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Sample records for intracellular antioxidant enzymes

  1. Intracellular oxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme defense system, and cell senescence in fibroblasts with trisomy 21.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sureda, Víctor; Vilches, Ángel; Sánchez, Olga; Audí, Laura; Domínguez, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Down's syndrome (DS) is characterized by a complex phenotype associated with chronic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Overexpression of genes on chromosome-21 is thought to underlie the pathogenesis of the major phenotypic features of DS, such as premature aging. Using cultured fibroblasts with trisomy 21 (T21F), this study aimed to ascertain whether an imbalance exists in activities, mRNA, and protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes SOD1, SOD2, glutathione-peroxidase, and catalase during the cell replication process in vitro. T21F had high SOD1 expression and activity which led to an interenzymatic imbalance in the antioxidant defense system, accentuated with replicative senescence. Intracellular ROS production and oxidized protein levels were significantly higher in T21F compared with control cells; furthermore, a significant decline in intracellular ATP content was detected in T21F. Cell senescence was found to appear prematurely in DS cells as shown by SA-β-Gal assay and p21 assessment, though not apoptosis, as neither p53 nor the proapoptotic proteins cytochrome c and caspase 9 were altered in T21F. These novel findings would point to a deleterious role of oxidatively modified molecules in early cell senescence of T21F, thereby linking replicative and stress-induced senescence in cultured cells to premature aging in DS.

  2. Upregulation of intracellular antioxidant enzymes in brain and heart during estivation in the African lungfish Protopterus dolloi.

    PubMed

    Page, Melissa M; Salway, Kurtis D; Ip, Yuen Kwong; Chew, Shit F; Warren, Sarah A; Ballantyne, James S; Stuart, Jeffrey A

    2010-03-01

    The African slender lungfish, Protopterus dolloi, is highly adapted to withstand periods of drought by secreting a mucous cocoon and estivating for periods of months to years. Estivation is similar to the diapause and hibernation of other animal species in that it is characterized by negligible activity and a profoundly depressed metabolic rate. As is typically observed in quiescent states, estivating P. dolloi are resistant to environmental stresses. We tested the hypothesis that P. dolloi enhances stress resistance during estivation by upregulating intracellular antioxidant defences in brain and heart tissues. We found that most of the major intracellular antioxidant enzymes, including the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, cytosolic superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, were upregulated in brain tissue of lungfish that had estivated for 60 days. Several of these enzymes were also elevated in heart tissue of estivators. These changes were not due to food deprivation, as they did not occur in a group of fish that were deprived of food but maintained in water for the same period of time. We found little evidence of tissue oxidative damage in estivators. Products of lipid peroxidation (4-hydroxynonenal adducts) and oxidative protein damage (carbonylation) were similar in estivating and control lungfish. However, protein nitrotyrosine levels were elevated in brain tissue of estivators. Taken together, these data indicate that estivating P. dolloi have enhanced oxidative stress resistance in brain and heart due to a significant upregulation of intracellular antioxidant capacity.

  3. Intracellular antioxidant enzymes are not globally upregulated during hibernation in the major oxidative tissues of the 13-lined ground squirrel Spermophilus tridecemlineatus.

    PubMed

    Page, Melissa M; Peters, Craig W; Staples, James F; Stuart, Jeffrey A

    2009-01-01

    Hibernating mammals exhibit oxidative stress resistance in brain, liver and other tissues. In many animals, cellular oxidative stress resistance is associated with enhanced expression of intracellular antioxidant enzymes. Intracellular antioxidant capacity may be upregulated during hibernation to protect against oxidative damage associated with the ischemia-reperfusion that occurs during transitions between torpor and arousal. We tested the hypothesis that the 13-lined ground squirrel (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), upregulates intracellular antioxidant enzymes in major oxidative tissues during hibernation. The two major intracellular isoforms of superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and CuZnSOD), which catalyze the first step in superoxide detoxification, were quantified in heart, brain and liver tissue using immunodetection and an in-gel activity assay. However, no differences in SOD protein expression or activity were found between active and hibernating squirrels. Measurements of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, which catalyze hydrogen peroxide removal, were not broadly upregulated during hibernation. The activity of catalase, which catalyzes an alternative hydrogen peroxide detoxification pathway, was higher in heart and brain of torpid squirrels, but lower in liver. Taken together, these data do not support the hypothesis that hibernation is associated with enhanced oxidative stress resistance due to an upregulation of intracellular antioxidant enzymes in the major oxidative tissues.

  4. Diverse age-related effects of Bacopa monnieri and donepezil in vitro on cytokine production, antioxidant enzyme activities, and intracellular targets in splenocytes of F344 male rats.

    PubMed

    Priyanka, Hannah P; Singh, Ran Vijay; Mishra, Miti; ThyagaRajan, Srinivasan

    2013-02-01

    Aged people are more prone to developing neurodegenerative and infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer due to impairment of neuroendocrine-immune functions. Neuronal degeneration and immunosuppression aided by increased generation of reactive oxygen species combined with loss of antioxidant enzyme activities promote the aging process. Bacopa monnieri (brahmi), an Ayurvedic herb, and donepezil, a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, have been used to reverse cognitive dysfunctions in several neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of in vitro incubation of lymphocytes from spleens of young (3-month-old), early middle-aged (8- to 9-month-old), and old (18-month-old) F344 rats with brahmi (0.001%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 1%) and donepezil (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 μg/ml) on Concanavalin (Con A)-induced proliferation of T lymphocytes and cytokine production, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)]. In addition, the effects of these compounds on the expression of intracellular signaling pathway markers (ERK, p-ERK, CREB, p-CREB, Akt and p-Akt), nitric oxide (NO) production, and the extent of lipid peroxidation were measured in the splenocytes. Age-related decline in Con A-induced proliferation of T lymphocytes was not reversed by treatment with brahmi and donepezil but donepezil alone further reduced the lymphocyte proliferation in young rats. Lower doses of brahmi treatment reversed the age-related decrease in Con A-induced IL-2 and IFN-γ production by the splenocytes while their production by splenocytes was suppressed by treatment with donepezil in the young and early middle-aged rats. An age-associated decline in the activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, and GST was evident in the lymphocytes of spleen. Brahmi enhanced CAT activity of lymphocytes in all the age groups while donepezil increased SOD

  5. THE ALTERATION OF INTRACELLULAR ENZYMES

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, J. Gordin

    1954-01-01

    activated by concentrations of altering agent which cause no decrease in viability at all. Hence alteration, unlike death, may not be all-or-none per cell. 6. The fact that the biological criterion being examined was the activation of a water-soluble enzyme rules out the possibility that the reason for the logarithmic increase in altering activity with chain length was increase in concentration of the altering agent in some intracellular fat phase. It is concluded that these surface-active agents cause enzyme alteration by becoming adsorbed at some intracellular interface and thus causing, directly or indirectly, the modification of catalase properties. 7. It is considered that these data support, but do not provide critical proof for, the interfacial hypothesis, which states that catalase is present at the intracellular interface in question, but is desorbed into solution as a consequence of the alteration process. PMID:13211996

  6. Menstrual cycle and reproductive aging alters immune reactivity, NGF expression, antioxidant enzyme activities, and intracellular signaling pathways in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy women.

    PubMed

    Priyanka, Hannah P; Sharma, Utsav; Gopinath, Srinivasan; Sharma, Varun; Hima, Lalgi; ThyagaRajan, Srinivasan

    2013-08-01

    Reproductive senescence in women is a process that begins with regular menstrual cycles and culminates in menopause followed by gradual development of diseases such as autoimmune diseases, osteoporosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and hormone-dependent cancers. The age-associated impairment in the functions of neuroendocrine system and immune system results in menopause which contributes to subsequent development of diseases and cancer. The aim of this study is to characterize the alterations in immune responses, compensatory factors such as nerve growth factor (NGF) and antioxidant enzyme activities, and the molecular mechanisms of actions in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of young (follicular and luteal phases), middle-aged, and old healthy women. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from young women in follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle (n=20; 22.6±2.9 yrs), middle-aged women (n=19; 47.1±3.8 yrs; perimenopausal) and old (n=16; 63.2±4.7 yrs; post-menopausal) women and analyzed for Concanavalin (Con A)-induced proliferation of lymphocytes and cytokine (IL-2 and IFN-γ) production, expression of NGF, p-NF-κB, p-ERK, p-CREB, and p-Akt, antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST)], extent of lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide (NO) production. Serum gonadal hormones (17β-estradiol and progesterone) were also measured. A characteristic age- and menstrual cycle-related change was observed in the serum gonadal hormone secretion (estrogen and progesterone), T lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ production. Salient features include the age-related decline observed in target-derived growth factors (lymphocyte NGF expression), signaling molecules (p-ERK/ERK and p-CREB/CREB ratios) and compensatory factors such as the activities of plasma and PBMC antioxidant enzymes (SOD and catalase) and NO production. Further, an age-associated increase in p

  7. Screening of dietary antioxidants against mitochondria-mediated oxidative stress by visualization of intracellular redox state.

    PubMed

    Maharjan, Sunita; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Hoseki, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial impairment and the resulting generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been associated with aging and its related pathological conditions. Recently, dietary antioxidants have gained significant attention as potential preventive and therapeutic agents against ROS-generated aging and pathological conditions. We previously demonstrated that food-derived antioxidants prevented intracellular oxidative stress under proteasome inhibition conditions, which was attributed to mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS generation, followed by cell death. Here, we further screened dietary antioxidants for their activity as redox modulators by visualization of the redox state using Redoxfluor, a fluorescent protein redox probe. Direct alleviation of ROS by antioxidants, but not induction of antioxidative enzymes, prevented mitochondria-mediated intracellular oxidation. The effective antioxidants scavenged mitochondrial ROS and suppressed cell death. Our study indicates that redox visualization under mitochondria-mediated oxidative stress is useful for screening potential antioxidants to counteract mitochondrial dysfunction, which has been implicated in aging and the pathogenesis of aging-related diseases.

  8. Thai Fruits Exhibit Antioxidant Activity and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes in HEK-293 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Anantachoke, Natthinee; Lomarat, Pattamapan; Praserttirachai, Wasin; Khammanit, Ruksinee

    2016-01-01

    The cellular antioxidant enzymes play the important role of protecting the cells and organisms from the oxidative damage. Natural antioxidants contained in fruits have attracted considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals contained in fruits on the induction of antioxidant enzymes in the cells have not been fully defined. In this study, we showed that extracts from Antidesma ghaesembilla, Averrhoa bilimbi, Malpighia glabra, Mangifera indica, Sandoricum koetjape, Syzygium malaccense, and Ziziphus jujuba inhibited H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production in HEK-293 cells. Additionally, these Thai fruit extracts increased the mRNA and protein expressions of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, and manganese superoxide dismutase. The consumption of Thai fruits rich in phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of oxidative stress. PMID:28074103

  9. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes activity of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 (Cyanobacterium) under simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Li, Gen-bao; Liu, Yong-ding; Wang, Gao-hong; Song, Li-rong

    2004-12-01

    It was found that reactive oxygen species in Anabaena cells increased under simulated microgravity provided by clinostat. Activities of intracellular antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase were higher than those in the controlled samples during the 7 days' experiment. However, the contents of glutathione [correction of gluathione], an intracellular antioxidant, decreased in comparison with the controlled samples. The results suggested that microgravity provided by clinostat might break the oxidative/antioxidative balance. It indicated a protective mechanism in algal cells, that the total antioxidant system activity increased, which might play an important role for algal cells to adapt the environmental stress of microgravity.

  10. Relationships among alcoholic liver disease, antioxidants, and antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyu-Ho; Hashimoto, Naoto; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2016-01-01

    Excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages is a serious cause of liver disease worldwide. The metabolism of ethanol generates reactive oxygen species, which play a significant role in the deterioration of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Antioxidant phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, regulate the expression of ALD-associated proteins and peptides, namely, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. These plant antioxidants have electrophilic activity and may induce antioxidant enzymes via the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-NF-E2-related factor-2 pathway and antioxidant responsive elements. Furthermore, these antioxidants are reported to alleviate cell injury caused by oxidants or inflammatory cytokines. These phenomena are likely induced via the regulation of mitogen-activating protein kinase (MAPK) pathways by plant antioxidants, similar to preconditioning in ischemia-reperfusion models. Although the relationship between plant antioxidants and ALD has not been adequately investigated, plant antioxidants may be preventive for ALD because of their electrophilic and regulatory activities in the MAPK pathway. PMID:26755859

  11. Relationships among alcoholic liver disease, antioxidants, and antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyu-Ho; Hashimoto, Naoto; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2016-01-07

    Excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages is a serious cause of liver disease worldwide. The metabolism of ethanol generates reactive oxygen species, which play a significant role in the deterioration of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Antioxidant phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, regulate the expression of ALD-associated proteins and peptides, namely, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. These plant antioxidants have electrophilic activity and may induce antioxidant enzymes via the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-NF-E2-related factor-2 pathway and antioxidant responsive elements. Furthermore, these antioxidants are reported to alleviate cell injury caused by oxidants or inflammatory cytokines. These phenomena are likely induced via the regulation of mitogen-activating protein kinase (MAPK) pathways by plant antioxidants, similar to preconditioning in ischemia-reperfusion models. Although the relationship between plant antioxidants and ALD has not been adequately investigated, plant antioxidants may be preventive for ALD because of their electrophilic and regulatory activities in the MAPK pathway.

  12. The druggability of intracellular nucleotide-degrading enzymes.

    PubMed

    Rampazzo, Chiara; Tozzi, Maria Grazia; Dumontet, Charles; Jordheim, Lars Petter

    2016-05-01

    Nucleotide metabolism is the target of a large number of anticancer drugs including antimetabolites and specific enzyme inhibitors. We review scientific findings that over the last 10-15 years have allowed the identification of several intracellular nucleotide-degrading enzymes as cancer drug targets, and discuss further potential therapeutic applications for Rcl, SAMHD1, MTH1 and cN-II. We believe that enzymes involved in nucleotide metabolism represent potent alternatives to conventional cancer chemotherapy targets.

  13. Dynamic Reorganization of Metabolic Enzymes into Intracellular Bodies

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Jeremy D.; Zhao, Alice; Ellington, Andrew D.; Marcotte, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Both focused and large-scale cell biological and biochemical studies have revealed that hundreds of metabolic enzymes across diverse organisms form large intracellular bodies. These proteinaceous bodies range in form from fibers and intracellular foci—such as those formed by enzymes of nitrogen and carbon utilization and of nucleotide biosynthesis—to high-density packings inside bacterial microcompartments and eukaryotic microbodies. Although many enzymes clearly form functional mega-assemblies, it is not yet clear for many recently discovered cases whether they represent functional entities, storage bodies, or aggregates. In this article, we survey intracellular protein bodies formed by metabolic enzymes, asking when and why such bodies form and what their formation implies for the functionality—and dysfunctionality—of the enzymes that comprise them. The panoply of intracellular protein bodies also raises interesting questions regarding their evolution and maintenance within cells. We speculate on models for how such structures form in the first place and why they may be inevitable. PMID:23057741

  14. Ozone-induced inactivation of antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Ki; Mok Kim, Sang; Han, Sanghwa

    2003-10-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant that damages a variety of biomolecules. We investigated ozone-induced inactivation of three major antioxidant enzymes. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase was inactivated by ozone in a concentration-dependent manner. The concentration of ozone for 50% inactivation was approximately 45 microM when 10 microM Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase was incubated for 30 min in the presence of ozone. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) showed that the enzyme was randomly fragmented. Both ascorbate and glutathione were very effective in protecting Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase from ozone-induced inactivation. The other two enzymes, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, were much more resistant to ozone than Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. The ozone concentrations for 50% inactivation of 10 microM catalase and glutathione peroxidase were 500 and 240 microM, respectively. SDS-PAGE demonstrated that ozone caused formation of high molecular weight aggregates in catalase and dimerization in glutathione peroxidase. Glutathione protected catalase and glutathione peroxidase from ozone but the effective concentrations were much higher than that for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. Ascorbate was almost ineffective. The result suggests that, among the three antioxidant enzymes, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase is a major target for ozone-induced inactivation and both glutathione and ascorbate are very effective in protecting the enzyme from ozone.

  15. The Assessments of the Intracellular Antioxidant Protection of the Organism after LLLT Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Freitinger-Skalicka, Zuzana; Navratil, Leos; Zolzer, Friedo; Hon, Zdenek

    2009-06-19

    The antioxidants are chemical compounds that can bind to free oxygen radicals preventing these radicals from damaging healthy cells. Low levels of antioxidants, or inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes causes oxidative stress and may damage or kill cells. The purpose of this project was to establish the changes at intracellular antioxidant protection of the organism after LLLT irradiation. We used female mice of the strain CD1. The mice were exposed in the abdomen region to laser light. From the blood was assessment the Glutathione peroxidase, Reduced Glutathione and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity. The results obtained in the present study demonstrated that in vivo irradiation of the mice with low level lasers did not cause any statistically significant changes in superoxide dismutase and Glutathione peroxidase but we found changes in Reduced Glutathione and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity after exposing the mice to the LLLT during the 30 minutes after irradiation, as well on the 4th day. Do not replace the word ''abstract,'' but do replace the rest of this text. If you must insert a hard line break, please use Shift+Enter rather than just tapping your ''Enter'' key. You may want to print this page and refer to it as a style sample before you begin working on your paper.

  16. Approach To Deliver Two Antioxidant Enzymes with Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles into Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Yi-Ping; Liu, Tsang-Pai; Chien, Fan-Ching; Chou, Chih-Ming; Chen, Chien-Tsu; Mou, Chung-Yuan

    2016-07-20

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important factors in many clinical diseases. However, direct delivery of antioxidant enzymes into cells is difficult due to poor cell uptake. A proper design of delivery of enzymes by nanoparticles is very desirable for therapeutic purposes. To overcome the cell barrier problem, a designed mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) system with attached TAT-fusion denatured enzyme for enhancing cell membrane penetration has been developed. Simultaneous delivery of two up-downstream antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase(GPx), reveals synergistic efficiency of ROS scavenging, compared to single antioxidant enzyme delivery. TAT peptide conjugation provided a facile nonendocytosis cell uptake and escape from endosome while moving and aggregating along the cytoskeleton that would allow them to be close to each other at the same time, resulting in the cellular antioxidation cascade reaction. The two-enzyme delivery shows a significant synergistic effect for protecting cells against ROS-induced cell damage and cell cycle arrest. The nanocarrier strategy for enzyme delivery demonstrates that intracellular anti-ROS cascade reactions could be regulated by multifunctional MSNs carrying image fluorophore and relevant antioxidation enzymes.

  17. Compartment-specific Control of Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging by Antioxidant Pathway Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Dey, Swati; Sidor, Agnieszka; O'Rourke, Brian

    2016-05-20

    Oxidative stress arises from an imbalance in the production and scavenging rates of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is a key factor in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease and aging. The presence of parallel pathways and multiple intracellular compartments, each having its own ROS sources and antioxidant enzymes, complicates the determination of the most important regulatory nodes of the redox network. Here we quantified ROS dynamics within specific intracellular compartments in the cytosol and mitochondria and determined which scavenging enzymes exert the most control over antioxidant fluxes in H9c2 cardiac myoblasts. We used novel targeted viral gene transfer vectors expressing redox-sensitive GFP fused to sensor domains to measure H2O2 or oxidized glutathione. Using genetic manipulation in heart-derived H9c2 cells, we explored the contribution of specific antioxidant enzymes to ROS scavenging and glutathione redox potential within each intracellular compartment. Our findings reveal that antioxidant flux is strongly dependent on mitochondrial substrate catabolism, with availability of NADPH as a major rate-controlling step. Moreover, ROS scavenging by mitochondria significantly contributes to cytoplasmic ROS handling. The findings provide fundamental information about the control of ROS scavenging by the redox network and suggest novel interventions for circumventing oxidative stress in cardiac cells.

  18. [Influence of ionizing radiation on activity of enzymes of antioxidant defense of Paecilomyces lilaclvus (Thom) Samson].

    PubMed

    Tuhaĭ, T I

    2011-01-01

    The level of activity of antioxidant protection enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase) under exposure to ionizing radiation and without it in strain Paecilomyces lilacinus, showing radioadaptive properties, and in control one has been investigated. It has been established that the researched strains are characterized by the high level activity of superoxide dismutase (200-800 AU/mg protein), extracellular and intracellular catalase (0.02-40 mmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein) and peroxidase (0.2-4 mmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein). Ionizing radiation was the inducer of significant changes in antioxidant enzyme activity of the control strain (from the lack of influence to the change of activity by an order) and showed considerably less influence on their activity in the strain, showing radioadaptive properties (the activity changes by 40-50%). The complex response of antioxidant enzymes in investigated strains under the exposure to ionizing radiation has been revealed.

  19. Paradoxical Roles of Antioxidant Enzymes: Basic Mechanisms and Health Implications.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xin Gen; Zhu, Jian-Hong; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Bao, Yongping; Ho, Ye-Shih; Reddi, Amit R; Holmgren, Arne; Arnér, Elias S J

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are generated from aerobic metabolism, as a result of accidental electron leakage as well as regulated enzymatic processes. Because ROS/RNS can induce oxidative injury and act in redox signaling, enzymes metabolizing them will inherently promote either health or disease, depending on the physiological context. It is thus misleading to consider conventionally called antioxidant enzymes to be largely, if not exclusively, health protective. Because such a notion is nonetheless common, we herein attempt to rationalize why this simplistic view should be avoided. First we give an updated summary of physiological phenotypes triggered in mouse models of overexpression or knockout of major antioxidant enzymes. Subsequently, we focus on a series of striking cases that demonstrate "paradoxical" outcomes, i.e., increased fitness upon deletion of antioxidant enzymes or disease triggered by their overexpression. We elaborate mechanisms by which these phenotypes are mediated via chemical, biological, and metabolic interactions of the antioxidant enzymes with their substrates, downstream events, and cellular context. Furthermore, we propose that novel treatments of antioxidant enzyme-related human diseases may be enabled by deliberate targeting of dual roles of the pertaining enzymes. We also discuss the potential of "antioxidant" nutrients and phytochemicals, via regulating the expression or function of antioxidant enzymes, in preventing, treating, or aggravating chronic diseases. We conclude that "paradoxical" roles of antioxidant enzymes in physiology, health, and disease derive from sophisticated molecular mechanisms of redox biology and metabolic homeostasis. Simply viewing antioxidant enzymes as always being beneficial is not only conceptually misleading but also clinically hazardous if such notions underpin medical treatment protocols based on modulation of redox pathways.

  20. Enzyme-activated intracellular drug delivery with tubule clay nanoformulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzamukova, Maria R.; Naumenko, Ekaterina A.; Lvov, Yuri M.; Fakhrullin, Rawil F.

    2015-05-01

    Fabrication of stimuli-triggered drug delivery vehicle s is an important milestone in treating cancer. Here we demonstrate the selective anticancer drug delivery into human cells with biocompatible 50-nm diameter halloysite nanotube carriers. Physically-adsorbed dextrin end stoppers secure the intercellular release of brilliant green. Drug-loaded nanotubes penetrate through the cellular membranes and their uptake efficiency depends on the cells growth rate. Intercellular glycosyl hydrolases-mediated decomposition of the dextrin tube-end stoppers triggers the release of the lumen-loaded brilliant green, which allowed for preferable elimination of human lung carcinoma cells (A549) as compared with hepatoma cells (Hep3b). The enzyme-activated intracellular delivery of brilliant green using dextrin-coated halloysite nanotubes is a promising platform for anticancer treatment.

  1. Opposing Biological Functions of Tryptophan Catabolizing Enzymes During Intracellular Infection

    PubMed Central

    Divanovic, Senad; Sawtell, Nancy M.; Trompette, Aurelien; Warning, Jamie I.; Dias, Alexandra; Cooper, Andrea M.; Yap, George S.; Arditi, Moshe; Shimada, Kenichi; DuHadaway, James B.; Prendergast, George C.; Basaraba, Randall J.; Mellor, Andrew L.; Munn, David H.; Aliberti, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have underscored physiological and pathophysiological roles for the tryptophan-degrading enzyme indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in immune counterregulation. However, IDO was first recognized as an antimicrobial effector, restricting tryptophan availability to Toxoplasma gondii and other pathogens in vitro. The biological relevance of these findings came under question when infectious phenotypes were not forthcoming in IDO-deficient mice. The recent discovery of an IDO homolog, IDO-2, suggested that the issue deserved reexamination. IDO inhibition during murine toxoplasmosis led to 100% mortality, with increased parasite burdens and no evident effects on the immune response. Similar studies revealed a counterregulatory role for IDO during leishmaniasis (restraining effector immune responses and parasite clearance), and no evident role for IDO in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. Thus, IDO plays biologically important roles in the host response to diverse intracellular infections, but the dominant nature of this role—antimicrobial or immunoregulatory—is pathogen-specific. PMID:21990421

  2. Paradoxical Roles of Antioxidant Enzymes: Basic Mechanisms and Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xin Gen; Zhu, Jian-Hong; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Bao, Yongping; Ho, Ye-Shih; Reddi, Amit R.; Holmgren, Arne; Arnér, Elias S. J.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are generated from aerobic metabolism, as a result of accidental electron leakage as well as regulated enzymatic processes. Because ROS/RNS can induce oxidative injury and act in redox signaling, enzymes metabolizing them will inherently promote either health or disease, depending on the physiological context. It is thus misleading to consider conventionally called antioxidant enzymes to be largely, if not exclusively, health protective. Because such a notion is nonetheless common, we herein attempt to rationalize why this simplistic view should be avoided. First we give an updated summary of physiological phenotypes triggered in mouse models of overexpression or knockout of major antioxidant enzymes. Subsequently, we focus on a series of striking cases that demonstrate “paradoxical” outcomes, i.e., increased fitness upon deletion of antioxidant enzymes or disease triggered by their overexpression. We elaborate mechanisms by which these phenotypes are mediated via chemical, biological, and metabolic interactions of the antioxidant enzymes with their substrates, downstream events, and cellular context. Furthermore, we propose that novel treatments of antioxidant enzyme-related human diseases may be enabled by deliberate targeting of dual roles of the pertaining enzymes. We also discuss the potential of “antioxidant” nutrients and phytochemicals, via regulating the expression or function of antioxidant enzymes, in preventing, treating, or aggravating chronic diseases. We conclude that “paradoxical” roles of antioxidant enzymes in physiology, health, and disease derive from sophisticated molecular mechanisms of redox biology and metabolic homeostasis. Simply viewing antioxidant enzymes as always being beneficial is not only conceptually misleading but also clinically hazardous if such notions underpin medical treatment protocols based on modulation of redox pathways. PMID:26681794

  3. Antioxidant effects of the ethanol extract from flower of Camellia japonica via scavenging of reactive oxygen species and induction of antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Piao, Mei Jing; Yoo, Eun Sook; Koh, Young Sang; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Kim, Junoh; Kim, Yong Jin; Kang, Hak Hee; Hyun, Jin Won

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant properties of the ethanol extract of the flower of Camellia japonica (Camellia extract). Camellia extract exhibited 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity in human HaCaT keratinocytes. In addition, Camellia extract scavenged superoxide anion generated by xanthine/xanthine oxidase and hydroxyl radical generated by the Fenton reaction (FeSO(4) + H(2)O(2)) in a cell-free system, which was detected by electron spin resonance spectrometry. Furthermore, Camellia extract increased the protein expressions and activity of cellular antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. These results suggest that Camellia extract exhibits antioxidant properties by scavenging ROS and enhancing antioxidant enzymes. Camellia extract contained quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercitrin and kaempferol, which are antioxidant compounds.

  4. Complex enzyme hydrolysis releases antioxidative phenolics from rice bran.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Ruifen; Wei, Zhencheng; Deng, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Juan; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-01-01

    In this study, phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of rice bran were analyzed following successive treatment by gelatinization, liquefaction and complex enzyme hydrolysis. Compared with gelatinization alone, liquefaction slightly increased the total amount of phenolics and antioxidant activity as measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Complex enzyme hydrolysis significantly increased the total phenolics, flavonoids, FRAP and ORAC by 46.24%, 79.13%, 159.14% and 41.98%, respectively, compared to gelatinization alone. Furthermore, ten individual phenolics present in free or soluble conjugate forms were also analyzed following enzymatic processing. Ferulic acid experienced the largest release, followed by protocatechuic acid and then quercetin. Interestingly, a major proportion of phenolics existed as soluble conjugates, rather than free form. Overall, complex enzyme hydrolysis releases phenolics, thus increasing the antioxidant activity of rice bran extract. This study provides useful information for processing rice bran into functional beverage rich in phenolics.

  5. Aspergillus flavus impairs antioxidative enzymes of Sternochetus mangiferae during mycosis.

    PubMed

    Jayanthi, Kamala P D; Ayyasamy, Arthikirubha; Kempraj, Vivek; Aurade, Ravindra M; Govindan, Selvakumar; Verghese, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Insects depend upon cuticular, humoral and cellular defenses to resist mycosis. However, entomopathogenic fungi through co-evolution have developed mechanisms to counter such defenses. Although a plethora of mechanisms of mycosis by entomopathogenic fungi are well-established, studies on the impairment of insects' antioxidative enzymes during mycosis remain elusive. Here, we used the interaction of Sternochetus mangiferae and its associated entomopathogenic fungus, Aspergillus flavus, as a model to validate our hypothesis. Uninfected insects were exposed to fungal spores for infection to occur. We observed symptoms of mycosis within 48 h of incubation period. Biochemical studies on antioxidative enzymes namely catalase, peroxidase and phenoloxidase, in infected and uninfected insects revealed decreased activity of these enzymes. It appears that A. flavus disables the host's antioxidative enzyme system that plays a crucial role in elimination of oxidative toxins produced during mycosis.

  6. [Activity of antioxidant enzymes in patients with liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Czeczot, Hanna; Scibior, Dorota; Skrzycki, Michał; Podsiad, Małgorzata

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our studies was the estimation of activities of antioxidant enzymes in patients with liver cirrhosis. We investigated activities of superoxide dismutases (CuZnSOD, MnSOD), catalase (CAT), selenium dependent GSH peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px), selenium independent GSH peroxidase (non-Se-GSH-Px), GSH-S-transferase (GST), GSH reductase (GSHR) and the level ofreduced gutathione (GSH) in cirrhotic and healthy liver tissues. The activities of CuZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT and GSH-dependent enzymes (except GSHR) were found to be lower in cirrhotic tissue compared to healthy liver. Those changes were associated with decrease of GSH level in cirrhotic tissue compared with control liver tissue. Our results show that antioxidant barrier in liver cirrhosis is impaired. It is associated with decrease of glutathione level and changes of activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSHPx, GST, GSHR) in liver cirrhosis compared with healthy liver.

  7. Queuine promotes antioxidant defence system by activating cellular antioxidant enzyme activities in cancer.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Chandramani; Jaiswal, Yogesh K; Vinayak, Manjula

    2008-04-01

    Constant generation of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) during normal cellular metabolism of an organism is generally balanced by similar rate of consumption by antioxidants. Imbalance between ROS production and antioxidant defense results in increased level of ROS causing oxidative stress which leads to promotion of malignancy. Queuine is a hyper modified base analogue of guanine, found at first anti-codon position of Q- family of tRNAs. These tRNAs are completely modified with respect to queuosine in terminally differentiated somatic cells, however hypomodification of Q-tRNAs is close association with cell proliferation. Q-tRNA modification is essential for normal development, differentiation and cellular functions. Queuine is a nutrient factor to eukaryotes. It is found to promote cellular antioxidant defense system and inhibit tumorigenesis. The activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, SOD, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase are found to be low in Dalton's lymphoma ascites transplanted (DLAT) mouse liver compared to normal. However, exogenous administration of queuine to DLAT mouse improves the activities of antioxidant enzymes. The results suggest that queuine promotes antioxidant defense system by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities and in turn inhibits oxidative stress and tumorigenesis.

  8. Enzyme-Enhanced Extraction of Antioxidant Ingredients from Algae.

    PubMed

    Adalbjörnsson, Björn V; Jónsdóttir, Rósa

    2015-01-01

    Marine algae are not only a rich source of dietary fibre, proteins, vitamins, and minerals, but also contain a great variety of secondary metabolites with diverse biological activities. Marine macroalgae are a rich source of various natural antioxidants such as polyphenols, especially phlorotannins (made of polyphloroglucinol units) derived from brown algae, which play an important role in preventing lipid peroxidation. In recent years, a number of potent antioxidant compounds have been isolated and identified from different types of edible seaweeds. Extraction methods commonly used for the isolation of antioxidants are based on conventional water or organic solvent extractions. However, recent advances have shown that enzymatic hydrolysis can achieve higher yield of bioactive compounds from algae. Here we describe a method based on enzymatic hydrolysis which both increases yield and decreases cost associated with organic solvents. This method achieves cell wall disruption and breakdown of internal storage components for more effective release of intracellular bioactive compounds. In addition, hydrolysis of proteins produces peptides which may have antioxidant properties, thus enhancing the bioactivity of the algal extract. The method described can be used for production of extracts from red and brown macroalgal species.

  9. Antioxidant efficiency and detoxification enzymes in spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    Gorbi, Stefania; Pellegrini, David; Tedesco, Sara; Regoli, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    Although elasmobranchs are widely distributed species, commonly found on sandy, gravely or muddy bottoms, several biological aspects of their metabolism still remain poorly investigated. In this work the efficiency of antioxidant system and detoxification enzymes were investigated in the coastal spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula and in the red mullet Mullus barbatus for comparison with a teleost species. Organisms were sampled during a bottom trawl survey and analyzed for the biotransformation activity (EROD), levels of metallothioneins, catalase, glutathione S-transferases and total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) toward peroxyl radicals and hydroxyl radicals. EROD activity in the elasmobranchs was more than one order of magnitude lower than in the red mullets, while similar levels of metallothioneins were measured in these species. S. canicula showed significantly lower antioxidant enzymes and a more reduced efficiency in neutralizing *OH; on the other hand the scavenging capability toward ROO* was comparable in S. canicula and M. barbatus.

  10. Antioxidant enzyme activities in maize plants colonized with Piriformospora indica.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Yadav, Vikas; Tuteja, Narendra; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2009-03-01

    The bioprotection performance of Piriformospora indica against the root parasite Fusarium verticillioides was studied. We found that maize plants first grown with F. verticillioides and at day 10 inoculated with P. indica showed improvements in biomass, and root length and number as compared with plants grown with F. verticillioides alone. To validate our finding that inoculation with P. indica suppresses colonization by F. verticillioides, we performed PCR analyses using P. indica- and F. verticillioides-specific primers. Our results showed that inoculation with P. indica suppresses further colonization by F. verticillioides. We hypothesized that as the colonization by P. indica increases, the presence of/colonization by F. verticillioides decreases. In roots, catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were found to be higher in F. verticillioides-colonized plants than in non-colonized plants. Increased activity of antioxidant enzymes minimizes the chances of oxidative burst (excessive production of reactive oxygen species), and therefore F. verticillioides might be protected from the oxidative defence system during colonization. We also observed decreased antioxidant enzyme activities in plants first inoculated with F. verticillioides and at day 10 inoculated with P. indica as compared with plants inoculated with F. verticillioides alone. These decreased antioxidant enzyme activities due to the presence of P. indica help the plant to overcome the disease load of F. verticillioides. We propose that P. indica can be used as a bioprotection agent against the root parasite F. verticillioides.

  11. Cofactor metals and antioxidant enzymes in cisplatin-treated rats: effect of antioxidant intervention.

    PubMed

    Sabuncuoglu, Suna; Eken, Ayse; Aydin, Ahmet; Ozgunes, Hilal; Orhan, Hilmi

    2015-10-01

    We explored the association between the activities of antioxidant enzymes and their metallic cofactors in rats treated with cisplatin. The antioxidant effects of aminoguanidine, and a combination of vitamins E and C were investigated. Plasma platin was significantly lower than liver and kidney. Cisplatin treatment caused significant increase in plasma Se-glutathione peroxidase activity. Activities of Se-glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, catalase and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase have been found to be significantly decreased in liver and kidney compared to controls. Zn levels in these organs were diminished upon cisplatin treatment, while levels of Cu were unaffected. Interestingly, levels of iron, the cofactor of catalase, were found to be significantly increased in liver and kidney. Intervention with aminoguanidine or vitamins was generally prevented cisplatin-caused changes in the activity of enzymes and in the tissue levels of cofactor metals. These observations suggest that relation between activities of enzymes and levels of cofactor metals is multifactorial.

  12. Nigella sativa fixed and essential oil improves antioxidant status through modulation of antioxidant enzymes and immunity.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Karim, Roselina; Ahmad, Nisar; Ahmad, Rabia Shabbir; Ahmad, Waqas

    2015-03-01

    The onset of 21st century witnessed the awareness among the masses regarding the diet-health linkages. The researchers attempted to explore traditional products/plants were in the domain of pharmacy and nutrition focussing on their health benefits. In the present research intervention, we investigate the role of Nigella sativa fixed oil (NSFO) and essential oil (NSEO) in improving antioxidant status and modulation of enzymes. The National Institute of Health (NIH) provided us 30 Sprague Dawley rats that were equally placed in three groups. The groups were fed on their respective diets (56 days) two experimental diets i.e. D2 (NSFO @ 4.0%) and D3 (NSEO @ 0.30%) and control. The indices pertaining to antioxidant status, antioxidant enzymes, and parameters pertaining to immunity were evaluated at 4 weeks interval. The experimental diets (NSFO@ 4.0% & NSEO@ 0.30%) modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes i.e., catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), positively. Indices of antioxidant status like tocopherols and glutathione were in linear relationship with that of GPx, GR and GST (P<0.01). Myeloperoxidase activities were in negative correlation with GST (P<0.01) but positive correlation with some other parameters. In the nutshell, the fixed and essential oil of Nigella sativa are effective in improving the indices pertaining to antioxidant status, however, the immune boosting potential needs further clarification. However, authors are of the view that there is need to explore the molecular targets of Nigella sativa fixed and essential oils. Findings from such studies would be useful to validate this instant study for health promoting potential against diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disorders.

  13. Two Tales of Antioxidant Enzymes on β Cells and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Vatamaniuk, Marko Z.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Pancreatic islets contain low activities of catalase, selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1), and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Thus, enhancing expression of these enzymes in islets has been unquestionably favored. However, such an attempt has produced variable metabolic outcomes. While β cell-specific overexpression of Sod1 enhanced mouse resistance to streptozotocin-induced diabetes, the same manipulation of catalase aggravated onset of type 1 diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. Global overexpression of Gpx1 in mice induced type 2 diabetes-like phenotypes. Although knockouts of Gpx1 and Sod1 each alone or together decreased pancreatic β cell mass and plasma insulin concentrations, these knockouts improved body insulin sensitivity to different extents. Pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1, forkhead box A2, and uncoupling protein 2 are three key regulators of β cell mass, insulin synthesis, and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Phenotypes resulted from altering GPX1 and/or SOD1 were partly mediated through these factors, along with protein kinase B and c-jun terminal kinase. A shifted reactive oxygen species inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases in insulin signaling might be attributed to altered insulin sensitivity. Overall, metabolic roles of antioxidant enzymes in β cells and diabetes depend on body oxidative status and target functions. Revealing regulatory mechanisms for this type of dual role will help prevent potential pro-diabetic risk of antioxidant over-supplementation to humans. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 489–503. PMID:20618069

  14. Promotion of extracellular lignocellulolytic enzymes production by restraining the intracellular β-glucosidase in Penicillium decumbens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei; Qin, Yuqi; Cao, Qing; Liu, Guodong; Li, Jie; Li, Zhonghai; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the functions of β-glucosidases in regulation of the lignocellulolytic enzymes production in Penicillium decumbens 114-2 were investigated. The major extracellular β-glucosidase gene bgl1 and the major intracellular β-glucosidase gene bgl2 were deleted in P. decumbens 114-2 respectively. In Δbgl2, the production of extracellular lignocellulolytic enzymes (including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases and xylanases) on insoluble cellulose was significantly promoted, while in Δbgl1 there was no any difference compared with that of 114-2. The enhancement of the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes in Δbgl2 was likely attributed to the accumulation of intracellular cellobiose. Induction experiment in Δbgl1Δbgl2 showed that cellobiose was an inducer of lignocellulolytic enzymes expression in P. decumbens 114-2, and the induction was unrelated to the formation, if any, of gentiobiose or sophorose from cellobiose.

  15. Antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-aging activities of intracellular zinc polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa SH-05.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Gao, Zheng; Hu, Chunlong; Zhang, Jianjun; Sun, Xinyi; Rong, Chengbo; Jia, Le

    2017-02-01

    In present work, the strain of Grifola frondosa SH-05 was used as a vector of zinc biotransformation to produce the IZPS. The bioactivities including antioxidant and antibacterial activities in vitro and anti-aging properties in vivo of IZPS were investigated comparing with the IPS. The results which were in consistent with the results of histopathology assay demonstrated that the IZPS had superior antioxidant and anti-aging activities by scavenging the hydroxyl and DPPH radicals, increasing enzyme activities, decreasing the MDA contents and ameliorating the anile condition of mice. Besides, the IZPS also showed potential antibacterial activities. The IZPS with higher bioactivities was composed of were Rha, Ino and Glu with a molar ratio of 4.7:3.6:1. These conclusions indicated that the IZPS might be a potential source of natural antioxidant, antibacterial agent and anti-aging agent.

  16. Enhanced intracellular stability of dextran-horse radish peroxidase conjugate: an approach to enzyme replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, S; Bachhawat, B K

    1992-09-15

    Horse radish peroxidase (HRP), a mannose-containing glycoprotein was covalently modified by conjugation with dextran. The rapid uptake of HRP by the liver is markedly inhibited by mannan. The uptake of dextran-HRP conjugate by the liver, though lower compared to that of the free enzyme, is also partially inhibited by mannan. Liposomes were therefore used as carriers for delivering the free and the modified HRP to the liver. The dextran-HRP conjugate showed greater stability intracellularly as compared to the free enzyme. The enhanced stability of enzymes upon their extensive glycosylation with nondegradable sugar polymers would be of importance in extending the catalytic life of therapeutically active enzymes and thereby improve their therapeutic potential for the treatment of certain enzyme deficiency disorders.

  17. Antioxidant enzyme activities are not broadly correlated with longevity in 14 vertebrate endotherm species.

    PubMed

    Page, Melissa M; Richardson, Jean; Wiens, Brent E; Tiedtke, Esther; Peters, Craig W; Faure, Paul A; Burness, Gary; Stuart, Jeffrey A

    2010-06-01

    The free radical theory of ageing posits that accrual of oxidative damage underlies the increased cellular, tissue and organ dysfunction and failure associated with advanced age. In support of this theory, cellular resistance to oxidative stress is highly correlated with life span, suggesting that prevention or repair of oxidative damage might indeed be essential for longevity. To test the hypothesis that the prevention of oxidative damage underlies longevity, we measured the activities of the five major intracellular antioxidant enzymes in brain, heart and liver tissue of 14 mammalian and avian species with maximum life spans (MLSPs) ranging from 3 years to over 100 years. Our data set included Snell dwarf mice in which life span is increased by approximately 50% compared to their normal littermates. We found that CuZn superoxide dismutase, the major cytosolic superoxide dismutase, showed no correlation with MLSP in any of the three organs. Similarly, neither glutathione peroxidase nor glutathione reductase activities correlated with MLSP. MnSOD, the sole mitochondrial superoxide dismutase in mammals and birds, was positively correlated with MLSP only for brain tissue. This same trend was observed for catalase. For all correlational data, effects of body mass and phylogenetic relatedness were removed using residual analysis and Felsenstein's phylogenetically independent contrasts. Our results are not consistent with a causal role for intracellular antioxidant enzymes in longevity, similar to recent reports from studies utilising genetic modifications of mice (Pérez et al., Biochim Biophys Acta 1790:1005-1014, 2009). However, our results indicate a specific augmentation of reactive oxygen species neutralising activities in brain associated with longevity.

  18. An Intracellular Antioxidant Determines the Expression of a Melanin-Based Signal in a Bird

    PubMed Central

    Galván, Ismael; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    To understand how traits used in animal communication evolved and are maintained as honest signals, we need to understand the mechanisms that prevent cheating. It has been proposed that honest signaling is guaranteed by the costs associated with the signal expression. However, the nature of these costs is still under debate. Melanin-based signals are intriguing because their expression seems to be tightly controlled by genes and the resource involved (i.e. melanin) seems to be not limited. However, in vertebrates, low levels of a key intracellular antioxidant (i.e. glutathione) are needed to promote melanogenesis. We propose that melanin-based ornaments can signal the ability to cope with oxidative stress because those individuals with low enough levels of glutathione, such as those required for melanin production, should manage well the whole of the antioxidant machinery in order to maintain a certain oxidative status. We analysed the expression of a melanin-based signal: the well-known black stripe of the great tit (Parus major). Great tit nestlings were injected with a specific inhibitor of glutathione production (DL-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine; BSO) throughout their development. BSO effectively decreased intracellular glutathione levels without apparent side effects on growth or body condition. Instead, treated nestlings developed black breast stripes 70–100% larger than controls. Moreover, treated nestlings also compensated the decrease in glutathione levels by increasing the levels of circulating antioxidants. Results indicate that melanin-based signals can be at least partially permeable to environmental influences such as those associated to oxidative stress. They also reveal a potential handicap associated to the expression of this kind of signals. Finally, although other contributing factors could have been present, our findings emphasize the role of oxidative stress in shaping the evolution of animal signals in general and, in particular, those produced

  19. Engineering of the yeast antioxidant enzyme Mpr1 for enhanced activity and stability.

    PubMed

    Iinoya, Kaoru; Kotani, Tetsuya; Sasano, Yu; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2009-06-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sigma1278b has the MPR1 gene, which confers resistance to the proline analogue azetidine-2-carboxylate (AZC). This gene encodes an N-acetyltransferase Mpr1 that detoxifies AZC, and the homologous genes have been found in many yeasts. Recently, we found that Mpr1 protects yeast cells by reducing the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels under oxidative stresses, such as heat-shock, freezing, or ethanol treatment. Unlike the known antioxidant enzymes, Mpr1 is thought to acetylate toxic metabolite(s) involved in ROS generation via oxidative events. To improve the enzymatic functions of Mpr1, we applied PCR random mutagenesis to MPR1. The mutagenized plasmid library was introduced into the S. cerevisiae S288C strain lacking MPR1, and we successfully isolated two Mpr1 variants with higher AZC resistance (K63R and F65L/L117V). Interestingly, overexpression of the K63R variant was found to increase cell viability or decrease intracellular ROS levels after exposure to H(2)O(2) or ethanol compared with the wild-type Mpr1. In vitro studies with the recombinant enzymes showed that the catalytic efficiency of the K63R variant for AZC and acetyl-CoA was higher than that of the wild-type Mpr1 and that the F65L mutation greatly enhanced the thermal stability. The mutational analysis and molecular modeling suggest that an alpha-helix containing Lys63 and Phe65 has important roles in the function of Mpr1. In addition, the wild-type and K63R variant Mpr1 reduced intracellular ROS levels under ethanol stress conditions on haploid sake yeast cells. These results suggest that engineering Mpr1 might be useful in breeding oxidative stress-tolerant yeast strains.

  20. Lipid peroxidation, hemolysis and antioxidant enzymes of erythrocytes in stroke.

    PubMed

    Sudha, K; Rao, Ashalatha V; Rao, Suryanarayana; Rao, Anjali

    2004-04-01

    Erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation and consequent percentage hemolysis and related antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase were determined in 16 cases of hemorrhagic stroke and 30 cases of thrombotic stroke. The results obtained were compared with 50 age and sex matched controls. 12 thrombotic stroke patients who showed symptomatic recovery after medication were considered for follow up. Lipid peroxidation and percentage hemolysis in patients with thrombotic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke was significantly elevated when compared to controls. Glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase levels were found to be significantly reduced in thrombotic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke respectively, when compared to healthy subjects. There was no significant difference in the other parameters when compared to controls. In post treatment thrombotic stoke, catalase and glutathione reductase levels increased significantly and oxidative hemolysis decreased compared to their pretreatment values. Thus, our results indicate considerable oxidative stress in stroke.

  1. Protection of Cells against Oxidative Stress by Nanomolar Levels of Hydroxyflavones Indicates a New Type of Intracellular Antioxidant Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Hájek, Jan; Staňková, Veronika; Filipský, Tomáš; Balducci, Valentina; De Vito, Paolo; Leone, Stefano; Bavavea, Eugenia I.; Silvestri, Ilaria Proietti; Righi, Giuliana; Luly, Paolo; Saso, Luciano; Bovicelli, Paolo; Pedersen, Jens Z.; Incerpi, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Natural polyphenol compounds are often good antioxidants, but they also cause damage to cells through more or less specific interactions with proteins. To distinguish antioxidant activity from cytotoxic effects we have tested four structurally related hydroxyflavones (baicalein, mosloflavone, negletein, and 5,6-dihydroxyflavone) at very low and physiologically relevant levels, using two different cell lines, L-6 myoblasts and THP-1 monocytes. Measurements using intracellular fluorescent probes and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in combination with cytotoxicity assays showed strong antioxidant activities for baicalein and 5,6-dihydroxyflavone at picomolar concentrations, while 10 nM partially protected monocytes against the strong oxidative stress induced by 200 µM cumene hydroperoxide. Wide range dose-dependence curves were introduced to characterize and distinguish the mechanism and targets of different flavone antioxidants, and identify cytotoxic effects which only became detectable at micromolar concentrations. Analysis of these dose-dependence curves made it possible to exclude a protein-mediated antioxidant response, as well as a mechanism based on the simple stoichiometric scavenging of radicals. The results demonstrate that these flavones do not act on the same radicals as the flavonol quercetin. Considering the normal concentrations of all the endogenous antioxidants in cells, the addition of picomolar or nanomolar levels of these flavones should not be expected to produce any detectable increase in the total cellular antioxidant capacity. The significant intracellular antioxidant activity observed with 1 pM baicalein means that it must be scavenging radicals that for some reason are not eliminated by the endogenous antioxidants. The strong antioxidant effects found suggest these flavones, as well as quercetin and similar polyphenolic antioxidants, at physiologically relevant concentrations act as redox mediators to enable endogenous

  2. Potential Degradation of Swainsonine by Intracellular Enzymes of Arthrobacter sp. HW08

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Li, Yanhong; Hu, Yanchun; Li, Jincheng; Yang, Guodong; Kang, Danju; Li, Haili; Wang, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    Swainsonine (SW) is a toxin produced by locoweeds and harmful to the livestock industry. Degrading SW by Arthrobacter sp. HW08 was demonstrated as a promising way to deal with SW poisoning. However, it is unknown which part of the subcellular enzymes in Arthrobacter sp. HW08 is responsible for biodegrading SW and whether the metabolites are atoxic. In this study, intracellular and extracellular enzymes of Arthrobacter sp. HW08 were isolated and their enzyme activity was evaluated. The metabolites were fed to mice, and physiological and histological properties of the treated mice were investigated. The results showed that only intracellular enzyme of Arthrobacter sp. HW08 (IEHW08) could degrade SW efficiently. Compared with mice in SW treatment group, mice in SW + IEHW08 treatment group (1) increased their body weights; (2) showed higher number of platelets and lower number of white blood cells; (3) decreased the levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen, alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase in serum; (4) reduced the number of vacuolated cells in cerebellum, liver and kidney. All these data demonstrate that IEHW08 was potentially safe for mice, while keeping the capacity of degrading SW. This study indicates a possible application of IEHW08 as an additive in the livestock industry to protect animals from SW poisoning. PMID:24240642

  3. Role of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Iborra, Marisa; Moret, Inés; Rausell, Francisco; Bastida, Guillermo; Aguas, Mariam; Cerrillo, Elena; Nos, Pilar; Beltrán, Belén

    2011-08-01

    There is increasing interest in oxidative stress being a potential aetiological factor and/or a triggering factor in Crohn's disease, rather than a concomitant occurrence during the pathogenesis of the disease. Recent research has shown that the immune mononuclear cells of Crohn's disease patients are induced to produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Similarly, the regulation of antioxidant enzymes during disease in these cells has been unravelled, showing that SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity and GPx (glutathione peroxidase) activity is increased during active disease and returns to normal in remission phases. However, catalase remains constantly inhibited which supports the idea that catalase is not a redox-sensitive enzyme, but a regulator of cellular processes. ROS (reactive oxygen species) can be produced under the stimulus of different cytokines such as TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α). It has been shown in different experimental models that they are also able to regulate apoptosis and other cellular processes. The status of oxidative stress elements in Crohn's disease and their possible implications in regulating cellular processes are reviewed in the present paper.

  4. CO2 Metabolism in Corn Roots. II. Intracellular Distribution of Enzymes 1

    PubMed Central

    Danner, Jean; Ting, Irwin P.

    1967-01-01

    Three enzymes assumed to mediate CO2 metabolism in corn root tips, P-enolpyruvate carboxylase, malic dehydrogenase, and the malic enzyme, were extracted to determine their relative specific activities and their partitioning between soluble and particulate fractions. The data indicated that the intracellular location of these 3 enzymes is nonparticulate and thus these enzymatic reactions of CO2 metabolism are apparently nonparticulate. The soluble malic dehydrogenase fraction differed from the particulate fraction in several kinetic properties, viz., response to the thionicotinamide analog of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide, oxaloacetate substrate inhibition at pH 8.3, and Km's for nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide and l-malate. It was concluded that the soluble-malic dehydrogenase differed from the particulate forms in both structure and function. The soluble malic dehydrogenase is apparently involved in CO2 metabolism. PMID:16656561

  5. The capacity of antioxidant protection during modulated ageing of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cotyledons. 1. The antioxidant enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Procházková, D; Wilhelmová, N

    2007-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species are known to increase in plant senescence. We investigated the participation of antioxidative enzymes in initiation of cotyledon senescence. Senescence of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cotyledons was modulated by UV C irradiation and by the decapitation of plant apices. Senescence was accompanied by a decrease of protein content and by a decrease of photochemical efficiency. A drop in activity of antioxidative enzymes preceded the onset of senescence in control plants. In cotyledons with prolonged life span, the decrease of antioxidant activities and the markers of senescence onset appeared at a similar age as in controls. Thus we presumed that the period from senescence initiation to cotyledon abscission was extended. On the other hand, in UV C irradiated plants we did not observe actual senescence initiation, and antioxidant enzymes although elevated, did not effectively play their role. The decrease of antioxidant enzymes activity and the markers of senescence appeared at a similar age both in control and in decapitated (D) plants, so we can presume that we prolonged mainly the period from senescence onset to cotyledon abscission in D plants. In UV C irradiated plants the antioxidative enzymes were probably destroyed before the process of senescence could begin.

  6. Efficiency of photodynamic therapy on WM35 melanoma with synthetic porphyrins: Role of chemical structure, intracellular targeting and antioxidant defense.

    PubMed

    Baldea, Ioana; Olteanu, Diana Elena; Bolfa, Pompei; Ion, Rodica Mariana; Decea, Nicoleta; Cenariu, Mihai; Banciu, Manuela; Sesarman, Alina Viorica; Filip, Adriana Gabriela

    2015-10-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) could be an adjuvant therapy in melanoma, an aggressive cancer that arises from melanocytes. Several reports showed encouraging results of the efficacy of PDT in melanoma on experimental models and in clinical trials. Therefore, we studied the efficacy of two derivatives of tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP): meso-5,10,15,20-tetrakis (4-hydroxyphenyl) porphyrin (THOPP) and meso-5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris (4-methoxyphenyl) porphyrin (THOMPP) as photosensitizers for PDT, compared to FDA approved delta aminolevulinic acid (ALA) against a lightly pigmented, melanoma cell line, WM35, in vitro. Both porphyrins were more efficient as photosensitizers, compared to ALA, without dark toxicity. The efficiency depended on the intracellular localization and the molecule structure. THOPP, the most efficient porphyrin localized mainly in mitochondria, while THOMPP accumulated in lysosomes; both showed melanosomal localization. The symmetric THOPP molecule was able to generate increased oxidative stress damage and apoptosis. THOPP also induced a low effect on the defense mechanisms like antioxidant enzyme SOD (superoxide dismutase), NF-kB (nuclear transcription factor kB) activation and MITF (microphthalmia transcription factor). The lower efficiency of the asymmetric molecule, THOMPP was probably due to a diminished photoactivation, which led to a lower ROS induced damage, combined with higher activation of the defense mechanisms.

  7. The influence of age and gender on antioxidant enzyme activities in humans and laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Giergiel, Marta; Lopucki, Maciej; Stachowicz, Norbert; Kankofer, Marta

    2012-12-01

    Antioxidative/oxidative balance is one of the important factors for homeostasis. Antioxidative systems which protect from peroxidative damage are supposed to be under the influence of steroid hormones. The implications of this influence are age and gender as well as tissue dependent alterations in antioxidative enzyme activities. Apart from hormonal influence, antioxidative enzymes require the presence of microelements in their active centers as well as concerted action of non enzymatic antioxidants which support enzymes in their scavenging action. The aim of this review is to analyze and compare existing knowledge about the changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes in human and animal females and males of different age. Evidence as regards participation of oxidative stress in senescence are specific diseases which, to some extent, are gender dependent and appear more frequently in males or females. Several experiments in laboratory animals revealed that changes in enzyme activities are reflected in histopathological pictures of cells. The alterations observed during perimenopausal period provide with additional evidence of the participation of steroid hormones in the regulation of antioxidative system activity. Moreover, estrogens themselves exhibit antioxidative activity which is receptor independent. In conclusion, apart from genetic-related influences, also diet and style of life may have an impact on the antioxidative system which requires appropriate supplementation in microelements and vitamins for its effective function of scavenging excess of free radicals.

