage after PPH. The diagnosis was made on the second postoperative day by CT of the abdomen and pelvis. The patient was treated conservatively and had an uneventful recovery.

  16. Comparison of Intraperitoneal Honey and Sodium Hyaluronate-Carboxymethylcellulose (Seprafilm™) for the Prevention of Postoperative Intra-Abdominal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Emre, Arif; Akin, Murat; Isikgonul, Ipek; Yuksel, Osman; Anadol, Ahmet Ziya; Cifter, Cagatay

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal surgery can lead to postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions (PIAAs) with significant morbidity and mortality. This study compares the use of honey with a standard bioresorbable membrane (Seprafilm™) to prevent the formation of PIAAs in rats. METHODS: Thirty rats underwent laparotomy, and PIAAs were induced by scraping the cecum. The animals were divided into three groups, each containing ten rats. Group 1 (control) represented the cecal abrasion group, with no intraperitoneal administration of any substance. Group 2 (honey group) underwent cecal abrasion and intraperitoneal administration of honey. Group 3 (Seprafilm™ group) underwent cecal abrasion and intraperitoneal Seprafilm™ application. RESULTS: Group 1 exhibited higher adhesion scores for adhesions between the abdominal wall and the organs. Groups 2 and 3 had decreased adhesive attachments to the intra-abdominal structures. Compared to group 1, the incidence of adhesion formation was lower in both group 2 (p=0.001) and group 3 (p=0.001). The incidence of fibrosis was also lower in group 2 (p=0.016) and group 3 (p=0.063) compared to group 1. There was no significant difference between the histopathological fibrosis scores for the rats in group 2 and those in group 3 (p= 0.688). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that both honey and Seprafilm™ decrease the incidence of PIAAs in the rat cecal abrasion model. Although the mechanism of action is not clear, intraperitoneal administration of honey reduced PIAAs. The outcome of this study demonstrates that honey is as effective as Seprafilm™ in preventing PIAAs. PMID:19488596

  17. Efficacy of Different β-Lactams against an Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain in the Rat Intra-Abdominal Abscess Model

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Louis B.; Yao, Joseph D. C.; Klimm, Karin; Eliopoulos, George M.; Moellering, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    Although standard-inoculum MICs were within the susceptible range for all compounds, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, and cefpirome were significantly less effective than imipenem or the combination of cefoperazone and sulbactam in the treatment of rat intra-abdominal abscesses due to an extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae. PMID:1929273

  18. T helper type 2-polarized invariant natural killer T cells reduce disease severity in acute intra-abdominal sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Anantha, R V; Mazzuca, D M; Xu, S X; Porcelli, S A; Fraser, D D; Martin, C M; Welch, I; Mele, T; Haeryfar, S M M; McCormick, J K

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is characterized by a severe systemic inflammatory response to infection that is associated with high morbidity and mortality despite optimal care. Invariant natural killer T (iNK T) cells are potent regulatory lymphocytes that can produce pro- and/or anti-inflammatory cytokines, thus shaping the course and nature of immune responses; however, little is known about their role in sepsis. We demonstrate here that patients with sepsis/severe sepsis have significantly elevated proportions of iNK T cells in their peripheral blood (as a percentage of their circulating T cells) compared to non-septic patients. We therefore investigated the role of iNK T cells in a mouse model of intra-abdominal sepsis (IAS). Our data show that iNK T cells are pathogenic in IAS, and that T helper type 2 (Th2) polarization of iNK T cells using the synthetic glycolipid OCH significantly reduces mortality from IAS. This reduction in mortality is associated with the systemic elevation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-13 and reduction of several proinflammatory cytokines within the spleen, notably interleukin (IL)-17. Finally, we show that treatment of sepsis with OCH in mice is accompanied by significantly reduced apoptosis of splenic T and B lymphocytes and macrophages, but not natural killer cells. We propose that modulation of iNK T cell responses towards a Th2 phenotype may be an effective therapeutic strategy in early sepsis. PMID:24965554

  19. Clinical characteristics and antimicrobial patterns in complicated intra-abdominal infections: a 6-year epidemiological study in southern China.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wenwei; Xue, Huiling; Chen, Yunqin; Gao, Weiguo; Li, Xiaoyan; Wei, Jia; Wen, Zehuai

    2016-03-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAIs) are a common and important cause of morbidity worldwide. In this study, the clinical features, microbiological profiles, antimicrobial patterns and treatments of 3233 cIAI patients (mean age, 47.6 years; 54.7% male) with 3531 hospitalisations from 2008-2013 were retrospectively investigated. The most commonly isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli (47.6%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (16.9%), Enterococcus faecalis (10.4%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.8%). Ciprofloxacin, aminoglycoside (gentamicin), piperacillin/tazobactam and carbapenems exhibited activity against 53%, 76%, 88% and 100% of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Enterobacteriaceae isolates, respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates exhibited 100%, 95%, 88%, 71% and 76% susceptibility to aminoglycoside (gentamicin), ciprofloxacin, meropenem, imipenem and ceftazidime, respectively, and Enterococcus remained 100% susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. β-Lactam antibacterials other than penicillin (specifically third-generation cephalosporins) and imidazole derivatives (ornidazole and metronidazole) were the most common first-line treatments. Patients subjected to regimen change after initial antibiotic treatment had predisposing conditions (e.g. older age, more severe co-morbidities) and a higher incidence of P. aeruginosa infection; in addition, these patients encountered a higher average cost of care and worse clinical outcomes compared with those without medication modification. Taken together, these findings indicate the importance of appropriate initial empirical therapy and suggest the use of combination therapy comprising cephalosporins and metronidazole. PMID:26899413

  20. Changes in fat intake, body fat composition and intra-abdominal fat after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Lim, Heesook; Jeong, Gui Ae; Cho, Gyu Seok; Lee, Min Hee; Kim, Soonkyung

    2014-07-01

    Bariatric surgery is considered to be the effective treatment alternative conducted over the lifetime for reducing weight in patients with clinically morbid obesity. For many patients, the benefits of weight loss, including decreases in blood glucose, lipids, and blood pressure as well as increase in mobility, will outweigh the risks of surgical complications. But patients undergoing bariatric surgery have the least risk for long-term diet-related complications as reported in several studies. Thus, with an increasing number of severely obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery, the multidisciplinary healthcare system will need to be managed continuously. Many nutrition support specialists will need to become familiar with the metabolic consequences for the frequent monitoring of nutrition status of the patients. South Korea has a very short history with bariatric surgery, and relatively few studies have been conducted on bariatric surgery. Therefore, the objective of this report was to compare the nutrient intake, weight loss, body fat composition, and visceral fat before and after the bariatric surgery.

  1. [Abdominal pregnancy: hormon concentrations during the postpartal period with placenta remaining intra-abdominal (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Gethmann, U; Mönkemeier, D

    1977-07-01

    It is reported of an abdominal pregnancy at term. The placenta was left in situ because of the high risk of intraabdominal bleedings. Thereby it was possible to measure hormon concentrations of the fetoplacental unit without the fetal compartment. Within 10 days after delivery we determined the plasma levels of estradiol-17 beta, estriol, progesterone, HCS, alpha1fetoprotein, and the excretion of the total estrogens in the urines. There was near the same decrease of hormon concentrations in the post partal time comparable with that of a normal pregnancy. Only the HCS concentrations didn't change in the first 9 days after delivery.

  2. Intra-abdominal recurrence of colorectal cancer detected by radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS system)

    SciTech Connect

    Sardi, A.; Workman, M.; Mojzisik, C.; Hinkle, G.; Nieroda, C.; Martin, E.W. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Since 1986, 32 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer have undergone second-look radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS system). The primary tumor was located in the right and transverse colon in 11 patients, left and sigmoid colon in 16, and rectum in five. The carcinoembryonic antigen level was elevated in 30 patients (94%); all patients underwent a computed tomographic scan of the abdomen and pelvis. The overall sensitivity of the computed tomographic scan was 41% (abdomen other than liver, 27%; liver, 58%; and pelvis, 22%). The RIGS system identified recurrent tumor in 81% of the patients. The most common site of metastasis was the liver (41%), independent of the primary location. Local/regional recurrences alone accounted for 40% of all recurrences. In six patients (18%), recurrent tumor was found only with the RIGS system. The RIGS system is more dependable in localizing clinically obscure metastases than other methods, and carcinoembryonic antigen testing remains the most accurate preoperative method to indicate suspected recurrences.

  3. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Spontaneous regression of advanced intra-abdominal metastases with 20 year survival.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, C E; Vansant, J H

    1979-01-01

    A 35-year-old man with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome who is alive and well 20 years following diagnosis at age 15, is represented. At the initial operation for a bleeding duodenal ulcer a ZE tumor of the pancreas also was excised. After two additional ineffective ulcer operations, total gastrectomy was performed. At that time, retroperitoneal and peripancreatic metastases were noted, and several were removed. Three years later at laparotomy, extensive hepatic metastases were biopsied as well. Spontaneous remission occurred and when re-explored at age 34, after 14 years, no metastases were identifiable in any area. The serum gastrin level has remained elevated, casting doubt upon its value as a criterion for evaluation of tumor recurrence or activity. Other additional interesting aspects are discussed. The importance of elimination of the acid-secreting cells by total gastrectomy is emphasized. The patient remains well. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:443914

  4. Dietary calcium intake is associated with less gain in intra-abdominal adipose tissue over 1 yr

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Nikki C.; Alvarez, Jessica A.; Choquette, Suzanne S.; Hunter, Gary R.; Oster, Robert A.; Darnell, Betty E.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Calcium intake is reported to enhance weight loss with a preferential loss in trunk fat. Discrepant findings exist as to the effects of calcium intake on longitudinal changes in total fat mass and central fat deposition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine associations between dietary calcium intake and 1-yr change in body composition and fat distribution, specifically intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT). 119 healthy, premenopausal women were evaluated at baseline and 1 yr later. Average dietary calcium was determined via 4-day food records. Total fat was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) and IAAT by computed tomography. Over the study period, participants’ reported daily calcium and energy intakes were 610.0 ± 229.9 mg and 1623.1 ± 348.5 kcals, respectively. The mean change in weight, total fat, IAAT, and SAAT were +4.9 ± 4.4 kg, +5.3 ± 4.0 kg, +7.7 ± 19.5 cm2, and +49.3 ± 81.1 cm2, respectively. Average calcium intake was significantly, inversely associated with 1-yr change in IAAT (standardized β: −0.23, P<0.05) after adjusting for confounding variables. For every 100 mg/day of calcium consumed, gain in IAAT was reduced by 2.7 cm2. No significant associations were observed for average calcium intake with change in weight, total fat, or SAAT. In conclusion, dietary calcium intake was significantly associated with less gain in IAAT over 1 yr in premenopausal women. Further investigation is needed to verify these findings and determine the calcium intake needed to exert beneficial effects on fat distribution. PMID:20203630

  5. Primary bacteraemia is associated with a higher mortality risk compared with pulmonary and intra-abdominal infections in patients with sepsis: a prospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mansur, Ashham; Klee, Yvonne; Popov, Aron Frederik; Erlenwein, Joachim; Ghadimi, Michael; Beissbarth, Tim; Bauer, Martin; Hinz, José

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether common infection foci (pulmonary, intra-abdominal and primary bacteraemia) are associated with variations in mortality risk in patients with sepsis. Design Prospective, observational cohort study. Setting Three surgical intensive care units (ICUs) at a university medical centre. Participants A total of 327 adult Caucasian patients with sepsis originating from pulmonary, intra-abdominal and primary bacteraemia participated in this study. Primary and secondary outcome measures The patients were followed for 90 days and mortality risk was recorded as the primary outcome variable. To monitor organ failure, sepsis-related organ failure assessment (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, SOFA) scores were evaluated at the onset of sepsis and throughout the observational period as secondary outcome variables. Results A total of 327 critically ill patients with sepsis were enrolled in this study. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the 90-day mortality risk was significantly higher among patients with primary bacteraemia than among those with pulmonary and intra-abdominal foci (58%, 35% and 32%, respectively; p=0.0208). To exclude the effects of several baseline variables, we performed multivariate Cox regression analysis. Primary bacteraemia remained a significant covariate for mortality in the multivariate analysis (HR 2.10; 95% CI 1.14 to 3.86; p=0.0166). During their stay in the ICU, the patients with primary bacteraemia presented significantly higher SOFA scores than those of the patients with pulmonary and intra-abdominal infection foci (8.5±4.7, 7.3±3.4 and 5.8±3.5, respectively). Patients with primary bacteraemia presented higher SOFA-renal score compared with the patients with other infection foci (1.6±1.4, 0.8±1.1 and 0.7±1.0, respectively); the patients with primary bacteraemia required significantly more renal replacement therapy than the patients in the other groups (29%, 11% and 12%, respectively). Conclusions

  6. High pressure liquid level monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bean, Vern E.; Long, Frederick G.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  7. Level indicator for pressure vessels

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1982-04-28

    A liquid-level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic-field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal-processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  8. Intra-abdominal adhesions in ultrasound. Part I: The visceroperitoneal bordeline, anatomy and the method of examination.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Starzyńska, Teresa; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bojko, Stefania; Gałdyńska, Maria; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta; Walecka, Anna

    2012-12-01

    It needs to be emphasized that ultrasonography is a primary test performed in order to evaluate the abdominal wall and structures located in their vicinity. It allows for the determination of the anatomy and lesions in this localization. Thorough knowledge concerning the ultrasound anatomy of the tested structures constitutes a basis of all diagnostic successes. Therefore, this part of the article is devoted to this subject matter. The possibility to diagnose intra-abdominal adhesions with ultrasound is underestimated and rarely used. The aim of this paper is to discuss and document the ultrasound anatomy of the posterior surface of the abdominal wall as well as to present techniques directed at the detection of adhesions, in particular the visceroperitoneal ones. The posterior surface of the abdominal wall constitutes an extensive tissue area of complex structure, with folds and ligaments surrounded by various amounts of the epiperitoneal fat. In some places, this tissue separates the components of the fascia and peritoneum complex. The ultrasound manifestation of this complex is two hyperechogenic lines placed parallelly to each other in the places where they are not separated by the accumulated adipose tissue. Another factor which separates the peritoneum from the viscera is of dynamic character. It is a so-called visceral slide induced by easy or deep breathing. Its size should not be lower than 1 cm and the deflections gradually and symmetrically diminish from the epigastric to hypogastric region. Last but not least, the evaluation of the reciprocal relation of the abdominal wall with viscera may be aided by rhythmical manual compressions on the abdominal wall (ballottement sign) performed below the applied ultrasound transducer. During this test, the size of the visceral slide in relation to the abdominal wall is observed. The maneuver is usually performed in uncooperative patients or those with shallow breath. The authors' own experiences indicate that the

  9. Differential effects of aging and exercise on intra-abdominal adipose arteriolar function and blood flow regulation

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Robert T.; Stabley, John N.; Dominguez, James M.; Ramsey, Michael W.; McCullough, Danielle J.; Lesniewski, Lisa A.; Delp, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT), which typically comprises an increased percentage of body mass with advancing age, receives a large proportion of resting cardiac output. During exercise, an old age-associated inability to increase vascular resistance within the intra-abdominal AT may compromise the ability of the cardiovascular system to redistribute blood flow to the active musculature, contributing to the decline in exercise capacity observed in this population. We tested the hypotheses that 1) there would be an elevated perfusion of AT during exercise with old age that was associated with diminished vasoconstrictor responses of adipose-resistance arteries, and 2) chronic exercise training would mitigate the age-associated alterations in AT blood flow and vascular function. Young (6 mo; n = 40) and old (24 mo; n = 28) male Fischer 344 rats were divided into young sedentary (YSed), old sedentary (OSed), young exercise trained (YET), or old exercise trained (OET) groups, where training consisted of 10-12 wk of treadmill exercise. In vivo blood flow at rest and during exercise and in vitro α-adrenergic and myogenic vasoconstrictor responses in resistance arteries from AT were measured in all groups. In response to exercise, there was a directionally opposite change in AT blood flow in the OSed group (∼150% increase) and YSed (∼55% decrease) vs. resting values. Both α-adrenergic and myogenic vasoconstriction were diminished in OSed vs. YSed AT-resistance arteries. Exercise training resulted in a similar AT hyperemic response between age groups during exercise (YET, 9.9 ± 0.5 ml·min−1·100−1 g; OET, 8.1 ± 0.9 ml·min−1·100−1 g) and was associated with enhanced myogenic and α-adrenergic vasoconstriction of AT-resistance arteries from the OET group relative to OSed. These results indicate that there is an inability to increase vascular resistance in AT during exercise with old age, due, in part, to a diminished vasoconstriction of AT arteries. Furthermore, the

  10. Comparative Population Plasma and Tissue Pharmacokinetics of Micafungin in Critically Ill Patients with Severe Burn Injuries and Patients with Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infection.

    PubMed

    García-de-Lorenzo, A; Luque, S; Grau, S; Agrifoglio, A; Cachafeiro, L; Herrero, E; Asensio, M J; Sánchez, S M; Roberts, J A

    2016-10-01

    Severely burned patients have altered drug pharmacokinetics (PKs), but it is unclear how different they are from those in other critically ill patient groups. The aim of the present study was to compare the population pharmacokinetics of micafungin in the plasma and burn eschar of severely burned patients with those of micafungin in the plasma and peritoneal fluid of postsurgical critically ill patients with intra-abdominal infection. Fifteen burn patients were compared with 10 patients with intra-abdominal infection; all patients were treated with 100 to 150 mg/day of micafungin. Micafungin concentrations in serial blood, peritoneal fluid, and burn tissue samples were determined and were subjected to a population pharmacokinetic analysis. The probability of target attainment was calculated using area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h/MIC cutoffs of 285 for Candida parapsilosis and 3,000 for non-parapsilosis Candida spp. by Monte Carlo simulations. Twenty-five patients (18 males; median age, 50 years; age range, 38 to 67 years; median total body surface area burned, 50%; range of total body surface area burned, 35 to 65%) were included. A three-compartment model described the data, and only the rate constant for the drug distribution from the tissue fluid to the central compartment was statistically significantly different between the burn and intra-abdominal infection patients (0.47 ± 0.47 versus 0.15 ± 0.06 h(-1), respectively; P < 0.05). Most patients would achieve plasma PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) targets of 90% for non-parapsilosis Candida spp. and C. parapsilosis with MICs of 0.008 and 0.064 mg/liter, respectively, for doses of 100 mg daily and 150 mg daily. The PKs of micafungin were not significantly different between burn patients and intra-abdominal infection patients. After the first dose, micafungin at 100 mg/day achieved the PK/PD targets in plasma for MIC values of ≤0.008 mg/liter and ≤0.064 mg/liter for non-parapsilosis Candida spp

  11. Pressure Measurement Techniques for Abdominal Hypertension: Conclusions from an Experimental Model.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Sascha Santosh; Wolf, Stefan; Rohde, Veit; Freimann, Florian Baptist

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurement is an indispensable tool for the diagnosis of abdominal hypertension. Different techniques have been described in the literature and applied in the clinical setting. Methods. A porcine model was created to simulate an abdominal compartment syndrome ranging from baseline IAP to 30 mmHg. Three different measurement techniques were applied, comprising telemetric piezoresistive probes at two different sites (epigastric and pelvic) for direct pressure measurement and intragastric and intravesical probes for indirect measurement. Results. The mean difference between the invasive IAP measurements using telemetric pressure probes and the IVP measurements was -0.58 mmHg. The bias between the invasive IAP measurements and the IGP measurements was 3.8 mmHg. Compared to the realistic results of the intraperitoneal and intravesical measurements, the intragastric data showed a strong tendency towards decreased values. The hydrostatic character of the IAP was eliminated at high-pressure levels. Conclusion. We conclude that intragastric pressure measurement is potentially hazardous and might lead to inaccurately low intra-abdominal pressure values. This may result in missed diagnosis of elevated abdominal pressure or even ACS. The intravesical measurements showed the most accurate values during baseline pressure and both high-pressure plateaus. PMID:26113992

  12. Comparison of 99m technetium hexamethylpropylene-amine oxime labelled leucocyte with 111-indium tropolonate labelled granulocyte scanning and ultrasound in the diagnosis of intra-abdominal abscess.

    PubMed Central

    Weldon, M J; Joseph, A E; French, A; Saverymuttu, S H; Maxwell, J D

    1995-01-01

    Fifty patients with suspected intra-abdominal abscess were investigated prospectively with ultrasound and with 99mTc-hexamethylpropylene-amine oxime (HMPAO) isotope labelled mixed leucocytes, using 111-In tropolonate granulocyte scanning as the reference standard. Twenty five patients had inflammatory bowel disease (three were postoperative): 21 of these had Crohn's disease and four had ulcerative colitis. The remainder comprised nine with postoperative fever and 16 with fever and abdominal pain. An abscess was diagnosed when focal activity on serial 111-In tropolonate and 99m-Tc-HMPOA images at one, three, and 24 hours resulted in activity at least equal to liver activity at 24 hours. Thirteen abscesses were diagnosed using each type of white cell scanning, resulting in 100% sensitivity for 99m-Tc-HMPAO compared with 111-In tropolonate. Bowel inflammation was easily distinguished from abscess on serial images. Eight of these 13 abscesses were detected by ultrasound. Altogether 17 abscesses were found. Ultrasound detected 12, including four liver abscesses which were not purulent and had not been detected by white cell scanning. Ultrasound had a sensitivity of 71% (12 of 17) and a specificity of 87% (33 of 38) using all confirmed abscesses as the reference standard. White cell scanning showed a sensitivity of 76% (13 of 17: as a result of the four non-purulent liver abscesses) and a specificity of 100%. 99m-Tc-HMPAO scanning is as accurate as 111-In tropolonate scanning, and has several advantages including simplicity, availability, superior image quality, and reduced radiation dose. Both methods are more sensitive and specific than ultrasound for intra-abdominal abscess detection but ultrasound is advisable if a neutrophil infiltrate is not suspected. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7489945

  13. A prospective randomized trial of imipenem-cilastatin versus clindamycin/tobramycin in the treatment of intra-abdominal and pelvic infections

    PubMed Central

    Mandell, Lionel A; Turgeon, Pierre L; Ronalds, Allan R

    1993-01-01

    Objective: A Canadian multicentre clinical trial in the treatment of intra-abdominal and pelvic infections to compare the efficacy and safety of monotherapy using imipenem-cilastatin (imipenem) (500 mg intravenously every 6 h) versus combination therapy with clindamycin/tobramycin (clindamycin 600 mg intravenously every 6 h and tobramycin 1.7 mg/kg intravenously every 8 h). Methods: Two hundred and fifty patients were entered (88 definite and 162 possible infections) and all were evaluable for analysis of adverse events and intention to treat analysis of efficacy. Dichotomous outcomes used were: cured versus noncured (improved, failed, relapsed). Results: No statistically significant differences were found with the intention to treat analysis (P=0.88) or with definite infections (P=0.81). For overall bacteriological response, no significant differences were noted (P=0.1). Eleven and 15 patients on imipenem and clindamycin/tobramycin, respectively, were colonized with bacteria. Enterococci colonized four of 11 imipenem cases and five of 15 clindamycin/tobramycin cases while fungi colonized six patients on imipenem and four on clindamycin/tobramycin. Five patients on imipenem and seven on clindamycin/tobramycin developed superinfection. In the imipenem group, one case had a bacterial superinfection while four cases were due to Candida albicans. Seven of seven superinfections on clindamycin/tobramycin were bacterial. Three bacteria initially sensitive to the assigned study drug developed resistance. In two patients on imipenem, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa became resistant after 14 and 10 days of therapy, respectively. On clindamycin/tobramycin, one instance of Bacteroides fragilis resistance after eight days of therapy was seen. Eighty-three adverse events occurred; 47 in the imipenem group and 36 in the clindamycin/tobramycin group. This resulted in discontinuation of antibacterial therapy in 13 patients, seven of whom were on imipenem and six on

  14. Antibiotic optimization in the difficult-to-treat patient with complicated intra-abdominal or complicated skin and skin structure infections: focus on tigecycline

    PubMed Central

    Reygaert, Wanda C

    2010-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal and skin and skin structure infections are widely varied in presentation. These infections very often lead to an increase in length of hospital stay, with a resulting increase in costs and mortality. In addition, these infections may be caused by a wide variety of bacteria and are often polymicrobial with the possibility of the presence of antimicrobial-resistant strains, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, extended-spectrum β-lactamase strains (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae), and K. pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing strains. In combination with patients’ immunosuppression or comorbidities, the treatment and management options for initial therapy success are few. Tigecycline, a new glycylcyline antimicrobial from the tetracycline drug class, represents a viable option for the successful treatment of these infections. It has been shown to have activity against a wide variety of bacteria, including the antimicrobial-resistant strains. As with all tetracycline drugs, it is not recommended for pregnant or nursing women. The potential side effects are those typical of tetracycline drugs: nausea, vomiting, and headaches. Drug–drug interactions are not expected, and renal function monitoring is not necessary. PMID:20856688

  15. Ceftazidime/avibactam: a novel cephalosporin/nonbeta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Jose A; Vinluan, Celeste M; Antony, Nishaal

    2016-01-01

    There has been greater interest in developing additional antimicrobial agents due to the increasing health care costs and resistance resulting from bacterial pathogens to currently available treatment options. Gram-negative organisms including Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are some of the most concerning threats due to their resistance mechanisms: extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase enzymes. Ceftazidime is a third-generation broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against P. aeruginosa and avibactam is a novel nonbeta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor. Avycaz®, the trade name for this new combination antibiotic, restores the activity of ceftazidime against some of the previously resistant pathogens. Avycaz was approved in 2015 for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis, and complicated intra-abdominal infections with the addition of metronidazole in patients with little to no other treatment options. This review article assesses the clinical trials and data that led to the approval of this antibiotic, in addition to its spectrum of activity and limitations. PMID:27528799

  16. Removal of an intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor by repetitive debulking surgery: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    SHIMAZAKI, JIRO; MOTOHASHI, GYO; NISHIDA, KIYOTAKA; TABUCHI, TAKANOBU; UBUKATA, HIDEYUKI; TABUCHI, TAKAFUMI

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, a case of recurrent desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is presented, which was successfully treated by repetitive debulking surgery. In May 2010, a 39-year-old male, with a history of surgical resection of intra-abdominal DSRCT, visited the Ibaraki Medical Center, Tokyo Medical University Hospital (Ami, Japan) with severe lower abdominal discomfort. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large tumor in the pouch of Douglas with a small number of nodules in the abdominal cavity. The recurrent DSRCT was diagnosed and removed via lower anterior resection; however, complete resection was impossible due to multiple peritoneal metastases. One year later, the patient developed pain in the right groin due to the growth of metastasized tumor cells in the groin lymph nodes. The affected lymph nodes were removed utilizing an extra-peritoneal approach. At the time of writing, the patient continues to survive without any symptoms 60 months since the initial surgery. In conclusion, surgical debulking is a significant procedure for relieving patient symptoms as well as improving the survival time of patients with metastatic and recurrent DSRCT. PMID:24765157

  17. [First experience of a polyurethane foam composition "Locus" use to stop intra-abdominal hemorrhage as a result of liver damage of V degree. (An experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Reva, V A; Litinskii, M A; Denisov, A V; Sokhranov, M V; Telitskii, S Yu; Samokhvalov, I M

    2015-04-01

    Today self-expanding polymers are considered as the most promising as means for intracavitary hemostasis in case of continuing bleeding after trauma. Testing of domestic open-cell polyurethane foam composition "Locus" was carried out on the developed experimental model simulating liver trauma of V degree. After damaging 6 experimental rabbits were injected intraperitoneally with 80 ml of the composition. 5 experimental rabbits were included into to control group (haemostatic agent was not given). Estimated blood loss was 111-124 ml. The two-hour survival rate didn't differ significantly: 3 animals survived in the experimental group; 2 animal survived in the control. Despite the 3-4-fold widening of the foam, due to open cells it absorbed 72.6 +/- 8.3 g of blood. Thus, open-cell polyurethane foam intraperitoneal administration of the composition didn't provide a temporary intra-abdominal hemostasis in liver. In order to enhance the hemostatic effect it requires changing the formulation of the polyurethane composition. For a more accurate assessment of the results it is neccessary to perform additional researches on larger animals.

  18. Significant partial response of metastatic intra-abdominal and pelvic round cell liposarcoma to a small-molecule VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor apatinib

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Min; Bi, Jingwang; Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Baocheng; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Myxoid/round cell liposarcoma is the second most common subtype of liposarcoma. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy have a limited efficacy for treating advanced myxoid/round cell liposarcoma, with relatively serious side effects. Case presentation: We herein present a 68-year-old Chinese woman initially diagnosed with advanced multiple intra-abdominal and pelvic round cell liposarcoma. She refused to receive cytotoxic chemotherapy and received apatinib as the first-line therapy, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 that has been used in the treatment of patients with metastatic gastric cancer who progressed with 2 or more chemotherapy regimens. This patient was partially responsive to apatinib with a dose of 500 mg daily. No serious drug-related side effects were observed. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that some cases of liposarcoma may be responsive to antiangiogenic agent apatinib. Randomized clinical studies are needed to further confirm the efficacy and safety of apatinib in the clinical treatment of liposarcoma. PMID:27495042

  19. Ceftazidime/avibactam: a novel cephalosporin/nonbeta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Jose A; Vinluan, Celeste M; Antony, Nishaal

    2016-01-01

    There has been greater interest in developing additional antimicrobial agents due to the increasing health care costs and resistance resulting from bacterial pathogens to currently available treatment options. Gram-negative organisms including Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are some of the most concerning threats due to their resistance mechanisms: extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase enzymes. Ceftazidime is a third-generation broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against P. aeruginosa and avibactam is a novel nonbeta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor. Avycaz(®), the trade name for this new combination antibiotic, restores the activity of ceftazidime against some of the previously resistant pathogens. Avycaz was approved in 2015 for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis, and complicated intra-abdominal infections with the addition of metronidazole in patients with little to no other treatment options. This review article assesses the clinical trials and data that led to the approval of this antibiotic, in addition to its spectrum of activity and limitations. PMID:27528799

  20. Anaphylaxis, Intra-Abdominal Infections, Skin Lacerations, and Behavioral Emergencies: A Literature Review of Austere Analogs for a near Earth Asteroid Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chough, Natacha G.; Watkins, Sharmi; Menon, Anil S.

    2012-01-01

    As space exploration is directed towards destinations beyond low-Earth orbit, the consequent new set of medical risks will drive requirements for new capabilities and more resources to ensure crew health. The Space Medicine Exploration Medical Conditions List (SMEMCL), developed by the Exploration Medical Capability element of the Human Research Program, addresses the risk of "unacceptable health and mission outcomes due to limitations of in-flight medical capabilities". It itemizes 85 evidence-based clinical requirements for eight different mission profiles and identifies conditions warranting further research and technology development. Each condition is given a clinical priority for each mission profile. Four conditions -- intra-abdominal infections, skin lacerations, anaphylaxis, and behavioral emergencies -- were selected as a starting point for analysis. A systematic literature review was performed to understand how these conditions are treated in austere, limited-resource, space-analog environments (i.e., high-altitude and mountain environments, submarines, military deployments, Antarctica, isolated wilderness environments, in-flight environments, and remote, resource-poor, rural environments). These environments serve as analogs to spaceflight because of their shared characteristics (limited medical resources, delay in communication, confined living quarters, difficulty with resupply, variable time to evacuation). Treatment of these four medical conditions in austere environments provides insight into medical equipment and training requirements for exploration-class missions.

  1. Glycine intake decreases plasma free fatty acids, adipose cell size, and blood pressure in sucrose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    El Hafidi, Mohammed; Pérez, Israel; Zamora, Jose; Soto, Virgilia; Carvajal-Sandoval, Guillermo; Baños, Guadalupe

    2004-12-01

    The study investigated the mechanism by which glycine protects against increased circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), fat cell size, intra-abdominal fat accumulation, and blood pressure (BP) induced in male Wistar rats by sucrose ingestion. The addition of 1% glycine to the drinking water containing 30% sucrose, for 4 wk, markedly reduced high BP in sucrose-fed rats (SFR) (122.3 +/- 5.6 vs. 147.6 +/- 5.4 mmHg in SFR without glycine, P < 0.001). Decreases in plasma triglyceride (TG) levels (0.9 +/- 0.3 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.3 mM, P < 0.001), intra-abdominal fat (6.8 +/- 2.16 vs. 14.8 +/- 4.0 g, P < 0.01), and adipose cell size were observed in SFR treated with glycine compared with SFR without treatment. Total NEFA concentration in the plasma of SFR was significantly decreased by glycine intake (0.64 +/- 0.08 vs. 1.11 +/- 0.09 mM in SFR without glycine, P < 0.001). In control animals, glycine decreased glucose, TGs, and total NEFA but without reaching significance. In SFR treated with glycine, mitochondrial respiration, as an indicator of the rate of fat oxidation, showed an increase in the state IV oxidation rate of the beta-oxidation substrates octanoic acid and palmitoyl carnitine. This suggests an enhancement of hepatic fatty acid metabolism, i.e., in their transport, activation, or beta-oxidation. These findings imply that the protection by glycine against elevated BP might be attributed to its effect in increasing fatty acid oxidation, reducing intra-abdominal fat accumulation and circulating NEFA, which have been proposed as links between obesity and hypertension.

  2. Genetic variations in toll-like receptor 4 in Mexican-Mestizo patients with intra-abdominal infection and/or pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Osorio, Carlos A; Lima, Guadalupe; Herrera-Caceres, Jaime O; Villegas-Torres, Beatriz E; Zuñiga, Joaquin; Ponce-de-Leon, Sergio; Llorente, Luis; Sifuentes-Osornio, Jose

    2013-06-01

    Sepsis is a leading cause of death around the world, and 73-83% of all sepsis cases requiring attention in intensive care units are linked to intra-abdominal infection (IAI) or pneumonia. The activation of innate immunity is central to the manifestation of sepsis, and toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 plays an important role in this activation process. The 299G and 399I alleles of TLR4 have been linked with an increased risk of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) infections and septic shock in some populations. This case-control study evaluated the prevalence of D299G/T399I polymorphisms in Mexican patients with IAI and/or pneumonia and in healthy controls. Genotyping revealed that 1 in 44 patients (2.3%; CI 95%: 0.05-12.0%) and 4 in 126 controls (3.2%; CI 95%: 0.9-7.9%) were heterozygous for both the D299G and T399l polymorphisms (OR: 0.71, CI 95%: 0.01-7.44, p = NS), confirming the co-segregation of these alleles in this population. Furthermore, the patients with a GNB infection and severe sepsis were not carriers of the risk alleles. In summary, this report shows that the frequency of the D299G and T399I polymorphisms in Mexican-Mestizos is lower than anticipated in comparison with other ethnic groups, emphasizing the variable distribution of TLR4 polymorphisms among different populations. Consequently, this study was not able to detect associations between TLR4 polymorphisms and sepsis in this population.

  3. Discrepancy between genotypic and phenotypic extended-spectrum β-lactamase rates in Escherichia coli from intra-abdominal infections in the USA.

    PubMed

    Lob, Sibylle H; Biedenbach, Douglas J; Badal, Robert E; Kazmierczak, Krystyna M; Sahm, Daniel F

    2016-09-01

    Varying rates of false-positive results of phenotypic extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) tests have been reported for different methods in different settings, species and geographic locations. This report describes discrepancies in Escherichia coli genotypic and phenotypic ESBL rates observed in a surveillance study of 29 US hospitals that participated in the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART). The ESBL phenotype was determined with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute confirmatory broth microdilution test using cefotaxime and ceftazidime with and without clavulanate. Genes encoding ESBLs, carbapenemases and plasmidic AmpC β-lactamases were detected using a combination of microarray and multiplex PCR assays. Among 168 molecularly characterized phenotypically ESBL-positive E. coli isolates from intra-abdominal infections, 4.8 % were genotypically negative from 2009 to 2012 and 29.5 % in 2013. Because of the high rate of false-positive phenotypic ESBL results in 2013, the 5-year phenotypic ESBL trend was skewed and showed a statistically significant increase (P<0.05) in ESBL-positive E. coli in the USA, which was not seen using the genotypic ESBL rates. The majority of false-positive phenotypic profiles had ceftazidime MICs of 2 µg ml-1 and a ≥3 doubling dilution decrease in MIC for only one of the two antimicrobial agents. False-positive ESBL results can adversely impact epidemiological surveillance and patient care (including inappropriate treatment, unnecessary patient isolation and higher costs). Careful evaluation and comparison of phenotypic and genotypic test results can yield the greatest insight, but the most accurate (and faster) detection of ESBL producers is usually based on molecular data.

  4. Evaluation of Tigecycline Efficacy and Post-Discharge Outcomes in a Clinical Practice Population with Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infection: A Propensity Score–Matched Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, C. Daniel; Quintana, Alvaro; Eckmann, Christian; Shelbaya, Ahmed; Ernst, Frank R.; Krukas, Michelle R.; Reisman, Arlene

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The utility of tigecycline as compared with other antibiotic therapies in the treatment of patients with complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI) and the short- and long-term outcomes of a large cohort of severely ill patients were examined. We provide the first published data on post-discharge events for these patients. Methods: Retrospective data for the cIAI cohort were obtained from a large clinical database. Patients aged ≥18 y were selected for inclusion based on hospitalization with a relevant diagnosis code and procedure code, and guideline-compliant antimicrobial therapy. Propensity scoring was used to reduce treatment-selection bias introduced by the use of observational data. Tigecycline patients were placed into quintiles based on propensity score and were matched 1:3. Results: The final model based on propensity score matching included 2,424 patients: Tigecycline (n = 606) and other antibiotic therapy (n = 1,818). Treatment was successful in 426 (70.3%) tigecycline-treated patients and in 1,294 (71.2%) patients receiving other antibiotics. Similar treatment success occurred across all infection sites. Among survivors, treatment failure was associated with a greater need for all-cause re-hospitalization at 30 d and 180 d. No differences in cIAI-related re-hospitalization and discharge status were observed. Conclusions: Using propensity scores to match populations, similar outcomes were demonstrated between treatment with tigecycline and other antibiotics as expressed by treatment success, the need for re-admission, similar 30-d discharge status, and the need for re-admission at 180 d. PMID:26981640

  5. Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Aerobic and Facultative Gram-Negative Bacilli from Intra-abdominal Infections in Patients from Seven Regions in China in 2012 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Yang, Qiwen; Liao, Kang; Ni, Yuxing; Yu, Yunsong; Hu, Bijie; Sun, Ziyong; Huang, Wenxiang; Wang, Yong; Wu, Anhua; Feng, Xianju; Luo, Yanping; Hu, Zhidong; Chu, Yunzhuo; Chen, Shulan; Cao, Bin; Su, Jianrong; Gui, Bingdong; Duan, Qiong; Zhang, Shufang; Shao, Haifeng; Kong, Haishen; Badal, Robert E; Xu, Yingchun

    2015-10-19

    To evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative bacilli that caused hospital-acquired and community-acquired intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in China between 2012 and 2013, we determined the susceptibilities to 12 antimicrobials and the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) statuses of 3,540 IAI isolates from seven geographic areas in China in a central laboratory using CLSI broth microdilution and interpretive standards. Most infections were caused by Escherichia coli (46.3%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (19.7%). Rates of ESBL-producing E. coli (P = 0.031), K. pneumoniae (P = 0.017), and Proteus mirabilis (P = 0.004) were higher in hospital-acquired IAIs than in community-acquired IAIs. Susceptibilities of enterobacteriaceae to ertapenem, amikacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and imipenem were 71.3% to 100%, 81.3% to 100%, 64.7% to 100%, and 83.1% to 100%, respectively, but imipenem was ineffective against P. mirabilis (<20%). Although most ESBL-positive hospital-acquired isolates were resistant to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, the majority were susceptible to cefoxitin (47.9% to 83.9%). Susceptibilities of ESBL-positive isolates to ampicillin-sulbactam (<10%) were low, whereas susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin (0% to 54.6%) and levofloxacin (0% to 63.6%) varied substantially. The prevalences of cephalosporin-susceptible E. coli and K. pneumoniae were higher in the northeastern and southern regions than in the central and eastern regions, reflecting the ESBL-positive rates in these areas, and were lowest in the Jiangsu-Zhejiang (Jiang-Zhe) area where the rates of carbapenem resistance were also highest. Ertapenem, amikacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and imipenem are the most efficacious antibiotics for treating IAIs in China, especially those caused by E. coli or K. pneumoniae. Resistance to cephalosporins and carbapenems is more common in the Jiang-Zhe area than in other regions in China.

  6. The Great Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros armiger) as a Good Model for Cold-Induced Browning of Intra-Abdominal White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Shanshan; Fang, Na; Irwin, David M.; Lei, Ming; Zhang, Junpeng; Shi, Huizhen; Zhang, Shuyi; Wang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Background Inducing beige fat from white adipose tissue (WAT) is considered to be a shortcut to weight loss and increasingly becoming a key area in research into treatments for obesity and related diseases. However, currently, animal models of beige fat are restricted to rodents, where subcutaneous adipose tissue (sWAT, benign WAT) is more liable to develop into the beige fat under specific activators than the intra-abdominal adipose tissue (aWAT, malignant WAT) that is the major source of obesity related diseases in humans. Methods Here we induced beige fat by cold exposure in two species of bats, the great roundleaf bat (Hipposideros armiger) and the rickett's big-footed bat (Myotis ricketti), and compared the molecular and morphological changes with those seen in the mouse. Expression of thermogenic genes (Ucp1 and Pgc1a) was measured by RT-qPCR and adipocyte morphology examined by HE staining at three adipose locations, sWAT, aWAT and iBAT (interscapular brown adipose tissue). Results Expression of Ucp1 and Pgc1a was significantly upregulated, by 729 and 23 fold, respectively, in aWAT of the great roundleaf bat after exposure to 10°C for 7 days. Adipocyte diameters of WATs became significantly reduced and the white adipocytes became brown-like in morphology. In mice, similar changes were found in the sWAT, but much lower amounts of changes in aWAT were seen. Interestingly, the rickett's big-footed bat did not show such a tendency in beige fat. Conclusions The great roundleaf bat is potentially a good animal model for human aWAT browning research. Combined with rodent models, this model should be helpful for finding therapies for reducing harmful aWAT in humans. PMID:25393240

  7. Clinical and Economic Consequences of Failure of Initial Antibiotic Therapy for Patients with Community-Onset Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Yong Pil; Bae, In-Gyu; Lee, Sang-Rok; Chung, Jin-Won; Jun, Jae-Bum; Choo, Eun Ju; Moon, Soo-youn; Lee, Mi Suk; Jeon, Min Hyok; Song, Eun Hee; Lee, Eun Jung; Park, Seong Yeon; Kim, Yang Soo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI) is infection that extends beyond the hollow viscus of origin into the peritoneal space, and is associated with either abscess formation or peritonitis. There are few studies that have assessed the actual costs and outcomes associated with failure of initial antibiotic therapy for cIAI. The aims of this study were to evaluate risk factors and impact on costs and outcomes of failure of initial antibiotic therapy for community-onset cIAI. Methods A retrospective study was performed at eleven tertiary-care hospitals. Hospitalized adults with community-onset cIAI who underwent an appropriate source control procedure between August 2008 and September 2011 were included. Failure of initial antibiotic therapy was defined as a change of antibiotics due to a lack of improvement of the clinical symptoms and signs associated with cIAI in the first week. Results A total of 514 patients hospitalized for community-onset cIAI were included in the analysis. The mean age of the patients was 53.3 ± 17.6 years, 72 patients (14%) had health care-associated infection, and 48 (9%) experienced failure of initial antibiotic therapy. Failure of initial antibiotic therapy was associated with increased costs and morbidity. After adjustment for covariates, patients with unsuccessful initial therapy received an additional 2.9 days of parenteral antibiotic therapy, were hospitalized for an additional 5.3 days, and incurred $3,287 in additional inpatient charges. Independent risk factors for failure of initial antibiotic therapy were health care-associated infection, solid cancer, and APACHE II ≥13. Conclusions To improve outcomes and costs in patients with community-onset cIAI, rapid assessment of health care-associated risk factors and severity of disease, selection of an appropriate antibiotic regimen accordingly, and early infection source control should be performed. PMID:25910171

  8. Liquid-Level Monitor for Pressurized Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Mall, G. H.

    1986-01-01

    Technique for monitoring water levels in pressurized stainless-steel cylinders, based on differences in gamma-ray attenuation coefficients in water and air, developed. Full-scale laboratory prototype system constructed to test technique. Technique usable with liquids other than water, since linear attenuation coefficients for intermediate-energy gamma rays in air considerably lower than in liquids. Also adaptable for continuous monitoring of liquid levels in resevoir systems and in underground storage tanks.

  9. Cost of care and antibiotic prescribing attitudes for community-acquired complicated intra-abdominal infections in Italy: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) are a common cause of morbidity worldwide, and in spite of improvements in patient care, therapeutic failure still occurs, impacting in-hospital resource consumption. This study aimed to assess the costs associated with the treatment of community-acquired cIAIs, from the Italian National Health Service perspective. Methods This retrospective study analyzed the charts of patients who were discharged from four Italian university hospitals between January 1 and December 31, 2009 with a primary diagnosis of community-acquired cIAIs. Patient characteristics, diagnosis, surgical procedure, antibiotic therapy, and length of hospital stay were all recorded and the cost of total hospital care was estimated. Costs were calculated in Euros at 2009 values. Results The records of 260 patients (mean age 48.9 years; 57% males) were analyzed. The average cost of care for a patient hospitalized due to cIAI was €4385 (95% CI 3650–5120), with an average daily cost of €419 (95% CI 378–440). Antibiotic therapy represented just under half (44.3%) of hospitalization costs. The strongest predictor of the increase in hospital costs was clinical failure: patients who clinically failed received an average of 8.2 additional days of antibiotic therapy and spent 11 more days in hospital compared with patients who responded to first-line therapy (both p < 0.05 vs. patients who were successfully treated). Furthermore, they incurred €5592 in additional hospitalization costs (2.88 times the cost associated with clinical success) with 53% (€2973) of the additional costs attributable to antibiotic therapy. Overall, antibiotic appropriateness rate was 78.8% (n = 205), and was significantly higher in patients receiving combination therapy compared with those treated with monotherapy (97.3% vs. 64.6%). Conclusion The results of this study suggest that hospitals need to be aware of the clinical and economic consequences of

  10. Comparison of Three-Dimensional (3D) Conformal Proton Radiotherapy (RT), 3D Conformal Photon RT, and Intensity-Modulated RT for Retroperitoneal and Intra-Abdominal Sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, Erika L.; Indelicato, Daniel J.; Louis, Debbie; Flampouri, Stella; Li, Zuofeng; Morris, Christopher G.; Paryani, Nitesh; Slopsema, Roelf

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To compare three-dimensional conformal proton radiotherapy (3DCPT), intensity-modulated photon radiotherapy (IMRT), and 3D conformal photon radiotherapy (3DCRT) to predict the optimal RT technique for retroperitoneal sarcomas. Methods and Materials: 3DCRT, IMRT, and 3DCPT plans were created for treating eight patients with retroperitoneal or intra-abdominal sarcomas. The clinical target volume (CTV) included the gross tumor plus a 2-cm margin, limited by bone and intact fascial planes. For photon plans, the planning target volume (PTV) included a uniform expansion of 5 mm. For the proton plans, the PTV was nonuniform and beam-specific. The prescription dose was 50.4 Gy/Cobalt gray equivalent CGE. Plans were normalized so that >95% of the CTV received 100% of the dose. Results: The CTV was covered adequately by all techniques. The median conformity index was 0.69 for 3DCPT, 0.75 for IMRT, and 0.51 for 3DCRT. The median inhomogeneity coefficient was 0.062 for 3DCPT, 0.066 for IMRT, and 0.073 for 3DCRT. The bowel median volume receiving 15 Gy (V15) was 16.4% for 3DCPT, 52.2% for IMRT, and 66.1% for 3DCRT. The bowel median V45 was 6.3% for 3DCPT, 4.7% for IMRT, and 15.6% for 3DCRT. The median ipsilateral mean kidney dose was 22.5 CGE for 3DCPT, 34.1 Gy for IMRT, and 37.8 Gy for 3DCRT. The median contralateral mean kidney dose was 0 CGE for 3DCPT, 6.4 Gy for IMRT, and 11 Gy for 3DCRT. The median contralateral kidney V5 was 0% for 3DCPT, 49.9% for IMRT, and 99.7% for 3DCRT. Regardless of technique, the median mean liver dose was <30 Gy, and the median cord V50 was 0%. The median integral dose was 126 J for 3DCPT, 400 J for IMRT, and 432 J for 3DCRT. Conclusions: IMRT and 3DCPT result in plans that are more conformal and homogenous than 3DCRT. Based on Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in Clinic benchmarks, the dosimetric advantage of proton therapy may be less gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity.

  11. Sound pressure level in a municipal preschool

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Adriana Aparecida Tahara; Delecrode, Camila Ribas; Guida, Heraldo Lorena; Ribeiro, André Knap; Cardoso, Ana Claúdia Vieira

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aim: To evaluate the sound pressure level to which preschool students are exposed. Method: This was a prospective, quantitative, nonexperimental, and descriptive study. To achieve the aim of the study we used an audio dosimeter. The sound pressure level (SPL) measurements were obtained for 2 age based classrooms. Preschool I and II. The measurements were obtained over 4 days in 8-hour sessions, totaling 1920 minutes. Results: Compared with established standards, the SPL measured ranged from 40.6 dB (A) to 105.8 dB (A). The frequency spectrum of the SPL was concentrated in the frequency range between 500 Hz and 4000 Hz. The older children produced higher SPLs than the younger ones, and the levels varied according to the activity performed. Painting and writing were the quietest activities, while free activities period and games were the noisiest. Conclusion: The SPLs measured at the preschool were higher and exceeded the maximum permitted level according to the reference standards. Therefore, the implementation of actions that aim to minimize the negative impact of noise in this environment is essential. PMID:25992013

  12. Interstitial and intravascular pressures in conscious dogs during head-out water immersion.

    PubMed

    Miki, K; Klocke, M R; Hong, S K; Krasney, J A

    1989-08-01

    Water immersion (WI) causes an increase in plasma volume in humans and dogs. To determine the mechanism for this fluid movement, the transmission of external water hydrostatic pressure to the interstitial and vascular compartments was studied in six conscious dogs. Systemic arterial, central venous, peripheral arterial (ulnar artery) and venous (cephalic vein), pleural, intra-abdominal, and interstitial fluid hydrostatic (by Guyton's capsule and wick catheter method) pressures and external reference water pressure were measured at three different levels of WI: 1) extremities only, 2) midchest, and 3) midcervical levels at 37 degrees C. There was a significant linear relationship between interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (X) and external water pressure (Y): (Y = 0.86X + 1.4, r = 0.93 by Guyton's capsule; Y = 0.85X + 2.4, r = 0.93 by wick catheter. However, vascular pressures did not change when dogs were immersed at the level of the extremities. These pressures increased only during WI at the midchest and midcervical levels. Therefore the pressure gradient that develops between the interstitial and intravascular compartments is probably the major reason for the transcapillary fluid shift during WI.

  13. An alternative to reduction of surface pressure to sea level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deardorff, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    The pitfalls of the present method of reducing surface pressure to sea level are reviewed, and an alternative, adjusted pressure, P, is proposed. P is obtained from solution of a Poisson equation over a continental region, using the simplest boundary condition along the perimeter or coastline where P equals the sea level pressure. The use of P would avoid the empiricisms and disadvantages of pressure reduction to sea level, and would produce surface pressure charts which depict the true geostrophic wind at the surface.

  14. Efficacy and Safety of Ceftazidime-Avibactam Plus Metronidazole Versus Meropenem in the Treatment of Complicated Intra-abdominal Infection: Results From a Randomized, Controlled, Double-Blind, Phase 3 Program

    PubMed Central

    Mazuski, John E.; Gasink, Leanne B.; Armstrong, Jon; Broadhurst, Helen; Stone, Greg G.; Rank, Douglas; Llorens, Lily; Newell, Paul; Pachl, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background. When combined with ceftazidime, the novel non–β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam provides a carbapenem alternative against multidrug-resistant infections. Efficacy and safety of ceftazidime-avibactam plus metronidazole were compared with meropenem in 1066 men and women with complicated intra-abdominal infections from 2 identical, randomized, double-blind phase 3 studies (NCT01499290 and NCT01500239). Methods. The primary end point was clinical cure at test-of-cure visit 28–35 days after randomization, assessed by noninferiority of ceftazidime-avibactam plus metronidazole to meropenem in the microbiologically modified intention-to-treat (mMITT) population (in accordance with US Food and Drug Administration guidance), and the modified intention-to-treat and clinically evaluable populations (European Medicines Agency guidance). Noninferiority was considered met if the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval for between-group difference was greater than the prespecified noninferiority margin of −12.5%. Results. Ceftazidime-avibactam plus metronidazole was noninferior to meropenem across all primary analysis populations. Clinical cure rates with ceftazidime-avibactam plus metronidazole and meropenem, respectively, were as follows: mMITT population, 81.6% and 85.1% (between-group difference, −3.5%; 95% confidence interval −8.64 to 1.58); modified intention-to-treat, 82.5% and 84.9% (−2.4%; −6.90 to 2.10); and clinically evaluable, 91.7% and 92.5% (−0.8%; −4.61 to 2.89). The clinical cure rate with ceftazidime-avibactam plus metronidazole for ceftazidime-resistant infections was comparable to that with meropenem (mMITT population, 83.0% and 85.9%, respectively) and similar to the regimen's own efficacy against ceftazidime-susceptible infections (82.0%). Adverse events were similar between groups. Conclusions. Ceftazidime-avibactam plus metronidazole was noninferior to meropenem in the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal

  15. Social Support, Assimilation and Biological Effective Blood Pressure Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Anthony; Walsh, Patricia Ann

    1987-01-01

    The twin processes of migration and assimilation are highly stressful. This stress can be manifested in elevated blood pressure. According to this study, immigrants receiving high levels of social support had significantly lower blood pressure levels than those receiving less social support. (VM)

  16. Characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and antimicrobial resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae in intra-abdominal infection isolates in Latin America, 2008-2012. Results of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends.

