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Sample records for intracapsular femoral neck

  1. Outcome after conservatively managed intracapsular fractures of the femoral neck.

    PubMed

    Moulton, L S; Green, N L; Sudahar, T; Makwana, N K; Whittaker, J P

    2015-05-01

    In 2012, 2.6% of hip-fracture patients in the UK were treated conservatively. There is little data on outcome for these patients. However, one study demonstrated that though 30-day mortality is higher, mortality over the rest of the year is comparable with that in surgical groups. Therefore, we assessed conservatively managed patients in our unit. Patients with intracapsular fractures of the femoral neck treated by conservative means between 2010 and 2012 inclusive were identified. Data were collected: American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) grade, Nottingham Hip Fracture Score (NHFS), mobility, mortality (30 days and one year) and pain levels. Thirty-two patients formed the study cohort. Mean age was 85.6 years. Median ASA grade was 4. Mortality at 30 days and one year was 31.3% and 56.3%, respectively. There was one case of pneumonia and one of infection. Pressure sores or venous thromboembolism were not documented. Three patients underwent surgery once their health improved. In general, mobility was decreased, but 30.8% of patients could mobilise with two aids or a frame. Only two cases had ongoing problems with pain. Our data are similar to those published previously. Our patients were likely to have higher mortality data due to selection bias. Thirty-day mortality was significantly higher than the national average, but patients surviving 30 days had a prevalence of mortality similar to those managed by surgical means. Despite mobility decreasing from the pre-admission status, a considerable number of patients were free of pain and could mobilise. These data suggest that conservative management of intracapsular fractures of the femoral neck can produce acceptable results.

  2. Outcome after hemi-arthroplasty for displaced intracapsular femoral neck fracture related to mental state.

    PubMed

    van Dortmont, L M; Douw, C M; van Breukelen, A M; Laurens, D R; Mulder, P G; Wereldsma, J C; van Vugt, A B

    2000-06-01

    This study was performed to assess mortality and functional outcome after hemi-arthroplasty for displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures in relation to mental state. Between 1991 and 1995, 202 consecutive patients over 70 years of age were followed for at least two years or until death. Thirty-nine patients were known with senile dementia at the time of admission. The four-month mortality rate was 11.7% for the mentally normal patients and 33.3% for the mentally impaired patients. After one year the mortality rate was 19. 6% for the mentally normal patients and 43.6% for the mentally impaired patients. This difference is statistically significant (p<0. 001). Of the 141 surviving mentally normal patients, who had been mobile before operation, 16 (11.3%) were not mobile four months after operation. Of the 24 surviving mentally impaired patients, who had been mobile before operation, 18 (75.0%) were not mobile four months after operation. This difference is statistically significant (p<0.001). The conclusion of our study is that mental state has a statistically significant effect on mortality and functional outcome after hemi-arthroplasty for displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures. For demented patients, hemi-arthrplasty is a too major operation and less invasive methods of internal fixation should be considered.

  3. Using biomechanics to improve the surgical technique for internal fixation of intracapsular femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    Despite advances in science and technology, the success rate for the treatment of displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures in high-energy injuries remains disappointing. The blood supply system in the femoral head of humans does not favor recovery from these fractures. Once these fractures occur, osteonecrosis and nonunion rates may be as high as 30%, even if the newest technique is used. There are some surgical techniques used to supplement internal fixation to reestablish the blood supply in the femoral head, but none have been evidently successful. After analysis of related studies, the author concludes that immediate surgical treatment using improved techniques incorporating the principles of biomechanics can improve the success rate of treatment of these fractures. Using these principles, the fracture site can achieve sufficient stability. Consequently, the blood supply in the femoral head and neck can be reestablished earlier and loss of reduction of fragments during treatment can be minimized. Thus, the chance of full recovery from these complicated fractures can be maximized. In this study, the biomechanical characteristics of these fractures and the principles associated with the surgical techniques used for treating them are reviewed and clarified. Finally, a surgical technique which is ideal from the author's viewpoint is presented. The author believes that the recommended surgical technique may become the best method for treating these complicated fractures.

  4. Internal Fixation Versus Hemiarthroplasty for Displaced Intra-Capsular Femoral Neck Fractures in ASA 3-5 Geriatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rezaie, W.; Wei, W.; Cleffken, B.I.; van der Vlies, C.H.; Cleffken, B.I.; Roukema, G.R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The treatment of choice for elderly with a displaced intra-capsular femoral neck fractures is prosthetic replacement. This is however a major surgical procedure for geriatric patients with multiple co-morbidities which can threaten hemodynamic stability and lead to death. In this study we compared the outcome of internal fixation (IF) versus hemiarthroplasty (HA) for the management of intra-capsular femoral neck fractures in the elderly with severe co-morbidities. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all the patients who were admitted to our Level-II trauma centre with a femoral neck fracture between January 2009 and June 2011. Inclusion criteria were: 70 years or older, ASA 3 or higher, a displaced femoral neck fracture and treatment with either internal fixation or a cemented hemiprosthesis. The primary outcome was 6-month mortality rate. Secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality, post-operative complications, re-operation rate and length of hospital stay. Results: 80 patients met our inclusion criteria. The mean age of the IF group was 81.6 years and in the HA group it was 84.5 years (P=0.07). The medical records were retrieved 34-64 months after surgery. Two intra-operative deaths due to cement implantation syndrome were found in the HA group and none in the IF group. Twelve patients (21.8%) in the HA group died within 30 days after surgery and 2 (8.0%) in the IF group (P=0.21). The mean operating time was 83 min. for the HA group and 51 min. for the IF group (P=0.000). There were more implant-related complications in the IF than in the HA group (36% vs 9.1% respectively, P=0.008). The 6-month mortality rates didn’t differ between the IF and the HA groups (respectively 28.0% vs 34.5%, P=0.62). Conclusion: The post-operative mortality rates did not differ between the IF and the HA groups in elderly patients with a displaced femoral neck fracture and ASA 3 to 5. However, the HA associated with less implant-related complications than

  5. Arthroplasty versus Internal Fixation for Displaced Intracapsular Femoral Neck Fracture in the Elderly: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Short- and Long-term Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Chen-Yi; Liu, An; Xu, Ming-Yuan; Nonso, Nwofor Samuel; He, Rong-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is conflicting evidence as to whether the femoral head should be preserved or replaced in elderly patients with displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures. In this article, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the short- and long-term effectiveness of arthroplasty (AR) and internal fixation (IF). Methods: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched systematically up to January 2016. All randomized controlled trials directly comparing the effectiveness of AR and IF for displaced intracapsular fracture were retrieved with no limitation on language or publication year. Results: In total, eight prospective randomized studies involving 2206 patients were included. The results of our study showed that patients in the AR group reported significantly lower complication (risk ratio: 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.38–0.80), re-operation (risk ratio: 0.17, 95% CI = 0.13–0.22), revision rates (risk ratio: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.08–0.16), and better function compared with their IF counterparts, and they were less likely to suffer postoperative pain. No statistically significant differences for the rates of mortality, infection, and/or deep vein thrombosis between AR and IF were found. Conclusions: Based on our analysis, we recommend that AR should be used as the primary treatment for displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures in the elderly. However, IF may be appropriate for those who are very frail. PMID:27779172

  6. [Fracture Type and Injury-to-Surgery Interval as Risk Factors for Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head after Internal Fixation of Intracapsular Femoral Neck Fracture].

    PubMed

    Popelka, O; Skála-Rosenbaum, J; Bartoška, R; Waldauf, P; Krbec, M; Džupa, V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head following the osteosynthesis of intracapsular fracture of the femoral neck in relation to the time interval between injury and surgery and the type of fracture. The data of patients with intracapsular fractures of the femoral neck surgically treated in the period from 2001 to 2011 were reviewed. Of 1555 patients treated for this fracture, 125 (7%) underwent osteosynthesis. The evaluated group included 115 patients who came for examination at one-year follow-up. There were 59 (52%) women and 56 (48%) men. Dynamic hip screw (DHS) osteosynthesis with an anti-rotation screw was performed in 103 patients and lag-screw osteosynthesis involving three parallel cannulated cancellous screws was employed in 12 patients. The patients were allocated to groups according to the injury-to-surgery interval and to sub-groups on the basis of the Garden classification of femoral fracture stage. In the group of 58 patients treated within 6 h of injury, AVN developed in 10 (17%). When the type of fracture was considered, 4% of the non-displaced fractures and 30% of the displaced fractures developed AVN. The patients with Garden stage I and II (non-displaced) fractures treated within 6 h of injury had a significantly lower risk of AVN development than those with Garden stage III or IV (displaced) fractures. The group treated between 6 and 24 post-injury hours comprised 21 patients, of whom four (19%) had AVN. In non-displaced and displaced fracture sub-groups, 25% of the patients in the former and 16% in the latter had AVN. The stage of displacement had no effect on AVN development. The two groups together (patients treated by 24 h) had a significantly lower AVN incidence than the patients treated after 24 h (p = 0.0025). In this group of 36 patients, 16 had AVN (44%) and the fracture stage made no significant difference (p = 0.6985; nondisplacement sub-group, 41%; displacement sub

  7. A predictive method for subsequent avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVNFH) by observation of bleeding from the cannulated screw used for fixation of intracapsular femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myung-Rae; Lee, Sang-Wook; Shin, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Shin-Kun; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Ko, Sang-Bong; Kwun, Koing-Woo

    2007-03-01

    To examine the validity of bleeding from the drill holes used for cannulated screw placement as a method for predicting any subsequent avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVNFH) after the fixation of intracapsular femoral neck fractures. Retrospective study. University hospital. Forty-four patients (mean age, 51 years; range, 18-76 years) whose femoral neck fractures had been fixed with cannulated screws from March 1999 to January 2001 were enrolled in this study. The fractures were classified according to Garden and included 11 type I, 5 type II, 17 type III, and 11 type IV. The average delay between injury and surgery was 52 hours (< or =24 hours, 26; > or =24 hours, 18; range 7 to 504 hours). The follow-up period was more than 25 months (range, 25-57 months). 7.0 mm cannulated screws were used for fracture fixation. Three and 4 screws were used for fixation in 35 and 9 cases, respectively. The presence or absence of blood drainage from the holes of the proximal cannulated screws was determined by an independent observer and defined as bleeding or no bleeding throughout a 5 minute observation period. According to those findings, patients were classified into 2 groups: the bleeding group (38 cases), and the nonbleeding group (6 cases). The validity of the relationship between the 2 groups and the development of AVNFH was evaluated according to the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. A chi test was used for univariate analysis of the relationship between the related factors with the development of AVNFH. The mean follow-up was 39 months (range, 25-57 months). AVNFH developed in 7 cases (16%). One patient of 38 in the bleeding group (2.6%) and all 6 patients in the nonbleeding group (100%) developed AVNFH. The sensitivity was 86%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, and negative predictive value 97%. Age (P < 0.734), sex (P < 0.587), the type of the fracture (P < 0.356), procedure interval (P < 0

  8. Prognostic value of the sliding length of cephalocervical screws to predict the risk of non-union after osteosynthesis: a retrospective analysis of 86 patients with intracapsular femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Yohei; Nakamura, Hidehiro; Minamitani, Kazuhito; Hashida, Ryuki; Gotoh, Masafumi; Shiba, Naoto

    2017-02-22

    Here, we assessed the prognostic value of the early sliding length (ESL) for predicting the risk of non-union after internal fixation of femoral neck fractures (FNFs) by Dual SC Screws (DSCS). A retrospective analysis of 86 patients with intra-capsular FNFs was performed. They underwent osteosynthesis by DSCS at our institution between 2008 and 2013 with a minimum follow-up duration of 6 months. Preoperative displacement, fracture reduction quality, ESL of screws at 2 weeks postoperatively, and correlation of non-union with the ESL of screws were evaluated. Bone union without complications was achieved in 74 patients (86.0%), whereas 12 patients (14.0%) showed non-union. The ESL was significantly longer in the non-union group (proximal 3.94 ± 2.79 mm, distal 4.03 ± 3.16 mm) than in the union group (proximal 0.98 ± 1.85 mm, distal 1.01 ± 1.84 mm, P = 0.0001* for proximal, P < 0.0001* for distal). The ESL was significantly associated with non-union, both in the proximal [P = 0.0002, unit odds ratio (OR) 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-2.16] and distal screws (P = 0.0002, unit OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.21-2.02). The areas under the ROC curves for the ESL of proximal and distal screws were 0.845 and 0.867, respectively; the cut-off values to predict non-union were 1.0 mm (sensitivity 91.7% and specificity 74.3%) and 1.4 mm (sensitivity 83.3% and specificity 81.1%), respectively. In this study, the ESL was a good predictor of postoperative non-union in patients with FNFs fixed by DSCS.

  9. Treatment of neglected femoral neck fracture

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anil K; Mukunth, R; Srivastava, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Intra-capsular femoral neck fractures are seen commonly in elderly people following a low energy trauma. Femoral neck fracture has a devastating effect on the blood supply of the femoral head, which is directly proportional to the severity of trauma and displacement of the fracture. Various authors have described a wide array of options for treatment of neglected/nonunion (NU) femoral neck fracture. There is lack of consensus in general, regarding the best option. This Instructional course article is an analysis of available treatment options used for neglected femoral neck fracture in the literature and attempt to suggest treatment guides for neglected femoral neck fracture. We conducted the “Pubmed” search with the keywords “NU femoral neck fracture and/or neglected femoral neck fracture, muscle-pedicle bone graft in femoral neck fracture, fibular graft in femoral neck fracture and valgus osteotomy in femoral neck fracture.” A total of 203 print articles were obtained as the search result. Thirty three articles were included in the analysis and were categorized into four subgroups based on treatment options. (a) treated by muscle-pedicle bone grafting (MPBG), (b) closed/open reduction internal fixation and fibular grafting (c) open reduction and internal fixation with valgus osteotomy, (d) miscellaneous procedures. The data was pooled from all groups for mean neglect, the type of study (prospective or retrospective), classification used, procedure performed, mean followup available, outcome, complications, and reoperation if any. The outcome of neglected femoral neck fracture depends on the duration of neglect, as the changes occurring in the fracture area and fracture fragments decides the need and type of biological stimulus required for fracture union. In stage I and stage II (Sandhu's staging) neglected femoral neck fracture osteosynthesis with open reduction and bone grafting with MPBG or Valgus Osteotomy achieves fracture union in almost 90% cases

  10. The Use of Superselective Arteriography in the Evaluation of the Influence of Intracapsular Hip Joint Pressure on the Blood Flow of the Femoral Head.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kai; Huang, Jianhua; Wang, Qiugen

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to analyze the intracapsular pressure of the hip joint following femoral neck fracture and its relationship to the position of the hip or to traction and (using superselective arteriography) to evaluate the blood supply to the femoral head and the influence of traction and hip position on the blood supply. Twenty-six cases of fresh Garden type I-III femoral neck fractures were enrolled. After being placed in the neutral position, in internal rotation or with traction of 3 and 5 kg, respectively, intracapsular manometric changes were measured. Eight cases underwent superselective arteriography of the medial circumflex femoral artery and its branches under the manometric changes of the hip joint capsule. Twenty-four to 48 h after the injury, the intracapsular pressure was significantly higher on the fractured side than on the normal side. The mean pressure was 28.41 ± 9.339 mm Hg in fully extended hips in the neutral position, 79.92 ± 12.80 mm Hg in internally rotated hips, 51.39 ± 15.41 mm Hg in hips with 3 kg of traction and 64.81 ± 13.56 mm Hg in hips with 5 kg of traction. The arteriographic findings revealed that traction and internal rotation reduced the perfusion of the femoral head at the medial circumflex femoral artery and its branches, and also negatively influenced venous reflux. Traction and internal rotation both caused the intracapsular pressure of the hip joint to rise considerably, which reduced the femoral head perfusion and impeded venous reflux. This could lead to avascular necrosis of the femoral head. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. A case report of missed femoral neck stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Onibere, Oruaro Adebayo; Sugathan, Hari Kovilazhikathu

    2015-03-06

    Femoral neck stress fracture (FNSF) is an uncommon but potentially serious orthopaedic problem. This is a case report on missed femoral neck stress fracture in a 62-year-old female who was initially treated as early-onset coxarthrosis. She later presented to us with a displaced intra-capsular neck of left femur fracture and underwent total hip replacement. This case illustrates that causes other than osteoarthritis should be taken into consideration in patients presenting with anterior hip pain where symptoms are disproportionate to clinical and radiological findings. More advanced investigations such as MRI scan or regular follow up with plain radiographs should be performed. A delay in diagnosis can lead to secondary displacement of the femoral neck stress fracture.

  12. Increased intracapsular pressures after unstable slipped capital femoral epiphysis.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Soto, Jose A; Duffy, Michael F; Birnbaum, Mark A; Vander Have, Kelly L

    2008-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is the most dreaded complication associated with an unstable slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). We hypothesize that the hip joint pressure will be increased in unstable slips, confirming that emergent treatment and decompression are warranted. Thirteen unstable SCFE hips were evaluated. Hip pressure monitoring was performed. Postcapsulotomy measurements were also performed in all of the patients. Five of these under gentle manipulation. Six patients underwent measurement of the hip pressure on the unaffected side. The mean pressure on the affected hip was 48 mm Hg. The mean pressure on the unaffected side was 23 mm Hg. There was a significant increase in intraarticular hip pressure after attempted manipulation (mean, 75 mm Hg). Hip pressures are increased in unstable SCFE to levels higher for those of a compartment syndrome probably causing a tamponade effect. There is a need to perform a capsulotomy if manipulation is performed.

  13. Failed internal fixation of femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Hoelsbrekken, Sigurd Erik; Opsahl, Jan-Henrik; Stiris, Morten; Paulsrud, Øyvind; Strømsøe, Knut

    2012-06-12

    There are two types of surgical treatment for fractures of the femoral neck; internal fixation and arthroplasty. Internal fixation is associated with a higher risk of complications such as secondary displacement, non-union and avascular necrosis. To improve treatment results of internal fixation, we have tried to identify procedure related risk-factors associated with fixation failure. A retrospective study was conducted based on the medical records and X-ray images of 337 patients sustaining intracapsular fractures of the hip during the period 1999-2000. The patients were treated with closed reduction and internal fixation at Oslo University Hospital, Aker. The reduction of the fracture and the placement of the fixation implants were evaluated and scored (six points representing best achievable result). Fixation failed in 23 (18,3 %) out of 126 patients with displaced fractures awarded six points for the reduction. In contrast, fixation failed in five (50 %) out of ten patients given a score of three points or less (p = 0.017). The risk of non-union increased when patients were treated more than 48 hours after the initial injury. In this group, 5 (25 %) out of 20 patients developed non-union compared to 16 (8 %) out of 200 patients treated within 48 hours (p = 0.014). Our findings emphasize the importance of achieving anatomical reduction of displaced femoral neck fractures, and to perform surgery within 48 hours unless an acute medical condition needs to be stabilized.

  14. Technique for gentle accurate reproducible closed reduction of intracapsular fracture of neck of femur.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Ravindra H; Kumar, Sachin; Mishra, Bhanu

    2017-03-01

    Non-anatomic reduction with either inferior offset or varus angulation was the strongest predictor of re-displacement of the fracture and poor outcome after fixation of intracapsular fracture of neck of femur. There are many techniques for closed reduction and can be broadly divided into non-invasive and invasive techniques. We describe a minimally invasive technique, which we believe is easy, reproducible and successful in achieving good anatomical reduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Femoral Head and Neck Excision.

    PubMed

    Harper, Tisha A M

    2017-07-01

    Femoral head and neck excision is a surgical procedure that is commonly performed in small animal patients. It is a salvage procedure that is done to relieve pain in the coxofemoral joint and restore acceptable function of the limb. Femoral head and neck excision is most commonly used to treat severe osteoarthritis in the coxofemoral joint and can be done in dogs and cats of any size or age. The procedure should not be overused and ideally should not be done when the integrity of the coxofemoral joint can be restored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of osteoarthritis on functional outcome following hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fracture: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Boese, Christoph Kolja; Buecking, Benjamin; Bliemel, Christopher; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Frink, Michael; Lechler, Philipp

    2015-10-16

    The influence of pre-existing radiographic osteoarthritis on the functional outcome of elderly patientents with displaced intracapsular fractures of the femoral neck treated by hemiarthroplasty is unclear. We prospectively examined the impact of pre-existing osteoarthritis on the functional outcome of 126 elderly patients with displaced intracapsular fracture of the femoral neck treated by hemiarthroplasty. The mean age of the cohort was 82.7 years. At 12 months, we observed no statistically significant differences in the Harris hip score (p = 0.545), the timed up and go test (p = 0.298), the Tinetti test (p = 0.381) or the Barthel Index (p = 0.094) between patients with Kellgren and Lawrence grades 3 or 4 osteoarthritis, and patients with grades 0 to 2 changes. Furthermore, there were no differences in complication or revision rates. Our findings challenge the hypothesis that pre-existing osteoarthritis is a contraindication to hemiarthroplasty in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture.

  17. Femoral neck fractures in osteogenesis imperfecta treated with bisphosphonates

    PubMed Central

    Papanna, M. C.; Tafazal, S.; Bell, M. J.; Giles, S. N.; Fernandes, J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a condition characterised by bone fragility and multiple fractures, which cause considerable morbidity in the affected patients. Most cases are associated with mutations in one of the type I collagen genes. Recently, bisphosponates have been used widely to reduce pain and the incidence of fragility fractures in OI in children, even though there have been concerns raised regarding the long-term complications of it due to their effect on the bone. The fragility fractures involving the neck of the femur in children with intramedullary rods in the femoral shaft are very difficult to treat. Although these fractures are frequently un-displaced, they require optimal internal fixation to achieve fracture union. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and radiological outcomes of OI patients with intracapsular femoral neck fracture treated with headless compression screws. Method and results At our institute, we identified seven patients (11 hips) with OI who underwent internal fixation with headless compression screws for a neck of femur fracture between June 2010 and Dec 2012. The time to fractures healing was on average 14 weeks (12 to 16). All patients gained their pre-injury ambulatory status. Conclusion It is very challenging and technically demanding for orthopaedic surgeons when treating the fragility fracture of the neck of femur in patients with intramedullary rod in the femoral shaft. The published data regarding the management of these complex conditions are very limited. We describe our experience with the technique of percutaneous headless compression screw fixation for treating the femoral neck fractures in OI patients. PMID:28828062

  18. Correlation Between Residual Displacement and Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head Following Cannulated Screw Fixation of Femoral Neck Fractures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Xu, Gui-Jun; Han, Zhe; Jiang, Xuan; Zhang, Cheng-Bao; Dong, Qiang; Ma, Jian-Xiong; Ma, Xin-Long

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to introduce a new method for measuring the residual displacement of the femoral head after internal fixation and explore the relationship between residual displacement and osteonecrosis with femoral head, and to evaluate the risk factors associated with osteonecrosis of the femoral head in patients with femoral neck fractures treated by closed reduction and percutaneous cannulated screw fixation.One hundred and fifty patients who sustained intracapsular femoral neck fractures between January 2011 and April 2013 were enrolled in the study. All were treated with closed reduction and percutaneous cannulated screw internal fixation. The residual displacement of the femoral head after surgery was measured by 3-dimensional reconstruction that evaluated the quality of the reduction. Other data that might affect prognosis were also obtained from outpatient follow-up, telephone calls, or case reviews. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to assess the intrinsic relationship between the risk factors and the osteonecrosis of the femoral head.Osteonecrosis of the femoral head occurred in 27 patients (18%). Significant differences were observed regarding the residual displacement of the femoral head and the preoperative Garden classification. Moreover, we found more or less residual displacement of femoral head in all patients with high quality of reduction based on x-ray by the new technique. There was a close relationship between residual displacement and ONFH.There exists limitation to evaluate the quality of reduction by x-ray. Three-dimensional reconstruction and digital measurement, as a new method, is a more accurate method to assess the quality of reduction. Residual displacement of the femoral head and the preoperative Garden classification were risk factors for osteonecrosis of the femoral head. High-quality reduction was necessary to avoid complications.

  19. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head after osteosynthesis of femoral neck fracture.

    PubMed

    Min, Byung-Woo; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2011-05-18

    The reported incidence of avascular necrosis after femoral neck fracture fixation varies widely, and there is no consensus regarding its risk factors. We evaluated the incidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head with the use of contemporary techniques for femoral neck fracture fixation. We then sought to determine what potential risk factors influenced the development of avascular necrosis.Between 1990 and 2005, one hundred sixty-three intracapsular femoral neck fractures in 163 patients were treated with internal fixation at our level-I trauma center. All patients were monitored until conversion to total hip arthroplasty or for a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. Ten patients (10 hips) died and 7 patients (7 hips) were lost to follow-up. The remaining 146 patients (146 hips) had a mean 5.2 years of follow-up (range, 3 months to 17 years). The incidence of avascular necrosis was 25.3% (37 hips). The average time to diagnosis of avascular necrosis was 18.8 months (range, 3-47 months). Patient sex, age, interval from injury to surgery, and mechanism of injury were statistically not associated with the development of avascular necrosis. The quality of fracture reduction, adequacy of fixation, degree of displacement, and comminution of the posterior cortex were significantly associated. After we controlled for patient and radiographic characteristics, multivariate analyses indicated that the important predictors for avascular necrosis are poor reduction (odds ratio=13.889) and initial displacement of the fracture (odds ratio=4.693). Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Femoral neck shortening after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Stephanie M; Keijsers, Noël L; Praet, Stephan F E; Heetveld, Martin J; Bhandari, Mohit; Wilssens, Jean Pierre; Patka, Peter; Van Lieshout, Esther M M

    2013-07-01

    This study assesses femoral neck shortening and its effect on gait pattern and muscle strength in patients with femoral neck fractures treated with internal fixation. Seventy-six patients from a multicenter randomized controlled trial participated. Patient characteristics and Short Form 12 and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores were collected. Femoral neck shortening, gait parameters, and maximum isometric forces of the hip muscles were measured and differences between the fractured and contralateral leg were calculated. Variables of patients with little or no shortening, moderate shortening, and severe shortening were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. Median femoral neck shortening was 1.1 cm. Subtle changes in gait pattern, reduced gait velocity, and reduced abductor muscle strength were observed. Age, weight, and Pauwels classification were risk factors for femoral neck shortening. Femoral neck shortening decreased gait velocity and seemed to impair gait symmetry and physical functioning. In conclusion, internal fixation of femoral neck fractures results in permanent physical limitations. The relatively young and healthy patients in our study seem capable of compensating. Attention should be paid to femoral neck shortening and proper correction with a heel lift, as inadequate correction may cause physical complaints and influence outcome. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Delayed fixation of displaced bilateral, atraumatic, femoral neck fractures in a patient with pregnancy related osteomalacia.

    PubMed

    Docker, Charles; Starks, Ian; Wade, Roger; Wynn-Jones, Charles

    2011-06-01

    We present the case of a woman diagnosed with simultaneous displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures following the birth of her second child. No traumatic event was identified. Diagnosis was delayed as the cause of her pain was thought to be non-skeletal in origin. Radiological and serological investigations were diagnostic of osteomalacia. Surgical fixation of her fractures was further delayed due to profound hypocalcaemia. Despite the delays, fixation with bilateral dynamic hip screws resulted in union with no evidence of avascular necrosis at 2 years follow-up. We believe this to be the first report of atraumatic bilateral femoral neck fractures and it shows that a good result can be achieved even in the presence of delayed fixation.

  2. Optimizing Stability in Femoral Neck Fracture Fixation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ye; Hao, Jiandong; Mauffrey, Cyril; Hammerberg, E Mark; Stahel, Philip F; Hak, David J

    2015-10-01

    Optimizing stability of femoral neck fracture fixation is important in obtaining a successful outcome. The mechanical problems and strategies for achieving optimal stability differ depending on patients' age and degree of osteoporosis. Femoral neck fractures in younger adults usually result from high-energy trauma and have a vertical fracture pattern. Strategies for optimizing fixation stability in this group include placing additional screws at right angles to the fracture plane and medial buttress plate augmentation. In elderly patients, screw position relative to the intact cortical femoral neck bone is of critical importance. Additional strategies for optimizing fixation stability in this group include the concept of length stable fixation, use of adjunctive calcium phosphate cement, and use of novel fixed angle fixation implants. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Pathologic femoral neck fractures in children.

    PubMed

    Shrader, M Wade; Schwab, Joseph H; Shaughnessy, William J; Jacofsky, David J

    2009-02-01

    Pathologic fractures in children occur in a variety of malignant and benign pathologic processes. Pediatric pathologic femoral neck fractures are particularly rare. Until now, all reported cases have been isolated cases, small series, or cases reported in series of adult pathologic hip fractures. The present article is the first report of a relatively large series of pathologic femoral neck fractures in a pediatric population. We identified pathologic femoral neck fractures, including 2 basicervical fractures, in 15 children (9 boys, 6 girls) ranging in age from 18 months to 15 years (mean age, 9 years) and treated between 1960 and 2000. The pathologic diagnoses were fibrous dysplasia (5 children), unicameral bone cyst (2), Ewing's sarcoma (2), osteomyelitis (2), leukemia (1), rhabdomyosarcoma (1), osteogenesis imperfecta (1), and osteopetrosis (1). Treatment methods, including time to reduction and fixation, were reviewed in detail. One patient was lost to follow-up. All others were followed until union; mean long-term follow-up was 7 years (range, 1-16 years). All patients ultimately went on to union. Mean time to union was 19 weeks (range, 5-46 weeks). However, 2 patients died before 2 years. There was a 40% complication rate, with limb-length discrepancy being the most common (4 children). No patient developed avascular necrosis. Pathologic femoral neck fractures are rare in children. Pediatric patients who present with a pathologic hip fracture are at significant risk for complications. Physicians and family should be alerted to the prolonged course involved in treating these fractures to union.

  4. [Fracture arthroplasty of femoral neck fractures].

    PubMed

    Braun, K F; Hanschen, M; Biberthaler, P

    2016-04-01

    A paradigm shift in the treatment of elderly patients has recently taken place leading to an increase in joint replacement surgery. The aim of this article is to highlight new developments and to present a treatment algorithm for femoral neck fractures. The age limit must be individually determined considering the comorbidities and perioperative risk profile. Pertrochanteric femoral fractures are nearly exclusively treated by osteosynthesis regardless of age. The situation for femoral neck fractures is more complex. Patients younger than 65 years should generally be treated by osteosynthesis but patients older than 65 years benefit from hemiarthroplasty or total hip arthroplasty. In patients aged between 65 and 75 years with high functional demands and a justifiable perioperative risk, total joint replacement is the treatment of choice. In physically less active patients older than 75 years and poor general condition, preference should be given to hemiarthroplasty.

  5. Femoral neck preservation in total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Pipino, F; Molfetta, L

    1993-01-01

    Preservation of the femoral neck in hip arthroplasty creates a particular biomechanical situation which is clearly different from what is found even after partial neck removal. The femoral neck consists in fact of a "cylinder of cortical bone" that can be used as the "base" for anchoring the stem to the femur, in contrast to the press-fit procedure or other solutions. The mechanical and biological advantages are as follows: 1) Primary triplanar stem stability, in particular rotational stability. Rotational movements of the stem are blocked by the tough lateral cortical cylinder of the neck. Resistance to varus-valgus stress and collapse is also increased vertically and frontally. 2) Proximal cortical fixation. Primary fixation of the stem is provided by the neck cortex, whereas its mid-distal part is merely held by the metaphyseal cancellous bone and the tip is undersized with respect to the medullary canal. 3) Stress loads distributed along physiological lines of stress. Retention of the neck permits preservation of the trabecular systems, along which the stress is distributed towards the diaphysis and the greater trochanter. 4) Elasticity of the bone-prosthesis system. Most of the stem is contained within the metaphyseal cancellous bone that lies between the prosthesis and the cortical bone, creating a bone-prosthesis module with variable and integrated elasticity. 5) Preservation of the bone-stock. The amount of residual bone following implant of the prosthesis increases, not only because of the presence of the femoral neck, but also as a result of the preservation of most of the metaphyseal cancellous bone. There is therefore greater bone-ingrowth, which is also favoured by the fewer changes in the endosteal blood supply. 6) Prosthesis revision is simpler, since the stem can easily be removed and a second neck resection performed. Our clinical and experimental studies, together with those of Freeman et al., confirm that the femoral neck is present for a long

  6. Correlation Between Femoral Neck Shaft Angle and Surgical Management in Trainees With Femoral Neck Stress Fractures.

    PubMed

    Chalupa, Robyn L; Rivera, Jessica C; Tennent, David J; Johnson, Anthony E

    2016-01-01

    The most common overuse injury leading to medical discharge of military recruits is a stress fracture. One of the high-risk stress fractures is of the lateral femoral neck which risks osteonecrosis of the femoral head, the need for arthroplasty and permanent disability. To prevent fracture progression early surgical intervention is recommended. Surgical repairs are performed in about 25% of cases of femoral neck stress fractures at military treatment facilities. Hip geometry is an important intrinsic risk for stress fractures. Loads in the average loading direction will not cause a fracture, but loads of extreme magnitude or extreme orientation may. The purpose of this study was to determine if, in the presence of femoral neck stress fracture, there is a correlation between femoral neck shaft angle, surgical treatment and outcomes. The results of this study suggest there is no correlation between return to full military duty rates, treatment, femoral neck shaft angle or fracture grade on MRI. Patients who underwent surgical fixation had greater fracture grade and pain than those that did not have surgery. Individuals who did not return to duty tended to have higher pain scores at initial evaluation.

  7. Spontaneous stress fractures of the femoral neck

    SciTech Connect

    Dorne, H.L.; Lander, P.H.

    1985-02-01

    The diagnosis of spontaneous stress fractures of the femoral neck, a form of insufficiency stress fracture, can be missed easily. Patients present with unremitting hip pain without a history of significant trauma or unusual increase in daily activity. The initial radiographic features include osteoporosis, minor alterations of trabecular alignment, minimal extracortical or endosteal reaction, and lucent fracture lines. Initial scintigraphic examinations performed in three of four patients showed focal increased radionuclide uptake in two and no focal abnormality in one. Emphasis is placed on the paucity of early findings. Evaluation of patients with persistent hip pain requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and close follow-up; the sequelae of undetected spontaneous fractures are subcapital fracture with displacement, angular deformity, and a vascular necrosis of the femoral head.

  8. Femoral neck structure and function in early hominins.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Christopher B; Higgins, Ryan

    2013-04-01

    All early (Pliocene-Early Pleistocene) hominins exhibit some differences in proximal femoral morphology from modern humans, including a long femoral neck and a low neck-shaft angle. In addition, australopiths (Au. afarensis, Au. africanus, Au. boisei, Paranthropus boisei), but not early Homo, have an "anteroposteriorly compressed" femoral neck and a small femoral head relative to femoral shaft breadth. Superoinferior asymmetry of cortical bone in the femoral neck has been claimed to be human-like in australopiths. In this study, we measured superior and inferior cortical thicknesses at the middle and base of the femoral neck using computed tomography in six Au. africanus and two P. robustus specimens. Cortical asymmetry in the fossils is closer overall to that of modern humans than to apes, although many values are intermediate between humans and apes, or even more ape-like in the midneck. Comparisons of external femoral neck and head dimensions were carried out for a more comprehensive sample of South and East African australopiths (n = 17) and two early Homo specimens. These show that compared with modern humans, femoral neck superoinferior, but not anteroposterior breadth, is larger relative to femoral head breadth in australopiths, but not in early Homo. Both internal and external characteristics of the australopith femoral neck indicate adaptation to relatively increased superoinferior bending loads, compared with both modern humans and early Homo. These observations, and a relatively small femoral head, are consistent with a slightly altered gait pattern in australopiths, involving more lateral deviation of the body center of mass over the stance limb.

  9. Overgrowth of the femoral neck after hip fractures in children.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Feng-Chih; Kuo, Shu-Jui; Ko, Jih-Yang

    2016-04-26

    Overgrowth after pediatric femoral shaft fractures is well documented; however, overgrowth of the femoral neck after hip fractures has not been especially reported previously. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of femoral neck overgrowth after hip fractures in children. From January 1990 to December 2012, there were 30 consecutive patients with pediatric hip fractures. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of all the patients, including age at injury, gender, injury mechanism, fracture type, methods of treatment, time to bony union, and complications. The functional outcome was evaluated by Ratliff's criteria. The radiography of the pelvis was performed in controlled positions of abduction and external rotation. The length of the femoral neck was measured by two observers. The overgrowth of the femoral neck was defined as lengthening more than 3 mm in comparison with the uninjured hip. At a mean follow-up of 4.9 years (range 2-8 years), 12 patients (40 %) had an overgrowth of the femoral neck. The average overgrowth of the femoral neck was 6.2 mm (range 3.2-8.5 mm). The patients with femoral neck overgrowth were younger (p = 0.0002), have lower rate of avascular necrosis of the femoral head (p = 0.0006), and have better functional outcome (p = 0.0026). Our results provide evidence that overgrowth of the femoral neck following hip fractures may occur in children and the overgrowth phenomenon in the femoral neck was a predictor of good outcomes after treatment.

  10. Clinical Results of Internal Fixation of Subcapital Femoral Neck Fractures.

    PubMed

    Kang, Joon Soon; Moon, Kyoung Ho; Shin, Joong Sup; Shin, Eun Ho; Ahn, Chi Hoon; Choi, Geon Hong

    2016-06-01

    Subcapital femoral neck is known to cause many complications, such as avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head or nonunion, compared with other femoral neck fractures. The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence of AVN and fixation failures in patients treated with internal fixation using cannulated screws for the subcapital femoral neck fractures. This study targeted a total of 84 cases of subcapital femoral neck fractures that underwent internal fixation using cannulated screws. The average follow-up time after surgery was 36.8 months (range, 24 to 148 months). Nine hips (10.7%) showing AVN of the femoral head and 6 hips (7.1%) showing fixation failures were observed. The factors affecting the incidence of AVN of the femoral head after sustaining fractures correlated well with fracture types in the Garden classification (p = 0.030). The factors affecting fixation failure were the degree of reduction (p = 0.001) measured by the Garden alignment index and firm fixation (p = 0.009) assessed using the technique of 3-point fixation through the inferomedial cortical bone of the femoral neck. The complication rates for subcapital femoral neck fractures were lower than those previously reported; hence, internal fixation could be a primary treatment option for these fractures.

  11. Femoral neck radiography: effect of flexion on visualization.

    PubMed

    Garry, Steven C; Jhangri, Gian S; Lambert, Robert G W

    2005-06-01

    To determine whether flexion improves radiographic visualization of the femoral neck when the femur is externally rotated. Five human femora, with varying neck-shaft and anteversion angles, were measured and immobilized. Degree of flexion required to bring the femoral neck horizontal was measured, varying the rotation. Next, one bone was radiographed in 16 positions, varying rotation in 15 degrees and flexion in 10 degrees increments. Radiographs were presented in randomized blinded fashion to 15 staff radiologists for scoring of femoral neck visualization. Following this, all 5 bones were radiographed in 4 positions of rotation and at 0 degree and 20 degrees flexion, and blinded randomized review of radiographs was repeated. Comparisons between angles and rotations were made using the Mann-Whitney test. The flexion angle required to bring the long axis of the femoral neck horizontal correlated directly with the degree of external rotation (p < 0.05). Visualization of the femoral neck in the extended position progressively deteriorated from 15 degrees internal rotation to 30 degrees external rotation (p < 0.01). However, when 20 degrees flexion was applied to bones in external rotation, visualization significantly improved at 15 degrees (p < 0.05) and 30 degrees (p < 0.01). Flexion of the externally rotated femur can bring the femoral neck into horizontal alignment, and a relatively small amount (20 degrees) of flexion can significantly improve radiographic visualization. This manoeuvre could be useful for radiography of the femoral neck when initial radiographs are inadequate because of external rotation of the leg.

  12. Effect of body weight on the outcome of displaced intracapsular fracture neck of femur treated by internal fixation; a clinical study of 198 patients.

    PubMed

    Alazzawi, Sulaiman; Mayahi, Reza; Parker, Martyn J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess any possible correlation between body weight and fracture union following displaced intracapsular fractures of the neck of femur treated by a closed reduction and internal fixation. A total of 198 patients with such injuries treated by closed reduction and internal fixation, were recruited retrospectively. Patients were followed up until fracture endpoint (union or non-union) with a minimum follow up of 100 days. The mean body weight for the 118 patients without fracture healing complications was 64.6 kg versus 61.8 kg for the 80 patients with complications, a difference that was not statistically significant (p=0.17). Analysis of data related to sex and age also found no relationship between weight and fracture healing complications. Our results indicate there is no relationship between body weight and fracture healing complications following displaced intracapsular fractures treated by internal fixation.

  13. Bilateral Femoral Neck Stress Fracture in Child: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gun-Woo; Yoon, Taek-Rim; Eshnazarovich, Eshnazarov Kamolhuja

    2016-01-01

    A femoral neck stress fracture in child is rare, particularly in bilateral case. It is easy to miss initially or may be misdiagnosed. The authors experienced a case of bilateral femoral neck stress fracture in a 10-year-old boy with bilateral hip. The patient was successfully healed by conservative treatment. We report this rare case with a review of the literature. A femoral neck stress fracture should be included in the differential diagnosis in children who present with sustained hip or groin pain. PMID:27777920

  14. Bilateral impacted femoral neck fracture in a renal disease patient.

    PubMed

    Devkota, Pramod; Ahmad, Shiraz

    2013-09-01

    Spontaneous bilateral femoral neck facture in a renal disease patient is not common. We report a case of 47-year-old female patient with chronic renal failure and on regular hemodialysis for the past 5 years who sustained bilateral impacted femoral neck fracture without history of trauma and injury and refused any surgical intervention. The patient was mobilised on wheel chair one year after the fractures. The cause of the fracture and the literature review of the bilateral femoral neck fracture in renal disease are discussed.

  15. Wintertime surgery increases the risk of conversion to hip arthroplasty after internal fixation of femoral neck fracture.

    PubMed

    Sebestyén, A; Mester, S; Vokó, Z; Gajdácsi, J; Cserháti, P; Speer, G; Patczai, B; Warta, V; Bódis, J; Horváth, C; Boncz, I

    2015-03-01

    The study demonstrates that wintertime surgeries are associated with impaired fracture healing and increases the risk of conversion to hip arthroplasty after osteosynthesis of femoral neck fracture. Furthermore, the results raise the possibility of association between seasonal changes in vitamin D levels and impaired fracture healing of femoral neck fracture. Although the changes of vitamin D level and calcitropic hormones influencing bone metabolism are seasonal, the effect of seasons on hip fracture healing is unknown. We assessed the effects of seasonal periodicity on conversion to hip arthroplasty after primary osteosynthesis of femoral neck fracture. This nationwide retrospective observational cohort study involved 2779 patients aged ≥ 60 years who underwent internal screw fixation for primary femoral neck fracture and were discharged in 2000. Cases requiring conversion to arthroplasty during the 8-year follow-up derived from the Hungarian health insurance database were registered. Risk factors assessed included sex, age, fracture type, season of primary surgery and surgical delay. Competing-risks regression analysis was used for data analyses. During the observation period, 190 conversions to hip arthroplasty (6.8%) were identified, yielding an overall incidence of 19.5 per 1000 person-years. The crude incidence rates of conversions after osteosynthesis in winter, spring, summer and fall were 28.6, 17.8, 16.9 and 14.7 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Besides younger age, female sex and intracapsular fracture displacement, wintertime primary osteosynthesis significantly increased the risk of conversion (fall vs. winter, hazard ratio (HR): 0.50, 95% confidence interval [95% CI 0.33-0.76]; spring vs. winter, HR: 0.63, [95% CI 0.44-0.92]; summer vs. winter, HR: 0.62, [95% CI 0.42-0.91]). Our study demonstrate that wintertime primary osteosynthesis increases the risk of conversion surgeries. The results may help improving the outcome of primary fixation of

  16. Primary total hip arthroplasty versus internal fixation in displaced fracture of femoral neck in sexa- and septuagenarians.

    PubMed

    Wani, Iftikhar H; Sharma, Sidhartha; Latoo, Irfan; Salaria, A Q; Farooq, Munir; Jan, Masrat

    2014-09-01

    The optimal treatment of femoral neck fracture in the elderly patient is still under debate. In patients aged 60-80 years, the decision between internal fixation and arthroplasty remains controversial. The primary aim of the present study is to evaluate the functional outcome of patients aged 60-80 years with femoral neck fracture treated with total hip arthroplasty or closed reduction and internal fixation. The secondary aim is to evaluate the incidence of nonunion and avascular necrosis in femoral neck fracture in different age groups. We studied 100 patients affected by displaced fracture of the femoral neck from May 2007 through June 2010. There were 60 men and 40 women with mean age of 66 years. Fifty patients were treated with closed reduction and internal fixation with cannulated screws (group A), and the other 50 patients with total hip arthroplasty (group B). Mean surgical time, blood loss, duration of hospital stay, Harris hip score, complications, and need for reoperation were recorded. Harris hip score was significantly higher in group B at 3-, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up evaluation. The overall complication rate was 28 % in group A and 32 % in group B, which was not statistically significant. A statistically significant difference was found regarding patients who required reoperation in group A (20 %) compared with group B (no one). The average Harris hip score in the internal fixation group was 90.6 and in the total hip arthroplasty group was 93.7, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Our study showed an increased risk for intracapsular hip fracture developing nonunion with older age. Primary total hip arthroplasty compared with internal fixation appears to be a reasonably safe method of treating displaced fracture of femoral neck in elderly patients. We also concluded that outcome regarding hip function is generally better after total hip arthroplasty compared with internal fixation. Level II-Prospective cohort study.

  17. Internal fixation of intra-capsular proximal femoral fractures in patients older than 80 years: Still relevant? Multivariate analysis of a prospective multicentre cohort.

    PubMed

    Reina, N; Bonnevialle, P; Rubens Duval, B; Adam, P; Loubignac, F; Favier, T; Massin, P

    2017-02-01

    Arthroplasty is now widely used to treat intra-capsular proximal femoral fractures (PFFs) in older patients, even when there is little or no displacement. However, whether arthroplasty is associated with lower mortality and complication rates in non-displaced or mildly displaced PFFs is unknown. The objectives of this prospective study were: (1) to evaluate early mortality rates with the two treatment methods, (2) to identify risk factors for complications, (3) and to identify predictors of functional decline. Arthroplasty and internal fixation produce similar outcomes in non-displaced fractures of patients older than 80 years with PFFs. This multicentre prospective study included consecutive patients older than 80 years who were managed for intra-capsular PFFs at eight centres in 2014. Biometric data and geriatric assessment scores (Parker Mobility Score, Katz Index of Independence, and Mini-Nutritional Assessment [MNA] score) were collected before and 6 months after surgery. Independent risk factors were sought by multivariate analysis. We included 418 females and 124 males with a mean age of 87±4years. The distribution of Garden stages was stage I, n=56; stage II, n=33; stage III, n=130; and stage IV, n=323. Arthroplasty was performed in 494 patients and internal fixation in 48 patients with non-displaced intra-capsular PFFs. Mortality after 6 months was 16.4% overall, with no significant difference between the two groups. By multivariate analysis, two factors were significantly associated with higher mortality, namely, male gender (odds ratio [OR], 3.24; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.0-5.84; P<0.0001) and high ASA score (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.07-2.26; P=0.019). Two factors were independently associated with lower mortality, with 75% predictive value, namely, high haematocrit (OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.7-0.9; P=0.001) and better Parker score (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.8; P=0.01). The cut-off values associated with a significant risk increase were 2 for the Parker

  18. Osteoid Osteoma of the Femoral Neck in Athletes: Two Case Reports Differentiating From Femoral Neck Stress Injuries.

    PubMed

    Cordova, Christopher B; Dembowski, Scott C; Johnson, Michael R; Combs, John J; Svoboda, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of an intra-articular osteoid osteoma can be a challenging and lengthy process, with reports of delayed diagnosis of greater than 2 years. In the young, athletic patient with an atraumatic onset of groin pain, an overuse injury or muscle strain is the most likely etiology. However, an overuse injury of femoral neck stress fracture must be identified because of the potentially disastrous outcome of fracture completion. The similar clinical presentation of a femoral neck stress fracture and intra-articular osteoid osteoma of the femoral neck can further delay the diagnosis of the osteoid osteoma. In a patient with these differential diagnoses that do not improve with a period of nonweightbearing activity, a more intensive workup must ensue. The purpose of this case report is to describe the initial presentations, subsequent follow-up, and imaging findings leading to the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma as well as to differentiate an osteoid osteoma from femoral neck stress injuries.

  19. Prospective evaluation of femoral head viability following femoral neck fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Binkert, B.; Kroop, S.A.; Nepola, I.V.; Grantham, A.S.; Alderson, P.O.

    1984-01-01

    The bone scans of 33 patients (pts) with recent subcapital fractures (fx) of the femur were evaluated prospectively to determine their value in predicting femoral head visability. Each of the 33 pts (ll men, 22 women, age range 30-92) had a pre-operative bone scan within 72 hrs of the fx (23 pts within 24 hrs). Anterior and posterior planar views of both hips and pinhole views (50% of pts) were obtained 2 hrs after administration of Tc-99m HDP. The femoral head was classified as perfused if it showed the same activity as the opposite normal side or if it showed only slightly decreased activity. Femoral heads showing absent activity were classified as nonperfused. Overall, 20 of the 33 pts showed a photopenic femoral head on the side of the fx. Only 2 pts showed increased activity at hte site of the fx. Internal fixation of the fx was performed in 23 pts, 12 of whom had one or more follow-up scans. Five of these 12 pts showed absent femoral head activity on their initial scan, but 2 showed later reperfusion. The other 7 pts showed good perfusion initially, with only 1 later showing decreased femoral head activity. The other 10 pts (7 of whom had absent femoral head activity) had immediate resection of the femoral head and insertion of a Cathcart prosthesis. The results suggest that femoral head activity seen on a bone scan in the immediate post-fx period is not always a reliable indicator of femoral head viability. Decreased femoral head activity may reflect, in part, compromised perfusion secondary to post-traumatic edema, with or without anatomic disruption of the blood supply.

  20. Femoral neck shaft angle in men with fragility fractures.

    PubMed

    Tuck, S P; Rawlings, D J; Scane, A C; Pande, I; Summers, G D; Woolf, A D; Francis, R M

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Femoral neck shaft angle (NSA) has been reported to be an independent predictor of hip fracture risk in men. We aimed to assess the role of NSA in UK men. Methods. The NSA was measured manually from the DXA scan printout in men with hip (62, 31 femoral neck and 31 trochanteric), symptomatic vertebral (91), and distal forearm (67) fractures and 389 age-matched control subjects. Age, height, weight, and BMD (g/cm(2): lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total femur) measurements were performed. Results. There was no significant difference in mean NSA between men with femoral neck and trochanteric hip fractures, so all further analyses of hip fractures utilised the combined data. There was no difference in NSA between those with hip fractures and those without (either using the combined data or analysing trochanteric and femoral neck shaft fractures separately), nor between fracture subjects as a whole and controls. Mean NSA was smaller in those with vertebral fractures (129.2° versus 131°: P = 0.001), but larger in those with distal forearm fractures (129.8° versus 128.5°: P = 0.01). Conclusions. The conflicting results suggest that femoral NSA is not an important determinant of hip fracture risk in UK men.

  1. Vertical shear fractures of the femoral neck. A biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Baitner, A C; Maurer, S G; Hickey, D G; Jazrawi, L M; Kummer, F J; Jamal, J; Goldman, S; Koval, K J

    1999-10-01

    A biomechanical cadaver study was performed to compare the strength and stability of three cannulated cancellous lag screws with a sliding hip screw for fixation of a vertically oriented fracture of the femoral neck (Pauwels Type III). Using eight matched pairs of human cadaveric femurs, vertically oriented femoral neck osteotomies were created, reduced, and randomized to one of the two fixation methods. The constructs were tested with incremental axial loading from 100 N to 1200 N and cyclical loading at 1000 N for 10,000 cycles; fracture displacements and ultimate load to failure were determined. The specimens stabilized using a sliding hip screw showed less inferior femoral head displacement, less shearing displacement at the osteotomy site, and a much greater load to failure than did those stabilized with multiple cancellous lag screws. These results support the use of a sliding hip screw for treatment of vertically oriented fractures of the femoral neck.

  2. Giant cell tumor of the femoral neck: case report.

    PubMed

    Silva, Paulo; Amaral, Rogério Andrade do; Oliveira, Leandro Alves de; Moraes, Frederico Barra de; Chaibe, Eduardo Damasceno

    2016-01-01

    The authors present the case of a patient with a giant cell tumor of the left femoral neck, with adjacent progressive invasion of bone tissue. Initial treatment was done with local curettage and autologous bone graft from fibula, electrocauterization and filling with methyl methacrylate. A local tumoral relapse was present after one year; therefore a new surgical procedure was necessary, with proximal femoral wide resection and unconventional endoprosthesis fixation. The article discusses the clinical aspects and surgical treatment. This report aimed to demonstrate the necessity to perform wide resection for giant cell tumor of the femoral neck, prioritizing total resection of the tumor and its local extension, preserving limb integrity and demonstrating the complete failure of preserving surgery in cases of femoral neck involvement.

  3. Analysis of risk factors for femoral head necrosis after internal fixation in femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Sun, Jun-Ying; Zha, Guo-Chun; Jiang, Tao; You, Zhen-Jun; Yuan, De-Jing

    2014-12-01

    Femoral head necrosis is a rare but devastating complication following femoral neck fracture. The reported incidence of avascular necrosis after femoral neck fracture fixation varies widely, and there is no consensus regarding its risk factors. The aim of this study was to analyze the risk factors for femoral head necrosis after internal fixation in femoral neck fracture. This retrospective study included 166 patients with femoral neck fractures treated with surgical reduction and internal fixation at the authors' institution from January 2004 to December 2008. Eight patients died for reasons unrelated to the surgery, and 12 patients were lost to follow-up. The remaining 146 patients (146 fractures) were followed until union or until conversion to total hip arthroplasty. The patients included 61 males and 85 females with an average age of 47.5 years (range, 18-68 years). The authors analyzed the following factors: age, sex, Garden classification, reduction quality, surgical methods, injury-to-surgery interval, preoperative traction, weight-bearing time, and implant removal. All patients were followed for a mean of 52 months (range, 6-90 months). The incidence of femoral head necrosis was 14.4% (21/146). Garden classification (P=.012), reduction quality (P=.008), implant removal (P=.020), and preoperative traction (P=.003) were significantly associated with femoral head necrosis. Patient age (P=.990), sex (P=.287), injury-to-surgery interval (P=.360), weight-bearing time (P=.868), and surgical methods (P=.987) were not significantly associated with femoral head necrosis. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, implant removal was not a significant risk factor for femoral head necrosis development (P=.498). Garden classification, reduction quality, and preoperative traction had a significant effect on femoral head necrosis development. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Displaced intracapsular neck of femur fractures in the elderly: bipolar hemiarthroplasty may be the treatment of choice; a case control study.

    PubMed

    Jonas, S C; Shah, R; Al-Hadithy, N; Norton, M R; Sexton, S A; Middleton, R G

    2015-10-01

    Management of the mobile elderly patient who sustains an intra-capsular neck of femur fracture remains controversial. Current evidence is mixed as to whether total hip arthroplasty (THA), which confers higher surgical and dislocation risk, is significantly superior in function and in reduced rates of reoperation when compared to bipolar hemi-arthroplasty. A group of 110 patients with an intra-capsular NOF fracture who had undergone either THA or Bipolar hemi-arthroplasty and were still alive at the time of follow up were retrospectively identified and matched using the National Hip Fracture Database. Matching criteria included ASA, age, sex, pre-op mobility, pre-op AMTS and source of admission. Follow up was by postal questionnaire. Mean follow up was 24 months in both groups (Range; Bipolar 12-36 months, THA 12-38 months). There was no significant difference in pre-operative Tonnis grade, postoperative Oxford Hip Score (OHS) or Short Form 36 (SF-36) scores between the two groups. 12 dislocations in 5 patients occurred in the THA group and none in the bipolar group. 33/55 Bipolar patients were discharged to their own home compared to 35/55 in the THA group. None of the bipolar hemi-arthroplasties were revised to THA. Higher complication rates were experienced in the THA group with no increase in function.

  5. Femoral head-neck junction reconstruction, after iatrogenic bone resection.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Alvarez, Alberto; Lash, Nicholas; Beck, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Arthroscopic over-resection of the head-neck junction during the treatment of a cam deformity can be a devastating complication and is difficult to treat. Large defects of the femoral head-neck junction (FHNJ) increase the risk of femoral neck fracture and can also affect hip biomechanics. We describe a case of an iatrogenic defect of the FHNJ due to excessive bone resection, and a previously non-described treatment using iliac crest autograft to restore femoral head-neck sphericity and hip joint stability. After protecting the femoral neck with an angled blade plate, the large anterior FHNJ defect was reconstructed using autogenous iliac crest bone graft; sphericity was restored by contouring the graft using spherical templates. Clinical and radiographic follow-up was performed up to 2 years. Results at 2 years showed no residual groin pain and normal range of motion. The Oxford Hip Score was 46/48, rated as excellent. Computed tomography (CT) scanning showed union of bone graft without resorption, and CT arthrogram indicating retained sphericity of the FHNJ without evidence of degenerative changes in the articular surface. This novel surgical technique can be used to restore the structural integrity and contour of the FHNJ that contains a significant anterior defect.

  6. Femoral head-neck junction reconstruction, after iatrogenic bone resection

    PubMed Central

    Guevara-Alvarez, Alberto; Lash, Nicholas; Beck, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Arthroscopic over-resection of the head-neck junction during the treatment of a cam deformity can be a devastating complication and is difficult to treat. Large defects of the femoral head-neck junction (FHNJ) increase the risk of femoral neck fracture and can also affect hip biomechanics. We describe a case of an iatrogenic defect of the FHNJ due to excessive bone resection, and a previously non-described treatment using iliac crest autograft to restore femoral head-neck sphericity and hip joint stability. After protecting the femoral neck with an angled blade plate, the large anterior FHNJ defect was reconstructed using autogenous iliac crest bone graft; sphericity was restored by contouring the graft using spherical templates. Clinical and radiographic follow-up was performed up to 2 years. Results at 2 years showed no residual groin pain and normal range of motion. The Oxford Hip Score was 46/48, rated as excellent. Computed tomography (CT) scanning showed union of bone graft without resorption, and CT arthrogram indicating retained sphericity of the FHNJ without evidence of degenerative changes in the articular surface. This novel surgical technique can be used to restore the structural integrity and contour of the FHNJ that contains a significant anterior defect. PMID:27011838

  7. Femoral shaft medialisation and neck-shaft angle in unstable pertrochanteric femoral fractures.

    PubMed

    Pajarinen, J; Lindahl, J; Savolainen, V; Michelsson, O; Hirvensalo, E

    2004-12-01

    We analysed the time-dependent mean changes in the femoral neck length, neck-shaft angle and hip offset in a randomised study comprising 48 patients who were treated with the dynamic hip screw (DHS) or the proximal femoral nail (PFN) for an unstable intertrochanteric femoral fracture. As a consequence of fracture compression, the mean post-operative neck length was significantly shorter in patients treated with the DHS. During the first 6 weeks after the operation, a mean decrease of 4.6 degrees was observed in the neck-shaft angle, but there was not a significant difference between the treatment groups. The radiographic measures remained virtually unaffected during the interval from 6 weeks to 4 months in both groups. When the operated hip was compared to the opposite hip, patients who had received the DHS showed significantly greater medialisation of the femoral shaft at 4 months than those treated with the PFN. We thus recommend that unstable intertrochanteric fractures should be initially reduced in a slight valgus position in order to achieve an outcome after healing that is as normal as possible. As a result of differences in operative technique and implant stability, the PFN may be superior to the DHS in retaining the anatomical relations in the hip region in unstable intertrochanteric fractures.

  8. Femoral torsion and neck-shaft angles in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Laplaza, F J; Root, L; Tassanawipas, A; Glasser, D B

    1993-01-01

    Excessive femoral and coxa valga have been reported to be major contributors leading to hip dislocation in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). Femoral torsion angle (FT) and neck-shaft angle (NSA) were measured by the radiographic technique described by Rippstein and Müller in 157 patients with CP (289 hips). Factors associated with the degree of FT and NSA were evaluated. The researchers explored the correlation between the two angles and hip pathology. A large database of measurements was constructed. Our findings suggest that age and ambulatory status are the main factors correlated with FT and NSA.

  9. The terminal branches of the medial femoral circumflex artery: the arterial supply of the femoral head.

    PubMed

    Lazaro, L E; Klinger, C E; Sculco, P K; Helfet, D L; Lorich, D G

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates and defines the topographic anatomy of the medial femoral circumflex artery (MFCA) terminal branches supplying the femoral head (FH). Gross dissection of 14 fresh-frozen cadaveric hips was undertaken to determine the extra and intracapsular course of the MFCA's terminal branches. A constant branch arising from the transverse MFCA (inferior retinacular artery; IRA) penetrates the capsule at the level of the anteroinferior neck, then courses obliquely within the fibrous prolongation of the capsule wall (inferior retinacula of Weitbrecht), elevated from the neck, to the posteroinferior femoral head-neck junction. This vessel has a mean of five (three to nine) terminal branches, of which the majority penetrate posteriorly. Branches from the ascending MFCA entered the femoral capsular attachment posteriorly, running deep to the synovium, through the neck, and terminating in two branches. The deep MFCA penetrates the posterosuperior femoral capsular. Once intracapsular, it divides into a mean of six (four to nine) terminal branches running deep to the synovium, within the superior retinacula of Weitbrecht of which 80% are posterior. Our study defines the exact anatomical location of the vessels, arising from the MFCA and supplying the FH. The IRA is in an elevated position from the femoral neck and may be protected from injury during fracture of the femoral neck. We present vascular 'danger zones' that may help avoid iatrogenic vascular injury during surgical interventions about the hip.

  10. Femoral neck erosions: sign of hip joint synovial disease

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, R.P.; Weissman, B.N.; Naimark, A.

    1983-07-01

    Pathologic synovial processes in the hip joint can cause characteristic extrinsic erosions of the femoral neck, which in extreme cases produce an ''apple core'' appearance. Nine such cases of synovial diseases, including synovial osteochondromatosis, pigmented villonodular synovitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and amyloidosis, that demonstrate this radiographic finding are presented. The anatomic relations of the hip joint that result in theis appearance, differential diagnosis, and radiographic techniques useful in diagnosis are discussed.

  11. Femoral neck non-union treatment by valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Schwartsmann, Carlos Roberto; Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Yépez, Anthony Kerbes; Boschin, Leonardo Carbonera; Silva, Marcelo Faria

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy in femoral neck non-union. METHODS : Forty-two patients with femoral neck fractures with non-union treated using Pauwels' intertrochanteric osteotomy were reviewed. Demographics, time elapsed between fracture and surgery, follow--up, osteosynthesis used, Garden's classification, limb shortening, and x-rays were evaluated. RESULTS : Twenty-two men and 20 women were reviewed. The youngest patient was 18 years old and the oldest 65 years old, with a mean age of 42.4 years (±11.2). The minimum follow-up was 2 years, with a mean of 10.2 years. The average time elapsed between initial fracture and osteotomy was 6.5 months. Twel-ve cases were neglected femoral neck fractures. Nineteen patients were classified as Garden III, and 23 patients as Garden IV. After valgus osteotomy, non-union healing was observed in 38 patients (38/42; 90.4%). Healing of thirty-seven cases of pseudoarthrosis were obtained after the first-attempt osteotomy, and one case required two operations for healing. The osteotomy failed in four cases. Conside-ring the healed osteotomies, good to excellent functional results were achieved in 80.9% (34/42) of the patients. Total hip replacement was subsequently performed in 14.2% (6/42) of the patients for unfavoura-ble outcomes (two for cutting out, two for osteonecrosis, and two for osteoarthritis). CONCLUSIONS : Valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy has a high success rate in archiving healing in femoral neck non-union with good functional results. It is a biological and effective method. Level of Evidence IV, Therapeutic Study. PMID:27057146

  12. Range of motion in a modular femoral stem system with a variety of neck options.

    PubMed

    Hariri, Sanaz; Chun, Sungwook; Cowan, James B; Bragdon, Charles; Malchau, Henrik; Rubash, Harry E

    2013-10-01

    Modular femoral stem systems decouple leg length, offset, and version. The hip ROM and type of impingement for 162 femoral head/neck combinations were measured at four extreme hip positions in a Sawbones pelvis and femur to identify constructs that lead to early impingement. Hip ROM increased in all positions with increasing head size and neck length. We identified a new type of impingement created by the build-up of the proximal femoral stem: femoral stem on acetabular liner impingement. Seventy percent of neutral neck options achieved our definition of acceptable ROM. In general, when utilizing a modular femoral stem, surgeons can minimize impingement by choosing the longest femoral neck that does not over-lengthen the limb, using the largest femoral head accommodated by the cup, and avoiding neck version unless the cup or stem is malaligned.

  13. Bilateral Femoral Neck Stress Fracture Presented with Unilateral Symptoms in a Shipman Laborer: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Santoso, Asep; Joo, Sang-Don; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Seol, Young-Jun; Yoon, Taek-Rim

    2017-01-01

    Femoral neck stress fracture occured commonly in athlete and military recruit populations, some of them are bilateral. Bilateral femoral neck stress fracture that associated with other occupation is very uncommon. We report a bilateral femoral neck stress fracture case that presented with unilateral symptoms in a male shipman laborer. The patient was successfully treated conservatively. Stress fracture sometimes occur associated with an unexpected specific occupation. Consideration of bilateral involvement is highly important in managing stress fracture. PMID:28316966

  14. Hip resurfacing femoral neck fracture influenced by valgus placement.

    PubMed

    Anglin, Carolyn; Masri, Bassam A; Tonetti, Jérôme; Hodgson, Antony J; Greidanus, Nelson V

    2007-12-01

    Femoral neck fracture is the most common short-term concern after hip resurfacing arthroplasty. Currently, there is little basis to decide between neutral and valgus placement. We loaded 10 notched cadaveric femur pairs to failure; one side was implanted at 0 degrees relative to the femoral neck and the other at 10 degrees valgus. All 20 were dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanned. Failure load correlated with bone mineral density. Valgus placement increased the fracture load by an average of 28% over neutral for specimens with normal bone mineral density but had no effect on fracture load in specimens with low bone mineral density. For specimens with normal bone mineral density (typical of patients undergoing resurfacing arthroplasty), neutral-valgus placement had a greater effect than bone mineral density, explaining 54% of the fracture load variance. Component placement greater than 10 degrees valgus is likely undesirable because this can lead to an increase in component size and a greater likelihood of notching. To reduce fracture risk, we recommend placing the femoral component in valgus and selecting patients with higher bone mineral density.

  15. Femoral neck fracture following intramedullary nailing with misplacement of an end cup: report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Mańkowski, Bartosz; Kierzynka, Grzegorz

    2008-01-01

    Femoral neck fracture is an unusual complication of intramedullary fixation of a broken femur. We report on two cases of femoral neck fractures attributed to misplacement of an end cup and subsequent invasive maneuvers in an effort to remove it. Iatrogenic fractures of the femoral neck during or after intramedullary nailing are reported in the medical literature. Authors associate it with many possible technical mistakes performed during the procedure, yet no complications after missed end cup placement were noted. We suggest that the fractures described below were a consequence of injury to the vascular supply and bone stock of the initially intact femoral neck. PMID:19384634

  16. Femoral neck shaft angles: A radiological anthropometry study.

    PubMed

    Adekoya-Cole, Thomas Oduntan; Akinmokun, Olasode Israel; Soyebi, Kofoworola O; Oguche, Omachoko Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Most of the available orthopaedic implants were designed and manufactured based on data from Western population whose skeletal dimensions are different from those of Africans. This study was conducted to determine the value of the neck-shaft angle (NSA) of Nigerians living in Lagos for the purpose of adequate planning, preparation, and pre-operative selection of orthopaedic implants for surgeries involving the femoral neck and stocking of orthopaedic implants in hospitals located in resource poor countries like Nigeria. This was a retrospective study which involved measuring the NSAs of anterior-posterior views of pelvic radiographs of adult patients reported "normal study" by the radiologist. A total of 264 femoral necks were analysed from 132 patients' radiographs comprising of 68 males and 64 females. The average NSA for an adult Nigerian living in Lagos is 130.77° ± 6.03° with mean NSA value of 131.28° ± 6.56° for the right and 130.22° ± 5.18° for the left. The mean value of NSA for an adult male is 131.57° ± 5.66° whereas the mean value for an adult female is 129.97° ± 6.33°. The value of NSA obtained from this study should be considered during the surgical fixation of the neck of femur fractures or osteotomies around the neck of the femur of adult Nigerians. It should also be noted during designing and bioengineering construction of orthopaedic implants and hip prosthesis for Nigerians.

  17. Geometry of proximal femur in the prediction of femoral neck fracture in the elderly female Thai population.

    PubMed

    Lektrakul, Nittaya; Ratarasarn, Onravee

    2009-09-01

    A retrospective study of two groups of 157 patients with one-sided hip fracture and 157 aged matched control group was performed in Siriraj hospital. Geometric measurement of femoral neck was performed as hip axis length (HAL), femoral neck length (FNL), femoral neck width (FNW), femoral head diameter (FHD), acetabular bone width (ABW), and femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA). All geographic parameters are higher in length/width or degree in the femoral neck fracture group than in the normal control group. Among these parameters, ABW has the strongest association with femoral neck fracture (p 0.000, odds ratio = 2.85), followed by FNW (p 0.001, odds ratio = 2.51). According to the low sensitivity and specificity, and ROC curve, using this parameter as a screening tool for femoral neck fracture is still questionable. Further prospective study with a standard position, interval changing of femoral geometry, or combined with bone density or femoral architecture is suggested.

  18. Periprosthetic Femur Fracture Occuring after Contralateral Neglected Femoral Neck Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Cankaya, Deniz; Toprak, Ali; IKilic, Enver; Bingol, Olgun; Tabak, Yalcin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Periprosthetic fractures of the femur are uncommon, but at times may lead to complications especially in elderly patients. As treatment of these fractures is difficult, prevention by identifying the risk factors is the best way to overcome these complex problems. Case Report: A periprosthetic right femur fracture associated with a neglected left femoral neck fracture in the contralateral femur in a 78-year-old elder woman patient is reported in the present article. We discuss the prevention of periprosthetic fractures after hip arthroplasty and address the risk factors associated with this complication. Conclusion: The present case emphasizes the importance of investigating and treating the cause of sudden onset of restriction on full weight-bearing in the contralateral limb, to prevent periprosthetic femoral fracture after hip arthroplasty in elderly patients. PMID:27299115

  19. Genetic predisposition for femoral neck stress fractures in military conscripts.

    PubMed

    Korvala, Johanna; Hartikka, Heini; Pihlajamäki, Harri; Solovieva, Svetlana; Ruohola, Juha-Petri; Sahi, Timo; Barral, Sandra; Ott, Jürg; Ala-Kokko, Leena; Männikkö, Minna

    2010-10-21

    Stress fractures are a significant problem among athletes and soldiers and may result in devastating complications or even permanent handicap. Genetic factors may increase the risk, but no major susceptibility genes have been identified. The purpose of this study was to search for possible genetic factors predisposing military conscripts to femoral neck stress fractures. Eight genes involved in bone metabolism or pathology (COL1A1, COL1A2, OPG, ESR1, VDR, CTR, LRP5, IL-6) were examined in 72 military conscripts with a femoral neck stress fracture and 120 controls. The risk of femoral neck stress fracture was significantly higher in subjects with low weight and body mass index (BMI). An interaction between the CTR (rs1801197) minor allele C and the VDR C-A haplotype was observed, and subjects lacking the C allele in CTR and/or the C-A haplotype in VDR had a 3-fold higher risk of stress fracture than subjects carrying both (OR = 3.22, 95% CI 1.38-7.49, p = 0.007). In addition, the LRP5 haplotype A-G-G-C alone and in combination with the VDR haplotype C-A was associated with stress fractures through reduced body weight and BMI. Our findings suggest that genetic factors play a role in the development of stress fractures in individuals subjected to heavy exercise and mechanical loading. The present results can be applied to the design of future studies that will further elucidate the genetics of stress fractures.