  8. [Effects of macrophytes pyrolysis bio-oil on Skeletonema costatum antioxidant enzyme activities].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Li, Feng-Min; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Shan, Shi; Li, Jie; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2013-02-01

    In order to reveal the preliminary inhibition mechanisms of aquatic plants bio-oils on Skeletonema costatum, effects of Arundo donax L. 300 degees C, Ph. australis Trin. 400 degrees C and Typha orientalis Pres1 400 degrees C bio-oils on the concentration change of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, POD and CAT) were evaluated. The results showed that the higher Ihe Bio-oil concentrations, the higher the MDA contents in Skeletonema costatum was, and when the Bio-oil concentration was 10 mg.L-1 the MDA concentration increased with the reaction time. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity also increased with the increase of bio-oil concentration. For Arundo donax L 300 degrees C and Typha orientalis Presl 400 degrees C bio-oil, when the reaction time was longer, the S0D activity of Skeletonema costatum first increased and then decreased, and in both cases the maximum SOD activity was measured at 24 h. reaching 93.6 U (10(7) cells)-1 and 8.23 U (10(7) cells)-1, respectively. For Ph. australis Trin 400 degrees C bio-oil, the SOD activity kept increasing within 72 h. The peroxidase ( POD) activity of Skeletonema costatum also increased with the increase of bio-il concentrations. In the presence of Arundo donax L. 300 degrees C and Ph. australis Trin 400 degrees C bio-oil, the POD activity of Skeletonma, costatum first increased and then decreased, while with Typha orientalis Presl 400 degrees C bio-oil the POD activity increased with fluctuations. For all the three bio-oils, the catalase (CAT) activities increased first and then decreased when the reaction time was prolonged, and the higher the bio-oils concentration, the greater the CAT activity was. Pyrolysis bio-oils enhance the activity of antioxidant enzymes, leading to intracellular oxidative stress in the algae, which seems to be the main inhibitory mechanism for algae

  9. Insulin-degrading enzyme rapidly removes the beta-amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain (AICD).

    PubMed

    Edbauer, Dieter; Willem, Michael; Lammich, Sven; Steiner, Harald; Haass, Christian

    2002-04-19

    The intramembranous gamma-secretase cleavage of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) is dependent on biologically active presenilins (PS). Notch also undergoes a similar PS-dependent gamma-secretase-like cleavage, resulting in the liberation of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD), which is critically required for developmental signal transduction. gamma-Secretase processing of APP results in the production of a similar fragment called AICD (APP intracellular domain), which may function in nuclear signaling as well. AICD, like NICD, is rapidly removed. By using a battery of protease inhibitors we demonstrate that AICD, in contrast to NICD, is degraded by a cytoplasmic metalloprotease. In vitro degradation of AICD can be reconstituted with cytoplasmic fractions obtained from neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Taking into account the inhibition profile and the cytoplasmic localization, we identified three candidate enzymes (neurolysin, thimet oligopeptidase, and insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), also known as insulysin), which all are involved in the degradation of bioactive peptides in the brain. When insulin, a well characterized substrate of IDE, was added to the in vitro degradation assay, removal of AICD was efficiently blocked. Moreover, overexpression of IDE resulted in enhanced degradation of AICD, whereas overexpression of the inactive IDE E111Q mutant did not affect AICD degradation. Finally, immunodepletion of IDE significantly reduced the AICD degrading activity. Therefore our data demonstrate that IDE, which is one of the proteases implicated in the removal of extracellular Abeta, also removes the cytoplasmic product of gamma-secretase cleaved APP.

  10. Hydrogel microspheres for stabilization of an antioxidant enzyme: effect of emulsion cross-linking of a dual polysaccharide system on the protection of enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Deh-Wei; Yu, Shu-Huei; Wu, Wen-Shin; Hsieh, Hao-Ying; Tsai, Yi-Chin; Mi, Fwu-Long

    2014-01-01

    Catalase is an antioxidant enzyme abundant in natural resources. However, the enzyme is usually inactivated by gastric acid and digestive enzymes after oral ingestion. In this study, carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) and hyaluronic acid (HA) conjugate hydrogel microspheres have been prepared by an emulsion cross-linking technique to retain the activity of catalase in simulated gastrointestinal (GI) fluids. Cross-linking reduced the swelling capability and increased the resistance toward hyaluronidase digestion of prepared HA-CM-chitosan hydrogel microspheres. Catalase entrapped in the hydrogel microspheres exhibited superior stability over a wide pH range (pH 2.0 and 6.0-8.0) as compared to the native enzyme. The entrapped catalase was also protected against degradation by digestive enzymes. Following the treatments, the catalase-loaded microspheres, in contrast to native catalase, could effectively decrease the intracellular H2O2 level and protect HT-29 colonic epithelial cells against H2O2-induced oxidative damage to preserve cell viability. These results suggested that the HA-CM-chitosan hydrogel microspheres can be used for entrapment, protection and intestinal delivery of catalase for H2O2 scavenging.

  11. Rapid upregulation of heart antioxidant enzymes during arousal from estivation in the Giant African snail (Achatina fulica).

    PubMed

    Salway, Kurtis D; Tattersall, Glenn J; Stuart, Jeffrey A

    2010-11-01

    Estivation is an adaptive response to environments characterized by elevated temperatures and desiccative stress, as may occur during summer dry seasons. Similar to diapause and hibernation, it is characterized by low levels of activity, a drastically suppressed metabolic rate and enhanced stress resistance. We tested the hypothesis that Achatina fulica, a pulmonate land snail, enhances stress resistance during estivation and/or arousal by upregulating intracellular antioxidant defenses in the heart, kidney, hepatopancreas and foot tissues. No statistically significant changes in mitochondrial or cytosolic superoxide dismutase levels or activities, or glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase or catalase activities were associated with estivation in any tissue, however. In contrast, during arousal from estivation, activities of several antioxidant enzymes increased in heart, hepatopancreas and foot. In heart, a rapid increase in MnSOD protein levels was observed that peaked at 2h post arousal, but no such change was observed in CuZnSOD protein levels. Glutathione peroxidase activity was upregulated at 1h post arousal and remained elevated until 8h post arousal in heart tissue. Glutathione peroxidase was also upregulated at 24h post arousal in foot tissue. Glutathione reductase activity was upregulated at 4h post arousal in heart and foot tissues whereas catalase activity showed no changes. Markers of lipid peroxidation and protein damage revealed no significant increases during estivation or arousal. Therefore, antioxidant enzymes may play a role in oxidative stress defense specifically during arousal from estivation in A. fulica.

  12. Effect of antioxidant potential of tropical fruit juices on antioxidant enzyme profiles and lipid peroxidation in rats.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Carolina da Silva; Dionísio, Ana Paula; Wurlitzer, Nedio Jair; Alves, Ricardo Elesbão; de Brito, Edy Souza; e Silva, Ana Mara de Oliveira; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro; Mancini Filho, Jorge

    2014-08-15

    Fruits are a rich source of a variety of biologically active compounds that can have complementary and overlapping mechanisms of action, including detoxification, enzyme modulation and antioxidant effects. Although the effects of tropical fruits have been examined individually, the interactive antioxidant capacity of the bioactive compounds in these formulations has not been sufficiently explored. For this reason, this study investigated the effect of two tropical fruit juices (FA and FB) on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in rats. Seven groups, with eight rats each, were fed a normal diet for 4 weeks, and were force-fed daily either water (control), 100, 200, or 400 mg of FA or FB per kg. The results showed that the liver superoxide dismutase and catalase activities (FA200), erythrocytes glutathione peroxidase (FB400) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (FB100, FA400, FB200, FB400) were efficiently reduced by fruit juices when compared with control; whereas HDL-c increased (FB400).

  13. Studies on antioxidant activity of teasaponins after hydrolyzed by enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jing; Zhao, Sen; Xu, Longquan; Fei, Xu; Wang, Xiuying; Wang, Yi

    The biological activity of teasaponins and their molecular structure are closely related, and the activity of saponins may be increased with the change of their molecular structure. In this report, teasaponins were hydrolyzed by Aspergillus niger for increasing the antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of teasaponins before and after hydrolyzed was tested by DPPH, and the result showed four new teasaponins were produced after hydrolysis, and their antioxidant activity was increased significantly than the original teasaponins before hydrolysis, the radical scavenging capacity (RSC) was partly up to 95 %.

  14. Triple-acting Lytic Enzyme Treatment of Drug-Resistant and Intracellular Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen C; Roach, Dwayne R; Chauhan, Vinita S; Shen, Yang; Foster-Frey, Juli; Powell, Anne M; Bauchan, Gary; Lease, Richard A; Mohammadi, Homan; Harty, William J; Simmons, Chad; Schmelcher, Mathias; Camp, Mary; Dong, Shengli; Baker, John R; Sheen, Tamsin R; Doran, Kelly S; Pritchard, David G; Almeida, Raul A; Nelson, Daniel C; Marriott, Ian; Lee, Jean C; Donovan, David M

    2016-04-28

    Multi-drug resistant bacteria are a persistent problem in modern health care, food safety and animal health. There is a need for new antimicrobials to replace over used conventional antibiotics. Here we describe engineered triple-acting staphylolytic peptidoglycan hydrolases wherein three unique antimicrobial activities from two parental proteins are combined into a single fusion protein. This effectively reduces the incidence of resistant strain development. The fusion protein reduced colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in a rat nasal colonization model, surpassing the efficacy of either parental protein. Modification of a triple-acting lytic construct with a protein transduction domain significantly enhanced both biofilm eradication and the ability to kill intracellular S. aureus as demonstrated in cultured mammary epithelial cells and in a mouse model of staphylococcal mastitis. Interestingly, the protein transduction domain was not necessary for reducing the intracellular pathogens in cultured osteoblasts or in two mouse models of osteomyelitis, highlighting the vagaries of exactly how protein transduction domains facilitate protein uptake. Bacterial cell wall degrading enzyme antimicrobials can be engineered to enhance their value as potent therapeutics.

  15. Triple-acting Lytic Enzyme Treatment of Drug-Resistant and Intracellular Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Stephen C.; Roach, Dwayne R.; Chauhan, Vinita S.; Shen, Yang; Foster-Frey, Juli; Powell, Anne M.; Bauchan, Gary; Lease, Richard A.; Mohammadi, Homan; Harty, William J.; Simmons, Chad; Schmelcher, Mathias; Camp, Mary; Dong, Shengli; Baker, John R.; Sheen, Tamsin R.; Doran, Kelly S.; Pritchard, David G.; Almeida, Raul A.; Nelson, Daniel C.; Marriott, Ian; Lee, Jean C.; Donovan, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-drug resistant bacteria are a persistent problem in modern health care, food safety and animal health. There is a need for new antimicrobials to replace over used conventional antibiotics. Here we describe engineered triple-acting staphylolytic peptidoglycan hydrolases wherein three unique antimicrobial activities from two parental proteins are combined into a single fusion protein. This effectively reduces the incidence of resistant strain development. The fusion protein reduced colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in a rat nasal colonization model, surpassing the efficacy of either parental protein. Modification of a triple-acting lytic construct with a protein transduction domain significantly enhanced both biofilm eradication and the ability to kill intracellular S. aureus as demonstrated in cultured mammary epithelial cells and in a mouse model of staphylococcal mastitis. Interestingly, the protein transduction domain was not necessary for reducing the intracellular pathogens in cultured osteoblasts or in two mouse models of osteomyelitis, highlighting the vagaries of exactly how protein transduction domains facilitate protein uptake. Bacterial cell wall degrading enzyme antimicrobials can be engineered to enhance their value as potent therapeutics. PMID:27121552

  16. Effect of dietary supplementation of probiotics and palm fruits extracts on the antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the mucosae of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    PubMed

    Esteban, M A; Cordero, H; Martínez-Tomé, M; Jiménez-Monreal, A M; Bakhrouf, A; Mahdhi, A

    2014-08-01

    Antioxidant activity is particularly important, since oxidation is an unavoidable reaction in all living bodies. At present, natural antioxidants to be used on food as an alternative to synthetic ones are being sought. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) specimens were fed for 4 weeks with diets enriched with bacterial probiotics (Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 and Bacillus sp), single or in combination with Tunisian dates palm fruit extracts. The expression of the main antioxidant enzyme genes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase) in the mucosae (gut, skin and gill) was evaluated after 2 and 4 weeks. Previously, free radical scavenging and several antioxidant assays were developed to know the antioxidant properties present on the palm fruits extracts. The results demonstrated that experimental diets alter the expression of the studied antioxidant genes, primarily in the gill and skin. Furthermore, the tested probiotics and mainly, the aqueous date palm fruits extracts had significant antioxidant properties based on their protective effect against the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, especially when administering during 4 weeks. For this reason, probiotics and date palm fruit extracts may serve as good natural antioxidants and could potentially be considered as a functional food ingredient for fish in farms.

  17. Antioxidant enzyme activities of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to trace elements.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, U R; Dharmani, M; Kanthimathi, M S; Indran, M

    2005-07-01

    The trace elements copper, zinc, and selenium are important immune modulators and essential cofactors of the antioxidant enzymes. In the present study, the proliferative effect of human peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that have been exposed to copper, zinc, and selenium and the corresponding activities of antioxidant enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase, were determined. Zinc and copper stimulated the PBMC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner within the dose range 25-200 micromol/L. SOD and GPx activities in PBMCs exposed to zinc were inhibited, whereas catalase activity was unaffected. All the three antioxidant enzymes in the cells exposed to copper were inhibited. Selenium exerted more potent inhibition of the cell proliferation while causing stimulation of the antioxidant enzymes at the lowest dose (25 micromol/L) than at the highest dose (200 micromol/L) tested. A significant negative correlation was observed between proliferation and antioxidant enzyme (SOD and GPx) activities in trace-element-exposed PBMC. The present findings substantiate the importance of trace elements as immune modulators and the involvement of enzymatic antioxidant system in the immune cell regulation.

  18. Intracellular Antioxidant Activity of Grape Skin Polyphenolic Extracts in Rat Superficial Colonocytes: In situ Detection by Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, M. Elena; Ingrosso, Ilaria; Schettino, Trifone; Caricato, Roberto; Giovinazzo, Giovanna; Lionetto, M. Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Colon is exposed to a number of prooxidant conditions and several colon diseases are associated with increased levels of reactive species. Polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants in the diet, but to date no information is available about their absorption and potential intracellular antioxidant activity on colon epithelial cells. The work was addressed to study the intracellular antioxidant activity of red grape polyphenolic extracts on rat colon epithelium experimentally exposed to prooxidant conditions. The experimental model chosen was represented by freshly isolated colon explants, which closely resemble the functional, and morphological characteristics of the epithelium in vivo. The study was carried out by in situ confocal microscopy observation on CM-H2DCFDA charged explants exposed to H2O2 (5, 10, and 15 min). The qualitative and quantitative polyphenolic composition of the extracts as well as their in vitro oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) was determined. The incubation of the explants with the polyphenolic extracts for 1 h produced a significant decrease of the H2O2 induced fluorescence. This effect was more pronounced following 15 min H2O2 exposure with respect to 5 min and it was also more evident for extracts obtained from mature grapes, which showed an increased ORAC value and qualitative peculiarities in the polyphenolic composition. The results demonstrated the ability of red grape polyphenols to cross the plasma membrane and exert a direct intracellular antioxidant activity in surface colonocytes, inducing a protection against pro-oxidant conditions. The changes in the polyphenol composition due to ripening process was reflected in a more effective antioxidant protection. PMID:27303304

  19. The alteration of intracellular enzymes. III. The effect of temperature on the kinetics of altered and unaltered yeast catalase.

    PubMed

    FRASER, M J; KAPLAN, J G

    1955-03-20

    1. The very large increase in catalase activity (Euler effect) which follows treatment of yeast cells with CHCl(3), UV and n-propanol is accompanied by highly significant changes in kinetic properties. With respect to the enzymatic decomposition of H(2)O(2), the thermodynamic constants of the activation process micro, DeltaHdouble dagger, DeltaSdouble dagger, DeltaFdouble dagger, decrease, following treatment of the intracellular enzyme, by 4.5 kcal., 4.5 kcal., 10.1 e.u. and 1.7 kcal., respectively, all these differences being significant at the 1 per cent level. 2. Similar differences exist between the untreated, intracellular enzyme on the one hand, and the extracted yeast and crystalline beef liver catalases on the other. Significant differences in these thermodynamic constants do not exist among the treated intracellular, extracted yeast, and crystalline liver catalases. 3. These data provide unequivocal confirmation of the phenomenon of enzyme alteration reported previously, and confirm previous evidence that the extracted and crystalline enzymes have also undergone enzyme alteration and have properties which are identical with, or very similar to, those of the catalase altered in situ. 4. With respect to the process of heat destruction of catalase, the greatly diminished stability to heat of the altered enzymes, previously reported, has been confirmed. The thermodynamic constants of activation of this process have likewise changed following alteration, in the case of micro, DeltaHdouble dagger, and DeltaSdouble dagger an increase of 20.6 kcal., 20.6 kcal., and 70 e.u., respectively, and of DeltaFdouble dagger a decrease of 2.8 kcal. 5. All these data have been shown to be consistent with, and in some cases predictable from, the interfacial hypothesis, which states that the unaltered catalase exists within the cell adsorbed to some interface, in a partially, but reversibly, unfolded configuration of relatively low specificity; enzyme alteration consists, in

  20. Antioxidative capacity and enzyme activity in Haematococcus pluvialis cells exposed to superoxide free radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiaoli; Sun, Yanhong; Lin, Wei

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidative capacity of astaxanthin and enzyme activity of reactive oxygen eliminating enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were studied in three cell types of Haematococcus pluvialis exposed to high concentrations of a superoxide anion radical (O{2/-}). The results show that defensive enzymes and astaxanthin-related mechanisms were both active in H. pluvialis during exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as O{2/-}. Astaxanthin reacted with ROS much faster than did the protective enzymes, and had the strongest antioxidative capacity to protect against lipid peroxidation. The defensive mechanisms varied significantly between the three cell types and were related to the level of astaxanthin that had accumulated in those cells. Astaxanthin-enriched red cells had the strongest antioxidative capacity, followed by brown cells, and astaxanthin-deficient green cells. Although there was no significant increase in expression of protective enzymes, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in red cells was sustained at a low level because of the antioxidative effect of astaxanthin, which quenched O{2/-} before the protective enzymes could act. In green cells, astaxanthin is very low or absent; therefore, scavenging of ROS is inevitably reliant on antioxidative enzymes. Accordingly, in green cells, these enzymes play the leading role in scavenging ROS, and the expression of these enzymes is rapidly increased to reduce excessive ROS. However, because ROS were constantly increased in this study, the enhance enzyme activity in the green cells was not able to repair the ROS damage, leading to elevated MDA content. Of the four defensive enzymes measured in astaxanthin-deficient green cells, SOD eliminates O{2/-}, POD eliminates H2O2, which is a by-product of SOD activity, and APX and CAT are then initiated to scavenge excessive ROS.

  1. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  2. Protective role of selenium in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in piglet splenic lymphocytes exposed to deoxynivalenol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuemei; Zuo, Zhicai; Zhao, Chuanping; Zhang, Zhuo; Peng, Guangneng; Cao, Suizhong; Hu, Yanchun; Yu, Shumin; Zhong, Zhijun; Deng, Junliang; Ren, Zhihua

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the effects of selenium (Se) on antioxidant enzymes of piglet splenic lymphocytes exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON). We measured cell viability, the activities of several antioxidant enzymes, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), as well as total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We found that DON exposure increased the concentrations of LDH, MDA, and H2O2 in all experimental groups in a dose-dependent manner, while the concentrations of other antioxidant enzymes were decreased. In Se-pretreated DON-exposed cells, damage to antioxidant enzymes was reduced, especially in the lower-dose DON groups over longer exposure times. These results may indicate that in piglet splenic lymphocytes, Se can alleviate DON-induced damage to antioxidant enzymes by improving glutathione peroxidase activity. Se may function as a potential antioxidative agent to alleviate DON-induced oxidative stress.

  3. Age-Related Changes in Antioxidative Enzyme Capacity in Tongue of Fischer 344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Min-Kwan; Kim, Kyung-Ok; Kwon, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Yong-Woo; Woo, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Young

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Antioxidative enzyme efficiency changes in some organs with age. However, no study has been conducted on age-related antioxidant enzyme changes in tongue. In the present study, the authors investigated the activities of four antioxidative enzymes and their protein expressions in the tongues of young and old Fischer 344 rats. Methods Age-dependent changes in the enzyme activities of total superoxide dismutase (SOD), Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined using chemical kits, and the protein expressions levels of these enzymes by Western blotting. The study was conducted using rats aged 7 months (the young group, n=8) and 22 months (the old group, n=8). Results Total SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, and GPx activities in the tongues of old rats were lower than in young rats, and similarly, corresponding protein expressions were downregulated in old rats. On the other hand, although the protein expressions of Mn-SOD and CAT were lower in old rats, their enzyme activities were not. Conclusion The results of this study provide a possible mechanism for the tongue aging process, as in old Fischer 344 rats the antioxidant defense system was diminished with respect to enzyme activity levels and protein abundances. PMID:27334515

  4. Role of measurement of antioxidant enzymes in evaluation of antioxidant therapy in tobacco abusers with oral leukoplakia.

    PubMed

    Jain, R K; Singh, Gautam Bir; Singh, Arvinder Pal; Goel, R K; Aryya, N C; Jha, Sandeep K

    2011-10-01

    Antioxidants are widely used in chemoprevention of malignancy. Numerous studies in medical literature have reported the evaluation of this treatment protocol by indirect methodology-epidemiology, invitro studies, pharmacology and animal models etc. However, there is a paucity of literature on the measurement of antioxidant enzymes as a parameter for assessing the outcome of antioxidant therapy. This study explores the efficacy and outcome of antioxidant enzyme assay in relation to antioxidant therapy in tobacco abusers, hitherto unreported in medical literature. A prospective cohort study with control in 50 patients carried out at a tertiary care teaching Institution (Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India). Out of these patients, 10 patients acted as control, rest 40 patients-all tobacco users in some form, were divided into three groups on the basis of histopathological grading of dysplasia-no dysplasia, mild or moderate dysplasia. The levels of Lipid peroxidase (LPO), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) in mucosa and serum were assayed in each group, and re-evaluated at the end of 3 months after intervention with antioxidant treatment. To detect any alteration in degree of dysplasia a repeat biopsy was also done at the end of 3 months. The results were statistically analysed using paired t test. A statistically significant decrease in level of LPO and SOD, and an increase in CAT levels were recorded both in mucosa and serum. However, no change in dysplasia and no new case of dysplasia were observed. Further, antioxidant treatment was continued for a year and the final out come of the lesion was assessed by "Carter's criteria". A final success rate of 74.19% was recorded in terms of partial or complete regression of the lesion. This study confirms the therapeutic efficacy of antioxidants in oral leukoplakia, and cites the importance of LPO, SOD and CAT in evaluating the efficacy of antioxidant treatment. However, the

  5. Expression and regulation of antioxidant enzymes in the developing limb support a function of ROS in interdigital cell death.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Denhí; Salas-Vidal, Enrique; Narváez, Verónica; Sánchez-Carbente, María del Rayo; Hernández-García, David; Cuervo, Rodrigo; Covarrubias, Luis

    2006-03-15

    Vertebrate limb development is a well-studied model of apoptosis; however, little is known about the intracellular molecules involved in activating the cell death machinery. We have shown that high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are present in the interdigital 'necrotic' tissue of mouse autopod, and that antioxidants can reduce cell death. Here, we determined the expression pattern of several antioxidant enzymes in order to establish their role in defining the areas with high ROS levels. We found that the genes encoding the superoxide dismutases and catalase are expressed in autopod, but they are downregulated in the interdigital regions at the time ROS levels increased and cell death was first detected. The possible role of superoxide and/or peroxide in activating cell death is supported by the protective effect of a superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic. Interestingly, we found that peroxidase activity and glutathione peroxidase-4 gene (Gpx4) expression were restricted to the non-apoptotic tissue (e.g., digits) of the developing autopod. Induction of cell death with retinoic acid caused an increase in ROS and decrease in peroxidase activity. Even more inhibition of glutathione peroxidase activity leads to cell death in the digits, suggesting that a decrease in antioxidant activity, likely due to Gpx4, caused an increase in ROS levels, thus triggering apoptosis.

  6. Systemic reduction of rice blast by inhibitors of antioxidant enzymes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systemic acquired disease resistance (SAR) of plants may result from an oxidative burst in their tissues caused by both increased production of ROS and decreased antioxidant activity, in particular, enzymatic. Here we tested whether the exogenous inhibitors of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase...

  7. Correlation of antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes to oxygen radical scavenging activities in berries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Berry fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds. In addition to the usual nutrients such as vitamins and minerals, berry fruits are also rich in flavonols, anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins, catechins, flavones, and their glycosides. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of...

  8. Effect of cell substrate on antioxidant enzyme activities in cultured renal glomerular epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, A. H.; Oberley, T. D.; Oberley, L. W.; Ramanathan, R.

    1988-01-01

    The activities of three antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were monitored in isolated guinea pig glomeruli and primary or subcultured glomerular epithelial cells. Cell injury was assessed by morphologic studies and by measurement of cellular lipid peroxidation (levels of malondialdehyde). Antioxidant enzyme activities were very different in cultured cells than in parent glomeruli. The possible effect of culture substrates (tissue culture plastic, bovine corneal endothelial [BCE] cell basement membrane, and PF-HR-9 endodermal cell basement membrane) on antioxidant enzyme status, cell morphology, and lipid peroxidation was also assessed. Glomerular epithelial cells cultured on the BCE cell basement membrane substrate survived longer and showed less lipid peroxidation than cells cultured on plastic or the HR-9 substrate. Cells cultured on a plastic substrate had substantially less glutathione peroxidase activity than cells cultured on either BCE or HR-9 basement membranes. Images Figure 3 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:3348362

  9. Synthesis, antioxidant, enzyme inhibition and DNA binding studies of novel N-benzylated derivatives of sulfonamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Aadil; Murtaza, Shahzad; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Shamim, Saima; Sirajuddin, Muhammad; Rana, Usman Ali; Naseem, Khadija; Rafique, Hummera

    2016-08-01

    A series of novel N-benzylated derivatives of sulfonamide were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, NMR and XRD analysis. The synthesized compounds were assayed for their biological potential. The biological studies involved antioxidant, enzyme inhibition, and DNA interaction studies. Antioxidant potential was investigated by Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assay (FRAP) and DPPH free radical scavenging method, the capacity of synthesized compounds to inhibit the enzyme's activity was assayed by using the well-known Elman method whereas DNA interaction studies were carried out with the help UV-Vis absorption titration method. Moreover, a direct correlation between enzyme inhibition activity and concentration of the compounds was observed both in experimental and molecular docking studies. DNA interaction studies of the synthesized compounds showed weak interaction.

  10. Identification and characterization of antioxidant enzyme mRNAs in the rat epididymis.

    PubMed

    Zini, A; Schlegel, P N

    1997-04-01

    Spermatozoa are highly sensitive to oxidative stress. The epididymis, a natural sperm reservoir, has maturational and storage functions. The epididymis may also protect spermatozoa from oxidative injury by elaborating scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, we have evaluated the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes in the normal rat epididymis and the effects of efferent duct ligation no the expression of these enzymes. Adult rat epididymides were harvested, divided into caput, corpus and cauda and processed for RNA extraction. Additional adult rats were subjected to unilateral efferent duct ligation and the epididymides harvested at 1, 4, 8, 16 or 28 days after the procedure. Antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression was assessed by Northern blot analysis using 32P-labelled DNA probes derived from known cDNA sequences for classical cellular glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPX), secretory epididymal glutathione peroxidase (E-GPX), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD), secretory epididymal superoxide dismutase (E-SOD) and catalase. Specific mRNA levels were measured, with gene expression evaluated relative to total RNA, not per organ. Variations in lane loading were controlled by measuring the levels of 28S ribosomal RNA. GSHPx, PHGPX, SOD and catalase mRNA were detected in the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis. E-GPX mRNA was only detected in the caput, whereas E-SOD mRNA was primarily detected in the corpus. At 28 days after efferent duct ligation, epididymal weight decreased by 34% relative to controls (p < 0.05). With the exception of PHGPX, the relative mRNA levels of the antioxidant enzymes studied did not change after efferent duct ligation. This study demonstrates that mRNAs for multiple antioxidant enzymes are expressed in the epididymis and that the relative expression of these enzymes remains largely unchanged in response to efferent duct ligation. Taken together, these results suggest

  11. [Effect of bacteriophage on the lipid peroxidation process and antioxidant protective enzymes in experimental uveitis].

    PubMed

    Karimova, M Kh; Bakhritdinova, F A

    2002-01-01

    Experimental uveitis features distinct hyperlipoperoxidation in damaged eye tissues, blood serum and the liver. The activity of antioxidant defense (AOD) enzymes decreases in tissues and blood of experimental animals whereas catalase compensatorily activates in hepatic tissue. Experimental therapy of uveitis with gentamycin and bacteriophage results in reducing hyperlipoperoxidation, increased activity of AOD enzymes but no complete normalization is observed. This manifested in preservation of inflammations to a certain degree.

  12. Costus afer Possesses Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes Inhibitory Activity and Antioxidant Capacity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tchamgoue, Armelle D.; Tchokouaha, Lauve R. Y.; Tarkang, Protus A.; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Agbor, Gabriel A.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism which correlates with postprandial hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Control of blood glucose level is imperative in the management of diabetes. The present study tested the hypothesis that Costus afer, an antihyperglycemic medicinal plant, possesses inhibitory activity against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts were prepared from the leaf, stem, and rhizome of C. afer and subjected to phytochemical screening, assayed for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities and antioxidant capacity (determined by total phenolic and total flavonoids contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and DPPH radical scavenging activity). All extracts inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Ethyl acetate rhizome and methanol leaf extracts exhibited the best inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase (IC50: 0.10 and 5.99 mg/mL), respectively. Kinetic analysis revealed two modes of enzyme inhibition (competitive and mixed). All extracts showed antioxidant capacity, with hexane extracts exhibiting the best activity. DPPH assay revealed that methanol leaf, rhizome, and ethyl acetate stem extracts (IC50 < 5 mg/mL) were the best antioxidants. The presence of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, and tannins may account for the antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibitory activity of C. afer. PMID:26246844

  13. Ectromelia virus inhibitor of complement enzymes protects intracellular mature virus and infected cells from mouse complement.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Elizabeth A; Bertram, Paula; Chen, Nanhai; Buller, R Mark L; Atkinson, John P

    2010-09-01

    Poxviruses produce complement regulatory proteins to subvert the host's immune response. Similar to the human pathogen variola virus, ectromelia virus has a limited host range and provides a mouse model where the virus and the host's immune response have coevolved. We previously demonstrated that multiple components (C3, C4, and factor B) of the classical and alternative pathways are required to survive ectromelia virus infection. Complement's role in the innate and adaptive immune responses likely drove the evolution of a virus-encoded virulence factor that regulates complement activation. In this study, we characterized the ectromelia virus inhibitor of complement enzymes (EMICE). Recombinant EMICE regulated complement activation on the surface of CHO cells, and it protected complement-sensitive intracellular mature virions (IMV) from neutralization in vitro. It accomplished this by serving as a cofactor for the inactivation of C3b and C4b and by dissociating the catalytic domain of the classical pathway C3 convertase. Infected murine cells initiated synthesis of EMICE within 4 to 6 h postinoculation. The levels were sufficient in the supernatant to protect the IMV, upon release, from complement-mediated neutralization. EMICE on the surface of infected murine cells also reduced complement activation by the alternative pathway. In contrast, classical pathway activation by high-titer antibody overwhelmed EMICE's regulatory capacity. These results suggest that EMICE's role is early during infection when it counteracts the innate immune response. In summary, ectromelia virus produced EMICE within a few hours of an infection, and EMICE in turn decreased complement activation on IMV and infected cells.

  14. Leishmania panamensis infection and antimonial drugs modulate expression of macrophage drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes: impact on intracellular parasite survival

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Maria Adelaida; Navas, Adriana; Márquez, Ricardo; Rojas, Laura Jimena; Vargas, Deninson Alejandro; Blanco, Victor Manuel; Koren, Roni; Zilberstein, Dan; Saravia, Nancy Gore

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Treatment failure is multifactorial. Despite the importance of host cell drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes in the accumulation, distribution and metabolism of drugs targeting intracellular pathogens, their impact on the efficacy of antileishmanials is unknown. We examined the contribution of pharmacologically relevant determinants in human macrophages in the antimony-mediated killing of intracellular Leishmania panamensis and its relationship with the outcome of treatment with meglumine antimoniate. Methods Patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis who failed (n = 8) or responded (n = 8) to treatment were recruited. Gene expression profiling of pharmacological determinants in primary macrophages was evaluated by quantitative RT–PCR and correlated to the drug-mediated intracellular parasite killing. Functional validation was conducted through short hairpin RNA gene knockdown. Results Survival of L. panamensis after exposure to antimonials was significantly higher in macrophages from patients who failed treatment. Sixteen macrophage drug-response genes were modulated by infection and exposure to meglumine antimoniate. Correlation analyses of gene expression and intracellular parasite survival revealed the involvement of host cell metallothionein-2A and ABCB6 in the survival of Leishmania during exposure to antimonials. ABCB6 was functionally validated as a transporter of antimonial compounds localized in both the cell and phagolysosomal membranes of macrophages, revealing a novel mechanism of host cell-mediated regulation of intracellular drug exposure and parasite survival within phagocytes. Conclusions These results provide insight into host cell mechanisms regulating the intracellular exposure of Leishmania to antimonials and variations among individuals that impact parasite survival. Understanding of host cell determinants of intracellular pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics opens new avenues to improved drug efficacy for intracellular

  15. [Activity of antioxidant enzymes of the rat kidneys under mercury dichloride effect].

    PubMed

    Velyka, A Ia; Pshak, V P; Lopushins'ka, I V

    2014-01-01

    Salts of heavy metals are excreted by the kidneys and, as pro-oxidants, stimulate the processes of free radical oxidation. Mercury ions are accumulated in the kidneys. So the study of the features of antioxidant enzymes adaptive response of different kidney layers in response to mercury dichloride is important. Catalase and glytathionperoxidase activity within rat kidneys 72 hours after mercury dichloride intoxication in the ratio of 5 ml per 1 kg of the animal weight was studied. It was important to reveal the influence of the mercury salts on rat kidney antioxidative system. Decreasing glytathionperoxidase activity in cortical and cerebral substances and renal papillae were accompanied by increased contents of oxidative modified proteins and lipids and morphological changes in renal tissue under salt and water loading after mercury dichloride poisoning. The results obtained evidence for the inhibition of antioxidative protection of enzymes in rat kidneys under the mercury dichloride effect.

  16. Pharmacological modifications of endogenous antioxidant enzymes with special reference to the effects of deprenyl: a possible antioxidant strategy.

    PubMed

    Kitani, K; Kanai, S; Ivy, G O; Carrillo, M C

    1999-11-01

    Limited information is available on the upregulation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes by means of administering various pharmaceuticals and/or chemicals. It has been reported that ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a bile acid originally identified from black bear bile (a Chinese medicine, Yutan) increased glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities in mouse livers, resulting in a decrease in systemic lethal toxicity of orally challenged 1-2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB). Also, ursolic acid found in herbal medicines (e.g. leaves of loquat) was reported to increase catalase (CAT) activities in mouse liver. Interestingly, the chemical structures of these two compounds are surprisingly similar to each other, despite the difference in their original sources. These results suggest that in the future, more and more compounds will be found to have effects on increasing endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities. Deprenyl is a monoamine oxidase B inhibitor but also possesses many other different pharmacological activities. Among these various pharmacological effects of deprenyl, a possible causal relationship between two effects of deprenyl, namely the prolongation of the survival of animals and upregulation of antioxidant enzymes in selective brain regions, has been postulated by the authors. In at least four different animal species (rats, mice, hamsters and dogs), a significant prolongation of survival by chronic administration of the drug has been reported by different groups including that of the authors. This group has reported that repeated administration of the drug for 2-3 weeks can significantly increase activities of both types of superoxide dismutase (SODs) (Cu, Zn-, and Mn-SODs) as well as of CAT selectively in brain dopaminergic regions. Both effects are dose dependent but excessive dosages become less effective and even cause an adverse effect (i.e. a decrease in enzyme activities and shortening of life span). The parallelism of the dose-effect relationship between

  17. Alterations of erythrocyte antioxidant mechanisms: antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and serum trace elements associated with anemia in bovine tropical theileriosis.

    PubMed

    Razavi, S M; Nazifi, S; Bateni, M; Rakhshandehroo, E

    2011-08-25

    In order to investigate the alterations of erythrocyte protective antioxidant mechanisms, lipid peroxidation and trace elements associated with anemia in bovine tropical theileriosis, an infected group comprised of 50 crossbred Holstein cattle, about 1-2 years old, naturally infected with Theileria annulata, were divided into 4 subgroups according to their parasitemia rates (<1%, 1-3%, 3-5%, >5%) and also 10 healthy cattle as control were selected. Blood samples were taken and hematological parameters, the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase and serum concentrations of some antioxidant trace elements (copper, iron, zinc, manganese and selenium) were measured. As an index of lipid peroxidation, the level of Malondialdehyde (MDA) was also determined. The results showed a conspicuous decrease in the activities of SOD, GPX and catalase (P<0.01), and a significant decrease in the serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn and Se in cattle with higher than 1% parasitemia (P<0.05) compared to the control. In addition, remarkable elevations in the MDA level (P<0.01) and serum concentration of iron (P<0.05) were observed in the infected animals. These findings pointed to the occurrence of exacerbating oxidative injuries to erythrocytes during parasitemia. Furthermore, it can be concluded that infection with T. annulata can interfere with protective antioxidant mechanisms of RBCs against oxidative damages, which promote the development of anemia.

  18. Effect of acute vs chronic H2O2-induced oxidative stress on antioxidant enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Fernanda; Augusto, Amanda C; Gurgueira, Sonia A

    2009-04-01

    H2O2 can freely crosses membranes and in the presence of Fe2+ (or Cu+) it is prone to participate in Fenton reaction. This study evaluated the concentration and time-dependent effects of H2O2-induced oxidative stress on MnSOD, Se:GPx and catalase and on aconitase. Acute and chronic H2O2 treatments were able to induce oxidative stress in HeLa cells as they significantly decreased aconitase activity and also caused a very significant decrease on antioxidant enzyme activities. The inhibition of enzyme activities was time- and concentration-dependent. Chronic treatment with 5 microM H2O2/h after 24 h was able to decrease all enzyme activities almost at the same level as the acute treatment. Acute and chronic treatments on antioxidant enzyme activities were prevented by cell treatment with ascorbic acid or N-acetylcysteine. These results indicate that antioxidant enzymes can also be affected by the same ROS they produce or neutralize if the time of exposure is long enough.

  19. Biobehavioral and neuroendocrine correlates of antioxidant enzyme activity in ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Jennifer L; Spitz, Douglas R; Christensen, Desire; McCormick, Michael L; Farley, Donna; DeGeest, Koen; Damoush, Laila; Aust, Samantha; Sood, Anil K; Lutgendorf, Susan K

    2015-11-01

    Increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide have been reported in many cancer cells and they have been implicated in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Antioxidant enzymes, such as Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (MnSOD or SOD2) and Glutathione Peroxidase-1 (GPx1), act coordinately to neutralize ROS. These enzymes are also thought to contribute to cancer cell resistance to conventional radio-chemo-therapies. Although some relationships have been reported between psychosocial factors and the regulation of antioxidant enzymes, little is known about these relationships in the context of cancer progression. The current study investigated the levels of MnSOD and GPx1in confirmed serous, high-grade tumor tissue from 60 ovarian cancer patients, and explored the relationship between the activity of these enzymes, the levels of tumor norepinephrine (NE), and patient mood as determined via pre-operative questionnaires. MnSOD activity was positively related to depressed mood (p=0.025) and tumor NE (p=0.023). In contrast, GPx1 activity was inversely related to fatigue (p=0.015) and tumor NE (p=0.009), and was positively associated with vigor (p=0.024). These findings suggest that psychological state and adrenergic signaling are linked with antioxidant enzyme activity in ovarian cancer and may have implications for patient treatments and outcomes.

  20. [The antioxidant enzyme activity in mouse liver mitochondria after nanosecond pulsed periodic X-ray exposure].

    PubMed

    Kniazeva, I R; Ivanov, V V; Bol'shakov, M A; Zharkova, L P; Kereia, A V; Kutenkov, O P; Rostov, V V

    2013-01-01

    The effect of repetitive pulsed X-ray (4 ns pulse duration, 300 kV accelerating voltage; 2.5 kA electron beam current) on the antioxidant enzyme activity in mouse liver mitochondria has been investigated. The mitochondrial suspension was exposed to single 4000 pulse X-ray radiation with repetition rates ranging between 10 and 22 pps (pulsed dose was 0.3-1.8 x 10(-6) Gy/pulse, the total absorbed dose following a single exposure was 7.2 x 10(-3) Gy). It was shown that a short-time exposure to X-ray radiation changes the antioxidant enzyme activity in mouse liver mitochondria. The greatest effect was observed in the changes of the activity of the metal-containing enzymes: superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. The effect depends on the pulse repetition frequency and radiation dose.

  1. [Effect of heavy metals on wheat seedlings; activation of antioxidant enzymes].

    PubMed

    Murzaeva, S V

    2004-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in wheat grain exposed to multicomponent pollutants (industrial waste-water) was studied. The absolute content of metals (Zn, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Mn) was found to be determined by the extent of purification of wastewater. An increase in the degree of grain contamination with heavy metals was accompanied by activation of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, EC 1.15.1; catalase, EC 1.11.1.6; and peroxidase, EC 1.11.1.7) in leaves and activation of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase in roots. The ratio of activity of membrane enzymes to activity of cytosol enzymes was demonstrated to be high. It was concluded that the membrane-tropic effect of multicomponent contaminants was due to accumulation of heavy metals capable of inducing the antioxidant protection in the next generation of wheat seedlings.

  2. Antioxidant enzymes attenuate myocardial stunning in the conscious dog

    SciTech Connect

    Triana, J.F.; Unisa, A.; Bolli, R. )

    1990-02-26

    Several studies have shown that postischemic myocardial dysfunction (myocardial stunning) is attenuated by antioxidants, implying a pathogenetic role of oxy-radicals in this phenomenon. However, since all these studies have been performed in open-chest preparations, artifacts due to anesthesia, trauma, and other nonphysiologic conditions cannot be excluded. Accordingly, chronically instrumented dogs underwent a 15-minute occlusion (o) of the left anterior descending artery followed by reperfusion. Dogs received i.v. either saline or superoxide dismutase (SOD) plus catalase (CAT) (16,000 U/kg and 55,000 U/kg, respectively, over 1 hour starting 15 minutes before O). Regional myocardial function was assessed as systolic wall thickening (WTh) using a pulsed Doppler probe. WTh after reperfusion was significantly greater in treated dogs, and this difference could not be ascribed to differences in collateral flow or hemodynamics. The authors conclude that SOD plus catalase attenuate myocardial stunning in the conscious dog, indicating that oxy-radicals play a pathogenetic role in this phenomenon under physiologic conditions.

  3. Effects of Oxygen Limitation on Xylose Fermentation, Intracellular Metabolites, and Key Enzymes of Neurospora crassa AS3.1602

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhihua; Qu, Yinbo; Zhang, Xiao; Lin, Jianqiang

    The effects of oxygen limitation on xylose fermentation of Neurospora crassa AS3.1602 were studied using batch cultures. The maximum yield of ethanol was 0.34 g/g at oxygen transfer rate (OTR) of 8.4 mmol/L·h. The maximum yield of xylitol was 0.33 g/g at OTR of 5.1 mmol/L·h. Oxygen limitation greatly affected mycelia growth and xylitol and ethanol productions. The specific growth rate (μ) decreased 82% from 0.045 to 0.008 h-1 when OTR changed from 12.6 to 8.4 mmol/L·h. Intracellular metabolites of the pentose phosphate pathway, glycolysis, and tricarboxylic acid cycle were determined at various OTRs. Concentrations of most intracellular metabolites decreased with the increase in oxygen limitation. Intracellular enzyme activities of xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase, and xylulokinase, the first three enzymes in xylose metabolic pathway, decreased with the increase in oxygen limitation, resulting in the decreased xylose uptake rate. Under all tested conditions, transaldolase and transketolase activities always maintained at low levels, indicating a great control on xylose metabolism. The enzyme of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase played a major role in NADPH regeneration, and its activity decreased remarkably with the increase in oxygen limitation.

  4. Effects of lead on the activities of antioxidant enzymes in watercress, Nasturtium officinale R. Br.

    PubMed

    Keser, Gonca; Saygideger, Saadet

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the oxidative effects of lead with increased concentrations by the determination of antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and ascorbate peroxidase (AP)) and lipid peroxidation levels in the stem and leaves of watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) which was exposed to lead acetate, Pb (CH3COOH)2 regime with concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 200, 250, and 500 mg/L Pb in a hydroponic culture. After 14 days, accumulation of lipid peroxidation in stems and leaves and changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes were determined spectrophotometrically. The maximum accumulation was observed in the highest concentration group. In this group, lipid peroxidation levels were three times higher than the control group in the stem and leaves. The highest induction in SOD and GR activities were determined at 200 mg/L Pb group in stem, whereas CAT and AP activities were higher than other groups at the concentration of 250 and 100 mg/L Pb, respectively. The increase in CAT activity was found to be greater than GR, SOD, and AP activities in stems of watercress under Pb treatment. Both lead accumulation and antioxidant enzyme responses were higher in stems than in leaves. The results of the present study suggested that the induction in antioxidant responses could be occurring as an adaptive mechanism to the oxidative potential of lead accumulation.

  5. Characterization of antioxidant enzymes and peroxisomes of olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Huertas, Eduardo; del Río, Luis A

    2014-10-15

    The presence of peroxisomes in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits and different antioxidant enzymes occurring in this plant tissue is reported for the first time. Ultrastructural analysis showed that olive cells were characterized by the presence of large vacuoles and lipid drops. Plastids, mitochondria and peroxisomes were placed near the cell wall, showing some type of association with it. Olive fruit peroxisomes were purified by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation, and catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase were found in peroxisomes. In olive fruit tissue the presence of a battery of antioxidant enzymes was demonstrated, including catalase, four superoxide dismutase isozymes (mainly an Fe-SOD plus 2 Cu,Zn-SOD and a Mn-SOD), all the enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, reduced and oxidized glutathione, ascorbate, and four NADPH-recycling dehydrogenases. The knowledge of the full composition of antioxidants (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) in olive fruits is crucial to be able to understand the processes regulating the antioxidant composition of olive oil.

  6. The influence of cadmium on the antioxidant enzyme activities in polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiutang; Chen, Aihua; Zhou, Yibing; Liu, Haiying; Yang, Dazuo

    2010-07-01

    The infaunal polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube, distributed widely along Asian coasts and estuaries, is considered a useful animal model in ecotoxicological tests and a promising candidate in biomonitoring programs. This paper deals with the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidases (GSH-Px) in infaunal polychaete P. aibuhitensis exposed to a series of sublethal water-bound cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 0.34, 1.72, 3.44, 6.89, and 17.22 mg L-1) under a short-term exposure (1-8 d). The results indicate that the SOD and GSH-Px activities in P. aibuhitensis are stimulated first and then renewed to the original level. The CAT activity of worms decreases at an earlier exposure time but increases to the control values at a later exposure time. Our study suggests that Cd can interfere with the antioxidant defense system of P. aibuhitensis. However, the changes in antioxidant enzyme activities for this species do not show the best promise as biomarkers in Cd biomonitoring of estuarine and coastal zones because weak or non-dose-effect relationships between the antioxidant enzymes activities and Cd levels are found.

  7. Blood antioxidant enzymes as markers of exposure or effect in coal miners.

    PubMed Central

    Perrin-Nadif, R; Auburtin, G; Dusch, M; Porcher, J M; Mur, J M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate if blood Cu++/Zn++ superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and total plasma antioxidant activities could be markers of biological activity resulting from exposure to respirable coal mine dust in active miners, and of pneumoconiosis in retired miners. METHODS--Blood samples were randomly obtained from active surface workers (n = 30) and underground miners (n = 34), and from retired miners without (n = 21), and with (n = 33) pneumoconiosis. Antioxidant enzyme activities and total plasma antioxidants were measured in erythrocytes and plasma. Non-parametric tests were completed by analyses of covariance to compare antioxidants between groups, taking into account potential confounding factors (age, smoking history (pack-years)). RESULTS--Erythrocyte Cu++/Zn++ superoxide dismutase activity was significantly higher in the group of underground miners than the group of surface workers. The differences in total plasma antioxidants and plasma glutathione peroxidase activity between both groups were related to age. Glutathione peroxidase activity increased in the plasma of retired miners with pneumoconiosis, compared with retired miners without pneumoconiosis. No differences were found either in erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities or in total plasma antioxidants between the groups of retired miners without and with pneumoconiosis. CONCLUSIONS--In this study, erythrocyte Cu++/Zn++ superoxide dismutase activity may be considered as a marker of effect of respirable coal mine dust in exposed workers. This result is in agreement with the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species are involved in cell injury induced by coal mine dust, and may be predictive of the degree of inflammation and pneumoconiosis induced by coal mine dust. The increase in glutathione peroxidase activity in the plasma of retired miners with pneumoconiosis may be the result of a response to the increasing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production due to the disease

  8. The Antioxidant Profiles, Lysosomal and Membrane Enzymes Activity in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Milnerowicz, Halina; Bukowski, Radosław; Jabłonowska, Monika; Ściskalska, Milena; Milnerowicz, Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6, play an important role in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis. The study was aimed to assess the degree of the pro/antioxidative imbalance and estimate which antioxidant plays a role in the maintenance of pro/antioxidative balance during acute pancreatitis. The study was investigated in the blood of 32 patients with acute pancreatitis and 37 healthy subjects. IL-6 concentration as early marker of inflammation was determinated. The intensity of oxidative stress was assessed by TBARS concentration. To investigate antioxidative status, the GPx and Cu/Zn SOD activities and the levels of GSH, MT, SH groups, and TRAP were measured. The concentrations of Cu and Zn as ions participating in the maintenance of antioxidant enzymes stability and playing a role in the course of disease were determinated. The activities of GGT, AAP, NAG, and β-GD as markers of tissue damage were also measured. An increase in IL-6 concentration, which correlated with Ranson criteria, and an increase in GPx activity, levels of MT, TBARS, or GGT, and NAG activities in patients group compared to healthy subjects were demonstrated. A decrease in GSH level in patients group compared to control group was noted. The studies suggest that GPx/GSH and MT play the role of the first line of defence against oxidative stress and pro/antioxidant imbalance in the course of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25298618

  9. Lipid peroxidation and serum antioxidant enzymes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Feroza N; Naqvi, Farzana N; Shafiq, Fakhra

    2006-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by fasting hyperglycemia, with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Persons are also known to be prone to develop complications related to elevated blood glucose concentrations, including atherosclerosis, retinal damage, cataract, and neuropathy. Hyperglycemia may also result in increased production of the reactive oxygen species within numerous biochemical pathways that have the potential to initiate changes in endothelial function. This article demonstrates the presence of lipid peroxidation products in the red cell membranes of type 2 diabetic patients compared to the normal subjects. These membranes are more susceptible to exogenous oxidative stress than those of normal healthy individuals. Significantly higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, namely, serum peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were found in type 2 diabetic patients as compared to control. This study led us to conclude that elevated levels of glucose induce oxidative stress that is ultimately reflected by the increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in erythrocyte ghost membranes of diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia also induced an increase in antioxidant enzymes and a relationship seems to exist between diabetic complications and elevated levels of these enzymes. It is suggested that these antioxidant enzymes may be considered as markers for vascular injury.

  10. Free radicals and antioxidant enzymes in fish and their responses to metal pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Zelikoff, J.T.; Flescher, E.

    1994-12-31

    Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) are continuously produced as metabolic by-products by virtually all tissues. Without adequate protection from these free radicals, cells/tissues can suffer significant oxidative damage. While superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and NADPH-quinone reductase (QR) are well recognized antioxidant enzymes in mammalian cells, little is known concerning these enzymes in cells from aquatic species. In addition, the effects of environmental contaminants on ROI production and on these protective enzymes in fish have not been well studied. For this investigation, whole kidney cell homogenates from medaka (Oryzias latipes) were used to evaluate the activity of SOD, catalase, and QR, as well as production of the ROI`s, superoxide (O{sub 2{sup {minus}}}) and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). Fish were also exposed to cadmium (Cd{sup 2+})-contaminated water at 60 ppb for five days and the effects on ROI production and these same enzyme systems were evaluated. Findings demonstrate that kidney cells from medaka stimulated in vitro with phorbol myristate acetate produced large quantities of free radicals, as well as expressed all three protective enzymes at levels comparable to those measured in mammalian immune cells. Exposure of fish to Cd{sup 2+} levels below the LC{sub 50} concentration altered these parameters. The results demonstrate the presence of antioxidant enzymes in fish immune cells and suggest the applicability of these endpoints to serve as biomarkers of aquatic metal pollution.

  11. Haem Biosynthesis and Antioxidant Enzymes in Circulating Cells of Acute Intermittent Porphyria Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Miguel D.; Mestre-Alfaro, Antonia; Martínez-Tomé, Magdalena; Carrera-Quintanar, Lucrecia; Capó, Xavier; Jiménez-Monreal, Antonia M.; García-Diz, Luis; Roche, Enrique; Murcia, María A.; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to explore the expression pattern of haem biosynthesis enzymes in circulating cells of patients affected by two types of porphyria (acute intermittent, AIP, and variegate porphyria, VP), together with the antioxidant enzyme pattern in AIP in order to identify a possible situation of oxidative stress. Sixteen and twelve patients affected by AIP and VP, respectively, were analysed with the same numbers of healthy matched controls. Erythrocytes, neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were purified from blood, and RNA and proteins were extracted for quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western-blot analysis, respectively. Porhobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX) gene and protein expression was analysed. Antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression were additionally determined in blood cells, together with protein carbonyl content in plasma. PBMCs isolated from AIP patients presented low mRNA levels of PBGD when compared to controls, while PBMCs isolated from VP patients presented a decrease in PPOX mRNA. PPOX protein content was higher in AIP patients and lower in VP patients, compared to healthy controls. Regarding antioxidant enzymes, PBMCs and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) presented statistically significant higher activity in AIP patients compared to controls, while catalase activity tended to be lower in these patients. No differences were observed regarding antioxidant gene expression in white blood cells. Circulating cells in AIP and VP patients present altered expression of haem biosynthetic enzymes, which could be useful for the differential diagnosis of these two types of porphyria in certain difficult cases. AIP patients present a condition of potential oxidative stress similar to VP patients, evidenced by the post-transcriptional activation of SOD and possible catalase impairment. PMID:27788171

  12. Effects of iron on growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, bound extracellular polymeric substances and microcystin production of Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Xun; Wang, Peifang; Chen, Bin; Hou, Jun; Qian, Jin; Yang, Yangyang

    2016-10-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms have occurred in various water bodies during recent decades and made serious health hazards to plants, animals and humans. Iron is an important micronutrient for algal growth and recently, the concentration of which has increased remarkably in freshwaters. In this paper, the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905 was cultivated under non-iron (0μM), iron-limited (10μM) and iron-replete (100μM) conditions to investigate the effects of iron on growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, EPS and microcystin production. The results showed that algal cell density and chlorophyll-a content were maximal at the highest iron concentration. Antioxidant enzymes activity increased notably under all three conditions in the early stage of experiment, of which the SOD activity recovered soon from oxidative stress in 10μM group. The productions of some protein-like substances and humic acid-like substances of bound EPS were inhibited in iron-containing groups in the early stage of experiment while promoted after the adaptation period of Microcystis aeruginosa. Iron addition is a factor affecting the formation of cyanobacterial blooms through its impact on the content of LB-EPS and the composition of TB-EPS. The intracellular MC-LR concentration and the productivity potential of MC-LR were the lowest in 0μM group and highest in 10μM group. No obvious extracellular release of MC-LR was observed during the cultivation time. Therefore, iron addition can promote the physiological activities of M. aeruginosa, but a greater harm could be brought into environment under iron-limited (10μM) condition than under iron-replete (100μM) condition.

  13. Intracellular Redox State as Target for Anti-Influenza Therapy: Are Antioxidants Always Effective?

    PubMed Central

    Sgarbanti, Rossella; Amatore, Donatella; Celestino, Ignacio; Marcocci, Maria Elena; Fraternale, Alessandra; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Magnani, Mauro; Saladino, Raffaele; Garaci, Enrico; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Nencioni, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus infections represent a big issue for public health since effective treatments are still lacking. In particular, the emergence of strains resistant to drugs limits the effectiveness of anti-influenza agents. For this reason, many efforts have been dedicated to the identification of new therapeutic strategies aimed at targeting the virus-host cell interactions. Oxidative stress is a characteristic of some viral infections including influenza. Because antioxidants defend cells from damage caused by reactive oxygen species induced by different stimuli including pathogens, they represent interesting molecules to fight infectious diseases. However, most of the available studies have found that these would-be panaceas could actually exacerbate the diseases they claim to prevent, and have thus revealed "the dark side" of these molecules. This review article discusses the latest opportunities and drawbacks of the antioxidants used in anti-influenza therapy and new perspectives. PMID:25478883

  14. Effects of dimethylsulfoxide on behavior and antioxidant enzymes response of planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zuoqing; Zhao, Bosheng; Zhang, Yu

    2012-06-01

    In this study, the toxicity, behavioral and antioxidant activity effects of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) on planarian Dugesia japonica were investigated. The results showed that the mortality was directly proportional to the DMSO concentration, and planarian locomotor velocity decreased as the concentration of DMSO increased. The recovery of the motility for planarians pre-exposed to DMSO was found to be time- and dose-dependent, and only those pre-exposed to 0.1-3% DMSO resulted in full recovery. The antioxidant enzymes of planarians in response to long-term DMSO stress was also altered in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Planarians revealed more tolerance to DMSO toxicity at low DMSO (0.1%) level in short- and long-term DMSO stress, in which an efficient antioxidant system was involved and the motility was not affected.

  15. The effect of bilirubin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in cumene hydroperoxide-treated erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Yeşilkaya, A; Yeğin, A; Ozdem, S; Aksu, T A

    1998-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that bilirubin may act as a potent biological chain-breaking antioxidant. To observe the effects of free bilirubin on antioxidant reactions in cumene hydroperoxide-treated erythrocytes (15 g hemoglobin/dl), we added bilirubin at four different concentrations (0.5, 1, 5, and 10 mg/dl). We measured the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and reduced glutathione levels, and some antioxidant enzyme activities, namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and chemiluminescent signals decreased during the incubation. Superoxide dismutase activities also decreased but not as much as in the control group. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities and reduced glutathione levels increased, but catalase activities remained the same as the control group. Our results suggest that bilirubin--in the concentrations we have used--partially prevented the oxidant effects of cumene hydroperoxide.

  16. Effect of sunlight-exposure on antioxidants and antioxidant enzyme activities in 'd'Anjou' pear in relation to superficial scald development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Xie, Xingbin; Shen, Xiang; Wang, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Influence of preharvest sunlight exposure on superficial scald development in 'd'Anjou' pears during cold storage was investigated. The biochemical changes related to scald including α-farnesene, conjugated trienols (CTols), antioxidants, antioxidant enzyme activities were monitored among separated blushed and shaded peels of unbagged fruit as well as the whole peel of bagged fruit. In unbagged fruit, scald symptom was restricted to shaded peel; while there was no difference in α-farnesene between blushed and shaded peels, CTols increased significantly in shaded peel along with scald development after 3months storage. Bagging treatment increased both α-farnesene and CTols significantly and enhanced scald. Preharvest sunlight exposure significantly increased certain antioxidant contents and antioxidant enzyme activities in blushed peel at harvest and during storage. These results reveal a direct role of CTols during development of scald, however, antioxidant systems may play an important role in α-farnesene oxidation to CTols and scald susceptibility in 'd'Anjou pears.