    PubMed

    Kazmierczak, Krystyna M; Lob, Sibylle H; Hoban, Daryl J; Hackel, Meredith A; Badal, Robert E; Bouchillon, Samuel K

    2015-07-01

    The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends has monitored the in vitro activity of several recommended antimicrobials used in the management of intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) globally since 2002. In this report, we document the changing susceptibility patterns to recommended antimicrobials in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from patients with IAIs in 11 Latin American countries between 2008 and 2012 and describe the beta-lactamases encoded by phenotypically extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive and ertapenem-nonsusceptible isolates. Overall, the incidence of phenotypically ESBL-positive K. pneumoniae did not change significantly from 2008 (40.4%) to 2012 (41.2%) (P > 0.05). However, trend analysis documented an increase in isolates encoding K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) or both KPC and an ESBL. Decreasing susceptibility (P < 0.05) was noted for cefepime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, and imipenem among all K. pneumoniae, as well as for cefepime, cefotaxime, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, and imipenem among ESBL-positive isolates, while susceptibility of ESBL-negative isolates to ampicillin-sulbactam actually increased (P < 0.05).

  17. Efficacies of piperacillin-tazobactam and cefepime in rats with experimental intra-abdominal abscesses due to an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Thauvin-Eliopoulos, C; Tripodi, M F; Moellering, R C; Eliopoulos, G M

    1997-01-01

    The in vivo activities of piperacillin-tazobactam and cefepime were compared with those of ticarcillin-clavulanate, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and imipenem in a rat model of intra-abdominal abscess with a strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae elaborating an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (TEM-26). With the exception of ceftazidime, all of the antimicrobial agents significantly reduced bacterial counts within abscesses at the end of therapy compared with those in untreated controls. Residual viable cell counts (mean +/- standard deviation in log10 CFU/gram) were as follows: control, 8.76 +/- 0.97; ceftazidime, 8.00 +/- 0.76; piperacillin-tazobactam, 3.87 +/- 1.72; ticarcillin-clavulanate, 3.74 +/- 1.34; cefepime, 3.15 +/- 1.19; cefotaxime, 2.61 +/- 0.77; imipenem, 2.41 +/- 0.93. Imipenem was more effective than either of the inhibitor combinations (P < 0.05). Cefotaxime was unexpectedly effective given its poor in vivo activity against this organism in our earlier studies, which used a different dose and total duration of therapy (L. B. Rice, J. D. C. Yao, K. Klimm, G. M. Eliopoulos, and R. C. Moellering, Jr., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35:1243-1244, 1991). These observations suggest that the effectiveness of cephalosporins in the treatment of experimental infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae may be highly dependent on dosing regimens, even for a specific organism and site of infection. PMID:9145868

  18. Effects of Nd:YAG laser photoradiation on intra-abdominal tissues: a histological study of tissue damage versus power density applied

    SciTech Connect

    Brackett, K.A.; Sankar, M.Y.; Joffe, S.N.

    1986-01-01

    Liver, spleen, and pancreas were subjected to laser photoradiation of 50- to 100-Watt power levels. Samples were evaluated by light microscopy at 0 hours and 7, 14, and 21 days. Four zones of cellular damage were visible in liver and pancreas: coagulum, cavitation, acidophilia, and transition. Only the first three zones were clearly visible in the spleen. Mean lateral tissue penetration was 3.1 mm in liver, 3.3 mm in spleen, and 1.0 mm in pancreas. No significant increase in lateral penetration occurred with increasing power. Normal healing was observed in liver and spleen. Pancreatitis was found in all samples at 7 days postoperatively. At power levels of 80 W or less, recovery was observed. Above 80 W, pancreatic pseudocysts and necrosis led to death of the animals.

  19. 9. POWERHOUSE, LOWER LEVEL, LOOKING NORTHWEST, PRESSURE CASE WHICH CONTAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. POWERHOUSE, LOWER LEVEL, LOOKING NORTHWEST, PRESSURE CASE WHICH CONTAINS THE WATER TURBINE - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Powerhouse, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  20. Association of blood pressure and PCB level in Yusho patients

    SciTech Connect

    Akagi, K.; Okumura, M.

    1985-02-01

    Correlations of blood polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels or PCB patterns and blood pressures were studied in 59 patients with Yusho (PCB poisoning) above 40 years old. In spite of the passage of 13 years from the onset, 52.5% of these patients still have PCB levels higher than the range found in the general population. The frequency of hypertension in the patients was 16.9%, a value similar to that expected on the basis of the rate for a population of the same age and sex compositions. As an independent variable, the blood pressure of patients was not associated with blood PCB levels and PCB patterns. No PCB blood pressure association was confirmed in 20 patients with PCB levels persistently higher than 5 ppb for 9 years. On the other hand, age, obesity and habitual alcohol intake, known influencing factors for hypertension, tended to be positively associated with elevated blood pressure in these Yusho patients.

  1. The utility of dual bioelectrical impedance analysis in detecting intra-abdominal fat area in obese patients during weight reduction therapy in comparison with waist circumference and abdominal CT.

    PubMed

    Yamakage, Hajime; Ito, Ryo; Tochiya, Mayu; Muranaka, Kazuya; Tanaka, Masashi; Matsuo, Yoshiyuki; Odori, Shinji; Kono, Shigeo; Shimatsu, Akira; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    An increase in intra-abdominal fat area (IAFA) is an essential component of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Waist circumference (WC) is not a precise measure of IAFA, and computed tomography (CT) is unsuitable for frequent monitoring. Here, we examined utility of a dual bioelectrical impedance analysis (Dual BIA) for measuring IAFA in obese patients during weight reduction. Fat distribution was measured by Dual BIA and CT in 100 obese outpatients. All fat areas including total, IAFA, and subcutaneous fat by Dual BIA were more closely correlated with those by CT than WC. Estimated IAFA by Dual BIA was significantly correlated with number of MetS components as well as CT, but WC was not. Furthermore, in 61 obese patients who received 6-month weight reduction therapy, estimated IAFA by Dual BIA showed an earlier and greater decrease as well as that by CT than WC and BMI. In addition, decrease in estimated IAFA by Dual BIA through weight reduction had a higher correlation with decrease in IAFA by CT, than WC. This study is the first to demonstrate that the change in estimated IAFA by Dual BIA was highly correlated with that in IAFA by CT during weight reduction therapy. Our findings also indicate that estimated IAFA by Dual BIA is, potentially, a better indicator of severity of MetS, cardiovascular risk factors, and effectiveness of weight reduction than WC, and equal to IAFA by CT. Estimated IAFA by Dual BIA may be useful for monitoring the effectiveness of weight reduction therapy in obese patients.

  2. Distribution of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases, AmpC β-Lactamases, and Carbapenemases among Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Causing Intra-Abdominal Infections in the Asia-Pacific Region: Results of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART)

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Wang-Huei; Badal, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing trend of β-lactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae is a worldwide threat. Enterobacteriaceae isolates causing intra-abdominal infections (IAI) from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) collected in 2008 and 2009 from the Asia-Pacific region were investigated. Detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases was performed by multiplex PCR. A total of 699 Enterobacteriaceae isolates with positive genotypic results, included Escherichia coli (n = 443), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 187), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 45), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 9), Citrobacter freundii (n = 5), Proteus mirabilis (n = 3), Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 2), Morganella morganii (n = 2), and one each of Enterobacter asburiae, Proteus vulgaris, and Providencia rettgeri were analyzed. Nearly 20% of these β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates were from community-associated IAI. CTX-M (588 isolates, including 428 [72.8%] with CTX-M-15) was the most common ESBL, followed by SHV (n = 59) and TEM (n = 4). CMY (n = 110, including 102 [92.7%] with CMY-2) was the most common AmpC β-lactamase, followed by DHA (n = 46) and ACT/MIR (n = 40). NDM (n = 65, including 62 [95.4%] with NDM-1) was the most common carbapenemase, followed by IMP (n = 7) and OXA (n = 7). Isolates from hospital-associated IAI had more complicated β-lactamase combinations than isolates from the community. Carbapenemases were all exclusively detected in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from India, except that IMP β-lactamases were also detected in Philippines and Australia. CTX-M β-lactamases were the predominant ESBLs produced by Enterobacteriaceae causing IAI in the Asia-Pacific region. Emergence of CTX-M-15-, CMY-2-, and NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates is of major concern and highlights the need for further surveillance in this area. PMID:23587958

  3. Optimal Treatment for Complicated Intra-abdominal Infections in the Era of Antibiotic Resistance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy and Safety of Combined Therapy With Metronidazole

    PubMed Central

    Mikamo, Hiroshige; Yuasa, Akira; Wada, Keiko; Crawford, Bruce; Sugimoto, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae has increased dramatically in the last decade, resulting in infections that are difficult to treat and associated with high mortality rates. To prevent further antibacterial resistance, it is necessary to use carbapenem selectively. A combination of metronidazole with an antimicrobial agent active against aerobes is an alternative effective treatment for patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs). This study aimed to compare efficacy and safety of metronidazole combination therapies and carbapenem and to provide clinical evidence regarding the optimal treatment of cIAI. Methods. A systematic review and a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials in the treatment of cIAI were conducted. The systematic review with PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews followed the Cochrane Handbook's recommended methodology, and the meta-analysis used a Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model with RevMan, version 5.3. Primary endpoints were clinical success and bacteriological eradication, and secondary endpoints were all-cause mortality and drug-related adverse events. Results. Eight studies comparing metronidazole combination therapies and carbapenem were included in the meta-analysis. No difference was found between combined therapy with metronidazole and carbapenem regarding clinical success (odds ratio [OR] = 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], .75–2.31), bacteriological eradication (OR = 1.27; 95% CI, .84–1.91), all-cause mortality (OR = 0.61; 95% CI, .37–1.00), or drug-related adverse events (OR = 0.58; 95% CI, .18–1.88). Sensitivity analyses found similar results. Conclusions. Combined therapy with metronidazole is as effective and safe as carbapenem in treatment of cIAI. Therefore, combined therapy with metronidazole offers an effective alternative to carbapenem with low risk of drug resistance. PMID:27704002

  4. Surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility of aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections in China: the 2002-2009 Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART).

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiwen; Wang, Hui; Chen, Minjun; Ni, Yuxing; Yu, Yunsong; Hu, Bijie; Sun, Ziyong; Huang, Wenxiang; Hu, Yunjian; Ye, Huifen; Badal, Robert E; Xu, Yingchun

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution and susceptibility of aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in China. From 2002 to 2009, minimum inhibitory concentrations of 14 antibiotics for 3420 aerobic and facultative GNB from up to eight hospitals in six cities were determined by the broth microdilution method. Enterobacteriaceae comprised 82.9% (2834/3420) of the total isolates, with Escherichia coli (49.2%) being the most commonly isolated species followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.0%), Enterobacter cloacae (5.8%) and Citrobacter freundii (2.3%). Amongst the antimicrobial agents tested, the three carbapenems (ertapenem, imipenem and meropenem) were the most active agents against Enterobacteriaceae, with susceptibility rates of 96.1-99.6% (2002-2009), 98.2-100% (2002-2009) and 99.6-100% (2002-2004), respectively, followed by amikacin (86.8-95.1%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (84.5-94.3%). Susceptibility rates of all tested third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins against Enterobacteriaceae declined by nearly 30%, with susceptibility rates of 40.2%, 39.1%, 56.3% and 51.8% in 2009 for ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and cefepime, respectively. The occurrence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases increased rapidly, especially for E. coli (from 20.8% in 2002 to 64.9% in 2009). Susceptibility of E. coli to ciprofloxacin decreased from 57.6% in 2002 to 24.2% in 2009. The least active agent against Enterobacteriaceae was ampicillin/sulbactam (SAM) (25.3-44.3%). In conclusion, Enterobacteriaceae were the major pathogens causing IAIs, and carbapenems retained the highest susceptibility rates over the 8-year study period. Third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and SAM may not be ideal choices for empirical therapy of IAIs in China.

  5. Early life stress and blood pressure levels in late adulthood.

    PubMed

    Alastalo, H; Räikkönen, K; Pesonen, A-K; Osmond, C; Barker, D J P; Heinonen, K; Kajantie, E; Eriksson, J G

    2013-02-01

    Severe stress experienced in early life may have long-term consequences on adult physiological functions. We studied the long-term effects of separation on blood pressure levels in non-obese subjects who were separated temporarily in childhood from their parents during World War II (WWII). The original clinical study cohort consists of people born during 1934-1944 in Helsinki, Finland. This substudy includes 1361 non-obese subjects (body mass index <30 kg m(-2)). Of these, 192 (14.1%) had been evacuated abroad during WWII. The remaining subjects served as controls. Blood pressure levels and use of blood pressure medication were studied. The separated subjects had significantly higher systolic blood pressure values than the non-separated (148.6+21.5 vs 142.2+19.6 mm Hg, P<0.0001) in adult life. Those subjects separated in early childhood had markedly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure values in adult life compared with the non-separated (154.6 vs 142.5 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6-14.7; P<0.005 and 90.8 vs 87.7 mm Hg; 95% CI 1.0-7.3; P<0.02, respectively). Systolic blood pressure was also higher in the group separated for a duration of <1 year (151.7 vs 142.2 mm Hg; 95% CI 0.0-12.4; P<0.05) compared with the non-separated. Besides being separated, age at separation and duration of separation also influenced blood pressure levels in adult life. This could be due to early hormonal and metabolic programming, during plastic periods in early life, influencing blood pressure levels in adult life.

  6. Intra-abdominal benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Jouvin, I; Dohan, A; Gergi, P; Pocard, M

    2014-04-01

    Benign multicystic peritoneal mesotheliomas are rare: pre-operative diagnosis relies on proper imaging. The differential diagnosis includes pseudomyxoma peritonei and other peritoneal cysts. Absence of previous surgical resection offers the best chance of success when complete resection is performed in a specialized center. We report the case of a 43 year-old man with benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma treated by cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. PMID:24433857

  7. Giant horseshoe intra-abdominal abscess.

    PubMed Central

    Altemeier, W A; Culbertson, W R; Fidler, J P

    1975-01-01

    A study of 12 patients with giant horseshoe abscess of the abdominal and pelvic cavities seen at the Surgical Services of the University of Cincinnati Medical Center has emphasized the complexity and bizarre nature of these lesions. These infections represented a huge abscess or series of communicating abscesses extending from one subphrenic space along the corresponding paracolic gutter into the pelvis, up and along the opposite paracolic space, and into the other subphrenic space. Since these lesions occurred infrequently, they were often not recognized until they had become far advanced and had produced profound effects on the patients. The diagnosis was difficult and obscured by various factors including the postoperative state after laparotomy for complex diseases or serious injuries of the biliary tract, the genitourinary tract, or the alimentary tract. An important etiologic component of the formation of these giant abscesses was the continuing escape and collection of large volumes of fluid resulting from lesions of the biliary tract, postoperative hemorrhage, or an unrecognized large perforated peptic ulcer. Nine patients were treated successfully and 3 died. The many diagnostic and therapeutic problems presented by the patients with this interesting and complex lesion have emphasized the importance of earlier and more accurate diagnosis, early and adequate surgical drainage, intelligently applied antibiotic therapy and appropriate supportive treatment. Failure to recognize and drain effectively each of the component sections of this lesion led to continuing sepsis with prolonged morbidity, progressive debility, and death. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:1079447

  8. Intra-Abdominal Hematoma Following Enoxaparin Injection.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kin Tong

    2016-01-01

    An elderly patient, who was being treated for therapeutic enoxaparin for a couple of days due to suspected deep vein thrombosis, was admitted to hospital following a collapse and severe abdominal pain. She was in hypovolemic shock and was fluid resuscitated. Ultrasound scan and computed tomography (CT) scan showed a large pelvic hematoma. Radiologists also suspected a possibility of bleeding from inferior epigastric artery following a CT angiogram. The patient was stabilized and transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) for further hemodynamic supports and close monitoring. The patient was then transferred back to the general ward when she was stable. She was managed conservatively as there were no more signs of active bleeding. Unfortunately, she died of recurrent bleeding three days after ICU discharge. PMID:27158226

  9. Intra-Abdominal Hematoma Following Enoxaparin Injection

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kin Tong

    2016-01-01

    An elderly patient, who was being treated for therapeutic enoxaparin for a couple of days due to suspected deep vein thrombosis, was admitted to hospital following a collapse and severe abdominal pain. She was in hypovolemic shock and was fluid resuscitated. Ultrasound scan and computed tomography (CT) scan showed a large pelvic hematoma. Radiologists also suspected a possibility of bleeding from inferior epigastric artery following a CT angiogram. The patient was stabilized and transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) for further hemodynamic supports and close monitoring. The patient was then transferred back to the general ward when she was stable. She was managed conservatively as there were no more signs of active bleeding. Unfortunately, she died of recurrent bleeding three days after ICU discharge. PMID:27158226

  10. [Desmoid tumors or intra-abdominal fibromatoses].

    PubMed

    Lasser, P; Elias, D; Contesso, G; Genin, J; Mankarios, H; Rougier, P

    1993-01-01

    Intraabdominal desmoid tumour or fibromatosis, recurrent but non-metastatic, invasive, fibroblastic proliferations, are rare tumours. From 1968 to 1989, 16 patients were treated at Gustave Roussy Institute. They were associated with familial adenomatous polyposis in 10% of cases. These tumours, observed mainly in young women (70 to 85% of cases), are aggravated by pregnancy, and spontaneous regression can occur at menopause, proving their hormonal dependence. Although histologically benign, they are serious lesions due to their invasive character; their excision is complete in only 50% of cases. They recur in 30% to 75% of cases and cause death of the patient in 30% of cases. Treatment is surgical but due to their often very slow course, and their spontaneous stabilisation in some cases, a mutilating surgical treatment (extensive small intestine resection) does not seem to be justified. Radiotherapy is effective only at doses incompatible with the site of these tumours (35 to 60 Gy). Chemotherapy has never been shown to be effective.

  11. Pressure effects in the electronic levels of tunable laser materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemos, V.

    1999-07-01

    The low to high-field transition in KZnF3:Cr3+, induced by external pressure was observed through photoluminescence measurements at room temperature, T equals 90 K and T equals 20 K. Direct measurement of the lowest electronic level separation (Delta) , was accomplished through the low temperature experiments. Pressure coefficients of (Delta) are given. Emission spectra of KZnF3:Cr3+ obtained at several pressures and temperatures in the range [20 K - 90 K] allow for the construction of a Tanabe-Sugano type diagram illustrating the transition from low- to high-crystal-field regime for cubic and distorted centers. Assignments of sharp lines are given based on the analysis of these diagrams, time-resolved spectroscopy and transition lifetime. Emission measurements were performed at atmospheric pressure and low temperature outside the pressure cell and also at several pressures for KZnF3:Co3+. Comparing the zero-phonon line positions and using the phonon dispersion relation of the host material and fine structure in the emission spectrum of KZnF3:Co2+ was identified. Pressure coefficients were obtained for several among the emission lines from which the values for zero-phonon lines were deduced. Analysis show that the spin-orbit parameter changes with pressure are negligible in KZnF3:Co2+.

  12. Geosat observations of sea level response to barometric pressure forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoar, Timothy J.; Wilson, Clark R.

    1994-01-01

    Altimeter and sea level pressure data from the Geosat mission are analyzed for evidence of inverted barometer responses of sea level to atmospheric pressure forcing. Estimates of the inverted barometer coefficient are given for a variety of geographic regions and time scales using various orbit error removal strategies. There is some sensitivity to the orbit error removal method, but the estimated coefficients show a clear latitudinal dependence and are generally between -0.5 cm/mbar and -0.9 cm/mbar. The southern oceans respond slightly more like an inverted barometer than the northern oceans for similar latitudes. The regression exhibits significant geographic variability, particularly near major circulation features and in the northern hemisphere. The results suggest that the inverted barometer approximation is resonable over much of the oceans, but that some sea level variability may be correlated with barometric pressure by means other than the inverted barometer effect.

  13. [Peak sound pressure levels of gunshots from starter's pistols].

    PubMed

    Rothschild, M A; Dieker, L; Prante, H; Maschke, C

    1998-12-01

    Starter's pistols are often bought for self-defense, but can also be used for criminal activities (e.g. assaults, etc.). When a starter's pistol is loaded with blank cartridges and is fired, a powerful shooting noise results. The level of the noise produced is high enough to cause acoustic trauma. For legal examinations and giving an expert opinion further information is needed about the power of such noise. We examined how high peak sound pressure levels were of the gunshots of blank cartridges and whether there existed any directional characteristics from the noise emissions. In all, 15 different models of starter's pistols of 8 different calibres were examined. In addition to blank cartridges, 8 mm tear gas cartridges were also examined. Four transducers were situated in the horizontal plane around the muzzle: 0 degree (shooting direction), 45 degrees, 90 degrees, and 180 degrees (towards the firer). The distances between the transducers and the muzzle were 25 cm, 50 cm, 100 cm, and 200 cm. At a distance of 1 m and in the 0 degree shooting direction the peak sound pressure levels of nearly all weapons tested exceeded 160 dB. At a shooting distance of 25 cm the peak sound pressure levels reached 181 dB. In addition, we observed a directional characteristic concerning the emission of noise: pistols produced higher peak sound pressure levels to the front than backwards towards the firer. PMID:10023593

  14. Vegetarian diet and blood pressure levels: incidental or causal association?

    PubMed

    Beilin, L J; Rouse, I L; Armstrong, B K; Margetts, B M; Vandongen, R

    1988-09-01

    Evidence that nutrients other than the major cations may influence blood pressure levels stems from studies of acculturated vegetarians and from randomized controlled dietary trials. Earlier studies of vegetarians focused on religious groups and on vegans, making it difficult to know whether their lower blood pressures were due to diet per se or to other aspects of lifestyle. Seventh-day Adventist vegetarians showed significantly less hypertension and lower blood pressures compared with Mormon omnivores, effects which were independent of differences in obesity and not due to altered sodium intake. Subsequently, controlled dietary intervention studies in healthy normotensive omnivores provided more direct evidence for a blood pressure-lowering effect of a lactoovovegetarian diet with reversible changes of 5-6 mm Hg systolic and 2-3 mm Hg diastolic occurring over 6-wk periods. Similar dietary effects in mild hypertensive subjects provides impetus for identifying the responsible nutrients.

  15. Phase 2, Randomized, Double-Blind Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Two Dose Regimens of Eravacycline versus Ertapenem for Adult Community-Acquired Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Mayakonda Krishnamurthy; Cesnauskas, Gintaras; Novikovs, Nikolajs; Stefanova, Penka; Sutcliffe, Joyce A.; Walpole, Susannah M.

    2014-01-01

    Eravacycline is a novel fluorocycline, highly active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens in vitro, including those with tetracycline and multidrug resistance. This phase 2, randomized, double-blind study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two dose regimens of eravacycline compared with ertapenem in adult hospitalized patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs). Patients with confirmed cIAI requiring surgical or percutaneous intervention and antibacterial therapy were randomized (2:2:1) to receive eravacycline at 1.5 mg/kg of body weight every 24 h (q24h), eravacycline at 1.0 mg/kg every 12 h (q12h), or ertapenem at 1 g (q24h) for a minimum of 4 days and a maximum of 14 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was the clinical response in microbiologically evaluable (ME) patients at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit 10 to 14 days after the last dose of study drug therapy. Overall, 53 patients received eravacycline at 1.5 mg/kg q24h, 56 received eravacycline at 1.0 mg/kg q12h, and 30 received ertapenem. For the ME population, the clinical success rate at the TOC visit was 92.9% (39/42) in the group receiving eravacycline at 1.5 mg/kg q24h, 100% (41/41) in the group receiving eravacycline at 1.0 mg/kg q12h, and 92.3% (24/26) in the ertapenem group. The incidences of treatment-emergent adverse events were 35.8%, 28.6%, and 26.7%, respectively. Incidence rates of nausea and vomiting were low in both eravacycline groups. Both dose regimens of eravacycline were as efficacious as the comparator, ertapenem, in patients with cIAI and were well tolerated. These results support the continued development of eravacycline for the treatment of serious infections, including those caused by drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01265784.) PMID:24342651

  16. A multicenter trial of the efficacy and safety of tigecycline versus imipenem/cilastatin in patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections [Study ID Numbers: 3074A1-301-WW; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00081744

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, María E; Rekha, Arcot; Yellin, Albert; Pasternak, Jacyr; Campos, Maria; Rose, Gilbert M; Babinchak, Timothy; Ellis-Grosse, Evelyn J; Loh, Evan

    2005-01-01

    Background Complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) remain challenging to treat because of their polymicrobial etiology including multi-drug resistant bacteria. The efficacy and safety of tigecycline, an expanded broad-spectrum glycylcycline antibiotic, was compared with imipenem/cilastatin (IMI/CIS) in patients with cIAI. Methods A prospective, double-blind, multinational trial was conducted in which patients with cIAI randomly received intravenous (IV) tigecycline (100 mg initial dose, then 50 mg every 12 hours [q12h]) or IV IMI/CIS (500/500 mg q6h or adjusted for renal dysfunction) for 5 to14 days. Clinical response at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit (14–35 days after therapy) for microbiologically evaluable (ME) and microbiological modified intent-to-treat (m-mITT) populations were the co-primary efficacy endpoint populations. Results A total of 825 patients received ≥ 1 dose of study drug. The primary diagnoses for the ME group were complicated appendicitis (59%), and intestinal (8.8%) and gastric/duodenal perforations (4.6%). For the ME group, clinical cure rates at TOC were 80.6% (199/247) for tigecycline versus 82.4% (210/255) for IMI/CIS (95% CI -8.4, 5.1 for non-inferiority tigecycline versus IMI/CIS). Corresponding clinical cure rates within the m-mITT population were 73.5% (227/309) for tigecycline versus 78.2% (244/312) for IMI/CIS (95% CI -11.0, 2.5). Nausea (31.0% tigecycline, 24.8% IMI/CIS [P = 0.052]), vomiting (25.7% tigecycline, 19.4% IMI/CIS [P = 0.037]), and diarrhea (21.3% tigecycline, 18.9% IMI/CIS [P = 0.435]) were the most frequently reported adverse events. Conclusion This study demonstrates that tigecycline is as efficacious as imipenem/cilastatin in the treatment of patients with cIAI. PMID:16236177

  17. Health Promotion to Reduce Blood Pressure Level among Older Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    1986-01-01

    Low-income Black elders completed a 10-week health promotion program for the purpose of lowering or stabilizing blood pressure levels. Comparisons were made between classes that met weekly versus three times a week, and between yoga and aerobics formats. A peer-led program was developed that continued for 10 months after the professionally-led…

  18. Device enables calibration of microphones at high sound pressure levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillen, A.

    1967-01-01

    Coupling device accurately calibrates microphones at high sound pressure intensities. The system which uses a liquid as the coupling medium can operate in an automatic mode by using a standard microphone as a control sensor. Feedback from the standard microphone controls the calibration signal level.

  19. DETAIL OF THE HELIUM PRESSURIZATION AND CHECKOUT PANEL, SECOND LEVEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE HELIUM PRESSURIZATION AND CHECK-OUT PANEL, SECOND LEVEL OF THE EXTERNAL TANK CHECK-OUT CELLS, HB-2, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  20. Environmental correction factors for predicting room sound pressure levels

    SciTech Connect

    Warnock, A.C.C.

    1998-10-01

    ARI Standard 885 provides a method for calculating sound pressure levels in room below plenums containing air-handling devices. An important step in the calculation is the correction of the sound power for the device from values provided by the manufacturer to values appropriate for use in occupied spaces. This correction is called the environmental adjustment factor. It compensates for the fact that sound power measured for a source placed outdoors or in a hemi-free field has been found to be greater at low frequencies than the sound power measured for the same source in a reverberation room. When making predictions of sound pressure level in a room using such sound power levels, one has to estimate the reduction in sound power caused by the room. Estimated reductions provided in ARI 885 were examined during ASHRAE research project RP-755 and found to be too large. Lower values are suggested in this paper.

  1. Plumbing noise: Pressure levels and perception in a luxury condominium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watry, Derek

    2005-09-01

    A consulting project has recently been completed that addressed a number of noise concerns in a 9-unit, 20-year-old luxury condominium building in the San Francisco Bay Area. Among other tasks, the noise levels of four bathroom plumbing functions (flushing, showering, bath filling, bath draining) were measured in adjoining units and an inventory of noise concerns was collected. This paper reports the measured noise levels (nearly a 20-dBA range for every function!) and looks at the corresponding resident assessments not always clearly correlated with sound-pressure level.

  2. Low-level lead exposure, blood pressure, and calcium metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C.; McCarron, D.A.; Bennett, W.M. )

    1990-06-01

    Previous research has shown an association of both blood lead and dietary calcium with blood pressure (BP) in populations. We examined the relationship between blood levels and BP, the effect of calcium supplementation on blood lead, and whether the reported antihypertensive effect of calcium supplementation was related to any observed change in blood lead. BP was measured on four occasions, 1 week apart in 251 subjects. During this period, blood lead and erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EPP) levels were measured, as well as markers of calcium metabolism. In an intervention period, 142 patients were assigned to receive 1 g of calcium per day as calcium carbonate for 12 weeks; at the end of this period, blood lead and EPP were remeasured. In males, blood lead levels were significantly, directly related to BP; a 0.48 mumol/dL (10 micrograms/dL) increase in blood lead concentration was associated with a 5 mm Hg increase in systolic pressure. There was no relationship of blood lead levels to BP in females. EPP was unrelated to BP. Similarly, there was no relationship of blood lead levels to markers of calcium metabolism. With calcium supplementation, blood lead and EPP levels did not change significantly. We conclude that it is unlikely that modification of lead status explains any effects of calcium supplementation on BP.

  3. Detection of human influence on sea-level pressure.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Nathan P; Zwiers, Francis W; Weaver, Andrew J; Stott, Peter A

    2003-03-20

    Greenhouse gases and tropospheric sulphate aerosols--the main human influences on climate--have been shown to have had a detectable effect on surface air temperature, the temperature of the free troposphere and stratosphere and ocean temperature. Nevertheless, the question remains as to whether human influence is detectable in any variable other than temperature. Here we detect an influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols in observations of winter sea-level pressure (December to February), using combined simulations from four climate models. We find increases in sea-level pressure over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean, southern Europe and North Africa, and decreases in the polar regions and the North Pacific Ocean, in response to human influence. Our analysis also indicates that the climate models substantially underestimate the magnitude of the sea-level pressure response. This discrepancy suggests that the upward trend in the North Atlantic Oscillation index (corresponding to strengthened westerlies in the North Atlantic region), as simulated in a number of global warming scenarios, may be too small, leading to an underestimation of the impacts of anthropogenic climate change on European climate.

  4. Wind turbine sound pressure level calculations at dwellings.

    PubMed

    Keith, Stephen E; Feder, Katya; Voicescu, Sonia A; Soukhovtsev, Victor; Denning, Allison; Tsang, Jason; Broner, Norm; Leroux, Tony; Richarz, Werner; van den Berg, Frits

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides calculations of outdoor sound pressure levels (SPLs) at dwellings for 10 wind turbine models, to support Health Canada's Community Noise and Health Study. Manufacturer supplied and measured wind turbine sound power levels were used to calculate outdoor SPL at 1238 dwellings using ISO [(1996). ISO 9613-2-Acoustics] and a Swedish noise propagation method. Both methods yielded statistically equivalent results. The A- and C-weighted results were highly correlated over the 1238 dwellings (Pearson's linear correlation coefficient r > 0.8). Calculated wind turbine SPLs were compared to ambient SPLs from other sources, estimated using guidance documents from the United States and Alberta, Canada.

  5. Wind turbine sound pressure level calculations at dwellings.

    PubMed

    Keith, Stephen E; Feder, Katya; Voicescu, Sonia A; Soukhovtsev, Victor; Denning, Allison; Tsang, Jason; Broner, Norm; Leroux, Tony; Richarz, Werner; van den Berg, Frits

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides calculations of outdoor sound pressure levels (SPLs) at dwellings for 10 wind turbine models, to support Health Canada's Community Noise and Health Study. Manufacturer supplied and measured wind turbine sound power levels were used to calculate outdoor SPL at 1238 dwellings using ISO [(1996). ISO 9613-2-Acoustics] and a Swedish noise propagation method. Both methods yielded statistically equivalent results. The A- and C-weighted results were highly correlated over the 1238 dwellings (Pearson's linear correlation coefficient r > 0.8). Calculated wind turbine SPLs were compared to ambient SPLs from other sources, estimated using guidance documents from the United States and Alberta, Canada. PMID:27036282

  6. Maintaining Optimal Surgical Conditions With Low Insufflation Pressures is Possible With Deep Neuromuscular Blockade During Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myoung Hwa; Lee, Ki Young; Lee, Kang-Young; Min, Byung-Soh; Yoo, Young Chul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption and increased intra-abdominal pressure can adversely affect perioperative physiology and postoperative recovery. Deep muscle relaxation is known to improve the surgical conditions during laparoscopic surgery. We aimed to compare the effects of deep and moderate neuromuscular block in laparoscopic colorectal surgery, including intra-abdominal pressure. In this prospective, double-blind, parallel-group trial, 72 adult patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery were randomized using an online randomization generator to achieve either moderate (1–2 train-of-four response, n = 36) or deep (1–2 post-tetanic count, n = 36) neuromuscular block by receiving a continuous infusion of rocuronium. Adjusted intra-abdominal pressure, which was titrated by a surgeon with maintaining the operative field during pneumoperitoneum, was recorded at 5-minute intervals. Perioperative hemodynamic parameters and postoperative outcomes were assessed. Six patients from the deep and 5 from the moderate neuromuscular block group were excluded, leaving 61 for analysis. The average adjusted IAP was lower in the deep compared to the moderate neuromuscular block group (9.3 vs 12 mm Hg, P < 0.001). The postoperative pain scores (P < 0.001) and incidence of postoperative shoulder tip pain were lower, whereas gas passing time (P = 0.002) and sips of water time (P = 0.005) were shorter in the deep neuromuscular block than in the moderate neuromuscular block group. Deep neuromuscular blocking showed several benefits compared to conventional moderate neuromuscular block, including a greater intra-abdominal pressure lowering effect, whereas surgical conditions are maintained, less severe postoperative pain and faster bowel function recovery. PMID:26945393

  7. Elevated systolic pressure following chronic low-level cadmiun feeding.

    PubMed

    Perry, H M; Erlanger, M; Perry, E F

    1977-02-01

    Groups of 16 female Long-Evans rats received 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 25, and 50 mg cadmium/liter dringking water (parts per million (ppm)), from the time they were weaned until they were 30 mo old. Systolic pressure was measured indirectly in triplicate at 6-mo intervals. Both 2.5 and 5 ppm cadmium consistently induced significant elevations in mean systolic pressure, ranging from 13 to 33 mmHg. At 6 mo, 10 and 25 ppm cadmium also induced significant elevations, whereas at 12 mo and subsequently 1 ppm cadmium induced significant elevations. With 10 ppm cadmium or less weight gain was normal and there was no evidence of cadmium toxicity. With 25 and 50 ppm cadmium weight gain was diminished, suggesting toxicity. Five rats with each level of exposure were sacrificed every 6 mo from a second population of similarly handled rats in order to determine renal cadmium concetrations. Cadmium intakes that had induced hypertension were associated with mean renal cadmium concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 mug/g kidney.

  8. Contact Pressure Level Indication Using Stepped Output Tactile Sensors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunsuk; Sul, Onejae; Kim, Juyoung; Kim, Kyumin; Kim, Jong-Seok; Kwon, Dae-Yong; Choi, Byong-Deok; Lee, Seung-Beck

    2016-04-09

    In this article, we report on a novel diaphragm-type tactile pressure sensor that produces stepwise output currents depending on varying low contact pressures. When contact pressures are applied to the stepped output tactile sensor (SOTS), the sensor's suspended diaphragm makes contact with the substrate, which completes a circuit by connecting resistive current paths. Then the contact area, and therefore the number of current paths, would determine the stepped output current produced. This mechanism allows SOTS to have high signal-to-noise ratio (>20 dB) in the 3-500 Hz frequency range at contact pressures below 15 kPa. Moreover, since the sensor's operation does not depend on a material's pressure-dependent electrical properties, the SOTS is able to demonstrate high reproducibility and reliability. By forming a 4 × 4 array of SOTS with a surface bump structure, we demonstrated shear sensing as well as surface (1 × 1 cm²) pressure mapping capabilities.

  9. Sound Pressure Level Gain in an Acoustic Metamaterial Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kyungjun; Kim, Kiwon; Hur, Shin; Kwak, Jun-Hyuk; Park, Jihyun; Yoon, Jong Rak; Kim, Jedo

    2014-01-01

    The inherent attenuation of a homogeneous viscous medium limits radiation propagation, thereby restricting the use of many high-frequency acoustic devices to only short-range applications. Here, we design and experimentally demonstrate an acoustic metamaterial localization cavity which is used for sound pressure level (SPL) gain using double coiled up space like structures thereby increasing the range of detection. This unique behavior occurs within a subwavelength cavity that is 1/10th of the wavelength of the incident acoustic wave, which provides up to a 13 dB SPL gain. We show that the amplification results from the Fabry-Perot resonance of the cavity, which has a simultaneously high effective refractive index and effective impedance. We also experimentally verify the SPL amplification in an underwater environment at higher frequencies using a sample with an identical unit cell size. The versatile scalability of the design shows promising applications in many areas, especially in acoustic imaging and underwater communication. PMID:25502279

  10. System-level challenges in pressure-operated soft robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onal, Cagdas D.

    2016-05-01

    Last decade witnessed the revival of fluidic soft actuation. As pressure-operated soft robotics becomes more popular with promising recent results, system integration remains an outstanding challenge. Inspired greatly by biology, we envision future robotic systems to embrace mechanical compliance with bodies composed of soft and hard components as well as electronic and sensing sub-systems, such that robot maintenance starts to resemble surgery. In this vision, portable energy sources and driving infrastructure plays a key role to offer autonomous many-DoF soft actuation. On the other hand, while offering many advantages in safety and adaptability to interact with unstructured environments, objects, and human bodies, mechanical compliance also violates many inherent assumptions in traditional rigid-body robotics. Thus, a complete soft robotic system requires new approaches to utilize proprioception that provides rich sensory information while remaining flexible, and motion control under significant time delay. This paper discusses our proposed solutions for each of these system-level challenges in soft robotics research.

  11. Pressure levels and pulsation frequencies can be varied on high pressure/frequency testing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Routson, J. W.

    1967-01-01

    Hydraulic system components test device obtains a pulsating pressure from a hydraulic actuator that is being driven by a vibration exciter of sufficient force and displacement. Input to the exciter controls the frequency of pressure variation.

  12. Maintaining Optimal Surgical Conditions With Low Insufflation Pressures is Possible With Deep Neuromuscular Blockade During Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung Hwa; Lee, Ki Young; Lee, Kang-Young; Min, Byung-Soh; Yoo, Young Chul

    2016-03-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption and increased intra-abdominal pressure can adversely affect perioperative physiology and postoperative recovery. Deep muscle relaxation is known to improve the surgical conditions during laparoscopic surgery. We aimed to compare the effects of deep and moderate neuromuscular block in laparoscopic colorectal surgery, including intra-abdominal pressure. In this prospective, double-blind, parallel-group trial, 72 adult patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery were randomized using an online randomization generator to achieve either moderate (1-2 train-of-four response, n = 36) or deep (1-2 post-tetanic count, n = 36) neuromuscular block by receiving a continuous infusion of rocuronium. Adjusted intra-abdominal pressure, which was titrated by a surgeon with maintaining the operative field during pneumoperitoneum, was recorded at 5-minute intervals. Perioperative hemodynamic parameters and postoperative outcomes were assessed. Six patients from the deep and 5 from the moderate neuromuscular block group were excluded, leaving 61 for analysis. The average adjusted IAP was lower in the deep compared to the moderate neuromuscular block group (9.3 vs 12 mm Hg, P < 0.001). The postoperative pain scores (P < 0.001) and incidence of postoperative shoulder tip pain were lower, whereas gas passing time (P = 0.002) and sips of water time (P = 0.005) were shorter in the deep neuromuscular block than in the moderate neuromuscular block group. Deep neuromuscular blocking showed several benefits compared to conventional moderate neuromuscular block, including a greater intra-abdominal pressure lowering effect, whereas surgical conditions are maintained, less severe postoperative pain and faster bowel function recovery. PMID:26945393

  13. Maintaining Optimal Surgical Conditions With Low Insufflation Pressures is Possible With Deep Neuromuscular Blockade During Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung Hwa; Lee, Ki Young; Lee, Kang-Young; Min, Byung-Soh; Yoo, Young Chul

    2016-03-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption and increased intra-abdominal pressure can adversely affect perioperative physiology and postoperative recovery. Deep muscle relaxation is known to improve the surgical conditions during laparoscopic surgery. We aimed to compare the effects of deep and moderate neuromuscular block in laparoscopic colorectal surgery, including intra-abdominal pressure. In this prospective, double-blind, parallel-group trial, 72 adult patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery were randomized using an online randomization generator to achieve either moderate (1-2 train-of-four response, n = 36) or deep (1-2 post-tetanic count, n = 36) neuromuscular block by receiving a continuous infusion of rocuronium. Adjusted intra-abdominal pressure, which was titrated by a surgeon with maintaining the operative field during pneumoperitoneum, was recorded at 5-minute intervals. Perioperative hemodynamic parameters and postoperative outcomes were assessed. Six patients from the deep and 5 from the moderate neuromuscular block group were excluded, leaving 61 for analysis. The average adjusted IAP was lower in the deep compared to the moderate neuromuscular block group (9.3 vs 12 mm Hg, P < 0.001). The postoperative pain scores (P < 0.001) and incidence of postoperative shoulder tip pain were lower, whereas gas passing time (P = 0.002) and sips of water time (P = 0.005) were shorter in the deep neuromuscular block than in the moderate neuromuscular block group. Deep neuromuscular blocking showed several benefits compared to conventional moderate neuromuscular block, including a greater intra-abdominal pressure lowering effect, whereas surgical conditions are maintained, less severe postoperative pain and faster bowel function recovery.

  14. General circulation model simulations of winter and summer sea-level pressures over North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J.; Legates, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, observed sea-level pressures were used to evaluate winter and summer sea-level pressures over North America simulated by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) general circulation models. The objective of the study is to determine how similar the spatial and temporal distributions of GCM-simulated daily sea-level pressures over North America are to observed distributions. Overall, both models are better at reproducing observed within-season variance of winter and summer sea-level pressures than they are at simulating the magnitude of mean winter and summer sea-level pressures. -from Authors

  15. [Features of diurnal profile of blood pressure in workers having serum aromatic hydrocarbons level].

    PubMed

    Baĭdina, A S; Safonova, M A; Alekseev, V B

    2012-01-01

    Features of diurnal profile of blood pressure in workers having serum level of benzol and ethylbenzene are high systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure during the day, index of systolic arterial pressure time and index diastolic arterial pressure time was also high. These features should be considered in anti-hypertensives prescription.

  16. 16 CFR 1500.47 - Method for determining the sound pressure level produced by toy caps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method for determining the sound pressure... ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS § 1500.47 Method for determining the sound pressure level produced by toy caps. (a... of the explosive. Measure the peak sound pressure level at each of the six designated orientations...

  17. Contact Pressure Level Indication Using Stepped Output Tactile Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eunsuk; Sul, Onejae; Kim, Juyoung; Kim, Kyumin; Kim, Jong-Seok; Kwon, Dae-Yong; Choi, Byong-Deok; Lee, Seung-Beck

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we report on a novel diaphragm-type tactile pressure sensor that produces stepwise output currents depending on varying low contact pressures. When contact pressures are applied to the stepped output tactile sensor (SOTS), the sensor’s suspended diaphragm makes contact with the substrate, which completes a circuit by connecting resistive current paths. Then the contact area, and therefore the number of current paths, would determine the stepped output current produced. This mechanism allows SOTS to have high signal-to-noise ratio (>20 dB) in the 3–500 Hz frequency range at contact pressures below 15 kPa. Moreover, since the sensor’s operation does not depend on a material’s pressure-dependent electrical properties, the SOTS is able to demonstrate high reproducibility and reliability. By forming a 4 × 4 array of SOTS with a surface bump structure, we demonstrated shear sensing as well as surface (1 × 1 cm2) pressure mapping capabilities. PMID:27070626

  18. Inconsistencies in sea level pressure trends between different atmospheric products. Impact on sea level trend estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomis, D.; Jordà, G.

    2012-04-01

    Long term climate datasets are of great importance to understand the processes behind climate variability, to evaluate the performance of climate models and to identify signals of climate change. Among the different atmospheric variables, sea level pressure (SLP) is the basic dynamical variable and is the most widely analyzed quantity. From the ocean perspective, SLP is of crucial importance for a dynamical interpretation of sea level records. In order to isolate the contribution to sea level variability of circulation and heat and freshwater contents, a common practice is to remove the sea level fluctuations induced by SLP. At seasonal and longer time scales, sea level is expected to react as an inverted barometer (IB) to changes in SLP. Therefore, provided that accuracy of available SLP data is high enough, the atmospheric contribution to sea level variability can be isolated and removed from sea level records. This is routinely done for tide gauge records, altimetry or sea level reconstructions. Different atmospheric gridded products spanning the last decades are nowadays available. On the one hand, there are historical SLP datasets where observations from land stations and ocean observations have been interpolated into a regular grid. On the other hand, there are reanalyses where an atmospheric model is run assimilating the historical data. Both kind of products have been extensively used in recent years either directly (i.e. to analyse the SLP evolution) or indirectly (i.e. through the removal of IB effect on sea level records). However, it is well known that the quality of those products may not be homogeneous on time. In this contribution, we compare long term SLP trends from different atmospheric products (reanalysis and gridded historical datasets), and evaluate the uncertainties introduced by them in the sea level trend estimations. The results show that discrepancies between datasets can induce an uncertainty up to 0.5 mm/yr for the period 1958-2001 on

  19. Laboratory evaluation of the pressure water level data logger manufactured by Infinities USA, Inc.: results of pressure and temperature tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carnley, Mark V.

    2015-01-01

    The Pressure Water Level Data Logger manufactured by Infinities USA, Inc., was evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility for conformance with the manufacturer’s stated accuracy specifications for measuring pressure throughout the device’s operating temperature range and with the USGS accuracy requirements for water-level measurements. The Pressure Water Level Data Logger (Infinities Logger) is a submersible, sealed, water-level sensing device with an operating pressure range of 0 to 11.5 feet of water over a temperature range of −18 to 49 degrees Celsius. For the pressure range tested, the manufacturer’s accuracy specification of 0.1 percent of full scale pressure equals an accuracy of ±0.138 inch of water. Three Infinities Loggers were evaluated, and the testing procedures followed and results obtained are described in this report. On the basis of the test results, the device is poorly compensated for temperature. For the three Infinities Loggers, the mean pressure differences varied from –4.04 to 5.32 inches of water and were not within the manufacturer’s accuracy specification for pressure measurements made within the temperature-compensated range. The device did not meet the manufacturer’s stated accuracy specifications for pressure within its temperature-compensated operating range of –18 to 49 degrees Celsius or the USGS accuracy requirements of no more than 0.12 inch of water (0.01 foot of water) or 0.10 percent of reading, whichever is larger. The USGS accuracy requirements are routinely examined and reported when instruments are evaluated at the Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility. The estimated combined measurement uncertainty for the pressure cycling test was ±0.139 inch of water, and for temperature, the cycling test was ±0.127 inch of water for the three Infinities Loggers.

  20. Sex Disparity in Blood Pressure Levels Among Nigerian Health Workers.

    PubMed

    Adeoye, Abiodun M; Adebiyi, Adewole; Owolabi, Mayowa O; Lackland, Daniel T; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Tayo, Bamidele O

    2016-07-01

    Sex disparity in hypertension prevalence is well established in developed nations; however, there is paucity of data on the distribution of hypertension prevalence between the sexes in developing countries. Therefore, the authors examined sex differences in hypertension prevalence and cardiovascular risk factors in a sample of 352 healthy hospital workers in Nigeria. The mean ages of the men and women were 37.2±7.9 and 44.7±9.1 years, respectively. Thirty-five percent of participants were hypertensive, with 54% on treatment and 70% with controlled blood pressure. Men had a higher prevalence of hypertension (38.4% vs 33.0%) and prehypertension (37.6% vs 29.7%). Women had significantly higher odds of developing hypertension and of being on treatment. Mean blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose values were higher in men, while women were more often older, obese, and dyslipidemic and had a lower mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (P<.0001). These findings indicate sex disparity in blood pressure among hospital employees. Sex-focused management of hypertension is therefore advocated for hospital employees. PMID:26582436

  1. Sex Disparity in Blood Pressure Levels Among Nigerian Health Workers.

    PubMed

    Adeoye, Abiodun M; Adebiyi, Adewole; Owolabi, Mayowa O; Lackland, Daniel T; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Tayo, Bamidele O

    2016-07-01

    Sex disparity in hypertension prevalence is well established in developed nations; however, there is paucity of data on the distribution of hypertension prevalence between the sexes in developing countries. Therefore, the authors examined sex differences in hypertension prevalence and cardiovascular risk factors in a sample of 352 healthy hospital workers in Nigeria. The mean ages of the men and women were 37.2±7.9 and 44.7±9.1 years, respectively. Thirty-five percent of participants were hypertensive, with 54% on treatment and 70% with controlled blood pressure. Men had a higher prevalence of hypertension (38.4% vs 33.0%) and prehypertension (37.6% vs 29.7%). Women had significantly higher odds of developing hypertension and of being on treatment. Mean blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose values were higher in men, while women were more often older, obese, and dyslipidemic and had a lower mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (P<.0001). These findings indicate sex disparity in blood pressure among hospital employees. Sex-focused management of hypertension is therefore advocated for hospital employees.

  2. The global historical climatology network: Long-term monthly temperature, precipitation, sea level pressure, and station pressure data

    SciTech Connect

    Vose, R.S.; Schmoyer, R.L.; Steurer, P.M.; Peterson, T.C.

    1992-12-31

    This NDP contains monthly temperature, precipitation, sea level pressure, and station pressure data for thousands of meteorological stations worldwide. The database was compiled from pre-existing national, regional, and global collections of data as a part of the Global Historical Climatology Network (CHCN) project. It contains data from roughly 6000 temperature stations, 7500 precipitation stations, 1800 sea level pressure stations, and 1800 station pressure stations. Each station has at least 10 years of data, and about 40% have more than 50 years of data. Spatial coverage is good over most of the globe, particularly for the United States and Europe. Data gaps are evident over the Amazon rainforest, the Sahara desert, Greenland, and Antarctica.

  3. Understanding the relation between wind- and pressure-driven sea level variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponte, Rui M.

    1994-01-01

    Sea surface adjustment to combined wind and pressure forcing is examined using numerical solutions to the shallow water equations. The experiments use coastal geometry and bottom topography representative of the North Atlantic and are forced by realistic barometric pressure and wind stress fields. The repsonse to pressure is essentially static or close to the inverted barometer solution at periods longer than a few days and dominates the sea level variability, with wind-driven sea level signals being relatively small. With regard to the dynamic signals, wind-driven fluctuations dominate at long periods, as expected from quasi-geostrophic theory. Pressure becomes more important than wind stress as a source of dynamic signals only at periods shorter than approximately three days. Wind- and pressure-driven sea level fluctuations are anticorrelated over most regions. Hence, regressions of sea level on barometric pressure yield coefficients generally smaller than expected for the inverted barometer response known to be the case in the model. In the regions of significant wind-pressure correlation effects, to infer the correct pressure reponse using statistical methods, input fields must include winds as well as pressure. Because of the nonlocal character of the wind response, multivariate statistical models with local wind driving as input are not very successful. Inclusion of nonlocal wind variability over extensive regions is necessary to extract the correct pressure response. Implications of these results to the interpretation of sea level observations are discussed.

  4. Prediction of light aircraft interior sound pressure level using the room equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwal, M.; Bernhard, R.

    1984-01-01

    The room equation is investigated for predicting interior sound level. The method makes use of an acoustic power balance, by equating net power flow into the cabin volume to power dissipated within the cabin using the room equation. The sound power level transmitted through the panels was calculated by multiplying the measured space averaged transmitted intensity for each panel by its surface area. The sound pressure level was obtained by summing the mean square sound pressures radiated from each panel. The data obtained supported the room equation model in predicting the cabin interior sound pressure level.