  20. Cortical and trabecular load sharing in the human femoral neck.

    PubMed

    Nawathe, Shashank; Nguyen, Bich Phuong; Barzanian, Nasim; Akhlaghpour, Hosna; Bouxsein, Mary L; Keaveny, Tony M

    2015-03-18

    The relative role of the cortical vs trabecular bone in the load-carrying capacity of the proximal femur-a fundamental issue in both basic-science and clinical biomechanics-remains unclear. To gain insight into this issue, we performed micro-CT-based, linear elastic finite element analysis (61.5-micron-sized elements; ~280 million elements per model) on 18 proximal femurs (5M, 13F, ages 61-93 years) to quantify the fraction of frontal-plane bending moment shared by the cortical vs trabecular bone in the femoral neck, as well as the associated spatial distributions of stress. Analyses were performed separately for a sideways fall and stance loading. For both loading modes and across all 18 bones, we found consistent patterns of load-sharing in the neck: most proximally, the trabecular bone took most of the load; moving distally, the cortical bone took increasingly more of the load; and more distally, there was a region of uniform load-sharing, the cortical bone taking the majority of the load. This distal region of uniform load-sharing extended more for fall than stance loading (77 ± 8% vs 51 ± 6% of the neck length for fall vs. stance; mean ± SD) but the fraction of total load taken by the cortical bone in that region was greater for stance loading (88 ± 5% vs. 64 ± 9% for stance vs. fall). Locally, maximum stress levels occurred in the cortical bone distally, but in the trabecular bone proximally. Although the distal cortex showed qualitative stress distributions consistent with the behavior of an Euler-type beam, quantitatively beam theory did not apply. We conclude that consistent and well-delineated regions of uniform load-sharing and load-transfer between the cortical and trabecular bone exist within the femoral neck, the details of which depend on the external loading conditions.

  1. Biomechanical analysis of a novel femoral neck locking plate for treatment of vertical shear Pauwel's type C femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Nowotarski, Peter J; Ervin, Bain; Weatherby, Brian; Pettit, Jonathan; Goulet, Ron; Norris, Brent

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the biomechanical stability of a novel prototype femoral neck locking plate (FNLP) for treatment of Pauwels type C femoral neck fractures compared with other current fixation methods. Forty femur sawbones were divided into groups and a vertical femoral neck fracture was made. Each group was repaired with one of the following: (CS) three parallel cancellous screws; (XCS) two cancellous lag screws into the head and one transverse lag screw into the calcar; and (FNLP) a novel FNLP with two 5.7 mm locking, one lag screw into the calcar and two screws into the shaft; and (AMBI) a two-hole, 135° AMBI plate with a derotation screw. All groups were tested for change in axial stiffness over 20000 cycles, and rotational stiffness was measured before and after cyclic testing. A maximum load to failure test was also conducted. Results were compared with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher protected least significant difference (PLSD). Results for axial stiffness show that AMBI, CS, XCS and FNLP are 2779.0, 2207.2, 3029.9 and 3210.7 N-m mm(-1), respectively. Rotational rigidity results are 4.5, 4.1, 17.1 and 18.7 N-m mm(-1). The average cyclic displacements were 0.75, 0.88, 0.80 and 0.65 mm, respectively. Destructive failure loads for AMBI, CS, XCS and FNLP were 2.3, 1.7, 1.6 and 1.9 kN, respectively. The results of this experiment show statistically significant increases in axial stiffness for the FNLP compared with three traditional fixation methods. The FNLP demonstrates increased mechanical stiffness and combines the desirable features of current fixation methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Successful management of simple fractures of the femoral neck with femoral head and neck excision arthroplasty in two free-living avian species.

    PubMed

    Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Whittington, Julia K; Bennett, R Avery; McFadden, Mike; Mitchell, Mark; O'Brien, Robert

    2011-09-01

    A red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) and a Canada goose (Branta canadensis) were evaluated for unilateral pelvic limb lameness. Physical examination findings and results of diagnostic imaging revealed femoral neck fractures in both birds. Both birds were treated with a femoral head and neck excision arthroplasty. The affected legs were not immobilized, and the birds were encouraged to use the legs immediately after surgery to encourage formation of a pseudoarthrosis. Within 2 weeks, both birds were using the affected limb well enough to be either successfully released or transferred to a wildlife rehabilitation facility. Femoral head and neck excision arthroplasty without immobilization of the limb is recommended for managing avian femoral neck fractures, especially in free-ranging species in which a rapid and complete or near complete return to function is vital for survival in the wild.

  3. Simultaneous Bilateral Fracture of Femoral Neck in Korea: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hwa-Jae; Shin, Hun-Kyu; Kim, Eugene; Ko, Taeg Su; Choi, Young-Min

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral femoral neck factures are common and their incidence is increasing. However, simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures are rare. Although cases of simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures have been reported, most were caused by strong muscle contractions during electroconvulsive therapy. Simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures caused by a simple fall are an extremely rare injury; therefore, limited literature is available, and no case has been reported in Korea. We report herein a case of simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures caused by a simple fall. An 83-year-old woman visited the emergency department with bilateral hip joint pain and gait disturbance, which developed 1 day after a fall. Tenderness and severe limitation in left hip joint range of motion and mild limitation in right hip joint range of motion were observed on a physical examination. A Garden type IV femoral neck fracture in the left hip joint and a Garden type I femoral neck fracture in the right hip joint were observed on plain radiography. She underwent right screw fixation and left bipolar hemiarthroplasty 2 days after admission. The patient could walk using a walker 4 weeks postoperatively. Bone union in the right femoral neck was observed at the 3 month follow-up. No specific findings were observed at the left hip hemiarthroplasty site. PMID:27536603

  4. Quantification of Femoral Neck Exposure Through a Minimally Invasive Smith-Petersen Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    subcapital, mid cervical , and basicervical femoral neck fractures. Key Words: Smith Petersen, surgical exposure, anterior hip approach, femoral neck...two senior authors (TLG and JRH). These authors are fellowship- trained in arthroplasty and trauma, respectively. A minimally Accepted for publication...intermuscular plane and thus places the superior gluteal nerve at risk. The direct anterior approach was initially used for hip arthroplasty but

  5. Bilateral spontaneous fracturing of the femoral neck in a patient with renal osteodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Flavio Luís; Dalio, Renato Bellini; Sugo, Arthur Tomotaka; Picado, Celso Hermínio Ferraz

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral fracturing of the femoral neck in a patient with renal osteodystrophy who was treated by means of osteosynthesis. In this type of patient, there is a need to remain watchful for the possibility of occurrences of spontaneous fracturing of the femoral neck, even if the initial radiographic examination is normal.

  6. Bilateral spontaneous fracturing of the femoral neck in a patient with renal osteodystrophy☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Flavio Luís; Dalio, Renato Bellini; Sugo, Arthur Tomotaka; Picado, Celso Hermínio Ferraz

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral fracturing of the femoral neck in a patient with renal osteodystrophy who was treated by means of osteosynthesis. In this type of patient, there is a need to remain watchful for the possibility of occurrences of spontaneous fracturing of the femoral neck, even if the initial radiographic examination is normal. PMID:26229859

  7. Variations of relative anteversion of the femoral neck during walking.

    PubMed

    Quesnel, T

    1998-01-01

    Based on the geometric model developed by Netter [11], we determined the different positions of the femoral neck during monopodal support in walking in relation to a fixed frontal plane of reference (relative anteversion). This "relative anteversion" ranges on average from 24 degrees of retroversion at the beginning of support to 15 degrees of anterversion at the end if loading. We then studied the relations possibly existing between relative anteversion and acetabular orientation on the one hand, and the orientation of the resultant of the articular stresses on the other (both being variables during monopodal support in walking). The results showed that relative anteversion is well correlated with variations of position of the acetabulum since, at most, the deviation between the respective axes did not exceed the anatomic deviation due to absolute anteversion of the femoral neck and acetabulum. Lastly, analysis of the relations obtained with the orientation of the resultant of the articular stresses allowed a better comprehension of the functional distribution of forces.

  8. ASA Grade and Elderly Patients With Femoral Neck Fracture.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, C J C; Fazal, M A

    2014-12-01

    This prospective study was designed to evaluate the effect of American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) score on time to surgery, length of hospital stay, and 30-day mortality in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture. A total of 249 patients admitted with femoral neck fracture were included in the study. Mean age was 84 years (95% confidence interval 83 to 85). Two patients were ASA I, 110 patients were ASA II, 125 were ASA III, and 12 were ASA IV. The mean time to surgery was 18.9 hours for ASA I patients, 34.4 hours for ASA II patients, 42.8 hours for ASA III patients, and 61 hours for ASA IV patients (P = .005). The mean hospital stay was 11.5 days (6.3-15.2) for ASA I patients, 17.6 days (4.2-98.8) for ASA II patients, 22.9 days (4.1-120.3) for ASA III patients, and 29 days (2.4-86.0) for ASA IV patients (P = .026); 85% of the patients who died within 30 days of admission were of ASA III-IV. Our study shows that patients with higher ASA score have delay in surgery, longer hospital stay, and increase in 30-day mortality. We conclude that ASA grade is a simple and effective tool to predict the above-mentioned outcomes in these patients.

  9. Stress fractures of the femoral neck in runners: a review.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Thomas; Brand, Julian; Lidder, Surjit; Krawany, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review, following strict inclusion criteria, identified 32/48 low and 16/48 high-performance runners with stress fractures of the femoral neck. Surgical treatment was performed in 33/48 cases and was significantly higher (p = 0.009) in high-performance runners. Among the 28/48 runners who resumed running, there were significantly more lower-performance runners (23/32) than higher-performing runners (5/16) (p = 0.012) and significantly more non-displaced (22/30) than displaced fractures (6/18) (p = 0.014). Complicated cases showed significantly less favourable follow-up results (p = 0.036). A significantly shorter (p = 0.032) diagnostic time for evaluation occurred with a previous history of a stress fracture or a relevant comorbidity. Stress fractures of the femoral neck represent an incisive incident for runners, and early consideration in the differential diagnosis of hip pain is required to avoid potential long-term sequelae and suboptimal function.

  10. Cemented versus uncemented hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Figved, Wender; Opland, Vidar; Frihagen, Frede; Jervidalo, Tore; Madsen, Jan Erik; Nordsletten, Lars

    2009-09-01

    Hemiarthroplasty is the most commonly used treatment for displaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly. There is limited evidence in the literature of improved functional outcome with cemented implants, although serious cement-related complications have been reported. We performed a randomized, controlled trial in patients 70 years and older comparing a cemented implant (112 hips) with an uncemented, hydroxyapatite-coated implant (108 hips), both with a bipolar head. The mean Harris hip score showed equivalence between the groups, with 70.9 in the cemented group and 72.1 in the uncemented group after 3 months (mean difference, 1.2) and 78.9 and 79.8 after 12 months (mean difference, 0.9). In the uncemented group, the mean duration of surgery was 12.4 minutes shorter and the mean intraoperative blood loss was 89 mL less. The Barthel Index and EQ-5D scores did not show any differences between the groups. The rates of complications and mortality were similar between groups. Both arthroplasties may be used with good results after displaced femoral neck fractures.

  11. Cemented versus Uncemented Hemiarthroplasty for Displaced Femoral Neck Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Opland, Vidar; Frihagen, Frede; Jervidalo, Tore; Madsen, Jan Erik; Nordsletten, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Hemiarthroplasty is the most commonly used treatment for displaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly. There is limited evidence in the literature of improved functional outcome with cemented implants, although serious cement-related complications have been reported. We performed a randomized, controlled trial in patients 70 years and older comparing a cemented implant (112 hips) with an uncemented, hydroxyapatite-coated implant (108 hips), both with a bipolar head. The mean Harris hip score showed equivalence between the groups, with 70.9 in the cemented group and 72.1 in the uncemented group after 3 months (mean difference, 1.2) and 78.9 and 79.8 after 12 months (mean difference, 0.9). In the uncemented group, the mean duration of surgery was 12.4 minutes shorter and the mean intraoperative blood loss was 89 mL less. The Barthel Index and EQ-5D scores did not show any differences between the groups. The rates of complications and mortality were similar between groups. Both arthroplasties may be used with good results after displaced femoral neck fractures. Level of Evidence: Level I, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19130162

  12. Femoral neck anteversion measurement using linear slot scanning radiography.

    PubMed

    Chimhundu, Chipo; Sivarasu, Sudesh; Steiner, Stefan; Smit, Julian; Douglas, Tania S

    2016-02-01

    Measurements between anatomical landmarks on radiographs are useful for diagnosis and treatment planning in the orthopedic field. Direct measurement on single radiographic images, however, does not truly reflect spatial relationships, as depth information is lost. We used stereo images from a slot scanning X-ray machine to estimate coordinates of three-dimensional (3D) bony landmarks for femoral neck anteversion (FNA) measurement. A set of 7 landmarks consisting of the centre of the femoral head; the centre of the base of the femoral neck; the medial and lateral condyles; the medial and lateral posterior condyles; and finally the centre of the knee; were found to be identifiable and suitable for radiographic measurement. The reconstructed 3D coordinates were then used to define the 3D geometry of the anatomical axes required to estimate FNA. Stereophotogrammetric measurements on a sample of 30 dry right adult femurs were compared to reference values obtained using the Kingsley Olmstead method applied to photographic images. A strong positive correlation (0.998) was found and the mean ± standard deviation of the stereophotogrammetric approach (13.08 ± 6.87)° was comparable to that of the Kingsley Olmstead method (13.14 ± 6.88)°. Intra- and inter-observer reliability were high, with the lower bound of the 95% confidence interval above 0.98 for the intra-class correlation coefficient. The results merit further validation against three dimensional imaging technology such as computed tomography, to confirm stereophotogrammetry as a suitable alternative for FNA measurement.

  13. [Treatment of beginning juvenile detachment of the femoral head, taking growth of the femoral neck into account (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, P

    1979-10-01

    Prevention of further detachment is the primary aim in the immediate treatment of beginning juvenile detachment of the femoral head. Screwing of the epiphysis of the head, first introduced by M. E. Mueller (1965), has proved successful. Besides providing immediate mechanical stability, this method, however, results in premature ossification of the joint of the femoral neck. Epiphysiodesis has a particularly unfavourable effect in early childhood, because it inhibits proper growth of the leg and development of the mechanism of the hip joint on account of the shortened femoral neck. Spiking of the epiphysis with Krischner screw wires guarantees safe fixation of the epiphyseal head on the one hand, and sufficient freedom of femoral neck growth on the other. Surgical treatment requires knowledge of the changed hip joint anatomy of the child. Preoperative planning via drawing to determine the length and position of the implantate on the basis of standardised x-ray films, will help to prevent operative failures.

  14. Efficacies of surgical treatments based on Harris hip score in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chengwei; Yang, Fengjian; Lin, Weilong; Fan, Yongqian

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the efficacies of four surgical treatments, i.e., total hip arthroplasty (THA), internal fixation (IF), hemiarthroplasty (HA), and artificial femoral head replacement (artificial FHR), by performing a network meta-analysis based on Harris hip score (HHS) in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture. Methods: In strict accordance with specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, randomized controlled trails (RCTs) were screened and selected from a larger group of studies that were retrieved through a comprehensive search of scientific literature databases, further complimented by manual search. The resultant high-quality data from final selected studies were analyzed using Stata 12.0 software. Results: A total of 3680 studies were initially retrieved from database search, and 15 RCTs were eventually incorporated into this meta-analysis, containing 1781 elderly patients who had undergone various surgical treatments for femoral neck fracture (THA group = 604; HA group = 604; IF group = 495; artificial FHR group = 78). Our major result revealed a statistically significant difference in HHS of femoral neck fracture when HA and IF groups were compared with THA. No differences were detected in the HHS of femoral neck fracture undergoing artificial FHR and THA. The surface under the cumulative ranking curves (SUCRA) value of HHS, in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture after surgery, revealed that IF has the highest value. Conclusions: The current network meta-analysis results suggest that IF is the superlative surgical procedure for femoral neck fracture patients, and IF significantly improves the HHS in femoral neck fracture patients. PMID:26221216

  15. Is distal screw entry point associated with subtrochanteric fracture after intracapsular hip fracture fixation?

    PubMed

    Hickey, Ben; Jones, Huw M; Jones, Stephen

    2014-04-01

    Subtrochanteric fracture is a recognized complication following cannulated screw fixation of intracapsular hip fracture. We investigated the incidence of subtrochanteric fracture in a consecutive series of 304 patients and its association with screw entry point in the lateral femoral cortex. A retrospective consecutive case series of patients treated with internal fixation for intracapsular hip fracture by our unit between January 2003 and January 2010 were included. Two authors reviewed radiographs independently to determine distal screw entry point in the lateral femoral cortex. Hickey zone 1 was an entry point above the level of the upper border of the lesser trochanter. Hickey zone 2 was defined as an entry point between the upper and lower borders of the lesser trochanter. Hickey zone 3 was an entry point below the lower border of the lesser trochanter. Clinical notes were reviewed for subsequent subtrochanteric fracture. Association between subtrochanteric fracture and distal screw entry point in the lateral femoral cortex in relation to the upper border of the lesser trochanter was determined. Two hundred and fifty-six post-operative radiographs were available for analysis. Mean patient age was 73 years (30–98), 75% were women. There were 24 patients with screw entry point in Hickey zone 1, 225 in Hickey zone 2, and 7 in Hickey zone 3. Two patients sustained subtrochanteric fracture. No subtrochanteric fractures occurred in patients with Hickey zone two-screw entry. Subtrochanteric fracture is rare following cannulated screw fixation of intracapsular neck of femur fracture (0.78%). In this retrospective consecutive case series, no subtrochanteric fractures occurred when the entry point of the lowest screw in the lateral femoral cortex is between the levels of the upper and lower borders of the lesser trochanter.

  16. Effects of anticoagulants on outcome of femoral neck fracture surgery.

    PubMed

    Ginsel, Bastiaan L; Taher, Ahmad; Whitehouse, Sarah L; Bell, Jack J; Pulle, Chrys R; Crawford, Ross W

    2015-04-01

    To review records of 330 patients who underwent surgery for femoral neck fractures with or without preoperative anticoagulation therapy. Medical records of 235 women and 95 men aged 48 to 103 years (mean, 81.6; standard deviation [SD], 13.1) who underwent surgery for femoral neck fractures with or without preoperative anticoagulation therapy were reviewed. 30 patients were on warfarin, 105 on aspirin, 28 on clopidogrel, and 167 were controls. The latter 3 groups were combined as the non-warfarin group and compared with the warfarin group. Hospital mortality, time from admission to surgery, length of hospital stay, return to theatre, and postoperative complications (wound infection, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism) were assessed. The warfarin and control groups were significantly younger than the clopidogrel and aspirin groups (80.8 vs. 80.0 vs. 84.2 vs. 83.7 years, respectively, p<0.05). 81% of the patients underwent surgery within 48 hours of admission. The overall mean time from admission to surgery was 1.8 days; it was longer in the warfarin than the aspirin, clopidogrel, and control groups (3.3 vs. 1.8 vs. 1.6 vs. 1.6 days, respectively, p<0.001). The mean length of hospital stay was 17.5 (SD, 9.6; range, 3-54) days. The overall hospital mortality was 3.9%; it was 6.7% in the warfarin group, 3.8% in the aspirin group, 3.6% in the clopidogrel group, and 3.6% in the control group (p=0.80). Four patients returned to theatre for surgery: one in the warfarin group for washout of a haematoma, 2 in the aspirin group for repositioning of a mal-fixation and for debridement of wound infection, and one in the control group for debridement of wound infection. The warfarin group did not differ significantly from non-warfarin group in terms of postoperative complication rate (6.7% vs. 2.7%, p=0.228) and the rate of return to theatre (3.3% vs. 1%, p=0.318). It is safe to continue aspirin and clopidogrel prior to surgical treatment for femoral neck fracture. The

  17. [Reconstruction intramedullary nailing for treatment of ispsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Li, Lian-hua; Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Jian-zheng; Guo, Yong-zhi

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the curative effect and surigical skills of reconstruction intramedullary nailing in the treatment of ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures. From January 2007 to January 2013, 13 patients with ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures were treated by reconstruction intramedullary nailing including 11 males and 2 females with an average age of 38.9 yeas old ranging from 25 to 53 years old. For femoral neck fractures,10 cases were basilar neck fracture, 3 were transcervical fractures and according to Garden classification,10 were type II, 2 were type III and 1 was type IV. For feormal shaft fracture, 5 were type I, 4 were type II, 3 were type III and 1 was type IV according to Winquist classification. The location of all 13 feormal shaft fractures were all in the uper 3/4 of the feormal shaft. Complications and postoperative function were recorded and evaluated. Eleven patients were followed up for 23.45 months (12 to 36 months). Time from injury to operation was 5.9 days in average. Malunion of femoral neck fracture happened in 1 patient, nonunion of femoral shaft fracture happened in 2 patients. NO femoral head osteonecrosis, infection and malunion of femoral shaft fracture happened. According to Friedman-Wyman classification, 8 cases get good result, 2 get faii and 1 get poor. Reconstruction intramedullary nailing is a good choice for the ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures with the advantages of less soft-tissue trauma and complications.

  18. HEMIARTHROPLASTY IN THE TREATMENT FRACTURES OF THE FEMORAL NECK

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Nelson Keiske; de Andrade Lima, Guilherme Didier; Honda, Emerson Kiyoshi; Polesello, Giancarlo Cavalli; Guimarães, Rodrigo Pereira; Júnior, Walter Ricioli; de Queiroz, Marcelo Cavalheiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To epidemiologically and clinically evaluate patients with displaced femoral neck fractures that were surgically treatment with cemented hip hemiarthroplasty. Methods: All patients with displaced femoral neck fractures (Garden III and IV) who underwent cemented hip hemiarthroplasty using a unipolar prosthesis (Thompson), by means of a posterolateral access between June 2005 and September 2008 were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Seventy patients were initially evaluated. Their mean age was 83.1 years. The patients were predominantly female (84.3%). Thirty-six patients were monitored as outpatients for periods ranging from 10 to 48 months (mean of 26.5 months). Fifteen patients were lost to follow-up. Nineteen patients died, and the mortality rate within the first year was 25.4%. Patients classified as ASA III had a mortality rate of 25.7% and ASA II patients, a rate of 12.1%. Two patients had symptomatic deep vein thrombosis; one patient had an operative wound infection; and none of the patients presented hip dislocation. Most of the patients did not experience pain. Twelve patients (33%) showed deterioration of their walking ability. Conclusion: There were no cases of hip dislocation. Patients classified as ASA III had a higher mortality rate than did patients with ASA I or II. There was a worsening of walking ability in 33% of the patients. No revision due to loosening or pain was needed for any patient. Thirty patients did not present any pain (83.3%), four presented moderate pain (11.1%) and two presented intense pain (5.5%). PMID:27022567

  19. Ethnic differences in composite indices of femoral neck strength.

    PubMed

    Ishii, S; Cauley, J A; Greendale, G A; Danielson, M E; Safaei Nili, N; Karlamangla, A

    2012-04-01

    Bone mineral density does not explain race/ethnicity differences in hip fracture risk. In this study, we demonstrated that race/ethnicity differences in composite hip strength indices were consistent with documented race/ethnicity differences in hip fracture risk, suggesting that unlike bone density, the composite indices may represent ethnicity-independent measures of bone strength. African-American and Asian women have lower risks of hip fracture than Caucasian women, but such racial/ethnic variation in hip fracture risk cannot be explained by bone mineral density (BMD). The composite indices of femoral neck strength integrate femoral neck and body size with BMD and predict hip fracture risk in Caucasian women. We hypothesize that unlike race/ethnic differences in BMD, race/ethnic differences in the composite strength indices would be consistent with race/ethnic differences in hip fracture risk. We studied a community-based sample of Caucasian (n = 968), African-American (n = 512), Chinese (n = 221), and Japanese (n = 239) women, premenopausal or in early perimenopause, from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Unadjusted indices were similar in Caucasian and African-American women but higher in Asian women. After adjusting for age, body mass index, and menopause status, all three minority groups had higher composite strength indices than Caucasian women. Foreign-born Japanese women had higher unadjusted and adjusted composite strength indices than US-born Japanese women, but such differences by nativity were not observed in Chinese women. We concluded that composite strength indices have the potential to explain racial/ethnic differences in hip fracture risk, suggesting that composite strength indices may represent ethnicity-independent measures of bone strength. This contention needs to be verified by further research on the fracture predictive ability of composite strength indices in multi-ethnic longitudinal cohorts.

  20. Bilateral femoral neck stress fractures in military recruits with unilateral hip pain.

    PubMed

    Moo, Ing How; Lee, Y H D; Lim, K K; Mehta, K V

    2016-10-01

    Femoral neck stress fractures are rare and can be easily missed and failure to diagnose these injuries early can lead to avascular necrosis, malunion and osteoarthritis. It is important to have a high index of suspicion for femoral neck stress fractures in military recruits. We present three cases of bilateral femoral neck fractures in military recruits, all presenting with unilateral hip symptoms and signs. All the asymptomatic contralateral hips had femoral neck stress fractures diagnosed by screening MRI. Tension type and displaced femoral neck fractures were treated surgically. All the fractures managed healing without complications. Military recruits with unilateral groin pain should have an early referral for MRI hip to rule out femoral neck stress fractures and those military personnel with ipsilateral femoral neck fracture should have MRI of the contralateral hip. Two of the patients had vitamin D deficiency, of which one had elevated parathyroid hormones and low bone mineral density. Our case series highlights the significance of vitamin D deficiency among military recruits. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES GARDEN I AND II: EVALUATION OF THE DEVIATION IN LATERAL VIEW.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Natália Zalc; Melo, Lucas da Ponte; Nordon, David Gonçalves; Silva, Fernando Brandão de Andrade E; Kojima, Kodi Edson; Silva, Jorge Santos

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the rate of deviation in the lateral radiographic incidence in patients with femoral neck fracture classified as non-diverted in the anteroposterior view (Garden I and II). Nineteen selected patients with femoral neck fractures classified as Garden I and II were retrospectively evaluated, estimating the degree of deviation in the lateral view. Fifteen cases (79%) presented deviations in lateral view, with a mean of 18.6 degrees (±15.5). Most fractures of the femoral neck classified as Garden I and II present some degree of posterior deviation in the X-ray lateral view. Level of Evidence III, Retrospective Comparative Study.

  2. Predictors of femoral neck fracture following hip resurfacing: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Davis, Edward T; Olsen, Michael; Zdero, Rad; Smith, Gemma M; Waddell, James P; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to establish if radiological parameters, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and quantitative CT (qCT) could predict the risk of sustaining a femoral neck fracture following hip resurfacing. Twenty-one unilateral fresh frozen femurs were used. Each femur had a plain digital anteroposterior radiograph, DEXA scan and qCT scan. Femurs were then prepared for a Birmingham Hip Resurfacing femoral component and loaded to failure. Results demonstrated that gender and qCT measurements showed strong correlation with failure load. QCT could be used as an individual measure to predict risk of post-operative femoral neck fracture. However, when qCT is unavailable; gender, pre-operative DEXA scan and Neck Width measurements can be used together to assess risk of post-operative femoral neck fracture in patients due to undergo hip resurfacing.

  3. A three-dimensional axis for the study of femoral neck orientation.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, Noémie; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Simonis, Caroline; Puymerail, Laurent; Baylac, Michel; Tardieu, Christine; Gagey, Olivier

    2012-11-01

    A common problem in the quantification of the orientation of the femoral neck is the difficulty to determine its true axis; however, this axis is typically estimated visually only. Moreover, the orientation of the femoral neck is commonly analysed using angles that are dependent on anatomical planes of reference and only quantify the orientation in two dimensions. The purpose of this study is to establish a method to determine the three-dimensional orientation of the femoral neck using a three-dimensional model. An accurate determination of the femoral neck axis requires a reconsideration of the complex architecture of the proximal femur. The morphology of the femoral neck results from both the medial and arcuate trabecular systems, and the asymmetry of the cortical bone. Given these considerations, two alternative models, in addition to the cylindrical one frequently assumed, were tested. The surface geometry of the femoral neck was subsequently used to fit one cylinder, two cylinders and successive cross-sectional ellipses. The model based on successive ellipses provided a significantly smaller average deviation than the two other models (P < 0.001) and reduced the observer-induced measurement error. Comparisons with traditional measurements and analyses on a sample of 91 femora were also performed to assess the validity of the model based on successive ellipses. This study provides a semi-automatic and accurate method for the determination of the functional three-dimensional femoral neck orientation avoiding the use of a reference plane. This innovative method has important implications for future studies that aim to document and understand the change in the orientation of the femoral neck associated with the acquisition of a bipedal gait in humans. Moreover, the precise determination of the three-dimensional orientation has implications in current research involved in developing clinical applications in diagnosis, hip surgery and rehabilitation. © 2012 The

  4. Management of femoral neck fractures in the young patient: A critical analysis review

    PubMed Central

    Pauyo, Thierry; Drager, Justin; Albers, Anthony; Harvey, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    Femoral neck fractures account for nearly half of all hip fractures with the vast majority occurring in elderly patients after simple falls. Currently there may be sufficient evidence to support the routine use of hip replacement surgery for low demand elderly patients in all but non-displaced and valgus impacted femoral neck fractures. However, for the physiologically young patients, preservation of the natural hip anatomy and mechanics is a priority in management because of their high functional demands. The biomechanical challenges of femoral neck fixation and the vulnerability of the femoral head blood supply lead to a high incidence of non-union and osteonecrosis of the femoral head after internal fixation of displaced femoral neck fractures. Anatomic reduction and stable internal fixation are essentials in achieving the goals of treatment in this young patient population. Furthermore, other management variables such as surgical timing, the role of capsulotomy and the choice of implant for fixation remain controversial. This review will focus both on the demographics and injury profile of young patients with femoral neck fractures and the current evidence behind the surgical management of these injuries as well as their major secondary complications. PMID:25035822

  5. Special topic: Ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures--does evidence give us the answer?

    PubMed

    Boulton, Christina L; Pollak, Andrew N

    2015-03-01

    Ipsilateral fractures of the femoral neck and shaft are rare, high-energy injuries that typically occur in young polytrauma patients. The associated fracture of the neck is often vertical in nature and is more frequently non-displaced than in isolated femoral neck fractures. Historically the diagnosis of an associated femoral neck fracture was delayed or missed in approximately one third of cases. Studies have shown that detection can be significantly improved with the implementation of a protocolized approach to hip imaging in all patients with femoral shaft fractures. Prompt recognition of an associated femoral neck fracture allows for timely stabilization and may decrease the risks of non-union and avascular necrosis. In contrast, failure to recognize a non-displaced or minimally displaced associated neck fracture prior to fixation of the shaft can lead to displacement, a decrease in neck fixation options, a technically challenging secondary procedure and increased risk of long-term sequelae. A vast array of treatment strategies have been described for this combined injury. Published options range from spica casting to open reduction and internal fixation of both fractures and include almost all conceivable combinations in between. While timely surgical stabilization is now universally recommended for both shaft and neck, no consensus exists as to the most appropriate method of fixation for either fracture. Most authors recommend prompt, but not emergent, surgery with priority given to anatomic reduction and stabilization of the neck fracture by either closed or open methods. Fixation of the shaft fracture follows as patient condition allows. The rare nature of this injury makes it very challenging to study and most published series' are retrospective with very small sample sizes. In short, no scientificallycompelling study is available to definitively support any one implant choice or method of stabilzation over another for the treatment of associated fractures

  6. Femoral neck stress fracture in Air Force basic trainees.

    PubMed

    Kupferer, Kevin R; Bush, David M; Cornell, John E; Lawrence, Valerie A; Alexander, Jeffrey L; Ramos, Rosemarie G; Curtis, Denice

    2014-01-01

    Stress fractures are a common overuse problem among military trainees resulting in preventable morbidity, prolonged training, and long-term disability following military service. Femoral neck stress fractures (FNSFs) account for 2% of all stress fractures but result in disproportionate burden in terms of cost and convalescence. The purpose of this study was to describe and investigate FNSF in U.S. Air Force basic trainees and to present new data on risks factors for developing FNSF. We examined 47 cases of FNSF occurring in Air Force basic trainees between 2008 and 2011 and 94 controls using a matched case-control model. Analysis with t tests and conditional logistic regression found the risk of FNSF was not associated with body mass index or abdominal circumference. Female gender (p < 0.001) and slower run time significantly increased risk of FNSF (1.49 OR, p < 0.001; 95% CI 1.19-1.86). A greater number of push-up and sit-up repetitions significantly reduced risk of FNSF (0.55 OR, p = 0.03; 95% CI 0.32-0.93; 0.62 OR, p = 0.04; 95% CI 0.4-0.98) for females. In this study body mass index was not correlated with FNSF risk; however, physical fitness level on arrival to training and female gender were significantly associated with risk of FNSF. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  7. Outcomes after fixation for undisplaced femoral neck fracture compared to hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fracture among the elderly.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jeff Chien-Fu; Liang, Wen-Miin

    2015-08-19

    This study compared the rates of mortality, medical complication, and reoperation after fixation surgery for displaced femoral neck fracture with those after hemiarthroplasty surgery for undisplaced femoral neck fracture using competing risk analysis in inpatients aged 60 years and above from a population database in Taiwan. We identified 13,772 subjects who underwent fixation for undisplaced cervical fracture and 13,772 matched controls who underwent hemiarthroplasty for displaced cervical fracture from 1998 to 2007, and followed them up until the end of 2009. The outcomes of patients who received internal fixation for undisplaced fracture and those of patients who received hemiarthroplasty for displaced fracture were compared. The 3-month, 2-year, and 10-year mortality rates were 4.9%, 22.1%, and 67.1% for fixation, and 5.6%, 23.8%, and 71.0% for hemiarthroplasty, respectively. The 3-month, 2-year, and 10-year cumulative incidence rates of the first reoperation were 7.4%, 18.1%, and 27.7% for fixation and 6.3%, 12.0%, and 22.3% for hemiarthroplasty, respectively. The 3-month cumulative incidence rates of the first medical complication were 14.4% for fixation and 15.4% for hemiarthroplasty, respectively. Hemiarthroplasty had a 1.09 times (95% CI: 1.05-1.12) higher hazard ratio for overall death than fixation. However, fixation had a 1.36 times (95% CI: 1.29-1.43) higher subdistribution hazard ratio for first reoperation than hemiarthroplasty after adjusting for gender, age, and comorbidities. The short-term overall mortality and medical complication rate of fixation for undisplaced fracture were slightly lower than those of hemiarthroplasty for displaced fracture. However, the short-term cumulative incidence of first reoperation after fixation was significantly higher than that for hemiarthroplasty. Further prospective studies or clinical trials based on the competing risk model, and which include important risk factors, are necessary to quantify the adjusted

  8. Cortical bone distribution in the femoral neck of hominoids: implications for the locomotion of Australopithecus afarensis.

    PubMed

    Ohman, J C; Krochta, T J; Lovejoy, C O; Mensforth, R P; Latimer, B

    1997-09-01

    Contiguous high resolution computed tomography images were obtained at a 1.5 mm slice thickness perpendicular to the neck axis from the base of the femoral head to the trochanteric line in a sample of 10 specimens each of Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, and Gorilla gorilla, plus five specimens of Pan paniscus. Superior, inferior, anterior, and posterior cortical thicknesses were automatically measured directly from these digital images. Throughout the femoral neck H. sapiens displays thin superior cortical bone and inferior cortical bone that thickens distally. In marked contrast, cortical bone in the femoral neck of African apes is more uniformly thick in all directions, with even greater thickening of the superior cortical bone distally. Because the femoral neck acts as a cantilevered beam, its anchorage at the neck-shaft junction is subjected to the highest bending stresses and is the most biomechanically relevant region to inspect for response to strain. As evinced by A.L. 128-1, A.L. 211-1 and MAK-VP-1/1, Australopithecus afarensis is indistinguishable from H. sapiens, but markedly different from African apes in cortical bone distribution at the femoral neck-shaft junction. Cortical distribution in the African ape indicates much greater variation in loading conditions consistent with their more varied locomotor repertoire. Cortical distribution in hominids is a response to the more stereotypic loading pattern imposed by habitual bipedality, and thin superior cortex in A. afarensis confirms the absence of a significant arboreal component in its locomotor repertoire.

  9. Biomechanical comparison of 3 possible fixation strategies to resist femoral neck shortening after fracture.

    PubMed

    Alves, Tim; Neal, John W; Weinhold, Paul S; Dahners, Laurence E

    2010-04-01

    In light of recent reports that patients with femoral neck shortening following fracture fixation are dissatisfied with their outcomes, the objective of this study was to compare the compressive strength, or resistance to shortening, of 3 possible strategies for stabilization of the femoral neck that should resist shortening. The proximal portion of 21 synthetic composite femurs were prepared to isolate the femoral neck for study. A 4-mm segment of the femoral neck was removed to simulate a transcervical comminuted fracture that would be expected to shorten under standard treatment conditions. These simulated fractures were fixed by 1 of 3 methods: a 3-screw configuration using parallel partially threaded screws augmented with an injectable hydroxyapatite bone substitute in the fracture site; a 3-screw configuration using parallel fully threaded screws; or a nonparallel 3-screw configuration using partially threaded screws. The specimens were tested in compression along the axis of the femoral neck, and the mean stiffness and load to failure values were calculated.The hydroxyapatite bone substitute-augmented partially threaded screw fixation construct resulted in the highest stiffness (1928+/-135 N/mm) and load to failure (6529+/-674 N), followed by the fully threaded screw construct (1210+/-166 N/mm and 3987+/-419 N, respectively), and finally the nonparallel construct (518+/-176 N/mm and 592+/-295 N, respectively) (P<.001 for all groups). This study supports further evaluation of hydroxyapatite bone substitute augmentation at the fracture site to prevent femoral neck shortening in femoral neck fractures receiving internal fixation. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Mid term results of Furlong LOL uncemented hip hemiarthroplasty for fractures of the femoral neck.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Prakash; Azzabi, Mohammed; Burton, Dave J C; Andrews, Mark; Bradley, John G

    2006-08-01

    We report the mid-term results of hemiarthroplasty with the Furlong hydroxyapatite coated bipolar prosthesis for displaced (Garden type III and IV) intracapsular hip fracture in 480 patients operated between 1989 and 2000. Three hundred sixty eight (77%) patients were lost to follow-up due to death, dementia or movement away from the area. In the patients followed up there was an 8% reoperation rate for infection, aseptic loosening, periprosthetic fracture and acetabular erosion. One hundred and twelve patients with a mean follow-up of 4 years (3-14) were studied. Eighty eight percent had no or slight pain, 77% could mobilise outdoors and 89% needed either no aid or a single walking stick to mobilise. Radiographic assessment revealed a stable implant with visible osseointegration in 91%. We conclude that hemiarthroplasty with the hydroxyapatite coated bipolar Furlong LOL prosthesis for displaced intracapsular fracture of the neck of the femur gives good mid term results in elderly patients for return to mobility, use of mobility aids and freedom from pain. It avoids the need for cement and provides satisfactory incorporation into the host bone. The use of a modular head makes revision to total hip replacement easier.

  11. Effect of femoral neck modularity upon the prosthetic range of motion in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Turley, Glen A; Griffin, Damian R; Williams, Mark A

    2014-08-01

    In total hip arthroplasty, aseptic loosening and dislocation are associated with not being able to achieve the correct prosthetic component orientation. Femoral neck modularity has been proposed as a solution to this problem by allowing the surgeon to alter either the neck-shaft or version angle of the prosthetic femoral component intra-operatively. A single replicate full factorial design was used to evaluate how effective a modular femoral neck cementless stem was in restoring a healthy prosthetic range of motion in comparison with a leading fixed-neck cementless stem with the standard modular parameters. It was found that, if altered to a large enough degree, femoral neck modularity can increase the amount of prosthetic motion as well as alter its position to where it is required physiologically. However, there is a functional limit to the amount that can be corrected and there is a risk with regard to the surgeon having to select the optimum modular neck before any benefit is realised.

  12. Femoral neck fracture as the sentinel sign of child abuse in an infant: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Andrew J; Gupta, Asheesh; Press, Cyrus M; Gourineni, Prasad

    2012-11-01

    Child abuse is a significant problem encountered by orthopedic surgeons in the USA. Fractures are the second most common presentation of physical abuse. In this case report, we present a 5-month-old male infant who initially presented with acute hip pain secondary to a femoral neck fracture as a result of abuse. The patient was taken to the operating room for open reduction and pinning of the femoral neck fracture. Further investigation found evidence of fractures of the bilateral femur and fibula at various stages of healing. To our knowledge, a femoral neck fracture in a nonambulatory infant resulting from abuse has not been reported previously. Physicians treating these injuries should consider child abuse in their differential diagnosis when presented with this clinical scenario. Level IV. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  13. Negative magnetic resonance imaging in femoral neck stress fracture with joint effusion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Seki, Nobutoshi; Okuyama, Koichiro; Kamo, Keiji; Chiba, Mitsuho; Shimada, Yoichi

    2016-06-01

    Femoral neck stress fracture (FNSF) is well documented in the orthopedic literature and is generally associated with strenuous activities such as long-distance running and military training. The diagnostic yield of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for FNSF was reported to be 100 %, and early MRI is recommended when this fracture is suspected. We encountered a 16-year-old male long-distance runner with FNSF in whom the left femoral neck showed no signal changes on MRI although an effusion was detected in the left hip joint. One month later, roentgenograms revealed periosteal callus and oblique consolidation of the left femoral neck, confirming the diagnosis of compression FNSF. Because FNSF with a normal bone marrow signal on MRI is very rare, this patient is presented here.

  14. Large diameter metal on metal total hip replacement for femoral neck fractures with neurological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Jinzhu; Liu, Denghui; Xu, Weidong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with Parkinson's disease and poliomyelitis can have a femoral neck fracture; yet, the optimal methods of treatment for these hips remains controversial. Many constrained or semi-constrained prostheses, using constrained liners (CLs) with a locking mechanism to capture the femoral head, were used to treat femoral neck fractures in patients with neurological disorders. We retrospectively studied a group of patients with Parkinson's disease and poliomyelitis who sustained femoral neck fractures and were treated by total hip arthroplasty using an L-MoM prosthesis. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 12 hips in 12 patients who underwent large-diameter metal-on-metal (L-MoM) total hip replacement between May 2007 and October 2009. Eight of the 12 patients (8 hips; 66.7%) had Parkinson's disease and 4 patients (4 hips; 33.3%) were affected with poliomyelitis. Results: The followup time was 5.2 years (range 3.6-6.0 years). At the latest followup, all the patients showed satisfactory clinical and radiographic results, with pain relief. No complications, such as dislocation or aseptic loosening occurred. Conclusion: We believe the use of L-MoM can diminish the rate of instability or dislocation, after operation. The L-MoM is an option for patients with Parkinson's disease and poliomyelitis with femoral neck fracture. PMID:25404774

  15. Pertrochanteric osteotomy and distraction femoral neck lengthening for treatment of proximal hip ischemic deformities in children.

    PubMed

    Teplenky, Mikhail; Mekki, Waleed

    2016-02-01

    Proximal femoral ischemic deformities in the pediatric population is a challenging pathological situation. Many surgical techniques have been proposed to treat this problem, with variable reported results. We believe that a C-shaped pertrochanteric osteotomy plus neck lengthening utilizing distraction osteogenesis principles would restore the femoral anatomical ratios between neck, shaft, and the head, and redress the biomechanics of the proximal femur with resultant sufficient containment of the femoral head within the acetabulum. We reviewed the results of 19 patients divided into two groups with proximal femoral ischemic deformities. Between 2002 and 2009, preoperative and postoperative clinical examination and radiographs were assessed measuring the neck-shaft angle (NSA), neck-epiphyseal angle (NEA), articulo-trochanteric distance (ATD), lateralization of the greater trochanter (LT), the angle of Wiberg (CEA), index of lateral head displacement by Reimers (IM), and lateral angle of displacement (LDA). All patients were followed prospectively. Clinical outcome was assessed using Colton's criteria, which showed average good improvement in function (58.9 %). Radiological indicators were assessed using Kruczynski's criteria. For group I, the postoperative NSA, NEA, and CEA showed significant change (p < 0.01, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). For group II, the postoperative NSA, NEA, and CEA showed significant change (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). The midterm functional results are favorable for the implementation of pertrochanteric osteotomy and distraction osteogenesis to treat proximal femoral ischemic deformities in the pediatric population.

  16. [Avascular osteonecrosis of femoral head and neck in an AIDS patient].

    PubMed

    Villafañe, Maria F; Corti, Marcelo E; Candela, Miguel; Perez Bianco, Raul; Tezanos Pinto, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    Avascular osteonecrosis (AON) has increased in the last few years in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). The most commonly affected bone is the femoral head and neck. Frequently these bilateral and clinical findings include moderate to severe pain and functional impotence of the affected joints. The etiology is multifactorial and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with protease inhibitors (PI) is probably related to its development. In the evolution, a total hip replacement may be needed. We present an hemophilic patient with AIDS, who developed a bilateral AON of the femoral head and neck during HAART.

  17. Factors influencing postoperative movement in displaced femoral neck fractures: evaluation by conventional radiography and stereoradiography.

    PubMed

    Ragnarsson, J I; Kärrholm, J

    1992-01-01

    Postoperative movement in 46 displaced femoral neck fractures was studied using roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA). Thirty-four fractures became stable, all within 1 year. Measurements on pre- and postreduction radiographs and scintimetry were performed to evaluate factors of importance in healing, redisplacement, and nonunion. Thirty-three fractures were treated with two hook-pins with (7 cases) or without (26 cases) a plate, and 13 were treated with two cancellous screws. Presence of intermediate fracture fragments and fixation with two screws implied increased movement of the femoral head center during the postoperative period. Remaining ad latus displacement on the anteroposterior or lateral view after reduction of more than 1 mm and low scintimetric uptake implied increased risk of redisplacement or pseudarthrosis. Increased displacement of the femoral head center during the first postoperative month was recorded in fractures that did not heal. The magnitude of the femoral head rotations did not differ between the implants, but smaller screw axis rotations were noted in fractures that subsequently healed. In most hips fixated with screws, the instant center of femoral head rotation went through the femoral head or neck, whereas hook-pin fixation more commonly was associated with screw axis position within or close to the trochanteric region, suggesting a more durable fixation in the femoral head of this device.

  18. Association between obesity and femoral neck strength according to age, sex, and fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Lee, S H; Kim, B J; Koh, J M

    2017-03-29

    Indicators of total and abdominal obesity were negatively associated with femoral neck strength indices. There are age-, sex-, and fat distribution-specific differences in the magnitude of these associations. These suggested that indicators of obesity with different magnitude according to age, sex, and fat distribution associated with poor bone health.

  19. Low appendicular muscle mass is correlated with femoral neck bone mineral density loss in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background After menopause, rapid bone mass loss occurs in response to hypoestrogenism. Several studies suggest that muscle mass and bone mineral density (BMD) are positively associated in postmenopausal women. Therefore, it may be assumed that postmenopausal low appendicular muscle mass (aMM) can increase BMD loss in a short period of time. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess relationship of aMM with femoral neck BMD in postmenopausal women. Methods Prospective, controlled clinical Trial including 64 women aged 45-70 years, who had not had their last menstruation for at least one year. Subjects were divided into two groups: low aMM (n = 32), and normal aMM (n-32). Femoral neck BMD and muscle mass were measured by DXA at baseline and after twelve months. Pairwise and independent t tests were used for data analysis. Results Baseline weight, BMI and muscle mass (total and appendicular) significantly differ between groups (p < 0.05). After twelve months, femoral neck BMD was significantly lower in the group with low aMM, whereas no significant difference was observed in the group with normal aMM (p < 0.05). Conclusion In postmenopausal women, low appendicular muscle mass is associated negatively with femoral neck BMD in a short period of time. PMID:21981859

  20. Long-Term Follow-Up Results of Delayed Fixation of Femoral Neck Fractures in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Elmi, Asghar; Tabrizi, Ali; Rouhani, Alireza; Mirzatolouei, Fardin

    2013-01-01

    Background Femoral neck fractures are urgent injuries that require precise reduction and stable fixation. In some cases, however, early treatment is not possible. Objectives The present study aimed to evaluate long-term results of delayed fixation of femoral neck fractures using cannulated screws. Patients and Methods This retrospective descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 26 patients with femoral neck fractures. The patients were treated through a closed reduction and fixation method using cannulated screws. Patients were followed up for at least five years and the rate of complications was determined. Results In this study, 26 patients with mean age of 34.3 years were assessed. Average time interval from injury to surgery was 46.4 ± 12.2 hours; 18 patients (69%) were operated on with more than 36 hours of delay. Incidence of AVN and nonunion was reported in 10 (38.4%) and 3 (11.5%) patients, respectively. Conclusions Time plays an important role in treatment results of femoral neck fractures. To treat the fractures, closed reduction and fixation using cannulated screws may still be the best option. PMID:24350142

  1. No dislocations after primary hip arthroplasty with the dual mobility cup in displaced femoral neck fracture in patients with dementia. A one-year follow-up in 20 patients

    PubMed Central

    Graversen, Anders Elneff; Jakobsen, Stig Storgaard; Kristensen, Pia Kjær; Thillemann, Theis Muncholm

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the dislocation rates, reoperation rates and mortality 30 day and one year following THA with AVANTAGE® dual mobility cup among dementia patients with an acute displaced intracapsular femoral neck fracture. Patients and methods: From 2010 to 2014 we identified 20 hip fracture patients with dementia, who have had total hip arthroplasty with the AVANTAGE® dual mobility cup. The primary outcome was dislocation. Secondary outcomes were revision surgery, 30 days and one year mortality, time to surgery and length of hospital stay. Results: Follow-up time was one year. None of the patients experienced dislocation or received revision surgery in the follow-up period. The 30-days mortality rate was 25% (confidence interval (CI) 95%; 4–46%) and the one year mortality was 45% (CI 95%; 21–69). Mean time to surgery was 27 h (CI 95%; 20–37 h) and mean length of hospital stay was 5.5 days (CI 95%; 4, 0–7, 6 days). Conclusion: THA with the dual-mobility cup seems favourable in the treatment of patients with a displaced femoral neck fracture and patients with dementia. Correct placement of the cup is pivotal and technically demanding. Not all orthopedic surgeons perform total hip arthroplasty while challenges regarding the logistics can be encountered since time to surgery is known to affect the mortality negatively. PMID:28176672

  2. Assessment of risk of femoral neck fracture with radiographic texture parameters: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Thevenot, Jérôme; Hirvasniemi, Jukka; Pulkkinen, Pasi; Määttä, Mikko; Korpelainen, Raija; Saarakkala, Simo; Jämsä, Timo

    2014-07-01

    To investigate whether femoral neck fracture can be predicted retrospectively on the basis of clinical radiographs by using the combined analysis of bone geometry, textural analysis of trabecular bone, and bone mineral density (BMD). Formal ethics committee approval was obtained for the study, and all participants gave informed written consent. Pelvic radiographs and proximal femur BMD measurements were obtained in 53 women aged 79-82 years in 2006. By 2012, 10 of these patients had experienced a low-impact femoral neck fracture. A Laplacian-based semiautomatic custom algorithm was applied to the radiographs to calculate the texture parameters along the trabecular fibers in the lower neck area for all subjects. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility was calculated by using the root mean square average coefficient of variation to evaluate the robustness of the method. The best predictors of hip fracture were entropy (P = .007; reproducibility coefficient of variation < 1%), the neck-shaft angle (NSA) (P = .017), and the BMD (P = .13). For prediction of fracture, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.753 for entropy, 0.608 for femoral neck BMD, and 0.698 for NSA. The area increased to 0.816 when entropy and NSA were combined and to 0.902 when entropy, NSA, and BMD were combined. Textural analysis of pelvic radiographs enables discrimination of patients at risk for femoral neck fracture, and our results show the potential of this conventional imaging method to yield better prediction than that achieved with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-based BMD. The combination of the entropy parameter with NSA and BMD can further enhance predictive accuracy. © RSNA, 2014.

  3. Intracapsular versus subcapsular coblation tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kay W

    2008-02-01

    To compare the postoperative recovery of patients who undergo intracapsular to subcapsular Coblation tonsillectomy. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study. A total of 69 children, aged 2 to 16 years, were randomized to intracapsular (n = 34) or subcapsular (n = 35) tonsillectomy. The Coblation technique was used with both groups. Outcomes measures were assessed on postoperative day 1 or 2 and 5 or 6. These included child and parental rating of pain with the Wong Faces pain scale, analgesic use, oral intake, and activity level. Intracapsular tonsillectomy patients had similar levels of pain to subcapsular tonsillectomy patients on day 1 or 2. However, at day 5 or 6, intracapsular tonsillectomy patients had significantly less pain than the subcapsular tonsillectomy patients. Intracapsular patients ate more and were more active at both time points. Children with obstructive sleep apnea who undergo tonsillectomy demonstrate better postoperative recovery after intracapsular tonsillectomy. The intracapsular versus subcapsular difference may be best appreciated at a delayed time point (day 5 or 6) rather than early (day 1 or 2).

  4. Computed tomographic evaluation of the proximal femur: A predictive classification in displaced femoral neck fracture management

    PubMed Central

    Magu, Narender Kumar; Magu, Sarita; Rohilla, Rajesh Kumar; Batra, Amit; Jaipuria, Abhishek; Singh, Amanpreet

    2014-01-01

    Background: Femoral neck fracture is truly an enigma due to the high incidence of avascular necrosis and nonunion. Different methods have been described to determine the size of the femoral head fragment, as a small head has been said to be associated with poor outcome and nonunion due to inadequate implant purchase in the proximal fragment. These methods were two dimensional and were affected by radiography techniques, therefore did not determine true head size. Computed tomography (CT) is an important option to measure true head size as images can be obtained in three dimensions. Henceforth, we subjected patients to CT scan of hip in cases with displaced fracture neck of femur. The study aims to define the term small head or inadequate size femoral head” objectively for its prognostic significance. Materials and Methods: 70 cases of displaced femoral neck fractures underwent CT scan preoperatively for proximal femoral geometric measurements of both hips. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was done in all cases. Patients were treated with either intertrochanteric osteotomy or lag screw osteosynthesis based on the size of the head fragment on plain radiographs. Results: The average femoral head fragment volume was 57 cu cm (range 28.3-84.91 cu cm; standard deviation 14 cu cm). Proximal fragment volume of >43 cu cm was termed adequate size (type I) and of ≤43 cu cm as small femoral head (type II). Fractures which united (n = 54) had a relatively large average head size (59 cu cm) when compared to fractures that did not (n = 16), which had a small average head size (49 cu cm) and this difference was statistically significant. In type I fractures union rate was comparable in both osteotomy and lag screw groups (P > 0.05). Lag screw fixation failed invariably, while osteotomy showed good results in type II fractures (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Computed tomography scan of the proximal femur is advisable for measuring true size of head fragment. An objective

  5. Laser etching causing fatigue fracture at the neck-shoulder junction of an uncemented femoral stem: A case report.

    PubMed

    Jang, Bob; Kanawati, Andrew; Brazil, Declan; Bruce, Warwick

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue fracture of a femoral component in total hip arthroplasty is a rare occurrence but well documented in the literature. It is understood that proximal loosing of a femoral stem with a well fixed stem distally will result in cantilever bending and eventual fatigue fracture of the stem. Other factors which may potentiate a fatigue fracture are material design, implant positioning, and patient characteristics. More recently, laser etching on the femoral neck of an implant has resulted in fatigue fracture. We report a case of a fatigue fracture at the neck-shoulder junction in a well fixed, uncemented, femoral component due to laser etching in the region of high tensile stress.

  6. Increased Hip Stresses Resulting From a Cam Deformity and Decreased Femoral Neck-Shaft Angle During Level Walking.

    PubMed

    Ng, K C Geoffrey; Mantovani, Giulia; Lamontagne, Mario; Labrosse, Michel R; Beaulé, Paul E

    2017-04-01

    It is still unclear why many individuals with a cam morphology of the hip do not experience pain. It was recently reported that a decreased femoral neck-shaft angle may also be associated with hip symptoms. However, the effects that different femoral neck-shaft angles have on hip stresses in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals with cam morphology remain unclear. We examined the effects of the cam morphology and femoral neck-shaft angle on hip stresses during walking by asking: (1) Are there differences in hip stress characteristics among symptomatic patients with cam morphology, asymptomatic individuals with cam morphology, and individuals without cam morphology? (2) What are the effects of high and low femoral neck-shaft angles on hip stresses? Six participants were selected, from a larger cohort, and their cam morphology and femoral neck-shaft angle parameters were measured from CT data. Two participants were included in one of three groups: (1) symptomatic with cam morphology; (2) asymptomatic with a cam morphology; and (3) asymptomatic control with no cam morphology with one participant having the highest femoral neck-shaft angle and the other participant having the lowest in each subgroup. Subject-specific finite element models were reconstructed and simulated during the stance phase, near pushoff, to examine maximum shear stresses on the acetabular cartilage and labrum. The symptomatic group with cam morphology indicated high peak stresses (6.3-9.5 MPa) compared with the asymptomatic (5.9-7.0 MPa) and control groups (3.8-4.0 MPa). Differences in femoral neck-shaft angle influenced both symptomatic and asymptomatic groups; participants with the lowest femoral neck-shaft angles had higher peak stresses in their respective subgroups. There were no differences among control models. Our study suggests that the hips of individuals with a cam morphology and varus femoral neck angle may be subjected to higher mechanical stresses than those with a normal femoral

  7. Associations of parity, breast-feeding, and birth control pills with lumbar spine and femoral neck bone densities.

    PubMed

    Hreshchyshyn, M M; Hopkins, A; Zylstra, S; Anbar, M

    1988-08-01

    The relationships between parity, breast-feeding, and the use of birth control pills and the bone densities of the lumbar spine and the femoral neck, measured by dual-photon densitometry, were studied in normal women. Femoral neck density was found to decrease by 1.1% per live-birth, whereas lumbar spine density showed no significant association with parity. Breast-feeding was found to increase lumbar spine density by 1.5% per breast-fed child, whereas femoral neck density was not significantly correlated. No significant relationships between the use of birth control pills and the bone densities were found.

  8. The Femoral Neck Mechanoresponse to Hip Extensors Exercise: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtarzadeh, Hossein; Pivonka, Peter; Ebeling, Peter R.

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is recommended to prevent age-related bone loss. However, the proximal femur mechanoresponse is variable, possibly because of a muscle-dependant mechanoresponse. We compared the proximal femur response with the femoral strain pattern generated by the hip extensor muscles. A healthy participant underwent a six-month unilateral training of the hip extensor muscles using a resistance weight regularly adjusted to the 80% of the one-repetition maximum weight. DXA-based measurements of the areal Bone Mineral Density (aBMD) in the exercise leg were adjusted for changes in the control leg. The biomechanical stimulus for bone adaptation (BS) was calculated using published models of the musculoskeletal system and the average hip extension moment in elderly participants. Volumetric (ΔvBMD) and areal (ΔaBMD) BMD changes were calculated. The measured and calculated BMD changes consistently showed a positive and negative effect of exercise in the femoral neck (ΔaBMD = +0.7%; ΔvBMD = +0.8%) and the trochanter region (ΔaBMD = −4.1%; ΔvBMD = −0.5%), respectively. The 17% of the femoral neck exceeded the 75th percentile of the spatially heterogeneous BS distribution. Hip extensor exercises may be beneficial in the proximal femoral neck but not in the trochanteric region. DXA-based measurements may not capture significant aBMD local changes. PMID:28168080

  9. Removal of a broken guide wire entrapped in a fractured femoral neck.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qing-hua; Ye, Tian-wen; Guo, Yong-fei; Wang, Chong-li; Chen, Ai-min

    2013-01-01

    Guide wire plays an important role in the fixation of femoral neck fracture with dynamic hip screw (DHS). Breakage of a guide wire during operation is a very rare condition. We met such a dilemma in DHS fixation of a 54-year-old male patient who sustained Garden type IV fracture of the right femoral neck. The distal end of the guide wire broke and was entrapped in the fractured femoral neck. We tried to get the broken part out by a cannulated drill. Reaming was started with the cannulated drill slowly rotating around the guide K-wire until the reamer fully contained the target under fluoroscope. A bone curette was used to get the broken wire out but failed, so we had to use the cannuated drill to dredge this bone tunnel. Finally the broken wire end was taken out, mixed with blood and bone fragments. Through the existing drilling channel, DHS fixation was easily finished. The patient had an uneventful recovery without avascular necrosis of femoral head or non-union of the fracture at one year's follow-up. A few methods can be adopted to deal with the broken guide wire. The way used in our case is less invasive but technically challenging. When the guide wire is properly positioned, this method is very practical and useful.

  10. Fixation of the fully hydroxyapatite-coated Corail stem implanted due to femoral neck fracture

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Today, dislocated femoral neck fractures are commonly treated with a cemented hip arthroplasty. However, cementing of the femoral component may lead to adverse effects and even death. Uncemented stems may lower these risks and hydroxyapatite (HA) coating may enhance integration, but prosthetic stability and clinical outcome in patients with osteoporotic bone have not been fully explored. We therefore studied fixation and clinical outcome in patients who had had a femoral neck fracture and who had received a fully HA-coated stem prosthesis. Patients and methods 50 patients with a dislocated femoral neck fracture were operated with the fully HA-coated Corail total or hemiarthroplasty. 38 patients, mean age 81 (70–96) years, were followed for 24 months with conventional radiographs, RSA, DEXA, and for clinical outcome. Results 31 of the 38 implants moved statistically significantly up to 3 months, mainly distally, mean 2.7 mm (max. 20 mm (SD 4.3)), and rotated into retroversion mean 3.3º (–1.8 to 17) (SD 4.3) and then appeared to stabilize. Distal stem migration was more pronounced if the stem was deemed to be too small. There was no correlation between BMD and stem migration. The migration did not result in any clinically adverse effects. Interpretation The fully hydroxyapatite-coated Corail stem migrates during the first 3 months, but clinical outcome appears to be good, without any adverse events. PMID:22112154

  11. Current and past menstrual status is an important determinant of femoral neck geometry in exercising women.

    PubMed

    Mallinson, Rebecca J; Williams, Nancy I; Gibbs, Jenna C; Koehler, Karsten; Allaway, Heather C M; Southmayd, Emily; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2016-07-01

    Menstrual status, both past and current, has been established as an important determinant of bone mineral density (BMD) in young exercising women. However, little is known regarding the association between the cumulative effect of menstrual status and indices of bone health beyond BMD, such as bone geometry and estimated bone strength. This study explores the association between cumulative menstrual status and indices of bone health assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), including femoral neck geometry and strength and areal BMD (aBMD), in exercising women. 101 exercising women (22.0±0.4years, BMI 21.0±0.2kg/m(2), 520±40min/week of self-reported exercise) participated in this cross-sectional study. Women were divided into three groups as follows based on their self-reported current and past menstrual status: 1) current and past regular menstrual cycles (C+P-R) (n=23), 2) current and past irregular menstrual cycles (C+P-IR) (n=56), 3) and current or past irregular cycles (C/P-RIR) (n=22). Current menstrual status was confirmed using daily urinary metabolites of reproductive hormones. DXA was used to assess estimates of femoral neck geometry and strength from hip strength analysis (HSA), aBMD, and body composition. Cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), cross-sectional area (CSA), strength index (SI), diameter, and section modulus (Z) were calculated at the femoral neck. Low CSMI, CSA, SI, diameter, and Z were operationally defined as values below the median. Areal BMD (g/cm(2)) and Z-scores were determined at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. Low BMD was defined as a Z-score<-1.0. Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression were performed to compare the prevalence and determine the odds, respectively, of low bone geometry, strength, and aBMD among groups. Cumulative menstrual status was identified as a significant predictor of low femoral neck CSMI (p=0.005), CSA (p≤0.024), and diameter (p=0.042) after controlling for

  12. Dimension and overlap of femoral and neck blood vessels in neonates.

    PubMed

    Tailounie, Muayyad; Mcadams, Lou A; Frost, Kristie C; Gossett, Jeffrey; Green, Jerill; Bhutta, Adnan T; Dyamenahalli, Umesh; Schmitz, Michael L; Prodhan, Parthak

    2012-05-01

    Neonates frequently require access to their central blood vessels. However, limited data exist relating to the size and the anatomical relation of the femoral and neck vessels for neonates of different postmenstrual ages. 1) The size of central blood vessels increases with postmenstrual age of the neonate. 2). External rotation with abduction at the hip will decrease the degree of overlap between the femoral artery and vein. 3) The degree of overlap decreases with increasing postmenstrual age. Prospective descriptive cohort study. Femoral and neck vessel sizes were assessed using ultrasound for three postmenstrual age groups: group A (26 ± 1 wks), group B (32 ± 1 wks), and group C (38 ± 1 wks). The degrees of overlap (major, >50% overlap; minor, ≤50% overlap; no overlap) between the femoral vessels were assessed at the level of the inguinal ligament and 1 cm below the inguinal ligament in a straight hip and in external rotation with abduction of the hip positions. A total of 52 nonconsecutive subjects (group A, seven; group B, 21; group C, 24) were studied. The mean blood vessel dimensions increased with increasing postmenstrual age. Correlation of blood vessel size to growth measurements was better in group A + group B compared to group C. Overlap between the femoral vein and the femoral artery across the neonatal age groups at the level of the inguinal ligament ranged from 57% to 79% and from 43% to 98% at 1 cm below the inguinal ligament. The degree of overlap did not decrease with positioning of the lower extremity in external rotation with abduction of the hip. In the neck blood vessels, the majority of observations showed either minor or major overlap of neck blood vessels in all three groups (group A, 79%; group B, 86%; group C, 90%). Central blood vessel size increases with increasing postmenstrual age. Correlation of blood vessel size to anthropometric measurements was better in the premature neonates compared to term neonates. A high degree of

  13. [Hip centralising forces of the iliotibial tract with various femoral neck angles].

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, K; Pandorf, T; Prescher, A; Niethard, F U; Weisskopf, M

    2009-01-01

    Concerning the biomechanical properties of the iliotibial tract different opinions can be found in the literature. Due to this fact it was the aim of this study to take measurements about the hip centralising forces of the iliotibial tract in a neutral position as well as in abduction, adduction and flexion of the hip joint at different femoral neck angles by using a custom-made hip prosthesis. By using a custom-made measuring endoprothesis with the capability for adjusting different femoral neck angles and lengths and, furthermore, by measuring the intra- and subligamentous forces at the height of the greater trochanter, we measured the forces for validating the influence of the iliotibial tract for hip joint centralisation. By increasing the CCD angle (coxa valga) a higher load on the hip joint results. By decreasing the CCD angle (coxa vara) a lowering of the coxalfemoral load results. Flexion of the knee joint leads to a decrease of the iliotibial tract tension. By extension of the knee joint and resulting tightening of the iliotibial tract, a triplication of the forces at the femoral neck was measured. Flexion of the hip joint exerted a ventralising of the iliotibial tract with an initial decrease of the centralising hip forces. Subligamentous measurement of the iliotibial tract showed increasing forces upon adduction as well as decreasing forces upon abduction of the hip joint. In the investigations about the forces with various femoral neck lengths, we saw a considerable increase by lengthening the femoral neck and resulting higher forces in the acetabulum. The clinical relevance of these results concerns the predictability of the in- or decreasing tension band wiring effect of the iliotibial tract in correlation to the CCD angle and the direction of motion of the hip joint. The measurements give the clinical users a benchmark for the expected subligamentous forces of the iliotibial tract and the resulting hip centralising forces. The influence of the

  14. Femoral neck structure in adult female athletes subjected to different loading modalities.

    PubMed

    Nikander, Riku; Sievänen, Harri; Heinonen, Ari; Kannus, Pekka

    2005-03-01

    Loading modality is a strong external determinant of structure and concomitant strength of the femoral neck. Particularly effective seem to be loadings, which arise from high impacts or impacts from atypical loading directions. Physical loading plays an important role, not only in the process of bone modeling and remodeling, but also in shaping a mechanically appropriate bone structure. This study aimed at testing the hypothesis that the type of loading partly determines the femoral neck structure. A total of 255 premenopausal female athletes representing volleyball, hurdling, squash-playing, soccer, speed skating, step aerobics, weight-lifting, orienteering, cross-country skiing, cycling, and swimming and their 30 nonathletic counterparts were measured with DXA. Besides the conventional areal BMD (aBMD) of the femoral neck, the hip structure analysis (HSA) was used to estimate the cross-sectional area (CSA), subperiosteal width (W), and section modulus (Z, an index of bone strength) at the narrowest section of the femoral neck. Also, training history, muscle strength, and calcium intake were assessed. The above-mentioned sports were classified according to the type of loading they apparently produce at the hip region; that is, high-impact loading (volleyball, hurdling), odd-impact loading (squash-playing, soccer, speed-skating, step aerobics), high-magnitude loading (weightlifting), low-impact loading (orienteering, cross-country skiing), and nonimpact loading (swimming, cycling). High-impact and odd-impact loading sports were associated with the highest age-, weight-, and height-adjusted aBMD (23% and 29% higher values compared to nonathletic referents), CSA (22% and 27%), and Z (22% and 26%). In contrast, repetitive, nonimpact loading sports were not associated with any clear benefit in any bone value compared with the referents. The W at the narrowest femoral neck section was similar in all groups. Body height and weight accounted virtually for one-half of the

  15. Bilateral Femoral Neck Fatigue Fracture due to Osteomalacia Secondary to Celiac Disease: Report of Three Cases.

    PubMed

    Selek, Ozgur; Memisoglu, Kaya; Selek, Alev

    2015-08-01

    Bilateral non traumatic femoral neck fatigue fracture is a rare condition usually occurring secondary to medical conditions such as pregnancy, pelvic irradiation, corticosteroid exposure, chronic renal failure and osteomalacia. In this report, we present three young female patients with bilateral femoral neck fracture secondary to osteomalacia. The underlying cause of osteomalacia was Celiac disease in all patients. The patients were treated with closed reduction and internal fixation with cannulated lag screws. They were free of pain and full weight bearing was achieved at three months. There were no complications, avascular necrosis and nonunion during the follow up period. In patients with bone pain, non traumatic fractures and muscle weakness, osteomalacia should be kept in mind and proper diagnostic work-up should be performed to identify the underlying cause of osteomalacia such as celiac disease.

  16. Microvascular medial femoral condylar flaps in 107 consecutive reconstructions in the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Brandtner, Christian; Hachleitner, Johannes; Bottini, Gian Battista; Buerger, Heinz; Gaggl, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    We have assessed the role of the medial femoral condylar flap in 107 patients who had reconstructions of the head and neck. We retrospectively reviewed their medical records for indications, complications, and outcomes. The flap was primarily used for coverage of alveolar ridge defects (n=67), secondly for defects of the facial bone, calvaria, or skull base (n=35), and thirdly for partial laryngeal defects (n=5). Two flaps were lost. One patient fractured a femur 5 weeks postoperatively. The duration of follow up ranged from 6 months to 12 years. The medial femoral condylar flap is well-suited to individual reconstructions of the alveolar ridge, midface, calvaria, skull base, and part of the larynx with poor recipient sites. The flap does not replace other wellknown flaps, but offers new solutions for solving special problems in head and neck surgery.