  17. Changes in Nutrient Composition, Antioxidant Properties, and Enzymes Activities of Snake Tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) during Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Badejo, Adebanjo Ayobamidele; Adebowale, Adeyemi Philips; Enujiugha, Victor Ndigwe

    2016-01-01

    Snake tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) has been cultivated and used as a replacement for Lycopersicum esculentum in many Asian and African diets. Matured T. cucumerina fruits were harvested at different ripening stages and separated into coats and pulps for analyses to determine their suitability for use in culinary. They were analyzed for the nutritional composition and antioxidant potential using different biochemical assays [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2′-azinobis( 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activities, and ferric reducing antioxidant power] and antioxidative enzymes activities. The nutritional composition revealed that T. cucumerina contains over 80% water and is very rich in fiber, thus it can serve as a good natural laxative. The lycopene and β-carotene contents were especially high in the ripe pulp with values of 21.62±1.22 and 3.96±0.14 mg/100 g, respectively. The ascorbic acid content was highest in the pulp of unripe fruit with a value of 56.58±1.08 mg/100 g and significantly (P<0.05) decreased as ripening progressed. The antioxidant potential of the fruits for the 3 assays showed that unripe pulp> ripe coat> ripe pulp> unripe coat. There were decreases in the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) activities, with the exception of catalase, as ripening progressed in the fruits. These decreased activities may lead to the softening of the fruit during ripening. Harnessing the antioxidative potential of T. cucumerina in culinary through consumption of the coats and pulps will alleviate food insecurity and help maintain good health among many dwellers in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia. PMID:27390724

  18. Enzyme Inhibitory Properties, Antioxidant Activities, and Phytochemical Profile of Three Medicinal Plants from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Zengin, Gokhan; Guler, Gokalp Ozmen; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Ceylan, Ramazan; Picot, Carene Marie Nancy; Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the inhibitory potential of three medicinal plants (Hedysarum varium, Onobrychis hypargyrea, and Vicia truncatula) from Turkey against key enzymes involved in human pathologies, namely, diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase), neurodegenerative disorders (tyrosinase, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase), and hyperpigmentation (tyrosinase). The antioxidant potential, phenolic and flavonoid content of ethyl acetate, and methanolic and aqueous extracts were investigated using in vitro assays. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC), β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH•), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+), cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and metal chelating activity on ferrous ions were used to evaluate the antioxidant capabilities of the extracts. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of the extracts on cholinesterase, tyrosinase, and α-amylase were significantly higher than the references, galantamine, kojic acid, and acarbose, respectively. The half-maximal effective concentrations (EC50) of the extracts on TAC, CUPRAC, and FRAP were significantly higher than trolox. The phenol and flavonoid contents of the plant extracts were in the range 20.90 ± 0.190–83.25 ± 0.914 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract and 1.45 ± 0.200–39.71 ± 0.092 mg rutin equivalent/g extract, respectively. The plants were found to possess moderate antioxidant capacities and interesting inhibitory action against key enzymes. PMID:26798334

  19. Role of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant compound probucol in antiradical protection of pancreatic beta-cells during alloxan-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lankin, V Z; Korchin, V I; Konovalova, G G; Lisina, M O; Tikhaze, A K; Akmaev, I G

    2004-01-01

    The severity of disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes depended on activity of antioxidant enzymes in the target organ (pancreas). Damage to the pancreas is related to intensive generation of reactive oxygen species, free radicals, and lipid peroxides. Alloxan-induced diabetes in rats is a free radical disease, which in vivo serves as a useful model for the search for pharmacological preparations with antiradical and antioxidant properties. The antioxidant compound probucol indirectly increased activity of antioxidant enzymes in the pancreas and prevented the development of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Our results indicate that different sensitivity of laboratory animals of various species (rats and guinea pigs) to the influence of alloxan is associated with abnormal variations in activity of enzymes utilizing reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxides in mammalian pancreatic cells.

  20. Growth, osmolyte concentration and antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of Sesuvium portulacastrum L. under salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Kannan, P Ramesh; Deepa, S; Kanth, Swarna V; Rengasamy, R

    2013-12-01

    In this study, growth and osmolyte concentration in the leaves of halophyte, Sesuvium portulacastrum, were studied with respect to salinity. Therefore, the changes in shoot growth, leaf tissue water content, osmolyte concentration (proline content, glycine betaine) and antioxidant enzymes [polyphenol oxidase (PPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)] were investigated. The 30-day old S. portulacastrum plants were subjected to 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mM NaCl for 28 days. The plant growth was steadily increased up to 500 mM NaCl stress at 28 days. TWC was higher in 300 mM NaCl treated leaves than that of 600 mM NaCl. Salinity stress induced the accumulation of osmolyte concentration when compared to control during the study period. The antioxidant enzymes PPO, CAT and SOD were increased under salinity.

  1. Phenolic Compounds from Olea europaea L. Possess Antioxidant Activity and Inhibit Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Dekdouk, Nadia; Malafronte, Nicola; Russo, Daniela; Faraone, Immacolata; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Ameddah, Souad; Severino, Lorella; Milella, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic composition and biological activities of fruit extracts from Italian and Algerian Olea europaea L. cultivars were studied. Total phenolic and tannin contents were quantified in the extracts. Moreover 14 different phenolic compounds were identified, and their profiles showed remarkable quantitative differences among analysed extracts. Moreover antioxidant and enzymatic inhibition activities were studied. Three complementary assays were used to measure their antioxidant activities and consequently Relative Antioxidant Capacity Index (RACI) was used to compare and easily describe obtained results. Results showed that Chemlal, between Algerian cultivars, and Coratina, among Italian ones, had the highest RACI values. On the other hand all extracts and the most abundant phenolics were tested for their efficiency to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Leccino, among all analysed cultivars, and luteolin, among identified phenolic compounds, were found to be the best inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Results demonstrated that Olea europaea fruit extracts can represent an important natural source with high antioxidant potential and significant α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects. PMID:26557862

  2. Impact of kanamycin on melanogenesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in melanocytes--an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Wrześniok, Dorota; Otręba, Michał; Beberok, Artur; Buszman, Ewa

    2013-12-01

    Aminoglycosides, broad spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotics, are used in various infections therapy due to their good antimicrobial characteristics. However, their adverse effects such as nephrotoxicity and auditory ototoxicity, as well as some toxic effects directed to pigmented tissues, complicate the use of these agents. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aminoglycoside antibiotic-kanamycin on viability, melanogenesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in cultured human normal melanocytes (HEMa-LP). It has been demonstrated that kanamycin induces concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC50 was found to be ~6.0 mM. Kanamycin suppressed melanin biosynthesis: antibiotic was shown to inhibit cellular tyrosinase activity and to reduce melanin content in normal human melanocytes. Significant changes in the cellular antioxidant enzymes: SOD, CAT and GPx were stated in melanocytes exposed to kanamycin. Moreover, it was observed that kanamycin caused depletion of antioxidant defense sytem. It is concluded that the inhibitory effect of kanamycin on melanogenesis and not sufficient antioxidant defense mechanism in melanocytes in vitro may explain the potential mechanisms of undesirable side effects of this drug directed to pigmented tissues in vivo.

  3. Effect of sound wave stress on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation of Dendrobium candidum.

    PubMed

    Li, Biao; Wei, Jinmin; Wei, Xiaolan; Tang, Kun; Liang, Yilong; Shu, Kunxian; Wang, Bochu

    2008-06-01

    The effect of sound wave stress on important medicinal plant, Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl, was investigated, including the responses on malondialdehyde (MDA) content, the activities change of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Results were found that the activities of SOD, CAT, POD and APX enhanced totally in different organs of D. candidum, as leaves, stems and roots, in response to the stress. Furthermore there happened similar shift of antioxidant enzymes activities, which increased in the initial stimulation and decreased afterwards. Data showed SOD, CAT, POD and APX activities ascended to max at day 9, 6, 9 and 12 in leaves, at day 9, 6, 12 and 9 in stems, and at day 12, 6, 9 and 9 in roots, respectively. As a lipid peroxidation parameter, MDA content in different organs increased in the beginning, dropped afterward, and increased again in the late. Anyway the total trend was the rise of MDA level compared to the control. It was interesting that the MDA content appeared the lowest levels almost when the antioxidant enzymes activities were up to the highest. Our results demonstrated the different organs of D. candidum might produce accumulation of active oxygen species (AOS) under initial treatment of sound wave stress. Later AOS might start to reduce due to the enhancement of antioxidant enzymes activities treated by the stress. The data revealed that the antioxidant metabolism was to be important in determining the ability of plants to survive in sound stress, and the up regulation of these enzymes activities would help to reduce the build up of AOS, which could protect plant cells from oxidative damage. Moreover, different cell compartments might activate different defensive system to reduce excessive amount of AOS. Finally the mechanism of this action was also discussed simply.

  4. Decreased glutathione levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in untreated and treated schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Raffa, Monia; Mechri, Anwar; Othman, Leila Ben; Fendri, Chiraz; Gaha, Lotfi; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid

    2009-10-01

    There is substantial evidence found in the literature that supports the fact that the presence of oxidative stress may play an important role in the physiopathology of schizophrenia. Previous studies have reported the occurrence of impairments in the glutathione levels and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in patients suffering from schizophrenia. However, most of these studies were performed on treated patients. The present study evaluated treated schizophrenic patients (n=52) along with neuroleptic-free or untreated schizophrenic patients (n=36) and healthy controls (n=46). The blood glutathione levels: total glutathione (GSHt), reduced glutathione (GSHr), and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) as well as the activities of the antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) were measured. The psychopathology of the patients was assessed through the Clinical Global Impressions-severity (CGI-severity). The tests revealed that in comparison with the healthy controls, the schizophrenic patients showed significantly lower levels of GSHr, SOD, and CAT. Among the schizophrenic patients, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT were recorded to be significantly lower in untreated patients than in the treated ones. In addition, the levels of both GSHt and GSHr were found to be inversely correlated with the obtained CGI-severity score. These results evidently suggest that a decrease in the glutathione levels and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia is not related to neuroleptic treatment and could be considered as a biological indicator of the degree of severity of the symptoms of schizophrenia.

  5. Enhanced antioxidant enzymes are associated with reduced hydrogen peroxide in barley roots under saline stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Yong; Lim, Jung-Hyun; Park, Myoung Ryoul; Kim, Young Jin; Park, Tae Il; Seo, Yong Won; Choi, Kyeong Gu; Yun, Song Joong

    2005-03-31

    Antioxidant enzymes are related to the resistance to various abiotic stresses including salinity. Barley is relatively tolerant to saline stress among crop plants, but little information is available on barley antioxidant enzymes under salinity stress. We investigated temporal and spatial responses of activities and isoform profiles of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), non-specific peroxidase (POX), and glutathione reductase (GR) to saline stress in barley seedlings treated with 200 mM NaCl for 0, 1, 2, 5 days, respectively. In the control plant, hydrogen peroxide content was about 2-fold higher in the root than in the shoot. Under saline stress, hydrogen peroxide content was decreased drastically by 70% at 2 d after NaCl treatment (DAT) in the root. In the leaf, however, the content was remained unchanged by 2 DAT and increased about 14 % at 5 DAT. In general, the activities of antioxidant enzymes were increased in the root and shoot under saline stress. But the increase was more significant and consistent in the root. The activities of SOD, CAT, APX, POX, and GR were increased significantly in the root within 1 DAT, and various elevated levels were maintained by 5 DAT. Among the antioxidant enzymes, CAT activity was increased the most drastically. The significant increase in the activities of SOD, CAT, APX, POX, and GR in the NaCl-stressed barley root was highly correlated with the increased expression of the constitutive isoforms as well as the induced ones. The hydrogen peroxide content in the root.

  6. Influence of water stress on antioxidative enzymes and yield of banana cultivars and hybrids.

    PubMed

    Surendar, K Krishna; Devi, D Durga; Ravi, I; Jeyakumar, P; Velayudham, K

    2013-12-15

    The main aim for this field experimental study is to screening of various banana cultivars and hybrids for water deficit tolerance through antioxidative enzymes and yield. The field experiment was conducted at National Research Centre for Banana to screen the banana cultivars and hybrids for water deficit tolerance and to elucidate information on antioxidative enzymes mechanism correlated with yield of banana cultivars and hybrids. The methodology of this experimental were analyzed by split plot design and has two treatments considered as main plot (M) viz., control plot taken as M1 and water deficit plot taken as M2 and also the cultivars and hybrids were considered as sup plots (S). The stress was imposed according to the Available Soil Moisture (ASM) and this ASM was measured by using pressure plate membrane apparatus. The experimental data were significantly varied between the treatments and also cultivars and hybrids. The antioxidative enzymes of catalase, super oxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase were significantly enhanced during water deficit conditions. Among the twelve cultivars and hybrids, Karpuravalli, Karpuravalli x Pisang Jajee, Saba and Sannachenkathali was identified as tolerant to water stress with highly accelerated by water stress treatment in the range of 23 to 32% over Control in Catalase (CAT), Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) and Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX) leads to reduced the cellular membrane damaged by reactive oxygen species and get higher yield; whereas, Matti, Pisang Jajee x Matti, Matti x Anaikomban and Anaikomban x Pisang Jajee were notified as sensitive cultivars and hybrids with lesser increase in antioxidative enzyme activity of 15% than control which is leads to get very low yield.

  7. Hepatic biotransformation and antioxidant enzyme activities in Mediterranean fish from different habitat depths.

    PubMed

    Ribalta, C; Sanchez-Hernandez, J C; Sole, M

    2015-11-01

    Marine fish are threatened by anthropogenic chemical discharges. However, knowledge on adverse effects on deep-sea fish or their detoxification capabilities is limited. Herein, we compared the basal activities of selected hepatic detoxification enzymes in several species (Solea solea, Dicentrarchus labrax, Trachyrhynchus scabrus, Mora moro, Cataetix laticeps and Alepocehalus rostratus) collected from the coast, middle and lower slopes of the Blanes Canyon region (Catalan continental margin, NW Mediterranean Sea). The xenobiotic-detoxifying enzymes analysed were the phase-I carboxylesterases (CbEs), and the phase-II conjugation activities uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UDPGT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Moreover, some antioxidant enzyme activities, i.e., catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR), were also included in this comparative study. Because CbE activity is represented by multiple isoforms, the substrates α-naphthyl acetate (αNA) and ρ-nitrophenyl acetate (ρNPA) were used in the enzyme assays, and in vitro inhibition kinetics with dichlorvos were performed to compare interspecific CbE sensitivity. Activity of xenobiotic detoxification enzymes varied among the species, following a trend with habitat depth and body size. Thus, UDPGT and some antioxidant enzyme activities decreased in fish inhabiting lower slopes of deep-sea, whereas UDPGT and αNA-CbE activities were negatively related to fish size. A trend between CbE activities and the IC50 values for dichlorvos suggested S. solea and M. moro as potentially more sensitive to anticholinesterasic pesticides, and T. scabrus as the most resistant one. A principal component analysis considering all enzyme activities clearly identified the species but this grouping was not related to habitat depth or phylogeny. Although these results can be taken as baseline levels of the main xenobiotic detoxification enzymes in Mediterranean fish, further research is

  8. A potential link among antioxidant enzymes, histopathology and trace elements in canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carolina C; Barreto, Tatiane de O; da Silva, Sydnei M; Pinto, Aldair W J; Figueiredo, Maria M; Rocha, Olguita G Ferreira; Cangussú, Silvia D; Tafuri, Wagner L

    2014-08-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a severe and fatal systemic chronic inflammatory disease. We investigated the alterations in, and potential associations among, antioxidant enzymes, trace elements and histopathology in CVL. Blood and tissue levels of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in mixed-breed dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi, symptomatic (n = 19) and asymptomatic (n = 11). Serum levels of copper, iron, zinc, selenium and nitric oxide, and plasma lipid peroxidation were measured. Histological and morphometric analyses were conducted of lesions in liver, spleen and lymph nodes. We found lower blood catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity to be correlated with lower iron and selenium respectively. However, higher activity of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase was not correlated with the increase in copper and decreased in zinc observed in infected animals compared to controls. Organ tissue was characterized by lower enzyme activity in infected dogs than in controls, but this was not correlated with trace elements. Lipid peroxidation was higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic and control dogs and was associated with lesions such as chronic inflammatory reaction, congestion, haemosiderin and fibrosis. Systemic iron deposition was observed primarily in the symptomatic dogs showing a higher tissue parasite load. Dogs with symptomatic CVL displayed enhanced LPO and Fe tissue deposition associated with decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes. These results showed new points in the pathology of CVL and might open new treatment perspectives associated with antioxidants and the role of iron in the pathogenesis of CVL.

  9. Effects of arginine supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activity and macrophage response in burned mice.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hui-Ju; Shang, Huey-Fang; Yeh, Chiu-Li; Yeh, Sung-Ling

    2002-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of arginine (Arg) supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities and macrophage response in burned mice. Experiment 1: 60 male BALB/c mice were assigned to two groups. One group was fed a control diet with casein as the protein source, the other group was supplemented with 2% Arg in addition to casein. The two groups were isonitrogenous. After 4 weeks, all mice received a 30% body surface area burn injury. The antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxides in the tissues were analyzed. Experiment 2: 20 mice were divided into two groups and burn injury was induced after feeding for 4 weeks as described in experiment 1. Twenty-four hours after the burn, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secreted by cultured peritoneal macrophages was measured. The results show that antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxides in tissues tended to be lower in the Arg group than in the control group after the burn. Production of TNF-alpha by peritoneal macrophages after stimulation with lipopolysacchride (LPS) was significantly elevated in the Arg group, whereas no response was observed in the control group. These results suggest that dietary Arg supplementation attenuates the oxidative stress induced by burn injury, and a better macrophage response was observed when Arg was administered.

  10. [The activity of gas metabolism, thermoregulation, and antioxidant enzymes in aging C57Bl/6 mice].

    PubMed

    Utko, N O; Pishel', I M; Bezrukov, V V; Muradian, Kh K

    2008-01-01

    The distribution type and correlative links between physiological and biochemical indices characterizing functional condition of the systems of gaseous exchange (V(O2) and V(CO2)), thermoregulation (body temperature and coefficient of thermoconductivity) and antioxidant defense have been studied in 62 young (3-5 mo.) and 58 old (23-26 mo.) male C57Bl/ 6 mice. The coefficients of variation differed significantly depending on the variable but not the age-group. Mean values of V(O2) and V(CO2), body temperature and thermoconductivity, but not activities of the antioxidant enzymes, declined in aging. Moreover, the activities of catalase, glutathione-peroxidase and glutathionereductase, i.e. enzymes involved in regulation of hydrogen peroxide level, increased in aging. The correlations between V(O2) and V(CO2), V(O2) and body temperature or V(O2) and the liver pH, as well as between the antioxidant enzyme activities exhibited little age-changes. However, three-dimensional non-linear models revealed significant age-changes in relations between the studied variables.

  11. Antioxidative enzymes and isozymes analysis of taro genotypes and their implications in Phytophthora blight disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Manas Ranjan; DasGupta, Madhumita; Kole, Paresh C; Bhat, Jayant S; Mukherjee, Archana

    2007-04-01

    Assessment of the differential expression of antioxidative enzymes and their isozymes, was done in 30 day-old ex vitro raised plants of three highly resistant (DP-25, Jhankri and Duradim) and one highly susceptible (N-118) genotypes of taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott]. Antioxidative enzymes were assayed in the ex vitro plants, 7 days after inoculation with the spores (15,000 spores ml(-1) water) of Phytophthora colocasiae Raciborski to induce taro leaf blight disease. Uninoculated ex vitro plants in each genotype were used as control. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) increased under induced blight condition when compared with control. Increase in antioxidative enzymes was more (67-92%) in the resistant genotypes than that (21-29%) of the susceptible genotype. The zymograms of SOD and GPX in the resistant genotypes, with pathogenic infection, showed increased activity for anodal isoform of SOD and increased expression and/or induction of either POX 1 or POX 2 isoforms of GPX. In susceptible genotype, expression of the above isoforms was faint for SOD and nearly absent for GPX under both blight free and induced blight conditions. Induction and/or increased activity of particular isoform of SOD and GPX against infection of Phytophthora colocasiae in the resistant genotypes studied led to the apparent conclusion of linkage of isozyme expression with blight resistance in taro. This might be an important criterion in breeding of taro for Phytophthora leaf blight resistance.

  12. A potential link among antioxidant enzymes, histopathology and trace elements in canine visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Carolina C; Barreto, Tatiane de O; da Silva, Sydnei M; Pinto, Aldair W J; Figueiredo, Maria M; Ferreira Rocha, Olguita G; Cangussú, Silvia D; Tafuri, Wagner L

    2014-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a severe and fatal systemic chronic inflammatory disease. We investigated the alterations in, and potential associations among, antioxidant enzymes, trace elements and histopathology in CVL. Blood and tissue levels of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in mixed-breed dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi, symptomatic (n = 19) and asymptomatic (n = 11). Serum levels of copper, iron, zinc, selenium and nitric oxide, and plasma lipid peroxidation were measured. Histological and morphometric analyses were conducted of lesions in liver, spleen and lymph nodes. We found lower blood catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity to be correlated with lower iron and selenium respectively. However, higher activity of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase was not correlated with the increase in copper and decreased in zinc observed in infected animals compared to controls. Organ tissue was characterized by lower enzyme activity in infected dogs than in controls, but this was not correlated with trace elements. Lipid peroxidation was higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic and control dogs and was associated with lesions such as chronic inflammatory reaction, congestion, haemosiderin and fibrosis. Systemic iron deposition was observed primarily in the symptomatic dogs showing a higher tissue parasite load. Dogs with symptomatic CVL displayed enhanced LPO and Fe tissue deposition associated with decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes. These results showed new points in the pathology of CVL and might open new treatment perspectives associated with antioxidants and the role of iron in the pathogenesis of CVL. PMID:24766461

  13. Effect of hydrogen peroxide on antioxidant enzyme activities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is strain-specific.

    PubMed

    Bayliak, M; Semchyshyn, H; Lushchak, V

    2006-09-01

    The effect of hydrogen peroxide on the survival and activity of antioxidant and associated enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been studied. A difference found in the response of wild-type yeast strains treated with hydrogen peroxide was probably related to the different protective effects of antioxidant enzymes in these strains. Exposure of wild-type YPH250 cells to 0.25 mM H(2)O(2) for 30 min increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 3.4- and 2-fold, respectively. However, no activation of catalase in the EG103 strain, as well as of SOD in the YPH98 and EG103 wild strains was detected, which was in parallel to lower survival of these strains under oxidative stress. There is a strong positive correlation (R(2) = 0.95) between activities of catalase and SOD in YPH250 cells treated with different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. It is conceivable that catalase would protect SOD against inactivation caused by oxidative stress and vice versa. Finally, yeast cell treatment with hydrogen peroxide can lead to either a H(2)O(2)-induced increase in activities of antioxidant and associated enzymes or their decrease depending on the H(2)O(20 concentration used or the yeast strain specificity.

  14. Effect of Cross-Sex Hormonal Replacement on Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Retroperitoneal Fat Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez Espejel, Rodrigo; Cabrera-Orefice, Alfredo; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Pavón, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    We report the effect of cross-sex hormonal replacement on antioxidant enzymes from rat retroperitoneal fat adipocytes. Eight rats of each gender were assigned to each of the following groups: control groups were intact female or male (F and M, resp.). Experimental groups were ovariectomized F (OvxF), castrated M (CasM), OvxF plus testosterone (OvxF + T), and CasM plus estradiol (CasM + E2) groups. After sacrifice, retroperitoneal fat was dissected and processed for histology. Adipocytes were isolated and the following enzymatic activities were determined: Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR). Also, glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured. In OvxF, retroperitoneal fat increased and adipocytes were enlarged, while in CasM rats a decrease in retroperitoneal fat and small adipocytes are observed. The cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats was associated with larger adipocytes and a further decreased activity of Cu-Zn SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, and GSH, in addition to an increase in LPO. CasM + E2 exhibited the opposite effects showing further activation antioxidant enzymes and decreases in LPO. In conclusion, E2 deficiency favors an increase in retroperitoneal fat and large adipocytes. Cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats aggravates the condition by inhibiting antioxidant enzymes. PMID:27630756

  15. Measuring Intracellular Enzyme Concentrations: Assessing the Effect of Oxidative Stress on the Amount of Glyoxalase I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Hugo Vicente; Ferreira, Antonio E. N.; Quintas, Alexandre; Cordeiro, Carlos; Freire, Ana Ponces

    2008-01-01

    Enzymology is one of the fundamental areas of biochemistry and involves the study of the structure, kinetics, and regulation of enzyme activity. Research in this area is often conducted with purified enzymes and extrapolated to "in vivo" conditions. The specificity constant, k[subscript S], is the ratio between k[subscript cat] (the catalytic…

  16. Threonine modulates immune response, antioxidant status and gene expressions of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant-immune-cytokine-related signaling molecules in juvenile blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    PubMed

    Habte-Tsion, Habte-Michael; Ren, Mingchun; Liu, Bo; Ge, Xianping; Xie, Jun; Chen, Ruli

    2016-04-01

    A 9-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of graded dietary threonine (Thr) levels (0.58-2.58%) on the hematological parameters, immune response, antioxidant status and hepatopancreatic gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant-immune-cytokine-related signaling molecules in juvenile blunt snout bream. For this purpose, 3 tanks were randomly arranged and assigned to each experimental diet. Fish were fed with their respective diet to apparent satiation 4 times daily. The results indicated that white blood cell, red blood cell and haemoglobin significantly responded to graded dietary Thr levels, while hematocrit didn't. Complement components (C3 and C4), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), immunoglobulin M (IgM), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) increased with increasing dietary Thr levels up to 1.58-2.08% and thereafter tended to decrease. Dietary Thr regulated the gene expressions of Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and CAT, GPx1, glutathione S-transferase mu (GST), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heat shock protein-70 (Hsp70), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA1), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase B (ALDOB); while the gene expression of peroxiredoxin II (PrxII) was not significantly modified by graded Thr levels. These genes are involved in different functions including antioxidant, immune, and defense responses, energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Therefore, this study could provide a new molecular tool for studies in fish immunonutrition and shed light on the regulatory mechanisms that dietary Thr improved the antioxidant and immune capacities of fish.

  17. Endothelin-converting enzymes degrade intracellular β-amyloid produced within the endosomal/lysosomal pathway and autophagosomes.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Quinto, Javier; Eckman, Elizabeth A

    2013-02-22

    Impairments in Aβ removal are increasingly being considered as a possible cause for the abnormal Aβ build-up typical of Alzheimer disease. Of particular interest is a pool of Aβ that accumulates intraneuronally and may contribute to neuronal toxicity. The mechanism for intraneuronal accumulation, however, is not well understood and is commonly attributed to impaired removal of extracellular Aβ by neurons. Based on the intracellular distribution of the well established Aβ degrading enzymes, ECE-1 and ECE-2, we tested whether impairments in their catalytic activity could lead to intracellular Aβ accumulation. Using SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing wild-type amyloid precursor protein and pharmacological inhibition of endogenous ECE activity, we found that ECEs participate in the degradation of at least two distinct pools of Aβ; one destined for secretion and the other being produced and degraded within the endosomal-autophagic-lysosomal pathways. Although ECE-1 regulates both pools of Aβ, ECE-2 regulates mainly the intracellular pool of the peptide. Consistent with this result, ECE-2 was found to co-localize with markers of the endosomal/lysosomal pathway but not with a trans-Golgi network marker. Furthermore, ECE-2 was detected in autophagic vesicles in cells treated with chloroquine. Under these conditions, ECE inhibition produced significantly higher elevations in intracellular Aβ than chloroquine treatment alone. This study highlights the existence of Aβ clearance mechanisms by ECEs at intracellular sites of production. Alterations in ECE activity may be considered as a cause for increased intraneuronal Aβ in Alzheimer disease.

  18. GENOTYPIC THERMOTOLERANCE IS ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED PRE-STRESS ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY IN COTTON LEAVES AND PISTILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous studies have illustrated the need for antioxidant enzymes in acquired photosynthetic thermotolerance, but information on their possible role in promoting innate thermotolerance in either leaves or reproductive tissues is limited for cotton. We investigated the hypothesis that genotypic diff...

  19. Nitric Oxide Mitigates Salt Stress by Regulating Levels of Osmolytes and Antioxidant Enzymes in Chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Abdel Latef, Arafat A.; Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Gucel, Salih; Tran, Lam-Son P.

    2016-01-01

    This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO) in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants. SNAP (50 μM) was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC) and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt stress-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosyntheses of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system. PMID:27066020

  20. Cerebral antioxidant enzyme increase associated with learning deficit in type 2 diabetes rats.

    PubMed

    Suge, Rie; Shimazu, Tomokazu; Hasegawa, Hajime; Inoue, Ikuo; Hayashibe, Hidemasa; Nagasaka, Hironori; Araki, Nobuo; Katayama, Shigehiro; Nomura, Masahiko; Watanabe, Shu-Ichi

    2012-10-24

    In this study, we examined alterations in the enzymatic antioxidant defenses associated with learning deficits induced by type 2 diabetes, and studied the effects of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist pioglitazone on these learning deficits. Learning ability was assessed by visual discrimination tasks in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, as a model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes. Levels of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Cu(2+)-Zn(2+) superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and manganese SOD were measured in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Half the rats received oral pioglitazone (20mg/kg/day) from the early stage of diabetes (22 weeks old) to 27 weeks old. OLETF rats showed learning deficits compared with control, Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats. GPx levels in the cortex and hippocampus were increased in OLETF rats compared with LETO rats, with an inverse correlation between GPx in the hippocampus and learning score. CuZn-SOD levels were also increased in the hippocampus in OLETF rats. Pioglitazone reduced blood glucose and increased serum adiponectin levels, but had no effect on learning tasks or antioxidant enzymes, except for CuZn-SOD. These results suggest that an oxidative imbalance reflected by increased brain antioxidant enzymes plays an important role in the development of learning deficits in type 2 diabetes. Early pioglitazone administration partly ameliorated diabetic symptoms, but was unable to completely recover cerebral oxidative imbalance and functions. These results suggest that diabetes-induced brain impairment, which results in learning deficits, may have occurred before the appearance of the symptoms of overt diabetes.

  1. [Clinical and pathogenetic significance of antibodies to antioxidative enzymes in patients with Raynaud's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Shilova, L N; Gontar', I P; Zborovskaia, I A; Novikova, O V; Emel'ianov, N N

    2010-01-01

    Patients presenting with systemic scleroderma were found to have antibodies to antioxidative enzymes the levels of which increased with activity of the disease. Taking into account the important role of immune disorders in the development of systemic sclerosis, it can be conjectured that antienzyme antibodies may cause dysregulation of enzymatic systems. Serum antibodies were detected by the original modification of indirect enzyme immunoassay using immobilized antigenic forms of enzymes. All patients with high antibody titers presented with class II-IV Raynaud"s syndrome (RS). Pathogenetic mechanisms of RS are complicated and poorly known, it is supposed to be a multifactor pathology associated with disturbances in neural, vascular, mediator, and immune systems. Reperfusion and free oxygen radicals may also contribute to the development of ischemia in RS. The antioxidative system is known to involve a number of enzymes that neutralize pathogenic effects of free oxygen species. Disturbance of equilibrium between aggressive and protective factors under pathological conditions leads to further aggravation of tissue lesions. The presence of antienzyme antibodies in the blood of patients with primary RS may be regarded as an unfavourable prognostic factor preceding a systemic disease of connective tissue.

  2. Antioxidative and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory potential of a Pacific Hake ( Merluccius productus ) fish protein hydrolysate subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion and Caco-2 cell permeation.

    PubMed

    Samaranayaka, Anusha G P; Kitts, David D; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y

    2010-02-10

    Pacific hake fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) with promising chemical assay based antioxidative capacity was studied for in vitro angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory potential, intestinal cell permeability characteristics, and intracellular antioxidative potential using the Caco-2 cell model system. FPH showed substrate-type inhibition of ACE with IC(50) of 161 microg of peptides/mL. HPLC analysis revealed that different peptides were responsible for antioxidative and ACE-inhibitory activity. FPH inhibited 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-induced oxidation in Caco-2 cells at noncytotoxic concentrations. In vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion increased (P < 0.05) antioxidative capacity; ACE-inhibitory activity of FPH remained unchanged, although individual peptide fractions showed decreased or no activity after digestion. Some FPH peptides passed through Caco-2 cells: the permeates showed 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity but no ACE-inhibitory activity. These results suggest the potential for application of Pacific hake FPH to reduce oxidative processes in vivo. Further studies are needed to assess prospective antihypertensive effects.

  3. Effect of abscisic acid and hydrogen peroxide on antioxidant enzymes in Syzygium cumini plant.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Ramkishan; Saroha, Ajaya Eesha; Swarnkar, P L

    2012-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the effect of abscisic acid and hydrogen peroxide on the activities of antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD; E.C. 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; E.C. 1.11.1.6) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX; E.C. 1.11.1.11) in Syzygium cumini plant. The varying concentrations of ABA (2-8 mM/l) and H2O2 (2-8 mM/l) modulated enzyme activities differently. In general, some concentrations of the ABA and H2O2 stimulated the activities of all the three enzymes except that there was a dose dependent reduction in catalase activity in the plants treated with ABA.

  4. Effects of phosphorus fertilizer supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities in tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Taehyun; Oke, Moustapha; Schofield, Andrew; Paliyath, Gopinadhan

    2005-03-09

    The effects of soil and foliar phosphorus supplementation on the activities and levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in tomato fruits were evaluated by determining enzyme activities and isoenzyme analysis. Both protein levels and enzyme activities varied depending on the variety and season. In general, phosphorus supplementation did not alter SOD, POX, and APX activities significantly;however, some treatments showed season- and stage-specific enhancement in activities as noticed with hydrophos and seniphos supplementation. Three different SOD isozymes were observed, and these isozymes showed very similar staining intensities in response to P application and during the three developmental stages studied. Two major isozymes of POX and two different APX isozymes were observed at all the developmental stages. The results suggest that antioxidant enzyme activities may be influenced by the availability of phosphorus, but are subject to considerable variation depending on the developmental stage and the season.

  5. Taurine Boosts Cellular Uptake of Small D-Peptides for Enzyme-Instructed Intracellular Molecular Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Du, Xuewen; Li, Jie; Yamagata, Natsuko; Xu, Bing

    2015-08-19

    Due to their biostability, D-peptides are emerging as an important molecular platform for biomedical applications. Being proteolytically resistant, D-peptides lack interactions with endogenous transporters and hardly enter cells. Here we show that taurine, a natural amino acid, drastically boosts the cellular uptake of small D-peptides in mammalian cells by >10-fold, from 118 μM (without conjugating taurine) to >1.6 mM (after conjugating taurine). The uptake of a large amount of the ester conjugate of taurine and D-peptide allows intracellular esterase to trigger intracellular self-assembly of the D-peptide derivative, further enhancing their cellular accumulation. The study on the mechanism of the uptake reveals that the conjugates enter cells via both dynamin-dependent endocytosis and macropinocytosis, but likely not relying on taurine transporters. Differing fundamentally from the positively charged cell-penetrating peptides, the biocompatibility, stability, and simplicity of the enzyme-cleavable taurine motif promise new ways to promote the uptake of bioactive molecules for countering the action of efflux pump and contributing to intracellular molecular self-assembly.

  6. Effect of spaceflight on oxidative and antioxidant enzyme activity in rat diaphragm and intercostal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mona D.; Tuttle, Ronald; Girten, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    There are limited data regarding changes in oxidative and antioxidant enzymes induced by simulated or actual weightlessness, and any additional information would provide insight into potential mechanisms involving other changes observed in muscles from animals previously flown in space. Thus, the NASA Biospecimen Sharing Program was an opportunity to collect valuable information. Oxidative and antioxidant enzyme levels, as well as lipid peroxidation, were measured in respiratory muscles from rates flown on board Space Shuttle mission STS-54. The results indicated that there was an increasing trend in citrate synthase activity in the flight diaphragm when compared to ground based controls, and there were no significant changes observed in the intercostal muscles for any of the parameters. However, the lipid peroxidation was significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased in the flight diaphragm. These results indicate that 6 day exposure to microgravity may have a different effect on oxidative and antioxidant activity in rat respiratory muscles when compared to data from previous 14 day hindlimb suspension studies.

  7. Effect of norfloxacin and moxifloxacin on melanin synthesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in normal human melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Beberok, Artur; Wrześniok, Dorota; Otręba, Michał; Miliński, Maciej; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-03-01

    Fluoroquinolone antibiotics provide broad-spectrum coverage for a number of infectious diseases, including respiratory as well as urinary tract infections. One of the important adverse effects of these drugs is phototoxicity which introduces a serious limitation to their use. To gain insight the molecular mechanisms underlying the fluoroquinolones-induced phototoxic side effects, the impact of two fluoroquinolone derivatives with different phototoxic potential, norfloxacin and moxifloxacin, on melanogenesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in normal human melanocytes HEMa-LP was determined. Both drugs induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC50 for these drugs was found to be 0.5 mM. Norfloxacin and moxifloxacin suppressed melanin biosynthesis; antibiotics were shown to inhibit cellular tyrosinase activity and to reduce melanin content in melanocytes. When comparing the both analyzed fluoroquinolones, it was observed that norfloxacin possesses greater inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity in melanocytes than moxifloxacin. The extent of oxidative stress in cells was assessed by measuring the activity of antioxidant enzymes: SOD, CAT, and GPx. It was observed that norfloxacin caused higher depletion of antioxidant status in melanocytes when compared with moxifloxacin. The obtained results give a new insight into the mechanisms of fluoroquinolones toxicity directed to pigmented tissues. Moreover, the presented differences in modulation of biochemical processes in melanocytes may be an explanation for various phototoxic activities of the analyzed fluoroquinolone derivatives in vivo.

  8. Effects of Acifluorfen on Endogenous Antioxidants and Protective Enzymes in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Cotyledons

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, William H.; Duke, Stephen O.

    1985-01-01

    The herbicide acifluorfen (2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy-2-nitrobenzoate) causes strong photooxidative destruction of pigments and lipids in sensitive plant species. Antioxidants and oxygen radical scavengers slow the bleaching action of the herbicide. The effect of acifluorfen on glutathione and ascorbate levels in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledon discs was investigated to assess the relationship between herbicide activity and endogenous antioxidants. Acifluorfen decreased the levels of glutathione and ascorbate over 50% in discs exposed to less than 1.5 hours of white light (450 microeinsteins per square meter per second). Coincident increases in dehydroascorbate and glutathione disulfide were not observed. Acifluorfen also caused the rapid depletion of ascorbate in far-red light grown plants which were photosynthetically incompetent. Glutathione reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate oxidase, ascorbate free radical reductase, peroxidase, and catalase activities rapidly decreased in acifluorfen-treated tissue exposed to white light. None of the enzymes were inhibited in vitro by the herbicide. Acifluorfen causes irreversible photooxidative destruction of plant tissue, in part, by depleting endogenous antioxidants and inhibiting the activities of protective enzymes. PMID:16664506

  9. Microbial responses to membrane cleaning using sodium hypochlorite in membrane bioreactors: Cell integrity, key enzymes and intracellular reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaomeng; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Xueye; Zheng, Xiang; Ma, Jinxing; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-01-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) is a commonly used reagent for membrane cleaning in membrane bioreactors (MBRs), while it, being a kind of disinfectant (oxidant), may impair viability of microbes or even totally inactivate them upon its diffusion into mixed liquor during membrane cleaning. In this study, we systematically examine the effects of NaClO on microorganisms in terms of microbial cell integrity, metabolism behaviours (key enzymes), and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) under various NaClO concentrations. Different proportions of microbial cells in activated sludge were damaged within several minutes dependent on NaClO dosages (5-50 mg/g-SS), and correspondingly organic matters were released to bulk solution. Inhibition of key enzymes involved in organic matter biodegradation, nitrification and denitrification was observed in the presence of NaClO above 1 mg/g-SS, and thus organic matter and nitrogen removal efficiencies were decreased. It was also demonstrated that intracellular ROS production was increased with the NaClO dosage higher than 1 mg/g-SS, which likely induced further damage to microbial cells.

  10. Emerging Roles of Nrf2 and Phase II Antioxidant Enzymes in Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meijuan; An, Chengrui; Gao, Yanqin; Leak, Rehana K.; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Phase II metabolic enzymes are a battery of critical proteins that detoxify xenobiotics by increasing their hydrophilicity and enhancing their disposal. These enzymes have long been studied for their preventative and protective effects against mutagens and carcinogens and for their regulation via the Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1) / Nrf2 (Nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2) / ARE (antioxidant response elements) pathway. Recently, a series of studies have reported the altered expression of phase II genes in postmortem tissue of patients with various neurological diseases. These observations hint at a role for phase II enzymes in the evolution of such conditions. Furthermore, promising findings reveal that overexpression of phase II genes, either by genetic or chemical approaches, confers neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, there is a need to summarize the current literature on phase II genes in the central nervous system (CNS). This should help guide future studies on phase II genes as therapeutic targets in neurological diseases. In this review, we first briefly introduce the concept of phase I, II and III enzymes, with a special focus on phase II enzymes. We then discuss their expression regulation, their inducers and executors. Following this background, we expand our discussion to the neuroprotective effects of phase II enzymes and the potential application of Nrf2 inducers to the treatment of neurological diseases. PMID:23025925

  11. Effect of diallyldisulphide on an antioxidant enzyme system in Candida species.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Snowber; Ahmad, Aijaz; Khan, Amber; Manzoor, Nikhat; Khan, Luqman Ahmad

    2010-10-01

    This study was carried out to show the effect of diallyldisulphide (DADS), an important organosulphur compound found in garlic (Allium sativum), on antioxidant systems in Candida species. Changes in antioxidant metabolites and antioxidant activity in the presence of DADS were found in Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. Candida cells were treated with sublethal concentrations of DADS. DADS caused a decrease in the activity of all antioxidant enzymes except catalase, resulting in oxidative stress and damaged cells. The amount of oxidative stress generated by DADS was found to be a function of its concentration. A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase activities but an increase in catalase activity were observed. Increased levels of lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of glutathione were observed in treated cells. Activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase decreased significantly following DADS treatment and could be correlated with a decrease in glutathione concentration in both Candida species. These results indicate that diallyl disulphide acts as a pro-oxidant to Candida species and hence may act as a potent antifungal in the management of candidiasis.

  12. Lipid peroxides and antioxidant enzymes in cisplatin-induced chronic nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    González, Ricardo; Romay, Cheyla; Borrego, Aluet; Hernández, Frank; Merino, Nelson; Zamora, Zullyt; Rojas, Enis

    2005-08-14

    Cisplatin (CDDP), an anticancer drug, induces remarkable toxicity in the kidneys of animals and humans and it has been well documented that reactive oxygen species and the renal antioxidant system are strongly involved in acute renal damage induced by CDDP. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not the renal antioxidant system plays also an important role in chronic renal damage induced by repeated doses of CDDP (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally twice weekly during 10 weeks in rats). In order to elucidate it, serum creatinine and urea levels, renal glutathione and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) content, as well as renal superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were measured in the kidney homogenates of chronically CDDP-treated rats and additionally histological studies were performed in the rat kidneys. The chronic treatment with CDDP induced a significant increase in creatinine and urea levels in serum, but the other parameters mentioned above were not significantly modified as compared to the values in nontreated rats. Taking into account these results, we conclude that chronic CDDP administration induces also severe nephrotoxicity, in contrast to CDDP acute application, without any significant modification in the activity of relevant antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, renal glutathione and lipid peroxides, by which the role of the antioxidant system in chronic nephrotoxicity induced by CDDP in rats is uncertain.

  13. Co-occurring increases of calcium and organellar reactive oxygen species determine differential activation of antioxidant and defense enzymes in Ulva compressa (Chlorophyta) exposed to copper excess.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Alberto; Vera, Jeannette; Castro, Jorge; Dennett, Geraldine; Mellado, Macarena; Morales, Bernardo; Correa, Juan A; Moenne, Alejandra

    2010-10-01

    In order to analyse copper-induced calcium release and (reactive oxygen species) ROS accumulation and their role in antioxidant and defense enzymes activation, the marine alga Ulva compressa was exposed to 10 µM copper for 7 d. The level of calcium, extracellular hydrogen peroxide (eHP), intracellular hydrogen peroxide (iHP) and superoxide anions (SA) as well as the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (AP), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) were determined. Calcium release showed a triphasic pattern with peaks at 2, 3 and 12 h. The second peak was coincident with increases in eHP and iHP and the third peak with the second increase of iHP. A delayed wave of SA occurred after day 3 and was not accompanied by calcium release. The accumulation of iHP and SA was mainly inhibited by organellar electron transport chains inhibitors (OETCI), whereas calcium release was inhibited by ryanodine. AP activation ceased almost completely after the use of OETCI. On the other hand, GR and GST activities were partially inhibited, whereas defense enzymes were not inhibited. In contrast, PAL and LOX were inhibited by ryanodine, whereas AP was not inhibited. Thus, copper stress induces calcium release and organellar ROS accumulation that determine the differential activation of antioxidant and defense enzymes.

  14. Effects of dietary menadione on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jinghua; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Feng, Xiuni; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    A 240-day growth experiment in a re-circulating water system was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary menadione on the growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone (initial weight: 1.19 ± 0.01 g; shell length: 19.23 ± 0.01 mm) were fed to satiation with 3 semi-purified diets containing 0, 10, and 1 000 mg menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB)/kg, respectively. Results show that there were no significant differences in the rate of weight gain or in the daily increment in shell length of abalone among different treatments. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in viscera were significantly decreased with dietary menadione. However, activities of these enzymes except for GPX in muscle were increased. Therefore, antioxidant responses of abalone were increased in muscle and decreased in viscera by dietary menadione.

  15. Regulation of growth and antioxidant enzyme activities by 28-homobrassinolide in seedlings of Raphanus sativus L. under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indu; Pati, Pratap Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2010-06-01

    28-Homobrassinolide (28-HBL), a brassinosteroid is reported to play significant role in diverse physiological processes. It induces a range of cellular and adaptive responses to a range of environmental stresses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential metal which alters various physiological processes and generates ROS, which can oxidize biological macromolecules and causes oxidative stress. This stress is generally overcome by the internal antioxidative defense system and stress shielding phytohormones. In this study, effect of 28-HBL was studied on growth and activities of antioxidant enzymes in known hyperaccumulator Raphanus sativus L. (radish) seedlings grown under cadmium (Cd) metal stress. To determine the influence of 28-HBL (0, 10-(11), 10-(9), 10-(7) M) in radish seedlings subjected to Cd (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mM) stress, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (APOX, CAT, GR, POD and SOD) were analyzed. In addition, length and biomass of radish seedlings was also recorded. Cd toxicity resulted in reduced length, biomass, protein content and activities of antioxidant enzymes. 28-HBL treatments lowered the Cd toxicity by enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, biomass and seedling length. The present study thus suggests a possible role of 28-HBL in amelioration of metal stress by regulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes in radish.

  16. Fractionation, enzyme inhibitory and cellular antioxidant activity of bioactives from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).

    PubMed

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Rodríguez-Werner, Miriam; Schlösser, Anke; Winterhalter, Peter; Rimbach, Gerald

    2017-04-15

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is mainly cultivated in Asia. The deep purple color of purple sweet potato (PSP) is due to the high content of acylated anthocyanins. In the present study, PSP-derived polyphenols were identified using HPLC-PDA and HPLC-ESI-MS(n) analyses. After concentration of the polyphenols from PSP, preparative separation into two fractions, designated anthocyanins (AF) and copigments (CF), was carried out using adsorptive membrane chromatography. In enzyme inhibitory assays, all PSP samples inhibited the enzymes α-amylase, α-glucosidase and xanthine oxidase. Additionally, the cell signaling cellular antioxidant properties of the PSP extracts were investigated in cultured cells. PSP induced the transcription factor Nrf2, which regulates the expression of genes encoding heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1), glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (Gclc) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Furthermore, PSP enhanced cellular glutathione concentrations and decreased lipid peroxidation in cultured hepatocytes. Overall, these results suggest that PSP extracts exhibit enzyme inhibitory and cellular antioxidant properties, especially PSP CF.

  17. Drought Tolerance Is Correlated with the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Cerasus humilis Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jing; Sun, Li Na; Zhang, Qiu Yan

    2016-01-01

    Cerasus humilis, grown in the northern areas of China, may experience water deficit during their life cycle, which induces oxidative stress. Our present study was conducted to evaluate the role of oxidative stress management in the leaves of two C. humilis genotypes, HR (drought resistant) and ND4 (drought susceptible), when subjected to a long-term soil drought (WS). The HR plants maintained lower membrane injury due to low ROS and MDA accumulation compared to ND4 plants during a long-term WS. This is likely attributed to global increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoenzymes and enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle and maintenance of ascorbate (AsA) levels. Consistent closely with enzymes activities, the expression of cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (cAPX) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) followed a significant upregulation, indicating that they were regulated at the transcriptional level for HR plants exposed to WS. In contrast, ND4 plants exhibited high ROS levels and poor antioxidant enzyme response, leading to enhanced membrane damage during WS conditions. The present study shows that genotypic differences in drought tolerance could be likely attributed to the ability of C. humilis plants to induce antioxidant defense under drought conditions. PMID:27047966

  18. Prometryne-induced oxidative stress and impact on antioxidant enzymes in wheat.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; Yang, Hong

    2009-09-01

    Prometryne is one of the herbicides widely used for controlling weed/grass in agricultural practice. However, whether it has an adverse effect on crops is unknown. In this study, we investigated prometryne-induced oxidative stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Wheat plants were grown in soils with prometryne at 0-24 mgkg(-1) soil. The growth of wheat treated with prometryne was inhibited. Chlorophyll content significantly decreased even at the low level of prometryne (4 mgkg(-1) soil). Accumulation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), an indicator of cellular peroxidation, increased, suggesting oxidative damage to the plants. The prometryne-induced oxidative stress triggered significant changes in activities of a variety of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Activities of the enzymes showed a general increase at low prometryne concentrations but a decrease at high levels. Analysis of non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) confirmed the results. To get an insight into the molecular response, a qRT-PCR-based assay was performed to analyze the transcript abundance of Cu/Zn-SOD and GST with prometryne exposure. Our analysis revealed that both genes displayed up-regulated expression patterns similar to the activities of the two enzymes. These data imply that prometryne-induced oxidative stress was responsible for the disturbance of the growth and antioxidant defensive systems in wheat plants.

  19. Age-related changes in mitochondrial function and antioxidative enzyme activity in fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingying; Wong, Yee Ting; Chen, Jie; Ruan, Runsheng

    2007-03-01

    We have previously reported the changes of mitochondrial function and/or antioxidative enzyme efficiency in a few organs of rats as a result of aging. However, there is a further need to reach a conclusion about their interactions in biological functions based on other evaluation tips like the usage of advanced methods and the exploring of crucial biochemical parameters. Therefore, we investigated the mitochondrial inner membrane functional integrity by the analysis of respiration control ratio and membrane potential in the liver and brain of young (8 months) and old (26 months) Fischer 344 rats. The disintegration of mitochondrial membrane integrity was determined higher in the liver of old rats than that of young rats. This was well correlated with the decrease of total superoxide dismutase (SOD), Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and glutathione peroxidase activities in most of the organs, except for the increase of catalase activity in heart of old rats. Similarly, the protein expressions of these enzymes were down regulated in the liver and kidney of old rats. Taken together, we suggest that the mitochondrial malfunction in old rats is associated with the decrease of antioxidative enzyme efficiency. And the data are also discussed with changes in the results from inter-laboratories.

  20. Brown propolis attenuates cerebral ischemia-induced oxidative damage via affecting antioxidant enzyme system in mice.

    PubMed

    Bazmandegan, Gholamreza; Boroushaki, Mohammad Taher; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Ayoobi, Fatemeh; Hakimizadeh, Elham; Allahtavakoli, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a critical role in ischemic brain injury. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) are the enzymes underlying the endogenous antioxidant mechanisms affected by stroke and are considered as oxidative stress biomarkers. Brown propolis (BP) is a bioactive natural product with a set of biological activities that in turn may differ depending on the area from which the substance is originated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of water-extracted brown propolis (WEBPs), from two regions of Iran, against cerebral ischemia-induced oxidative injury in a mouse model of stroke. Experimentally, the chemical characterization and total polyphenol content were determined using GC/MS and Folin-Ciocalteu assay respectively. Seventy-two adult male mice were randomly divided into the surgical sham group, control group (treated with vehicle), and four groups of WEBPs-treated animals. The WEBPs were administered at the doses of 100 and 200mg/kg IP, during four different time points. Oxidative stress biomarkers (SOD and GPx activity, SOD/GPx ratio), lipid peroxidation (LPO) index (malondialdehyde content) and infarct volume were measured 48h post stroke. Behavioral tests were evaluated 24 and 48h after stroke. WEBPs treatment resulted in significant restoration of antioxidant enzymes activity and a subsequent decrease in LPO as well as the infarct volume compared to the control group. Sensory-motor impairment and neurological deficits were improved significantly as well. These results indicate that Iranian BP confers neuroprotection on the stroke-induced neuronal damage via an antioxidant mechanism which seems to be mediated by the endogenous antioxidant system.

  1. Association of mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes with mitochondrial DNA as integral nucleoid constituents

    PubMed Central

    Kienhöfer, Joachim; Häussler, Dagmar Johanna Franziska; Ruckelshausen, Florian; Muessig, Elisabeth; Weber, Klaus; Pimentel, David; Ullrich, Volker; Bürkle, Alexander; Bachschmid, Markus Michael

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is organized in protein-DNA macrocomplexes called nucleoids. Average nucleoids contain 2–8 mtDNA molecules, which are organized by the histone-like mitochondrial transcription factor A. Besides well-characterized constituents, such as single-stranded binding protein or polymerase γ (Polγ), various other proteins with ill-defined functions have been identified. We report for the first time that mammalian nucleoids contain essential enzymes of an integral antioxidant system. Intact nucleoids were isolated with sucrose density gradients from rat and bovine heart as well as human Jurkat cells. Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) was detected by Western blot in the nucleoid fractions. DNA, mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), and Polγ were coimmunoprecipitated with SOD2 from nucleoid fractions, which suggests that an antioxidant system composed of SOD2 and GPx1 are integral constituents of nucleoids. Interestingly, in cultured bovine endothelial cells the association of SOD2 with mtDNA was absent. Using a sandwich filter-binding assay, direct association of SOD2 by salt-sensitive ionic forces with a chemically synthesized mtDNA fragment was demonstrated. Increasing salt concentrations during nucleoid isolation on sucrose density gradients disrupted the association of SOD2 with mitochondrial nucleoids. Our biochemical data reveal that nucleoids contain an integral antioxidant system that may protect mtDNA from superoxide-induced oxidative damage.—Kienhöfer, J., Häussler, D. J. F., Ruckelshausen, F., Muessig, E., Weber, K., Pimentel, D., Ullrich, V., Bürkle, A., Bachschmid, M. M. Association of mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes with mitochondrial DNA as integral nucleoid constituents. PMID:19228881

  2. Trace minerals status and antioxidant enzymes activities in calves with dermatophytosis.

    PubMed

    Al-Qudah, Khaled M; Gharaibeh, Ahmad A; Al-Shyyab, Maysa'a M

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of trace minerals Zn, Cu, and Se, the effect of dermatophytosis on the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as an indicator of lipid peroxidation, the status of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, and the relationship between the mentioned trace minerals and antioxidant defense system in calves with dermatophytosis. A total of 21 Holstein calves with clinically established diagnosis of dermatophytosis and an equal number of healthy ones were included in this study. Results showed that 81% of mycotic isolates were Trichophyton verrucosum, while 19% were Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The level of Zn, Cu, Se, and glutathione (GSH) and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly (P antioxidant enzyme activities might be secondary to changes in their cofactor concentrations.

  3. Edaravone mitigates hexavalent chromium-induced oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidant enzymes while estrogen restores antioxidant enzymes in the rat ovary in F1 offspring.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jone A; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K; Arosh, Joe A; Burghardt, Robert C; Banu, Sakhila K

    2014-07-01

    Environmental contamination of drinking water with chromium (Cr) has been increasing in more than 30 cities in the United States. Previous studies from our group have shown that Cr affects reproductive functions in female Sprague Dawley rats. Although it is impossible to completely remove Cr from the drinking water, it is imperative to develop effective intervention strategies to inhibit Cr-induced deleterious health effects. Edaravone (EDA), a potential inhibitor of free radicals, has been clinically used to treat cancer and cardiac ischemia. This study evaluated the efficacy of EDA against Cr-induced ovarian toxicity. Results showed that maternal exposure to CrVI in rats increased follicular atresia, decreased steroidogenesis, and delayed puberty in F1 offspring. CrVI increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant (AOX) enzyme levels in the ovary. CrVI increased follicle atresia by increased expression of cleaved caspase 3, and decreased expression of Bcl2 and Bcl2l1 in the ovary. EDA mitigated or inhibited the effects of CrVI on follicle atresia, pubertal onset, steroid hormone levels, and AOX enzyme activity, as well as the expression of Bcl2 and Bcl2l1 in the ovary. In a second study, CrVI treatment was withdrawn, and F1 rats were injected with estradiol (E₂) (10 μg in PBS/ethanol per 100 g body weight) for a period of 2 wk to evaluate whether E₂ treatment will restore Cr-induced depletion of AOX enzymes. E₂ restored CrVI-induced depletion of glutathione peroxidase 1, catalase, thioredoxin 2, and peroxiredoxin 3 in the ovary. This is the first study to demonstrate the protective effects of EDA against any toxicant in the ovary.