  5. Direct measurement of local pressures in the cadaveric human hip joint during simulated level walking.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, D; Swanson, S A

    1985-01-01

    Eleven piezoelectric pressure transducers, each supporting an area of articular cartilage about 3 mm in diameter, were inserted through the bone of the acetabulum. Nine cadaveric hip joints, thus instrumented, were subjected to forces representing six instants in a typical level walking cycle, including the highest and lowest force. Under the highest force, the maximum pressure measured ranged from 4.93 to 9.57 MN m-2. The transducer positions which were subjected to the highest pressures were subjected at some other instant in the cycle to pressures which were an order of magnitude lower, or to zero pressure. PMID:4051586

  6. GSOD Based Daily Global Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Xuan Shi, Dali Wang

    2014-05-05

    This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods

  7. How male sound pressure level influences phonotaxis in virgin female Jamaican field crickets (Gryllus assimilis)

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Understanding female mate preference is important for determining the strength and direction of sexual trait evolution. The sound pressure level (SPL) acoustic signalers use is often an important predictor of mating success because higher sound pressure levels are detectable at greater distances. If females are more attracted to signals produced at higher sound pressure levels, then the potential fitness impacts of signalling at higher sound pressure levels should be elevated beyond what would be expected from detection distance alone. Here we manipulated the sound pressure level of cricket mate attraction signals to determine how female phonotaxis was influenced. We examined female phonotaxis using two common experimental methods: spherical treadmills and open arenas. Both methods showed similar results, with females exhibiting greatest phonotaxis towards loud sound pressure levels relative to the standard signal (69 vs. 60 dB SPL) but showing reduced phonotaxis towards very loud sound pressure level signals relative to the standard (77 vs. 60 dB SPL). Reduced female phonotaxis towards supernormal stimuli may signify an acoustic startle response, an absence of other required sensory cues, or perceived increases in predation risk. PMID:24949249

  8. A novel technique towards deployment of hydrostatic pressure based level sensor in nuclear fuel reprocessing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen, K.; Rajiniganth, M. P.; Arun, A. D.; Sahoo, P.; Satya Murty, S. A. V.

    2016-02-01

    A novel approach towards deployment of a hydrostatic pressure based level monitoring device is presented for continuous monitoring of liquid level in a reservoir with high resolution and precision. Some of the major drawbacks such as spurious information of measured level due to change in ambient temperature, requirement of high resolution pressure sensor, and bubbling effect by passing air or any gaseous fluid into the liquid are overcome by using such a newly designed hydrostatic pressure based level monitoring device. The technique involves precise measurement of hydrostatic pressure exerted by the process liquid using a high sensitive pulsating-type differential pressure sensor (capacitive type differential pressure sensor using a specially designed oil manometer) and correlating it to the liquid level. In order to avoid strong influence of temperature on liquid level, a temperature compensation methodology is derived and used in the system. A wireless data acquisition feature has also been provided in the level monitoring device in order to work in a remote area such as a radioactive environment. At the outset, a prototype level measurement system for a 1 m tank is constructed and its test performance has been well studied. The precision, accuracy, resolution, uncertainty, sensitivity, and response time of the prototype level measurement system are found to be less than 1.1 mm in the entire range, 1%, 3 mm, <1%, 10 Hz/mm, and ˜4 s, respectively.

  9. A novel technique towards deployment of hydrostatic pressure based level sensor in nuclear fuel reprocessing facility.

    PubMed

    Praveen, K; Rajiniganth, M P; Arun, A D; Sahoo, P; Murty, S A V Satya

    2016-02-01

    A novel approach towards deployment of a hydrostatic pressure based level monitoring device is presented for continuous monitoring of liquid level in a reservoir with high resolution and precision. Some of the major drawbacks such as spurious information of measured level due to change in ambient temperature, requirement of high resolution pressure sensor, and bubbling effect by passing air or any gaseous fluid into the liquid are overcome by using such a newly designed hydrostatic pressure based level monitoring device. The technique involves precise measurement of hydrostatic pressure exerted by the process liquid using a high sensitive pulsating-type differential pressure sensor (capacitive type differential pressure sensor using a specially designed oil manometer) and correlating it to the liquid level. In order to avoid strong influence of temperature on liquid level, a temperature compensation methodology is derived and used in the system. A wireless data acquisition feature has also been provided in the level monitoring device in order to work in a remote area such as a radioactive environment. At the outset, a prototype level measurement system for a 1 m tank is constructed and its test performance has been well studied. The precision, accuracy, resolution, uncertainty, sensitivity, and response time of the prototype level measurement system are found to be less than 1.1 mm in the entire range, 1%, 3 mm, <1%, 10 Hz/mm, and ∼4 s, respectively.

  10. DEPENDENCE OF THE SATURATION LEVEL OF MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY ON GAS PRESSURE AND MAGNETIC PRANDTL NUMBER

    SciTech Connect

    Minoshima, Takashi; Hirose, Shigenobu; Sano, Takayoshi

    2015-07-20

    A large set of numerical simulations of MHD turbulence induced by the magnetorotational instability is presented. Revisiting the previous survey conducted by Sano et al., we investigate the gas pressure dependence of the saturation level. In ideal MHD simulations, the gas pressure dependence is found to be very sensitive to the choice of numerical scheme. This is because the numerical magnetic Prandtl number varies according to the scheme as well as the pressure, which considerably affects the results. The saturation level is more sensitive to the numerical magnetic Prandtl number than the pressure. In MHD simulations with explicit viscosity and resistivity, the saturation level increases with the physical magnetic Prandtl number, and it is almost independent of the gas pressure when the magnetic Prandtl number is constant. This is indicative of the incompressible turbulence saturated by the secondary tearing instability.

  11. Assessing cerebral blood flow control from variability in blood pressure and arterial CO2 levels.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Dragana; Birch, Anthony A; Panerai, Ronney B; Simpson, David M

    2015-08-01

    Blood flow to the brain is controlled by a number of physiological mechanisms that respond to changes in arterial blood pressure, arterial CO2 levels and many other factors. Assessing the integrity of this control system is a major challenge. We report on repeatability of measures based on single and multiple input models during spontaneous and enhanced fluctuations in blood pressure.

  12. Temperature and pressure effects on capacitance probe cryogenic liquid level measurement accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Lawrence G.; Haberbusch, Mark

    1993-01-01

    The inaccuracies of liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen level measurements by use of a coaxial capacitance probe were investigated as a function of fluid temperatures and pressures. Significant liquid level measurement errors were found to occur due to the changes in the fluids dielectric constants which develop over the operating temperature and pressure ranges of the cryogenic storage tanks. The level measurement inaccuracies can be reduced by using fluid dielectric correction factors based on measured fluid temperatures and pressures. The errors in the corrected liquid level measurements were estimated based on the reported calibration errors of the temperature and pressure measurement systems. Experimental liquid nitrogen (LN2) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) level measurements were obtained using the calibrated capacitance probe equations and also by the dielectric constant correction factor method. The liquid levels obtained by the capacitance probe for the two methods were compared with the liquid level estimated from the fluid temperature profiles. Results show that the dielectric constant corrected liquid levels agreed within 0.5 percent of the temperature profile estimated liquid level. The uncorrected dielectric constant capacitance liquid level measurements deviated from the temperature profile level by more than 5 percent. This paper identifies the magnitude of liquid level measurement error that can occur for LN2 and LH2 fluids due to temperature and pressure effects on the dielectric constants over the tank storage conditions from 5 to 40 psia. A method of reducing the level measurement errors by using dielectric constant correction factors based on fluid temperature and pressure measurements is derived. The improved accuracy by use of the correction factors is experimentally verified by comparing liquid levels derived from fluid temperature profiles.

  13. Does temperature affect the accuracy of vented pressure transducer in fine-scale water level measurement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Higgins, C. W.

    2015-03-01

    Submersible pressure transducers have been utilized for collecting water level data since the early 1960s. Together with a digital data logger, it is a convenient way to record water level fluctuations for long-term monitoring. Despite the wide use of pressure transducers for water level monitoring, little has been reported regarding their accuracy and performance under field conditions. The effects of temperature fluctuations on the output of vented pressure transducers were considered in this study. The pressure transducers were tested under both laboratory and field conditions. The results of this study indicate that temperature fluctuation has a strong effect on the transducer output. Rapid changes in temperature introduce noise and fluctuations in the water level readings under a constant hydraulic head while the absolute temperature is also related to sensor errors. The former is attributed to venting and the latter is attributed to temperature compensation effects in the strain gauges. Individual pressure transducers responded differently to the thermal fluctuations in the same testing environment. In the field of surface hydrology, especially when monitoring fine-scale water level fluctuations, ignoring or failing to compensate for the temperature effect can introduce considerable error into pressure transducer readings. It is recommended that a performance test for the pressure transducer is conducted before field deployment.

  14. Can Population-Level Laterality Stem from Social Pressures? Evidence from Cheek Kissing in Humans.

    PubMed

    Chapelain, Amandine; Pimbert, Pauline; Aube, Lydiane; Perrocheau, Océane; Debunne, Gilles; Bellido, Alain; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive research, the origins and functions of behavioural laterality remain largely unclear. One of the most striking unresolved issues is the fact that laterality generally occurs at the population-level. Why would the majority of the individuals of a population exhibit the same laterality, while individual-level laterality would yet provide the advantages in terms of improving behavioural efficiency? Are social pressures the key factor? Can social pressures induce alignment of laterality between the individuals of a population? Can the effect of social pressures overpass the effect of other possible determining factors (e.g. genes)? We tested this important new hypothesis in humans, for the first time. We asked whether population-level laterality could stem from social pressures. Namely, we assessed social pressures on laterality in an interactive social behaviour: kissing on the cheek as a greeting. We performed observations in 10 cities of France. The observations took place in spots where people of the city meet and greet each other. We showed that: a) there is a population-level laterality for cheek kissing, with the majority of individuals being aligned in each city, and b) there is a variation between populations, with a laterality that depends on the city. These results were confirmed by our complementary data from questionnaires and internet surveys. These findings show that social pressures are involved in determining laterality. They demonstrate that population-level laterality can stem from social pressures.

  15. Can Population-Level Laterality Stem from Social Pressures? Evidence from Cheek Kissing in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Chapelain, Amandine; Pimbert, Pauline; Aube, Lydiane; Perrocheau, Océane; Debunne, Gilles; Bellido, Alain; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive research, the origins and functions of behavioural laterality remain largely unclear. One of the most striking unresolved issues is the fact that laterality generally occurs at the population-level. Why would the majority of the individuals of a population exhibit the same laterality, while individual-level laterality would yet provide the advantages in terms of improving behavioural efficiency? Are social pressures the key factor? Can social pressures induce alignment of laterality between the individuals of a population? Can the effect of social pressures overpass the effect of other possible determining factors (e.g. genes)? We tested this important new hypothesis in humans, for the first time. We asked whether population-level laterality could stem from social pressures. Namely, we assessed social pressures on laterality in an interactive social behaviour: kissing on the cheek as a greeting. We performed observations in 10 cities of France. The observations took place in spots where people of the city meet and greet each other. We showed that: a) there is a population-level laterality for cheek kissing, with the majority of individuals being aligned in each city, and b) there is a variation between populations, with a laterality that depends on the city. These results were confirmed by our complementary data from questionnaires and internet surveys. These findings show that social pressures are involved in determining laterality. They demonstrate that population-level laterality can stem from social pressures. PMID:26270648

  16. The relationship between sea-level and bottom pressure variability in an eddy permitting ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Rory J.; Hughes, Chris W.

    2008-02-01

    We investigate the relationship between sea-level (after application of an inverse-barometer correction) and ocean bottom pressure, in an eddy-permitting ocean model. We find the presence of eddies can disrupt this relationship even on timescales as short as 10-20 days, but only in the regions of most energetic eddy variability. Away from eddies, the relationship is similar to that seen in a coarser-resolution model, with a tight relationship between sea-level and bottom pressure at high frequencies, but with significant correlations between sea-level and bottom pressure at interannual timescales seen only in shelf sea regions. In the deep ocean, regions where sea-level and bottom pressure remain related out to the longest timescales are in the Arctic Ocean and regions of the Southern Ocean, where particularly large amplitude barotropic fluctuations are found but where the mesoscale signal is weak.

  17. Correlation of combustor acoustic power levels inferred from internal fluctuating pressure measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U. H.

    1978-01-01

    Combustion chamber acoustic power levels inferred from internal fluctuating pressure measurements are correlated with operating conditions and chamber geometries over a wide range. The variables include considerations of chamber design (can, annular, and reverse-flow annular) and size, number of fuel nozzles, burner staging and fuel split, airflow and heat release rates, and chamber inlet pressure and temperature levels. The correlated data include those obtained with combustion component development rigs as well as engines.

  18. Blood pressure levels of an urban adult New Zealand population: Napier 1973.

    PubMed

    Christmas, B W

    1977-10-26

    Ninety-seven percent of a randomly selected sample of 2600 adults (age range 21 to 92 years) from the Napier City electoral area were surveyed for age and sex distribution of blood pressure. The sample included those currently receiving drug treatment for elevated pressures. There were approximately 400 in each decade and the sex ratio slightly favoured females. Casual systolic pressures rose with age whereas the diastolic rose to approximately age 50 and thereafter remained steady or slightly declined. Before age 50 years males had higher systolic pressures than females and thereafter the mean levels for females exceeded those for the males. Mean systolic pressures for this New Zealand sample population were higher by 2-4mmHg for all ages than the levels reported for the United States National Health Survey 1960-62.

  19. Modeling the barotropic response of the Mediterranean sea level to atmospheric pressure forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsiopoulos, Dimitrios A.; Vergos, Georgios S.; Tziavos, Ilias N.

    2014-05-01

    An important characteristic of the Earth's atmosphere with direct impact on the marine environmental and Earth's gravity field are the variations of atmospheric pressure as it often determines wind and weather patterns across the globe. Variations in atmospheric pressure and especially low atmospheric systems affect the values of radar altimeter sea level anomalies (SLA). This response of sea level is closed to the Inverse Barometer (IB) correction given by the altimeters within their geophysical data records. In this work, altimetric data sets from the satellite remote sensing mission of Jason-2, along with their total IB corrections acquired by the on-board altimeters, have been used for a period of forty days between October and November 2013. This period was characterized by extreme low-pressure fields over the Mediterranean Sea and especially in the area of the Ionian and Adriatic Seas and over the island of Rhodes, Greece. The Jason-2 along-track records of the SLA have been used to study both the sea level response to atmospheric pressure change over short time scales (such as ten days) and examine if the barometer correction (local and global) given by the altimeter is close to the expected response (-1 cm/mbar) of sea level to atmospheric pressure change. For the latter, atmospheric pressure data for the period under study were available from the Live Access Server (LAS) of NOAA, as well, provided at four times per day intervals in a grid format. From the LAS atmospheric pressure data, the IB effect was computed and compared with the one provided by the altimeter for its external evaluation. Finally, a regional multiple regression analysis between sea level anomalies, the LAS atmospheric pressure and wind speed components is carried out to model the barotropic response of the Mediterranean to atmospheric wind and pressure forcing.

  20. Effects of ovarian stimulation on blood pressure and plasma catecholamine levels.

    PubMed

    Tollan, A; Oian, P; Kjeldsen, S E; Holst, N; Eide, I

    1993-07-01

    Effects of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization on blood pressure and plasma catecholamine levels were studied in 10 women. The examinations were carried out before hormonal treatment with human menopausal gonadotropin (day three of the menstrual cycle, mean serum oestradiol concentration 0.2 nmol l-1, and on the day after ovulation induction with human chorionic gonadotropin (cycle days 10-12, mean serum oestradiol concentration 7.4 nmol l-1). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures (mean +/- SD) decreased 6.7 +/- 8.6 mm Hg, p = 0.049, and 5.3 +/- 4.7 mm Hg, p = 0.009, respectively), and venous plasma noradrenaline increased (42 +/- 44 pg ml-1, p = 0.02) during ovarian stimulation. No significant change was observed in either arterial noradrenaline, arterial adrenaline or venous adrenaline. After stimulation a positive correlation was observed between systolic blood pressure and arterial adrenaline (r = 0.73, p = 0.027), and between systolic blood pressure and the arterial-venous difference for adrenaline (r = 0.81, p = 0.007). The increased venous noradrenaline levels may be a reflex-mediated activation of the sympathetic nervous tone due to a decrease in blood pressure, or may indicate reduced neuronal re-uptake of released noradrenaline. The mechanisms behind the strong correlation between adrenaline and blood pressure are unclear, but may be induced by the supraphysiological oestradiol levels. Thus, adrenaline seems to be more important for blood pressure control in this particular setting.

  1. The Global Historical Climatology Network: Long-term monthly temperature, precipitation, sea level pressure, and station pressure data

    SciTech Connect

    Vose, R.S. . Energy, Environment and Resources Center); Schmoyer, R.L. ); Steurer, P.M.; Peterson, T.C.; Heim, R.; Karl, T.R. ); Eischeid, J.K. . Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences)

    1992-07-01

    Interest in global climate change has risen dramatically during the last several years. In a similar fashion, the number of data sets available to study global change has also increased. Unfortunately, these data sets have been compiled by many different organizations/researchers, making it confusing and time consuming for individual researchers to acquire the best'' data. In response to this rapid growth in the number of global data sets, the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) commenced the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) project. The purpose of this project is to compile an improved global base-line data set of long-term monthly mean temperature, precipitation, sea level pressure, and station pressure for a dense network. of worldwide meteorological stations. Specifically, the GHCN project seeks to consolidate the numerous preexisting national-, regional-, and global-scale data sets into a single global climate data base that can be updated, enhanced, and distributed at regular intervals. The first version of the GHCN data base was completed during the summer of 1992. It contains 6039 temperature, 7533 precipitation, 1883 sea level pressure, and 1873 station pressure stations. All stations have at least 10 years of data, 40% have more than 50 years of data, and 10% have more than 100 years of data. Spatial coverage is good over most of the globe, particularly for the United States and central Europe. In comparison to other major global data sets, dramatic improvements are evident over South America, Africa, and Asia. The GHCN data base is available as a Numeric Data Package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of this document and two magnetic tapes that contain machine-readable data files and accompanying retrieval codes. This document describes, in detail, both the GHCN data base and the contents of the magnetic tap

  2. The Global Historical Climatology Network: Long-term monthly temperature, precipitation, sea level pressure, and station pressure data

    SciTech Connect

    Vose, R.S.; Schmoyer, R.L.; Steurer, P.M.; Peterson, T.C.; Heim, R.; Karl, T.R.; Eischeid, J.K.

    1992-07-01

    Interest in global climate change has risen dramatically during the last several years. In a similar fashion, the number of data sets available to study global change has also increased. Unfortunately, these data sets have been compiled by many different organizations/researchers, making it confusing and time consuming for individual researchers to acquire the ``best`` data. In response to this rapid growth in the number of global data sets, the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) commenced the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) project. The purpose of this project is to compile an improved global base-line data set of long-term monthly mean temperature, precipitation, sea level pressure, and station pressure for a dense network. of worldwide meteorological stations. Specifically, the GHCN project seeks to consolidate the numerous preexisting national-, regional-, and global-scale data sets into a single global climate data base that can be updated, enhanced, and distributed at regular intervals. The first version of the GHCN data base was completed during the summer of 1992. It contains 6039 temperature, 7533 precipitation, 1883 sea level pressure, and 1873 station pressure stations. All stations have at least 10 years of data, 40% have more than 50 years of data, and 10% have more than 100 years of data. Spatial coverage is good over most of the globe, particularly for the United States and central Europe. In comparison to other major global data sets, dramatic improvements are evident over South America, Africa, and Asia. The GHCN data base is available as a Numeric Data Package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of this document and two magnetic tapes that contain machine-readable data files and accompanying retrieval codes. This document describes, in detail, both the GHCN data base and the contents of the magnetic tap

  3. 16 CFR 1500.47 - Method for determining the sound pressure level produced by toy caps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... level produced by toy caps. 1500.47 Section 1500.47 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS § 1500.47 Method for determining the sound pressure level produced by toy caps. (a... decibels from 50 hertz to 70 kilohertz or beyond and a dynamic range covering the interval 70 to...

  4. Ultrasonic liquid-level detector for varying temperature and pressure environments

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, R.L.; Miller, G.N.

    1981-10-26

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use in varying temperature and pressure environments, such as a pressurized water nuclear reactor vessel, is provided. The detector employs ultrasonic extensional and torsional waves launched in a multiplexed alternating sequence into a common sensor. The sensor is a rectangular cross section stainless steel rod which extends into the liquid medium whose level is to be detected. The sensor temperature derived from the extensional wave velocity measurements is used to compensate for the temperature dependence of the torsional wave velocity measurements which are also level dependent. The torsional wave velocity measurements of a multiple reflection sensor then provide a measurement of liquid level over a range of several meters with a small uncertainty over a temperature range of 20 to 250/sup 0/C and pressures up to 15 MPa.

  5. Low cardiorespiratory fitness levels and elevated blood pressure: what is the contribution of visceral adiposity?

    PubMed

    Rhéaume, Caroline; Arsenault, Benoit J; Bélanger, Stéphane; Pérusse, Louis; Tremblay, Angelo; Bouchard, Claude; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2009-07-01

    Individuals with poor cardiorespiratory fitness have higher blood pressure than fit individuals. Individuals with low fitness levels also tend to be characterized by higher visceral adiposity compared with physically fit individuals. We tested the hypothesis that the relationship between low fitness and elevated blood pressure could be related, at least in part, to the higher level of visceral adipose tissue often found among unfit individuals. This study included 407 asymptomatic, nondiabetic participants. Visceral adipose tissue was assessed by computed tomography, and fitness was measured by a progressive submaximal physical working capacity test. Participants in the highest visceral adipose tissue tertile showed the highest systolic and diastolic blood pressures, whereas participants in the highest fitness tertile had the lowest blood pressure values (P<0.001). When participants were classified into fitness tertiles and then subdivided on the basis of visceral adipose tissue (high versus low), participants with a high visceral adipose tissue had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure values (P=0.01), independent of their fitness category. Linear regression analyses showed that age and visceral adipose tissue, but not fitness, predicted systolic blood pressure (r(2)=0.11 [P<0.001], 0.12 [P<0.001], and 0.01 [P value nonsignificant], for age, visceral adipose tissue, and fitness, respectively) and diastolic blood pressure (r(2)=0.17 [P<0.001], 0.14 [P<0.001], and 0.01 [P value nonsignificant], for age, visceral adipose tissue, and fitness, respectively). Individuals with high visceral adipose tissue levels have higher blood pressure, independent of their fitness. Visceral adipose tissue may represent an important clinical target in the management of elevated blood pressure. PMID:19470873

  6. Interactions of several genetic polymorphisms and alcohol consumption on blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Yin, Rui-Xing; Aung, Lynn Htet Htet; Long, Xing-Jiang; Yan, Ting-Ting; Cao, Xiao-Li; Huang, Feng; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Yang, De-Zhai; Lin, Wei-Xiong; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to detect the interactions of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and alcohol consumption on blood pressure levels. Genotypes of 10 SNPs in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA-1), acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1), low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), hepatic lipase gene (LIPC), endothelial lipase gene (LIPG), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), the E3 ubiquitin ligase myosin regulatory light chain-interacting protein (MYLIP), proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD), and Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) genes were determined in 616 nondrinkers and 608 drinkers. The genotypic frequencies of LDLR rs5925, LIPC rs2070895, MTHFR rs1801133, and MYLIP rs3757354 SNPs were significantly different between nondrinkers and drinkers. The levels of systolic blood pressure (ABCA-1 rs2066715 and rs2070895), diastolic blood pressure (rs2070895), and pulse pressure (PP) (rs2066715, ACAT-1 rs1044925, and rs1801133) in nondrinkers, and systolic blood pressure (rs1044925 and SCARB1 rs5888), diastolic blood pressure (rs1044925 and LIPG rs2000813), and PP (PCSK9 rs505151 and rs5888) in drinkers were different among the genotypes (P < 0.005-0.001). The interactions of several SNPs and alcohol consumption on systolic blood pressure (rs2066715, rs1044925, rs5925, rs2070895, rs1801133, rs3757354, PPARD rs2016520, and rs5888), diastolic blood pressure (rs2066715, rs1044925, rs5925, rs2000813, rs3757354, and rs2016520), and PP (rs1044925, rs2070895, rs1801133, rs3757354, rs505151, and rs5888) were observed (P < 0.005-0.001). The differences in blood pressure levels between the nondrinkers and drinkers might be partially attributed to the interactions of these SNPs and alcohol consumption. PMID:26354227

  7. [Procalcitonin as a marker of intra-abdominal infection].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Comesaña, Elías; Ballinas-Miranda, Julio Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la procalcitonina es un marcador bastante específico de infección y en los últimos años se ha demostrado su superioridad, con respecto a otros marcadores de inflamación como la proteína C reactiva, para el diagnóstico y vigilancia de una gran variedad de infecciones. Objetivo: resumir los datos actualmente existentes y discutir la utilidad de la procalcitonina en diversas infecciones intrabdominales, incluidas las postoperatorias. Conclusiones: los resultados de estudios hasta ahora publicados son variables, lo que genera controversia en relación con su utilidad.

  8. [Obstructive uropathy in Gardner's syndrome. Intra-abdominal desmoid tumor].

    PubMed

    Olivier Gómez, C M; Carballido Rodríguez, J A

    1989-01-01

    Desmoid tumours are benign neoplasias manifesting themselves clinically as aggressive fibromatoses. They may be sited both in mesenteric and retroperitoneal fat. Owing to the great size they reach and to their local infiltrative character they occasionally lead to the development of intestinal occlusive syndromes and, in exceptional cases, to obstructive uropathy of the upper urinary tract. Their incidence of presentation in the general population is low, however they develop more frequently in patients suffering from colonic polyposis in the family and they form part of the extracolonic manifestations of Gardner's syndrome. In 1987 we treated a young patient, a genetic carrier of familiar colonic polyposis who had presented relapse of a previous desmoid. The location of the tumour in narrow pelvis made its clinical debut as a intestinal pseudo-occlusion and determined a bilateral ureteral obstruction and the formation of a major urinoma. The joint utilization of instrumental maneuvers and surgical approaches enabled us to solve the intestinal and urological commitment satisfactorily. We carry out an overall review and analyse the data published on the incidence, prognosis and treatment of obstructive uropathy in Gardner's syndrome. We also carry out an updating on the biology of the desmoid tumour.

  9. Noncommunicating multiple intra-abdominal enteric duplication cysts.

    PubMed

    Mandhan, Parkash; Ehsan, Toufique M; Al-Sibai, Sareyah; Khan, Ashfaq M; Sankhla, Dilip

    2014-01-01

    A very rare case of noncommunicating multiple intra and retroperitoneal enteric duplication cysts (EDCs) is reported and discussed. Two large noncommunicating EDCs, one within the mesentery of proximal jejunum causing complete luminal obstruction and other isolated cyst in retroperitoneal area displacing duodenum and extrahepatic biliary system, were resected successfully in a 2-day-old neonate along with correction of malrotation.

  10. Intra-abdominal fluid aspirate from a dog.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Valentina; Ghisleni, Gabriele; Avallone, Giancarlo; Caniatti, Mario

    2016-02-01

    A 12-year-old, neutered female, Siberian husky, was presented with a 6-months history of progressive abdominal distension, anorexia, and weight loss. The dog appeared normal on physical examination except for marked abdominal distension. A fluid wave was balloted strongly suggesting an abdominal effusion. Ultrasound examination confirmed this clinical finding. Results of the CBC included mild nonregenerative anemia, with an RBC count of 4.9 × 10(6)/µL (reference interval 5.5-8.5 × 10(6)/µL), hemoglobin concentration of 12 g/dL (reference interval 12-18 g/dL), HCT of 36% (reference interval 37-55%), and reticulocytes <60,000/µL. No abnormalities in serum chemistry were detected.

  11. High Pressure Studies of the Second Landau Level Region of a Two-Dimensional Electron System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Katherine; Samkharadze, Nodar; Gardner, Geoffrey; Fradkin, Eduardo; Manfra, Michael; Csathy, Gabor

    Hydrostatic pressure has become a prevalent tool in condensed matter systems because the application of pressure to crystalline structures results in the shrinking of the lattice constant. This allows one to tune the Bloch wavefunction of the electrons and therefore all band parameters such as effective carrier mass, carrier density, and effective g-factor. In this manner, pressure acts as a probe into various strongly interacting electronic states. Motivated in particular by the capability to discern the spin polarization of quantum Hall states, we apply hydrostatic pressure up to 10 kbar to a two dimensional electron system (2DES) in a high-mobility GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well. This 2DES is subjected to milliKelvin temperatures and strong magnetic fields to observe the effect of pressure on fractional quantum Hall states, especially those in higher Landau levels, a regime not previously studied under pressure. We report our findings, focusing on the observation of a pressure-driven transition from a fractional quantum Hall state to the quantum Hall nematic phase in the second Landau level. Grants: Researchers at Purdue and N. Samkharadze: US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, DE-SC0006671. E. Fradkin: US NSF, DMR 1408713.

  12. BOREAS AFM-5 Level-2 Upper Air Network Standard Pressure Level Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, Alan; Hrynkiw, Charmaine; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS AFM-5 team collected and processed data from the numerous radiosonde flights during the project. The goals of the AFM-05 team were to provide large-scale definition of the atmosphere by supplementing the existing AES aerological network, both temporally and spatially. This data set includes basic upper-air parameters interpolated at 0.5 kiloPascal increments of atmospheric pressure from data collected from the network of upper-air stations during the 1993, 1994, and 1996 field campaigns over the entire study region. The data are contained in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884) or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  13. Determining the response of sea level to atmospheric pressure forcing using TOPEX/POSEIDON data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng; Pihos, Greg

    1994-01-01

    The static response of sea level to the forcing of atmospheric pressure, the so-called inverted barometer (IB) effect, is investigated using TOPEX/POSEIDON data. This response, characterized by the rise and fall of sea level to compensate for the change of atmospheric pressure at a rate of -1 cm/mbar, is not associated with any ocean currents and hence is normally treated as an error to be removed from sea level observation. Linear regression and spectral transfer function analyses are applied to sea level and pressure to examine the validity of the IB effect. In regions outside the tropics, the regression coefficient is found to be consistently close to the theoretical value except for the regions of western boundary currents, where the mesoscale variability interferes with the IB effect. The spectral transfer function shows near IB response at periods of 30 degrees is -0.84 +/- 0.29 cm/mbar (1 standard deviation). The deviation from = 1 cm /mbar is shown to be caused primarily by the effect of wind forcing on sea level, based on multivariate linear regression model involving both pressure and wind forcing. The regression coefficient for pressure resulting from the multivariate analysis is -0.96 +/- 0.32 cm/mbar. In the tropics the multivariate analysis fails because sea level in the tropics is primarily responding to remote wind forcing. However, after removing from the data the wind-forced sea level estimated by a dynamic model of the tropical Pacific, the pressure regression coefficient improves from -1.22 +/- 0.69 cm/mbar to -0.99 +/- 0.46 cm/mbar, clearly revealing an IB response. The result of the study suggests that with a proper removal of the effect of wind forcing the IB effect is valid in most of the open ocean at periods longer than 20 days and spatial scales larger than 500 km.

  14. Association of Blood Lead level with Elevated Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Alghasham, Abdullah A.; Meki, Abdel-Raheim M.A.; Ismail, Hisham A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lead is a metal with many important industrial uses. The relationship between lead exposure and the rise of blood pressure has received a great deal of attention as it was implicated that the mortality from cardiovascular diseases might be reduced by lowering lead levels in the environment. Objectives: The study was to investigate the correlation between the blood lead (B-Pb) levels and the values of blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Moreover, the plasma activities of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), plasma levels of nitric oxide (NO), total antioxidants (TAOX) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were estimated to investigate the correlations between the measured parameters and B-Pb levels in hypertensive patients. Methods: Fifty-five hypertensive patients were compared with fifty-three age and sex matched control group. The B-Pb levels were detected by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The plasma levels of ACE activities, NO, TAOX and MDA were measured by colorimetric methods. Results: In the hypertensive patients, B-Pb levels were significantly higher than controls. Concomitantly, the plasma levels of ACE activities and MDA were significantly increased while the plasma levels of NO and TAOX were significantly reduced in the hypertensive patients in comparison with controls. There were significant positive correlations between B-Pb and each of MDA, and systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure. Conversely, a significant negative correlation was found between B-Pb and NO. Conclusions: Our study indicated that a positive relationship exists between blood pressure and B-Pb levels. The increased B-Pb levels were associated with oxidative stress. Moreover, The B-Pb level was negatively correlated with NO and this may clarify the implication of Pb as leading risk factor for the cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. These findings provide support for continued efforts to reduce lead concentration in the population at Qassim region. PMID:22489226

  15. Evaluation of pressure transducers to measure surface level in the waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.J.; Colson, J.B.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes the results of tests conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine if pressure transducers can be used to measure the surface level in the waste tanks. A survey was first conducted to evaluate which, if any, commercially available pressure transducers were available that could meet the requirements for use in the waste tanks. More than 35 companies were contacted to determine if they manufactured a pressure transducer that could be used in the 101-SY waste tank. The three basic requirements for a pressure transducer for this application were that they were radiation-hardened, could withstand a caustic environment, and were certified to be intrinsically safe. No manufacturer was able to meet all three of these requirements with a commercially available product. Seven companies were able to meet the requirements for being radiation-hardened and being able to withstand the caustic environment. However, only two of the nine companies were willing to supply a pressure transducer for laboratory testing. The two pressure transducers that were tested in this program were the VEGA D36-38 from HiTech Technologies, Inc., and the KP-1911-A from Kaman Instrumentation Corporation. Pressure transducers operate on the principle that the pressure at the location of a sensor increases directly with the depth of the liquid above it. A liquid is required in order for these devices to operate. For these tests, water was first used to determine the ideal operation of the devices, then the devices were placed in a 101-SY waste tank simulant. The simulant had a specific gravity of 1.96 and had the consistency similar to the convective layer in the 101-SY waste tank. In order to determine the surface level with pressure transducers, the density of the material needs to be known.

  16. Force-endurance capabilities of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves at different pressure levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    The human hand is a very useful multipurpose tool in all environments. However, performance capabilities are compromised considerably when gloves are donned. This is especially true to extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves. The primary intent was to answer the question of how long a person can perform tasks requiring certain levels of exertion. The objective was to develop grip force-endurance relations. Six subjects participated in a factorial experiment involving three hand conditions, three pressure differentials, and four levels of force exertion. The results indicate that, while the force that could be exerted depended on the glove, pressure differential, and the level of exertion, the endurance time at any exertion level depended just on the level of exertion expressed as a percentage of maximum exertion possible at that condition. The impact of these findings for practitioners as well as theoreticians is discussed.

  17. Core-Level Crossing and the High-Pressure Equation of State of Heavy Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, John

    2015-06-01

    The structural properties of the 5d transition metal osmium have recently been probed at static pressures up to ~ 770 GPa. In this study, anomalies in the hcp c/a ratio were found at pressures of in the vicinity of 150 GPa and 440 GPa. The anomaly at 150 GPa approximately coincides in pressure with an electron topological transition (ETT) observed in Density Functional Theory (DFT) band structure. However, no ETT is observed at higher pressures. Instead, we find that the anomaly in the c / a ratio of osmium is correlated with the crossing of the 5p3 / 2 and 4f7 / 2 ``core'' levels, which at this pressure are found to have bandwidths ~ .2-.3 Ry, in our DFT calculations. In this talk, I discuss the calculated structural properties and calculated equation of state of osmium and other heavy 5d elements at pressures less than 1 TPa and the effect of core-level crossing on the equation of state and structural properties of these elements.

  18. A Lateral Differential Resonant Pressure Microsensor Based on SOI-Glass Wafer-Level Vacuum Packaging.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bo; Xing, Yonghao; Wang, Yanshuang; Chen, Jian; Chen, Deyong; Wang, Junbo

    2015-09-21

    This paper presents the fabrication and characterization of a resonant pressure microsensor based on SOI-glass wafer-level vacuum packaging. The SOI-based pressure microsensor consists of a pressure-sensitive diaphragm at the handle layer and two lateral resonators (electrostatic excitation and capacitive detection) on the device layer as a differential setup. The resonators were vacuum packaged with a glass cap using anodic bonding and the wire interconnection was realized using a mask-free electrochemical etching approach by selectively patterning an Au film on highly topographic surfaces. The fabricated resonant pressure microsensor with dual resonators was characterized in a systematic manner, producing a quality factor higher than 10,000 (~6 months), a sensitivity of about 166 Hz/kPa and a reduced nonlinear error of 0.033% F.S. Based on the differential output, the sensitivity was increased to two times and the temperature-caused frequency drift was decreased to 25%.

  19. A Lateral Differential Resonant Pressure Microsensor Based on SOI-Glass Wafer-Level Vacuum Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bo; Xing, Yonghao; Wang, Yanshuang; Chen, Jian; Chen, Deyong; Wang, Junbo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the fabrication and characterization of a resonant pressure microsensor based on SOI-glass wafer-level vacuum packaging. The SOI-based pressure microsensor consists of a pressure-sensitive diaphragm at the handle layer and two lateral resonators (electrostatic excitation and capacitive detection) on the device layer as a differential setup. The resonators were vacuum packaged with a glass cap using anodic bonding and the wire interconnection was realized using a mask-free electrochemical etching approach by selectively patterning an Au film on highly topographic surfaces. The fabricated resonant pressure microsensor with dual resonators was characterized in a systematic manner, producing a quality factor higher than 10,000 (~6 months), a sensitivity of about 166 Hz/kPa and a reduced nonlinear error of 0.033% F.S. Based on the differential output, the sensitivity was increased to two times and the temperature-caused frequency drift was decreased to 25%. PMID:26402679

  20. Community Characteristics are Associated with Blood Pressure Levels in a Racially Integrated Community.

    PubMed

    Samuel, L J; Thorpe, R J; Bower, K M; LaVeist, T A

    2015-06-01

    Community problems have been associated with higher, and community resources and social cohesion with lower, blood pressure. However, prior studies have not accounted for potential confounding by residential racial segregation. This study tested associations between community characteristics and blood pressure levels and prevalent hypertension in a racially integrated community. The Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study measured blood pressure in residents of two contiguous racially integrated and low-income US Census Tracts. Community characteristics included a standardized community problem score and binary indicators for community social cohesion, having a community leader available, and having at least one community resource observed on the participant's block. In adjusted models, greater community problems and proximity to resources were associated with lower systolic (β = -2.020, p = 0.028; β = -4.132, p = 0.010) and diastolic (β = -1.261, p = 0.038; β = -2.290, 0.031) blood pressure, respectively, among whites (n = 548). Social cohesion was associated with higher systolic (β = 4.905, p = 0.009) and diastolic blood pressure (β = 3.379, p = 0.008) among African Americans (n = 777). In one racially integrated low-income community, community characteristics were associated with blood pressure levels, and associations differed by race. Directions of associations for two findings differed from prior studies; greater community problem was associated with lower blood pressure in whites and community social cohesion was associated with higher blood pressure in African Americans. These findings may be due to exposure to adverse environmental conditions and hypertensive risk factors in this low-income community.

  1. THE HABITABLE ZONE OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

    SciTech Connect

    Vladilo, Giovanni; Murante, Giuseppe; Silva, Laura; Provenzale, Antonello; Ferri, Gaia; Ragazzini, Gregorio

    2013-04-10

    As a contribution to the study of the habitability of extrasolar planets, we implemented a one-dimensional energy balance model (EBM), the simplest seasonal model of planetary climate, with new prescriptions for most physical quantities. Here we apply our EBM to investigate the surface habitability of planets with an Earth-like atmospheric composition but different levels of surface pressure. The habitability, defined as the mean fraction of the planet's surface on which liquid water could exist, is estimated from the pressure-dependent liquid water temperature range, taking into account seasonal and latitudinal variations of surface temperature. By running several thousands of EBM simulations we generated a map of the habitable zone (HZ) in the plane of the orbital semi-major axis, a, and surface pressure, p, for planets in circular orbits around a Sun-like star. As pressure increases, the HZ becomes broader, with an increase of 0.25 AU in its radial extent from p = 1/3 to 3 bar. At low pressure, the habitability is low and varies with a; at high pressure, the habitability is high and relatively constant inside the HZ. We interpret these results in terms of the pressure dependence of the greenhouse effect, the efficiency of horizontal heat transport, and the extent of the liquid water temperature range. Within the limits discussed in the paper, the results can be extended to planets in eccentric orbits around non-solar-type stars. The main characteristics of the pressure-dependent HZ are modestly affected by variations of planetary properties, particularly at high pressure.

  2. An occultation satellite system for determining pressure levels in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, A. R.; Vngar, S. G.; Lusignan, B. B.

    1974-01-01

    A two-satellite microwave occultation system is described that will fix, as an absolute function of altitude, the pressure-temperature profile generated by a passive infrared sounder. The 300 mb pressure level is determined to within 24 m rms, assuming the temperture errors produced by the infrared sensor are not greater than 2 K rms. Error caused by water vapor in the radio path is corrected by climatological adjustments. A ground test of the proposed system is described. A microwave signal propagating between two mountain tops was found to be subject to periods of intense fading. Computer analysis of the raypath between the transmitting and receiving stations indicates that multipath and defocusing were responsible for this fading. It is unlikely that an operational pressure-reference-level system will be subject to the deep fades observed in the ground test, because the phenomena are associated with lower altitudes than the closest approach altitude of an occultation-system raypath.

  3. Bilayer graphene under pressure: Electron-hole symmetry breaking, valley Hall effect, and Landau levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, F.; Collado, H. P. Ojeda; Usaj, Gonzalo; Sofo, Jorge O.; Balseiro, C. A.

    2016-06-01

    The electronic structure of bilayer graphene under pressure develops very interesting features with an enhancement of the trigonal warping and a splitting of the parabolic touching bands at the K point of the reciprocal space into four Dirac cones, one at K and three along the T symmetry lines. As pressure is increased, these cones separate in reciprocal space and in energy, breaking the electron-hole symmetry. Due to their energy separation, their opposite Berry curvature can be observed in valley Hall effect experiments and in the structure of the Landau levels. Based on the electronic structure obtained by density functional theory, we develop a low energy Hamiltonian that describes the effects of pressure on measurable quantities such as the Hall conductivity and the Landau levels of the system.

  4. Interactions of several lipid-related gene polymorphisms and cigarette smoking on blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Yin, Rui-Xing; Wu, Dong-Feng; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Cao, Xiao-Li; Aung, Lynn Htet Htet; Miao, Lin; Long, Xing-Jiang; Liu, Wan-Ying; Zhang, Lin; Li, Meng

    2012-01-01

    The interactions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and cigarette smoking on blood pressure levels are limited. The present study was undertaken to detect nine lipid-related SNPs and their interactions with cigarette smoking on blood pressure levels. Genotyping of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA-1) V825I, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) rs1044925, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) AvaⅡ, hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) -250G>A, endothelial lipase gene (LIPG) 584C>T, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T, proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9) E670G, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) +294T>C, and Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) rs5888 was performed in 935 nonsmokers and 845 smokers. The interactions were detected by factorial regression analysis. The frequencies of genotypes (ACAT-1 and LIPG), alleles (ABCA-1), and both genotypes and alleles (LDL-R, LIPC, PPARD and SCARB1) were different between nonsmokers and smokers (P < 0.05-0.001). The levels of pulse pressure (PP, ABCA-1), and systolic, diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and PP (LIPC) in nonsmokers were different among the genotypes (P < 0.01-0.001). The levels of SBP (ABCA-1, ACAT-1, LIPG and PCSK9), DBP (ACAT-1, LDL-R, LIPC, PCSK9 and PPARD), and PP (LIPC, LIPG, MTHFR and PCSK9) in smokers were different among the genotypes (P < 0.01-0.001). The SNPs of ABCA-1, ACAT-1 and PCSK9; ACAT-1, LDL-R, MTHFR and PCSK9; and ABCA-1, LIPC, PCSK9 and PPARD were shown interactions with cigarette smoking to influence SBP, DBP and PP levels (P < 0.05-0.001); respectively. The differences in blood pressure levels between the nonsmokers and smokers might partly result from different interactions of several SNPs and cigarette smoking. PMID:22606049

  5. Carotid baroreceptor influence on forearm vascular resistance during low level lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Cynthia A.; Ludwig, David A.; Convertino, Victor A.

    1991-01-01

    The degree of forearm vasoconstriction induced by low levels of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) provides a measure of the responsiveness of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex. The validity of this measurement is based on the assumption that this vasoconstriction response is not influenced by unloading of carotid baroreceptors. To test the hypothesis that arterial baroreceptor unloading does not alter the degree of forearm vascular resistance during low levels of LBNP, 12 subjects were exposed to -15 and -20 mm Hg LBNP with and without additional artificial (+ 10 mm Hg neck pressure) unloading of the carotid baroreceptors. There was no measurable influence of carotid unloading on forearm vascular resistance at either level of LBNP. It is concluded that forearm vascular resistance measured during cardiopulmonary baroreceptor unloading is unaffected by carotid baroreceptor unloading within the magnitude encountered during low levels of LBNP.

  6. The granin VGF promotes genesis of secretory vesicles, and regulates circulating catecholamine levels and blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Fargali, Samira; Garcia, Angelo L.; Sadahiro, Masato; Jiang, Cheng; Janssen, William G.; Lin, Wei-Jye; Cogliani, Valeria; Elste, Alice; Mortillo, Steven; Cero, Cheryl; Veitenheimer, Britta; Graiani, Gallia; Pasinetti, Giulio M.; Mahata, Sushil K.; Osborn, John W.; Huntley, George W.; Phillips, Greg R.; Benson, Deanna L.; Bartolomucci, Alessandro; Salton, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Secretion of proteins and neurotransmitters from large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) is a highly regulated process. Adrenal LDCV formation involves the granin proteins chromogranin A (CgA) and chromogranin B (CgB); CgA- and CgB-derived peptides regulate catecholamine levels and blood pressure. We investigated function of the granin VGF (nonacronymic) in LDCV formation and the regulation of catecholamine levels and blood pressure. Expression of exogenous VGF in nonendocrine NIH 3T3 fibroblasts resulted in the formation of LDCV-like structures and depolarization-induced VGF secretion. Analysis of germline VGF-knockout mouse adrenal medulla revealed decreased LDCV size in noradrenergic chromaffin cells, increased adrenal norepinephrine and epinephrine content and circulating plasma epinephrine, and decreased adrenal CgB. These neurochemical changes in VGF-knockout mice were associated with hypertension. Germline knock-in of human VGF1–615 into the mouse Vgf locus rescued the hypertensive knockout phenotype, while knock-in of a truncated human VGF1–524 that lacks several C-terminal peptides, including TLQP-21, resulted in a small but significant increase in systolic blood pressure compared to hVGF1–615 mice. Finally, acute and chronic administration of the VGF-derived peptide TLQP-21 to rodents decreased blood pressure. Our studies establish a role for VGF in adrenal LDCV formation and the regulation of catecholamine levels and blood pressure.—Fargali, S., Garcia, A. L., Sadahiro, M., Jiang, C., Janssen, W. G., Lin, W.-J., Cogliani, V., Elste, A., Mortillo, S., Cero, C., Veitenheimer, B., Graiani, G., Pasinetti, G. M., Mahata, S. K., Osborn, J. W., Huntley, G. W., Phillips, G. R., Benson, D. L., Bartolomucci, A., Salton, S. R. The granin VGF promotes genesis of secretory vesicles, and regulates circulating catecholamine levels and blood pressure. PMID:24497580

  7. Effect of Different Levels of Pressure Relieving Air-Mattress Firmness on Cough Strength

    PubMed Central

    Kamikawa, Norimichi; Taito, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Makoto; Sekikawa, Kiyokazu; Hamada, Hironobu

    2016-01-01

    Cough is an important host-defense mechanism. The elderly and patients who are severely ill cannot cough effectively when lying in the supine position. Furthermore, pressure relieving air-mattresses are recommended for preventing the development of pressure ulcers. In this study, we clarified whether or not the cough peak flow (CPF), an index of cough strength, is affected by different firmness levels of a pressure relieving air-mattress in healthy volunteers in the supine position. Fifty-two healthy young men participated. All the measurements were carried out on each participant in the supine position on a pressure relieving air-mattress. The participants were assessed at two firmness levels, a “hard” and “soft” mode. The CPF, forced vital capacity (FVC), maximal expiratory pressure (PEmax), and maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax) were determined for each mode. The sinking distance of the body into the mattress was measured without any activity and the difference between the sinking distances of the two firmness levels was determined. The CPF, FVC, PEmax, and PImax were determined for each mode. The sinking distance of the body into the mattress was measured and the difference between the sinking distances of the two firmness levels was determined. The CPF, FVC, PEmax and PImax values of the participants coughing on the mattress were significantly lower when the mattress was in “soft” than in “hard” mode. The differences between the sinking distances of the mattress in “soft” and “hard” modes were larger for the anterior superior iliac spine. A harder mattress may lead to increased CPF in healthy young men lying in the supine position, and increased CPF may be important for host defense. PMID:26741497

  8. Effect of Different Levels of Pressure Relieving Air-Mattress Firmness on Cough Strength.

    PubMed

    Kamikawa, Norimichi; Taito, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Makoto; Sekikawa, Kiyokazu; Hamada, Hironobu

    2016-01-01

    Cough is an important host-defense mechanism. The elderly and patients who are severely ill cannot cough effectively when lying in the supine position. Furthermore, pressure relieving air-mattresses are recommended for preventing the development of pressure ulcers. In this study, we clarified whether or not the cough peak flow (CPF), an index of cough strength, is affected by different firmness levels of a pressure relieving air-mattress in healthy volunteers in the supine position. Fifty-two healthy young men participated. All the measurements were carried out on each participant in the supine position on a pressure relieving air-mattress. The participants were assessed at two firmness levels, a "hard" and "soft" mode. The CPF, forced vital capacity (FVC), maximal expiratory pressure (PEmax), and maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax) were determined for each mode. The sinking distance of the body into the mattress was measured without any activity and the difference between the sinking distances of the two firmness levels was determined. The CPF, FVC, PEmax, and PImax were determined for each mode. The sinking distance of the body into the mattress was measured and the difference between the sinking distances of the two firmness levels was determined. The CPF, FVC, PEmax and PImax values of the participants coughing on the mattress were significantly lower when the mattress was in "soft" than in "hard" mode. The differences between the sinking distances of the mattress in "soft" and "hard" modes were larger for the anterior superior iliac spine. A harder mattress may lead to increased CPF in healthy young men lying in the supine position, and increased CPF may be important for host defense. PMID:26741497

  9. Effect of Different Levels of Pressure Relieving Air-Mattress Firmness on Cough Strength.

    PubMed

    Kamikawa, Norimichi; Taito, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Makoto; Sekikawa, Kiyokazu; Hamada, Hironobu

    2016-01-01

    Cough is an important host-defense mechanism. The elderly and patients who are severely ill cannot cough effectively when lying in the supine position. Furthermore, pressure relieving air-mattresses are recommended for preventing the development of pressure ulcers. In this study, we clarified whether or not the cough peak flow (CPF), an index of cough strength, is affected by different firmness levels of a pressure relieving air-mattress in healthy volunteers in the supine position. Fifty-two healthy young men participated. All the measurements were carried out on each participant in the supine position on a pressure relieving air-mattress. The participants were assessed at two firmness levels, a "hard" and "soft" mode. The CPF, forced vital capacity (FVC), maximal expiratory pressure (PEmax), and maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax) were determined for each mode. The sinking distance of the body into the mattress was measured without any activity and the difference between the sinking distances of the two firmness levels was determined. The CPF, FVC, PEmax, and PImax were determined for each mode. The sinking distance of the body into the mattress was measured and the difference between the sinking distances of the two firmness levels was determined. The CPF, FVC, PEmax and PImax values of the participants coughing on the mattress were significantly lower when the mattress was in "soft" than in "hard" mode. The differences between the sinking distances of the mattress in "soft" and "hard" modes were larger for the anterior superior iliac spine. A harder mattress may lead to increased CPF in healthy young men lying in the supine position, and increased CPF may be important for host defense.

  10. Data quality assurance in pressure transducer-based automatic water level monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Submersible pressure transducers integrated with data loggers have become relatively common water-level measuring devices used in flow or well water elevation measurements. However, drift, linearity, hysteresis and other problems can lead to erroneous data. Researchers at the USDA-ARS in Watkinsvill...

  11. Assessment of Knowledge and Level of Satisfaction of Nursing Undergraduates in a Pressure Ulcer Online Course

    PubMed Central

    Aroldi, Juscilynne B. C.; Peres, Heloisa H. H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the effectiveness of two different educational modalities in an online course on pressure ulcers by comparing the degree of knowledge and level of satisfaction of nursing undergraduate students. The result will ground the adoption of Information and Communication Technologies in the teaching process in nursing. PMID:24199036

  12. Love Deprivation and Blood Pressure Levels among a College Population: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisca, Samuel S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Viewed within the general context of Selye's theory of environmentally induced stress, we tested the hypothesis that blood pressure levels would vary inversely with the degree of loving responses our subjects received from those with whom they interact on a frequent basis. Preliminary data support this hypothesis, especially among our older…

  13. The effect of core level crossing on the high-pressure equation of state of osmium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, John

    2015-03-01

    The equation of state of the 5d transition metal osmium has been studied with a combination of experiment and theory at pressures up to 500 GPa. The experimental results show a c/a ratio increasing by approximately 1 percent over this pressure range and displaying anomalies at pressures near 180 GPa and near 400 GPa. We have use all-electron fully relativistic density functional theory (DFT) calculations to study the cold equation of state and structural parameters of osmium at pressures up to 500 GPa, using one LDA and two GGA functionals. The increase in the c/a ratio agrees well with experiment, and we find anomalies, although less extreme, near the experimentally observed pressures. We find that the high pressure anomaly coincides with the crossing and hybridization of the 4f(7/2) and 5p(3/2) semi-core levels. In this talk we discuss the theoretical results and methodology and the possible implication for the equations of state of the 5d transition and actinide metals.