  17. Pathologic Femoral Neck Fracture Due to Fanconi Syndrome Induced by Adefovir Dipivoxil Therapy for Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon-Suk; Kim, Byung-Kook; Lee, Ho-Jae

    2016-01-01

    In Fanconi syndrome, hypophosphatemic osteomalacia is caused by proximal renal tubule dysfunction which leads to impaired reabsorption of amino acids, glucose, urate, and phosphate. We present a rare case of a 43-year-old Korean male who was found to have insufficiency stress fracture of the femoral neck secondary to osteomalacia due to Fanconi syndrome. He had been receiving low-dose adefovir dipivoxil (ADV, 10 mg/day) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection for 7 years and he subsequently developed severe hypophosphatemia and proximal renal tubule dysfunction. The incomplete femoral neck fracture was fixed with multiple cannulated screws to prevent further displacement of the initial fracture. After cessation of ADV and correction of hypophosphatemia with oral phosphorus supplementation, the patient's clinical symptoms, such as bone pain, muscle weakness, and laboratory findings improved. PMID:27247753

  18. Bilateral stress fracture of femoral neck in non-athlete - case report.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ubiratan Stefani de; Labronici, Pedro José; João Neto, André; Nishimi, Alexandre Yukio; Pires, Robinson Esteves Santos; Silva, Luiz Henrique Penteado

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral stress fracture of femoral neck in healthy young patients is an extremely rare entity, whose diagnostic and treatment represent a major challenge. Patients with history of hip pain, even non-athletes or military recruits, should be analyzed to achieve an early diagnosis and prevent possible complications from the surgical treatment. This report describes a 43-year-old male patient, non-athlete, without previous diseases, who developed bilateral stress fracture of femoral neck without displacement. He had a late diagnosis; bilateral osteosynthesis was made using cannulated screws. Although the diagnosis was delayed in this case, the study highlights the importance of the diagnosis of stress fracture, regardless of the activity level of the patients, for the success of the treatment.

  19. Bilateral non-traumatic acetabular and femoral neck fractures due to pregnancy-associated osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Aynaci, Osman; Kerimoglu, Servet; Ozturk, Cagatay; Saracoglu, Metehan

    2008-03-01

    Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis is a rare disorder and its pathophysiology remains unknown. We report a case of pregnancy-associated osteoporosis in a 27-year-old primiparous patient who revealed bilateral hip pain during early postnatal period. The plain radiographs and computerized tomography showed bilateral femoral neck and acetabular fractures. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was established by bone mineral density. Diagnostic work-up excluded a secondary osteoporosis. The case was treated successfully by bilateral cementless total hip arthroplasty. Bone mineral density increased after 2 years of treatment with calcium-vitamin D, calcitriol and alendronate. Diagnosis of pregnancy-associated osteoporosis should be suspected when hip pain occurs during pregnancy or in the post-partum period as it can lead to acetabular and femoral neck fractures.

  20. The femoral head-neck contour varies as a function of physeal development.

    PubMed

    Vo, A; Beaule, P E; Sampaio, M L; Rotaru, C; Rakhra, K S

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the femoral head-neck contour, characterised by the alpha angle, varies with the stage of physeal maturation using MRI evaluation of an asymptomatic paediatric population. Paediatric volunteers with asymptomatic hips were recruited to undergo MRI of both hips. Femoral head physes were graded from 1 (completely open) to 6 (completely fused). The femoral head-neck contour was evaluated using the alpha angle, measured at the 3:00 (anterior) and 1:30 (anterosuperior) positions and correlated with physeal grade, with gender sub-analysis performed. A total of 43 asymptomatic paediatric volunteers (26 male, 17 female) with mean age 13.0 years (eight to 18) were included with review of bilateral hip MRIs. Correlation between the physeal grade and alpha angle was moderate in males at both the 3:00 (r = 0.477, p < 0.001) and 1:30 (r = 0.509, p < 0.001) positions, whereas there was no significant correlation in females. A significant difference was found between the alpha angles of all the physeal grades (3:00, p = 0.030, 1:30, p = 0.005), but only in males, with the angle increasing with higher grades. For physeal grading, the inter-reader reliability was substantial (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.694), and the intra-reader reliability was also substantial (ICC = 0.788). The femoral head-neck contour varies and correlates with the stage of physeal development, but only in males, with the alpha angle increasing with progressive physeal maturation. This suggests that gender differences exist in the natural physiological growth, development or remodelling of femoral head-neck junction. In males, pre-physeal fusion may be a critical period of vulnerability for development of morphologic abnormalities of the femoral head-neck junction. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:17-22. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  1. Variation in the PTH gene, hip fracture, and femoral neck geometry in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Tenne, M; McGuigan, F E; Ahlborg, H; Gerdhem, P; Akesson, K

    2010-05-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a principal regulator of calcium homeostasis. Previously, we studied single-nucleotide polymorphisms present in the major genes in the PTH pathway (PTH, PTHrP, PTHR1, PTHR2) in relation to bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture incidence. We found that haplotypes of the PTH gene were associated with fracture risk independent of BMD. In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between PTH haplotypes and femoral neck bone size. Hip structure analysis and BMD of the femoral neck was assessed by DXA in elderly women from the Malmö Osteoporosis Prospective Risk Assessment study. Data on hip fracture, sustained as a result of low trauma, after the age of 45 years were also analyzed. Haplotypes derived from six polymorphisms in the PTH locus were analyzed in 750 women. Carriers of haplotype 9 had lower values for hip geometry parameters cross-sectional moment of inertia (P = 0.029), femoral neck width (P = 0.049), and section modulous (P = 0.06), suggestive of increased fracture risk at the hip. However, this did not translate into an increased incidence of hip fracture in the studied population. Women who suffered a hip fracture compared to those who had not had longer hip axis length (HAL) (P < 0.001). HAL was not significantly different among haplotypes. Polymorphisms in the PTH gene are associated with differences in aspects of femoral neck geometry in elderly women; however, the major predictor of hip fracture in our population was HAL, to which PTH gene variation does not contribute significantly.

  2. Free fibular strut graft in neglected femoral neck fractures in adult

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Md Quamar; Iraqi, AA; Sherwani, MKA; Sabir, Amir Bin; Abbas, M; Asif, Naiyer

    2009-01-01

    Background: Neglected femoral neck fracture in adults still poses a formidable challenge. Existing treatment options varies from osteotomy (with or without graft) to osteosynthesis using various implants and grafting techniques (muscle pedicle, vascularized, and nonvascularized fibula). The aim of this study was to assess outcome of nonvascularized fibular strut graft and cancellous screw fixation in neglected femoral neck fractures in the younger age group. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 32 patients of neglected femoral neck fracture, in the age group of 22-45 years (mean 37.8 years), operated between May 1994 to December 2001, were retrospectively reviewed. After the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 28 patients having three years minimum follow-up (mean 4.6 years) were included. Delay between injury and operation varied from four weeks to 42 weeks (mean 16.4 weeks). Closed reduction was achieved in 17 patients; open reduction through Watson-Jones anterolateral approach was performed in the remaining 15 patients in whom closed reduction failed. The fracture was transfixed with three parallel guide wires. Appropriate sized cannulated lag screw (7 mm) was then inserted in two of the wires. Selection of the third guide wire for fibula depended on the space available in both anteroposterior and lateral view. Results: Satisfactory bony union was obtained in 25 patients, of whom in four cases, the union occurred in 10-20° (mean 15°) of varus. Nonunion occurred in three patients (9.37%), and aseptic necrosis occurred in another six patients (18.75%). Of the 25 patients where union was achieved, five patients showed excellent results; 14 good and six had poor functional result, as evaluated using modified Anglen criteria. Conclusion: Nonvascularized fibular strut graft along with cancellous screws provides a dependable and technically less-demanding alternative procedure for neglected femoral neck fractures in young adults. Fibula being

  3. Malignant pleural mesothelioma with osseous metastases and pathologic fracture of femoral neck.

    PubMed

    Lester, Todd; Xu, Haodong

    2008-10-01

    Malignant mesotheliomas occur in the pleura, peritoneum, pericardium, and tunica vaginalis. The majority of tumors are pleural in origin. The typical pattern of spread is usually contiguous or via implantation. Hematogenous or lymphatic metastasis is not uncommon; however, metastasis to bone has rarely been well documented. This is a case report of malignant pleural mesothelioma metastatic to the femur with a pathologic fracture of femoral neck.

  4. Intrapelvic Protrusion of a Broken Guide Wire Fragment during Fixation of a Femoral Neck Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Ahmadreza

    2017-01-01

    During fixation of a femoral neck fracture in a 23-year-old male patient with cannulated screws, a broken guide wire fragment inadvertently advanced through the hip joint and protruded into the pelvis. A second surgical approach was needed to remove the broken fragment from the pelvis. Awareness of such a potentially devastating complication will make surgeons more cautious during implementation of orthopedic instruments and increases patient’s safety during surgery.

  5. Rheumatoid pseudocyst (geode) of the femoral neck without apparent joint involvement.

    PubMed

    Morrey, B F

    1987-05-01

    Typically, rheumatoid cysts are associated with obvious joint involvement and are located in the subchondral portion of the adjacent joint. Giant pseudocysts (geodes) are uncommon and are characteristically associated with extensive joint destruction. The patient described in this report had a giant pseudocyst of the femoral neck but no joint involvement. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first report of such a manifestation of a giant pseudocyst. As such, it posed a somewhat difficult diagnostic problem.

  6. Range of change of measured BMD in the femoral neck and total hip with rotation in women.

    PubMed

    Rosenthall, Leonard

    2004-01-01

    To obtain a quantitative assessment of the range of variation of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in the femoral neck and total hip with rotation of the hip, 200 women, ages 21-86 years, were scanned by DXA in the neutral position and with 25% internal rotation of the leg. The difference in BMDs (neutral minus internal rotation) was > or =0 in about 65% of the patients, whereas the remaining 35% were <0. In terms of absolute change, the femoral neck median BMD of 0.025 g/cm2 was significantly greater than the total hip, 0.016 g/cm2. Percent absolute femoral neck change was 3.13% compared to 1.79% for the total hip. Absolute change of the total hip correlated positively with age, while the femoral neck showed a positive trend that was not statistically significant at the P = 0.05 level. Despite the total hip's lower precision error and smaller BMD change with rotation, the number of patients exceeding the 95% confidence limit for each site was virtually the same, 11% for the femoral neck and 13% for the total hip. This finding underlines the need to achieve confirmed repositioning accuracy in longitudinal studies, whether at zero femoral neck axis anteversion or otherwise, to appreciate the relative advantages of total hip measurement. The question that remains is what method can be employed to obtain this confirmation simply and economically in a busy clinical service facility with the usual turnover in personnel.

  7. Comparison of effects of different screw materials in the triangle fixation of femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Gok, Kadir; Inal, Sermet; Gok, Arif; Gulbandilar, Eyyup

    2017-05-01

    In this study, biomechanical behaviors of three different screw materials (stainless steel, titanium and cobalt-chromium) have analyzed to fix with triangle fixation under axial loading in femoral neck fracture and which material is best has been investigated. Point cloud obtained after scanning the human femoral model with the three dimensional (3D) scanner and this point cloud has been converted to 3D femoral model by Geomagic Studio software. Femoral neck fracture was modeled by SolidWorks software for only triangle configuration and computer-aided numerical analyses of three different materials have been carried out by AnsysWorkbench finite element analysis (FEA) software. The loading, boundary conditions and material properties have prepared for FEA and Von-Misses stress values on upper and lower proximity of the femur and screws have been calculated. At the end of numerical analyses, the best advantageous screw material has calculated as titanium because it creates minimum stress at the upper and lower proximity of the fracture line.

  8. Association between injury to the retinacula of Weitbrecht and femoral neck fractures: anatomical and clinical observations

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Jiong; Ni, Ming; Wang, Guoliang; Jia, Guangyao; Liu, Shiwei; Cui, Xueliang; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Hua; Dai, Yahui; Quan, Kun; Chen, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is no objective indicator for surgical procedures in elderly patients with femoral neck fractures. The purpose of this study was to determine the severity of damage to the retinacula of Weitbrecht based on the type of femoral neck fracture, anatomical and clinical observations. Data from 44 patients treated with artificial femoral head replacement were analyzed for the association between Garden type fracture and severity of injury to Weitbrecht’s retinacula. Additionally, 18 cases (Pauwels type III fracture) after Watson-Jones surgical approach and internal fixations were used to investigate the bone healing and femoral head necrosis. Among 44 patients (Garden type was III-IV, 79.6%), significant associations were found between Garden type fracture and lateral (P < 0.001), anterior (P = 0.045), and medial (P = 0.004) retinacular injury. Significant positive Spearman correlation coefficients between Garden type and the severity of injury to Weitbrecht’s retinacula were Ρ = 0.561 with P < 0.001 for lateral, Ρ = 0.338 with P = 0.025 for anterior, and Ρ = 0.469 with P = 0.001 for medial retinacula. Additionally, 4 out of 18 Pauwels type III fracture cases were observed severe damages on Weitbrecht’s retinacula and resulting bone necrosis. In conclusion, this study provided the anatomical and histological correlations between fracture displacement and degree of retinacula injury. PMID:26770357

  9. Biomechanical rationale for implant choices in femoral neck fracture fixation in the non-elderly.

    PubMed

    Panteli, Michalis; Rodham, Paul; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2015-03-01

    Femoral neck fractures represent a relatively uncommon injury in the non-elderly population often resulting from high-energy trauma. The cornerstone of their management is anatomic reduction and stable internal fixation of the femoral neck in an attempt to salvage the femoral head. Complications including avascular necrosis of the femoral head, non-union and post-traumatic osteoarthritis are not uncommon. The clinical outcomes of these patients can be improved with good pre-operative planning, optimization of surgical procedures and introduction of new improved implants and techniques. In the herein study, we attempt to describe the biomechanical properties of the hip and compare the performance of the most commonly used devices. Experimental evidence suggests that in Pauwels type III fracture patterns a cephalomedullary nail was significantly stronger in axial loading. Moreover, in unstable basicervical patterns cannulated screws (triangular configuration) demonstrated a lower ultimate load to failure, whereas in subcapital or transervical patterns both the cannulated screws (triangular configuration) and the sliding hip screw demonstrated no compromise in fixation strength. The fracture pattern appears to be the major determinant of the ideal type of implant to be selected. For a successful outcome each patient needs to be considered on an individual basis taking into account all patient and implant related factors.

  10. The effects of femoral neck cut, cable tension, and muscles forces on the greater trochanter fixation.

    PubMed

    Petit, Yvan; Cloutier, Luc P; Duke, Kajsa; Laflamme, G Yves

    2012-04-01

    Greater trochanter (GT) stabilization techniques following a fracture or an osteotomy are still showing high levels of postoperative complications. Understanding the effect of femoral neck cut placement, cable tension and muscles forces on GT fragment displacements could help surgeons optimize their techniques. A 3D finite element model has been developed to evaluate, through a statistical experimental design, the impact of the above variables on the GT fragment gap and sliding displacements. Muscles forces were simulating typical daily activities. Stresses were also investigated. The femoral neck cut placement had the most significant effect on the fragment displacement. Lowering it by 5 mm increased the gap and sliding fragment displacements by 288 and 128 %, respectively. Excessive cable tightening provided no significant reduction in fragment displacement. Muscle activities increased the gap and the sliding displacements for all muscle configurations. The maximum total displacement of 0.41 mm was present with a 10 mm femoral neck cut, a cable tension of 178 N, and stair climbing. Caution must be used not to over tighten the cables as the potential damage caused by the increased stress is more significant than any reduction in fragment displacement. Furthermore, preservation of the contact area is important for GT stabilization.

  11. Hip centralizing forces of the iliotibial tract within various femoral neck angles.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Klaus; Prescher, Andreas; Niethard, Fritz-Uwe

    2010-03-01

    A contentious issue in the literature is the function and the biomechanical properties of the iliotibial tract. On account of this fact the aim was to take a measurement about the hip centralizing forces of the iliotibial tract by using a custom-made hip prosthesis with adjustable femoral neck angles and lengths in an anatomic model. By increasing the collodiaphyseal (CCD) angle (coxa valga) a higher load of the hip joint results. Decreasing the CCD angle (coxa vara) leads to a lower load of the hip joint. In the case of lengthening the femoral neck we saw a considerable increase of the forces along the femoral neck. Furthermore, we registered intraoperatively the subligamentous forces of the iliotibial tract in the height of the greater trochanter to analyse the axial forces into the acetabular cavity. The iliotibial tract showed increasing forces within adduction as well as decreasing forces within abduction of the hip joint. The clinical relevance consists of the predictability of the increasing or decreasing tension band wiring effect of the iliotibial tract in correlation to the CCD angle. The measurement gives the clinical users a benchmark for the expected subligamentous forces of the iliotibial tract and the resulting hip centralizing forces.

  12. Factors affecting the aluminium content of human femoral head and neck.

    PubMed

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Dąbrowski, Mikołaj; Kubaszewski, Łukasz; Rogala, Piotr; Frankowski, Marcin

    2015-11-01

    Tissues for the study were obtained intraoperatively during hip replacement procedures from 96 patients. In all the cases, the indication for this treatment was primary or secondary degenerative changes in the hip joint. The subject of the study was the head and neck of the femur, resected in situ. Aluminium concentrations measured in femoral head and neck samples from patients aged between 25 and 91 were varied. Statistical methods were applied to determine the variations in relation to the parameters from the background survey. Significant differences in the aluminium content of femoral head samples were observed between patients under and over 60 years of age. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the aluminium accumulates in bones over a lifetime. The study showed that the content of aluminium in the head and neck of the femur depends on the factors such as: type of medicines taken, contact with chemicals at work, differences in body anatomy and sex. The study on the levels of aluminium in bones and the factors affecting its concentration is a valuable source of information for further research on the role of aluminium in bone diseases. Based on the investigations, it was found that the GF-AAS technique is the best analytical tool for routine analysis of aluminium in complex matrix samples. The use of femoral heads in the investigations was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the University of Medical Sciences in Poznań (Poland). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Nonvascularized fibular grafting in nonunion of femoral neck fracture: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Sujit Kumar; Sen, Ramesh Kumar; Goyal, Tarun

    2016-01-01

    Nonunion of femoral neck fractures following primary fixation and neglected femoral neck fracture in young adults is a challenging task. Every effort should be directed toward hip joint salvage in these patients. Among different available options of hip salvage, nonvascularized fibular graft (NVFG) osteosynthesis is simple, easy to perform, and a successful technique. In this review, the available literature on NVFG in neglected and nonunion femoral neck fractures has been analyzed. After review of 15 articles on NVFG, the average nonunion rate was estimated to be 7.86% (range 0–31%). Six articles that evaluated the preoperative and postoperative osteonecrosis reported improvement in 50% patients. The clinical and/or functional outcome was good to excellent in 56–96% patients following fibular osteosynthesis. Few complications such as coxa vara deformity, limb shortening, and intraarticular penetration of the graft or hardware have been reported. However, there are minimal donor site morbidities such as mild ankle pain, transient loss of toe flexors and extensors and transient lateral popliteal nerve palsy. PMID:27512214

  14. Fixation of displaced femoral neck fractures in young adults: Fixed-angle devices or Pauwel screws?

    PubMed

    Hoshino, C M; Christian, M W; O'Toole, R V; Manson, T T

    2016-08-01

    We sought to compare the incidence of complications after fixation of displaced femoral neck fractures in young adults treated with fixed-angle devices versus multiple cancellous screws and a trochanteric lag screw (Pauwel screw). We conducted a retrospective cohort study at a level I trauma centre. Sixty-two skeletally mature patients (age range, 16-60 years) with displaced femoral neck fractures were included in the study. Forty-seven were treated with a fixed-angle device (sliding hip plate with screw or helical blade) and 15 with multiple cancellous screws placed in a Pauwel configuration. The main outcome measure was postoperative complication of osteonecrosis or nonunion treated with a surgical procedure. Significantly fewer failures occurred in the fixed-angle group (21%) than in the screws group (60%) (p=0.008). Osteonecrosis was rare in the fixed-angle group, occurring in 2% of cases versus 33% of cases in the screws group (p=0.002). Consistent with previous studies, good to excellent reductions were associated with a failure rate of 25% and fair to poor reductions were associated with a failure rate of 55% (p=0.07). The best-case scenario of a good to excellent reduction stabilised with a fixed-angle device yielded a success rate of 85%. In young patients with displaced high-energy femoral neck fractures, fixed-angle devices resulted in fewer treatment failures than did Pauwel screws. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Fracture of the cobalt-chromium modular femoral neck component in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Mencière, M-L; Amouyel, T; Taviaux, J; Bayle, M; Laterza, C; Mertl, P

    2014-09-01

    Total hip prostheses using cervico-metaphyseal modularity were designed to better replicate the geometry of the native extra-medullary femur. However, they are associated with numerous complications including corrosion, disassembly, pseudotumours and, most notably, fractures of the modular neck. All reported cases of modular neck fractures occurred with titanium components (Ti-6Al-4V). To prevent this weakness, manufacturers developed modular necks made of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr). We report a fracture of a long, 8° varus, Co-Cr modular neck connected to a 36-mm short (-3.5mm) femoral head. The fracture occurred 22 months post-implantation in a woman who had a low level of physical activity and a body mass index of 28.7 kg/m(2). To our knowledge, this case is the first reported instance of Co-Cr modular neck fracture. It may challenge the wisdom of further developing this modularity design, as our patient had none of the known risk factors for modular neck fracture. In addition, cases of pseudotumour have been reported with Co-Cr modular necks subjected to fretting corrosion, which contributed to the fracture in our patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Bone mineral density of the femoral neck in resurfacing hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ovesen, Ole; Brixen, Kim; Varmarken, Jens-Erik; Overgaard, SØren

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Resurfacing total hip arthroplasty (RTHA) may preserve the femoral neck bone stock postoperatively. Bone mineral density (BMD) may be affected by the hip position, which might bias longitudinal studies. We investigated the dependency of BMD precision on type of ROI and hip position. Method We DXA-scanned the femoral neck of 15 resurfacing patients twice with the hip in 3 different rotations: 15° internal, neutral, and 15° external. For each position, BMD was analyzed with 3 surface area models. One model measured BMD in the total femoral neck, the second model divided the neck in two, and the third model had 6 divisions. Results When all hip positions were pooled, average coefficients of variation (CVs) of 3.1%, 3.6%, and 4.6% were found in the 1-, 2-, and 6-region models, respectively. The externally rotated hip position was less reproducible. When rotating in increments of 15° or 30°, the average CVs rose to 7.2%, 7.3%, and 12% in the 3 models. Rotation affected the precision most in the model that divided the neck in 6 subregions, predominantly in the lateral and distal regions. For larger-region models, some rotation could be allowed without compromising the precision. Interpretation If hip rotation is strictly controlled, DXA can reliably provide detailed topographical information about the BMD changes around an RTHA. As rotation strongly affects the precision of the BMD measurements in small regions, we suggest that a less detailed model should be used for analysis in studies where the leg position has not been firmly controlled. PMID:20367420

  17. Revision surgery occurs frequently after percutaneous fixation of stable femoral neck fractures in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Kain, Michael S; Marcantonio, Andrew J; Iorio, Richard

    2014-12-01

    Femoral neck fractures are a major public health problem. Multiple-screw fixation is the most commonly used surgical technique for the treatment of stable femoral neck fractures. We determined (1) the proportion of hips that had conversion surgery to THA, and (2) the proportion of hips that underwent repeat fracture surgery after percutaneous screw fixation of stable (Garden Stages I and II) femoral neck fractures in patients older than 65 years and the causes of these reoperations. We performed a retrospective study of all patients older than 65 years with stable femoral neck fractures secondary to low-energy trauma treated surgically at our institution between 2005 and 2008. We identified 121 fractures in 120 patients older than 65 years as stable (Garden Stage I or II); all were treated with percutaneous, cannulated screw fixation in an inverted triangle without performing a capsulotomy or aspiration of the fracture hematoma at the time of surgery. The average age of the patients at the time of fracture was 80 years (range, 65-100 years). Radiographs, operative reports, and medical records were reviewed. Fracture union, nonunion, osteonecrosis, intraarticular hardware, loss of fixation, and conversion to arthroplasty were noted. Followup averaged 11 months (range, 0-5 years) because all patients were included, including those who died. The mortality rate was 40% for all patients at the time of review. Twelve patients (10%) underwent conversion surgery to THA at a mean of 9 months after the index fracture repair (range, 2-24 months); the indications for conversion to THA included osteonecrosis, nonunion, and loss of fixation. Two others had periimplant subtrochanteric femur fractures treated by surgical repair with cephalomedullary nails and two patients had removal of hardware. Revision surgery after osteosynthesis for stable femoral neck fractures was more frequent in this series than previously has been reported. The reasons for this higher frequency

  18. Femoral Version, Neck-Shaft Angle, and Acetabular Anteversion in Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan; Peng, Lin; Al-Qwbani, Mohammed; Xie, Guo-Ping; Yang, Qin-Meng; Chai, Yu; Zhang, Qing; Yu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Anatomic data regarding femoral version, neck-shaft angle, and acetabular anteversion are still limited in Chinese Han adult population. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of age, sex, and body laterality on the 3 important anatomic indicators in Chinese Han healthy adults. Measurements were performed independently by 3 experienced observers using the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) in healthy adults who had received imaging tests of the femur and acetabulum between January 2009 and October 2014. Relevant data were measured and analyzed. A total of 466 adults (353 males and 113 females) were included. The mean femoral version, neck-shaft angle, and acetabular anteversion for all were 10.62, 133.02, and18.79, respectively. Age-based analysis showed that adults younger than 60 years had a significantly higher neck-shaft angle (P < 0.001) but a significantly lower acetabular anteversion (P < 0.001) than those older than 60 years. Sex-based analysis revealed that females had significantly higher values of femoral version (P < 0.001) and acetabular anteversion (P < 0.001) than males. Laterality-based analysis found the left side had a significantly lower acetabular anteversion (P < 0.001) than the right side. Outcomes of multiple linear regression analysis indicated that femoral version may be associated with sex (P < 0.001) but not age (P = 0.076) or laterality (P = 0.430), neck-shaft angle may be associated with age (P < 0.001) but not sex (P = 0.378) or laterality (P = 0.233), and acetabular anteversion may be associated with age (P < 0.001) and sex (P < 0.001) but not laterality (P = 0.060). In this representative Chinese cohort, neck-shaft angle may decrease, whereas acetabular anteversion may increase with age, females may have higher values of femoral version and acetabular anteversion than males, and the right body side may have a higher value of acetabular

  19. Femoral Neck Stress Fracture: Can MRI Grade Help Predict Return-to-Running Time?

    PubMed

    Ramey, Lindsay N; McInnis, Kelly C; Palmer, William E

    2016-08-01

    Limited research is available regarding return-to-running (RTR) time after femoral neck stress fractures. While studies have shown the prognostic value of image-based grading scales for stress fractures at other sites, few have included femoral neck stress fractures. To determine if the grade of femoral neck stress fractures based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics correlates with RTR time. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. This study included 24 patients (mean age, 32.9 years; range, 18-51 years) who were diagnosed with 27 femoral neck stress fractures by MRI from 2009 to 2015 at a single sports medicine clinic. All fractures were compression sided and were treated nonoperatively. Charts were reviewed for patient demographics and RTR time. Images were graded from 1 to 4 using the Arendt stress fracture severity scale. Statistical analysis was performed using survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard model to compare the RTR time between grades. Cox regression was repeated, adjusted for age, bone mineral density (BMD), and body mass index (BMI). The mean (±standard error of the mean) RTR time in weeks for patients with fractures graded 1 to 4 was 7.4 ± 2.7 (range, 4-11), 13.8 ± 3.8 (range, 6-21), 14.7 ± 3.5 (range, 8.5-24), and 17.5 ± 3.4 (range, 10-32), respectively. Survival analysis indicated that there was a statistically significant effect of fracture grade on RTR time (P = .0065). The Cox model indicated a statistically significant difference in RTR time between grades 1 and 2 (P = .036), 1 and 3 (P = .014), and 1 and 4 (P = .002). The unadjusted hazard ratio was significant (P = .037). There were no statistically significant differences between the remaining grades (P = .82 for grades 2 and 3, P = .37 for grades 2 and 4, and P = .31 for grades 3 and 4). Age (P = .71) and BMD (P = .81) did not have an effect on RTR time. The hazard ratio remained significant (P = .05) after adjusting for age and BMD. BMI tended to have an effect on

  20. Screw-blade fixation systems in Pauwels three femoral neck fractures: a biomechanical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Knobe, Matthias; Altgassen, Simon; Maier, Klaus-Jürgen; Gradl-Dietsch, Gertraud; Kaczmarek, Chris; Nebelung, Sven; Klos, Kajetan; Kim, Bong-Sung; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Horst, Klemens; Buecking, Benjamin

    2017-08-06

    To reduce mechanical complications after osteosynthesis of femoral neck fractures, improved fixation techniques have been developed including blade or screw-anchor devices. This biomechanical study compares different fixation systems used for treatment of unstable femoral neck fractures with evaluation of failure mode, load to failure, stiffness, femoral head rotation, femoral neck shortening and femoral head migration. Standardized Pauwels type 3 fractures (AO/OTA 31-B2) with comminution were created in 18 biomechanical sawbones using a custom-made sawguide. Fractures were stabilized using either SHS-Screw, SHS-Blade or Rotationally Stable Screw-Anchor (RoSA). Femurs were positioned in 25 degrees adduction and ten degrees posterior flexion and were cyclically loaded with an axial sinusoidal loading pattern of 0.5 Hz, starting with 300 N, with an increase by 300 N every 2000 cycles until bone-implant failure occurred. Mean failure load for the Screw-Anchor fixation (RoSA) was 5100 N (IQR 750 N), 3900 N (IQR 75 N) for SHS-Blade and 3000 N (IQR 675 N; p = 0.002) for SHS-Screw. For SHS-Screw and SHS-Blade we observed fracture displacement with consecutive fracture collapse as the main reason for failure, whereas RoSA mainly showed a cut-out under high loadings. Mean stiffness at 1800 N was 826 (IQR 431) N/mm for SHS-Screw, 1328 (IQR 441) N/mm for SHS-Blade and 1953 (IQR 617) N/mm for RoSA (p = 0.003). With a load of 1800 N (SHS-Screw 12° vs. SHS-Blade 7° vs. RoSA 2°; p = 0.003) and with 2700 N (24° vs. 15° vs. 3°; p = 0.002) the RoSA implants demonstrated a higher rotational stability and had the lowest femoral neck shortening (p = 0.002), compared with the SHS groups. At the 2700 N load point, RoSA systems showed a lower axial (p = 0.019) and cranial (p = 0.031) femoral head migration compared to the SHS-Screw. In our study, the new Screw-Anchor fixation (RoSA) was superior to the comparable SHS implants regarding rotational

  1. More complications with uncemented than cemented femoral stems in total hip replacement for displaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Chammout, Ghazi; Muren, Olle; Laurencikas, Evaldas; Bodén, Henrik; Kelly-Pettersson, Paula; Sjöö, Helene; Stark, André; Sköldenberg, Olof

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Total hip replacement (THR) is the preferred method for the active and lucid elderly patient with a displaced femoral neck fracture (FNF). Controversy still exists regarding the use of cemented or uncemented stems in these patients. We compared the effectiveness and safety between a modern cemented, and a modern uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stem in patients 65–79 years of age who were treated with THR for displaced FNF. Patients and methods In a single-center, single-blinded randomized controlled trial, we included 69 patients, mean age 75 (65–79) and with a displaced FNF (Garden III–IV). 35 patients were randomized to a cemented THR and 34 to a reverse-hybrid THR with an uncemented stem. Primary endpoints were: prevalence of all hip-related complications and health-related quality of life, evaluated with EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) index up to 2 years after surgery. Secondary outcomes included: overall mortality, general medical complications, and hip function. The patients were followed up at 3, 12, and 24 months. Results According to the calculation of sample size, 140 patients would be required for the primary endpoints, but the study was stopped when only half of the sample size was included (n = 69). An interim analysis at that time showed that the total number of early hip-related complications was substantially higher in the uncemented group, 9 (among them, 3 dislocations and 4 periprosthetic fractures) as compared to 1 in the cemented group. The mortality and functional outcome scores were similar in the 2 groups. Interpretation We do not recommend uncemented femoral stems for the treatment of elderly patients with displaced FNFs. PMID:27967333

  2. Subtalar Distraction Arthrodesis with Fresh Frozen Femoral Neck Allograft: A Retrospective Case Series.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Spencer J; Brandao, Roberto A; Manway, Jeffrey M; Burns, Patrick R

    2016-10-01

    Subtalar joint distraction arthrodesis has been well reported with use of structural iliac crest or local autologous bone graft for malunited calcaneal fractures. Early reports for structural allograft did not yield good, consistent results, leading to a subsequent lack of recommendation in previous literature. Newer studies have had promising results utilizing femoral allograft as an alternative to autogenous bone graft. We performed a retrospective chart review on 10 patients (12 feet) undergoing subtalar joint distraction arthrodesis with femoral neck allograft for malunited calcaneal fractures. The primary aim of this study was to report on successful union rates and, in addition, outline any consistent complications. Twelve of the 12 procedures (100%) yielded successful fusion with a mean final follow-up of 7.7 months (range = 2.2-35.1 months). The mean increase in talocalcaneal height was 4 mm (range = 2-6 mm). The overall complication rate was 16.6%, including one superficial wound complication that healed uneventfully and one hardware removal. In conclusion, the current study reports a 100% successful fusion rate with interpositional structural femoral neck allograft in treatment for malunited calcaneal fractures. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case series. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. The direct anterior approach in hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kerstin; Audigé, Laurent; Kuehnel, Stefanie-Peggy; Helmy, Naeder

    2012-09-01

    Hip replacement is the most common treatment for displaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly, and minimally invasive surgery is popular in the field of orthopaedic surgery. This study evaluated the outcome of monopolar hemiarthroplasty by the direct anterior approach over a postoperative period up to 2.5 years. A total of 86 patients with displaced femoral neck fractures were included (mean age of 86.5 years). Surviving patients were reviewed three months (retrospectively) and one to 2.5 years (prospectively) after surgery. One-year mortality was 36 %. For all stems, implant positioning with respect to stem alignment, restoration of leg length and femoral offset was correct. Acetabular protrusion was observed in 55 % of the patients one to 2.5 years postoperatively. Subsidence and intraoperative periprosthetic fractures occurred in three patients (3 %) each. All revision stems for postoperative periprosthetic fractures could be implanted using the initial surgical technique without extension of the previous approach. The mean Harris hip score was 85 points at the one to 2.5-year follow-up; 85 % of the patients were satisfied with their hip and 57 % returned to their preoperative level of mobility. Based on these findings, hemiarthroplasty for hip fractures can be performed safely and effectively via the direct anterior approach with good functional outcome and high patient satisfaction.

  4. A new uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated femoral component for the treatment of femoral neck fractures: two-year radiostereometric and bone densitometric evaluation in 50 hips.

    PubMed

    Sköldenberg, O G; Salemyr, M O; Bodén, H S; Lundberg, A; Ahl, T E; Adolphson, P Y

    2011-05-01

    Our aim in this pilot study was to evaluate the fixation of, the bone remodelling around, and the clinical outcome after surgery of a new, uncemented, fully hydroxyapatite-coated, collared and tapered femoral component, designed specifically for elderly patients with a fracture of the femoral neck. We enrolled 50 patients, of at least 70 years of age, with an acute displaced fracture of the femoral neck in this prospective single-series study. They received a total hip replacement using the new component and were followed up regularly for two years. Fixation was evaluated by radiostereometric analysis and bone remodelling by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Hip function and the health-related quality of life were assessed using the Harris hip score and the EuroQol-5D. Up to six weeks post-operatively there was a mean subsidence of 0.2 mm (-2.1 to +0.5) and a retroversion of a mean of 1.2° (-8.2° to +1.5°). No component migrated after three months. The patients had a continuous loss of peri-prosthetic bone which amounted to a mean of 16% (-49% to +10%) at two years. The mean Harris hip score was 82 (51 to 100) after two years. The two-year results from this pilot study indicate that this new, uncemented femoral component can be used for elderly patients with osteoporotic fractures of the femoral neck.

  5. Femoral head and neck excision arthroplasty in a leopard tortoise (Stigmochelys pardalis).

    PubMed

    Naylor, Adam D

    2013-12-01

    Cases of femoral head and neck excision arthroplasty are infrequently reported in reptiles, and details of surgical technique and clinical outcome in chelonia are lacking. An adult female leopard tortoise (Stigmochelys pardalis) was presented with chronic non-weight-bearing lameness of the left hind limb. Examination and radiography were consistent with coxofemoral luxation, and as a result of the chronic presentation, surgical intervention was recommended. A cranial approach to the joint via the prefemoral fossa afforded good surgical exposure. A depressed lytic acetabular lesion was noted during the procedure, postulated to be a result of abnormal wear from the luxated femoral head. A fiberglass prop was used during recovery to allow extension of the limb without full weight-bearing. Lameness persisted postoperatively, but limb usage significantly improved.

  6. Femoral neck fractures secondary to renal osteodystrophy. Literature review and treatment algorithm.

    PubMed

    Mataliotakis, G; Lykissas, M G; Mavrodontidis, A N; Kontogeorgakos, V A; Beris, A E

    2009-01-01

    Pathological fractures after minor trauma in osteopenic patients are not uncommon, but fractures due to hypocalcemic convulsions in patients with renal insufficiency are relatively rare. Though similar cases have been reported in the literature, this type of fracture is still an unusual condition. The complex underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the poor bone mineral density signify the employment of specific hardware and a different treatment approach, especially in young adults, where the salvage of the femoral head is of utmost importance. The aim of this review is to examine the specific features of the femoral neck fractures in young individuals who suffer from renal osteodystrophy and the treatment algorithm should be followed. The patient's age, the uremic condition, the skeletal maturity and the bone properties in renal osteodystrophy are examined in relation to the priorities in osteosynthesis methods. A conclusive treatment algorithm is proposed where all the relevant parameters are incorporated.

  7. Prognostic value of dynamic MRI positive enhancement integral color mapping in osteosynthesis of undisplaced femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Kubo, Takahiro; Sugiura, Kosuke; Tamaki, Yasuaki; Toki, Shunichi; Suganuma, Katsuyoshi; Inoue, Kazumasa; Adachi, Keisuke; Chikawa, Takashi; Sairyo, Koichi; Nagamachi, Akihiro

    2017-07-01

    The common treatment for an undisplaced femoral neck fracture is osteosynthesis. Two major complications of osteosynthesis are non-union and late collapse of the femoral head. We speculated that femoral head perfusion is one of the most important factors that affect the outcome of osteosynthesis after femoral neck fracture. We have preoperatively estimated femoral head perfusion by dynamic MRI positive enhancement integral color mapping (PEICM). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of undisplaced femoral neck fractures based on PEICM. Sixty-eight patients participated in this prospective study. All patients underwent PEICM in a 1.5-Tesla MRI machine using coronal fast spoiled gradient echo imaging sequences with gadopentetate dimeglumine as the contrast agent. Femoral head perfusion was displayed via color mapping using PEICM. Three types were distinguished. For type A, the color was identical to unaffected side indicated normal perfusion. For type B, the color was darker than unaffected side indicated decreased perfusion. For type C, the color was black indicated complete absence of perfusion. All patients underwent osteosynthesis with three cannulated screws. The rates of non-union and late collapse for each type were calculated. Sixteen patients were classified as Type A, 43 as Type B, and 6 as Type C. The non-union rates were 0% for Type A, 6.7% for Type B, and 50.0% for Type C. The late collapse rates were 0% for Type A, 4.4% for Type B, and 0% for Type C. PEICM precisely detected femoral head perfusion. Primary prosthetic replacement should be considered for older patients with Type C to minimize the chances of revision surgery, even in undisplaced femoral neck fractures. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiographic prevalence of CAM-type femoroacetabular impingement after open reduction and internal fixation of femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Mathew, G; Kowalczuk, M; Hetaimish, B; Bedi, A; Philippon, M J; Bhandari, M; Simunovic, N; Crouch, S; Ayeni, O R

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the radiographic prevalence of CAM-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in elderly patients (≥ 50 years) who have undergone internal fixation for femoral neck fracture. A total of 187 frog-leg lateral radiographs of elderly patients who underwent internal fixation for a femoral neck fracture were reviewed by two independent reviewers. The alpha angle, beta angle, and femoral head-neck offset ratio were calculated. The presence of two abnormal radiographic parameters was deemed to be diagnostic of radiographic CAM-type impingement. Radiographic CAM-type FAI was identified in 157 out of 187 (84 %) patients who underwent internal fixation for fractures of the femoral neck. Moderate-to-good inter-observer reliability was achieved in the measurement of radiographic parameters. With reference to fracture subtypes and prevalence of radiographic features of CAM-type morphology, 97 (72 %) out of 134 patients were positive for CAM in Garden subtypes I and II, whereas 49 (85.9 %) out of 57 patients had radiographic CAM in Garden III and IV subtypes. There was a high prevalence of CAM-type FAI in patients that underwent surgical fixation of femoral neck fractures. This is significantly higher than the reported prevalence in non-fracture patient populations. The high prevalence of CAM morphology could be related to several factors, including age, fracture morphology, quality of reduction, type of fixation, and fracture healing.

  9. Does Health Reform Change Femoral Neck Fracture Care? A Natural Experiment in the State of Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Andrew J; Weaver, Michael J; Power, Robyn K; Harris, Mitchel B

    2015-11-01

    To determine whether hospital processes and hospital quality associated with the care of femoral neck fractures were significantly altered by the implementation of healthcare reform in Massachusetts. Pre-post retrospective study. Massachusetts Statewide Inpatient Dataset (SID). Patients treated for femoral neck fracture (n = 23,485) in the periods prehealth (2003-06) and posthealth reform (2008-10). Differences in hospital processes for fracture care and quality measures were assessed for the periods before and after health reform. Differences in hospital processes for fracture care (type of surgical intervention, length of stay, and discharge disposition) and quality metrics [mortality, complications, re-operation, and failure to rescue (FTR)] in the periods before and after health reform were assessed using regression techniques to adjust for differences in case mix and the type of surgical intervention. There were no significant differences in the type of surgical intervention performed prereform and postreform (P = 0.27). After adjustment for case mix and surgical intervention, length of stay was significantly reduced {regression coefficient -0.07 [95% confidence interval (CI), -0.09 to -0.06]} as were the odds of FTR [odds ratio 0.73 (95% CI, 0.59-0.92)]. Discharges to skilled nursing facilities significantly increased in the postreform period [relative risk ratio 1.15 (95% CI, 1.03-1.30)]. Findings associated with FTR were driven by changes in the detection of surveillance sensitive complications. Health reform in Massachusetts led to no clinically meaningful differences in hospital processes for femoral neck fracture care. Although some differences in quality measures were noted, these cannot necessarily be attributed to health care reform.

  10. Cemented versus Uncemented Hemiarthroplasty for Femoral Neck Fractures in Elderly Patients: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Xisheng; Zhou, Lei; Bian, Yanyan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Controversy still exists regarding using cemented or uncemented hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fractures in elderly patients. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness and safety of the two surgical techniques in femoral neck fracture patients over 70 years old. Methods We searched PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CNKI and VIP Database from inception to December 2012 for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Outcomes of interest include postoperative hip function, residue pain, complication rates, mortality, reoperation rate, operation time and intraoperative blood loss. Odds ratios (OR) and weighted mean differences (WMD) from each trial were pooled using random-effects model or fixed-effects model given on the heterogeneity of the included studies. Results 7 RCTs involving 1,125 patients (1,125 hips) were eligible for meta-analysis. Our results demonstrate that cemented hemiarthroplasty is associated with better postoperative hip function (OR = 0.48, 95% CI, 0.31–0.76; P = 0.002), lower residual pain (OR = 0.43, 95%CI, 0.29–0.64; P<0.0001), less implant-related complications (OR = 0.15, 95%CI, 0.09–0.26; P<0.00001) and longer operation time (WMD = 7.43 min, 95% CI, 5.37–9.49 min; P<0.00001). No significant difference was observed between the two groups in mortality, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications, local complications, general complications, reoperation rate and intraoperative blood loss. Conclusions Compared with uncemented hemiarthroplasty, the existing evidence indicates that cemented hemiarthroplasty can achieve better hip function, lower residual pain and less implant-related complications with no increased risk of mortality, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications, general complications, local complications and reoperation rate in treating elderly patients with femoral neck fractures. PMID:23935902

  11. Preoperative Use of Clopidogrel Does Not Affect Outcomes for Femoral Neck Fractures Treated With Hemiarthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Elie S; Richard, Raveesh D; Wingert, Nathaniel C H; Gotoff, James R; Graham, Jove H; Bowen, Thomas R

    2017-07-01

    The antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel on blood loss and perioperative complications after surgical intervention remains ambiguous. The purpose of this study was to determine if patients on clopidogrel before hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fracture are predisposed to greater surgical bleeding and perioperative complications compared with those not taking clopidogrel before surgery. We conducted a review of our electronic medical record from 2006-2013 and identified 602 patients who underwent 623 hemiarthroplasty procedures for displaced femoral neck fracture, of which 54 cases (9%) were taking clopidogrel before hospital admission. Patient demographics and comorbidities, operative and surgical variables, and perioperative complications at 90 days were compared between the clopidogrel and nonclopidogrel user groups. The 2 groups of patients had similar baseline characteristics, but patients taking clopidogrel preoperatively were sicker with higher American Society of Anesthesiologists scores (P = .049) and age-adjusted Charlson index (P = .001). They also had a greater incidence of cerebrovascular disease (P = .01), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P = .03), diabetes (0.03), and malignancy (P < .001). There was no significant difference between the 2 patient groups with respect to 90-day postoperative medical readmissions (P = .85), surgical readmissions (P = .26), infection (P = .99), and mortality (P = .89). Patients taking clopidogrel who present with a displaced femoral neck fracture can safely undergo a hemiarthroplasty while actively on clopidogrel without an increase in medical or surgical complications and mortality. We do not recommend delaying surgical intervention until the antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel subside. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Preliminary analysis of total cost and life quality for elder patients with femoral neck fracture].

    PubMed

    Liu, Haonan; He, Liang; Zhang, Guilin; Gong, Xiaofeng; Li, Ning

    2015-09-01

    To analyze the total cost and life quality of the femoral neck fracture patients who received different surgery and supplement comprehensive data of osteoporotic fracture. One hundred and five patients above 60-year old who were diagnosed femoral neck fracture and received operation in Department of Orthopedics & Traumatology, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital were admitted into our study from August 2013 to December. According to the type of surgery there were 52 and 53 cases in internal fixation (IF) group and hemiarthroplasty (HA) group respectively. At first we collected the medical expense of the patients before and during hospitalization. And then the 1-year medical and non-medical expenses were collected by the cost diary ever 3 months after discharge. At the last follow-up we evaluated the life quality by the EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) and calculated the total cost. Outcome All the patients completed the operation successfully. No nonunion or delayed union cases in IF group, and no cases received revision surgery in both groups. The total average cost was 59 584.9 yuan including 79.1% medical cost and 20.9% non-medical cost. The primary treatment cost accounts for 84.1% of the medical cost. The cost for home care accounts for 90.7% of the non-medical care. The total and medical cost of IF group just account for 40.3% and 38.5% of the HA group and the non-medical showed no significant difference between the 2 groups (P>0.05). In addition the data of life quality and walking capability also showed no significant difference. The main cost for the femoral neck fracture is medical expense in 1-year follow-up. Both surgeries can provide satisfactory outcome, however IF may be more cost-effective compared to the HA because of the less total cost.

  13. Bone mineral density aspects in the femoral neck of hip fracture patients.

    PubMed

    Guerado, Enrique; Cruz, Encarnacion; Cano, Juan Ramon; Crespo, Pascual Vicente; Alaminos, Miguel; Sánchez-Quevedo, Maria del Carmen; Campos, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Elderly people, due to neurological conditions and muscular atrophy, present a greater propensity to falls and thus are very susceptible to hip fractures. Other variables, such as osteoporosis, may also be related to the etiopathogenesis of hip fractures, although osteoporosis is in fact a concurrent disease, and merely a coadjutant cause. Nonetheless, osteoporosis can make fracture patterns more severe and interfere with osteosynthesis. Osteoporosis is the radiological image of osteopenia, a pathological concept meaning a smaller quantity of bone per unit of volume. The radiological expression of osteopenia is therefore that of bone tissue with a lower radiological density than normal. In the context of hip fractures, bone mineral density and bone architecture of the femoral neck together with protein expression profiles and cross-links of this anatomical area are of special interest which is reviewed in the current paper. Spatial variations in bone mineral density in the femoral neck were found in the literature with increased porosity from the periosteal to the endosteal region and also from the distal to the proximal part of the femoral neck. Furthermore, increased crystal size, increased cortical porosity, reduced osteocyte lacunar density and an increased Ca/P ratio associated with higher concentrations of Ca and P were described in hip fracture patients compared to control patients. Osteocalcin/collagen type 1 expression ratio and enzymatic cross-link content in high-density bone was found to be significantly lower in hip fractures compared to controls. In conclusion, further research in bone mineral density and associated parameters are of interest to deepen the understanding of osteoporotic hip fractures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. New approach to probability estimate of femoral neck fracture by fall (Slovak regression model).

    PubMed

    Wendlova, J

    2009-01-01

    3,216 Slovak women with primary or secondary osteoporosis or osteopenia, aged 20-89 years, were examined with the bone densitometer DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, GE, Prodigy - Primo), x = 58.9, 95% C.I. (58.42; 59.38). The values of the following variables for each patient were measured: FSI (femur strength index), T-score total hip left, alpha angle - left, theta angle - left, HAL (hip axis length) left, BMI (body mass index) was calculated from the height and weight of the patients. Regression model determined the following order of independent variables according to the intensity of their influence upon the occurrence of values of dependent FSI variable: 1. BMI, 2. theta angle, 3. T-score total hip, 4. alpha angle, 5. HAL. The regression model equation, calculated from the variables monitored in the study, enables a doctor in praxis to determine the probability magnitude (absolute risk) for the occurrence of pathological value of FSI (FSI < 1) in the femoral neck area, i. e., allows for probability estimate of a femoral neck fracture by fall for Slovak women. 1. The Slovak regression model differs from regression models, published until now, in chosen independent variables and a dependent variable, belonging to biomechanical variables, characterising the bone quality. 2. The Slovak regression model excludes the inaccuracies of other models, which are not able to define precisely the current and past clinical condition of tested patients (e.g., to define the length and dose of exposure to risk factors). 3. The Slovak regression model opens the way to a new method of estimating the probability (absolute risk) or the odds for a femoral neck fracture by fall, based upon the bone quality determination. 4. It is assumed that the development will proceed by improving the methods enabling to measure the bone quality, determining the probability of fracture by fall (Tab. 6, Fig. 3, Ref. 22). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  15. Functional outcome after successful internal fixation versus salvage arthroplasty of patients with a femoral neck fracture

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Stephanie M.; Keijsers, Noël L.; Praet, Stephan F.E.; Heetveld, Martin J.; Bhandari, Mohit; Wilssens, Jean Pierre; Patka, Peter; Van Lieshout, Esther M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine patient independency, health-related and disease-specific quality of life (QOL), gait pattern, and muscle strength in patients after salvage arthroplasty for failed internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture. Design Secondary cohort study to a randomized controlled trial. Setting Multicenter trial in the Netherlands, including 14 academic and non-academic hospitals Patients Patients after salvage arthroplasty for failed internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture were studied. A comparison was made with patients who healed uneventfully after internal fixation. Intervention None (observatory study) Main outcome measurements Patient characteristics, SF-12, and WOMAC scores were collected. Gait parameters were measured using plantar pressure measurement. Maximum isometric forces of the hip muscles were measured using a handheld dynamometer. Differences between the fractured and contralateral leg were calculated. Groups were compared using univariate analysis. Results Of 248 internal fixation patients (median age 72 years), salvage arthroplasty was performed in 68 patients (27%). Salvage arthroplasty patients had a significantly lower WOMAC score (median 73 versus 90, P=0.016) than patients who healed uneventfully after internal fixation. Health-related QOL (SF-12) and patient independency did not differ significantly between the groups. Gait analysis showed a significantly impaired progression of the center of pressure in the salvage surgery patients (median ratio −8.9 versus 0.4, P=0.013) and a significant greater loss of abduction strength (median −25.4 versus −20.4 N, P=0.025). Conclusion Despite a similar level of dependency and QOL, salvage arthroplasty patients have inferior functional outcome than patients who heal after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture. PMID:24835623

  16. Functional outcome after successful internal fixation versus salvage arthroplasty of patients with a femoral neck fracture.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Stephanie M; Keijsers, Noël L; Praet, Stephan F E; Heetveld, Martin J; Bhandari, Mohit; Wilssens, Jean Pierre; Patka, Peter; Van Lieshout, Esther M M

    2014-12-01

    To determine patient independency, health-related and disease-specific quality of life (QOL), gait pattern, and muscle strength in patients after salvage arthroplasty for failed internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture. Secondary cohort study to a randomized controlled trial. Multicenter trial in the Netherlands, including 14 academic and nonacademic hospitals. Patients after salvage arthroplasty for failed internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture were studied. A comparison was made with patients who healed uneventfully after internal fixation. None (observatory study). Patient characteristics, SF-12, and Western Ontario McMaster osteoarthritis index scores were collected. Gait parameters were measured using plantar pressure measurement. Maximum isometric forces of the hip muscles were measured using a handheld dynamometer. Differences between the fractured and contralateral leg were calculated. Groups were compared using univariate analysis. Of 248 internal fixation patients (median age, 72 years), salvage arthroplasty was performed in 68 patients (27%). Salvage arthroplasty patients had a significantly lower Western Ontario McMaster osteoarthritis index score (median, 73 vs. 90; P = 0.016) than patients who healed uneventfully after internal fixation. Health-related QOL (SF-12) and patient independency did not differ significantly between the groups. Gait analysis showed a significantly impaired progression of the center of pressure in the salvage surgery patients (median ratio, -8.9 vs. 0.4, P = 0.013) and a significant greater loss of abduction strength (median, -25.4 vs. -20.4 N, P = 0.025). Despite a similar level of dependency and QOL, salvage arthroplasty patients have inferior functional outcome than patients who heal after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture. Therapeutic level III.

  17. [Evaluation of visual functions in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture].

    PubMed

    Oner, Mithat; Oner, Ayşe; Güney, Ahmet; Halici, Mehmet; Arda, Hatice; Bilal, Okkeş

    2009-01-01

    We aimed at assessing the visual functions in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture and to compare the results with age-matched controls in this three-year prospective study. Seventy-one patients with a history of fall related hip fracture (39 females, 32 males; mean age 76.3+/-9.7 years; range 64 to 90 years) and who were diagnosed with femoral neck fracture after direct graphy were treated by means of bipolar partial prosthesis and they were contacted postoperatively or prior to discharge to participate in the study. Visual acuity, depth perception, the presence of cataract in the red reflex were evaluated. A dilated fundus and slit-lamp examination were performed if possible. On completion of the examination, the ophthalmologist documented the causes of any visual impairment found. Control group was comprised of age-matched 40 subjects (22 females, 18 males; mean age 73.2+/-7.6 years; range 62 to 90 years) who applied to ophtalmology clinic for routine examination. The visual acuity was significantly decreased in the patient group as was stereopsis (p<0.05). We found no difference between the study group and the controls when we evaluate the distribution of self reported eye disease and eye disease found on ocular examination. The rate of cases who reported not usually wearing glasses was 35% while it was 5% in the control group. When we evaluate the time since last examination, 38% of cases had not had an eye examination for over four years, as compared with 22.5% of controls. This study shows that elderly people should have their eyes tested at least once every two years, refractive errors should be corrected and eye diseases should be treated to decrease the risk of fall-related femoral neck fractures.

  18. Implant Removal After Internal Fixation of a Femoral Neck Fracture: Effects on Physical Functioning.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Stephanie M; Heetveld, Martin J; Bhandari, Mohit; Patka, Peter; Van Lieshout, Esther M M

    2015-09-01

    The effect of implant removal after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture on physical functioning was analyzed. Characteristics of patients who had their implant removed were studied, as it is currently unknown from which type of patients implants are removed and what effect removal has on function. Secondary cohort study alongside a randomized controlled trial. Multicenter study in 14 hospitals. Patients who had their implant removed after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture are compared with patients who did not. Patient characteristics and quality of life (Short Form 12, Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index) were compared. Matched pairs were selected based on patient/fracture characteristics and prefracture physical functioning. Of 162 patients, 37 (23%) had their implant removed. These patients were younger (median age: 67 vs. 72 years, P = 0.024) and more often independently ambulatory prefracture (100% vs. 84%, P = 0.008) than patients who did not. They more often had evident implant back-out on x-rays (54% vs. 34%, P = 0.035), possibly related to a higher rate of Pauwels 3 fractures (41% vs. 22%, P = 0.032). In time, quality of life improved more in implant removal patients [+2 vs. -4 points, Short Form 12 (physical component), P = 0.024; +9 vs. 0 points, Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index, P = 0.019]. Implant removal after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture positively influenced quality of life. Implant removal patients were younger and more often independently ambulatory prefracture, more often had a Pauwels 3 fracture, and an evident implant back-out. Implant removal should be considered liberally for these patients if pain persists or functional recovery is unsatisfactory. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  19. Hemiarthroplasty for Displaced Femoral Neck Fractures in the Elderly Has a Low Conversion Rate.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Matthew J; Danoff, Jonathan R; Murtaugh, Taylor S; Trofa, David P; Sawires, Andrew N; Macaulay, William B

    2017-01-01

    Hemiarthroplasty (HA) has been a mainstay treatment for displaced femoral neck fractures for many years. The purpose of this study was to report the conversion rate of HA to total hip arthroplasty (THA) for displaced femoral neck fractures and compare outcomes between implant constructs (bipolar vs unipolar), fixation options (cemented vs cementless stems), and age groups (<75 years vs ≥75 years). We retrospectively reviewed the results of a consecutive cohort of 686 patients who underwent HA for the treatment of femoral neck fractures at our institution between 1999 and 2013 with a minimum of 2-year follow-up. The overall component revision rate, including conversion to THA, revision HA, revision with open reduction internal fixation, and Girdlestone procedure, was 5.6% (39/686). Seventeen patients (2.5%) were converted from HA to THA at an average of 1.9 years after index procedure. A significantly lower conversion rate of 1.4% (7/499 patients) was found in the older patient cohort (≥75 years old) compared to 5.3% (11/187) in the younger cohort. The most common causes for conversion surgery to THA were acetabular wear (5 patients), aseptic loosening (4 patients), and periprosthetic fracture (3 patients). There was a significantly lower rate of periprosthetic fracture (0.4% vs 2.5%, P value .025) in the cemented implant group compared to the cementless group. We observed a higher rate of dislocations in the bipolar vs unipolar group (3.8% vs 1%, P value .02) and no other significant differences between these groups. We observed a low reoperation rate for this cohort of patients, relatively higher conversion rates for the younger population, fewer periprosthetic fractures with the use of cemented stems, and no advantage of bipolar over unipolar prostheses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Early mortality and morbidity after total hip arthroplasty in patients with femoral neck fracture

    PubMed Central

    Hailer, Nils P; Garland, Anne; Rogmark, Cecilia; Garellick, Göran; Kärrholm, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — Early postoperative mortality is relatively high after total hip arthroplasty (THA) that has been performed due to femoral neck fracture. However, this has rarely been investigated after adjustment for medical comorbidity and comparison with the mortality in an age-matched population. We therefore assessed early mortality in hip fracture patients treated with a THA, in the setting of a nationwide matched cohort study. Patients and methods — 24,699 patients who underwent THA due to a femoral neck fracture between 1992 and 2012 were matched with 118,518 controls. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to calculate cumulative unadjusted survival, and Cox regression models were fitted to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), with adjustment for age, sex, comorbidity, and socioeconomic background. Results — 90-day survival was 96.3% (95% CI: 96.0–96.5) for THA cases and 98.7% (95% CI: 98.6–98.8) for control individuals, giving an adjusted HR of 2.2 (95% CI: 2.0–2.4) for THA cases compared to control individuals. Comorbidity burden increased in THA cases over time, but the adjusted risk of death within 90 days did not differ statistically significantly between the time periods investigated (1992–1998, 1999–2005, and 2006–2012). A Charlson comorbidity index of 3 or more, an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade of 3 and above, male sex, an age of 80 years and above, an income below the first quartile, and a lower level of education were all associated with an increased risk of 90-day mortality. Interpretation — The adjusted early mortality in femoral neck fracture patients who underwent THA was about double that in a matched control population. Patients with femoral neck fracture but with no substantial comorbidity and an age of less than 80 years appear to have a low risk of early death. Patients older than 80 years and those with a Charlson comorbidity index of more than 2 have a high

  1. Delayed fixation of displaced type II and III pediatric femoral neck fractures

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Md Quamar; Iraqi, AA; Sherwani, MKA; Abbas, M; Alam, Afzal; Sabir, Amir Bin; Asif, Naiyer

    2009-01-01

    Background: Time from injury to fixation of femoral neck fractures has been postulated as a vital determinant for rate of complications; however, no prospective study is available in the English literature. Delay, unfortunately, is inevitable in developing countries. The aim of the present study is to retrospectively review the outcome after delayed fixation of displaced type II and III femoral neck fractures in children. Materials and Methods: Using a standard assessment chart, we retrospectively reviewed medical records of all pediatric patients having femoral neck fractures presenting to our institution from June 1999 to May 2006. Inclusion criteria were children between 5 and 15 years of age sustaining displaced Delbet type II and III femoral neck fractures having a complete follow-up of at least 2 years. Patients with known metabolic disease, poliomyelitis or cerebral palsy, were excluded from the study. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 22 patients having 22 fractures (13 type II and 9 type III) were studied. Surgery could be performed after a mean delay of 11.22 days (ranging from 2 to 21 days). Closed reduction was achieved in 14 cases and 8 cases required open reduction through anterolateral approach. Result: Osteonecrosis was noted in eight patients (36.37%) who included two of nine patients (22.22%) operated in the first week, three of eight patients (37.51%) operated in the second week, and three of five patients (60%) operated in the third week of injury. Nonunion was seen in four (18.18%) cases, and two of them were associated with failure of implants. One was treated by valgus osteotomy and the other by Meyer's procedure. Fractures united in both children but the latter developed avascular necrosis. Functional results, as assessed using Ratliff's criteria, were good in 14 (63.63%), fair in 2 (9%), and poor in 6 (27.27%) patients. Conclusion: Delay in fixation, type of fracture, and ability to achieve and maintain reduction are

  2. Augmentation by cerclage wire improves fixation of vertical shear femoral neck fractures-A biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Fa-Chuan; Yeh, Ming-Long; Hong, Chih-Kai; Chiang, Florence L; Jou, I-Ming; Wang, Ping-Hui; Su, Wei-Ren

    2016-10-01

    Femoral neck fractures in young individuals are typically vertical shear fractures. These injuries are difficult to stabilize due to a significant varus displacement force across the hip with weight bearing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical stability offered by the addition of an augmented wire to conventional inverted triangle triple screw fixation for stabilizing vertical shear femoral neck fracture. Sixteen medium 4th-generation synthetic composite femurs (Sawbones Pacific Research Laboratories, Vashon, WA) were divided into two groups. Vertical osteotomy was performed to mimic Pauwels III femoral neck fracture. Group A (n=8) was fixed with three parallel 6.5-mm cannulated screws (Stryker) with washer in inverted triangle configuration. In group B (n=8), all the screws were set using methods identical to group A, with the addition of the cerclage wire. Both groups were tested with nondestructive axial compression test at 7 and 25° of valgus stress, respectively. Then axial cyclic loading test with 1000N was applied for 1000 cycles, and interfragmentary displacement was measured with Fastrak magnetic tracking system (Polhemus, Colchester, VT, USA). Finally, destructive axial compression test was conducted at 7°of valgus stress. Axial stiffness showed that group B had a 66% increase (879N/mm vs. 1461N/mm, P<0.01) at 7° valgus and a 46% increase (1611N/mm vs. 2349N/mm, P<0.01) at 25° valgus in comparison with group A. Interfragmentary fracture displacement after cyclic loading was significantly less for group B compared with group A (0.34 vs 0.13mm, P=0.0016). For axial failure load, there was 42% increase in group B compared with group A (2602N/mm vs. 3686N/mm, P=0.0023). Our study demonstrates that the addition of a cerclage wire to inverted triangle triple screws provides substantial improvement in mechanical performance regarding fixation of vertically oriented femoral neck fractures when compared with the conventional construct

  3. Bilateral subcapital femoral neck fractures secondary to transient osteoporosis during pregnancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Emami, Mohammad Jafar; Abdollahpour, Hamid Reza; Kazemi, Ali Reza; Vosoughi, Amir Reza

    2012-08-01

    Transient osteoporosis during pregnancy is a rare, self-limiting disease. We report on a 36-year-old woman who had bilateral subcapital femoral neck fractures during the 6th month of pregnancy. The diagnosis was made 4 days after delivery, because radiography was declined by the patient for fear of radiation. Fixation was not feasible owing to bone resorption, and 2-stage bipolar hemiarthroplasty was therefore performed. Magnetic resonance imaging is the best non-invasive investigative tool for pregnant women with hip pain. Early detection can prevent complications and resorting to major surgeries.

  4. Tips and tricks for ORIF of displaced femoral neck fractures in the young adult patient.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Stephen C; Renninger, Christopher H; Hak, David; Mauffrey, Cyril

    2016-05-01

    Femoral neck fractures in the young adult are a less common, but potentially functionally significant injury commonly occurring after high-energy trauma. The management goals of these injuries are the maintenance of a native hip joint absent avascular necrosis and nonunion. The primary determinant to this end is an anatomic reduction in displaced fractures with stable fixation. In this paper, the authors provide a set of technical tips and tricks to aid orthopedic surgeons in the surgical management of these injuries while reviewing the most recent literature available to inform clinical decision making. The paper includes the recommendations of the authors from the Denver Health Orthopaedic Trauma Service.

  5. Deformation pattern and load transfer of an uncemented femoral stem with modular necks. An experimental study in human cadaver femurs.

    PubMed

    Enoksen, Cathrine H; Gjerdet, Nils R; Klaksvik, Jomar; Arthursson, Astvaldur J; Schnell-Husby, Otto; Wik, Tina S

    2016-02-01

    Modular necks in hip arthroplasty allow variations in neck-shaft angles, neck version and neck lengths and have been introduced to improve accuracy when reconstructing the anatomy and hip joint biomechanics. Periprosthetic bone resorption may be a consequence of stress shielding in the proximal femur after implantation of a femoral stem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the deformation pattern and load transfer of an uncemented femoral stem coupled to different modular necks in human cadaver femurs. A cementless femoral stem was implanted in twelve human cadaver femurs and tested in a hip simulator corresponding to single leg stance and stair climbing activity with patient-specific loading. The stems were tested with four different modular necks; long, short, retro and varus. The long neck was used as reference in statistical comparisons, as it can be considered the "standard" neck. The deformation of bone during loading was measured by strain gauge rosettes at three levels of the proximal femur on the medial, lateral and anterior side. The cortical strains were overall reduced on the medial and lateral side of femur, for all implants tested, and in both loading conditions compared to the unoperated femur. Although there were statistical significant differences between the necks, the results did not show a consistent pattern considering which neck retained or lost most strain. In general the differences were small, with the highest significant difference between the necks of 3.23 percentage points. The small differences of strain between the modular necks tested in this study are not expected to influence bone remodeling in the proximal femur. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Patterns of sexual, bilateral and interpopulational variation in human femoral neck-shaft angles

    PubMed Central

    ANDERSON, JOHN Y.; TRINKAUS, ERIK

    1998-01-01

    Data on femoral neck-shaft angles were collected for 30 modern, historic and prehistoric human population samples, and analysed with respect to sexual dimorphism, bilateral asymmetry, geographical patterning and general economic level. Although some samples had modest sexual dimorphism in this angle, and some individuals exhibited clear asymmetry, there were no consistent patterns of sexual or side differences across human populations. Similarly, there was no evidence for geographic differences, since broad regional groups lacked significant differences and mean angles were not correlated with latitude. However, there is a significant increase in mean neck-shaft angles across populations with an increasingly sedentary existence and with mechanisation. The last reflects the developmental plasticity of this feature with respect to habitual load levels during ontogeny of the hip region. PMID:9643428

  7. Bilateral avascular necrosis of the femoral head following asynchronous postictal femoral neck fractures: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Venkatadass, K; Avinash, M; Rajasekaran, S

    2017-03-31

    Bilateral avascular necrosis (AVN) following postictal bilateral fracture neck of the femur is a rare occurrence. Here, we report a case of bilateral AVN of the femoral head following an asynchronous bilateral postictal fracture neck of the femur. A 16-year-old autistic boy presented with left hip pain following an episode of seizures and radiographs showed Delbet type II fracture neck of the left femur. This was treated by closed reduction and cancellous screw fixation and skeletal traction for 6 weeks. At 3 months, follow-up radiograph showed union of the fracture, but he had developed segmental AVN with collapse of the head. At 8 months, the patient presented with pain in the right hip following another episode of seizures and radiograph of the pelvis showed a fresh Delbet type II fracture neck of the right femur with established AVN of the left femoral head. He underwent closed reduction and cancellous screw fixation of the right hip and implant exit of the left hip. At the 6-month follow-up after this surgery, his radiograph of the pelvis showed AVN with collapse and extrusion of the femoral head on the right side as well. Literature review shows an increased risk of fracture neck of the femur among epileptics. The incidence of AVN is maximum in Delbet type I, followed by Delbet type II and type III in that order. Although there are no clear guidelines on the management of post-traumatic AVN of the femoral head, the majority have reported that most of them will eventually develop arthritis and will require total hip replacement at a later date. Upon extensive literature search, no case report of bilateral fracture neck of the femur with bilateral AVN was found and hence this case was reported.

  8. [Pathological fractures of the femoral neck in hemodialyzed patients. Apropos of 26 cases].

    PubMed

    Hardy, P; Benoit, J; Donneaud, B; Jehanno, P; Lortat-Jacob, A

    1994-01-01

    This study is based on a retrospective analysis of 26 pathological fractures of the femoral neck in 19 chronic haemodialysis patients. The purpose of this study is to analyze the epidemiological and etiological factors of these fractures in relation to osteo-arthropathy of the dialyzed patient, as well as the results of various treatments, both curative and preventive. 26 pathological fractures of the femoral neck appeared in 19 chronic haemodialysis patients, 11 men and 8 women, 6 patients presented bilateral fractures. The patient's average age at the time of the fracture was 61 years (27 to 82). The average duration of dialysis was 11 years with a minimum of 2 years and a maximum of 21 years. Hyper parathyroidism was found in 14 patients, aluminic intoxication in 6 and amyloidosis at the level of the coxo-femoral joint 18 times. Surgical treatment consisted of 6 osteosynthesis, 2 cephalic arthroplasties, 13 modular arthroplasties and 5 total hip arthroplasties. For each case, we studied the presence of necrosis of the femoral neck due to aluminic intoxication, osteoporosis due to hyperparathyroidism and also the presence of amyloidosis without aluminic intoxication. Cortisonic necrosis and porosis was found 4 times out of 26 cases, hyperparathyroidism once, aluminic osteomalacy 3 times and beta-2-microglobulin amyloid 18 times. Amyloidosis remains the most frequent etiological factor. All patients had been operated for median nerve compression in the carpal tunnel, usually 2.5 years before appearance of the pathological fracture. Non surgical treatment was used 5 times in undisplaced fractures without any sign of amyloidosis and was successful 3 times and unsuccessful twice necessitating a new operation by osteosynthesis. Out of 6 osteosynthesis performed for fractures either with little or no displacement we observed 4 failures, all of them in the cases with intra-osseous amyloidosis. Best results were obtained by arthroplasties. Modular arthroplasty has given

  9. Cortical Bone Morphological and Trabecular Bone Microarchitectural Changes in the Mandible and Femoral Neck of Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Pei-Yu; Tsai, Ming-Tzu; Wang, Shun-Ping; Chen, Ying-Ju; Wu, Jay; Hsu, Jui-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study used microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy on the trabecular bone microarchitecture and cortical bone morphology in the femoral neck and mandible of female rats. Materials and Methods Twelve female Wister rats were divided into two groups: the control and ovariectomized groups. The rats in the ovariectomized group received ovariectomy at 8 weeks of age; all the rats were sacrificed at 20 weeks of age, and their mandibles and femurs were removed and scanned using micro-CT. Four microstructural trabecular bone parameters were measured for the region below the first mandibular molar and the femoral neck region: bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (TbTh), trabecular separation (TbSp), and trabecular number (TbN). In addition, four cortical bone parameters were measured for the femoral neck region: total cross-sectional area (TtAr), cortical area (CtAr), cortical bone area fraction (CtAr/TtAr), and cortical thickness (CtTh). The CtTh at the masseteric ridge was used to assess the cortical bone morphology in the mandible. The trabecular bone microarchitecture and cortical bone morphology in the femoral necks and mandibles of the control group were compared with those of the ovariectomized group. Furthermore, Spearman’s correlation (rs) was conducted to analyze the correlation between the osteoporosis conditions of the mandible and femoral neck. Results Regarding the trabecular bone microarchitectural parameters, the BV/TV of the trabecular bone microarchitecture in the femoral necks of the control group (61.199±11.288%, median ± interquartile range) was significantly greater than that of the ovariectomized group (40.329±5.153%). Similarly, the BV/TV of the trabecular bone microarchitecture in the mandibles of the control group (51.704±6.253%) was significantly greater than that of the ovariectomized group (38.486±9.111%). Furthermore, the TbSp of the femoral necks in the ovariectomized group

  10. Octogenarian with an untreated femoral neck fracture: upright position during the postoperative course after aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Polastri, M; Di Marco, L; Cantagalli, S; Di Eusanio, M

    2015-06-30

    We describe a patient with a femoral neck fracture undergoing an aortic valve replacement. The study design was a case report. An 82-year-old female with an untreated right femoral neck fracture, and a severe aortic valve stenosis was admitted to a cardiac surgery department for surgical treatment of the valve disease. She underwent aortic valve replacement with a sutureless biological valve prosthesis through a partial sternotomy. At an early stage, the patient was instructed to make postural changes in the standing position. As a result, she was able to perform body movements associated with either a sitting or standing position. This case shows that appropriate early mobilization of a patient with a femoral neck fracture is feasible after aortic valve replacement, even though this does not necessarily mean that the patient needs to walk.