  4. Edaravone Mitigates Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Oxidative Stress and Depletion of Antioxidant Enzymes while Estrogen Restores Antioxidant Enzymes in the Rat Ovary in F1 Offspring1

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Jone A.; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K.; Arosh, Joe A.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Banu, Sakhila K.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Environmental contamination of drinking water with chromium (Cr) has been increasing in more than 30 cities in the United States. Previous studies from our group have shown that Cr affects reproductive functions in female Sprague Dawley rats. Although it is impossible to completely remove Cr from the drinking water, it is imperative to develop effective intervention strategies to inhibit Cr-induced deleterious health effects. Edaravone (EDA), a potential inhibitor of free radicals, has been clinically used to treat cancer and cardiac ischemia. This study evaluated the efficacy of EDA against Cr-induced ovarian toxicity. Results showed that maternal exposure to CrVI in rats increased follicular atresia, decreased steroidogenesis, and delayed puberty in F1 offspring. CrVI increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant (AOX) enzyme levels in the ovary. CrVI increased follicle atresia by increased expression of cleaved caspase 3, and decreased expression of Bcl2 and Bcl2l1 in the ovary. EDA mitigated or inhibited the effects of CrVI on follicle atresia, pubertal onset, steroid hormone levels, and AOX enzyme activity, as well as the expression of Bcl2 and Bcl2l1 in the ovary. In a second study, CrVI treatment was withdrawn, and F1 rats were injected with estradiol (E2) (10 μg in PBS/ethanol per 100 g body weight) for a period of 2 wk to evaluate whether E2 treatment will restore Cr-induced depletion of AOX enzymes. E2 restored CrVI-induced depletion of glutathione peroxidase 1, catalase, thioredoxin 2, and peroxiredoxin 3 in the ovary. This is the first study to demonstrate the protective effects of EDA against any toxicant in the ovary. PMID:24804965

  5. Effects of dietary arginine supplementation on antibody production and antioxidant enzyme activity in burned mice.

    PubMed

    Shang, Huey-Fang; Tsai, Hui-Ju; Chiu, Wan-Chun; Yeh, Sung-Ling

    2003-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of arginine (Arg) supplementation on specific antibody production and antioxidant enzyme activities in burned mice vaccinated with detoxified Pseudomonas exotoxin A linked with the outer membrane proteins I and F, named PEIF. Also, the survival rate of burned mice complicated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated. Experiment 1: Thirty BALB/c mice were assigned to two groups. One group was fed a control diet with casein as the protein source, while the other group was supplemented with 2% Arg in addition to casein. The two groups were isonitrogenous. The mice were immunized twice with PEIF, and the production of specific antibodies against PEIF was measured every week. After 8 weeks, all mice received a 30% body surface area burn injury. Mice were sacrificed 24h after the burn. The antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxides in the tissues as well as the specific antibody production were analyzed. Experiment 2: Twenty-eight mice were divided into two groups and vaccinated as described in experiment 1. After the burn the mice were infected with P. aeruginosa, and the survival rate was observed for 8 days. The results demonstrated that antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxides in tissues were significantly lower in the Arg group than in the control group after the burn. The production of specific antibodies against P. aeruginosa significantly increased in the Arg group at 4 and 7 weeks after immunization, and 24h after the burn. The survival rates of vaccinated burned mice after bacterial infection did not significantly differ between the two groups. These results suggest that vaccinating mice with Arg supplementation may enhance humoral immunity and attenuate the oxidative stress induced by burn injury. However, Arg supplementation did not improve survival in vaccinated mice complicated with P. aeruginosa infection.

  6. Combined Effects of Lanthanum (III) and Acid Rain on Antioxidant Enzyme System in Soybean Roots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Du, Yuping; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua; Sun, Zhaoguo

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth element pollution (REEs) and acid rain (AR) pollution simultaneously occur in many regions, which resulted in a new environmental issue, the combined pollution of REEs and AR. The effects of the combined pollution on the antioxidant enzyme system of plant roots have not been reported. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum ion (La3+), one type of REE, and AR on the antioxidant enzyme system of soybean roots were investigated. In the combined treatment of La3+ (0.08 mM) and AR, the cell membrane permeability and the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid of soybean roots increased, and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and reduced ascorbic acid served as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. In other combined treatments of La3+ (0.40 mM, 1.20 mM) and AR, the membrane permeability, malonyldialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content increased, while the catalase activity decreased. The increased superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content were inadequate to scavenge the excess hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, leading to the damage of the cell membrane, which was aggravated with the increase in the concentration of La3+ and the level of AR. The deleterious effects of the combined treatment of La3+ and AR were stronger than those of the single treatment of La3+ or AR. Moreover, the activity of antioxidant enzyme system in the combined treatment group was affected directly and indirectly by mineral element content in soybean plants.

  7. Biomonitoring of air pollution using antioxidative enzyme system in two genera of family Pottiaceae (Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    Bansal, Pooja; Verma, Sonam; Srivastava, Alka

    2016-09-01

    Bryophyte particularly mosses, have been found to serve as reliable indicators of air pollution and can serve as bryometers-biological instruments for measuring air pollution. They are remarkable colonizers, as they have the ability to survive in adverse environments and are also particular in their requirement of environmental conditions, which makes them appropriate ecological indicators. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of antioxidative enzymes in two mosses viz., Hyophila rosea R.S. Williams and Semibarbula orientalis (Web.) Wijk. & Marg. and assess their suitability as biomonitors. Three different locations viz., Lucknow University, Residency (contaminated sites) and Dilkusha Garden (reference site) within Lucknow city with different levels of air pollutants were used for comparison. Our results indicate that air pollution caused marked enhancement in activity of antioxidative enzymes viz., catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. All the three are capable of scavenging reactive oxygen species. In the genus S. orientalis, catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity was minimum at the reference site Dilkusha Garden and was significantly higher at the two contaminated sites for catalase and peroxidase, whereas the difference was non significant for superoxide dismutase. In H. rosea the activity of catalase and peroxidase at the three locations was almost similar, however superoxide dismutase activity showed a significant increase in the two contaminated sites when compared to the reference site, the value being highest for Lucknow University site. It was thus observed that the two genera, from the same location, showed difference in the activity of the antioxidative enzymes. Based on our results, we recommend bryophytes as good monitors of air pollution.

  8. Antioxidant Enzymes Regulate Reactive Oxygen Species during Pod Elongation in Pisum sativum and Brassica chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nan; Lin, Zhifang; Guan, Lanlan; Gaughan, Gerald; Lin, Guizhu

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has focused on the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell wall loosening and cell extension in plant vegetative growth, but few studies have investigated ROS functions specifically in plant reproductive organs. In this study, ROS levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were assessed in Pisum sativum and Brassica chinensis pods at five developmental stages. In juvenile pods, the high levels of O2.− and.OH indicates that they had functions in cell wall loosening and cell elongation. In later developmental stages, high levels of.OH were also related to increases in cell wall thickness in lignified tissues. Throughout pod development, most of the O2.− was detected on plasma membranes of parenchyma cells and outer epidermis cells of the mesocarp, while most of the H2O2 was detected on plasma membranes of most cells throughout the mesocarp. This suggests that these sites are presumably the locations of ROS generation. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) apparently contributed to ROS accumulation in pod wall tissues. Furthermore, specifically SOD and POD were found to be associated with pod growth through the regulation of ROS generation and transformation. Throughout pod development, O2.− decreases were associated with increased SOD activity, while changes in H2O2 accumulation were associated with changes in CAT and POD activities. Additionally, high POD activity may contribute to the generation of.OH in the early development of pods. It is concluded that the ROS are produced in different sites of plasma membranes with the regulation of antioxidant enzymes, and that substantial ROS generation and accumulation are evident in cell elongation and cell wall loosening in pod wall cells. PMID:24503564

  9. Combined Effects of Lanthanum (III) and Acid Rain on Antioxidant Enzyme System in Soybean Roots

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Du, Yuping; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua; Sun, Zhaoguo

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth element pollution (REEs) and acid rain (AR) pollution simultaneously occur in many regions, which resulted in a new environmental issue, the combined pollution of REEs and AR. The effects of the combined pollution on the antioxidant enzyme system of plant roots have not been reported. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum ion (La3+), one type of REE, and AR on the antioxidant enzyme system of soybean roots were investigated. In the combined treatment of La3+ (0.08 mM) and AR, the cell membrane permeability and the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid of soybean roots increased, and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and reduced ascorbic acid served as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. In other combined treatments of La3+ (0.40 mM, 1.20 mM) and AR, the membrane permeability, malonyldialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content increased, while the catalase activity decreased. The increased superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content were inadequate to scavenge the excess hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, leading to the damage of the cell membrane, which was aggravated with the increase in the concentration of La3+ and the level of AR. The deleterious effects of the combined treatment of La3+ and AR were stronger than those of the single treatment of La3+ or AR. Moreover, the activity of antioxidant enzyme system in the combined treatment group was affected directly and indirectly by mineral element content in soybean plants. PMID:26230263

  10. L-carnitine Mediated Reduction in Oxidative Stress and Alteration in Transcript Level of Antioxidant Enzymes in Sheep Embryos Produced In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Mishra, A; Reddy, I J; Gupta, P S P; Mondal, S

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the effect of L-carnitine on oocyte maturation and subsequent embryo development, with L-carnitine-mediated alteration if any in transcript level of antioxidant enzymes (GPx, Cu/Zn-SOD (SOD1) and Mn-SOD (SOD2) in oocytes and developing sheep embryos produced in vitro. Different concentrations of L-carnitine (0 mm, 2.5 mm, 5 mm, 7.5 mm and 10 mm) were used in maturation medium. Oocytes matured with 10 mm L-carnitine showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher cleavage (66.80% vs 39.66, 41.76, 44.64, 64.31%), morula (48.50% vs 20.88, 26.01, 26.99, 44.72%) and blastocyst (33.22% vs 7.66, 9.19, 10.71, 28.57%) percentage as compared to lower concentrations (0 mm, 2.5 mm, 5 mm and 7.5 mm). Cleavage percentage between 10 mm and 7.5 mm L-carnitine were not significantly different. Maturation rate was not influenced by supplementation of any experimental concentration of L-carnitine. There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in intracellular ROS and increase in intracellular GSH in 10 mm L-carnitine-treated oocytes and embryos than control group. Antioxidant effect of L-carnitine was proved by culturing oocytes and embryos with H2O2 in the presence of L-carnitine which could be able to protect oocytes and embryos from H2O2-induced oxidative damage. L-carnitine supplementation significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated the expression of GPx and downregulated the expression of SOD2 genes, whereas the expression pattern of SOD1 and GAPDH (housekeeping gene) genes was unaffected in oocytes and embryos. It was concluded from the study that L-carnitine supplementation during in vitro maturation reduces oxidative stress-induced embryo toxicity by decreasing intracellular ROS and increasing intracellular GSH that in turn improved developmental potential of oocytes and embryos and alters transcript level of antioxidant enzymes.

  11. A new bifunctional chitosanase enzyme from Streptomyces sp. and its application in production of antioxidant chitooligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sujata; Tripathi, Pushplata; Chand, Subhash

    2012-07-01

    Chitosanases produced by microbes and plants are getting attention to explore vastly available marine waste. Chitooligosaccharides and glucosamine can be produced using chitosanase enzyme and have applications in food, pharma and other industries. A potential microbial chitosanase source was found after isolation and screening of chitosan degrading microbes from garden soil. An isolate, designated as C6 produced chitosanase enzyme upon induction by chitosan substrates. Production of 6 U/ml of chitosanase enzyme was achieved from this isolate on chitosan minimal salt broth medium at 32 °C after 3 days of growth. The enzyme was able to hydrolyse both chitosan and cellulosic substrates. Enzymatic production of D -glucosamine and chitooligosaccharides were studied with various chitosan substrates using crude enzyme. The yield of glucosamine was found to be 40% after 2 h of reaction at 40 °C, and chitosan oligomers were produced having two to six polymerizations at 60 °C reaction temperature. The hydrolysates showed 50% antioxidant activity as compared to ascorbic acid.

  12. In vitro effect of sodium fluoride on antioxidative enzymes and apoptosis during murine odontogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jacinto-Alemán, L F; Hernández-Guerrero, J C; Trejo-Solís, C; Jiménez-Farfán, M D; Fernández-Presas, A M

    2010-10-01

    Excessive fluoride ingestion has been identified as a risk factor for fluorosis and oxidative stress. The oxidative stress results from the loss of equilibrium between oxidative and antioxidative mechanisms that can produce kinase activation, mitochondrial disturbance and DNA fragmentation, resulting in apoptosis. Actually many people are exposed to no-adverted fluoride consumption in acute or chronic way. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sodium fluoride on first molar germ in relation to its effect on antioxidative enzymes immunoexpression and apoptosis. Thirty first molar germs from 1-day-old Balb/c mice were cultured for 24 h with sodium fluoride (0 mM, 1 mM and 5 mM). Immunoexpression determination of CuZnSod, MnSod, catalase, Bax, Bid, caspase 8, caspase 9, caspase 3 and TUNEL assay were performed. Cellular disorganization in ameloblast and odontoblast-papilla zones was observed. CuZnSod and MnSod immunoexpression decrease in experimental groups. Caspase 8, caspase 3, Bax, Bid increase expression and more TUNEL positive cells in both experimental groups than control, suggest that apoptosis induced by fluoride is related to oxidative stress due to reduction of the enzymatic antioxidant.

  13. Neuroprotection of antioxidant enzymes against transient global cerebral ischemia in gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Chul

    2014-01-01

    Experimentally transient global cerebral ischemia using animal models have been thoroughly studied and numerous reports suggest the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of neuronal death in ischemic lesions. In animal models, during the reperfusion period after ischemia, increased oxygen supply results in the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are involved in the process of cell death. ROS, such as superoxide anions, hydroxyl free radicals, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide are produced as a consequence of metabolic reactions and central nervous system activity. These reactive species are directly involved in the oxidative damage of cellular macromolecules such as nucleic acids, lipids and proteins in ischemic tissues, which can lead to cell death. Antioxidant enzymes are believed to be among the major mechanisms by which cells counteract the deleterious effect of ROS after cerebral ischemia. Consequently, antioxidant strategies have been long suggested as a therapy for experimental ischemic stroke; however, clinical trials have not yet been able to promote the translation of this concept into patient treatment regimens. This article focuses on the contribution of oxidative stress or antioxidants to the post-ischemic neuronal death following transient global cerebral ischemia by using a gerbil model. PMID:25276473

  14. Rosmarinic acid and antioxidant enzyme activities in Lavandula vera MM cell suspension culture: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Milen; Abrashev, Radoslav; Krumova, Ekaterina; Demirevska, Klimentina; Ilieva, Mladenka; Angelova, Maria

    2009-11-01

    The growth and intracellular protein content of lavender (Lavandula vera MM) cell suspension culture was followed along with some antioxidant defense system members-non-enzymatic (rosmarinic acid) and enzymatic [superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6)]. It was found that the media content and the cultivation mode strongly influenced the production of plant defense compounds as well as the ratio between non-enzymatic and enzymatic ones. The bioreactor culture contains about two times more rosmarinic acid, superoxide dismutase, and catalase compared to the shake-flask cultivation. These findings are discussed with respect to the relative stress levels and plant antioxidant orchestra system. It was concluded that investigated defense system components (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) were closely associated in a complex balance. The three isoenzyme forms of SOD (Cu/ZnSOD, FeSOD, and MnSOD) in the cells of Lavandula vera were revealed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis, and the FeSOD isoform exhibited highest activity.

  15. The influence of cell growth and enzyme activity changes on intracellular metabolite dynamics in AGE1.HN.AAT cells.

    PubMed

    Rath, Alexander G; Rehberg, Markus; Janke, Robert; Genzel, Yvonne; Scholz, Sebastian; Noll, Thomas; Rose, Thomas; Sandig, Volker; Reichl, Udo

    2014-05-20

    Optimization of bioprocesses with mammalian cells mainly concentrates on cell engineering, cell screening and medium optimization to achieve enhanced cell growth and productivity. For improving cell lines by cell engineering techniques, in-depth understandings of the regulation of metabolism and product formation as well as the resulting demand for the different medium components are needed. In this work, the relationship of cell specific growth and uptake rates and of changes in maximum in vitro enzyme activities with intracellular metabolite pools of glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, citric acid cycle and energy metabolism were determined for batch cultivations with AGE1.HN.AAT cells. Results obtained by modeling cell growth and consumption of main substrates showed that the dynamics of intracellular metabolite pools is primarily linked to the dynamics of specific glucose and glutamine uptake rates. By analyzing maximum in vitro enzyme activities we found low activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase which suggest a reduced metabolite transfer into the citric acid cycle resulting in lactate release (Warburg effect). Moreover, an increase in the volumetric lactate production rate during the transition from exponential to stationary growth together with a transient accumulation of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, fructose 1-phosphate and ribose 5-phosphate point toward an upregulation of PK via FBP. Glutaminase activity was about 44-fold lower than activity of glutamine synthetase. This seemed to be sufficient for the supply of intermediates for biosynthesis but might lead to unnecessary dissipation of ATP. Taken together, our results elucidate regulation of metabolic networks of immortalized mammalian cells by changes of metabolite pools over the time course of batch cultivations. Eventually, it enables the use of cell engineering strategies to improve the availability of building blocks for biomass synthesis by increasing glucose as well as

  16. Influence of environmental static electric field on antioxidant enzymes activities in hepatocytes of mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, S X; Xu, Y Q; Di, G Q; Jiang, J H; Xin, L; Wu, T Y

    2016-07-25

    With the increasing voltage of direct current transmission line, the intensity of the environmental static electric field has also increased. Thus, whether static electric fields cause biological injury is an important question. In this study, the effects of chronic exposure to environmental static electric fields on some antioxidant enzymes activities in the hepatocytes of mice were investigated. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice were exposed for 35 days to environmental static electric fields of different electric field intensities of 9.2-21.85 kV/m (experiment group I, EG-I), 2.3-15.4 kV/m (experiment group II, EG-II), and 0 kV/m (control group, CG). On days 7, 14, 21, and 35 of the exposure cycle, liver homogenates were obtained and the activities of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase were determined, as well as the concentration of malonaldehyde. The results revealed a significant increase in superoxide dismutase activity in both EG-I and EG-II on the 7th (P < 0.05) and 35th days (P < 0.01) of the exposure cycle compared to that in the control group. However, the other test indices such as glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and malonaldehyde showed only minimal changes during the exposure cycle. These results revealed a weak relationship between the exposure to environmental static electric fields and hepatic oxidative stress in living organisms.

  17. Activity of selected antioxidative enzymes in rats exposed to dimethoate and pyrantel tartrate.

    PubMed

    Barski, D; Spodniewska, A

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the results of research concerning the effect of single and combined application of pyrantel tartrate and dimethoate on selected antioxidative enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in rat erythrocytes. Pyrantel tartrate was applied twice, at a dose of 85 mg/kg bw at a two week interval, i.e. on day 14 and 28 of the experiment, orally, in a water solution with a stomach tube. Dimethoate was administered with drinking water for 28 days at a dose of 25 mg/kg bw/day. It was found that pyrantel tartrate caused only small changes in the activity of the antioxidative enzymes under analysis. Subchronic exposure of rats to dimethoate caused a significant increase in the activity of CAT, SOD and GPx in erythrocytes, indicating the existence of strong oxidative stress. In combined intoxication, no significant effects of administering pyrantel tartrate on the activity of CAT, SOD and GPx was found in animals poisoned with dimethoate. The profile of changes was similar to that observed in rats exposed only to the organophosphorus insecticide. This may indicate a lack of interaction between the compounds used in the experiment.

  18. The relationship between coenzyme Q10, oxidative stress, and antioxidant enzymes activities and coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bor-Jen; Lin, Yi-Chin; Huang, Yi-Chia; Ko, Ya-Wen; Hsia, Simon; Lin, Ping-Ting

    2012-01-01

    A higher oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between coenzyme Q10 concentration and lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes activities and the risk of CAD. Patients who were identified by cardiac catheterization as having at least 50% stenosis of one major coronary artery were assigned to the case group (n = 51). The control group (n = 102) comprised healthy individuals with normal blood biochemical values. The plasma coenzyme Q10, malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes activities (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) were measured. Subjects with CAD had significant lower plasma coenzyme Q10, CAT and GPx activities and higher MDA and SOD levels compared to those of the control group. The plasma coenzyme Q10 was positively correlated with CAT and GPx activities and negatively correlated with MDA and SOD. However, the correlations were not significant after adjusting for the potential confounders of CAD with the exception of SOD. A higher level of plasma coenzyme Q10 (≥ 0.52 μmol/L) was significantly associated with reducing the risk of CAD. Our results support the potential cardioprotective impact of coenzyme Q10.

  19. Antioxidant enzymes expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa exposed to UV-C radiation.

    PubMed

    Salma, Kloula Ben Ghorbal; Lobna, Maalej; Sana, Khefacha; Kalthoum, Chourabi; Imene, Ouzari; Abdelwaheb, Chatti

    2016-07-01

    It was well known that, UV-C irradiation increase considerably the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. In the enzymatic ROS-scavenging pathways, superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POX) were developed to deal with oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of UV-C radiations on antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidases) expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Catalase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidases activities were determined spectrophotometrically. Isozymes of superoxide dismutase were revealed by native gel activity staining method. Lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring malondialdehyde formation. Our results showed that superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activities exhibited a gradual increase during the exposure time (30 min). However, the superoxide dismutase activity was maximized at 15 min. Native gel activity staining assays showed the presence of three superoxide dismutase isozymes. The iron-cofactored isoform activity was altered after exposure to UV-C stress. These finding suggest that catalase and peroxidase enzymes have the same importance toward UV-C rays at shorter and longer exposure times and this may confer additional protection to superoxide dismutase from damage caused by lipid peroxidation. Moreover, our data demonstrate the significant role of the antioxidant system in the resistance of this important human pathogen.

  20. Zinc affects differently growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and phytochelatin synthase expression of four marine diatoms.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Deroche, Thi Le Nhung; Caruso, Aurore; Le, Thi Trung; Bui, Trang Viet; Schoefs, Benoît; Tremblin, Gérard; Morant-Manceau, Annick

    2012-01-01

    Zinc-supplementation (20 μM) effects on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase), and the expression of phytochelatin synthase gene were investigated in four marine diatoms (Amphora acutiuscula, Nitzschia palea, Amphora coffeaeformis and Entomoneis paludosa). Zn-supplementation reduced the maximum cell density. A linear relationship was found between the evolution of gross photosynthesis and total chlorophyll content. The Zn treatment decreased the electron transport rate except in A. coffeaeformis and in E. paludosa at high irradiance. A linear relationship was found between the efficiency of light to evolve oxygen and the size of the light-harvesting antenna. The external carbonic anhydrase activity was stimulated in Zn-supplemented E. paludosa but was not correlated with an increase of photosynthesis. The total activity of the antioxidant enzymes did not display any clear increase except in ascorbate peroxidase activity in N. palea. The phytochelatin synthase gene was identified in the four diatoms, but its expression was only revealed in N. palea, without a clear difference between control and Zn-supplemented cells. Among the four species, A. paludosa was the most sensitive and A. coffeaeformis, the most tolerant. A. acutiuscula seemed to be under metal starvation, whereas, to survive, only N. palea developed several stress responses.

  1. Alterations in osmoregulation, antioxidant enzymes and indole alkaloid levels in Catharanthus roseus exposed to water deficit.

    PubMed

    Jaleel, C Abdul; Manivannan, P; Kishorekumar, A; Sankar, B; Gopi, R; Somasundaram, R; Panneerselvam, R

    2007-10-01

    Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don plants were grown in different water regimes in order to study the drought induced osmotic stress and proline (PRO) metabolism, antioxidative enzyme activities and indole alkaloid accumulation. The plants under pot culture were subjected to 10, 15 and 20 days interval drought (DID) stress from 30 days after sowing (DAS) and regular irrigation was kept as control. The plants were uprooted on 41DAS (10DID), 46DAS (15DID) and 51DAS (20DID). The drought stressed plants showed increased aminoacid (AA), glycine betaine (GB) and PRO contents and decreased proline oxidase (PROX) and increased gamma-glutamyl kinase (gamma-GK) activities when compared to control. The antioxidative enzymes like peroxidase (POX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) increased to a significant level in drought stressed plants when compared to control. The drought stressed C. roseus plants showed an increase in total indole alkaloid content in shoots and roots when compared to well-watered control plants. Our results suggest that the cultivation of medicinal plants like C. roseus in water deficit areas would increase its PRO metabolism, osmoregulation, defense system and the level of active principles.

  2. Different Gene Expression and Activity Pattern of Antioxidant Enzymes in Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Edyta; Jablonowski, Zbigniew; Tomasik, Bartlomiej; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Jablonska, Ewa; Konecki, Tomasz; Fendler, Wojciech; Sosnowski, Marek; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Reszka, Edyta

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role in and contribution of antioxidant enzymes to bladder cancer (BC) etiology and recurrence after transurethral resection (TUR). We enrolled 40 patients with BC who underwent TUR and 100 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. The analysis was performed at diagnosis and recurrence, taking into account the time of recurrence. Gene expression of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) was determined in peripheral blood leukocytes. The activity of glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) was examined in plasma, and GPX1 and copper-zinc containing superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in erythrocytes. SOD2 and GPX1 expression and GPX1 and SOD1 activity were significantly higher in patients at diagnosis of BC in comparison to controls. In patients who had recurrence earlier than 1 year from TUR, CAT and SOD2 expression was lower (at diagnosis p=0.024 and p=0.434, at recurrence p=0.022 and p=0.010), while the GPX1 and GPX3 activity was higher (at diagnosis p=0.242 and p=0.394, at recurrence p=0.019 and p=0.025) compared to patients with recurrence after 1 year from TUR. This study revealed that the gene expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes are elevated in blood of patients with BC, although a low expression of CAT might contribute to the recurrence of BC, in early prognosis.

  3. Low in situ expression of antioxidative enzymes in rat cerebellar granular cells susceptible to methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, M; Usuki, F

    2014-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg), an environmental neurotoxicant, induces site-specific toxicity in the brain. Although oxidative stress has been demonstrated with MeHg toxicity, the site-specific toxicity is not completely understood. Among the cerebellar neurons, cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) appear vulnerable to MeHg, whereas Purkinje cells and molecular layer neurons are resistant. Here, we use a MeHg-intoxicated rat model to investigate these cerebellar neurons for the different causes of susceptibility to MeHg. Rats were exposed to 20 ppm MeHg for 4 weeks and subsequently exhibited neuropathological changes in the cerebellum that were similar to those observed in humans. We first isolated the three cerebellar neuron types using a microdissection system and then performed real-time PCR analyses for antioxidative enzymes. We observed that expression of manganese-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TRxR1) was significantly higher in Purkinje cells and molecular layer neurons than in CGCs. Finally, we performed immunohistochemical analyses on the cerebellum. Immunohistochemistry showed increased expression of Mn-SOD, GPx1, and TRxR1 in Purkinje cells and molecular layer neurons, which was coincident with the mRNA expression patterns. Considering Mn-SOD, GPx1, and TRxR1 are critical for protecting cells against MeHg intoxication, the results indicate that low expression of these antioxidative enzymes increases CGCs vulnerability to MeHg toxicity.

  4. Antioxidant enzymes in oligodendroglial brain tumors: association with proliferation, apoptotic activity and survival.

    PubMed

    Järvelä, Sally; Sally, Järvelä; Bragge, Helena; Helena, Bragge; Paunu, Niina; Niina, Paunu; Järvelä, Timo; Timo, Järvelä; Paljärvi, Leo; Leo, Paljärvi; Kalimo, Hannu; Hannu, Kalimo; Helén, Pauli; Pauli, Helén; Kinnula, Vuokko; Vuokko, Kinnula; Soini, Ylermi; Ylermi, Soini; Haapasalo, Hannu; Hannu, Haapasalo

    2006-04-01

    Purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between antioxidant enzyme expression and clinicopathological features in oligodendroglial tumors. The expression of antioxidant enzymes and related proteins (AOEs), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), thioredoxin (Trx), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and gammaglutamylcysteine synthetase catalytic and regulatory subunits (GLCL-C and GLCL-R), was studied in 85 oligodendroglial tumors. The material included 71 primary (43 grade II and 28 grade III) and 14 recurrent (6 grade II and 8 grade III) tumors. Fifty-seven cases were pure oligodendrogliomas and 28 were mixed oligoastrocytomas. Immunoreactivity for MnSOD was found in 89%, Trx in 29%, TrxR in 76%, GLCL-C in 70% and GLCL-R in 68% of cases. Increased Trx expression was associated with higher tumor grade, cell proliferation and apoptosis (P=0.006, P=0.001 and P=0.003, Mann-Whitney test). Pure oligodendrogliomas showed more intense staining than oligoastrocytomas, especially for MnSOD (P=0.002, Mann-Whitney test). In the total series Trx was associated with poor prognosis in univariate survival analysis (P=0.0343, log-rank test) and furthermore in Cox multivariate analysis (P=0.009) along with age (P=0.002). The results suggest that the expression of Trx has a correlation to patient outcome and that there may be some association between AOEs, like MnSOD and Trx, and clinicopathological features of oligodendrogliomas.

  5. Antioxidant enzymes activities of Burkholderia spp. strains-oxidative responses to Ni toxicity.

    PubMed

    Dourado, M N; Franco, M R; Peters, L P; Martins, P F; Souza, L A; Piotto, F A; Azevedo, R A

    2015-12-01

    Increased agriculture production associated with intense application of herbicides, pesticides, and fungicides leads to soil contamination worldwide. Nickel (Ni), due to its high mobility in soils and groundwater, constitutes one of the greatest problems in terms of environmental pollution. Metals, including Ni, in high concentrations are toxic to cells by imposing a condition of oxidative stress due to the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which damage lipids, proteins, and DNA. This study aimed to characterize the Ni antioxidant response of two tolerant Burkholderia strains (one isolated from noncontaminated soil, SNMS32, and the other from contaminated soil, SCMS54), by measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities. Ni accumulation and bacterial growth in the presence of the metal were also analyzed. The results showed that both strains exhibited different trends of Ni accumulation and distinct antioxidant enzymes responses. The strain from contaminated soil (SCMS54) exhibited a higher Ni biosorption and exhibited an increase in SOD and GST activities after 5 and 12 h of Ni exposure. The analysis of SOD, CAT, and GR by nondenaturing PAGE revealed the appearance of an extra isoenzyme in strain SCMS54 for each enzyme. The results suggest that the strain SCMS54 isolated from contaminated soil present more plasticity with potential to be used in soil and water bioremediation.

  6. Widening and Elaboration of Consecutive Research into Therapeutic Antioxidant Enzyme Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Undiminishing actuality of enzyme modification for therapeutic purposes has been confirmed by application of modified enzymes in clinical practice and numerous research data on them. Intravenous injection of the superoxide dismutase-chondroitin sulfate-catalase (SOD-CHS-CAT) conjugate in preventive and medicative regimes in rats with endotoxin shock induced with a lipopolysaccharide bolus has demonstrated that antioxidant agents not only effectively prevent damage caused by oxidative stress (as believed previously) but also can be used for antioxidative stress therapy. The results obtained emphasize the importance of investigation into the pathogenesis of vascular damage and the role of oxidative stress in it. The effects of intravenous medicative injection of SOD-CHS-CAT in a rat model of endotoxin shock have demonstrated a variety in the activity of this conjugate in addition to prevention of NO conversion in peroxynitrite upon interaction with O2∙− superoxide radical. Together with the literature data, these findings offer a prospect for the study of NO-independent therapeutic effects of SOD-CHS-CAT, implying the importance of a better insight into the mechanisms of the conjugate activity in modeled cardiovascular damage involving vasoactive agents other than NO. PMID:27148430

  7. Tocopherol Succinate: Modulation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Oncogene Expression, and Hematopoietic Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Vijay K.; Parekh, Vaishali I.; Brown, Darren S.; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Mog, Steven R.

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: A class of naturally occurring isoforms of tocopherol (tocols) was shown to have varying degrees of protection when administered before radiation exposure. We recently demonstrated that {alpha}-tocopherol succinate (TS) is a potential radiation prophylactic agent. Our objective in this study was to further investigate the mechanism of action of TS in mice exposed to {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the effects of TS on expression of antioxidant enzymes and oncogenes by quantitative RT-PCR in bone marrow cells of {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiated mice. Further, we tested the ability of TS to rescue and repopulate hematopoietic stem cells by analyzing bone marrow cellularity and spleen colony forming unit in spleen of TS-injected and irradiated mice. Results: Our results demonstrate that TS modulated the expression of antioxidant enzymes and inhibited expression of oncogenes in irradiated mice at different time points. TS also increased colony forming unit-spleen numbers and bone marrow cellularity in irradiated mice. Conclusions: Results provide additional support for the observed radioprotective efficacy of TS and insight into mechanisms.

  8. Reduced levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and apoptotic status are not correlated with increases in cryotolerance of bovine embryos produced in vitro in the presence of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Frigoni, Nathália A S; Leão, Beatriz C S; Nogueira, Ériklis; Accorsi, Mônica F; Mingoti, Gisele Z

    2014-01-01

    The effects of intracellular (cysteine and β-mercaptoethanol) and extracellular (catalase) antioxidant supplementation at different times during in vitro production (IVM and/or in vitro culture (IVC)) on bovine embryo development, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, apoptosis and re-expansion rates after a vitrification-thawing process were examined. Blastocyst frequencies were not affected by either antioxidant supplementation (40.5%-56.4%) or the timing of supplementation (41.7%-55.4%) compared with control (48.7%; P>0.05). Similarly, antioxidants and the moment of supplementation did not affect (P>0.05) the total number of blastomeres (86.2-90.5 and 84.4-90.5, respectively) compared with control (85.7). However, the percentage of apoptotic cells was reduced (P<0.05) in groups supplemented during IVM (1.7%), IVC (2.0%) or both (1.8%) compared with control (4.3%). Intracellular ROS levels measured in Day 7 blastocysts were reduced (P<0.05) in all groups (0.60-0.78), with the exception of the group supplemented with β-mercaptoethanol during IVC (0.88), which did not differ (P>0.05) from that in the control group (1.00). Re-expansion rates were not affected (P>0.05) by the treatments (50.0%-93.0%). In conclusion, antioxidant supplementation during IVM and/or IVC reduces intracellular ROS and the rate of apoptosis; however, supplementation does not increase embryonic development and survival after vitrification.

  9. Genetically engineered immunomodulatory Streptococcus thermophilus strains producing antioxidant enzymes exhibit enhanced anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Del Carmen, Silvina; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Martin, Rebeca; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; LeBlanc, Jean Guy

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to develop strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) having both immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties and to evaluate their anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro, in different cellular models, and in vivo, in a mouse model of colitis. Different Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains were cocultured with primary cultures of mononuclear cells. Analysis of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines secreted by these cells after coincubation with candidate bacteria revealed that L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 864 and S. thermophilus CRL 807 display the highest anti-inflammatory profiles in vitro. Moreover, these results were confirmed in vivo by the determination of the cytokine profiles in large intestine samples of mice fed with these strains. S. thermophilus CRL 807 was then transformed with two different plasmids harboring the genes encoding catalase (CAT) or superoxide dismutase (SOD) antioxidant enzymes, and the anti-inflammatory effects of recombinant streptococci were evaluated in a mouse model of colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). Our results showed a decrease in weight loss, lower liver microbial translocation, lower macroscopic and microscopic damage scores, and modulation of the cytokine production in the large intestines of mice treated with either CAT- or SOD-producing streptococci compared to those in mice treated with the wild-type strain or control mice without any treatment. Furthermore, the greatest anti-inflammatory activity was observed in mice receiving a mixture of both CAT- and SOD-producing streptococci. The addition of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 864 to this mixture did not improve their beneficial effects. These findings show that genetically engineering a candidate bacterium (e.g., S. thermophilus CRL 807) with intrinsic immunomodulatory properties by introducing a gene expressing an antioxidant enzyme enhances its anti

  10. Genetically Engineered Immunomodulatory Streptococcus thermophilus Strains Producing Antioxidant Enzymes Exhibit Enhanced Anti-Inflammatory Activities

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen, Silvina; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Martin, Rebeca; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) having both immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties and to evaluate their anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro, in different cellular models, and in vivo, in a mouse model of colitis. Different Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains were cocultured with primary cultures of mononuclear cells. Analysis of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines secreted by these cells after coincubation with candidate bacteria revealed that L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 864 and S. thermophilus CRL 807 display the highest anti-inflammatory profiles in vitro. Moreover, these results were confirmed in vivo by the determination of the cytokine profiles in large intestine samples of mice fed with these strains. S. thermophilus CRL 807 was then transformed with two different plasmids harboring the genes encoding catalase (CAT) or superoxide dismutase (SOD) antioxidant enzymes, and the anti-inflammatory effects of recombinant streptococci were evaluated in a mouse model of colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). Our results showed a decrease in weight loss, lower liver microbial translocation, lower macroscopic and microscopic damage scores, and modulation of the cytokine production in the large intestines of mice treated with either CAT- or SOD-producing streptococci compared to those in mice treated with the wild-type strain or control mice without any treatment. Furthermore, the greatest anti-inflammatory activity was observed in mice receiving a mixture of both CAT- and SOD-producing streptococci. The addition of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 864 to this mixture did not improve their beneficial effects. These findings show that genetically engineering a candidate bacterium (e.g., S. thermophilus CRL 807) with intrinsic immunomodulatory properties by introducing a gene expressing an antioxidant enzyme enhances its anti

  11. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by upregulating antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the upregulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-Isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited five-fold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both mRNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by AhR and Nrf2 proteins were upregulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126 which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants. PMID:24378064

  12. ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY AMONG ORPHANS INFECTED WITH INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PATHUM THANI PROVINCE, THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Mahittikorn, Aongart; Prasertbun, Rapeepan; Mori, Hirotake; Popruk, Supaluk

    2014-11-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections can negatively impact growth and nutrition in children. The infections can induce oxidative stress, resulting in a variety of illnesses. We measured antioxidant enzyme levels in orphan children infected with intestinal parasites to investigate the influence of nutritional status on antioxidant enzymes. This cross sectional study was conducted at an orphanage in Thailand. Stool samples were obtained from each subject and examined for intestinal parasites. Anthropometric measurements, complete blood count and biochemical parameters, including serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels, were obtained from studied subjects. One hundred twenty-eight children were included in the study. Intestinal parasites were found on microscopic examination of the stools in 36.7% (47/128); 18% (23/128) had a mixed parasite infection. Intestinal protozoa were found in 34.4% of subjects and intestinal helminthes were found in 2.3%. The median GPx level in children infected with intestinal parasites (2.3 ng/ml) was significantly lower than in non-infected children (7.7 ng/ml) (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in SOD levels between the two groups. When comparing GPx levels in children with 1) pathogenic parasites, 2) non-pathogenic parasites and 3) no intestinal parasite infection, GPx levels differed significantly among three groups (2.2 ng/ml, 2.4 ng/ml and 7.7 ng/ml, respectively) (p < 0.05). When separating children by BMI and type of infection, the median SOD level in underweight children infected with pathogenic parasites (107.2 ng/ml) was significantly higher than in underweight children infected with non-pathogenic parasites (68.6 ng/ml) and without intestinal parasite infections (72.2 ng/ml). The present study identified two key findings: low GPx levels in children with intestinal parasitic infections, and the potential impact of malnutrition on some antioxidants.

  13. The phytoestrogen daidzein affects the antioxidant enzyme system of rat hepatoma H4IIE cells.

    PubMed

    Röhrdanz, Elke; Ohler, Sandra; Tran-Thi, Quynh-Hoa; Kahl, Regine

    2002-03-01

    Phytoestrogens such as the soy isoflavonoid daidzein have potential health benefits. The antioxidant properties of phytoestrogens are considered to be responsible in part for their protective effects. The antioxidant enzyme (AOE) system plays an important role in the defense of cells against oxidative insults. To determine whether flavonoids can exert antioxidative effects not only directly but also indirectly by modulating the AOE system, we investigated the influence of the flavonoid daidzein on the expression of different AOE. Daidzein treatment of hepatoma H4IIE cells increased catalase mRNA expression two- to threefold. Expression levels of copper zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) were not affected by exposure to daidzein. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) mRNA expression levels decreased slightly and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels increased slightly after daidzein exposure. Changes in AOE mRNA expression levels were significant at 300 micromol/L daidzein. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the strong increase in catalase mRNA, transfection experiments were performed. Transient transfection of hepatoma cells with reporter plasmids containing different parts of the upstream region of the catalase gene showed a significant one- to threefold increase in reporter gene activity after daidzein exposure. This indicates that daidzein can directly activate the rat catalase promoter region. Despite the increase in catalase mRNA, daidzein pretreatment of cells did not protect against oxidative stress resulting from H(2)O(2) exposure. On the contrary, daidzein itself exerted a mild oxidative stress. In conclusion, the changes in the AOE system provoked by daidzein affected the oxidant rather than the antioxidant properties of daidzein.

  14. The intracellular location of lysosomal enzymes in developing Dictyostelium discoideum cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lenhard, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The author has found that developing Dictyostelium cells contain two distinct acid hydrolase-containing organelles. Vesicles from cells at different stages of development were separated using Percoll density gradients. The lower density vesicles (LDVs or lysosomes) were present in nourished and starved cells. The higher density vesicles (HDVs) arose during starvation-induced differentiation. HDVs lacked two prestalk cell-specific lysosomal enzymes which were contained in LDVs. Prespore cell-specific spore coat proteins were detected in HDVs by ELISA. ({sup 35}S)sulfate labeling revealed that HDVs contained newly made glycoproteins as well as glycoproteins found in preexisting LDVs. Pulse-chase experiments using ({sup 35}S)methionine revealed that {alpha}-mannosidase from pre-existing LDVs an newly made {alpha}-mannosidase had entered HDVs. These data suggest that prespore LDVs mature to become HDVs. He has obtained evidence that HDVs are identical to prespore vesicles. Prespore vesicles are specialized secretory organelles which arise during prespore cell differentiation and which secrete their contents during terminal differentiation. As prespore vesicles secreted their contents, there was a co-incidental increase in extracellular acid hydrolase activity and a decrease in HDV-associated enzyme activity. Electron micrographs revealed that prespore cells contained two acid phosphatase-staining organelles, one of which appeared to be identical to lysosomes from nourished cells and a second which had features similar to prespore vesicles. Ricin-gold affinity electron microscopy was used to label the mucopolysaccharide component of prespore vesicles and the spore coat. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed co-localization of {alpha}-mannosidase with ricin-gold in prespore vesicles and the spore coat.

  15. Salicylic acid and ascorbic acid retrieve activity of antioxidative enzymes and structure of Caralluma tuberculata calli on PEG stress.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Riaz U; Zia, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Muhammad F

    2017-02-02

    Biochemical adaptations and morphological changes are cellular aptitude originated on biotic and abiotic stresses. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) induces drought stress in the nutrient solution. In the present investigation, Caralluma tuberculata calli is exposed to PEG and antioxidative molecules. By increasing the level of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT, APX, and GR), the PEG-stressed calli falls off upon exposure to non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid and salicylic acid). Under PEG-stress, several cellular and sub-cellular changes such as alteration in plasma membrane thickness, change in nucleus shape, increase in nucleoli, deformation of thylakoid membranes, and increase in plastoglobuli are observed through electron microscopic images. From our results we conclude that application of PEG (a drought causative agent) leads to an increase in the level of antioxidative enzymes and also deformation of cellular organelles. However, application of ascorbic acid and salicylic acid eradicate drought effect induced by PEG.

  16. Inhibition of DNA methyltransferase or histone deacetylase protects retinal pigment epithelial cells from DNA damage induced by oxidative stress by the stimulation of antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Tokarz, Paulina; Kaarniranta, Kai; Blasiak, Janusz

    2016-04-05

    Epigenetic modifications influence DNA damage response (DDR). In this study we explored the role of DNA methylation and histone acetylation in DDR in cells challenged with acute or chronic oxidative stress. We used retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19), which natively are exposed to oxidative stress due to permanent exposure to light and high blood flow. We employed a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor - RG108 (RG), or a histone deacetylase inhibitor - valproic acid (VA). ARPE-19 cells were exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide, an acute oxidative stress inducer, or glucose oxidase, which slowly liberates low-doses of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of glucose, creating chronic conditions. VA and RG reduced level of intracellular reactive oxygen species and DNA damage in ARPE-19 cells in normal condition and in oxidative stress. This protective effect of VA and RG was associated with the up-regulated expression of antioxidant enzyme genes: CAT, GPx1, GPx4, SOD1 and SOD2. RG decreased the number of cells in G2/M checkpoint in response to chronic oxidative stress. Neither RG nor VA changed the DNA repair or apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. Therefore, certain epigenetic manipulations may protect ARPE-19 cells from detrimental effects of oxidative stress by modulation of antioxidative enzyme gene expression, which may be further explored in pharmacological studies on oxidative stress-related eye diseases.

  17. Enzyme-assisted processing increases antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of bilberry.

    PubMed

    Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta; Nohynek, Liisa; Ammann, Sabine; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Buchert, Johanna

    2008-02-13

    The effects of nine cell wall-degrading enzymes on the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bilberry were studied. Antimicrobial activity was measured using the human pathogens Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus as test strains. Enzyme treatments liberated phenolics from the cell wall matrix, which clearly increased the antimicrobial activity of berry juices, press cakes, and berry mashes on the basis of plate counts. Antibacterial effects were stronger against Salmonella than against Staphylococcus bacteria. In general, the increase in activity measured as colony-forming units per milliliter was 3-5 logarithmic units against Salmonella and 1-2 units against Staphylococcus bacteria. Increase in antimicrobial activity was observed only in acidic conditions, which is also the natural environment in various berry products, such as juices. The activity profile of the pectinase preparation affected the chemistry of the phenolics due to the presence of deglycosylating activities in some preparations. The difference in phenolic profiles was reflected in the antimicrobial effects. Bilberry mashes treated with Pectinex Ultra SP-L, Pectinex 3 XL, and Pectinex BE XXL were most efficient against Salmonella bacteria, whereas mashes treated with Pectinex Smash, Pectinex BE 3-L, and Biopectinase CCM showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus bacteria. Due to the liberation of phenolics from the cell wall matrix the antioxidant activity measured as radical scavenging activity was also increased on average about 30% by the enzymatic treatments. The highest increase in phenolic compounds was about 40%. Highest increases in anthocyanins and in antioxidant activity were observed in berry mash treated with Pectinex Smash XXL enzyme, and the lowest increase was observed after treatment with Pectinex BE 3-L. Enzyme-assisted processing is traditionally used to improve berry and fruit juice yields. However, enzymatic treatments also

  18. The space of enzyme regulation in HeLa cells can be inferred from its intracellular metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Diener, Christian; Muñoz-Gonzalez, Felipe; Encarnación, Sergio; Resendis-Antonio, Osbaldo

    2016-01-01

    During the transition from a healthy state to a cancerous one, cells alter their metabolism to increase proliferation. The underlying metabolic alterations may be caused by a variety of different regulatory events on the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level whose identification contributes to the rational design of therapeutic targets. We present a mechanistic strategy capable of inferring enzymatic regulation from intracellular metabolome measurements that is independent of the actual mechanism of regulation. Here, enzyme activities are expressed by the space of all feasible kinetic constants (k-cone) such that the alteration between two phenotypes is given by their corresponding kinetic spaces. Deriving an expression for the transformation of the healthy to the cancer k-cone we identified putative regulated enzymes between the HeLa and HaCaT cell lines. We show that only a few enzymatic activities change between those two cell lines and that this regulation does not depend on gene transcription but is instead post-transcriptional. Here, we identify phosphofructokinase as the major driver of proliferation in HeLa cells and suggest an optional regulatory program, associated with oxidative stress, that affects the activity of the pentose phosphate pathway. PMID:27335086

  19. Differential Expression of Antioxidant Enzymes During Degradation of Azo Dye Reactive black 8 in Hairy roots of Physalis minima L.

    PubMed

    Jha, Pamela; Modi, Nikita; Jobby, Renitta; Desai, Neetin

    2015-01-01

    The enzymes involved in the protection of plant metabolism in presence of azo dye was characterized by studying activities of the role of antioxidant enzymes in the hairy roots (HRs) of Physalis minima L. during degradation of an azo dye, Reactive Black 8 (RB8). When the HRs were exposed to RB8 (30 mg L(-1)), a  nine fold increase in SOD activity was observed after 24 h, while 22 and 50 fold increase in activity was observed for POX and APX respectively after 72 h, whereas there was no significant change in activity of CAT. The activation of different antioxidant enzymes at different time intervals under dye stress suggests the synchronized functioning of antioxidant machinery to protect the HRs from oxidative damage. FTIR analysis confirmed the degradation of dye and the non-toxic nature of metabolites formed after dye degradation was confirmed by phytotoxicity study.

  20. Hepatoprotective effects of Nigella sativa L and Urtica dioica L on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, Mehmet; Coskun, Omer; Budancamanak, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Nigella sativa L (NS) and Urtica dioica L (UD) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in CCl4-treated rats. METHODS: Fifty-six healthy male Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly allotted into one of the four experimental groups: A (CCl4-only treated), B (CCl4+UD treated), C (CCl4+NS treated) and D (CCl4+UD+NS treated), each containing 14 animals. All groups received CCl4 (0.8 mL/kg of body weight, sc, twice a week for 60 d). In addition, B, C and D groups also received daily i.p. injections of 0.2 mL/kg NS or/and 2 mL/kg UD oils for 60 d. Group A, on the other hand, received only 2 mL/kg normal saline solution for 60 d. Blood samples for the biochemical analysis were taken by cardiac puncture from randomly chosen-seven rats in each treatment group at beginning and on the 60th d of the experiment. RESULTS: The CCl4 treatment for 60 d increased the lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes, and also decreased the antioxidant enzyme levels. NS or UD treatment (alone or combination) for 60 d decreased the elevated lipid peroxidation and liver enzyme levels and also increased the reduced antioxidant enzyme levels. The weight of rats decreased in group A, and increased in groups B, C and D. CONCLUSION: NS and UD decrease the lipid per-oxidation and liver enzymes, and increase the anti-oxidant defense system activity in the CCl4-treated rats. PMID:16425366

  1. Iron uptake and increased intracellular enzyme activity follow host lactoferrin binding by Trichomonas vaginalis receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.M.; Alderete, J.F.

    1984-08-01

    Lactoferrin acquisition and iron uptake by pathogenic Trichomonas vaginalis was examined. Saturation binding kinetics were obtained for trichomonads using increasing amounts of radioiodinated lactoferrin, while no significant binding by transferrin under similar conditions was achieved. Only unlabeled lactoferrin successfully and stoichiometrically competed with 125I-labeled lactoferrin binding. Time course studies showed maximal lactoferrin binding by 30 min at 37 degrees C. Data suggest no internalization of bound lactoferrin. The accumulation of radioactivity in supernatants after incubation of T. vaginalis with 125I-labeled lactoferrin and washing in PBS suggested the presence of low affinity sites for this host macromolecule. Scatchard analysis indicated the presence of 90,000 receptors per trichomonad with an apparent Kd of 1.0 microM. Two trichomonad lactoferrin binding proteins were identified by affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation of receptor-ligand complexes. A 30-fold accumulation of iron was achieved using 59Fe-lactoferrin when compared to the steady state concentration of bound lactoferrin. The activity of pyruvate/ferrodoxin oxidoreductase, an enzyme involved in trichomonal energy metabolism, increased more than sixfold following exposure of the parasites to lactoferrin, demonstrating a biologic response to the receptor-mediated binding of lactoferrin. These data suggest that T. vaginalis possesses specific receptors for biologically relevant host proteins and that these receptors contribute to the metabolic processes of the parasites.

  2. Effect of Cytotoxic Compounds on Activity of Antioxidant Enzyme System in MCF-7 and H1299 Cells.

    PubMed

    Mumyatova, V A; Balakina, A A; Filatova, N V; Sen', V D; Korepin, A G; Terentev, A A

    2016-05-01

    We studied the function of the antioxidant system in tumor cell lines MCF-7 and H1299 that differ by the state of tumor suppressor gene p53. Exposure to different classes of cytotoxic compounds induced several types of antioxidant system responses that depend on the type of cell line. The effects of platinum(II) and platinum(IV) complexes on activity of antioxidant enzymes vary, which can be explained by differences in their accumulation and biotransformation in tumor cells. Triazole and oxazolidinone derivatives had little effect on activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in H1299 cells, but increased superoxide dismutase activity in MCF-7 cells.

  3. Ultraviolet-B- and ozone-induced biochemical changes in antioxidant enzymes of Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, M.V.; Paliyath, G.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    Earlier studies with Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to ultraviolet B (UV-B) and ozone (O{sub 3}) have indicated the differential responses of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase. In this study, we have investigated whether A. thaliana genotype Landsberg erecta and its flavonoid-deficient mutant transparent testa (tt5) is capable of metabolizing UV-B- and O{sub 3}-induced activated oxygen species by invoking similar antioxidant enzymes. UV-B exposure preferentially enhanced guaiacol-peroxidases, ascorbate peroxidase, and peroxidases specific to coniferyl alcohol and modified the substrate affinity of ascorbate peroxidase. O{sub 3} exposure enhanced superoxide dismutase, peroxidases, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase to a similar degree and modified the substrate affinity of both glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase. Both UV-B and O{sub 3} exposure enhanced similar Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase isoforms. New isoforms of peroxidases and ascorbate peroxidase were synthesized in tt5 plants irradiated with UV-B. UV-B radiation, in contrast to O{sub 3}, enhanced the activation oxygen species by increasing membrane-localized NADPH-oxidase activity and decreasing catalase activities. These results collectively suggest that (a) UV-B exposure preferentially induces peroxidase-related enzymes, whereas O{sub 3} exposure invokes the enzymes of superoxide dismutase/ascorbate-glutathione cycle, and (b) in contrast to O{sub 3}, UV-B exposure generated activated oxygen species by increasing NADPH-oxidase activity. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Effects of in vivo antioxidant enzyme activities of myrtle oil in normoglycaemic and alloxan diabetic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sepici-Dincel, Aylin; Açikgöz, Sereften; Cevik, Cemal; Sengelen, Meltem; Yeşilada, Erdem

    2007-04-04

    In this study we aimed to evaluate the in vivo effects of myrtle oil (myrtii oleum) on the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase, the levels of malondialdehyde in liver tissues as an index of lipid peroxidation and nitrite-nitrate levels in normoglycaemic and alloxan-induced diabetic and MO-treated rabbits. In our previous study, we assumed that MO with a dose of 50 mg/kg, possesses a hypoglycemic activity and this activity was independent from the effects of insulin. Myrtle oil exerts its hypoglycemic activity by enhanced glycolysis, glycogenesis and decreased glycogenolysis. What is more glucose load data strongly suggest that MO treatment produces hypoglycemia mainly by reducing intestinal absorption of glucose, so MO could be an alpha-glycosidase enzyme inhibitor which had a hypoglycaemic effect only on alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits on the fourth hour and on orally glucose loaded group. The major finding of this new study is that, MO may not offer any protection against oxidative stress during acute studies in normoglycemic and diabetic groups. Although the levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities did not change during acute studies in diabetes + MO group, there was a significant change at the end of 21 days. There is a very limited knowledge about MO and its effects on diabetes. Therefore, we tried to explain the mechanism that might underlie the protective effects of MO with this paper.

  5. Gelam honey protects against gamma-irradiation damage to antioxidant enzymes in human diploid fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Tengku Ahbrizal Farizal Tengku; Jubri, Zakiah; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Rahim, Khairuddin Abdul; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd; Makpol, Suzana

    2013-02-11

    The present study was designed to determine the radioprotective effects of Malaysian Gelam honey on gene expression and enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) subjected to gamma-irradiation. Six groups of HDFs were studied: untreated control, irradiated HDFs, Gelam honey-treated HDFs and HDF treated with Gelam honey pre-, during- and post-irradiation. HDFs were treated with 6 mg/mL of sterilized Gelam honey (w/v) for 24 h and exposed to 1 Gray (Gy) of gamma rays at the dose rate of 0.25 Gy/min. Gamma-irradiation was shown to down-regulate SOD1, SOD2, CAT and GPx1 gene expressions (p < 0.05). Conversely, HDFs treated with Gelam honey alone showed up-regulation of all genes studied. Similarly, SOD, CAT and GPx enzyme activities in HDFs decreased with gamma-irradiation and increased when cells were treated with Gelam honey (p < 0.05). Furthermore, of the three different stages of study treatment, pre-treatment with Gelam honey caused up-regulation of SOD1, SOD2 and CAT genes expression and increased the activity of SOD and CAT. As a conclusion, Gelam honey modulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes at gene and protein levels in irradiated HDFs indicating its potential as a radioprotectant agent.

  6. Molecular Basis for Antioxidant Enzymes in Mediating Copper Detoxification in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shaojuan; Zhang, Xueyao; Wu, Haihua; Han, Yan; Zhang, Jianzhen; Ma, Enbo; Guo, Yaping

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant enzymes play a major role in defending against oxidative damage by copper. However, few studies have been performed to determine which antioxidant enzymes respond to and are necessary for copper detoxification. In this study, we examined both the activities and mRNA levels of SOD, CAT, and GPX under excessive copper stress in Caenorhabditis elegans, which is a powerful model for toxicity studies. Then, taking advantage of the genetics of this model, we assessed the lethal concentration (LC50) values of copper for related mutant strains. The results showed that the SOD, CAT, and GPX activities were significantly greater in treated groups than in controls. The mRNA levels of sod-3, sod-5, ctl-1, ctl-2, and almost all gpx genes were also significantly greater in treated groups than in controls. Among tested mutants, the sod-5, ctl-1, gpx-3, gpx-4, and gpx-6 variants exhibited hypersensitivity to copper. The strains with SOD or CAT over expression were reduced sensitive to copper. Mutations in daf-2 and age-1, which are involved in the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling pathway, result in reduced sensitivity to stress. Here, we showed that LC50 values for copper in daf-2 and age-1 mutants were significantly greater than in N2 worms. However, the LC50 values in daf-16;daf-2 and daf-16;age-1 mutants were significantly reduced than in daf-2 and age-1 mutants, implying that reduced copper sensitivity is influenced by DAF-16-related functioning. SOD, CAT, and GPX activities and the mRNA levels of the associated copper responsive genes were significantly increased in daf-2 and age-1 mutants compared to N2. Additionally, the activities of SOD, CAT, and GPX were greater in these mutants than in N2 when treated with copper. Our results not only support the theory that antioxidant enzymes play an important role in copper detoxification but also identify the response and the genes involved in these processes. PMID:25243607

  7. Association of erythrocytes antioxidant enzymes and their cofactors with markers of oxidative stress in patients with sickle cell anemia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Naama, Lamia M.; Hassan, Mea'ad K.; Mehdi, Jawad K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is an inherited blood disease with known complications as a result of certain pathophysiological dysfunctions. It has been suggested that an increase in oxidative stress contributes to the incidence of these changes. Objectives: This study investigated the oxidant/antioxidant status of patients with SCA, and evaluated the effect of SCA on antioxidant enzymes and their cofactors. Methods: The study included 42 patients with SCA (in steady state), and a control group of 50 age-matched individuals without SCA. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), copper, zinc, ferritin and iron levels, red blood cell (RBC) superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase levels were measured for the SCA and control groups. Results: Significantly lower levels of antioxidant enzymes (RBC SOD and catalase) and higher serum MDA levels (biomarker of oxidative stress) were found in SCA patients compared to the control group (all p < 0.001). Increased levels of serum ferritin, iron and copper and decreased zinc concentrations were also found in the SCA patients compared to the control group (all p < 0.001). In the SCA group, there were significant negative correlations between MDA levels and RBC SOD, RBC catalase, and serum zinc levels (p < 0.01), while a significant positive correlation between MDA with serum copper and iron levels (p < 0.01) was observed. Conclusion: SCA is associated with alterations in markers of oxidative stress including an increased MDA level, decreased antioxidant enzyme levels, and altered levels of enzyme cofactors (zinc, copper, and iron). This suggests that these antioxidant enzymes could be used as effective therapeutic targets for the treatment of this disease and supplementation of patients with substances with antioxidant properties may reduce the complications of this disease. PMID:26835411

  8. Effects of alginate on frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa quality, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activities.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinghua; Geng, Guoxia; Li, Qingwang; Sun, Xiuzhu; Cao, Hualin; Liu, Yawei

    2014-06-30

    Although alginate was reported to play an important role as free radical scavengers in vitro and could be used as sources of natural antioxidants, there was no study about the cryoprotective effects of alginate on boar spermatozoa freezing. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of alginate added to the freezing extenders on boar spermatozoa motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, mitochondrial activities, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzymes activities (SOD and GSH-Px) after thawing. Alginate was added to the TCG extender to yield six different final concentrations: 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0mg/mL. The semen extender supplemented with various doses of alginate increased (P<0.05) total motility. The spermatozoa plasma membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity were improved at four different concentrations: 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0mg/mL. The addition of alginate also provided significantly positive effect on post-thaw boar spermatozoa acrosomal integrity at concentrations of 0.6, 0.8, 1.0mg/mL, compared with that of the control (P<0.05). The freezing extenders with the presence of alginate led to higher SOD and GSH-Px activities and lower MDA levels, in comparison to the control (P<0.05). In summary, alginate exhibited a dose-related response on frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa motility, functional integrity and antioxidative capacity at appropriate concentrations. Therefore alginate could be employed as an effective cryoprotectant in boar spermatozoa cryopreservation.