  14. Several lipid-related gene polymorphisms interact with overweight/obesity to modulate blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Yin, Rui-Xing; Wu, Dong-Feng; Aung, Lynn Htet Htet; Yan, Ting-Ting; Cao, Xiao-Li; Long, Xing-Jiang; Miao, Lin; Liu, Wan-Ying; Zhang, Lin; Li, Meng

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the interactions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overweight/obesity on blood pressure levels. The present study was undertaken to detect 10 lipid-related gene SNPs and their interactions with overweight/obesity on blood pressure levels. Genotyping of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA-1) V825I, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) rs1044925, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) AvaII hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) -250G > A, endothelial lipase gene (LIPG) 584C > T, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C > T, the E3 ubiquitin ligase myosin regulatory light chain-interacting protein (MYLIP) rs3757354, proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9) E670G, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) +294T > C, and Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) rs5888 was performed in 978 normal weight and 751 overweight/obese subjects. The interactions were detected by factorial regression analysis. The genotypes of ACAT-1 AC, LIPC GA and AA, and SCARB1 TT; LDL-R A-A- and LIPC GA; and SCARB1 TT were interacted with overweight/obesity to increase systolic, diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and pulse pressure (PP) levels; respectively. The genotypes of ACAT-1 CC; ACAT-1 AA and CC were interacted with overweight/obesity to decrease SBP, PP levels (p < 0.01-0.001); respectively. The differences in blood pressure levels between normal weight and overweight/obese subjects might partly result from different interactions of several SNPs and overweight/obesity. PMID:23109900

  15. Linking Myometrial Physiology to Intrauterine Pressure; How Tissue-Level Contractions Create Uterine Contractions of Labor

    PubMed Central

    Young, Roger C.; Barendse, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms used to coordinate uterine contractions are not known. We develop a new model based on the proposal that there is a maximum distance to which action potentials can propagate in the uterine wall. This establishes “regions”, where one action potential burst can rapidly recruit all the tissue. Regions are recruited into an organ-level contraction via a stretch-initiated contraction mechanism (myometrial myogenic response). Each uterine contraction begins with a regional contraction, which slightly increases intrauterine pressure. Higher pressure raises tension throughout the uterine wall, which initiates contractions of more regions and further increases pressure. The positive feedback synchronizes regional contractions into an organ-level contraction. Cellular automaton (CA) simulations are performed with Mathematica. Each “cell” is a region that is assigned an action potential threshold. An anatomy sensitivity factor converts intrauterine pressure to regional tension through the Law of Laplace. A regional contraction occurs when regional tension exceeds regional threshold. Other input variables are: starting and minimum pressure, burst and refractory period durations, enhanced contractile activity during an electrical burst, and reduced activity during the refractory period. Complex patterns of pressure development are seen that mimic the contraction patterns observed in laboring women. Emergent behavior is observed, including global synchronization, multiple pace making regions, and system memory of prior conditions. The complex effects of nifedipine and oxytocin exposure are simulated. The force produced can vary as a nonlinear function of the number of regions. The simulation directly links tissue-level physiology to human labor. The concept of a uterine pacemaker is re-evaluated because pace making activity may occur well before expression of a contraction. We propose a new classification system for biological CAs that parallels the 4

  16. Peak sound pressure and sound exposure level from underwater explosions in shallow water.

    PubMed

    Soloway, Alexander G; Dahl, Peter H

    2014-09-01

    Experimental measurements of the peak pressure and sound exposure level (SEL) from underwater explosions collected 7 km off the coast of Virginia Beach, Virginia are presented. The peak pressures are compared to results from previous studies and a semi-empirical equation that is a function of measurement range and charge weight, and are found to be in good agreement. An empirical equation for SEL that similarly employs a scaling approach involving charge weight and range is also presented and shows promise for the prediction of SEL in shallow water.

  17. Blood Pressure Responses and Mineral Ocorticoid Levels in the Suspended Rat Model for Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Cardiovascular responses and fluid/electrolyte shifts seen during space flight are attributed to cephalad redistribution of vascular fluid. The antiorthostatic (AO) rat (suspended head down tilted, 15-20 deg) is used to model these responses. Current studies show that elevated blood pressures in A0 rats are sustained for periods up to seven days. Comparisons are made with presuspension rats. Increased blood pressure in head down tilted subjects suggests a specific response to A0 positioning, potentially relatable to cephalad fluid shift. To assess a role for hormonal regulation of sodium excretion, serum aldosterone levels were measured.

  18. Removal of barometric pressure effects and earth tides from observed water levels.

    PubMed

    Toll, Nathanial J; Rasmussen, Todd C

    2007-01-01

    The effects of barometric pressure and earth tide changes are often observed in ground water level measurements. These disturbances can make aquifer test interpretation difficult by masking the small changes induced by aquifer testing at late times and great distances. A computer utility is now available that automatically removes the effects of barometric pressure and earth tides from water level observations using regression deconvolution. This procedure has been shown to remove more noise then traditional constant barometric efficiency techniques in both confined and unconfined aquifers. Instead of a single, instantaneous barometric efficiency, the procedure more correctly accounts for the lagged responses caused by barometric pressure and earth tide changes. Simultaneous measurements of water levels (or total heads) and nearby barometric pressures are required. As an additional option, the effects of earth tides can also be removed using theoretical earth tides. The program is demonstrated for two data sets collected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, New Mexico. The program is available free by request at http://www.hydrology.uga.edu/tools.html.

  19. Mild neurotrauma indicates a range-specific pressure response to low level shock wave exposure.

    PubMed

    Vandevord, Pamela J; Bolander, Richard; Sajja, Venkata Siva Sai Sujith; Hay, Kathryn; Bir, Cynthia A

    2012-01-01

    Identifying the level of overpressure required to create physiological deficits is vital to advance prevention, diagnostic, and treatment strategies for individuals exposed to blasts. In this study, a rodent model of primary blast neurotrauma was employed to determine the pressure at which acute neurological alterations occurred. Rats were exposed to a single low intensity shock wave at a pressure of 0, 97, 117, or 153 kPa. Following exposure, rats were assessed for acute cognitive alterations using the Morris water maze and motor dysfunction using the horizontal ladder test. Subsequently, histological analyses of three brain regions (primary motor cortex, the hippocampal dentate gyrus region, and the posteromedial cortical amygdala) were conducted. Histological parameters included measuring the levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to identify astrocyte activation, cleaved caspase-3 for early apoptosis identification and Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) which labels degenerating neurons within the brain tissue. The results demonstrated that an exposure to a single 117 kPa shock wave revealed a significant change in overall neurological deficits when compared to controls and the other pressures. The animals showed significant alterations in water maze parameters and a histological increase in the number of GFAP, caspase-3, and FJB-positive cells. It is suggested that when exposed to a low level shock wave, there may be a biomechanical response elicited by a specific pressure range which can cause low level neurological deficits within the rat. These data indicate that neurotrauma induced from a shock wave may lead to cognitive deficits in short-term learning and memory of rats. Additional histological evidence supports significant and diffuse glial activation and cellular damage. Further investigation into the biomechanical aspects of shock wave exposure is required to elucidate this pressure range-specific phenomenon. PMID:21994066

  20. Analysis of heart rate variability in individuals subjected to different positive end expiratory pressure levels using expiratory positive airway pressure

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Thiago Lorentz; Costa, Ivan Peres; Kawaguchi, Leandro Yukio Alves; de Carvalho, Flávio Aimbire Soares; de Carvalho, Regiane Albertini

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The increase in the number of studies has led to greater security in the application of this method and the determination of its effectiveness in adults.. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate heart rate variability in healthy individuals submitted to different levels of positive expiratory pressure using an expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP) device. Material and methods The study involved 27 healthy male individuals ranging in age from 20 to 35 years. Patient histories were taken and the subjects were submitted to a physical examination. The volunteers were monitored using the Polar 810s® and submitted to the EPAP experiment. Analyses were performed on variables of the frequency domain. Sympathetic and parasympathetic bands and their relationship with sympathovagal response were also analyzed. Results The mean value of this variable was 526.89 (55.50) ms2 in the first period, 2811.0 (721.10) ms2 in the fourth period and 726.52 (123.41) ms2 in the fifth period. Regarding the parasympathetic area, significant differences were detected when Periods 1 and 5 (no load) were compared with periods in which the individuals were subjected to the use of the therapy. Sympathetic and parasympathetic areas together, a significant difference was detected regarding the sympathetic/parasympathetic ratio in the comparison between Periods 1 and 4 (p < 0.01) as well as Periods 2 and 4 (p < 0.05). Conclusions The findings of the present study suggest that the therapeutic use of EPAP significantly alters the parameters of heart rate variability in the frequency domain, highlighting the importance of monitoring and care during the practice of EPAP. PMID:24049524

  1. Determination of sound power levels of some pyrotechnic devices using sound pressure measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Weixiong

    2001-05-01

    A noise measurement study was conducted at five reservoirs in New York State during the winter and summer of 2003 to determine the sound power levels generated by some specific pyrotechnic devices (bangers, screamers, and CAPAs) using sound pressure techniques. The study was performed in support of an environmental impact statement (EIS) that defined the areas around each of these reservoirs where any significant impacts would occur as a result of the pyrotechnic operations. Sound characteristic data for each pyrotechnic device was collected at short distances with a direct line of sight to the pyrotechnic sources. The sound pressure levels for each pyrotechnic device were measured in two conditions (winter and summer) to examine the accuracy of measured data. The sound power levels, including both A-weighted and C-weighted 1/1 octave band values, were calculated based upon the measured sound pressure levels. With the absence of literature and manufacturing data supports, the values of this study were believed to be the most comprehensive emission data for the EIS noise analysis.

  2. Fermi level pinning in Fe-doped PbTe under pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Skipetrov, E. P. Kruleveckaya, O. V.; Skipetrova, L. A.; Slynko, E. I.; Slynko, V. E.

    2014-07-14

    We synthesize an iron-doped PbTe single-crystal ingot and investigate the phase and the elemental composition as well as galvanomagnetic properties in weak magnetic fields (4.2 K≤T≤300 K, B ≤ 0.07 T) of Pb{sub 1−y}Fe{sub y}Te alloys upon varying the iron content, at atmospheric pressure and under hydrostatic compression up to 10 kilobars. We find an increase of iron concentration along the length of the ingot and the appearance of microscopic inclusions enriched with iron in the heavily doped samples. Lightly doped alloys are characterized by the p-type metal conductivity. An increase of the iron impurity content leads to a decrease in the free hole concentration, a stabilization of galvanomagnetic parameters, indicating the pinning of the Fermi energy by the iron resonant impurity level lying under the bottom of the valence band, and to the p-n inversion of the conductivity type. Under pressure, the free hole concentration in the sample, in which the stabilization of galvanomagnetic parameters takes place, increases by approximately a factor of four due to the flow of electrons from the valence band to the iron-induced resonant level. Using the two-band Kane and the six-band Dimmock dispersion relations, the pressure dependence of the Fermi energy is calculated. The model of the electronic structure rearrangement of Pb{sub 1−y}Fe{sub y}Te under pressure is proposed. The energy position and the pressure coefficient of the resonant iron impurity level are determined.

  3. Levels of Office Blood Pressure and Their Operating Characteristics for Detecting Masked Hypertension Based on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Feng-Chang; Tuttle, Laura A.; Shimbo, Daichi; Diaz, Keith M.; Olsson, Emily; Stankevitz, Kristin; Hinderliter, Alan L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Masked hypertension (MH)—nonelevated office blood pressure (BP) with elevated out-of-office BP average—conveys cardiovascular risk similar to or approaching sustained hypertension, making its detection of potential clinical importance. However, it may not be feasible or cost-effective to perform ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) on all patients with a nonelevated office BP. There likely exists a level of office BP below which ABPM is not warranted because the probability of MH is low. METHODS We analyzed data from 294 adults aged ≥30 years not on BP-lowering medication with office BP <140/90mm Hg, all of whom underwent 24-hour ABPM. We calculated sensitivity, false-positive rate, and likelihood ratios (LRs) for the range of office BP cutoffs from 110 to 138mm Hg systolic and from 68 to 88mm Hg diastolic for detecting MH. RESULTS The systolic BP cutoff with the highest +LR for detecting MH (1.8) was 120mm Hg, and the diastolic cutoff with the highest +LR (2.4) was 82mm Hg. However, the systolic level of 120mm Hg had a false-positive rate of 42%, and the diastolic level of 82mm Hg had a sensitivity of only 39%. CONCLUSIONS The cutoff of office BP with the best overall operating characteristics for diagnosing MH is approximately 120/82mm Hg. However, this cutoff may have an unacceptably high false-positive rate. Clinical risk tools to identify patients with nonelevated office BP for whom ABPM should be considered will likely need to include factors in addition to office BP. PMID:24898379

  4. Strongly correlated valence electrons and core-level chemical bonding of Lithium at terapascal pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Anguang; Zhang, Fan

    2015-03-01

    As the simplest pure metal, lithium exhibits some novel properties on electrical conductivity and crystal structures under high pressure. All-electron density functional theory simulations, recently developed by using the linear combination of localized Slater atomic orbitals, revealed that the bandwidth of its valence bands remains almost unchanged within about 3.5 eV even up to a terapascal pressure range. This indicates that the development from delocalized to strongly correlated electronic systems takes place under compression, resulting in metal-semiconductor and superconductivity transitions together with a sequence of new high-pressure crystal phases, discovered experimentally. In contrast to the valence bands, the core-level bands become broadening up to about 10 eV at terapascal pressures. It means the transformation from chemical non-bonding to bonding for core electrons. Thus, dense lithium under compression can be characterized as core-level chemical bonding and a completely new class of strongly correlated materials with narrow bands filled in s-electron shells only.

  5. Water-Level Responses to Barometric-Pressure Fluctuations in Wells in Semi-Confined Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, W.; Butler, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    Hydrologists have long recognized that changes in barometric pressure can produce changes in water levels in wells. The relationship between barometric pressure and water level has traditionally been characterized using the barometric efficiency (BE), the ratio of the change in water level to the change in barometric pressure head. Although BE has proven to be an effective means of characterizing the short-term response of a well to a change in barometric pressure, the barometric response function (BRF) is a more effective means to characterize the longer-term response. The BRF, which can be determined through a regression deconvolution procedure developed by Rasmussen and co-workers (Rasmussen and Crawford, 1997; Toll and Rasmussen, 2007), characterizes the water level response over time to a step change in barometric pressure, essentially BE as a function of the time since the imposed load. We have extended earlier work of Rasmussen and Spane (Rasmussen and Crawford, 1997; Spane, 2002) to show that the BRF can be utilized to glean important insights into semi-confined aquifer systems. The form of the BRF indicates the degree of aquifer confinement, while a comparison of BRFs from different wells provides insight into aquitard continuity. Recently, we have developed a new approach for estimating aquitard K by fitting type curves to experimentally determined BRFs. We will demonstrate the power of the BRF using field data from a long-term monitoring site of the Kansas Geological Survey at which a four-day pumping test has previously been performed. The aquitard K estimates obtained from the BRFs are in good agreement at this site with the estimate determined from the pumping test. We will also show how the BRF for a well in a semi-confined aquifer can be used to gain insights into conditions in the overlying unconfined aquifer and vadose zone. Although the BE is considered an invariant parameter of a well, we will show that the BRF of a well in a semi

  6. Lava lake level as a gauge of magma reservoir pressure and eruptive hazard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Anderson, Kyle R.; Poland, Michael P.; Orr, Tim R.; Swanson, Donald A.

    2015-01-01

    Forecasting volcanic activity relies fundamentally on tracking magma pressure through the use of proxies, such as ground surface deformation and earthquake rates. Lava lakes at open-vent basaltic volcanoes provide a window into the uppermost magma system for gauging reservoir pressure changes more directly. At Kīlauea Volcano (Hawaiʻi, USA) the surface height of the summit lava lake in Halemaʻumaʻu Crater fluctuates with surface deformation over short (hours to days) and long (weeks to months) time scales. This correlation implies that the lake behaves as a simple piezometer of the subsurface magma reservoir. Changes in lava level and summit deformation scale with (and shortly precede) changes in eruption rate from Kīlauea's East Rift Zone, indicating that summit lava level can be used for short-term forecasting of rift zone activity and associated hazards at Kīlauea.

  7. Oyster Creek RETRAN model benchmark to pressure and level perturbation tests

    SciTech Connect

    Alammar, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    As part of GPU Nuclear's program to establish an in-house reload capability for Oyster Creek, the RETRAN-02 MOD4 SPL Computer Code has been chosen to analyze Chapter 15 Final Safety Analysis Report transients. To qualify Oyster Creek RETRAN model, a series of startup tests has been chosen to benchmark the model. Two of those tests, involved water level and vessel pressure perturbations at 100% power. Both tests were analyzed using point kinetics and one-dimensional kinetics with no noticeable impact on level or pressure. A small impact was noticed on power but was thought to be of minor significance. This is because for such mild transients the neutron flux shape function does not change appreciably throughout the transient.

  8. Ocean Bottom Pressure Records at the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibbert, Angela; Matthews, Andrew; Hughes, Chris W.; Tamisiea, Mark E.

    2014-05-01

    As part of a research effort funded by the U.K. Natural Environment Research Council, the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) has been developing a repository of data from in-situ ocean bottom pressure recorders (OBPRs) from all possible sources. The data are being processed to a common format using a consistent methodology so that time series are directly comparable. Efforts are also being made to ensure that data are accompanied by comprehensive metadata. The OBPR data are supplied primarily for hourly and daily intervals, making them ideal for studies of tidal to seasonal variability. In addition, because bottom pressure recorders measure changes in ocean mass, these data are an ideal complement to GRACE satellite data and a useful accompaniment to sea level data from tide gauges and altimetry. Consequently, it is anticipated that the PSMSL OBPR repository will become a valuable product to the scientific community.

  9. Monitoring a shelf edge current using bottom pressures or coastal sea-level data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClimans, Thomas A.; Johannessen, Bjørn Olaf; Jenserud, Trond

    1999-08-01

    Low-frequency fluctuations in ocean currents can be monitored by their effects on water level and bottom pressure gradients due to geostrophy. A predominantly barotropic current along the Norwegian continental slope is studied to show how routine monitoring of coastal sea-level, air pressure and coastal hydrography can be used to monitor fluctuations of an important source of salt and heat to arctic regions. These data are also needed as forcing boundary conditions for running models of the adjacent shelf seas. The first attempt showed a promising validation to monthly average transports measured 1300 km upstream. The evidence suggests that changes in the slope current are established on the time scale of a few days along the entire continental slope, apparently forced by sea-level changes in the northeast Atlantic. Correcting for atmospheric pressure and the buoyancy of the coastal water near the tide gauge at Bodø, we obtain five-day running average coastal sea-level fluctuations that correlate to within 15% of observed current and bottom pressure gradient fluctuations 300 km away. The extension of the derived relation for monitoring this flow over large distances, with a time resolution of 5 days is demonstrated. Improved quality of the measurements is needed to reduce the inherent sources of noise. Part of the noise is due to mesoscale variability in the coastal current. This can be reduced by averaging over longer times. The method fails at higher time resolutions due to atmospheric variability, basin modes and other processes that are unaccounted for in the simple geostrophic model.

  10. Numerical simulation of the processes in the normal incidence tube for high acoustic pressure levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotov, E. S.; Khramtsov, I. V.; Kustov, O. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    Numerical simulation of the acoustic processes in an impedance tube at high levels of acoustic pressure is a way to solve a problem of noise suppressing by liners. These studies used liner specimen that is one cylindrical Helmholtz resonator. The evaluation of the real and imaginary parts of the liner acoustic impedance and sound absorption coefficient was performed for sound pressure levels of 130, 140 and 150 dB. The numerical simulation used experimental data having been obtained on the impedance tube with normal incidence waves. At the first stage of the numerical simulation it was used the linearized Navier-Stokes equations, which describe well the imaginary part of the liner impedance whatever the sound pressure level. These equations were solved by finite element method in COMSOL Multiphysics program in axisymmetric formulation. At the second stage, the complete Navier-Stokes equations were solved by direct numerical simulation in ANSYS CFX in axisymmetric formulation. As the result, the acceptable agreement between numerical simulation and experiment was obtained.

  11. Borehole water level response to barometric pressure as an indicator of aquifer vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Mahmoud E. A.; Odling, Noelle E.; Clark, Roger A.

    2013-10-01

    The response of borehole water levels to barometric pressure changes in semiconfined aquifers can be used to determine barometric response functions from which aquifer and confining layer properties can be obtained. Following earlier work on barometric response functions and aquifer confinement, we explore the barometric response function as a tool to improve the assessment of groundwater vulnerability in semiconfined aquifers, illustrated through records from two contrasting boreholes in the semiconfined Chalk Aquifer, East Yorkshire, UK. After removal of recharge and Earth tide influences on the water level signal, barometric response functions were estimated and aquifer and confining layer properties determined through an analytical model of borehole water level response to barometric pressure. A link between the thickness and vertical diffusivity of the confining layer determined from the barometric response function, and groundwater vulnerability is proposed. The amplitude spectrum for barometric pressure and instrument resolution favor determination of the barometric response function at frequencies to which confining layer diffusivities are most sensitive. Numerical modeling indicates that while the high frequency response reflects confining layer properties in the immediate vicinity of the borehole, the low frequency response reflects vertical, high diffusivity pathways though the confining layer some hundreds of meters distant. A characteristic time scale parameter, based on vertical diffusivities and thicknesses of the saturated and unsaturated confining layer, is introduced as a measure of semiconfined aquifer vulnerability. The study demonstrates that the barometric response function has potential as a tool for quantitative aquifer vulnerability assessment in semiconfined aquifers.

  12. Intragastric pressure: Useful indicator in the management of congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Kartik Chandra; Halder, Pankaj; Barman, Shibsankar; Kumar, Rajarshi; Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath; Shukla, Ram Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To assess the role of measuring of intragastric pressure (IGP) during closure of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two cases were included in the study (August 2008 to February 2014), and IGP has been measured intraoperatively during closure. Result: Patients were categorized in group A (15 patients), group B (14 patients) and group C (3 patients). In group C, IGP was more than 30 cm of water pressure and all of tehm required creation of ventral hernia and ventilator support. Conclusion: Measurement of IGP as an objective, noninvasive and simple method to evaluate intra-abdominal pressure and prevention of abdominal compartment syndrome and intraoperative IGP value determines the types of abdominal closure.

  13. Intragastric pressure: Useful indicator in the management of congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Kartik Chandra; Halder, Pankaj; Barman, Shibsankar; Kumar, Rajarshi; Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath; Shukla, Ram Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To assess the role of measuring of intragastric pressure (IGP) during closure of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two cases were included in the study (August 2008 to February 2014), and IGP has been measured intraoperatively during closure. Result: Patients were categorized in group A (15 patients), group B (14 patients) and group C (3 patients). In group C, IGP was more than 30 cm of water pressure and all of tehm required creation of ventral hernia and ventilator support. Conclusion: Measurement of IGP as an objective, noninvasive and simple method to evaluate intra-abdominal pressure and prevention of abdominal compartment syndrome and intraoperative IGP value determines the types of abdominal closure. PMID:27695209

  14. Use of inexpensive pressure transducers for measuring water levels in wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeland, B.D.; Dowd, J.F.; Hardegree, W.S.

    1997-01-01

    Frequent measurement of below ground water levels at multiple locations is an important component of many wetland ecosystem studies. These measurements, however, are usually time consuming, labor intensive, and expensive. This paper describes a water-level sensor that is inexpensive and easy to construct. The sensor is placed below the expected low water level in a shallow well and, when connected to a datalogger, uses a pressure transducer to detect groundwater or surface water elevations. Details of pressure transducer theory, sensor construction, calibration, and examples of field installations are presented. Although the transducers must be individually calibrated, the sensors have a linear response to changing water levels (r2 ??? .999). Measurement errors resulting from temperature fluctuations are shown to be about 4 cm over a 35??C temperature range, but are minimal when the sensors are installed in groundwater wells where temperatures are less variable. Greater accuracy may be obtained by incorporating water temperature data into the initial calibration (0.14 cm error over a 35??C temperature range). Examples of the utility of these sensors in studies of groundwater/surface water interactions and the effects of water level fluctuations on tree growth are provided. ?? 1997 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  15. Pressure-induced crossing of the core levels in 5 d metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tal, Alexey A.; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Ekholm, Marcus; Jönsson, H. Johan M.; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia; Abrikosov, Igor A.

    2016-05-01

    A pressure-induced interaction between core electrons, the core-level crossing (CLC) transition, has been observed in hcp Os at P ≈400 GPa [L. Dubrovinsky et al., Nature (London) 525, 226 (2015)], 10.1038/nature14681. By carrying out a systematic theoretical study for all metals of the 5 d series (Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au) we have found that the CLC transition is a general effect for this series of metals. While in Pt it occurs at ≈1500 GPa , at a pressure substantially higher than in Os, in Ir it occurs already at 80 GPa. Moreover, we predict that in Re the CLC transition may take place already at ambient pressure. We explain the effect of the CLC and analyze the shift of the transition pressure across the series within the Thomas-Fermi model. In particular, we show that the effect has many common features with the atomic collapse in rare-earth elements.

  16. Association of low-level blood lead and blood pressure in NHANES 1999-2006

    SciTech Connect

    Scinicariello, Franco; Abadin, Henry G.; Edward Murray, H.

    2011-11-15

    This study investigated whether low blood-lead levels ({<=}10 {mu}g/dL) were associated with blood pressure (BP) outcomes. The authors analyzed data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006 and participants aged 20 years or older. Outcome variables were systolic and diastolic BP measurements, pulse pressure, and hypertension status. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions stratified by race/ethnicity and gender were performed. Blood lead levels (BLL) were significantly correlated with higher systolic BP among black men and women, but not white or Mexican-American participants. BLLs were significantly associated with higher diastolic BPs among white men and women and black men, whereas, a negative association was observed in Mexican-American men that had, also, a wider pulse pressure. Black men in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{>=}3.50 {mu}g/dL) compared to black men in the 10th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{<=}0.7 {mu}g/dL) had a significant increase of risk of having hypertension (adjusted POR=2.69; 95% CI: 1.08-6.72). In addition, blood cadmium was significantly associated with hypertension and systolic and diastolic blood. This study found that, despite the continuous decline in blood lead in the U.S. population, lead exposure disparities among race and gender still exist.

  17. [Physical activity level and home blood pressure measurement: Pilot study "Acti-HTA"].

    PubMed

    Sosner, P; Ott, J; Steichen, O; Bally, S; Krummel, T; Brucker, M; Lequeux, B; Dourmap, C; Llaty, P; Le Coz, S; Baguet, S; Miranne, A; Labrunée, M; Gremeaux, V; Lopez-Sublet, M

    2015-06-01

    While physical activity (PA) is recommended for high blood pressure management, the level of PA practice of hypertensive patients remains unclear. We aimed to assess the association between the level of both PA and blood pressure of individuals consulting in 9 hypertension specialist centres. Eighty-five hypertensive patients were included (59 ± 14 years, 61% men, 12% smokers, 29% with diabetes). Following their consultation, they performed home blood pressure measurement (HBPM) over 7 days (2 in the morning+2 in the evening), they wrote in a dedicated form their daily activities to estimate the additional caloric expenditure using Acti-MET device (built from International physical Activity Questionnaire [IPAQ]). Thus, patients completed a self-administered questionnaire "score of Dijon" (distinguishing active subjects with a score>20/30, from sedentary<10/30). Subjects with normal HBPM value (<135/85 mm Hg) (55% of them) compared to those with high HBPM were older, had a non-significant trend towards higher weekly caloric expenditure (4959 ± 5045 kcal/week vs. 4048 ± 4199 kcal/week, P=0.3755) and score of Dijon (19.44 ± 5.81 vs. 18.00 ± 4.32, P=0.2094) with a higher proportion of "active" subjects (48.9% vs. 34.2%, P=0.1773). In conclusion, our results demonstrate a "tendency" to a higher level of reported PA for subjects whose hypertension was controlled. This encourages us to continue with a study that would include more subjects, which would assess PA level using an objective method such as wearing an accelerometer sensor.

  18. Relationship of vitamin D levels to blood pressure in a biethnic population

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, R.; Jaceldo-Siegl, K.; Haddad, E.; Oda, K.; Fraser, G.E.; Tonstad, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Accumulating epidemiological and clinical studies have sug gested that vitamin D insufficiency may be associated with hypertension. Blacks tend to have lower vitamin D levels than Whites, but it is unclear whether this difference explains the higher blood pressure (BP) observed in Blacks in a population with healthy lifestyle practices. Methods and results We examined cross-sectional data in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2), a cohort of non-smoking, mostly non-drinking men and women following a range of diets from vegan to non-vegetarian. Each participant provided dietary, demographic, lifestyle and medical history data. Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference, percent body fat and blood pressure and fasting blood samples were obtained from a randomly selected non-diabetic sample of 284 Blacks and 284 Whites aged 30–95 years. Multiple regression analyses were used to assess independent relationships between blood pressure and 25(OH)D levels. Levels of 25(OH)D were inversely associated with systolic BP in Whites after control for age, gender, BMI, and use of BP-lowering medications (β-coefficient −0.23 [95% CI, −0.43, −0.03; p = 0.02]). This relationship was not seen in Blacks (β-coefficient 0.08 [95% CI, −0.14, 0.30; p = 0.4]). Results were similar when controlling for waist circumference or percentage body fat instead of BMI. No relationship between serum 25(OH)D and diastolic BP was seen. Conclusion Systolic BP is inversely associated with 25(OH)D levels in Whites but not in Blacks. Vitamin D may not be a major contributor to the White-Black differential in BP. PMID:22770642

  19. 21st century Mediterranean sea level rise: Steric and atmospheric pressure contributions from a regional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsimplis, Michael N.; Marcos, Marta; Somot, Samuel

    2008-09-01

    An Atmosphere-Ocean Regional Climate Model coupled over the Mediterranean basin and forced by river runoff and influxes from the Atlantic Ocean and the Black Sea is used to obtain estimates of sea level rise in the region during the 21st century. Changes in temperature and salinity under the A2 emission scenario, which corresponds to a high level of anthropogenic gas concentration in the atmosphere, are investigated in the different sub-basins and are used to compute the steric sea level change in the region. Significant spatial variability is observed. This model projects a maximum steric sea level rise of 25 cm. The mean steric sea level rise value predicted is around 13 cm with lower values in the eastern Mediterranean and higher values at the western Mediterranean. Coastal sea level rise values are found to be smaller, although this is partly due to the smaller range of vertical integration in the computation of sea level changes. Warming and salinification of the intermediate waters are also predicted to occur simultaneously thus partly compensating each other. The effects of atmospheric pressure changes are added to the steric sea level obtained from the model giving up to 2 mbars and thus also compensating some of the thermal expansion. Circulation changes will in certain areas also add up to 6 cm of sea level rise. There is no predicted seasonal bias in the sea level rise indicating that the seasonal cycles will remain unaffected. These results are derived from a single model and therefore can only been seen as part of a methodological study. Similar investigations should be applied to a range of models and scenarios in order to obtain a range of the future sea level change in the Mediterranean basin and its associated uncertainties.

  20. High- and low-level pressure support during walking in people with severe kyphoscoliosis.

    PubMed

    Menadue, C; Alison, J A; Piper, A J; Wong, K K; Hollier, C; Ellis, E R

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether the level of pressure support (PS) provided during exercise influences endurance time in people with severe kyphoscoliosis, a double-blind randomised crossover study was performed. We hypothesised that high-level PS would be required to enhance endurance time in this population with high impedance to inflation. 13 participants with severe kyphoscoliosis performed four endurance treadmill tests in random order: unassisted; with sham PS; low-level PS of 10 cmH(2)O (PS 10); and high-level PS of 20 cmH(2)O (PS 20). Participants and assessors were blinded to the level of PS delivered during exercise. Endurance time was greater with PS 20 (median (interquartile range) 217 (168-424) s) compared with unassisted exercise (139 (111-189) s), sham PS (103 (88-155) s) and PS 10 (159 (131-206) s). In addition, isotime respiratory rate was decreased by 8 breaths x min(-1) (95% CI -11- -5 breaths x min(-1)) and isotime oxygen saturation increased by 4% (95% CI 1-7%) with PS 20 compared with unassisted exercise. People with severe kyphoscoliosis require high-level PS during walking to improve exercise performance. Investigation of high-level PS as an adjunct to exercise training or to assist in the performance of daily activities is warranted.

  1. Effects of zero reference position on bladder pressure measurements: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the World Society for Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in its guidelines recommends midaxillary line (MAL) as zero reference level in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurements in aiming at standardizing the technique, evidence supporting this suggestion is scarce. The aim of this study is to study if the zero reference position influences bladder pressure measurements as estimate for IAP. Methods The IAP of 100 surgical patients was measured during the first 24 h of admission to the surgical intensive care unit of General Calixto Garcia Hospital in Havana (Cuba) following laparotomy. The period was January 2009 to January 2010. The IAP was measured twice with a six-hour interval using the transurethral technique with a priming volume of 25 ml. IAP was first measured with the zero reference level placed at MAL (IAPMAL), followed by a second measurement at the level of the symphysis pubis (SP) after 3 minutes (IAPSP). Correlations were made between IAP and body mass index (BMI), type of surgery, gender, and age. Results Mean IAPMAL was 8.5 ± 2.8 mmHg vs. IAPSP 6.5 ± 2.8 mmHg (p < 0.0001). The bias between measurements was 2.0 ± 1.5, 95% confidence interval of 1.4 to 3.0, upper limit of 4.9, lower limit of -0.9, and a percentage error of 35.1%. IAPMAL was consistently higher than IAPSP regardless of the type of surgery. The BMI correlated with IAP values regardless of the zero reference level (R2 = 0.4 and 0.3 with IAPMAL and IAPSP respectively, p < 0.0001). Conclusions The zero reference level has an important impact on IAP measurement in surgical patients after laparotomy and can potentially lead to over or underestimation. Further anthropometric studies are needed with regard to the relative MAL and SP zero reference position in relation to the theoretical ideal reference level at midpoint of the abdomen. Until better evidence is available, MAL remains the recommended zero reference position due to its best anatomical localization at iliac

  2. A geospatial model of ambient sound pressure levels in the contiguous United States.

    PubMed

    Mennitt, Daniel; Sherrill, Kirk; Fristrup, Kurt

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a model that predicts measured sound pressure levels using geospatial features such as topography, climate, hydrology, and anthropogenic activity. The model utilizes random forest, a tree-based machine learning algorithm, which does not incorporate a priori knowledge of source characteristics or propagation mechanics. The response data encompasses 270 000 h of acoustical measurements from 190 sites located in National Parks across the contiguous United States. The explanatory variables were derived from national geospatial data layers and cross validation procedures were used to evaluate model performance and identify variables with predictive power. Using the model, the effects of individual explanatory variables on sound pressure level were isolated and quantified to reveal systematic trends across environmental gradients. Model performance varies by the acoustical metric of interest; the seasonal L50 can be predicted with a median absolute deviation of approximately 3 dB. The primary application for this model is to generalize point measurements to maps expressing spatial variation in ambient sound levels. An example of this mapping capability is presented for Zion National Park and Cedar Breaks National Monument in southwestern Utah.

  3. An algorithm based on sea level pressure fluctuations to identify major Baltic inflow events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimanke, Semjon; Dieterich, Christian; Markus Meier, H. E.

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea is one of world largest brackish water areas with an estuarine like circulation. It is connected to the world ocean through the narrow Danish straits limiting the exchange of water masses. The deep water of the Baltic Sea is mainly renewed by so called major Baltic inflows which are an important feature to sustain the sensitive steady state of the Baltic Sea. We introduce an algorithm to identify atmospheric variability favourable for major Baltic inflows. The algorithm is based on sea level pressure fields as the only parameter. Characteristic sea level pressure pattern fluctuations include a precursory phase of 30 days and 10 days of inflow period. The algorithm identifies successfully the majority of observed major Baltic inflows between 1961--2010. In addition, the algorithm finds some occurrences which cannot be related to observed inflows. In these cases with favourable atmospheric conditions inflows were precluded by contemporaneously existing saline water masses or strong freshwater supply. No event is registered during the stagnation period 1983-1993 indicating that the lack of inflows is a consequence of missing favourable atmospheric variability. The only striking inflow which is not identified by the algorithm is the event in January 2003. We demonstrate that this is due to the special evolution of sea level pressure fields which are not comparable with any other event. Finally, the algorithm is applied to an ensemble of scenario simulations. The result indicates that the number of atmospheric events favourable for major Baltic inflows increases slightly in all scenarios. Possible explanations as for instance more frequent atmospheric blockings or changes in the NAO will be discussed.

  4. Development of a nuclear technique for monitoring water levels in pressurized vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Mall, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique for monitoring water levels in pressurized stainless steel cylinders was developed. It is based on differences in attenuation coefficients of water and air for Cs137 (662 keV) gamma rays. Experimentally observed gamma ray counting rates with and without water in model reservoir cylinder were compared with corresponding calculated values for two different gamma ray detection theshold energies. Calculated values include the effects of multiple scattering and attendant gamma ray energy reductions. The agreement between the measured and calculated values is reasonably good. Computer programs for calculating angular and spectral distributions of scattered radition in various media are included.

  5. Effects of Pressure on Optically Active Deep Levels in Phosphorus Doped ZnSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, B. A.; Iota, V.

    1998-03-01

    We report high pressure photoluminescence (PL) and PL-excitation (PLE) studies at 8K of the 'midgap' emission in P-doped ZnSe using a diamond-cell with He medium. The dominant emission at low pressure is due to donor-acceptor-pair (DAP) transitions between shallow donors and deep trigonally relaxed P_Se acceptors.(J. Davies, et al., J. Luminescence 18/19, 322 (1979)) Its PL and PLE peaks shift by 8.2meV/kbar and 5.9meV/kbar, respectively -- Stokes shift decreasing with pressure. At 35kbar a new PL band, shifting to lower energy (-5.4meV/kbar), emerges from above the absorption edge, and concurrently the original DAP PL quenches. This shows that a resonant level, a deep donor or possibly a P_Se antibonding state,(R. Watts, et al., Phys. Rev. B3), 404 (1971) crosses the conduction edge into the gap. A third PL band is seen only with internse UV excitation. It occurs initially as a high energy shoulder of the original DAP peak, but shifts more rapidly upward (9.4meV/kbar) until it crosses the edge and quenches at 40kbar. We discuss candidates for this band, including donor-P_Se complexes, and we compare our results to similar work on the Zn vacancy in ZnSe. (figures)

  6. Point prevalence of pressure ulcers in three second-level hospitals in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Galván-Martínez, Iris L; Narro-Llorente, Roberto; Lezama-de-Luna, Favio; Arredondo-Sandoval, Jesus; Fabian-Victoriano, Ma Rosy; Garrido-Espindola, Ximena; Lozano-Platonoff, Adriana; Contreras-Ruiz, Jose

    2014-12-01

    Pressure ulcers (PU) are the source of multiple complications and even death. To our knowledge, there is no available data about PU prevalence in Mexico. The objective of this study was to determine the point prevalence of PU in three second-level hospitals in Mexico. Every adult hospitalised patient was included in each hospital. Age, gender, hospitalisation ward, Braden score, and the number, location and stage of the ulcers encountered were recorded, as well as any pressure relief measures. In total, 294 patients were examined (127 were male); of these, 63 were considered to be at risk. The average age was 48·6 years. The overall prevalence of the PU was 17%. The service with the highest prevalence was the ICU. The most frequent stage was II (32%) and they were most commonly found in the sacrum (74%). The average Braden score of the patients with ulcers was 10, and 21·4% of the patients obtained moderate- to high-risk Braden scores. Of them, 60·3% had ulcers and only 46% had any preventive measures. The prevalence of PU in three hospitals in Mexico is 17%. The most common stage is II and the most commonly affected site is the sacrum. Only 46% of patients with PU had at least one pressure release measure.

  7. The association of serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase level and other laboratory parameters with blood pressure in hypertensive patients under ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Ortakoyluoglu, Adile; Boz, Betul; Dizdar, Oguzhan Sıtkı; Avcı, Deniz; Cetinkaya, Ali; Baspınar, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a very important cause of morbidity and mortality. Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is a biomarker of oxidative stress and associated with increased risk of hypertension and diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of serum GGT level, which is an early marker of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, with the deterioration of the diurnal rhythm of the blood pressure. Methods A total of 171 patients with hypertension were included in this study. Patients whose nighttime mean blood pressure, measured via ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, decreased between 10% and 20% compared with the daytime mean blood pressure were defined as “dippers”, whereas patients with a nighttime blood pressure decrease lower than 10% were defined as “non-dippers”. Results A total of 99 hypertensive patients (65 females/34 males) were classified as dippers and 72 patients (48 females/24 males) as non-dippers. The mean age of the non-dipper group was significantly greater than the dipper group. Serum GGT, C-reactive protein and uric acid levels were significantly higher among patients in the non-dipper group. Negative correlations were detected between GGT levels and diurnal systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreases. Conclusion Our findings revealed that GGT level was higher in the non-dipper group, and was negatively correlated with the nighttime decrease of diurnal blood pressure. C-reactive protein and uric acid levels were also higher in the non-dipper group. However, future randomized controlled prospective studies with larger patient populations are necessary to confirm our findings. PMID:27660457

  8. The association of serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase level and other laboratory parameters with blood pressure in hypertensive patients under ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Ortakoyluoglu, Adile; Boz, Betul; Dizdar, Oguzhan Sıtkı; Avcı, Deniz; Cetinkaya, Ali; Baspınar, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a very important cause of morbidity and mortality. Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is a biomarker of oxidative stress and associated with increased risk of hypertension and diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of serum GGT level, which is an early marker of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, with the deterioration of the diurnal rhythm of the blood pressure. Methods A total of 171 patients with hypertension were included in this study. Patients whose nighttime mean blood pressure, measured via ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, decreased between 10% and 20% compared with the daytime mean blood pressure were defined as “dippers”, whereas patients with a nighttime blood pressure decrease lower than 10% were defined as “non-dippers”. Results A total of 99 hypertensive patients (65 females/34 males) were classified as dippers and 72 patients (48 females/24 males) as non-dippers. The mean age of the non-dipper group was significantly greater than the dipper group. Serum GGT, C-reactive protein and uric acid levels were significantly higher among patients in the non-dipper group. Negative correlations were detected between GGT levels and diurnal systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreases. Conclusion Our findings revealed that GGT level was higher in the non-dipper group, and was negatively correlated with the nighttime decrease of diurnal blood pressure. C-reactive protein and uric acid levels were also higher in the non-dipper group. However, future randomized controlled prospective studies with larger patient populations are necessary to confirm our findings.

  9. Does the accuracy of fine-scale water level measurements by vented pressure transducers permit for diurnal evapotranspiration estimation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribovszki, Zoltán; Kalicz, Péter; Szilágyi, József

    2013-04-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) estimation methods based on diurnal water level (surface or groundwater) fluctuations are sensitive to measurement accuracy (McLaughlin and Cohen, 2011; Cuevas et al., 2010). Water level fluctuations are often measured by pressure transducers of varying design and precision. Available total pressure transducers require a compensation for barometric pressure change supplied by barometric pressure transducers. Recently McLaughlin and Cohen (2011) as well as Cuevas et al. (2010) analyzed the 'thermal artifacts' of such transducer-pair data questioning the applicability of sub-daily water level measurements in non-buffered thermal mode for diurnal ET estimation. Similar problems should not, in principle, occur for so-called vented pressure transducers. With the help of ancillary manual measurements, this study verifies the accuracy of vented pressure transducer obtained ultra-fine scale (temporal resolution of 1-10 min) stream- and groundwater level data. Thermal effects were examined by a statistical analysis of concurrent water level and temperature data. The results support the thermal artifact-free nature of vented pressure transducers and therefore their suitability for diurnal ET estimation purposes when proper maintenance and periodic calibrations are provided. In the lack of such measures, diurnal temperature changes can induce errors in vented pressure transducer readings as well.

  10. Effects of mean flow convection, quadrupole sources and vortex shedding on airfoil overall sound pressure level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, William R.; Azevedo, João L. F.; Lele, Sanjiva K.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a further analysis of results of airfoil self-noise prediction obtained in the previous work using large eddy simulation and acoustic analogy. The physical mechanisms responsible for airfoil noise generation in the aerodynamic flows analyzed are a combination of turbulent and laminar boundary layers, as well as vortex shedding (VS) originated due to trailing edge bluntness. The primary interest here consists of evaluating the effects of mean flow convection, quadrupole sources and vortex shedding tonal noise on the overall sound pressure level (OASPL) of a NACA0012 airfoil at low and moderate freestream Mach numbers. The overall sound pressure level is the measured quantity which eventually would be the main concern in terms of noise generation for aircraft and wind energy companies, and regulating agencies. The Reynolds number based on the airfoil chord is fixed at Rec=408,000 for all flow configurations studied. The results demonstrate that, for moderate Mach numbers, mean flow effects and quadrupole sources considerably increase OASPL and, therefore, should be taken into account in the acoustic prediction. For a low Mach number flow with vortex shedding, it is observed that OASPL is higher when laminar boundary layer separation is the VS driving mechanism compared to trailing edge bluntness.

  11. Prediction of light aircraft interior sound pressure level from the measured sound power flowing in to the cabin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwal, Mahabir S.; Heitman, Karen E.; Crocker, Malcolm J.

    1986-01-01

    The validity of the room equation of Crocker and Price (1982) for predicting the cabin interior sound pressure level was experimentally tested using a specially constructed setup for simultaneous measurements of transmitted sound intensity and interior sound pressure levels. Using measured values of the reverberation time and transmitted intensities, the equation was used to predict the space-averaged interior sound pressure level for three different fuselage conditions. The general agreement between the room equation and experimental test data is considered good enough for this equation to be used for preliminary design studies.

  12. Comparing two levels of closed system suction pressure in ICU patients: Evaluating the relative safety of higher values of suction pressure

    PubMed Central

    Yazdannik, Ahmad R.; Haghighat, Somayeh; Saghaei, Mahmoud; Eghbali, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Endotracheal suctioning (ETS) is one of the most common supportive measures in intensive care units (ICU). ETS may be associated with complications including hypoxia and tachycardia. Closed system suctioning (CSS) decreases the rate of cardiorespiratory complication mainly due to continuation of ventilatory support and oxygenation during procedure. CSS has questionable efficacy, therefore higher values of negative pressure has been recommended to enhance the efficacy of CSS. This study was designed to evaluate the effects on gas exchange of 200 mmHg suctioning pressure compared with 100 mmHg in CSS. Materials and Methods: Fifty mechanically ventilated (MV) ICU patients were selected for the study. Two consecutive ten seconds CSS using suction pressures of 100 and 200 mmHg, in random order applied in each subject with the two hours wash out period. Effects of two levels of suction pressure on gas exchange were measured by recording the SPo2 values at 4 times. Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance didn't show any significant difference between two levels of pressure (P = 0.315), but within each groups (100 and 200 mmHg) SPO2 changes was significant (P = 0.000). There was a mild but significant and transient increase in heart rate following both suction pressures, but no significant difference between two groups. Conclusion: The results show that CSS with suction pressure 200 mmHg has no detrimental effect on cardiorespiratory function of MV ICU patients. Since the safety of 200 mmHg suctioning pressure was approved, using 200 mmHg suction pressures is recommended for ETS of MV patients. PMID:23983740

  13. High-Level Pressure Support Ventilation Attenuates Ventilator-Induced Diaphragm Dysfunction in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Huiqing; Xu, Peifeng; Zhu, Tao; Lu, Zhihua; Yuan, Yuehua; Zhou, Jiancang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Background: The effects of different modes of mechanical ventilation in the same ventilatory support level on ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction onset were assessed in healthy rabbits. Methods: Twenty New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 5 in each group). Group 1: no mechanical ventilation; group 2: controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) for 24 hours; group 3: assist/control ventilation (A/C) mode for 24 hours; group 4: high-level pressure support ventilation (PSV) mode for 24 hours. Heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, PH, partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen and partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide were monitored and diaphragm electrical activity was analyzed in the 4 groups. Caspase-3 was evaluated by protein analysis and diaphragm ultra structure was assessed by electron microscopy. Results: The centroid frequency and the ratio of high frequency to low frequency were significantly reduced in the CMV, A/C and PSV groups (P < 0.001). The percent change in centroid frequency was significantly lower in the PSV group than in the CMV and A/C groups (P = 0.001 and P = 0.028, respectively). Electromyography of diaphragm integral amplitude decreased by 90% ± 1.48%, 67.8% ± 3.13% and 70.2% ± 4.72% in the CMV, A/C and PSV groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Caspase-3 protein activation was attenuated in the PSV group compared with the CMV and A/C groups (P = 0.035 and P = 0.033, respectively). Irregular swelling of mitochondria along with fractured and fuzzy cristae was observed in the CMV group, whereas mitochondrial cristae were dense and rich in the PSV group. The mitochondrial injury scores (Flameng scores) in the PSV group were the lowest among the 3 ventilatory groups (0.93 ± 0.09 in PSV versus 2.69 ± 0.05 in the CMV [P < 0.01] and PSV versus A/C groups [2.02 ± 0.08, P < 0.01]). Conclusions: The diaphragm myoelectric activity was reduced in the PSV group, although excessive oxidative

  14. Processing of water level derived from water pressure data at the Time Series Station Spiekeroog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holinde, L.; Badewien, T. H.; Freund, J. A.; Stanev, E. V.; Zielinski, O.

    2015-04-01

    The quality of water level time series data strongly varies with periods of high and low quality sensor data. In this paper we are presenting the processing steps which were used to generate high quality water level data from water pressure measured at the Time Series Station (TSS) Spiekeroog. The TSS is positioned in a tidal inlet between the islands of Spiekeroog and Langeoog in the East Frisian Wadden Sea (southern North Sea). The processing steps will cover sensor drift, outlier identification, interpolation of data gaps and quality control. A central step is the removal of outliers. For this process an absolute threshold of 0.25 m/10 min was selected which still keeps the water level increase and decrease during extreme events as shown during the quality control process. A second important feature of data processing is the interpolation of gappy data which is accomplished with a high certainty of generating trustworthy data. Applying these methods a 10 years dataset of water level information at the TSS was processed and the results were submitted to WDC MARE data base system PANGAEA (http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.843740).

  15. Processing of water level derived from water pressure data at the Time Series Station Spiekeroog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holinde, L.; Badewien, T. H.; Freund, J. A.; Stanev, E. V.; Zielinski, O.

    2015-10-01

    The quality of water level time series data strongly varies with periods of high- and low-quality sensor data. In this paper we are presenting the processing steps which were used to generate high-quality water level data from water pressure measured at the Time Series Station (TSS) Spiekeroog. The TSS is positioned in a tidal inlet between the islands of Spiekeroog and Langeoog in the East Frisian Wadden Sea (southern North Sea). The processing steps will cover sensor drift, outlier identification, interpolation of data gaps and quality control. A central step is the removal of outliers. For this process an absolute threshold of 0.25 m 10 min-1 was selected which still keeps the water level increase and decrease during extreme events as shown during the quality control process. A second important feature of data processing is the interpolation of gappy data which is accomplished with a high certainty of generating trustworthy data. Applying these methods a 10-year data set (December 2002-December 2012) of water level information at the TSS was processed resulting in a 7-year time series (2005-2011). Supplementary data are available at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.843740.

  16. Intraocular pressure (IOP) in relation to four levels of daily geomagnetic and extreme yearly solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoupel, E.; Goldenfeld, M.; Shimshoni, M.; Siegel, R.

    1993-03-01

    The link between geomagnetic field activity (GMA), solar activity and intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy individuals was investigated. The IOP of 485 patients (970 eyes) was recorded over three nonconsecutive years (1979, 1986, 1989) which were characterized by maximal solar activity (1979, 1989) or minimal solar activity (1986). The measurements were also correlated with four categories of GMA activity: quiet (level I0), unsettled (II0), active (III0), and stormy (IV0). Participants were also differentiated by age and sex. We found that IOP was lowest on days of level IV0 (stormy) GMA. The drop in IOP concomitant with a decrease in GMA level was more significant during periods of low solar activity and in persons over 65 years of age. There was a trend towards higher IOP values on days of levels II0 and IV0 GMA in years of high solar activity. Differences between the sexes and among individuals younger than 65 years were not significant. Our results show an interesting aspect of environmental influence on the healthy population.