  11. Local Variation in Femoral Neck Cortical Bone: In Vitro Measured Bone Mineral Density, Geometry and Mechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Louise V; Jenkins, Thomas; Oreffo, Richard O C; Dunlop, Doug G; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C; Thurner, Philipp J

    2015-12-17

    Age- and disease (osteoporotic fractured and osteoarthritic tissue)-related changes in the distribution of cortical bone were examined, using a multimodality approach, including measurement of local density, geometry and mechanical properties, where changes in these properties can give rise to instability and increasing probability of fracture. In contrast to the majority of previously reported research, this study also focuses on the characteristic non-circular femoral neck cross-sectional geometry and variation in bone mineral density (BMD) around the femoral neck. Twenty-two osteoarthritic and 7 osteoporotic femoral neck slices, collected from elective and trauma-related arthroplasty, and 16 cadaveric donor tissue controls were tested mechanically using Reference Point Indentation (BioDent™, Active Life Technologies®, Santa Barbara, CA) and then scanned with in vitro-based radiography intended to replicate the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry technique. All parameters were measured regionally around the circumference of the femoral neck, allowing examination of spatial variability within the cortical bone. Fractured tissue was less resistant to indentation in the thinner superolateral segment compared to other segments and other groups. BMD around the fractured femoral necks appeared more consistent than that of nonfractured tissue, where BMD was reduced in the superolateral segment for the other groups. Cortical bone was thin in the superolateral segment for all groups except for the osteoarthritic group, and was thicker in the inferomedial segment for both osteoarthritic and fractured groups, resulting in the largest variation in buckling ratio (ratio of cortical bone diameter to cortical bone thickness) around the femoral neck for the fractured group. With age, healthy controls appeared to have lower inferomedial cortical thickness, whereas no significant differences in Reference Point Indentation measurements and density were observed. The study has

  12. Relationship between change in femoral neck bone mineral density and hip fracture incidence during treatment with strontium ranelate.

    PubMed

    Bruyère, O; Roux, C; Badurski, J; Isaia, G; de Vernejoul, M C; Cannata, J; Ortolani, S; Slosman, D; Detilleux, J; Reginster, J-Y

    2007-12-01

    Strontium ranelate (SR) increases bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal osteoporotic women and reduces vertebral and non-vertebral fracture incidence. Hip fracture reduction has also been observed during 3-year treatment with SR in osteoporotic women at high risk of hip fracture. The objective of this study is to analyse the association between BMD changes and hip fracture incidence during treatment with SR. In this post-hoc analysis, 465 women aged over 74 years with low BMD at the femoral neck (T-score < or = -2.4 according to NHANES normative values) were selected from the population of a recently published study (the Treatment of Peripheral Osteoporosis Study - TROPOS). BMD was assessed at the femoral neck at baseline and after a follow-up of 3 years. Hip fractures were reported by study investigators. After adjusting for age, body mass index, femoral neck BMD at baseline and number of prevalent vertebral fractures, we found that for each 1% increase in femoral neck BMD observed after 3 years, the risk to experience a hip fracture after 3 years decreased by 7% (95% CI: 1-14%) (p = 0.04). In patients experiencing a hip fracture over 3 years of treatment with SR, femoral neck BMD increased by (mean [SE]) 3.41 (1.02)% compared to 7.23 (0.81)% in patients without hip fracture (p = 0.02). In this post-hoc analysis of women undergoing 3 years of SR treatment, an increase in femoral neck BMD is associated with a decrease in hip fracture incidence.

  13. Incidence of and Factors Influencing Femoral Neck Shortening in Elderly Patients After Fracture Fixation with Multiple Cancellous Screws

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaobin; Zhang, Jianzheng; Wang, Xinling; Ren, Jixin; Liu, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Background To study the incidence of and factors influencing “neck shortening” in elderly patients treated for femoral neck fractures using multiple cancellous screws. Material/Methods Of the 197 femoral neck fracture cases treated via closed reduction and cancellous screws fixation from January 2006 to February 2010, 110 were followed up. Patient age, gender, operative time, implantation method, reduction quality, fracture type, bone mineral density, loading time, length of hospital stay, and Harris hip score 12 months after operation were recorded. The patients were divided into two groups (shortening and non-shortening) based on their X-ray performance during follow-up. The healing rates and Harris hip scores of the two groups were compared, and the influencing factors of femoral neck shortening were analyzed. Results Of the 110 cases followed up, 94.5% (104/110) were healed and neck shortening occurred in 41.8% (46/110) within 12.5 months (mean) after treatment. The Harris hip score of the shortening group was lower than that of the non-shortening group (78±17 vs. 86±23, p=0.048). The fracture healing rates of the two groups were not significantly different (p=0.068). The factors influencing neck shortening were significantly correlated with bone mineral density, patient age, gender, and type of fracture. Conclusions The incidence of neck shortening in elderly patients treated for femoral neck fracture using cancellous screws was high. Bone mineral density, patient age, gender, and type of fracture were the influencing factors of neck shortening. PMID:28343233

  14. Alpine skiing is associated with higher femoral neck bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Sievänen, H; Zagorski, P; Drozdzowska, B; Vähä-Ypyä, H; Boron, D; Adamczyk, P; Pluskiewicz, W

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the influence of elite-level alpine skiing on athletes' skeleton. Thirteen professional alpine skiers (9 males and 4 females with mean age of 22.6 years) and their age- and height matched control subjects were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (total body, lumbar spine, proximal femur, forearm) and quantitative ultrasound (hand). After adjusting for sex, age, weight and height, between-group differences were 15% (p=0.012) for the lumbar spine, 14% (p=0.022) for the femoral neck, 10% (p=0.051) for the total hip, and 11% (p=0.001) for the total body favoring the alpine skiers. However, after controlling for total body lean mass (~muscle mass), the group-differences lost their statistical significance, the borderline 10% difference (p=0.051) in femoral neck BMD excluded. Factors contributing to the alpine skiers' higher BMD may not only include the greater muscle mass (~stronger muscles) of these athletes but also a large number of impacts and possibly other high-frequency features in external loading generated by the high-speed skiing performance.

  15. Trochanter/calcar preserving reconstruction in tumors involving the femoral head and neck

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hwan Seong; Lee, Young-Kyun; Ha, Yong-Chan; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the results of hip reconstruction with extensive excision for tumor confined to the femoral head and neck. METHODS: We designed a resection preserving the greater trochanter and lower portion of calcar femorale, and utilized conventional total hip prosthesis. We retrospectively reviewed 7 patients, who underwent a wide resection and reconstruction using conventional hip prosthesis. There were 3 men and 4 women and their mean age was 42.5 years (22 to 65 years). The histologic diagnosis of each patient was low-grade osteosarcoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, liposclerosing myxofibroma, intraosseous lipoma, chondroblastoma, giant cell tumor and focal intramedullary fibrosis. RESULTS: One patient with lymphoma died due to disease dissemination at 10 mo postoperatively and the remaining 6 patients were followed for a mean of 4.7 years (3 to 6 years). All patients were able to return to their daily activities and no patient had local recurrence. No radiographic signs of loosening, wear, and osteolysis were found at the last follow-up. CONCLUSION: Trochanter/calcar-preserving resection of the proximal femur and reconstruction using conventional total hip prosthesis, is a satisfactory treatment for tumors confined to the femoral head and neck. PMID:27458555

  16. Trochanter/calcar preserving reconstruction in tumors involving the femoral head and neck.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hwan Seong; Lee, Young-Kyun; Ha, Yong-Chan; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2016-07-18

    To evaluate the results of hip reconstruction with extensive excision for tumor confined to the femoral head and neck. We designed a resection preserving the greater trochanter and lower portion of calcar femorale, and utilized conventional total hip prosthesis. We retrospectively reviewed 7 patients, who underwent a wide resection and reconstruction using conventional hip prosthesis. There were 3 men and 4 women and their mean age was 42.5 years (22 to 65 years). The histologic diagnosis of each patient was low-grade osteosarcoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, liposclerosing myxofibroma, intraosseous lipoma, chondroblastoma, giant cell tumor and focal intramedullary fibrosis. One patient with lymphoma died due to disease dissemination at 10 mo postoperatively and the remaining 6 patients were followed for a mean of 4.7 years (3 to 6 years). All patients were able to return to their daily activities and no patient had local recurrence. No radiographic signs of loosening, wear, and osteolysis were found at the last follow-up. Trochanter/calcar-preserving resection of the proximal femur and reconstruction using conventional total hip prosthesis, is a satisfactory treatment for tumors confined to the femoral head and neck.

  17. COMPARISON OF VOLUMES OCCUPIED BY DIFFERENT INTERNAL FIXATION DEVICES FOR FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Lauxen, Daniel; Schwartsmann, Carlos Roberto; Silva, Marcelo Faria; Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Strohaecker, Telmo Roberto; Souza, Ralf Wellis de; Zimmer, Cinthia Gabriely; Boschin, Leonardo Carbonera; Gonçalves, Ramiro Zilles; Yépez, Anthony Kerbes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this paper is to measure the volume occupied by the most widely used internal fixation devices for treating femoral neck fractures, using the first 30, 40 and 50 mm of insertion of each screw as an approximation. The study aimed to observe which of these implants caused least bone aggression. Methods: Five types of cannulated screws and four types of dynamic hip screws (DHS) available on the Brazilian market were evaluated in terms of volume differences through water displacement. Results: Fixation with two cannulated screws presented significantly less volume than shown by DHS, for insertions of 30, 40 and 50 mm (p=0.01, 0.012 and 0.013, respectively), fixation with three screws did not show any statistically significant difference (p= 0.123, 0.08 and 0.381, respectively) and fixation with four cannulated screws presented larger volumes than shown by DHS (p=0.072, 0.161 and 0.033). Conclusions: Fixation of the femoral neck with two cannulated screws occupied less volume than DHS, with a statistically significant difference. The majority of screw combinations did not reach statistical significance, although fixation with four cannulated screws presented larger volumes on average than those occupied by DHS. PMID:27047886

  18. The femoral neck-shaft angle on plain radiographs: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Boese, Christoph Kolja; Dargel, Jens; Oppermann, Johannes; Eysel, Peer; Scheyerer, Max Joseph; Bredow, Jan; Lechler, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    The femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) is an important measure for the assessment of the anatomy of the hip and planning of operations. Despite its common use, there remains disagreement concerning the method of measurement and the correction of hip rotation and femoral version of the projected NSA on conventional radiographs. We addressed the following questions: (1) What are the reported values for NSA in normal adult subjects and in osteoarthritis? (2) Is there a difference between non-corrected and rotation-corrected measurements? (3) Which methods are used for measuring the NSA on plain radiographs? (4) What could be learned from an analysis of the intra- and interobserver reliability? A systematic literature search was performed including 26 publications reporting the measurement of the NSA on conventional radiographs. The mean NSA of healthy adults (5,089 hips) was 128.8° (98-180°) and 131.5° (115-155°) in patients with osteoarthritis (1230 hips). The mean NSA was 128.5° (127-130.5°) for the rotation-corrected and 129.5° (119.6-151°) for the non-corrected measurements. Our data showed a high variance of the reported neck-shaft angles. Notably, we identified the inconsistency of the published methods of measurement as a central issue. The reported effect of rotation-correction cannot be reliably verified.

  19. [Degree of independence of patients after surgical treatment femoral neck fractures].

    PubMed

    Baczyk, Grazyna; Adamek, Madgalena

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of the research was to define the degree of independence among patients after operative treatment femoral neck fractures in the first day after the operation and on day previous to the release from hospital. Attempt was made to determine the degree of independence in the ten activities of life, functional status and emotional state of patients. Efforts have also tried to assess the impact of functional status and emotional autonomy to the degree subjects. The study was conducted in Hospital in Poznan and Hospital in Chodziez, in the period from August 2006 March 2007. The research concerned 30 patients after operative treatment femoral neck fractures. To assess functional status, 100-point scale Barthel, to assess the emotional state HADS scale was used. Degree of independence was assessed Scale of Deficit Self-Care. The lack of independence was bigger among older patients in life activities like: moving, feed, drinking, expelling, personal sanitation and dressing. These patients required increasingly bigger medical care. Functional condition introduces considerably worst in older patients equal in research I and research II. Emotional status does not affect the degree of independence of patients, but in the first day after surgery, patients showing symptoms of depression had demanded a bigger range of assistance from medical personnel. Hip fracture have a negative impact on many areas of life activity of the patient, therefore, these patients require particularly caring therapeutic and rehabilitation activities.

  20. Femoral Neck Anteversion and Neck Shaft Angles: Determination and their Clinical Implications in Fetuses of Different Gestational Ages.

    PubMed

    Souza, A D; Ankolekar, V H; Padmashali, S; Das, A; Souza, Asd; Hosapatna, M

    2015-07-01

    Precise anatomical assessment of femoral neck anteversion (FNA) and the neck shaft angles (NSA) would be essential in diagnosing the pathological conditions involving hip joint and its ligaments. The present study was undertaken on 48 fetal femurs to calculate the NSA and FNA in fetuses digitally. End on images of upper end of the femurs were taken for the estimation of FNA and a photograph in a perpendicular plane was taken to calculate the NSA. Microsoft Paint software was used to mark the points and Image J software was used to calculate the angles digitally. The FNA ranged from 17.08º to 33.97 º on right and 17.32 º to 45.08 º on left. The NSA ranged from 139.33 º to 124.91 º on right and 143.98 º to 123.8 º on left. Unpaired t test showed the FNA and NSA of femur did not vary significantly during the third trimester.

  1. Location of atypical femoral fracture can be determined by tensile stress distribution influenced by femoral bowing and neck-shaft angle: a CT-based nonlinear finite element analysis model for the assessment of femoral shaft loading stress.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yoto; Fujita, Koji; Wakabayashi, Yoshiaki; Kurosa, Yoshiro; Okawa, Atsushi

    2017-09-27

    Loading stress due to individual variations in femoral morphology is thought to be strongly associated with the pathogenesis of atypical femoral fracture (AFF). In Japan, studies on AFF regarding pathogenesis in the mid-shaft are well-documented and a key factor in the injury is thought to be femoral shaft bowing deformity. Thus, we developed a CT-based finite element analysis (CT/FEA) model to assess distribution of loading stress in the femoral shaft. A multicenter prospective study was performed at 12 hospitals in Japan from August 2015 to February 2017. We assembled three study groups-the mid-shaft AFF group (n=12), the subtrochanteric AFF group (n=10), and the control group (n=11)-and analyzed femoral morphology and loading stress in the femoral shaft by nonlinear CT/FEA. Femoral bowing in the mid-shaft AFF group was significantly greater (lateral bowing, p<0.0001; anterior bowing, p<0.01). Femoral neck-shaft angle in the subtrochanteric AFF group was significantly smaller (p<0.001). On CT/FEA, both the mid-shaft and subtrochanteric AFF group showed maximum tensile stress located adjacent to the fracture site. Quantitatively, there was a correlation between femoral bowing and the ratio of tensile stress, which was calculated between the mid-shaft and subtrochanteric region (lateral bowing, r=0.6373, p<0.0001; anterior bowing, r=-0.5825, p<0.001). CT/FEA demonstrated that tensile stress by loading stress can cause AFF. The location of AFF injury could be determined by individual stress distribution influenced by femoral bowing and neck-shaft angle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cemented or uncemented hemiarthroplasty for the treatment of femoral neck fractures?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Cemented hemiarthroplasty is preferred in treating displaced fractures of the femoral neck in the elderly. The cementing process may cause a fat embolism, leading to serious complications or death. In this study, we wanted to determine whether use of uncemented hemiarthroplasty (HA) would lead to reduced mortality and whether there are differences in the complications associated with these different types of arthroplasty. Patients and methods From the PERFECT database, which combines information from various treatment registries, we identified 25,174 patients who were treated with hemiarthroplasty for a femoral neck fracture in the years 1999–2009. The primary outcome was mortality. Secondary outcomes were reoperations, complications, re-admissions, and treatment times. Results Mortality was lower in the first postoperative days when uncemented HA was used. At 1 week, there was no significant difference in mortality (3.9% for cemented HA and 3.4% for uncemented HA; p = 0.09). This was also true after one year (26% for cemented HA and 27% for uncemented HA; p = 0.1). In patients treated with uncemented HA, there were significantly more mechanical complications (3.7% vs. 2.8%; p < 0.001), hip re-arthroplasties (1.7% vs. 0.95; p < 0.001), and femoral fracture operations (1.2% vs. 0.52%; p < 0.001) during the first 90 days after hip fracture surgery. Interpretation From registry data, mortality appears to be similar for cemented and uncemented HA. However, uncemented HA is associated with more frequent mechanical complications and reoperations. PMID:24397746

  3. Femoral neck shaft angle width is associated with hip-fracture risk in males but not independently of femoral neck bone density.

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, C; Lisi, L; Avella, M

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the specificity of the neck shaft angle (NSA) to predict hip fracture in males. We consecutively studied 228 males without fracture and 38 with hip fracture. A further 49 males with spine fracture were studied to evaluate the specificity of NSA for hip-fracture prediction. Femoral neck (FN) bone mineral density (FN-BMD), NSA, hip axis length and FN diameter (FND) were measured in each subject by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Between-mean differences in the studied variables were tested by the unpaired t-test. The ability of NSA to predict hip fracture was tested by logistic regression. Compared with controls, FN-BMD (p < 0.01) was significantly lower in both groups of males with fractures, whereas FND (p < 0.01) and NSA (p = 0.05) were higher only in the hip-fracture group. A significant inverse correlation (p < 0.01) was found between NSA and FN-BMD. By age-, height- and weight-corrected logistic regression, none of the tested geometric parameters, separately considered from FN-BMD, entered the best model to predict spine fracture, whereas NSA (p < 0.03) predicted hip fracture together with age (p < 0.001). When forced into the regression, FN-BMD (p < 0.001) became the only fracture predictor to enter the best model to predict both fracture types. NSA is associated with hip-fracture risk in males but is not independent of FN-BMD. The lack of ability of NSA to predict hip fracture in males independent of FN-BMD should depend on its inverse correlation with FN-BMD by capturing, as the strongest fracture predictor, some of the effects of NSA on the hip fracture. Conversely, NSA in females does not correlate with FN-BMD but independently predicts hip fractures.

  4. A transepiphyseal fracture of the femoral neck in a child with 2 widely displaced Salter-Harris III fragments of the capital femoral epiphysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Park, Jong-Woong; Lee, Soon-Hyuck

    2010-02-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first report of a transphyseal fracture of the femoral neck with a fracture of the capital femoral epiphysis involving 2 widely displaced Salter-Harris III fragments in a child. Preoperative surgical lateral radiographs of the hip of a 14-year-old boy clearly showed an anteriorly dislocated femoral head fragment. However, the overlapping ischium, soft tissue, and an anteriorly dislocated femoral head fragment caused a posteriorly dislocated fragment of the split femoral head to be overlooked on the radiographs. The emergent nature of the injury resulted in the performance of an open reduction without further imaging studies. Based on the initial evaluation, an anterior iliofemoral approach was chosen, which made it difficult to locate the posteriorly dislocated main fragment of the split femoral head. This case highlights that plain radiographs do not always provide adequate information for such injuries. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging should be employed to enable accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment for fracture-dislocations of the pediatric hip.

  5. Effects of hip abductor muscle forces and knee boundary conditions on femoral neck stresses during simulated falls.

    PubMed

    Choi, W J; Cripton, P A; Robinovitch, S N

    2015-01-01

    Through experiments that simulated sideways falls with a mechanical hip impact simulator, we demonstrated the protective effect of hip abductor muscle forces in reducing peak stresses at the femoral neck and the corresponding risk for hip fracture. Over 90% of hip fractures are due to falls, and an improved understanding the factors that separate injurious and non-injurious falls (via their influence on the peak stress generated at the femoral neck) may lead to improved risk assessment and prevention strategies. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of muscle forces spanning the hip, and knee boundary conditions, on peak forces and estimated stresses at the femoral neck during simulated falls with a mechanical system. We simulated hip abductor muscle forces and knee boundary conditions with a mechanical hip impact simulator and measured forces and stresses at the femoral neck during sideways falls. Peak compressive and tensile stresses, shear force, bending moment, and axial force are each associated with hip abductor muscle forces and knee boundary conditions (p < 0.0005). When muscle force increased from 400 to 1,200 N, peak compressive and tensile stresses decreased 24 and 56%, respectively. These effects were similar to the magnitude of decline in fracture strength associated with osteoporosis and arose from the tension-band effect of the muscle in reducing the bending moment by 37%. Furthermore, peak compressive and tensile stresses averaged 40 and 51% lower, respectively, in the free knee than fixed knee condition. Contraction of the hip abductor muscles at the moment of impact during a fall, and landing with the knee free of constraints, substantially reduced peak compressive and tensile stresses at the femoral neck and risk for femoral fracture in a sideways fall.

  6. Simultaneous Bilateral Femoral Neck Stress Fracture in a Young Stone Mason

    PubMed Central

    Khadabadi, Nikhil A.; Patil, Kiran S.

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral stress fractures of the femoral neck are very uncommon and bilateral involvement is even rarer. They commonly occur in athletes, military recruits, older persons, or individuals with underlying metabolic disorders and very seldom in normal individuals. We present a rare case of simultaneous bilateral fracture neck of femur in a 25-year-old man who came with complaints of pain in bilateral groin for 1 month. There was no history of trauma or history suggestive of excessive activity prior to the onset of pain, but there was history of lifting heavy weights daily. On evaluation with MRI scan bilateral fracture of the femur neck was diagnosed and patient was operated on bilaterally with internal fixation done using dynamic hip screw. Patient then regained his routine activity over a period of 6 months and on follow-up at 1 year no avascular necrosis changes were seen in the femur head. We presented this case because of its unusual presentation and the diagnostic challenge it poses. PMID:26101680

  7. Burnei's technique of femoral neck variation and valgisation by using the intramedullary rod in Osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, I; Gavriliu, Șt; Nepaliuc, I; Munteanu, L; Țiripa, I; Ghiță, R; Japie, E; Hamei, S; Dughilă, C; Macadon, M

    2014-01-01

    Varus or valgus deviations of the femoral neck in osteogenesis imperfecta have been an ignored chapter because the classic correction procedures were applied in medical practice with unsatisfying results. Until the use of telescopic rods, coronal deviations remained unsolved and the distal configuration of the proximal femoral extremity remained uncorrected or partially corrected, which required an extensive use of the wheel chair or bed immobilization of the patient. The concomitant correction of the complex deformities, coxa vara/valga and femoral integrated configuration, have been a progress which allowed the patients to walk with or without support. The purpose of this study is to present the Burnei's technique, a therapeutic alternative in deformity corrections of the varus or valgus hip in children with osteogenesis imperfecta. The paper is about a retrospective study done in a single center, which analyses Burnei technique and other procedures described in literature. The content of the article is based on a 12 years experience on a batch of 51 patients with osteogenesis imperfecta from which 10 patients (13 hips) presented frontal plane deviations of the femoral neck. All the patients with osteogenesis imperfecta who presented coxa vara or valga were submitted to investigations with the purpose of measuring blood loss, the possibility of extending the surgical intervention to the leg, the association of severe deformities of the proximal extremity of the femur and the necessity of postoperative intensive care. Burnei's technique: The operation was first performed in 2002. A subtrochanteric osteotomy was made in an oblique cut, from the internal side to the external side and from proximal to distal for coxa vara, or by using a cuneiform resection associated with muscular disinsertions. Only telescopic rods were used for osteosynthesis. There are a few articles in literature, which approach corrections of vara or valgus deviations in osteogenesis imperfecta

  8. Outcome Analysis of Hemiarthroplasty vs. Total Hip Replacement in Displaced Femoral Neck Fractures in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Bhanu; Kumar, Krishna; Kohli, Navneet; Katoch, Punit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Management of displaced fracture neck femur in the elderly population is frequently done by Hemiarthroplasty or Total Hip Replacement (THR). It avoids high rates of nonunion and avascular necrosis which usually occur after internal fixation of neck femur fractures in this age group. Aim The present study aimed to evaluate patient function and complications following hemiarthroplasty and total hip replacement in elderly population with displaced femoral neck fractures. Materials and Methods Patients above 60 years of age with displaced fracture neck femur were studied over the period of four years. All the clinical parameters and co-morbid conditions were noted at the time of presentation. The patients associated with co-morbid conditions and underlying pathology were excluded from study. Garden’s classification was used for classification of neck femur fractures. After due informed consent patients of displaced fracture neck femur were randomized by simple randomization and allocated for hemiarthroplasty or THR. Antibiotics were given preoperatively at the time of induction and postoperatively for 5-7 days. Surgery was carried out by Modified Gibson approach. Any complications during pre and postoperative period were noted. Follow-up of patients was done 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year interval with the help of Harris hip score. Results Total 80 patients were enrolled in the study group, with 40 patients in each group. The mean age of patients was 73 years in hemiarthroplasty group and 78 years in THR group. Female to male ratio was 55:45. Mean operative time was 35 minutes in hemiarthroplasty group and 45 minutes in THR. Average intraoperative blood loss was 200cc and 300cc in hemiarthroplasty and THR respectively. The mean hospital stay was 14 days in both the groups. Superficial wound infection was noted in hemiarthroplasty group while in THR group deep wound infection (n=1) and prolonged ICU stay (n=1) were noted. The mean Harris hip score

  9. Does a trochanteric lag screw improve fixation of vertically oriented femoral neck fractures? A biomechanical analysis in cadaveric bone.

    PubMed

    Hawks, Michael A; Kim, Hyunchul; Strauss, Joseph E; Oliphant, Bryant W; Golden, Robert D; Hsieh, Adam H; Nascone, Jason W; O'Toole, Robert V

    2013-10-01

    We assessed the biomechanical performances of a trochanteric lag screw construct and a traditional inverted triangle construct in the treatment of simulated Pauwels type 3 femoral neck fractures. An inverted triangle construct (three 7.3-mm cannulated screws placed in inverted triangle orientation) and a trochanteric lag screw construct (two 7.3-mm cannulated screws placed across the superior portion of the femoral neck and one 4.5-mm lag screw placed perpendicular to the fracture in superolateral to inferomedial orientation) were tested in nine matched pairs of non-osteoporotic human cadaveric femora. We used a previously described vertically oriented femoral neck fracture model and testing protocol that incrementally loaded the constructs along the mechanical axis of the femur to 1400 N. Specimens that survived incremental loading underwent cyclic loading. Apparent construct stiffness, force at 3mm of displacement, and survival of incremental loading were recorded. The trochanteric lag screw group had a 70% increase in stiffness (261 N/mm [29 standard deviation] versus 153 N/mm [16 standard deviation]; P=0.026) and a 43% increase in force required for displacement (620 N versus 435 N; P=0.018) compared with the inverted triangle group. One trochanteric lag screw and no inverted triangle specimen survived incremental loading. A trochanteric lag screw construct applied to vertically oriented femoral neck fractures provides marked improvement in mechanical performance compared with the inverted triangle construct. © 2013.

  10. Effectiveness of Selected Fitness Exercises on Stress of Femoral Neck using Musculoskeletal Dynamics Simulations and Finite Element Model.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jing-Guang; Li, Zhaoxia; Zhang, Hong; Bian, Rong; Zhang, Songning

    2014-06-28

    The purpose of the study was to establish a dynamics model and a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model to analyze loading characteristics of femoral neck during walking, squat, single-leg standing, and forward and lateral lunges. One male volunteer performed three trials of the five movements. The 3D kinematic data were captured and imported into the LifeMOD to establish a musculoskeletal dynamics model to obtain joint reaction and muscle forces of iliacus, gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, psoas major and adductor magnus. The loading data LfeMOD were imported and transformed into a hip finite-element model. The results of the finite element femur model showed that stress was localized along the compression arc and the tension arc. In addition, the trabecular bone and tension lines of the Ward's triangle also demonstrated high stress. The compact bone received the greatest peak stress in the forward lunge and the least stress in the squat. However, the spongy bone in the femoral neck region had the greatest stress during the walk and the least stress in the squat. The results from this study indicate that the forward lunge may be an effective method to prevent femoral neck fractures. Walking is another effective and simple method that may improve bone mass of the Ward's triangle and prevent osteoporosis and femoral neck fracture.

  11. Revision rates and cumulative financial burden in patients treated with hemiarthroplasty compared to cannulated screws after femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Shields, Edward; Kates, Stephen L

    2014-12-01

    This study compares re-operation rates and financial burden following the treatment of femoral neck fractures treated with hemiarthroplasty compared to non-displaced femoral neck fractures treated with cannulated screws. Data was retrospectively analyzed from a prospective database at a university hospital setting on patients undergoing hemiarthroplasty after femoral neck fractures and those with non-displaced femoral neck fractures treated with cannulated screws over a 7-year period. Re-operation rates were determined and financial data was analyzed. Charges refer to amounts billed by the hospital to insurance carriers, while costs refer to financial burden carried by the hospital during treatment. There were 491 femoral neck fractures (475 patients) that underwent hemiarthroplasty (HA) and 120 non-displaced fractures (119 patients) treated with cannulated screw (CannS) fixation. Both groups had similar age, sex, Charlson co-morbidity scores, pre-operative Parker mobility scores, and 12-month mortality. There were 29 (5.9 %) reoperations in the HA group and 16 (13.3 %) in the CannS group (P = 0.007). The majority of re-operations occurred within 12 months for both groups [21/29 (72 %) HA group; 15/16 (94 %) CannS group; P = 0.13]. Average hospital charges per patient for the index procedure were higher in the HA group ($17,880 ± 745) compared to the CannS group ($14,104 ± 5,047; P < 0.001). After accounting for additional procedures related to their initial surgical fixation, average hospital charges and costs remained higher in the HA group. Patients treated with hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fractures have lower re-operation rates than patients treated with cannulated screws for non-displaced femoral neck fractures, with 80 % of re-operations occurring in the first 12 months. Hospital charges and costs to the hospital for treating patients undergoing hemiarthroplasty were higher than patients treated with cannulated screws for the index procedure alone

  12. Influence of time to surgery on the incidence of complications in femoral neck fracture treated with cannulated screws.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Thiego Pedro Freitas; Guimaraes, Tales Mollica; Andrade-Silva, Fernando Brandao; Kojima, Kodi Edson; Silva, Jorge Dos Santos

    2014-11-01

    Osteosynthesis of femoral neck fractures is particularly indicated in patients aged under 60 years. A prolonged interval between the fracture and surgical fixation has been associated with avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the time to surgery and the development of complications in patients with femoral neck fractures. Patients with displaced fractures of the femoral neck (Garden III or IV) who underwent fixation with three cannulated screws in the inverted triangle configuration from January 2009 to December 2010 were evaluated retrospectively for the development of orthopaedic complications. Patients were divided into two groups according to the time to surgery (within 7 days or more than 7 days). Complication rates were compared between the two groups. Regression analyses were performed to assess the risk factors for complications. Thirty-one patients were included in the study; the duration of follow-up ranged from 24 to 50 months. The time from fracture to surgery ranged from 3 to 18 days. Fifteen patients underwent surgery within 7 days, and 16 patients underwent surgery after 7 days. There were four cases of femoral head necrosis. One patient had an associated infection; one patient experienced non-union, and another demonstrated osteosynthesis failure. There were no statistically significant differences in the overall rate of complications between the groups (p = 0.999). None of the preoperative parameters or fracture characteristics were predictive factors for complications. The only factor associated with the development of complications was inadequate fracture reduction in the anteroposterior (AP) view (odds ratio [OR] = 35.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.56 to 548.36, p = 0.008). The interval between the occurrence of the injury and surgical fixation is not associated with the development of complications in fractures of the femoral neck. Inadequate fracture

  13. [Epidemiological analysis of hospitalized patients with femoral neck fracture in a first-class hospital of Beijing].

    PubMed

    Li, N; Liu, H N; Gong, X F; Zhu, S W; Wu, X B; He, L

    2016-04-18

    To analyze the clinical parameters of the patients with femoral neck fracture such as general condition, therapy method, hospitalized expense so as to provide more effective management plan for the clinical work. The patients with femoral neck fracture above 50 years who received in-patient treatment from 2008 January to 2012 December were admitted into this study. We collected and analyzed the information, such as age, chronic medical disease, therapy method, hospitalized duration and expense and so on. There were 1 794 femoral neck fracture patients above 50 years (male/female=1/2.06) in our hospital in recent 5 years and the annual average rate of increase was 7.3%. The average age of the patients was (69.9±10.7) years and the annual average rate of increase was 0.6%. The chronic medical disease diagnosis ratio was 55.0%. The average waiting time for operation was (6.8±4.2) days and the average hospitalized duration was (12.9±4.9) days which showed downward trend in recent years. The most popular operations were cannulated screw internal fixation (41.8%) and artificial femoral head replacement (34.1%). In the study, 146 cases (7.9%) received nonsurgical treatment which showed downward trend. The average hospitalized expense was (35 075.7±11 343.2) yuan which showed no obvious change in recent years. The cost for the females was more than that for the males. The expense for hemiarthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty increased while that for cannulated screw internal fixation decreased gradually. The cannulated screw internal fixation and artificial femoral head replacement were the most important operations for the patients with femoral neck fracture. The number and the average age of the patients were on the rise while the expense showed no obvious change in recent years.

  14. Humeral cortical thickness in female Bantu - its relationship to the incidence of femoral neck fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, R.A.; Pogrund, H.

    1982-03-01

    Measurements of the humeral cortical thickness demonstrate that generalised osteoporosis in female Bantu commences in the fifth decade and gradually increases until, in the ninth decade, all subjects are osteoporotic. The combined cortical thickness (CCT) of the humerus in young adults is very similar to that found previously in a white London population and the loss of cortex with age is very similar. It is concluded that the known low incidence of femoral neck fracture in Bantu is not due to a lower incidence of generalised osteoporosis but to environmental factors. The chief environmental factor postulated is the greater amount of physical work performed by the Bantu. A more careful mode of walking is suggested as a subsidiary cause.

  15. Site-Dependent Reference Point Microindentation Complements Clinical Measures for Improved Fracture Risk Assessment at the Human Femoral Neck.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Thomas; Coutts, Louise V; D'Angelo, Stefania; Dunlop, Douglas G; Oreffo, Richard O C; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C; Thurner, Phillipp J

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to traditional approaches to fracture risk assessment using clinical risk factors and bone mineral density (BMD), a new technique, reference point microindentation (RPI), permits direct assessment of bone quality; in vivo tibial RPI measurements appear to discriminate patients with a fragility fracture from controls. However, it is unclear how this relates to the site of the most clinically devastating fracture, the femoral neck, and whether RPI provides information complementary to that from existing assessments. Femoral neck samples were collected at surgery after low-trauma hip fracture (n = 46; 17 male; aged 83 [interquartile range 77-87] years) and compared, using RPI (Biodent Hfc), with 16 cadaveric control samples, free from bone disease (7 male; aged 65 [IQR 61-74] years). A subset of fracture patients returned for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessment (Hologic Discovery) and, for the controls, a micro-computed tomography setup (HMX, Nikon) was used to replicate DXA scans. The indentation depth was greater in femoral neck samples from osteoporotic fracture patients than controls (p < 0.001), which persisted with adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and height (p < 0.001) but was site-dependent, being less pronounced in the inferomedial region. RPI demonstrated good discrimination between fracture and controls using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.79 to 0.89), and a model combining RPI to clinical risk factors or BMD performed better than the individual components (AUC = 0.88 to 0.99). In conclusion, RPI at the femoral neck discriminated fracture cases from controls independent of BMD and traditional risk factors but dependent on location. The clinical RPI device may, therefore, supplement risk assessment and requires testing in prospective cohorts and comparison between the clinically accessible tibia and the femoral neck. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral

  16. Internal fixation versus arthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures: what is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Heetveld, Martin J; Rogmark, Cecilia; Frihagen, Frede; Keating, John

    2009-07-01

    A review of the current evidence for internal fixation versus hemiarthroplasty versus primary total hip arthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures was undertaken. At the meta-analysis level no difference in postoperative pain, function, or quality of life can yet be demonstrated. A significant difference in mortality has also not been found, but a trend towards higher mortality after primary arthroplasty is possible. Internal fixation (IF) has less morbidity, but a higher risk of revision and less cost-effectiveness. Independent adjudication for IF technique is rare in studies and bias towards higher revision rates due to technical failure is an issue. Randomized trials comparing IF with arthroplasty remain underpowered in specific subgroups of patients, in which IF revision rates could be acceptable. In hemiarthroplasty the data suggest minimal differences in outcome between the prosthesis types. The cementless Austin-Moore prosthesis is out-dated. Currently a cemented unipolar or bipolar, depending on costs, hemi-arthroplasty is the treatment of choice for an elderly patient with functional limitations before the fracture. The role of modern, uncemented hemiarthroplasty designs are uncertain until more data are published. Total hip arthroplasty (THA) should be considered in any active older patient with a displaced femoral neck fracture. Patients with concomitant osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or renal failure do poorly with other treatment options and should be treated with THA. Randomized trials have shown THA to be a cost-effective treatment with lower revision rates than IF. THA may also appear to be superior to hemiarthroplasty in specific subgroups, but larger trials are needed to confirm this observation.

  17. Herniation pits in the femoral neck: a radiographic indicator of femoroacetabular impingement?

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Ah; Park, Ji Seon; Jin, Wook; Ryu, Kyungnam

    2011-02-01

    The purpose was to assess the significance of herniation pits in the femoral neck for radiographic diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Eighty hips in 62 patients (bilateral in 18) with neutral pelvic orientation were enrolled. Herniation pits were diagnosed when they were located at the anterosuperior femoral neck, close to the physis, and with a diameter of >3 mm. The five radiographic signs of FAI were used: lateral center edge angle (LCE) >39°, acetabular index (AI) ≤0, extrusion index (EI) <25%, acetabular retroversion, and pistol-grip deformity. Patients with radiographs suggesting FAI were retrospectively correlated with their clinical symptoms. Positive radiographic signs were observed in 7 hips with LCE, 7 with AI, and 80 with EI criteria. Only 3 hips out of 80 (3.8%) showed all of the signs. The acetabular retroversion and pistol-grip deformity were seen in 12/80 and 3/80 hips, respectively. The total number of hips that met radiographic criteria for FAI, including pincer type and cam type, was 18 (23%). However, none of these hips were clinically diagnosed with FAI. All symptomatic hips (11/80) presented only with nonspecific pain, and 2 hips out of 11 showed radiographic signs of FAI. The low frequency of positive radiographic signs suggesting FAI with related symptoms among patients with herniation pits suggests that herniation pits have limited significance in the diagnosis of FAI. Therefore it can be concluded that an incidental finding of herniation pits does not necessarily imply a correlation with FAI.

  18. The relationship between body composition and femoral neck osteoporosis or osteopenia in adults with previous poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Tseng, Sung-Hui; Lin, Yu-Ching; Lai, Chien-Hung; Hsiao, Wen-Tien; Chen, Shih-Ching

    2015-04-01

    Articles in the literature describing the association between body composition and osteoporosis in subjects with poliomyelitis are scarce. To assess the relationship between body composition and femoral neck osteoporosis or osteopenia in adults with previous polio. After excluding postmenopausal women, 44 polio (mean age ± standard deviation, 46.1 ± 3.3 years) and 44 able-bodied control volunteers (47.0 ± 4.0 years) participated in the study. Each participant's femoral neck bone mineral density (FNBMD) and whole body composition were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. With local reference BMD values of normal young adults installed in the instrument, we obtained T-score values that depended on each FNBMD value. A T-score value of ≤-1.0 indicated decreased T-score, including osteoporosis (T-score ≤ -2.5) and osteopenia (-1.0 to -2.5). This study conducted logistic regression analyses to find factors associated with osteoporosis and osteopenia. Based on the FNBMD T-score values, 60.0% of middle-aged men with polio had osteoporosis. In adjusted logistic regression analyses, total lean tissue mass (Adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.74 [0.56-0.99], P < 0.05) and male gender (947.16 [6.02-148,926.16], P < 0.01) were important factors associated with decreased T-score in polio group. Osteoporosis or osteopenia is a common medical problem for middle-aged men with polio. Reduced total lean tissue mass seems to be one of the important factors associated with osteoporosis or osteopenia among subjects with polio. Further research for a clinical tool to assess lean tissue mass for subjects with polio is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Midterm results of a femoral stem with a modular neck design: clinical outcomes and metal ion analysis.

    PubMed

    Silverton, Craig D; Jacobs, Joshua J; Devitt, Jeffrey W; Cooper, H John

    2014-09-01

    Modular neck femoral stems have a higher-than-anticipated rate of failure in registry results, but large single-center cohort studies are lacking. This is a retrospective cohort of 152 hips implanted with a single titanium stem with a modular titanium neck, presenting clinical, radiographic, and metal ion results at a mean 4.5-year follow-up. Five hips were revised during the study period, for an overall Kaplan-Meier survival of 0.894 at 8 years. There was one modular neck fracture (0.66%), but others demonstrated corrosion or adverse tissue reaction. Serum metal levels demonstrated wide variability. Despite good clinical results in the majority of patients, we confirmed an increased rate of femoral revision at mid-term follow-up, and therefore urge caution in the use of this particular stem design. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Femoral neck shaft angle width is associated with hip-fracture risk in males but not independently of femoral neck bone density

    PubMed Central

    Lisi, L; Avella, M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the specificity of the neck shaft angle (NSA) to predict hip fracture in males. Methods: We consecutively studied 228 males without fracture and 38 with hip fracture. A further 49 males with spine fracture were studied to evaluate the specificity of NSA for hip-fracture prediction. Femoral neck (FN) bone mineral density (FN-BMD), NSA, hip axis length and FN diameter (FND) were measured in each subject by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Between-mean differences in the studied variables were tested by the unpaired t-test. The ability of NSA to predict hip fracture was tested by logistic regression. Results: Compared with controls, FN-BMD (p < 0.01) was significantly lower in both groups of males with fractures, whereas FND (p < 0.01) and NSA (p = 0.05) were higher only in the hip-fracture group. A significant inverse correlation (p < 0.01) was found between NSA and FN-BMD. By age-, height- and weight-corrected logistic regression, none of the tested geometric parameters, separately considered from FN-BMD, entered the best model to predict spine fracture, whereas NSA (p < 0.03) predicted hip fracture together with age (p < 0.001). When forced into the regression, FN-BMD (p < 0.001) became the only fracture predictor to enter the best model to predict both fracture types. Conclusion: NSA is associated with hip-fracture risk in males but is not independent of FN-BMD. Advances in knowledge: The lack of ability of NSA to predict hip fracture in males independent of FN-BMD should depend on its inverse correlation with FN-BMD by capturing, as the strongest fracture predictor, some of the effects of NSA on the hip fracture. Conversely, NSA in females does not correlate with FN-BMD but independently predicts hip fractures. PMID:24678889

  1. A comparison of the use of uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated bipolar and cemented femoral stems in the treatment of femoral neck fractures: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bell, K R; Clement, N D; Jenkins, P J; Keating, J F

    2014-03-01

    We performed a case-control study to compare the rates of further surgery, revision and complications, operating time and survival in patients who were treated with either an uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated Corail bipolar femoral stem or a cemented Exeter stem for a displaced intracapsular fracture of the hip. The mean age of the patients in the uncemented group was 82.5 years (53 to 97) and in the cemented group was 82.7 years (51 to 99) We used propensity score matching, adjusting for age, gender and the presence or absence of dementia and comorbidities, to produce a matched cohort receiving an Exeter stem (n = 69) with which to compare the outcome of patients receiving a Corail stem (n = 69). The Corail had a significantly lower all-cause rate of further surgery (p = 0.016; odds ratio (OR) 0.18, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.84) and number of hips undergoing major further surgery (p = 0.029; OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.01 to 1.09). The mean operating time was significantly less for the Corail group than for the cemented Exeter group (59 min [12 to 136] vs 70 min [40 to 175], p = 0.001). The Corail group also had a lower risk of a peri-prosthetic fracture (p = 0.042; OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.01 to 1.42) . There was no difference in the mortality rate between the groups. There were significantly fewer complications in the uncemented group, suggesting that the use of this stem would result in a decreased rate of morbidity in these frail patients. Whether this relates to an improved functional outcome remains unknown.

  2. Adverse Local Tissue Reaction Arising from Corrosion at the Femoral Neck-Body Junction in a Dual-Taper Stem with a Cobalt-Chromium Modular Neck

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, H. John; Urban, Robert M.; Wixson, Richard L.; Meneghini, R. Michael; Jacobs, Joshua J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Femoral stems with dual-taper modularity were introduced to allow additional options for hip-center restoration independent of femoral fixation in total hip arthroplasty. Despite the increasing availability and use of these femoral stems, concerns exist about potential complications arising from the modular neck-body junction. Methods: This was a multicenter retrospective case series of twelve hips (eleven patients) with adverse local tissue reactions secondary to corrosion at the modular neck-body junction. The cohort included eight women and three men who together had an average age of 60.1 years (range, forty-three to seventy-seven years); all hips were implanted with a titanium-alloy stem and cobalt-chromium-alloy neck. Patients presented with new-onset and increasing pain at a mean of 7.9 months (range, five to thirteen months) following total hip arthroplasty. After serum metal-ion studies and metal artifact reduction sequence (MARS) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed abnormal results, the patients underwent hip revision at a mean of 15.2 months (range, ten to twenty-three months). Tissue specimens were examined by a single histopathologist, and the retrieved implants were studied with use of light and scanning electron microscopy. Results: Serum metal levels demonstrated greater elevation of cobalt (mean, 6.0 ng/mL) than chromium (mean, 0.6 ng/mL) or titanium (mean, 3.4 ng/mL). MRI with use of MARS demonstrated adverse tissue reactions in eight of nine patients in which it was performed. All hips showed large soft-tissue masses and surrounding tissue damage with visible corrosion at the modular femoral neck-body junction. Available histology demonstrated large areas of tissue necrosis in seven of ten cases, while remaining viable capsular tissue showed a dense lymphocytic infiltrate. Microscopic analysis was consistent with fretting and crevice corrosion at the modular neck-body interface. Conclusions: Corrosion at the modular neck

  3. Adverse local tissue reaction arising from corrosion at the femoral neck-body junction in a dual-taper stem with a cobalt-chromium modular neck.

    PubMed

    Cooper, H John; Urban, Robert M; Wixson, Richard L; Meneghini, R Michael; Jacobs, Joshua J

    2013-05-15

    Femoral stems with dual-taper modularity were introduced to allow additional options for hip-center restoration independent of femoral fixation in total hip arthroplasty. Despite the increasing availability and use of these femoral stems, concerns exist about potential complications arising from the modular neck-body junction. This was a multicenter retrospective case series of twelve hips (eleven patients) with adverse local tissue reactions secondary to corrosion at the modular neck-body junction. The cohort included eight women and three men who together had an average age of 60.1 years (range, forty-three to seventy-seven years); all hips were implanted with a titanium-alloy stem and cobalt-chromium-alloy neck. Patients presented with new-onset and increasing pain at a mean of 7.9 months (range, five to thirteen months) following total hip arthroplasty. After serum metal-ion studies and metal artifact reduction sequence (MARS) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed abnormal results, the patients underwent hip revision at a mean of 15.2 months (range, ten to twenty-three months). Tissue specimens were examined by a single histopathologist, and the retrieved implants were studied with use of light and scanning electron microscopy. Serum metal levels demonstrated greater elevation of cobalt (mean, 6.0 ng/mL) than chromium (mean, 0.6 ng/mL) or titanium (mean, 3.4 ng/mL). MRI with use of MARS demonstrated adverse tissue reactions in eight of nine patients in which it was performed. All hips showed large soft-tissue masses and surrounding tissue damage with visible corrosion at the modular femoral neck-body junction. Available histology demonstrated large areas of tissue necrosis in seven of ten cases, while remaining viable capsular tissue showed a dense lymphocytic infiltrate. Microscopic analysis was consistent with fretting and crevice corrosion at the modular neck-body interface. Corrosion at the modular neck-body junction in dual-tapered stems with a modular

  4. Modified dynamic hip screw loaded with autologous bone graft for treating Pauwels type-3 vertical femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Luo, Deqing; Zou, Weitao; He, Yijiao; Xian, Hang; Wang, Lei; Shen, Jiazuo; Lian, Kejian; Lin, Dasheng

    2017-07-01

    Management of Pauwels type-3 vertical femoral neck fractures has been a challenging clinical problem as they experience high shear forces and thus a greater risk of treatment failure. There is no apparent consensus on the optimal implant type for these injuries. We developed a modified dynamic hip screw (DHS), which was designed to a cage in the lag screw, loaded with autologous bone graft for the treatment of Pauwels type-3 vertical femoral neck fractures. Between February 2010 and January 2012, 17 consecutive patients with Pauwels type-3 vertical femoral neck fractures were treated with the modified DHS loaded with autologous bone graft. All patients were followed up for a minimum of 24 months (range, 24-36 months). Surgical details, operative and postoperative complications, the rates of nonunion and osteonecrosis and the Harris hip score were evaluated. There were thirteen men and four women with a mean age of 37.2 years (range, 27-52 years). There were no intraoperative complications related to this technology. All fractures healed within 14.1 weeks (range, 12 to 20 weeks). One patient required total hip replacement because of avascular necrosis of the femoral head at 27 months after surgery. According to the Harris hip score, eleven patients (64.7%) had excellent results, four (23.5%) had good results, one (5.9%) had moderate and one (5.9%) had poor result. The modified DHS loaded with autologous bone graft appears to be a reliable implant for the treatment of Pauwels type-3 vertical femoral neck fractures with fewer complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Corrosion at the head-neck interface of current designs of modular femoral components: essential questions and answers relating to corrosion in modular head-neck junctions.

    PubMed

    Osman, K; Panagiotidou, A P; Khan, M; Blunn, G; Haddad, F S

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing global awareness of adverse reactions to metal debris and elevated serum metal ion concentrations following the use of second generation metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties. The high incidence of these complications can be largely attributed to corrosion at the head-neck interface. Severe corrosion of the taper is identified most commonly in association with larger diameter femoral heads. However, there is emerging evidence of varying levels of corrosion observed in retrieved components with smaller diameter femoral heads. This same mechanism of galvanic and mechanically-assisted crevice corrosion has been observed in metal-on-polyethylene and ceramic components, suggesting an inherent biomechanical problem with current designs of the head-neck interface. We provide a review of the fundamental questions and answers clinicians and researchers must understand regarding corrosion of the taper, and its relevance to current orthopaedic practice. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:579-84.

  6. Early result of hemiarthroplasty in elderly patients with fracture neck of femur

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Mue; Mohammed, Salihu; Francis, Awonusi; William, Yongu; Joseph, Kortor; Cornilius, Elachi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fractured neck of femur is a frequent and severe injury in elderly patients with consequent high morbidity and mortality. Hemiarthroplasty is an established treatment modality for displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures in elderly patients above 60 years. This study analysed the early functional outcome and complications of Austin Moore endoprosthesis in elderly patients above 60 years with fractured neck of femur. Materials and Methods: Retrospective data were obtained over a 5 year period from January 2007 to December 2012. Thirty-five elderly patients of 60 years and above with displaced intracapsular fracture neck of femur treated with hemiarthroplasty using Austin Moore endoprosthesis were included. Data were analysed using SPSS version 21. Results: A total of 35 patients were involved. The age-range was 60-90 years with mean age of 69.7 ± 7 years. The predominant mechanism of injury was trivial falls in 18 (66.7%) patients. The commonest complication was pressure sore in 2 (5.7%) patients, followed by surgical site infection in 1 (2.9%) patient and periprosthetic fracture in 1 (2.9%) patients. Early post-operative mortality was 2.9%. Post-operative hip functional status according to Postel and Merle d Aubigne revealed that majority (66.6%) of patients had satisfactory hip function. Conclusion: Functional outcome of Austin Moore in elderly patients above 60 years with fracture neck of femur was satisfactory in most of the cases with minimal morbidity. Careful patient selection for hemiarthroplasty is vital and may decrease the incidence of complications and ameliorate the outcomes in the treatment of intracapsular femoral neck fractures. PMID:25657497

  7. Femoral neck stress fracture in a female athlete: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Avrahami, Daniel; Pajaczkowski, Jason A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe chiropractic rehabilitation of a master's-level athlete with proximal femoral stress fracture and provide a brief discussion of stress fracture pathology. Clinical Features A 41-year-old female master's-level endurance athlete presented with chronic groin pain later diagnosed and confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging as a stress fracture of the femoral neck. After diagnosis, the patient was referred to a doctor of chiropractic at week 1 of the non–weight-bearing physical rehabilitation process. At that time, the patient presented with sharp and constant groin pain rated 6/10 on a numeric rating scale. Intervention and Outcome This patient avoided weight-bearing activity for 8 weeks while cross-training and was able to return to her sport after this period. The patient was progressed through a series of non–weight-bearing strengthening exercises for the lower extremity. Myofascial release therapy was performed on the gluteal, hip flexor, and groin muscle groups to improve range of motion. Motion palpation testing the lumbar and sacroiliac joints was performed during each session, and manipulative therapy was performed when necessary. The patient was seen once a week for 8 weeks. Reevaluation was performed at week 8; at that time, the patient reported no groin pain (0/10). The patient was discharged from care and referred back to the supervising physician for clearance to return to sporting activities. One month after discharge, she reported that she was pain free and had fully returned to sport activities. Conclusion This case report demonstrates the importance of a through clinical history, physical examination, and magnetic resonance imaging in the accurate diagnosis of a patient with chronic groin pain and that chiropractic care can contribute to rehabilitation programs for these injuries. PMID:23843760

  8. Good stability but high periprosthetic bone mineral loss and late-occurring periprosthetic fractures with use of uncemented tapered femoral stems in patients with a femoral neck fracture

    PubMed Central

    Sjöö, Helene; Kelly-Pettersson, Paula; Bodén, Henrik; Eisler, Thomas; Stark, André; Muren, Olle

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose We previously evaluated a new uncemented femoral stem designed for elderly patients with a femoral neck fracture and found stable implant fixation and good clinical results up to 2 years postoperatively, despite substantial periprosthetic bone mineral loss. We now present the medium-term follow-up results from this study. Patients and methods In this observational prospective cohort study, we included 50 patients (mean age 81 (70–92) years) with a femoral neck fracture. All patients underwent surgery with a cemented cup and an uncemented stem specifically designed for fracture treatment. Outcome variables were migration of the stem measured with radiostereometry (RSA) and periprosthetic change in bone mineral density (BMD), measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Hip function and health-related quality of life were assessed using the Harris hip score (HHS) and the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D). DXA and RSA data were collected at regular intervals up to 4 years, and data concerning reoperations and hip-related complications were collected during a mean follow-up time of 5 (0.2–7.5) years. Results At 5 years, 19 patients had either passed away or were unavailable for further participation and 31 could be followed up. Of the original 50 patients, 6 patients had suffered a periprosthetic fracture, all of them sustained after the 2-year follow-up. In 19 patients, we obtained complete RSA and DXA data and no component had migrated after the 2-year follow-up. We also found a continuous total periprosthetic bone loss amounting to a median of –19% (–39 to 2). No changes in HHS or EQ-5D were observed during the follow-up period. Interpretation In this medium-term follow-up, the stem remained firmly fixed in bone despite considerable periprosthetic bone mineral loss. However, this bone loss might explain the high number of late-occurring periprosthetic fractures. Based on these results, we would not recommend uncemented femoral stems for the

  9. A cost-effectiveness analysis of the arthroplasty options for displaced femoral neck fractures in the active, healthy, elderly population.

    PubMed

    Slover, James; Hoffman, Michael V; Malchau, Henrik; Tosteson, Anna N A; Koval, Kenneth J

    2009-09-01

    This study was performed to explore the cost-effectiveness of total hip arthroplasty (THA) compared with hemiarthroplasty (HEMI) in the treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures in active otherwise healthy older patients in whom the optimum treatment is believed to be an arthroplasty procedure. A Markov decision model was used to determine whether THA or HEMI was most cost-effective for the management of a displaced femoral neck fracture in this patient population. Total hip arthroplasty was associated with an average cost $3000 more than HEMI, and the average quality-adjusted life year gain was 1.53. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio associated with the THA treatment strategy is $1960 per quality-adjusted life year. Currently available data support the use of THA as the more cost-effective treatment strategy in this specific population. The increased upfront cost appears to be offset by the improved functional results when compared with HEMI in this select patient group.

  10. The correlation between preoperative levels of albumin and tlc and mortality in patients with femoral neck fracture.

    PubMed

    Niccolai, F; Parchi, P D; Vigorito, A; Pasqualetti, G; Monzani, F; Lisanti, M

    2016-01-01

    A femoral neck fracture in an elderly patient often represents a major challenge for the orthopaedic surgeon who has to face not only the fracture, but also all the multiple issues related to age. Among others, malnutrition has been recognised as an important factor associated with severe aggravation in these patients. One-hundred-and-forty-seven patients were enrolled to investigate the use of two markers of patient nutritional status, i.e. serum albumin level and total leukocyte count (TLC), as predictors of mortality in the elderly patient suffering from proximal femur fracture. We found that low preoperative values of serum albumin and TLC proved to be directly related to worse outcomes. Therefore, these exams can be useful to identify patients with a femoral neck fracture that have higher risk of malnutrition and consequent higher mortality and that can benefit from some measures, such as albumin or protein nutritional supplement.

  11. The societal costs of femoral neck fracture patients treated with internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, S M; Bouwmans, C A M; Heetveld, M J; Bhandari, M; Patka, P; Van Lieshout, E M M

    2014-03-01

    The study rationale was to provide a detailed overview of the costs for femoral neck fracture treatment with internal fixation in the Netherlands. Mean total costs per patient at 2-years follow-up were 19,425. Costs were higher for older, less healthy patients. Results are comparable to internationally published costs. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed overview of the cost and healthcare consumption of patients treated for a hip fracture with internal fixation. A secondary aim was to compare costs of patients who underwent a revision surgery with patients who did not. The study was performed alongside the Dutch sample of an international randomized controlled trial, concerning femoral neck fracture patients treated with internal fixation. Patient characteristics and healthcare consumption were collected. Total follow-up was 2 years. A societal perspective was adopted. Costs included hospital costs during primary stay and follow-up, and costs related to rehabilitation and changes in living situation. Costs were compared between non-revision surgery patients, implant removal patients, and revision arthroplasty patients. A total of 248 patients were included (mean age 71 years). Mean total costs per patient at 2-years follow-up were 19,425. In the non-revision surgery patients total costs were 17,405 (N = 137), in the implant removal patients 10,066 (N = 38), and in the revision arthroplasty patients 26,733 (N = 67). The main contributing costs were related to the primary surgery, admission days, physical therapy, and revision surgeries. The main determinant was the costs of admission to a rehabilitation center/nursing home. Costs were specifically high in elderly with comorbidity, who were less independent pre-fracture, and have a longer admission to the hospital and/or a nursing home. Costs were also higher in revision surgery patients. The 2-years follow-up costs in our study were comparable to published costs

  12. [Results after replacement of femoral neck prostheses - thrust plate prosthesis (TPP) versus ESKA cut prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Ishaque, B A; Gils, J; Wienbeck, S; Donle, E; Basad, E; Stürz, H

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse and evaluate comparatively loosening mechanisms, failure frequency, surgical changing strategies and results after replacement of thrust plate prostheses (TPP) and ESKA Cut prostheses. Between 1993 und 2007, 465 TPP and in the years 2000 and 2001 82 ESKA Cut prostheses were performed and evaluated prospectively. Until 2007 46 change interventions of the TPP and 35 of the CUT prosthesis became necessary. All patients who received a stem revision procedure in our hospital were included within this study. Besides the evaluation of clinical results according to the criteria of the Harris Hip Score on the average at 15.6 months (+/- 14.4) postoperatively, radiological loosening processes and surgical difficulties were registered. Furthermore, an analysis of perioperative data was performed according to some criteria of the German Federal Office of Quality Assurance (BQS), such as duration of the surgery, intraoperative blood loss and complications. Statistical investigations for comparative analysis as well as survival analysis of both groups were calculated using SPSS for Windows 13.0. The mean age of the 46 patients who had to undergo revision surgery after TPP was 60.1 years, that of 35 patients in whom revision surgery was necessary after receiving an ESKA Cut femoral neck stem was 56.6 years. The survival rate analysis according to Kaplan-Meier at 13 years was 89.4 % (TPP) and 53.6 % at 66 months (ESKA Cut). In all cases the partial osteointegration of the tripod surface of the loosened Cut prosthesis complicated the explantation. It led on the one hand to a significant difference of the surgery duration and on the other hand to an increased frequency of fractures of the trochanteric region. The conversion of the TPP on standard type stems was usually free of problems. The HHS increased significantly to the averages of 86.6 (TPP) or, respectively, 91.69 (ESKA Cut) after revision. In comparison with the usually problem

  13. The recent prevalence of Osteoporosis and low bone mass in the United States based on bone mineral density at the Femoral Neck or Lumbar Spine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of our study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass based on bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine in adults 50 years and older in the United States (US). We applied prevalence estimates of osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femoral ...

  14. Combined with Bone Marrow-Derived Cells and rhBMP-2 for Osteonecrosis after Femoral Neck Fractures in Children and Adolescents: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fuqiang; Sun, Wei; Guo, Wanshou; Wang, Bailiang; Cheng, Liming; Li, Zirong

    2016-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) following femoral neck fractures is a rare, yet severe, disorder in children and adolescents. This study evaluated the effectiveness of core decompression (CD) combined with implantation of bone marrow–derived cells (BMDC) and rhBMP-2 for osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH) after femoral neck fractures in children and adolescents. This study included 51 patients, aged 11.4–18.1 years, with ARCO stages I–III ONFH after femoral neck fractures between 2004 and 2010. The hips were divided into two groups based on whether the lateral pillar of the femoral head (LPFH) was preserved: LPFH and non-LPFH groups. All patients were followed up clinically and radiographically for a minimum of 5 years. 44 patients (86.3%) had improved clinical outcome. Radiologically, 9 of the 51 hips (17.6%) exhibited collapse onset or progression of the femoral head or narrowing of the hip joint space, and one patient in the non-LPFH group required hip arthroplasty due to the worsened syndrome. The technique provided an effective therapeutic option for children and adolescents with ONFH following femoral neck fractures. It relieves hip pain and prevents the progression of osteonecrosis in young patients lasting more than 5 years after surgery. PMID:27477836

  15. Panoramic-Based Mandibular Indices and Bone Mineral Density of Femoral Neck and Lumbar Vertebrae in Women

    PubMed Central

    Marandi, S.; Bagherpour, A.; Imanimoghaddam, M.; Hatef, MR.; Haghighi, AR.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this cross-sectional analytic study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of panoramic-based indices of the mandible (Mental Index-MI, Mandibular Cortical Index-MCI and Panoramic Mandibular Index-PMI) and to determine their correlation with bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck and lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) in order to assess the possibility of using these parameters as indicators of osteoporosis. Materials and Methods: The mandibular indices of 67 women over 35 years old were measured from panoramic radiographs, and bone densitometry was performed in the femoral neck and lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4), using DXA (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry) technique. The patients were divided into three categories of normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic in each skeletal region. One-way ANOVA and ROC curve analyses were applied. The results were considered statistically significant when the P-value was less than 0.05. Results: Comparing the mean BMD in the femoral neck in women between C1 and C3 subgroups of MCI, a significant difference was detected (P=0.04). The mean PMI in the three skeletal subgroups was not different according to the skeletal region (P>0.05). We found a significant difference in mean MI between normal and osteopenic subgroups in the femoral neck (P=0.042). Conclusion: Using radiomorphometric indices of the mandible (MCI-MI) may be useful in determining the skeletal status of the patients, but is not sufficient for precise evaluation. PMID:21998782

  16. Trajectories of femoral neck strength in relation to the final menstrual period in a multi-ethnic cohort.

    PubMed

    Ishii, S; Cauley, J A; Greendale, G A; Crandall, C J; Huang, M-H; Danielson, M E; Karlamangla, A S

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of femoral neck strength relative to load across the menopause transition. It declined significantly over the 10 years bracketing the final menstrual period, and the rate of decline was modified by body mass index, race/ethnicity, and smoking status. Composite indices of femoral neck strength, which integrate dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived bone mineral density and bone size with body size, are inversely associated with hip fracture risk. Our objective was to describe longitudinal trajectories of the strength indices across the menopausal transition. Data came from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation; participants were pre- or early peri-menopausal, ages 42-53 at baseline, and were followed up for 9.1 ± 1.8 years. Composite indices of femoral neck strength in different failure modes (compression, bending, and impact) were created in 921 women who had three or more hip DXA scans and had definable final menstrual period (FMP) dates. We used mixed effects models to fit piecewise linear growth curves to the baseline-normalized strength indices as a function of time to/after the FMP. Compression and impact strength indices did not decline until 1 year prior to the FMP, and declined rapidly thereafter, with some slowing of decline 1 year after the FMP. Bending strength index increased slightly until 2 years prior to the FMP, then plateaued, and began to decline at the FMP. Mean decline in strength indices over 10 years was 6.9 % (compression), 2.5 % (bending), and 6.8 % (impact). Women with higher body mass index had larger declines in two of the three indices. Other major modifiers of rates of decline were race/ethnicity and smoking status. Femoral neck strength relative to load declines significantly during the menopausal transition, with declines commencing 1 to 2 years prior to the FMP.

  17. Internal screw fixation compared with bipolar hemiarthroplasty for treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Gjertsen, J-E; Vinje, T; Engesaeter, L B; Lie, S A; Havelin, L I; Furnes, O; Fevang, J M

    2010-03-01

    Internal fixation and arthroplasty are the two main options for the treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly. The optimal treatment remains controversial. Using data from the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register, we compared the results of hemiarthroplasty and internal screw fixation in displaced femoral neck fractures. Data from 4335 patients over seventy years of age who had internal fixation (1823 patients) or hemiarthroplasty (2512 patients) to treat a displaced femoral neck fracture were compared at a minimum follow-up interval of twelve months. One-year mortality, the number of reoperations, and patient self-assessment of pain, satisfaction, and quality of life at four and twelve months were analyzed. Subanalyses of patients with cognitive impairment and reduced walking ability were done. In the arthroplasty group, only contemporary bipolar prostheses were used and uncemented prostheses with modern stems and hydroxyapatite coating accounted for 20.8% (522) of the implants. There were no differences in one-year mortality (27% in the osteosynthesis group and 25% in the arthroplasty group; p = 0.76). There were 412 reoperations (22.6%) performed in the osteosynthesis group and seventy-two (2.9%) in the hemiarthroplasty group during the follow-up period. After twelve months, the osteosynthesis group reported more pain (mean score, 29.9 compared with 19.2), higher dissatisfaction with the operation result (mean score, 38.9 compared with 25.7), and a lower quality of life (mean score, 0.51 compared with 0.60) than the arthroplasty group. All differences were significant (p < 0.001). For patients with cognitive impairment, hemiarthroplasty provided a better functional outcome (less pain, higher satisfaction with the result of the operation, and higher quality of life as measured on the EuroQol visual analog scale) at twelve months (p < 0.05). Displaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly should be treated with hemiarthroplasty.

  18. Lower reoperation rate for cemented hemiarthroplasty than for uncemented hemiarthroplasty and internal fixation following femoral neck fracture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Elderly patients with displaced femoral neck fractures are commonly treated with a hemiarthroplasty (HA), but little is known about the long-term failure of this treatment. We compared reoperation rates for patients aged at least 75 years with displaced femoral neck fractures treated with either internal fixation (IF), cemented HA, or uncemented HA (with or without hydroxyapatite coating), after 12–19 years of follow-up. Methods 4 hospitals with clearly defined guidelines for the treatment of 75+ year-old patients with a displaced femoral neck fracture were included. Cohort 1 (1991–1993) with 180 patients had undergone IF; cohort 2 (1991–1995) with 203 patients had received an uncemented bipolar Ultima HA stem (Austin-Moore); cohort 3 (1991–1995) with 209 patients had received a cemented Charnley-Hastings HA; and cohort 4 (1991–1998) with 158 patients had received an uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated Furlong HA. Data were retrieved from patient files, from the region-based patient administrative system, and from the National Registry of Patients at the end of 2010. We performed survival analysis with adjustment for comorbidity, age, and sex. Results Cemented HA had a reoperation rate (RR) of 5% and was used as reference in the Cox regression analysis, which showed significantly higher hazard ratios (HRs) for IF (HR = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.9–7.5; RR = 18%), uncemented HA (HR = 2.2, CI: 1.1–4.5; RR = 11%) and uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated HA (HR = 3.6, CI: 1.8–7.4; RR = 16%). Interpretation Cemented HA has a superior long-term hip survival rate compared to IF and uncemented HA (with and without hydroxyapatite coating) in patients aged 75 years or more with displaced femoral neck fractures. PMID:23594248

  19. Effect of semisynthetic extracellular matrix-like hydrogel containing hepatocyte growth factor on repair of femoral neck defect in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengfei; Guo, Lin; Huang, Lanfeng; Zhao, Dewei; Zhen, Ruixin; Hu, Xiaoning; Yuan, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Using tissue engineering technology research to develop organized artificial bone, then repair bone defect. This work aims to investigate the role of semisynthetic extracellular matrix-like hydrogel (sECMH) containing hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on repair of femoral neck defect in rabbits. 18 New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. According to autologous paired comparison method, the left and right sides of rabbit were used as control and experimental side, respectively. The models of bilateral femoral neck bone defect were established. In experimental side, sECMH containing HGF was implanted in the defect area. In control side, no material was implanted in the defect area. At the 2nd, 4th and 8th week after surgery, the gross observation, histological examination and molybdenum target (Mo-target) X-ray examination were performed on the specimens to study the repair of femoral neck defect. In gross observation, there was no macroscopic difference of femoral neck specimen between the 2nd and 4th postoperative week. At the 8th week, the defect orifice was closed with immature cortical bone, with unblocked marrow cavity. HE staining results showed that, at the 4th week, there were more new vessels in defect area of experimental side, compared with control side. At the 8th week, in experimental side there was immature cortical bone connecting the fracture end in defect area, with visible bone marrow cells. Mo-target X-ray examination found that, at the 8th week, the bone tissue repair in experimental side was better than control side. As a new drug delivery system, sECMH containing HGF has good application prospect in bone tissue repair.