  9. Effect of Oenanthe Javanica Extract on Antioxidant Enzyme in the Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choong-Hyun; Park, Joon-Ha; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Kim, In-Hye; Ahn, Ji-Hyeon; Lee, Jae-Chul; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Bae, Eun Joo; Kang, Il-Jun; Won, Moo-Ho; Kim, Jong-Dai

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oenanthe javanica (O. javanica) has been known to have high antioxidant properties via scavenging reactive oxygen species. We examined the effect of O. javanica extract (OJE) on antioxidant enzymes in the rat liver. Methods: We examined the effect of the OJE on copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the rat liver using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups; (1) normal diet fed group (normal-group), (2) diet containing ascorbic acid (AA)-fed group (AA-group) as a positive control, (3) diet containing OJE-fed group (OJE-group). Results: In this study, no histopathological finding in the rat liver was found in all the experimental groups. Numbers of SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and GPx immunoreactive cells and their protein levels were significantly increased in the AA-fed group compared with those in the normal-group. On the other hand, in the OJE-group, numbers of SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and GPx immunoreactive cells in the liver were significantly increased by about 190%, 478%, 685%, and 346%, respectively, compared with those in the AA-group. In addition, protein levels of SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and GPx in the OJE-group were also significantly much higher than those in the AA-group. Conclusion: OJE significantly increased expressions of SOD1 and SOD2, CAT, and GPx in the liver cells of the rat, and these suggests that significant enhancements of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants by OJE might be a legitimate strategy for decreasing oxidative stresses in the liver. PMID:26063368

  10. Antioxidant enzyme and osmotic adjustment changes in bean seedlings as affected by biochar under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Farhangi-Abriz, Salar; Torabian, Shahram

    2017-03-01

    Salinity damaged cellular membranes through overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while osmolytes and antioxidant capacities play a vital role in protecting plants from salinity caused oxidative damages. Biochar also could alleviate the negative impacts of salt stress in crops. The pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of biochar on some antioxidant enzyme activities and osmolyte adjustments of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Derakhshan) under salinity stress. Bean plants were subjected to three salinity levels (non-saline, 6 and 12 dSm(-1) of NaCl) and biochar treatments (non-biochar, 10% and 20% total pot mass). Shoot and root dry weights of bean were decreased at two salt stress treatments. Salinity increased the activity of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), oxygen radicals (O(2•-)), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in leaf and root compared to control. Additionally, increased magnitudes of proline, glycine betaine, soluble sugar and soluble protein contents were more pronounced under 12 dSm(-1) NaCl than those under 6 dSm(-1) NaCl. In contrast, biochar applied to soil enhanced the shoot and root dry weight in comparison with the non-biochar treatment. Furthermore, all of the antioxidant activities of seedlings in soil treated with biochar, particularly at 20% biochar, declined. With the addition of biochar, the contents of MDA, O(2•-) and H2O2 displayed remarkable decrease, and the osmotic substances accumulation in leaves and roots also reduced. The presented results supported the view that biochar can contribute to protect common bean seedlings against NaCl stress by alleviating the oxidative stress.

  11. Effects of methomyl on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in rat erythrocytes: in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Sameeh A; Mossa, Abdel-Tawab H; Heikal, Tarek M

    2009-09-01

    Erythrocytes are a convenient model to understand the membrane oxidative damage induced by various xenobiotic pro-oxidants. This study was designed to investigate the possibility of methomyl (Lannate 90% SP), S-methyl N-(methylcarbamoyloxy) thioacetimidate, to induce oxidative stress response in rat erythrocytes in vitro. Erythrocytes were incubated for 4 hours at 37 degrees C with different concentrations (0.0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM) of methomyl. The results showed that methomyl decreased acetylcholinesterase (AChE), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities and increased level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) as well as the percentage of haemolysis. The response occurred in a concentration-dependent manner. The study suggested that methomyl has the capability to induce oxidative damage as evidenced by increasing LPO and perturbations in various antioxidant enzymes.

  12. Enhancement of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) aqueous extract and antioxidant yield with fungal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Pengilly, Mia; Joubert, Elizabeth; van Zyl, Willem H; Botha, Alfred; Bloom, Marinda

    2008-06-11

    The leaves and stems of the Rooibos plant ( Aspalathus linearis) are used for the production of an herbal tea known for its health promoting properties, which have been linked to its flavonoid content but which is substantially reduced by the traditional processing method employed. Selected food-grade fungi were screened for their potential to improve the yield of soluble matter extracted from rooibos plant material. Fungal cocktails of hydrolyzing enzymes enhanced either the yield of soluble solids ( Lentinula edodes and Rhizopus oryzae cultured in yeast peptone-wheat straw medium) or the yield in antioxidants from fermented rooibos ( R. oryzae cultured in potato dextrose or yeast peptone-wheat straw medium). When applied to green rooibos, L. edodes (cultured in yeast peptone-wheat straw medium) enhanced the release of soluble solids as well as color formation, leading to semifermented rooibos with a relatively high aspalathin content, compared to fermented rooibos.

  13. A novel enzyme with antioxidant capacity produced by the ubiquitous skin colonizer Propionibacterium acnes

    PubMed Central

    Allhorn, Maria; Arve, Sabine; Brüggemann, Holger; Lood, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The role of the skin microbiota in human health is poorly understood. Here, we identified and characterized a novel antioxidant enzyme produced by the skin microbiota, designated RoxP for radical oxygenase of Propionibacterium acnes. RoxP is uniquely produced by the predominant skin bacterium P. acnes, with no homologs in other bacteria; it is highly expressed and strongly secreted into culture supernatants. We show that RoxP binds heme, reduces free radicals, and can protect molecules from oxidation. Strikingly, RoxP is crucial for the survival of P. acnes in oxic conditions and for skin colonization of P. acnes ex vivo. Taken together, our study strongly suggests that RoxP facilitates P. acnes’ survival on human skin, and is an important beneficial factor for the host-commensal interaction. Thus, RoxP is the first described skin microbiota-derived mutualistic factor that potentially can be exploited for human skin protection. PMID:27805044

  14. Antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) under different cultivation conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Kang, Young-Hwa

    2014-03-12

    An adaptation of cultural management to the specific cultural system, as well as crop demand, can further result in the improvement of the quality of horticultural products. Therefore, this study focused on the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) grown in hydroponics in comparison with those of the plant grown in soil. The antioxidant activities of Plebeian herba extract were measured as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities as well as the reducing power by decreasing nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in vitro. Interestingly, by comparison with hydroponics and traditional cultivation, Plebeian herba cultivated in nutrition-based soil improved inhibitory effect on free radicals of DPPH, ABTS, and NO and increased the contents of phenolics such as caffeic acid (1), luteolin-7-glucoside (2), homoplantaginin (3), hispidulin (4), and eupatorin. Free radical scavenging and SOD activity, as well as α-glucosidase inhibitory effect, were higher in Plebeian herba grown in nutrition-based soil than in plants grown in hydroponics and traditional condition.

  15. Toxicological impact of technical imidacloprid on ovarian morphology, hormones and antioxidant enzymes in female rats.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Upasana; Srivastava, M K; Srivastava, L P

    2011-12-01

    Technical imidacloprid was evaluated for its effect on ovarian morphology, hormones and antioxidant enzymes in female rats after 90 days oral exposure. Luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and progesterone levels were estimated in serum of rats and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated in ovary after oral administration of imidacloprid (5, 10, and 20mg/kg/day) for 90 days. Decreased ovarian weight together with significant patho-morphological changes in follicles, antral follicles and atretic follicles were observed at 20mg/kg/day. Imidacloprid at 5 and 10mg/kg/day has not produced any significant changes in ovarian morphology, hormones and antioxidant status of ovary. However 20mg/kg/day dose has produced significant alterations in the levels of LH, FSH and progesterone. Similarly significant changes in SOD, CAT, GPx, GSH, and LPO were observed at 20mg/kg/day dose level. Therefore, it is concluded that imidacloprid at 20mg/kg/day dose level has produced significant toxicological impact on ovary of female rats as evident by pathomorphological changes, hormonal imbalance and generating oxidative stress and can be considered primarily as Lowest Observed Effect Level (LOEL) for chronic study.

  16. The effects of dopamine on antioxidant enzymes activities and reactive oxygen species levels in soybean roots

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Bruno Ribeiro; Siqueira-Soares, Rita de Cássia; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Marchiosi, Rogério; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    In the current work, we investigated the effects of dopamine, an neurotransmitter found in several plant species on antioxidant enzyme activities and ROS in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) roots. The effects of dopamine on SOD, CAT and POD activities, as well as H2O2, O2•−, melanin contents and lipid peroxidation were evaluated. Three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (pH 6.0), without or with 0.1 to 1.0 mM dopamine, in a growth chamber (25°C, 12 h photoperiod, irradiance of 280 μmol m−2 s−1) for 24 h. Significant increases in melanin content were observed. The levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation decreased at all concentrations of dopamine tested. The SOD activity increased significantly under the action of dopamine, while CT activity was inhibited and POD activity was unaffected. The results suggest a close relationship between a possible antioxidant activity of dopamine and melanin and activation of SOD, reducing the levels of ROS and damage on membranes of soybean roots. PMID:25482756

  17. Butyrate modulates antioxidant enzyme expression in malignant and non-malignant human colon tissues.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Franziska; Wilhelm, Anne; Jablonowski, Nadja; Mothes, Henning; Greulich, Karl Otto; Glei, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The induction of antioxidant enzymes is an important mechanism in colon cancer chemoprevention, but the response of human colon tissue to butyrate, a gut fermentation product derived from dietary fiber, remains largely unknown. Therefore, our study investigated the effect of a butyrate treatment on catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in matched human colon tissues of different transformation stages (n = 3-15 in each group) ex vivo. By performing quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and spectrophotometric measurements, we found an increase in SOD2 at expression and activity level in colonic adenocarcinomas (mRNA: 1.96-fold; protein: 1.41-fold, activity: 1.8-fold; P < 0.05). No difference was detectable for CAT between normal, adenoma, and carcinoma colon tissues. Treatment of normal colon epithelium (12 h) with a physiologically relevant concentration of butyrate (10 mM) resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.05) in CAT mRNA (1.24-fold) and protein (1.39-fold), without affecting the enzymatic activity. Consequently, preliminary experiments failed to show any protective effect of butyrate against H2 O2 -mediated DNA damage. Despite a significantly lowered SOD2 transcript (0.51-fold, P < 0.01) and, to a lesser extent, protein level (0.86-fold) after butyrate exposure of normal colon cells, the catalytic activity was significantly enhanced (1.19-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting an increased protection against tissue superoxide radicals. In malignant tissues, greater variations in response to butyrate were observed. Furthermore, both enzymes showed an age-dependent decrease in activity in normal colon epithelium (CAT: r = -0.49, P = 0.09; SOD2: r = -0.58, P = 0.049). In conclusion, butyrate exhibited potential antioxidant features ex vivo but cellular consequences need to be investigated more in depth.

  18. Influence and interaction of iron and cadmium on photosynthesis and antioxidative enzymes in two rice cultivars.

    PubMed

    Liu, Houjun; Zhang, Chengxin; Wang, Junmei; Zhou, Chongjun; Feng, Huan; Mahajan, Manoj D; Han, Xiaori

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a soil pot experiment was conducted to investigate the changes in photosynthesis and antioxidative enzymes in two rice varieties (Shendao 6 and Shennong 265) supplied with iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), and Fe and Cd together. The concentrations of Fe and Cd in the soil were 0, 1.0 g Fe·kg(-1) and 0, 2.0 mg Cd·kg(-1), respectively. Photosynthetic indices and antioxidative enzyme activities were recorded at different rice growth stages. At the early stage, Cd showed a transient stimulatory effect on the photosynthetic rate of Shennong 265. For Shendao 6, however, Cd showed a transient stimulatory effect on photosynthetic rate, intercellular CO2 concentration, stomatal conductance and transpiration efficiency. In addition, the results show that Cd can also enhance the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities, but reduce the malondialdehyde (MDA) and soluble protein contents in the two rice cultivars. Subsequently, Cd starts to inhibit photosynthesis and SOD activity until the ripening stage, causing the lowest photosynthetic rate and SOD activity at this stage. In contrast, Fe alleviates the Cd-induced changes at earlier or later growth stage. Notably at the later growth stage, the results show that the interaction between Fe and Cd increases the SOD and catalase (CAT) activities, while decreasing the lipid peroxidation and promoting photosynthesis. As a result, it ultimately increases the biomass. The results from this study suggest that Fe (as Fe fertilizer) is a promising alternative for agricultural use to enhance the plant development and, simultaneously, to reduce Cd toxicity in extensively polluted soils.

  19. Anti-oxidative enzyme changes associated with chickpea calli tolerant to Ascochyta rabiei culture filtrate.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prabhat; Sangwan, M S; Mehta, Naresh; Kumar, Santosh

    2014-05-01

    Ascochyta blight caused by Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Labrousse is a major biotic constraint in production of chickpea. In the present investigation, all chickpea genotypes [E100Y (m), Gaurav, Pb-7 and L550] induced 100% callus on standard medium with greenish colour and fragile structure. These calli were used for in vitro screening against pathogen, A. rabiei culture filtrate at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% concentrations. Survival rate of calli in all chickpea's genotypes were reduced significantly at higher concentration (15%) of culture filtrate. The culture filtrate concentration of 20 % was lethal for calli of all chickpea's genotypes. Hence, biochemical changes viz. total soluble proteins and activities of anti-oxidative enzymes (polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase and catalase) were estimated at 15% and below concentration of culture filtrate. Tolerant calli of resistant genotype, E100 Y (m) revealed significantly higher total soluble proteins (10.04 mg g⁻¹ f.wt. of callus) and activity of anti-oxidative enzymes, polyphenol oxidase (9.0 unit absorbance change min⁻¹ mg⁻¹ protein) and peroxidase (19.09 unit absorbance change min⁻¹ mg⁻¹ protein) and lower catalase (18.65 μ moles of H2O2 utilized min⁻¹ mg⁻¹ protein) at higher (15%) concentration of culture filtrate followed by moderately resistant (Gaurav), and susceptible genotypes (Pb-7 and L550). Thus, higher polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase and lower catalase activity in chickpea's genotypes against culture filtrate of A. rabiei could be used as parameters for screening resistant genotypes to pathogen, A. rabiei.

  20. The Protective Roles of the Antioxidant Enzymes Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase in the Green Photosynthetic Bacterium Chloroflexus Aurantiacus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, Robert E.; Rothschild, Lynn (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the biochemical response of the green thermophilic photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus to oxidative stress. Lab experiments focused primarily on characterizing the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase and the response of this organism to oxidative stress. Experiments in the field at the hotsprings in Yellowstone National Park focused on the changes in the level of these enzymes during the day in response to oxidants and to the different types of ultraviolet radiation.

  1. Effects of Microgravity On Oxidative and Antioxidant Enzymes In Mouse Hindlimb Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girten, B.; Hoopes, R.; Steele, M.; Morony, S.; Bateman, T. A.; Sun, S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Gastrocnemius muscle of mice were analyzed in order to examine the effects of 12 days of microgravity on the oxidative enzyme climate synthase (CS) and the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). The female C57BL/6J mice utilized for this study were part of the Commercial Biomedical Testing Module (CBTM) payload that flew aboard STS-108. Mice were housed in Animal Enclosure Modules (AEMs) provided by NASA Ames. The flight (FLT) group and the ground control (CON) group each had 12 mice per group. The AEMs that held the CON group operated on a 48-hour delay from the FLT group and were located inside the Orbital Environmental Simulator (OES) at Kennedy Space Center. The temperature, CO2 and relative humidity inside the OES was regulated based on downlinked information from the shuttle middeck. Student T tests were used to compare groups and a p < 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. Results indicated that CS levels for the FLT group were significantly lower than the CON group while the SOD levels were significantly higher. The CS FLT mean was 19% lower and the SOD FLT mean was 17% higher than the respective CON group means. Although these findings are among the first muscle enzyme values reported for mice from a shuttle mission, these results are similar to some results previously reported for rats exposed to microgravity or hindlimb suspension. The changes seen during the CBTM payload are reflective of the deconditioning that takes place with disuse of the hindlimbs and indicate that muscle enzyme changes induced by disuse deconditioning are similar in both rodent species.

  2. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga lecanora) Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Raheleh; Zarei, Mohammad; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin; Saari, Nazamid

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, food protein-derived hydrolysates have received considerable attention because of their numerous health benefits. Amongst the hydrolysates, those with anti-hypertensive and anti-oxidative activities are receiving special attention as both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities of Actinopyga lecanora (A. lecanora) hydrolysates, which had been prepared by alcalase, papain, bromelain, flavourzyme, pepsin, and trypsin under their optimum conditions. The alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (69.8%) after 8 h of hydrolysis while the highest anti-oxidative activities measured by 2,2-diphenyl 1-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH) (56.00%) and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC) (59.00%) methods were exhibited after 24 h and 8 h of hydrolysis, respectively. The ACE-inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities displayed dose-dependent trends, and increased with increasing protein hydrolysate concentrations. Moreover, strong positive correlations between angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities were also observed. This study indicates that A. lecanora hydrolysate can be exploited as a source of functional food owing to its anti-oxidant as well as anti-hypertension functions. PMID:26690117

  3. Antioxidative properties and inhibition of key enzymes relevant to type-2 diabetes and hypertension by essential oils from black pepper.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Odubanjo, Oluwatoyin V; Akinbola, Ifeoluwa A

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant properties and effect of essential oil of black pepper (Piper guineense) seeds on α -amylase, α -glucosidase (key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes), and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) (key enzyme linked to hypertension) were assessed. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and dried with anhydrous Na2SO4, and the phenolic content, radical [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging abilities as well as the ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe(2+)-chelating ability of the essential oil were investigated. Furthermore, the effect on α -amylase, α -glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities was also investigated. The characterization of the constituents was done using GC. The essential oil scavenged DPPH∗, NO∗, and ABTS∗ and chelated Fe(2+). α -Pinene, β -pinene, cis-ocimene, myrcene, allo-ocimene, and 1,8-cineole were among the constituents identified by GC. The essential oil inhibited α -amylase, α -glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities in concentration-dependent manners, though exhibiting a stronger inhibition of α -glucosidase than α -amylase activities. Conclusively, the phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and inhibition of α -amylase, α -glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the essential oil extract of black pepper could be part of the mechanism by which the essential oil could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension.

  4. Identification and characterization of the intracellular poly-3-hydroxybutyrate depolymerase enzyme PhaZ of Sinorhizobium meliloti

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background S. meliloti forms indeterminate nodules on the roots of its host plant alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Bacteroids of indeterminate nodules are terminally differentiated and, unlike their non-terminally differentiated counterparts in determinate nodules, do not accumulate large quantities of Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) during symbiosis. PhaZ is in intracellular PHB depolymerase; it represents the first enzyme in the degradative arm of the PHB cycle in S. meliloti and is the only enzyme in this half of the PHB cycle that remains uncharacterized. Results The S. meliloti phaZ gene was identified by in silico analysis, the ORF was cloned, and a S. meliloti phaZ mutant was constructed. This mutant exhibited increased PHB accumulation during free-living growth, even when grown under non-PHB-inducing conditions. The phaZ mutant demonstrated no reduction in symbiotic capacity; interestingly, analysis of the bacteroids showed that this mutant also accumulated PHB during symbiosis. This mutant also exhibited a decreased capacity to tolerate long-term carbon starvation, comparable to that of other PHB cycle mutants. In contrast to other PHB cycle mutants, the S. meliloti phaZ mutant did not exhibit any decrease in rhizosphere competitiveness; however, this mutant did exhibit a significant increase in succinoglycan biosynthesis. Conclusions S. meliloti bacteroids retain the capacity to synthesize PHB during symbiosis; interestingly, accumulation does not occur at the expense of symbiotic performance. phaZ mutants are not compromised in their capacity to compete for nodulation in the rhizosphere, perhaps due to increased succinoglycan production resulting from upregulation of the succinoglycan biosynthetic pathway. The reduced survival capacity of free-living cells unable to access their accumulated stores of PHB suggests that PHB is a crucial metabolite under adverse conditions. PMID:20346169

  5. Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Delles, Rebecca M; Xiong, Youling L; True, Alma D; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A

    2014-06-01

    Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P < 0.05) with an antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity.

  6. Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity1

    PubMed Central

    Delles, Rebecca M.; Xiong, Youling L.; True, Alma D.; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P < 0.05) with an antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity. PMID:24879706

  7. Selenium Accumulation in Unicellular Green Alga Chlorella vulgaris and Its Effects on Antioxidant Enzymes and Content of Photosynthetic Pigments

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xian; Zhong, Yu; Huang, Zhi; Yang, Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate selenite effects in the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris as a primary producer and the relationship with intracellular bioaccumulation. The effects of selenite were evaluated by measuring the effect of different selenite concentrations on algal growth during a 144 h exposure period. It was found that lower Se concentrations (≤75 mg L−1) positively promoted C. vulgaris growth and acted as antioxidant by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (LPO) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidative effect was associated with an increase in guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and photosynthetic pigments. Meanwhile, significant increase in the cell growth rate and organic Se content was also detected in the algae. In contrast, these changes were opposite in C. vulgaris exposed to Se higher than 100 mg L−1. The antioxidation and toxicity appeared to be correlated to Se bioaccumulation, which suggests the appropriate concentration of Se in the media accumulation of C. vulgaris should be 75 mg L−1. Taken together, C. vulgaris possesses tolerance to Se, and Se-Chlorella could be developed as antioxidative food for aquaculture and human health. PMID:25375113

  8. Selenium accumulation in unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris and its effects on antioxidant enzymes and content of photosynthetic pigments.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xian; Zhong, Yu; Huang, Zhi; Yang, Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate selenite effects in the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris as a primary producer and the relationship with intracellular bioaccumulation. The effects of selenite were evaluated by measuring the effect of different selenite concentrations on algal growth during a 144 h exposure period. It was found that lower Se concentrations (≤ 75 mg L(-1)) positively promoted C. vulgaris growth and acted as antioxidant by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (LPO) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidative effect was associated with an increase in guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and photosynthetic pigments. Meanwhile, significant increase in the cell growth rate and organic Se content was also detected in the algae. In contrast, these changes were opposite in C. vulgaris exposed to Se higher than 100 mg L-1. The antioxidation and toxicity appeared to be correlated to Se bioaccumulation, which suggests the appropriate concentration of Se in the media accumulation of C. vulgaris should be 75 mg L-1. Taken together, C. vulgaris possesses tolerance to Se, and Se-Chlorella could be developed as antioxidative food for aquaculture and human health.

  9. Changes in antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, total phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Jahantigh, Omolbanin; Najafi, Farzaneh; Badi, Hassanali Naghdi; Khavari-Nejad, Ramazan Ali; Sanjarian, Forough

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between salt stress and antioxidant enzymes activities, proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants in growth stage were investigated. The plants were subjected to five levels of saline irrigation water, 0.37 (tap water as control) with 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dSm(-1) of saline water. After two months the uniform plants were harvested for experimental analysis. Antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents of the plants were examinated. Enhanced activities of peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were determined by increasing salinity that plays an important protective role in the ROS-scavenging process. Proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents increased significantly with increasing salinity. These results suggest that salinity tolerance of Hyssopus officinalis plants might be closely related with the increased capacity of antioxidative system to scavenge reactive oxygen species and with the accumulation of osmoprotectant proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents under salinity conditions.

  10. Correlation between Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Free Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation in Four Lines of Korean Native Chicken Meat

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Kyung; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe the association between antioxidant enzyme activity, free iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chicken (KNC) meat during refrigerated storage. Four lines of KNC (Yeonsan ogye, Hyunin black, Hoengseong yakdak and Hwangbong) were raised under similar conditions. A total of 16 roosters were randomly sampled and slaughtered at the age of 12 mon. The breast and thigh meats were stored aerobically for 10 d at 4℃. Although thigh meat had higher antioxidant enzyme activity, it was more susceptible to lipid oxidation and released more iron during storage than breast meat. Aerobic refrigerated storage for 10 d significantly decreased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and increased the amount of free iron and malondialdehyde. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were negatively correlated with lipid oxidation, whereas that of catalase was not. The amount of free iron was positively associated with lipid oxidation. We concluded that chicken line did not affect strongly on antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid oxidation in breast meat of KNC. However, the thigh meat of Hwangbong and Hyunin black had higher SOD and GSH-Px activity, respectively, and lower malondialdehyde contents than that of other chickens. SOD, GSH-Px and free iron play significant roles in meat lipid oxidation during refrigerated storage. PMID:27499663

  11. The role of antioxidant enzymes in adaptive responses to sheath blight infestation under different fertilization rates and hill densities.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Wan, Xuejie; Shah, Farooq; Fahad, Shah; Huang, Jianliang

    2014-01-01

    Sheath blight of rice, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most devastating rice diseases worldwide. No rice cultivar has been found to be completely resistant to this fungus. Identifying antioxidant enzymes activities (activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT)) and malondialdehyde content (MDA) responding to sheath blight infestation is imperative to understand the defensive mechanism systems of rice. In the present study, two inoculation methods (toothpick and agar block method) were tested in double-season rice. Toothpick method had greater lesion length than agar block method in late season. A higher MDA content was found under toothpick method compared with agar block method, which led to greater POD and SOD activities. Dense planting caused higher lesion length resulting in a higher MDA content, which also subsequently stimulated higher POD and SOD activity. Sheath blight severity was significantly related to the activity of antioxidant enzyme during both seasons. The present study implies that rice plants possess a system of antioxidant protective enzymes which helps them in adaptation to sheath blight infection stresses. Several agronomic practices, such as rational use of fertilizers and optimum planting density, involved in regulating antioxidant protective enzyme systems can be regarded as promising strategy to suppress the sheath blight development.

  12. Interplay Between Oncoproteins and Antioxidant Enzymes in Esophageal Carcinoma Treated Without and With Chemoradiotherapy: A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Tranum; Gupta, Rajesh; Vaiphei, Kim; Kapoor, Rakesh; Gupta, N.M.; Khanduja, K.L.

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze p53, bcl-2, c-myc, and cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression changes and examine their relationship with various antioxidant enzymes in esophageal carcinoma patients. Methods and Materials: Patients in Group 1 underwent transhiatal esophagectomy and those in Group 2 were administered chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery after 4 weeks of neoadjuvant therapy. Results: The relationship analysis among the various protein markers and antioxidant enzymes showed an inverse correlation between bcl-2 and superoxide dismutase/catalase in tumor tissues, irrespective of the treatment arm followed. An important positive association was observed between bcl-2 and reduced glutathione levels in the tumor tissue of patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy. Another apoptosis-modulating marker, c-myc, in the tumor tissue of Group 2 patients showed similar pattern levels (high and low) as that of superoxide dismutase/catalase. The association of cyclooxygenase-2 and p53 with various antioxidant enzymes showed a significant positive correlation between cyclooxygenase-2 expression and catalase activity and an inverse trend between p53 expression and superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in the tumor tissue of patients given neoadjuvant therapy. In addition, patients with overexpressed p53 protein levels had lower glutathione peroxidase enzyme levels and vice versa in the tumor tissue of patients who had undergone surgery as their main mode of treatment. Conclusion: The results of this study broaden the insight into the relationships shared among oncoproteins and the antioxidant defense system, and this could be helpful in the clinical management of esophageal carcinoma.

  13. Influence of broccoli extract and various essential oils on performance and expression of xenobiotic- and antioxidant enzymes in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Kristin; Blum, Nicole M; Kluge, Holger; Mueller, Andreas S

    2012-08-01

    The aim of our present study was to examine the regulation of xenobiotic- and antioxidant enzymes by phytogenic feed additives in the intestine and the liver of broilers. A total of 240 male Ross-308 broiler chickens (1 d old) were fed a commercial starter diet for 2 weeks. On day 15, the birds were assigned to six treatment groups of forty birds each. The control (Con) group was fed a diet without any additive for 3 weeks. The diet of group sulforaphane (SFN) contained broccoli extract providing 0.075 g/kg SFN, whereas the diets of the other four groups contained 0.15 g/kg essential oils from turmeric (Cuo), oregano (Oo), thyme and rosemary (Ro). Weight gain and feed conversion were slightly impaired by Cuo and Oo. In the jejunum SFN, Cuo and Ro increased the expression of xenobiotic enzymes (epoxide hydrolases 1 and 2 and aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase) and of the antioxidant enzyme haeme oxygenase regulated by an 'antioxidant response element' (ARE) compared to group Con. In contrast to our expectations in the liver, the expression of these enzymes was decreased by all the additives. Nevertheless, all the additives increased the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of the jejunum and the liver and reduced Fe-induced lipid peroxidation in the liver. We conclude that the up-regulation of ARE genes in the small intestine reduces oxidative stress in the organism and represents a novel mechanism by which phytogenic feed additives improve the health of farm animals.

  14. Effect of allyl isothiocyanate on antioxidant enzyme activities, flavonoids and fruit quality of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L., cv. Duke)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) on antioxidant enzyme activities, flavonoid content, and fruit quality of blueberries var. Duke (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) was evaluated. Results from this study showed that AITC was effective in maintaining higher amounts of sugars and lower organic acids co...

  15. AmiA is a penicillin target enzyme with dual activity in the intracellular pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Klöckner, Anna; Otten, Christian; Derouaux, Adeline; Vollmer, Waldemar; Bühl, Henrike; De Benedetti, Stefania; Münch, Daniela; Josten, Michaele; Mölleken, Katja; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Henrichfreise, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular Chlamydiaceae do not need to resist osmotic challenges and a functional cell wall was not detected in these pathogens. Nevertheless, a recent study revealed evidence for circular peptidoglycan-like structures in Chlamydiaceae and penicillin inhibits cytokinesis, a phenomenon known as the chlamydial anomaly. Here, by characterizing a cell wall precursor-processing enzyme, we provide insights into the mechanisms underlying this mystery. We show that AmiA from Chlamydia pneumoniae separates daughter cells in an Escherichia coli amidase mutant. Contrary to homologues from free-living bacteria, chlamydial AmiA uses lipid II as a substrate and has dual activity, acting as an amidase and a carboxypeptidase. The latter function is penicillin sensitive and assigned to a penicillin-binding protein motif. Consistent with the lack of a regulatory domain in AmiA, chlamydial CPn0902, annotated as NlpD, is a carboxypeptidase, rather than an amidase activator, which is the case for E. coli NlpD. Functional conservation of AmiA implicates a role in cytokinesis and host response modulation. PMID:24953137

  16. Dynamic changes of anti-oxidative enzymes of 10 wheat genotypes at soil water deficits.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hong Bo; Liang, Zong Suo; Shao, Ming An; Sun, Qun

    2005-05-25

    Drought is a world-spread problem seriously influencing crop production and quality, the loss of which is the total for other natural disasters, with increasing global climate change making the situation more serious. Wheat is the staple food for more than 35% of world population, so wheat anti-drought physiology study is of importance to wheat production and biological breeding for the sake of coping with abiotic and biotic conditions. Much research is involved in this hot topic, but the pace of progress is not so large because of drought resistance being a multiple-gene-control quantitative character and wheat genome being larger (16,000 Mb). On the other hand, stress adaptive mechanisms are quite different, with stress degree, different growth and developmental stages, time course, materials and experimental plots, thus increasing the complexity of the issue in question. Additionally, a little study is related to the whole life circle of wheat, which cannot provide a comprehensive understanding of its anti-drought machinery. We selected 10 kinds of wheat genotypes as materials, which have potential to be applied in practice, and measured change of relative physiological indices through wheat whole growing developmental circle (i.e. seedling, tillage and maturing). Here, we reported the dynamic anti-oxidative results of whole stage (i.e. seedling, tillage and maturing) in terms of activities of POD, SOD, CAT of 10 wheat genotypes as follows: (1) 10 wheat genotypes can be grouped into three kinds (A, B and C, respectively) according to their changing trend of the measured indices; (2) A group performed better resistance drought under the condition of treatment level 1, whose activities of anti-oxidative enzymes (POD, SOD, CAT) were higher; (3) B group exhibited stronger anti-drought under treatment level 2, whose activities of anti-oxidative enzymes were higher; (4) C group expressed anti-drought to some extent under treatment level 3, whose activities of anti-oxidative

  17. Strawberry Polyphenols Attenuate Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rats by Activation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Attenuation of MDA Increase

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Suarez, José M.; Dekanski, Dragana; Ristić, Slavica; Radonjić, Nevena V.; Petronijević, Nataša D.; Giampieri, Francesca; Astolfi, Paola; González-Paramás, Ana M.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Tulipani, Sara; Quiles, José L.; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects of three strawberry extracts against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage in an experimental in vivo model and to test whether strawberry extracts affect antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric mucosa. Methods/Principal Findings Strawberry extracts were obtained from Adria, Sveva and Alba cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging capacity were performed by TEAC, ORAC and electron paramagnetic resonance assays. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins was carried out by HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Different groups of animals received 40 mg/day/kg body weight of strawberry crude extracts for 10 days. Gastric damage was induced by ethanol. The ulcer index was calculated together with the determination of catalase and SOD activities and MDA contents. Strawberry extracts are rich in anthocyanins and present important antioxidant capacity. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and strawberry consumption protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly after strawberry extract intake and a concomitantly decrease in gastric lipid peroxidation was found. A significant correlation between total anthocyanin content and percent of inhibition of ulcer index was also found. Conclusions Strawberry extracts prevented exogenous ethanol-induced damage to rats' gastric mucosa. These effects seem to be associated with the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the extract as well as with the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes. A diet rich in strawberries might exert a

  18. Abalone Protein Hydrolysates: Preparation, Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibition and Cellular Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Yeon; Je, Jae-Young; Hwang, Joung-Youl; Ahn, Chang-Bum

    2015-01-01

    Abalone protein was hydrolyzed by enzymatic hydrolysis and the optimal enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratios were determined. Abalone protein hydrolysates (APH) produced by Protamex at E/S ratio of 1:100 showed angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity with IC50 of 0.46 mg/mL, and APH obtained by Flavourzyme at E/S ratio of 1:100 possessed the oxygen radical absorbance capacity value of 457.6 μM trolox equivalent/mg sample. Flavourzyme abalone protein hydrolysates (FAPH) also exhibited H2O2 scavenging activity with IC50 of 0.48 mg/mL and Fe2+ chelating activity with IC50 of 2.26 mg/mL as well as high reducing power. FAPH significantly (P<0.05) protected H2O2-induced hepatic cell damage in cultured hepatocytes, and the cell viability was restored to 90.27% in the presence of FAPH. FAPH exhibited 46.20% intracellular ROS scavenging activity and 57.89% lipid peroxidation inhibition activity in cultured hepatocytes. Overall, APH may be useful as an ingredient for functional foods. PMID:26451354

  19. Antioxidant enzyme activities are affected by salt content and temperature and influence muscle lipid oxidation during dry-salted bacon processing.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guofeng; He, Lichao; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Jianhao; Ma, Meihu

    2013-12-01

    Fresh pork bacon belly was used as material and manufactured into dry-salted bacon through salting and drying-ripening. During processing both oxidative stability and antioxidant enzyme stability were evaluated by assessing peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and their correlations were also analysed. The results showed that all antioxidant enzyme activities decreased (p<0.05) until the end of process; GSH-Px was the most unstable one followed by catalase. Antioxidant enzyme activities were negatively correlated with TBARS (p<0.05), but the correlations were decreased with increasing process temperature. Salt showed inhibitory effect on all antioxidant enzyme activities and was concentration dependent. These results indicated that when process temperature and salt content were low at the same time during dry-salted bacon processing, antioxidant enzymes could effectively control lipid oxidation.

  20. Effects of NaCl stress on antioxidative enzymes of glycine Soja sieb.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan

    2009-03-15

    The activity of anti-oxidant enzymes (Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Peroxidase (POD), Catalase (CAT) and parameters of oxidative stress malondialdehyde (MDA) of shoots were investigated in S. sieb naturally salt-resistant halophyte. The seedlings of S. sieb were treated with varying (0, 80, 160 and 240 mM) NaCl stress. The results showed that NaCl played an important role in growth of S. sieb. It made obviously promotion of certain NaCl concentration to growth of S. sieb, the seeflings of S. sieb grew best under 80 mM salt stress. MDA concentration of S. sieb obviously decreased under 80 mM salt stress then increased with salt concentration increased. The activities of SOD, POD and CAT increased with the increase of the concentration of NaCl in S. sieb. The salt tolerance of this halophyte under salt stress condition are probably due to its ability to exhibit high SOD, POD and CAT enzyme activities and Soluble Sugar (SS) concentration.

  1. Differential expression and immunolocalization of antioxidant enzymes in Entamoeba histolytica isolates during metronidazole stress.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Lakshmi Rani; Singh, Nishant; Verma, Anil Kumar; Paul, Jaishree

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica infections are endemic in the Indian subcontinent. Five to eight percent of urban population residing under poor sanitary conditions suffers from Entamoeba infections. Metronidazole is the most widely prescribed drug used for amoebiasis. In order to understand the impact of metronidazole stress on the parasite, we evaluated the expression of two antioxidant enzymes, peroxiredoxin and FeSOD, in Entamoeba histolytica isolates during metronidazole stress. The results reveal that, under metronidazole stress, the mRNA expression levels of these enzymes did not undergo any significant change. Interestingly, immunolocalization studies with antibodies targeting peroxiredoxin indicate differential localization of the protein in the cell during metronidazole stress. In normal conditions, all the Entamoeba isolates exhibit presence of peroxiredoxin in the nucleus as well as in the membrane; however with metronidazole stress the protein localized mostly to the membrane. The change in the localization pattern was more pronounced when the cells were subjected to short term metronidazole stress compared to cells adapted to metronidazole. The protein localization to the cell membrane could be the stress response mechanism in these isolates. Colocalization pattern of peroxiredoxin with CaBp1, a cytosolic protein, revealed that the membrane and nuclear localization was specific to peroxiredoxin during metronidazole stress.

  2. Enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidative phenols from black currant juice press residues (Ribes nigrum).

    PubMed

    Landbo, A K; Meyer, A S

    2001-07-01

    Enzymatic release of phenolic compounds from pomace remaining from black currant (Ribes nigrum) juice production was examined. Treatment with each of the commercial pectinolytic enzyme preparations Grindamyl pectinase, Macer8 FJ, Macer8 R, and Pectinex BE, as well as treatment with Novozym 89 protease, significantly increased plant cell wall breakdown of the pomace. Each of the tested enzyme preparations except Grindamyl pectinase also significantly enhanced the amount of phenols extracted from the pomace. Macer8 FJ and Macer8 R decreased the extraction yields of anthocyanins, whereas Pectinex BE and Novozym 89 protease showed no effect. A decrease in pomace particle sizes from 500-1000 microm to <125 microm increased the phenol yields 1.6-5 times. Black currant pomace devoid of seeds gave significantly higher yields of phenols than pomace with seeds and seedless wine pomace. Four selected black currant pomace extracts all exerted a pronounced antioxidant activity against human LDL oxidation in vitro when tested at equimolar phenol concentrations of 7.5-10 microM.

  3. Antioxidants

    MedlinePlus

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  4. Antioxidant capacity and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity of a melon concentrate rich in superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Carillon, Julie; Del Rio, Daniele; Teissèdre, Pierre-Louis; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Lacan, Dominique; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2012-12-01

    Antioxidant capacity and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of a melon concentrate rich in superoxide dismutase (SOD-MC) were investigated in vitro. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC), the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay, and the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The ability of the extract to scavenge three specific reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical anion (O(2)(-)), hydroxyl radical (HO()) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))) was also investigated in order to better evaluate its antioxidant properties. Even if the measures of TAC were relatively low, results clearly established an antioxidant potential of SOD-MC that exhibited the highest radical-scavenging activity towards O(2)(-), with a IC(50) 12-fold lower than that of H(2)O(2) or HO(). This lets hypothesis that the antioxidant potential of SOD-MC could be mainly due to its high level of SOD. Moreover, for the first time, an ACE inhibitory activity of SOD-MC (IC(50)=2.4±0.1mg/mL) was demonstrated, showing that its use as a functional food ingredient with potential preventive benefits in the context of hypertension may have important public health implications and should be carefully considered.

  5. Effect of Sodium Fluoride Ingestion on Malondialdehyde Concentration and the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Morales-González, José A.; Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; García-Ortiz, Liliana; del Carmen Chima-Galán, María; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Esquivel-Soto, Jaime; Esquivel-Chirino, César; González-Rubio, Manuel García-Luna y

    2010-01-01

    Fluoride intoxication has been shown to produce diverse deleterious metabolic alterations within the cell. To determine the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) treatment on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rat erythrocytes, Male Wistar rats were treated with 50 ppm of NaF or were untreated as controls. Erythrocytes were obtained from rats sacrificed weekly for up to eight weeks and the concentration of MDA in erythrocyte membrane was determined. In addition, the activity of the enzymes superoxide, dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were determined. Treatment with NaF produces an increase in the concentration of malondialdehyde in the erythrocyte membrane only after the eight weeks of treatment. On the other hand, antioxidant enzyme activity was observed to increase after the fourth week of NaF treatment. In conclusion, intake of NaF produces alterations in the erythrocyte of the male rat, which indicates induction of oxidative stress. PMID:20640162

  6. Evaluation of the Activities of Antioxidant Enzyme and Lysosomal Enzymes of the Longissimus dorsi Muscle from Hanwoo (Korean Cattle) in Various Freezing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geunho; Seong, Pil-Nam; Park, Beomyoung; Kim, Donghun; Cho, Soohyun

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the activities of antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) and lysosomal enzymes (alpha-glucopyranosidase (AGP) and beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (BNAG)) of the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle from Hanwoo (Korean cattle) in three freezing conditions. Following freezing at -20, -60, and -196℃ (liquid nitrogen), LD samples (48 h post-slaughter) were treated as follows: 1) freezing for 14 d, 2) 1 to 4 freeze-thaw cycles (2 d of freezing in each cycle), and 3) refrigeration (4℃) for 7 d after 7 d of freezing. The control was the fresh (non-frozen) LD. Freezing treatment at all temperatures significantly (p<0.05) increased the activities of GSH-Px, AGP, and BNAG. The -196 ℃ freezing had similar effects to the -20℃ and -60℃ freezing. Higher (p<0.05) enzymes activities were sustained in frozen LD even after 4 freeze-thaw cycles and even for 7 d of refrigeration after freezing. These findings suggest that freezing has remarkable effects on the activities of antioxidant enzyme and lysosomal enzymes of Hanwoo beef in any condition.

  7. Complex of vitamins and antioxidants protects low-density lipoproteins in blood plasma from free radical oxidation and activates antioxidants enzymes in erythrocytes from patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Konovalova, G G; Lankin, V Z; Tikhaze, A K; Nezhdanova, I B; Lisina, M O; Kukharchuk, V V

    2003-08-01

    We studied the effect of a complex containing antioxidant vitamins C and E, provitamin A, and antioxidant element selenium on the contents of primary (lipid peroxides) and secondary products (malonic dialdehyde) of free radical lipid oxidation in low-density lipoproteins isolated from the plasma of patients with coronary heart disease and hypercholesterolemia by means of preparative ultracentrifugation. Activity of key antioxidant enzymes in the blood was measured during treatment with the antioxidant preparation. Combination treatment with antioxidant vitamins and antioxidant element selenium sharply decreased the contents of primary and secondary free radical oxidation products in circulating low-density lipoproteins and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes. Activities of superoxide dismutase and selenium-containing glutathione peroxidase increased 1 and 2 months after the start of therapy, respectively.

  8. Effect of benzo[a]pyrene on detoxification and the activity of antioxidant enzymes of marine microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chen; Miao, Jingjing; Li, Yun; Pan, Luqing

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on the detoxification and antioxidant systems of two microalgae, Isochrysis zhanjiangensis and Platymonas subcordiformis. In our study, these two algae were exposed to BaP for 4 days at three different concentrations including 0.5 μg L-1 (low), 3 μg L-1 (mid) and 18 μg L-1 (high). The activity of detoxification enzymes, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) increased in P. subcordiformis in all BaP-treated groups. In I. zhanjiangensis, the activity of these two enzymes increased at the beginning of exposure, and then decreased in the groups treated with mid- and high BaP. The activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased in I. zhanjiangensis in all BaP-treated groups, and then decreased in high BaP-treated group, while no significant change was observed in P. subcordiformis. The activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) increased in I. zhanjiangensis and P. subcordiformis in all BaPtreated groups. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in Isochrysis zhanjiangensis increased first, and then decreased in high BaP-treated group, while no change occurred in P. subcordiformis. These results demonstrated that BaP significantly influenced the activity of detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes in microalgae. The metabolic related enzymes (EROD, GST and CAT) may serve as sensitive biomarkers of measuring the contamination level of BaP in marine water.

  9. Toxaphene affects the levels of mRNA transcripts that encode antioxidant enzymes in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seonock; Lee, Aekyung; Won, Hyokyoung; Ryu, Jae-Chun; Yum, Seungshic

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated toxaphene-induced acute toxicity in Hydra magnipapillata. The median lethal concentrations of the animals (LC(50)) were determined to be 34.5 mg/L, 25.0 mg/L and 12.0 mg/L after exposure to toxaphene for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, respectively. Morphological responses of hydra polyps to a range of toxaphene concentrations suggested that toxaphene negatively affects the nervous system of H. magnipapillata. We used real-time quantitative PCR of RNA extracted from polyps exposed to two concentrations of toxaphene (0.3 mg/L and 3 mg/L) for 24 h to evaluate the differential regulation of levels of transcripts that encode six antioxidant enzymes (CAT, G6PD, GPx, GR, GST and SOD), two proteins involved in detoxification and molecular stress responses (CYP1A and UB), and two proteins involved in neurotransmission and nerve cell differentiation (AChE and Hym-355). Of the genes involved in antioxidant responses, the most striking changes were observed for transcripts that encode GPx, G6PD, SOD, CAT and GST, with no evident change in levels of transcripts encoding GR. Levels of UB and CYP1A transcripts increased in a dose-dependent manner following exposure to toxaphene. Given that toxaphene-induced neurotoxicity was not reflected in the level of AChE transcripts and only slight accumulation of Hym-355 transcript was observed only at the higher of the two doses of toxaphene tested, there remains a need to identify transcriptional biomarkers for toxaphene-mediated neurotoxicity in H. magnipapillata. Transcripts that respond to toxaphene exposure could be valuable biomarkers for stress levels in H. magnipapillata and may be useful for monitoring the pollution of aquatic environments.

  10. Influence of Piper betle on hepatic marker enzymes and tissue antioxidant status in ethanol-treated Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, R; Prakasam, A; Ramesh, B; Pugalendi, K V

    2002-01-01

    Piper betle L. is a commonly used masticatory in Asia. This study was carried out to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of P. betle, using ethanol intoxication as a model of hepatotoxic and oxidative damage. Ethanol-treated rats exhibited elevation of hepatic marker enzymes and disturbances in antioxidant defense when compared with normal rats. Oral administration of P. betle extract (100, 200, or 300 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days significantly (P <.05) decreased aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and lipid hydroperoxides in ethanol treated rats. The extract also improved the tissue antioxidant status by increasing the levels of nonenzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione, vitamin C, and vitamin E) and the activities of free radical-detoxifying enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in liver and kidney of ethanol-treated rats. The highest dose of P. betle extract (300 mg/kg body weight) was most effective. The results were comparable with the known hepatoprotective drug, silymarin. These results indicate that P. betle could afford a significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect.

  11. Semiquinone derivative isolated from Bacillus sp. INM-1 protects cellular antioxidant enzymes from γ-radiation-induced renal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mishra, S; Reddy, D S K; Jamwal, V S; Bansal, D D; Patel, D D; Malhotra, P; Gupta, A K; Singh, P K; Jawed, S; Kumar, Raj

    2013-07-01

    This study was focused to evaluate protection of indigenous antioxidant system of mice against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress using a semiquinone (SQGD)-rich fraction isolated from Bacillus sp. INM-1. Male C57bl/6 mice were administered SQGD (50 mg/kgb.w.i.p.) 2 h before irradiation (10 Gy) and modulation in antioxidant enzymes activities was estimated at different time intervals and compared with irradiated mice which were not pretreated by SQGD. Compared to untreated controls, SQGD pretreatment significantly (p < 0.05) accelerates superoxide dismutase, catalase, GSH, and glutathione-S-transferase activities. Similarly, significant (p < 0.05) increase in the expression of superoxide dismutase, catalase, GSH, and glutathione-S-transferase was observed in irradiated mice pretreated by SQGD, compared to only irradiated groups. Total antioxidant status equivalent to trolox was estimated in renal tissue of the mice after SQGD administration. Significant ABTS(+) radical formation was observed in H2O2-treated kidney homogenate, due to oxidative stress in the tissue. However, significant decrease in the levels of ABTS(+) radical was observed in kidney homogenate of the mice pretreated with SQGD. Therefore, it can be concluded that SQGD neutralizes oxidative stress by induction of antioxidant enzymes activities and thus improved total antioxidant status in cellular system and hence contributes to radioprotection.

  12. The accumulation of endogenous proline induces changes in gene expression of several antioxidant enzymes in leaves of transgenic Swingle citrumelo.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Kenia; de Campos, Marília Kaphan Freitas; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Pereira, Luiz Filipe Protasio; Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves

    2013-04-01

    Plant exposure to abiotic stresses leads to an accumulation of reactive oxygen species with the concomitant increase in antioxidant defense mechanisms. Previous studies showed that exogenous application of proline mitigate the deleterious effects caused by oxidative stress due to its ability to increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes. However, there are no reports of the effects of high endogenous accumulation of proline in the transcriptional pattern of antioxidant enzymes genes under normal conditions of water supply or in response to water deficit. Here, we show that isoforms of four antioxidant enzymes genes (Ascorbate peroxidase-APX, Catalase-CAT, Superoxide dismutase-SOD and Glutathione reductase-GR) were differentially regulated in leaves of Swingle citrumelo transgenic plants with high endogenous proline accumulation submitted to water deficits and also under normal water supply condition. Proline per se caused a two-fold change in the transcription activity of APX1, APXcl, CAT2 and Cu/ZnSOD2, while during water deficit proline influenced mRNAs levels in APXs and Cu/ZnSODs isoforms, MnSODmit and GRcl. This study adds new information on the role of proline during drought conditions and, more important, without the potential confounding effects imposed by water deficiency. We showed that, in addition to its known effects on diverse plant physiological and biochemical processes, high endogenous proline can also acts as a regulatory/signalling molecule capable of altering the transcript levels of stress-related genes.

  13. Protective Potential of Antioxidant Enzymes as Vaccines for Schistosomiasis in a Non-Human Primate Model

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho-Queiroz, Claudia; Nyakundi, Ruth; Ogongo, Paul; Rikoi, Hitler; Egilmez, Nejat K.; Farah, Idle O.; Kariuki, Thomas M.; LoVerde, Philip T.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains a major cause of morbidity in the world. The challenge today is not so much in the clinical management of individual patients, but rather in population-based control of transmission in endemic areas. Despite recent large-scale efforts, such as integrated control programs aimed at limiting schistosomiasis by improving education and sanitation, molluscicide treatment programs and chemotherapy with praziquantel, there has only been limited success. There is an urgent need for complementary approaches, such as vaccines. We demonstrated previously that anti-oxidant enzymes, such as Cu–Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S peroxidase (GPX), when administered as DNA-based vaccines induced significant levels of protection in inbred mice, greater than the target 40% reduction in worm burden compared to controls set as a minimum by the WHO. These results led us to investigate if immunization of non-human primates with antioxidants would stimulate an immune response that could confer protection as a prelude study for human trials. Issues of vaccine toxicity and safety that were difficult to address in mice were also investigated. All baboons in the study were examined clinically throughout the study and no adverse reactions occurred to the immunization. When our outbred baboons were vaccinated with two different formulations of SOD (SmCT-SOD and SmEC-SOD) or one of GPX (SmGPX), they showed a reduction in worm number to varying degrees, when compared with the control group. More pronounced, vaccinated animals showed decreased bloody diarrhea, days of diarrhea, and egg excretion (transmission), as well as reduction of eggs in the liver tissue and in the large intestine (pathology) compared to controls. Specific IgG antibodies were present in sera after immunizations and 10 weeks after challenge infection compared to controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, mesenteric, and inguinal node cells from vaccinated animals proliferated and

  14. Analysis of plasma lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes status in patients of oral leukoplakia: A case control study

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Kumar Chandan; Shrivastava, Deepti

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Imbalances between the oxidant-antioxidant status have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including oral cancer. Mostly, all oral cancer lesions are preceded by a stage of premalignancy. The present study aims to evaluate lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in the venous blood of patients with different clinicopathologic stages of leukoplakia. Materials and Methods: A case control study was designed with the inclusion of 20 new cases of histopathologically proven leukoplakia of various clinical stages along with an equal number of positive and negative control individuals. The concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, were estimated in plasma using spectrophotometric methods. The data are expressed as mean ± SD. The statistical comparisons between and within the study groups were performed by one-way analysis of variance followed by post hoc analysis. Karl Pearson correlation was performed for the biochemical parameters within the group and between the groups. For statistically significant correlations, simple linear regression was performed. Results: Significant enhanced lipid peroxidation (P < 0.001) with a decrease in antioxidants (P < 0.001) was observed in the venous blood of leukoplakia patients compared with positive as well as negative controls. Accordingly, significant (P < 0.001) pattern of progression in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels was observed at various clinical stages among patients of both control groups. Among enzymes, glutathione showed significant (P < 0.001) reduction along the stages on comparison with two control groups. Conclusion: Enhanced lipid peroxidation and compromised antioxidant defense in plasma indicate the development of oxidative stress. Among the antioxidant enzymes, reduced glutathione and glutathione Pperoxidase

  15. Improving the cytoplasmic maturation of bovine oocytes matured in vitro with intracellular and/or extracellular antioxidants is not associated with increased rates of embryo development.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Frigoni, Nathália A S; Leão, Beatriz C S; Dall'Acqua, Priscila Chediek; Mingoti, Gisele Z

    2016-11-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a normal process that occurs in the cellular mitochondrial respiratory chain. However, an increase in ROS levels during in vitro production of bovine embryos induces oxidative stress, leading to failed embryonic development. Therefore, we investigated whether supplementation of IVM medium with intracellular (cysteine and cysteamine; C + C) and/or extracellular (catalase; CAT) antioxidants improves the culture system, affects the mitochondrial membrane potential, affects the intracellular levels of ROS and glutathione (GSH) in the bovine oocytes at the end of maturation, and thereby affects the subsequent embryonic development. At the end of IVM, the metaphase II rates were unaffected by the treatments (76.7 ± 1.7% to 80.6 ± 5.2%; P > 0.05). The intracellular ROS levels, expressed in arbitrary fluorescence units, found in the oocytes treated with intracellular antioxidants (C + C and C + C + CAT groups; 1.06, averaged) were as low as those observed in immature oocytes (0 hour: 1.00 ± 0.12). Among mature oocytes, higher (P < 0.05) ROS levels were found in the control group (1.91 ± 0.10) when compared to the ROS levels found in oocytes treated with antioxidants. Intracellular GSH levels in all groups were lower (0.17 ± 0.09 to 0.51 ± 0.05; P < 0.05) than those in immature oocytes (1.00 ± 0.08), although GSH levels in the C + C group (0.51 ± 0.05) were greater (P < 0.05) than in the control, CAT, and C + C + CAT groups (0.23; averaged). The mitochondrial membrane potential in all groups was improved (1.6; averaged; P < 0.05) compared to the membrane potential observed in the immature oocytes (1.00 ± 0.05), with the exception of the C + C group (0.94 ± 0.03). There was no effect (P > 0.05) of antioxidant supplementation on embryonic development to the blastocyst stage (36.1%; averaged); however, there was an increased tendency (P = 0.0689) to obtain a higher

  16. Cofactor-embedded nanoporous activated carbon matrices for the immobilization of intracellular enzymes and degradation of endocrine disruptor.

    PubMed

    Paranji, Saranya; Ganesan, Sekaran

    2016-03-14

    The mixed intracellular enzyme (MICE) from Citrobacter freundii, capable of degrading o-phenylene diamine (OPD), was extracted and characterized. Cofactors such as zinc and copper ions enhanced the MICE activity. The functionalized nanoporous-activated carbon (FNAC) matrix, zinc-impregnated FNAC matrix (Zn(2+) -FNAC), copper-impregnated FNAC matrix (Cu(2+) -FNAC), and zinc- and copper-impregnated FNAC matrix (Zn(2+) -Cu(2+) -FNAC) were prepared and characterized to immobilize MICE. The parameters such as time (0-240 Min), pH (1-10), temperature (20-50 ºC), amount of MICE (1-5 mg), particle size of carbon (100-600 μm), and mass of carbon (0.5-2.5 g) were optimized for immobilization of MICE on different FNAC matrices. The carrier matrices in the free and MICE immobilized form were characterized using SEM, FT-IR, XPS, XRD, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and DSC analyses. The kinetic and adsorption models for the immobilization of MICE on FNAC matrices were studied. The parameters such as time, pH, temperature, concentration of OPD, and agitation speed were optimized for the degradation of OPD using FNAC-MICE and MICE-immobilized metal-impregnated FNAC matrices. The maximum amount of pyruvic acid formed was found to be 133 μg/mg of OPD using Zn(2+) -Cu(2+) -FNAC-MICE matrix. The kinetic models were studied for the formation of pyruvic acid on OPD degradation and confirmed using FT-IR spectroscopy.