  17. Intraocular pressure (IOP) in relation to four levels of daily geomagnetic and extreme yearly solar activity.

    PubMed

    Stoupel, E; Goldenfeld, M; Shimshoni, M; Siegel, R

    1993-02-01

    The link between geomagnetic field activity (GMA), solar activity and intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy individuals was investigated. The IOP of 485 patients (970 eyes) was recorded over three nonconsecutive years (1979, 1986, 1989) which were characterized by maximal solar activity (1979, 1989) or minimal solar activity (1986). The measurements were also correlated with four categories of GMA activity: quiet (level I0), unsettled (II0), active (III0), and stormy (IV0). Participants were also differentiated by age and sex. We found that IOP was lowest on days of level IV0 (stromy) GMA. The drop in IOP concomitant with a decrease in GMA level was more significant during periods of low solar activity and in persons over 65 years of age. There was a trend towards higher IOP values on days of levels II0 and IV0 GMA in years of high solar activity. Differences between the sexes and among individuals younger than 65 years were not significant. Our results show an interesting aspect of environmental influence on the healthy population. PMID:8468099

  18. COMPARISON OF VENTED AND ABSOLUTE PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS FOR WATER-LEVEL MONITORING IN HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU WELLS

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD JP

    2011-09-08

    Automated water-level data collected using vented pressure transducers deployed in Hanford Site Central Plateau wells commonly display more variability than manual tape measurements in response to barometric pressure fluctuations. To explain this difference, it was hypothesized that vented pressure transducers installed in some wells are subject to barometric pressure effects that reduce water-level measurement accuracy. Vented pressure transducers use a vent tube, which is open to the atmosphere at land surface, to supply air pressure to the transducer housing for barometric compensation so the transducer measurements will represent only the water pressure. When using vented transducers, the assumption is made that the air pressure between land surface and the well bore is in equilibrium. By comparison, absolute pressure transducers directly measure the air pressure within the wellbore. Barometric compensation is achieved by subtracting the well bore air pressure measurement from the total pressure measured by a second transducer submerged in the water. Thus, no assumption of air pressure equilibrium is needed. In this study, water-level measurements were collected from the same Central Plateau wells using both vented and absolute pressure transducers to evaluate the different methods of barometric compensation. Manual tape measurements were also collected to evaluate the transducers. Measurements collected during this study demonstrated that the vented pressure transducers over-responded to barometric pressure fluctuations due to a pressure disequilibrium between the air within the wellbores and the atmosphere at land surface. The disequilibrium is thought to be caused by the relatively long time required for barometric pressure changes to equilibrate between land surface and the deep vadose zone and may be exacerbated by the restriction of air flow between the well bore and the atmosphere due to the presence of sample pump landing plates and well caps. The

  19. Blood pressure levels, related factors, and hypertension control status of Japanese and Americans.

    PubMed

    Baba, S; Pan, W H; Ueshima, H; Ozawa, H; Komachi, Y; Stamler, R; Ruth, K; Stamler, J

    1991-08-01

    Blood pressure levels and related factors in Japanese, US whites and US blacks aged 30 to 74 years were compared, using data from the similarly designed national survey of each country in a similar period, i.e., the National Survey on Circulatory Disorders of Japan, 1980 (10,897 persons from all over Japan) and the second National Health and Nutrition Survey of the US, 1976 to 1980 (NHANES-II) (16,204 persons from all over the USA). Data collection methods were judged to be comparable. Data were stratified by age (30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-74 yrs) and sex. Age-specific and age-adjusted mean systolic BPs of Japanese were generally higher than those of US whites; mean diastolic pressures were similar in the two populations in both men and women. Mean weight and body mass index (BMI) and their standard deviations were lower for Japanese than Americans. In US blacks, BP was higher than in Japanese or in US whites for diastolic in men, and for both systolic and diastolic in women. Systolic BP levels of black men were between those of Japanese and US whites. At specific levels of BMI, Japanese systolic BPs were markedly higher than those of US whites in all age-sex groups, and diastolic pressures were higher in Japanese than in US whites, slightly so at younger ages and more so at ages 60 and over in both sexes. The proportions of all persons with high BP who were receiving antihypertensive treatment and who were controlled were similar in most age-sex groups of the Japanese and US white populations; they were lower in US black men and higher in US black women. In linear regression analyses of BP on BMI controlled for age, slopes were similar for Japanese and Americans. However, given the lower mean BMI and smaller BMI standard deviation (less overweight), partial correlation coefficients between BMI and BP were smaller for Japanese than Americans. These results indicate that overweight plays a lesser role in Japanese than Americans in producing high prevalence

  20. Prediction of radiation pressure force exerted on moving particles by the two-level skeletonization.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao-Min; Gou, Ming-Jiang; Sheng, Xin-Qing

    2014-04-21

    A fast full-wave method for computing radiation pressure force (RPF) exerted by shaped light beams on moving particles is presented. The problem of evaluating RPF exerted on a moving particle by a single excitation beam is converted into that of computing RPF's exerted on a static particle by multiple beams. The discretization of different beams leads to distinct right hand sides (RHS's) for the matrix system. To avoid solving each RHS by the brute-force manner, the algorithm conducts low-rank decomposition on the excitation matrix consisting of all RHS's to figure out the so-called skeleton light beams by interpolative decomposition (ID). The peak memory requirement of the skeletonization is a bottle-neck if the particle is large. A two-level skeletonization scheme is proposed to solve this problem. Some numerical experiments on arbitrarily shaped homogeneous particles are performed to illustrate the performance and capability of the developed method. PMID:24787885

  1. Study on osteogenesis promoted by low sound pressure level infrasound in vivo and some underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Long, Hua; Zheng, Liheng; Gomes, Fernando Cardoso; Zhang, Jinhui; Mou, Xiang; Yuan, Hua

    2013-09-01

    To clarify the effects of low sound pressure level (LSPL) infrasound on local bone turnover and explore its underlying mechanisms, femoral defected rats were stabilized with a single-side external fixator. After exposure to LSPL infrasound for 30min twice everyday for 6 weeks, the pertinent features of bone healing were assessed by radiography, peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT), histology and immunofluorescence assay. Infrasound group showed a more consecutive and smoother process of fracture healing and modeling in radiographs and histomorphology. It also showed significantly higher average bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). Immunofluorescence showed increased expression of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and decreased Neuropeptide Y (NPY) innervation in microenvironment. The results suggested the osteogenesis promotion effects of LSPL infrasound in vivo. Neuro-osteogenic network in local microenvironment was probably one target mediating infrasonic osteogenesis, which might provide new strategy to accelerate bone healing and remodeling. PMID:23770453

  2. Development of an improved-contact liquid-level probe for pressurized reactor vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, P.V. Jr.

    1982-09-01

    Electrical-conductivity-based probes for liquid level sensing show promise for pressurized water reactor environments, but have exhibited frequent bond failures at the ceramic/metal interfaces. A program to characterize and improve the interface behavior has been completed successfully, and has provided data for optimizing fabrication parameters, as well as general information on glass-to-metal bonding in a superalloy/silicate-glass system. The materials studied were Inconel X-750 and a barium silicate glass containing minor amounts of TiO/sub 2/, CeO/sub 2/, As/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/.

  3. Diversity in sound pressure levels and estimated active space of resident killer whale vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Miller, Patrick J O

    2006-05-01

    Signal source intensity and detection range, which integrates source intensity with propagation loss, background noise and receiver hearing abilities, are important characteristics of communication signals. Apparent source levels were calculated for 819 pulsed calls and 24 whistles produced by free-ranging resident killer whales by triangulating the angles-of-arrival of sounds on two beamforming arrays towed in series. Levels in the 1-20 kHz band ranged from 131 to 168 dB re 1 microPa at 1 m, with differences in the means of different sound classes (whistles: 140.2+/-4.1 dB; variable calls: 146.6+/-6.6 dB; stereotyped calls: 152.6+/-5.9 dB), and among stereotyped call types. Repertoire diversity carried through to estimates of active space, with "long-range" stereotyped calls all containing overlapping, independently-modulated high-frequency components (mean estimated active space of 10-16 km in sea state zero) and "short-range" sounds (5-9 km) included all stereotyped calls without a high-frequency component, whistles, and variable calls. Short-range sounds are reported to be more common during social and resting behaviors, while long-range stereotyped calls predominate in dispersed travel and foraging behaviors. These results suggest that variability in sound pressure levels may reflect diverse social and ecological functions of the acoustic repertoire of killer whales.

  4. Uric acid levels predict future blood pressure and new onset hypertension in the general Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Takase, H; Kimura, G; Dohi, Y

    2014-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that uric acid levels predict new-onset hypertension in the Japanese general population. Normotensive individuals who visited our hospital for a yearly health checkup (n=8157, men=61.0% and age=50.7±12.2 years) were enrolled in the present study. After baseline evaluation, participants were followed up for a median of 48.3 months (range 4.9-101.0 months), with the endpoint being the development of hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) > or = 140 mm Hg, diastolic BP > or = 90 mm Hg or the use of antihypertensive medication. The impact of uric acid and other cardiovascular risk factors at baseline on future BP and development of hypertension was assessed. During follow-up, 19.0% of women (n=605) and 29.5% of men (n=1469) participants developed hypertension. Incident hypertension was increased across the quartiles for baseline uric acid levels (P<0.0001), and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed a significant and independent association between the uric acid level and the onset of hypertension in both men and women participants (P<0.05). Furthermore, uric acid was independently and positively correlated with future BP (P<0.05). Thus, uric acid is an independent predictor of new-onset hypertension in both women and men.

  5. Portal pressure and blood nitric oxide levels as predictors of outcome in biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Vikram; Bhatnagar, Veereshwar; Agarwala, Sandeep; Srinivas, Maddur; Das, Nibhriti; Singh, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the incidence of portal hypertension (PHT) in biliary atresia (BA) patients and to monitor its progress after Kasai portoenterostomy (KP) by measuring nitric oxide (NO) levels in peripheral blood. Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study conducted over a period of 2 years. Intraoperative portal pressure (PP) and blood NO levels at presentation, 1-month, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up, were correlated with clinical and biochemical parameters in BA patients. The mean NO level in age-matched control group was 4.64 ± 2.32 μmol/L. Results: Thirty-four BA patients underwent KP over a period of 2 years. The mean age of presentation was 2.7 months (range 1-4 months). The mean intraoperative PP was 21.3 ± 5.4 mmHg. The mean PP in patients aged <60 days, 61–90 days, and >90 days was 18.53 ± 4.45 mmHg, 20.33 ± 3.07 mmHg, and 26.5 ± 5.01 mmHg, respectively. The mean PP in the patients who underwent successful KP was 16.75 ± 3.54 mmHg while for those who continued to have jaundice it was 23.94 ± 4.63 mmHg (P < 0.001). NO levels closely followed the PP as shown by the regression equation NO = 4.79 + 0.64 PP mmHg, R2 = 0.69. The mean NO level at presentation was 18.48 ± 4.17 μmol/L and at 1-month, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up was 11.94 ± 5.62 μmol/L, 10.79 ± 6.02 μmol/L, and 9.93 ± 6.53 μmol/L, respectively (P < 0.001). The difference in NO levels was also statistically significant between the patients who cleared jaundice and those with persisting jaundice. Conclusion: All BA patients had PHT at presentation. PHT worsens with age and has an adverse effect on outcome of KP. NO levels in blood closely follow PP and higher levels are associated with poor outcome. PMID:27046973

  6. Effect of Pressure Level on the Performance of an Auto-Initiated Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelvin, Loh; Abhijit, Kushari

    2010-08-01

    Pulsed plasma thrusters (PPT) are micro-propulsion devices used in satellites for station keeping. Conventionally the plasma discharge in a PPT is initiated by a spark plug. The primary objective of the present work was to develop and characterize a PPT that does not need a spark plug to initiate the plasma discharge. If the spark plug is eliminated, the size of the thrusters can be reduced and arrays of such thrusters can be manufactured using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) techniques, which can provide tremendous control authority over the satellite positioning. A parallel rail thruster was built and its performances were characterized inside a vacuum chamber to elucidate the effect of vacuum level on the performance. The electrical performance of the thruster was quantified by measuring the voltage output from a Rogowski coil, and the thrust produced by the developed thruster was estimated by measuring the force exerted by the plume on a light weight pendulum, whose deflection was measured using a laser displacement sensor. It was observed that the thruster can operate without a spark plug. In general, the performance parameters such as thrust, mass ablation, impulse bit, and specific impulse per discharge, would increase with the increase in pressure up to an optimum level due to the increase in discharge energy as well as the decrease in the total impedance of the plasma discharge. The thrust efficiency is found to be affected by the discharge energy.

  7. Estimation of sound pressure levels of voiced speech from skin vibration of the neck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švec, Jan G.; Titze, Ingo R.; Popolo, Peter S.

    2005-03-01

    How accurately can sound pressure levels (SPLs) of speech be estimated from skin vibration of the neck? Measurements using a small accelerometer were carried out in 27 subjects (10 males and 17 females) who read Rainbow and Marvin Williams passages in soft, comfortable, and loud voice, while skin acceleration levels (SALs) and SPLs were simultaneously registered and analyzed every 30 ms. The results indicate that the mean SPL of voiced speech can be estimated with accuracy better than +/-2.8 dB in 95% of the cases when the subjects are individually calibrated. This makes the accelerometer an interesting sensor for SPL measurement of speech when microphones are problematic to use (e.g., noisy environments or in voice dosimetry). The estimates of equivalent SPL, which is the logarithm of averaged relative energy of voiced speech, were found to be up to 1.5 dB less accurate than the mean SPL. The estimation accuracy for instantaneous SPLs was worse than for the mean and equivalent SPLs (on average +/-6 and +/-5 dB for males and females, respectively). .

  8. The application of high-pressure treatment in the reduction of phosphate levels in breakfast sausages.

    PubMed

    O'Flynn, C C; Cruz-Romero, M C; Troy, D J; Mullen, A M; Kerry, J P

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated effects of high pressure (HP) treatment of pork meat at 150 or 300 MPa for 5 min before manufacturing sausages on the reduction of phosphate levels and compared to sausages manufactured with untreated pork meat (control sausages). Improvement in perceived saltiness, juiciness and overall flavour was observed in sausages manufactured using HP-treated meat at 150 MPa and 0% phosphate, compared to control sausages. Sausages manufactured using meat HP-treated at 150 MPa and 0.25% phosphate (P<0.05) improved hardness of sausages. HP-treated meat at 300 MPa and 0% phosphate decreased juiciness and adhesiveness, while at 0.25% phosphate, adversely affected emulsion stability and sensory attributes. HP treatment did not affect significantly the lightness of the sausages; however, elimination of phosphate reduced (P<0.05) the yellowness, while HP treatment at 150 MPa with 0.25 or 0.5% phosphate increased (P<0.05) redness. HP reatment at 150 MPa has potential for reducing phosphate levels in sausages without significant changes in their functionality and improved acceptability. PMID:24056406

  9. THE RELATION OF EXERCISE TO BUBBLE FORMATION IN ANIMALS DECOMPRESSED TO SEA LEVEL FROM HIGH BAROMETRIC PRESSURES.

    PubMed

    Harris, M; Berg, W E; Whitaker, D M; Twitty, V C

    1945-01-20

    1. Bullfrogs (Rana catesbiana) and rats have been subjected to high barometric pressures and studied for bubble formation on subsequent decompression to sea level. Pressures varying from 3 to 60 pounds per square inch, in excess of atmospheric pressure, were used. 2. Muscular activity after decompression is necessary for bubble formation in bullfrogs after pressure treatment throughout the above range. Anesthetized frogs remained bubble-free following decompression. Rats compressed at 15 to 45 pounds per square inch likewise did not contain bubbles unless exercised on return to sea level. 3. Bubbles form without voluntary muscular activity in anesthetized rats previously subjected to pressure of 60 pounds per square inch. Small movements involved in breathing and other vital activities are believed sufficient to initiate bubbles in the presence of very high supersaturations of N(2). 4. Bubbles appear (with exercise) in rats previously compressed at 15 pounds per square inch, and in bullfrogs subjected to pressure at levels as low as 3 pounds per square inch above atmospheric pressure. The percentage drop in pressure necessary for bubble formation is less in compressed animals than in those decompressed from sea level to simulated altitudes. 5. The action of exercise on bubble formation in compressed frogs and rats is attributed to mechanical factors associated with muscular activity, combined with the high supersaturation of N(2). CO(2) probably is not greatly involved, since its concentration does not reach supersatuation, as it does at high altitude. 6. Anoxia following decompression from high barometric pressures has no observable facilitating effect on bubble formation.

  10. Age and hypertension strongly induce aortic stiffening in rats at basal and matched blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Lindesay, George; Ragonnet, Christophe; Chimenti, Stefano; Villeneuve, Nicole; Vayssettes-Courchay, Christine

    2016-05-01

    Age and hypertension are major causes of large artery remodeling and stiffening, a cardiovascular risk factor for heart and kidney damage. The aged spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model is recognized for human cardiovascular pathology, but discrepancies appeared in studies of arterial stiffness. We performed experiments using a robust analysis via echo tracking in 20-week adult (n = 8) and 80-week-old SHR (n = 7), with age-matched normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY, n = 6;6) at basal and matched levels of blood pressure (BP). After anesthesia with pentobarbital, abdominal aortic diameter and pressure were recorded and BP was decreased by clonidine i.v. At basal BP, aortic pulse distension, compliance, and distensibility (AD) were reduced and stiffness index increased with age and hypertension and further altered with age + hypertension. When BP was adjusted in SHR to that of normotensive rats (130 mmHg), there was no difference between 20-week-old SHR and WKY Importantly, the age effect was maintained in both WKY and SHR and accentuated by hypertension in old rats. At 130 mmHg, with similar pulse pressure in the four groups, AD (kPa(-3)) = 24.2 ± 1 in 20 weeks WKY, 19.7 ± 1.4 in 20 weeks SHR, 12.4 ± 1.3 in 80 weeks WKY and 6.6 ± 0.6 in 80 weeks SHR; distension = 7.6 ± 0.4%, 6.7 ± 0.6%, 3.7 ± 0.3%, and 1.8 ± 0.2% in the same groups. In conclusion, reduced distensibility, that is, stiffening due to age is clearly shown here in both WKY and SHR as well as a synergistic effect of age and hypertension. This technique will allow new studies on the mechanisms responsible and drug intervention. PMID:27233301

  11. Sound Pressure Levels Measured in a University Concert Band: A Risk of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Nicholas V., III

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have reported public school band directors as experiencing noise-induced hearing loss. Little research has focused on collegiate band directors and university student musicians. The present study measures the sound pressure levels generated within a university concert band and compares sound levels with the criteria set by the…

  12. Effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on pressured human osteoblasts: A histomorphologic and quantitative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyo, S. J.; Song, W. W.; Kim, I. R.; Park, B. S.; Kim, C. H.; Kim, S. S.; Chung, I. K.; Kim, Y. D.

    2012-03-01

    Previous research has investigated the effects of LLLT during titanium implantation, tooth movement and bone graft using deproteinized bovine bone and recognized that these circumstances were nothing more than intentional controlled overpressure against static cells since this controlled trauma could affect cell function/malfunction, or cell recovery/apoptosis. The present preliminary study was conducted to prove if LLL would influence cell viability and cell function after excessive damage, which is enough to diminish cell numbers and distort the features of cells. Our aim is to evaluate whether low level laser irradiation (LLLi) could be helpful in the recovery of traumatized osteoblasts (pressure damaged cells) by observing the morphology and the survival rate of those cells. This model used bone cell cultures which were traumatized by a pressure with 250 G of centripetal force and observed their response to such trauma and low level laser irradiation. In this experiment, a Ga-Al-As diode LLL (IMPRA-ORT, NDLux, Seoul, KOREA) was used with a wavelength of 808 nm, a focus of 14 × 24 mm, which was wide enough to cover the whole dish surface or well within at least 2 times radiation, and an output of 100 mW. Statistical analysis showed a higher recovery rate of damaged osteoblasts in the radiation group than the non-radiation group ( p < 0.05). The nonradiation group had a very poor proliferation rate in comparison to the control group ( p < 0.05) in every time period. In the control group, actin filaments showed a random orientation and cell process branched variously around each cell. In contrast, compressed cells, these patterns were turned into thicker and shorter cytoskeletons. As time progressed, every living cell recovered from the severe stress and recovered both form and function. In summary, the present study showed the capacity of LLLT to aid the recovery of the cell skeleton and affect cell viability on overpressured osteoblasts. These results may

  13. Comparison of Mid-latitude Cyclones in Sea Level Pressure, Gepotential Height and Vorticity Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raible, Christoph C.; Blender, Richard; Fraedrich, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    The mid-latitudes are dominated by diurnal variability, which is related to traveling high- and low-pressure systems. The lows or cyclones are a major source of natural hazards. This has led to growing interest in the scientific community to develop Eulerian and Lagrangian measures and to analyze the atmospheric high-frequency variability. One important issue is that there is no straight forward definition of cyclones resulting in a large variety of so-called cyclone detection and tracking methods. Each of these methods relies on different input fields which are related to specific features of a cyclone, e.g., sea level pressure (SLP), which specifically focuses on the mass aspect of the velocity field. Recently, the available methods have been compared with respect to climatology and life cycles using the ERA interim data set (Neu et al. 2013). Based on this study we investigate different fields as input for one specific method. We focus on the three mostly used input data, sea level pressure (SLP), 1000-hPa gepotential height (Z1000) and 850-hPa vorticity (850VOR). The cyclone detection and tracking method developed by Blender et al. (1997) is used and we apply it to ERA interim data in the 1.5 x 1.5 resolution. The method was mainly applied for Z1000 and the Northern Hemisphere (e.g., Blender et al. 1997; Raible et al. 2008). To compare the tracks and cyclone characteristics obtained from the different input data we need to adapt critical parameters of the method in such a way that comparable numbers of cyclone centers are identified in either field. The target is set to the number of cyclone centers in northern hemispheric winter. This enables us to assess the seasonal and hemispheric dependence. Preliminary results show that the agreement between cyclones based on SLP and Z1000 varies between roughly 70 to 80% depending on the season and the hemisphere. Spatially, most of the differences are found around orographic features like Greenland. An interesting

  14. Beneficial Effects of Dietary Nitrate on Endothelial Function and Blood Pressure Levels

    PubMed Central

    d'El-Rei, Jenifer; Cunha, Ana Rosa; Trindade, Michelle; Neves, Mario Fritsch

    2016-01-01

    Poor eating habits may represent cardiovascular risk factors since high intake of fat and saturated fatty acids contributes to dyslipidemia, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Thus, nutritional interventions are recognized as important strategies for primary prevention of hypertension and as adjuvants to pharmacological therapies to reduce cardiovascular risk. The DASH (Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension) plan is one of the most effective strategies for the prevention and nonpharmacological management of hypertension. The beneficial effects of DASH diet on blood pressure might be related to the high inorganic nitrate content of some food products included in this meal plan. The beetroot and other food plants considered as nitrate sources account for approximately 60–80% of the daily nitrate exposure in the western population. The increased levels of nitrite by nitrate intake seem to have beneficial effects in many of the physiological and clinical settings. Several clinical trials are being conducted to determine the broad therapeutic potential of increasing the bioavailability of nitrite in human health and disease, including studies related to vascular aging. In conclusion, the dietary inorganic nitrate seems to represent a promising complementary therapy to support hypertension treatment with benefits for cardiovascular health. PMID:27088010

  15. Temperature Humidity and Sea Level Pressure Increments Induced by 1DVAR Analysis of GPS Refractivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poli, Paul; Joiner, Joanna; Kursinski, Emil Robert; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) transmitted signals are affected by the atmosphere. Using the radio occultation technique, where a receiver is placed on a low-Earth-orbiting platform. it is possible to perform soundings. by measuring the bending angles of the rays. The information can be converted into atmospheric refractivity. We have developed a one dimensional variational (1DVAR) analysis that uses GPS/MET 1995 refractivity and 6-hour FVDAS (Finite Volume Data Assimilation System) forecasts as background information to constrain the retrievals. The analysis increments are defined as 1DVAR minus background temperature, humidity and sea level pressure. Before assimilating the 1DVAR profiles into the FVDAS. the increments need to be understood. First, some bias could be induced in the retrievals when confronted with actual biased data: second. bias in the back-round could create undesired bias in the retrievals. Anv bias in the analyses will ultimately change the climatology of the model the retrievals will be assimilated into. We relate the increments to the reduction of the difference between observed minus computed refractivity profiles. We also point out the difference in the mean increments using backgrounds which have assimilated either NESDIS TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) operational retrievals or Data Assimilation Office (DAO) TOVS interactive retrievals. The climatology of the model in terms of refractivity is significantly different and this impacts the GPS 1DVAR increments. This testifies that changing the basic load of assimilated data has an influence on the impact the GPS data may have in a DAS.

  16. Northern Hemisphere sea level pressure synchronization and its effect on Northern Hemisphere temperature variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeten, Joshua D.

    We consider monthly anomalies of zonally averaged sea level pressure (SLP) in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) from two reanalysis products. A measure of synchronization utilizing correlation coefficient in a five-year sliding window across all latitude pairs is computed over this data. It is found that there have been two NH SLP synchronization episodes since the 1890s, which are significant to approximately three standard deviations. Similar statistically significant synchronization events are seen in simulations of 42 global climate models (GCM) with the dominant synchronization pattern in GCMs proving dynamically consistent with observations. Furthermore, a GCM-based NH temperature anomaly composite shows a flattening of temperature time series in a decade prior to the synchronization episodes, a brief warming trend just after episodes, and a cooling trend thereafter, all of which agrees with the temperature structure around the observed synchronization episode seen in the 1890s. NH sea ice concentration anomalies are also composited from global climate models and show a decrease in ice concentration approximately one to two years after the maximum increase in temperature and an increase in ice concentration one to two years after the maximum decrease in temperature. These results have substantial implications for climate prediction up to a decade in advance.

  17. Beneficial Effects of Dietary Nitrate on Endothelial Function and Blood Pressure Levels.

    PubMed

    d'El-Rei, Jenifer; Cunha, Ana Rosa; Trindade, Michelle; Neves, Mario Fritsch

    2016-01-01

    Poor eating habits may represent cardiovascular risk factors since high intake of fat and saturated fatty acids contributes to dyslipidemia, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Thus, nutritional interventions are recognized as important strategies for primary prevention of hypertension and as adjuvants to pharmacological therapies to reduce cardiovascular risk. The DASH (Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension) plan is one of the most effective strategies for the prevention and nonpharmacological management of hypertension. The beneficial effects of DASH diet on blood pressure might be related to the high inorganic nitrate content of some food products included in this meal plan. The beetroot and other food plants considered as nitrate sources account for approximately 60-80% of the daily nitrate exposure in the western population. The increased levels of nitrite by nitrate intake seem to have beneficial effects in many of the physiological and clinical settings. Several clinical trials are being conducted to determine the broad therapeutic potential of increasing the bioavailability of nitrite in human health and disease, including studies related to vascular aging. In conclusion, the dietary inorganic nitrate seems to represent a promising complementary therapy to support hypertension treatment with benefits for cardiovascular health. PMID:27088010

  18. Maladaptive rumination moderates the effects of written emotional disclosure on ambulatory blood pressure levels in females

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Daryl B.; Ashley, Laura; Jones, Fiona; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2014-01-01

    Written emotional disclosure (WED) has beneficial effects on health outcomes. However, its effectiveness is influenced by a number of variables. This exploratory study tested whether trait rumination, which comprises brooding, a maladaptive component, and reflection, an adaptive component, moderated the effects of WED on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in female participants. Fifty-two participants were randomized to write about their most stressful/traumatic life experience(s) or non-emotive topics, for 20 minutes, on 3 consecutive days. Two weeks and 14 weeks later, ABP was recorded over a single day. Using hierarchical linear modelling, an effect of condition was found at 2 weeks but not at 14 weeks indicating that higher levels of ABP were observed following WED. There was also a significant condition by brooding interaction at two weeks such that higher ABP was observed in low brooders in the WED condition compared with low brooders in the control condition. However, within the WED condition, the lowest ABP was exhibited by participants high in brooding. The findings indicated that WED led to short-lived increases in ABP which disappeared in the medium term. Researchers ought to build upon this exploratory study and investigate further the potential moderating role of brooding within WED. Individual differences in brooding may account for (some of) the mixed and inconsistent findings in past WED research. PMID:25750835

  19. Earth's air pressure 2.7 billion years ago constrained to less than half of modern levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som, Sanjoy M.; Buick, Roger; Hagadorn, James W.; Blake, Tim S.; Perreault, John M.; Harnmeijer, Jelte P.; Catling, David C.

    2016-06-01

    How the Earth stayed warm several billion years ago when the Sun was considerably fainter is the long-standing problem of the `faint young Sun paradox'. Because of negligible O2 and only moderate CO2 levels in the Archaean atmosphere, methane has been invoked as an auxiliary greenhouse gas. Alternatively, pressure broadening in a thicker atmosphere with a N2 partial pressure around 1.6-2.4 bar could have enhanced the greenhouse effect. But fossilized raindrop imprints indicate that air pressure 2.7 billion years ago (Gyr) was below twice modern levels and probably below 1.1 bar, precluding such pressure enhancement. This result is supported by nitrogen and argon isotope studies of fluid inclusions in 3.0-3.5 Gyr rocks. Here, we calculate absolute Archaean barometric pressure using the size distribution of gas bubbles in basaltic lava flows that solidified at sea level ~2.7 Gyr in the Pilbara Craton, Australia. Our data indicate a surprisingly low surface atmospheric pressure of Patm = 0.23 +/- 0.23 (2σ) bar, and combined with previous studies suggests ~0.5 bar as an upper limit to late Archaean Patm. The result implies that the thin atmosphere was rich in auxiliary greenhouse gases and that Patm fluctuated over geologic time to a previously unrecognized extent.

  20. Effect of Buddhist meditation on serum cortisol and total protein levels, blood pressure, pulse rate, lung volume and reaction time.

    PubMed

    Sudsuang, R; Chentanez, V; Veluvan, K

    1991-09-01

    Serum cortisol and total protein levels, blood pressure, heart rate, lung volume, and reaction time were studied in 52 males 20-25 years of age practicing Dhammakaya Buddhist meditation, and in 30 males of the same age group not practicing meditation. It was found that after meditation, serum cortisol levels were significantly reduced, serum total protein level significantly increased, and systolic pressure, diastolic pressure and pulse rate significantly reduced. Vital capacity, tidal volume and maximal voluntary ventilation were significantly lower after meditation than before. There were also significant decreases in reaction time after mediation practice. The percentage decrease in reaction time during meditation was 22%, while in subjects untrained in meditation, the percentage decrease was only 7%. Results from these studies indicate that practising Dhammakaya Buddhist meditation produces biochemical and physiological changes and reduces the reaction time.

  1. Self-pressurization of a flightweight liquid hydrogen tank: Effects of fill level at low wall heat flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandresar, N. T.; Hasan, M. M.; Lin, C.-S.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for the self pressurization and thermal stratification of a 4.89 cu m liquid hydrogen storage tank subjected to low heat flux (2.0 and 3.5 W/sq m) in normal gravity. The test tank was representative of future spacecraft tankage, having a low mass to volume ratio and high performance multilayer thermal insulation. Tests were performed at fill levels of 29 and 49 pcts. (by volume) and complement previous tests at 83 pct. fill. As the heat flux increases, the pressure rise rate at each fill level exceeds the homogeneous rate by an increasing ratio. Herein, this ratio did not exceed a value of 2. The slowest pressure rise rate was observed for the 49 pct. fill level at both heat fluxes. This result is attributed to the oblate spheroidal tank geometry which introduces the variables of wetted wall area, liquid-vapor interfacial area, and ratio of side wall to bottom heating as a function of fill level or liquid depth. Initial tank thermal conditions were found to affect the initial pressure rise rate. Quasi steady pressure rise rates are independent of starting conditions.

  2. Self-pressurization of a flightweight liquid hydrogen tank - Effects of fill level at low wall heat flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dresar, N. T.; Lin, C. S.; Hasan, M. M.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for the self pressurization and thermal stratification of a 4.89 cu m liquid hydrogen storage tank subjected to low heat flux (2.0 and 3.5 W/sq m) in normal gravity. The test tank was representative of future spacecraft tankage, having a low mass to volume ratio and high performance multilayer thermal insulation. Tests were performed at fill levels of 29 and 49 pcts. (by volume) and complement previous tests at 83 pct. fill. As the heat flux increases, the pressure rise rate at each fill level exceeds the homogeneous rate by an increasing ratio. Herein, this ratio did not exceed a value of 2. The slowest pressure rise rate was observed for the 49 pct. fill level at both heat fluxes. This result is attributed to the oblate spheroidal tank geometry which introduces the variables of wetted wall area, liquid-vapor interfacial area, and ratio of side wall to bottom heating as a function of fill level or liquid depth. Initial tank thermal conditions were found to affect the initial pressure rise rate. Quasi steady pressure rise rates are independent of starting conditions.

  3. Regional Fat Distribution and Blood Pressure Level and Variability: The Dallas Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yuichiro; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Ayers, Colby; Turer, Aslan; Chandra, Alvin; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Greenland, Philip; de Lemos, James A; Neeland, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Our aim was to investigate the associations of regional fat distribution with home and office blood pressure (BP) levels and variability. Participants in the Dallas Heart Study, a multiethnic cohort, underwent 5 BP measurements on 3 occasions during 5 months (2 in home and 1 in office) and quantification of visceral adipose tissue, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, and liver fat by magnetic resonance imaging, and lower body subcutaneous fat by dual x-ray absorptiometry. The relation of regional adiposity with short-term (within-visit) and long-term (overall visits) mean BP and average real variability was assessed with multivariable linear regression. We have included 2595 participants with a mean age of 44 years (54% women; 48% black), and mean body mass index was 29 kg/m(2) Mean systolic BP/diastolic BP was 127/79 mm Hg and average real variability systolic BP was 9.8 mm Hg during 3 visits. In multivariable-adjusted models, higher amount of visceral adipose tissue was associated with higher short-term (both home and office) and long-term mean systolic BP (β[SE]: 1.9[0.5], 2.7[0.5], and 2.1[0.5], respectively; all P<0.001) and with lower long-term average real variability systolic BP (β[SE]: -0.5[0.2]; P<0.05). In contrast, lower body fat was associated with lower short-term home and long-term mean BP (β[SE]: -0.30[0.13] and -0.24[0.1], respectively; both P<0.05). Neither subcutaneous adipose tissue or liver fat was associated with BP levels or variability. In conclusion, excess visceral fat was associated with persistently higher short- and long-term mean BP levels and with lower long-term BP variability, whereas lower body fat was associated with lower short- and long-term mean BP. Persistently elevated BP, coupled with lower variability, may partially explain increased risk for cardiac hypertrophy and failure related to visceral adiposity.

  4. Essential Oil Inhalation on Blood Pressure and Salivary Cortisol Levels in Prehypertensive and Hypertensive Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kim, In-Hee; Kim, Chan; Seong, Kayeon; Hur, Myung-Haeng; Lim, Heon Man; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of essential oil inhalation on the 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and salivary cortisol level in 83 prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects. The experimental group (n = 28) was asked to inhale an essential oil blended with lavender, ylang-ylang, marjoram, and neroli (20 : 15 : 10 : 2), whereas the placebo group (n = 27) was asked to inhale an artificial fragrance for 24 hours and the control group received no treatment (n = 28). The SBP (P < .001) and DBP (P = .009) measured at home in the experimental group were significantly decreased compared with the placebo group and the control group after treatment. The daytime SBP during the 24-hour ambulatory BP measurement of the experimental group presented with significant decreases in comparison with the measurements of the placebo group and the control group (P < .001). There was no statistically significant difference in the nighttime SBPs. The daytime DBPs during the 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements of the experimental group presented with significant decreases in comparison with the measurements of the placebo group and the control group (P = .002). There was no significant difference in the night time DBPs. The experimental group showed significant decreases in the concentration of salivary cortisol in comparison with the concentrations of the placebo group and the control group (P = .012). In conclusion, the inhalation of an essential oil had immediate and continuous effects on the home SBP, daytime BP, and the stress reduction. Essential oils may have relaxation effects for controlling hypertension. PMID:23259002

  5. Wound fluids from human pressure ulcers contain elevated matrix metalloproteinase levels and activity compared to surgical wound fluids.

    PubMed

    Yager, D R; Zhang, L Y; Liang, H X; Diegelmann, R F; Cohen, I K

    1996-11-01

    Fluid from acute surgical wounds and from nonhealing pressure ulcers was examined for the presence of several matrix metalloproteinases. Gelatin zymography demonstrated the presence of two major gelatinases with apparent molecular masses of 72 kDa and 92 kDa and two minor gelatinases with apparent mobilities of 68 kDa and 125 kDa. Antigen-specific sera identified the 72-kDa protein as matrix melloproteinase-2. The same sera also reacted with the 68-kDa protein, which is consistent with it being an activated form of matrix metalloproteinase-2. Antigen-specific sera identified the 92-kDa and 125-kDa proteins as matrix metalloproteinase-9. Levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were elevated more than 10-fold and 25-fold, respectively, in fluids from pressure ulcers compared with fluids from healing wounds. Examination of total potential and actual collagenolytic activity revealed that fluid from pressure ulcers contained significantly greater levels of both total and active collagenase compared with that of acute surgical wounds. In addition, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that fluids from pressure ulcers contained significantly more collagenase complexed with the inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases. Together, these observations suggest that an imbalance exists between levels of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in the fluids of pressure ulcers and that this is primarily the result of elevated levels of the matrix metalloproteinases. The presence of excessive levels of activated forms of matrix-degrading enzymes at the wound surface of pressure ulcers may impede the healing of these wounds and may be relevant to the development of new rationales for treatment.

  6. Argon laser trabeculoplasty as a means of decreasing intraocular pressure from ''normal'' levels in glaucomatous eyes

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, E.D.; Simmons, R.J.

    1985-06-15

    The authors conducted a retrospective study of 67 patients (85 eyes) with severe glaucoma to determine whether argon laser trabeculoplasty could reduce intraocular pressures below the ''normal'' range. All patients had initial intraocular pressures of less than or equal to 19 mm Hg. Success was defined as a decrease in intraocular pressure of at least 20%, no increase in medications, stable visual field, and no subsequent glaucoma surgery. After an average follow-up period of 30 months, treatment was successful in 31 cases. One half of the failures occurred by six months and 11 failures (30%) occurred after 12 months. Sixteen patients were able to decrease their medications. Two patients achieved intraocular pressures between 6 and 9 mm Hg and 20 between 10 and 12 mm Hg.

  7. Effect of prepuberal gonadectomy upon aldosterone levels in female and male SHR: interaction between blood pressure and kallikrein kinin system.

    PubMed

    Oddo, Elisabet M; de Luca Sarobe, Verónica; Krmar, Rafael; Periz, Gabriela A; Herrera, Horacio; Martín, Rodolfo S; Ibarra, Fernando R; Arrizurieta, Elvira E

    2006-02-01

    It has been suggested that an abnormal activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axis may be implicated in the pathogenesis of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) blood pressure hypertension. However, it is widely known that the kallikrein-kinin system plays a role in blood pressure regulation in this strain, because an inverse relation between blood pressure and urinary kallikrein excretion has been reported. It was of our interest to study how early suppression of sexual hormones affected blood pressure regulation in SHR and urinary kallikrein excretion and to elucidate the involved mechanisms. For these purpose, SH and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats blood pressure, renal function, and hormonal profile were studied after prepuberal gonadectomy starting at 4 weeks of age throughout until the 12th week of age. Results were compared with those of untreated SH and WKY rats of either sex. The response to blocking agents against aldosterone and kallikrein-kinin system also were evaluated. Systolic blood pressure increased progressively in male and female SHR 12 weeks of age. Systolic blood pressure was higher in male than in female SHR, but urinary kallikrein was lower in male SHR. Prepuberal gonadectomy induced a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure in male and in female SHR at 12 weeks of age, accompanied by an increase in urinary kallikrein in male and in female SHR. Plasma aldosterone increased markedly in female and male SHR after gonadectomy. No concurrent changes in plasma renin activity or corticosterone levels were observed. The aldosterone receptor antagonist and the kallikrein inhibitor treatment blunted the blood pressure lowering effect of gonadectomy and diminished urinary kallikrein excretion. Results support the existence of a sexual dimorphism related to hypertension and urinary kallikrein and suggest an interaction among the kallikrein-kinin system, sexual hormones, and mineralocorticoids in the neonatal programming of hypertension.

  8. HEALTH LITERACY, MEDICATION ADHERENCE, AND BLOOD PRESSURE LEVEL AMONG HYPERTENSIVE OLDER ADULTS TREATED AT PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTERS.

    PubMed

    Wannasirikul, Phitchayaphat; Termsirikulchai, Lakkhana; Sujirarat, Dusit; Benjakul, Sarunya; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this study to explore the causal relationships between health literacy, individual characteristics, literacy, culture and society, cognitive ability, medication adherence, and the blood pressure levels of hypertensive older adults receiving health care services at Primary Health Care Centers in Sa Kaeo Province, Thailand. Six hundred hypertensive older adults had their blood pressure level recorded and were interviewed using questionnaires. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to determine the effect size, both direct and indirect, among factors. Almost half (48.7%) of studied subjects had inadequate health literacy, 98.3% had good medication adherence, and 80% had good blood pressure levels. The highest effect size on health literacy was literacy, followed by cognitive ability, and culture and society. Medication adherence was affected directly and indirectly by cognitive ability, literacy, and culture and society. Health literacy had not only a direct effect on medication adherence but was also the mediator. Finally, the highest effect size on blood pressure level was critical and communicative health literacy. These findings suggest that health literacy should be considered in the Health Literacy Program of the National Public Health Policy and Plan, Ministry of Public Health. PMID:27086432

  9. HEALTH LITERACY, MEDICATION ADHERENCE, AND BLOOD PRESSURE LEVEL AMONG HYPERTENSIVE OLDER ADULTS TREATED AT PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTERS.

    PubMed

    Wannasirikul, Phitchayaphat; Termsirikulchai, Lakkhana; Sujirarat, Dusit; Benjakul, Sarunya; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this study to explore the causal relationships between health literacy, individual characteristics, literacy, culture and society, cognitive ability, medication adherence, and the blood pressure levels of hypertensive older adults receiving health care services at Primary Health Care Centers in Sa Kaeo Province, Thailand. Six hundred hypertensive older adults had their blood pressure level recorded and were interviewed using questionnaires. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to determine the effect size, both direct and indirect, among factors. Almost half (48.7%) of studied subjects had inadequate health literacy, 98.3% had good medication adherence, and 80% had good blood pressure levels. The highest effect size on health literacy was literacy, followed by cognitive ability, and culture and society. Medication adherence was affected directly and indirectly by cognitive ability, literacy, and culture and society. Health literacy had not only a direct effect on medication adherence but was also the mediator. Finally, the highest effect size on blood pressure level was critical and communicative health literacy. These findings suggest that health literacy should be considered in the Health Literacy Program of the National Public Health Policy and Plan, Ministry of Public Health.

  10. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF HIGH LEVELS OF SO2 REMOVAL IN ATMOSPHERIC-PRESSURE FUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes tests conducted in an atmospheric-pressure-fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) with a cross-section of 1 x 1.6 m) to demonstrate high levels of S02 removal when burning a high-sulfur coal and feeding limestone sorbent for S02 removal. The goal was to achieve 90-plu...

  11. The Influence of Fundamental Frequency and Sound Pressure Level Range on Breathing Patterns in Female Classical Singing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collyer, Sally; Thorpe, C. William; Callaghan, Jean; Davis, Pamela J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the influence of fundamental frequency (F0) and sound pressure level (SPL) range on respiratory behavior in classical singing. Method: Five trained female singers performed an 8-s messa di voce (a crescendo and decrescendo on one F0) across their musical F0 range. Lung volume (LV) change was estimated, and…

  12. Perforated second trimester appendicitis with abdominal compartment syndrome managed with negative pressure wound therapy and open abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Turnock, Adam R.; Fleischer, Brian P.; Carney, Martin J.; Vanderlan, Wesley B.

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a known complication of laparotomy; however, the literature is lacking in regards to treatment of this entity in pregnant patients. We present a case of acute perforated appendicitis in a second trimester primagravida, complicated by gangrenous necrosis of the contiguous bowel with subsequent development of ACS and intra-abdominal sepsis. This was treated with a novel approach, using non-commercial negative pressure wound therapy and open abdomen technique. Gestational integrity was preserved and the patient went on to experience a normal spontaneous vaginal delivery. At 5 years post-delivery the patient has had no surgical complications and her baby has met all developmental milestones. PMID:27302498

  13. Association of blood pressure and metabolic syndrome components with magnesium levels in drinking water in some Serbian municipalities.

    PubMed

    Rasic-Milutinovic, Zorica; Perunicic-Pekovic, Gordana; Jovanovic, Dragana; Gluvic, Zoran; Cankovic-Kadijevic, Milce

    2012-03-01

    Chronic exposure to insufficient levels of magnesium (Mg) in drinking water increases the risk of magnesium deficiency and its association with hypertension, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to assess the potential association of mineral contents in drinking water with blood pressure and other components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (BMI as measure of obesity, triglycerides, glucose, and insulin resistance, index-HOMA IR), in a healthy population. This study was conducted in three randomly selected municipalities (Pozarevac, Grocka and Banovci), and recruited 90 healthy blood donors, aged 20-50 years. The Pozarevac area had a four times higher mean Mg level in drinking water (42 mg L(-1)) than Grocka (11 mg L(-1)). Diastolic blood pressure was lowest in subjects from Pozarevac. Serum Mg (sMg) was highest, and serum Ca(2+)/Mg (sCa/Mg) lowest in subjects from Pozarevac, and after adjustment for confounders (age, gender, BMI), only total cholesterol and sMg levels were independent predictors of diastolic blood pressure, sMg levels were independent predictors of triglycerides, and sCa/Mg predicted glucose levels. These results suggest that Mg supplementation in areas of lower magnesium levels in drinking water may be an important measure in the prevention of hypertension and MetS in general.

  14. Evidence for Skill Level Differences in the Thought Processes of Golfers During High and Low Pressure Situations.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Amy E; Taylor, Jamie A; Polman, Remco C J

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined differences in the cognition of golfers with differing levels of expertise in high and low pressure situations. In study 1, six high skill and six low skill golfers performed six holes of golf, while verbalizing their thoughts using Think Aloud (TA) protocol. Higher skilled golfers' cognitive processes centered more on planning in comparison to lower skilled golfers. Study 2 investigated whether thought processes of golfers changed in response to competitive pressure. Eight high skill and eight moderate skilled golfers, completed a practice round and a competition round whilst verbalizing thoughts using TA. To create pressure in the competition condition, participants were instructed that monetary prizes would be awarded to the top three performers and scores of all golfers would be published in a league table in the club house. When performing under competitive pressure, it was found that higher skilled golfers were more likely to verbalize technical rules compared to practice conditions, especially during putting performance. This shift in cognition toward more technical aspects of motor performance was strongly related to scores on the Decision Specific Reinvestment Scale, suggesting individuals with a higher propensity for reinvestment show the largest changes in cognition under pressure. From a practical perspective, TA can aid a player, coach or sport psychologist by allowing thought processes to be identified and investigate a performer's thoughts when faced with the pressure of a competition. PMID:26779085

  15. Evidence for Skill Level Differences in the Thought Processes of Golfers During High and Low Pressure Situations

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Amy E.; Taylor, Jamie A.; Polman, Remco C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Two studies examined differences in the cognition of golfers with differing levels of expertise in high and low pressure situations. In study 1, six high skill and six low skill golfers performed six holes of golf, while verbalizing their thoughts using Think Aloud (TA) protocol. Higher skilled golfers’ cognitive processes centered more on planning in comparison to lower skilled golfers. Study 2 investigated whether thought processes of golfers changed in response to competitive pressure. Eight high skill and eight moderate skilled golfers, completed a practice round and a competition round whilst verbalizing thoughts using TA. To create pressure in the competition condition, participants were instructed that monetary prizes would be awarded to the top three performers and scores of all golfers would be published in a league table in the club house. When performing under competitive pressure, it was found that higher skilled golfers were more likely to verbalize technical rules compared to practice conditions, especially during putting performance. This shift in cognition toward more technical aspects of motor performance was strongly related to scores on the Decision Specific Reinvestment Scale, suggesting individuals with a higher propensity for reinvestment show the largest changes in cognition under pressure. From a practical perspective, TA can aid a player, coach or sport psychologist by allowing thought processes to be identified and investigate a performer’s thoughts when faced with the pressure of a competition. PMID:26779085

  16. Salt taste sensitivity thresholds in adolescents: are there any relationships with body composition and blood pressure levels?

    PubMed

    Kirsten, Vanessa Ramos; Wagner, Mário Bernardes

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the salt taste sensitivity thresholds and relationships with body composition and blood pressure levels in a cross-sectional study of adolescents. Blood pressure and body composition were measured with a digital device and by anthropometry, respectively. The salt taste sensitivity threshold was measured with 9 solutions with different sodium chloride concentrations to assess the sensitivity to saltiness. The solutions (4, 8, 15, 30, 60, 120, 250, 500 and 1000 mmol/L sodium chloride) were served in increasing concentrations until the taste was correctly identified. The taste sensitivity threshold was then classified as normal or high. In total, 421 adolescents (55.6% female), with an average age of 15.8 ± 0.91 years, were evaluated. The median threshold was 30 mmol/L, and 36.1% had a high threshold. The high blood pressure prevalence was 12.6%, and 25.5% of the subjects were overweight. When the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were compared between the normal and increased threshold groups after adjusting for gender, age, sedentary lifestyle and body mass index, only diastolic blood pressure showed a statistically significant effect (P < 0.0001) between the groups. The effect of a high threshold on body composition after adjusting for gender, age and physical inactivity was not significant (P = 0.177). There was no relationship between a high threshold and systolic pressure or body composition in the evaluated adolescents; therefore, only diastolic blood pressure was affected.

  17. Pressure tuning of the electronic energy levels of ferrocene, cobaltocenium hexafluorophosphate, and nickelocene

    SciTech Connect

    Roginski, R.T.; Moroz, A.; Hendrickson, D.N.; Drickamer, H.G.

    1988-07-28

    The effects of pressure on various d-d transitions for ferrocene, cobaltocenium hexafluorophosphate, and nickelocene in the solid state are presented here. The bands are found to shift in a manner such as to increase the symmetry-imposed splittings between the d orbitals, which is consistent with a qualitative molecular orbital picture. These splittings are found to increase between 2 and 8% in 100 kbar, as compared with 7-15% for simple ionic compounds. The Racah parameter B is almost independent of pressure, in contrast to the results seen for simple ionic compounds. These results are discussed in terms of the large degree of covalency for these compounds.

  18. Launching a salt substitute to reduce blood pressure at the population level: a cluster randomized stepped wedge trial in Peru

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Controlling hypertension rates and maintaining normal blood pressure, particularly in resource-constrained settings, represent ongoing challenges of effective and affordable implementation in health care. One of the strategies being largely advocated to improve high blood pressure calls for salt reduction strategies. This study aims to estimate the impact of a population-level intervention based on sodium reduction and potassium increase – in practice, introducing a low-sodium, high-potassium salt substitute – on adult blood pressure levels. Methods/Design The proposed implementation research study includes two components: Phase 1, an exploratory component, and Phase 2, an intervention component. The exploratory component involves a triangle taste test and a formative research study designed to gain an understanding of the best implementation methods. Phase 2 involves a pragmatic stepped wedge trial design where the intervention will be progressively implemented in several clusters starting the intervention randomly at different times. In addition, we will evaluate the implementation strategy using a cost-effectiveness analysis. Discussion This is the first project in a Latin-American setting to implement a salt substitution intervention at the population level to tackle high blood pressure. Data generated and lessons learnt from this study will provide a strong platform to address potential interventions applicable to other similar low- and middle-income settings. Trial registration This study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01960972. PMID:24667035

  19. Laboratory evaluation of the Level TROLL 100 manufactured by In-Situ Inc.: results of pressure and temperature tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carnley, Mark V.; Fulford, Janice M.; Brooks, Myron H.

    2013-01-01

    The Level TROLL 100 manufactured by In-Situ Inc. was evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) for conformance to the manufacturer’s accuracy specifications for measuring pressure throughout the device’s operating temperature range. The Level TROLL 100 is a submersible, sealed, water-level sensing device with an operating pressure range equivalent to 0 to 30 feet of water over a temperature range of −20 to 50 degrees Celsius (°C). The device met the manufacturer’s stated accuracy specifications for pressure within its temperature-compensated operating range of 0 to 50 °C. The device’s accuracy specifications did not meet established USGS requirements for primary water-stage sensors used in the operation of streamgages, but the Level TROLL 100 may be suitable for other hydrologic data-collection applications. As a note, the Level TROLL 100 is not designed to meet USGS accuracy requirements. Manufacturer accuracy specifications were evaluated, and the procedures followed and the results obtained are described in this report. USGS accuracy requirements are routinely examined and reported when instruments are evaluated at the HIF.

  20. Effect of antihypertensive treatment at different blood pressure levels in patients with diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Carlberg, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of antihypertensive treatment on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in people with diabetes mellitus, at different blood pressure levels. Design Systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials. Data sources CENTRAL, Medline, Embase, and BIOSIS were searched using highly sensitive search strategies. When data required according to the protocol were missing but trials were potentially eligible, we contacted researchers, pharmaceutical companies, and authorities. Eligibility criteria Randomised controlled trials including 100 or more people with diabetes mellitus, treated for 12 months or more, comparing any antihypertensive agent against placebo, two agents against one, or different blood pressure targets. Results 49 trials, including 73 738 participants, were included in the meta-analyses. Most of the participants had type 2 diabetes. If baseline systolic blood pressure was greater than 150 mm Hg, antihypertensive treatment reduced the risk of all cause mortality (relative risk 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.80 to 0.99), cardiovascular mortality (0.75, 0.57 to 0.99), myocardial infarction (0.74, 0.63 to 0.87), stroke (0.77, 0.65 to 0.91), and end stage renal disease (0.82, 0.71 to 0.94). If baseline systolic blood pressure was 140-150 mm Hg, additional treatment reduced the risk of all cause mortality (0.87, 0.78 to 0.98), myocardial infarction (0.84, 0.76 to 0.93), and heart failure (0.80, 0.66 to 0.97). If baseline systolic blood pressure was less than 140 mm Hg, however, further treatment increased the risk of cardiovascular mortality (1.15, 1.00 to 1.32), with a tendency towards an increased risk of all cause mortality (1.05, 0.95 to 1.16). Metaregression analyses showed a worse treatment effect with lower baseline systolic blood pressures for cardiovascular mortality (1.15, 1.03 to 1.29 for each 10 mm Hg lower systolic blood pressure) and myocardial infarction (1.12, 1.03 to 1.22 for each 10 mm Hg

  1. Abdominal compliance: A bench-to-bedside review.

    PubMed

    Blaser, Annika Reintam; Björck, Martin; De Keulenaer, Bart; Regli, Adrian

    2015-05-01

    Abdominal compliance (AC) is an important determinant and predictor of available workspace during laparoscopic surgery. Furthermore, critically ill patients with a reduced AC are at an increased risk of developing intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome, both of which are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Despite this, AC is a concept that has been neglected in the past.AC is defined as a measure of the ease of abdominal expansion, expressed as a change in intra-abdominal volume (IAV) per change in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP):AC = ΔIAV / ΔIAPAC is a dynamic variable dependent on baseline IAV and IAP as well as abdominal reshaping and stretching capacity. Whereas AC itself can only rarely be measured, it always needs to be considered an important component of IAP. Patients with decreased AC are prone to fulminant development of abdominal compartment syndrome when concomitant risk factors for intra-abdominal hypertension are present.This review aims to clarify the pressure-volume relationship within the abdominal cavity. It highlights how different conditions and pathologies can affect AC and which management strategies could be applied to avoid serious consequences of decreased AC.We have pooled all available human data to calculate AC values in patients acutely and chronically exposed to intra-abdominal hypertension and demonstrated an exponential abdominal pressure-volume relationship. Most importantly, patients with high level of IAP have a reduced AC. In these patients, only small reduction in IAV can significantly increase AC and reduce IAPs.A greater knowledge on AC may help in selecting a better surgical approach and in reducing complications related to intra-abdominal hypertension.