  20. Biomechanical effect of different femoral neck blade position on the fixation of intertrochanteric fracture: a finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pei-Yuan; Lin, Kun-Jhih; Wei, Hung-Wen; Hu, Jin-Jia; Chen, Wen-Chuan; Tsai, Cheng-Lun; Lin, Kang-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Medial migration or cutout of the neck helical blade has commonly occurred in the treatment of trochanteric fracture of the femur. The position of the helical blade within the femoral head is one of the influencing factors that cause the blade to perforate the intact joint surface; however, the ideal placement of the helical blade is not currently known. A finite element model of a femur/nail construct was utilized to analyze five possible blade positions in the femoral head. Normal strain at the fracture surface, the minimum principal strain in the cancellous bone, and the von Mises stress in the implant itself were calculated and compared between different blade positions. The results showed that a large area of normal compressive strain at the fracture surface was observed in the inferior and posterior blade positions. The volume of cancellous bone strained to yielding in the femoral head and neck was lower for the inferior and posterior positions, whereas it was the highest for the superior position. The inferior and posterior positions had lower von Mises stress in the implant itself. The inferior and posterior positions may be the ideal position for the intramedullary nail with a helical neck blade.

  1. Ancestral differences in femoral neck axis length: possible implications for forensic anthropological analyses.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Angi M; Leslie, William D; Baim, Sanford

    2014-03-01

    In forensic anthropological contexts, very few methods of estimating ancestry from the postcranial skeleton are available. The cranium is widely recognized to show the greatest ancestral variation, and is often regarded by forensic anthropologists as the only reliable bone for estimating ancestry from unidentified skeletal remains. Several studies have demonstrated ancestral variation in aspects of the femur, but none have shown significant predictive power for discriminating multiple groups, and have therefore not gained wide acceptance by forensic anthropologists. Skeletal health experts (particularly bone densitometrists), however, have long recognized a relationship between proximal femur geometry (especially hip axis length) and osteoporosis-related fracture risk. Moreover, fracture risk has been noted to vary between ancestral groups. Here, we investigate whether measurements that are related to fracture risk might also be used to estimate ancestry from unidentified skeletal remains. Specifically, we investigate ancestral differences in femoral neck axis length (FNAL) and find significant differences between European, Asian and African groups in both women and men. FNAL was largest in European groups followed by African and then Asian groups. The greatest discriminating power was found between European and Asian groups, but was also significant between European and African groups. These differences may have utility in estimating ancestry in forensic anthropological contexts.

  2. Measurement of the femoral neck anteversion angle in the dog using computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Ginja, M M D; Gonzalo-Orden, J M; Jesus, S S; Silvestre, A M; Llorens-Pena, M P; Ferreira, A J A

    2007-09-01

    Simple and accurate limb and pelvic conformation evaluation using computed tomography (CT) can be useful in planning canine hip dysplasia (CHD) treatment and in helping to understand the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and CHD. The objectives of this study were to describe a new method for femoral neck anteversion angle (FNA-angle) measurement in CT, and to compare it to the established radiographic standard biplanar method. The hips of 23 Estrela Mountain Dogs were evaluated using radiography and CT and their FNA-angles were determined by performing two CT examinations and with one radiographic measurement session. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to evaluate the repeatability (agreement between the two CT sessions, ICC=0.92) and reproducibility (agreement between each CT and radiographic session, ICC=0.91 in both cases) of the CT FNA-angle measurement method. This study suggests that CT FNA-angle measurement method is reliable and can be used in CT hip studies with confidence.

  3. Medial fractures of the femoral neck in the elderly treated by SEM bipolar prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Goretti, C; Cirilli, M; Soldati, D; Rizquallah, J; Marri, C; Musacchi, G; Guerra, A

    1996-01-01

    The authors present 335 cases of medical fracture of the femoral neck in the elderly patient (mean age 80.5 years) treated by SEM type bipolar prosthesis. A total of 93 patients (28.3%) were followed-up for a total of 98 hips submitted to surgery (5 bilateral) after a mean period of 42 months, minimum 12 months, maximum 96. Clinical follow-up included these parameters: pain, movement, walking, according to Merle D'Aubigné. Radiographic follow-up consisted in standard views and maximum adduction and abduction. Pain was present in 49% of cases, although it did not significantly invalidate movement (quotients 6 and 5 in 96% of cases); in 60% of the cases there were problems with walking mostly due to the general conditions of the patient. Wear phenomena in the acetabulum were present in 32 hips (32.6%) with no correlation with clinical data. Dynamic x-rays showed that only 31% of the implants maintained intraprosthetic movement. What emerges from the study is the importance of adequate measurement of the prosthetic cupola to improve acetabular fit.

  4. Mid-term results of an uncemented femoral stem with modular neck options.

    PubMed

    Benazzo, Francesco; Rossi, Stefano M P; Cecconi, Davide; Piovani, Lucio; Ravasi, Flavio

    2010-01-01

    We prospectively assessed the results of 239 primary total hip replacements performed using a conical stem combined with modular necks of different lengths and inclinations (Modulus System, Lima Corporate San Daniele Del Friuli, Udine, Italia) in 222 patients (50 men, 172 women), undergoing surgery between October 2001 and December 2006 and presenting with anatomical deformities of the proximal femur and/or acetabulum, including developmental dysplasia (DDH), ankylosis, and sequelae of osteotomies or fractures. Such conditions can make hip replacement problematic. The mean age at the time of surgery was 57.6 years (22 ÷ 83). No patients were lost to follow-up. 3 femoral components underwent revision. At a mean of 5 years follow-up the Harris Hip Score showed a significant improvement, increasing from 35 preoperatively to a mean of 96.6. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis the survival rate at 5 years was 98.28%. The Modulus stem showed good mid-term results in terms of survival, as well as clinical and radiographic outcome.

  5. Garden type I fractures myth or reality? A prospective study comparing CT scans with X-ray findings in Garden type I femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Li, Zhiyong; Su, Yanling; Hou, Zhiyong; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Yingze

    2012-11-01

    The Garden type I femoral neck fracture is defined as an incomplete fracture of the neck of the femur as seen on the antero-posterior (AP) radiograph of the injured hip. The diagnosis of incomplete femoral neck fractures has decreased in recent years with the development of improved radiographic imaging. We hypothesized that incomplete femoral neck fractures seen on radiographs are in fact complete fractures on computed tomography (CT). The study aims to test this hypothesis by comparing CT scan images to X-ray findings in patients diagnosed with Garden type I femoral neck fractures. From January 2008 to October 2010, our management of femoral neck fractures included a CT scan of the injured hip for all Garden type I fractures. CT findings were reported by a musculoskeletal radiologist. A classification of the fracture was performed by an orthopedic surgeon. Eight hundred and twenty five femoral neck fractures were admitted during the study period. Seventeen of these fractures (2.1%) were considered incomplete based on radiographic evaluation. In 17 cases (100%), the CT scan demonstrated a complete fracture extending through the medial cortex. Subsequently, all 17 fractures were fixed with standard cannulated screw technique on a fracture table. Secondary displacement occurred in one patient prior to fixation. All fractures healed well and no avascular necrosis was noted. In summary, our study shows that incomplete femoral neck fractures identified on X-rays are actually complete fractures based on CT scans. If confirmed by a larger study population, our findings can simplify the Garden classification by eliminating an inaccurate subcategory. The clinical implications are that Garden type I fractures should all likely be fixed with cannulated screws and with an effort to prevent displacement during treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk factors of avascular necrosis of the femoral head and fixation failure in patients with valgus angulated femoral neck fractures over the age of 50 years.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyung Keun; Choi, Ho June; Yang, Kyu Hyun

    2016-12-01

    The aim of our study was to identify the risk factors for avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN) and fixation failure (FF) after screw osteosynthesis in patients with valgus angulated femoral neck fractures. We conducted a retrospective study of 308 patients (mean age, 72.5 years, range, 50-97 years), with a mean follow-up of 21.4 months (range, 12-64 months). The risk for failure in treatment (FIT) associated with patient- and fracture-related factors was evaluated by logistic regression analyses. FIT was identified in 32 cases (10.3%): 22 cases (7.1%) of AVN and 10 cases (3.2%) of FF. Initial valgus tilt>15° (p=0.023), posterior tilt>15° (p=0.012), and screw sliding distance (p=0.037) were significantly associated with FIT. FIT occurred in 7 patients (5.2%) with B1.2.1 fractures and 17 patients (48.6%) with B1.1.2 fractures (p<0.001). The odds of FIT were 17-fold higher in patients with initial valgus and posterior tilts>15° (B1.1.2) compared to patients with <15° of tilt in both planes (B1.2.1). The severity of initial deformity predicts AVN and FF in patients with valgus angulated femoral neck fractures. Patients with an initial valgus and posterior tilt>15° are reasonable candidates for primary arthroplasty due to high risk of FIT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors Associated With Psycho-Cognitive Functions in Patients With Persistent Pain After Surgery for Femoral Neck Fracture.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Atsushi; Hida, Mitsumasa; Takami, Hidenobu; Hirata, Naoki; Deguchi, Yuko; Miyaguchi, Kazuya; Nakazono, Masako; Nakagawa, Rie; Fukumoto, Noriyuki; Hamaoka, Katsumi

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to address issues arising from fracture of the femoral neck in elderly individuals, the prevalence of which continues to increase in Japan. The prevalence is increasing in Japan and there have been many reports on physical functions such as prevention of a fall. However, there have been a few studies that focus on psycho-cognitive functions. We must examine factors in patients with fractured femur necks to develop methods to assist affected patients. The current study aimed to examine factors associated with psycho-cognitive functions after surgery for fractured femoral neck in the Japanese elderly. In this study, we examined the relationships among sex, age, fracture site, operative procedure, body mass index, lifestyle, psycho-cognitive functions, and types of pain in 142 patients, performed multiple regression analysis using the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and the Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS) scores as dependent variables, and created MMSE and MADRS models. Analysis of MMSE and MADRS models identified night pain and the number of family members as factors that affected mental function in a population with persistent pain for 1 week after surgery for fractured femoral neck. In addition, the number of family members was identified in multiple regression analysis models as a factor associated with psycho-cognitive functions. Pain, and night pain in particular, affect psycho-cognitive functions. We speculated that emotional changes were associated with number of family members. Patients living with family members maintained psycho-cognitive functions better than did those living alone, even when they experienced pain in their daily lives.

  8. Prediction of incident hip fracture by femoral neck bone mineral density and neck-shaft angle: a 5-year longitudinal study in post-menopausal females.

    PubMed

    Gnudi, S; Sitta, E; Pignotti, E

    2012-08-01

    To compare hip fracture incidence in post-menopausal females who were differently stratified for the fracture risk according to bone mineral density and proximal femur geometry. In a 5 year follow-up study, the hip fracture incidence in 729 post-menopausal females (45 of whom suffered from incident hip fracture) was assessed and compared. Forward logistic regression was used to select independent predictors of hip fracture risk, including age, age at menopause, height, weight, femoral neck bone mineral density (FNBMD), neck-shaft angle (NSA), hip axis length, femoral neck diameter and femoral shaft diameter as covariates. Fracture incidence was then calculated for the categories of young/old age, high/low FNBMD and wide/narrow NSA, which were obtained by dichotomising each hip fracture independent predictor at the value best separating females with and without a hip fracture. The hip fracture incidence of the whole cohort was significantly higher in females with a wide NSA (8.52%) than in those with a narrow NSA (3.51%). The combination of wide NSA and low FNBMD had the highest hip fracture incidence in the whole cohort (17.61%) and each age category. The combinations of narrow/wide NSA with low/high FNBMD, respectively, gave a significantly higher fracture incidence in older than in younger women, whereas women with a combined wide NSA and low FNBMD had no significantly different fracture incidence in young (14.60%) or old age (21.62%). Our study showed that NSA is effective at predicting the hip fracture risk and that the detection in early post-menopause of a wide NSA together with a low FNBMD should identify females at high probability of incident hip fracture.

  9. Treatment of the Bullet, Traversing Femoral Neck, Lodged in Hip Joint: Initial Arthroscopic Removal and Subsequent Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Çatma, Mehmet Faruk; Ünlü, Serhan; Ersan, Önder; Öztürk, Alper

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: There have been several reports on arthroscopically assisted removal of the bullet imbedded in hip joint in the literature. Similarly, in this case, a bullet lodged in acetabulum was extracted with arthroscopic technique. What makes this case unique in the literature is that the bullet removed from the acetabulum traversed the femoral neck. Case Report: Male patient aged 32 years with a low-velocity gunshot wound was referred to the emergency room on August 28, 2012. The projectile was lodged in acetabular side of the hip joint transversing through the femoral neck. A hip arthroscopy was performed for bullet removal. Two years after surgery, the patient had groin pain and underwent a safe dislocation for femoral chondral injury. In the last follow-up in the second post-operative year, the patient had no clinical complaint. Conclusion: Hip arthroscopy is a minimally invasive and proper procedure for removal of foreign materials such as a bullet in the hip joint. Arthrotomy can be reserved for further complications such as chondral injury as in this case. PMID:28164046

  10. Comparison of Buckling Ratio and Finite Element Analysis of Femoral Necks in Post-menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Anitha, D; Kim, Kwang Joon; Lim, Sung-Kil

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Osteoporosis is a prevalent problem amongst the elderly. Bone mineral density (BMD) obtained from dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the gold standard in diagnosing osteopenia (-1.0 < t < -2.5) and osteoporosis (t > -2.5). However, following osteoporosis therapy, increases in BMD may be unreliable. Although hip fracture risk can be reduced with the aid of drugs, treated patients still face considerable risk as most people who sustain hip fracture do not have generalized osteoporosis. A study of the local distribution of bone mass was necessary as they contribute to the geometry and consequently the bone strength. Methods By identifying the respective regions in the femoral neck, the geometric changes were localized and differed between each patient, proving that drug treatment elicits local changes in mean outer radius and mean cortical thickness. Numerical analysis also validated the above findings, where critical strain regions were predicted at similar zones and this is coherent with the fact that reduced thickness of the cortical bone has been related to increased risk of fracture initiation. Results Hence, from individual radar plots, we can determine if the effect of drugs had outweighed the effect of aging. We can then propose a course of treatment drug better suited for the patient in the clinical scenario. Conclusion Clinically, little conclusion can be drawn from just the BMD in osteopenic / osteoporotic patients. This emphasizes the necessity of using geometry and structure to predict fracture risk. Focusing on a patient specific analysis at a local level will improve diagnosis of osteoporosis and ultimately fracture prediction. PMID:25371894

  11. Femoral neck-shaft angle and climate-induced body proportions.

    PubMed

    Child, Stephanie L; Cowgill, Libby W

    2017-09-23

    Declination in femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) is commonly linked to an increased level of physical activity during life. More recently, however, research suggests that lower NSA might also be explained, in part, as the mechanical consequence of differences in ecogeographic body proportions. This study tests the proposed link between NSA and climatic-induced body proportions, using relative body mass (RBM), throughout the course of development. NSA and RBM were collected for 445 immature remains from five geographic locations. NSA and RBM were standardized for age-effects. ANOVA was used to examine when population differences emerged in both NSA and RBM. Regression analyses were used to examine the pattern of relationship between NSA and RBM. Populations differ significantly in NSA and RBM before skeletal maturity, and these differences occur early in life. While both NSA and RBM change over the course of development, no significant relationship was found between NSA and RBM for any sample, or any age category (p = .244). Individuals who have relatively greater relative body mass do not necessarily have lower NSA. Population differences in NSA were found to be variable, while differences in RBM remained consistent across the developmental span. Taken together, these results suggest that regardless of body proportions, the degree of declination of NSA is presumed to be similar among individuals with similar gait and ambulatory behaviors. Conversely, populations differ in RBM from birth, and these differences are consistent throughout development. These two measures likely are responsive to diffing stimuli, and any potential relationship is likely complex and multifactorial. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Genetic Contribution of Femoral Neck Bone Geometry to the Risk of Developing Osteoporosis: A Family-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Malouf, Jorge; Laiz, Ana; Marin, Ana; Herrera, Silvia; Farrerons, Jordi; Soria, Jose Manuel; Casademont, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Femoral neck geometry parameters are believed to be as good as bone mineral density as independent factors in predicting hip fracture risk. This study was conducted to analyze the roles of genetic and environmental factors in femoral properties measured in a sample of Spanish families with osteoporotic fractures and extended genealogy. The “Genetic Analysis of Osteoporosis (GAO) Project” involved 11 extended families with a total number of 376 individuals. We studied three categorical phenotypes of particular clinical interest and we used a Hip structural analysis based on DXA to analyze 17 strength and geometrical phenotypes of the hip. All the femoral properties had highly significant heritability, ranging from 0.252 to 0.586. The most significant correlations were observed at the genetic level (ρG). Osteoporotic fracture status (Affected 2) and, particularly, low bone mass and osteoporotic condition (Affected 3) had the highest number of significant genetic correlations with diverse femoral properties. In conclusion, our findings suggest that a relatively simple and easy to use method based on DXA studies can provide useful data on properties of the Hip in clinical practice. Furthermore, our results provide a strong motivation for further studies in order to improve the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanism underlying bone architecture and the genetics of osteoporosis. PMID:27163365

  13. Use of Femoral Head and Neck Ostectomy and Physical Therapy to Manage Osteoarthritis in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Uchihashi, Mayu; Hampel, Joseph A; Nemzek, Jean A; Saccone, Phillip A; Eaton, Kathryn A; Nowland, Megan H

    2015-06-01

    Osteoarthritis is associated with pain and immobility in both humans and animals. However, available resources for osteoarthritis management in captive NHP are limited. This case report describes a novel management strategy for a 10-y-old male macaque with unilateral hindlimb lameness, prominent muscle wasting, and severely limited range of motion. Radiographs of the affected limb showed lytic lesions of the femoral head. To relieve pain and improve mobility, femoral head and neck ostectomy (FHO) was performed, and multiple pharmacotherapies were initiated. The macaque also received a unique method of physical therapy that required no sedation, acted as enrichment, and was implemented by using a conventional caging system. The response to therapy was monitored by measuring thigh circumference in the operated and nonoperated limbs, which demonstrated improvement in both legs. The unique physical therapy in conjunction with surgery and pharmacotherapy benefited the macaque with osteoarthritis by reducing discomfort and improving mobility.

  14. Development of a surrogate model based on patient weight, bone mass and geometry to predict femoral neck strains and fracture loads.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark; Perilli, Egon; Martelli, Saulo

    2017-04-11

    Osteoporosis and related bone fractures are an increasing global burden in our ageing society. Areal bone mineral density assessed through dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), the clinically accepted and most used method, is not sufficient to assess fracture risk individually. Finite element (FE) modelling has shown improvements in prediction of fracture risk, better than aBMD from DEXA, but is not practical for widespread clinical use. The aim of this study was to develop an adaptive neural network (ANN)-based surrogate model to predict femoral neck strains and fracture loads obtained from a previously developed population-based FE model. The surrogate model performance was assessed in simulating two loading conditions: the stance phase of gait and a fall. The surrogate model successfully predicted strains estimated by FE (r(2)=0.90-0.98 for level gait load case, r(2)=0.92-0.96 for the fall load case). Moreover, an ANN model based on three measurements obtainable in clinics (femoral neck length (level gait) or maximum femoral neck diameter (fall), femoral neck bone mass, body weight) was able to give reasonable predictions (r(2)=0.84-0.94) for all of the strain metrics and the estimated femoral neck fracture load. Overall, the surrogate model has potential for clinical applications as they are based on simple measures of geometry and bone mass which can be derived from DEXA images, accurately predicting FE model outcomes, with advantages over FE models as they are quicker and easier to perform.

  15. Do physical examination and CT-scan measures of femoral neck anteversion and tibial torsion relate to each other?

    PubMed

    Sangeux, Morgan; Mahy, Jessica; Graham, H Kerr

    2014-01-01

    Informed clinical decision making for femoral and/or tibial de-rotation osteotomies requires accurate measurement of patient function through gait analysis and anatomy through physical examination of bony torsions. Validity of gait analysis has been extensively studied; however, controversy remains regarding the accuracy of physical examination measurements of femoral and tibial torsion. Comparison between CT-scans and physical examination measurements of femoral neck anteversion (FNA) and external tibial torsion (ETT) were retrospectively obtained for 98 (FNA) and 64 (ETT) patients who attended a tertiary hospital for instrumented gait analysis between 2007 and 2010. The physical examination methods studied for femoral neck anteversion were the trochanteric prominence angle test (TPAT) and the maximum hip rotation arc midpoint (Arc midpoint) and for external tibial torsion the transmalleolar axis (TMA). Results showed that all physical examination measurements statistically differed to the CT-scans (bias(standard deviation): -2(14) for TPAT, -10(12) for Arc midpoint and -16(9) for TMA). Bland and Altman plots showed that method disagreements increased with increasing bony torsions in all cases but notably for TPAT. Regression analysis showed that only TMA and CT-scan measurement of external tibial torsion demonstrated good (R(2)=57%) correlation. Correlations for both TPAT (R(2)=14%) and Arc midpoint (R(2)=39%) with CT-scan measurements of FNA were limited. We conclude that physical examination should be considered as screening techniques rather than definitive measurement methods for FNA and ETT. Further research is required to develop more accurate measurement methods to accompany instrumented gait analysis.

  16. Development of new criteria for cortical bone histomorphometry in femoral neck: intra- and inter-observer reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiao-Yu; Malo, Markus; Tamminen, Inari S; Isaksson, Hanna; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Kröger, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Histomorphometry is commonly applied to study bone remodeling. Histological definitions of cortical bone boundaries have not been consistent. In this study, new criteria for specific definition of the transitional zone between the cortical and cancellous bone in the femoral neck were developed. The intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of this method was determined by quantitative histomorphometry and areal overlapping analysis. The undecalcified histological sections of femoral neck specimens (n = 6; from men aged 17-59 years) were processed and scanned to acquire histological images of complete bone sections. Specific criteria were applied to define histological boundaries. "Absolute cortex area" consisted of pure cortical bone tissue only, and was defined mainly based on the size of composite canals and their distance to an additional "guide" boundary (so-called "preliminary cortex boundary," the clear demarcation line of density between compact cortex and sparse trabeculae). Endocortical bone area was defined by recognizing characteristic endocortical structures adjacent to the preliminary cortical boundary. The present results suggested moderate to high reproducibility for low-magnification parameters (e.g., cortical bone area). The coefficient of variation (CV %) ranged from 0.02 to 5.61 in the intra-observer study and from 0.09 to 16.41 in the inter-observer study. However, the intra-observer reproducibility of some high-magnification parameters (e.g., osteoid perimeter/endocortical perimeter) was lower (CV %, 0.33-87.9). The overlapping of three histological areas in repeated analyses revealed highest intra- and inter-observer reproducibility for the absolute cortex area. This study provides specific criteria for the definition of histological boundaries for femoral neck bone specimens, which may aid more precise cortical bone histomorphometry.

  17. [Coombs-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia developed after formation of post-operative pseudoaneurysm for femoral neck fracture].

    PubMed

    Hagihara, Masao; Hua, Jian; Inoue, Morihiro; Michikawa, Naohiko

    2011-03-01

    An 85-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with severe anemia after nail-plate fixation of the left femoral neck fracture. The patient was diagnosed with Coombs-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia based on the measurement of red blood cell (RBC)-bound IgG molecules per cell. Pseudoaneurysm of the left profunda femoris artery was detected on magnetic resonance imaging and successfully removed by surgical repair of the artery. Anemia promptly improved, and the number of RBC-bound IgG normalized after the surgery. The destruction of RBCs was thought to have been responsible for temporary induction of anti-RBC autoimmune antibodies.

  18. Ipsilateral total hip arthroplasty in patient with an above-knee amputee for femoral neck fracture: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chunhui; Lv, Qi; Yi, Chengqing; Ma, Jinzhong; Zhu, Libo

    2015-01-01

    There is limited literature about the outcomes of total hip arthroplasty (THA) as a surgical option for above-knee amputees. Here, we described one case of femoral neck fracture with above-knee amputation. Two-year follow-up revealed an excellent clinical and radiological outcome. The main challenge of THA posed by the amputation was control of the lower extremity. We recommend inserting a pin at the greater trochanter of the femur to improve control of traction or rotation. PMID:25932163

  19. Larger femoral periprosthetic bone mineral density decrease following total hip arthroplasty for femoral neck fracture than for osteoarthritis: a prospective, observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mann, Tobias; Eisler, Thomas; Bodén, Henrik; Muren, Olle; Stark, André; Salemyr, Mats; Sköldenberg, Olof

    2015-04-01

    Studies on patients with degenerative joint disease of the hip show that femoral periprosthetic bone mineral decreases following total hip arthroplasty. Scarcely any osteodensitometric data exist on femoral neck fracture (FNF) patients and periprosthetic bone remodelling. In two parallel cohorts we enrolled 87 patients (mean age, 72 ± 12 years; male:female ratio, 30:57) undergoing total hip arthroplasty for either primary osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip (n = 37) or for an acute FNF (n = 50) and followed them for a mean of 5.4 years. Outcomes were bone mineral density (BMD) changes in the periprosthetic Gruen zones 1-7, the incidence of periprosthetic fractures and clinical outcome. The bone mineral loss in the fracture group was more than twice that of the osteoarthritis group, -16.9% versus -6.8% (p = 0.004). The incidence of periprosthetic fractures was 12% (6/50) in the fracture cohort compared with none (0%) in the OA cohort (p = 0.03). Periprosthetic bone mineral loss following total hip arthroplasty is significantly greater in patients who are treated for acute FNF than in OA patients. This decrease of BMD follows a different pattern with the FNF patients losing larger proportions of bone in Gruen zones 1, 2, 6, and 7 while the OA patients tend to have larger losses only in zones 1 and 7. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A comparison of a conventional versus a short, anatomical metaphyseal-fitting cementless femoral stem in the treatment of patients with a fracture of the femoral neck.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y-H; Oh, J-H

    2012-06-01

    We compared the clinical and radiological outcomes of two cementless femoral stems in the treatment of patients with a Garden III or IV fracture of the femoral neck. A total of 70 patients (70 hips) in each group were enrolled into a prospective randomised study. One group received a short anatomical cementless stem and the other received a conventional cementless stem. Their mean age was 74.9 years (50 to 94) and 76.0 years (55 to 96), respectively (p = 0.328). The mean follow-up was 4.1 years (2 to 5) and 4.8 years (2 to 6), respectively. Perfusion lung scans and high resolution chest CTs were performed to detect pulmonary microemboli. At final follow-up there were no statistically significant differences between the short anatomical and the conventional stems with regard to the mean Harris hip score (85.7 (66 to 100) versus 86.5 (55 to 100); p = 0.791), the mean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (17 (6 to 34) versus 16 (5 to 35); p = 0.13) or the mean University of California, Los Angeles activity score (5 (3 to 6) versus 4 (3 to 6); p = 0.032). No patient with a short stem had thigh pain, but 11 patients (16%) with a conventional stem had thigh pain. No patients with a short stem had symptomatic pulmonary microemboli, but 11 patients with a conventional stem had pulmonary microemboli (symptomatic in three patients and asymptomatic in eight patients). One hip (1.4%) in the short stem group and eight (11.4%) in the conventional group had an intra-operative undisplaced fracture of the calcar. No component was revised for aseptic loosening in either group. One acetabular component in the short stem group and two acetabular components in the conventional stem group were revised for recurrent dislocation. Our study demonstrated that despite the poor bone quality in these elderly patients with a fracture of the femoral neck, osseo-integration was obtained in all hips in both groups. However, the incidence of thigh pain, pulmonary

  1. Young patients and those with a low eGFR benefitted more from denosumab therapy in femoral neck bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ben-Chung; Chen, Ying-Chou

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of different severities of CKD on femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) in patients treated with denosumab. This study was a retrospective case review of CKD patients treated with denosumab. Baseline age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) were recorded for all patients. All comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, liver, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) serum collagen type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX) were also recorded. All subjects underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry assay of the femoral neck to determine the BMD. Changes in femoral neck BMD between baseline and 1 year after denosumab administration were recorded. A total 108 patients with CKD who had received denosumab therapy were enrolled. The mean age was 71.04 ± 9.64 years, and 96 patients (88.9 %) were women. Baseline eGFR correlated negatively with changes in the BMD of femoral neck (Rho =40.6, P < 0.01). The lower the eGFR, the more was the improvement in BMD in the femoral neck after denosumab therapy. When changes in femoral neck BMD were assessed as outcome measures using linear regression, young patients (P = 0.001) and those with a low eGFR benefitted more from denosumab therapy (P = 0.029). Denosumab therapy is effective in cases of low eGFR and young age. Aggressive medical attention is needed in these patients.

  2. A Cost-effectiveness Analysis of the Arthroplasty Options for Displaced Femoral Neck Fractures in the Active, Healthy, Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Slover, James; Hoffman, Michael V.; Malchau, Henrik; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Koval, Kenneth J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study was performed to explore the cost-effectiveness of total hip replacement compared with hemiarthroplasty in the treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures in active otherwise healthy older patients in whom the optimum treatment is believed to be an arthroplasty procedure. Methods: A Markov decision model was used to determine whether total hip arthroplasty or hemiarthroplasty was most cost-effective for the management of a displaced femoral neck fracture in this patient population. Results: Total hip arthroplasty was associated with an average cost $3,000 more than hemiarthroplasty, and the average quality-adjusted life year gain was 1.53. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio associated with the total hip replacement treatment strategy is $1960 per quality-adjusted life-year. Conclusion: Currently available data support the use of total hip arthroplasty as the more cost-effective treatment strategy in this specific population. The increased upfront cost appears to be offset by the improved functional results when compared with hemiarthroplasty in this select patient group. PMID:18701245

  3. Posterior approach compared to direct lateral approach resulted in better patient-reported outcome after hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Torbjørn B; Vinje, Tarjei; Havelin, Leif I; Engesæter, Lars B; Gjertsen, Jan-Erik

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose — Hemiarthroplasty (HA) is the most common treatment for displaced femoral neck fractures in many countries. In Norway, there has been a tradition of using the direct lateral surgical approach, but worldwide a posterior approach is more often used. Based on data from the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register, we compared the results of HA operated through the posterior and direct lateral approaches regarding patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and reoperation rate. Patients and methods — HAs due to femoral neck fracture in patients aged 60 years and older were included from the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register (2005–2014). 18,918 procedures were reported with direct lateral approach and 1,990 with posterior approach. PROM data (satisfaction, pain, quality of life (EQ-5D), and walking ability) were reported 4, 12, and 36 months postoperatively. The Cox regression model was used to calculate relative risk (RR) of reoperation. Results — There were statistically significant differences in PROM data with less pain, better satisfaction, and better quality of life after surgery using the posterior approach than using the direct lateral approach. The risk of reoperation was similar between the approaches. Interpretation — Hemiarthroplasty for hip fracture performed through a posterior approach rather than a direct lateral approach results in less pain, with better patient satisfaction and better quality of life. The risk of reoperation was similar with both approaches. PMID:27805460

  4. The Modified Femoral Neck-Shaft Angle: Age- and Sex-Dependent Reference Values and Reliability Analysis.

    PubMed

    Boese, Christoph Kolja; Frink, Michael; Jostmeier, Janine; Haneder, Stefan; Dargel, Jens; Eysel, Peer; Lechler, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Background. The femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) is of high importance for the diagnostics and treatment of various conditions of the hip. However, rotational effects limit its precision and applicability using plain radiographs. This study introduces a novel method to measure the femoral NSA: the modified NSA (mNSA), possibly being less susceptible against rotational effects compared to the conventional NSA. Patients and Methods. The method of measurement is described and its applicability was tested in 400 pelvis computed tomography scans (800 hips). Age- and gender-dependent reference values are given and intra- and interrater reliability are analyzed. Results. The mean age of all 400 patients (800 hips) was 54.32 years (18-100, SD 22.05 years). The mean mNSA was 147.0° and the 95% confidence interval was 146.7°-147.4°. Differences of the mNSA between sexes, age groups, and sides were nonsignificant. The absolute difference between NSA and mNSA was 16.3° (range 3-31°; SD 4.4°); the correlation was high (0.738; p < 0.001). Overall, the intra- and interrater reliability were excellent for the mNSA. Interpretation. We introduced a novel concept for the analysis of the neck-shaft angle. The high reliability of the measurement has been proven and its robustness to hip rotation was demonstrated.

  5. Differential influence of physical activity on lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density in the elderly population.

    PubMed

    Vuillemin, A; Guillemin, F; Jouanny, P; Denis, G; Jeandel, C

    2001-06-01

    This study investigates the relationship between lifetime physical activity and bone mineral density (BMD) at various sites in 129 healthy men and women aged 72.1 +/- 6.5 years. BMD was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and physical activity was assessed by using the QUANTAP system (Quantification de l'Activité Physique), a standardized and structured computer-assisted interview tool designed to assess lifetime physical activity. Linear regression models controlling for age, gender, height, body mass, lean mass, and smoking habits were performed. Higher levels of sporting activity during youth were associated with greater lumbar spine BMD ( p < .001). Similarly, femoral neck BMD was greatest in subjects who reported regularly taking part in sports over the previous 20 years ( p <. 05) and during their whole lifetime ( p < 0.05). Sporting activity at the time of bone mass development increases subsequent lumbar spine BMD, and more recent sporting activity contributes to the preservation of femoral neck BMD. These results suggest that physical activity has a differential influence on BMD at different sites and at different ages, possibly related to the processes of bone construction and bone aging taking place at the time.

  6. Cemented versus uncemented arthroplasty in patients with a displaced fracture of the femoral neck: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Inngul, C; Blomfeldt, R; Ponzer, S; Enocson, A

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this randomised controlled study was to compare functional and radiological outcomes between modern cemented and uncemented hydroxyapatite coated stems after one year in patients treated surgically for a fracture of the femoral neck. A total of 141 patients aged > 65 years were included. Patients were randomised to be treated with a cemented Exeter stem or an uncemented Bimetric stem. The patients were reviewed at four and 12 months. The cemented group performed better than the uncemented group for the Harris hip score (78 vs 70.7, p = 0.004) at four months and for the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assesment Questionnaire dysfunction score at four (29.8 vs 39.2, p = 0.007) and 12 months (22.3 vs 34.9, p = 0.001). The mean EQ-5D index score was better in the cemented group at four (0.68 vs 0.53, p = 0.001) and 12 months (0.75 vs 0.58, p = < 0.001) follow-up. There were nine intra-operative fractures in the uncemented group and none in the cemented group. In conclusion, our data do not support the use of an uncemented hydroxyapatite coated stem for the treatment of displaced fractures of the femoral neck in the elderly.

  7. Low bone mineral density is not related to failure in femoral neck fracture patients treated with internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Viberg, Bjarke; Ryg, Jesper; Overgaard, Søren; Lauritsen, Jens; Ovesen, Ole

    2014-02-01

    Internal fixation (IF) in femoral neck fractures has high reoperation rates and some predictors of failure are known, such as age, quality of reduction, and implant positioning. Finding new predictors of failure is an ongoing process, and in this study we evaluated the importance of low bone mineral density (BMD). 140 consecutive patients (105 females, median age 80) treated with IF had a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan of the hip performed median 80 days after treatment. The patients' radiographs were evaluated for fracture displacement, implant positioning, and quality of reduction. From a questionnaire completed during admission, 2 variables for comorbidity and walking disability were chosen. Primary outcome was low hip BMD (amount of mineral matter per square centimeter of hip bone) compared to hip failure (resection, arthroplasty, or new hip fracture). A stratified Cox regression model on fracture displacement was applied and adjusted for age, sex, quality of reduction, implant positioning, comorbidity, and walking disability. 49 patients had a T-score below -2.5 (standard deviation from the young normal reference mean) and 70 patients had a failure. The failure rate after 2 years was 22% (95% CI: 12-39) for the undisplaced fractures and 66% (CI: 56-76) for the displaced fractures. Cox regression showed no association between low hip BMD and failure. For the covariates, only implant positioning showed an association with failure. We found no statistically significant association between low hip BMD and fixation failure in femoral neck fracture patients treated with IF.

  8. The Modified Femoral Neck-Shaft Angle: Age- and Sex-Dependent Reference Values and Reliability Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jostmeier, Janine; Haneder, Stefan; Dargel, Jens; Eysel, Peer; Lechler, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Background. The femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) is of high importance for the diagnostics and treatment of various conditions of the hip. However, rotational effects limit its precision and applicability using plain radiographs. This study introduces a novel method to measure the femoral NSA: the modified NSA (mNSA), possibly being less susceptible against rotational effects compared to the conventional NSA. Patients and Methods. The method of measurement is described and its applicability was tested in 400 pelvis computed tomography scans (800 hips). Age- and gender-dependent reference values are given and intra- and interrater reliability are analyzed. Results. The mean age of all 400 patients (800 hips) was 54.32 years (18–100, SD 22.05 years). The mean mNSA was 147.0° and the 95% confidence interval was 146.7°–147.4°. Differences of the mNSA between sexes, age groups, and sides were nonsignificant. The absolute difference between NSA and mNSA was 16.3° (range 3–31°; SD 4.4°); the correlation was high (0.738; p < 0.001). Overall, the intra- and interrater reliability were excellent for the mNSA. Interpretation. We introduced a novel concept for the analysis of the neck-shaft angle. The high reliability of the measurement has been proven and its robustness to hip rotation was demonstrated. PMID:28070521

  9. Multiple Small Diameter Drillings Increase Femoral Neck Stability Compared with Single Large Diameter Femoral Head Core Decompression Technique for Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head.

    PubMed

    Brown, Philip J; Mannava, Sandeep; Seyler, Thorsten M; Plate, Johannes F; Van Sikes, Charles; Stitzel, Joel D; Lang, Jason E

    2016-10-26

    Femoral head core decompression is an efficacious joint-preserving procedure for treatment of early stage avascular necrosis. However, postoperative fractures have been described which may be related to the decompression technique used. Femoral head decompressions were performed on 12 matched human cadaveric femora comparing large 8mm single bore versus multiple 3mm small drilling techniques. Ultimate failure strength of the femora was tested using a servo-hydraulic material testing system. Ultimate load to failure was compared between the different decompression techniques using two paired ANCOVA linear regression models. Prior to biomechanical testing and after the intervention, volumetric bone mineral density was determined using quantitative computed tomography to account for variation between cadaveric samples and to assess the amount of bone disruption by the core decompression. Core decompression, using the small diameter bore and multiple drilling technique, withstood significantly greater load prior to failure compared with the single large bore technique after adjustment for bone mineral density (p< 0.05). The 8mm single bore technique removed a significantly larger volume of bone compared to the 3mm multiple drilling technique (p< 0.001). However, total fracture energy was similar between the two core decompression techniques. When considering core decompression for the treatment of early stage avascular necrosis, the multiple small bore technique removed less bone volume, thereby potentially leading to higher load to failure.

  10. Heritability of BMD of femoral neck and lumbar spine: a multivariate twin study of Finnish men.

    PubMed

    Videman, Tapio; Levälahti, Esko; Battié, Michele C; Simonen, Riitta; Vanninen, Esko; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2007-09-01

    Of the 80% variation in BMD among male twins that is caused by genetics, part was explained by genetic influences on lifting strength and lean body mass/height. Lifting strength was significant in both the femoral and spine BMD and body weight only for lumbar BMD. The dominant role of heritability in BMD has been shown in twin studies among women. However, the mechanisms of genetic influences are poorly understood. BMD is associated with lean body mass and muscle strength, which both have a genetic component, but the relative effects of muscle strength and lean body mass/height on the total genetic and environmental variations influencing BMD of men are unclear. Measurements of BMD from a DXA scanner on a representative sample of 147 monozygotic and 153 dizygotic male twin pairs (age, 35-70 yr) were related to a variety of anthropometric and behavioral covariates and interview data. Data were analyzed with univariate modeling of genetic characteristics, bivariate modeling of covariates that were significant in univariate models, and multivariate modeling of the simultaneous effects of significant covariates from the bivariate models. Heritability influences were estimated to account for 75% of the variance in femoral BMD and 83% in lumbar BMD. Univariate and bivariate modeling showed that, of the factors studied, only lifting force and lean body mass/height had statistically significant influences. Of the total genetic variation in femoral BMD, lifting force explained 9%, and lean body mass/height 18%; the proportions for lumbar BMD were 9% and 11%, respectively. Of the total environmental variation, the correlation with isokinetic lifting force explained 9% for femoral BMD and 10% for lumbar BMD. The genetic correlations between lifting force and femoral and lumbar BMD were approximately 0.3, as were the environmental correlations of isokinetic lifting force and femoral and lumbar BMD and of lean body mass/height and femoral BMD. The environmental correlation of

  11. Investigating Clinical Failure of Bone Grafting through a Window at the Femoral Head Neck Junction Surgery for the Treatment of Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Zhao, Dingyan; Gao, Fuqiang; Su, Yangming; Li, Zirong

    2016-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to analyze the clinical factors related to the failure of bone grafting through a window at the femoral head-neck junction. Methods In total, 119 patients (158 hips) underwent bone grafting for treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head. The patients were classified by their ARCO staging and CJFH classification. All patients were clinically and radiographically followed up every three months during the first year and every six months in the following year. The clinical follow-up comprised determination of pre- and postoperative Harris hip scores, while serial AP, frog lateral radiographs, and CT scan were used for the radiographic follow-up. Results The clinical failure of bone grafting was observed in 40 patients. The clinical failure rates in patients belonging to ARCO stage II period, IIIa, and III (b + c) were 25.9%, 16.2%, and 61.5%, respectively, while those in patients belonging to (C + M + L1) type and L2, L3 type disease groups were 1.7%, 38.9%, and 39%, respectively. The clinical failure rates in patients aged below 40 and those aged 40 and over were 20.5% and 39.0%, respectively (all P < 0.05). Conclusion Disease type, disease stage, and patient age are risk factors for failure of bone graft surgery. Patients belonging to ARCO stage II and IIIa showed a good overall response rate, while patients belonging to ARCO stage IIIb and IIIc and those with necrotic lesions involving the lateral pillar (L2 and L3 type) showed high surgical failure rates. PMID:27285821

  12. Hemiarthroplasty or total hip arthroplasty for the treatment of a displaced intracapsular fracture in active elderly patients: 12-year follow-up of randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Tol, M C J M; van den Bekerom, M P J; Sierevelt, I N; Hilverdink, E F; Raaymakers, E L F B; Goslings, J C

    2017-02-01

    Our aim was to analyse the long-term functional outcome of two forms of surgical treatment for active patients aged > 70 years with a displaced intracapsular fracture of the femoral neck. Patients were randomised to be treated with either a hemiarthroplasty or a total hip arthroplasty (THA). The outcome five years post-operatively for this cohort has previously been reported. We present the outcome at 12 years post-operatively. Initially 252 patients with a mean age of 81.1 years (70.2 to 95.6) were included, of whom 205 (81%) were women. A total of 137 were treated with a cemented hemiarthroplasty and 115 with a cemented THA. At long-term follow-up we analysed the modified Harris Hip Score (HHS), post-operative complications and intra-operative data of the patients who were still alive. At a mean follow-up of 12 years (8.23 to 16.17, standard deviation 2.24), 50 patients (20%), 32 in the hemiarthroplasty group and 18 in the THA group, were still alive, of which 47 (94%) were women. There were no significant differences in the mean modified HHS (p = 0.85), mortality (p = 0.13), complications (p = 0.93) or rate of revision surgery (p = 1.0) between the two groups. In the treatment of active elderly patients with an intracapsular fracture of the hip there is no difference in the functional outcome between hemiarthroplasty and THA treatments at 12 years post-operatively. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:250-4. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  13. Impact of frailty on outcomes in geriatric femoral neck fracture management: An analysis of national surgical quality improvement program dataset.

    PubMed

    Dayama, Anand; Olorunfemi, Odunayo; Greenbaum, Simon; Stone, Melvin E; McNelis, John

    2016-04-01

    Frailty is a clinical state of increased vulnerability resulting from aging-associated decline in physiologic reserve. Hip fractures are serious fall injuries that affect our aging population. We retrospectively sought to study the effect of frailty on postoperative outcomes after Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) and Hemiarthroplasty (HA) for femoral neck fracture in a national data set. National Surgical Quality Improvement Project dataset (NSQIP) was queried to identify THA and HA for a primary diagnosis femoral neck fracture using ICD-9 codes. Frailty was assessed using the modified frailty index (mFI) derived from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality and secondary outcomes were 30-day morbidity and failure to rescue (FTR). We used multivariate logistic regression to estimate odds ratio for outcomes while controlling for confounders. Of 3121 patients, mean age of patients was 77.34 ± 9.8 years. The overall 30-day mortality was 6.4% (3.2%-THA and 7.2%-HA). One or more severe complications (Clavien-Dindo class-IV) occurred in 7.1% patients (6.7%-THA vs.7.2%-HA). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for mortality in the group with the higher than median frailty score were 2 (95%CI, 1.4-3.7) after HA and 3.9 (95%CI, 1.3-11.1) after THA. Similarly, in separate multivariate analysis for Clavien-Dindo Class-IV complications and failure to rescue 1.6 times (CI95% 1.15-2.25) and 2.1 times (CI95% 1.12-3.93) higher odds were noted in above median frailty group. mFI is an independent predictor of mortality among patients undergoing HA and THA for femoral neck fracture beyond traditional risk factors such as age, ASA class, and other comorbidities. Level II. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Minimally invasive positioning robot system of femoral neck hollow screw implants based on x-ray error correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yunpeng; Xu, Ying; Hu, Lei; Guo, Na; Wang, Lifeng

    2017-01-01

    Aiming the high failure rate, the high radiation quantity and the poor positioning accuracy of femoral neck traditional surgery, this article develops a set of new positioning robot system of femoral neck hollow screw implants based on X-rays error correction, which bases on the study of x-rays perspective principle and the Motion Principle of 6 DOF(degree of freedom) series robot UR(Universal Robots). Compared with Computer Assisted Navigation System, this system owns better positioning accuracy and more simple operation. In addition, without extra Equipment of Visual Tracking, this system can reduce a lot of cost. During the surgery, Doctor can plan the operation path and the pose of mark needle according to the positive and lateral X-rays images of patients. Then they can calculate the pixel ratio according to the ratio of the actual length of mark line and the length on image. After that, they can calculate the amount of exercise of UR Robot according to the relative position between operation path and guide pin and the fixed relationship between guide pin and UR robot. Then, they can control UR to drive the positioning guide pin to the operation path. At this point, check the positioning guide pin and the planning path is coincident, if not, repeat the previous steps, until the positioning guide pin and the planning path coincide which will eventually complete the positioning operation. Moreover, to verify the positioning accuracy, this paper make an errors analysis aiming to thirty cases of the experimental model of bone. The result shows that the motion accuracy of the UR Robot is 0.15mm and the Integral error precision is within 0.8mm. To verify the clinical feasibility of this system, this article analysis on three cases of the clinical experiment. In the whole process of positioning, the X-rays irradiation time is 2-3s, the number of perspective is 3-5 and the whole positioning time is 7-10min. The result shows that this system can complete accurately

  15. Late Disassembly of Femoral Head and Neck of A Modular Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Parvej; Kumar, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Modular total hip arthroplasty system are now widely used, as these components increase the flexibility during primary and revision total hip arthoplasty. But this modularity itself associated with some risk of intraoperative and postoperative complications. Case Report: We report a case of late disassembly of a primary total arthroplasty in a 42 years old patient five years after the replacement surgery where the femoral head remained in the acetabular socket. Conclusion: Femoral head should be solidly impacted onto the stem and confirm that it has been assembled correctly before reduction. PMID:27299010

  16. Effect of bisphosphonate initiation at week 2 versus week 12 on short-term functional recovery after femoral neck fracture: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Unnanuntana, Aasis; Laohaprasitiporn, Panai; Jarusriwanna, Atthakorn

    2017-12-01

    The appropriate time to initiate bisphosphonate treatment after a fragility fracture has not yet been established. In this study, we found no significant differences in short-term functional recovery between femoral neck fracture patients who received bisphosphonate treatment at 2 versus 12 weeks after hemiarthroplasty.

  17. Effect of progressive high-impact exercise on femoral neck structural strength in postmenopausal women with mild knee osteoarthritis: a 12-month RCT.

    PubMed

    Multanen, J; Rantalainen, T; Kautiainen, H; Ahola, R; Jämsä, T; Nieminen, M T; Lammentausta, E; Häkkinen, A; Kiviranta, I; Heinonen, A

    2017-04-01

    It is uncertain whether subjects with mild knee osteoarthritis, and who may be at risk of osteoporosis, can exercise safely with the aim of improving hip bone strength. This RCT showed that participating in a high-impact exercise program improved femoral neck strength without any detrimental effects on knee cartilage composition. No previous studies have examined whether high-impact exercise can improve bone strength and articular cartilage quality in subjects with mild knee osteoarthritis. In this 12-month RCT, we assessed the effects of progressive high-impact exercise on femoral neck structural strength and biochemical composition of knee cartilage in postmenopausal women. Eighty postmenopausal women with mild knee radiographic osteoarthritis were randomly assigned into the exercise (n = 40) or control (n = 40) group. Femoral neck structural strength was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The knee cartilage region exposed to exercise loading was measured by the quantitative MRI techniques of T2 mapping and delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC). Also, an accelerometer-based body movement monitor was used to evaluate the total physical activity loading on the changes of femoral neck strength in all participants. Training effects on the outcome variables were estimated by the bootstrap analysis of covariance. A significant between-group difference in femoral neck bending strength in favor of the trainees was observed after the 12-month intervention (4.4%, p < 0.01). The change in femoral neck bending strength remained significant after adjusting for baseline value, age, height, and body mass (4.0%, p = 0.020). In all participants, the change in bending strength was associated with the total physical activity loading (r = 0.29, p = 0.012). The exercise participation had no effect on knee cartilage composition. The high-impact training increased femoral neck strength without having any harmful effect on knee cartilage in

  18. Factors associated with avascular necrosis of the femoral head and nonunion in patients younger than 65 years with displaced femoral neck fractures treated with reduction and internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Daniel; Melero, Patricio; Zylberberg, Alejandro; Salabarrieta, Julian; Urrutia, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures in patients younger than 65 years, and risk factors for AVN or nonunion have not been clearly delineated within this age range. To determine factors associated with avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN) and nonunion in patients younger than 65 years with displaced femoral neck fractures treated with reduction and internal fixation, we conducted a retrospective study of 29 displaced femoral neck fractures in 29 consecutive patients treated at a single institution. The influence of age, trauma energy, open reduction, and time from fracture to treatment on development of AVN and nonunion was evaluated. Patients who developed AVN were significantly older and suffered lower energy trauma than cases without AVN. No recorded variables were associated with nonunion. Logistic regression determined that only age was independently associated with AVN. Age was a good predictor for developing AVN, with a C statistics of 0.861, and a best cutoff determined at 53.5 years. Patients between 53.5 and 65 years presented a higher risk of AVN. A primary arthroplasty should be considered in this subgroup.

  19. Computer-assisted three-dimensional correlation between the femoral neck-shaft angle and the optimal entry point for antegrade nailing.

    PubMed

    Anastopoulos, George; Chissas, Dionisios; Dourountakis, Joseph; Ntagiopoulos, Panagiotis G; Magnisalis, Evaggelos; Asimakopoulos, Antonios; Xenakis, Theodore A

    2010-03-01

    Optimal entry point for antegrade femoral intramedullary nailing (IMN) remains controversial in the current medical literature. The definition of an ideal entry point for femoral IMN would implicate a tenseless introduction of the implant into the canal with anatomical alignment of the bone fragments. This study was undertaken in order to investigate possible existing relationships between the true 3D geometric parameters of the femur and the location of the optimum entry point. A sample population of 22 cadaveric femurs was used (mean age=51.09+/-14.82 years). Computed-tomography sections every 0.5mm for the entire length of femurs were produced. These sections were subsequently reconstructed to generate solid computer models of the external anatomy and medullary canal of each femur. Solid models of all femurs were subjected to a series of geometrical manipulations and computations using standard computer-aided-design tools. In the sagittal plane, the optimum entry point always lied a few millimeters behind the femoral neck axis (mean=3.5+/-1.5mm). In the coronal plane the optimum entry point lied at a location dependent on the femoral neck-shaft angle. Linear regression on the data showed that the optimal entry point is clearly correlated to the true 3D femoral neck-shaft angle (R(2)=0.7310) and the projected femoral neck-shaft angle (R(2)=0.6289). Anatomical parameters of the proximal femur, such as the varus-valgus angulation, are key factors in the determination of optimal entry point for nailing. The clinical relevance of the results is that in varus hips (neck-shaft angle neck-shaft angle between 120 degrees and 130 degrees , the optimal entry point lies just medially to the trochanter tip (at the piriformis fossa) and the use of stiff implants is safe. In hips with neck-shaft angle over 130 degrees the anatomical

  20. Increased risk of major depression in the three years following a femoral neck fracture--a national population-based follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Wen-Liang; Liou, Yi-Fan; Ke, Chih-Chi; Lee, Hua-Chin; Huang, Hui-Ling; Ciou, Li-Ping; Chou, Chu-Chung; Yang, Mei-Chueh; Ho, Shinn-Ying; Lin, Yan-Ren

    2014-01-01

    Femoral neck fracture is common in the elderly, and its impact has increased in aging societies. Comorbidities, poor levels of activity and pain may contribute to the development of depression, but these factors have not been well addressed. This study aims to investigate the frequency and risk of major depression after a femoral neck fracture using a nationwide population-based study. The Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database was used in this study. A total of 4,547 patients who were hospitalized for femoral neck fracture within 2003 to 2007 were recruited as a study group; 13,641 matched non-fracture participants were enrolled as a comparison group. Each patient was prospectively followed for 3 years to monitor the occurrence of major depression. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to compute the risk of major depression between members of the study and comparison group after adjusting for residence and socio-demographic characteristics. The most common physical comorbidities that were present after the fracture were also analyzed. The incidences of major depression were 1.2% (n = 55) and 0.7% (n = 95) in the study and comparison groups, respectively. The stratified Cox proportional analysis showed a covariate-adjusted hazard ratio of major depression among patients with femoral neck fracture that was 1.82 times greater (95% CI, 1.30-2.53) than that of the comparison group. Most major depressive episodes (34.5%) presented within the first 200 days following the fracture. In conclusion, patients with a femoral neck fracture are at an increased risk of subsequent major depression. Most importantly, major depressive episodes mainly occurred within the first 200 days following the fracture.

  1. Progression of a Fracture Site Impaction as a Prognostic Indicator of Impacted Femoral Neck Fracture Treated with Multiple Pinning

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Pil Whan; Shin, Young Ho; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Yoon, Kang Sup

    2012-01-01

    Background We evaluated the clinical and radiologic results of impacted femoral neck fractures treated with multiple pinning and determined the influence of the progression of impaction at the fracture site on clinical outcome. Methods There were 34 patients with a mean age of 65.5 years. The mean follow-up period was 3.4 years. Progression of fracture site impaction was measured using an articulo-trochanteric distance index and the percentage decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance index between follow-up intervals. The failure of treatment was clarified as non-union and avascular necrosis. Other characteristics of the patients, including mean waiting time for surgery, preoperative Singh index score, and body mass index, were also measured to evaluate the influence on the clinical outcome of surgery. Results There were 6 fractures which were not treated successfully (3 non-union, 8.8% and 3 avascular necrosis, 8.8%). The mean percentage decrease of the articulo-trochanteric distance index within the first 6 weeks after surgery was 4.5% in the successful group and 25.1% in the failure group (p < 0.001). There was also a significant mean percentage decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance index between 6 weeks and 3 months (p < 0.001). Conclusions Primary stabilization with Knowles pins for impacted femoral neck fractures had a reasonable clinical outcome with low morbidity. Despite a significant difference of a mean percentage decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance index between the successful group and the failure group, we could not verify it as a risk factor for failure of treatment because the odds ratio was not statistically significant. PMID:22379557

  2. The Timed Up and Go test is an early predictor of functional outcome after hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fracture.

    PubMed

    Laflamme, George Y; Rouleau, Dominique M; Leduc, Stéphane; Roy, Louis; Beaumont, Eric

    2012-07-03

    The ability to predict the long-term physical function and prognosis of hip fracture patients during the early postoperative period is essential for surgeons and physical therapists as well as for patients and their families. The purpose of this study was to determine whether early functional assessment correlated with and/or predicted long-term function after surgery to treat a displaced femoral neck fracture. Sixty-two patients undergoing hemiarthroplasty for a displaced femoral neck fracture were evaluated prospectively; a minimum follow-up of two years was required. Validated functional assessments, including the Lower Extremity Measure and the Timed Up and Go test, were utilized, and scores were analyzed with respect to patient baseline data. The functional level of patients decreased significantly after the injury, with the mean Lower Extremity Measure score decreasing from 87.7 to 62.4 and the need for a walking aid increasing from 36% to 54% at two years postoperatively (p < 0.05 for both). The Timed Up and Go test scores at four days and three weeks postoperatively were significantly higher in patients who needed a walking aid at two years compared with independently walking patients (p < 0.05). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of the Timed Up and Go test scores revealed that the optimal threshold for predicting the need for a walking aid at two years was fifty-eight seconds at four days postoperatively and twenty-six seconds at three weeks. Also, the need for a walking aid at two years was ninetyfold higher when the Timed Up and Go test score at three weeks postoperatively exceeded the twenty-six seconds threshold. The Timed Up and Go test was an early clinical indicator of future physical function in patients with a hip fracture treated with hemiarthroplasty. Innovative clinical approaches to anticipate future function will contribute to increasing the efficiency of overall management of this growing set of patients.

  3. Preoperative factors and early complications associated with hemiarthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Miller, Christopher P; Buerba, Rafael A; Leslie, Michael P

    2014-06-01

    Displaced femoral neck fractures are common injuries in the elderly individuals. There is controversy about the best treatment with regard to total hip arthroplasty (THA) versus hemiarthroplasty. This study uses the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) database to evaluate the preoperative risk factors associated with the decision to perform THA over hemiarthroplasty. We also evaluate the risk factors associated with postoperative complications after each procedure. Patients older than 50 years undergoing hemiarthroplasty or THA after fracture in the NSQIP database from 2007 to 2010 were compared to each other in terms of preoperative medical conditions, postoperative complications, and length of stay. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to adjust for preoperative risk factors for undergoing a THA versus a hemiarthroplasty and for complications after each procedure. In all, 783 patients underwent hemiarthroplasty and 419 underwent THA for fracture. Hemiarthroplasty patients had longer hospital stays. On multivariate logistic regression, the only significant predictor for having a THA after fracture over hemiarthroplasty was being aged 50 to 64 years. The patient characteristics/comorbidities that favored having a hemiarthroplasty were age >80 years, hemiplegia, being underweight, having a dependent functional status, being on dialysis, and having an early surgery. High body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, gender, and other comorbidities were not predictors of having one procedure over another. Disseminated cancer and diabetes were predictive of complications after THA while being overweight, obese I, or a smoker were protective. High ASA class and do-not-resuscitate status were significant predictors of complications after a hemiarthroplasty. This study identified clinical factors influencing surgeons toward performing either THA or hemiarthroplasty for elderly patients

  4. Effect of Once-Yearly Zoledronic Acid Five Milligrams on Fracture Risk and Change in Femoral Neck Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Eastell, Richard; Black, Dennis M.; Boonen, Steven; Adami, Silvano; Felsenberg, Dieter; Lippuner, Kurt; Cummings, Steven R.; Delmas, Pierre D.; Palermo, Lisa; Mesenbrink, Peter; Cauley, Jane A.

    2016-01-01

    Context In the Health Outcomes and Reduced Incidence with Zoledronic Acid Once Yearly – Pivotal Fracture Trial (HORIZON-PFT), zoledronic acid (ZOL) 5 mg significantly reduced fracture risk. Objective The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with greater efficacy during ZOL 5 mg treatment. Design, Setting, and Patients We conducted a subgroup analysis (preplanned and post hoc) of a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 36-month trial in 7765 women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Intervention A single infusion of ZOL 5 mg or placebo was administered at baseline, 12, and 24 months. Main Outcome Measures Primary endpoints were new vertebral fracture and hip fracture. Secondary endpoints were nonvertebral fracture and change in femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD). Baseline risk factor subgroups were age, BMD T-score and vertebral fracture status, total hip BMD, race, weight, geographical region, smoking, height loss, history of falls, physical activity, prior bisphosphonates, creatinine clearance, body mass index, and concomitant osteoporosis medications. Results Greater ZOL induced effects on vertebral fracture risk were seen with younger age (treatment-by-subgroup interaction, P =0.05), normal creatinine clearance (P =0.04), and body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2 (P = 0.02). There were no significant treatment–factor interactions for hip or nonvertebral fracture or for change in BMD. Conclusions ZOL appeared more effective in preventing vertebral fracture in younger women, overweight/obese women, and women with normal renal function. ZOL had similar effects irrespective of fracture risk factors or femoral neck BMD. PMID:19567517

  5. Usefulness of Urinoculture to Patients With Dementia and Femoral Neck Fracture at Admission to Hospital: Preliminary Results.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Nuño, Laura; Villamil, Carlos; González-Cuevas, Araceli; Martí, David; Capilla, Silvia; Vives, Maria José; Oncins, Xavier; Torner, Pere; Castellanos, Juan; Font-Vizcarra, Lluís

    2017-03-01

    While preoperative urinary tract infection (UTI) has the potential to cause bacteremia and postsurgical acute prosthetic joint infections (APJIs), the influence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) in these infections remains unclear. So the majority of guidelines not recommend the treatment of AB prior to the surgery. However, as patients with dementia usually cannot explain the symptoms of dysuria, the differential diagnosis between AB and UTI may be very difficult in this group of patients. The principal aim of the study was to compare the rate of positive urine culture at admission in patients with femoral neck fracture with and without dementia and secondarily try to assess the connection of positive urinoculture and postoperative acute gram-negative PJI. All patients with a femoral neck fracture underwent a urine culture on hospital admission and were prospectively recorded. Variables such as sex, age, institutionalization, dementia and other comorbidities, PJI rate, and in-hospital death were collected. The results of cultures were retrospectively revised. Patients who received postoperative antibiotics or had been diagnosed with UTI during hospital stay were excluded. Statistical comparisons between patients with and without dementia were performed using SPSS software version 17. A total of 148 patients were included (52 with dementia). The rate of positive urine culture was 32% (n = 16) in patients with dementia and 11.5% in patients without dementia (P = .003). Of these 16 patients with dementia and positive urine culture, 2 (12.5%) developed an acute gram-negative PJI, whereas there were no cases in the group without dementia (P = .011). The only difference between UTI and AB is the expression of symptoms by the patient. However, as patients with dementia have difficulties to explain UTI symptoms, some UTI may be underdiagnosed. Patients with dementia have a statistically higher rate of presurgical positive urine culture compared with patients without

  6. Progression of a fracture site impaction as a prognostic indicator of impacted femoral neck fracture treated with multiple pinning.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Pil Whan; Shin, Young Ho; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Yoon, Kang Sup; Kim, Hee Joong

    2012-03-01

    We evaluated the clinical and radiologic results of impacted femoral neck fractures treated with multiple pinning and determined the influence of the progression of impaction at the fracture site on clinical outcome. There were 34 patients with a mean age of 65.5 years. The mean follow-up period was 3.4 years. Progression of fracture site impaction was measured using an articulo-trochanteric distance index and the percentage decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance index between follow-up intervals. The failure of treatment was clarified as non-union and avascular necrosis. Other characteristics of the patients, including mean waiting time for surgery, preoperative Singh index score, and body mass index, were also measured to evaluate the influence on the clinical outcome of surgery. There were 6 fractures which were not treated successfully (3 non-union, 8.8% and 3 avascular necrosis, 8.8%). The mean percentage decrease of the articulo-trochanteric distance index within the first 6 weeks after surgery was 4.5% in the successful group and 25.1% in the failure group (p < 0.001). There was also a significant mean percentage decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance index between 6 weeks and 3 months (p < 0.001). Primary stabilization with Knowles pins for impacted femoral neck fractures had a reasonable clinical outcome with low morbidity. Despite a significant difference of a mean percentage decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance index between the successful group and the failure group, we could not verify it as a risk factor for failure of treatment because the odds ratio was not statistically significant.

  7. Functional integrative analysis of the human hip joint: the three-dimensional orientation of the acetabulum and its relation with the orientation of the femoral neck.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, Noémie; Baylac, Michel; Gagey, Olivier; Tardieu, Christine

    2014-04-01

    In humans, the hip joint occupies a central place in the locomotor system, as it plays an important role in body support and the transmission of the forces between the trunk and lower limbs. The study of the three-dimensional biomechanics of this joint has important implications for documenting the morphological changes associated with the acquisition of a habitual bipedal gait in humans. Functional integration at any joint has important implications in joint stability and performance. The aim of the study was to evaluate the functional integration at the human hip joint. Both the level of concordance between the three-dimensional axes of the acetabulum and the femoral neck in a bipedal posture, and patterns of covariation between these two axes were analysed. First, inter-individual variations were quantified and significant differences in the three-dimensional orientations of both the acetabulum and the femoral neck were detected. On a sample of 57 individuals, significant patterns of covariation were identified, however, the level of concordance between the axes of both the acetabulum and the femoral neck in a bipedal posture was lower than could be expected for a key joint such as the hip. Patterns of covariation were explored regarding the complex three-dimensional biomechanics of the full pelvic-femoral complex. Finally, we suggest that the lower degree of concordance observed at the human hip joint in a bipedal posture might be partly due to the phylogenetic history of the human species.

  8. Fixation of the fully hydroxyapatite-coated Corail stem implanted due to femoral neck fracture: 38 patients followed for 2 years with RSA and DEXA.

    PubMed

    Schewelov, Thord von; Ahlborg, Henrik; Sanzén, Lennart; Besjakov, Jack; Carlsson, Ake

    2012-04-01

    Today, dislocated femoral neck fractures are commonly treated with a cemented hip arthroplasty. However, cementing of the femoral component may lead to adverse effects and even death. Uncemented stems may lower these risks and hydroxyapatite (HA) coating may enhance integration, but prosthetic stability and clinical outcome in patients with osteoporotic bone have not been fully explored. We therefore studied fixation and clinical outcome in patients who had had a femoral neck fracture and who had received a fully HA-coated stem prosthesis. 50 patients with a dislocated femoral neck fracture were operated with the fully HA-coated Corail total or hemiarthroplasty. 38 patients, mean age 81 (70-96) years, were followed for 24 months with conventional radiographs, RSA, DEXA, and for clinical outcome. 31 of the 38 implants moved statistically significantly up to 3 months, mainly distally, mean 2.7 mm (max. 20 mm (SD 4.3)), and rotated into retroversion mean 3.3º (-1.8 to 17) (SD 4.3) and then appeared to stabilize. Distal stem migration was more pronounced if the stem was deemed to be too small. There was no correlation between BMD and stem migration. The migration did not result in any clinically adverse effects. The fully hydroxyapatite-coated Corail stem migrates during the first 3 months, but clinical outcome appears to be good, without any adverse events.

  9. The Application of Closed Reduction Internal Fixation and Iliac Bone Block Grafting in the Treatment of Acute Displaced Femoral Neck Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yanling; Zhang, Qi; Hou, Zhiyong; Pan, Jinshe; Zhang, Yingze

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the preliminary clinical and radiographic outcomes of acute displaced femoral neck fracture treated by closed reduction and internal fixation (CRIF) with free iliac bone block grafting with comparison to a routine protocol of CRIF without bone grafting. Methods From December 2008 to February 2010, 220 adult patients with acute displaced femoral neck fractures were enrolled in this study. In study group, there were 124 patients (57 males, 67 females) with a mean age of 44.8 years (range, 20-64 years). There were 70 transcervical fractures and 54 subcapital fractures. The patients were treated by CRIF and free iliac bone block grafting. The control group consisted of 96 adult patients (46 males, 50 females) with a mean age of 46.3 years (range, 23-64 years). There were 61 transcervical fractures and 35 subcapital fractures. The patients in control group were treated by CRIF without bone grafting. Results In study group, 112 patients were followed up for an average of 27.4 months (range, 24-34 months). All fractures healed within 5 months. However, 10 patients presented AVN of the femoral heads. The mean Harris score was 88.6 (range, 41-100). In control group, 68 patients were followed up for an average of 31.2 months (range, 24-42 months). The rates of AVN of the femoral head and fracture nonunion in control group were 26.5% (18/68) and 16.2% (11/68), respectively, significantly higher than those in study group (both P<0.05). The mean Harris score in control group was 83.8 (41–100), significantly lower than that in study group (P<0.05). Conclusion Acute displaced femoral neck fractures can be treated by CRIF and free iliac bone block grafting in a minimally invasive manner. This technique can guarantee uneventful fracture healing and significantly reduce the rate of femoral head osteonecrosis. PMID:24040414

  10. A displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with female athlete triad: A case report.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Shinichi; Arai, Yuji; Hara, Kunio; Tsuzihara, Takashi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2010-03-05

    This report presents a case of a displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with amenorrhea. Both reduction and internal fixation were performed early after the injury. At 24 months postoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy showed no positive signs of femoral head necrosis and bone union was confirmed on plain X-ray. A medical examination for the presence of the signs of the female athlete triad by checking weight, calorie intake and menstrual cycles is most important to prevent such stress fractures. Athletes as well as their coaches or parents therefore need to understand female athlete triad.

  11. New quantitative ultrasound techniques for bone analysis at the distal radius in hip fracture cases: differences between femoral neck and trochanteric fractures.

    PubMed

    Horii, Motoyuki; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sakai, Ryo; Sawada, Koshiro; Mikami, Yasuo; Toyama, Syogo; Ozaki, Etsuko; Kuriyama, Nagato; Kurokawa, Masao; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2017-01-01

    Ample evidence on etiological and pathological differences between femoral neck and trochanteric fracture cases suggests the possibility of individualized treatment. There are many issues related to areal bone mineral density and other quantitative computed tomography parameters of the proximal femur. Although osteoporosis is a systemic problem, little has been reported regarding differences in bone structural parameters, including bone mineral density, between them in regions other than the proximal femur. Participants were consecutive female patients >50 years of age admitted to the Saiseikai Suita Hospital (Osaka prefecture, Japan) for their first hip fracture between January 2012 and September 2014. Cortical thickness (CoTh, mm), volumetric trabecular bone mineral density (TBD, mg/cm(3)), and elastic modulus of trabecular bone (EMTb, GPa) were obtained as the new QUS parameters using the LD-100 system (Oyo Electric, Kyoto, Japan). The mean values of these parameters were compared between femoral neck and trochanteric fracture cases. In addition, correlations between age and each QUS parameter were investigated for each fracture type. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to examine the degree of effect each parameter on the fracture types. The area under the curve (AUC) for each parameter was compared to the AUC for age. There were 63 cases of femoral neck fracture (mean age, 78.2 years) and 37 cases of trochanteric fracture (mean age, 85.9 years). Mean TBD and EMTb were significantly higher for femoral neck fractures. There were significant negative correlations between QUS parameters and age for femoral neck fractures (P < 0.005). The regression lines for femoral neck fractures were above those for trochanteric fractures for TBD and EMTb. AUCs were 0.72 for age, and 0.61, 0.65, and 0.65 for CoTh, TBD, and EMTb, respectively. The new QUS parameters indicated that TR fracture cases were more osteoporotic than were FN fracture

  12. Case report: Pseudotumor associated with corrosion of a femoral component with a modular neck and a ceramic-on-polyethylene bearing.

    PubMed

    Messana, Joe; Adelani, Muyibat; Goodman, Stuart B

    2014-01-01

    Pseudotumor is a rare complication that can occur following hip arthroplasty. This complication may present with pain, swelling, and decreased function and may lead to bone and soft-tissue destruction. We report a case of pseudotumor formation resulting from corrosion of a modular neck in a hip replacement with a ceramic-on-polyethylene bearing. The patient underwent successful revision surgery using an extended trochanteric osteotomy, removal of the entire stem, and implantation of a new femoral stem and ceramic-polyethylene bearing without a modular neck.