  17. Antioxidant enzyme activity and mRNA expression in reproductive tract of adult male European Bison (Bison bonasus, Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Koziorowska-Gilun, M; Gilun, P; Fraser, L; Koziorowski, M; Kordan, W; Stefanczyk-Krzymowska, S

    2013-02-01

    Antioxidants in the male reproductive tract are the main defence factors against oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species production, which compromises sperm function and male fertility. This study was designed to determine the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in the testicular and epididymidal tissues of adult male European bison (Bison bonasus). The reproductive tract tissues were subjected to real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis to quantify mRNA expression levels of five antioxidant enzymes: copper/zinc SOD (Cu/Zn SOD), secretory extracellular SOD (Ec-SOD), CAT, phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) and GPx5. The corpus and cauda epididymidal tissues displayed greater (p < 0.05) SOD activity compared with the testicular tissue. It was found that CAT activity was lowest (p < 0.05) in the cauda epididymidis, whereas negligible GPx activity was detected in the reproductive tract tissues. There were no detectable differences in the mRNA expression level of Cu/Zn SOD among the different reproductive tract tissues. Small amounts of Ec-SOD mRNA were found in the reproductive tract, particularly in the epididymides. The caput and cauda epididymides exhibited greater (p < 0.05) level of CAT mRNA expression, whereas PHGPx mRNA was more (p < 0.05) expressed in the testis. Furthermore, extremely large amounts of GPx5 mRNA were detected in the caput epididymidal tissue compared with other tissues of the reproductive tract. It can be suggested that the activity of the antioxidant enzymes and the relative gene expression of the enzymes confirm the presence of tissue-specific antioxidant defence systems in the bison reproductive tract, which are required for spermatogenesis, epididymal maturation and storage of spermatozoa.

  18. Chemical characterization, antioxidant and inhibitory effects of some marine sponges against carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background More than 15,000 marine products have been described up to now; Sponges are champion producers, concerning the diversity of products that have been found. Most bioactive compounds from sponges were classified into anti-inflammatory, antitumor, immuno- or neurosurpressive, antiviral, antimalarial, antibiotic, or antifouling. Evaluation of in vitro inhibitory effects of different extracts from four marine sponges versus some antioxidants indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes concerned with diabetes mellitus was studied. The chemical characterizations for the extracts of the predominating sponges; SP1 and SP3 were discussed. Methods All chemicals served in the biological study were of analytical grade and purchased from Sigma, Merck and Aldrich. All kits were the products of Biosystems (Spain), Sigma Chemical Company (USA), Biodiagnostic (Egypt). Carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes; α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and β-galactosidase (EC3.2.1.1, EC3.2.1.20, and EC3.2.1.23, respectively) were obtained from Sigma Chemical Company (USA). Results Four marine sponges; Smenospongia (SP1), Callyspongia (SP2), Niphates (SP3), and Stylissa (SP4), were collected from the Red Sea at Egyptian coasts, and taxonomically characterized. The sponges' extracts exhibited diverse inhibitory effects on oxidative stress indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in linear relationships to some extent with concentration of inhibitors (dose dependant). The extracts of sponges (3, 1, and 2) showed, respectively, potent-reducing power. Purification and Chemical characterization of sponge 1 using NMR and mass spectroscopy, recognized the existence of di-isobutyl phthalate (1), di-n-butyl phthalate (2), linoleic acid (3), β-sitosterol (4), and cholesterol (5). Sponge 3 produced bis-[2-ethyl]-hexyl-phthylester (6) and triglyceride fatty acid ester (7). Conclusion Marine sponges are promising sources for delivering of bioactive compounds. Four marine sponges, collected from

  19. Temperature stress, anti-oxidative enzyme activity and virus acquisition in Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In most eukaryotic systems, antioxidants provide protection when cells are exposed to stressful environmental conditions. Antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase, function in a stepwise series with SOD initially preventing oxidative damage by conve...

  20. Seasonal Variations of the Activity of Antioxidant Defense Enzymes in the Red Mullet (Mullus barbatus l.) from the Adriatic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Pavlović, Sladjan Z.; Borković Mitić, Slavica S.; Radovanović, Tijana B.; Perendija, Branka R.; Despotović, Svetlana G.; Gavrić, Jelena P.; Saičić, Zorica S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated seasonal variations of antioxidant defense enzyme activities: total, manganese, copper zinc containing superoxide dismutase (Tot SOD, Mn SOD, CuZn SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR) and biotransformation phase II enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity in the liver and white muscle of red mullet (Mullus barbatus). The investigations were performed in winter and spring at two localities: Near Bar (NB) and Estuary of the River Bojana (EB) in the Southern Adriatic Sea. At both sites, Mn SOD, GSH-Px, GR and GST activities decreased in the liver in spring. In the white muscle, activities of Mn SOD, GSH-Px, GR and GST in NB decreased in spring. GR decreased in spring in EB, while CAT activity was higher in spring at both sites. The results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based on correlations indicated a clear separation of various sampling periods for both investigated tissues and a marked difference between two seasons. Our study is the first report on antioxidant defense enzyme activities in the red mullet in the Southern Adriatic Sea. It indicates that seasonal variations of antioxidant defense enzyme activities should be used in further biomonitoring studies in fish species. PMID:20411106

  1. Seasonal variations of the activity of antioxidant defense enzymes in the red mullet (Mullus barbatus l.) from the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Pavlović, Sladjan Z; Borković Mitić, Slavica S; Radovanović, Tijana B; Perendija, Branka R; Despotović, Svetlana G; Gavrić, Jelena P; Saicić, Zorica S

    2010-02-26

    This study investigated seasonal variations of antioxidant defense enzyme activities: total, manganese, copper zinc containing superoxide dismutase (Tot SOD, Mn SOD, CuZn SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR) and biotransformation phase II enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity in the liver and white muscle of red mullet (Mullus barbatus). The investigations were performed in winter and spring at two localities: Near Bar (NB) and Estuary of the River Bojana (EB) in the Southern Adriatic Sea. At both sites, Mn SOD, GSH-Px, GR and GST activities decreased in the liver in spring. In the white muscle, activities of Mn SOD, GSH-Px, GR and GST in NB decreased in spring. GR decreased in spring in EB, while CAT activity was higher in spring at both sites. The results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based on correlations indicated a clear separation of various sampling periods for both investigated tissues and a marked difference between two seasons. Our study is the first report on antioxidant defense enzyme activities in the red mullet in the Southern Adriatic Sea. It indicates that seasonal variations of antioxidant defense enzyme activities should be used in further biomonitoring studies in fish species.

  2. Biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes of Limnoperna fortunei detect site impact in watercourses of Córdoba, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Galanti, Lucas N; Amé, María V; Monferrán, Magdalena V; Wunderlin, Daniel A; Wiegand, Claudia

    2009-10-01

    The golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei was used as a biomonitor of environmental pollution in the Suquía River basin around Córdoba City (Argentina). The sampling sites along the river were chosen according to their increasing levels of pollutants (e.g. heavy metals) as well as biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). A water quality index (WQI) was constructed from the interaction of several normalized factors that affect the aquatic environment, such as the mentioned pollutants and physico-chemical characteristics of the sampling sites. Activity changes of biotransformation enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT), after exposure to pollutants, served as biomarkers. Membrane bound GST and antioxidant enzymes responded at the most polluted sampling site within 1 day showing increased activities lasting for 4 days. Further sampling was restricted due to no survival of the animals. Antioxidant enzymes GPx, GR and CAT were sensitive responding to the different pollution scenarios, showing good correlation to the chemical characterization.

  3. Modulation of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes by Ocimum sanctum and its role in protection against radiation injury.

    PubMed

    Devi, P U; Ganasoundari, A

    1999-03-01

    Aqueous extract (OE) of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum, the Indian holy basil, has been found to protect mouse against radiation lethality and chromosome damage and to possess significant antioxidant activity in vitro. Therefore a study was conducted to see if OE protects against radiation induced lipid peroxidation in liver and to determine the role, if any, of the inherent antioxidant system in radioprotection by OE. Adult Swiss mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 10 mg/kg of OE for 5 consecutive days and exposed to 4.5 Gy of gamma radiation 30 min after the last injection. Glutathione (GSH) and the antioxidant enzymes glutathione transferase (GST), reductase (GSRx), peroxidase (GSPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as lipid peroxide (LPx) activity were estimated in the liver at 15 min, 30 min, 1, 2, 4 and 8 hr post-treatment. LPx was also studied after treatment with a single dose of 50 mg/kg of OE with/without irradiation. OE itself increased the GSH and enzymes significantly above normal levels whereas radiation significantly reduced all the values. The maximum decline was at 30-60 min for GSH and related enzymes and at 2 hr for SOD. Pretreatment with the extract checked the radiation induced depletion of GSH and all the enzymes and maintained their levels within or above the control range. Radiation significantly increased the lipid peroxidation rate, reaching a maximum value at 2 hr after exposure (approximately 3.5 times that of control). OE pretreatment significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced the lipid peroxidation and accelerated recovery to normal levels. The results indicate that Ocimum extract protects against radiation induced lipid peroxidation and that GSH and the antioxidant enzymes appear to have an important role in the protection.

  4. Parallel induction of heme oxygenase-1 and chemoprotective phase 2 enzymes by electrophiles and antioxidants: regulation by upstream antioxidant-responsive elements (ARE).

    PubMed Central

    Prestera, T.; Talalay, P.; Alam, J.; Ahn, Y. I.; Lee, P. J.; Choi, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heme oxygenase (HO; EC 1.14.99.3) catalyzes the conversion of heme to biliverdin, which is reduced enzymatically to bilirubin. Since bilirubin is a potent antioxidant and heme a pro-oxidant, HO may protect cells against oxidative damage. HO-1 is highly inducible by diverse chemical agents, resembling those evoking induction of phase 2 enzymes (i.e., Michael reaction acceptors, heavy metals, trivalent arsenicals, and sulfhydryl reagents). Phase 2 enzymes (glutathione transferases; NAD (P)H:quinone reductase; glucuronosyltransferases) are regulated by antioxidant-responsive elements (ARE), and their induction protects against chemical carcinogenesis. Is HO-1 regulated by chemical agents and enhancer elements similar to those controlling phase 2 enzymes? MATERIALS AND METHODS: Induction of HO-1 by phorbol ester and heavy metals is transcriptionally controlled through a 268-bp SX2 fragment, containing two phorbol ester-responsive (TRE) sites (TGAC/GT C/AA) which overlap ARE consensus sequences (TGACNNNGC). Therefore, mutations of the SX2 element designed to distinguish ARE from TRE were inserted into chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter plasmids, and the response of the CAT activity of murine hepatoma cells stably transfected with these constructs was examined with a wide range of inducers of phase 2 enzymes. RESULTS: All compounds raised HO-1 mRNA and CAT expression constructs containing wild-type SX2. When the SX2 region was mutated to alter TRE consensus sequences without destroying the ARE consensus, full inducibility was preserved. Conversely, when the ARE consensus was disturbed, inducibility was abolished. CONCLUSION: Induction of heme oxygenase-1 is regulated by several chemically distinct classes of inducers (mostly electrophiles), which also induce phase 2 enzymes, and these inductions are mediated by similar AREs. These findings support the importance of HO-1 as a protector against oxidative damage and suggest that HO-1 induction is

  5. Antioxidant enzymes in ringed seal tissues: potential protection against dive-associated ischemia/reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Elsner, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Diving seals experience heart rate reduction and preferential distribution of the oxygenated blood flow to the heart and brain, widespread peripheral vasoconstriction, and selective ischemia in the most hypoxia-tolerant tissues. The first breath after the dive restores the oxygenated blood flow to all tissues and raises the potential for the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We hypothesized that in order to counteract the damaging effects of ROS and to tolerate repetitive cycles of ischemia/reperfusion associated with diving, ringed seal (Phoca hispida) tissues have elevated activities of antioxidant enzymes. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were measured by spectrophotometric techniques in heart, kidney, liver, lung, and muscle extracts of ringed seals and domestic pigs (Sus scrofa). The results suggest that in ringed seal heart SOD, GPx and GST activities are an efficient protective mechanism for counteracting ROS production and its deleterious effects. Apparently CAT activity in seal liver and GPx activity in seal muscle participate in the removal of hydroperoxides, while seal lung appears to be protected from oxidative damage by SOD and GPx activities.

  6. Cationic solid lipid nanoparticles interfere with the activity of antioxidant enzymes in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Doktorovová, Slavomira; Santos, Dario L; Costa, Inês; Andreani, Tatiana; Souto, Eliana B; Silva, Amélia M

    2014-08-25

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are colloidal drug and/or gene carriers developed from solid lipids and surfactants that are considered safe. Cationic SLN, usually used for formulating poorly water-soluble drugs and for gene delivery purposes, as positively charged particles may attach to cellular surfaces and be internalized more easily than negatively charged SLN, but they can also cause damage. The main aim of this work was to test a set of cationic SLN and investigate its influence on the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), on antioxidant enzymes activities and on possible oxidative damage to membrane lipids in HepG2 cells. The Dichlorofluorescein assay revealed great increase in ROS presence after cell exposure to SLN. While the exposure to SLN increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase it decreased glutathione reductase activity. Although no significant increase in thiobarbituric reactive species was found, a decrease in sulfhydryl groups was detected. These results indicate that cationic SLN caused oxidative stress in HepG2 cells, but under reported exposure conditions HepG2 cells could attenuate the stress and thus the damage to cellular components was minimal.

  7. Antioxidant enzymes are induced by phenol in the marine microalga Lingulodinium polyedrum.

    PubMed

    Martins, P L G; Marques, L G; Colepicolo, P

    2015-06-01

    Knowing the impacts of different anthropogenic activities on ecosystems promotes preservation of aquatic organisms. Aiming to facilitate the identification of polluted or contaminated areas, the study of microalga Lingulodinium polyedrum in phenol-containing medium comprises the determination of toxic and metabolic phenol effects, featuring a possible use of this microorganism as bioindicator for this pollutant. Marine microalga L. polyedrum exposure to phenol increases superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. The 20% and 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC20 and IC50) of cells exposed to phenol were 40 μmol L(-1) and 120 μmol L(-1), respectively. Phenol biodegradation by L. polyedrum was 0.02 μmol h(-1)cell(-1), and its biotransformation was catalyzed by glutathione S-transferase (GST), phenol hydroxylase and catechol 2,3-dihydroxygenase metabolic pathways. Phenol exposure produced the metabolites 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde acid, 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (catechol), and 2-oxo-4-pentenoic acid; also, it induced the activity of key antioxidant biomarker enzymes SOD and CAT by three folds compared to that in the controls. Further, phenol decreased the glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG), highlighting the effective glutathione oxidation in L. polyedrum. Overall, our results suggest that phenol alters microalga growth conditions and microalgae are sensitive bioindicators to pollution by phenol in marine environments.

  8. Correlation among lung damage after radiation, amount of lipid peroxides, and antioxidant enzyme activities

    SciTech Connect

    Nozue, M.; Ogata, T.

    1989-04-01

    The correlation between lipid peroxidation and morphologic changes was examined in Sprague-Dawley rat lungs after 30 Gy single thoracic radiation. The rats were sacrificed every week until the end of the fifth week after radiation. The left lungs were used for the measurement of lipid peroxides and antioxidant enzymes activities. The right lungs were examined by light and electron microscopy. Amounts of lung lipid peroxides were within normal limits, and no cellular degenerative changes were observed in the lungs except for subendothelial and interstitial edema 2 weeks after radiation. Lipid peroxides drastically increased and marked degenerative cellular changes such as edematous swelling, vacuolation, and destruction of cell membranes occurred in the alveolar septa following the third week after radiation. The activities of catalase were significantly higher during the period from the second to the fifth week and those of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase increased at the end of the fifth week. Our results demonstrated that the acceleration of lipid peroxidation was well correlated with the morphologic expression of cell injury in the irradiated lungs.

  9. [Antioxidant enzyme gene expression as molecular biomarkers of exposure to polycyclic musks].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun; Zhou, Qi-xing; Liu, Xiao-wei

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular toxicological effects of low level synthetic musks exposure on the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The method of Sybr Green I real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) for detecting gene expression level was established. SOD (superoxide dismutase) and CAT (catalase) mRNA expression levels were measured after 28 days. of AHTN and HHCB exposure. The analysis results of both sequence alignment and melting curve demonstrated that the selected primers were suitable for mRNA quantification. The liner correlation coefficients of SOD and CAT standard curves were 0.997 and 0.994, respectively, and the PCR amplification efficiencies were both close to 100%. Therefore, relative quantification method could be applied to analyze the gene expression levels. The significant elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels indicated that the reactive oxygen species-induced cellular oxidative injury might be one of the main toxic effects of AHTN and HHCB. Besides, a significant positive correlation was observed between the up-regulation of SOD, CAT mRNA and the MDA levels, suggesting that possible changes in the transcript expression of antioxidant enzyme genes were associated with the oxidative stress. Furthermore, the dose-response correlation between SOD, CAT mRNA levels and the exposure concentrations was also found. The overall results indicated that SOD and CAT genes might be potential molecular biomarkers for the evaluation of the pollution stress and toxicological effects of synthetic musks in the environment.

  10. Plasma antioxidant enzymes and clastogenic factors as possible biomarkers of colorectal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Francesca; Angeloni, Cristina; Malaguti, Marco; Moraga, Juan Manuel Zolezzi; Pasqui, Francesca; Poli, Carolina; Colecchia, Antonio; Festi, Davide; Hrelia, Patrizia; Hrelia, Silvana

    2011-09-01

    Oxidative damage plays an important role in the pathogenesis of colorectal (CR) cancer. This study investigated the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in plasma of 82 participants of a screening program for CR cancer prevention (30 females and 52 males; age 50-70 years). All subjects resulted positive to fecal occult blood test and were subsequently classified, according to the colonoscopy and histological findings, in patients with CR cancer, patients with colorectal polyps or controls. Furthermore, the activity of clastogenic factors (CFs) in plasma from study population was measured as the ability of inducing micronuclei (MN) in vitro in peripheral of a healthy donor. CAT and GR activities were significantly lower in CR cancer patients compared to controls (P<0.05) and polyps groups (P<0.05). SOD activity was significantly higher in patients with CR cancer than in polyp (P<0.05) and control (P<0.05) groups. GST activity was not significantly different in plasma of the three groups. An increase of CFs induction was observed in plasma of CR cancer patients (MN: 8.89±3.42) with respect to control (MN: 6.37±0.96 P<0.05). These results can contribute to define plasma biomarkers associated to oxidative stress damage that could predictive of CR cancer risk.

  11. Effects of heavy metals on production of thiol compounds and antioxidant enzymes in Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Heng; Song, Peng; Gu, Wenbo; Yang, Zhirong

    2011-09-01

    In a pre-experiment, Agaricus bisporus mycelia grown in PDL medium were found to have a substantial ability to tolerate and accumulate heavy metals. In the study, we investigated changes in the contents of soluble protein and thiol compounds as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes caused by copper, zinc, lead, and cadmium (nitrate salts) in mycelia of A. bisporus during short-and long-term exposure. Results showed that high-level metal concentrations significantly decrease the contents of soluble protein after long-term exposure, Cu and Zn concentrations significantly increase the thiol compounds levels after long-term exposure, while high-level Cd significantly decrease thiol compounds after long-term exposure. Additionally, SOD activities were significantly increased after long-term exposure to metals, especially to Cd. The CAT activities were enhanced after long-term exposure to low-level Cu and high-level Zn, and enhanced after short-and long-term exposure to high-level Pb. The POD activities were significantly increased after long-term exposure to metals, and increased after short-term exposure to Cd and high-level Pb.

  12. Rhodiola-induced inhibition of adipogenesis involves antioxidant enzyme response associated with pentose phosphate pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kwon, Young-In; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Shetty, Kalidas; Kim, Young-Cheul

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Rhodiola crenulata extract and tyrosol, a major bioactive phenolic compound present in Rhodiola, change the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzyme response (AER) and energy pathways linked to proline-mediated pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) during adipogenesis. Treatment with Rhodiola extracts inhibited the activities of proline dehydrogenase (PDH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) as well as lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The inhibition of PDH and G6PDH activities by Rhodiola likely prevented proline oxidation required for critical ATP generation that is coupled to AER via the PPP, leading to inhibition of adipogenesis. Rhodiola extracts dose-dependently increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, resulting in a reduced ROS level during adipogenesis. Moreover, the effects of tyrosol, a major bioactive compound in Rhodiola species, were directly correlated with all observed effects by Rhodiola extracts. These results indicate that the antiadipogenic effects of Rhodiola extracts can be attributed to a phenolic tyrosol that may potentially disrupt proline-mediated energy generation and AER via PPP, resulting in the suppression of adipogenesis and lipid accumulation. This further provides a biochemical rationale to identify the roles of phenolics that modulate the cellular redox environment and therefore have relevance for obesity management.

  13. In vitro effects of alloxan/copper combinations on lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Alexandrova, Albena; Petrov, L; Kessiova, Mila; Kirkova, Margarita

    2007-12-01

    The in vitro effects of alloxan and the product of its reduction dialuric acid (alone or in combination with copper ions) on lipid peroxidation, carbonyl content, GSH level and antioxidant enzyme activities in rat liver and kidney have been studied. The effects of Cu2+/alloxan and Cu2+/dialuric acid were compared with those of Fe3+/alloxan and Fe3+/dialuric acid. Unlike alloxan, dialuric acid increased liver and kidney lipid peroxidation; similar effects were registered in the presence of Fe3+. In the presence of Cu2+/dialuric acid, the lipid peroxidation was strongly inhibited and vice versa--the liver protein oxidation was increased. Alloxan and dialuric acid, as well as their combinations with Fe3+ had no effect on the total GSH level. Both substances did not affect the Cu2+-induced changes in GSH level, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and gluthatione reductase activities. In contrast, Cu2+ had no effect on dialuric-acid induced changes in gluthatione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. The present in vitro results, concerning the metal dependence of the effects of alloxan and dialuric acid, are a premise for in vivo study of alloxan effects in metal-loaded animals.

  14. THE EXPRESSION OF ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN A MOUSE MODEL OF FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    DREVER, Nathan; Yin, Huaizhi; KECHICHIAN, Talar; COSTANTINE, Maged; LONGO, Monica; SAADE, George R.; BYTAUTIENE, Egle

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) prevent cellular damage produced by free radicals. Our objective was to evaluate if prenatal alcohol exposure decreased the expression of antioxidant enzymes in the brain, liver or placenta of fetal mice. STUDY DESIGN Timed, pregnant C57BL6/J mice were treated on gestational day 8 (E8) with intraperitoneal injection of alcohol (0.03 ml/g) or saline (control). Fetuses were harvested on E18. Fetal brain, liver and placenta were analyzed for mRNA expression of SOD, GPx and CAT by real-time PCR, with 18S RNA used as reference. RESULTS SOD, GPx and CAT expression was lower in fetal brains exposed to alcohol with no differences detected in the liver or placenta between the two groups. CONCLUSION Maternal alcohol consumption causes a decrease in SOD, GPx and CAT expression in the fetal brain. This may explain the long term neurologic findings in fetal alcohol syndrome. PMID:22365038

  15. Insulin, catecholamines, glucose and antioxidant enzymes in oxidative damage during different loads in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Koska, J; Blazícek, P; Marko, M; Grna, J D; Kvetnanský, R; Vigas, M

    2000-01-01

    Exercise, insulin-induced hypoglycemia and oral glucose loads (50 g and 100 g) were used to compare the production of malondialdehyde and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in healthy subjects. Twenty male volunteers participated in the study. Exercise consisted of three consecutive work loads on a bicycle ergometer of graded intensity (1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 W/kg, 6 min each). Hypoglycemia was induced by insulin (Actrapid MC Novo, 0.1 IU/kg, i.v.). Oral administration of 50 g and 100 g of glucose was given to elevate plasma glucose. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was determined in red blood cells, whereas glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was measured in whole blood. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was determined by HPLC, catecholamines were assessed radioenzymatically and glucose was measured by the glucose-oxidase method. Exercise increased MDA concentrations, GSH-Px and SOD activities as well as plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline levels. Insulin hypoglycemia increased plasma adrenaline levels, but the concentrations of MDA and the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were decreased. Hyperglycemia increased plasma MDA concentrations, but the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were significantly higher after a larger dose of glucose only. Plasma catecholamines were unchanged. These results indicate that the transient increase of plasma catecholamine and insulin concentrations did not induce oxidative damage, while glucose already in the low dose was an important triggering factor for oxidative stress.

  16. Existing and potential therapeutic uses for N-acetylcysteine: the need for conversion to intracellular glutathione for antioxidant benefits.

    PubMed

    Rushworth, Gordon F; Megson, Ian L

    2014-02-01

    N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) has long been used therapeutically for the treatment of acetaminophen (paracetamol) overdose, acting as a precursor for the substrate (l-cysteine) in synthesis of hepatic glutathione (GSH) depleted through drug conjugation. Other therapeutic uses of NAC have also emerged, including the alleviation of clinical symptoms of cystic fibrosis through cysteine-mediated disruption of disulfide cross-bridges in the glycoprotein matrix in mucus. More recently, however, a wide range of clinical studies have reported on the use of NAC as an antioxidant, most notably in the protection against contrast-induced nephropathy and thrombosis. The results from these studies are conflicting and a consensus is yet to be reached regarding the merits or otherwise of NAC in the antioxidant setting. This review seeks to re-evaluate the mechanism of action of NAC as a precursor for GSH synthesis in the context of its activity as an "antioxidant". Results from recent studies are examined to establish whether the pre-requisites for effective NAC-induced antioxidant activity (i.e. GSH depletion and the presence of functional metabolic pathways for conversion of NAC to GSH) have received adequate consideration in the interpretation of the data. A key conclusion is a reinforcement of the concept that NAC should not be considered to be a powerful antioxidant in its own right: its strength is the targeted replenishment of GSH in deficient cells and it is likely to be ineffective in cells replete in GSH.

  17. Factors affecting the activation and inhibition of intracellular enzymes for degradation of 1,2 diamino benzene: kinetics and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    P, Saranya; G, Sekaran

    2015-11-01

    Citrobacter freundii, the bacterium isolated from marine sediments was capable of degrading 1,2 diamino benzene (DAB), an endocrine disruptor. The mixed intracellular enzymes from C. freundii were extracted and purified. The mixed intracellular enzymes were used for the degradation of DAB and degree of degradation was evaluated in terms of pyruvic acid, the end product, formed. The variables such as effect of pH, temperature and metal ions on the degradation of DAB using mixed intracellular enzymes (MICE) were investigated. The maximum amount of pyruvic acid formed was found to be 569 ± 5 µg with 96% degradation efficiency at pH 7; temperature 25 °C; zinc nitrate 0.1 mM; and copper sulphate ions 0.15 mM. The stability of MICE at different temperatures and the interaction of MICE with metal ions were confirmed using FT-IR spectroscopy. The formation of pyruvic acid from degradation of DAB followed pseudo-second-order rate kinetics and it was a spontaneous, exothermic process. The activation energy of degradation of DAB by MICE was found to be 82.55 kJ/mol.

  18. Amelioration of altered antioxidant enzymes activity and glomerulosclerosis by coenzyme Q10 in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmadvand, Hassan; Tavafi, Majid; Khosrowbeygi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 is a natural antioxidant and scavenging free radicals. In the present study, we examined antioxidative activities of coenzyme Q10 and possible protective effect of coenzyme Q10 on in vivo and in vitro lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes activity and glomerulosclerosis in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats. Thirty Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into three groups randomly: group 1 as control, group 2 as diabetic untreatment, and group 3 as treatments with coenzyme Q10 by 15 mg/kg i.p. daily, respectively. Diabetes was induced in the second and third groups by alloxan injection subcutaneously. After 8 weeks, animals were anaesthetized, liver and kidney were then removed immediately and used fresh or kept frozen until their lipid peroxidation analysis. Blood samples were also collected before killing to measure the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity. Kidney paraffin sections were prepared and stained by periodic acid-Schiff method. Glomerular volume and leukocyte infiltration were estimated by stereological rules and glomerular sclerosis was studied semi-quantitatively. Coenzyme Q10 significantly inhibited leukocyte infiltration, glomerulosclerosis and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) serum and kidney content in treated group compared with the diabetic untreated group. Coenzyme Q10 significantly inhibited LDL oxidation in vitro. Coenzyme Q10 significantly increased the serum levels of glutathione (GSH) and serum activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in treated group compared with the diabetic untreated group. Coenzyme Q10 alleviates leukocyte infiltration and glomerulosclerosis and exerts beneficial effects on the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats.

  19. Seasonal variations of melatonin in ram seminal plasma are correlated to those of testosterone and antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Some breeds of sheep are highly seasonal in terms of reproductive capability, and these changes are regulated by photoperiod and melatonin secretion. These changes affect the reproductive performance of rams, impairing semen quality and modifying hormonal profiles. Also, the antioxidant defence systems seem to be modulated by melatonin secretion, and shows seasonal variations. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma and their variations between the breeding and non-breeding seasons. In addition, we analyzed the possible correlations between these hormones and the antioxidant enzyme defence system activity. Methods Seminal plasma from nine Rasa Aragonesa rams were collected for one year, and their levels of melatonin, testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GRD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) were measured. Results All samples presented measurable quantities of hormones and antioxidant enzymes. Both hormones showed monthly variations, with a decrease after the winter solstice and a rise after the summer solstice that reached the maximum levels in October-November, and a marked seasonal variation (P < 0.01) with higher levels in the breeding season. The yearly pattern of GRD and catalase was close to that of melatonin, and GRD showed a significant seasonal variation (P < 0.01) with a higher activity during the breeding season. Linear regression analysis between the studied hormones and antioxidant enzymes showed a significant correlation between melatonin and testosterone, GRD, SOD and catalase. Conclusions These results show the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma, and that both hormones have seasonal variations, and support the idea that seasonal variations of fertility in the ram involve interplay between melatonin and the antioxidant defence system. PMID:20540737

  20. The interactive effects of mercury and selenium on metabolic profiles, gene expression and antioxidant enzymes in halophyte Suaeda salsa.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Lai, Yongkai; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan; Zou, Ning

    2016-04-01

    Suaeda salsa is the pioneer halophyte in the Yellow River Delta and was consumed as a popular vegetable. Mercury has become a highly risky contaminant in the sediment of intertidal zones of the Yellow River Delta. In this work, we investigated the interactive effects of mercury and selenium in S. salsa on the basis of metabolic profiling, antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expression quantification. Our results showed that mercury exposure (20 μg L(-1)) inhibited plant growth of S. salsa and induced significant metabolic responses and altered expression levels of INPS, CMO, and MDH in S. salsa samples, together with the increased activities of antioxidant enzymes including SOD and POD. Overall, these results indicated osmotic and oxidative stresses, disturbed protein degradation and energy metabolism change in S. salsa after mercury exposures. Additionally, the addition of selenium could induce both antagonistic and synergistic effects including alleviating protein degradation and aggravating osmotic stress caused by mercury.

  1. Alterations in seedling vigour and antioxidant enzyme activities in Catharanthus roseus under seed priming with native diazotrophs.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, B; Jaleel, C A; Gopi, R; Deiveekasundaram, M

    2007-07-01

    An experiment was conducted on Catharanthus roseus to study the effect of seed treatments with native diazotrophs on its seedling growth and antioxidant enzyme activities. The treatments had significant influence on various seedling parameters. There is no significant influence on dry matter production with the diazotrophs, Azospirillum and Azotobacter. However, the vital seedling parameters such as germination percentage and vigour index were improved. Azotobacter treatment influenced maximum of 50% germination, whereas Azospirillum and Azotobacter were on par with C. roseus with respect to their vigour index. There was significant difference in the population of total diazotrophs. Azospirillum and Azotobacter between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of C. roseus had the same trend and were observed at various locations of the study. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT) were increased to a significant extent due to the treatment with diazotrophs.

  2. Sodium chloride enhances cadmium tolerance through reducing cadmium accumulation and increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing-Lin; Shang, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Jabeen, Zahra; Zhang, Guo-Ping

    2013-06-01

    The effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on cadmium (Cd) uptake, translocation, and oxidative stress was investigated using 2 tobacco cultivars differing in Cd tolerance. The growth inhibition of the tobacco plants exposed to Cd toxicity was in part alleviated by moderate addition of NaCl in the culture solution. Cadmium concentration of shoots and roots in the 2 cultivars increased with increasing Cd levels in the solution and decreased with the addition of NaCl. The addition of NaCl could alleviate the oxidative stress caused by Cd toxicity, as reflected by reduced production of malondialdehyde and recovered or enhanced activities of antioxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The results also showed that the enhancement of antioxidative enzyme activity by NaCl for the tobacco plants exposed to Cd stress is related to induced Ca signaling.

  3. Effect of Chitosan Coating on the Postharvest Quality and Antioxidant Enzyme System Response of Strawberry Fruit during Cold Storage.

    PubMed

    Petriccione, Milena; Mastrobuoni, Francesco; Pasquariello, Maria Silvia; Zampella, Luigi; Nobis, Elvira; Capriolo, Giuseppe; Scortichini, Marco

    2015-09-29

    The effectiveness of chitosan fruit coating to delay the qualitative and nutraceutical traits of three strawberry cultivars, namely "Candonga", "Jonica" and "Sabrina", as well as the effects of chitosan on antioxidant enzymes were evaluated. The fruits were coated with 1% and 2% chitosan solution and stored at 2 °C for nine days. Samples were taken every three days. Physico-chemical (weight loss, soluble solid content and titratable acidity) and nutraceutical (total polyphenol, anthocyanin, flavonoid, ascorbic acid content and antioxidant capacity) properties along with the enzymatic activity (catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and lipoxygenase (LOX)) were evaluated. Chitosan treatment significantly reduced water loss and delayed the qualitative changes in color, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid content in dose- and cultivar-dependent manners. Additionally, changes in the total polyphenol, anthocyanin and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant capacity of chitosan-coated strawberry fruits were delayed. Chitosan coating enhanced the activity of some antioxidant enzymes, preventing flesh browning and reducing membrane damage. A global view of the responses of the three strawberry cultivars to chitosan coating and storage temperature was obtained using principal component analysis. Chitosan-coated fruit exhibited a slower rate of deterioration, compared to uncoated fruit in all tested cultivars.

  4. Effect of Chitosan Coating on the Postharvest Quality and Antioxidant Enzyme System Response of Strawberry Fruit during Cold Storage

    PubMed Central

    Petriccione, Milena; Mastrobuoni, Francesco; Pasquariello, Maria Silvia; Zampella, Luigi; Nobis, Elvira; Capriolo, Giuseppe; Scortichini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of chitosan fruit coating to delay the qualitative and nutraceutical traits of three strawberry cultivars, namely “Candonga”, “Jonica” and “Sabrina”, as well as the effects of chitosan on antioxidant enzymes were evaluated. The fruits were coated with 1% and 2% chitosan solution and stored at 2 °C for nine days. Samples were taken every three days. Physico-chemical (weight loss, soluble solid content and titratable acidity) and nutraceutical (total polyphenol, anthocyanin, flavonoid, ascorbic acid content and antioxidant capacity) properties along with the enzymatic activity (catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and lipoxygenase (LOX)) were evaluated. Chitosan treatment significantly reduced water loss and delayed the qualitative changes in color, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid content in dose- and cultivar-dependent manners. Additionally, changes in the total polyphenol, anthocyanin and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant capacity of chitosan-coated strawberry fruits were delayed. Chitosan coating enhanced the activity of some antioxidant enzymes, preventing flesh browning and reducing membrane damage. A global view of the responses of the three strawberry cultivars to chitosan coating and storage temperature was obtained using principal component analysis. Chitosan-coated fruit exhibited a slower rate of deterioration, compared to uncoated fruit in all tested cultivars. PMID:28231220

  5. Production of feather hydrolysates with antioxidant, angiotensin-I converting enzyme- and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV-inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Fontoura, Roberta; Daroit, Daniel J; Correa, Ana P F; Meira, Stela M M; Mosquera, Mauricio; Brandelli, Adriano

    2014-09-25

    The antioxidant and antihypertensive activities of feather hydrolysates obtained with the bacterium Chryseobacterium sp. kr6 were investigated. Keratin hydrolysates were produced with different concentrations of thermally denatured feathers (10-75 g l(-1)) and initial pH values (6.0-9.0). Soluble proteins accumulated in high amounts in media with 50 and 75 g l(-1) of feathers, reaching values of 18.5 and 22 mg ml(-1), respectively, after 48 hours of cultivation. In media with 50 g l(-1) of feathers, initial pH had minimal effect after 48 hours. Maximal protease production was observed after 24 hours of cultivation, and feather concentration and initial pH values showed no significant effect on enzyme yields at this time. Feather hydrolysates displayed in vitro antioxidant properties, and optimal antioxidant activities were observed in cultures with 50 g l(-1) feathers, at initial pH 8.0, after 48 hours growth at 30°C. Also, feather hydrolysates were demonstrated to inhibit the angiotesin I-converting enzyme by 65% and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV by 44%. The bioconversion of an abundant agroindustrial waste such as chicken feathers can be utilized as a strategy to obtain hydrolysates with antioxidant and antihypertensive activities. Feather hydrolysates might be employed as supplements in animal feed, and also as a potential source of bioactive molecules for feed, food and drug development.

  6. Evaluation of erythrocyte antioxidant mechanisms: antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and serum trace elements associated with progressive anemia in ovine malignant theileriosis.

    PubMed

    Nazifi, S; Razavi, S M; Kianiamin, P; Rakhshandehroo, E

    2011-08-01

    Ovine malignant theileriosis is a fatal disease that is characterized by severe progressive anemia. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in anemia, this study was designed to assess the antioxidant status and erythrocyte oxidative injuries in Iranian fat-tailed sheep that suffered from malignant theileriosis. The infected animals (infected group), composed of 50 Iranian sheep about 1-2 years old, naturally infected with Theileria sp., were divided into three subgroups according to parasitemia rates (<1%, 1-3%, 3-5%), and ten non-infected animals were also selected as the control group. Blood samples were taken and hematological parameters, the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase, erythrocyte osmotic fragility, and serum concentrations of some trace elements (copper, iron, zinc, manganese, and selenium), were measured. As an index of lipid peroxidation, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was also determined. According to the results, a significant decrease in red blood cell (RBC) count, packed cell volume, the activities of SOD, GPX, and catalase (P <0.001), and also serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, and Se (P < 0.05) were evident in the infected sheep. In contrast, significantly increased levels of MDA and erythrocyte osmotic fragility (P < 0.001) as well as serum concentration of iron (P < 0.05) were recorded in the infected animals. The significant decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities and substantial elevated levels of lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte osmotic fragility associated with the increase in parasitemia indicate increased exposure of RBCs to oxidative damage. Also, it appears that disturbed antioxidant defense mechanisms can promote the development of anemia in ovine theileriosis.

  7. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation of Raw and Cooked Meat of Korean Native Chickens and Other Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Muhlisin; Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Ji Hye; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe antioxidant enzyme activity, iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chickens and other poultry. The breast and thigh meat of three Korean native chicken breeds including Woorimatdak, Hyunin black and Yeonsan ogye, and three commercial poultry breeds including the broiler, White Leghorn and Pekin duck (Anasplatyrhyncos domesticus) were studied. The analyses of the antioxidant enzymes activity, iron content and lipid oxidation were performed in raw and cooked samples. The activity of catalase (CAT) in the thigh meat was higher than that of the breast meat of three Korean native chickens and the broiler, respectively. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the uncooked thigh meat of three Korean native chickens was higher than that of the breasts. The breast meat of Woorimatdak and Pekin duck had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity than the others, while only the thigh meat of Pekin duck had the highest activity. Cooking inactivated CAT and decreased the activity of GPx and SOD. The thigh meat of Woorimatdak, White Leghorn, Yeonsan ogye and Hyunin black contained more total iron than the breast meat of those breeds. The heme-iron lost during cooking ranged from 3.2% to 14.8%. It is noted that the thigh meat had higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values than the breast in all chicken breeds. Though Woorimatdak showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity and lower released-iron percentage among Korean native chickens, no differences were found on lipid oxidation. We confirm that the dark meat of poultry exhibited higher antioxidant enzyme activity and contained more iron than the white meat. PMID:26954148

  8. Effects of ethylene on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity in Bermuda grass under low temperature.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhengrong; Fan, Jibiao; Chen, Ke; Amombo, Erick; Chen, Liang; Fu, Jinmin

    2016-04-01

    The phytohormone ethylene has been reported to mediate plant response to cold stress. However, it is still debated whether the effect of ethylene on plant response to cold stress is negative or positive. The objective of the present study was to explore the role of ethylene in the cold resistance of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L).Pers.). Under control (warm) condition, there was no obvious effect of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) or the antagonist Ag(+) of ethylene signaling on electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Under cold stress conditions, ACC-treated plant leaves had a greater level of EL and MDA than the untreated leaves. However, the EL and MDA values were lower in the Ag(+) regime versus the untreated. In addition, after 3 days of cold treatment, ACC remarkably reduced the content of soluble protein and also altered antioxidant enzyme activity. Under control (warm) condition, there was no significant effect of ACC on the performance of photosystem II (PS II) as monitored by chlorophyll α fluorescence transients. However, under cold stress, ACC inhibited the performance of PS II. Under cold condition, ACC remarkably reduced the performance index for energy conservation from excitation to the reduction of intersystem electron acceptors (PI(ABS)), the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (φP0), the quantum yield of electron transport flux from Q(A) to Q(B) (φE0), and the efficiency/probability of electron transport (ΨE0). Simultaneously, ACC increased the values of specific energy fluxes for absorption (ABS/RC) and dissipation (DI0/RC) after 3 days of cold treatment. Additionally, under cold condition, exogenous ACC altered the expressions of several related genes implicated in the induction of cold tolerance (LEA, SOD, POD-1 and CBF1, EIN3-1, and EIN3-2). The present study thus suggests that ethylene affects the cold tolerance of Bermuda grass by impacting the antioxidant system

  9. The relationship between serum level of thyroid hormones, trace elements and antioxidant enzymes in dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Nazifi, S; Mansourian, M; Nikahval, B; Razavi, S M

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid hormones might be able to regulate the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). The role of thyroid hormones in metabolic pathways and antioxidant enzyme activities are well known in many species. Nevertheless, there is no report describing probable relationship between thyroid hormones status, erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes and serum profiles of trace elements. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between these parameters in Iranian dromedary camels. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein of 30 clinically healthy Iranian dromedary camels under aseptic conditions during 6 consecutive days of summer. The serum was analyzed for serum profile of thyroid hormones, trace elements, SOD and GPX activity. There were no significant differences in serum thyroid hormones, serum level of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), selenium and antioxidant enzymes in different days (P > 0.05). There was a significant negative correlation between SOD and Fe (P < 0.01, r = -493). There was no significant correlation between other parameters. In case of copper deficiency likewise the present study, the copper was used to produce more SOD, so there was a decrease in Fe transportation, and it might be a cause of decrease in Fe amount. On the other hand, a relatively small quantity of Fe is present in tissue myoglobin, catalase, peroxidases, and cytochromes. So it might be another cause of decrease in Fe amount. The explanation for these finding is not possible at this moment and further investigations are needed to interpret these changes.

  10. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ting; Jin, Haijun; Zhang, Hongmei; He, Lizhong; Zhou, Qiang; Huang, Danfeng; Hui, Dafeng; Yu, Jizhu

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease. PMID:27065102

  11. Activity levels and expression of antioxidant enzymes in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in artificially aged rice seed.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guangkun; Xin, Xia; Song, Chao; Chen, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jinmei; Wu, Shuhua; Li, Ruifang; Liu, Xu; Lu, Xinxiong

    2014-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species are the main contributors to seed deterioration. In order to study scavenging systems for reactive oxygen species in aged seed, we performed analyses using western blotting, real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, high-performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant enzyme activity analyses in artificially aged rice seeds (Oryza sativa L. cv. wanhua no.11). Aging seeds by storing them at 50 °C for 1, 9, or 17 months increased the superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide levels and reduced the germination percentage from 99% to 92%, 55%, and 2%, respectively. The activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) did not change in aged seeds. In contrast, the activity levels of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) were significantly decreased in aged seeds, as were the expression of catalase and cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase protein. Transcript accumulation analysis showed that specific expression patterns were complex for each of the antioxidant enzyme types in the rice embryos. Overall, the expression of most genes was down-regulated, along with their protein expression. In addition, the reduction in the amount of ascorbate and glutathione was associated with the reduction in scavenging enzymes activity in aged rice embryos. Our data suggest that the depression of the antioxidant system, especially the reduction in the expression of CAT1, APX1 and MDHAR1, may be responsible for the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in artificially aged seed embryos, leading to a loss of seed vigor.

  12. Evaluation of the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, the antioxidant activity, and the polyphenolic content of Citrus limetta peel extract.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Lazcano-Díaz, Estefania; Flores-Fernandez, José Miguel; Owolabi, Moses S; Allen, Kirk; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent causes of death in Mexico, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. One alternative strategy for this metabolic abnormality is inhibiting the enzymes responsible for the metabolism of carbohydrates. We evaluated whether the aqueous Citrus limetta peel extract could inhibit the metabolism of carbohydrates. We found that this extract inhibited primarily the enzyme α-amylase by 49.6% at a concentration of 20 mg/mL and to a lesser extent the enzyme α-glucosidase with an inhibition of 28.2% at the same concentration. This inhibition is likely due to the high polyphenol content in the Citrus limetta peel (19.1 mg GAE/g). Antioxidant activity of the Citrus limetta peel demonstrated dose-dependent antioxidant activity, varying from 6.5% at 1.125 mg/mL to 42.5% at 20 mg/mL. The study of these polyphenolic compounds having both antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities may provide a new approach to the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. [Impacts of root-zone hypoxia stress on muskmelon growth, its root respiratory metabolism, and antioxidative enzyme activities].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Ling; Li, Tian-Lai; Sun, Zhou-Ping; Chen, Ya-Dong

    2010-06-01

    By using aeroponics culture system, this paper studied the impacts of root-zone hypoxia (10% O2 and 5% O2) stress on the plant growth, root respiratory metabolism, and antioxidative enzyme activities of muskmelon at its fruit development stage. Root-zone hypoxia stress inhibited the plant growth of muskmelon, resulting in the decrease of plant height, root length, and fresh and dry biomass. Comparing with the control (21% O2), hypoxia stress reduced the root respiration rate and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity significantly, and the impact of 5% O2 stress was more serious than that of 10% O2 stress. Under hypoxic conditions, the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) activities and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content were significantly higher than the control. The increment of antioxidative enzyme activities under 10% O2 stress was significantly higher than that under 5% O2 stress, while the MDA content was higher under 5% O2 stress than under 10% O2 stress, suggesting that when the root-zone oxygen concentration was below 10%, the aerobic respiration of muskmelon at its fruit development stage was obviously inhibited while the anaerobic respiration was accelerated, and the root antioxidative enzymes induced defense reaction. With the increasing duration of hypoxic stress, the lipid peroxidation would be aggravated, resulting in the damages on muskmelon roots, inhibition of plant growth, and decrease of fruit yield and quality.

  14. Coal-burning endemic fluorosis is associated with reduced activity in antioxidative enzymes and Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Cui, Kang-ping; Xu, Yuan-yuan; Gao, Yan-ling; Zhao, Jing; Li, Da-sheng; Li, Xiao-lei; Huang, Hou-jin

    2014-02-01

    To study the effect of fluorine on the oxidative stress in coal-burning fluorosis, we investigated the environmental characteristics of coal-burning endemic fluorosis combined with fluorine content surveillance in air, water, food, briquette, and clay binder samples from Bijie region, Guizhou Province, southwest of China. The activities of antioxidant enzymes including copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and level of lipid peroxidation such as malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in serum samples obtained from subjects residing in the Bijie region. Expression of the Cu/Zn-SOD gene was assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results showed that people suffering from endemic fluorosis (the high and low exposure groups) had much higher MDA level. Their antioxidant enzyme activities and Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression levels were lower when compared to healthy people (the control group). Fluorosis can decrease the activities of antioxidant enzymes, which was associated with exposure level of fluorine. Down-regulation of Cu/Zn-SOD expression may play an important role in the aggravation of oxidative stress in endemic fluorosis.

  15. Evaluation of the Inhibition of Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes, the Antioxidant Activity, and the Polyphenolic Content of Citrus limetta Peel Extract

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Fernandez, José Miguel; Owolabi, Moses S.; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent causes of death in Mexico, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. One alternative strategy for this metabolic abnormality is inhibiting the enzymes responsible for the metabolism of carbohydrates. We evaluated whether the aqueous Citrus limetta peel extract could inhibit the metabolism of carbohydrates. We found that this extract inhibited primarily the enzyme α-amylase by 49.6% at a concentration of 20 mg/mL and to a lesser extent the enzyme α-glucosidase with an inhibition of 28.2% at the same concentration. This inhibition is likely due to the high polyphenol content in the Citrus limetta peel (19.1 mg GAE/g). Antioxidant activity of the Citrus limetta peel demonstrated dose-dependent antioxidant activity, varying from 6.5% at 1.125 mg/mL to 42.5% at 20 mg/mL. The study of these polyphenolic compounds having both antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities may provide a new approach to the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25587557

  16. Markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity in older men and women with differing physical activity.

    PubMed

    Rowiński, Rafał; Kozakiewicz, Mariusz; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Hübner-Woźniak, Elżbieta; Kędziora, Józef

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and physical activity in older men and women. The present study included 481 participants (233 men and 248 women) in the age group 65-69 years (127 men and 125 women) and in the age group 90 years and over (106 men and 123 women). The classification of respondents by physical activity was based on answers to the question if, in the past 12 months, they engaged in any pastimes which require physical activity. The systemic oxidative stress status was assessed by measuring plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyl concentration as well as erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). The concentration of plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyls (CP) was lower in groups of younger men and women compared to the respective older groups. In all examined groups, physical activity resulted in decrease of these oxidative stress markers and simultaneously caused adaptive increase in the erythrocyte SOD activity. Additionally, in active younger men CAT, GPx, and GR activities were higher than in sedentary ones. In conclusion, oxidative stress increase is age-related, but physical activity can reduce oxidative stress markers and induce adaptive increase in the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, especially SOD, even in old and very old men and women.

  17. Effects of chronic swimming training and oestrogen therapy on coronary vascular reactivity and expression of antioxidant enzymes in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Claudio, Erick R G; Endlich, Patrick W; Santos, Roger L; Moysés, Margareth R; Bissoli, Nazaré S; Gouvêa, Sônia A; Silva, Josiane F; Lemos, Virginia S; Abreu, Glaucia R

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of swimming training (SW) and oestrogen replacement therapy (ERT) on coronary vascular reactivity and the expression of antioxidant enzymes in ovariectomized rats. Animals were randomly assigned to one of five groups: sham (SH), ovariectomized (OVX), ovariectomized with E2 (OE2), ovariectomized with exercise (OSW), and ovariectomized with E2 plus exercise (OE2+SW). The SW protocol (5×/week, 60 min/day) and/or ERT were conducted for 8 weeks; the vasodilator response to bradykinin was analysed (Langendorff Method), and the expression of antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1 and 2, catalase) and eNOS and iNOS were evaluated by Western blotting. SW and ERT improved the vasodilator response to the highest dose of bradykinin (1000 ng). However, in the OSW group, this response was improved at 100, 300 and 1000 ng when compared to OVX (p<0,05). The SOD-1 expression was increased in all treated/trained groups compared to the OVX group (p<0,05), and catalase expression increased in the OSW group only. In the trained group, eNOS increased vs. OE2, and iNOS decreased vs. SHAM (p<0,05). SW may represent an alternative to ERT by improving coronary vasodilation, most likely by increasing antioxidant enzyme and eNOS expression and augmenting NO bioavailability.

  18. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaotao; Jiang, Yuping; Hao, Ting; Jin, Haijun; Zhang, Hongmei; He, Lizhong; Zhou, Qiang; Huang, Danfeng; Hui, Dafeng; Yu, Jizhu

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease.

  19. Variations of antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde content in nemertean Cephalothrix hongkongiensis after exposure to heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Haiyi; Zhao, Xidan; Sun, Shichun

    2010-07-01

    The antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of Cephalothrix hongkongiensis were studied to assess variations in the biochemical/physiological parameters of nemerteans under heavy metal stress. Worms were exposed to copper, zinc and cadmium solutions at different concentrations, and the activity of three antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and MDA content were measured. The results show that the activity of each enzyme changed immediately after exposure to heavy metals. CAT was invariably inhibited throughout the experimental period, while the SOD activity was significantly elevated by exposure to Cu2+ for 48 h, but then decreased. SOD was inhibited by Zn2+during the first 12 h of exposure, but activated when exposed for longer periods. Under Cd2+ stress, SOD activity decreased within 72 h. GPX activity varied greatly, being significantly increased by both Cu2+ and Zn2+, but significantly inhibited by Cd2+ in the first 12-24 h after exposure. MDA content increased on Cu2+ exposure, but normally decreased on Zn2+ exposure. MDA content followed an increase-decrease-increase pattern under Cd2+ stress. In conclusion, the antioxidant system of this nemertean is sensitive to heavy metals, and its CAT activity may be a potential biomarker for monitoring heavy metal levels in the environment.

  20. What is the main driver of ageing in long-lived winter honeybees: antioxidant enzymes, innate immunity, or vitellogenin?

    PubMed

    Aurori, Cristian M; Buttstedt, Anja; Dezmirean, Daniel S; Mărghitaş, Liviu A; Moritz, Robin F A; Erler, Silvio

    2014-06-01

    To date five different theories compete in explaining the biological mechanisms of senescence or ageing in invertebrates. Physiological, genetical, and environmental mechanisms form the image of ageing in individuals and groups. Social insects, especially the honeybee Apis mellifera, present exceptional model systems to study developmentally related ageing. The extremely high phenotypic plasticity for life expectancy resulting from the female caste system provides a most useful system to study open questions with respect to ageing. Here, we used long-lived winter worker honeybees and measured transcriptional changes of 14 antioxidative enzyme, immunity, and ageing-related (insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway) genes at two time points during hibernation. Additionally, worker bees were challenged with a bacterial infection to test ageing- and infection-associated immunity changes. Gene expression levels for each group of target genes revealed that ageing had a much higher impact than the bacterial challenge, notably for immunity-related genes. Antimicrobial peptide and antioxidative enzyme genes were significantly upregulated in aged worker honeybees independent of bacterial infections. The known ageing markers vitellogenin and IlP-1 were opposed regulated with decreasing vitellogenin levels during ageing. The increased antioxidative enzyme and antimicrobial peptide gene expression may contribute to a retardation of senescence in long-lived hibernating worker honeybees.

  1. Certain antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) as early warning biomarkers of soil copper exposure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bai-Ye; Kan, Shi-Hong; Zhang, Yan-Zong; Deng, Shi-Huai; Wu, Jun; Yuan, Hao; Qi, Hui; Yang, Gang; Li, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Xiao, Hong; Wang, Ying-Jun; Peng, Hong; Li, Yuan-Wei

    2010-11-15

    Copper (Cu) is a major heavy metal contaminant with various anthropogenic and natural sources. Recently, using biomarkers to monitor the effects of pollutants has attracted increased interest. Pot culture experiments using radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was performed to investigate Cu phytotoxic effects on antioxidant enzymes and other early warning biomarkers of soil Cu exposure. Under low dose Cu stress (lower than the EC10, Cu concentration reducing root length by 10%), activity and isozyme expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidases (POD) increased significantly; no significant variations in chlorophyll, carotenoid, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves and toxic symptoms were observed. Under a slightly higher Cu stress (close to the EC10), activity and isozyme expression of SOD and MDA content were enhanced significantly; those of CAT and POD decreased due to an inverted U-shape dose response. Chlorophyll content remained unchanged. Thus, antioxidant enzymes and MDA content are more sensitive to Cu stress, showing significant variations ahead of chlorophyll and toxic symptoms under Cu stress (lower than about 200 mg kg(-1) soil). Thus, the joint monitoring of antioxidant enzymes and MDA content of R. sativus can be used as biomarkers of soil Cu contamination.

  2. Dietary açai modulates ROS production by neutrophils and gene expression of liver antioxidant enzymes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes de Brito; Costa, Daniela Caldeira; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

    2011-01-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants. Because increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense mechanisms are important factors in the development of diabetic complications and many health claims have been reported for açai, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of açai on the production of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils and on the liver antioxidant defense system in control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diet supplementation with 2% açai was found to increase mRNA levels for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione peroxidase in liver tissue and to decrease reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils. Compared to control animals, diabetic rats exhibited lower levels of mRNA coding for Zn-superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and higher levels of reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and carbonyl proteins in hepatic tissues. Although açai supplementation was not effective in restore gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats, it showed a protective effect, decreasing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels and increasing reduced glutathione content in the liver. These findings suggest that açai can modulate reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils and that it has a significant favorable effect on the liver antioxidant defense system under fisiological conditions of oxidative stress and partially revert deleterious effects of diabetes in the liver. PMID:22128218

  3. Chemoprotective potentials of homoisoflavonoids and chalcones of Dracaena cinnabari: modulations of drug-metabolizing enzymes and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Machala, M; Kubínová, R; Horavová, P; Suchý, V

    2001-03-01

    A series of homoisoflavonoids and chalcones, isolated from the endemic tropical plant Dracaena cinnabari Balf. (Agavaceae), were tested for their potential to inhibit cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) enzymes and Fe-enhanced in vitro peroxidation of microsomal lipids in C57B1/6 mouse liver. The effects of the polyphenolic compounds were compared with those of prototypal flavonoid modulators of CYP1A and the well-known antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene. 2-Hydroxychalcone and partly 4,6-dihydroxychalcone were found to be strong inhibitors of CYP1A-dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity in vitro comparable to the effects of quercetin and chrysin. The first screening of flavonoids and chalcones of Dracaena cinnabari for antioxidant activity was done in an in vitro microsomal peroxidation assay. While chalcones were shown to be poor antioxidants, 7,8-methylenedioxy-3(4-hydroxybenzyl) chromane, as one of the tested homoisoflavonoids, exhibited a strong antioxidant activity comparable to that of the strongest flavonol antioxidant, quercetin.