  2. Cortisol, blood pressure, and heart rate responses to food intake were independent of physical fitness levels in women.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Sisitha U; Torres, Susan J; Fraser, Steve F; Turner, Anne I

    2015-11-01

    This research tested the hypothesis that women who had higher levels of physical fitness will have lower hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) and sympatho-adrenal medullary system (blood pressure and heart rate) responses to food intake compared with women who had low levels of physical fitness. Lower fitness (n = 22; maximal oxygen consumption = 27.4 ± 1.0 mL∙kg(-1)·min(-1)) and higher fitness (n = 22; maximal oxygen consumption = 41.9 ± 1.6 mL∙kg(-1)·min(-1)) women (aged 30-50 years; in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle) who participated in levels of physical activity that met (lower fitness = 2.7 ± 0.5 h/week) or considerably exceeded (higher fitness = 7.1 ± 1.4 h/week) physical activity guidelines made their own lunch using standardised ingredients at 1200 h. Concentrations of cortisol were measured in blood samples collected every 15 min from 1145-1400 h. Blood pressures and heart rate were also measured every 15 min between 1145 h and 1400 h. The meal consumed by the participants consisted of 20% protein, 61% carbohydrates, and 19% fat. There was a significant overall response to lunch in all of the parameters measured (time effect for all, p < 0.01). The cortisol response to lunch was not significantly different between the groups (time × treatment, p = 0.882). Overall, both groups showed the same pattern of cortisol secretion (treatment p = 0.839). Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, or heart rate responses (time × treatment, p = 0.726, 0.898, 0.713, and 0.620, respectively) were also similar between higher and lower fitness women. Results suggest that the physiological response to food intake in women is quite resistant to modification by elevated physical fitness levels.

  3. 16 CFR 1500.47 - Method for determining the sound pressure level produced by toy caps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accurate to within ±1 decibel. If the calibration is of the pressure type or of the piston-phone plus electrostatic actuator type, it shall be corrected to free-field conditions in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. (2) The oscilloscope shall be the storage type or one equipped with a camera....

  4. Cardiac Reactivity and Elevated Blood Pressure Levels among Young African Americans: The Importance of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Ivor Lensworth; Marshall, Ronald J.

    1990-01-01

    Explores the racial differences in elevated arterial blood pressure between African American youth, especially adolescents, and their White counterparts. Argues that African American adolescents' perception of day-to-day stress is an important contributor to this condition. Considers a conceptual model of the sociopsychophysiological stress…

  5. Changes in Central Aortic Pressure Levels, Wave Components and Determinants Associated with High Peripheral Blood Pressure States in Childhood: Analysis of Hypertensive Phenotype.

    PubMed

    García-Espinosa, Victoria; Curcio, Santiago; Marotta, Marco; Castro, Juan M; Arana, Maite; Peluso, Gonzalo; Chiesa, Pedro; Giachetto, Gustavo; Bia, Daniel; Zócalo, Yanina

    2016-10-01

    The aims were to determine whether children's high peripheral blood pressure states (HBP) are associated with increased central aortic blood pressure (BP) and to characterize hemodynamic and vascular changes associated with HBP in terms of changes in cardiac output (stroke volume, SV), arterial stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity, PWV), peripheral vascular resistances (PVR) and net and relative contributions of reflected waves to the aortic pulse amplitude. We included 154 subjects (mean age 11; range 4-16 years) assigned to one of two groups: normal peripheral BP (NBP, n = 101), defined as systolic and diastolic BP < 90th percentile, or high BP (HBP, n = 53), defined as average systolic and/or diastolic BP levels ≥90th percentile (curves for sex, age and body height). The HBP group included children with hypertensive and pre-hypertensive BP levels. After a first analysis, groups were compared excluding obese and dyslipidemic children. Peripheral and central aortic BP, PWV and pulse wave-derived parameters (augmentation index, forward and backward wave components' amplitude) were measured using gold-standard techniques, applanation tonometry (SphygmoCor) and oscillometry (Mobil-O-Graph). Independent of the presence of dyslipidemia and/or obesity, aortic systolic and pulse BP were higher in HBP than in NBP children. The increase in central BP could not be explained by an increase in the relative contribution of reflections to the aortic pressure wave, higher PVR or by an augmented peripheral reflection coefficient. Instead, the rise in central BP would be explained by an increase in the amplitude of both incident and reflected wave components.

  6. Four-week effects of allopurinol and febuxostat treatments on blood pressure and serum creatinine level in gouty men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Ah; Seo, Young-Il; Song, Yeong W

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the effects of uric acid lowering therapy (UALT), febuxostat and allopurinol, on blood pressure (BP) and serum creatinine level. Post-hoc data were derived from a phase-III, randomised, double-blind, 4-week trial of male gouty patients that compared the safety and efficacy of febuxostat and allopurinol in adults with gout. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups, 35-37 in each group (febuxostat: 40, 80, 120 mg/d; allopurinol: 300 mg/d; control group: placebo). Blood pressure and serum creatinine level were measured at baseline and at weeks 2 and 4. Diastolic BP and creatinine level had decreased significantly in the UALT groups compared to the control group at week 4. Diastolic BP had decreased significantly in the allopurinol group and serum creatinine level had decreased significantly in the febuxostat groups at week 4. After adjusting for confounding variables, serum uric acid changes were found to be significantly correlated with changes in serum creatinine level but were not associated with changes in systolic or diastolic BP. UALT in gouty subjects significantly decreased diastolic BP and serum creatinine level. Changes in uric acid were significantly correlated with those in serum creatinine level, suggesting the feasibility of renal function improvement through UALT in gouty men.

  7. An objective definition of air mass types affecting Athens, Greece; the corresponding atmospheric pressure patterns and air pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Sindosi, O A; Katsoulis, B D; Bartzokas, A

    2003-08-01

    This work aims at defining characteristic air mass types that dominate in the region of Athens, Greece during the cold (November-March) and the warm (May-September) period of the year and also at evaluating the corresponding concentration levels of the main air pollutants. For each air mass type, the mean atmospheric pressure distribution (composite maps) over Europe and the Mediterranean is estimated in order to reveal the association of atmospheric circulation with air pollution levels in Athens. The data basis for this work consists of daily values of thirteen meteorological and six pollutant parameters covering the period 1993-97. The definition of the characteristic air mass types is attempted objectively by using the methods of Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis. The results show that during the cold period of the year there are six prevailing air mass types (at least 3% of the total number of days) and six infrequent ones. The examination of the corresponding air pollution concentration levels shows that the primary air pollutants appear with increased concentrations when light or southerly winds prevail. This is usually the case when a high pressure system is located over the central Mediterranean or a low pressure system lays over south Italy, respectively. Low levels of the primary pollutants are recorded under northeasterly winds, mainly caused by a high pressure system over Ukraine. During the warm period of the year, the southwestern Asia thermal low and the subtropical anticyclone of the Atlantic Ocean affect Greece. Though these synoptic systems cause almost stagnant conditions, four main air mass types are dominant and ten others, associated with extreme weather, are infrequent. Despite the large amounts of total solar radiation characterizing this period, ozone concentrations remain at low levels in central Athens because of its destruction by nitric oxide.

  8. Fructose containing sugars do not raise blood pressure or uric acid at normal levels of human consumption.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Rippe, James M

    2015-02-01

    The impact of fructose, commonly consumed with sugars by humans, on blood pressure and uric acid has yet to be defined. A total of 267 weight-stable participants drank sugar-sweetened milk every day for 10 weeks as part of their usual, mixed-nutrient diet. Groups 1 and 2 had 9% estimated caloric intake from fructose or glucose, respectively, added to milk. Groups 3 and 4 had 18% of estimated caloric intake from high fructose corn syrup or sucrose, respectively, added to the milk. Blood pressure and uric acid were determined prior to and after the 10-week intervention. There was no effect of sugar type on either blood pressure or uric acid (interaction P>.05), and a significant time effect for blood pressure was noted (P<.05). The authors conclude that 10 weeks of consumption of fructose at the 50th percentile level, whether consumed as pure fructose or with fructose-glucose-containing sugars, does not promote hyperuricemia or increase blood pressure. PMID:25496265

  9. [Factors affecting the control of blood pressure and lipid levels in patients with cardiovascular disease: the PREseAP Study].

    PubMed

    Orozco-Beltrán, Domingo; Brotons, Carlos; Moral, Irene; Soriano, Nuria; Del Valle, María A; Rodríguez, Ana I; Pepió, Josep M; Pastor, Ana

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this observational study was to identify factors influencing the control of blood pressure (i.e., <140/90 mmHg, or <130/80 mmHg in diabetic patients) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level (<100 mg/dL) in 1223 patients with cardiovascular disease. Overall, 70.2% of patients were men, and their mean age was 66.4 years. Blood pressure was poorly controlled in 50.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 46.9%-54.8%) and the LDL cholesterol level was poorly controlled in 60.1% (95% CI, 56.3%-63.9%). Determinants of poor blood pressure control were diabetes, hypertension, no previous diagnosis of heart failure, previous diagnosis of peripheral artery disease or stroke, obesity, and no lipid-lowering treatment. Determinants of poor LDL cholesterol control were no lipid-lowering treatment, no previous diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, no antihypertensive treatment, and dyslipidemia. The factors affecting blood pressure control were different from those affecting LDL cholesterol control, an observation that should be taken into account when implementing treatment recommendations for achieving therapeutic objectives in secondary prevention. PMID:18361907

  10. [Factors affecting the control of blood pressure and lipid levels in patients with cardiovascular disease: the PREseAP Study].

    PubMed

    Orozco-Beltrán, Domingo; Brotons, Carlos; Moral, Irene; Soriano, Nuria; Del Valle, María A; Rodríguez, Ana I; Pepió, Josep M; Pastor, Ana

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this observational study was to identify factors influencing the control of blood pressure (i.e., <140/90 mmHg, or <130/80 mmHg in diabetic patients) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level (<100 mg/dL) in 1223 patients with cardiovascular disease. Overall, 70.2% of patients were men, and their mean age was 66.4 years. Blood pressure was poorly controlled in 50.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 46.9%-54.8%) and the LDL cholesterol level was poorly controlled in 60.1% (95% CI, 56.3%-63.9%). Determinants of poor blood pressure control were diabetes, hypertension, no previous diagnosis of heart failure, previous diagnosis of peripheral artery disease or stroke, obesity, and no lipid-lowering treatment. Determinants of poor LDL cholesterol control were no lipid-lowering treatment, no previous diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, no antihypertensive treatment, and dyslipidemia. The factors affecting blood pressure control were different from those affecting LDL cholesterol control, an observation that should be taken into account when implementing treatment recommendations for achieving therapeutic objectives in secondary prevention.

  11. Determination of ticarcillin levels in serum by high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Shull, V H; Dick, J D

    1985-01-01

    A high-pressure liquid chromatographic method for determining the concentrations of ticarcillin in serum was developed and compared, with 93 patient sera, to a standard agar well diffusion bioassay. For analysis, serum plus temocillin, the internal standard, were extracted with chloroform-n-amyl alcohol and back extracted into phosphate buffer. A reverse-phase C18 column and an ammonium acetate-methanol mobile phase were used with detection at 242 nm. Reproducibility studies yielded coefficients of variation ranging from 2.4 to 4.7% for low, mid, and high controls. Although cefoxitin, cephalothin, and cefuroxime exhibited retention similar to that of ticarcillin, a wide range of commonly administered antibiotics and other drugs did not interfere. The high-pressure liquid chromatographic assay is an accurate, reproducible method for determining the concentration of ticarcillin in serum during multiple antibiotic therapy or when rapid results are required. PMID:4091524

  12. Comparison of measured and calculated sound pressure levels around a large horizontal axis wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Willshire, William L., Jr.; Hubbard, Harvey H.

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from a large number of simultaneous acoustic measurements around a large horizontal axis downwind configuration wind turbine generator. In addition, comparisons are made between measurements and calculations of both the discrete frequency rotational harmonics and the broad band noise components. Sound pressure time histories and noise radiation patterns as well as narrow band and broadband noise spectra are presented for a range of operating conditions. The data are useful for purposes of environmental impact assessment.

  13. Hypertension`s lead connection: Does low-level exposure to lead cause high blood pressure?

    SciTech Connect

    Fackelmann, K.

    1996-06-15

    {open_quotes}Paying for the sins of the past.{close_quotes} is how researcher Howard Hu describes a proposed disease process in which lead stored for decades in the skeleton puts people at risk of high blood pressure. Previous research has linked this silvery white, poisonous metal to a host of ill effects in children, including learning disabilities, behavior problems, and brain damage. Now, Hu`s study indicates that past exposure may be causing today`s high blood pressure. If he`s right, the public health impact would be significant. {open_quotes}Tens of millions of Americans have been exposed over the years to lead,{close_quotes} says Philip J. Landrigan of Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York. {open_quotes}Adults today grew up at a time when we were still putting several hundred thousand tons of lead into gasoline each year.{close_quotes} Indeed, the men who developed high blood pressure during the recent study had in their bones lead concentrations, or lead burdens, that came from decades of everyday exposure. Such exposures resulted principally from breathing in fumes from leaded gasoline, drinking tap water from lead pipes or pipes soldered with lead, and inhaling or ingesting lead-laced paint dust or chips. This article goes on to discuss other studies and questions which still need to be answered.

  14. PROPOSAL OF PREDICTIVE EQUATIONS FOR THE SOUND PRESSURE SPECTRUM LEVEL OF THE BLAST NOISE IN THE TUNNEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Shigeki; Kakigi, Hiroya; Shinji, Masato

    The noise reduction effect of a sound insulation door installed in a tunnel under construction can be analyzed practically by the numerical analysis using the SEA method. However there was a problem that the prediction analysis is quite difficult at the planning stage because there was not the predictive technique of the sound pressure spectrum level(SPSL) of blast noise to be necessary as input data. In this Study, We analyzed relationship between gunpowder quantity and frequency domain damping characteristic of the sound pressure level in the tunnel based on field measurement results. And based on this analysis, we propose a predictive equation for the SPSL of the blast noise in the tunnel, and discuss its applicability.

  15. Investigation of the Sound Pressure Level (SPL) of earphones during music listening with the use of physical ear canal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aying, K. P.; Otadoy, R. E.; Violanda, R.

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates on the sound pressure level (SPL) of insert-type earphones that are commonly used for music listening of the general populace. Measurements of SPL from earphones of different respondents were measured by plugging the earphone to a physical ear canal model. Durations of the earphone used for music listening were also gathered through short interviews. Results show that 21% of the respondents exceed the standard loudness/duration relation recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO).

  16. Measuring Fluctuating Pressure Levels and Vibration Response in a Jet Plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osterholt, Douglas J.; Knox, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    The characterization of loads due to solid rocket motor plume impingement allows for moreaccurate analyses of components subjected to such an environment. Typically, test verification of predicted loads due to these conditions is widely overlooked or unsuccessful. ATA Engineering, Inc., performed testing during a solid rocket motor firing to obtain acceleration and pressure responses in the hydrodynamic field surrounding the jet plume. The test environment necessitated a robust design to facilitate measurements being made in close proximity to the jet plume. This paper presents the process of designing a test fixture and an instrumentation package that could withstand the solid rocket plume environment and protect the required instrumentation.

  17. The application of high-pressure treatment in the reduction of salt levels in reduced-phosphate breakfast sausages.

    PubMed

    O'Flynn, Claire C; Cruz-Romero, Malco C; Troy, Declan; Mullen, Anne M; Kerry, Joe P

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of high pressure (HP) treatment of pork meat before manufacturing sausages with reduced salt levels and compared them to sausages manufactured with untreated meat (control sausages). A 2×5 factorial design was set up incorporating two pressure levels (0 or 150 MPa) and five salt levels (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5%). Most quality attributes were affected when salt levels were reduced below 1.5%. Fat loss (FL) was (P<0.05) affected by salt level; samples with <1.5% salt had the highest FL. HP treatment increased emulsion stability and reduced cook loss (CL) compared to control sausages. Increased CL was observed when salt was reduced below 2.0%. Salt reduction below 1.5% adversely affected colour, sensory and texture attributes. Independent of salt, HP treatment affected adversely juiciness and cohesiveness while adhesiveness was improved. Overall, there is potential to manufacture sausages maintaining organoleptic and functional properties traditionally associated with sausages using HP treated meat. PMID:24334049

  18. The shift of optical band gap in W-doped ZnO with oxygen pressure and doping level

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, J.; Peng, X.Y.; Dasari, K.; Palai, R.; Feng, P.

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • CVD–PLD co-deposition technique was used. • Better crystalline of the ZnO samples causes the redshift of the optical band gap. • Higher W concentration induces blueshift of the optical band gap. - Abstract: Tungsten-doped (W-doped) zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were synthesized on quartz substrates by pulsed laser and hot filament chemical vapor co-deposition technique under different oxygen pressures and doping levels. We studied in detail the morphological, structural and optical properties of W-doped ZnO by SEM, XPS, Raman scattering, and optical transmission spectra. A close correlation among the oxygen pressure, morphology, W concentrations and the variation of band gaps were investigated. XPS and Raman measurements show that the sample grown under the oxygen pressure of 2.7 Pa has the maximum tungsten concentration and best crystalline structure, which induces the redshift of the optical band gap. The effect of W concentration on the change of morphology and shift of optical band gap was also studied for the samples grown under the fixed oxygen pressure of 2.7 Pa.

  19. Analysis of ground tests of a microwave, earth-occultation, pressure-reference-level system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, S. G.; Lusignan, B. B.

    1973-01-01

    A two-satellite, microwave, earth-occultation system can supplement an infrared sensor by providing an accurate altitude reference that will serve to fix, as a function of height, the derived temperature profile of the infrared sounder. The results of ground tests made in Hawaii to estimate the likely effects of scintillation and fading on an occultation system are described. It was found that the microwave signal suffered periods of intense fading; extensive computer analyses of the data were performed in which aircraft-generated refractivity profiles were subjected to ray tracing. Results of these analyses indicate that the probable cause of the observed fading was multipath, a low-altitude phenomenon usually attributed to water vapor inhomogeneities. It is maintained that multipath will therefore have minimal effect on the pressure-reference microwave occultation system, which would operate at a relatively high closest-approach altitude (about 8 km).

  20. Leg raise increases pressure in lower and upper esophageal sphincter among patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Bitnar, P; Stovicek, J; Andel, R; Arlt, J; Arltova, M; Smejkal, M; Kolar, P; Kobesova, A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between posturally increased intra-abdominal pressure and lower/upper esophageal sphincter pressure changes in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. We used high resolution manometry to measure pressure changes in lower and upper esophageal sphincter during bilateral leg rise. We also examined whether the rate of lower and upper esophageal sphincter pressure would increase during leg raise differentially in individuals with versus without normal resting pressure. Fifty eight patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease participated in the study. High resolution manometry was performed in relaxed supine position, then lower and upper esophageal sphincter pressure was measured. Finally, the subjects were instructed to keep their legs lifted while performing 90-degree flexion at the hips and knees and the pressure was measured again. Paired t-test and independent samples t-test were used. There was a significant increase in both lower (P < 0.001) and upper esophageal sphincter pressure (P = 0.034) during leg raise compared to the initial resting position. Individuals with initially higher pressure in lower esophageal sphincter (>10 mmHg) exhibited a greater pressure increase during leg raise than those with initially lower pressure (pressure ≤10 mmHg; P = 0.002). Similarly individuals with higher resting upper esophageal sphincter pressure (>44 mmHg) showed a greater pressure increase during leg raise than those with lower resting pressure (≤44 mmHg; P < 0.001). The results illustrate the influence of postural leg activities on intraesophageal pressure in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, indicating by means of high resolution manometry that diaphragmatic postural and sphincter function are likely interrelated in this population. PMID:27634073

  1. Leg raise increases pressure in lower and upper esophageal sphincter among patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Bitnar, P; Stovicek, J; Andel, R; Arlt, J; Arltova, M; Smejkal, M; Kolar, P; Kobesova, A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between posturally increased intra-abdominal pressure and lower/upper esophageal sphincter pressure changes in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. We used high resolution manometry to measure pressure changes in lower and upper esophageal sphincter during bilateral leg rise. We also examined whether the rate of lower and upper esophageal sphincter pressure would increase during leg raise differentially in individuals with versus without normal resting pressure. Fifty eight patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease participated in the study. High resolution manometry was performed in relaxed supine position, then lower and upper esophageal sphincter pressure was measured. Finally, the subjects were instructed to keep their legs lifted while performing 90-degree flexion at the hips and knees and the pressure was measured again. Paired t-test and independent samples t-test were used. There was a significant increase in both lower (P < 0.001) and upper esophageal sphincter pressure (P = 0.034) during leg raise compared to the initial resting position. Individuals with initially higher pressure in lower esophageal sphincter (>10 mmHg) exhibited a greater pressure increase during leg raise than those with initially lower pressure (pressure ≤10 mmHg; P = 0.002). Similarly individuals with higher resting upper esophageal sphincter pressure (>44 mmHg) showed a greater pressure increase during leg raise than those with lower resting pressure (≤44 mmHg; P < 0.001). The results illustrate the influence of postural leg activities on intraesophageal pressure in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, indicating by means of high resolution manometry that diaphragmatic postural and sphincter function are likely interrelated in this population.

  2. Effect of Reynolds number, turbulence level and periodic wake flow on heat transfer on low pressure turbine blades.

    PubMed

    Suslov, D; Schulz, A; Wittig, S

    2001-05-01

    The development of effective cooling methods is of major importance for the design of new gas turbines blades. The conception of optimal cooling schemes requires a detailed knowledge of the heat transfer processes on the blade's surfaces. The thermal load of turbine blades is predominantly determined by convective heat transfer which is described by the local heat transfer coefficient. Heat transfer is closely related to the boundary layer development along the blade surface and hence depends on various flow conditions and geometrical parameters. Particularly Reynolds number, pressures gradient and turbulence level have great impact on the boundary layer development and the according heat transfer. Therefore, in the present study, the influence of Reynolds number, turbulence intensity, and periodic unsteady inflow on the local heat transfer of a typical low pressure turbine airfoil is experimentally examined in a plane cascade.

  3. Effect of grip type, wrist motion, and resistance level on pressures within the carpal tunnel of normal wrists.

    PubMed

    McGorry, Raymond W; Fallentin, Nils; Andersen, Johan H; Keir, Peter J; Hansen, Torben B; Pransky, Glenn; Lin, Jia-Hua

    2014-04-01

    Elevated carpal tunnel pressure (CTP) has been associated with carpal tunnel syndrome. This study systematically evaluated the effect of wrist motion resistance and grip type on CTP during wrist motion typical of occupational tasks. CTP during four wrist motion patterns, with and without resistance, and with and without gripping, was measured in vivo in 14 healthy individuals. CTP measured during compound motions fell between that measured in the cardinal planes of wrist flexion/extension and radial/ulnar deviation. Generally, with no active gripping there was little pressure change due to wrist angular displacement or resistance level. However, concurrent active pinch or power grip increased CTP particularly in motions including extension. CTP typically did not increase during wrist flexion, and in fact often decreased. Extension motions against resistance when employing a pinch or power grip increase CTP more than motions with flexion. Results could help inform design or modification of wrist motion intensive occupational tasks. © 2014 The Authors.

  4. Effect of Reynolds number, turbulence level and periodic wake flow on heat transfer on low pressure turbine blades.

    PubMed

    Suslov, D; Schulz, A; Wittig, S

    2001-05-01

    The development of effective cooling methods is of major importance for the design of new gas turbines blades. The conception of optimal cooling schemes requires a detailed knowledge of the heat transfer processes on the blade's surfaces. The thermal load of turbine blades is predominantly determined by convective heat transfer which is described by the local heat transfer coefficient. Heat transfer is closely related to the boundary layer development along the blade surface and hence depends on various flow conditions and geometrical parameters. Particularly Reynolds number, pressures gradient and turbulence level have great impact on the boundary layer development and the according heat transfer. Therefore, in the present study, the influence of Reynolds number, turbulence intensity, and periodic unsteady inflow on the local heat transfer of a typical low pressure turbine airfoil is experimentally examined in a plane cascade. PMID:11460633

  5. A global historical Radiosondes and Tracked Balloons Archive on standard pressure levels back to the 1920s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramella Pralungo, L.; Haimberger, L.; Stickler, A.; Brönnimann, S.

    2013-12-01

    Long observed time series of climate state quantities are needed to extend our understanding of global weather, climate variability and monitoring not only at the Earths surface but also the free atmosphere, since climate anomalies and climate change have a three-dimensional spatial structure. Radiosonde data before 1958 and tracked balloon (PILOT) data are rarely available at standard times on standard pressure levels, which complicates their use for climate studies. This paper describes an upper air dataset on standard pressure levels at 00:00 GMT and 12:00 GMT for parameters temperature and wind. The input data sources of this dataset are the Comprehensive Historical Upper Air Network (CHUAN version 1.7), the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) and upper air observations from the reanalysis datasets ERA-40 and ERA-Interim. As such it contains many data that have been digitized and collected in the EU FP7 project ERA-CLIM. Those data, which partly exist at asynoptic times and on altitude levels instead of pressure levels, have been brought to synoptic times and standard pressure levels using state of the art interpolation techniques, employing geopotential information National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration (NOAA) 20th Century Reanalysis (NOAA 20CR) to aid the interpolation. The standardized time series have been merged if necessary, taking care that the data are traceable back to their original sources. Only time series longer than 300 days have been saved in the merged archive, since the main purpose of this dataset is to aid climatological studies. If possible WMO numbers have been given to the station records. For some records which have never been identified by a WMO number, a local ID above 100 000 has been attached. This paper describes the merging procedure, data count and data quality and how traceability of the data is ensured. It does not describe a homogenization procedure for both temperature and wind data. Homogeneity adjustments for

  6. Relation between the serum albumin level and nutrition supply in patients with pressure ulcers: retrospective study in an acute care setting.

    PubMed

    Sugino, Hirotaka; Hashimoto, Ichiro; Tanaka, Yuka; Ishida, Soshi; Abe, Yoshiro; Nakanishi, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective study examined the validity of the commonly used serum albumin level as an indicator of nutrition status of patients with pressure ulcer(s), particularly because the serum albumin level is affected by various factors and may not be specific to malnutrition. Specifically, we investigated whether nutrition supply or inflammation affects the serum albumin level in 82 patients with pressure ulcers(s) (29 in whom pressure ulcer was present upon admission and 53 in whom pressure ulcer developed after hospital admission). Serum albumin levels, blood test including C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and blood count, caloric intake, and depth and healing of pressure ulcers were compared between various subgroups of patients. Serum albumin levels correlated with red blood cell counts and hemoglobin and CRP levels but not with caloric intake. The correlation with CRP before and after several weeks of pressure ulcer treatment was negative. The serum albumin level upon admission was higher in patients in whom the ulcer healed than in those in whom it did not heal as well as in patients who were discharged than in those who died in the hospital. The serum albumin level appears to reflect inflammation, wound healing, and disease severity rather than nutrition supply in patients with pressure ulcer. J. Med. Invest. 61: 15-21, February, 2014.

  7. High potassium intake blunts the effect of elevated sodium intake on blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Sérgio Lamêgo; Baldo, Marcelo Perim; Machado, Rebeca Caldeira; Forechi, Ludimila; Molina, Maria del Carmem Bisi; Mill, José Geraldo

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary potassium on the sodium effect on blood pressure (BP) in the general population and the adherence of current recommendations for sodium and potassium intake. An overnight (12-hour) urine sample was collected in a population-based study to investigate cardiovascular risk. A sub-sample of 1285 subjects (age range, 25-64 years) free from any medication interfering with BP or potassium excretion was studied. Of the participants, 86.0% consumed over 6 g of salt/day and 87.7% less than the recommended intake of potassium (4.7 g). Potassium excretion and the sodium to potassium ratio were significantly related to systolic and diastolic BP only in subjects consuming more than 6 g/day of salt. Subjects in the highest sodium to potassium ratio quartile (surrogate of unhealthy diet) presented 8 mm Hg and 7 mm Hg higher values of systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, when compared with the first quartile, while individuals in the fourth quartile of urinary potassium excretion (healthier diet) showed 6 mm Hg and 4 mm Hg lower systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, compared with the first quartile. Our data indicate that when people have an increased intake of potassium, high intake of sodium is not associated with higher BP.

  8. Enterprise-Level Motivations, Regulatory Pressures, and Corporate Environmental Management in Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shui-Yan; Li, Pansy Honying; Fryxell, Gerald E.; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the effects of internal motivations and external pressures on the integration of environmental management (EM) practices within manufacturing operations in China. The moderating role of perceptions toward the regulatory process is also considered along with comparisons between wholly Chinese-owned and foreign-owned enterprises. From a sample of 131 manufacturing companies in the Guangzhou area, it was found that the salience of fees and fines has a strong positive influence on perceptions toward the regulator (the local Environmental Protection Bureau, EPB). This also has a positive effect on perceptions toward regulations themselves for foreign-owned enterprises. Business-case motivations for EM positively shape enterprise perceptions toward regulations, whereas risk-reduction motivations have a negative effect on perceptions toward regulations in foreign-owned enterprises. Enterprise perceptions toward the regulatory process have direct effects on the integration of EM practices in wholly Chinese-owned enterprises, but in opposite directions. While positive perceptions toward regulations have positive influence, positive perceptions toward regulators (i.e., the EPB) negatively affect it. Overall, these results indicated that promoting the adoption of EM practices depends on convincing business leaders that EM practices contribute to profit making. The regulatory process can potentially promote these practices, but measures need to be taken to ensure that the regulator is not co-opted by the regulated, especially in wholly Chinese-owned enterprises.

  9. So small, so loud: extremely high sound pressure level from a pygmy aquatic insect (Corixidae, Micronectinae).

    PubMed

    Sueur, Jérôme; Mackie, David; Windmill, James F C

    2011-01-01

    To communicate at long range, animals have to produce intense but intelligible signals. This task might be difficult to achieve due to mechanical constraints, in particular relating to body size. Whilst the acoustic behaviour of large marine and terrestrial animals has been thoroughly studied, very little is known about the sound produced by small arthropods living in freshwater habitats. Here we analyse for the first time the calling song produced by the male of a small insect, the water boatman Micronecta scholtzi. The song is made of three distinct parts differing in their temporal and amplitude parameters, but not in their frequency content. Sound is produced at 78.9 (63.6-82.2) SPL rms re 2.10(-5) Pa with a peak at 99.2 (85.7-104.6) SPL re 2.10(-5) Pa estimated at a distance of one metre. This energy output is significant considering the small size of the insect. When scaled to body length and compared to 227 other acoustic species, the acoustic energy produced by M. scholtzi appears as an extreme value, outperforming marine and terrestrial mammal vocalisations. Such an extreme display may be interpreted as an exaggerated secondary sexual trait resulting from a runaway sexual selection without predation pressure.

  10. The blood pressure effect and related plasma levels of flavan-3-ols in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Quiñones, Mar; Margalef, Maria; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Muguerza, Begoña; Miguel, Marta; Aleixandre, Amaya

    2015-11-01

    We studied the short-term antihypertensive effect of flavan-3-ols (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin and (-)-catechin, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Plasma metabolites and the corresponding plasma antioxidant capacity were determined. All the assayed flavan-3-ols decreased systolic blood pressure (SBP) in SHR. Their antihypertensive effects were less pronounced than that of Captopril (50 mg kg(-1)) and were not shown in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. 6 mg kg(-1) (-)-epicatechin caused the maximum decrease in SBP. The maximum effects of the catechin monomers were observed post-administration of 0.5 mg kg(-1) of flavan-3-ols, (-)-catechin being the least effective among the three assayed compounds. Glucuronide and methyl glucuronide metabolites were obtained in the flavan-3-ol treated SHR, but it was not possible to relate the antihypertensive effect of the assayed flavan-3-ols with a concrete plasma metabolite or with their antioxidant effect. In conclusion, the studied flavan-3-ols could be responsible for the antihypertensive effect of cocoa products. PMID:26294331

  11. Enterprise-Level Motivations, Regulatory Pressures, and Corporate Environmental Management in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shui-Yan; Li, Pansy Honying; Fryxell, Gerald E; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the effects of internal motivations and external pressures on the integration of environmental management (EM) practices within manufacturing operations in China. The moderating role of perceptions toward the regulatory process is also considered along with comparisons between wholly Chinese-owned and foreign-owned enterprises. From a sample of 131 manufacturing companies in the Guangzhou area, it was found that the salience of fees and fines has a strong positive influence on perceptions toward the regulator (the local Environmental Protection Bureau, EPB). This also has a positive effect on perceptions toward regulations themselves for foreign-owned enterprises. Business-case motivations for EM positively shape enterprise perceptions toward regulations, whereas risk-reduction motivations have a negative effect on perceptions toward regulations in foreign-owned enterprises. Enterprise perceptions toward the regulatory process have direct effects on the integration of EM practices in wholly Chinese-owned enterprises, but in opposite directions. While positive perceptions toward regulations have positive influence, positive perceptions toward regulators (i.e., the EPB) negatively affect it. Overall, these results indicated that promoting the adoption of EM practices depends on convincing business leaders that EM practices contribute to profit making. The regulatory process can potentially promote these practices, but measures need to be taken to ensure that the regulator is not co-opted by the regulated, especially in wholly Chinese-owned enterprises.

  12. Enterprise-Level Motivations, Regulatory Pressures, and Corporate Environmental Management in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shui-Yan; Li, Pansy Honying; Fryxell, Gerald E; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the effects of internal motivations and external pressures on the integration of environmental management (EM) practices within manufacturing operations in China. The moderating role of perceptions toward the regulatory process is also considered along with comparisons between wholly Chinese-owned and foreign-owned enterprises. From a sample of 131 manufacturing companies in the Guangzhou area, it was found that the salience of fees and fines has a strong positive influence on perceptions toward the regulator (the local Environmental Protection Bureau, EPB). This also has a positive effect on perceptions toward regulations themselves for foreign-owned enterprises. Business-case motivations for EM positively shape enterprise perceptions toward regulations, whereas risk-reduction motivations have a negative effect on perceptions toward regulations in foreign-owned enterprises. Enterprise perceptions toward the regulatory process have direct effects on the integration of EM practices in wholly Chinese-owned enterprises, but in opposite directions. While positive perceptions toward regulations have positive influence, positive perceptions toward regulators (i.e., the EPB) negatively affect it. Overall, these results indicated that promoting the adoption of EM practices depends on convincing business leaders that EM practices contribute to profit making. The regulatory process can potentially promote these practices, but measures need to be taken to ensure that the regulator is not co-opted by the regulated, especially in wholly Chinese-owned enterprises. PMID:25948155

  13. Research on Earth's rotation and the effect of atmospheric pressure on vertical deformation and sea level variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahr, John

    1993-01-01

    The work done under NASA grant NAG5-485 included modelling the deformation of the earth caused by variations in atmospheric pressure. The amount of deformation near coasts is sensitive to the nature of the oceanic response to the pressure. The PSMSL (Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level) data suggest the response is inverted barometer at periods greater than a couple months. Green's functions were constructed to describe the perturbation of the geoid caused by atmospheric and oceanic loading and by the accompanying load-induced deformation. It was found that perturbation of up to 2 cm are possible. Ice mass balance data was used for continental glaciers to look at the glacial contributions to time-dependent changes in polar motion, the lod, the earth's gravitational field, the position of the earth's center-of-mass, and global sea level. It was found that there can be lateral, non-hydrostatic structure inside the fluid core caused by gravitational forcing from the mantle, from the inner core, or from topography at the core/mantle or inner core/outer core boundaries. The nutational and tidal response of a non-hydrostatic earth with a solid inner core was modeled. Monthly, global tide gauge data from PSMSL was used to look at the 18.6-year ocean tide, the 14-month pole tide, the oceanic response to pressure, the linear trend and inter-annual variability in the earth's gravity field, the global sea level rise, and the effects of post glacial rebound. The effects of mantle anelasticity on nutations, earth tides, and tidal variation in the lod was modeled. Results of this model can be used with Crustal Dynamics observations to look at the anelastic dissipation and dispersion at tidal periods. The effects of surface topography on various components of crustal deformation was also modeled, and numerical models were developed of post glacial rebound.

  14. Research on Earth's rotation and the effect of atmospheric pressure on vertical deformation and sea level variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahr, John

    1993-03-01

    The work done under NASA grant NAG5-485 included modelling the deformation of the earth caused by variations in atmospheric pressure. The amount of deformation near coasts is sensitive to the nature of the oceanic response to the pressure. The PSMSL (Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level) data suggest the response is inverted barometer at periods greater than a couple months. Green's functions were constructed to describe the perturbation of the geoid caused by atmospheric and oceanic loading and by the accompanying load-induced deformation. It was found that perturbation of up to 2 cm are possible. Ice mass balance data was used for continental glaciers to look at the glacial contributions to time-dependent changes in polar motion, the lod, the earth's gravitational field, the position of the earth's center-of-mass, and global sea level. It was found that there can be lateral, non-hydrostatic structure inside the fluid core caused by gravitational forcing from the mantle, from the inner core, or from topography at the core/mantle or inner core/outer core boundaries. The nutational and tidal response of a non-hydrostatic earth with a solid inner core was modeled. Monthly, global tide gauge data from PSMSL was used to look at the 18.6-year ocean tide, the 14-month pole tide, the oceanic response to pressure, the linear trend and inter-annual variability in the earth's gravity field, the global sea level rise, and the effects of post glacial rebound. The effects of mantle anelasticity on nutations, earth tides, and tidal variation in the lod was modeled. Results of this model can be used with Crustal Dynamics observations to look at the anelastic dissipation and dispersion at tidal periods. The effects of surface topography on various components of crustal deformation was also modeled, and numerical models were developed of post glacial rebound.

  15. Mercury vapor pressure of flue gas desulfurization scrubber suspensions: effects of pH level, gypsum, and iron.

    PubMed

    Schuetze, Jan; Kunth, Daniel; Weissbach, Sven; Koeser, Heinz

    2012-03-01

    Calcium-based scrubbers designed to absorb HCl and SO(2) from flue gases can also remove oxidized mercury. Dissolved mercury halides may have an appreciable partial vapor pressure. Chemical reduction of the dissolved mercury may increase the Hg emission, thereby limiting the coremoval of mercury in the wet scrubbing process. In this paper we evaluate the effects of the pH level, different gypsum qualities, and iron in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber suspensions. The impact of these parameters on mercury vapor pressure was studied under controlled laboratory conditions in model scrubber suspensions. A major influence is exerted by pH values above 7, considerably amplifying the mercury concentration in the vapor phase above the FGD scrubber suspension. Gypsum also increases the mercury re-emission. Fe(III) decreases and Fe(II) increases the vapor pressure significantly. The consequences of the findings for a reliable coremoval of mercury in FGD scrubbers are discussed. It is shown that there is an increased risk of poor mercury capture in lime-based FGD scrubbers in comparison to limestone FGD scrubbers.

  16. Association between maternal diet factors and hemoglobin levels, glucose tolerance, blood pressure and gestational age in a Hispanic population.

    PubMed

    Soto, Roxana; Guilloty, Natacha; Anzalota, Liza; Rosario, Zaira; Cordero, José F; Palacios, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the dietary patterns of pregnant women in northern Puerto Rico and explore associations between diet factors with pregnancy related measurements. This analysis is based on the Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats (PROTECT), a prospective cohort that is studying environmental risk factors for preterm births in PR. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) around 20-28 weeks of gestation. The following pregnancy related measures were collected from the medical records: hemoglobin, blood glucose, blood pressure and gestational age. Potential associations between diet factors and pregnancy measures were assessed using chi square analysis with SPSS. A total of 180 participants completed the FFQ; low hemoglobin levels was found in 19.2%, high blood glucose levels was found in 21.1% by fasting blood glucose test and 24.6%by 1-hour 50 g oral glucose screening test, high blood pressure was found in 2.9% (systolic) and 6.5% (diastolic), and pre-term birth was found in 10.4% of the participants. High consumption of rice, desserts and sweets was associated with higher levels of fasting blood glucose levels (p < 0.05), while high consumption of vegetables was associated with higher 1-hour glucose challenge test (p < 0.05).No other significant associations were found. In conclusion, consumption of high dense energy food diets in pregnancy, such as rice, sweets and desserts, can lead to high levels of blood glucose and can be a potential predictor of other pregnancy complications during pregnancy in these study participants, such as gestational diabetes. PMID:26817380

  17. Exposure to classroom sound pressure level among dance teachers in Porto Alegre (RS)

    PubMed Central

    Nehring, Cristiane; Bauer, Magda Aline; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Dance teachers are exposed to high sound intensities. Aim: To verify the sound intensity of music used by dance teachers during classes. Method: This was a transversal and prospective study. Dance teachers were evaluated with a sociodemographic questionnaire, and sound intensity level measurements were taken at the beginning, middle, and end of dance classes. Results: The sample comprised 35 teachers (average age, 31.8 years). The duration of their career as dance teachers was 1–37 years; they worked daily for approximately 1–10 h. Among the classes followed, there were 15 (42.85%) classical ballet classes, 4 (11.42%) tap dancing lessons, 5 (14.28%) jazz dance classes, 2 (5.71) Arab dance lessons, 6 (17.14%) street dance classes, and 3 (8.57%) ballroom dancing lessons. The average values observed at the beginning, middle, and end of the classes were 80.91 dB (A), 83.22 dB (A), and 85.19 dB (A), respectively. The music played in the street dance classes exposed teachers to the highest sound intensity. Conclusion: The average level of sound intensity of the dance classes in this study was either below or equal to the limit considered harmful for hearing health. Analysis of different class types showed that the sound densities of street, ballroom, and tap dance classes were above the recommended limits. PMID:25991989

  18. Decreasing arterial aging by controlling blood pressure levels and hypertension: a step forward.

    PubMed

    Scuteri, Angelo; Cunha, Pedro Guimarães

    2012-11-01

    Arterial aging, characterized by arterial stiffening that is clinically evaluable as aortic pulse wave velocity, is risky for CV events, disability, and loss of cognitive function. Today the only adopted strategy to decrease arterial aging/ arterial stiffness is represented by decreasing BP. Selective antihypertensive drug classes (calcium channel blockers, converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonists) showed a beneficial effect on the arterial wall and on both large and small arteries over and above the reduction in BP levels. Still, the lower the better paradigm seems only to expose older subjects to higher rate of side effects, that via hypotension result in even transient organ hypoperfusion. This vicious circle may be particularly detrimental for cerebral district and, thus, for cognitive impairment onset and progression until dementia.

  19. Attenuation of peak sound pressure levels of shooting noise by hearing protective earmuffs.

    PubMed

    Lenzuni, Paolo; Sangiorgi, Tommaso; Cerini, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Transmission losses (TL) to highly impulsive signals generated by three firearms have been measured for two ear muffs, using both a head and torso simulator and a miniature microphone located at the ear canal entrance (MIRE technique). Peak SPL TL have been found to be well approximated by 40 ms short-L eq TL. This has allowed the use of transmissibilities and correction factors for bone conduction and physiological masking appropriate for continuous noise, for the calculation of REAT-type peak insertion losses (IL). Results indicate that peak IL can be well predicted by estimates based on one-third octave band 40 ms short L eq and manufacturer-declared (nominal) IL measured for continuous noise according to test standards. Such predictions tend to be more accurate at the high end of the range, while they are less reliable when the attenuation is lower. A user-friendly simplified prediction algorithm has also been developed, which only requires nominal IL and one-third octave sound exposure level spectra. Separate predictions are possible for IL in direct and diffuse sound fields, albeit with higher uncertainties, due to the smaller number of experimental data comprising the two separate datasets on which such predictions are based.

  20. Association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and hypertension subtypes in untreated Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang-Fei; Li, Yan; Zhang, Lu; Xu, Ting-Yan; Ding, Feng-Hua; Staessen, Jan A; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2014-02-01

    The association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and ambulatory hypertension subtypes has not yet been examined in untreated Chinese patients. We measured left ventricular mass index by echocardiography (n=619), the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (n=1047), and aortic pulse wave velocity by tonometry (n=1013) in 1047 untreated subjects (mean age, 50.6 years; 48.9% women). Normotension was a 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure <130/<80 mm Hg. Hypertension subtypes were isolated diastolic hypertension and mixed systolic plus diastolic hypertension. We assessed associations of interest by multivariable-adjusted linear models. Using normotension as reference, mixed hypertension was associated with higher (P≤0.003) left ventricular mass index (+4.31 g/m(2)), urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.63 mg/mmol), and pulse wave velocity (+0.76 m/s); and isolated diastolic hypertension was associated with similar left ventricular mass index and pulse wave velocity (P≥0.39), but higher urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.24 mg/mmol; P=0.002). In younger participants (<55 years), the mutually independent effect sizes associated with 1 SD increases in 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure were +3.31/-0.36 g/m(2) (P=0.009/0.79) for left ventricular mass index, +1.15/+1.14 mg/mmol (P=0.02/0.04) for the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, and +0.54/-0.05 m/s (P<0.001/0.54) for pulse wave velocity. In older participants, these estimates were +3.58/+0.30 g/m(2) (P=0.045/0.88), +1.23/+1.05 mg/mmol (P=0.002/0.54), and +0.76/-0.49 m/s (P<0.001/<0.001), respectively. In conclusion, 24-hour systolic blood pressure and mixed hypertension are major determinants of target organ damage irrespective of age and target organ, whereas 24-hour diastolic blood pressure and isolated diastolic hypertension only relate to the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio below middle age.

  1. Plasma ghrelin levels in healthy elderly volunteers: the levels of acylated ghrelin in elderly females correlate positively with serum IGF-I levels and bowel movement frequency and negatively with systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Akamizu, T; Murayama, T; Teramukai, S; Miura, K; Bando, I; Irako, T; Iwakura, H; Ariyasu, H; Hosoda, H; Tada, H; Matsuyama, A; Kojima, S; Wada, T; Wakatsuki, Y; Matsubayashi, K; Kawakita, T; Shimizu, A; Fukushima, M; Yokode, M; Kangawa, K

    2006-02-01

    Aging is associated with a decrease in growth hormone (GH) secretion, appetite and energy intake. As ghrelin stimulates both GH secretion and appetite, reductions in ghrelin levels may be involved in the reductions in GH secretion and appetite observed in the elderly. However, only preliminary studies have been performed on the role of ghrelin in elderly subjects. In this study, we sought to clarify the physiologic implications of the age-related alterations in ghrelin secretion by determining plasma ghrelin levels and other clinical parameters in healthy elderly subjects. Subjects were > or = 65 years old, corresponding to the SENIEUR protocol, had not had a resection of the upper gastrointestinal tract and had not been treated with hormones. One hundred and five volunteers (49 men and 56 women) were admitted to this study (73.4 +/- 6.3 years old). Plasma levels of acylated ghrelin in elderly female subjects positively correlated with serum IGF-I levels and bowel movement frequency and negatively with systolic blood pressure. In elderly men, desacyl ghrelin levels correlated only weakly with bowel movement frequency. These findings suggest that the plasma levels of the acylated form of ghrelin may influence the age-related alterations in GH/IGF-I regulation, blood pressure and bowel motility. These observational associations warrant further experimental studies to clarify the physiologic significance of these effects.

  2. MS2 Virus Inactivation by Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasma Using Different Gas Carriers and Power Levels

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yan; Liang, Yongdong; Wei, Kai; Li, Wei; Grinshpun, Sergey A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, airborne MS2 bacteriophages were exposed for subsecond time intervals to atmospheric-pressure cold plasma (APCP) produced using different power levels (20, 24, and 28 W) and gas carriers (ambient air, Ar-O2 [2%, vol/vol], and He-O2 [2%, vol/vol]). In addition, waterborne MS2 viruses were directly subjected to the APCP treatment for up to 3 min. MS2 viruses with and without the APCP exposure were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Viral inactivation was shown to exhibit linear relationships with the APCP generation power and exposure time (R2 > 0.95 for all energy levels tested) up to 95% inactivation (1.3-log reduction) after a subsecond airborne exposure at 28 W; about the same inactivation level was achieved for waterborne viruses with an exposure time of less than 1 min. A larger amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as atomic oxygen, in APCP was detected for a higher generation power with Ar-O2 and He-O2 gas carriers. SEM images, SDS-PAGE, and agarose gel analysis of exposed waterborne viruses showed various levels of damage to both surface proteins and their related RNA genes after the APCP exposure, thus leading to the loss of their viability and infectivity. PMID:25416775

  3. The influence of deformation height on estimating the center of pressure during level and cross-slope walking on sand.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hang; Wang, Yi; Greenland, Kasey; Bloswick, Donald; Merryweather, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    Force plates are frequently used to collect the ground reaction forces (GRF) and center of pressure (COP) during gait. The calculated COP is affected by the material type and thickness covering the top surface. If the surface is deformable, these effects can be significant. The purpose of this study is to simulate and evaluate the effects of deformation height when calculating the COP in a deformable surface during gait. The GRF and COP data during normal gait were collected from 20 healthy adult males on sand in two conditions (level and cross-slope of 10°). The COP differences in the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions were modeled for constant deformation heights (10-50 mm, 10 mm increments). The results showed the magnitude of COP changes in the AP and ML directions were different in both level and cross-slope conditions. A significantly larger COPML difference was shown for the cross-slope condition than level condition for the same deformation height. The COP was more sensitive to the deformation height for the downhill limb than uphill limb in the cross-slope condition. The results of this study suggest that the maximum allowable deformation height before a correction for surface deformation is needed is 20mm for level condition and 10mm for cross-slope condition, where 3mm difference in COP is considered as the tolerance limit. Surface deformations beyond these thresholds may lead to an inaccurate interpretation and evaluation of joint kinetics during gait on deformable surfaces.

  4. MS2 virus inactivation by atmospheric-pressure cold plasma using different gas carriers and power levels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Liang, Yongdong; Wei, Kai; Li, Wei; Yao, Maosheng; Zhang, Jue; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2015-02-01

    In this study, airborne MS2 bacteriophages were exposed for subsecond time intervals to atmospheric-pressure cold plasma (APCP) produced using different power levels (20, 24, and 28 W) and gas carriers (ambient air, Ar-O2 [2%, vol/vol], and He-O2 [2%, vol/vol]). In addition, waterborne MS2 viruses were directly subjected to the APCP treatment for up to 3 min. MS2 viruses with and without the APCP exposure were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Viral inactivation was shown to exhibit linear relationships with the APCP generation power and exposure time (R(2) > 0.95 for all energy levels tested) up to 95% inactivation (1.3-log reduction) after a subsecond airborne exposure at 28 W; about the same inactivation level was achieved for waterborne viruses with an exposure time of less than 1 min. A larger amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as atomic oxygen, in APCP was detected for a higher generation power with Ar-O2 and He-O2 gas carriers. SEM images, SDS-PAGE, and agarose gel analysis of exposed waterborne viruses showed various levels of damage to both surface proteins and their related RNA genes after the APCP exposure, thus leading to the loss of their viability and infectivity.

  5. The Activation Effects of Low Level Isopropyl Alcohol Exposure on Arterial Blood Pressures Are Associated with Decreased 5-Hydroxyindole Acetic Acid in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Liu, Xinxia; Xing, Xiumei; Lu, Yao; Sun, Yi; Ou, Xiaoyan; Su, Xiaolin; Jiang, Jun; Yang, Yarui; Chen, Jingli; Shen, Biling; He, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Purposes The objectives of this paper are to study the impact of low level isopropyl alcohol exposure on blood pressure and to explore its potential mechanism. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on a prospective occupational cohort in south China, which focusing on occupational risk factors related cardiovascular health problems. A total of 283 participants (200 low isopropyl alcohol exposed workers and 83 controls) was finally enrolled in this study. Linear regression models were used to analyze the relationship between arterial blood pressures and low level isopropyl alcohol exposure. We used mediation method to explore possible mediated roles of neurogenic factors. Results Systolic blood pressure (SBP, 123±10 vs. 118±11), diastolic blood pressure (DBP, 79±7 vs. 74±7) and mean blood pressure (MBP, 93±8 vs. 89±9) were different between the exposed group and the control group (p < 0.01). After adjusting for covariates, the difference was still significant. Besides, isopropyl alcohol and smoking had an interactive effect on DBP and MBP (p < 0.05). Furthermore, we observed a mediated effect of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) on isopropyl alcohol exposure induced arterial blood pressure increase, which accounted for about 25%. Conclusions Our results suggest that low level isopropyl alcohol exposure is a potential risk factor for the increased arterial blood pressure and 5-HIAA partly mediates the association between low level isopropyl alcohol exposure and arterial blood pressures. PMID:27622502

  6. Differences in Blood Pressure and Vascular Responses Associated with Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Exposures Measured at the Personal Versus Community Level

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Higher ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels can be associated with increased blood pressure and vascular dysfunction. Objectives To determine the differential effects on blood pressure and vascular function of daily changes in community ambient-...