  13. Prediction of Femoral Neck Strength in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus with Trabecular Bone Analysis and Tomosynthesis Images.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Masami; Aoki, Takatoshi; Okada, Yosuke; Mori, Hiroko; Kinoshita, Shunsuke; Hayashida, Yoshiko; Hajime, Maiko; Tanaka, Kenichi; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Korogi, Yukunori

    2016-12-01

    Purpose To determine trabecular bone analysis values by using tomosynthesis images in determining femoral neck strength in patients with diabetes mellitus and compare its parameters between vertebral compression fracture and nonfracture groups. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this study, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Forty-nine patients with diabetes mellitus were included. Within 1 week, patients underwent dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), tomosynthesis, and computed tomography (CT) covering the T10 vertebral body to the hip joints. The trabecular patterns of tomosynthesis images were extracted, and the total strut length, bone volume per tissue volume, and five textural features (homogeneity, entropy, correlation, contrast, and variance) were obtained as the indices of tomosynthesis images. Failure load of the femoral neck, which was determined with the CT-based finite-element method (FEM), was used as the reference standard for bone strength. A forward stepwise multiple regression analysis for evaluating the availability of the tomosynthesis image indices was performed. The bone mineral density (BMD) at DXA and tomosynthesis image indices were compared between the vertebral compression fracture (n = 16) and nonfracture groups (n = 33) according to Genant semiquantitative morphometry methods by using one-way analysis of variance. Results The combination of BMD with the bone volume per tissue volume at the principal tensile group and the correlation at the principal compressive group showed the highest correlation to the failure load at CT FEM, and the correlation (r(2) = 0.83) was higher than that between the failure load and the BMD alone (r(2) = 0.76; P < .001). The averages of the bone volume per tissue volume and entropy at the principal tensile group in the vertebral compression fracture group were lower than those in the nonfracture group (P = .017 and P = .029, respectively), but there was no

  14. Application of intraoperative limb-length measurement by a new osteotomy device in hemiarthroplasty for treating femoral neck fracture.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhanle; Yang, Lei; Su, Yanling; Yu, Xian; Hou, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yingze

    2017-05-15

    Limb length discrepancy is one of the most common complications after hip arthroplasty. We developed a device - intraoperative limb-length measurement and osteotomy device (ILMOD), and applied it to patients who were treated with hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fracture to improve limb length discrepancy by providing an accurate osteotomy during hemi-arthroplasty. Between April 2012 and October 2013, 65 patients were treated with hip hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fracture at our trauma center. 31 patients met the inclusion criteria and were randomly enrolled into two groups ILMOD group and control group. Hemiarthroplasty in this study was performed with cement fixation. Treatment-related measurements such as the operation time, attempts of osteotomy, and the volume of intra-operative blood loss were collected. In both groups, postoperative (1 month) radiologic analysis on anteroposterior weight-bearing pelvic view was performed to evaluate limb length discrepancy. The results showed significant improvement in limb length discrepancy in ILMOD group, and analysis of postoperative radiographs found the mean length difference is 2.1 ± 1.9 mm in ILMOD group compared to 8.8 ± 5.1 mm in control group (P < 0.0001). No complications associated with the use of the device were reported, and none of the patients complained of the discomfort related to limb-length discrepancy after surgery. The average intra-operative time was significantly longer in ILMOD group (84.9 ± 9.2 min) compared to that in control group (70.9 ± 10.2 min) (P = 0.0004). The ILMOD is an effective device that can be used easily for intraoperative limb length measurement and osteotomy during hemiarthroplasty. This method is applicable with Kocher-Langenbeck approach, and the technique could also be used in total hip arthroplasty. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-OOC-15005904 . Registered 30 Junuary 2015.

  15. Treatment of neglected femoral neck fractures using the modified dynamic hip screw with autogenous bone and bone morphogenetic protein-2 composite materials grafting

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Dasheng; Zuo, Shenjia; Li, Lin; Wang, Lei; Lian, Kejian

    2015-01-01

    Background: The neglected femoral neck fracture is one where there has been a delay of more than 30 days to seek medical help from the time of the original injury. Salvage procedures, such as osteotomy and other treatment options such as vascularized and nonvascularized bone grafts have high failure rates and arthroplasty procedures are not ideal, given the patient's young age and higher levels of activity. We designed a hollow bone graft dynamic hip screw (Hb-DHS) (modified DHS, Hb-DHS) for use in neglected femoral neck fractures. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of the modified dynamic hip screw (DHS) with autogenous bone and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) composite materials grafting for the treatment of the neglected femoral neck fractures. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out in twenty patients of neglected femoral neck fractures treated with the modified DHS with autogenous bone and BMP-2 composite materials grafting between July 2007 and February 2010. There were 14 men and 6 women with a mean age of 29.6 years (range 19–42 years). The mean time from injury to surgery was 9.7 weeks (range 6–16 weeks). The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, fracture healing time, Harris scoring for hip function and complications were recorded to evaluate treatment effects. Results: The mean operation time was 75.8 min (range 55–100 min) with mean intraoperative blood loss volume of 105 mL (range 70–220 mL). The mean time to union was 17 weeks (range 12–24 weeks). One patient did not achieve union, and two patients had avascular necrosis of the femoral head. This patient with nonunion underwent intertrochanteric osteotomy. In patients with avascular necrosis one required total hip arthroplasty, the other did not require intervention at the last followup. A total of 14 patients (70%) had excellent results, 2 (10%) had good, 1 (5%) had moderate and 3 (15%) had poor results. Conclusion: The modified DHS with autogenous

  16. Intra-operative femoral neck fracture during attempted dislocation of a reduced hemi-arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ling, Samuel Ka Kin; Ma, Chun Man; Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-05-01

    Fragility hip fractures are increasingly common and hemiarthroplasty is one of the standard treatments. Although a common surgery, it should be performed with great caution because of the poor premorbid and bone quality in this demographic. Intra-operative fractures can occur while attempting press fit of the femoral implant. However; vigilance often steps down once the implant is secured and the hip reduced. This case report reminds surgeons that a large amount of torque can be transmitted during intra-operative positioning, such as during an attempt of hip dislocation. This torque, in addition to the risk factor of osteoporotic bone, can result in iatrogenic fractures. Published literature regarding management of an intra-operative fracture while the prosthetic hip is still reduced is lacking. The authors propose that temporary prophylactic cerclage wiring is a prudent and safe procedure prior to hip dislocation.

  17. Cement augmentation of implants--no general cure in osteoporotic fracture treatment. A biomechanical study on non-displaced femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Hofmann-Fliri, Ladina; Nicolino, Tomas I; Barla, Jorge; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Richards, R Geoff; Blauth, Michael; Windolf, Markus

    2016-02-01

    Femoral neck fractures in the elderly are a common problem in orthopedics. Augmentation of screw fixation with bone cement can provide better stability of implants and lower the risk of secondary displacement. This study aimed to investigate whether cement augmentation of three cannulated screws in non-displaced femoral neck fractures could increase implant fixation. A femoral neck fracture was simulated in six paired human cadaveric femora and stabilized with three 7.3 mm cannulated screws. Pairs were divided into two groups: conventional instrumentation versus additional cement augmentation of screw tips with 2 ml TraumacemV+ each. Biomechanical testing was performed by applying cyclic axial load until failure. Failure cycles, axial head displacement, screw angle changes, telescoping and screw cut-out were evaluated. Failure (15 mm actuator displacement) occurred in the augmented group at 12,500 cycles (± 2,480) compared to 15,625 cycles (± 4,215) in the non-augmented group (p = 0.041). When comparing 3 mm vertical displacement of the head no significant difference (p = 0.72) was detected between the survival curves of the two groups. At 8,500 load-cycles (early onset failure) the augmented group demonstrated a change in screw angle of 2.85° (± 0.84) compared to 1.15° (± 0.93) in the non-augmented group (p = 0.013). The results showed no biomechanical advantage with respect to secondary displacement following augmentation of three cannulated screws in a non-displaced femoral neck fracture. Consequently, the indication for cement augmentation to enhance implant anchorage in osteoporotic bone has to be considered carefully taking into account fracture type, implant selection and biomechanical surrounding. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Three dimensional-CT evaluation of femoral neck anteversion, acetabular anteversion and combined anteversion in unilateral DDH in an early walking age group.

    PubMed

    Jia, JingYu; Li, LianYong; Zhang, LiJun; Zhao, Qun; Liu, XiJuan

    2012-01-01

    At present, the indications for femoral derotational osteotomy remain controversial due to the inconsistent findings in femoral neck anteversion in developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Moreover, combined anteversion is not assessed in unilateral DDH using three dimensional-CT. Therefore, the purposes of our study were to observe whether the femoral neck anteversion (FA), acetabular anteversion (AA) and combined anteversion (CA) on the dislocated hips were universally presented in unilateral DDH according to the classification system of Tönnis. Sixty-two patients with unilateral dislocation of hip were involved in the study, including 54 females and eight males with a mean age of 21.63 months (range, 18-48 months). The FA, AA and CA were measured and compared between the dislocated hips and the unaffected hips. Although no significant difference was observed in FA between the dislocated hips and the unaffected hips (P = 0.067, 0.132, respectively) in Tönnis II and III type, FA was obviously increased on the dislocated hips compared with the unaffected hips in Tönnis IV type. Increased AA on the dislocated hips was a universal finding in Tönnis II, III and IV types. Meanwhile, a wide safe range of CA from 24° to 62° was demonstrated on the unaffected hips. Femoral derotational osteotomy seems not to be necessary in Tönnis II and III types in unilateral DDH. Femoral derotational osteotomy should be considered in DDH, especially in Tönnis IV type, if the CA is still above 62° and the hip joints present instability in operation after abnormal acetabular anteversion, acetabular index and acetabular coverage of the femoral head are recovered to normal range through pelvic osteotomy.

  19. Risk of acetabular protrusion is low in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with bipolar hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures without rheumatoid change in hip joints.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yu; Mori, Naoko; Mori, Taketo; Nakamura, Satoshi; Ishizuka, Masato; Sano, Tokuhisa; Itoi, Eiji

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the radiological outcomes of bipolar hemiarthroplasty after displaced femoral neck fractures of non-arthritic hip joints in rheumatoid arthritis patients. We retrospectively investigated 25 hip joints in 23 rheumatoid arthritis patients who underwent bipolar hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fracture of non-arthritic hip joints. All patients were female with an average age of 69.8 years (range 51-83 years). Mean follow-up duration was 8.4 years (range 5-12 years). Radiographs taken immediately, 1 year after surgery and most recently, were collected for each case. Radiographic measurement of the migration distance of the outer-head prosthesis in the direction of vertical, horizontal and medial to Köhler's line was undertaken at 1 year after surgery and most recently. No patients had hip-related pain after surgery. No case indicated apparent central migration and >3-mm migration of the hemisphere in each direction. There was no significant change in migration distance between evaluation at 1 year after surgery and most recently. We conclude that risk of acetabular protrusion appears to be low in patients of rheumatoid arthritis treated with bipolar hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures of non-arthritic hip joints in the medium term.

  20. A Novel Guidewire Aiming Device to Improve the Accuracy of Guidewire Insertion in Femoral Neck Fracture Surgery Using Cannulated Screw Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Wenjing; Xu, Haitao; Xu, Peijun; Hu, Tu; An, Zhiquan; Zhang, Changqing; Sheng, Jiagen

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to improve the accuracy of guidewire insertion in the femoral neck fracture surgery using cannulated screw fixation. Material/Methods A novel aiming device was designed and manufactured. Between January 2010 and June 2012, 64 femoral neck fracture patients were included into the study. All 64 patients were divided into 2 groups randomly. The aiming device was used during the operation for patients in the experimental group, but not in the control group. Results There were no statistically significant differences in operative time or bleed volume between the groups (P>0.05). The frequency of guidewire drilling was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group (P<0.05). The angle between the first cannulated screw and the central axis of the femoral neck in coronal plane and sagittal plane, and the distance between the bottom cannulated screw and the medial calcar femorale rim, were significantly smaller in the experimental group than in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions The aiming device is simple in structure and easy to use. It could help surgeons to accurately insert cannulated screw guidewires. The aiming device is suitable for broad clinical use. PMID:27529374

  1. Costs of internal fixation and arthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures: a randomized study of 68 patients.

    PubMed

    Rogmark, Cecilia; Carlsson, Ake; Johnell, Olof; Sembo, Ingemar

    2003-06-01

    We included in a prospective, randomized study 68 patients aged 70 years or older, with displaced cervical hip fractures. The patients were randomized to internal fixation with hook-pins (36) or primary arthroplasty (32) (total or hemiarthroplasty due to their prefracture status) and followed for 2 years. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis, mental confusion and/or residence in an institution were excluded. The postoperative stay in hospital, rehabilitation wards or nursing homes were recorded as well as complications and the costs of surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the accumulated costs of each method, during the first 2 years after the fracture. In the internal fixation group, 15/36 were considered failures, as compared to 1/32 in the arthroplasty group. As regards primary treatment of the fracture, the durations of surgery and hospital stay were shorter after internal fixation, but the total need for hospitalization/institutionalization was somewhat longer in these patients. The mean 2-year cost for a patient with internal fixation was USD 21,000 and of one with primary arthroplasty USD 15,000. We conclude that primary arthroplasty is a cost-efficient treatment. Considering the very much higher failure rate after internal fixation--leading to increased suffering for these patients--primary arthroplasty stands out as the best method for displaced fractures of the femoral neck.

  2. [Neurological manifestations of an osteoid osteoma located on the femoral neck in an 8-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Cabasson, S; Yvert, M; Pillet, P; Pédespan, J-M

    2012-11-01

    We report the case of an 8-year-old boy, suffering from nocturnal pain localized on the left groin and presenting as a limp over several months. Examination revealed diminished strength of the left leg, atrophy of the thigh and calf, and a diminished deep tendon reflex. The pain could be intense and the patient had found an analgesic position by pushing on his groin or by flexing his thigh on the pelvis. He could no longer run. He was unsuccessfully treated with carbamazepine and gabapentin. His evaluation included a negative abdominal ultrasound study and a normal spine and cerebral MRI. Electromyography was unremarkable. He finally underwent an MRI of the pelvis that revealed a hyperintense T2 signal of the left femoral neck; CT confirmed the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma. Radiofrequency ablation of the lesion was performed. His clinical state dramatically improved after the procedure. His walk is normal, without any limping. Deep tendon reflexes are normal, and he only presents residual pain. Physicians should be aware that osteoid osteoma may take the form of a slowly evolving neuropathy. We review the literature on this underestimated condition. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  3. Hypovitaminosis D and Other Risk Factors of Femoral Neck Fracture in South Indian Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Selvan, Sivan Arul; Asha, Hesarghatta Shyamasunder; Thomas, Nihal; Venkatesh,, Krishnan; Oommen, Anil Thomas; Mathai, Thomas; Seshadri, MandalamSubramanian

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-communicable diseases like hip fractures are a significant problem in a developing country like India. The risk factors for hip fractures vary according to local practices and the availability of preventive health care delivery systems. There is paucity of data on risk factors for hip fracture in the south Indian population. Aim This study was undertaken to assess risk factors associated with femoral neck (FN) fracture in South Indian postmenopausal women along with subsequent one year mortality. Materials and Methods One hundred four postmenopausal women with FN fracture and 104 age and BMI matched controls were included. Sedative use, visual impairment and other relevant risk factors were assessed. Bone biochemistry and Bone Mineral Density (BMD) were evaluated. A telephonic interview was done at the end of one year to ascertain the well-being. Results Sedative use, visual impairment, low FN BMD and vitamin-D deficiency (<20 ng/ml) were seen more in fracture subjects compared to controls (p≤0.05). At the end of one year, 20% of the fracture subjects and 5% of the controls had died (p=0.001). Conclusion Risk factors identified in our study are potentially correctable, and needs special attention in an Indian context to prevent hip fractures. PMID:26266149

  4. Femoral head and neck excision in cats: medium- to long-term functional outcome in 18 cats.

    PubMed

    Yap, Fui W; Dunn, Andrew L; Garcia-Fernandez, Paloma Maria; Brown, Gordon; Allan, Ross M; Calvo, Ignacio

    2015-08-01

    To assess the medium- to long-term functional outcome of cats after femoral head and neck excision (FHNE) using an owner-completed questionnaire. Cats that had FHNE and were free of other orthopaedic or medical conditions that could affect their mobility, other than the studied coxofemoral joint(s), were included. A specific owner-completed questionnaire was used at a minimum of 4 months postoperatively. The questionnaire assessed the ability of the cats to perform normal feline activities, change of demeanour or behaviour, the necessity for long-term analgesia and the time taken to resume normal activities. Eighteen cats had undergone uni- or bilateral FHNE and met the inclusion criteria. All but one cat could perform normal feline activities without or with slight difficulty at follow-up. The aforementioned cat had notable, persistent difficulty in climbing. The majority of the cats took between 1 and 2 months to resume normal activity. No change in demeanour or behaviour was noted in any of the cats and none of the cats required long-term analgesia. Based on the owner-completed questionnaire, cats have good-to-excellent medium- to long-term functional outcome after adequately performed FHNE. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  5. Do post-operative changes of neck-shaft angle and femoral component anteversion have an effect on clinical outcome following uncemented total hip arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Müller, M; Abdel, M P; Wassilew, G I; Duda, G; Perka, C

    2015-12-01

    The accurate reconstruction of hip anatomy and biomechanics is thought to be important in achieveing good clinical outcomes following total hip arthroplasty (THA). To this end some newer hip designs have introduced further modularity into the design of the femoral component such that neck-shaft angle and anteversion, which can be adjusted intra-operatively. The clinical effect of this increased modularity is unknown. We have investigated the changes in these anatomical parameters following conventional THA with a prosthesis of predetermined neck-shaft angle and assessed the effect of changes in the hip anatomy on clinical outcomes. In total, 44 patients (mean age 65.3 years (standard deviation (SD) 7); 17 male/27 female; mean body mass index 26.9 (kg/m²) (SD 3.1)) underwent a pre- and post-operative three-dimensional CT scanning of the hip. The pre- and post-operative neck-shaft angle, offset, hip centre of rotation, femoral anteversion, and stem alignment were measured. Additionally, a functional assessment and pain score were evaluated before surgery and at one year post-operatively and related to the post-operative anatomical changes. The mean pre-operative neck-shaft angle was significantly increased by 2.8° from 128° (SD 6.2; 119° to 147°) to 131° (SD 2.1; 127° to 136°) (p = 0.009). The mean pre-operative anteversion was 24.9° (SD 8; 7.9 to 39.1) and reduced to 7.4° (SD 7.3; -11.6° to 25.9°) post-operatively (p < 0.001). The post-operative changes had no influence on function and pain. Using a standard uncemented femoral component, high pre- and post-operative variability of femoral anteversion and neck-shaft angles was found with a significant decrease of the post-operative anteversion and slight increase of the neck-shaft angles, but without any impact on clinical outcome.

  6. Automated 3D quantitative assessment and measurement of alpha angles from the femoral head-neck junction using MR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Ying; Fripp, Jurgen; Chandra, Shekhar S.; Walker, Duncan; Crozier, Stuart; Engstrom, Craig

    2015-10-01

    To develop an automated approach for 3D quantitative assessment and measurement of alpha angles from the femoral head-neck (FHN) junction using bone models derived from magnetic resonance (MR) images of the hip joint. Bilateral MR images of the hip joints were acquired from 30 male volunteers (healthy active individuals and high-performance athletes, aged 18-49 years) using a water-excited 3D dual echo steady state (DESS) sequence. In a subset of these subjects (18 water-polo players), additional True Fast Imaging with Steady-state Precession (TrueFISP) images were acquired from the right hip joint. For both MR image sets, an active shape model based algorithm was used to generate automated 3D bone reconstructions of the proximal femur. Subsequently, a local coordinate system of the femur was constructed to compute a 2D shape map to project femoral head sphericity for calculation of alpha angles around the FHN junction. To evaluate automated alpha angle measures, manual analyses were performed on anterosuperior and anterior radial MR slices from the FHN junction that were automatically reformatted using the constructed coordinate system. High intra- and inter-rater reliability (intra-class correlation coefficients  >  0.95) was found for manual alpha angle measurements from the auto-extracted anterosuperior and anterior radial slices. Strong correlations were observed between manual and automatic measures of alpha angles for anterosuperior (r  =  0.84) and anterior (r  =  0.92) FHN positions. For matched DESS and TrueFISP images, there were no significant differences between automated alpha angle measures obtained from the upper anterior quadrant of the FHN junction (two-way repeated measures ANOVA, F  <  0.01, p  =  0.98). Our automatic 3D method analysed MR images of the hip joints to generate alpha angle measures around the FHN junction circumference with very good reliability and reproducibility. This work has the

  7. Comparison of bone tissue trace-element concentrations and mineral density in osteoporotic femoral neck fractures and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Karaaslan, Fatih; Mutlu, Mahmut; Mermerkaya, Musa Uğur; Karaoğlu, Sinan; Saçmaci, Şerife; Kartal, Şenol

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role of trace elements in osteoporosis by comparing the trace-element concentrations in bone and the radiographic bone density and bone mineral density (BMD) of patients with osteoporotic femur fractures and osteoarthritis. The study enrolled 30 patients operated on for proximal femoral fractures after falls, and another 30 patients undergoing hip arthroplasty at the same center for hip osteoarthritis. Bone samples were obtained during the surgical procedures. The density of the bone samples was assessed using computed tomography and the Hounsfield scale. The levels of Ca(II), Mg(II), and other trace elements in the bone samples were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In addition, BMD, Z-scores, and T-scores were measured in the unaffected hips of all patients using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Magnesium (1,908 ± 507 versus 2,540 ± 435, P<0.05), calcium (10.4 ± 3.5 versus 13.9 ± 3.7, P<0.05), and zinc (2,342 ± 1,252 versus 3,145 ± 1,604, P<0.05) μg g(-1), levels were significantly lower in the bone samples in the fracture group. The groups did not differ in the other biochemical parameters. All dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry findings were significantly worse in the fracture group than in the osteoarthritis group. However, the groups did not differ in femoral neck density assessed radiologically using the Hounsfield scale. The following parameters were negatively correlated with age: magnesium, r=-0.436, P<0.001; calcium, r=-0.331, P=0.01; T-score, r=-0.381, P=0.003; Z-score, r=-0.267, P=0.043; and BMD, r=-0.365, P=0.004. Ca(II), Mg(II), and Zn(II) appear to play important roles in bone breakdown/synthesis. Further studies of the roles of trace elements in the etiology and treatment of osteoporosis are warranted. We found decreased bone levels of Ca, Mg, and Zn in patients with osteoporotic fractures compared to subjects with osteoarthritis.

  8. Comparison of bone tissue trace-element concentrations and mineral density in osteoporotic femoral neck fractures and osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Karaaslan, Fatih; Mutlu, Mahmut; Mermerkaya, Musa Uğur; Karaoğlu, Sinan; Saçmaci, Şerife; Kartal, Şenol

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the role of trace elements in osteoporosis by comparing the trace-element concentrations in bone and the radiographic bone density and bone mineral density (BMD) of patients with osteoporotic femur fractures and osteoarthritis. Patients and methods The study enrolled 30 patients operated on for proximal femoral fractures after falls, and another 30 patients undergoing hip arthroplasty at the same center for hip osteoarthritis. Bone samples were obtained during the surgical procedures. The density of the bone samples was assessed using computed tomography and the Hounsfield scale. The levels of Ca(II), Mg(II), and other trace elements in the bone samples were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In addition, BMD, Z-scores, and T-scores were measured in the unaffected hips of all patients using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Magnesium (1,908±507 versus 2,540±435, P<0.05), calcium (10.4±3.5 versus 13.9±3.7, P<0.05), and zinc (2,342±1,252 versus 3,145±1,604, P<0.05) μg g−1, levels were significantly lower in the bone samples in the fracture group. The groups did not differ in the other biochemical parameters. All dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry findings were significantly worse in the fracture group than in the osteoarthritis group. However, the groups did not differ in femoral neck density assessed radiologically using the Hounsfield scale. The following parameters were negatively correlated with age: magnesium, r=−0.436, P<0.001; calcium, r=−0.331, P=0.01; T-score, r=−0.381, P=0.003; Z-score, r=−0.267, P=0.043; and BMD, r=−0.365, P=0.004. Conclusion Ca(II), Mg(II), and Zn(II) appear to play important roles in bone breakdown/synthesis. Further studies of the roles of trace elements in the etiology and treatment of osteoporosis are warranted. We found decreased bone levels of Ca, Mg, and Zn in patients with osteoporotic fractures compared to

  9. Femoral neck-shaft angle in humans: variation relating to climate, clothing, lifestyle, sex, age and side

    PubMed Central

    Gilligan, Ian; Chandraphak, Supichya; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2013-01-01

    The femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) varies among modern humans but measurement problems and sampling limitations have precluded the identification of factors contributing to its variation at the population level. Potential sources of variation include sex, age, side (left or right), regional differences in body shape due to climatic adaptation, and the effects of habitual activity patterns (e.g. mobile and sedentary lifestyles and foraging, agricultural, and urban economies). In this study we addressed these issues, using consistent methods to assemble a global NSA database comprising over 8000 femora representing 100 human groups. Results from the analyses show an average NSA for modern humans of 127° (markedly lower than the accepted value of 135°); there is no sex difference, no age-related change in adults, but possibly a small lateral difference which could be due to right leg dominance. Climatic trends consistent with principles based on Bergmann's rule are evident at the global and continental levels, with the NSA varying in relation to other body shape indices: median NSA, for instance, is higher in warmer regions, notably in the Pacific (130°), whereas lower values (associated with a more stocky body build) are found in regions where ancestral populations were exposed to colder conditions, in Europe (126°) and the Americas (125°). There is a modest trend towards increasing NSA with the economic transitions from forager to agricultural and urban lifestyles and, to a lesser extent, from a mobile to a sedentary existence. However, the main trend associated with these transitions is a progressive narrowing in the range of variation in the NSA, which may be attributable to thermal insulation provided by improved cultural buffering from climate, particularly clothing. PMID:23781912

  10. The consistency between measurements of the femoral neck anteversion angle in DDH on three-dimensional CT and MRI.

    PubMed

    Mao, Cunhua; Liang, Yanchen; Ding, Chengzong; Guo, Lingfei; Wang, Yanbing; Zeng, Qingjuan; Wang, Guangbin

    2016-06-01

    Three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) has been regarded by some investigators as the gold standard for measurements of the femoral neck anteversion angle (FNA) in developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), although a simple and reliable imaging method using a non-ionizing technique is needed. To determine the consistency between measurements of the FNA in DDH using 3D CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to estimate the precision, reliability, and reproducibility of MRI for the measurement of the FNA and assess whether MRI could replace 3D CT. 3D CT and MRI were used to measure the FNA in 22 patients, including 18 girls and four boys, with a mean age of 3 years (age range, 1-7 years). All of the measurements were performed independently by two radiologists at different times. This exercise was repeated 2 weeks later by one of the radiologists. High consistency was found between the MRI and 3D CT measurements (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] of 0.906, P < 0.05). The mean inter-observer and intra-observer agreements were high for MRI (ICC = 0.948 and 0.964, respectively, P < 0.05 for both) and for 3D CT (ICC = 0.942 and 0.966, respectively, P < 0.05 for both). Compared with 3D CT, MRI provided a precise, reliable and reproducible method of measuring the FNA in DDH. MRI is recommended as an appropriate technique for measurement of the FNA in DDH, and this approach could replace 3D CT because it delivers no ionizing radiation and offers a better display of soft tissue pathological changes. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  11. Glutamine Repeat Variants in Human RUNX2 Associated with Decreased Femoral Neck BMD, Broadband Ultrasound Attenuation and Target Gene Transactivation

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Nigel A.; Stephens, Alexandre A.; Osato, Motomi; Polly, Patsie; Tan, Timothy C.; Yamashita, Namiko; Doecke, James D.; Pasco, Julie; Fozzard, Nicolette; Jones, Graeme; Ralston, Stuart H.; Prince, Richard L.; Nicholson, Geoff C.

    2012-01-01

    RUNX2 is an essential transcription factor required for skeletal development and cartilage formation. Haploinsufficiency of RUNX2 leads to cleidocranial displaysia (CCD) a skeletal disorder characterised by gross dysgenesis of bones particularly those derived from intramembranous bone formation. A notable feature of the RUNX2 protein is the polyglutamine and polyalanine (23Q/17A) domain coded by a repeat sequence. Since none of the known mutations causing CCD characterised to date map in the glutamine repeat region, we hypothesised that Q-repeat mutations may be related to a more subtle bone phenotype. We screened subjects derived from four normal populations for Q-repeat variants. A total of 22 subjects were identified who were heterozygous for a wild type allele and a Q-repeat variant allele: (15Q, 16Q, 18Q and 30Q). Although not every subject had data for all measures, Q-repeat variants had a significant deficit in BMD with an average decrease of 0.7SD measured over 12 BMD-related parameters (p = 0.005). Femoral neck BMD was measured in all subjects (−0.6SD, p = 0.0007). The transactivation function of RUNX2 was determined for 16Q and 30Q alleles using a reporter gene assay. 16Q and 30Q alleles displayed significantly lower transactivation function compared to wild type (23Q). Our analysis has identified novel Q-repeat mutations that occur at a collective frequency of about 0.4%. These mutations significantly alter BMD and display impaired transactivation function, introducing a new class of functionally relevant RUNX2 mutants. PMID:22912713

  12. Femoral neck-shaft angle in humans: variation relating to climate, clothing, lifestyle, sex, age and side.

    PubMed

    Gilligan, Ian; Chandraphak, Supichya; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2013-08-01

    The femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) varies among modern humans but measurement problems and sampling limitations have precluded the identification of factors contributing to its variation at the population level. Potential sources of variation include sex, age, side (left or right), regional differences in body shape due to climatic adaptation, and the effects of habitual activity patterns (e.g. mobile and sedentary lifestyles and foraging, agricultural, and urban economies). In this study we addressed these issues, using consistent methods to assemble a global NSA database comprising over 8000 femora representing 100 human groups. Results from the analyses show an average NSA for modern humans of 127° (markedly lower than the accepted value of 135°); there is no sex difference, no age-related change in adults, but possibly a small lateral difference which could be due to right leg dominance. Climatic trends consistent with principles based on Bergmann's rule are evident at the global and continental levels, with the NSA varying in relation to other body shape indices: median NSA, for instance, is higher in warmer regions, notably in the Pacific (130°), whereas lower values (associated with a more stocky body build) are found in regions where ancestral populations were exposed to colder conditions, in Europe (126°) and the Americas (125°). There is a modest trend towards increasing NSA with the economic transitions from forager to agricultural and urban lifestyles and, to a lesser extent, from a mobile to a sedentary existence. However, the main trend associated with these transitions is a progressive narrowing in the range of variation in the NSA, which may be attributable to thermal insulation provided by improved cultural buffering from climate, particularly clothing.

  13. The suitability of an uncemented hydroxyapatite coated (HAC) hip hemiarthroplasty stem for intra-capsular femoral neck fractures in osteoporotic elderly patients: the Metaphyseal-Diaphyseal Index, a solution to preventing intra-operative periprosthetic fracture.

    PubMed

    Chana, Rishi; Mansouri, Reza; Jack, Chris; Edwards, Max R; Singh, Ravi; Keller, Carmel; Khan, Farid

    2011-11-18

    This study will seek to identify a measurable radiographic index, the Metaphyseal-Diaphyseal Index (MDI) score to determine whether intra-operative fracture in osteoporotic bone can be predicted.A 5 year prospective cohort of 560 consecutive patients, undergoing hemiarthroplasty (cemented or uncemented), was evaluated. A nested case-control study to determine risk factors affecting intra-operative fracture was carried out. The Vancouver Classification was used to classify periprosthetic fracture. The MDI score was calculated using radiographs from the uncemented group. As a control (gold standard), Yeung et al's Canal Bone Ratio (CBR) score was also calculated. From this, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was formulated for both scores and area under the curve (AUC) compared. Intra and inter-observer correlations were determined. Cost analysis was also worked out for adverse outcomes. Four hundred and seven uncemented and one hundred and fifty-three cemented stems were implanted. The use of uncemented implants was the main risk factor for intra-operative periprosthetic fracture. Sixty-two periprosthetic fractures occurred in the uncemented group (15.2%), nine occurred in the cemented group (5.9%), P < 0.001. The revision rate for sustaining a periprosthetic fracture (uncemented group) was 17.7%, P < 0.001 and 90 day mortality 19.7%, P < 0.03. MDI's AUC was 0.985 compared to CBR's 0.948, P < 0.001. The MDI score cut-off to predict fracture was 21, sensitivity 98.3%, specificity 99.8%, positive predictive value 90.5% and negative predictive value 98%. Multivariate regression analysis ruled out any other confounding factors as being significant. The intra and inter-observer Pearson correlation scores were r = 0.99, P < 0.001. JRI uncemented hemiarthroplasty has a significantly higher intra-operative fracture rate. We recommend cemented arthroplasty for hip fractures. We propose a radiographic system that may allow surgeons to select patients who are good candidates for uncemented arthroplasty, but it needs prospective validation.

  14. The suitability of an uncemented hydroxyapatite coated (HAC) hip hemiarthroplasty stem for intra-capsular femoral neck fractures in osteoporotic elderly patients: the Metaphyseal-Diaphyseal index, a solution to preventing intra-operative periprosthetic fracture

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This study will seek to identify a measurable radiographic index, the Metaphyseal-Diaphyseal Index (MDI) score to determine whether intra-operative fracture in osteoporotic bone can be predicted. A 5 year prospective cohort of 560 consecutive patients, undergoing hemiarthroplasty (cemented or uncemented), was evaluated. A nested case-control study to determine risk factors affecting intra-operative fracture was carried out. The Vancouver Classification was used to classify periprosthetic fracture. The MDI score was calculated using radiographs from the uncemented group. As a control (gold standard), Yeung et al's Canal Bone Ratio (CBR) score was also calculated. From this, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was formulated for both scores and area under the curve (AUC) compared. Intra and inter-observer correlations were determined. Cost analysis was also worked out for adverse outcomes. Four hundred and seven uncemented and one hundred and fifty-three cemented stems were implanted. The use of uncemented implants was the main risk factor for intra-operative periprosthetic fracture. Sixty-two periprosthetic fractures occurred in the uncemented group (15.2%), nine occurred in the cemented group (5.9%), P < 0.001. The revision rate for sustaining a periprosthetic fracture (uncemented group) was 17.7%, P < 0.001 and 90 day mortality 19.7%, P < 0.03. MDI's AUC was 0.985 compared to CBR's 0.948, P < 0.001. The MDI score cut-off to predict fracture was 21, sensitivity 98.3%, specificity 99.8%, positive predictive value 90.5% and negative predictive value 98%. Multivariate regression analysis ruled out any other confounding factors as being significant. The intra and inter-observer Pearson correlation scores were r = 0.99, P < 0.001. JRI uncemented hemiarthroplasty has a significantly higher intra-operative fracture rate. We recommend cemented arthroplasty for hip fractures. We propose a radiographic system that may allow surgeons to select patients who are good candidates for uncemented arthroplasty, but it needs prospective validation. PMID:22099169

  15. Diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy assessment of cancellous bone quality in femoral neck of healthy, osteopenic and osteoporotic subjects at 3T: Preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Manenti, Guglielmo; Capuani, Silvia; Fanucci, Ezio; Assako, Elie Parfait; Masala, Salvatore; Sorge, Roberto; Iundusi, Riccardo; Tarantino, Umberto; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2013-07-01

    We assessed the potential of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in combination with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), in cancellous bone quality evaluation of the femoral neck in postmenopausal women. DTI allows for non-invasive microarchitectural characterization of heterogeneous tissue. In this work we hypothesized that DTI parameters mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of bone marrow water, can provide information about microstructural changes that occur with the development of osteoporosis disease. Because osteoporosis is associated with increased bone marrow fat content, which in principal can alter DTI parameters, the goal of this study was to examine the potential of MD and FA, in combination with bone marrow fat fraction (FF), to discriminate between healthy, osteopenic and osteoporotic subjects, classified according to DXA criteria. Forty postmenopausal women (mean age, 68.7 years; range 52-81 years), underwent a Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examination in femoral neck, to be classified as healthy (n=12), osteopenic (n=14) and osteoporotic (n=14) subjects. 1H-MRS and DTI (with b value=2500 s/mm2) of femoral neck were obtained in each subject at 3T. The study protocol was approved by local Ethics Committee. MD, FA, FF and MD/FF, FA/FF were obtained and compared among the three bone-density groups. One-way ANOVA with multiple comparisons Bonferroni test and Pearson correlation analysis were applied. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was also performed. Reproducibility of DTI measures was satisfactory. CV was approximately 2%-3% for MD and 4%-5% for FA measurements. Moreover, no significant difference was found in both MD and FA measurements between two separate sessions (median 34 days apart) comprised of six healthy volunteers. FF was able to discriminate between healthy and osteoporotic subjects only. Conversely MD and FA were able to discriminate healthy from osteopenic and healthy from

  16. A method for the measurement of dispersion curves of circumferential guided waves radiating from curved shells: experimental validation and application to a femoral neck mimicking phantom.

    PubMed

    Nauleau, Pierre; Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel; Chekroun, Mathieu; Cassereau, Didier; Laugier, Pascal; Prada, Claire; Grimal, Quentin

    2016-07-07

    Our long-term goal is to develop an ultrasonic method to characterize the thickness, stiffness and porosity of the cortical shell of the femoral neck, which could enhance hip fracture risk prediction. To this purpose, we proposed to adapt a technique based on the measurement of guided waves. We previously evidenced the feasibility of measuring circumferential guided waves in a bone-mimicking phantom of a circular cross-section of even thickness. The goal of this study is to investigate the impact of the complex geometry of the femoral neck on the measurement of guided waves. Two phantoms of an elliptical cross-section and one phantom of a realistic cross-section were investigated. A 128-element array was used to record the inter-element response matrix of these waveguides. This experiment was simulated using a custom-made hybrid code. The response matrices were analyzed using a technique based on the physics of wave propagation. This method yields portions of dispersion curves of the waveguides which were compared to reference dispersion curves. For the elliptical phantoms, three portions of dispersion curves were determined with a good agreement between experiment, simulation and theory. The method was thus validated. The characteristic dimensions of the shell were found to influence the identification of the circumferential wave signals. The method was then applied to the signals backscattered by the superior half of constant thickness of the realistic phantom. A cut-off frequency and some portions of modes were measured, with a good agreement with the theoretical curves of a plate waveguide. We also observed that the method cannot be applied directly to the signals backscattered by the lower half of varying thicknesses of the phantom. The proposed approach could then be considered to evaluate the properties of the superior part of the femoral neck, which is known to be a clinically relevant site.

  17. A method for the measurement of dispersion curves of circumferential guided waves radiating from curved shells: experimental validation and application to a femoral neck mimicking phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauleau, Pierre; Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel; Chekroun, Mathieu; Cassereau, Didier; Laugier, Pascal; Prada, Claire; Grimal, Quentin

    2016-07-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop an ultrasonic method to characterize the thickness, stiffness and porosity of the cortical shell of the femoral neck, which could enhance hip fracture risk prediction. To this purpose, we proposed to adapt a technique based on the measurement of guided waves. We previously evidenced the feasibility of measuring circumferential guided waves in a bone-mimicking phantom of a circular cross-section of even thickness. The goal of this study is to investigate the impact of the complex geometry of the femoral neck on the measurement of guided waves. Two phantoms of an elliptical cross-section and one phantom of a realistic cross-section were investigated. A 128-element array was used to record the inter-element response matrix of these waveguides. This experiment was simulated using a custom-made hybrid code. The response matrices were analyzed using a technique based on the physics of wave propagation. This method yields portions of dispersion curves of the waveguides which were compared to reference dispersion curves. For the elliptical phantoms, three portions of dispersion curves were determined with a good agreement between experiment, simulation and theory. The method was thus validated. The characteristic dimensions of the shell were found to influence the identification of the circumferential wave signals. The method was then applied to the signals backscattered by the superior half of constant thickness of the realistic phantom. A cut-off frequency and some portions of modes were measured, with a good agreement with the theoretical curves of a plate waveguide. We also observed that the method cannot be applied directly to the signals backscattered by the lower half of varying thicknesses of the phantom. The proposed approach could then be considered to evaluate the properties of the superior part of the femoral neck, which is known to be a clinically relevant site.

  18. Risk factors for osteoporosis are common in young and middle-aged patients with femoral neck fractures regardless of trauma mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose There have been few prospective studies examining young and middle-aged patients with hip fracture. We therefore investigated background data, risk factors, and the trauma mechanism in young and middle-aged patients with femoral neck fracture. Patients and methods 185 patients, 27 young (20–49 years old) and 158 middle-aged (50–69 years old) were prospectively included in a multicenter study lasting 3 years. Background data and risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture were obtained, and the type of injury was classified as low-energy trauma, high-energy trauma, or sports injury. Results In the young age group, the fracture occurred because of low-energy trauma in two-fifths of patients and because of sport injury in two-fifths of patients. The rest occurred because of high-energy trauma. The corresponding proportions for the middle-aged group were four-fifths, one tenth, and one tenth (p < 0.001). There was a higher proportion of men (19/27) in the young group than in the middle-aged group (69/158) (p = 0.001). One fifth of the young patients were smokers as compared to two-fifths in the middle-age group (p = 0.04). One quarter of the patients reported high-volume alcohol drinking, with no difference between the two groups. Furthermore, three-quarters of the young patients and four-fifths of the middle-aged patients had one or more risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture. Interpretation A minority of patients in each age group had high-energy trauma as the cause of their femoral neck fracture. Lifestyle factors and other non-trauma-related risk factors appear to have been important contributors to the occurrence of femoral neck fracture in both age groups. PMID:23343373

  19. The Recent Prevalence of Osteoporosis and Low Bone Mass in the United States Based on Bone Mineral Density at the Femoral Neck or Lumbar Spine1

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Nicole C; Looker, Anne C; Saag, Kenneth G; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Delzell, Elizabeth S; Randall, Susan; Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2016-01-01

    The goal of our study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass based on bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine in adults 50 years and older in the United States (US). We applied prevalence estimates of osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femoral neck or lumbar spine (adjusted by age, sex, and race/ethnicity to the 2010 Census) for the non-institutionalized population age 50 years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010 to 2010 US Census population counts to determine the total number of older US residents with osteoporosis and low bone mass. There were over 99 million adults 50 years and older in the US in 2010. Based on an overall 10.3% prevalence of osteoporosis, we estimated that in 2010 10.2 million older adults had osteoporosis. The overall low bone mass prevalence was 43.9%, from which we estimated that 43.4 million older adults had low bone mass. We estimated that 7.7 million non-Hispanic White, 0.5 million non-Hispanic Black, and 0.6 million Mexican American adults had osteoporosis and another 33.8, 2.9, and 2.0 million had low bone mass, respectively. When combined, osteoporosis and low bone mass at the femoral neck or lumbar spine affected an estimated 53.6 million older US adults in 2010. Although most of the individuals with osteoporosis or low bone mass were non-Hispanic White women, a substantial number of men and women from other racial/ethnic groups also had osteoporotic BMD or low bone mass. PMID:24771492

  20. A comparison of DXA and CT based methods for estimating the strength of the femoral neck in post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Danielson, Michelle E.; Beck, Thomas J.; Karlamangla, Arun S.; Greendale, Gail A.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Lian, Yinjuan; Khaled, Alia S.; Keaveny, Tony M.; Kopperdahl, David; Ruppert, Kristine; Greenspan, Susan; Vuga, Marike; Cauley, Jane A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Simple 2-dimensional (2D) analyses of bone strength can be done with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data and applied to large data sets. We compared 2D analyses to 3-dimensional (3D) finite element analyses (FEA) based on quantitative computed tomography (QCT) data. Methods 213 women participating in the Study of Women’s Health across the Nation (SWAN) received hip DXA and QCT scans. DXA BMD and femoral neck diameter and axis length were used to estimate geometry for composite bending (BSI) and compressive strength (CSI) indices. These and comparable indices computed by Hip Structure Analysis (HSA) on the same DXA data were compared to indices using QCT geometry. Simple 2D engineering simulations of a fall impacting on the greater trochanter were generated using HSA and QCT femoral neck geometry; these estimates were benchmarked to a 3D FEA of fall impact. Results DXA-derived CSI and BSI computed from BMD and by HSA correlated well with each other (R= 0.92 and 0.70) and with QCT-derived indices (R= 0.83–0.85 and 0.65–0.72). The 2D strength estimate using HSA geometry correlated well with that from QCT (R=0.76) and with the 3D FEA estimate (R=0.56). Conclusions Femoral neck geometry computed by HSA from DXA data corresponds well enough to that from QCT for an analysis of load stress in the larger SWAN data set. Geometry derived from BMD data performed nearly as well. Proximal femur breaking strength estimated from 2D DXA data is not as well correlated with that derived by a 3D FEA using QCT data. PMID:22810918

  1. Total medical costs of treating femoral neck fracture patients with hemi- or total hip arthroplasty: a cost analysis of a multicenter prospective study.

    PubMed

    Burgers, P T P W; Hoogendoorn, M; Van Woensel, E A C; Poolman, R W; Bhandari, M; Patka, P; Van Lieshout, E M M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the total medical costs for treating displaced femoral neck fractures with hemi- or total hip arthroplasty in fit elderly patients. The mean total costs per patient at 2 years of follow-up were €26,399. These results contribute to cost awareness. The absolute number of hip fractures is rising and increases the already significant burden on society. The aim of this study was to determine the mean total medical costs per patient for treating displaced femoral neck fractures with hemi- or total hip arthroplasty in fit elderly patients. The population was the Dutch sample of an international randomized controlled trial consisting of femoral neck fracture patients treated with hemi- or total hip arthroplasty. Patient data and health care utilization were prospectively collected during a total follow-up period of 2 years. Costs were separated into costs for hospital care during primary stay, hospital costs for clinical follow-up, and costs generated outside the hospital during rehabilitation. Multiple imputations were used to account for missing data. Data of 141 participants (mean age 81 years) were included in the analysis. The 2-year mortality rate was 19 %. The mean total cost per patient after 10 weeks of follow-up was €15,216. After 1 and 2 years of follow-up the mean total costs were €23,869 and €26,399, respectively. Rehabilitation was the main cost determinant, and accounted for 46 % of total costs. Primary hospital admission days accounted for 22 % of the total costs, index surgery for 11 %, and physical therapy for 7 %. The main cost determinants for hemi- or total hip arthroplasty after treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures (€26,399 per patient until 2 years) were rehabilitation and nursing homes. Most of the costs were made in the first year. Reducing costs after hip fracture surgery should focus on improving the duration and efficiency of the rehabilitation phase.

  2. Reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index for elderly patients with a femoral neck fracture.

    PubMed

    Burgers, Paul T P W; Poolman, Rudolf W; Van Bakel, Theodorus M J; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; Zielinski, Stephanie M; Bhandari, Mohit; Patka, Peter; Van Lieshout, Esther M M

    2015-05-06

    The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) has been extensively evaluated in groups of patients with osteoarthritis, yet not in patients with a femoral neck fracture. This study aimed to determine the reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness of the WOMAC compared with the Short Form-12 (SF-12) and the EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D) questionnaires for the assessment of elderly patients with a femoral neck fracture. Reliability was tested by assessing the Cronbach alpha. Construct validity was determined with the Pearson correlation coefficient. Change scores were calculated from ten weeks to twelve months of follow-up. Standardized response means and floor and ceiling effects were determined. Analyses were performed to compare the results for patients less than eighty years old with those for patients eighty years of age or older. The mean WOMAC total score was 89 points before the fracture in the younger patients and increased from 70 points at ten weeks to 81 points at two years postoperatively. In the older age group, these scores were 86, 75, and 78 points. The mean WOMAC pain scores before the fracture and at ten weeks and two years postoperatively were 92, 76, and 87 points, respectively, in the younger age group and 92, 84, and 93 points in the older age group. Function scores were 89, 68, and 79 points for the younger age group and 84, 71, and 73 points for the older age group. The Cronbach alpha for pain, stiffness, function, and the total scale ranged from 0.83 to 0.98 for the younger age group and from 0.79 to 0.97 for the older age group. Construct validity was good, with 82% and 79% of predefined hypotheses confirmed in the younger and older age groups, respectively. Responsiveness was moderate. No floor effects were found. Moderate to large ceiling effects were found for pain and stiffness scales at ten weeks and twelve months in younger patients (18% to 36%) and in the older age group (38% to 53%). The WOMAC showed good

  3. Pre-operative Decision-Making in the Treatment of High-Angle "Vertical" Femoral Neck Fractures in Young Adult Patients.

    PubMed

    Luttrell, Kevin; Beltran, Michael; Collinge, Cory

    2014-04-01

    To identify the current implant and diagnostic imaging preferences among orthopedic trauma experts for the treatment of high-energy vertical femoral neck fractures in young adult patients. Web-based survey SETTING:: N/A PARTICIPANTS:: Active members of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) METHODS:: A cross sectional expert opinion survey was administered to active members of the OTA to determine their preferences for implant use and imaging in the surgical treatment of a vertical femoral neck fracture in a young adult patient (e.g. 60° Pauwels' angle fracture in a healthy 30 year old patient). Questions were also asked regarding the reason this implant was selected, whether the surgeon felt their choice was supported by the literature, and what imaging studies are routinely obtained to guide decision-making. Data was collected using simple multiple-choice questions and/or a 5-point Likert item. Two-hundred and seventy-two surgeons (47%) responded to the survey. The preferred constructs for a vertical femoral neck fracture in a healthy young patient were a sliding hip screw with or without an anti-rotation screw (47%), parallel cannulated screws with an off-axis screw (28%), and parallel cannulated screw constructs (15%). When asked if their designated construct "was clearly supported by the literature," 46% were either unsure or disagreed. Seventy percent of surgeons chose their preferred implant because it was "biomechanically most stable." The majority of surgeons required AP pelvis (70%) and standard hip (88%) radiographs, however only 29% of surgeons required a CT scan (59% found CT helpful but not required). Twenty seven percent of surgeons have changed their implant choice intraoperatively. Femoral neck fractures in young adult patients are a challenging problem with high rates of failed treatment. Many options for treatment exist and a consensus on the best method remains elusive. Our survey demonstrates the diversity and disagreement among OTA member

  4. The relationship of femoral neck shaft angle and adiposity to greater trochanteric pain syndrome in women. A case control morphology and anthropometric study

    PubMed Central

    Fearon, AM; Stephens, S; Cook, JL; Smith, PN; Neeman, T; Cormick, W; Scarvell, JM

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate if pelvic or hip width predisposed women to developing greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS). Design Prospective case control study. Participants Four groups were included in the study: those gluteal tendon reconstructions (n=31, GTR), those with conservatively managed GTPS (n=29), those with hip osteoarthritis (n=20, OA) and 22 asymptomatic participants (ASC). Methods Anterior-posterior pelvic x-rays were evaluated for femoral neck shaft angle; acetabular index, and width at the lateral acetabulum, and the superior and lateral aspects of the greater trochanter. Body mass index, and waist, hip and greater trochanter girth were measured. Data were analysed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA; posthoc Scheffe analysis), then multivariate analysis. Results The GTR group had a lower femoral neck shaft angle than the other groups (p=0.007). The OR (95% CI) of having a neck shaft angle of less than 134°, relative to the ASC group: GTR=3.33 (1.26 to 8.85); GTPS=1.4 (0.52 to 3.75); OA=0.85 (0.28 to 2.61). The OR of GTR relative to GTPS was 2.4 (1.01 to 5.6). No group difference was found for acetabular or greater trochanter width. Greater trochanter girth produced the only anthropometric group difference (mean (95% CI) in cm) GTR=103.8 (100.3 to 107.3), GTPS=105.9 (100.2 to 111.6), OA=100.3 (97.7 to 103.9), ASC=99.1 (94.7 to 103.5), (ANOVA: p=0.036). Multivariate analysis confirmed adiposity is associated with GTPS. Conclusion A lower neck shaft angle is a risk factor for, and adiposity is associated with, GTPS in women. PMID:22547561

  5. [Cementless total hip arthroplasty after acute femoral neck fracture in active patients. Prospective matched study with a minimum follow-up of 5 years].

    PubMed

    Lizaur-Utrilla, A; Sanz-Reig, J; Miralles-Muñoz, F A

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate outcomes of cementless total hip replacement after acute femoral neck fracture in active patients. A prospective matched study was conducted to compare the results between 76 patients with fractures and 76 patients with osteoarthritis. The Harris score, short-WOMAC and SF-12 were used for the clinical assessment. The mean follow-up was 7.3 years (range 5-11). There were no significant differences in medical or surgical complications between the 2 groups. Functional outcomes were similar, but more walking aids were used in fracture group. There were 6 revisions among the fractures group (one dislocation, 2 deep infections, 3 aseptic loosening), and 2 aseptic loosening among controls. There was no significant difference in arthroplasty survival at 10 years (88.7 vs. 96.1%, P=.15). The mortality rates at 2 and 10 years were similar. Cementless total hip replacement for treatment of acute femoral neck fracture showed similar results to those of elective surgery for osteoarthritis in these selected patients. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Pathway-based Genome-Wide Association Analysis Identified the Importance of EphrinA-EphR pathway for Femoral Neck Bone Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan; Xiong, Dong-Hai; Guo, Yan-Fang; Pan, Feng; Zhou, Qi; Zhang, Feng; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Femoral neck (FN) bone geometry is an important predictor of bone strength with high heritability. Previous studies have revealed certain candidate genes for FN bone geometry. However, the majority of the underlying genetic factors remain to be discovered. In this study, pathway-based genome-wide association analysis was performed to explore the joint effects of genes within biological pathways on FN bone geometry variations in a cohort of 1,000 unrelated U.S. whites. Nominal significant associations (nominal p value < 0.05) were observed between 76 pathways and a key FN bone geometry variable - section modulus (Z), biomechanically indicative of bone strength subject to bending. Among them, EphrinA-EphR pathway was most significantly associated with FN Z even after multiple testing adjustments (pFWER value = 0.035). The association of EphrinA-EphR pathway with FN Z was also observed in an independent sample from Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Overall, these results suggest the significant genetic contribution of EphrinA-EphR pathway to femoral neck bone geometry. PMID:19786129

  7. Effect of beta-blockers on bone mass and biomechanical parameters of the femoral neck in males with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Castrillón, José L; Vega, Gemma; Abad, Laura; Sanz, Alberto; Mendo, Marcelino; Porrero, Miguel García; Dueñas, Antonio

    2007-05-01

    Evaluate the effect of cardioselective beta-blockers on bone mass and biomechanical properties of the femoral neck in males with acute myocardial infarction. Forty males with acute myocardial infarction were studied during one year. Seventy-five percent of the patients (30 patients) were treated with cardioselective beta-blockers and 10 were not similarly treated. A hip densitometry was performed upon release and one year later. The BMD was measured in the femoral neck and in biomechanical elements obtained by DXA. Both groups had similar clinical conditions at the beginning of the study and after a one-year follow-up. No differences in the BMD (0.934+/-0.12 vs. 0.921+/-0.14) were observed in the group without beta-blockers or in the group with beta-blockers (0.980+/-0.12 vs. 0.977+/-0.12). No differences were observed in the measured structural parameters. The cardioselective beta-blockers do not modify bone mass or the structural bone parameters in males with acute myocardial infarction.

  8. Pathological changes after the surgical creation of a vertical intracapsular condylar fracture.

    PubMed

    Long, X; Goss, A N

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to create in a sheep model an intracapsular oblique vertical split fracture, and observe the histopathological changes in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condylar head. In 10 sheep, the right TMJ was operated through the preauricular region. The anterior and posterior attachments of the disc were cut; an oblique vertical osteotomy was made from the lateral pole of the condyle to the medial side of condylar neck. The condylar fragment was pushed anteriorly, inferiorly and medially together with the disc. The non-operated left TMJ served as control. Two sheep were killed at 1 week and four at both 4 and 12 weeks. Computed tomography scans were taken and histopathological changes of the joint observed. There was severe bone erosion and a new bony outgrowth on the lateral side of the condylar stump and temporal bone. The joint spaces were filled with fibrous tissue, cartilage tissue and bone in the 4 and 12 weeks operated groups. These results show that an oblique vertical intracapsular fracture through the lateral condylar pole, combined with an anteriorly and medially displaced condylar fragment and disc and damaged lateral capsule, are likely to result in the pathological changes of osteoarthritis, and the progressive development of ankylosis in a sheep TMJ.

  9. Treatment of Femoral Neck Fracture with a Minimal Invasive Surgical Approach for Hemiarthroplasty – Clinical and Radiological Results in 180 Geriatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Unger, A.C; Dirksen, B; Renken, F. G; Wilde, E; Willkomm, M; Schulz, A.P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose : The Direct Anterior Approach (DAA) is well established as a minimal access approach in elective orthopaedic hip surgery. For the growing number of elderly patients with femoral neck fractures treated with Bipolar Hip Hemiarthroplasty (BHH), only a few results do exist. The study shows the clinical and radiological outcome for 180 patients treated by a modified DAA with BHH. Materials and Methods : The data of 180 geriatric patients with medial femoral neck fractures were evaluated retrospectively. The general and surgical complications, mobilisation using the Timed Up and Go test (TUG), the social environment pre- and postoperative and the radiological results have been compared with established approaches for geriatric hip surgery. Results : After joint replacement, 18 (10%) patients were developed pneumonia, of which 3 (1.7%) died during hospitalisation. In 7 cases (4%), surgical revision had to be carried out: three times (1.7%) because of a seroma, three times (1.7%) because of subcutaneous infection, and one time (0.6%) because the BHH was removed, owing to deep wound infection. One dislocation (0.6%) occurred, as well as one femoral nerve lesion (0.6%) occured. 88.3% of patients were mobilised on walkers or crutches; the Timed Up and Go Test showed a significant improvement during inpatient rehabilitation. 83% were discharged to their usual social environment, 10% were transferred to a short-term care facility and 7% were relocated permanently to a nursing home. 3/4 of patients had a cemented stem alignment in the range between -5° and 5°, while 2/3 of patients had a maximum difference of 1 cm in leg length. Conclusion : Using the modified DAA, a high patient satisfaction is achieved after implantation of a BHH. The rate of major complications is just as low as in conventional approaches, and rapid mobilisation is possible. PMID:25136389

  10. Preoperative posterior tilt of at least 20° increased the risk of fixation failure in Garden-I and -II femoral neck fractures

    PubMed Central

    Dolatowski, Filip C; Adampour, Mina; Frihagen, Frede; Stavem, Knut; Erik Utvåg, Stein; Hoelsbrekken, Sigurd Erik

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose It has been suggested that preoperative posterior tilt of the femoral head may increase the risk of fixation failure in Garden-I and -II femoral neck fractures. To investigate this association, we studied a cohort of 322 such patients. Patients and methods Patients treated with internal fixation between 2005 and 2012 were retrospectively identified using hospital records and the digital image bank. 2 raters measured the preoperative posterior tilt angle and categorized it into 3 groups: < 10°, 10–20°, and ≥ 20°. The inter-rater reliability (IRR) was determined. Patients were observed until September 2013 (with a minimum follow-up of 18 months) or until failure of fixation necessitating salvage arthroplasty. The risk of fixation failure was assessed using competing-risk regression analysis, adjusting for time to surgery. Results Patients with a posterior tilt of ≥ 20° had a higher risk of fixation failure: 19% (8/43) as compared to 11% (14/127) in the 10–20° category and 6% (9/152) in the < 10° category (p = 0.03). Posterior tilt of ≥ 20° increased the risk of fixation failure, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 3.4 (95% CI: 1.3–8.9; p = 0.01). The interclass correlation coefficient for angular measurements of posterior tilt was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.87–0.92), and the IRR for the categorization of posterior tilt into 3 groups was 0.76 (95% CI: 0.69–0.81). Interpretation Preoperative posterior tilt of ≥ 20° in Garden-I and -II femoral neck fractures increased the risk of fixation failure necessitating salvage arthroplasty. The reliability of the methods that we used to measure posterior tilt ranged from good to excellent. PMID:26937557

  11. Parathyroid hormone response to severe vitamin D deficiency is associated with femoral neck bone mineral density: an observational study of 405 women with hip-fracture.

    PubMed

    Di Monaco, Marco; Castiglioni, Carlotta; Tappero, Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Hip-fracture patients with vitamin D deficiency can have either secondary hyperparathyroidism or normal levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH). We hypothesized that bone mineral density (BMD) could be lower in patients with high PTH levels than in those with normal levels of PTH, irrespectively of the severity of vitamin D depletion. In this cross-sectional study, we examined 405 women who had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D below 12ng/ml 20.0 ± 5.9 (mean ± SD) days after a hip-fracture. PTH was assessed by a chemiluminescent immunometric assay and BMD by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at the unfractured femoral neck. BMD was significantly lower in the 148 women with secondary hyperparathyroidism than in the 257 with normal PTH levels: the mean T-score (SD) was -2.88 (0.93) and -2.65 (0.83), respectively, in the two groups (mean difference 0.23; 95% CI 0.05 - 0.41; P = 0.010). The association between PTH status and BMD persisted after adjustment for age, body mass index, phosphate, albumin-adjusted total calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and magnesium (P=0.01). The presence of secondary hyperparathyroidism was significantly associated with a femoral neck T-score lower than -2.5. The adjusted odds ratio was 1.81 (95% CI 1.11 - 2.95; P=0.017). Our results show that PTH levels in the presence of severe vitamin D deficiency were significantly associated with femoral BMD in women with hip-fracture. Prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency may be particularly relevant in women who develop secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  12. Prediction of incident hip fracture by femoral neck bone mineral density and neck–shaft angle: a 5-year longitudinal study in post-menopausal females

    PubMed Central

    Gnudi, S; Sitta, E; Pignotti, E

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare hip fracture incidence in post-menopausal females who were differently stratified for the fracture risk according to bone mineral density and proximal femur geometry. Methods In a 5 year follow-up study, the hip fracture incidence in 729 post-menopausal females (45 of whom suffered from incident hip fracture) was assessed and compared. Forward logistic regression was used to select independent predictors of hip fracture risk, including age, age at menopause, height, weight, femoral neck bone mineral density (FNBMD), neck–shaft angle (NSA), hip axis length, femoral neck diameter and femoral shaft diameter as covariates. Fracture incidence was then calculated for the categories of young/old age, high/low FNBMD and wide/narrow NSA, which were obtained by dichotomising each hip fracture independent predictor at the value best separating females with and without a hip fracture. Results The hip fracture incidence of the whole cohort was significantly higher in females with a wide NSA (8.52%) than in those with a narrow NSA (3.51%). The combination of wide NSA and low FNBMD had the highest hip fracture incidence in the whole cohort (17.61%) and each age category. The combinations of narrow/wide NSA with low/high FNBMD, respectively, gave a significantly higher fracture incidence in older than in younger women, whereas women with a combined wide NSA and low FNBMD had no significantly different fracture incidence in young (14.60%) or old age (21.62%). Conclusion Our study showed that NSA is effective at predicting the hip fracture risk and that the detection in early post-menopause of a wide NSA together with a low FNBMD should identify females at high probability of incident hip fracture. PMID:22096224

  13. Outcome of an uncemented hydroxyapatite coated hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures: a clinical and radiographic 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Eschen, Jacob; Kring, Søren; Brix, Michael; Ban, Ilija; Troelsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Hemiarthroplasty is the preferred treatment for displaced femoral neck fractures (DFNF) in elderly patients. The use of uncemented stems remains controversial and issues regarding inferior fixation in osteoporotic bone, implant-related pain and decreased mobility have discouraged their use. There is limited evidence for the use of modern uncemented femoral stems in the treatment of DFNF, and we wished to investigate the clinical and radiographic performance of an uncemented hydroxyapatite coated hemiarthroplasty at 2-year follow-up. We included 97 consecutive patients who had an uncemented, hydroxyapatite coated hemiarthroplasty (Corail, Depuy) inserted during a 1-year period. Due to unwillingness or cognitive impairment (n = 6) and death before follow-up (n = 44), a total of 47 patients (39 females) with a mean age of 81 years were available. At two year follow-up 38 of 47 patients lived in their own homes and the median New Mobility Score was 6 (range: 2-9). The median Visual Analogue Scale pain score was 0 (range: 0-5) at rest and 0 (range: 0-8) when walking. Patient satisfaction was a score of 9 (range: 2-10) on the VAS. Anterior or lateral thigh pain or groin pain was reported by 15 patients. The EQ-5D index score at follow-up was 0.72 (range: 0.16-1.00) and the EQ-5D Visual Analogue Score was 70 (range: 15-100). There were no signs of implant loosening in any of the 37 hips undergoing radiographic evaluation at follow-up. The results suggest that an uncemented hydroxyapatite coated hemiarthroplasty can be used to treat displaced intracupsular femoral neck fractures with good clinical and radiographic outcomes at short term follow-up.

  14. Analysis on the mechanical resistance of fixation of femoral neck fractures in synthetic bone, using the dynamic hip system and an anti-rotation screw☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Anderson; Torres, Gustavo Melo; Souza, André Cezar de Andrade de Mello e; Maciel, Rafael Almeida; Souto, Diogo Ranier de Macedo; Ferreira, George Neri de Barros

    2014-01-01

    Objective To statistically analyze the results obtained from biomechanical tests on fixation of femoral neck fractures of Pauwels III type, in synthetic bone, using the dynamic hip system with an anti-rotation screw, versus a control group. Methods Ten synthetic bones from a Brazilian manufacturer (model C1010) were used and divided into two groups: test and control. In the test group, fixation of an osteotomy was performed with 70° of inclination at the level of the femoral neck, using DHS with an anti-rotation screw. The resistance of this fixation was evaluated, along with its rotational deviation at 5 mm of displacement (phase 1) and at 10 mm of displacement (phase 2), which was considered to be failure of synthesis. In the control group, the models were tested in their entirety until femoral neck fracturing occurred. Results The test values in the test group (samples 1–5) in phase 1 were: 1512 N, 1439 N, 1205 N, 1251 N and 1273 N, respectively (mean = 1336 N; standard deviation [SD] = 132 N). The rotational deviations were: 4.90°, 3.27°, 2.62°, 0.66° and 0.66°, respectively (mean = 2.42°; SD = 1.81°). In phase 2, we obtained: 2064 N, 1895 N, 1682 N, 1713 N and 1354 N, respectively (mean = 1742 N; SD = 265 N). The failure loading values in the control group were: 1544 N, 1110 N, 1359 N, 1194 N and 1437 N, respectively (mean = 1329 N; SD = 177 N). The statistical analysis using the Mann–Whitney test showed that the test group presented maximum loading at a displacement of 10 mm, i.e. significantly greater than the failure loading of the control group (p = 0.047). Conclusion The mechanical resistance of the test group was significantly greater than that of the control group. PMID:26229866

  15. 5-year clinical and radiostereometric analysis (RSA) follow-up of 39 CUT femoral neck total hip prostheses in young osteoarthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As the number of young patients receiving total hip arthroplasty increases, bone-saving implantations facilitating possible future revision, such as the CUT femoral neck prosthesis, are gaining importance. There have been few medium-term results reported for this prosthesis, however, and its migration pattern has not been analyzed. Patients and methods 39 consecutive CUT femoral neck prostheses were implanted in 32 patients, mean age 37 (17–58) years, with symptomatic osteoarthritis and either less than 55 years of age or with an anatomic anomaly preventing implantation of a diaphyseal stem (n = 1). Patients were followed prospectively using routine clinical examination and radiostereometric analysis (RSA) at 6, 12, 26, and 52 weeks postoperatively and annually thereafter. This study evaluated the 5-year follow-up results. Results The mean Harris hip score increased from 26 (3–51) points preoperatively to 84 (66–98), 86 (55–98), and 87 (47–98) points at 3, 12, and 60 months. 3 stems were revised: 1 after luxation following excessive subsidence due to an undersized component and 2 due to persistent strong thigh pain. 5-year survival was 95% (95% CI: 87–100). Initial migration varied widely in magnitude; median total tip migration was 0.42 mm (0.09–9.4) at 6 weeks, 0.92 mm (0.18–5.9) at 1 year, and 1.10 mm (0.13–6.4) at 5 years. Even after high initial migration, stabilization was achieved in 31 of the 35 RSA-evaluable implants. 3 prostheses showed progressive continuous migration throughout the entire follow-up period, and were considered to be loose, suggesting reduced long-term survival. Interpretation Currently, we cannot recommend the CUT femoral neck prosthesis as a routine treatment option in (young) patients requiring THA. The CUT prosthesis may not reach the 90% survival benchmark at 10 years, and the prosthesis is difficult to implant. If initial stabilization is achieved, however, aseptic loosening is unlikely. A good clinical

  16. Multiscale Predictors of Femoral Neck In Situ Strength in Aging Women: Contributions of BMD, Cortical Porosity, Reference Point Indentation, and Nonenzymatic Glycation.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Adam C; Agarwalla, Avinesh; Yadavalli, Aditya; McAndrew, Christopher; Liu, Jenny Y; Tang, Simon Y

    2015-12-01

    The diagnosis of fracture risk relies almost solely on quantifying bone mass, yet bone strength is governed by factors at multiple scales including composition and structure that contribute to fracture resistance. Furthermore, aging and conditions such as diabetes mellitus alter fracture incidence independently of bone mass. Therefore, it is critical to incorporate other factors that contribute to bone strength in order to improve diagnostic specificity of fracture risk. We examined the correlation between femoral neck fracture strength in aging female cadavers and areal bone mineral density, along with other clinically accessible measures of bone quality including whole-bone cortical porosity (Ct.Po), bone material mechanical behavior measured by reference point indentation (RPI), and accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). All measurements were found to be significant predictors of femoral neck fracture strength, with areal bone mineral density (aBMD) being the single strongest correlate (aBMD: r = 0.755, p < 0.001; Ct.Po: r = -0.500, p < 0.001; RPI: r = -0.478, p < 0.001; AGEs: r = -0.336, p = 0.016). RPI-derived measurements were not correlated with tissue mineral density or local cortical porosity as confirmed by micro-computed tomography (μCT). Multiple reverse stepwise regression revealed that the inclusion of aBMD and any other factor significantly improve the prediction of bone strength over univariate predictions. Combining bone assays at multiple scales such as aBMD with tibial Ct.Po (r = 0.835; p < 0.001), tibial difference in indentation depth between the first and 20th cycle (IDI) (r = 0.883; p < 0.001), or tibial AGEs (r = 0.822; p < 0.001) significantly improves the prediction of femoral neck strength over any factor alone, suggesting that this personalized approach could greatly enhance bone strength and fracture risk assessment with the potential to guide clinical management

  17. Randomised trial comparing the transversus abdominis plane block posterior approach or quadratus lumborum block type I with femoral block for postoperative analgesia in femoral neck fracture, both ultrasound-guided.

    PubMed

    Parras, T; Blanco, R

    2016-03-01

    A double-blind randomised controlled trial was conducted to compare the analgesic effect of the transversus abdominis plane block posterior approach or the quadratus lumborum block I versus femoral block, both ultrasound-guided. Prospective study with parallel groups with 104 patients with neck of femur fracture undergoing hemiarthroplasty (although 7 participants did not finish the study). The inclusion criteria were patients older than 65 years old, ASA I-III status, who required and gave their consent for hemiarthroplasty. The exclusion criteria were patients with known allergy to local anaesthetics, mental disability, peripheral neuropathy, a coagulopathy disorder, and those patients who received morphine, or a block was performed previous to the surgery. Each patient received one block followed by a spinal anaesthetic technique, performed by the anaesthetist. Pain was measured using a visual analogue score, sensory blockade using cold spray, and motor blockade, evaluating the leg movement. These were compared on arrival in recovery and at 6, 12, 18, and 24h later. Total opioid amount administered in 24 hours, duration of stay in post-anaesthesia care unit, patient satisfaction, and adverse effects were also recorded. A lower visual analogue score was observed in the quadratus lumborum block group at 6, 12, 18 and 24h (3.7, 1.4, 0.8, 0.7 versus 5.2, 4.6, 3.4, 2.6 in the femoral group, P<.01). Opioid use in 24h was lower in this group (9.7 versus 16.9mg in the femoral group, P<.01). The sensory and motor blockade, satisfaction, and adverse effects, were similar in both groups. Quadratus lumborum block is an effective analgesic option to be used in patients with neck of femur fracture. More clinical trials are required to validate this. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Prediction of femoral neck and spine bone mineral content from the BMC of the radius or ulna and the relationship between bone strength and BMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    The bone mineral content (BMC) is extensively used to provide information about the status of an entire skeleton. Changes in BMC are employed to evaluate the effect of various drugs, disease states, weightlessness, exercise, renal dialysis and others on the skeleton. Clinical and functional information is discussed that may be derived from the BMC of a limited region of the skeleton. In particular there is a fairly high degree of correlation between the BMC of the radius or ulna and that of the femoral neck, r about 0.85 and a somewhat lower relationship between the BMC of the radius or ulna and the thoracic vertebrae, r about 0.65. Also the BMC is highly related to the strength of bone at that scan site.