  4. Evaluation of the antioxidant properties of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril and the nucleotide enhancing agent, acadesine.

    PubMed

    Wasil, M; Kelly, F J

    1995-11-01

    The angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril and the nucleotide enhancing agent, acadesine, protect myocardial tissue from ischaemia/reperfusion-induced injury. Although both drugs have well established, independent mechanisms of cardiac protection, they may also have antioxidant activity which could contribute to their beneficial action. In this study we have examined the antioxidant activity of captopril and acadesine by examining their ability to scavenge ABTS radicals, formed from the interaction of ferryl metmyoglobin with phenothiazine in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. For comparison, we compared these results to those obtained for a range of other drugs commonly used for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. These included verapamil (arrhythmia), isosorbide dinitrate (angina), atenolol (hypertension) and enalapril (congestive heart failure). The antioxidant properties of these drugs were then compared to the well characterised antioxidants, Trolox (a water soluble vitamin E analogue), ascorbate and glutathione. Captopril and acadesine were both shown to be efficient scavengers of ABTS radicals, importantly at drug concentrations expected to be found in vivo. These data confirm that the antioxidant potential of captopril and acadesine may be an important component of their mechanism of action, with both drugs probably protecting the myocardium against oxygen derived free radicals during ischaemia/reperfusion.

  5. Enzyme-Assisted Discovery of Antioxidant Peptides from Edible Marine Invertebrates: A Review.

    PubMed

    Chai, Tsun-Thai; Law, Yew-Chye; Wong, Fai-Chu; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2017-02-16

    Marine invertebrates, such as oysters, mussels, clams, scallop, jellyfishes, squids, prawns, sea cucumbers and sea squirts, are consumed as foods. These edible marine invertebrates are sources of potent bioactive peptides. The last two decades have seen a surge of interest in the discovery of antioxidant peptides from edible marine invertebrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient strategy commonly used for releasing antioxidant peptides from food proteins. A growing number of antioxidant peptide sequences have been identified from the enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Antioxidant peptides have potential applications in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. In this review, we first give a brief overview of the current state of progress of antioxidant peptide research, with special attention to marine antioxidant peptides. We then focus on 22 investigations which identified 32 antioxidant peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Strategies adopted by various research groups in the purification and identification of the antioxidant peptides will be summarized. Structural characteristic of the peptide sequences in relation to their antioxidant activities will be reviewed. Potential applications of the peptide sequences and future research prospects will also be discussed.

  6. Enzyme-Assisted Discovery of Antioxidant Peptides from Edible Marine Invertebrates: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Tsun-Thai; Law, Yew-Chye; Wong, Fai-Chu; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2017-01-01

    Marine invertebrates, such as oysters, mussels, clams, scallop, jellyfishes, squids, prawns, sea cucumbers and sea squirts, are consumed as foods. These edible marine invertebrates are sources of potent bioactive peptides. The last two decades have seen a surge of interest in the discovery of antioxidant peptides from edible marine invertebrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient strategy commonly used for releasing antioxidant peptides from food proteins. A growing number of antioxidant peptide sequences have been identified from the enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Antioxidant peptides have potential applications in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. In this review, we first give a brief overview of the current state of progress of antioxidant peptide research, with special attention to marine antioxidant peptides. We then focus on 22 investigations which identified 32 antioxidant peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Strategies adopted by various research groups in the purification and identification of the antioxidant peptides will be summarized. Structural characteristic of the peptide sequences in relation to their antioxidant activities will be reviewed. Potential applications of the peptide sequences and future research prospects will also be discussed. PMID:28212329

  7. Renal antioxidant enzymes and glutathione redox status in leptin-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bełtowski, Jerzy; Jamroz-Wiśniewska, Anna; Wójcicka, Grazyna; Lowicka, Ewelina; Wojtak, Andrzej

    2008-12-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated that leptin increases blood pressure (BP) in the rats through two oxidative stress-dependent mechanisms: stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) by H(2)O(2) and scavenging of nitric oxide (NO) by superoxide (O(2-.)). Herein, we examined if renal glutathione system and antioxidant enzymes determine the mechanism of prohypertensive effect of leptin. Leptin administered at 0.5 mg/kg/day for 4 or 8 days increased BP and renal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and reduced fractional sodium excretion; these effects were prevented by NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin. Superoxide scavenger, tempol, abolished the effect of leptin on BP and renal Na(+) pump in rats receiving leptin for 8 days, whereas ERK inhibitor, PD98059, was effective in animals treated with leptin for 4 days. Leptin administered for 4 days decreased glutathione (GSH) and increased glutathione disulfide (GSSG) in the kidney. In animals receiving leptin for 8 days GSH returned to normal level, which was accompanied by up-regulation of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS), a rate-limiting enzyme of the GSH biosynthetic pathway. In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was decreased, whereas glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was increased in rats receiving leptin for 8 days. Cotreatment with gamma-GCS inhibitor, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), accelerated, whereas GSH precursor, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), attenuated leptin-induced changes in gamma-GCS, SOD, and GPx. In addition, coadministration of BSO changed the mechanism of BP elevation from H(2)O(2)-ERK to (O(2-.))-NO dependent in animals receiving leptin for 4 days, whereas NAC had the opposite effect in rats treated with leptin for 8 days. These results suggest that initial change in GSH redox status induces decrease in SOD/GPx ratio, which results in greater amount of (O)2-.)) versus H(2)O(2) in later phase of leptin treatment, thus shifting the mechanism of BP elevation from H(2)O(2)-ERK to (O(2

  8. Influence of thermal treatment on color, enzyme activities, and antioxidant capacity of innovative pastelike parsley products.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Andrea; Brinkmann, Maike; Carle, Reinhold; Kammerer, Dietmar R

    2012-03-28

    Conventional spice powders are often characterized by low sensory quality and high microbial loads. Furthermore, genuine enzymes are only inhibited but not entirely inactivated upon drying, so that they may regain their activity upon rehydration of dried foods. To overcome these problems, initial heating was applied in the present study as the first process step for the production of innovative pastelike parsley products. For this purpose, fresh parsley was blanched (80, 90, and 100 °C for 1-10 min) and subsequently comminuted to form a paste. Alternatively, mincing was carried out prior to heat treatment. Regardless of temperature, the color of the latter product did not show any change after heating for 1 min. With progressing exposure time the green color turned to olive hues due to marked pheophytin formation. Inactivation of genuine peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was achieved at all temperature-time regimes applied. In contrast, the parsley products obtained after immediate water-blanching were characterized by brighter green colors and enhanced pigment retention. With the exception of the variants water-blanched at 80 °C, POD and PPO were completely inactivated at any of the thermal treatments. Furthermore, in water-blanched samples, antioxidant capacities as determined by the TEAC and FRAP assays were even enhanced compared to unheated parsley, whereas a decrease of phenolic contents could not be prevented. Consequently, the innovative process presented in this study allows the production of novel herb and spice products characterized by improved sensory quality as compared to conventional spice products.

  9. The profound effects of microcystin on cardiac antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial function and cardiac toxicity in rat.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Tong; Xie, Ping; Liu, Ying; Li, Guangyu; Xiong, Qian; Hao, Le; Li, Huiying

    2009-03-04

    Deaths from microcystin toxication have widely been attributed to hypovolemic shock due to hepatic interstitial hemorrhage, while some recent studies suggest that cardiogenic complication is also involved. So far, information on cardiotoxic effects of MC has been rare and the underlying mechanism is still puzzling. The present study examined toxic effects of microcystins on heart muscle of rats intravenously injected with extracted MC at two doses, 0.16LD(50) (14 microg MC-LReq kg(-1) body weight) and 1LD(50) (87 microg MC-LReq kg(-1) body weight). In the dead rats, both TTC staining and maximum elevations of troponin I levels confirmed myocardial infarction after MC exposure, besides a serious interstitial hemorrhage in liver. In the 1LD(50) dose group, the coincident falls in heart rate and blood pressure were related to mitochondria dysfunction in heart, while increases in creatine kinase and troponin I levels indicated cardiac cell injury. The corresponding pathological alterations were mainly characterized as loss of adherence between cardiac myocytes and swollen or ruptured mitochondria at the ultrastructural level. MC administration at a dose of 1LD(50) not only enhanced activities and up-regulated mRNA transcription levels of antioxidant enzymes, but also increased GSH content. At both doses, level of lipid peroxides increased obviously, suggesting serious oxidative stress in mitochondria. Simultaneously, complex I and III were significantly inhibited, indicating blocks in electron flow along the mitochondrial respiratory chain in heart. In conclusion, the findings of this study implicate a role for MC-induced cardiotoxicity as a potential factor that should be considered when evaluating the mechanisms of death associated with microcystin intoxication in Brazil.

  10. Seasonal changes in antioxidant enzyme activities of freshwater biofilms in a metal polluted Mediterranean stream.

    PubMed

    Bonet, Berta; Corcoll, Natàlia; Acuňa, Vicenç; Sigg, Laura; Behra, Renata; Guasch, Helena

    2013-02-01

    While seasonal variations in fluvial communities have been extensively investigated, effects of seasonality on community responses to environmental and/or chemical stress are poorly documented. The aim of this study was to describe antioxidant enzyme activity (AEA) variability in fluvial biofilms over an annual cycle, under multi-stress scenarios due to environmental variability (e.g., light intensity, water flow, and temperature) and metal pollution (Zn, Mn and Fe). The annual monitoring study was performed at three sites according to their water and biofilm metal concentrations. Metal concentration was affected by water flow due to dilution. Low flow led to higher dissolved Zn concentrations, and thus to higher Zn accumulation in the biofilm. Water temperature, light intensity and phosphate concentration were the environmental factors which determined the seasonality of biofilm responses, whereas dissolved Zn and Zn accumulation in biofilms were the parameters linked to sites and periods of highest metal pollution. Community algal succession, from diatoms in cold conditions to green algae in warm conditions, was clearer in the non metal-polluted site than in those metal-polluted, presumably due to the selection pressure exerted by metals. Most AEA were related with seasonal environmental variability at the sites with low or no-metal pollution, except glutathione-S-transferase (GST) which was related with Zn (dissolved and accumulated in biofilm) pollution occurring at the most polluted site. We can conclude that seasonal variations of community composition and function are masked by metal pollution. From this study we suggest the use of a multi-biomarker approach, including AEA and a set of biological and physicochemical parameters as an effect-based field tool to assess metal pollution.

  11. Schisandra Chinensis Baillon regulates the gene expression of phase II antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes in hepatic damage induced rats

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Han I; Do, Gyeong-Min; Lee, Hye Min; Ok, Hyang Mok; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study investigated the antioxidant activities and hepatoprotective effects of Schisandra chinensis Baillon extract (SCE) against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative hepatic damage in rats. MATERIALS/METHODS Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were pretreated with SCE (300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg BW) or saline once daily for 14 consecutive days. On day 14, each animal, except those belonging to the normal control group, were injected with t-BHP (0.8 mmol/kg BW/i.p.), and all of the rats were sacrificed 16 h after t-BHP injection. RESULTS Although no significant differences in AST and ALT levels were observed among the TC and SCE groups, the high-dose SCE group showed a decreasing tendency compared to the TC group. However, erythrocyte SOD activity showed a significant increase in the low-dose SCE group compared with the TC group. On the other hand, no significant differences in hepatic total glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were observed among the TC and SCE groups. Hepatic histopathological evaluation revealed that pretreatment with SCE resulted in reduced t-BHP-induced incidence of lesions, such as neutrophil infiltration, swelling of liver cells, and necrosis. In particular, treatment with a high dose of SCE resulted in induction of phase II antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme expression, such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC). CONCLUSIONS Based on these results, we conclude that SCE exerts protective effects against t-BHP induced oxidative hepatic damage through the reduction of neutrophil infiltration, swelling of liver cells, and necrosis. In addition, SCE regulates the gene expression of phase II antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes independent of hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:24944771

  12. Decreased glutathione levels and impaired antioxidant enzyme activities in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine glutathione levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in the drug-naive first-episode patients with schizophrenia in comparison with healthy control subjects. Methods It was a case-controlled study carried on twenty-three patients (20 men and 3 women, mean age = 29.3 ± 7.5 years) recruited in their first-episode of schizophrenia and 40 healthy control subjects (36 men and 9 women, mean age = 29.6 ± 6.2 years). In patients, the blood samples were obtained prior to the initiation of neuroleptic treatments. Glutathione levels: total glutathione (GSHt), reduced glutathione (GSHr) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and antioxidant enzyme activities: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) were determined by spectrophotometry. Results GSHt and reduced GSHr were significantly lower in patients than in controls, whereas GSSG was significantly higher in patients. GPx activity was significantly higher in patients compared to control subjects. CAT activity was significantly lower in patients, whereas the SOD activity was comparable to that of controls. Conclusion This is a report of decreased plasma levels of GSHt and GSHr, and impaired antioxidant enzyme activities in drug-naive first-episode patients with schizophrenia. The GSH deficit seems to be implicated in psychosis, and may be an important indirect biomarker of oxidative stress in schizophrenia early in the course of illness. Finally, our results provide support for further studies of the possible role of antioxidants as neuroprotective therapeutic strategies for schizophrenia from early stages. PMID:21810251

  13. L-malate enhances the gene expression of carried proteins and antioxidant enzymes in liver of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Zeng, X; Wu, J; Wu, Q; Zhang, J

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory reported L-malate as a free radical scavenger in aged rats. To investigate the antioxidant mechanism of L-malate in the mitochondria, we analyzed the change in gene expression of two malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS)-related carried proteins (AGC, aspartate/glutamate carrier and OMC, oxoglutarate/malate carrier) in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and three antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px) in the mitochondria. The changes in gene expression of these proteins and enzymes were examined by real-time RT-PCR in the heart and liver of aged rats treated with L-malate. L-malate was orally administered in rats continuously for 30 days using a feeding atraumatic needle. We found that the gene expression of OMC and GSH-Px mRNA in the liver increased by 39 % and 38 %, respectively, in the 0.630 g/kg L-malate treatment group than that in the control group. The expression levels of SOD mRNA in the liver increased by 39 %, 56 %, and 78 % in the 0.105, 0.210, and 0.630 g/kg L-malate treatment groups, respectively. No difference were observed in the expression levels of AGC, OMC, CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px mRNAs in the heart of rats between the L-malate treatment and control groups. These results predicted that L-malate may increase the antioxidant capacity of mitochondria by enhancing the expression of mRNAs involved in the MAS and the antioxidant enzymes.

  14. Effect of static magnetic field and/or cadmium in the antioxidant enzymes activity in rat heart and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Amara, Salem; Garrel, Catherine; Favier, Alain; Ben Rhouma, Khémais; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

    2009-12-01

    Currently, environmental and industrial pollution along with increase and causes multiple stress conditions, the combined exposure to magnetic field and other toxic agents is recognised as an important research area, with a view to better protecting human health against their probable unfavourable effects. In the present study, we investigated the effect of co-exposure to static magnetic field (SMF) and cadmium (Cd) on the antioxidant enzymes activity and the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in rat skeletal and cardiac muscles. The exposure of rats to SMF (128 mT, 1 h/day during 30 consecutive days) decreased the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) in heart muscle. Sub-chronic exposure to SMF increased the MDA concentration in rat cardiac muscle. Cd treatment (CdCl2, 40 mg/l, per os) during 4 weeks decreased the activities of catalase (CAT) in skeletal muscle and the CuZn-SOD in the heart. Moreover, Cd administration increased MDA concentration in the both structures. The combined effect of SMF (128 mT, 1 h/day during 30 consecutive days) and Cd (40 mg/l, per os) disrupt the antioxidant enzymes activity in rat skeletal and cardiac muscles. Moreover, we noted a huge increase in MDA concentration in the heart and skeletal muscle compared to control group. Thus it is possible that the SMF- and/or Cd-induced depletion of antioxidant enzymes activity in muscle tissues might, like the enhanced lipid peroxidation, importantly contribute to oxidative damage. The combined effect of SMF and Cd altered significantly the antioxidant enzymatic capacity and induced lipid peroxidation in both skeletal and cardiac muscle.

  15. Intracellular Localization of Enzymes of Carbon Metabolism in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Exhibiting C3 Photosynthetic Characteristics or Performing Crassulacean Acid Metabolism 1

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Klaus; Foster, Joyce G.; Edwards, Gerald E.; Holtum, Joseph A. M.

    1982-01-01

    Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, a halophilic, inducible Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species, was grown at NaCl concentrations of 20 and 400 millimolar in the rooting medium. Plants from the low salinity treatment showed exclusively C3-photosynthetic net CO2 fixation, whereas plants exposed to the high salinity level exhibited net CO2 dark fixation involving CAM. Mesophyll protoplasts, isolated from both tissues, were gently ruptured, and the intracellular localization of enzymes was studied following differential centrifugation and Percoll density gradient centrifugation of protoplast extracts. Both centrifugation techniques resulted in the separation of intact chloroplasts, with up to 90% yield, from other organelles and the nonparticulate fraction of cells. Enzymes were identified by determination of activity and by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis of enzyme protein. Experiments established the extraorganellar (cytoplasmic) location of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, enolase, phosphoglyceromutase, and NADP-malic enzyme; the mitochondrial location of NAD-malic enzyme; and the chloroplastic location of pyruvate, Pi dikinase. NAD-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphohexose isomerase, and phosphoglycerate kinase were associated with both cytoplasm and chloroplasts. NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase activity was found in both the chloroplastic and extrachloroplastic fractions; the activity in the chloroplast showed an optimum at pH 8.0 and was dependent upon preincubation of enzyme with dithiothreitol. The extrachloroplastic activity showed an optimum at pH 6.5 and was independent of pretreatment with dithiothreitol. Protoplast extracts of M. crystallinum performing CAM exhibited higher activities (expressed per mg chlorophyll per min) of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, pyruvate, Pi dikinase, NADP-malic enzyme, NAD-malic enzyme, NADP-malate dehydrogenase, enolase, phosphoglyceromutase, NAD-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

  16. Galangin, a dietary flavonol inhibits tumor initiation during experimental pulmonary tumorigenesis by modulating xenobiotic enzymes and antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Devadoss, Dinesh; Ramar, Manikandan; Chinnasamy, Arulvasu

    2014-02-05

    The aim of present study was to elucidate anti-initiating efficacy of galangin against benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P)-induced lung carcinogenesis in male Swiss albino mice. Therefore, the activities of xenobiotic metabolic enzymes such as phase I and II were examined in lung as well as liver tissues (to compare the effects between target and non-target organs). Besides, the activities/levels of tissue marker enzymes, antioxidants, lipid peroxidation (LPO), cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) expressions and histological observation of lungs were also analyzed. B(a)P (50 mg/kg body weight) was administered to male Swiss albino mice (20-25 g) to experimentally induce lung cancer. B(a)P-induced animals showed increased activity of phase I (Cytochrome P450, Cytochrome b5, NADPH Cytochrome P450 redcutase and NADH Cytochrome b5 reductase) drug metabolic enzymes, LPO levels, tissue marker enzymes and decreased activity of phase II metabolic enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase, DT-diaphorase and UDP-glucuronyl transferase) as well as antioxidant levels. Histological examination of lungs revealed severe alveolar and bronchiolar damages in B(a)P-induced mice. Immunohistochemical and western blot analysis of CYP1A1 increased significantly in lung tissues of B(a)P-induced animals. Treatment with galangin (20 mg/kg body weight) efficiently counteracted all the above anomalies and restored cellular homeostasis. Our results demonstrate that galangin can modify xenobiotic enzymes in murine model of pulmonary tumorigenesis.

  17. Impact of fungicides on active oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to ozone.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue-xuan; von, Tiedemann Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Two modern fungicides, a strobilurin, azoxystrobin (AZO), and a triazole, epoxiconazole (EPO), applied as foliar spray on spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Scarlett) 3 days prior to fumigation with injurious doses of ozone (150-250 ppb; 5 days; 7 h/day) induced a 50-60% protection against ozone injury on leaves. Fungicide treatments of barley plants at growth stage (GS) 32 significantly increased the total leaf soluble protein content. Additionally, activities of the antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate-peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) were increased by both fungicides at maximal rates of 16, 75, 51 and 144%, respectively. Guiacol-peroxidase (POX) activity was elevated by 50-110% only in AZO treated plants, while this effect was lacking after treatments with EPO. This coincided with elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) only in EPO and not in AZO treated plants. The enhancement of the plant antioxidative system by the two fungicides significantly and considerably reduced the level of superoxide (O2*-) in leaves. Fumigation of barley plants for 4 days with non-injurious ozone doses (120-150 ppb, 7 h/day) markedly and immediately stimulated O2*- accumulation in leaves, while H2O2 was increased only after the third day of fumigation. Therefore, O2*- itself or as precursor of even more toxic oxyradicals appears to be more indicative for ozone-induced leaf damage than H2O2. Ozone also induced significant increases in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POX and CAT) after 2 days of fumigation in fungicide untreated plants, while after 4 days of fumigation these enzymes declined to a level lower than in unfumigated plants, due to the oxidative degradation of leaf proteins. This is the first report demonstrating the marked enhancement of plant antioxidative enzymes and the enhanced scavenging of potentially harmful O2*- by fungicides as a mechanism of protecting plants against noxious oxidative stress

  18. Influence of Piper betle on hepatic marker enzymes and tissue antioxidant status in D-galactosamine-induced hepatotoxic rats.

    PubMed

    Pushpavalli, Ganesan; Veeramani, Chinnadurai; Pugalendi, Kodukkur Viswanathan

    2008-01-01

    D-galactosamine is a well-established hepatotoxicant that induces a diffuse type of liver injury closely resembling human viral hepatitis. D-galactosamine by its property of generating free radicals causes severe damage to the membrane and affects almost all organs of the human body. The leaves of Piper betle L., a commonly used masticatory in Asian countries, possess several biological properties. Our aim is to investigate the in vivo antioxidant potential of P. betle leaf-extract against oxidative stress induced by D-galactosamine intoxication in male albino Wistar rats. Toxicity was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine, 400 mg/kg body weight (BW) for 21 days. Rats were treated with P. betle extract (200 mg/kg BW) via intragastric intubations. We assessed the activities of liver marker enzymes (aspartate amino-transferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase) and levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione. The extract significantly improved the status of antioxidants and decreased TBARS, hydroperoxides, and liver marker enzymes when compared with the D-galactosamine treated group, demonstrating its hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties.

  19. Estradiol Modulates Membrane-Linked ATPases, Antioxidant Enzymes, Membrane Fluidity, Lipid Peroxidation, and Lipofuscin in Aged Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pardeep; Kale, R. K.; Baquer, Najma Zaheer

    2011-01-01

    Free radical production and oxidative stress are known to increase in liver during aging, and may contribute to the oxidative damage. These changes increase during menopausal condition in females when the level of estradiol is decreased. The objective of this study was to observe the changes in activities of membrane linked ATPases (Na+K+ ATPase, Ca2+ ATPase), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase), lipid peroxidation levels, lipofuscin content and membrane fluidity occurring in livers of female rats of 3, 12 and 24 months age groups, and to see whether these changes are restored to 3 months control levels rats after exogenous administration of 17-β-estradiol (E2). The aged rats (12 and 24 months) were given subcutaneous injection of E2 (0.1 μg/g body weight) daily for one month. The results obtained in the present work revealed that normal aging was associated with significant decrease in the activities of membrane linked ATPases, antioxidant enzymes, membrane fluidity and an increase in lipid peroxidation and lipofuscin content in livers of aging female rats. The present study showed that E2 treatment reversed the changes to normal levels. E2 treatment may be beneficial in preventing some of the age related changes in the liver by increasing antioxidant defenses. PMID:22007298

  20. Protective effect of zerumbone reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury via antioxidative enzymes and Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Leung, Wai-Shing; Yang, Ming-Ling; Lee, Shiuan-Shinn; Kuo, Chi-Wen; Ho, Yung-Chyuan; Huang-Liu, Rosa; Lin, Hui-Wen; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang

    2017-05-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a serious disease with high morbidity and mortality rate. Although there are effective strategies for treatment of ALI; a widely accepted specific pharmacotherapy has not yet established. Zerumbone, the major active phytochemical compound from Zingiber zerumbet Smith, exhibits various beneficial biological and pharmacological activities, such as antioxidation, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, and anti-cancer. We aimed to study the potential protective effects and mechanisms of zerumbone in mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Pretreatment with zerumbone inhibited the histopatholgical changes such as neutrophils infiltration, increased in alveolar barrier thickness, hemorrhage, and hyaline membrane formation occurred in lungs in LPS-induced ALI. In addition, not only LPS-induced activation of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) was suppressed by zerumbone, but also lipid peroxidation in lungs was inhibited as well. Moreover, pretreatment with zerumbone reversed the antioxidative enzymes activities, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, decreased by LPS and enhanced the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase (HO-1) induced by LPS. These results from present study suggested that the protective mechanisms of zerumbone on LPS-induced ALI were via up-regulation of antioxidative enzymes and Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

  1. Fisetin Modulates Antioxidant Enzymes and Inflammatory Factors to Inhibit Aflatoxin-B1 Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Rats.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Brajesh Kumar; Trigun, Surendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fisetin, a known antioxidant, has been found to be cytotoxic against certain cell lines. However, the mechanism by which it inhibits tumor growth in vivo remains unexplored. Recently, we have demonstrated that Aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1) induced hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with activation of oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway in rat liver. The present paper describes the effect of in vivo treatment with 20 mg/kg b.w. Fisetin on antioxidant enzymes vis-a-vis oxidative stress level and on the profile of certain proinflammatory cytokines in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induced by two doses of 1 mg/kg b.w. AFB1 i.p. in rats. The reduced levels of most of the antioxidant enzymes, coinciding with the enhanced level of reactive oxygen species in the HCC liver, were observed to regain their normal profiles due to Fisetin treatment. Also, Fisetin treatment could normalize the enhanced expression of TNFα and IL1α, the two proinflammatory cytokines, reported to be involved in HCC pathogenesis. These observations were consistent with the regression of neoplastic lesion and declined GST-pi (placental type glutathione-S-transferase) level, a HCC marker, in the liver of the Fisetin treated HCC rats. The findings suggest that Fisetin attenuates oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway of AFB1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

  2. Ambient particulate air pollution and circulating antioxidant enzymes: A repeated-measure study in healthy adults in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Wang, Bin; Yang, Di; Wei, Hongying; Li, Hongyu; Pan, Lu; Huang, Jing; Wang, Xin; Qin, Yu; Zheng, Chanjuan; Shima, Masayuki; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-01-01

    The association of systemic antioxidant activity with ambient air pollution has been unclear. A panel of 40 healthy college students underwent repeated blood collection for 12 occasions under three exposure scenarios before and after relocating from a suburban area to an urban area in Beijing, China in 2010-2011. We measured various air pollutants including fine particles (PM2.5) and determined circulating levels of antioxidant enzymes extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) in the laboratory. An interquartile range increase of 63.4 μg/m(3) at 3-d PM2.5 moving average was associated with a 6.3% (95% CI: 0.6, 12.4) increase in EC-SOD and a 5.5% (95% CI: 1.3, 9.8) increase in GPX1. Several PM2.5 chemical constituents, including negative ions (nitrate and chloride) and metals (e.g., iron and strontium), were consistently associated with increases in EC-SOD and GPX1. Our results support activation of circulating antioxidant enzymes following exposure to particulate air pollution.

  3. Function of antioxidant enzymes and metabolites during maturation of pea fruits.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Manuel A; Loscos, Jorge; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro M; Becana, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    In plant cells, antioxidants keep reactive oxygen species at low concentrations, avoiding oxidative damage while allowing them to play crucial functions in signal transduction. However, little is known about the role of antioxidants during fruit maturation, especially in legumes. Snap pea (Pisum sativum) plants, which have edible fruits, were grown under nodulating and non-nodulating conditions. Fruits were classified in three maturity stages and antioxidants were determined in the seeds and seedless pods. Maturation or prolonged storage of fruits at 25 degrees C led to a decline in antioxidant activities and metabolites and in gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase protein. Notable exceptions were superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione peroxidase protein, which increased in one or both of these processes. During maturation, cytosolic peroxiredoxin decreased in seeds but increased in pods, and ascorbate oxidase activity was largely reduced in seeds. In stored fruits, ascorbate oxidase activity was nearly abolished in seeds but doubled in pods. It is concluded that symbiotic nitrogen fixation is as effective as nitrogen fertilization in maintaining the antioxidant capacity of pea fruits and that, contrary to climacteric fruits, a general decrease in antioxidants during maturation does not involve oxidative stress. Results underscore the importance of the antioxidant system in reproductive organs and point to ascorbate-glutathione metabolism and cytosolic peroxiredoxin as key players in pea fruit development.

  4. Change in Free Radical and Antioxidant Enzyme Levels in the Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Ozan, Gonca; Kıbar, Kurtuluş; Erışır, Mine

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study is to determine the changes in oxidative damage and antioxidant parameters in open heart surgeries with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in preoperative and early postoperative periods. Methods. A total of three consecutive arterial blood samples were obtained from the patients in the study group, in preoperative, early postoperative, and postoperative periods, respectively. Oxidative damage indicator (MDA) and antioxidant indicators (GPx, GSH, CAT, and SOD) were examined. Results. A statistically significant increase was observed in MDA level in postoperative period compared to preoperative and early postoperative periods. GSH levels and CAT activities increased significantly in early postoperative and postoperative periods. Analyses revealed an increase in GPx and SOD enzyme activities only in the postoperative period. Conclusion. Even though the increase in MDA level was suppressed by the increased GSH level and CAT activity like in early postoperative period, efficiency can be brought for the increases in insufficient significant antioxidant parameters in postoperative period by administering antioxidant supplements to the patients and thus the increase in MDA in postoperative period can be significantly suppressed. PMID:28101295

  5. Inhibition of THP-1 cell adhesion to endothelial cells by alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocotrienol is dependent on intracellular concentration of the antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Noriko; Hanyu, Ryuhei; Nonaka, Aya; Okimoto, Yuko; Kodama, Tatsuhiko

    2003-06-15

    Vitamin E analogs such as alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocotrienol have been shown to reduce endothelial expression of adhesion molecules. The reactivity of alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocotrienol in inhibiting lipid peroxidation in vitro was essentially identical but the inhibition of adhesion of THP-1 cells, a monocytic-"like" cell line, to endothelial cells differs substantially. To determine the mechanism underlying this response, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were assessed for their ability to accumulate vitamin E analogs. alpha-Tocotrienol accumulated in HUVECs to levels approximately 10-fold greater than that of alpha-tocopherol. The decrease in expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and the adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs by alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocotrienol was also determined. Both alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocotrienol suppressed VCAM-1 expression and adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs in a concentration-dependent manner. The efficacy of tocotrienol for reduction of VCAM-1 expression and adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs was also 10-fold higher than that of tocopherol. The inhibitory effects of vitamin E analogs on the adhesiveness of endothelial cells clearly correlated with their intracellular concentrations. The data demonstrated that, in assessing the biological responses of antioxidants, intracellular accumulation and metabolism were additional important factors that must be considered.

  6. Antioxidant effects of the sarsaparilla via scavenging of reactive oxygen species and induction of antioxidant enzymes in human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Park, Gunhyuk; Kim, Tae-mi; Kim, Jeong Hee; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight causes distinct changes in collagenous skin tissues as a result of the breakdown of collagen, a major component of the extracellular matrix. UV irradiation downregulates reactive oxygen species (ROS)-elimination pathways, thereby promoting the production of ROS, which are implicated in skin aging. Smilax glabra Roxb (sarsaparilla) has been used in folk medicine because of its many effects. However, no study on the protective effects of sarsaparilla root (SR) on human dermal fibroblasts has been reported previously. Here, we investigated the protective effect of SR against oxidative stress in dermal fibroblasts. SR significantly inhibited oxidative damage and skin-aging factor via mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Also, SR decreased Ca(2+) and ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential, dysfunction, and increased glutathione, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase and heme oxygenase-1. These results demonstrate that SR can protect dermal fibroblasts against UVB-induced skin aging via antioxidant effects.

  7. Curcumin attenuates CFA induced thermal hyperalgesia by modulation of antioxidant enzymes and down regulation of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajeet Kumar; Vinayak, Manjula

    2015-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species are signaling mediators of nociceptive pathways. Exogenous administrations of antioxidants show anti-hyperalgesic effect. However, very little is known about the role of endogenous antioxidant defense system in pain pathology. Curcumin is a dietary antioxidant which shows ameliorative effect on thermal hypersensitivity, however detailed study is lacking. Present study was aimed to analyze the changes in oxidative stress, modulation of antioxidant enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines in complete Freund's adjuvant induced inflammatory hyperalgesia and the effect of curcumin on antioxidant defense system and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Anti-hyperalgesic activity of curcumin was evidenced after 6 h of treatment. Oxidative stress was evidenced in paw skin and spinal cord of hyperalgesic rats by high level of lipid peroxidation. A decrease in activity of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and an increase in level of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in paw skin was observed as compared to normal rats. However, activity of antioxidant enzymes was enhanced in spinal cord. The changes were brought towards normal level after curcumin treatment. The results suggest that modulation of antioxidant defense system is early event in initiation of inflammatory hyperalgesia which might lead to initiation of other signaling pathways mediated by lipid peroxide, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. Decrease in oxidative stress and down regulation of these cytokines by curcumin is suggested to be involved in its anti-hyperalgesic effect.

  8. Piper nigrum: micropropagation, antioxidative enzyme activities, and chromatographic fingerprint analysis for quality control.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nisar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Rahman, Inayat ur; Fazal, Hina

    2013-04-01

    A reliable in vitro regeneration system for the economical and medicinally important Piper nigrum L. has been established. Callus and shoot regeneration was encouraged from leaf portions on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with varied concentrations of plant growth regulators. A higher callus production (90 %) was observed in explants incubated on MS medium incorporated with 1.0 mg L(-1) 6-benzyladenine (BA) along with 0.5 mg L(-1) gibberellic acid after 4 weeks of culture. Moreover, a callogenic response of 85 % was also recorded for 1.0 mg L(-1) BA in combination with 0.25 mg L(-1) α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 0.25 mg L(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or 0.5 mg L(-1) indole butyric acid (IBA) along with 0.25 mg L(-1) NAA and indole acetic acid. Subsequent sub-culturing of callus after 4 weeks of culture onto MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L(-1) thiodiazoran or 1.5 mg L(-1) IBA induced 100 % shoot response. Rooted plantlets were achieved on medium containing varied concentrations of auxins. The antioxidative enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)] revealed that significantly higher SOD was observed in regenerated plantlets than in other tissues. However, POD, CAT, and APX were higher in callus than in other tissues. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint analysis protocol was established for quality control in different in vitro-regenerated tissues of P. nigrum L. During analysis, most of the common peaks represent the active principle "piperine." The chemical contents, especially piperine, showed variation from callus culture to whole plantlet regeneration. Based on the deviation in chromatographic peaks, the in vitro-regenerated plantlets exhibit a nearly similar piperine profile to acclimated plantlets. The in vitro regeneration system and HPLC fingerprint analysis established here brought a novel approach to the quality control of in vitro

  9. Lycopene activates antioxidant enzymes and nuclear transcription factor systems in heat-stressed broilers.

    PubMed

    Sahin, K; Orhan, C; Tuzcu, M; Sahin, N; Hayirli, A; Bilgili, S; Kucuk, O

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lycopene supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant status, and muscle nuclear transcription factor [Kelch like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) and (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)] expressions in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress (HS). A total of 180 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned randomly to one of 2×3 factorially arranged treatments: two housing temperatures (22°C for 24 h/d; thermoneutral, TN or 34°C for 8 h/d HS) and three dietary lycopene levels (0, 200, or 400 mg/kg). Each treatment consisted of three replicates of 10 birds. Birds were reared to 42 d of age. Heat stress caused reductions in feed intake and weight gain by 12.2 and 20.7% and increased feed efficiency by 10.8% (P<0.0001 for all). Increasing dietary lycopene level improved performance in both environments. Birds reared under the HS environment had lower serum and muscle lycopene concentration (0.34 vs. 0.50 μg/mL and 2.80 vs. 2.13 μg/g), activities of superoxide dismutase (151 vs. 126 U/mL and 131 vs. 155 U/mg protein), glutathione peroxidase (184 vs. 154 U/mL and 1.39 vs. 1.74 U/mg protein), and higher malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration (0.53 vs. 0.83 μg/mL and 0.78 vs. 0.45 μg/ mg protein) than birds reared under the TN environment. Changes in levels of lycopene and MDA and activities of enzymes in serum and muscle varied by the environmental temperature as dietary lycopene level increased. Moreover, increasing dietary lycopene level suppressed muscle Keap1 expression and enhanced muscle Nrf2 expression, which had increased by 150% and decreased by 40%, respectively in response to HS. In conclusion, lycopene supplementation alleviates adverse effects of HS on performance through modulating expressions of stress-related nuclear transcription factors.

  10. Antioxidant enzyme activities and mitochondrial fatty acids in pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) in broilers.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Cawthon, D; Beers, K; Wideman, R F; Bottje, W G

    2002-02-01

    Major objectives of this study were to assess antioxidant protection and fatty acid profile in lung mitochondria and whole liver in broilers with pulmonary hypertension syndrome [(PHS; with and without high dietary vitamin E (VE)] (Experiment 1) and in broilers that did not develop PHS but were genetically selected (S) or not selected (NS) for resistance to PHS (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, lung mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was elevated in broilers with PHS compared to controls, broilers fed high VE, and broilers fed high VE with PHS (VE-PHS), but there were no differences in GSH reductase (GSH-Rd) among groups. In liver tissue, GSH-Px was also elevated by PHS but was lower in VE and VE-PHS groups than in controls. There were no differences in liver GSH-Rd, superoxide dismutase (SOD), or gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS) activities with the exception that gamma-GCS was higher in the VE-PHS group than in the other groups. In Experiment 2, S lung mitochondria exhibited lower GSH-Px and higher GSH-Rd compared to NS broilers. In the liver, there were no differences in GSH-Px, GSH-Rd, or gamma-GCS, but SOD was lower in S compared to the NS broilers. High VE increased the percentage of saturated fatty acids and decreased the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids in lung mitochondria in Experiment 1; there were no differences in fatty acid content between S and NS mitochondria in Experiment 2. Thus, it appears that GSH recycling enzyme activities are affected by PHS and high VE presumably in response to differences in oxidative stress and that genetic resistance to PHS is associated with an inherently better capability to metabolize oxidants in lung mitochondria. The increase in saturation of lung mitochondrial fatty acids with high dietary VE would presumably make them more resistant to oxidative stress and, thus, reduce the level of PHS-induced oxidative stress.

  11. Enzyme

    MedlinePlus

    Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

  12. Changes in plant communities along soil pollution gradients: responses of leaf antioxidant enzyme activities and phytochelatin contents.

    PubMed

    Dazy, Marc; Béraud, Eric; Cotelle, Sylvie; Grévilliot, Frédérique; Férard, Jean-François; Masfaraud, Jean-François

    2009-10-01

    This work describes an ecological and ecotoxicological study of polluted wasteland plant communities in a former coke-factory located in Homécourt (France). Ecological analyses were performed along two transects to investigate changes in plant community structure through species richness (S), biological diversity (H') and evenness (J). Five species (Arrhenatherum elatius, Bromus tectorum, Euphorbia cyparissias, Hypericum perforatum and Tanacetum vulgare) were then selected to assess cellular responses through antioxidant enzyme activities and phytochelatins (PCs) contents. The results showed that species richness and biological diversity correlated negatively to Cd and Hg concentrations in soil suggesting that soil concentration of non-essential heavy metals was the primary factor governing vegetation structure in the industrial wasteland. Moreover, for all studied species, abundances were partly related to metal levels in the soils, but also to plant antioxidant systems, suggesting their role in plant establishment success in polluted areas. Data for PC contents led to less conclusive results.

  13. Flavonol Glucoside and Antioxidant Enzyme Biosynthesis Affected by Mycorrhizal Fungi in Various Cultivars of Onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Mollavali, Mohanna; Bolandnazar, Saheb Ali; Schwarz, Dietmar; Rohn, Sascha; Riehle, Peer; Zaare Nahandi, Fariborz

    2016-01-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of mycorrhizal symbiosis on qualitative characteristics of onion (Allium cepa L.). For this reason, five onion cultivars with different scale color and three different strains of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Diversispora versiformis, Rhizophagus intraradices, Funneliformis mosseae) were used. Red cultivars, mainly 'Red Azar-shahr', showed the highest content in vitamin C, flavonols, and antioxidant enzymes. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased total phenolic, pyruvic acid, and vitamin C of onion plants. Considerable increase was observed in quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside and isorhamnetin-4'-O-monoglucoside content in plants inoculated with Diversispora versiformis, but quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside was not significantly influenced. Analyses for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and antioxiodant enzyme activities such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) revealed that all except PPO were enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. Overall, these findings suggested that mycorrhizal inoculation influenced biosynthesis of flavonol glucosides and antioxidant enzymes by increasing nutrient uptake or by induction of the plant defense system.

  14. Photobiomodulation Therapy Decreases Oxidative Stress in the Lung Tissue after Formaldehyde Exposure: Role of Oxidant/Antioxidant Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Tarcio Teodoro; Barioni, Éric Diego; de Oliveira Duro, Stephanie; Ratto Tempestini Horliana, Anna Carolina; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Marcourakis, Tânia; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Formaldehyde is ubiquitous pollutant that induces oxidative stress in the lung. Several lung diseases have been associated with oxidative stress and their control is necessary. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) has been highlighted as a promissory treatment, but its mechanisms need to be better investigated. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of PBMT on the oxidative stress generated by FA exposure. Male Wistar rats were submitted to FA exposure of 1% or vehicle (3 days) and treated or not with PBMT (1 and 5 h after each FA exposure). Rats treated only with laser were used as control. Twenty-four hours after the last FA exposure, we analyzed the effects of PBMT on the generation of nitrites and hydrogen peroxide, oxidative burst, glutathione reductase, peroxidase, S-transferase enzyme activities, the gene expression of nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase, superoxide dismutase, the catalase enzyme, and heme oxygenase-1. PBMT reduced the generation of nitrites and hydrogen peroxide and increased oxidative burst in the lung cells. A decreased level of oxidant enzymes was observed which were concomitantly related to an increased level of antioxidants. This study provides new information about the antioxidant mechanisms of PBMT in the lung and might constitute an important tool for lung disease treatment. PMID:27293324

  15. Copper and zinc induction of lipid peroxidation and effects on antioxidant enzyme activities in the microalga Pavlova viridis (Prymnesiophyceae).

    PubMed

    Li, Mei; Hu, Changwei; Zhu, Qin; Chen, Li; Kong, Zhiming; Liu, Zhili

    2006-01-01

    The metal-induced lipid peroxidation and response of antioxidative enzymes have been investigated in the marine microalga Pavlova viridis to understand the mechanisms of metal resistance in algal cells. We have analyzed superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities and glutathione (GSH) contents in microalgal cells grown at different concentrations of copper and zinc. In response to each metal, lipid peroxidation was enhanced with the increase of concentrations, as an indication of the oxidative damage caused by metal concentration assayed in the microalgae cells. Exposure of P. viridis to the two metals caused changes in enzyme activities in a different manner, depending on the metal assayed: after copper treatments, total SOD activity was enhanced, while it was reduced after zinc exposure. Copper and zinc stimulated the activities of CAT and GSH whereas GPX showed a remarkable increase in activity in response to copper treatments and decrease after zinc treatments. These results suggest that an activation of some antioxidant enzymes was enhanced to counteract the oxidative stress induced by the two metals.

  16. Bioaccumulation of glyphosate and its formulation Roundup Ultra in Lumbriculus variegatus and its effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Klingelmann, Eva; Wiegand, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    The bioaccumulation potential of glyphosate and the formulation Roundup Ultra, as well as possible effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes in Lumbriculus variegatus were compared by four days exposure to concentrations between 0.05 and 5 mg L(-1) pure glyphosate and its formulation. Bioaccumulation was determined using (14)C labeled glyphosate. The bioaccumulation factor (BCF) varied between 1.4 and 5.9 for the different concentrations, and was higher than estimated from logP(ow). Glyphosate and its surfactant POEA caused elevation of biotransformation enzyme soluble glutathione S-transferase at non-toxic concentrations. Membrane bound glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly elevated in Roundup Ultra exposed worms, compared to treatment with equal glyphosate concentrations, but did not significantly differ from the control. Antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase was significantly increased by glyphosate but in particular by Roundup Ultra exposure indicating oxidative stress. The results show that the formulation Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the glyphosate itself.

  17. Enrichment of antioxidant compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) by pressurized liquid extraction and enzyme-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Miron, T L; Herrero, M; Ibáñez, E

    2013-05-03

    In this work enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) are applied for extraction of natural compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis). Cellulase, endo-β-1,4 xylanase and pectinase were studied in order to degrade cell wall of lemon balm leaves and to release phenolic compounds. On the other hand, in order to compare the performance obtained with EAE, PLE using water and ethanol was employed maintaining 150°C as extraction temperature. The obtained extracts were characterized in terms of antioxidant capacity by using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) in vitro assays, whereas the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure was employed to estimate the total phenols content. On the other hand, extracts were chemically characterized by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results showed that EAE enhanced the total phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity compared to a non-enzymatic control. PLE extracts presented higher amount of phenols and antioxidant capacity than enzyme-assisted extracts, reaching the highest values on water extracts (193.18mggallicacid/gextract and EC50=6.81μg/mL). Among the bioactive phenolic compounds identified in lemon balm, rosmarinic acid was the main component, although other important compounds were also identified, such as caffeic acid derivatives (salvianolic acids, lithospermic acid) and rosmarinic acid derivatives (rosmarinic acid hexoside, sagerinic acid, sulfated rosmarinic acid). The present study confirms that EAE and PLE can be considered alternative methods for the extraction of natural compounds with biological activity from natural sources.

  18. NO is involved in spermidine-induced drought tolerance in white clover via activation of antioxidant enzymes and genes.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dandan; Wang, Xiaojuan; Li, Zhou; Zhang, Yan; Peng, Yan; Li, Yaping; He, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Xinquan; Ma, Xiao; Huang, Linkai; Yan, Yanhong

    2016-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a key signaling molecule, can be induced by polyamines (PAs), which play an important role in improving drought tolerance in plants. This study was to further investigate the role of NO in spermidine (Spd)-induced drought tolerance associated with antioxidant defense in leaves of white clover (Trifolium repens) under drought stress induced by -0.3 MPa polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) solution. A hydroponic growth method was used for cultivating plants in a controlled growth chamber for 30-33 days until the second leaves were fully expanded. Two relative independent experiments were carried out in our study. One is that exogenous application of Spd or an NO donor (sodium nitroprusside (SNP)) significantly improved drought tolerance in whole plants, as demonstrated by better phenotypic appearance, increased relative water content (RWC), and decreased electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves as compared to untreated plants. For another detached leaf experiment, PEG induced an increase in the generation of NO in cells and significantly improved activities of nitrate reductase (NR) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). These responses could be blocked by pre-treatment with a Spd biosynthetic inhibitor, dicyclohexyl amine (DCHA), and then reversed by application of exogenous Spd. Meanwhile, PEG induced up-regulation of activities and gene transcript levels of corresponding antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) to varying degrees, while these effects were partially blocked by pre-treatment with DCHA, the scavenger of NO, the inhibitors of NR or NOS. In addition, Spd-induced antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expression also could be effectively inhibited by an NO scavenger as well as inhibitors of NR and NOS. These findings suggest that both Spd and NO can enhance drought tolerance. Spd was involved in drought stress-activated NR and NOS

  19. Physical and Flavor Characteristics, Fatty Acid Profile, Antioxidant Status and Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression Changes in Young Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Fillets Fed Dietary Valine

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary valine on the physical and flavor characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profile, antioxidant status and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the muscle of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed increasing levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.9 and 19.1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group, the group fed valine showed improved physical characteristics of fish fillets (increased relative shear force, hydroxyproline, protein and lipid levels and decreased cathepsin B and L activities, as well as cooking loss, were observed). Moreover, valine improved the flavor of young grass carp fillets by increasing the amino acid (AA) concentration in fish muscle (increased aspartic acid, threonine, glutamine, cystine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, arginine and valine concentrations were observed). Additionally, optimal valine supplementation increased the potential health benefits to humans by decreasing the saturated FA (C15:0 and C16:0) concentration and increasing the unsaturated FA (monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), such as C16:1, C18:1c+t and C20:1, and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), such as C18:3n-3, C20:2 and C22:6) concentration. In addition, the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT) and Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxydase (Se-GPx) increased under valine supplementation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the SOD1, CAT and Se-GPx mRNA levels increased with dietary valine levels, possibly due to the up-regulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and the down-regulation of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) in muscle (P < 0.05). In conclusion, valine improved the physical and flavor characteristics, FA profile, and antioxidant status and regulated the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes Nrf2, Keap1, TOR

  20. Certain antioxidant enzymes of Allium cepa as biomarkers for the detection of toxic heavy metals in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Riffat A; Ahmad, Masood

    2005-06-15

    The utility of antioxidant enzymes, viz glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), as biomarkers of heavy metal pollution in water was investigated using the Allium cepa (onion) system. These antioxidant enzymes were assayed in onion bulbs exposed to certain heavy metals taken separately, the test metals taken in combination as well as the industrial wastewater especially found to contain these metals. GST exhibited significantly enhanced activity upon treatment with individual heavy metals. However, GR, SOD and CAT did not show such a pronounced increase in activities. At higher heavy metal concentrations, GR, SOD and CAT showed a steep decline while GST activity still showed a rise. Moreover, APX, GPX and MDHAR also exhibited remarkable induction with increase in the concentration of individual heavy metals. However, there was no significant change in DHAR activity with respect to the controls. Metabolites like ascorbate (ASC) and glutathione (GSH) exhibited significant decline with increase in the concentration of individual heavy metals while the level of H(2)O(2) continued to display the rise up to a heavy metal concentration of 100 microM, after which it showed a gradual decline. A. cepa bulbs treated with wastewater sample showed enzyme activity profiles similar to that shown with heavy metals, thereby suggesting the presence of heavy metals in the test wastewater. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry also detected large amounts of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in the test water sample. The metal mixture, containing the amounts of heavy metals equivalent to those found in the wastewater, resulted in steep declines in GR, SOD and CAT activities in A. cepa while GST showed a rise. However, when this metal mixture was diluted to 2000-fold, GR, SOD and CAT also showed

  1. A Comparative Study on Antioxidant System in Fish Hepatopancreas and Intestine Affected by Choline Deficiency: Different Change Patterns of Varied Antioxidant Enzyme Genes and Nrf2 Signaling Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Zhao, Juan; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2017-01-01

    The liver and intestine are susceptible to the oxidative damage which could result in several diseases. Choline deficiency induced oxidative damage in rat liver cells. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms responsible for choline deficiency-induced oxidative damage. Juvenile Jian carp were fed diets differing in choline content [165 (deficient group), 310, 607, 896, 1167 and 1820 mg/kg diet] respectively for 65 days. Oxidative damage, antioxidant enzyme activities and related gene expressions in the hepatopancreas and intestine were measured. Choline deficiency decreased choline and phosphatidylcholine contents, and induced oxidative damage in both organs, as evidenced by increased levels of oxidative-stress markers (malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine), coupled with decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes [Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)]. However, choline deficiency increased glutathione contents in the hepatopancreas and intestine. Furthermore, dietary choline deficiency downregulated mRNA levels of MnSOD, GPx1b, GST-rho, mGST3 and Kelch-like ECH associating protein 1 (Keap1b) in the hepatopancreas, MnSOD, GPx1b, GPx4a, GPx4b, GST-rho, GST-theta, GST-mu, GST-alpha, GST-pi and GST-kappa in the intestine, as well as intestinal Nrf2 protein levels. In contrast, choline deficiency upregulated the mRNA levels of GPx4a, GPx4b, mGST1, mGST2, GST-theta, GST-mu, Keap1a and PKC in the hepatopancreas, mGST3, nuclear factor erythoid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Keap1a in the intestine, as well as hepatopancreatic Nrf2 protein levels. This study provides new evidence that choline deficiency-induced oxidative damage is associated with changes in the transcription of antioxidant enzyme and Nrf2/Keap1 signaling molecules in the hepatopancreas and intestine. Additionally, this study firstly

  2. [Changes of endogenous hormone contents and antioxidative enzyme activities in wheat leaves under low temperature stress at jointing stage].

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-yan; Xu, Wen; Liu, Li-wei; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Xin-kai; Guo, Wen-shan

    2015-07-01

    Low temperature stresses (-3 and -5 °C) were simulated using artificial temperature-controlled phytotrons to study the freezing rate, the contents of endogenous hormones, and the activities of antioxidative enzymes in the leaves of wheat plants of Yangmai 16 (YM 16) and Xumai 30 (XM 30) at jointing stage. The grade and index of freezing injury increased with lower temperature and longer stress. The freezing rate was at the 5th level and the main stems and tillers of both cultivars were finally dead under -5 °C lasting for 72 h. On the last day of stress initiation, the contents of abscisic acid (ABA) and zeatin riboside (ZR), and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxide dismutase (POD), and catalase (CAT) in leaves increased at the beginning and then declined as low temperature progressed. On the 3rd day after stress, the contents of ABA and ZR and the activities of antioxidative enzymes were higher than those on the last day of cold stress, and then reduced to the level of the control on the 6th day after stress. The content of gibberellins (GA3) was lowered by cold stress. For YM 16, GA3 content increased from the 3rd day to the 6th day after cold stress, whereas, for XM 30, it increased first and then decreased. For the treatment of -5 °C lasting for 72 h, the contents of hormones and the activities of antioxidative enzymes were significantly lower than those of the other treatments. Correlation analyses showed that higher ABA and ZR contents, and higher SOD, POD and CAT activities as well as lower GA3 content could alleviate the low-temperature injury in wheat plants under low temperature stress.

  3. 24-Epibrassinolide regulates photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content of Cucumis sativus under salt and/or copper stress.

    PubMed

    Fariduddin, Q; Khalil, Radwan R A E; Mir, Bilal A; Yusuf, M; Ahmad, A

    2013-09-01

    Brassinosteroids have been extensively used to overcome various abiotic stresses. But its role in combined stress of salt and excess copper remains unexplored. Seeds of two cultivars (Rocket and Jumbo) of Cucumis sativus were grown in sand amended with copper (100 mg kg(-1)), and developed seedlings were exposed to salt stress in the form of NaCl (150 mM) at the 30-day stage of growth for 3 days. These seedlings were subsequently sprayed with 0 or 0.01 μM of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) at the 35-day stage. The plants exposed to NaCl and Cu in combination exhibited a significant decline in fresh and dry mass of plant, chlorophyll content, activities of carbonic anhydrase, net photosynthetic rate and maximum quantum yield of the PSII primary photochemistry followed by NaCl and Cu stress alone, more severely in Jumbo than in Rocket. However, the follow-up treatment with EBL to the stressed and nonstressed plant improved growth, chlorophyll content, carbonic anhydrase activity and photosynthetic efficiency, and further enhanced the activity of various antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and content of proline at the 40-day stage of growth, and the response of the hormone was more effective in Rocket than in Jumbo. The elevated level of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline could have conferred tolerance to the NaCl- and/or Cu-stressed plants resulting in improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity and proline content were more enhanced in Rocket than in Jumbo cultivar.

  4. Hypersalinity and hydrogen peroxide upregulation of gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in Ulva fasciata against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ming-Shiuan; Hsu, Yi-Ting; Hsu, Yuan-Ting; Wu, Tzure-Meng; Lee, Tse-Min

    2009-01-01

    The modulation of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), FeSOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT) gene expression and activities and antioxidants in Ulva fasciata against hypersalinity (90 per thousand)-induced oxidative stress was studied. Increases in H(2)O(2) contents but no changes in lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl group contents suggest oxidative damage did not occur in 90 per thousand condition. Antioxidants were consumed for reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging indicated by decreased ascorbate and glutathione contents by 90 per thousand. Antioxidant enzymes were differently expressed by 90 per thousand for ROS removal. MnSOD activity and transcript increased 1 h after 90 per thousand treatment with a peak at hour 3, while FeSOD activity increased fast to the plateau after 1 h and its transcript increased after 3 h. APX activity increased 1 h after 90 per thousand but its transcript rose till 3 h, and GR activity increased after 1 h with a peak at hour 3 but its transcript increased till 3 h. CAT activity and transcript increased after 12 h. Enzyme activity is transcriptionally regulated by 90 per thousand except a fast increase in FeSOD, APX, and GR activities during 1 h. APX is responsible for early H(2)O(2) decomposition while CAT scavenges H(2)O(2) in the later period. The inhibition of 90 per thousand induced increase of H(2)O(2) content and FeSOD activity and transcript by treatment of a H(2)O(2) scavenger, dimethylthiourea, and the increase of FeSOD transcript of 30 per thousand grown thalli by H(2)O(2) treatment suggest that H(2)O(2) mediates the upregulation of FeSOD by hypersalinity while other enzymes is modulated by factors other than H(2)O(2).

  5. Fructose compared with glucose is more a potent glycoxidation agent in vitro, but not under carbohydrate-induced stress in vivo: potential role of antioxidant and antiglycation enzymes.

    PubMed

    Semchyshyn, Halyna M; Miedzobrodzki, Jacek; Bayliak, Maria M; Lozinska, Liudmyla M; Homza, Bohdana V

    2014-01-30

    The contribution of carbohydrates to non-enzymatic processes such as glycation/autoxidation has been extensively investigated over the last decades. This may be attributed to either beneficial or detrimental effects of reducing carbohydrates, and most studies in the field of glycoxidation are focused on glucose. Non-enzymatic reactions of fructose have not been as thoroughly investigated as those of glucose. To compare glucose and fructose involvement in the generation of glycoxidation products under experimental conditions close to the physiological situation, we used intact Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells as in vivo model and cell-free extracts prepared from whole yeast cells as in vitro model. Both intact cells and cell-free extracts were incubated with glucose or fructose. It was shown that: (i) in vitro fructose was more reactive than glucose and produced higher level of autoxidation and glycation products; (ii) no substantive differences were observed for the effect of glucose and fructose on the intracellular level of glycoxidation products, when intact yeast cells were exposed to the high concentration of hexoses; (iii) the activity of defensive enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glyoxalases, and glutathione reductase) was increased in both glucose- and fructose-stressed yeasts, indicating the development of oxidative/carbonyl stress; (iv) glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity significantly dropped in yeast exposed to both hexoses, demonstrating its high sensitivity to reactive oxygen and carbonyl species; and (v) fructose more markedly activated glyoxalases than glucose. Involvement of glucose and fructose in the glycoxidation reactions as well as potential role of antioxidant and antiglycation enzymes in yeast protection against glycoxidation are discussed.