  7. Fraction SX of maitake mushroom favorably influences blood glucose levels and blood pressure in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Preuss, Harry G; Echard, Bobby; Fu, Jia; Perricone, Nicholas V; Bagchi, Debasis; Kaylor, Mark; Zhuang, Cun

    2012-10-01

    We assessed whether fraction SX derived from maitake mushroom could play a beneficial role in the treatment of a laboratory model of type-1 diabetes by decreasing circulating glucose levels and lowering blood pressure (BP). We injected 50 mg/kg body weight (BW) streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneally (i.p.) into 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats (SD) to produce a laboratory model of type-1 diabetes. SD were divided into four groups of 12 SD. A control group ate straight pulverized rat chow. To three treatment groups, we added into the pulverized rat chow: gliclazide (10 mg/kg), pioglitazone (10-30 mg/kg), or maitake SX (2.5 g/kg). In addition to measuring BW, circulating glucose level, and BP, the following procedures were also carried out: insulin challenge (insulin sensitivity), losartan challenge (renin-angiotensin system activity), Nw-nitro-L arginine-methyl ester hydrochloride (LNAME) challenge (nitric oxide [NO] system activity), and evaluation of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity. All treatments compared with control generally decreased circulating glucose levels, but only the maitake SX consistently enhanced measured insulin sensitivity. We found that maitake SX could significantly lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) in diabetic SD. In general, only SD receiving maitake SX, not the two drugs, showed decreased activity of the renin-angiotensin system and increased NO system activity compared with control under the conditions examined. Our results suggest that maitake SX may be useful for treating perturbations in glucose-insulin metabolism and elevated BP in type-1 diabetes.

  8. Characterising multi-level effects of acute pressure exposure on a shallow-water invertebrate: insights into the kinetics and hierarchy of the stress response.

    PubMed

    Morris, James P; Thatje, Sven; Ravaux, Juliette; Shillito, Bruce; Hauton, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Hydrostatic pressure is an important, ubiquitous, environmental variable of particular relevance in the marine environment. However, it is widely overlooked despite recent evidence that some marine ectotherms may be demonstrating climate-driven bathymetric range shifts. Wide-ranging effects of increased hydrostatic pressure have been observed from the molecular through to the behavioural level. Still, no study has simultaneously examined these multiple levels of organisation in a single experiment in order to understand the kinetics, hierarchy and interconnected nature of such responses during an acute exposure, and over a subsequent recovery period. Here, we quantify the transcription of a set of previously characterised genes during and after acute pressure exposure in adults of the shrimp Palaemonetes varians. Further, we perform respiratory rate and behavioural analysis over the same period. Increases in expression of genes associated with stress and metabolism were observed during and after high-pressure exposure. Respiratory rate increased during exposure and into the recovery period. Finally, differential behaviour was observed under elevated hydrostatic pressure in comparison to ambient pressure. Characterising generalised responses to acute elevated pressure is a vital precursor to longer-term, acclimation-based pressure studies. Results provide a novel insight into what we term the overall stress response (OSR) to elevated pressure; a concept that we suggest to be applicable to other environmental stressors. We highlight the importance of considering more than a single component of the stress response in physiological studies, particularly in an era where environmental multi-stressor studies are proliferating.

  9. Dynamic Characteristics of Mechanical Ventilation System of Double Lungs with Bi-Level Positive Airway Pressure Model

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Dongkai; Zhang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    In recent studies on the dynamic characteristics of ventilation system, it was considered that human had only one lung, and the coupling effect of double lungs on the air flow can not be illustrated, which has been in regard to be vital to life support of patients. In this article, to illustrate coupling effect of double lungs on flow dynamics of mechanical ventilation system, a mathematical model of a mechanical ventilation system, which consists of double lungs and a bi-level positive airway pressure (BIPAP) controlled ventilator, was proposed. To verify the mathematical model, a prototype of BIPAP system with a double-lung simulators and a BIPAP ventilator was set up for experimental study. Lastly, the study on the influences of key parameters of BIPAP system on dynamic characteristics was carried out. The study can be referred to in the development of research on BIPAP ventilation treatment and real respiratory diagnostics.

  10. Dynamic Characteristics of Mechanical Ventilation System of Double Lungs with Bi-Level Positive Airway Pressure Model

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Dongkai; Zhang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    In recent studies on the dynamic characteristics of ventilation system, it was considered that human had only one lung, and the coupling effect of double lungs on the air flow can not be illustrated, which has been in regard to be vital to life support of patients. In this article, to illustrate coupling effect of double lungs on flow dynamics of mechanical ventilation system, a mathematical model of a mechanical ventilation system, which consists of double lungs and a bi-level positive airway pressure (BIPAP) controlled ventilator, was proposed. To verify the mathematical model, a prototype of BIPAP system with a double-lung simulators and a BIPAP ventilator was set up for experimental study. Lastly, the study on the influences of key parameters of BIPAP system on dynamic characteristics was carried out. The study can be referred to in the development of research on BIPAP ventilation treatment and real respiratory diagnostics. PMID:27660646

  11. November Dipole Anomaly in Northern Extratropical Sea Level Pressure and its Linkage to the Preceding Wintertime Arctic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y. W.; Ahn, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines the impact of the wintertime Arctic Oscillation (AO) on the following November circulation. The application of a set of statistical methods shows that a response of November sea level pressure (SLP) to the preceding wintertime AO operates on a hemispheric scale (Choi et al., 2015). At high and middle latitudes, this response is a well-pronounced seesaw in SLP between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. Winters of the positive AO polarity tend to be followed by positive SLP anomalies spanning the whole Northern Eurasia and negative SLP anomalies extending from the Bering Sea through the Western North Atlantic. Opposite SLP anomalies prevail after winters of the negative AO polarity. The response of November SLP to the preceding wintertime AO closely resembles the first empirical orthogonal function of November SLP. That is, the polarity of the wintertime AO precedes the polarity of the leading mode of variability of November SLP over the Northern Hemisphere. The wintertime AO exerts a 9-month lag impact on November circulation due to the re-emergence of a sea surface temperature anomaly over the western North Atlantic. Acknowledgements This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grant KMIPA 2015-2081 and Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under Grant Project No. PJ009353, Republic of Korea. Reference Choi, Y.-W., J.-B. Ahn, V. N. Kryjov, 2015. November seesaw in northern extratropical sea level pressure and its linkage to the preceding wintertime Arctic Oscillation, Int. J. Climatol., DOI: 10.1002/joc.4431

  12. Association between body fat composition and blood pressure level among secondary school adolescents in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mushengezi, Brighton; Chillo, Pilly

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Excess body fat and high blood pressure (BP) are important risk factors for increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and both may have their roots of occurrence in childhood and adolescence. The present study aimed at determining the association between body fat composition and BP level among adolescents in Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 5 randomly selected secondary schools within Dar es Salaam was conducted between June and November 2013. Structured questionnaires were used to collect information on demographic characteristics and other cardiovascular risk factors. BP, height, weight and waist circumference were measured following standard methods. Body fat was assessed by skinfold thickness and categorized as underfat, healthy, overfat or obese according to World Health Organization definitions. Hypertension was defined as BP ≥ 90th percentile for age, height and gender of the adolescent. Results The study included 582 adolescents (mean age 16.5±1.8 years, 52.1% boys). The proportion of adolescents with overfat or obesity was 22.2%. Systolic, diastolic and combined hypertension was present in 17.5%, 5.5%, and 4.0% respectively. In the total population mean body fat percent correlated positively with diastolic BP and mean arterial pressure (MAP) but not with systolic BP. In multivariate analysis body mass index (β=0.21, p=0.008) and waist circumference (β=0.12, p=0.049), but not body fat percentage (β=-0.09, p=0.399) independently predicted higher MAP. Conclusion Body mass index predicts BP level better than body fat composition and should be used as a measure of increased risk for hypertension among adolescents. PMID:25918567

  13. Risk Stratification by Self-Measured Home Blood Pressure across Categories of Conventional Blood Pressure: A Participant-Level Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Asayama, Kei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Brguljan-Hitij, Jana; Niiranen, Teemu J.; Hozawa, Atsushi; Boggia, José; Aparicio, Lucas S.; Hara, Azusa; Johansson, Jouni K.; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Tzourio, Christophe; Stergiou, George S.; Sandoya, Edgardo; Tsuji, Ichiro; Jula, Antti M.; Imai, Yutaka; Staessen, Jan A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Diseases Study 2010 reported that hypertension is worldwide the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease, causing 9.4 million deaths annually. We examined to what extent self-measurement of home blood pressure (HBP) refines risk stratification across increasing categories of conventional blood pressure (CBP). Methods and Findings This meta-analysis included 5,008 individuals randomly recruited from five populations (56.6% women; mean age, 57.1 y). All were not treated with antihypertensive drugs. In multivariable analyses, hazard ratios (HRs) associated with 10-mm Hg increases in systolic HBP were computed across CBP categories, using the following systolic/diastolic CBP thresholds (in mm Hg): optimal, <120/<80; normal, 120–129/80–84; high-normal, 130–139/85–89; mild hypertension, 140–159/90–99; and severe hypertension, ≥160/≥100. Over 8.3 y, 522 participants died, and 414, 225, and 194 had cardiovascular, cardiac, and cerebrovascular events, respectively. In participants with optimal or normal CBP, HRs for a composite cardiovascular end point associated with a 10-mm Hg higher systolic HBP were 1.28 (1.01–1.62) and 1.22 (1.00–1.49), respectively. At high-normal CBP and in mild hypertension, the HRs were 1.24 (1.03–1.49) and 1.20 (1.06–1.37), respectively, for all cardiovascular events and 1.33 (1.07–1.65) and 1.30 (1.09–1.56), respectively, for stroke. In severe hypertension, the HRs were not significant (p≥0.20). Among people with optimal, normal, and high-normal CBP, 67 (5.0%), 187 (18.4%), and 315 (30.3%), respectively, had masked hypertension (HBP≥130 mm Hg systolic or ≥85 mm Hg diastolic). Compared to true optimal CBP, masked hypertension was associated with a 2.3-fold (1.5–3.5) higher cardiovascular risk. A limitation was few data from low- and middle-income countries. Conclusions HBP substantially refines risk stratification at CBP levels assumed to carry no or only mildly increased

  14. Treating metabolic syndrome's metaflammation with low level light therapy: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Tania M.; Kato, Ilka T.; Deana, Alessandro M.; Ribeiro, Martha S.

    2014-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome comprises a constellation of morbidities such as insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, atherogenic dyslipidemia, dysglycemia and obesity (especially abdominal). Metabolic alterations are observed in major insulin target organs, increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and therefore mortality. Tissue alterations are characterized by immune cells infiltrates (especially activated macrophages). Released inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α induce chronic inflammation in subjects with metabolic syndrome, since inflammatory pathways are activated in the neighboring cells. The intra-abdominal adipose tissue appears to be of particular importance in the onset of the inflammatory state, and strategies contributing to modulate the inflammatory process within this adipose tissue can mitigate the metabolic syndrome consequences. Considering the low level light therapy (LLLT) recognized benefits in inflammatory conditions, we hypothesized this therapeutic approach could promote positive effects in modulating the inflammatory state of metabolic syndrome. That being the scope of this study, male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to a high-fat/high-fructose diet among 8 weeks to induce metabolic syndrome. Animals were then irradiated on the abdominal region during 21 days using an 850 nm LED (6 sessions, 300 seconds per session, 60 mW output power, ~6 J/cm2 fluence, ~19 mW/cm2 fluence rate). Before and during treatment, blood was sampled either from the retroorbital plexus or from tail puncture for glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides analysis. So far our results indicate no alterations on these metabolic parameters after LLLT. For further investigations, blood was collected for plasma inflammatory cytokine quantification and fresh ex vivo samples of liver and intra-abdominal adipose tissue were harvested for immunohistochemistry purposes.

  15. Antiatherosclerotic effects of licorice extract supplementation on hypercholesterolemic patients: decreased CIMT, reduced plasma lipid levels, and decreased blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Fogelman, Yacov; Gaitini, Diana; Carmeli, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethanolic extract of licorice root has been shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in atherosclerotic mice and in both hypercholesterolemic and normal lipidemic humans. Objective This study examined the effect of licorice-root extract on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in individuals with hypercholesterolemia. Design Individuals with hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥6.18 mmol/L [240 mg/dL]) and without significant stenosis were randomly allocated to two groups: an experimental group that consumed 0.2 g/day of ethanolic extract of licorice root for 12 months, and a control group that received a placebo. Results Of 110 eligible participants, 94 (41–80 years old) completed the study. A significant CIMT decrease from 0.92±0.25 mm to 0.84±0.21 mm was observed in the experimental group compared with an increase from 0.85±0.17 mm to 0.88±0.19 mm in the control group. Mean plasma total cholesterol levels and LDL cholesterol decreased, at the range baseline to 1 year, from 284±32 mg/dl to 262±25 mg/dl and from 183±8.5 mg/dl to 174±9.1 mg/dl, respectively, for the experimental group (p<0.001) and from 291±35 to 289±31 mg/dl and from 177.6±10.7 to 179.3±9.6 (p=0.08), respectively, for the control group. Mean high-density lipoprotein (HDL) did not change significantly in either group. In the experimental group, systolic blood pressure decreased from 138±12 mmHg to 125±13 mmHg after 1 year (p=0.01) and increased from 136±15 mmHg to 137±13 mmHg in the control group. Diastolic blood pressure decreased from 92±9 mmHg to 84±10 mmHg (p=0.01) in the experimental group and increased from 89±11 mmHg to 90±8 mmHg in the control group. Conclusion Following 1 year of licorice consumption, mean CIMT, total cholesterol, LDL levels, and blood pressure were decreased. This suggests that licorice may attenuate the development of atherosclerosis and of related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27113136

  16. Foods E-KINDEX: a dietary index associated with reduced blood pressure levels among young children: the CYKIDS study.

    PubMed

    Lazarou, Chrystalleni; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Matalas, Antonia-Leda

    2009-06-01

    Dietary modification is, in general, the preferred method when attempting reductions in blood pressure (BP) among adults. In children, however, few studies, have examined the relationship between dietary patterns and levels of BP, and the reported results are conflicting. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between levels of Foods E-KINDEX score and levels of BP in children. Measurements included BP, height, weight, and waist circumference. Diet quality was assessed by the Foods E-KINDEX diet score. The index includes 13 components that assess consumption frequency of 11 major food groups or foods, as well as two cooking techniques (fried and grilled foods). Its score ranges between 0 and 37. A subsample of 622 Cypriot children (mean age=11.7+/-0.83 years) from the CYKIDS national cross-sectional study was used. Logistic regression analysis was performed in order to examine the relationship of systolic BP, diastolic BP, and BP with diet quality (as assessed by the Foods E-KINDEX score). The median systolic BP and diastolic BP were 110 mm Hg (interquartile range [IQR]=100 to 120 mm Hg) and 68 mm Hg (IQR=60 to 70 mm Hg) for boys and 110 mm Hg (IQR=100 to 120 mm Hg) and 63 mm Hg (IQR=60 to 70 mm Hg) for girls, respectively. Mean Foods E-KINDEX score was 23.4+/-4.9 in boys and 24.3+/-4.8 in girls (P=0.487). Compared with children with a low diet score, those with at least an average Foods E-KINDEX score were 57% (odds ratio=0.43; 95% confidence interval: 0.19 to 0.98) less likely to have elevated systolic BP levels, regardless of various potential confounders. The Foods E-KINDEX score is independently associated with lower BP among healthy children. This finding might have implications in public health and should be further explored.

  17. Permissive hypotension does not reduce regional organ perfusion compared to normotensive resuscitation: animal study with fluorescent microspheres

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to investigate regional organ perfusion acutely following uncontrolled hemorrhage in an animal model that simulates a penetrating vascular injury and accounts for prehospital times in urban trauma. We set forth to determine if hypotensive resuscitation (permissive hypotension) would result in equivalent organ perfusion compared to normotensive resuscitation. Methods Twenty four (n=24) male rats randomized to 4 groups: Sham, No Fluid (NF), Permissive Hypotension (PH) (60% of baseline mean arterial pressure - MAP), Normotensive Resuscitation (NBP). Uncontrolled hemorrhage caused by a standardised injury to the abdominal aorta; MAP was monitored continuously and lactated Ringer’s was infused. Fluorimeter readings of regional blood flow of the brain, heart, lung, kidney, liver, and bowel were obtained at baseline and 85 minutes after hemorrhage, as well as, cardiac output, lactic acid, and laboratory tests; intra-abdominal blood loss was assessed. Analysis of variance was used for comparison. Results Intra-abdominal blood loss was higher in NBP group, as well as, lower hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. No statistical differences in perfusion of any organ between PH and NBP groups. No statistical difference in cardiac output between PH and NBP groups, as well as, in lactic acid levels between PH and NBP. NF group had significantly higher lactic acidosis and had significantly lower organ perfusion. Conclusions Hypotensive resuscitation causes less intra-abdominal bleeding than normotensive resuscitation and concurrently maintains equivalent organ perfusion. No fluid resuscitation reduces intra-abdominal bleeding but also significantly reduces organ perfusion. PMID:23531188

  18. Comparative genomics of the vertebrate insulin/TOR signal transduction pathway: a network-level analysis of selective pressures.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ponce, David; Aguadé, Montserrat; Rozas, Julio

    2011-01-01

    Complexity of biological function relies on large networks of interacting molecules. However, the evolutionary properties of these networks are not fully understood. It has been shown that selective pressures depend on the position of genes in the network. We have previously shown that in the Drosophila insulin/target of rapamycin (TOR) signal transduction pathway there is a correlation between the pathway position and the strength of purifying selection, with the downstream genes being most constrained. In this study, we investigated the evolutionary dynamics of this well-characterized pathway in vertebrates. More specifically, we determined the impact of natural selection on the evolution of 72 genes of this pathway. We found that in vertebrates there is a similar gradient of selective constraint in the insulin/TOR pathway to that found in Drosophila. This feature is neither the result of a polarity in the impact of positive selection nor of a series of factors affecting selective constraint levels (gene expression level and breadth, codon bias, protein length, and connectivity). We also found that pathway genes encoding physically interacting proteins tend to evolve under similar selective constraints. The results indicate that the architecture of the vertebrate insulin/TOR pathway constrains the molecular evolution of its components. Therefore, the polarity detected in Drosophila is neither specific nor incidental of this genus. Hence, although the underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear, these may be similar in both vertebrates and Drosophila.

  19. Changes in sea-level pressure over South Korea associated with high-speed solar wind events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Il-Hyun; Kwak, Young-Sil; Marubashi, Katsuhide; Kim, Yeon-Han; Park, Young-Deuk; Chang, Heon-Young

    2012-09-01

    We explore a possibility that the daily sea-level pressure (SLP) over South Korea responds to the high-speed solar wind event. This is of interest in two aspects: first, if there is a statistical association this can be another piece of evidence showing that various meteorological observables indeed respond to variations in the interplanetary environment. Second, this can be a very crucial observational constraint since most models proposed so far are expected to preferentially work in higher latitude regions than the low latitude region studied here. We have examined daily solar wind speed V, daily SLP difference ΔSLP, and daily log(BV2) using the superposed epoch analysis in which the key date is set such that the daily solar wind speed exceeds 800 km s-1. We find that the daily ΔSLP averaged out of 12 events reaches its peak at day +1 and gradually decreases back to its normal level. The amount of positive deviation of ΔSLP is +2.5 hPa. The duration of deviation is a few days. We also find that ΔSLP is well correlated with both the speed of solar wind and log(BV2). The obtained linear correlation coefficients and chance probabilities with one-day lag for two cases are r ≃ 0.81 with P > 99.9%, and r ≃ 0.84 with P > 99.9%, respectively. We conclude by briefly discussing future direction to pursue.

  20. Beneficial Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Chokeberry Juice Consumption on Blood Pressure Level and Lipid Status in Hypertensive Subjects.

    PubMed

    Kardum, Nevena; Milovanović, Branislav; Šavikin, Katarina; Zdunić, Gordana; Mutavdžin, Slavica; Gligorijević, Tatjana; Spasić, Slavica

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between intake of foods rich in antioxidants and lower incidence of cardiovascular disease development. Polyphenols are considered the most abundant and important dietary antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of polyphenol-rich chokeberry juice consumption on 24-h ambulatory monitored blood pressure (BP) level in subjects with no pharmacologically treated high normal BP or grade I hypertension. Twenty-three subjects (12 men and 11 women) aged 33-67 were enrolled and instructed to consume 200 mL of juice daily for 4 weeks. Participants were divided in two groups, based on prevalence of sympathetic or parasympathetic activity. Measurements of biochemical parameters and heart rate variability analysis were also applied. At the end of the intervention period, average 24-h and awake systolic and diastolic BP were significantly decreased (P<.05). This was more pronounced in the group with prevalence of sympathetic activity. Significant reduction in triglyceride level (P<.05) and a reducing effect on total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were also found. Obtained results indicate a positive impact of regular chokeberry juice consumption on BP and lipid status in pharmacologically untreated hypertensive subjects. PMID:25973889

  1. Development of wafer-level-packaging technology for simultaneous sealing of accelerometer and gyroscope under different pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aono, T.; Suzuki, K.; Kanamaru, M.; Okada, R.; Maeda, D.; Hayashi, M.; Isono, Y.

    2016-10-01

    This research demonstrates a newly developed anodic bonding-based wafer-level-packaging technique to simultaneously seal an accelerometer in the atmosphere and a gyroscope in a vacuum with a glass cap for micro-electromechanical systems sensors. It is necessary for the accelerometer, with a damping oscillator, to be sealed in the atmosphere to achieve a high-speed response. As the gyroscope can achieve high sensitivity with a large displacement at the resonant frequency without air-damping, the gyroscope must be sealed in a vacuum. The technique consists of three processing steps: the first bonding step in the atmosphere for the accelerometer, the pressure control step and the second bonding step in a vacuum for the gyroscope. The process conditions were experimentally determined to achieve higher shear strength at the interface of the packaging. The packaging performance of the accelerometer and gyroscope after wafer-level packaging was also investigated using a laser Doppler velocimeter at room temperature. The amplitude at the resonant frequency of the accelerometer was reduced by air damping, and the quality factor of the gyroscope showed a value higher than 1000. The reliability of the gyroscope was also confirmed by a thermal cyclic test and an endurance test at high humidity and high temperature.

  2. Atorvastatin enhanced nitric oxide release and reduced blood pressure, nitroxidative stress and rantes levels in hypertensive rats with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mason, R P; Corbalan, J J; Jacob, R F; Dawoud, H; Malinski, T

    2015-02-01

    Clinical trials have shown that atorvastatin benefits patients with diabetes even with normal baseline LDL levels. We hypothesized that atorvastatin improves endothelial cell (EC) function and reduces inflammation in hypertensive rats with diabetes. Non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were treated with atorvastatin at 20 mg/kg/day. After five weeks, nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) were measured in aortic and glomerular endothelial cells. A tandem of nanosensors was used to simultaneously measure NO and ONOO(-) concentration and their ratio [NO]/[ONOO(-)] was monitored with a time resolution better than 10 μs and detection limit 1 nM. [NO]/[ONOO(-)] was applied as a marker of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) uncoupling, endothelial dysfunction and nitroxidative stress. Glucose, cholesterol, blood pressure (BP), and the cytokine RANTES were also measured. Diabetic SHR rats had elevated glucose (355 ± 38 mg/dL), mean BP (172 ± 15 mmHg), and plasma RANTES (38.4 ± 2.7 ng/mL), low endothelial NO bioavailability and high ONOO(-). Maximal NO release measured 267 ± 29 nM in aortic endothelium of SHR rats and 214 ± 20 nM for diabetic SHR rats; [NO]/[ONOO(-)] was 0.88 ± 12 and 0.61 ± 0.08, respectively. [NO]/[ONOO(-)] ratios below one indicate a high uncoupling of eNOS, endothelial dysfunction and high nitroxidative stress. Atorvastatin treatment partially restored endothelial function by increasing NO level by 98%, reducing ONOO(-) by 40% and favorably elevating [NO]/[ONOO(-)] to 1.1 ± 0.2 for diabetic SHR rats and 1.6 ± 0.3 for SHR rats. The effects of atorvastatin were similar in glomerular endothelial cells and were partially reproduced by modulators of eNOS or NADPH oxidase. Atorvastatin had no significant effect on fasting glucose or total cholesterol levels but reduced mean BP by 21% and 11% in diabetic and non-diabetic animals, respectively. Atorvastatin also reduced RANTES levels by

  3. Intra-abdominal bleeding after repair of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Tajima, K; Shimomura, T; Suenaga, Y; Murase, M

    1997-08-01

    A case is reported of sudden rupture of a subcapsular hematoma of the liver (SHL) due to birth injury occurring after complete repair of a total anomalous pulmonary venous connection in a 3-day-old male infant. Autopsy showed a wide bruised surface of liver parenchyma. Although making a diagnosis of SHL may be difficult before neonatal cardiac surgery, special care on this quite rare complication must be taken in neonates with difficult delivery. PMID:9323826

  4. Large Gastric Teratoma: A Rare Intra-abdominal Mass of Infancy.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Roumina; Monappa, Vidya; Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-05-01

    Amongst the varied, diverse causes of intraabdominal masses in infancy and early childhood, gastric teratomas (GTs) account for a very small proportion. A worldwide literature search reveals only around one hundred cases of GT and also supports the fact that its preoperative diagnosis remains elusive. Here we report the case of a two-month-old male who presented to the pediatric surgery outpatient department of Kasturba Medical College and Hospital, Karnataka, India, with progressive distension of abdomen since birth. Clinically, a large firm, non-mobile and non-tender mass involving all four quadrants of the abdomen was seen. Ultrasound revealed a large solid-cystic mass with internal septations extending from the epigastrium up to the pelvis. Computed tomography revealed a large intraperitoneal fat containing solid-cystic mass lesion showing curvilinear and chunky areas of calcification, with the mass focally indenting the posterior gastric wall and showing focal polypoidal intragastric extension. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large cystic tumor with a solid component, arising from lesser curvature of the stomach, showing focal intraluminal extension across the posterior gastric wall, and occupying the whole lesser sac and abdominal cavity. The tumor was excised in toto along with the body of the stomach. Histopathological examination showed mature tissue derived from all three germ cell layers and confirmed the diagnosis of mature gastric teratoma. The patient was disease free at one-year follow-up.

  5. 77 FR 59928 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections: Developing Drugs for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... clinical trial designs to support approval of drugs. DATES: Although you can comment on any guidance at any... previously conducted clinical trials with various effective antibiotics. The draft guidance also provides a... of information referred to in the guidance for clinical trial sponsors ``Establishment and...

  6. Creation of a murine orthotopic hepatoma model with intra-abdominal metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jamie; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Chiu, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To create an orthotopic hepatoma model with local metastasis monitored with ultrasound could be created as a platform for testing new treatments. Background: Hepatoma accounts for 25% of liver tumors in children with poor overall survival. Intraabdominal metastasis are present in 35% of patients at time of diagnosis. We hypothesized that an orthotopic tumor model with local metastasis could be created as a platform for testing treatment modalities and could be monitored with ultrasound. Patients and methods: One million human hepatoma cells (Hep3B) were injected into the left lobe of the liver of immunocompromised mice. Tumor volume was monitored with high frequency-ultrasound until it reached 1,000mm3. At that time animals were sacrificed and examined for gross metastatic disease. Tumor sections were analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Results: Tumor formed in 8/15 mice. The tumor was detected as small as 19.59mm3 on ultrasound. Of the forming tumors, tumor size was 145±177.93mm3 at 60 days post-injection, 665±650.39mm3 at 67 days, and reached >1000mm3 by 76.6±9.9 days. At necropsy, four mice (50%) had tumor only within the liver, four (50%) had additional tumors in omentum, pelvis and peritoneum. H&E showed tumor within the normal liver parenchyma, with multiple mitotic figures, small areas of necrosis, and hemorrhage within the tumor. Conclusion: We have successfully established an orthotopic hepatoma murine model, with a local metastatic rate of 50%. Non-invasive tumor monitoring is feasible via ultrasound. PMID:27458509

  7. Laparoscopic resection of an intra-abdominal esophageal duplication cyst: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Watanobe, Ikuo; Ito, Yuzuru; Akimoto, Eigo; Sekine, Yuuki; Haruyama, Yurie; Amemiya, Kota; Kawano, Fumihiro; Fujita, Shohei; Omori, Satoshi; Miyano, Shozo; Kosaka, Taijiro; Machida, Michio; Kitabatake, Toshiaki; Kojima, Kuniaki; Sakaguchi, Asumi; Ogura, Kanako; Matsumoto, Toshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Duplication of the alimentary tract is a rare congenital malformation that occurs most often in the abdominal region, whereas esophageal duplication cyst develops typically in the thoracic region but occasionally in the neck and abdominal regions. Esophageal duplication cyst is usually diagnosed in early childhood because of symptoms related to bleeding, infection, and displacement of tissue surrounding the lesion. We recently encountered a rare adult case of esophageal duplication cyst in the abdominal esophagus. A 50-year-old man underwent gastroscopy, endoscopic ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging to investigate epigastric pain and dysphagia that started 3 months earlier. Imaging findings suggested esophageal duplication cyst, and the patient underwent laparoscopic resection followed by intraoperative esophagoscopy to reconstruct the esophagus safely and effectively. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed two layers of smooth muscle in the cystic wall, confirming the diagnosis of esophageal duplication cyst. PMID:25883826

  8. [Concept, definition and classification of intra-abdominal hypertension in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Marshalov, D V; Salov, I A; Shifman, E M; Petrenko, A P

    2013-01-01

    The article stresses methodological aspects of intaabdominal hypertension at pregnancy. Formal-logical analysis of conceptual framework and available classifications of intaabdominal hypertension was carried out. The article presents new definition and classification of intaabdominal hypertension.

  9. Diagnosis of Intra-Abdominal Extralobar Pulmonary Sequestration by means of Ultrasound in a Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Claudio Rodrigues; Czapkowski, Adriano; Zanforlin Filho, Sebastião Marques

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary sequestration is a congenital abnormality consisting of a mass of pulmonary tissue that presents an abnormal connection with the tracheobronchial tree, with a blood supply coming from an anomalous artery derived from the systemic circulation. Extralobar pulmonary sequestration is characterized by having pleural coverings that are independent of the normal lungs, with vascular supply usually coming from the aorta or from one of its branches. This diagnosis can be suspected prenatally if an abdominal mass, generally below the diaphragm, is seen. Here, we present a case of a neonate on the second day of life, with ultrasonography showing extralobar pulmonary sequestration located above the left adrenal gland that prenatally simulated a neuroblastoma. PMID:23762717

  10. Multiple intra-abdominal serosal myxosarcomas in two koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Astudillo, V González; Schaffer-White, A; Allavena, R; Palmieri, C

    2015-01-01

    Two adult koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) were presented for necropsy examination without any clinical history. A diffuse, severe gelatinous effusion was found in the abdominal cavity, while numerous 1-3 mm diameter, round, well-demarcated, multifocal to coalescing, raised, firm nodules containing a clear gelatinous fluid were scattered on the surface of the parietal peritoneum, diaphragm, liver, gastrointestinal tract and mesentery. Microscopically, the nodular lesions consisted of spindle-shaped to stellate neoplastic cells, with scant eosinophilic cytoplasm and moderate anisocytosis and anisokaryosis. The neoplastic cells were admixed with and surrounded by abundant acellular pale eosinophilic material that was stained by Alcian blue and only weakly by the periodic acid-Schiff reaction. Serosal proliferations are described rarely in koalas and to the authors' knowledge this is the first reported case of serosal myxosarcoma. The significance and pathogenesis of this condition in the koala population is unknown.

  11. A case of intra-abdominal hemorrhage secondary to peliosis hepatis

    PubMed Central

    Downes, Ross O.; Cambridge, Craig L.; Diggiss, Charles; Iferenta, James; Sharma, Muneesh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction peliosis hepatis (PH) is a rare vascular condition of the liver characterized by the presence of cystic blood filled cavities distributed randomly throughout the liver parenchyma Tsokos and co-workers [1–6]. Peliosis is most commonly found in the liver but can also involve the spleen, bone marrow, lungs, and abdominal lymph nodes Tsokos and Erbersdobler [1]. Presentation of case We report a case of peliosis hepatis diagnosed post laparotomy. She required a re-look laparotomy with removal of packs peritoneal lavage, placement of intraseed and subhepatic drain. The patient was discharged after an 11-day recovery period. Conclusion We examine the literature and subsequently discuss the etiology and management of peliosis. Peliosis is a rare vascular condition of the liver characterized by the presence of cystic blood filled cavities. Causes are associated with a number of conditions, however, etiology is largely unknown. Management is overwhelmingly conservative except in a handful of cases. PMID:25576958

  12. Multiple intra-abdominal serosal myxosarcomas in two koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Astudillo, V González; Schaffer-White, A; Allavena, R; Palmieri, C

    2015-01-01

    Two adult koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) were presented for necropsy examination without any clinical history. A diffuse, severe gelatinous effusion was found in the abdominal cavity, while numerous 1-3 mm diameter, round, well-demarcated, multifocal to coalescing, raised, firm nodules containing a clear gelatinous fluid were scattered on the surface of the parietal peritoneum, diaphragm, liver, gastrointestinal tract and mesentery. Microscopically, the nodular lesions consisted of spindle-shaped to stellate neoplastic cells, with scant eosinophilic cytoplasm and moderate anisocytosis and anisokaryosis. The neoplastic cells were admixed with and surrounded by abundant acellular pale eosinophilic material that was stained by Alcian blue and only weakly by the periodic acid-Schiff reaction. Serosal proliferations are described rarely in koalas and to the authors' knowledge this is the first reported case of serosal myxosarcoma. The significance and pathogenesis of this condition in the koala population is unknown. PMID:25728815

  13. An adipose segmentation and quantification scheme for the intra abdominal region on minipigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engholm, Rasmus; Dubinskiy, Aleksandr; Larsen, Rasmus; Hanson, Lars G.; Christoffersen, Berit Østergaard

    2006-03-01

    This article describes a method for automatic segmentation of the abdomen into three anatomical regions: subcutaneous, retroperitoneal and visceral. For the last two regions the amount of adipose tissue (fat) is quantified. According to recent medical research, the distinction between retroperitoneal and visceral fat is important for studying metabolic syndrome, which is closely related to diabetes. However previous work has neglected to address this point, treating the two types of fat together. We use T1-weighted three-dimensional magnetic resonance data of the abdomen of obese minipigs. The pigs were manually dissected right after the scan, to produce the "ground truth" segmentation. We perform automatic segmentation on a representative slice, which on humans has been shown to correlate with the amount of adipose tissue in the abdomen. The process of automatic fat estimation consists of three steps. First, the subcutaneous fat is removed with a modified active contour approach. The energy formulation of the active contour exploits the homogeneous nature of the subcutaneous fat and the smoothness of the boundary. Subsequently the retroperitoneal fat located around the abdominal cavity is separated from the visceral fat. For this, we formulate a cost function on a contour, based on intensities, edges, distance to center and smoothness, so as to exploit the properties of the retroperitoneal fat. We then globally optimize this function using dynamic programming. Finally, the fat content of the retroperitoneal and visceral regions is quantified based on a fuzzy c-means clustering of the intensities within the segmented regions. The segmentation proved satisfactory by visual inspection, and closely correlated with the manual dissection data. The correlation was 0.89 for the retroperitoneal fat, and 0.74 for the visceral fat.

  14. Laparoscopic retrieval of unusual intra-abdominal foreign bodies in children

    PubMed Central

    Lone, Yasir Ahmad; Kanojia, Ravi Prakash; Samujh, Ram; Rao, Kattaragadda Laxmi Narasimha

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common problem among the pediatric population. On numerous occasions, the FB is left to pass out spontaneously without expecting any harm. There are instances when the FB is either to dangerous to be left alone, that is a button battery or a sharp object. There may be FB, which is either stuck in GIT or have migrated. The situation in these instances demand active intervention. The traditional option has been laparotomy and retrieval. We present here three cases where two needles and a belt buckle were removed by laparoscopy thus avoiding a laparotomy. These cases prove that laparoscopy should be the first choice for such kind of retrieval. These cases had a successful outcome with full recovery. PMID:27695212

  15. Laparoscopic retrieval of unusual intra-abdominal foreign bodies in children

    PubMed Central

    Lone, Yasir Ahmad; Kanojia, Ravi Prakash; Samujh, Ram; Rao, Kattaragadda Laxmi Narasimha

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common problem among the pediatric population. On numerous occasions, the FB is left to pass out spontaneously without expecting any harm. There are instances when the FB is either to dangerous to be left alone, that is a button battery or a sharp object. There may be FB, which is either stuck in GIT or have migrated. The situation in these instances demand active intervention. The traditional option has been laparotomy and retrieval. We present here three cases where two needles and a belt buckle were removed by laparoscopy thus avoiding a laparotomy. These cases prove that laparoscopy should be the first choice for such kind of retrieval. These cases had a successful outcome with full recovery.

  16. Spontaneous Intra-Abdominal Hemorrhage Due to Rupture of Jejunal Artery Aneurysm in Behcet Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao-yan; Wei, Jiang-peng; Zhao, Xiu-yuan; Wang, Yue; Wu, Huan-huan; Shi, Tao; Liu, Tong; Liu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rupture of jejunal artery aneurysm is a very rare event resulting in life-threatening hemorrhage in Behcet disease (BD). We report a case of ruptured jejunal artery aneurysm in a 35-year-old patient with BD. The patient had a 1-year history of intermittent abdominal pain caused by superior mesenteric artery aneurysm with thrombosis. Anticoagulation treatment showed a good response. Past surgical history included stenting for aortic pseudoaneurysm. On admission, the patient underwent an urgent operation due to sudden hemorrhagic shock. Resection was performed for jejunal artery aneurysm and partial ischemia of intestine. The patient was diagnosed with BD, based on a history of recurrent oral and skin lesions over the past 6 years. Treatment with anti-inflammatory medications showed a good response during the 8-month follow-up. An increased awareness of BD and its vascular complications is essential. Aneurysms in BD involving jejunal artery are rare, neglected and require proper management to prevent rupture and death. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of jejunal artery aneurysm caused by BD. PMID:26559278

  17. Detection of the transitional layer between laminar and turbulent flow areas on a wing surface. [using an accelerometer to measure pressure levels during wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    A system is disclosed for detecting the laminar to turbulent boundary layer transition on a surface while simultaneously taking pressure measurements. The system uses an accelerometer for producing electrical signals proportional to the noise levels along the surface and a transducer for producing electrical signals proportional to pressure along the surface. The signals generated by the accelerometer and transducer are sent to a data reduction system for interpretation and storage.

  18. Evidence-based recommendations for negative pressure wound therapy: treatment variables (pressure levels, wound filler and contact layer)--steps towards an international consensus.

    PubMed

    Birke-Sorensen, H; Malmsjo, M; Rome, P; Hudson, D; Krug, E; Berg, L; Bruhin, A; Caravaggi, C; Chariker, M; Depoorter, M; Dowsett, C; Dunn, R; Duteille, F; Ferreira, F; Francos Martínez, J M; Grudzien, G; Ichioka, S; Ingemansson, R; Jeffery, S; Lee, C; Vig, S; Runkel, N; Martin, R; Smith, J

    2011-09-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is becoming a commonplace treatment in many clinical settings. New devices and dressings are being introduced. Despite widespread adoption, there remains uncertainty regarding several aspects of NPWT use. To respond to these gaps, a global expert panel was convened to develop evidence-based recommendations describing the use of NPWT. In a previous communication, we have reviewed the evidence base for the use of NPWT within trauma and reconstructive surgery. In this communication, we present results of the assessment of evidence relating to the different NPWT treatment variables: different wound fillers (principally foam and gauze); when to use a wound contact layer; different pressure settings; and the impact of NPWT on bacterial bioburden. Evidence-based recommendations were obtained by a systematic review of the literature, grading of evidence and drafting of the recommendations by a global expert panel. Evidence and recommendations were graded according to the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) classification system. In general, there is relatively weak evidence on which to base recommendations for any one NPWT treatment variable over another. Overall, 14 recommendations were developed: five for the choice of wound filler and wound contact layer, four for choice of pressure setting and five for use of NPWT in infected wounds. With respect to bioburden, evidence suggests that reduction of bacteria in wounds is not a major mode of action of NPWT.

  19. Erectile Dysfunction and Sexual Hormone Levels in Men With Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Efficacy of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Lin, Qi-Chang; Zeng, Hui-Qing; Jiang, Xing-Tang; Chen, Bo; Chen, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) and serum sexual hormone levels were evaluated in men with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In these patients, the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was determined. The 207 men (mean age 44.0 ± 11.1 years) enrolled in the study were stratified within four groups based on their apnea-hypopnea index score: simple snoring (n = 32), mild OSA (n = 29), moderate OSA (n = 38), and severe OSA (n = 108). The International Index of Erectile Dysfunction-5 (IIEF-5) score was obtained from each patient, and blood samples for the analysis of sexual hormones (prolactin, luteotropin, follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol, progestin, and testosterone) were drawn in the morning after polysomnography. The IIEF-5 test and serum sexual hormone measurements were repeated after 3 months of CPAP treatment in 53 men with severe OSA. The prevalence of ED was 60.6 % in OSA patients overall and 72.2 % in those with severe OSA. Compared with the simple snoring group, patients with severe OSA had significantly lower testosterone levels (14.06 ± 5.62 vs. 17.02 ± 4.68, p = .018) and lower IIEF-5 scores (16.33 ± 6.50 vs. 24.09 ± 1.94, p = .001). The differences in the other sexual hormones between groups were not significant. After 3 months of CPAP treatment, there were no significant changes in sexual hormone levels, but the IIEF-5 score had improved significantly (18.21 ± 4.05 vs. 19.21 ± 3.86, p = .001). Severe OSA patients have low testosterone concentration and high ED prevalence. IIEF-5 scores increased significantly after CPAP treatment, but there was no effect on serum testosterone levels.

  20. On the efficacy of spatial sampling using manual scanning paths to determine the spatial average sound pressure level in rooms.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Carl

    2011-05-01

    In architectural acoustics, noise control and environmental noise, there are often steady-state signals for which it is necessary to measure the spatial average, sound pressure level inside rooms. This requires using fixed microphone positions, mechanical scanning devices, or manual scanning. In comparison with mechanical scanning devices, the human body allows manual scanning to trace out complex geometrical paths in three-dimensional space. To determine the efficacy of manual scanning paths in terms of an equivalent number of uncorrelated samples, an analytical approach is solved numerically. The benchmark used to assess these paths is a minimum of five uncorrelated fixed microphone positions at frequencies above 200 Hz. For paths involving an operator walking across the room, potential problems exist with walking noise and non-uniform scanning speeds. Hence, paths are considered based on a fixed standing position or rotation of the body about a fixed point. In empty rooms, it is shown that a circle, helix, or cylindrical-type path satisfy the benchmark requirement with the latter two paths being highly efficient at generating large number of uncorrelated samples. In furnished rooms where there is limited space for the operator to move, an efficient path comprises three semicircles with 45°-60° separations.

  1. Investigating the Influence of Anthropogenic Forcing on Observed Mean and Extreme Sea Level Pressure Trends over the Mediterranean Region

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Barkhordarian, Armineh

    2012-01-01

    We investigate whether the observed mean sea level pressure (SLP) trends over the Mediterranean region in the period from 1975 to 2004 are significantly consistent with what 17 models projected as response of SLP to anthropogenic forcing (greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols, GS). Obtained results indicate that the observed trends in mean SLP cannot be explained by natural (internal) variability. Externally forced changes are detectable in all seasons, except spring. The large-scale component (spatial mean) of the GS signal is detectable in all the 17 models in winter and in 12 of the 17 models in summer. However, the small-scalemore » component (spatial anomalies about the spatial mean) of GS signal is only detectable in winter within 11 of the 17 models. We also show that GS signal has a detectable influence on observed decreasing (increasing) tendency in the frequencies of extremely low (high) SLP days in winter and that these changes cannot be explained by internal climate variability. While the detection of GS forcing is robust in winter and summer, there are striking inconsistencies in autumn, where analysis points to the presence of an external forcing, which is not GS forcing.« less

  2. Low-level blast raises intracranial pressure and impairs cognitive function in rats: prophylaxis with processed cereal feed.

    PubMed

    Säljö, Annette; Bolouri, Hayde; Mayorga, Maria; Svensson, Berndt; Hamberger, Anders

    2010-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that even low levels of blast cause brain injury, but little is known about their thresholds and mechanisms. Exposure of rats to 10-60 kPa blasts elevate intracranial pressure (ICP) in a dose-dependent manner and impair cognitive function. We have evaluated a prophylactic measure against these brain injuries in a rat animal model, consisting of feeding them processed cereal. This type of feed is known to ameliorate disturbances in secretion of body fluids and to have anti-inflammatory effects. In humans, intake of processed cereals is effective against intestinal diarrhea and also reduces the symptoms of Ménière's disease. Rats were given either standard laboratory feed or processed cereal feed for 2 weeks before exposure to blast in a shock tube. The ICP was monitored at different time points up to 1 week after exposure to a 60-kPa blast, and for up to 24 h after exposure to a 30-kPa blast. Maximal ICP elevation was reached at 10 h in both groups. In the group of rats on standard feed exposed to 60 kPa, an ICP increase of 145% was noted at 10 h, and the corresponding increase in the rats fed processed cereal feed was only 50%. In rats exposed to a 30-kPa blast, those fed standard feed and processed cereal feed demonstrated increases of ICP of 80% and 40%, respectively. Cognitive function as measured by the Morris water maze was assessed in other groups of rats at 2 days after exposure to 10- or 30-kPa blasts. Their performance was significantly impaired at both exposure levels in rats on standard feed, but no functional impairment was seen in rats fed processed cereal feed.

  3. School-based screening of plantar pressures during level walking with a backpack among overweight and obese schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Pau, Massimiliano; Leban, Bruno; Corona, Federica; Gioi, Sara; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2016-05-01

    Among children, postural modifications due to backpack carriage have direct consequences on how forces are exchanged between body and ground and thus on plantar pressure distribution. However, it is unknown whether such alterations are influenced by the foot structure and functionality typical of obesity. In this study, we tested 65 overweight/obese primary schoolchildren using a pressure platform while walking with and without the backpack. Contact areas, arch index, peak and mean plantar pressures in the forefoot, midfoot and rearfoot were compared with those from an additional 65 age- and gender-matched group of normal-weight children. Backpack carriage modified pressure distribution similarly in both groups, with the exception of mean midfoot pressure, which increased significantly among normal-weight children but not in the overweight/obese group. Notably, the pressure values associated with mass excess and backpack carriage still raise some concerns regarding potential long-term adverse consequences on foot structure and functionality of overweight/obese children. Practitioner summary: Backpack carriage by overweight/obese schoolchildren altered plantar pressures similar to what was observed in their normal-weight peers. Yet, high pressures were found among the overweight/obese children. This raises concerns regarding potential long-term adverse consequences on foot structure and functionality, and supports establishing more specific limits for the carried load. PMID:26226045

  4. Comparison of Regression Methods to Compute Atmospheric Pressure and Earth Tidal Coefficients in Water Level Associated with Wenchuan Earthquake of 12 May 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Anhua; Singh, Ramesh P.; Sun, Zhaohua; Ye, Qing; Zhao, Gang

    2016-07-01

    The earth tide, atmospheric pressure, precipitation and earthquake fluctuations, especially earthquake greatly impacts water well levels, thus anomalous co-seismic changes in ground water levels have been observed. In this paper, we have used four different models, simple linear regression (SLR), multiple linear regression (MLR), principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) to compute the atmospheric pressure and earth tidal effects on water level. Furthermore, we have used the Akaike information criterion (AIC) to study the performance of various models. Based on the lowest AIC and sum of squares for error values, the best estimate of the effects of atmospheric pressure and earth tide on water level is found using the MLR model. However, MLR model does not provide multicollinearity between inputs, as a result the atmospheric pressure and earth tidal response coefficients fail to reflect the mechanisms associated with the groundwater level fluctuations. On the premise of solving serious multicollinearity of inputs, PLS model shows the minimum AIC value. The atmospheric pressure and earth tidal response coefficients show close response with the observation using PLS model. The atmospheric pressure and the earth tidal response coefficients are found to be sensitive to the stress-strain state using the observed data for the period 1 April-8 June 2008 of Chuan 03# well. The transient enhancement of porosity of rock mass around Chuan 03# well associated with the Wenchuan earthquake (Mw = 7.9 of 12 May 2008) that has taken its original pre-seismic level after 13 days indicates that the co-seismic sharp rise of water well could be induced by static stress change, rather than development of new fractures.

  5. Primary care of patients with high cardiovascular risk : Blood pressure, lipid and diabetic target levels and their achievement in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szigethy, Endre; Jancsó, Zoltán; Móczár, Csaba; Ilyés, István; Kovács, Eszter; Róbert Kolozsvári, László; Rurik, Imre

    2013-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are responsible for the majority of premature deaths in Hungary as well. Most of them could be prevented with healthy lifestyle of patients and adequate drug prescription of primary care physicians. Earlier European surveys found wide differences between the practices and achievements of different countries in this field. The study was based on and designed according to the framework of previous European Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention by Intervention to Reduce Events (EUROASPIRE) studies and aimed presenting Hungarian results and comparing with the achievements of other countries and previous Hungarian surveys. Among rural and urban settings, 679 patients under continuous care (236 diabetics, 218 with dyslipidaemia, and 225 with hypertension) were consecutively selected by 20 experienced general practitioners. The mean age of patients was 60.3 years (men) and 64.0 years (women). Among diabetics, less than 7 % of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values were found in 42.5 % patients, while only 11.4 % patients had fasting plasma sugar less than 6.0 mmol/L. Of the patients treated for dyslipidaemia, the target level of triglyceride was reached by 40.6 %, recommended total cholesterol by 14.2 % and the HDL-cholesterol by 71.8 %. The therapeutic control of total and HDL-cholesterol was better in men, although women had better triglyceride values. The achievement among patients with hypertension was 42.0 %. Significantly higher blood pressure was measured by patients who were treated with not recommended combinations of antihypertensive medication. A remarkable improvement could be observed in Hungary in the field of secondary prevention. It was greater among patients with hypertension and dyslipidaemia and smaller in diabetes care. Compared to the results of published European surveys, Hungary occupies a good position, but further improvement is still required.

  6. Intima-media thickness evaluation by B-mode ultrasound. Correlation with blood pressure levels and cardiac structures.

    PubMed

    Plavnik, F L; Ajzen, S; Kohlmann, O; Tavares, A; Zanella, M T; Ribeiro, A B; Ramos, O L

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the thickness of the intima-media complex (IMC) using a noninvasive method. The carotid and femoral common arteries were evaluated by noninvasive B-mode ultrasound in 63 normotensive and in 52 hypertensive subjects and the thickness of the IMC was tested for correlation with blood pressure, cardiac structures and several clinical and biological parameters. The IMC was thicker in hypertensive than in normotensive subjects (0.67 +/- 0.13 and 0.62 +/- 0.16 vs 0.54 +/- 0.09 and 0.52 +/- 0.11 mm, respectively, P<0.0001). In normotensive patients, the simple linear regression showed significant correlations between IMC and age, body mass index and 24-h systolic blood pressure for both the carotid and femoral arteries. In hypertensives the carotid IMC was correlated with age and 24-h systolic blood pressure while femoral IMC was correlated only with 24-h diastolic blood pressure. Forward stepwise regression showed that age, body mass index and 24-h systolic blood pressure influenced the carotid IMC relationship (r2 = 0.39) in normotensives. On the other hand, the femoral IMC relationship was influenced by 24-h systolic blood pressure and age (r2 = 0.40). In hypertensives, age and 24-h systolic blood pressure were the most important determinants of carotid IMC (r2 = 0.37), while femoral IMC was influenced only by 24-h diastolic blood pressure (r2 = 0.10). There was an association between carotid IMC and echocardiographic findings in normotensives, while in hypertensives only the left posterior wall and interventricular septum were associated with femoral IMC. We conclude that age and blood pressure influence the intima-media thickness, while echocardiographic changes are associated with the IMC. PMID:10625875

  7. Treatment of sleep central apnea with non-invasive mechanical ventilation with 2 levels of positive pressure (bilevel) in a patient with myotonic dystrophy type 1

    PubMed Central

    Akamine, Ricardo Tera; Grossklauss, Luís Fernando; Moreira, Gustavo Antonio; Pradella-Hallinan, Marcia; Chiéia, Marco Antônio; Mesquita, Denis; Bulle Oliveira, Acary Souza; Tufik, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    We are reporting a case of a 29 year-old female with diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (Steinert’s disease) with excessive daytime sleepiness, muscle fatigue, snoring, frequent arousals, non-restorative sleep, and witnessed apneas. Pulmonary function tests revealed a mild decrease of forced vital capacity. Nocturnal polysomnography showed an increase of apnea/hypopnea index (85.9 events/h), mainly of central type (236), minimal oxygen saturation of 72%, and end-tidal carbon dioxide values that varied from 45 to 53 mmHg. Bi-level positive airway pressure titration was initiated at an inspiratory pressure (IPAP) of 8 and an expiratory pressure (EPAP) of 4 cm H2O. IPAP was then gradually increased to eliminate respiratory events and improve oxygen saturation. An IPAP of 12cm H20 and an EPAP of 4cm H2O eliminated all respiratory events, and the oxygen saturation remained above 90%. Bi-level positive airway pressure treatment at spontaneous/timed mode showed an improvement in snoring, apneas, and Epworth sleepiness scale decreased from 20 to 10. This case illustrates the beneficial effects of Bi-level positive airway pressure support in central sleep apnea syndrome of a patient with myotonic dystrophy type 1. PMID:26483914

  8. Single-point but not tonic cuff pressure pain sensitivity is associated with level of physical fitness--a study of non-athletic healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Lemming, Dag; Börsbo, Björn; Sjörs, Anna; Lind, Eva-Britt; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Gerdle, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is often used for pain rehabilitation but the link between physical activity level and pain sensitivity is still not fully understood. Pressure pain sensitivity to cuff algometry and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) were evaluated in highly active men (n=22), normally active men (n=26), highly active women (n=27) and normally active women (n=23) based on the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. Cuff pressure pain sensitivity was assessed at the arm and lower leg. The subjects scored the pain intensity on an electronic Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) during ten minutes with 25 kPa constant cuff pressure and two minutes with zero pressure. The maximal VAS score and area under the VAS-curve were extracted. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were recorded by manual pressure algometry on the ipsilateral tibialis anterior muscle before, during and after the tonic arm stimulation. Tonic cuff stimulation of the arm and leg resulted in higher VAS peak scores in women compared with men (p<0.04). In all groups the PPTs were reduced during and after the cuff stimulation compared with baseline (p=0.001). PPT were higher in men compared with women (p=0.03) and higher in highly physical active compared with normal active (p=0.048). Besides the well-known gender difference in pressure pain sensitivity this study demonstrates that a high physical fitness degree in non-athletic subjects is associated with increased pressure pain thresholds but does not affect cuff pressure pain sensitivity in healthy people.