  19. Quadrant Analysis of Quantitative Computed Tomography Scans of the Femoral Neck Reveals Superior Region-Specific Weakness in Young and Middle-Aged Men With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Takuma; Ishikawa, Koji; Nagai, Takashi; Fukui, Tomoyasu; Hirano, Tsutomu; Inagaki, Katsunori

    2017-03-13

    We have previously shown that the intertrochanter of young and middle-aged patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) showed higher buckling ratio (an index of cortical instability) and lower volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD). However, we have not yet reported the detailed findings regarding the mechanical and density properties of the femoral neck. Therefore, we present a subanalysis of our previous study with the aim of further evaluating the middle third of the femoral neck via quadrant quantitative computed tomography in young and middle-aged patients with T1DM. Bone parameters in 4 anatomical quadrants (superoanterior [SA], inferoanterior [IA], inferoposterior [IP], and superoposterior [SP]) were cross-sectionally evaluated in 17 male T1DM patients and 18 sex-matched healthy controls aged between 18 and 49 yr using quadrant quantitative computed tomography analysis. Patients with T1DM had a thinner cortical thickness in the SP quadrant and a significantly lower cortical vBMD in the SA quadrant than the controls. The serum insulin-like growth factor-1 values in patients with T1DM were positively correlated with the average cortical thickness in the SA quadrant and the average trabecular vBMD in the SP quadrant of the femoral neck. The cortical thickness in controls was negatively correlated with age in the SP and IP quadrants. The cortical thickness in patients with T1DM showed no correlation with age in all quadrants. The fragility of the femoral neck was remarkable in the superior region of patients with T1DM. Insulin-like growth factor-1 may play an important role in superior cortical thinning and in lowering cortical vBMD. Furthermore, in young and middle-aged men with T1DM, the structure of the femoral neck exhibits similar changes as those observed with aging.

  20. Joint intracapsular disorders: diagnostic and nonsurgical management considerations.

    PubMed

    Okeson, Jeffrey P

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews common intracapsular temporomandibular disorders encountered in the dental practice. It begins with a brief review of normal temporomandibular joint anatomy and function followed by a description of the common types of disorders known as internal derangements. The etiology, history, and clinical presentation of each are reviewed. Nonsurgical management is presented based on current long-term scientific evidence.

  1. Percutaneous image-guided screws meditated osteosynthesis of impeding and pathological/insufficiency fractures of the femoral neck in non-surgical cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Cazzato, Roberto Luigi; Garnon, Julien; Tsoumakidou, Georgia; Koch, Guillaume; Palussière, Jean; Gangi, Afshin; Buy, Xavier

    2017-05-01

    To present percutaneous image-guided screw-mediated osteosynthesis (PIGSMO) for fixation of impending fractures (ImF) and non-displaced/mildly displaced pathological/insufficient fractures (PF/InF) of the femoral neck in non-surgical cancer patients. This is a double-centre single-arm observational study. Retrospective review of electronic records identified all oncologic patients who had undergone femoral neck PIGSMO. Inclusion criteria were: non-displaced or mildly displaced PF/InF, and ImF (Mirels' score ≥8); life expectancy ≥1 month; unsuitability for surgical treatment due to sub-optimal clinical fitness, refusal of consent, or unacceptable delay to systemic therapy. Eleven patients were treated (mean age 63.7±13.5 years) due to ImF (63.6%, mean Mirels' score 10.1), PF (27.3%) or post-radiation InF (9.1%) under CT/fluoroscopy- (36.4%) or CBCT- (63.6%) guidance. Thirty-two screws were implanted and cement injection was added in 36.4% cases. Technical success was 90.9%. No procedure related complications were noted. At 1-month clinical follow-up (pain/walking impairment), 63.6% and 27.3% patients reported significant and mild improvement, respectively. Imaging follow-up (available in 63.6% cases) showed no signs of secondary fractures, neither of screws loosening at mean 2.8 months. Five patients (45.5%) died after PIGSMO (mean time interval 3.6 months). PIGSMO is technically feasible and safe in cancer patients with limited life expectancy; it offers good short-term results. Further prospective studies are required to corroborate mid- and to prove long-term efficacy of the technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nano-structural, compositional and micro-architectural signs of cortical bone fragility at the superolateral femoral neck in elderly hip fracture patients vs. healthy aged controls.

    PubMed

    Milovanovic, Petar; Rakocevic, Zlatko; Djonic, Danijela; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Hahn, Michael; Nikolic, Slobodan; Amling, Michael; Busse, Bjoern; Djuric, Marija

    2014-07-01

    To unravel the origins of decreased bone strength in the superolateral femoral neck, we assessed bone structural features across multiple length scales at this cortical fracture initiating region in postmenopausal women with hip fracture and in aged-matched controls. Our combined methodological approach encompassed atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterization of cortical bone nano-structure, assessment of mineral content/distribution via quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI), measurement of bone material properties by reference point indentation, as well as evaluation of cortical micro-architecture and osteocyte lacunar density. Our findings revealed a wide range of differences between the fracture group and the controls, suggesting a number of detrimental changes at various levels of cortical bone hierarchical organization that may render bone fragile. Namely, mineral crystals at external cortical bone surfaces of the fracture group were larger (65.22nm±41.21nm vs. 36.75nm±18.49nm, p<0.001), and a shift to a higher mineral content and more homogenous mineralization profile as revealed via qBEI were found in the bone matrix of the fracture group. Fracture cases showed nearly 35% higher cortical porosity and showed significantly reduced osteocyte lacunar density compared to controls (226±27 vs. 247±32#/mm(2), p=0.05). Along with increased crystal size, a shift towards higher mineralization and a tendency to increased cortical porosity and reduced osteocyte lacunar number delineate that cortical bone of the superolateral femoral neck bears distinct signs of fragility at various levels of its structural organization. These results contribute to the understanding of hierarchical bone structure changes in age-related fragility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Damage Control Orthopedics Management as Vital Procedure in Elderly Patients with Femoral Neck Fractures Complicated with Chronic Renal Failure: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chenhui; Wang, Yunjiao; Wang, Ziming; Wang, Yu; Wu, Siyu; Du, Quanyin; Wang, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic renal failure (CRF) predisposes to hip fractures in elderly patients, with high subsequent mortality. Selection and timing of the surgical procedure of such patients is a serious challenge. Many clinicians believe in earlier surgery as preferable and providing better outcomes. Damage control orthopedics (DCO) aids to adjust and optimize the overall condition of patients. Methods In 32 patients with femoral neck fractures complicated with CRF, we evaluated how the timing of the surgery determines the mortality rates if the DCO approach is applied. Preoperative ASA grading, POSSUM score, P-POSSUM score and DCO were carried out. Based on the assessment, timing of the surgery was ascertained. Results Of a total of 32 patients, twenty-nine patients were accepted for either early (< 48 hours; n = 18) or delayed (3–10 days; n = 10) surgery. Hip arthroplasty (total hip arthroplasty and hemiarthroplasty) was the principal surgery option. All patients survived operation and were followed up postoperatively with the average time of 30 days. Postoperative complications tended to occur at higher rates in the early vs. delayed surgery group (7/18 vs. 5/10). During follow up, a total of 3 patients died in both groups (2/18 in the early surgery and 1/10 in the delayed surgery group), mostly from multi-organ failures and acute respiratory distress syndrome. There was no significant difference in complication rates and Harris hip score between both groups. Conclusion In patients with femoral neck fracture complicated with CRF, delaying the surgery for several days does not increase the incidence of postoperative adverse events. PMID:27149117

  4. Unusual presentation of a femoral stress fracture

    PubMed Central

    Ejnisman, Leandro; Wajnsztejn, Andre; Queiroz, Roberto Dantas; Ejnisman, Benno

    2013-01-01

    Stress fractures are common injuries in sports medicine. Among these fractures, femoral neck stress fractures frequently have a benign course, especially when it happens in the medial aspect of the neck. This case report describes a stress fracture of the medial aspect of the femoral neck that developed a complete fracture and underwent surgical fixation. PMID:23283621

  5. The dynamic locking blade plate, a new implant for intracapsular hip fractures: biomechanical comparison with the sliding hip screw and Twin Hook.

    PubMed

    Roerdink, W H; Aalsma, A M M; Nijenbanning, G; van Walsum, A D P

    2009-03-01

    Internal fixation of intracapsular hip fractures results in a high failure rate with non-union and avascular necrosis being the two most important complications. In order to prevent these possible complications treatment should consist of an anatomical reduction and stable fixation by insertion of a low volume, dynamic implant, providing angular and rotational stability to the femoral head. According to these principles a new implant, the dynamic locking blade plate (DLBP) was designed for the fixation of intracapsular hip fractures. We performed a biomechanical analysis in synthetic bone to compare the rotational stability and cut out resistance of the DLBP with a conventional sliding hip screw (SHS) and the more recently developed Twin Hook. The rotational stability of the DLBP proved to be three times higher than the rotational stability of a SHS and two times higher than the Twin Hook. There was no major difference in cut out resistance between the different implants. The design of the DLBP and possible advantages with regard to the healing of an intracapsular hip fracture are discussed.

  6. The remodeling of the neck-shaft angle after proximal femoral varus osteotomy for the treatment of Legg-Calve-Perthes syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chiarapattanakom, Pariyut; Thanacharoenpanich, Songkiat; Pakpianpairoj, Charoenchai; Liupolvanish, Prasert

    2012-10-01

    To study the corrections of the neck-shaft angle (NSA) and the related clinical symptoms after proximal femoral varus osteotomy (PFVO) for the treatment of Legg-Calve-Perthes syndrome (LCPS). Retrospective cohort study. Consecutive cases of LCPS treated at Lerdsin General Hospital during 1999 to 2010 were reviewed. The patients were excluded if they had less than 3 years of follow-up, there was incomplete data, and bilateral involvement. Demographic data and clinical symptoms were collected. The NSA were measured before and after PFVO. Twenty-two patients were treated by PFVO. The mean pre-operative NSA was 140 degrees. The mean varus angle created by PFVO was 20 degrees. The mean post-operative NSA at 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years and 3 years were 119, 119, 118, 120 and 120 degrees respectively. No statistical difference between the mean NSA at 6 weeks and 3 years (p = 0.65). There were 9 patients whose NSA increased more than 5 degrees at 3 years after operation. This group of patients had a more varus angulation at the early post-operative period. No physeal arrest was detected in any cases at 3 years after PFVO. No correlation between the NSA and pain or limitation of the hip abduction were observed. There were 3 patients, who had NSA less than 110 degrees after PFVO, had limping gait. It is difficult to predict the degree of remodeling of an individual hip after proximal femoral varus osteotomy. Special attention should be paid to avoid excessive varus of the proximal femur less than 110 degrees whenever PFVO is performed.

  7. Association Between Financial Incentives for Regional Care Coordination and Health Care Resource Utilization Among Older Patients after Femoral Neck Fracture Surgery: A Retrospective Cohort Study Using a Claims Database.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Takumi; Maeda, Toshiki; Babazono, Akira

    2017-10-12

    The incidence rates of hip fracture have been increasing in Japan. Length of stay among hip fracture patients in Japan is much longer than other developed countries, and the Japanese government introduced financial incentives for regionally coordinated femoral neck fracture care to reduce health care resource utilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the financial incentives reduce health care resource utilization among patients 75 years or older with femoral neck fracture in Japan. Claims data from the Fukuoka Prefecture Regional Association for Late-Stage Healthcare for Older People were analyzed for the period from April 2010 to March 2016. The authors identified 4641 eligible subjects after femoral neck fracture surgery, and categorized them into groups based on care pathways: coordinated care, integrated care, and other. Length of stay by care phase and total charges were used as measures of health care resource utilization. The models showed that coordinated and integrated care were significantly associated with shorter length of stay during perioperative care: coordinated care, multiplicative effect, 0.90 (P < 0.001); integrated care, 0.77 (P < 0.001). However, only integrated care was associated with shorter rehabilitation and overall length of stay: 0.66 (P < 0.001) in rehabilitation; 0.70 (P < 0.001) in overall duration. Integrated care also was associated with lower total charges: 0.70 (P < 0.001). Current financial incentives for regionally coordinated femoral neck fracture care do not affect health care resource utilization. Further health care reforms should be implemented to promote effective regional care coordination in Japan.

  8. Lower reoperation rate for cemented hemiarthroplasty than for uncemented hemiarthroplasty and internal fixation following femoral neck fracture: 12- to 19-year follow-up of patients aged 75 years or more.

    PubMed

    Viberg, Bjarke; Overgaard, Søren; Lauritsen, Jens; Ovesen, Ole

    2013-06-01

    Elderly patients with displaced femoral neck fractures are commonly treated with a hemiarthroplasty (HA), but little is known about the long-term failure of this treatment. We compared reoperation rates for patients aged at least 75 years with displaced femoral neck fractures treated with either internal fixation (IF), cemented HA, or uncemented HA (with or without hydroxyapatite coating), after 12-19 years of follow-up. 4 hospitals with clearly defined guidelines for the treatment of 75+ year-old patients with a displaced femoral neck fracture were included. Cohort 1 (1991-1993) with 180 patients had undergone IF; cohort 2 (1991-1995) with 203 patients had received an uncemented bipolar Ultima HA stem (Austin-Moore); cohort 3 (1991-1995) with 209 patients had received a cemented Charnley-Hastings HA; and cohort 4 (1991-1998) with 158 patients had received an uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated Furlong HA. Data were retrieved from patient files, from the region-based patient administrative system, and from the National Registry of Patients at the end of 2010. We performed survival analysis with adjustment for comorbidity, age, and sex. Cemented HA had a reoperation rate (RR) of 5% and was used as reference in the Cox regression analysis, which showed significantly higher hazard ratios (HRs) for IF (HR = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.9-7.5; RR = 18%), uncemented HA (HR = 2.2, CI: 1.1-4.5; RR = 11%) and uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated HA (HR = 3.6, CI: 1.8-7.4; RR = 16%). Cemented HA has a superior long-term hip survival rate compared to IF and uncemented HA (with and without hydroxyapatite coating) in patients aged 75 years or more with displaced femoral neck fractures.

  9. [The influence of timing of surgery on mortality and early complications in femoral neck fractures, by surgical procedure: an analysis of 22,566 cases from the German External Quality Assurance Program].

    PubMed

    Kostuj, T; Smektala, R; Schulze-Raestrup, U; Müller-Mai, C

    2013-02-01

    The current S2 guideline recommends treatment of a femoral neck fracture within the first 24 h; this becomes evident by the significant rise in general and early surgical complications, when the surgical treatment was delayed for more than 48 h. The influence of different surgical procedures was investigated. PATIENTS UND METHODS: A total of 22,566 records from the external Quality Assurance Program in North Rhine-Westphalia for treatment of femoral neck fractures in 2004/2005 (BQS specification 7.0 and 8.0) were risk-adjusted and evaluated. Surgery was performed within 48 h in 83.9% of the patients. A significant rise in general and early surgical complications was registered when the surgical treatment was delayed for more than 48 h. Mortality and general complications were significantly lower for percutaneous screw fixation. All kinds of joint replacement show significantly higher general and surgical complications. The analyzed data support the rating of femoral neck fracture as requiring the intervention of urgent early surgery, as stated in the guideline. Percutaneous screw fixation can be considered for immobile and multimorbid patients with undislocated fractures. Advantages of total hip replacement compared to hemiarthroplasty cannot be supported by the QS-NRW data.

  10. Raised serum albumin in hip osteoarthrosis: a comparative study in women of some blood chemical parameters in aging and in cases of femoral neck fractures, osteoporotic vertebral crush fractures, and hip osteoarthrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Rapin, C H; Lagier, R

    1988-01-01

    Twelve blood parameters were studied in five groups of women totalling 120 subjects--group I: 26 blood donors (average age 45.2 years, range 23-66); group II: 18 patients with various cerebral, cardiovascular, or infectious illnesses (average age 79.9 years, range 66-92); group III: 28 patients with femoral neck fractures (average age 79.4 years, range 56-95); group IV: 12 patients with hip osteoarthrosis (average age 71.7 years, range 60-87); group V: 36 patients with vertebral crush fractures associated with postmenopausal and involutional osteoporosis (average age 63.0 years, range 51-75). The parameters measured were total proteins, albumin, total, alpha 1, alpha 2, beta, and gamma globulins, total calcium, phosphates, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, and haemoglobin. Statistical analysis showed that each group differed from the others even with adjustment for age. Among the discriminant parameters, serum albumin had a distinctive position. Significantly high concentrations of serum albumin in the group with osteoarthrosis raise the question of the possible existence of a population prone to osteoarthrosis in whom the serum albumin level may reflect a special nutritional state associated with the well known bone density in subjects with hip osteoarthrosis. Albumin values in patients with femoral neck fractures are lower than normal but non-significantly. The difference between the group with vertebral crush fractures and that with femoral neck fractures seems to be due to age. PMID:3401055

  11. An Investigation into Reliability of Knee Extension Muscle Strength Measurements, and into the Relationship between Muscle Strength and Means of Independent Mobility in the Ward: Examinations of Patients Who Underwent Femoral Neck Fracture Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Katoh, Munenori; Kaneko, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the reliability of isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement of patients who underwent femoral neck fracture surgery, as well as the relationship between independent mobility in the ward and knee muscle strength. [Subjects] The subjects were 75 patients who underwent femoral neck fracture surgery. [Methods] We used a hand-held dynamometer and a belt to measure isometric knee extension muscle strength three times, and used intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to investigate the reliability of the measurements. We used a receiver operating characteristic curve to investigate the cutoff values for independent walking with walking sticks and non-independent mobility. [Results] ICCs (1, 1) were 0.9 or higher. The cutoff value for independent walking with walking sticks was 0.289 kgf/kg on the non-fractured side, 0.193 kgf/kg on the fractured side, and the average of both limbs was 0.238 kgf/kg. [Conclusion] We consider that the test-retest reliability of isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement of patients who have undergone femoral neck fracture surgery is high. We also consider that isometric knee extension muscle strength is useful for investigating means of independent mobility in the ward. PMID:24567667

  12. Biopolymer augmentation of the lag screw in the treatment of femoral neck fractures - a biomechanical in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The cut-out of the sliding screw is one of the most common complications in the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures. The reasons for the cut-out are: a suboptimal position of the hip-screw in the femoral head, the type of fracture and poor bone quality. The aim of this study was to reproduce the cut-out event biomechanically and to evaluate the possible prevention of this event by the use of a biopolymer augmentation of the hip screw. Concerning the density and compression force of osteoporotic femoral bone polyurethane foam according to the terms of the Association for Standard Testing Material (ASTMF 1839-97) was used as test material. The polyurethane foam Lumoltan 200 with a compression force of 3.3 Mpa and a density of 0.192 g/cm3 was used to reproduce the osteoporotic bone of the femoral fragment (density 12 lbm/ft3). A cylinder of 50 mm of length and 50 mm of width was produced by a rotary splint raising procedure with planar contact. The axial load of the system was performed by a hydraulic force cylinder of a universal test machine type Zwick 1455, Ulm, Germany. The CCD-angle of the used TGN-System was preset at 130 degrees. The migration pattern of the hip screw in the polyurethane foam was measured and expressed as a curve of the distance in millimeter [mm] against the applied load in Newton [N] up to the cut-out point. During the tests the implants reached a critical changing point from stable to unstable with an increased load progression of steps of 50 Newton. This unstable point was characterized by an increased migration speed in millimeters and higher descending gradient in the migration curve. This peak of the migration curve served as an indicator for the change of the hip screw position in the simulated bone material. The applied load in the non-augmented implant showed that in this group for a density degree of 12 (0,192 g/cm3) the mean force at the failure point was 1431 Newton (± 52 Newton). In the augmented implant we found that the

  13. Anti-platelet drugs in patients with femoral neck fractures undergoing cemented hip hemiarthroplasty surgery. A study of complications and mortality.

    PubMed

    Agudo Quiles, M; Sanz-Reig, J; Alcalá-Santaella Oria de Rueca, R

    2015-01-01

    To assess complications and factors predicting one-year mortality in patients on antiplatelet agents presenting with femoral neck fractures undergoing hip hemiarthroplasty surgery. A review was made on 50 patients on preoperative antiplatelet agents and 83 patients without preoperative antiplatelet agents. Patients in both groups were treated with cemented hip hemiarthroplasty. A statistical comparison was performed using epidemiological data, comorbidities, mental state, complications and mortality. There was no lost to follow-up. The one-year mortality was 20.3%. In patients without preoperative antiplatelet agents it was 14.4% and in patients with preoperative antiplatelet agents was 30%. Age, ASA grade, number of comorbidities and antiplatelet agent therapy were predictors of one-year mortality. The one-year mortality of patients on clopidogrel was 46.1%, versus 24.3% in patients on acetylsalicylic acid. Patients with preoperative antiplatelet therapy were older and had greater number of comorbidities, ASA grade, delayed surgery, and a longer length of stay than patients without antiplatelet therapy. The one-year mortality was higher in patients with preoperative antiplatelet therapy. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. A multiple intervention strategy for reducing femoral neck stress injuries and other serious overuse injuries in U.S. Army Basic Combat Training.

    PubMed

    Scott, Shawn J; Feltwell, David N; Knapik, Joseph J; Barkley, Colleen B; Hauret, Keith G; Bullock, Steven H; Evans, Rachel K

    2012-09-01

    We hypothesized that the use of evidence based injury prevention strategies would lead to a reduction in the incidence of femoral neck stress injuries (FNSIs) and other serious overuse injuries in U.S. Army Basic Combat Training (BCT). An injury prevention strategy began in late 2008 that included: (1) leadership education, (2) leadership enforcement of proven methods, and (3) injury surveillance and reporting. Data on FNSI and removal from training for injury were analyzed based on the fiscal year 2006 through 2010 (n = 210,002). For men, FNSI were reduced from 13 to 20 cases/10,000 recruits per year (2006-2008) to 8 cases/10,000 recruits in 2010 (p < 0.01); for women, FNSI were reduced from 35 to 41 cases/10,000 recruits per year (2006-2008) to 18 cases/10,000 recruits per year in 2010 (p < 0.01). For men, removals from training for injury were reduced from 0.8 to 1.1 cases/100 recruits per year (2006-2008) to 0.5 cases/100 recruits in 2010 (p < 0.01); for women removal from training for injury was reduced from 2.3 to 2.4 cases/100 recruits (2006-2008) to 1.0 case/100 recruits per years in 2010 (p < 0.01). The time course of the changes suggests that following specific injury prevention methods was effective in reducing injuries.

  15. Early functional results after Hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fracture: a randomized comparison between a minimal invasive and a conventional approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A minimal invasive approach for elective hip surgery has been implemented in our institution in the past. It is widely hypothesized that implanting artificial hips in a minimal invasive fashion decreases surgical trauma and is helpful in the rehabilitation process in elective hip surgery. Thereby geriatric patients requiring emergency hip surgery also could theoretically benefit from a procedure that involves less tissue trauma. Methods Sixty patients who sustained a fractured neck of femur were randomly assigned into two groups. In the minimal invasive arm, the so called “direct anterior approach” (DAA) was chosen, in the conventional arm the Watson-Jones-Approach was used for implantation of a bipolar hemi-arthroplasty. Primary outcome parameter was the mobility as measured by the four-item-Barthel index. Secondary outcome parameters included pain, haemoglobin-levels, complications, duration of surgery, administration of blood transfusion and external length of incision. Radiographs were evaluated. Results A statistically significant difference (p = 0,009) regarding the mobility as measured with the four-item Barthel index was found at the 5th postoperative day, favouring the DAA. Evaluation of the intensity of pain with a visual analogue scale (VAS) showed a statistically significant difference (p = 0,035) at day 16. No difference was evident in the comparison of radiographic results. Conclusions Comparing two different approaches to the hip joint for the implantation of a bipolar hemi-arthroplasty after fractured neck of femur, it can be stated that mobilization status is improved for the DAA compared to the WJA when measured by the four-item Barthel index, there is less pain as measured using the VAS. There is no radiographic evidence that a minimal invasive technique leads to inferior implant position. Level of Evidence: Level II therapeutic study. PMID:22873207

  16. Diamond iris retractor configuration for small-pupil extracapsular or intracapsular cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Dupps, William J; Oetting, Thomas A

    2004-12-01

    We describe a technique that uses flexible iris retractors in a diamond configuration for small-pupil extracapsular or intracapsular cataract surgery in eyes with unusually dense nuclear sclerosis. Advantages of this technique include ease of conversion from phacoemulsification, optimal orientation of the maximum pupil diameter for nucleus expression or intracapsular lens removal, and conservation of iris tissue.

  17. Femoral bowing plane adaptation to femoral anteversion

    PubMed Central

    Akman, Alp; Demirkan, Fahir; Sabir, Nuran; Oto, Murat; Yorukoglu, Cagdas; Kiter, Esat

    2017-01-01

    Background: Femoral bowing plane (FBP) is the unattended subject in the literature. More over the femoral shaft with its bowing is neglected in established anteversion determination methods. There is limited information about the relationship between FBP and anteversion. Thus we focused on this subject and hypothesized that there could be an adaptation of FBP to anteversion. Materials and Methods: FBP is determined on three-dimensional solid models derived from the left femoral computerized tomography data of 47 patients which were taken before for another reason and comparatively evaluated with anteversion. There were 20 women and 27 men. The mean age of patients was 56 years (range 21–84 years). Results: The anteversion values were found as the angle between a distal condylar axis (DCA) and femoral neck anteversion axis (FNAA) along an imaginary longitudinal femoral axis (LFA) in the true cranio-caudal view. The FBP was determined as a plane that passes through the centre-points of three pre-determinated sections on the femoral shaft. The angles between DCA, FNAA and FBP were comparatively evaluated. The independent samples t-test was used for statistical analysis. At the end, it was found that FBP lies nearly perpendicular to the anteversion axis for the mean of our sample which is around 89° in females and 93° in males (range 78–102°). On the other hand, FBP does not lie close to the sagittal femoral plane (SFP); instead, there is an average 12.5° external rotation relative to the SFP. FBP is correlated well with anteversion in terms of FBP inclination from SFP and femoral torsion (i.e., angle between FBP and femoral neck anteversion axis (P < 0.001; r = 0.680 and r = −0.682, respectively). Combined correlation is perfect (R2 = 1) as the FBP, SFP, and posterior femoral plane forms a triangle in the cranio-caudal view. Conclusions: We found that FBP adapts to anteversion. As FBP lies close to perpendicularity for the mean, femoral component positioning

  18. Evaluation of Femoral Neck Bone Mineral Density and Radiographic Hand and Knee Osteoarthritis in a Korean Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Kee Jeong; Kim, Ki Woong; Kim, Tae Kyun; Chang, Chong Bum; Jang, Hak Chul; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Reports on the relationship between osteoporosis and osteoarthritis (OA) have tended to disagree, especially in non-weight bearing joints such as the hand joints. We aimed to investigate the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and hand and knee OA in a general Korean elderly population. Methods We evaluated femur neck BMD and the hand and knee radiographs of 143 men and 123 women over 65 years of age who participated in a population-based cohort study. The Kellgren-Lawrence criteria for grading OA were implemented, and grade 2 or higher were categorized as radiographic OA. BMD was compared according to the existence of radiographic OA in the hand and knee using analysis of covariance, and correlation analyses were performed to explore the relationship between BMD and radiographic OA grade. Results After controlling for age and body mass index, there was no significant difference in BMD between participants with and without hand OA (p = 0.717 in male and p = 0.862 in female), between those with and without knee OA (p = 0.974 in male and p = 0.563 in female), and between those with only hand OA and those with only knee OA (p = 0.920 in male and p = 0.961 in female). Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between BMD and the radiographic OA grade of the hands (p = 0.182 in male and p = 0.897 in female) and knees (p = 0.245 in male and p = 0.098 in female). Conclusions In our cohort of the general Korean elderly population, no association was found between osteoporosis and OA, regardless of the weight bearing status of the joints. PMID:25177462

  19. The utility of lumbar spine trabecular bone score and femoral neck bone mineral density for identifying asymptomatic vertebral fractures in well-compensated type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Zhukouskaya, V V; Eller-Vainicher, C; Ellen-Vainicher, C; Gaudio, A; Privitera, F; Cairoli, E; Ulivieri, F M; Palmieri, S; Morelli, V; Grancini, V; Orsi, E; Masserini, B; Spada, A M; Fiore, C E; Chiodini, I

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of trabecular bone score (TBS) and bone mineral density (BMD) for identifying vertebral fractures (VFx) in well-compensated type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. TBS and femoral neck BMD below certain cutoffs may be useful for identifying VFx in well-compensated T2D patients. In T2D, the prevalence of VFx is increased, especially in poorly compensated and complicated diabetic patients. The possibility of predicting the fracture risk in T2D patients by measuring BMD and TBS, an indirect parameter of bone quality, is under debate. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the usefulness of TBS and BMD for identifying VFx in well-compensated T2D patients. Ninety-nine T2D postmenopausal women in good metabolic control (glycosylated haemoglobin 6.8 ± 0.7 %) and 107 control subjects without T2D were evaluated. In all subjects, we evaluated the following: the BMD at the lumbar spine (LS) and the femoral neck (FN); the TBS by dual X-ray absorptiometry; and VFx by radiography. In T2D subjects, the presence of diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy was evaluated. T2D subjects had increased VFx prevalence (34.3 %) as compared to controls (18.7 %) (p = 0.01). T2D subjects presented higher BMD (LS -0.8 ± 1.44, FN -1.06 ± 1.08), as compared to controls (LS -1.39 ± 1.28, p = 0.002; FN -1.45 ± 0.91, p = 0.006, respectively). TBS was not different between diabetics and controls. In fractured T2D patients, LS-BMD, FN-BMD, and TBS were reduced (-1.2 ± 1.44; -1.44 ± 1.04; 1.072 ± 0.15) and the prevalence of retinopathy (15.4 %) was increased than in nonfractured T2D subjects (-0.59 ± 1.4, p = 0.035; -0.87 ± 1.05, p = 0.005; 1.159 ± 0.15, p = 0.006; 1.8 %, p = 0.04, respectively). The combination of TBS ≤1.130 and FN-BMD less than -1.0 had the best diagnostic accuracy for detecting T2D fractured patients (SP 73.8 %, SN 63.6 %, NPV 78

  20. Impact of femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD discordances on FRAX probabilities in women; a meta-analysis of international cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, H; Kanis, JA; Odén, A; Leslie, WD; Fujiwara, S; Glüer, CC; Kroger, H; LaCroix, AZ; Lau, E; Melton, LJ; Eisman, J; O’Neill, TW; Goltzman, D; Reid, DM

    2015-01-01

    There are occasional marked discordances in BMD T-scores at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN). We investigated whether such discordances could contribute independently to fracture prediction using FRAX. We studied 21,158 women, average age 63 years, from 10 prospective cohorts with baseline FRAX variables as well as FN and LS BMD. Incident fractures were collected by self-report and/or radiographic reports. Extended Poisson regression examined the relationship between differences in LS and FN T-scores (ΔLS-FN) and fracture risk, adjusted for age, time since baseline and other factors including FRAX 10-year probability for major osteoporotic fracture calculated using FN BMD. To examine the effect of an adjustment for ΔLS-FN on reclassification, women were separated into risk categories by their FRAX major fracture probability. High risk was classified using two approaches: being above the National Osteoporosis Guideline Group intervention threshold or, separately, being in the highest third of each cohort. The absolute ΔLS-FN was greater than 2 SD for 2.5% of women and between 1 and 2 SD for 21%. ΔLS-FN was associated with a significant risk of fracture adjusted for baseline FRAX (HR per SD change = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.04–1.15). In reclassification analyses, only 2.3–3.2% of the women moved to a higher or lower risk category when using FRAX with ΔLS-FN compared with FN-derived FRAX alone. Adjustment of estimated fracture risk for a large LS/FN discrepancy (>2SD) impacts to a large extent on only a relatively small number of individuals. More moderate (1-2SD) discordances in FN and LS T-scores have a small impact on FRAX probabilities. This might still improve clinical decision-making, particularly in women with probabilities close to an intervention threshold. PMID:25187239

  1. Impact of femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD discordances on FRAX probabilities in women: A meta-analysis of international cohorts

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, H.; Kanis, J. A.; Oden, A.; Leslie, W. D.; Fujiwara, S.; Gluer, C. C.; Kroger, H.; LaCroix, A. Z.; Lau, E.; Melton, L. J.; Eisman, J. A.; O’Neill, T. W.; Goltzman, D.; Reid, D. M.; McCloskey, E.

    2014-09-04

    There are occasional marked discordances in BMD T-scores at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN). We investigated whether such discordances could contribute independently to fracture prediction using FRAX. In this paper, we studied 21,158 women, average age 63 years, from 10 prospective cohorts with baseline FRAX variables as well as FN and LS BMD. Incident fractures were collected by self-report and/or radiographic reports. Extended Poisson regression examined the relationship between differences in LS and FN T-scores (ΔLS–FN) and fracture risk, adjusted for age, time since baseline and other factors including FRAX 10-year probability for major osteoporotic fracture calculated using FN BMD. To examine the effect of an adjustment for ΔLS–FN on reclassification, women were separated into risk categories by their FRAX major fracture probability. High risk was classified using two approaches: being above the National Osteoporosis Guideline Group intervention threshold or, separately, being in the highest third of each cohort. The absolute ΔLS–FN was greater than 2 SD for 2.5 % of women and between 1 and 2 SD for 21 %. ΔLS–FN was associated with a significant risk of fracture adjusted for baseline FRAX (HR per SD change = 1.09; 95 % CI = 1.04–1.15). In reclassification analyses, only 2.3–3.2 % of the women moved to a higher or lower risk category when using FRAX with ΔLS–FN compared with FN-derived FRAX alone. Adjustment of estimated fracture risk for a large LS/FN discrepancy (>2SD) impacts to a large extent on only a relatively small number of individuals. More moderate (1–2SD) discordances in FN and LS T-scores have a small impact on FRAX probabilities. Finally, this might still improve clinical decision-making, particularly in women with probabilities close to an intervention threshold.

  2. Differences in the trajectory of bone mineral density change measured at the total hip and femoral neck between men and women following hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Rathbun, Alan M; Shardell, Michelle; Orwig, Denise; Hebel, J Richard; Hicks, Gregory E; Beck, Thomas; Hochberg, Marc C; Magaziner, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Research has not examined changes in bone mineral density (BMD) between men and women following hip fracture. The aim was to evaluate sex differences in BMD following hip fracture. Men experienced significant declines in BMD, while not statistically greater than women, underscoring the necessity for better osteoporosis care in men. Each year in the USA, approximately 260,000 older adults experience a hip fracture. Women experiencing hip fracture have excess decline in BMD in the year following fracture compared to expected decrements due to aging, but few studies have assessed sex differences in the sequelae of hip fracture. Thus, our objective was to examine sex differences in BMD change in the year after hip fracture. The sample (n = 286) included persons enrolled in the Baltimore Hip Studies 7th cohort, a study that matched (1:1) men and women experiencing hip fracture. Weighted estimating equations that accounted for missing data and selective survival were used to estimate sex differences in 12-month total hip (TH) and femoral neck (FN) BMD changes. Men had larger average adjusted percent decline in TH and FN BMD. Adjusted 12-month decreases at the FN showed a statistically significant decline of -4.60% (95% confidence interval [CI] -7.76%, -0.20%) in men and an insignificant change of -1.62% (95% CI -4.57%, 1.32%) in women. Yet, the difference in change between men and women was not statistically significant (P = 0.17). The estimated sex differences for TH BMD loss were smaller in magnitude. There is evidence of significant BMD loss among men at the FN in the year after hip fracture. Although not statistically greater than women, these clinically significant findings highlight the need for improved osteoporosis care among men prior to and after hip fracture.

  3. The Association Between Hospital Length of Stay and 90-Day Readmission Risk for Femoral Neck Fracture Patients: Within a Total Joint Arthroplasty Bundled Payment Initiative.

    PubMed

    Kester, Benjamin S; Williams, Jarrett; Bosco, Joseph A; Slover, James D; Iorio, Richard; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2016-12-01

    Hip arthroplasty is increasingly performed as a treatment for femoral neck fractures (FNFs). However, these cases have higher complication rates than elective total hip arthroplasties (THAs). The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services has created the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement model to increase the value of patient care. This model risk stratifies FNF patients in an attempt to appropriately allocate resources, but the formula has not been disclosed. The goal of this study was to ascertain if patients with FNFs have different readmission rates compared to patients undergoing elective THA so that the resource utilization can be assessed. We analyzed all patients undergoing THA at our institution during a 21-month period. Patients classified by a diagnosis-related group of 469 or 470 were included. Multivariate and survival analyses were performed to determine risk of 90-day readmission. Patients admitted for FNFs were older, had higher body mass indices, longer lengths of stay, and were more likely to be discharged to inpatient facilities than patients who underwent elective THA. Increased American Society of Anesthesiologists scores and FNF were also independent risk factors for 90-day readmission, and these patient were more likely to be readmitted during the latter 60 days following admission. Results suggest that patients who undergo an arthroplasty following urgent or emergent FNFs have inferior outcomes to those receiving an arthroplasty for a diagnosis of arthritis. Fracture patients should either be risk stratified to allow appropriate resource allocation or be excluded from alternative payment initiatives such as Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Tranexamic Acid Safely Reduced Blood Loss in Hemi- and Total Hip Arthroplasty for Acute Femoral Neck Fracture: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Watts, Chad D; Houdek, Matthew T; Sems, S Andrew; Cross, William W; Pagnano, Mark W

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to determine whether (1) tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces the incidence of transfusion (2) TXA reduces the calculated blood loss, and (3) there are any observable differences in 30- and 90-day complications with TXA administration during arthroplasty for femoral neck fracture (FNF). Prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Level 1 Academic Trauma Center. One hundred thirty-eight patients who presented with a low-energy, isolated, FNF (AO 31B) treated with either hemi- or total hip arthroplasty within 72 hours of injury were randomized to either the TXA group (69 patients) or placebo group (69 patients). In the TXA group, patients received 2 doses of 15 mg/kg intravenous TXA dissolved in 100 mL of saline, each administered over 10 minutes; 1 dose just before incision, and the second at wound closure. In the placebo group, 100 mL of saline solution was administered in a similar fashion. Perioperative care was otherwise standardized including conservative transfusion criteria. Our primary outcome was to determine the proportion of patients who underwent blood transfusion during hospitalization. Secondary outcomes were calculated blood loss, number of units transfused during hospitalization, and incidence of adverse events at 30 and 90 days including thromboembolic event, wound complications, reoperation, hospital readmission, and all-cause mortality. TXA reduced mean incidence of transfusion by 305 mL (P = 0.0005). There was a trend toward decreased transfusion rate in the TXA group (17% vs. 26%, P = 0.22). TXA was safe with no differences in adverse events at 30 and 90 days. This randomized clinical trial found that TXA administration safely reduced blood loss with a tendency for decreased transfusion rate and total blood product consumption for patients undergoing hip arthroplasty for acute FNF. More studies are needed to further ascertain the role of TXA in the management of patients with FNF. Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors

  5. High-resolution pQCT analysis at the distal radius and tibia discriminates patients with recent wrist and femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Vico, Laurence; Zouch, Mohamed; Amirouche, Adel; Frère, Delphine; Laroche, Norbert; Koller, Bruno; Laib, Andres; Thomas, Thierry; Alexandre, Christian

    2008-11-01

    We depict a fragility bone state in two primitive osteoporosis populations using 3D high-resolution peripheral in vivo QCT (HR-pQCT). Postmenopausal women (C, controls, n = 54; WF, wrist, n = 50; HF, hip, n = 62 recent fractured patients) were analyzed for lumbar and hip DXA areal BMD (aBMD), cancellous and cortical volumetric BMD (vBMD), and microstructural and geometric parameters on tibia and radius by HR-pQCT. Principal component analysis (PCA) allowed extracting factors that best represent bone variables. Comparison between groups was made by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Two factors (>80% of the entire variability) are extracted by PCA: at the radius, the first is a combination of trabecular parameters and the second of cortical parameters. At the tibia, we found the reverse. Femoral neck aBMD is decreased in WF (8.6%) and in HF (18%) groups (no lumbar difference). WF showed a approximately 20% reduction in radius trabecular vBMD and number. Radius cortical vBMD and thickness decrease by 6% and 14%, respectively. At the tibia, only the cortical compartment is affected, with approximately 20% reduction in bone area, thickness, and section modulus and 6% reduction in vBMD. HF showed same radius trabecular alterations than WF, but radius cortical parameters are more severely affected than WF with reduced bone area (25%), thickness (28.5%), and vBMD (11%). At the tibia, trabecular vBMD and number decrease by 26% and 17.5%, respectively. Tibia cortical bone area, thickness, and section modulus showed a >30% decrease, whereas vBMD reduction reached 13%. Geometry parameters at the tibia displayed the greatest differences between healthy and fractured patients and between wrist and hip fractures.

  6. Diminished abductor muscular strength in patients with valgus-impacted femoral neck fractures treated by internal fixation: Clinical study and biomechanical considerations.

    PubMed

    Noda, Mitsuaki; Saegusa, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Masayasu; Kuroda, Yuichi; Takada, Yuma; Yoshikawa, Chihiro; Wakabayashi, Mimami; Adachi, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Yukiko

    2017-01-01

    Valgus-impacted femoral neck fractures treated with internal fixation occasionally result in unsatisfactory postoperative locomotive function, partially due to muscle shortening and a decrease in the moment arm. This study quantifies the degree of diminished abduction strength both clinically and biomechanically. Fifteen patients were enrolled in this study. Twelve patients with fracture healed in valgus-impacted position were further evaluated. Muscular strength around hip was examined, and values between the nonoperated and operated side were compared and analyzed. For the biomechanical study, two three-dimensional models were prepared: model I (control model without displacement) and model II (simulated malunion of a 15° valgus-impacted fracture). Two sets of hip flexion angles in each of the models were simulated with flexion angles of 0° and 23°. Mean and standard deviation values for muscle strength from the nonoperative/operative side among the valgus group are as follows: flexion strength was 9.2 ± 4.0/9.2 ± 3.2, extension strength was 5.8 ± 2.8/6.1 ± 3.2, abduction strength at 0° was 9.1 ± 3.7/7.4 ± 3.6, abduction strength at 10° was 6.7 ± 3.0/5.5 ± 2.2, and knee extension strength was 15.3 ± 6.2/15.1 ± 6.0 (kgf). When comparing values between the nonoperative and operative sides, statistical significance was only observed in abduction strength ( p < 0.01). The biomechanical models prove that valgus impaction decreases the moment arm by approximately 10% at both flexion angle. A significant decrease in abductor strength at 0° and 10° was observed in the valgus-healed group. This may be related to a decrease in the moment arm. Further research should be done to define the acceptable limit of deformity for the satisfactory postoperative functioning.

  7. Assertive rehabilitation for intracapsular fracture of the proximal femur.

    PubMed

    Ohsawa, Suguru; Miura, Aiko; Yagyu, Mie; Oizumi, Anzu; Yamada, Eiji

    2007-01-01

    To study the impact of assertive conservative therapy on walking in frail elderly patients with intracapsular fracture of the proximal femaur. Prospective non-randomized controlled trial. Two private geriatric rehabilitation hospitals. From October 1997 to December 2004, 20 patients, not indicated for surgery, were treated with conservative therapy. There were 18 women and 2 men, and their ages were 87.1+/-4.2 (mean +/-SD) years. All of them could walk before hip fracture. Thirteen patients accepted our assertive therapy, which consisted of standing on the fractured limb and walking in parallel bars as soon as possible. Seven patients refused our methods and were conventionally treated; the injured limb was immobilized under skin traction, and then they gradually tried to use a wheelchair for pain reduction. We used the following measures before therapy and six months after: Merle d'Aubigné & Postel's Hip Score, Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and face pain scale. The two groups were similar demographically. All patients except one (n = 12) responded to our method and could walk. However, the patients treated with the conventional method (n = 7) did not recover the ability to walk. The mean FIM (transfer and locomotion, five items) was 18.2 +/-7.9 points in the former and 9.4 +/- 4.3 points in the latter. Assertive rehabilitation was more effective at restoring the ambulatory ability of frail elderly patients with intracapsular fracture of the hip than the conventional method.

  8. Computer-assisted virtual technology in intracapsular condylar fracture with two resorbable long-screws.

    PubMed

    Wang, W H; Deng, J Y; Zhu, J; Li, M; Xia, B; Xu, B

    2013-03-01

    Our aim was to fix intracapsular condylar fractures (ICF) with two resorbable long screws using preoperative computer-assisted virtual technology. From February 2008 to July 2011, 19 patients with ICF were treated with two resorbable long screws. Preoperatively we took panoramic radiographs and spiral computed tomography (CT). Depending on their digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data, the dislocated condylar segments were restored using the SimPlant Pro™ software, version 11.04. The mean (SD) widths of the condylar head and neck from lateral to medial were 19.01 (1.28)mm and 13.84 (1.13)mm, respectively. In all patients, the mandibles and the ICF seen intraoperatively corresponded with the preoperative three-dimensional and virtual reposition. All patients were followed up for 6-46 months (mean 21). Occlusion and mouth opening had been restored completely in all but one patient, and absolute anatomical reduction was also achieved in most cases. Computer-assisted virtual technology plays an important part in the diagnosis of ICF, as well as in its preoperative design. Fixation with only two resorbable long screws is an effective and reliable method for fixing ICF.

  9. Simultaneous Bilateral Femur Neck Fracture in A Young Adult with Chronic Renal Failure- A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    V, Sathyanarayana; Patel, Maulik Tulsibhai; S, Raghavan; D, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pathological bilateral femoral neck fracture due to renal osteodystrophy is rare. This is a report of a chronic renal failure patient who had sustained bilateral intra-capsular displaced fracture neck of femur following an episode of convulsion and the difficulties encountered in early diagnosis and treatment. The pathophysiology of renal osteodystrophy and the treatment of hip fractures in patients with renal failure are also discussed. Case Report: A 23 years old male patient admitted with h/o dysuria, pyuria and loss of appetite since 3 months. He was a known case of chronic renal failure and reflux nephropathy. On investigating, patient’s renal parameters were high and he was started with haemodialysis. The next day patient had c/o bilateral hip pain and inability to move bilateral lower limbs following an episode of seizure. Radiograph of pelvis showed vertical sub capital fractures of bilateral neck of femur. In this patient, considering his age, general condition & prognosis, an elective surgery in the form of bilateral uncemented modular bipolar hemiarthroplasty was done. Conclusion: Overall risk of hip fracture among patients with chronic renal failure is considerably higher than in the general population, independent of age and gender. Simultaneous spontaneous bilateral fractures of the femoral neck are rare and a delayed diagnosis is usual. The study of etiological factors of these fractures is essential to guide us in choosing the treatment of choice. Obviously patient’s age, life expectancy as well as renal co morbidity has an influence over deciding treatment and outcome. PMID:27299091

  10. In vivo precision of the GE lunar iDXA for the assessment of lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, and total body bone mineral density in severely obese patients.

    PubMed

    Carver, Tamara E; Christou, Nicolas V; Court, Olivier; Lemke, Hannah; Andersen, Ross E

    2014-01-01

    No study has evaluated the precision of the GE Lunar iDXATM (GE Healthcare) in measuring bone mineral density (BMD) among severely obese patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the precision of the GE Lunar iDXATM for assessing BMD, including the lumbar spine L1-L4, L2-L4, the total hip, femoral neck, and total body in a severely obese population (body mass index [BMI]>40 kg/m(2)). Sixty-four severely obese participants with a mean age of 46 ± 11 yr, BMI of 49 ± 6 kg/m(2), and a mean body mass of 136.8 ± 20.4 kg took part in this investigation. Two consecutive iDXA scans (with repositioning) of the total body (total body BMD [TBBMD]), lumbar spine (L1-L4 and L2-L4), total hip (total hip BMD [THBMD]), and femoral neck (femoral neck BMD [FNBMD]) were conducted for each participant. The coefficient of variation (CV), the root mean square (RMS) averages of standard deviations of repeated measurements, the corresponding 95% least significant change, and intraclass correlations (ICCs) were calculated. In addition, analysis of bias and coefficients of repeatability were calculated. The results showed a high level of precision for total body (TBBMD), lumbar spine (L1-L4), and total hip (THBMD) with values of RMS: 0.013, 0.014, and 0.011 g/cm(2); CV: 0.97%, 1.05%, and 0.99%, respectively. Precision error for the femoral neck was 2.34% (RMS: 0.025 g/cm(2)) but still represented high reproducibility. ICCs in all dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements were 0.99 with FNBMD having the lowest at 0.98. Coefficients of repeatability for THBMD, FNBMD, L1-L4, L2-L4, and TBBMD were 0.0312, 0.0688, 0.0383, 0.0493, and 0.0312 g/cm(2), respectively. The Lunar iDXA demonstrated excellent precision for BMD measurements and is the first study to assess reproducibility of the GE Lunar iDXA with severely obese adults.

  11. Impact of femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD discordances on FRAX probabilities in women: A meta-analysis of international cohorts

    DOE PAGES

    Johansson, H.; Kanis, J. A.; Oden, A.; ...

    2014-09-04

    There are occasional marked discordances in BMD T-scores at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN). We investigated whether such discordances could contribute independently to fracture prediction using FRAX. In this paper, we studied 21,158 women, average age 63 years, from 10 prospective cohorts with baseline FRAX variables as well as FN and LS BMD. Incident fractures were collected by self-report and/or radiographic reports. Extended Poisson regression examined the relationship between differences in LS and FN T-scores (ΔLS–FN) and fracture risk, adjusted for age, time since baseline and other factors including FRAX 10-year probability for major osteoporotic fracture calculatedmore » using FN BMD. To examine the effect of an adjustment for ΔLS–FN on reclassification, women were separated into risk categories by their FRAX major fracture probability. High risk was classified using two approaches: being above the National Osteoporosis Guideline Group intervention threshold or, separately, being in the highest third of each cohort. The absolute ΔLS–FN was greater than 2 SD for 2.5 % of women and between 1 and 2 SD for 21 %. ΔLS–FN was associated with a significant risk of fracture adjusted for baseline FRAX (HR per SD change = 1.09; 95 % CI = 1.04–1.15). In reclassification analyses, only 2.3–3.2 % of the women moved to a higher or lower risk category when using FRAX with ΔLS–FN compared with FN-derived FRAX alone. Adjustment of estimated fracture risk for a large LS/FN discrepancy (>2SD) impacts to a large extent on only a relatively small number of individuals. More moderate (1–2SD) discordances in FN and LS T-scores have a small impact on FRAX probabilities. Finally, this might still improve clinical decision-making, particularly in women with probabilities close to an intervention threshold.« less

  12. Effects of ground and joint reaction force exercise on lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Low bone mineral density (BMD) and subsequent fractures are a major public health problem in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to use the aggregate data meta-analytic approach to examine the effects of ground (for example, walking) and/or joint reaction (for example, strength training) exercise on femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMD in postmenopausal women. Methods The a priori inclusion criteria were: (1) randomized controlled trials, (2) exercise intervention ≥ 24 weeks, (3) comparative control group, (4) postmenopausal women, (5) participants not regularly active, i.e., less than 150 minutes of moderate intensity (3.0 to 5.9 metabolic equivalents) weight bearing endurance activity per week, less than 75 minutes of vigorous intensity (> 6.0 metabolic equivalents) weight bearing endurance activity per week, resistance training < 2 times per week, (6) published and unpublished studies in any language since January 1, 1989, (7) BMD data available at the FN and/or LS. Studies were located by searching six electronic databases, cross-referencing, hand searching and expert review. Dual selection of studies and data abstraction were performed. Hedge’s standardized effect size (g) was calculated for each FN and LS BMD result and pooled using random-effects models. Z-score alpha values, 95%confidence intervals (CI) and number-needed-to-treat (NNT) were calculated for pooled results. Heterogeneity was examined using Q and I2. Mixed-effects ANOVA and simple meta-regression were used to examine changes in FN and LS BMD according to selected categorical and continuous variables. Statistical significance was set at an alpha value ≤0.05 and a trend at >0.05 to ≤ 0.10. Results Small, statistically significant exercise minus control group improvements were found for both FN (28 g’s, 1632 participants, g = 0.288, 95% CI = 0.102, 0.474, p = 0.002, Q = 90.5, p < 0.0001, I2 = 70.1%, NNT = 6

  13. Tissue sparing total femoral arthroplasty: technical note.

    PubMed

    Willimon, Samuel Clifton; Bolognesi, Michael P; Attarian, David E

    2011-01-01

    It is predicted that the number of revision hip and knee arthroplasties will double by the years 2026 and 2015, respectively. As the burden of end-stage prosthetic disease increases, there will be a greater potential need for total femoral arthroplasty. This report describes a patient with a femoral neck fracture nonunion with an ipsilateral multiply revised failed total knee arthroplasty treated by a tissue sparing total femoral arthroplasty. The technique is described, and potential benefits are reviewed.

  14. [DEXA (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and DPA (dual photon absorptiometry) in densitometry of the femoral neck: correlation of the measurements of three commercially available instruments].

    PubMed

    Hübsch, P; Schneider, B; Seidl, G; Kalchhauser, G; Klaushofer, K; Popovic, R

    1991-07-01

    The bone mineral density measurements of three different instruments at the femoral head were compared using 12 cadaver specimens. Two of these instruments were operated by x-rays (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry = DEXA), whereas one system was based on a gadolinium source (dual photon absorptiometry = DPA). Although excellent correlation between the measurements was obtained (r greater than 0,9), the measurements of one of the DEXA-instruments were significantly higher than the measurements of the two other systems. We conclude that a comparison of bone mineral density measurements obtained on different densitometry instruments may pose problems. Follow-up examinations should be done on one single densitometry unit.

  15. Nurse egg consumption and intracapsular development in the common whelk Buccinum undatum (Linnaeus 1758)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Thatje, Sven

    2013-03-01

    Intracapsular development is common in marine gastropods. In many species, embryos develop alongside nurse eggs, which provide nutrition during ontogeny. The common whelk Buccinum undatum is a commercially important North Atlantic shallow-water gastropod. Development is intracapsular in this species, with individuals hatching as crawling juveniles. While its reproductive cycle has been well documented, further work is necessary to provide a complete description of encapsulated development. Here, using B. undatum egg masses from the south coast of England intracapsular development at 6 °C is described. Number of eggs, veligers and juveniles per capsule are compared, and nurse egg partitioning, timing of nurse egg consumption and intracapsular size differences through development are discussed. Total development took between 133 and 140 days, over which 7 ontogenetic stages were identified. The number of both eggs and veligers were significantly related to capsule volume, with approximately 1 % of eggs developing per capsule. Each early veliger consumed nurse eggs rapidly over just 3-7 days. Within each capsule, initial development was asynchronous, but it became synchronous during the veliger stage. No evidence for cannibalism was found during development, but large size differences between embryos developing within each capsule were observed, and occasionally `empty' veligers were seen, which had not successfully consumed any nurse eggs. These results indicate a high level of competition for nurse eggs within each capsule during development in the common whelk. The initial differences observed in nurse egg uptake may affect individual predisposition in later life.

  16. Good responsiveness with EuroQol 5-Dimension questionnaire and Short Form (36) Health Survey in 20-69 years old patients with a femoral neck fracture: A 2-year prospective follow-up study in 182 patients.

    PubMed

    Honkavaara, Niklas; Al-Ani, Amer N; Campenfeldt, Pierre; Ekström, Wilhelmina; Hedström, Margareta

    2016-08-01

    EQ-5D and SF-36 are two questionnaires used to measure health related quality of life (HRQoL). The responsiveness of these instruments has previously been evaluated in elderly populations with hip fracture but not in a younger population. The purpose was to evaluate the responsiveness of SF-36 and EQ-5D in a younger population with femoral neck fracture. 182 patients aged 20-69 were consecutively included. HRQoL was measured by EQ-5D and SF-36 at 4, 12 and 24 months. Pain and function were measured by Harris Hip Score (HHS) on the same occasions. The responsiveness of EQ-5D and SF-36 was evaluated by calculation of two effect sizes; standardized effect size (SES) and standardized response mean (SRM), and by analysing how changes in score correlated to changes in function and subjective state of health. External responsiveness was also evaluated by calculating receiver operating characteristic curve and area under the curve. SES was large at four months for both EQ-5D and SF-36 (1.09 and 0.83 respectively) and moderate at the 12- and 24-month follow-ups. The correlation between changes (4-24 months) in HHS and changes in HRQoL were 0.44 for EQ-5D and 0.37 for SF-36. EQ-5D and SF-36 were both more sensitive than HHS in their ability to predict subjective improvements after a hip fracture. The effect sizes and the ability to follow and predict the external standard indicates that both EQ-5D and SF-36 have good internal and external responsiveness in this younger population with femoral neck fracture. The generic HRQoL questionnaires were superior to a hip-specific instrument in predicting the patients' subjective feelings of an improved state of health. EQ-5D is simple to administer and shows similar responsiveness as SF-36 and may be sufficient to use as an outcome measure in clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fixation using alternative implants for the treatment of hip fractures (FAITH): design and rationale for a multi-centre randomized trial comparing sliding hip screws and cancellous screws on revision surgery rates and quality of life in the treatment of femoral neck fractures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hip fractures are a common type of fragility fracture that afflict 293,000 Americans (over 5,000 per week) and 35,000 Canadians (over 670 per week) annually. Despite the large population impact the optimal fixation technique for low energy femoral neck fractures remains controversial. The primary objective of the FAITH study is to assess the impact of cancellous screw fixation versus sliding hip screws on rates of revision surgery at 24 months in individuals with femoral neck fractures. The secondary objective is to determine the impact on health-related quality of life, functional outcomes, health state utilities, fracture healing, mortality and fracture-related adverse events. Methods/Design FAITH is a multi-centre, multi-national randomized controlled trial utilizing minimization to determine patient allocation. Surgeons in North America, Europe, Australia, and Asia will recruit a total of at least 1,000 patients with low-energy femoral neck fractures. Using central randomization, patients will be allocated to receive surgical treatment with cancellous screws or a sliding hip screw. Patient outcomes will be assessed at one week (baseline), 10 weeks, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post initial fixation. We will independently adjudicate revision surgery and complications within 24 months of the initial fixation. Outcome analysis will be performed using a Cox proportional hazards model and likelihood ratio test. Discussion This study represents major international efforts to definitively resolve the treatment of low-energy femoral neck fractures. This trial will not only change current Orthopaedic practice, but will also set a benchmark for the conduct of future Orthopaedic trials. Trial registration The FAITH trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier NCT00761813). PMID:24965132

  18. Fixation using alternative implants for the treatment of hip fractures (FAITH): design and rationale for a multi-centre randomized trial comparing sliding hip screws and cancellous screws on revision surgery rates and quality of life in the treatment of femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    2014-06-26

    Hip fractures are a common type of fragility fracture that afflict 293,000 Americans (over 5,000 per week) and 35,000 Canadians (over 670 per week) annually. Despite the large population impact the optimal fixation technique for low energy femoral neck fractures remains controversial. The primary objective of the FAITH study is to assess the impact of cancellous screw fixation versus sliding hip screws on rates of revision surgery at 24 months in individuals with femoral neck fractures. The secondary objective is to determine the impact on health-related quality of life, functional outcomes, health state utilities, fracture healing, mortality and fracture-related adverse events. FAITH is a multi-centre, multi-national randomized controlled trial utilizing minimization to determine patient allocation. Surgeons in North America, Europe, Australia, and Asia will recruit a total of at least 1,000 patients with low-energy femoral neck fractures. Using central randomization, patients will be allocated to receive surgical treatment with cancellous screws or a sliding hip screw. Patient outcomes will be assessed at one week (baseline), 10 weeks, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post initial fixation. We will independently adjudicate revision surgery and complications within 24 months of the initial fixation. Outcome analysis will be performed using a Cox proportional hazards model and likelihood ratio test. This study represents major international efforts to definitively resolve the treatment of low-energy femoral neck fractures. This trial will not only change current Orthopaedic practice, but will also set a benchmark for the conduct of future Orthopaedic trials. The FAITH trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier NCT00761813).

  19. Is reconstruction nailing of all femoral shaft fractures cost effective? A decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Faucett, Scott C; Collinge, Cory A; Koval, Kenneth J

    2012-11-01

    Femoral shaft fractures are usually treated with anterograde or retrograde nails that typically do not provide femoral neck fixation. Ipsilateral femoral neck fractures occur with 2.5%-10% of femoral shaft fractures; 19%-55% of associated femoral neck fractures are missed with plain films and 5%-22% with computed tomography (CT). This study was performed to determine if routine reconstruction nailing of all femoral shaft fractures with or without occult femoral neck fractures is cost effective. A decision tree model examined the cost effectiveness of reconstruction nailing over standard intramedullary nailing for all femoral shaft fractures in which an associated femoral neck fracture was not identified on plain radiographs. As a base model, we assumed that 5% of shaft fractures had an ipsilateral femoral neck fracture, and 37% were missed and required further surgery. We assigned a small morbidity and additional cost ($680) for the use of a reconstruction nail and 2 screws. Model inputs including costs, clinical outcome probabilities, and health utilities were derived from the literature, estimated from institutional data, or assumed by the authors. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the effect of the rate of associated femoral neck fracture, the rate of missed femoral neck fracture, the complication rate of reconstruction screws, the cost of the extra reconstruction screws, and the utilities of each outcome on the incremental cost effectiveness (ICER) of both strategies. Current practice in cost-effectiveness analysis uses a threshold of $100,000 per quality-adjusted life year gained as cost effective. A secondary analysis of the use CT scans to reduce missed femoral neck fractures was also performed. The base model showed that the placement of reconstruction nails in all isolated femur fractures was not cost effective. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the ICER was most sensitive to the cost of the reconstruction nail, hemiarthroplasty, and a missed femoral

  20. Corail uncemented hemiarthroplasty with a Cathcart head for intracapsular hip fractures.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, B J L; Wilson, H A; Lippett, J E; McAndrew, A R; Andrade, A J M D

    2013-11-01

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines from 2011 recommend the use of cemented hemi-arthroplasty for appropriate patients with an intracapsular hip fracture. In our institution all patients who were admitted with an intracapsular hip fracture and were suitable for a hemi-arthroplasty between April 2010 and July 2012 received an uncemented prosthesis according to our established departmental routine practice. A retrospective analysis of outcome was performed to establish whether the continued use of an uncemented stem was justified. Patient, surgical and outcome data were collected on the National Hip Fracture database. A total of 306 patients received a Cathcart modular head on a Corail uncemented stem as a hemi-arthroplasty. The mean age of the patients was 83.3 years (SD 7.56; 46.6 to 94) and 216 (70.6%) were women. The mortality rate at 30 days was 5.8%. A total of 46.5% of patients returned to their own home by 30 days, which increased to 73.2% by 120 days. The implant used as a hemi-arthroplasty for intracapsular hip fracture provided satisfactory results, with a good rate of return to pre-injury place of residence and an acceptable mortality rate. Surgery should be performed by those who are familiar with the design of the stem and understand what is required for successful implantation.

  1. The "Swiss-cheese Doppler-guided laser tonsillectomy": a new safe cribriform approach to intracapsular tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, B; Iannitti, T; Fistetto, G; Rottigni, V

    2013-05-01

    Outpatient laser ablation of palatine tonsils is a very interesting procedure that has been recently introduced as a routine in head and neck surgery departments. The aim of this study was to describe a new strategy using a Doppler-guided fibre optic neodymium-yttrium-aluminium-garnet (YAG) laser to remove up to 80 % of tonsillar tissue, as assessed in the long-term postoperative clinical evaluation of the volume of the tonsils at the follow-up, and leaving the capsule in place, thus avoiding any haemorrhagic complication and minimize pain. A total of 20 patients (men, n=13; women, n=7), aged between 6 and 63, were recruited for the procedure. They were affected by chronic hypertrophic tonsillitis with a recurrent fever and other symptoms that were related to oral inflammation. Among the 20 patients, no serious adverse events, including haemorrhage-related complications, were observed. Treatment was well tolerated, even in patients displaying an overall low pain threshold. No dropout or uncompleted procedure occurred in the present study. Minor complications included sore throat, moderate oedema, mild acute pharynx inflammation, slight peritonsillar exudate and local burning. The postoperative pain, measured by Scott-Huskisson visual analogue scale, was between 5 and 40 mm and was easily counteracted by means of external ice packages and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, according to the individual patient's need. During the 12-36-month follow-up patients showed improved symptoms (n=7) and complete recovery (n=13). A relapse episode was observed in two patients. This study supports fibre optic laser neodymium-YAG tonsil surgery, named "cribriform intracapsular tonsillectomy" or "Swiss-cheese laser tonsillectomy", as an effective alternative to the traditional cold knife approach or electrosurgery. This approach could become the gold standard for tonsil surgery in the third millennium for safety reasons, acceptable cost-benefit ratio, the precise targeting of

  2. Is bone microarchitecture status of the lumbar spine assessed by TBS related to femoral neck fracture? A Spanish case-control study.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, L M; Winzenrieth, R; Cormier, C; Di Gregorio, S

    2013-03-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) as assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) constitutes the gold standard for osteoporosis diagnosis. However, DXA does not take into account bone microarchitecture alterations. The aim of our study was to evaluate the ability of trabecular bone score (TBS) at lumbar spine to discriminate subjects with hip fracture. We presented a case-control study of 191 Spanish women aged 50 years and older. Women presented transcervical fractures only. BMD was measured at lumbar spine (LS-BMD) using a Prodigy densitometer. TBS was calculated directly on the same spine image. Descriptive statistics, tests of difference and univariate and multivariate backward regressions were used. Odds ratio (OR) and the ROC curve area of discriminating parameters were calculated. The study population consisted of 83 subjects with a fracture and 108 control subjects. Significant lower spine and hip BMD and TBS values were found for subjects with fractures (p < 0.0001). Correlation between LS-BMD and spine TBS was modest (r = 0.41, p < 0.05). LS-BMD and TBS independently discriminate fractures equally well (OR = 2.21 [1.56-3.13] and 2.05 [1.45-2.89], respectively) but remain lower than BMD at neck or at total femur (OR = 5.86 [3.39-10.14] and 6.06 [3.55-10.34], respectively). After adjusting for age, LS-BMD and TBS remain significant for transcervical fracture discrimination (OR = 1.94 [1.35-2.79] and 1.71 [1.15-2.55], respectively). TBS and LS-BMD combination (OR = 2.39[1.70-3.37]) improved fracture risk prediction by 25 %. This study shows the potential of TBS to discriminate subjects with and without hip fracture. TBS and LS-BMD combination improves fracture risk prediction. Nevertheless, BMD at hip remains the best predictor of hip fracture.

  3. Cam deformity and the omega angle, a novel quantitative measurement of femoral head-neck morphology: a 3D CT gender analysis in asymptomatic subjects.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Vasco V; Rego, Paulo; Dantas, Pedro; Gaspar, Augusto; Soldado, Francisco; Consciência, José G

    2017-05-01

    Our objectives were to use 3D computed tomography (CT) to define head-neck morphologic gender-specific and normative parameters in asymptomatic individuals and use the omega angle (Ω°) to provide quantification data on the location and radial extension of a cam deformity. We prospectively included 350 individuals and evaluated 188 asymptomatic hips that underwent semiautomated CT analysis. Different thresholds of alpha angle (α°) were considered in order to analyze cam morphology and determine Ω°. We calculated overall and gender-specific parameters for imaging signs of cam morphology (Ω° and circumferential α°). The 95 % reference interval limits were beyond abnormal thresholds found in the literature for cam morphology. Specifically, α° at 3/1 o´clock were 46.9°/60.8° overall, 51.8°/65.4° for men and 45.7°/55.3° for women. Cam prevalence, magnitude, location, and epicenter were significantly gender different. Increasing α° correlated with higher Ω°, meaning that higher angles correspond to larger cam deformities. Hip morphometry measurements in this cohort of asymptomatic individuals extended beyond current thresholds used for the clinical diagnosis of cam deformity, and α° was found to vary both by gender and measurement location. These results suggest that α° measurement is insufficient for the diagnosis of cam deformity. Enhanced morphometric evaluation, including 3D imaging and Ω°, may enable a more accurate diagnosis. • 95% reference interval limits of cam morphotype were beyond currently defined thresholds. • Current morphometric definitions for cam-type morphotype should be applied with care. • Cam prevalence, magnitude, location, and epicenter are significantly gender different. • Cam and alpha angle thresholds should be defined according to sex/location. • Quantitative 3D morphometric assessment allows thorough and reproducible FAI diagnosis and monitoring.

  4. Sex- and age-related differences in femoral neck cross-sectional structural changes in mainland Chinese men and women measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian; Tang, Min; Guo, Bin; Shang, JingJie; Tang, Yongjin; Xu, Hao

    2016-02-01

    We investigated age-related changes in estimated bone strength and cross-sectional structure of the femoral neck (FN) in mainland Chinese men and women (according to age and sex) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 3855 healthy adults (2713 women, 1142 men; ages 25-91years) were analyzed by FN bone mineral density (BMD) assessment and hip structural/strength analysis (HSA), including cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), cross-sectional area (CSA), section modulus (Z), periosteal diameter (PD), endocortical diameter (ED), and cortical thickness (CT) using DXA. HSA differences between age and sex groups were adjusted for body weight, height and FN BMD. Trends according to age were estimated by linear regression analysis. There was no inverse correlation between HSA parameters and age in young adults. Some HSA parameters (CSMI, CSA, Z, CT) decreased significantly with age, whereas PD and ED increased significantly. Older adults had less estimated bone strength and CT and higher PD and ED (p<0.05) than young adults. Men had greater increases in PD and ED than women across all ages. FN strength decreases with age in both sexes, caused by FN cross-sectional structural deterioration. Indirect comparison of our data with those from other populations showed less age-related FN periosteal apposition in Chinese than Caucasian men, but similar amounts in women. This may partly explain different male/female hip fracture rates among ethnic groups. Chinese men have more structural disadvantages regarding FN geometry during aging than Caucasian men, possibly conferring added susceptibility to hip fracture.

  5. Age-dependence of power spectral density and fractal dimension of bone mineralized matrix in atomic force microscope topography images: potential correlates of bone tissue age and bone fragility in female femoral neck trabeculae

    PubMed Central

    Milovanovic, Petar; Djuric, Marija; Rakocevic, Zlatko

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in bone nano-structure, the ultimate goal being to reveal the basis of age-related bone fragility. In this study, power spectral density (PSD) data and fractal dimensions of the mineralized bone matrix were extracted from atomic force microscope topography images of the femoral neck trabeculae. The aim was to evaluate age-dependent differences in the mineralized matrix of human bone and to consider whether these advanced nano-descriptors might be linked to decreased bone remodeling observed by some authors and age-related decline in bone mechanical competence. The investigated bone specimens belonged to a group of young adult women (n = 5, age: 20–40 years) and a group of elderly women (n = 5, age: 70–95 years) without bone diseases. PSD graphs showed the roughness density distribution in relation to spatial frequency. In all cases, there was a fairly linear decrease in magnitude of the power spectra with increasing spatial frequencies. The PSD slope was steeper in elderly individuals (−2.374 vs. −2.066), suggesting the dominance of larger surface morphological features. Fractal dimension of the mineralized bone matrix showed a significant negative trend with advanced age, declining from 2.467 in young individuals to 2.313 in the elderly (r = 0.65, P = 0.04). Higher fractal dimension in young women reflects domination of smaller mineral grains, which is compatible with the more freshly remodeled structure. In contrast, the surface patterns in elderly individuals were indicative of older tissue age. Lower roughness and reduced structural complexity (decreased fractal dimension) of the interfibrillar bone matrix in the elderly suggest a decline in bone toughness, which explains why aged bone is more brittle and prone to fractures. PMID:22946475

  6. Postoperative nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of bleeding in pediatric intracapsular tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Jill N; Schmidt, Richard J; Xie, Li; Adelman, Julie P; Nardone, Heather C

    2015-09-01

    In light of current FDA guidelines on opioid use in children, we sought to determine the risk of post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) in children who received ibuprofen with acetaminophen versus those who received narcotic with acetaminophen for postoperative pain control. This was an IRB-approved retrospective chart review of patients at a tertiary-care pediatric center. The medical records of 449 children who received acetaminophen and ibuprofen following intracapsular tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy were reviewed (NSAID group) and compared with medical records of 1731 children who underwent intracapsular tonsillectomy and received acetaminophen with codeine or hydrocodone with acetaminophen postoperatively (narcotic group). Main outcome measure was the incidence of PTH requiring return to the operating room. Secondary outcome measures included incidence of primary PTH, secondary PTH, and postoperative evaluation in the emergency department or readmission for pain and/or dehydration. Incidence of PTH requiring return to the operating room was higher in the NSAID group (1.6%) compared with the narcotic group (0.5%), P=0.01. Incidence of primary PTH was significantly higher in the NSAID group (2%) versus the narcotic group (0.12%), P<0.0001. Incidence of secondary PTH was 3.8% in the NSAID group and 1.1% in the narcotic group (P<0.0001). Use of ibuprofen after intracapsular tonsillectomy in children is associated with statistically significant increase in PTH requiring return to the operating room, as well as an increase in overall rates of both primary and secondary PTH. Ibuprofen provides pain control that is at least equivalent to narcotic and is not associated with respiratory depression. Further study of ibuprofen use in the post-tonsillectomy patient is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The provision of total hip replacement for displaced intracapsular hip fractures

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) currently recommends the use of total hip replacement (THR) for displaced intracapsular hip fractures in patients who meet certain mobility, cognitive and health criteria. Methods A multicentre prospective audit was conducted within a defined geographic region to assess current practice and variation in provision of THR for displaced intracapsular hip fractures. Results A total of 879 patients with hip fractures, admitted to 8 acute trauma units, were included in this study. Of 462 patients with displaced intracapsular hip fractures, 169 fulfilled the NICE criteria for THR. THR was performed for only 49 of (29%) the eligible patients. There was significant variation in THR provision between the eight units (0% to 50% THR usage, p<0.001). There were statistically significant differences in age, ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) grade, abbreviated mental test score and walking ability prior to the injury between patients who underwent fixation, THR or hemiarthroplasty (all p≤0.05). There was a significantly increased chance of not undergoing THR if a patient was older than 77 years (median age for the THR eligible cohort; relative risk [RR]: 7.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8–22.0, p<0.001). There was also a trend for this with patients who were ASA grade 3 compared with ASA grade 1 or 2 (RR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.0–7.3, p=0.06). The surgeons gave multifactorial reasons for not performing THR in eligible patients. Conclusions There is significant variation in the provision of THR for eligible hip fracture patients, which is influenced by both patient demographics and the unit to which a patient is admitted. PMID:26741658

  8. Bilateral lens luxation and intracapsular lens extractions in a Matshchie's tree kangaroo.

    PubMed

    McLean, Nancy Johnstone; Zimmerman, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    An adult, female, captive, Matshchie's tree kangaroo was diagnosed with an anterior lens luxation in the right eye and a lens subluxation in the left eye. Both eyes were treated surgically with intracapsular lens extractions. A 360° rhegmatogenous retinal detachment was diagnosed 6 months postoperatively in the left eye. Aphakic vision was maintained in the right eye 9 months postoperatively. Based on family history and the lack of antecedent ocular disease, the lens luxations were presumed to be inherited and veterinarians should be aware of this condition within the captive tree kangaroo population. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  9. Femoral nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - femoral nerve; Femoral neuropathy ... Craig EJ, Clinchot DM. Femoral neuropathy. In: Frontera WR, Silver JK, Rizzo TD Jr, eds. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Pain, and Rehabilitation . 3rd ...

  10. Traumatic Extra-capsular and Intra-capsular Floating Fat: Fat-fluid Levels of the Knee Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Derik L; Vachhani, Prasann

    2015-01-01

    Floating fat is a sign of acute bone injury at the knee following trauma. The goal of this article is to review the etiology, patterns, and mimickers of extra-capsular and intra-capsular floating fat, with the major emphasis on knee trauma in the acute setting. We will discuss the spectrum of multimodal imaging findings for rare presentations of extra-capsular floating fat, and contrast these with common and atypical forms of intra-capsular lipohemarthrosis, as an aid to the assessment of acute bone trauma at the knee. PMID:26713176

  11. Difference in the trajectory of change in bone geometry as measured by hip structural analysis in the narrow neck, intertrochanteric region, and femoral shaft between men and women following hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Rathbun, Alan M; Shardell, Michelle; Orwig, Denise; Hebel, J Richard; Hicks, Gregory E; Beck, Thomas J; Magaziner, Jay; Hochberg, Marc C

    2016-11-01

    Prior studies have shown that women have declines in bone structure and strength after hip fracture, but it is unclear whether men sustain similar changes. Therefore, the objective was to examine sex differences in proximal femur geometry following hip fracture. Hip structural analysis was used to derive metrics of bone structure and strength: aerial bone mineral density, cross-sectional bone area (CSA), cortical outer diameter, section modulus (SM), and buckling ratio (BR) from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans performed at baseline (within 22days of hospital admission), two, six, or twelve months after hip fracture in men and women (n=282) enrolled in the Baltimore Hip Studies 7th cohort. Weighted estimating equations were used to evaluate sex differences at the narrow neck (NN), intertrochanteric (IT), and femoral shaft (FS). Men had significantly different one year NN changes compared to women in CSA: -6.33% (-12.47, -0.20) vs. 1.37% (-3.31, 6.43), P=0.049; SM: -4.98% (-11.08, 1.10) vs. 3.94% (-2.51, 10.42), P=0.042; and BR: 7.50% (0.65, 14.36) vs. -1.20% (-6.41, 4.00), P=0.044. One year IT changes displayed similar patterns, but the sex differences were not statistically significant for CSA: -4.07% (-10.83, 2.67) vs. 0.41% (-3.41, 4.24), P=0.252; SM: -4.78% (-12.10, 5.53) vs. -0.31 (-4.74, 4.11), P=0.287; and BR: 4.59% (-0.65, 9.84) vs. 1.52% (-4.23, 7.28), P=0.425. Differences in FS geometric parameters were even smaller in magnitude and not significantly different by sex. Women generally experienced non-significant increases in bone tissue and strength following hip fracture, while men had structural declines that were statistically greater at the NN region. Reductions in the mechanical strength of the proximal femur after hip fracture could put men at higher risk for subsequent fractures of the contralateral hip. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Femoral remodeling may influence patient outcomes in slipped capital femoral epiphysis.

    PubMed

    DeLullo, James A; Thomas, Eric; Cooney, Timothy E; McConnell, Sharon J; Sanders, James O

    2007-04-01

    Clinical studies of patients treated for slipped capital femoral epiphysis have found limited functional impairment and femoral neck deformity causing eventual coxarthrosis. Since patient-focused assessments minimize bias and reflect health-related quality of life status, we coupled their use to a clinical examination to obtain a more patient-centered picture of slipped capital femoral epiphyseal outcomes. The impact of residual deformity on outcomes also was examined. Of 78 patients treated for slipped capital femoral epiphyses between 1972 and 1998, 29 (38 hips) were evaluated at a mean followup of 7.6 years (range, 1.4-26 years). The average patient age was 21.8 years (range, 14.6-39 years), 55% were female, and the average body mass index was 28.7 (range, 16.1-50.2). Most slips were stable (92%, 35 of 38) and mild or moderate in severity (98%, 36 of 37). Followup examinations revealed slight deficits in range of motion, strength, and limb length. Radiographs showed slight improvements in head-shaft angle and reduced but persistent femoral neck deformity. Osteoarthritic changes were absent or negligible in 84% (32 of 38) of the hips. The average Iowa hip score was 90.5 (range, 51-100). Patient outcome scores for the AAOS Hip/Knee Questionnaire fell slightly below 50th percentile norms. Neither slip stability, severity, nor body mass index impacted outcome. Femoral neck deformity correlated with function, pain, and Boyer grade. Overall, patients had minor functional deficits and pain that may have been related to femoral neck deformity, but longer followup is warranted.

  13. [Osteonecrosis of the femoral head].

    PubMed

    Lafforgue, Pierre

    2002-03-15

    The femoral head is the main location of avascular osteonecrosis. The lesion remains asymptomatic for several months or years before causing non specific hip pain. Risk factors have been identified, mainly femoral neck fractures, corticosteroid therapy and related conditions (lupus erythematosus, organ transplantations), alcohol abuse, dyslipidemia, sickle cell disease, HIV infection, caisson workers, Gaucher's disease, male sex. When typical radiological signs are lacking, MRI is the best investigation. Progression toward hip joint damage highly depends on the necrotic volume assessed at MRI. The combination of plain radiographs which help staging the severity of osteonecrosis, and MRI which indicates the prognosis of the lesion, determines the therapeutic options: symptomatic pain relief therapies or surgical treatment (core decompression, osteotomy or total hip replacement).

  14. Outcomes after trifocal femoral fractures.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Michelle; Dick, Alastair G; Umarji, Shamim

    2014-01-01

    Trifocal femur fractures are those of the femoral neck, diaphysis, and distal femur. These high-energy injuries predominantly occur in young people with the potential for long-term complications and disability. We present the cases of two men who were treated with proximal dynamic hip screws and distal periarticular locking plates to effectively manage trifocal femur fractures. Our cases have shown union at 2 years with good functional outcomes without the need for reintervention. We provide evidence for a successful surgical treatment option for these rare and complex injuries.

  15. Outcomes after Trifocal Femoral Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Michelle; Dick, Alastair G.; Umarji, Shamim

    2014-01-01

    Trifocal femur fractures are those of the femoral neck, diaphysis, and distal femur. These high-energy injuries predominantly occur in young people with the potential for long-term complications and disability. We present the cases of two men who were treated with proximal dynamic hip screws and distal periarticular locking plates to effectively manage trifocal femur fractures. Our cases have shown union at 2 years with good functional outcomes without the need for reintervention. We provide evidence for a successful surgical treatment option for these rare and complex injuries. PMID:24800097

  16. Reverse distal femoral locking compression plate a salvage option in nonunion of proximal femoral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Dumbre Patil, Sampat S; Karkamkar, Sachin S; Patil, Vaishali S Dumbre; Patil, Shailesh S; Ranaware, Abhijeet S

    2016-01-01

    Background: When primary fixation of proximal femoral fractures with implants fails, revision osteosynthesis may be challenging. Tracts of previous implants and remaining insufficient bone stock in the proximal femur pose unique problems for the treatment. Intramedullary implants like proximal femoral nail (PFN) or surface implants like Dynamic Condylar Screw (DCS) are few of the described implants for revision surgery. There is no evidence in the literature to choose one implant over the other. We used the reverse distal femur locking compression plate (LCP) of the contralateral side in such cases undergoing revision surgery. This implant has multiple options of fixation in proximal femur and its curvature along the length matches the anterior bow of the femur. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of this implant in salvage situations. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients of failed primary proximal femoral fractures who underwent revision surgery with reverse distal femoral locking plate from February 2009 to November 2012 were included in this retrospective study. There were 18 subtrochanteric fractures and two ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures, which exhibited delayed union or nonunion. The study included 14 males and six females. The mean patient age was 43.6 years (range 22–65 years) and mean followup period was 52.1 months (range 27–72 months). Delayed union was considered when clinical and radiological signs of union failed to progress at the end of four months from initial surgery. Results: All fractures exhibited union without any complications. Union was assessed clinically and radiologically. One case of ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fracture required bone grafting at the second stage for delayed union of the femoral shaft fracture. Conclusions: Reverse distal femoral LCP of the contralateral side can be used as a salvage option for failed fixation of proximal femoral fractures exhibiting nonunion. PMID:27512218

  17. Large ceramic femoral heads: what problems do they solve?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, J A; Cooper, H J

    2013-11-01

    Large ceramic femoral heads offer several advantages that are potentially advantageous to patients undergoing both primary and revision total hip replacement. Many high-quality studies have demonstrated the benefit of large femoral heads in reducing post-operative instability. Ceramic femoral heads may also offer an advantage in reducing polyethylene wear that has been reported in vitro and is starting to become clinically apparent in mid-term clinical outcome studies. Additionally, the risk of taper corrosion at a ceramic femoral head-neck junction is clearly lower than when using a metal femoral head. With improvements in the material properties of both modern ceramic femoral heads and polyethylene acetabular liners that have reduced the risk of mechanical complications, large ceramic heads have gained popularity in recent years.

  18. Proximal Femoral Geometry as Fracture Risk Factor in Female Patients with Osteoporotic Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Proximal femoral geometry may be a risk factor of osteoporotic hip fractures. However, there existed great differences among studies depending on race, sex and age of subjects. The purpose of the present study is to analyze proximal femoral geometry and bone mineral density (BMD) in the osteoporotic hip fracture patients. Furthermore, we investigated proximal femoral geometric parameters affecting fractures, and whether the geometric parameters could be an independent risk factor of fractures regardless of BMD. Methods This study was conducted on 197 women aged 65 years or more who were hospitalized with osteoporotic hip fracture (femur neck fractures ; 84, intertrochanteric fractures; 113). Control group included 551 women who visited to check osteoporosis. Femur BMD and proximal femoral geometry for all subjects were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and compared between the control and fracture groups. Besides, proximal femoral geometric parameters associated with fractures were statistically analyzed. Results There were statistically significant differences in the age and weight, cross-sectional area (CSA)/length/width of the femoral neck and BMD of the proximal femur between fracture group and control group. BMD of the proximal femur in the control group was higher than in the fracture group. For the femoral neck fractures group, the odds ratio (OR) for fractures decrease in the CSA and neck length (NL) of the femur increased by 1.97 times and 1.73 times respectively, regardless of BMD. The OR for fractures increase in the femoral neck width increased by 1.53 times. In the intertrochanteric fracture group, the OR for fractures increase in the femoral neck width increased by 1.45 times regardless of BMD. Conclusions We found that an increase of the femoral neck width could be a proximal femoral geometric parameter which plays important roles as a risk factor for fracture independently of BMD. PMID:27622182

  19. Patient survival and surgical re-intervention predictors for intracapsular hip fractures.

    PubMed

    González Quevedo, David; Mariño, Iskandar Tamimi; Sánchez Siles, Juan Manuel; Escribano, Esther Romero; Granero Molina, Esther Judith; Enrique, David Bautista; Smoljanović, Tomislav; Pareja, Francisco Villanueva

    2017-08-01

    Choosing between total hip replacement (THR) and partial hip replacement (PHR) for patients with intracapsular hip fractures is often based on subjective factors. Predicting the survival of these patients and risk of surgical re-intervention is essential to select the most adequate implant. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on mortality of patients over 70 years with intracapsular hip fractures who were treated between January 2010 and December 2013, with either PHR or THR. Patients' information was withdrawn from our local computerized database. The age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI) and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score were calculated for all patients. The patients were followed for 2 years after surgery. Survival and surgical re-intervention rates were compared between the two groups using a Multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. A total of 356 individuals were included in this study. At 2 years of follow-up, 221 (74.4%) of the patients with ACCI score≤7 were still alive, in contrast to only 20 (29.0%) of those with ACCI score>7. In addition, 201 (76.2%) of the patients with ASA score≤3 were still alive after 2 years, compared to 30 (32.6%) of individuals with ASA >3. Patients with the ACCI score>7, and ASA score>3 had a significant increase in all-cause 2-year mortality (adjusted hazard ratio of 3.2, 95% CI 2.2-4.6; and 3.12, 95% CI 2.2-4.5, respectively). Patients with an ASA score>3 had a quasi-significant increase in the re-intervention risk (adjusted hazard ratio 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-5.1). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of ACCI in predicting 2-year mortality were 39.2%, 91.1%, 71%, and 74.4%, respectively. On the other hand, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of ASA score in predicting 2-year mortality were 49.6%, 79.1%, 67.4%, and 76.1%, respectively. Both ACCI and ASA scales were able to predict the 2-year

  20. Intracapsular algae provide fixed carbon to developing embryos of the salamander Ambystoma maculatum.

    PubMed

    Graham, Erin R; Fay, Scott A; Davey, Adam; Sanders, Robert W

    2013-02-01

    Each spring, North American spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) females each lay hundreds of eggs in shallow pools of water. Eggs are surrounded by jelly layers and are deposited as large gelatinous masses. Following deposition, masses are penetrated by a mutualistic green alga, Oophila amblystomatis, which enters individual egg capsules, proliferates and aggregates near the salamander embryo, providing oxygen that enhances development. We examined the effects of population density of intracapsular O. amblystomatis on A. maculatum embryos and show that larger algal populations promote faster embryonic growth and development. Also, we show that carbon fixed by O. amblystomatis is transferred to the embryos, providing the first evidence of direct translocation of photosynthate from a symbiont to a vertebrate host.

  1. Neck Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems, most commonly with the structures of the cervical spine (neck). Only in rare instances is neck pain ... the neck. Pain can be localized to the cervical spine or may travel down an arm (radiculopathy). All ...

  2. Neck dissection

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are three main types of neck dissection surgery: Radical neck dissection: All the tissue on the side of ... Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2010:chap ...

  3. [Slipped upper femoral epiphysis (SUFE)].

    PubMed

    Wirth, T

    2011-08-01

    A slipped upper femoral epiphysis (SUFE) is the most common disease of the hip among adolescents. In the light of our current knowledge on the development of coxarthrosis, it represents a first line model case that has led to a series of novel ideas in the therapy for SUFE. The development of coxarthrosis from a cam impingement, i.e., the loss of offset of the neck of the femur and degenerative damage to the acetabular lip as its early form, is seen again in the clinical picture of slipped upper femoral epiphysis. Depending on the degree of slippage, we see a varying severity of the loss of offset and thus also different extents of the potential damage to the hip joint. This knowledge is by no means new. The questions of reorientation of the epiphysis of the humeral head and thus restoration of the anatomy of the coxal end of the femur have been addressed by renowned surgeons and answered with the development of widely varying procedures for surgical correction. However, within the framework of the surgical techniques introduced for treatment of impingement syndromes of the hip, these therapeutic options have been supplemented and broadened. The current discussion about the best therapeutic strategies emphasizes the fascination of the clinical entity of upper femoral epiphysis and constitutes a central component of this article. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000972.htm Slipped capital femoral epiphysis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A slipped capital femoral epiphysis is a separation of the ball ...

  5. Coxa vara with proximal femoral growth arrest in patients who had neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    DiFazio, Rachel L; Kocher, Minider S; Berven, Sigurd; Kasser, James

    2003-01-01

    This is a retrospective review of four patients in whom a pattern of coxa vara with proximal femoral growth arrest and metaphyseal irregularities developed. These patients were all treated with neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and presented with a progressive gait disturbance and pain, leg-length discrepancy, and limited abduction. Imaging revealed coxa vara with proximal femoral growth arrest. Two patients (three hips) underwent proximal femoral valgus osteotomy, one patient underwent fixation of a femoral neck fracture with subsequent greater trochanter transfer, and one patient is being observed. This case series suggests an association between neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and this unusual pattern of coxa vara with proximal femoral growth arrest.

  6. Intracapsular microenucleation technique in a case of intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma. Technical notes for a conservative approach.

    PubMed

    Rigante, M; Petrelli, L; DE Corso, E; Paludetti, G

    2015-02-01

    We report a rare case of a large intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma (IFNS) in a 51-year-old female who presented with a painless, slow growing left parotid mass without peripheral facial nerve palsy, with non-specific findings at preoperative diagnostic work-up, that was treated with conservative surgery. Management of IFNS is very challenging because the diagnosis is often made intra-operatively, and in most cases resection may lead to severe facial nerve paralysis, with important aesthetic sequelae. Our experience suggests a new surgical option, namely intra-capsular enucleation using a microscope, currently used for schwannomas arising from a major peripheral nerve, which should be a safe and reliable treatment for IFNS. This surgical technique is the first experience of intracapsular microenucleation of facial nerve schwannoma described in the literature and allows preservation of the nerve without resection and reconstruction.

  7. Treatment strategies for intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Wild, Michael; Gehrmann, Sebastian; Jungbluth, Pascal; Hakimi, Mohssen; Thelen, Simon; Betsch, Marcel; Windolf, Joachim; Wenda, Klaus

    2010-10-11

    Intramedullary nailing has become the gold standard to treat femoral shaft fractures. It is unknown which nailing technique orthopedic surgeons prefer. The goal of this study was to determine current techniques and perioperative complications of intramedullary nailing of diaphyseal femoral fractures. Fifty-one institutions in 26 countries participated in an international survey to assess detailed descriptions of preferred operative strategies and perioperative complications. Altogether, 517 cases of diaphyseal femoral fractures were collected. The Internet-based survey incorporated information about fracture classification, time to operation, Injury Severity Score, type of nail, and operative technique, as well as perioperative complications such as infection, femoral neck fracture, and hardware failure. The preferred position for implantation was supine (91.1%). Most surgeons used a traction table (57.1%) and an antegrade implantation technique (84.5%). Intraoperative fractures of the femoral neck occurred in 1.2% of cases when a traction table was used and in 0.2% if no traction table was used, but without statistical significance (P>.16). In 59.2% of the cases, an isolated femur fracture was present, while the rest sustained multiple injuries. In polytrauma patients and patients with severe thorax injuries, most surgeons chose a delayed treatment with intramedullary femoral nails. Interestingly, 38.0% of the patients with severe thorax injuries were treated on the first day with intramedullary femoral nails. The total rate of complications for intramedullary femoral nailing was low (4.9%), but a high rate of intraoperative femoral neck fractures was observed (1.4%). Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Minimally-invasive open reduction of intracapsular condylar fractures with preoperative simulation using computer-aided design.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-liang; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Qing; Gao, Xiao-bo; Liu, Qiang; Lu, Li

    2013-04-01

    Reduction of intracapsular condylar fractures is difficult, so we have based our technique on preoperative simulation using computer-aided design (CAD), which has proved useful in other surgical specialties. We have treated 11 patients with intracapsular condylar fractures. Before the operation the procedure was shown on the computer using a three-dimensional simulation system. The relation between the stump and the fragment of the condyle, and assessment of the position and the size of the screw, were made preoperatively to obtain a perfect fit. The displaced fragment was reduced by elevators, and fixed with a bicortical screw through a minimised preauricular incision under general anaesthesia. The fragments and the location of the screws were similar on the preoperative simulation and on the postoperative computed tomographic (CT) scan. The reduction and fixation of the fracture showed a perfect fit on the same view in the preoperative CAD simulation in the Mimics 10.01 software and postoperatively. Postoperative clinical examinations showed good occlusion and satisfactory mouth opening. Two patients had temporary paralysis of the occipitofrontalis muscle that recovered within 3 months. All patients regained normal mandibular movements and had short and invisible scars at 6 months' follow up. The technique of CAD simulation could help to improve the accuracy during open treatment for intracapsular condylar fractures.

  9. Evolution and development of the adelphophagic, intracapsular Schmidt's larva of the nemertean Lineus ruber.

    PubMed

    Martín-Durán, José M; Vellutini, Bruno C; Hejnol, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The life cycle of many animals includes a larval stage, which has diversified into an astonishing variety of ecological strategies. The Nemertea is a group of spiralians that exhibits a broad diversity of larval forms, including the iconic pilidium. A pelagic planktotrophic pilidium is the ancestral form in the Pilidiophora, but several lineages exhibit deviations of this condition, mostly as a transition to pelagic lecithotrophy. The most extreme case occurs, however, in the Pilidiophoran Lineus ruber, which exhibits an adelphophagic intracapsular pilidium, the so-called Schmidt's larva. We combined confocal laser scanning microscopy and gene expression studies to characterize the development and metamorphosis of the Schmidt's larva of L. ruber. The larva forms after gastrulation, and comprises a thin epidermis, a proboscis rudiment and two pairs of imaginal discs from which the juvenile will develop. The cells internalized during gastrulation form a blind gut and the blastopore gives rise to the mouth of the larva and juvenile. The Schmidt's larva eats other siblings that occupy the same egg capsule, accumulating nutrients for the juvenile. A gradual metamorphosis involves the differentiation of the juvenile cell types from the imaginal discs and the shedding of the larval epidermis. The expression of evolutionarily conserved anterior (foxQ2, six3/6, gsc, otx), endomesodermal (foxA, GATA456-a, twi-a) and posterior (evx, cdx) markers demonstrate that the juvenile retains the molecular patterning of the Schmidt's larva. After metamorphosis, the juveniles stay over 20 days within the egg masses, until they are fully mature and hatch. The evolution of the intracapsular Schmidt's larva involved the loss of the typical feeding structures of the planktotrophic pilidium and a precocious formation of the imaginal discs, as also observed in other pelagic lecithotrophic forms. However, no special adaptations are observed related to adelphophagy. As in planktotrophic

  10. Effectiveness of Powered Intracapsular Tonsillectomy in Children With Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Mostovych, Nadia; Holmes, Laurens; Ruszkay, Nicole; LaHurd, Alexandra; Heinle, Robert; Nardone, Heather

    2016-02-01

    Powered intracapsular tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (PITA) is an increasingly common pediatric procedure. Few studies have examined its effectiveness in children with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). To assess the effectiveness of PITA in patients with severe OSA as evidenced by change in polysomnographic parameters. We performed a case series study with medical record review of 70 children with severe OSA who underwent PITA at a tertiary care pediatric hospital from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2014. Preoperative and postoperative polysomnographic parameters. Of the 70 children with severe OSA who underwent PITA, 39 (56%) were boys, and the median age at surgery was 3.7 years. There were significant mean (SD) decreases in the postoperative apnea-hypopnea index (32.4 [28.4] vs 5.8 [9.7], P < .001), obstructive apnea index (20.4 [17.97] vs 2.55 [5.9]), obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (25.5 [22.4] vs 3.9 [7.3], P < .001), arousal index (53.7 [33.9] vs 27.4 [22.6], P < .001), percentage of total sleep time spent snoring (28.6 [30.5] vs 13.6 [20.8], P = .001), and oxygen desaturation index of 4% or more (22.9 [26.4] vs 4.5 [9.9], P < .001). Mean (SD) oxygen saturation (96.8 [2.0] vs 98.2 [1.3], P < .001) and oxygen saturation nadir (75.5 [13.1] vs 88.4 [8.1], P < .001) increased significantly. A significant decrease in time was observed with an end-tidal carbon dioxide greater than 55 mm Hg (49.67 [97.5] vs 19.1 [73.9] minutes, P = .01). Powered intracapsular tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy improved OSA in this series of pediatric patients by reducing obstructive apneas and hypopneas, oxygen desaturation, arousal index, carbon dioxide level, and snoring, as well as increasing oxygen saturation nadir. Results are comparable to those described for traditional electrocautery tonsillectomy and support the use of PITA for the treatment of severe OSA in children with adenotonsillar

  11. Effect of the high femoral osteotomy upon the vascularity and blood supply of the hip joint

    SciTech Connect

    Day, B.; Shim, S.S.; Leung, G.

    1984-05-01

    This investigation was done to study the effects of high femoral osteotomy upon the vascularity and blood supply of the hip and to further our knowledge of its physiologic basis. We have used established methods of study, including bone scans, microangiography, isotope clearance and perosseous venography, and based upon the results of these studies, we have reached certain conclusions. First, high femoral osteotomy increases the blood flow and vascularity in the hip joint, the femoral head and neck and the great trochanter. Second, bone scanning techniques using /sup 99m/Tc labeled diphosphonate have shown increased uptake in the femoral head and neck after high femoral osteotomy. The localization was done using a Digital Gamma III computer, and the activity on the osteotomy side at two weeks was 3.5 times as great as on the control side. By 16 weeks postoperatively, there was still two times as much activity on the osteotomy side. Third, microangiography showed increased vascularity both at the osteotomy site and in the femoral head and neck and the greater trochanter on that side. Such an increase in vascularity first became evident two weeks after osteotomy and persisted during the four month period studied. Fourth, the results of the /sup 99m/Tc diphosphonate clearance study showed a 25 per cent increase in femoral head blood flow on the operative side. Fifth, perosseous venography of the femoral head and neck showed a marked increase in venous drainage through the osteotomy site in the immediate postosteotomy stage.

  12. Comparing postoperative quality of life in children after microdebrider intracapsular tonsillotomy and tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Cantarella, Giovanna; Viglione, Silvia; Forti, Stella; Minetti, Andrea; Pignataro, Lorenzo

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate postoperative quality of life in patients undergoing microdebrider intracapsular tonsillotomy and adenoidectomy (PITA) in comparison with traditional adenotonsillectomy (AT) and to assess PITA's efficacy in solving upper-airway obstructive symptoms. 29 children with adenotonsillar hyperplasia referred for AT were included. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (underwent PITA) included 14 children (age 5.1±1.8 years) affected by night-time airway obstruction without a relevant history of recurrent tonsillitis; Group 2 (underwent AT) included 15 children (age 5.2±1.7 years) with a history of upper-airway obstruction during sleep and recurrent acute tonsillitis. Outcomes measures included the number of administered pain medications, time before returning to a full diet, Obstructive Sleep Apnea survey (OSA-18), parent's postoperative pain measure questionnaire (PPPM) and Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale (WBFPRS). Postoperative pain was significantly lower in the PITA group, as demonstrated by PPPM and WBFPRS scores and by a lower number of pain medications used. PITA group also resumed a regular diet earlier (P<0.001). OSA-18 scores proved that both PITA and AT were equally effective in curing upper-airway obstructive symptoms. PITA reduces post-tonsil ablation morbidity and can be a valid alternative to AT for treating upper-airway obstruction due to adenotonsillar hyperplasia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intracapsular development and dispersal polymorphism in the predatory gastropod Ocenebra erinaceus (Linnaeus 1758)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Reed, Adam J.; Thatje, Sven

    2015-09-01

    Intraspecific polymorphism during development, such as poecilogony or dispersal polymorphism, has rarely been observed in the marine environment. The ecological advantages of this bet-hedging strategy, whereby the offspring from one species exhibit multiple developmental modes, include the potential for rapid colonization of new habitats while simultaneously achieving a degree of gene flow between populations. The muricid gastropod, Ocenebra erinaceus, is a common, shallow-water marine predator found across England and France. Historically, O. erinaceus caused significant damage to shellfisheries, but more recently it has been impacted by TBT-induced imposex. Despite the previous attention given to this species, little is known about its encapsulated development. Studying O. erinaceus egg capsules from the Solent, UK, we describe intracapsular development at 15 °C, the in situ temperature at time of oviposition. Within each capsule, all embryos developed; no nurse eggs were present. Development was categorized into eight ontogenetic stages, although not all individuals displayed every stage; embryos hatched as either swimming late-pediveliger larvae or crawling juveniles after 59-69 days, indicating dispersal polymorphism to occur in this species. Swimming late-pediveliger larvae completed metamorphosis within 72 h of hatching. As O. erinaceus continues to recover from TBT pollution, dispersal polymorphism may facilitate a rapid expansion in both population size and range. If this occurs, O. erinaceus has the potential to, once again, become a serious problem for shellfisheries around Europe.

  14. In Vivo Damage of the Head-Neck Junction in Hard-on-Hard Total Hip Replacements: Effect of Femoral Head Size, Metal Combination, and 12/14 Taper Design.

    PubMed

    Baleani, Massimiliano; Erani, Paolo; Bordini, Barbara; Zuccheri, Federica; Mąkosa, Mateusz Kordian; De Pasquale, Dalila; Beraudi, Alina; Stea, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    Recently, concerns have been raised about the potential effect of head-neck junction damage products at the local and systemic levels. Factors that may affect this damage process have not been fully established yet. This study investigated the possible correlations among head-neck junction damage level, implant design, material combination, and patient characteristics. Head-neck junctions of 148 retrieved implants were analysed, including both ceramic-on-ceramic (N = 61) and metal-on-metal (N = 87) bearings. In all cases, the male taper was made of titanium alloy. Damage was evaluated using a four-point scoring system based on damage morphology and extension. Patient age at implantation, implantation time, damage risk factor, and serum ion concentration were considered as independent potential predicting variables. The damage risk factor summarises head-neck design characteristics and junction loading condition. Junction damage correlated with both implantation time and damage factor risk when the head was made of ceramic. A poor correlation was found when the head was made of cobalt alloy. The fretting-corrosion phenomenon seemed mainly mechanically regulated, at least when cobalt alloy components were not involved. When a component was made of cobalt alloy, the role of chemical phenomena increased, likely becoming, over implantation time, the damage driving phenomena of highly stressed junctions.

  15. In Vivo Damage of the Head-Neck Junction in Hard-on-Hard Total Hip Replacements: Effect of Femoral Head Size, Metal Combination, and 12/14 Taper Design

    PubMed Central

    Erani, Paolo; Bordini, Barbara; Zuccheri, Federica; Mąkosa, Mateusz Kordian; De Pasquale, Dalila; Beraudi, Alina; Stea, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    Recently, concerns have been raised about the potential effect of head-neck junction damage products at the local and systemic levels. Factors that may affect this damage process have not been fully established yet. This study investigated the possible correlations among head-neck junction damage level, implant design, material combination, and patient characteristics. Head-neck junctions of 148 retrieved implants were analysed, including both ceramic-on-ceramic (N = 61) and metal-on-metal (N = 87) bearings. In all cases, the male taper was made of titanium alloy. Damage was evaluated using a four-point scoring system based on damage morphology and extension. Patient age at implantation, implantation time, damage risk factor, and serum ion concentration were considered as independent potential predicting variables. The damage risk factor summarises head-neck design characteristics and junction loading condition. Junction damage correlated with both implantation time and damage factor risk when the head was made of ceramic. A poor correlation was found when the head was made of cobalt alloy. The fretting-corrosion phenomenon seemed mainly mechanically regulated, at least when cobalt alloy components were not involved. When a component was made of cobalt alloy, the role of chemical phenomena increased, likely becoming, over implantation time, the damage driving phenomena of highly stressed junctions. PMID:28773095

  16. [Bone density in osteoarthritic femoral heads: quantitative assessment by histomorphologic and histomorphometric analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-fei; Fornasier, Victor L

    2003-05-01

    To determine whether bone density is related to osteoarthritis and to compare osteoarthritis with osteoporotic fracture of the femoral neck. All 165 femoral heads removed at joint replacement surgery were divided into 4 groups according to radiographic features of hip (osteophytes, subchondral sclerosis, cysts and femoral head deformity). The individual femoral head was divided into 5 zones histologically. Sections were studied histomorphologically, and quantitation was performed using the computer-assisted system to determine the bone density of the femoral head. The values of bone density in weight-bearing, super lateral non weight-bearing (SL) and inferior medial non weight-bearing (IM) areas after femoral neck fracture in patients with osteoarthritis were lower than normal. The values of bone density in weight bearing area were increased in patients with osteoarthritis in all four groups but lower than normal in one group (I), and higher than normal in other 2 groups (III, IV). The values of bone density in SL and IM areas except IM area in group IV were lower than normal (P > 0.05). The values of bone density in the central area in the 4 groups were relatively consistent and normal. The density of Haversian canals was increased in the 4 groups indicating osteoporosis of the femoral head. The average age of patients with femoral neck fracture associated with OA (group I) was significantly higher than that of group II, III, IV (P < 0.05). Bone density is different in the femoral head and neck. Dividing the weight bearing joint into distinct zones is a method for laboratory and clinical study. Femoral neck fracture associated with OA was caused by osteoporosis which is related to the age of the patient. The data of this study can be regarded as a potential indicator of implant/host bone relations with morphological, morphometric implications.

  17. Femoral stem fracture and in vivo corrosion of retrieved modular femoral hips.

    PubMed

    Huot Carlson, J Caitlin; Van Citters, Douglas W; Currier, John H; Bryant, Amber M; Mayor, Michael B; Collier, John P

    2012-08-01

    A series of 78 retrieved modular hip devices were assessed for fretting and corrosion. Damage was common at both the head-neck junction (54% showing corrosion; 88% showing fretting) and at the stem-sleeve junction (88% corrosion; 65% fretting). Corrosion correlated to in vivo duration, patient activity, and metal (vs ceramic) femoral heads but did not correlate to head carbon content. Femoral stem fatigue fracture was observed in seven retrievals; all had severe corrosion, were under increased stress, and were in vivo longer than the non-fractured cohort. This study emphasizes the potential for stem fracture when small diameter femoral stems with large offsets are used in heavy and active patients. Designs which reduce fretting and corrosion in modular implants is warranted as patients demand longer lasting implants.

  18. Valgus Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis in Patient with Hypopituitarism

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Hayashida, Tatsuro; Murakami, Koji; Makio, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yuichi; Oka, Yoshinobu; Kim, Wook-Choel; Ogura, Taku; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2017-01-01

    Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a common disease of adolescent and the epiphysis is positioned more posteromedially in relation to the femoral neck shaft with varus SCFE; however, posterolateral displacement of the capital epiphysis, valgus SCFE, occurs less frequently. We report a case of valgus SCFE in a 17-year-old boy with hypopituitarism. After falling down, he experienced difficulty in walking. The radiographs were inconclusive; however three-dimensional computed tomography images showed lateral displacement of the epiphysis on the right femoral head. Valgus SCFE was diagnosed. The patient underwent in situ pinning of both sides. In situ pinning on the left side was performed as a prophylactic pinning because of endocrine abnormalities. At the 1-year follow-up, he could walk without any difficulty and there were no signs of pain. The epiphysis is commonly positioned more posteromedially in relation to the femoral neck shaft with most SCFE, but, in this case, the epiphysis slipped laterally. Differential diagnosis included femoral neck fracture (Delbet-Colonna type 1); however, this was less likely due to the absence of other clinical signs. Therefore, we diagnosed the patient as SCFE. When children complain of leg pain and limp, valgus SCFE that may not be visualized on anteroposterior radiographs needs to be considered. PMID:28154765

  19. Femoral impaction grafting

    PubMed Central

    Scanelli, John A; Brown, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    Femoral impaction grafting is a reconstruction option applicable to both simple and complex femoral component revisions. It is one of the preferred techniques for reconstructing large femoral defects when the isthmus is non-supportive. The available level of evidence is primarily derived from case series, which shows a mean survivorship of 90.5%, with revision or re-operation as the end-point, with an average follow-up of 11 years. The rate of femoral fracture requiring re-operation or revision of the component varies between several large case series, ranging from 2.5% to 9%, with an average of 5.4%. PMID:23362469

  20. Traumatic and Non-traumatic Osteonecrosis in the Femoral Head of a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Yawon; Park, Jinuk; Choi, Seok Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is an idiopathic, debilitating and progressive disease. A number of traumatic or non-traumatic animal models have been reported for research on osteonecrosis. This study was performed to compare the efficacy of femoral head osteonecrosis in rabbits by traumatic and non-traumatic methods. Twenty-seven New Zealand White rabbits were divided into three experimental groups, nine heads each. Two groups were surgically induced into osteonecrosis; a steel cerclage wire was ligated tightly around the neck of the right femoral head (Group W), and the femoral neck was tied with a cerclage wire in the same way as in the W group, and burned by attachment of an electrode tip to the wire and then the wire was removed (Group B). The other group was induced into osteonecrosis with a single intra-muscular injection of 20 mg/kg methyl-prednisolone acetate single injection (Group M). In the control group, the left femoral head of animals in group W and B was used. After two weeks, rabbits were sacrificed and the femoral head and neck were collected. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head was evaluated by radiography, histology and immunohistology methods. Osteonecrosis lesions in the femoral head were identified in traumatic models of groups W and B. Cartilage degeneration in the superficial layer and TUNEL positive cells in the femoral head were detected more in Group B than in Group W. These findings revealed that short-term induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head was effectively achieved by cautery around the femoral neck. PMID:21826172

  1. Exactech Opteon Femoral Component Fracture 12 Years after Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shaun P.; Antoci, Valentin; Kadzielski, John J.; Vrahas, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Arthroplasty implant fracture is a rare but critical complication that requires difficult revision surgery, often with poor results, patient disability, and significant cost. Several reports show component fracture either at the stem or at the neck interface after a relatively short postoperative course. We report such failure after 12 years, suggesting no safe period after which femoral implant fracture does not occur. PMID:26955493

  2. A Modified Ogata-Goldsand Technique for Simplified Intraoperative Measurement of Femoral Version.

    PubMed

    Morris, William Z; Henry, Havalee; Liu, Raymond W; Streit, Jonathan J; Grant, Richard E; Cooperman, Daniel R

    2015-09-01

    Femoral anteversion can be difficult to determine intraoperatively, particularly in cases with complicated deformity. Although biplanar methodology exists for measuring femoral anteversion, the measurements are generally based on the proximal femur, without consideration for the femoral bow. We directly measured femoral version in 70 mature cadaveric femora. Using the standard Ogata-Goldsand approach, femoral version was geometrically calculated after measuring apparent neck-shaft angle and the β-angle, which is the angle between the femoral neck and proximal femoral shaft on a direct lateral view. We then used a modified β-angle, measured between the femoral neck and a line representing the entire femur. Mean anatomic femoral anteversion was 20±11 degrees. Mean calculated femoral version using the standard Ogata-Goldsand technique was 32±13 degrees, whereas mean calculated femoral version using the modified Ogata-Goldsand technique was 22±12 degrees. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis found an overall statistically significant difference between the 3 groups (P<0.0001). Pairwise comparisons revealed a significant difference between directly measured version and the standard Ogata-Goldsand technique (P<0.0001) but not between directly measured version and the modified Ogata-Goldsand technique (P=0.76). Standard biplanar imaging techniques do not account for the femoral bow and can significantly overestimate femoral anteversion. If a line is drawn from the posterior femoral condyles to the posterior aspect of the greater trochanter, femoral anteversion is better approximated. Intraoperatively, we obtain this line by positioning a marker over the skin under fluoroscopy. Clinically, if one aims for a modified β-angle of 5 degrees, a postosteotomy anteroposterior radiograph is no longer necessary, given the knowledge that with apparent neck-shaft angles ranging from 115 to 155 degrees, version will lie within a generally accepted range between 2 and 11 degrees. In

  3. Development of Femoral Head Interior Supporting Device and 3D Finite Element Analysis of its Application in the Treatment of Femoral Head Avascular Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Dongmin; Ye, Ming; Li, Xinfa; Yang, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to develop and perform the 3D finite element analysis of a femoral head interior supporting device (FHISD). Material/Methods The 3D finite element model was developed to analyze the surface load of femoral head and analyze the stress and strain of the femoral neck, using the normal femoral neck, decompressed bone graft, and FHISD-implanted bone graft models. Results The stress in the normal model concentrated around the femoral calcar, with displacement of 0.3556±0.1294 mm. In the decompressed bone graft model, the stress concentrated on the femur calcar and top and lateral sides of femoral head, with the displacement larger than the normal (0.4163±0.1310 mm). In the FHISD-implanted bone graft model, the stress concentrated on the segment below the lesser trochanter superior to the femur, with smaller displacement than the normal (0.1856±0.0118 mm). Conclusions FHISD could effectively maintain the biomechanical properties of the femoral neck. PMID:26010078

  4. Fatal fat embolism following femoral head resection in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Walker, N M; Bateson, T; Reavley, P; Prakash, D

    2008-01-01

    We report a rare complication during primary total hip arthroplasty. A fatal fat pulmonary embolism immediately followed removal of the femoral head, prior to further preparation of the acetabulum or femoral shaft. Fat embolism syndrome is a well-known complication during total joint arthroplasty, usually attributed to preparation of the femoral shaft, particularly intramedullary reaming and insertion of the prosthesis. These risk factors have previously been identified in the literature. We believe that this case highlights the need for further research to establish the intramedullary pressures during the processes of dislocation and resection of the femoral neck and the attendant risk.

  5. When femoral fracture fixation fails: salvage options.

    PubMed

    Petrie, J; Sassoon, A; Haidukewych, G J

    2013-11-01

    Most hip fractures treated with modern internal fixation techniques will heal. However, failures occasionally occur and require revision procedures. Salvage strategies employed during revision are based on whether the fixation failure occurs in the femoral neck, or in the intertrochanteric region. Patient age and remaining bone stock also influence decision making. For fractures in young patients, efforts are generally focused on preserving the native femoral head via osteotomies and repeat internal fixation. For failures in older patients, some kind of hip replacement is usually selected. Disuse osteopenia, deformity, bone loss, and stress-risers from previous internal fixation devices all pose technical challenges to successful reconstruction. Attention to detail is important in order to minimise complications. In the majority of cases, good outcomes have been reported for the various salvage strategies.

  6. Anatomic compatibility of femoral intramedullary implants: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Biçer, Ömer Sunkar; Huri, Gazi; Tekin, Mustafa; Mirioğlu, Akif; Aydın, Ahmet; Tan, İsmet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the morphology of the proximal and diaphysis of femur, distribution of neck version, neck-shaft angles, and radius of anterior curvature in a Turkish population to compare with that of femoral intramedullary implants. Using 84 cadaveric femora, three-dimensional (3D) modeling was performed with a light scanner, data were transferred to Solidworks 2013 software (Solidworks, Waltham, MA, USA) to determine the variability in the femoral length (FL), neck version, neck-shaft angle (NSA), and anterior bow. Three independent observers' measurements were tested with a reliability analysis and then evaluated using Cronbach's alpha value, after which they were compared with the neck-shaft angles, and the radii of curvature (RAC) of intramedullary femoral nails, as stated on the official manufacturer websites. Mean FL, femoral neck anteversion (FNA), and NSA had ranges of 346.1-454.1 mm, -11.3-40.4°, and 105.9-149.0°, respectively, and RAC was between 1.0 and 1.2 m. The correlation coefficient and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 0.89 (CI 0.849-0.928), 0.86 (CI 0.799-0.904), and 0.85 (95% CI 0.785-0.898) for FL, FNA, and NSA, respectively. FNA was <10° in 32 femora (37.6%) and >14° 38 (44.7%). NSA was between 130° and 135° in 40 femora (47.1%), and RAC ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 m in 76 femora (91.6%), <1 m in 38 (45.8%), and >1.5 m in 7 (8.4%). FNA and NSA show a wide distribution, mostly out of the range of intramedullary implants. There is a need for implants that are compatible with a range of NSAs and versions, so that they are suitable for use with a variety of morphologies.

  7. Neck lump

    MedlinePlus

    ... the neck lump treated. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if you have an abnormal neck swelling or ... to Expect at Your Office Visit The health care provider will take your medical history and do a physical exam. You may ...

  8. Head-Neck Taper Corrosion in Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hussenbocus, S.; Kosuge, D.; Solomon, L. B.; Howie, D. W.; Oskouei, R. H.

    2015-01-01

    Modularity at the head-neck junction of the femoral component in THA became popular as a design feature with advantages of decreasing implant inventory and allowing adjustment of leg length, offset, and soft tissue balancing through different head options. The introduction of a new modular interface to femoral stems that were previously monoblock, or nonmodular, comes with the potential for corrosion at the taper junction through mechanically assisted crevice corrosion. The incidence of revision hip arthroplasty is on the rise and along with improved wear properties of polyethylene and ceramic, use of larger femoral head sizes is becoming increasingly popular. Taper corrosion appears to be related to all of its geometric parameters, material combinations, and femoral head size. This review article discusses the pathogenesis, risk factors, clinical assessment, and management of taper corrosion at the head-neck junction. PMID:25954757

  9. Predictors of functional outcome following intracapsular hip fracture in elderly women. A one-year prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Haentjens, P; Autier, Ph; Barette, M; Boonen, S

    2005-07-01

    To explore potential predictors of functional outcome one year after the injury in elderly women who sustained a displaced intracapsular hip fracture and who were treated with internal fixation, hemiarthroplasty, or total hip arthroplasty. Eighty-four women aged > or =50 years were enrolled on a consecutive basis in this one-year prospective cohort study reflecting standard day-to-day clinical practice. The main outcome measure was the rapid disability rating scale version-2 (RDRS-2) applied at hospital discharge and one year later. At hospital discharge, the total hip arthroplasty group was younger and had a better functional status than the internal fixation or hemiarthroplasty groups. One year later, the best function was still observed in the total arthroplasty group, but the differences were small and failed to achieve the level of statistical significance. During that one-year period, walking ability or mobility did not change significantly after total hip arthroplasty, but a significant proportion of the women developed cognitive impairment, including mental confusion, uncooperativeness, and depression. Overall, the most significant predictors of poor functional status one year after fracture were increasing age, living in an institution at time of injury, and poor functional status at discharge. In elderly women with a displaced intracapsular hip fracture, total hip arthroplasty is associated with a functional benefit within the first months after surgery. However, the extent to which this functional benefit is maintained over time, is less clear. These results support the need for randomised studies to quantify the extent to which, in elderly women, the early functional benefit of total hip arthroplasty is maintained in the long run or compromised by progressive cognitive impairment and other negative determinants of functional outcome.

  10. On-table decision-making in intracapsular hip fracture surgery: mid-term results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hartel, Maximilian J; Mandani, Shahab Maafi; Nuechtern, Jakob; Stiel, Norbert; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Rueger, Johannes M; Grossterlinden, Lars G

    2016-07-01

    At the present time, it is generally recommended to use hip replacement in dislocated fractures to avoid failure after internal fixation. A problem is that previous research has demonstrated that observers have problems in discriminating between dislocated and undislocated fractures. A possible solution to this problem would be to use arthroplasty in the majority of the cases. However, this also means that many fractures with the potential for uneventful healing would be replaced. In the current investigation, the mid-term outcome was recorded for patients with intracapsular hip fractures who were treated with either internal fixation or arthroplasty. A novel treatment algorithm was employed. After careful exclusion of cases with known risk factors for failure after internal fixation, a technique called on-table decision was used to identify suitable patients for internal fixation. A total of 72 patients with intracapsular hip fractures were studied with a median follow-up time of 12 months (IQR 8-15.25 months). Nineteen (19) patients (26 %) were excluded in the selection process, leaving 53 (74 %) for on-table decision-making. Thirty patients (42 %) were identified as suitable for internal fixation and gave anatomically stable closed reductions. Two of these patients (7 %) exhibited non-unions and one (3 %) avascular necrosis. The mid-term outcome after internal fixation is promising. The careful selection process may be helpful in identifying fracture patterns for which internal fixation may be considered as a safe and less invasive alternative to hip arthroplasty.

  11. Relationship between proximal femoral and acetabular alignment in normal hip joints using 3-dimensional computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Buller, Leonard T; Rosneck, James; Monaco, Feno M; Butler, Robert; Smith, Travis; Barsoum, Wael K

    2012-02-01

    The bony architecture of the hip depends upon functional adaptation to mechanical usage via the dynamic interaction between the acetabulum and femoral head. Acetabular retroversion is thought to be a contributing factor of pincer-type femoroacetabular impingement. Studies of pathological hip joints suggest proximal femoral anatomy compensates for acetabular retroversion. HYPOTHESIS/ PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if a predictable relationship exists between proximal femoral and acetabular angles, age, and gender in normal hip joints. We hypothesized that, through functional adaptation to mechanical loading, a complementary developmental relationship exists between the acetabulum and proximal femur. Descriptive laboratory study. The femoral neck version, femoral neck shaft angle, acetabular version, acetabular inclination, and center edge angle were measured in 230 normal hip joints in 115 adults using 3-dimensional reconstruction software. Correlations between the angles, age, and gender were examined using the methods of stepwise regression and backward elimination. Regarding side-to-side comparison and variability, there was no statistically significant difference between the left and right sides in the average value of each angle measurement. The correlations specifically between angles, age, and gender were similar on the left and right sides for all pairs except femoral version and acetabular inclination. Regarding significant findings of the study, a positive correlation (P < .05) was found between femoral version and acetabular version (0.38° to 1°). A positive correlation was found between femoral neck shaft angle and acetabular version (0.21° to 1°). A negative correlation was found between femoral neck shaft angle and age (-0.17° to 1°). A positive correlation was found between acetabular version and female gender (2.6° to 1°). A positive correlation was found between center edge angle and female gender (2.8° to 1°). A

  12. [Slipped capital femoral epiphysis].

    PubMed

    Klein, C; Haraux, E; Leroux, J; Gouron, R

    2017-03-01

    Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SFCE) is a disorder of the hip, characterized by a displacement of the capital femoral epiphysis from the metaphysic through the femoral growth plate. The epiphysis slips posteriorly and inferiorly. SCFE occurs during puberty and metabolic and epidemiologic risk factors, such as obesity are frequently found. Most chronic slips are diagnosed late. Sagittal hip X-rays show epiphysis slip. In case of untreated SCFE, a slip progression arises with an acute slip risk. Treatment is indicated to prevent slip worsening. The clinical and radiological classification is useful to guide treatment and it is predictive of the prognosis. In situ fixation of stable and moderately displaced SCFE with cannulated screws gives excellent results. Major complications are chondrolysis and osteonecrosis and the major sequelae are femoroacetabular impingement and early arthritis.

  13. Sufficient penetration of peracetic acid into drilled human femoral heads.

    PubMed

    Brosig, H; Jacker, H-J; Borchert, H-H; Kalus, U; Dörner, T; von Versen, R; Pruss, A

    2005-01-01

    Chemical sterilisation methods for musculoskeletal transplants have the problem of penetration into all tissue strata. The present study examined if a peracetic acid/ethanol solution penetrated to a sufficient extent into specifically prepared femoral heads. To this effect, 10 femoral heads have been provided with drillings (diameter 2 mm, depth 10 mm) at a distance of 15 mm (series B) and placed in a diffusion chamber with sterilisation solution. From an additional central drilling at the femoral neck junction, the sample drawing was made after 30 min each over a period of 4 h for the iodometric determination of peracetic acid (PAA) concentration. Ten femoral heads, which did contain only the central drilling, served as controls (series A). In 9 of the examined femoral heads of series A the defined minimum concentration of PAA of 0.2% (inactivation of bacteria, spores, fungi) has been clearly exceeded over the complete period of measurement. About 0.8% PAA (inactivation of viruses) was achieved within 4 h only with six femoral heads. Nine out of the 10 examined femoral heads in series B show a clearly improved penetration behaviour which was expressed in smaller standard deviations, a faster increase in concentration, as well as in higher starting and final concentrations (approx. 0.9%) of PAA. Previous drying in air leads to a faster penetration into the centre of the bone. Standardised drilling of de-cartilaged femoral heads creates favourable conditions for the penetration of the PAA sterilisation solution into the whole tissue and guarantees a sufficient inactivation of microorganisms.

  14. Does hip osteoarthritis have a protective effect against proximal femoral fractures? A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Calderazzi, Filippo; Groppi, Giulia; Ricotta, Agostino; Ceccarelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The inverse relationship between proximal femoral fracture incidence and hip osteoarthritis remains controversial. However, femoral neck fractures rarely occur in patients with hip osteoarthritis, suggesting a protective effect of osteoarthritis. We sought to determine if the severity of osteoarthritis influenced fracture type. We examined the radiographs of 190 consecutive patients treated at our institution after hip trauma. They were divided into three groups according to the outcome of the trauma: femoral neck fracture; trochanteric fracture; and no fracture. We then analysed the severity of osteoarthritis within these groups. No relationship between the grade of hip osteoarthritis and the presence of a proximal femoral fracture was found. However, the grade of osteoarthritis was related both to the outcome of the trauma (p<0.0001) and to the location of the fracture (p<0.0001). Patients with osteoarthritis of the hip had a three-fold increased likelihood of trochanteric fracture compared to femoral neck fracture. Osteoarthritis does not protect against proximal femoral fractures, but strongly affects the location of the fracture in the proximal femur, increasing the possibility of a trochanteric location.

  15. Effects of intertrochanteric osteotomy plane and preoperative femoral anteversion on the postoperative morphology of the proximal femur in transtrochanteric anterior rotational osteotomy: 3D CT-based simulation study.

    PubMed

    Sonoda, K; Motomura, G; Ikemura, S; Kubo, Y; Yamamoto, T; Nakashima, Y

    2017-08-03

    Transtrochanteric anterior rotational osteotomy (ARO) is joint-preserving surgery for patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). During ARO, femoral neck-shaft varus angulation by changing intertrochanteric osteotomy plane is often designed to obtain a sufficient postoperative intact ratio. However, the effect of intertrochanteric osteotomy plane on postoperative femoral anteversion has not been well examined. Therefore, we performed a simulation study of ARO to determine how intertrochanteric osteotomy plane and preoperative femoral anteversion affect both femoral neck-shaft varus angle and postoperative femoral anteversion. Both femoral neck-shaft varus angle and postoperative femoral anteversion are predicted by intertrochanteric osteotomy plane and preoperative femoral anteversion in ARO. Using CT-data obtained from 10 hips in 10 patients with ONFH, ARO was simulated. On anteroposterior view, basic intertrochanteric osteotomy line (AP-view line) was defined as the perpendicular line to the femoral neck axis. On lateral view, basic intertrochanteric osteotomy line (lateral-view line) made through the cut surface of greater trochanter was defined as the perpendicular line to the lateral axis of the femur. By changing either AP-view or lateral-view line, 49 ARO models/hip were produced, in which femoral neck-shaft varus angle and postoperative femoral anteversion were assessed. With increase in the vertically-inclined degree of AP-view line, both neck-shaft varus angle and postoperative femoral anteversion increased. With increase in the posteriorly-tilted degree of lateral-view line, neck-shaft varus angle increased, whereas postoperative femoral anteversion decreased. The approximation equations based on the multiple regression analyses were as follows: neck-shaft varus angle≈vertically-inclined degree of AP-view line×0.9+posteriorly-tilted degree of lateral-view line×0.8+preoperative femoral anteversion×0.7; postoperative femoral anteversion

  16. Laceration of femoral vessels by an avulsion fracture fragment of the lesser trochanter after bipolar hemiarthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ha, Yong-Chan; Luminita, Simion; Cho, Se-Hyun; Choi, Jun-Young; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2005-08-01

    Femoral vessel injuries after bipolar hemiarthroplasty have not been reported. The current report describes a case of a dual major vessel (superficial femoral artery and vein) injury associated with an avulsion fracture fragment of the lesser trochanter in a 76-year-old woman who had been treated with bipolar hemiarthroplasty because of a femoral neck fracture. The superficial femoral artery was repaired and the defect of the superficial femoral vein was reconstructed with a Gore-Tex graft (WL Gore and Associates Inc, Flagstaff, Ariz). The clinical result was satisfactory and there was no vascular problem at 1-year follow-up. Early diagnosis of this vascular injury prevents serious complications including gangrene of the injured limb.

  17. In vivo observations of hydraulic stiffening in the canine femoral head.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, J A; Sanders, A P; Kiesler, T W; Heck, D A; Toombs, J P; Brandt, K D; Hillberry, B M

    1997-02-01

    The role that intertrabecular contents and their boundary conditions have on the dynamic mechanical response of canine femoral heads was investigated in vivo. Femoral heads from paired intact hind limbs of canine specimens were subjected to a sinusoidal strain excitation at physiologic frequencies, in the cranio-caudal direction. The fluid boundary conditions for the contralateral limbs were changed by predrilling through the lateral femoral cortex and into the femoral neck. The drilling procedure did not invade the head itself. This femoral head fluid boundary alteration reduced the stiffness by 19 percent for testing at 1 Hz. The results of this study demonstrate that fluid stiffening occurs in vivo as previously observed ex vivo.

  18. An analysis of factors affecting the mercury content in the human femoral bone.

    PubMed

    Zioła-Frankowska, A; Dąbrowski, M; Kubaszewski, Ł; Rogala, P; Kowalski, A; Frankowski, M

    2017-01-01

    The study was carried out to determine the content of mercury in bone tissue of the proximal femur (head and neck bone) of 95 patients undergoing total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis, using CF-AFS analytical technique. Furthermore, the investigations were aimed at assessing the impact of selected factors, such as age, gender, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to chemical substance at work, type of degenerative changes, clinical evaluation and radiological parameters, type of medications, on the concentration of mercury in the head and neck of the femur, resected in situ. Mercury was obtained in all samples of the head and neck of the femur (n = 190) in patients aged 25-91 years. The mean content of mercury for the whole group of patients was as follows: 37.1 ± 35.0 ng/g for the femoral neck and 24.2 ± 19.5 ng/g for the femoral head. The highest Hg contents were found in femoral neck samples, both in women and men, and they amounted to 169.6 and 176.5 ng/g, respectively. The research showed that the mercury content of bones can be associated with body mass index, differences in body anatomy, and gender. The uses of statistical analysis gave the possibility to define the influence of factors on mercury content in human femoral bones.

  19. An intracapsular carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma with lung metastases composed exclusively of benign elements: histological evidence of a continuum between metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Weissferdt, Annikka; Langman, Gerald

    2010-07-15

    Malignant mixed tumors of the salivary glands, encompassing carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (ca ex PA), carcinosarcoma and metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma (mPA), are rare neoplasms. Ca ex PA arises in a pre-existing pleomorphic adenoma (PA). When the malignant component does not breach the capsule of the parent PA, the lesion is termed intracapsular ca ex PA, a neoplasm which is thought to have no metastatic potential. Metastatic deposits of ca ex PA are composed exclusively of malignant elements or mixed benign and malignant components. We describe the case of a 62-year-old female with an intracapsular ca ex PA of the buccal mucosa with subsequent metastases to the lung. The metastatic deposits resembled benign PA with no histological evidence of malignancy. This pattern of spread is described with mPA, an entity that caused controversy in the past regarding its exact classification as a benign or malignant tumor. The possibility that ca ex PA originates from a mPA, with intracapsular ca ex PA representing an intermediate lesion in a histological continuum, is discussed.

  20. Corrosion behavior of tantalum-coated cobalt-chromium modular necks compared to titanium modular necks in a simulator test.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Ulrich; Neumann, Daniel; Frank, Mario

    2014-04-01

    This study compared the corrosion behavior of tantalum-coated cobalt-chromium modular necks with that of titanium alloy modular necks at their junction to titanium-alloy femoral stem. Tests were performed in a dry assembly and two wet assemblies, one contaminated with calf serum and the other contaminated with calf serum and bone particles. Whereas the titanium modular neck tested in the dry assembly showed no signs of corrosion, the titanium modular necks tested in both wet assemblies showed marked depositions and corrosive attacks. By contrast, the tantalum-coated cobalt-chromium modular necks showed no traces of corrosion or chemical attack in any of the three assemblies. This study confirms the protective effect of tantalum coating the taper region of cobalt-chromium modular neck components, suggesting that the use of tantalum may reduce the risk of implant failure due to corrosion. © 2014.

  1. The effect of valgus and varus femoral osteotomies on measures of anteversion in the dog.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rachel W; Gilleland, Brad; Monibi, Farrah; Franklin, Samuel P

    2017-05-22

    To determine whether femoral osteotomies that change frontal plane alignment without affecting torsion influence anteversion and inclination. Femurs without deformity were scanned to create three-dimensional reconstructions. The femoral head-neck axis was identified by placement of a virtual intramedullary pin. A proximal osteotomy was simulated to create three conditions while keeping torsion constant: Normal, Coxa Valga (neck-shaft angle increased by 12°), and Coxa Vara (neck-shaft angle decreased by 12°). Femoral anteversion was measured from an axial image in all three conditions. Femoral inclination was calculated for all conditions using the neck-shaft and anteversion angles. Changes in anteversion and inclination were calculated and compared using a one-way repeated measures analysis of variance. Distal femoral osteotomies were then simulated with the native femurs, inducing 18° of distal varus with no change to torsion. Changes in anteversion and inclination for the Normal and Distal Varus conditions were calculated and compared by a paired t-test. Version changed by a mean of 13.9° (± 1.5; p <0.0001) from the Coxa Valga to Coxa Vara conditions while inclination changed by a mean of 1.3° (± 0.39; p <0.01). Version changed by a mean of 6.6° (± 0.7; p <0.0001) between the Distal Varus and Normal conditions while inclination changed by a mean of -3.8° (± 0.75; p <0.001). Femoral version changes with changing frontal plane alignment even when torsion is constant. This should be considered when correcting femoral deformities.

  2. Fiddler's neck.

    PubMed

    Moreno, J C; Gata, I M; García-Bravo, B; Camacho, F M

    1997-03-01

    The dermatologic pathological condition of musicians is a rare medical problem. We would like to draw attention to what is called "Fiddler's neck," a process that is peculiar to violin, viola, or cello players and that may be caused by two different mechanisms: contact allergic reaction or a mechanical action.

  3. A micro-architectural evaluation of osteoporotic human femoral heads to guide implant placement in proximal femoral fractures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose The micro-architecture of bone has been increasingly recognized as an important determinant of bone strength. Successful operative stabilization of fractures depends on bone strength. We evaluated the osseous micro-architecture and strength of the osteoporotic human femoral head. Material and methods 6 femoral heads, obtained during arthroplasty surgery for femoral neck fracture, underwent micro-computed tomography (microCT) scanning at 30 μm, and bone volume ratio (BV/TV), trabecular thickness, structural model index, connection density, and degree of anisotropy for volumes of interest throughout the head were derived. A further 15 femoral heads underwent mechanical testing of compressive failure stress of cubes of trabecular bone from different regions of the head. Results The greatest density and trabecular thickness was found in the central core that extended from the medial calcar to the physeal scar. This region also correlated with the greatest degree of anisotropy and proportion of plate-like trabeculae. In the epiphyseal region, the trabeculae were organized radially from the physeal scar. The weakest area was found at the apex and peripheral areas of the head. The strongest region was at the center of the head. Interpretation The center of the femoral head contained the strongest trabecular bone, with the thickest, most dense trabeculae. The apical region was weaker. From an anatomical and mechanical point of view, implants that achieve fixation in or below this central core may achieve the most stable fixation during fracture healing. PMID:24032522

  4. Neck pain

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Non-specific neck pain has a postural or mechanical basis and affects about two thirds of people at some stage, especially in middle age. Acute neck pain resolves within days or weeks, but may become chronic in about 10% of people. Whiplash injuries follow sudden acceleration–deceleration of the neck, such as in road traffic or sporting accidents. Up to 40% of people continue to report symptoms 15 years after the accident, although this varies between countries. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for people with non-specific neck pain without severe neurological deficit? What are the effects of treatments for acute whiplash injury? What are the effects of treatments for chronic whiplash injury? What are the effects of treatments for neck pain with radiculopathy? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 91 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of the evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, biofeedback, drug treatments (analgesics, antidepressants, epidural steroid injections, muscle relaxants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs]), early mobilisation, early return to normal activity, exercise, heat or cold, manipulation (alone or plus exercise), mobilisation, multimodal treatment, patient education, percutaneous radiofrequency neurotomy

  5. A low-cost solution for the restoration of femoral head centre during total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Hill, Janet C; Salazar-Torres, Jose J; Orr, John F; Archbold, H A Pooler; Beverland, David E

    2013-06-01

    Restoration of joint centre during total hip arthroplasty is critical. While computer-aided navigation can improve accuracy during total hip arthroplasty, its expense makes it inaccessible to the majority of surgeons. This article evaluates the use, in the laboratory, of a calliper with a simple computer application to measure changes in femoral head centres during total hip arthroplasty. The computer application was designed using Microsoft Excel and used calliper measurements taken pre- and post-femoral head resection to predict the change in head centre in terms of offset and vertical height between the femoral head and newly inserted prosthesis. Its accuracy was assessed using a coordinate measuring machine to compare changes in preoperative and post-operative head centre when simulating stem insertion on 10 sawbone femurs. A femoral stem with a modular neck was used, which meant nine possible head centre configurations were available for each femur, giving 90 results. The results show that using this technique during a simulated total hip arthroplasty, it was possible to restore femoral head centre to within 6 mm for offset (mean 1.67 ± 1.16 mm) and vertical height (mean 2.14 ± 1.51 mm). It is intended that this low-cost technique be extended to inform the surgeon of a best-fit solution in terms of neck length and neck type for a specific prosthesis.

  6. 'Fiddler's neck'.

    PubMed

    Peachey, R D; Matthews, C N

    1978-06-01

    'Fiddler's neck' is a condition affecting violin and viola players. Although well known to musicians it is not well recognized by dermatologists. Clinically the lesions usually consist of a localized area of lichenification of the left side of the neck--just below the angle of the jaw. Pigmentation, erythema and inflammatory papules or pustules are frequently present, while severe inflammatory induration, cyst formation and scarring occur in more severely affected subjects. The aetiology of the skin changes is probably due to a combination of factors; friction giving rise to lichenification, while local pressure, shearing stress and occlusion may play a part in producing the acne-like changes and cyst formation. In addition, poor hygiene may predispose to local sepsis.

  7. Laparoscopic repair of femoral hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernia is mini-invasive and has confirmed effects. Femoral hernia could be repaired through the laparoscopic procedures for inguinal hernia. These procedures have clear anatomic view in the operation and preoperatively undiagnosed femoral hernia could be confirmed and treated. Lower recurrence ratio was reported in laparoscopic procedures compared with open procedures for repair of femoral hernia. The technical details of laparoscopic repair of femoral hernia, especially the differences to laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernia are discussed in this article. PMID:27826574

  8. Does Orientation of the Femoral Head Affect Acetabular Development? An Experimental Study in Lamb.

    PubMed

    Moraleda, Luis; Bravo, Christian; Forriol, Francisco; Albiñana, Javier

    2017-03-21

    Derotational osteotomy of the proximal femur has proved to be effective in the treatment of residual acetabular dysplasia. However, the reason why this osteotomy is effective remains debatable. The purpose of this study is to investigate if an alteration of femoral head orientation affects acetabular growth. A proximal femoral osteotomy was performed in 21 lambs aged 3 months: 5 varus osteotomies (110 degrees), 4 valgus osteotomies (150 degrees), and 12 derotation osteotomies. Results were compared with a control group (5 animals). Osteotomy was fixed with a screw-plate device. Version was controlled intraoperatively with K-wires. Animals were killed 3 months after surgical procedure. A morphometric study of both proximal femur and acetabulum was performed, including deepness, volume and diameters of the acetabulum, neck-shaft angle and femoral version. The average neck-shaft angle for the normal, anteversion, and retroversion groups was 129 degrees, whereas it was 110 degrees for the varus group and 149 degrees for the valgus group. The average femoral version for the normal, valgus, and varus groups was 21 degrees of anteversion, whereas it was 38 degrees of anteversion for the so-called anteversion group and 17 degrees of retroversion for the retroversion group. Nor the neck-shaft angle, nor the femoral version correlated with the acetabular anteroposterior diameter (P=0.698, 0.6, respectively), the acetabular inferosuperior diameter (P=0.083, 0.451, respectively) or the acetabular deepness (P=0.14, 0.371, respectively). The neck-shaft angle correlated significantly with acetabular volume (P=0.023), so that the lower the neck-shaft angle, the higher the acetabular volume (r=-0.453). The femoral version did not correlated with acetabular volume (P=0.381). Decreasing the neck-shaft angle provokes an increase in acetabular volume, whereas changes in femoral version do not affect the acetabular growth. Extra-articular osteotomies that alter femoral orientation

  9. Femoral neck's fracture in Fahr's Syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Sallì, Marcello; D'Arienzo, Antonio; Bonanno, Mariella; Morello, Salvatore; Sanfilippo, Antonino; Mauro, Giulia Letizia; D'Arienzo, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Fahr's syndrome, also known as "Bilateral Striopallidodentate Calcinosis" (BSPDC) primitive, is a rare neurological disease characterized by the presence of idiopathic, bilateral, symmetrical and abnormal deposition of calcium in areas of the brain that control movements including the basal ganglia, dentate nuclei of the cerebellum, nuclei of thalamus and semi-oval center. We describe a case of a 76-year-old male patient underwent reduction and fixation of a subtrochanteric fracture with intramedullary nail. During post-operative rehabilitation therapists's