  9. Single-Point but Not Tonic Cuff Pressure Pain Sensitivity Is Associated with Level of Physical Fitness – A Study of Non-Athletic Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lemming, Dag; Börsbo, Björn; Sjörs, Anna; Lind, Eva-Britt; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Gerdle, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is often used for pain rehabilitation but the link between physical activity level and pain sensitivity is still not fully understood. Pressure pain sensitivity to cuff algometry and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) were evaluated in highly active men (n=22), normally active men (n=26), highly active women (n=27) and normally active women (n=23) based on the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. Cuff pressure pain sensitivity was assessed at the arm and lower leg. The subjects scored the pain intensity on an electronic Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) during ten minutes with 25 kPa constant cuff pressure and two minutes with zero pressure. The maximal VAS score and area under the VAS-curve were extracted. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were recorded by manual pressure algometry on the ipsilateral tibialis anterior muscle before, during and after the tonic arm stimulation. Tonic cuff stimulation of the arm and leg resulted in higher VAS peak scores in women compared with men (p<0.04). In all groups the PPTs were reduced during and after the cuff stimulation compared with baseline (p=0.001). PPT were higher in men compared with women (p=0.03) and higher in highly physical active compared with normal active (p=0.048). Besides the well-known gender difference in pressure pain sensitivity this study demonstrates that a high physical fitness degree in non-athletic subjects is associated with increased pressure pain thresholds but does not affect cuff pressure pain sensitivity in healthy people. PMID:25933412

  10. [The threshold levels of the stapedius reflex depending on the relationship between the gas pressure in the external auditory meatus and the middle ear].

    PubMed

    Petrov, S M; Azizov, G R; Gritsiuk, M I; Timenko, A N

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to detect and elucidate effects of a single factor (gas pressure) responsible for the threshold levels of stapedius reflex. It was shown that the threshold reflexes were recorded at 105 dB SPL when the gas pressure in the external auditory meatus decreased by 150-200 pPa against the atmospheric pressure and when it increased by 100-150 pPa. These effects can be accounted for by the reduced compliance of the tympanic membrane and different changes in the state of the auditory ossicles undergoing compression and tension. When entering the most comfortable stapedial reflex levels into the patient's tuning chart, an account should be taken of the maximum value of tympanic membrane compliance. PMID:25377672

  11. Acute effects of traditional Thai massage on cortisol levels, arterial blood pressure and stress perception in academic stress condition: A single blind randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Surussawadi; Bennett, Michael John; Chatchawan, Uraiwon; Jenjaiwit, Patcharaporn; Pantumethakul, Rungthip; Kunhasura, Soontorn; Eungpinichpong, Wichai

    2016-04-01

    Traditional Thai massage (TTM) has been applied widely to promote relaxation. However, there is little evidence to support its efficacy on academic stress. A randomised controlled trial was performed to examine the acute effects of TTM on cortisol level, blood pressure, heart rate and stress perception in academic stress. This prospective trial included 36 physiotherapy students with a self perceived stress score of between 3 and 5. They were randomly allocated into the TTM (18 people) group or the control group (18 people). Saliva cortisol level, blood pressure, heart rate and stress perception rating were measured before and after the intervention. Both groups showed a significant reduction in cortisol level and heart rate when compared with baseline (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in cortisol level between the two groups. The results suggest the need for further study into other possible physiological effects on stress of TTM.

  12. Acute effects of traditional Thai massage on cortisol levels, arterial blood pressure and stress perception in academic stress condition: A single blind randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Surussawadi; Bennett, Michael John; Chatchawan, Uraiwon; Jenjaiwit, Patcharaporn; Pantumethakul, Rungthip; Kunhasura, Soontorn; Eungpinichpong, Wichai

    2016-04-01

    Traditional Thai massage (TTM) has been applied widely to promote relaxation. However, there is little evidence to support its efficacy on academic stress. A randomised controlled trial was performed to examine the acute effects of TTM on cortisol level, blood pressure, heart rate and stress perception in academic stress. This prospective trial included 36 physiotherapy students with a self perceived stress score of between 3 and 5. They were randomly allocated into the TTM (18 people) group or the control group (18 people). Saliva cortisol level, blood pressure, heart rate and stress perception rating were measured before and after the intervention. Both groups showed a significant reduction in cortisol level and heart rate when compared with baseline (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in cortisol level between the two groups. The results suggest the need for further study into other possible physiological effects on stress of TTM. PMID:27210845

  13. Changes in endotracheal tube cuff pressure during laparoscopic surgery in head-up or head-down position

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The abdominal insufflation and surgical positioning in the laparoscopic surgery have been reported to result in an increase of airway pressure. However, associated effects on changes of endotracheal tube cuff pressure are not well established. Methods 70 patients undergoing elective laparoscopic colorectal tumor resection (head-down position, n = 38) and laparoscopic cholecystecomy (head-up position, n = 32) were enrolled and were compared to 15 patients undergoing elective open abdominal surgery. Changes of cuff and airway pressures before and after abdominal insufflation in supine position and after head-down or head-up positioning were analysed and compared. Results There was no significant cuff and airway pressure changes during the first fifteen minutes in open abdominal surgery. After insufflation, the cuff pressure increased from 26 ± 3 to 32 ± 6 and 27 ± 3 to 33 ± 5 cmH2O in patients receiving laparoscopic cholecystecomy and laparoscopic colorectal tumor resection respectively (both p < 0.001). The head-down tilt further increased cuff pressure from 33 ± 5 to 35 ± 5 cmH2O (p < 0.001). There six patients undergoing colorectal tumor resection (18.8%) and eight patients undergoing cholecystecomy (21.1%) had a total increase of cuff pressure more than 10 cm H2O (18.8%). There was no significant correlation between increase of cuff pressure and either the patient's body mass index or the common range of intra-abdominal pressure (10-15 mmHg) used in laparoscopic surgery. Conclusions An increase of endotracheal tube cuff pressure may occur during laparoscopic surgery especially in the head-down position. PMID:25210501

  14. Hydrological response to earthquakes in the Haibara well, central Japan - I. Groundwater level changes revealed using state space decomposition of atmospheric pressure, rainfall and tidal responses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matsumoto, N.; Kitagawa, G.; Roeloffs, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    For the groundwater level observed at the Haibara well, Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan, time series analysis using state-space modelling is applied to extract hydrological anomalies related to earthquakes. This method can decompose observed groundwater level time series into five components: atmospheric pressure, tidal, and precipitation responses, observation noise, and residual water level. The decomposed responses to atmospheric pressure and precipitation are independently determined and are consistent with the expected response to surface loading. In the groundwater level at the Haibara well, 28 coseismic changes can be discerned during the period from 1981 April to 1997 December. There is a threshold in the relationship between earthquake magnitude and the well-hypocentre distance, above which earthquakes cause coseismic changes in the residual water level. All of the coseismic water level changes at the Haibara well are decreases, although 33 per cent of the estimated coseismic volumetric strain steps are contraction, which would be expected to cause water level increases. The coseismic changes in groundwater level are more closely proportional to the estimated ground motion than to coseismic volumetric strain steps, suggesting that ground motion due to earthquakes is the major cause of the coseismic water level drops and that the contribution from static strain is rather small. Possible pre- or inter-earthquake water level changes have occurred at the Haibara well and may have been caused by local aseismic crustal deformation.

  15. The effect of GSM and TETRA mobile handset signals on blood pressure, catechol levels and heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Barker, Anthony T; Jackson, Peter R; Parry, Helen; Coulton, Leslie A; Cook, Greg G; Wood, Steven M

    2007-09-01

    An acute rise in blood pressure has been reported in normal volunteers during exposure to signals from a mobile phone handset. To investigate this finding further we carried out a double blind study in 120 healthy volunteers (43 men, 77 women) in whom we measured mean arterial pressure (MAP) during each of six exposure sessions. At each session subjects were exposed to one of six different radio frequency signals simulating both GSM and TETRA handsets in different transmission modes. Blood catechols before and after exposure, heart rate variability during exposure, and post exposure 24 h ambulatory blood pressure were also studied. Despite having the power to detect changes in MAP of less than 1 mmHg none of our measurements showed any effect which we could attribute to radio frequency exposure. We found a single statistically significant decrease of 0.7 mmHg (95% CI 0.3-1.2 mmHg, P = .04) with exposure to GSM handsets in sham mode. This may be due to a slight increase in operating temperature of the handsets when in this mode. Hence our results have not confirmed the original findings of an acute rise in blood pressure due to exposure to mobile phone handset signals. In light of this negative finding from a large study, coupled with two smaller GSM studies which have also proved negative, we are of the view that further studies of acute changes in blood pressure due to GSM and TETRA handsets are not required. PMID:17486598

  16. Impact of the postpump resistance on pressure-flow waveform and hemodynamic energy level in a neonatal pulsatile centrifugal pump.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shigang; Haines, Nikkole; Richardson, J Scott; Dasse, Kurt A; Undar, Akif

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the impact of different postpump resistances on pulsatile pressure-flow waveforms and hemodynamic energy output in a mock extracorporeal system. The circuit was primed with a 40% glycerin-water mixture, and a PediVAS centrifugal pump was used. The pre- and postpump pressures and flow rates were monitored via a data acquisition system. The postpump resistance was adjusted using a Hoffman clamp at the outlet of the pump. Five different postpump resistances and rotational speeds were tested with nonpulsatile (NP: 5000 RPM) and pulsatile (P: 4000 RPM) modes. No backflow was found when using pulsatile flow. With isoresistance, increased arterial resistances decreased pump flow rates (NP: from 1,912 ml/min to 373 ml/min; P: from 1,485 ml/min to 288 ml/min), increased postpump pressures (NP: from 333 mm Hg to 402 mm Hg; P: from 223 mm Hg to 274 mm Hg), and increased hemodynamic energy output with pulsatile mode. Pump flow rate correlated linearly with rotational speed (RPMs) of the pump, whereas postpump pressures and hemodynamic energy outputs showed curvilinear relationships with RPMs. The maximal pump flow rate also increased from 618 ml/min to 4,293 ml/min with pulsatile mode and from 581 ml/min to 5,665 ml/min with nonpulsatile mode. Results showed that higher postpump resistance reduced the pump flow range, and increased postpump pressure and surplus hemodynamic energy output with pulsatile mode. Higher rotational speeds also generated higher pump flow rates, postpump pressures, and increased pulsatility.

  17. Abdominal Circulatory Interactions.

    PubMed

    Dagar, Gaurav; Taneja, Amit; Nanchal, Rahul S

    2016-04-01

    The abdominal compartment is separated from the thoracic compartment by the diaphragm. Under normal circumstances, a large portion of the venous return crosses the splanchnic and nonsplanchnic abdominal regions before entering the thorax and the right side of the heart. Mechanical ventilation may affect abdominal venous return independent of its interactions at the thoracic level. Changes in pressure in the intra-abdominal compartment may have important implications for organ function within the thorax, particularly if there is a sustained rise in intra-abdominal pressure. It is important to understand the consequences of abdominal pressure changes on respiratory and circulatory physiology. This article elucidates important abdominal-respiratory-circulatory interactions and their clinical effects. PMID:27016167

  18. Comparing two acromegalic patients with respect to central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, and tear insulin-like growth factor levels before and after treatment

    PubMed Central

    Emrah, Kan; Elif, Kılıç Kan; Ali, Okuyucu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the central corneal thickness (CCT), intraocular pressure (IOP), and tear insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels of 2 patients with acromegaly before and after the surgical treatment of the disease. CCTs, IOP levels, and tear IGF-1 values showed a decrease after the treatment in 2 patients. As we found higher CCT, IOP, and tear IGF-1 levels in the active phase of the disease in two acromegaly patients, detailed information about the activity of the disease may be important before the examination of these patients. PMID:26632130

  19. Pressure dependence of the configurational bistability and deep electronic levels of the MFe center in InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samara, G. A.; Barnes, C. E.

    2006-04-01

    The influence of hydrostatic pressure on the structural bistability and electronic properties of the processing-induced MFe center in Fe-doped n -type InP was investigated. Earlier work has shown that, when occupied by electrons, the center can be reversibly placed in either of two configurations, termed A and B , by the proper choice of electric biasing conditions and temperature. Pressure strongly modifies the energetics and kinetics of the various electronic transitions and of the transformations associated with the center. The activation volumes (ΔV*) for these processes were determined. In the absence of barriers to electron capture, or for small barriers, ΔV* can be interpreted as the breathing mode relaxation associated with electron emission or capture. At pressures ⩾8kbar , the center exists only in the A configuration regardless of bias conditions, because at these pressures the energetics and kinetics of the various processes have changed so much as to always favor the A configuration. It is also shown that, whereas the A⇄B transformations are charge state controlled at 1bar , this is not the case at high pressure where the transformations can be brought about without electron emission or hole capture. Earlier tentative atomic models for the center are discussed, and it is shown that some features of one of the models including the signs of the breathing mode relaxations associated with the various electron emissions are consistent with the experimental results, but issues remain. The results are also found to be generally consistent with first-principles calculations on defects in InP, but it is emphasized that whereas these calculations are for simple defects, the defects associated with the MFe center are more complex.

  20. Dietary phytosterols and phytostanols decrease cholesterol levels but increase blood pressure in WKY inbred rats in the absence of salt-loading

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There are safety concerns regarding widespread consumption of phytosterol and phytostanol supplemented food products. The aim of this study was to determine, in the absence of excess dietary salt, the individual effects of excess accumulation of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols on blood pressure in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) inbred rats that have a mutation in the Abcg5 gene and thus over absorb phytosterols and phytostanols. Methods Thirty 35-day old male WKY inbred rats (10/group) were fed a control diet or a diet containing phytosterols or phytostanols (2.0 g/kg diet) for 5 weeks. The sterol composition of the diets, plasma and tissues were analysed by gas chromatography. Blood pressure was measured by the tail cuff method. mRNA levels of several renal blood pressure regulatory genes were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Results Compared to the control diet, the phytosterol diet resulted in 3- to 4-fold increases in the levels of phytosterols in plasma, red blood cells, liver, aorta and kidney of WKY inbred rats (P < 0.05). The phytostanol diet dramatically increased (> 9-fold) the levels of phytostanols in plasma, red blood cells, liver, aorta and kidney of these rats (P < 0.05). The phytosterol diet decreased cholesterol levels by 40%, 31%, and 19% in liver, aorta and kidney, respectively (P < 0.05). The phytostanol diet decreased cholesterol levels by 15%, 16%, 20% and 14% in plasma, liver, aorta and kidney, respectively (P < 0.05). The phytostanol diet also decreased phytosterol levels by 29% to 54% in plasma and tissues (P < 0.05). Both the phytosterol and phytostanol diets produced significant decreases in the ratios of cholesterol to phytosterols and phytostanols in plasma, red blood cells, liver, aorta and kidney. Rats that consumed the phytosterol or phytostanol diets displayed significant increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared to rats that consumed the control diet (P < 0.05). The phytosterol diet increased renal

  1. The effects of unripe grape extract on systemic blood pressure and serum levels of superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide in rat

    PubMed Central

    Zolfaghari, Behzad; Kazemi, Mostafa; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds: The new lifestyle increases the incidence of hypertension. In Iranian folk medicine, it is believed that Verjuice obtained by unripe grape (Vitis vinifera) could control blood pressure. We tested the effects of unripe grape extract (UGE) in blood pressure alteration, serum antioxidant level and aorta endothelial permeability in rats. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats were treated daily by placebo and three different doses of UGE (50, 150 and 300 mg/kg/day). Four weeks later, the animals were anesthetized and catheterized. The direct mean arterial, systolic and diastolic pressures (MAP, SP and DP) were recorded. The endothelial permeability was determined and the serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite were measured. Results: High dose of UGE increased MAP and SP significantly (P < 0.05) when compared with the control group. Decrease of MDA and increase of SOD and nitrite also were detected statistically in animals treated with high dose of UGE (P < 0.05). No difference in aorta endothelial permeability was observed between the groups. Conclusion: The effect of UGE on blood pressure was dose dependent. High dose of UGE increased MAP and SP although its antioxidant activity was significantly high. Such observation mechanisms need to be defined. PMID:26261811

  2. Blood pressure and circulatory relationships with physical activity level in young normotensive individuals: IPAQ validity and reliability considerations.

    PubMed

    Alomari, Mahmoud A; Keewan, Esraa F; Qhatan, Redha; Amer, Ahmed; Khabour, Omar F; Maayah, Mikhled F; Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) reduces risk of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. However, the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ) relationships with blood pressure (BP) and flow (BF) and vascular resistance (VR) in healthy young individuals have not been studied. Therefore, BP, BF, and VR relationships with the IPAQ were evaluated in college normotensive students (18-23 yrs). Additionally, the IPAQ relationships with body fat (%BF), muscle mass (MM), body mass index (BMI), waist/hip (W/H) ratio, maximum walking distance in 6 min (6MWD), and handgrip strength (MHG) were examined to evaluate the questionnaire validity against fitness. Subsequently, the IPAQ was administered three times to examine its reliability. Walking, moderate, and total PAs correlated negatively with sysbolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (range: r = -3 to -0.5, p < 0.05). Additionally, all BP measures were greater in least physically active individuals. In a subgroup of 42 students, IPAQ sitting time correlated with BF (r = -0.3) and VR (r = 0.4). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for walking, moderate, vigorous, and total PAs and sitting time/week were, 0.97, 0.96, 0.97, 0.97, and 0.96, respectively. The males scored greater vigorous PA (p = 0.001) than the females, while moderate, walking, and total PAs were the same (p > 0.05). Additionally, vigorous PA correlated with %BF (r = -0.2), MM (r = 0.3), MHG (r = 0.3), and 6MWD (r = 0.3) and total PA correlated with MM (r = 0.2), MHG (r =0.2), and 6MWD (r = 0.3). The IPAQ association with the circulatory measures demonstrates PA importance for controlling BP and adds clinical value to the IPAQ. Additionally, the IPAQ is reliable, can discriminate between populations, and reasonably valid against health-related fitness.

  3. Overall fluctuating pressure levels on prospective space shuttle launch configurations at Mach numbers from 0.8 to 2.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dods, J. B., Jr.; Hanly, R. D.; Efting, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    Overall fluctuating pressure levels of seven space shuttle launch configurations are presented. The model was a 4-percent-scale space shuttle vehicle, tested in both a 11- by 11-foot transonic wind tunnel and a 9- by 7-foot supersonic wind tunnel. Mach numbers varied from 0.8 to 2.2, and the angle of attack range was from -8 deg to 8 deg at angles of sideslip of -5 deg, and 5 deg. The model configurations included both series-burn and parallel-burn configurations, two canopy configurations, two positions of the orbiter nose relative to the HO tank nose and two HO tank nose-cone angles (15 deg and 20 deg). The fluctuating pressure levels are presented in three forms.

  4. Nighttime Systolic Blood-Pressure Load Is Correlated with Target-Organ Damage Independent of Ambulatory Blood-Pressure Level in Patients with Non-Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wenjie; Gong, Wenyu; Liu, Xun; Ye, Zengchun; Peng, Hui; Lou, Tanqi

    2015-01-01

    Background The impacts of blood pressure (BP) load on target-organ damage in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are largely unclear. We examined whether BP load is correlated with target-organ damage (TOD) in Chinese CKD patients independent of BP level. Methods We recruited 1219 CKD patients admitted to our hospital division in this cross-sectional study. The TOD were measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), proteinuria, left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in this study. Univariate and multivariate linear analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between systolic blood pressure (SBP) load, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) load and these renal, cardiovascular parameters. Results In multivariable-adjusted models, BP load and ambulatory BP levels both independently correlated with LVMI, eGFR and proteinuria in all groups of CKD patients (p<0.05), 24-h SBP correlated with cIMT only in non-diabetic CKD patients without hypertension (p<0.05), while nighttime SBP load was associated with cIMT only in non-diabetic CKD patients (p<0.05). Furthermore, nighttime SBP load additionally increased coefficient of determination (R2) and correlated with LVMI, proteinuria in non-diabetic CKD patients without hypertension (R2 = 0.034, P<0.001 and R2 = 0.012, P = 0.006 respectively) and LVMI, cIMT, eGFR in non-diabetic CKD patients with hypertension (R2>0.008, P<0.05) in multivariable-adjusted model which already including the 24-h BP. BP load did not refine this correlation based on the 24-h BP level in diabetic CKD patients. Conclusion Night-time SBP load was correlated with TOD in patients with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease independent of BP level. PMID:26186336

  5. High blood pressure medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - medicines ... blood vessel diseases. You may need to take medicines to lower your blood pressure if lifestyle changes ... blood pressure to the target level. WHEN ARE MEDICINES FOR HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE USED Most of the ...

  6. [Research on Adaptive Balance Reaction for Gait Slippery Instability Events on Level Walk Based on Plantar Pressure and Gait Parameter Analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Junxia; Si, Ying

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, for gait instability phenomenon, many researches have been carried out at home and abroad. However, the relationship between plantar pressure and gait parameters in the process of balance adjustment is still unclear. This study describes the human body adaptive balance reaction during slip events on slippery level walk by plantar pressure and gait analysis. Ten healthy male subjects walked on a level path wearing shoes with two contrastive contaminants (dry, oil). The study collected and analyzed the change rule of spatiotemporal parameters, plantar pressure parameters, vertical ground reaction force (VGRF), etc. The results showed that the human body adaptive balance reaction during slip events on slippery level walk mainly included lighter touch at the heel strikes, tighter grip at the toe offs, a lower velocity, a shorter stride length and longer support time. These changes are used to maintain or recover body balance. These results would be able to explore new ideas and provide reference value for slip injury prevention, walking rehabilitation training design, research and development of walking assistive equipments, etc. PMID:27079090

  7. Comparison of the effects of two levels of negative pressure in open endotracheal tube suction on the physiological indices among patients in intensive care units

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Hojatollah; Vahdatnejad, Jahanbakhsh; Yazdannik, Ahmad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Most of the patients admitted in the intensive care units (ICUs) require an endotracheal tube and mechanical ventilation. In order to clear and maintain patency of the airways, endotracheal suctioning is required. Therefore, the least detrimental way of endotracheal tube suctioning which can diminish the complications should be selected. The present study aimed to compare the effect of two levels of negative pressure (100 mmHg and 200 mmHg) in open endotracheal tube suction on the physiological indices among patients in the ICUs. Materials and Methods: In this single-blind clinical trial, 60 patients meeting the inclusion criteria were selected by convenience sampling and randomly allocated in two groups. First group of patients were suctioned with negative pressure of 100 mmHg and the second group with 200 mmHg. Effects of two levels of suction pressure on oxygen saturation (SPO2) and heart rate (HR) values were measured and recorded at four time points. Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA), Chi-square test, and independent t-test were adopted to analyze the data. Results: In the two groups consisting of totally 60 subjects (30 in each group), 34 subjects were males and 26 were females, with a mean age of 60.63 years (minimum 18 years and maximum 75 years). Repeated measure ANOVA showed a significant difference in the mean SpO2 and HR before, during, and 5 and 20 min after suction within each group (P < 0.05), but not between the two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The present study revealed that with regard to the detrimental effect of endotracheal tube suctioning on arterial oxygen saturation and HR, suctioning with negative pressure of 200 mmHg is considered to be a low-risk procedure compared to suctioning with negative pressure of 100 mmHg, if standard procedures in open suction system are followed. PMID:25400674

  8. Porcine liver decellularization under oscillating pressure conditions: a technical refinement to improve the homogeneity of the decellularization process.

    PubMed

    Struecker, Benjamin; Hillebrandt, Karl Herbert; Voitl, Robert; Butter, Antje; Schmuck, Rosa B; Reutzel-Selke, Anja; Geisel, Dominik; Joehrens, Korinna; Pickerodt, Philipp A; Raschzok, Nathanael; Puhl, Gero; Neuhaus, Peter; Pratschke, Johann; Sauer, Igor M

    2015-03-01

    Decellularization and recellularization of parenchymal organs may facilitate the generation of autologous functional liver organoids by repopulation of decellularized porcine liver matrices with induced liver cells. We present an accelerated (7 h overall perfusion time) and effective protocol for human-scale liver decellularization by pressure-controlled perfusion with 1% Triton X-100 and 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate via the hepatic artery (120 mmHg) and portal vein (60 mmHg). In addition, we analyzed the effect of oscillating pressure conditions on pig liver decellularization (n=19). The proprietary perfusion device used to generate these pressure conditions mimics intra-abdominal conditions during respiration to optimize microperfusion within livers and thus optimize the homogeneity of the decellularization process. The efficiency of perfusion decellularization was analyzed by macroscopic observation, histological staining (hematoxylin and eosin [H&E], Sirius red, and alcian blue), immunohistochemical staining (collagen IV, laminin, and fibronectin), and biochemical assessment (DNA, collagen, and glycosaminoglycans) of decellularized liver matrices. The integrity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) postdecellularization was visualized by corrosion casting and three-dimensional computed tomography scanning. We found that livers perfused under oscillating pressure conditions (P(+)) showed a more homogenous course of decellularization and contained less DNA compared with livers perfused without oscillating pressure conditions (P(-)). Microscopically, livers from the (P(-)) group showed remnant cell clusters, while no cells were found in livers from the (P(+)) group. The grade of disruption of the ECM was higher in livers from the (P(-)) group, although the perfusion rates and pressure did not significantly differ. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that important matrix components were still present after decellularization. Corrosion casting showed an intact

  9. System-Level Design of a Shape Memory Alloy Actuator for Active Clearance Control in the High-Pressure Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Melcher, Kevin J.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes results of a numerical analysis evaluating the feasibility of high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMA) for active clearance control actuation in the high-pressure turbine section of a modern turbofan engine. The prototype actuator concept considered here consists of parallel HTSMA wires attached to the shroud that is located on the exterior of the turbine case. A transient model of an HTSMA actuator was used to evaluate active clearance control at various operating points in a test bed aircraft engine simulation. For the engine under consideration, each actuator must be designed to counteract loads from 380 to 2000 lbf and displace at least 0.033 inches. Design results show that an actuator comprised of 10 wires 2 inches in length is adequate for control at critical engine operating points and still exhibits acceptable failsafe operability and cycle life. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller with integrator windup protection was implemented to control clearance amidst engine transients during a normal mission. Simulation results show that the control system exhibits minimal variability in clearance control performance across the operating envelope. The final actuator design is sufficiently small to fit within the limited space outside the high-pressure turbine case and is shown to consume only small amounts of bleed air to adequately regulate temperature.

  10. Simulation of Liquid Level, Temperature and Pressure Inside a 2000 Liter Liquid Hydrogen Tank During Truck Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Minoru; Nara, Hiroyuki; Maekawa, Kazuma; Fujikawa, Shizuichi; Matsuno, Yu; Kuroda, Tsuneo; Kumakura, Hiroaki

    Hydrogen is an ultimate energy source because only water is produced after the chemical reaction of hydrogen and oxygen. In the near future, a large amount of hydrogen, produced using sustainable/renewable energy, is expected to be consumed. Since liquid hydrogen (LH2) has the advantage of high storage efficiency, it is expected to be the ultimate medium for the worldwide storage and transportation of large amounts of hydrogen. To make a simulation model of the sloshing of LH2 inside a 2000 liter tank, simulation analyses of LH2 surface oscillation, temperature and pressure inside the tank during a truck transportation have been carried out using a multipurpose software ANSYS CFX. Numerical results are discussed in comparison with experimental results.

  11. Investigation of atmospheric, mechanical and other pressure effects influencing the levels of radon and radon progeny in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, F.

    1999-11-01

    Real-time data measurement and analysis have identified a number of influences affecting the variability and accumulation of radon and its progeny in indoor air. Observed cycles in radon concentrations were shown to be related to the influence of air-conditioning and water-heated central heating systems. The cyclical pattern, related to operation of the air-condition system, showed radon levels almost four times lower during the period when the system was switched On than when it was Off. When the heating system was switched On the radon and radon progeny levels were 40% lower than when it was switched Off. Under both regimes, it was possible to establish the over-riding influence of meteorological factors by separating the recurring cyclical component from the relevant data set. The general or trend level of indoor radon was determined substantially by the prevailing atmospheric conditions.

  12. Relationship between long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water and the prevalence of abnormal blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuanwu; Mao, Guangyun; He, Suxia; Yang, Zuopeng; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojing; Qiu, Wenting; Ta, Na; Cao, Li; Yang, Hui; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic increases the risk and incidence of cardiovascular disease. To explore the impact of long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water on blood pressure including pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 in which the blood pressure of 405 villagers was measured, who had been drinking water with an inorganic arsenic content <50 μg/L. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After adjusting for age, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI), alcohol consumption and smoking, the odds ratios showed a 1.45-fold (95%CI: 0.63-3.35) increase in the group with >30-50 years of arsenic exposure and a 2.95-fold (95%CI: 1.31-6.67) increase in the group with >50 years exposure. Furthermore, the odds ratio for prevalence of abnormal PP and MAP were 1.06 (95%CI: 0.24-4.66) and 0.87 (95%CI: 0.36-2.14) in the group with >30-50 years of exposure, and were 2.46 (95%CI: 0.87-6.97) and 3.75 (95%CI: 1.61-8.71) for the group with >50 years exposure, compared to the group with arsenic exposure ≤ 30 years respectively. Significant trends for Hypertension (p<0.0001), PP (p<0.0001) and MAP (p=0.0016) were found. The prevalence of hypertension and abnormal PP as well as MAP is marked among a low-level arsenic exposure population, and significantly increases with the duration of arsenic exposure.

  13. Effects of a short-term vitamin D(3) and calcium supplementation on blood pressure and parathyroid hormone levels in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, M; Begerow, B; Minne, H W; Nachtigall, D; Hansen, C

    2001-04-01

    Calcium supplementation is effective in reducing blood pressure in various states of hypertension, including pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia. In addition, calcitropic hormones are associated with blood pressure. The hypothesis is that short-term therapy with calcium and vitamin D(3) may improve blood pressure as well as secondary hyperparathyroidism more effectively than calcium monotherapy. The effects of 8 weeks of supplementation with vitamin D(3) (cholecalciferol) and calcium on blood pressure and biochemical measures of bone metabolism were studied. The sample consisted of 148 women (mean +/- SD age, 74 +/- 1 yr) with a 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD(3)) level below 50 nmol/L. They received either 1200 mg calcium plus 800 IU vitamin D(3) or 1200 mg calcium/day. We measured intact PTH, 25OHD(3), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), blood pressure, and heart rate before and after treatment. Compared with calcium, supplementation with vitamin D(3) and calcium resulted in an increase in serum 25OHD(3) of 72% (P < 0.01), a decrease in serum PTH of 17% (P = 0.04), a decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 9.3% (P = 0.02), and a decrease in heart rate of 5.4% (P = 0.02). Sixty subjects (81%) in the vitamin D(3) and calcium group compared with 35 (47%) subjects in the calcium group showed a decrease in SBP of 5 mm Hg or more (P = 0.04). No statistically significant difference was observed in the diastolic blood pressures of the calcium-treated and calcium- plus vitamin D(3)-treated groups (P = 0.10). Pearson coefficients of correlation between the change in PTH and the change in SBP were 0.49 (P < 0.01) for the vitamin D(3) plus calcium group and 0.23 (P < 0.01) for the calcium group. A short-term supplementation with vitamin D(3) and calcium is more effective in reducing SBP than calcium alone. Inadequate vitamin D(3) and calcium intake could play a contributory role in the pathogenesis and progression of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in

  14. The effects of increasing levels of dietary garlic bulb on growth performance, systolic blood pressure, hematology, and ascites syndrome in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Varmaghany, Saifali; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Amir; Rahimi, Shaban; Lotfollahian, Houshang; Hassanzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    The effects of dietary garlic bulb were studied separately on hematological parameters, ascites incidence, and growth performance of an ascites susceptible broiler hybrid under both standard temperature conditions ( STC: ) and cold temperature conditions ( CTC: ). A total of 336 one-day-old male broiler chickens were allocated to 4 experimental groups with 4 replicates of 21 birds each under STC. In addition, the same grouping with another 336 birds was used for CTC. Under CTC, the birds were exposed to cold temperatures for induction of ascites. Experimental groups were defined by the inclusion of 0 (control), 5, 10 or 15 g/kg garlic bulbs in the diets under both STC and CTC. Growth performance, systolic blood pressure (as a measure of systemic arterial blood pressure), physiological and biochemical parameters, as well as ascites indices (right ventricle [ RV: ], total ventricle [ TV: ] weights, and RV/TV: ) were evaluated. Systolic blood pressure was determined using an indirect method with a sphygmomanometer, a pediatric cuff, and a Doppler device. The final body weight decreased quadratically (P = 0.003), with increasing garlic bulb levels in the diets under STC. The feed conversion ratio showed no significant differences among all groups under both STC and CTC. No significant differences were observed in total mortality and ascites-related mortality in all groups under STC, although total mortality (L: P = 0.01; Q: P = 0.001) and ascites-related mortality (L: P = 0.007; Q: P = 0.001) were significantly different among the diets under CTC. Under STC, the systolic blood pressure, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, RV, TV, and RV/TV did not vary significantly among the diets. However, red blood cell count and erythrocyte osmotic fragility decreased linearly (P < 0.005) with increasing garlic bulb levels in the diets under STC. Under CTC, the systolic blood pressure, packed cell volume, red blood cell count, and erythrocyte osmotic fragility decreased

  15. Compression of Root Level in a Patient with Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsy Diagnosed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Park, Donghwi; Ryu, Ju Seok; Kim, Ki-Jeong

    2016-09-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is characterized by acute, painless, and recurrent mononeuropathies that are secondary to compression or minor trauma. This case is the first to report an intraspinal compression of the radicular nerve by schwannoma in a patient with HNPP. A 66-year-old woman developed left foot drop and paresthesia of the lateral aspects of left distal lower leg. An electromyography showed left L5 radiculopathy and severe peripheral polyneuropathy. A lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging revealed a radicular nerve in the intradural and extramedullary space being compressed by schwannoma. She previously had symptoms of foot drop several years ago, and HNPP was confirmed by peripheral myelin protein 22 deletion. She was surgically treated for L5 radiculopathy, which might have been caused by a traction of the nerve root by schwannoma at the intradural and extramedullary space. After surgical treatment, her symptoms of foot drop had improved from zero grade to IV+ grade within 4 weeks. The occurrence of HNPP and schwannoma in the same patient may be coincidental, but it is tempting to speculate that they share a common genetic basis. Therefore, for patients with HNPP, it is important to consider not only an electrophysiologic study but also a magnetic resonance imaging to locate the exact pathologic site.

  16. Predicting out-of-office blood pressure level using repeated measurements in the clinic: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, James P.; Holder, Roger; Nichols, Linda; Bray, Emma; Hobbs, F.D. Richard; Mant, Jonathan; Little, Paul; Williams, Bryan; Greenfield, Sheila; McManus, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Identification of people with lower (white-coat effect) or higher (masked effect) blood pressure at home compared to the clinic usually requires ambulatory or home monitoring. This study assessed whether changes in SBP with repeated measurement at a single clinic predict subsequent differences between clinic and home measurements. Methods: This study used an observational cohort design and included 220 individuals aged 35–84 years, receiving treatment for hypertension, but whose SBP was not controlled. The characteristics of change in SBP over six clinic readings were defined as the SBP drop, the slope and the quadratic coefficient using polynomial regression modelling. The predictive abilities of these characteristics for lower or higher home SBP readings were investigated with logistic regression and repeated operating characteristic analysis. Results: The single clinic SBP drop was predictive of the white-coat effect with a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 50%, positive predictive value of 56% and negative predictive value of 88%. Predictive values for the masked effect and those of the slope and quadratic coefficient were slightly lower, but when the slope and quadratic variables were combined, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for the masked effect were improved to 91, 48, 24 and 97%, respectively. Conclusion: Characteristics obtainable from multiple SBP measurements in a single clinic in patients with treated hypertension appear to reasonably predict those unlikely to have a large white-coat or masked effect, potentially allowing better targeting of out-of-office monitoring in routine clinical practice. PMID:25144295

  17. Probing the energy levels of perovskite solar cells via Kelvin probe and UV ambient pressure photoemission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Harwell, J R; Baikie, T K; Baikie, I D; Payne, J L; Ni, C; Irvine, J T S; Turnbull, G A; Samuel, I D W

    2016-07-20

    The field of organo-lead halide perovskite solar cells has been rapidly growing since their discovery in 2009. State of the art devices are now achieving efficiencies comparable to much older technologies like silicon, while utilising simple manufacturing processes and starting materials. A key parameter to consider when optimising solar cell devices or when designing new materials is the position and effects of the energy levels in the materials. We present here a comprehensive study of the energy levels present in a common structure of perovskite solar cell using an advanced macroscopic Kelvin probe and UV air photoemission setup. By constructing a detailed map of the energy levels in the system we are able to predict the importance of each layer to the open circuit voltage of the solar cell, which we then back up through measurements of the surface photovoltage of the cell under white illumination. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of air photoemission and Kelvin probe contact potential difference measurements as a method of identifying the factors contributing to the open circuit voltage in a solar cell, as well as being an excellent way of probing the physics of new materials.

  18. Probing the energy levels of perovskite solar cells via Kelvin probe and UV ambient pressure photoemission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Harwell, J R; Baikie, T K; Baikie, I D; Payne, J L; Ni, C; Irvine, J T S; Turnbull, G A; Samuel, I D W

    2016-07-20

    The field of organo-lead halide perovskite solar cells has been rapidly growing since their discovery in 2009. State of the art devices are now achieving efficiencies comparable to much older technologies like silicon, while utilising simple manufacturing processes and starting materials. A key parameter to consider when optimising solar cell devices or when designing new materials is the position and effects of the energy levels in the materials. We present here a comprehensive study of the energy levels present in a common structure of perovskite solar cell using an advanced macroscopic Kelvin probe and UV air photoemission setup. By constructing a detailed map of the energy levels in the system we are able to predict the importance of each layer to the open circuit voltage of the solar cell, which we then back up through measurements of the surface photovoltage of the cell under white illumination. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of air photoemission and Kelvin probe contact potential difference measurements as a method of identifying the factors contributing to the open circuit voltage in a solar cell, as well as being an excellent way of probing the physics of new materials. PMID:27384817

  19. Quantification of clenbuterol at trace level in human urine by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nicoli, Raul; Petrou, Michael; Badoud, Flavia; Dvorak, Jiri; Saugy, Martial; Baume, Norbert

    2013-05-31

    Clenbuterol is a β2 agonist agent with anabolic properties given by the increase in the muscular mass in parallel to the decrease of the body fat. For this reason, the use of clenbuterol is forbidden by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in the practice of sport. This compound is of particular interest for anti-doping authorities and WADA-accredited laboratories due to the recent reporting of risk of unintentional doping following the eating of meat contaminated with traces of clenbuterol in some countries. In this work, the development and the validation of an ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the quantification of clenbuterol in human urine is described. The analyte was extracted from urine samples by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) in basic conditions using tert butyl-methyl ether (TBME) and analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS with a linear gradient of acetonitrile in 9min only. The simple and rapid method presented here was validated in compliance with authority guidelines and showed a limit of quantification at 5pg/mL and a linearity range from 5pg/mL to 300pg/mL. Good trueness (85.8-105%), repeatability (5.7-10.6% RSD) and intermediate precision (5.9-14.9% RSD) results were obtained. The method was then applied to real samples from eighteen volunteers collecting urines after single oral doses administration (1, 5 and 10μg) of clenbuterol-enriched yogurts.

  20. Changes in left ventricular function as determined by the multi-wire gamma camera at near presyncopal levels of lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pintner, R.; Fortney, S.; Mulvagh, S.; Lacy, J.

    1992-01-01

    At presyncopal levels of lower body negative pressure (LBNP), we have frequently observed electrocardiographic responses that may be due to changes in cardiac position and/or shape, but could be indicative of altered myocardial function. To further investigate this, we evaluated cardiac function using a nuclear imaging technique in 21 healthy subjects (17 men and 4 women) after 30 minutes of supine rest and near the end of a presyncopal-limited LBNP exposure (LBNP averaged 65 plus or minus 3 mmHg at injection). Cardiac first pass images were obtained with a Multi-Wire Gamma Camera following an intravenous bolus injection of 30-50 millicurries of Tantalum-178. Manual blood pressures and electrocardiograms were obtained throughout the 3 minute graded LBNP protocol. Between rest and injection during LBNP, heart rate increased (P less than 0.01) from 67 plus or minus 3 beats per minute to 99 plus or minus beats per minute, systolic blood pressure decreased (P less than 0.01) from 110 plus or minus 3 mmHg to 107 plus or minus 3 mmHg and left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) decreased (P less than 0.01) from 0.57 plus or minus 0.02 to 0.48 plus or minus 0.02. During LBNP, ST segment depression of at least 0.5 mm occurred in 7 subjects. Subjects with ST depression had greater reductions (P = 0.05) in EF than subjects without ST depression (0.15 plus or minus 0.07 versus 0.005 plus or minus 0.03), but also tolerated greater levels (P less than 0.05) of negative pressure (88 plus or minus mmHg versus 69 plus or minus 5 mmHg). There was a significant relationship between presyncopal LBNP level and EF (R(exp 2) = 0.50, P less than 0.05). Our findings suggest there may be a decrease in systolic myocardial function at high levels of LBNP.

  1. Sound measurement in flows: Determination of the noise level due to turbulent pressure variations by comparing the measurements with a nose cone and with a slotted tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neise, W.

    A method for the separation of sound and noise signals in flow channels is described. The two signals as a function of frequency are compared. It is assumed that sound and turbulent noise signals are statistically independent, and that the microphone noise levels are different when using a nose cone or a slotted tube. The use of comparative measurement is simple in the frequency domain of plane waves, the wave propagation being parallel to the channel axis and the sound pressure being constant in a cross section. The case of higher modes in the channel is considerably more problematic and requires laborious measurements and treatments.

  2. Cross-sectional study on the relationship between the level of serum cystatin C and blood pressure reverse dipping in hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jin; Gao, Ya; Guo, Qi; Su, Dan; Yan, Bin; Peng, Liyuan; Du, Yuxing; Li, Ke; Wang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the level of serum cystatin C (s-CC) and reverse-dipper blood pressure (BP) pattern. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Single centre. Participants A total of 718 hypertensive patients were eventually recruited from cardiac clinics between 2012 and 2014 in the Second Affiliated Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University. They were diagnosed as essential hypertension according to their casual office records of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Patients were excluded if they were <18 or >90 years old, under antihypertensive treatment, night workers, suffering from acute stroke or myocardial infarction within the past 6 months, diagnosed as secondary hypertension, sleep apnoea or other sleep disorders, renal failure, cardiac failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, women during pregnancy or intolerant to the ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). Measurement The selected patients were evaluated with 24 hours ABPM. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected to evaluate the s-CC levels by ELISA. Methods The distribution of hypertensive patients with different levels of s-CC among each circadian BP pattern group was analysed using analysis of variance. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to explore the relationship between the relevant variables and ABPM results. Results S-CC level in reverse-dipper group (1.19±0.53 mg/L) was increased significantly when compared with dipper group (1.06±0.36 mg/L) (p=0.021). In addition, after multinomial logistic regression analysis, s-CC (OR 1.717; 95% CI 1.033 to 2.854; p=0.037) and diabetes (OR 2.313; 95% CI 1.401 to 3.821; p=0.01) were significantly different between the reverse-dipper group and dipper group. On the other hand, the decline rate of nocturnal SBP (r=−0.117; p=0.002) and DBP (r=−0.089; p=0.018) was negatively correlated with the s-CC level. Conclusions The s-CC level was significantly higher in the

  3. A High-Q Resonant Pressure Microsensor with Through-Glass Electrical Interconnections Based on Wafer-Level MEMS Vacuum Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhenyu; Chen, Deyong; Wang, Junbo; Li, Yinan; Chen, Jian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a high-Q resonant pressure microsensor with through-glass electrical interconnections based on wafer-level MEMS vacuum packaging. An approach to maintaining high-vacuum conditions by integrating the MEMS fabrication process with getter material preparation is presented in this paper. In this device, the pressure under measurement causes a deflection of a pressure-sensitive silicon square diaphragm, which is further translated to stress build up in “H” type doubly-clamped micro resonant beams, leading to a resonance frequency shift. The device geometries were optimized using FEM simulation and a 4-inch SOI wafer was used for device fabrication, which required only three photolithographic steps. In the device fabrication, a non-evaporable metal thin film as the getter material was sputtered on a Pyrex 7740 glass wafer, which was then anodically bonded to the patterned SOI wafer for vacuum packaging. Through-glass via holes predefined in the glass wafer functioned as the electrical interconnections between the patterned SOI wafer and the surrounding electrical components. Experimental results recorded that the Q-factor of the resonant beam was beyond 22,000, with a differential sensitivity of 89.86 Hz/kPa, a device resolution of 10 Pa and a nonlinearity of 0.02% F.S with the pressure varying from 50 kPa to 100 kPa. In addition, the temperature drift coefficient was less than −0.01% F.S/°C in the range of −40 °C to 70 °C, the long-term stability error was quantified as 0.01% F.S over a 5-month period and the accuracy of the microsensor was better than 0.01% F.S. PMID:25521385

  4. Correlations among residual multiparticle entropy, local atomic-level pressure, free volume and the phase-ordering rule in several liquids.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qi-Long; Wang, Wei-Lu; Li, Y D; Liu, C S

    2011-01-28

    A modified Wang-Landau density-of-states sampling approach has been performed to calculate the excess entropy of liquid metals, Lennard-Jones (LJ) system and liquid Si under NVT conditions; and it is then the residual multiparticle entropy (S(RMPE)) is obtained by subtraction of the pair correlation entropy. The temperature dependence of S(RMPE) has been investigated along with the temperature dependence of the local atomic-level pressure and the pair correlation functions. Our results suggest that the temperature dependence of the pair correlation entropy is well described by T(-1) scaling while T(-0.4) scaling well describes the relationship between the excess entropy and temperature. For liquid metals and LJ system, the -S(RMPE) versus temperature curves show positive correlations and the -S(RMPE) of liquid Si is shown to have a negative correlation with temperature, the phase-ordering criterion (based on the S(RMPE)) for predicting freezing transition works in liquid metals and LJ but fails in liquid Si. The local atomic-level pressure scaled with the virial pressure (σ(al)/σ(av)) exhibits the much similar temperature dependence as -S(RMPE) for all studied systems, even though simple liquid metals and liquid Si exhibit opposite temperature dependence in both σ(al)/σ(av) and -S(RMPE). The further analysis shows that the competing properties of the two effects due to localization and free volume on the S(RMPE) exist in simple liquid metals and LJ system but disappear in liquid Si, which may be the critical reason of the failure of the phase-ordering criterion in liquid Si. PMID:21280749

  5. HBK-14 and HBK-15 Do Not Influence Blood Pressure, Lipid Profile, Glucose Level, or Liver Enzymes Activity after Chronic Treatment in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Głuch-Lutwin, Monika; Knutelska, Joanna; Jakubczyk, Magdalena; Waszkielewicz, Anna; Kotańska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Older and even new antidepressants cause adverse effects, such as orthostatic hypotension, hyper- or hypoglycemia, liver injury or lipid disorders. In our previous experiments we showed significant antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activities of dual 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 antagonists with α1-adrenolitic properties i.e. 1-[(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)ethoxyethyl]-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine hydrochloride (HBK-14) and 1-[(2-chloro-6-methylphenoxy)ethoxyethyl]-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine hydrochloride (HBK-15). Here, we evaluated the influence of chronic administration of HBK-14 and HBK-15 on blood pressure (non-invasive blood pressure measurement system for rodents), lipid profile (total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins—LDL, high density lipoproteins—HDL, triglycerides), glucose level, and liver enzymes activity (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase). We determined potential antihistaminic (isolated guinea pig ileum) and antioxidant properties (ferric reducing ability of plasma–FRAP, non-protein thiols–NPSH, stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl—DPPH) cytotoxicity. Our experiments revealed that HBK-14 and HBK-15 did not influence blood pressure, lipid profile, glucose level or liver enzymes activity in rats after 2-week treatment. We also showed that none of the compounds possessed antioxidant or cytotoxic properties at antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like doses. HBK-14 and HBK-15 very weakly blocked H1 receptors in guinea pig ileum. Positive results of our preliminary experiments on the safety of HBK-14 and HBK-15 encourage further studies concerning their effectiveness in the treatment of depression and/or anxiety disorders. PMID:27788267

  6. Major improvement of altimetry sea level estimations using pressure-derived corrections based on ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrere, Loren; Faugère, Yannice; Ablain, Michaël

    2016-06-01

    The new dynamic atmospheric correction (DAC) and dry tropospheric (DT) correction derived from the ERA-Interim meteorological reanalysis have been computed for the 1992-2013 altimeter period. Using these new corrections significantly improves sea level estimations for short temporal signals (< 2 months); the impact is stronger if considering old altimeter missions (ERS-1, ERS-2, and Topex/Poseidon), for which DAC_ERA (DAC derived from ERA-Interim meteorological reanalysis) allows reduction of the along-track altimeter sea surface height (SSH) error by more than 3 cm in the Southern Ocean and in some shallow water regions. The impact of DT_ERA (DT derived from ERA-Interim meteorological reanalysis) is also significant in the southern high latitudes for these missions. Concerning more recent missions (Jason-1, Jason-2, and Envisat), results are very similar between ERA-Interim and ECMWF-based corrections: on average for the global ocean, the operational DAC becomes slightly better than DAC_ERA only from the year 2006, likely due to the switch of the operational forcing to a higher spatial resolution. At regional scale, both DACs are similar in the deep ocean but DAC_ERA raises the residual crossovers' variance in some shallow water regions, indicating a slight degradation in the most recent years of the study. In the second decade of altimetry, unexpectedly DT_ERA still gives better results compared to the operational DT. Concerning climate signals, both DAC_ERA and DT_ERA have a low impact on global mean sea level rise (MSL) trends, but they can have a strong impact on long-term regional trends' estimation, up to several millimeters per year locally.

  7. Assessment and evaluation of noise controls on roof bolting equipment and a method for predicting sound pressure levels in underground coal mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matetic, Rudy J.

    Over-exposure to noise remains a widespread and serious health hazard in the U.S. mining industries despite 25 years of regulation. Every day, 80% of the nation's miners go to work in an environment where the time weighted average (TWA) noise level exceeds 85 dBA and more than 25% of the miners are exposed to a TWA noise level that exceeds 90 dBA, the permissible exposure limit (PEL). Additionally, MSHA coal noise sample data collected from 2000 to 2002 show that 65% of the equipment whose operators exceeded 100% noise dosage comprise only seven different types of machines; auger miners, bulldozers, continuous miners, front end loaders, roof bolters, shuttle cars (electric), and trucks. In addition, the MSHA data indicate that the roof bolter is third among all the equipment and second among equipment in underground coal whose operators exceed 100% dosage. A research program was implemented to: (1) determine, characterize and to measure sound power levels radiated by a roof bolting machine during differing drilling configurations (thrust, rotational speed, penetration rate, etc.) and utilizing differing types of drilling methods in high compressive strength rock media (>20,000 psi). The research approach characterized the sound power level results from laboratory testing and provided the mining industry with empirical data relative to utilizing differing noise control technologies (drilling configurations and types of drilling methods) in reducing sound power level emissions on a roof bolting machine; (2) distinguish and correlate the empirical data into one, statistically valid, equation, in which, provided the mining industry with a tool to predict overall sound power levels of a roof bolting machine given any type of drilling configuration and drilling method utilized in industry; (3) provided the mining industry with several approaches to predict or determine sound pressure levels in an underground coal mine utilizing laboratory test results from a roof bolting

  8. Fast determination of 3-ethenylpyridine as a marker of environmental tobacco smoke at trace level using direct atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Cheng-Yong; Sun, Shi-Hao; Zhang, Qi-Dong; Liu, Jun-Hui; Zhang, Jian-Xun; Zong, Yong-Li; Xie, Jian-Ping

    2013-03-01

    A method with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) was developed and applied to direct analysis of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS), using 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP) as a vapour-phase marker. In this study, the ion source of APCI-MS/MS was modified and direct analysis of gas sample was achieved by the modified instrument. ETS samples were directly introduced, via an atmospheric pressure inlet, into the APCI source. Ionization was carried out in positive-ion APCI mode and 3-EP was identified by both full scan mode and daughter scan mode. Quantification of 3-EP was performed by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The calibration curve was obtained in the range of 1-250 ng L-1 with a satisfactory regression coefficient of 0.999. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.5 ng L-1 and 1.6 ng L-1, respectively. The precision of the method, calculated as relative standard deviation (RSD), was characterized by repeatability (RSD 3.92%) and reproducibility (RSD 4.81%), respectively. In real-world ETS samples analysis, compared with the conventional GC-MS method, the direct APCI-MS/MS has shown better reliability and practicability in the determination of 3-EP at trace level. The developed method is simple, fast, sensitive and repeatable; furthermore, it could provide an alternative way for the determination of other volatile pollutants in