  6. Effect of cadmium and salinity stresses on growth and antioxidant enzyme activities of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Shafi, Mohammad; Bakht, Jehan; Hassan, Mohammad Jaffar; Raziuddin, Mohammad; Zhang, Guoping

    2009-06-01

    A hydroponics experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of salinity (NaCl) and cadmium (Cd) stresses on growth, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme activities of three wheat cultivars differing in salt tolerance. Cd and NaCl stresses inhibited plant growth, reduced chlorophyll content, and increased melondialdehyde content and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase. The combined effect of NaCl and Cd on these parameters was larger than both NaCl and Cd alone. There was an obvious difference in the response to the both stresses among the three genotypes, with Pir Sabak-85 being less affected.

  7. Antioxidant supplementations in vitro improve rat sperm parameters and enhance antioxidant enzyme activities against dimethoate-induced sperm damages.

    PubMed

    Ben Abdallah, F; Fetoui, H; Zribi, N; Fakfakh, F; Ammar-Keskes, L

    2012-05-01

    Organophosphorus compounds are currently among the most frequently used pesticides worldwide, and therefore, the potential for human exposure to man is considerable. Their toxicity results in negative effects on many organs and systems such as the male reproductive system. So, vitamins that can offer spermatozoa protection are of great importance. This study was designed to investigate (i) the possibility of dimethoate, an organophosphate insecticide, to induce oxidative stress response in rat spermatozoa in vitro and its effect on antioxidant defence system and (ii) the role of vitamin C and vitamin E in alleviating the cytotoxic effects of dimethoate Epididymal spermatozoa were incubated for 3 h at 37 °C with different concentrations of dimethoate (50, 100 and 200 μm) without vitamins or pre-incubated with 20 mm of vitamin C or 2 mm of vitamin E. Sperm parameters, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels were performed. Dimethoate caused a significant induction of oxidative damage in spermatozoa at different concentrations as evidenced by increased MDA levels. However, a significant decrease in sperm mobility, viability and activities SOD, CAT and GPx was observed. Vitamins pre-treated spermatozoa showed a significant protection against the cytotoxic effects induced by dimethoate on studied parameters.

  8. Trace elements and activity of antioxidative enzymes in Cistus ladanifer L. growing on an abandoned mine area.

    PubMed

    Santos, Erika S; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Nabais, Cristina; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2009-10-01

    The Mediterranean shrub Cistus ladanifer grows naturally in São Domingos (Portugal), an abandoned copper mine. High levels of trace elements in plants can generate oxidative stress increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare As, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations and the activity of the soluble and cell wall ionically bounded forms of the enzymes catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in leaves of C. ladanifer, collected in spring and summer, growing on São Domingos mine and on a non-contaminated area (Pomarão). São Domingos soils showed high total concentrations of As (2.6 g kg(-1)) and Pb (7.3 g kg(-1)) however the available fraction represented less than 1.5% of the total. C. ladanifer population from mine showed tolerance to Pb and Zn, which attain in leaves concentrations considered toxic for plants. The enzymatic activity of catalase, peroxidise and superoxide dismutase varied with plant populations and seasons, although with no particular trend, being specific to each trace element and enzyme cell localization. Catalase activity was evenly distributed between the soluble and ionically bounded forms, whereas the ionically bounded form of peroxidase predominated relatively to total activity, and the opposite was observed for superoxide dismutase. Spring and summer leaves from the two areas presented enzymatic activities in both fractions except to peroxidase soluble activities in leaves collected in summer. C. ladanifer enzymatic activity seems to be related with the co-existence of different stress factors (trace elements concentration, temperature, UV radiation and drought). The survival and growth of this species on contaminated mining soils is due to the presence of effective antioxidant enzyme-based defence systems.

  9. 2-Benzoxazolinone (BOA) induced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and changes in some antioxidant enzyme activities in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus).

    PubMed

    Batish, D R; Singh, H P; Setia, N; Kaur, S; Kohli, R K

    2006-01-01

    2-Benzoxazolinone (BOA), a well-known allelochemical with strong phytotoxicity, is a potential herbicidal candidate. The aim of the present study was to determine whether phytotoxicity of BOA is due to induction of oxidative stress caused by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes induced in response to BOA. Effect of BOA was studied on electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation (LP), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) generation, proline (PRO) accumulation, and activities of antioxidant enzymes-superoxide dismutase (SOD, 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, 1.11.1.11), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, 1.11.1.7), catalase (CAT, 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (GR, 1.6.4.2) in Phaseolus aureus (mung bean). BOA significantly enhanced malondialdehyde (MDA) content, a product of LP, in both leaves and roots of mung bean. The amount of H(2)O(2), a product of oxidative stress, and endogenous PRO increased many-fold in response to BOA. Accumulation of PRO, MDA and H(2)O(2) indicates the cellular damage in the target tissue caused by ROS generated by BOA. In response to BOA, there was a significant increase in the activities of scavenging enzymes SOD, APX, GPX, CAT, and GR in root and leaf tissue of mung bean. At 5 mM BOA, GR activity in roots showed a nearly 22-fold increase over that in control. The present study concludes that BOA induces oxidative stress in mung bean through generation of ROS and upregulation of activities of various scavenging enzymes.

  10. Selenium ameliorates arsenic induced oxidative stress through modulation of antioxidant enzymes and thiols in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Singh, Rana Pratap; Singh, Pradyumna Kumar; Awasthi, Surabhi; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of rice is a major problem for South-East Asia. In the present study, the effect of selenium (Se) on rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants exposed to As was studied in hydroponic culture. Arsenic accumulation, plant growth, thiolic ligands and antioxidative enzyme activities were assayed after single (As and Se) and simultaneous supplementations (As + Se). The results indicated that the presence of Se (25 µM) decreased As accumulation by threefold in roots and twofold in shoots as compared to single As (25 µM) exposed plants. Arsenic induced oxidative stress in roots and shoots was significantly ameliorated by Se supplementation. The observed positive response was found associated with the increased activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx; EC 1.11.1.9) and induced levels of non-protein thiols (NPTs), glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) in As + Se exposed plants as compared to single As treatment. Selenium supplementation modulated the thiol metabolism enzymes viz., γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-ECS; EC 6.3.2.2), glutathione-S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) and phytochelatin synthase (PCS; EC 2.3.2.15). Gene expression analysis of several metalloid responsive genes (LOX, SOD and MATE) showed upregulation during As stress, however, significant downregulation during As + Se exposure as compared to single As treatment. Gene expressions of enzymes of antioxidant and GSH and PC biosynthetic systems, such as APX, CAT, GPx, γ-ECS and PCS were found to be significantly positively correlated with their enzyme activities. The findings suggested that Se supplementation could be an effective strategy to reduce As accumulation and toxicity in rice plants.

  11. Postnatal exposure to chromium through mother's milk accelerates follicular atresia in F1 offspring through increased oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jone A; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K; Nithy, Thamizh K; Arosh, Joe A; Hoyer, Patricia B; Burghardt, Robert C; Banu, Sakhila K

    2013-08-01

    Hexavalent chromium, CrVI, is a heavy metal endocrine disruptor, known as a mutagen, teratogen, and a group A carcinogen. Environmental contamination with CrVI, including drinking water, has been increasing in more than 30 cities in the United States. CrVI is rapidly converted to CrIII intracellularly, and CrIII can cause DNA strand breaks and cancer or apoptosis through different mechanisms. Our previous study demonstrated that lactational exposure to chromium results in a delay or arrest in follicle development and a decrease in steroid hormone levels in F1 female rats, both of which are mitigated (partial inhibition) by vitamin C. The current study tested the hypothesis that lactational exposure to CrIII accelerates follicle atresia in F1 offspring by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreasing cellular antioxidants. Results showed that lactational exposure to CrIII dose-dependently increased follicular atresia and decreased steroidogenesis in postnatal day 25, 45, and 65 rats. Vitamin C mitigated or inhibited the effects of CrIII at all doses. CrIII increased hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxide in plasma and ovary; decreased the antioxidant enzymes (AOXs) GPx1, GR, SOD, and catalase; and increased glutathione S-transferase in plasma and ovary. To understand the effects of CrVI on ROS and AOXs in granulosa (GC) and theca (TC) cell compartments in the ovary, ROS levels and mRNA expression of cytosolic and mitochondrial AOXs, such as SOD1, SOD2, catalase, GLRX1, GSTM1, GSTM2, GSTA4, GR, TXN1, TXN2, TXNRD2, and PRDX3, were studied in GCs and TCs and in a spontaneously immortalized granulosa cell line (SIGC). Overall, CrVI downregulated each of the AOXs; and vitamin C mitigated the effects of CrVI on these enzymes in GCs and SIGCs, but failed to mitigate CrVI effects on GSTM1, GSTM2, TXN1, and TXN2 in TCs. Thus, these data for the first time reveal that lactational exposure to CrIII accelerated follicular atresia and decreased steroidogenesis in F1

  12. Postnatal exposure to chromium through mother’s milk accelerates follicular atresia in F1 offspring through increased oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Jone A.; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K.; Nithy, Thamizh K.; Arosh, Joe A.; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Banu, Sakhila K.

    2013-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium, CrVI, is a heavy metal endocrine disruptor, known as a mutagen, teratogen, and a group A carcinogen. Environmental contamination with CrVI, including drinking water, has been increasing in more than 30 cities in the United States. CrVI is rapidly converted to CrIII intracellularly, and CrIII can cause DNA strand breaks and cancer or apoptosis through different mechanisms. Our previous study demonstrated that lactational exposure to chromium results in a delay or arrest in follicle development and a decrease in steroid hormone levels in F1 female rats, both of which are mitigated (partial inhibition) by vitamin C. The current study tested the hypothesis that lactational exposure to CrIII accelerates follicle atresia in F1 offspring by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreasing cellular antioxidants. Results showed that lactational exposure to CrIII dose-dependently increased follicular atresia and decreased steroidogenesis in postnatal day 25, 45, and 65 rats. Vitamin C mitigated or inhibited the effects of CrIII at all doses. CrIII increased hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxide in plasma and ovary; decreased the antioxidant enzymes (AOXs) GPx1, GR, SOD, and catalase; and increased glutathione S-transferase in plasma and ovary. To understand the effects of CrVI on ROS and AOXs in granulosa (GC) and theca (TC) cell compartments in the ovary, ROS levels and mRNA expression of cytosolic and mitochondrial AOXs, such as SOD1, SOD2, catalase, GLRX1, GSTM1, GSTM2, GSTA4, GR, TXN1, TXN2, TXNRD2, and PRDX3, were studied in GCs and TCs and in a spontaneously immortalized granulosa cell line (SIGC). Overall, CrVI downregulated each of the AOXs; and vitamin C mitigated the effects of CrVI on these enzymes in GCs and SIGCs, but failed to mitigate CrVI effects on GSTM1, GSTM2, TXN1, and TXN2 in TCs. Thus, these data for the first time reveal that lactational exposure to CrIII accelerated follicular atresia and decreased steroidogenesis in F1

  13. Metabolite profile, antioxidant capacity, and inhibition of digestive enzymes in infusions of peppermint (Mentha piperita) grown under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Pérez, Marely G; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria Elizabeth; Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2014-12-10

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita) infusions represent an important source of antioxidants, which can be enhanced by inducing abiotic stress in plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of drought stress on peppermint cultivation as well as the metabolite profile, antioxidant capacity, and inhibition of digestive enzymes of resulting infusions. At 45 days after planting, irrigation was suppressed until 85 (control), 65, 35, 24, and 12% soil moisture (SM) was reached. The results showed that 35, 24, and 12% SM decreased fresh (20%) and dry (5%) weight. The 35 and 24% SM treatments significantly increased total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as antioxidant capacity. Coumaric acid, quercetin, luteolin, and naringenin were detected only in some drought treatments; however, in these infusions, fewer amino acids and unsaturated fatty acids were identified. The 24 and 12% SM treatments slightly improved inhibition of pancreatic lipase and α-amylase activity. Therefore, induction of moderate water stress in peppermint is recommended to enhance its biological properties.

  14. Association between radionuclides ((210)Po and (210)Pb) and antioxidant enzymes in oak (Quercus coccifera) and mastic tree (Pistacia lentiscus).

    PubMed

    Uğur Görgün, A; Aslan, E; Kül, M; İlhan, S; Dimlioğlu, G; Bor, M; Özdemir, F

    2016-08-27

    The activity levels of naturally occurring radionuclides Polonium-210 and lead-210 in different subjects including plant species have direct or indirect impact on human beings. High levels of ionising radiation cause oxidative stress and the interaction between antioxidative defense and radionuclides is not well established in plant systems. In this study, we aimed to understand the impact of oxidative stress caused by (210)Po and (210)Pb in two Mediterranean plants; Quercus coccifera and Pistacia lentiscus. We analysed the constitutive and seasonal levels of (210)Po, (210)Pb, lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities in the field-collected samples. The highest activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb were detected in both plants in summer and Q. coccifera had higher levels than that of P. lentiscus. SOD and APX activity trends were different between oak and mastic; as compared to P. lentiscus, Q. coccifera efficiently used the two major components of antioxidative defense. Lipid peroxidation levels were low in both plants in all seasons except that of spring which were in good agreement with high antioxidant enzyme activities. In conclusion, we found that high (210)Po and (210)Pb activity concentrations in oak and mastic did not interfere with their growth and life cycles. The ability of both plants for survival and adaptation to Mediterranean environmental constraints provided an additional advantage for coping radionuclide induced oxidative stress as well.

  15. Transcriptional Suppression of Renal Antioxidant Enzyme Systems in Guinea Pigs Exposed to Polymerized Cell-Free Hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Rentsendorj, Otgonchimeg; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Williams, Matthew C.; Buehler, Paul W.; D'Agnillo, Felice

    2016-01-01

    Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) are being developed as oxygen and plasma volume-expanding therapeutics though their potential to promote oxidative tissue injury has raised safety concerns. Using a guinea pig exchange transfusion model, we examined the effects of polymerized bovine hemoglobin (HbG) on the transcriptional regulation, activity, and expression of the renal antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). HbG infusion downregulated the mRNA levels for genes encoding SOD isoforms 1-3, GPx1, GPx3, GPx4, and CAT. This transcriptional suppression correlated with decreased enzymatic activities for SOD, CAT, and GPx. Immunostaining revealed decreased protein expression of SOD1, CAT, and GPx1 primarily in renal cortical tubules. DNA methylation analyses identified CpG hypermethylation in the gene promoters for SOD1-3, GPx1, GPx3, and GPx4, suggesting an epigenetic-based mechanism underlying the observed gene repression. HbG also induced oxidative stress as evidenced by increased renal lipid peroxidation end-products and 4-HNE immunostaining, which could be the result of the depleted antioxidant defenses and/or serve as a trigger for increased DNA methylation. Together, these findings provide evidence that the renal exposure to HbG suppresses the function of major antioxidant defense systems which may have relevant implications for understanding the safety of hemoglobin-based products. PMID:27471729

  16. Fermentation temperature affects the antioxidant activity of the enzyme-ripened sufu, an oriental traditional fermented product of soybean.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yung-Hsin; Lai, Ying-Jang; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2011-07-01

    In this study, sufu, a Chinese traditional fermented product of soybean, was prepared by ripening salted tofu cubes in the mash of Aspergillus oryzae-fermented rice-soybean koji possessing various hydrolytic enzymes at 25°C, 37°C and 45°C. Antioxidant activity including 2,2-diphenyl-2-picylhydoxyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, Fe(2+)-chelating ability and reducing power exerted by the methanol extract of sufu was determined and compared with that of the non-fermented tofu extract. It was found that antioxidant activity of the sufu extracts was, generally, higher than the non-fermented tofu extract. Ripening temperature and the duration of ripening period affected the antioxidant activity of the sufu extracts. Taking into account of extraction yields, the sufu product ripened at 45°C for 16 days showed the most profound enhancement in the DPPH radical-scavenging effect and Fe(2+)-iron-chelating ability, which is 3.4 and 11.5 folds, respectively, that noted with the non-fermented tofu.

  17. Immunohistochemical localization of the antioxidant enzymes biliverdin reductase and heme oxygenase-2 in human and pig gastric fundus.

    PubMed

    Colpaert, Erwin E; Timmermans, Jean Pierre; Lefebvre, Romain A

    2002-04-01

    The intrinsic antioxidant capacities of the bile pigments biliverdin and bilirubin are increasingly recognized since both heme degradation products can exert beneficial cytoprotective effects due to their scavenging of oxygen free radicals and interaction with antioxidant vitamins. Several studies have been published on the localization of the carbon monoxide producing enzyme heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2), which concomitantly generates biliverdin; histochemical data on the distribution of biliverdin reductase (BVR), converting biliverdin to bilirubin, are still very scarce in large mammals including humans. The present study revealed by means of immunohistochemistry the presence of BVR and HO-2 in mucosal epithelial cells and in the endothelium of intramural vessels of both human and porcine gastric fundus. In addition, co-labeling with the specific neural marker protein-gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) demonstrated that both BVR and HO-2 were present in all intrinsic nerve cell bodies of both submucous and myenteric plexuses, while double labeling with c-Kit antibody confirmed their presence in intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). Our results substantiate the hypothesis that BVR, through the production of the potent antioxidant bilirubin, might be an essential component of normal physiologic gastrointestinal defense in man and pig.

  18. Lonchocarpine Increases Nrf2/ARE-Mediated Antioxidant Enzyme Expression by Modulating AMPK and MAPK Signaling in Brain Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yeon-Hui; Park, Jin-Sun; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Hee-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Lonchocarpine is a phenylpropanoid compound isolated from Abrus precatorius that has anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and antiepileptic activities. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant effects of lonchocarpine in brain glial cells and analyzed its molecular mechanisms. We found that lonchocarpine suppressed reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell death in hydrogen peroxide-treated primary astrocytes. In addition, lonchocarpine increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), which are all under the control of Nrf2/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling. Further, mechanistic studies showed that lonchocarpine increases the nuclear translocation and DNA binding of Nrf2 to ARE as well as ARE-mediated transcriptional activities. Moreover, lonchocarpine increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and three types of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). By treating astrocytes with each signaling pathway-specific inhibitor, AMPK, c-jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), and p38 MAPK were identified to be involved in lonchocarpine-induced HO-1 expression and ARE-mediated transcriptional activities. Therefore, lonchocarpine may be a potential therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases that are associated with oxidative stress. PMID:27737527

  19. Complex Enzyme-Assisted Extraction, Purification, and Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from the Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Zhou, Xinghai

    2015-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus polysaccharides (ABP) were extracted by complex enzyme-assisted extraction methodology. The following were optimal conditions for the extraction of crude ABP: complex enzyme amount, 2.2%; temperature, 62°C; time, 3 h; and pH, 4. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of crude ABP was 6.87%. The crude ABP was purified by diethylaminoethyl-cellulose 52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography, and one fraction-namely, ABP-1-was produced. The ABP-1 contained 93.67% carbohydrate, 1.46% protein, and 0.62% uronic acid. The constituent monosaccharides were predominantly glucose, galactose, mannose, and xylose. The antioxidant activities of ABP-1 were investigated by measuring its scavenging ability on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals, its ferric-reducing activity power, and the reducing power assay. At a concentration of 1.2 mg/mL, ABP-1 seemed to possess good free radical scavenging activity, with a scavenging value of about 56%. The results indicate that ABP-1 has good antioxidant activity.

  20. Effects of osmotic stress on antioxidant enzymes activities in leaf discs of PSAG12-IPT modified Gerbera.

    PubMed

    Lai, Qi-xian; Bao, Zhi-yi; Zhu, Zhu-jun; Qian, Qiong-qiu; Mao, Bi-zeng

    2007-07-01

    Leaf senescence is often caused by water deficit and the chimeric gene P(SAG12)-IPT is an auto-regulated gene delaying leaf senescence. Using in vitro leaf discs culture system, the changes of contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, soluble protein and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and antioxidant enzymes activities were investigated during leaf senescence of P(SAGl2)-IPT modified gerbera induced by osmotic stress compared with the control plant (wild type). Leaf discs were incubated in 20%, 40% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 nutrient solution for 20 h under continuous light [130 micromol/(m(2) x s)]. The results showed that the contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids and soluble protein were decreased by osmotic stress with the decrease being more pronounced at 40% PEG, but that, at the same PEG concentration the decrease in the transgenic plants was significantly lower than that in the control plant. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalases (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) were stimulated by PEG treatment. However, the increases were higher in P(SAG12)-IPT transgenic plants than in the control plants, particularly at 40% PEG treatment. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS content) was increased by PEG treatment with the increase being much lower in transgenic plant than in the control plant. It could be concluded that the increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes including SOD, CAT, APX, GPX and DHAR were responsible for the delay of leaf senescence induced by osmotic stress.

  1. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity of maize plants under temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiancan; Song, Fengbin; Xu, Hongwen

    2010-06-01

    The influence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus etunicatum, on characteristics of growth, membrane lipid peroxidation, osmotic adjustment, and activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves and roots of maize (Zea mays L.) plants was studied in pot culture under temperature stress. The maize plants were placed in a sand and soil mixture under normal temperature for 6 weeks and then exposed to five different temperature treatments (5 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 25 degrees C, 35 degrees C, and 40 degrees C) for 1 week. AM symbiosis decreased membrane relative permeability and malondialdehyde content in leaves and roots. The contents of soluble sugar content and proline in roots were higher, but leaf proline content was lower in mycorrhizal than nonmycorrhizal plants. AM colonization increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase in leaves and roots. The results indicate that the AM fungus is capable of alleviating the damage caused by temperature stress on maize plants by reducing membrane lipid peroxidation and membrane permeability and increasing the accumulation of osmotic adjustment compounds and antioxidant enzyme activity. Consequently, arbuscular mycorrhiza formation highly enhanced the extreme temperature tolerance of maize plant, which increased host biomass and promoted plant growth.

  2. Effects of chilled storage and cryopreservation on sperm characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in Pacific cod Gadus microcephalus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xueying; Shi, Xuehui; Liu, Yifan; Yu, Daode; Guan, Shuguang; Liu, Qinghua; Li, Jun

    2016-07-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of chilled storage and cryopreservation on sperm motion characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in the Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus. Sperm motility and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (Gr), and lipid peroxidation (measured via malondialdehyde (MDA) content) were determined after the milt was stored at 4°C for 12 h, cryopreserved without cryoprotectant in 12% propylene glycol (PG), cryopreserved in 12% PG+0.1 mol/L trehalose, or cryopreserved in 12% PG spermatozoa but centrifuged to decant the supernatant prior to cryopreservation (only sperm cells were cryopreserved). After chilled storage or cryopreservation, the SOD, CAT and GPx activities were reduced in sperm cells and increased in seminal plasma in almost all treatments; sperm motility parameters were also decreased. However, the addition of trehalose into the cryoprotectant could significantly improve the postthaw sperm quality as revealed by the sperm average path velocity. This improvement might be attributed to the function of trehalose in scavenging reactive oxygen species. Chilled storage and cryopreservation had significant effects on sperm motion characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in the Pacific cod.

  3. Platycodi Radix attenuates dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis in rats by inducing Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Ho; Jin, Sun Woo; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Khanal, Tilak; Hwang, Yong Pil; Lee, Kyung Jin; Choi, Chul Yung; Chung, Young Chul; Lee, Young Chun; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-fibrotic effects of the aqueous extract of the Platycodi Radix root (Changkil: CK) on dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver fibrosis in rats. DMN treatment for 4 weeks led to marked liver fibrosis as assessed by serum biochemistry, histopathological examination, and hepatic lipid peroxidation and collagen content. CK significantly inhibited DMN-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, fibrosis score, and hepatic malondialdehyde and collagen content. CK also inhibited DMN-induced reductions in rat body and liver weights. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses revealed that CK inhibited DMN-induced increases in matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA, and collagen type I and α-smooth muscle actin protein. DMN-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation was reduced by CK treatment. Furthermore, CK induced activation of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant enzymes such as γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in HepG2 cells. These results demonstrated that CK attenuates DMN-induced liver fibrosis through the activation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzymes.

  4. The enhancement of antioxidant compounds extracted from Thymus vulgaris using enzymes and the effect of extracting solvent.

    PubMed

    Cerda, Alejandra; Martínez, María Eugenia; Soto, Carmen; Poirrier, Paola; Perez-Correa, Jose R; Vergara-Salinas, Jose R; Zúñiga, María Elvira

    2013-08-15

    We evaluate the total phenolic compounds (TPC) content and the antioxidant activity (AA) of extracts obtained from ground fresh thyme (FT) and depleted thyme (DT), a by-product of the process of essential oil extraction. In addition, enzymatic treatments were evaluated to improve the extraction yields of polyphenolic compounds from thyme. Extractions were performed using several solvents as methanol, ethanol, and water. Enzymes were applied prior to extraction or during the extraction process. The best results were obtained using a mixture of methanol and water, resulting in 2790 and 220 mg Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L of TPC for FT and DT, respectively. A similar result was observed for AA. With regard to enzymatic treatment, application of Grindamyl CA 150 enzyme as a pre-treatment resulted in the production of an extract from DT with 614 mg TE (trolox equivalent)/L of AA, 70% more than the control, and an AA of 621 mg TE/L (74% more than the control sample) was obtained using Grindamyl CA 150 during the extraction process. These results suggest that enzymatic treatment is an interesting alternative for producing antioxidant extracts from DT.

  5. Comparison of antioxidant enzyme activities and DNA damage in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes exposed to vanadium.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, Muhammad; Mushtaq, Muhammad Adnan; Rizwan, Muhammad Shahid; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Yousaf, Balal; Ashraf, Muhammad; Shuanglian, Xiong; Rizwan, Muhammad; Mehmood, Sajid; Tu, Shuxin

    2016-10-01

    The present study was done to elucidate the effects of vanadium (V) on photosynthetic pigments, membrane damage, antioxidant enzymes, protein, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) integrity in the following chickpea genotypes: C-44 (tolerant) and Balkasar (sensitive). Changes in these parameters were strikingly dependent on levels of V, at 60 and 120 mg V L(-1) induced DNA damage in Balkasar only, while photosynthetic pigments and protein were decreased from 15 to 120 mg V L(-1) and membrane was also damaged. It was shown that photosynthetic pigments and protein production declined from 15 to 120 mg V L(-1) and the membrane was also damaged, while DNA damage was not observed at any level of V stress in C-44. Moreover, the antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) were increased in both genotypes of chickpea against V stress; however, more activities were observed in C-44 than Balkasar. The results suggest that DNA damage in sensitive genotypes can be triggered due to exposure of higher vanadium.

  6. Phase II antioxidant enzyme activities in brain of male and female ACI rats treated chronically with estradiol.

    PubMed

    Stakhiv, Timothy M; Mesia-Vela, Sonia; Kauffman, Frederick C

    2006-08-09

    Activities of Phase II antioxidant enzymes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and phenol sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1) were measured in brain of August-Copenhagen Irish (ACI) rats exposed chronically to low doses of estradiol (E(2)). ACI rats were selected for study because this strain is highly responsive to treatment with low doses of E(2) as indexed by a high incidence of E(2)-induced mammary tumors compared to other strains. Rats were exposed chronically to 3 mg E(2) contained in cholesterol pellets implanted subcutaneously for 6 weeks. This treatment increased activities of all four enzymes in the striatum of male but not female ACI rats. Blood E(2) levels at time of sacrifice correlated closely with activities of striatal NQO1, GST, and SULT1A1, but not with striatal UGT. NQO1, GST, and SULT1A1 activities in other brain regions including the cortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus were less sensitive to chronic E(2) treatment. NQO1 was primarily localized in vascular elements and neurons and SULT1A1 primarily in neurons and neuropil of control and E(2)-treated rats. Collectively, these results suggest that enhanced expression of NQO1, GST, and SULT1A1 may contribute to the antioxidant effects of E(2) in the striatum, an area of the brain that may be particularly prone to oxidative stress because of its high content of catecholamines.

  7. Bioactive compounds extracted from Indian wild legume seeds: antioxidant and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition properties.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Basanta; Vadivel, Vellingiri; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Biesalski, Hans K

    2012-03-01

    Seven different wild legume seeds (Acacia leucophloea, Bauhinia variegata, Canavalia gladiata, Entada scandens, Mucuna pruriens, Sesbania bispinosa and Tamarindus indica) from various parts of India were analyzed for total free phenolics, l-Dopa (l-3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine), phytic acid and their antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] assay) and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition activitiy (α-amylase). S. bispinosa had the highest content in both total free phenolics and l-Dopa, and relatively low phytic acid when compared with other seeds. Phytic acid content, being highest in E. scandens, M. pruriens and T. indica, was highly predictive for FRAP (r = 0.47, p < 0.05) and DPPH (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) assays. The phenolic extract from T. indica and l-Dopa extract from E. scandens showed significantly higher FRAP values among others. All seed extracts demonstrated a remarkable reducing power (7-145 mM FeSO4 per mg extract), DPPH radical scavenging activity (16-95%) and α-amylase enzyme inhibition activity (28-40%).

  8. Effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on altered antioxidative enzyme defense mechanisms and lipid peroxidation in mice testes.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Tapas Kumar; Das, Niladri Sekhar

    2009-04-01

    The present study examined the adverse effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (i.p injection in albino mice) on free radical damage of testicular lipids (lipid peroxidation) at low doses and the role of antioxidant enzymes defense system at high dose and particularly at the withdrawal of the drug after applying higher dose (recovery dose). At lower doses (total doses ranging from 6 mg to 28 mg), there was a significant increase of lipid peroxidation and decrease in testicular lipid content. But the effects were slightly lowered at high dose (total dose 70 mg) and at the withdrawal of the drug (recovery dose). Similarly, marked decrease of antioxidant enzyme systems (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and glutathione content were noticed at low doses. But the effects were slightly higher at high dose and at the withdrawal of the drug. Similarly, low-dose treatments caused significant shrinkage of tubular diameter and detrimental changes in seminiferous epithelium of testis resulting in lowered plasma testosterone and pituitary gonadotropins (follicular stimulating and luteinizing hormone levels. But at high dose and particularly at withdrawal of the drug, regression of seminiferous tubules and recovery of various germ cell layers of testes through the revival of testosterone hormone and pituitary gonadotropins were observed.

  9. Response of antioxidative enzymes to arsenic-induced phytotoxicity in leaves of a medicinal daisy, Wedelia chinensis Merrill

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Tulika; Talukdar, Dibyendu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Wedelia chinensis Merrill (Asteraceae) is a medicinally important herb, grown abundantly in soils contaminated with heavy metals, including toxic metalloid arsenic (As). The leaves have immense significance in treatment of various ailments. Objective: The present study was undertaken to ascertain whether the edible/usable parts experience oxidative stress in the form of membrane damage during As exposure or not. Materials and Methods: Responses of seven antioxidant enzymes were studied in leaves under 20 mg/L of As treatment in pot experiment. Results: When compared to control, activities of superoxide dismutase, monodehydroascorbatereductase, dehydroascorbatereductase, glutathione reductase, and gluathione peroxidase had increased, while the catalase level reduced and ascorbate peroxidase activity changed non-significantly in As-treated seedlings. This suggested overall positive response of antioxidant enzymes to As-induced oxidative stress. Although hydrogen peroxide content increased, level of lipid peroxidation and magnitude of membrane damage was quite normal, leading to normal growth (dry weight of shoot) of plant under Astreatment. Conclusion: W.chinensis is tolerant of As-toxicity, and thus, can be grown in As-contaminated zones. PMID:24082737

  10. Dietary palm olein oil augments cardiac antioxidant enzymes and protects against isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Narang, D; Sood, S; Thomas, M; Dinda, A K; Maulik, S K

    2005-11-01

    Wistar rats, 150-200 g, of either sex, were fed daily with commercial rat diet supplemented with palm olein oil in two doses (5% v/w (n = 16) and 10% v/w (n = 16) of diet) for 30 days. Control rats (n = 16) were fed with normal diet. On the 29(th) and 30(th) days, 8 rats from each group were administred isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, s.c., 24-h interval). On the 31(st) day, all rats were sacrificed and myocardial tissues were studied for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), antioxidant enzymes and light microscopic changes, along with the ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP). A significant rise in myocardial superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and FRAP level were observed in rats fed with palm olein oil. Isoproterenol caused an increase in myocardial oxidative stress in control rats, as evidenced by an increase in myocardial TBARS level, reduction in FRAP and myocardial SOD, catalase and GPx activity, along with focal necrosis of cardiac muscle fibres on light microscopy. The rise in myocardial TBARS and depletion of SOD and catalase activity following isoproterenol administration were prevented in palm-olein-oil-supplemented diet-fed rats at both doses. Isoproterenol-induced myocardial light-microscopic changes were also prevented in the treated groups. The results suggest that dietary palm olein oil caused augmentation of myocardial antioxidant enzymes and protected against isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis and associated oxidative stress.

  11. Seasonal variation in the mixed-function oxygenase system and antioxidant enzymes of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    SciTech Connect

    Sole, M.; Porte, C.; Albaiges, J. . Dept. of Environmental Chemistry)

    1995-01-01

    Seasonal variations in the mixed-function oxygenase (MFO) system components (cytochrome P450, 418 peak, and NADPH-cytochrome c[P450] reductase) and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione peroxidase [GPX], and DT-diaphorase) of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis have been evaluated. Its relation with contaminant body burden (PAHs, PCBs, DDTs, and lindane) as well as environmental parameters (water temperature, salinity, oxygen concentrations, and suspended matter) was determined. As a general trend, low MFO and antioxidant enzyme activities were detected in February--March, a peak in late April, and a gradual decrease with a minimum in June. This pattern was similar to tissue concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, DDTs, and lindate normalized to lipid weight. Cytochrome P450 content, however, exhibited a steady decrease from February to June. The observed seasonal variations are presumably related to the metabolic status of the animal, itself dependent on such factors as gonadal ripening, food availability, and the hydrological cycle, which regulates productivity in the area.

  12. Changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae) and Pistia stratiotes (Araceae) under heavy metal stress.

    PubMed

    Odjegba, V J; Fasidi, I O

    2007-01-01

    Whole plants of Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes were exposed to various concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 mM) of 8 heavy metals (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) hydroponically for 21 days. Spectrometric assays for the total activity of catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the leaves were studied. At the end of the experimental period, data referred to metal treated plants were compared to data of untreated ones (control). Heavy metals increased the activity of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in both species and there was differential inducement among metals. Overall, Zn had the least inducement of antioxidant enzymes in both species while Hg had the highest inducement. The increase in antioxidant enzymes in relation to the control plants was more in E. crassipes than P. stratiotes. The results showed that E. crassipes tolerated higher metal concentrations in a greater number of metals than P. stratiotes.

  13. Testicular toxicity in cannabis extract treated mice: association with oxidative stress and role of antioxidant enzyme systems.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Tapas K; Das, Nildari S

    2010-02-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of cannabis extract at low doses (total doses ranging from 40 mg to 60 mg per mouse) induced adverse effect on testes and oxidative stress. At low doses, there was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in testicular lipid content, but the effects were significantly less at higher doses and at the withdrawal of cannabis treatment (recovery dose). There was a marked decrease in antioxidant enzyme profiles (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and glutathione content at low doses, but these effects were higher at higher dose and at withdrawal of the treatment (recovery effect). Histology revealed significant shrinkage of tubular diameter and detrimental changes in seminiferous epithelium of testis with resulting lowered serum testosterone and pituitary gonadotropins (follicular stimulating [FSH] and luteinizing hormones [LH]) levels at low doses. But at higher doses and particularly at withdrawal of the treatment, regression of various germ cell layers of testes through the revival of testosterone hormone and pituitary gonadotropins (FSH and LH) were observed, indicating that recovery effects on testes became operative possibly through the corrective measure of endogenous testicular antioxidant enzymes profiles and pituitary gonadotropins hormones feedback mechanisms.

  14. Intracellular implantation of enzymes in hollow silica nanospheres for protein therapy: cascade system of superoxide dismutase and catalase.

    PubMed

    Chang, Feng-Peng; Chen, Yi-Ping; Mou, Chung-Yuan

    2014-11-01

    An approach for enzyme therapeutics is elaborated with cell-implanted nanoreactors that are based on multiple enzymes encapsulated in hollow silica nanospheres (HSNs). The synthesis of HSNs is carried out by silica sol-gel templating of water-in-oil microemulsions so that polyethyleneimine (PEI) modified enzymes in aqueous phase are encapsulated inside the HSNs. PEI-grafted superoxide dismutase (PEI-SOD) and catalase (PEI-CAT) encapsulated in HSNs are prepared with quantitative control of the enzyme loadings. Excellent activities of superoxide dismutation by PEI-SOD@HSN are found and transformation of H2 O2 to water by PEI-CAT@HSN. When PEI-SOD and PEI-CAT are co-encapsulated, cascade transformation of superoxide through hydrogen peroxide to water was facile. Substantial fractions of HSNs exhibit endosome escape to cytosol after their delivery to cells. The production of downstream reactive oxygen species (ROS) and COX-2/p-p38 expression show that co-encapsulated SOD/CAT inside the HSNs renders the highest cell protection against the toxicant N,N'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride (paraquat). The rapid cell uptake and strong detoxification effect on superoxide radicals by the SOD/CAT-encapsulated hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles demonstrate the general concept of implanting catalytic nanoreactors in biological cells with designed functions.

  15. The stimulatory effect of the octadecaneuropeptide ODN on astroglial antioxidant enzyme systems is mediated through a GPCR

    PubMed Central

    Hamdi, Yosra; Kaddour, Hadhemi; Vaudry, David; Douiri, Salma; Bahdoudi, Seyma; Leprince, Jérôme; Castel, Hélène; Vaudry, Hubert; Amri, Mohamed; Tonon, Marie-Christine; Masmoudi-Kouki, Olfa

    2012-01-01

    Astroglial cells possess an array of cellular defense systems, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase antioxidant enzymes, to prevent damage caused by oxidative stress on the central nervous system. Astrocytes specifically synthesize and release endozepines, a family of regulatory peptides including the octadecaneuropeptide (ODN). ODN is the ligand of both central-type benzodiazepine receptors (CBR), and an adenylyl cyclase- and phospholipase C-coupled receptor. We have recently shown that ODN is a potent protective agent that prevents hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced inhibition of SOD and catalase activities and stimulation of cell apoptosis in astrocytes. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the type of receptor involved in ODN-induced inhibition of SOD and catalase in cultured rat astrocytes. We found that ODN induced a rapid stimulation of SOD and catalase gene transcription in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, 0.1 nM ODN blocked H2O2-evoked reduction of both mRNA levels and activities of SOD and catalase. Furthermore, the inhibitory actions of ODN on the deleterious effects of H2O2 on SOD and catalase were abrogated by the metabotropic ODN receptor antagonist cyclo1-8[Dleu5]OP, but not by the CBR antagonist flumazenil. Finally, the protective action of ODN against H2O2-evoked inhibition of endogenous antioxidant systems in astrocytes was protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent, but protein kinase C-independent. Taken together, these data demonstrate for the first time that ODN, acting through its metabotropic receptor coupled to the PKA pathway, prevents oxidative stress-induced alteration of antioxidant enzyme expression and activities. The peptide ODN is thus a potential candidate for the development of specific agonists that would selectively mimic its protective activity. PMID:23181054

  16. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by up-regulating antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-02-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the up-regulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited fivefold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both messenger RNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by aryl hydrocarbon receptor and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 proteins were up-regulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea-supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126, which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants.

  17. Effects of Cr(VI) long-term and low-dose action on mammalian antioxidant enzymes (an in vitro study)

    SciTech Connect

    Asatiani, N.; Sapojnikova, N.; Abuladze, M.; Kartvelishvili, T.L.; Kulikova, N.; Kiziria, E.; Namchevadze, E.; Holman, H.-Y.N.

    2003-08-01

    In order to investigate the low-dose long-term Cr(VI) action on antioxidant enzymes in cultured mammalian cells we estimated the activity of glutathione dependent antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) under various chromium concentrations in human epithelial-like L-41 cells. The long-term action of 20 mu-M causes the toxicity that results in losing of the cell viability by activating the apoptotic process, as identified by morphological analysis, the activation of caspase-3, and DNA fragmentation. The toxic chromium concentration totally destroys glutathione antioxidant system, and diminishes the activity of catalase and cytosolic Cu, ZnSOD. The non-toxic concentration (2 mu-M) causes the activation of the antioxidant defense systems, and they neutralize the oxidative impact.

  18. The effects of a wheat germ rich diet on oxidative mtDNA damage, mtDNA copy number and antioxidant enzyme activities in aging Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Ayse Gul

    2013-03-01

    The free radical theory of aging posits that the accumulation of macromolecular damage induced by toxic reactive oxygen species plays a central role in the aging process. Therefore consumption of dietary antioxidants appears to be of great importance. Wheat germ have strong antioxidant properties. Aim of this study is investigate the effects of a wheat germ rich diet on oxidative mtDNA damage, mtDNA copy number and antioxidant enzyme activities in Drosophila. Current results suggested that dietary wheat germ enhances the activities of antioxidant enzymes in Drosophila. There was no statistically difference in mtDNA damage and mtDNA copy number results of "Wheat Germ" and "Refined White Flour" feed groups. mtDNA damage slightly increased with aging in both groups but these changes were no statistically different.

  19. Association between maternal micronutrient status, oxidative stress, and common genetic variants in antioxidant enzymes at 15 weeks׳ gestation in nulliparous women who subsequently develop preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Hiten D; Gill, Carolyn A; Kurlak, Lesia O; Seed, Paul T; Hesketh, John E; Méplan, Catherine; Schomburg, Lutz; Chappell, Lucy C; Morgan, Linda; Poston, Lucilla

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific condition affecting 2-7% of women and a leading cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Deficiencies of specific micronutrient antioxidant activities associated with copper, selenium, zinc, and manganese have previously been linked to preeclampsia at the time of disease. Our aims were to investigate whether maternal plasma micronutrient concentrations and related antioxidant enzyme activities are altered before preeclampsia onset and to examine the dependence on genetic variations in these antioxidant enzymes. Predisease plasma samples (15±1 weeks׳ gestation) were obtained from women enrolled in the international Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study who subsequently developed preeclampsia (n=244) and from age- and BMI-matched normotensive controls (n=472). Micronutrient concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; associated antioxidant enzyme activities, selenoprotein-P, ceruloplasmin concentration and activity, antioxidant capacity, and markers of oxidative stress were measured by colorimetric assays. Sixty-four tag-single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes and selenoprotein-P were genotyped using allele-specific competitive PCR. Plasma copper and ceruloplasmin concentrations were modestly but significantly elevated in women who subsequently developed preeclampsia (both P<0.001) compared to controls (median (IQR), copper, 1957.4 (1787, 2177.5) vs 1850.0 (1663.5, 2051.5) µg/L; ceruloplasmin, 2.5 (1.4, 3.2) vs 2.2 (1.2, 3.0) µg/ml). There were no differences in other micronutrients or enzymes between groups. No relationship was observed between genotype for SNPs and antioxidant enzyme activity. This analysis of a prospective cohort study reports maternal micronutrient concentrations in combination with associated antioxidant enzymes and SNPs in their encoding genes in women at 15 weeks׳ gestation that subsequently

  20. Association between maternal micronutrient status, oxidative stress, and common genetic variants in antioxidant enzymes at 15 weeks׳ gestation in nulliparous women who subsequently develop preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Hiten D.; Gill, Carolyn A.; Kurlak, Lesia O.; Seed, Paul T.; Hesketh, John E.; Méplan, Catherine; Schomburg, Lutz; Chappell, Lucy C.; Morgan, Linda; Poston, Lucilla

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific condition affecting 2–7% of women and a leading cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Deficiencies of specific micronutrient antioxidant activities associated with copper, selenium, zinc, and manganese have previously been linked to preeclampsia at the time of disease. Our aims were to investigate whether maternal plasma micronutrient concentrations and related antioxidant enzyme activities are altered before preeclampsia onset and to examine the dependence on genetic variations in these antioxidant enzymes. Predisease plasma samples (15±1 weeks׳ gestation) were obtained from women enrolled in the international Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study who subsequently developed preeclampsia (n=244) and from age- and BMI-matched normotensive controls (n=472). Micronutrient concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; associated antioxidant enzyme activities, selenoprotein-P, ceruloplasmin concentration and activity, antioxidant capacity, and markers of oxidative stress were measured by colorimetric assays. Sixty-four tag–single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes and selenoprotein-P were genotyped using allele-specific competitive PCR. Plasma copper and ceruloplasmin concentrations were modestly but significantly elevated in women who subsequently developed preeclampsia (both P<0.001) compared to controls (median (IQR), copper, 1957.4 (1787, 2177.5) vs 1850.0 (1663.5, 2051.5) µg/L; ceruloplasmin, 2.5 (1.4, 3.2) vs 2.2 (1.2, 3.0) µg/ml). There were no differences in other micronutrients or enzymes between groups. No relationship was observed between genotype for SNPs and antioxidant enzyme activity. This analysis of a prospective cohort study reports maternal micronutrient concentrations in combination with associated antioxidant enzymes and SNPs in their encoding genes in women at 15 weeks׳ gestation that subsequently

  1. Optimization, Composition, and Antioxidant Activities of Exo- and Intracellular Polysaccharides in Submerged Culture of Cordyceps gracilis (Grev.) Durieu & Mont.

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sapan Kumar; Atri, Narender Singh

    2015-01-01

    Under present experiments, EPS and IPS production, monosaccharide composition, and antioxidant activities of C. gracilis were studied for the first time under submerged culture conditions. Effect of different factors on polysaccharides production was studied by orthogonal experiments using one-factor-at-a-time method. Incubation of culture in the medium with capacity 200 mL (675.12 ± 5.01 and 385.20 ± 5.01 mg/L), rotation speed 150 rpm (324.62 ± 3.32 and 254.62 ± 4.62 mg/L), 6-day culture incubation time (445.24 ± 1.11, 216.60 ± 1.71 mg/L), pH 6.0 (374.81 ± 2.52 and 219.45 ± 2.59 mg/L), and temperature 23°C (405.24 ± 1.11 and 215.60 ± 1.71 mg/L) produced higher EPS and IPS, respectively. Maximum EPS and IPS production was observed in the medium supplemented with glucose as a carbon source (464.82 ± 2.12 and 264.42 ± 2.62 mg/L) and yeast extract as a nitrogen source (465.21 ± 3.11 and 245.17 ± 3.24 mg/L), respectively. Carbon to nitrogen ratio for maximum EPS and IPS production was observed as 10 : 1 (395.29 ± 2.15 and 235.62 ± 1.40 mg/L), respectively. Glucose was found to be the major monosaccharide (62.15 ± 7.33%). Both EPS and IPS of C. gracilis showed significant DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and iron chelating activity. PMID:25878715

  2. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Powder

    PubMed Central

    Park, J. H.; Kang, S. N.; Shin, D.; Shim, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP) in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP), antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol), 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP), 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP), and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP). Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05). Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05). These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks. PMID:25557678

  3. Effects of copper on induction of thiol-compounds and antioxidant enzymes by the fruiting body of Oudemansiella radicata.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Juan; Qin, Chuixin; Shu, Xueqin; Chen, Rong; Song, Haihai; Li, Qiao; Xu, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Oudemansiella radicata has been found to have ability to tolerate and accumulate heavy metals. In this study, to know about the metal tolerance and detoxification strategy of O. radicata, the tolerance responses in both cap and stipe of the fruiting body, including the copper content, the changes of thiol compounds production and antioxidant enzymes activities, caused by various copper stress (150-600 mg kg(-1)) during 2-6 days were investigated. Results showed that Cu content in the fruiting bodies increased with the increasing Cu concentrations and growing time, which was higher in cap than that in stipe. For thiols contents, the maximum level was in the sample at 300 mg kg(-1) Cu after 2 d both in cap and stipe, in accordance with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities. Guaicol peroxidase (POD) activities reached maximum at 150 mg kg(-1) Cu after 4 d and 6 d, respectively in cap and stipe, while the maximum of catalase (CAT) activities was recorded at 300 and 600 mg kg(-1) Cu after 4 d in the cap and stipe, respectively. As a whole, low concentration of Cu stimulated the production of thiols and activated the antioxidant enzymes activities in the fruiting body of O. radicata after 2/4 d, while high-level Cu decreased the thiols production and enzymes activities after 4/6 d. Furthermore, the cap was more sensitive than the stipe to Cu exposure. Different indicators showed different responses to copper accumulation and the different fruiting part (cap and stipe) of O. radicata had ability to response the oxidative stress caused by Cu. Considering the metal accumulation and its own detoxification with short growing time, mushroom might have the potential to be used as bio-accumulator to deal with Cu exposure in the Cu-contaminated farmland soil.

  4. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Powder.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Kang, S N; Shin, D; Shim, K S

    2015-01-01

    One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP) in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP), antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol), 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP), 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP), and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP). Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05). Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05). These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks.

  5. Tuning intracellular homeostasis of human uroporphyrinogen III synthase by enzyme engineering at a single hotspot of congenital erythropoietic porphyria.

    PubMed

    ben Bdira, Fredj; González, Esperanza; Pluta, Paula; Laín, Ana; Sanz-Parra, Arantza; Falcon-Perez, Juan Manuel; Millet, Oscar

    2014-11-01

    Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) results from a deficiency in uroporphyrinogen III synthase enzyme (UROIIIS) activity that ultimately stems from deleterious mutations in the uroS gene. C73 is a hotspot for these mutations and a C73R substitution, which drastically reduces the enzyme activity and stability, is found in almost one-third of all reported CEP cases. Here, we have studied the structural basis, by which mutations in this hotspot lead to UROIIIS destabilization. First, a strong interdependency is observed between the volume of the side chain at position 73 and the folded protein. Moreover, there is a correlation between the in vitro half-life of the mutated proteins and their expression levels in eukaryotic cell lines. Molecular modelling was used to rationalize the results, showing that the mutation site is coupled to the hinge region separating the two domains. Namely, mutations at position 73 modulate the inter-domain closure and ultimately affect protein stability. By incorporating residues capable of interacting with R73 to stabilize the hinge region, catalytic activity was fully restored and a moderate increase in the kinetic stability of the enzyme was observed. These results provide an unprecedented rationale for a destabilizing missense mutation and pave the way for the effective design of molecular chaperones as a therapy against CEP.

  6. Effects of alpha-tocopheryl acetate and beta-carotene dietary supplementation on the antioxidant enzymes, TBARS and sensory attributes of turkey meat.

    PubMed

    Sárraga, C; Carreras, I; García Regueiro, J A; Guàrdia, M D; Guerrero, L

    2006-12-01

    1. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of alpha-tocopheryl acetate (50 mg/kg) and beta-carotene (15 mg/kg) dietary supplementation on the oxidative status of raw turkey breast and leg muscles assessed by thiobarbituric acid test values, the vitamin E levels and the antioxidant enzyme activities. In parallel, a quantitative descriptive sensory analysis was carried out on cooked, stored and reheated samples. 2. Vitamin E was present in sufficient quantity to reduce oxidation, since iron-induced reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly lower in antioxidant-supplemented treatments. The results suggested that the presence of beta-carotene in the diet limits the accumulation of alpha-tocopherol in turkey muscles. 3. In the present study, there was no conclusive relationship between dietary antioxidant supplementation and endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities. 4. Sensory evaluation showed that a longer supplementation time and dose may be necessary in turkeys to prevent meat from rancidity and warmed-over flavour (WOF). Leg pastiness and stringiness were modified by dietary antioxidant supplementation, indicating the possible synergism between antioxidants and cysteine proteinases in the perception of meat quality. 5. Given the modern trends that lead consumers to increase their consumption of poultry meat, it would be interesting to evaluate the commercial potential and cost effectiveness of routine dietary antioxidant supplementation.

  7. Oxidative stress as a risk factor for osteoporosis in elderly Mexicans as characterized by antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; Ruiz-Ramos, Mirna; Correa-Muñoz, Elsa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress (OxS) has recently been linked with osteoporosis; however, we do not know the influence of OxS as an independent risk factor for this disease. Methods We conducted a case-control study in 94 subjects ≥60 years of age, 50 healthy and 44 with osteoporosis. We measured total antioxidant status, plasma lipid peroxides, antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and calculated the SOD/GPx ratio. Bone mineral density was obtained at the peripheral DXA in calcaneus using a portable Norland Apollo Densitometer®. Osteoporosis was considered when subjects had a BMD of 2.5 standard deviations or more below the mean value for young adults. Results GPx antioxidant activity was significantly lower in the group of subjects with osteoporosis in comparison with the group of healthy subjects (p < 0.01); in addition, the SOD/GPx ratio was significantly higher in the group of individuals with osteoporosis (p < 0.05). In logistic regression analysis, we found OxS to be an independent risk factor for osteoporosis (odds ratio [OR] = 2.79; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.08–7.23; p = 0.034). Conclusion Our findings suggest that OxS is an independent risk factor for osteoporosis linked to increase of SOD/GPx ratio. PMID:18088440

  8. Effects of supplemental zinc source and level on antioxidant ability and fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Z. H.; Lu, L.; Wang, R. L.; Lei, H. L.; Li, S. F.; Zhang, L. Y.; Luo, X. G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplemental Zinc (Zn) source and level on antioxidant ability and fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers. Dietary treatments included the Zn-unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet (control) and basal diets supplemented with 60, 120, or 180 mg Zn/kg as Zn sulfate, Zn amino acid chelate with a weak chelation strength of 6.5 quotient of formation (Qf) (11.93% Zn) (Zn-AA W), Zn proteinate with a moderate chelation strength of 30.7 Qf (13.27% Zn) (Zn-Pro M), or Zn proteinate with an extremely strong chelation strength of 944.0 Qf (18.61% Zn) (Zn-Pro S). The results showed that dietary supplemental Zn increased (P < 0.01) Zn contents in the liver, breast, and thigh muscles of broilers, and up-regulated mRNA expressions of copper and Zn containing superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and metallothioneins (MT) in the liver (P < 0.01) and thigh muscle (P < 0.05), and also enhanced (P < 0.05) CuZnSOD activities in the breast and thigh muscles, which exerted antioxidant ability and a decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the liver (P < 0.01) and breast and thigh muscles (P < 0.05) of broilers. Furthermore, supplemental Zn increased activities of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the abdominal fat (P < 0.05), and fatty acid synthetase (FAS) and LPL in the liver (P < 0.01), which were accompanied with up-regulation (P < 0.01) of the mRNA expressions levels of these enzymes in the abdominal fat and liver of broilers. Dietary Zn source, and an interaction between Zn source and level, had no effects on any measurements. It is concluded that dietary Zn supplementation improved Zn status and resulted in promoting antioxidant ability and activities and gene expressions of fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers regardless of Zn source and level, and the addition of 60 mg Zn/kg to the corn-soybean meal basal diet (a total dietary Zn of approximately 90 mg

  9. The copper tolerance strategies and the role of antioxidative enzymes in three plant species grown on copper mine.

    PubMed

    Boojar, Massod Mashhadi Akbar; Goodarzi, Faranak

    2007-05-01

    This study was undertaken to identify the strategies and the status of antioxidant enzyme activities involved in three plant species tolerance against Cu-toxicity in copper mine. The following methods were used for evaluations in three wild type species; Datura stramonium, Malva sylvestris and Chenopodium ambrosioides. The level of chlorophyll and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) by spectrometry, malondialdehyde (MDA) and dityrosine by HPLC and the levels of Cu in tissues and soils by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Analysis showed that total and available copper were at toxic levels for plants growing on contaminated soil (zone 1). However, there were not any visual and conspicuous symptoms of Cu toxicity in plant species. Among three species, excess copper was transferred only into the D. stramonium and C. ambrosioides tissues. The C. ambrosioides accumulated Cu in roots and then in leaves, in which the leaves chloroplasts stored Cu around two times of vacuoles. In D. stramonium most of Cu was accumulated in leaves in which the storage rate in vacuoles and chloroplasts were 42% and 8%, respectively. In zone 1, the chlorophyll levels increased significantly in leaves of C. ambrosioides with respect to the same plant growing on uncontaminated soil (zone 2). There was insignificant decrease in chlorophyll content of D. stramonium leaves, collected from zone 1 with respect to zone 2. The D. stramonium and C. ambrosioides in zone 1, both revealed significant increase in their tissues antioxidant enzyme activities in comparison with the same samples of zone 2. There was significant elevation in oxidative damage biomarkers; MDA and dityrosine, when the aerial parts of D. stramonium in zone 1 were compared with the same parts of zone 2. We concluded that there were different tolerance strategies in studied plant species that protected them against copper toxicity. In M. sylvestris, exclusion of Cu from

  10. Effects of supplemental zinc source and level on antioxidant ability and fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z H; Lu, L; Wang, R L; Lei, H L; Li, S F; Zhang, L Y; Luo, X G

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplemental Zinc (Zn) source and level on antioxidant ability and fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers. Dietary treatments included the Zn-unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet (control) and basal diets supplemented with 60, 120, or 180 mg Zn/kg as Zn sulfate, Zn amino acid chelate with a weak chelation strength of 6.5 quotient of formation (Qf) (11.93% Zn) (Zn-AA W), Zn proteinate with a moderate chelation strength of 30.7 Qf (13.27% Zn) (Zn-Pro M), or Zn proteinate with an extremely strong chelation strength of 944.0 Qf (18.61% Zn) (Zn-Pro S). The results showed that dietary supplemental Zn increased (P < 0.01) Zn contents in the liver, breast, and thigh muscles of broilers, and up-regulated mRNA expressions of copper and Zn containing superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and metallothioneins (MT) in the liver (P < 0.01) and thigh muscle (P < 0.05), and also enhanced (P < 0.05) CuZnSOD activities in the breast and thigh muscles, which exerted antioxidant ability and a decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the liver (P < 0.01) and breast and thigh muscles (P < 0.05) of broilers. Furthermore, supplemental Zn increased activities of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the abdominal fat (P < 0.05), and fatty acid synthetase (FAS) and LPL in the liver (P < 0.01), which were accompanied with up-regulation (P < 0.01) of the mRNA expressions levels of these enzymes in the abdominal fat and liver of broilers. Dietary Zn source, and an interaction between Zn source and level, had no effects on any measurements. It is concluded that dietary Zn supplementation improved Zn status and resulted in promoting antioxidant ability and activities and gene expressions of fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers regardless of Zn source and level, and the addition of 60 mg Zn/kg to the corn-soybean meal basal diet (a total dietary Zn of approximately 90 mg/kg) was appropriate

  11. Hesperidin a citrus bioflavonoid modulates hepatic biotransformation enzymes and enhances intrinsic antioxidants in experimental breast cancer rats challenged with 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene.

    PubMed

    Nandakumar, Natarajan; Balasubramanian, Maruthaiveeran Periyasamy

    2012-01-01

    DMBA is a major class of potent genotoxic chemical carcinogen present in the environment and it may increase breast cancer risk. Flavonoids have been shown to have interesting biological activities in many experimental investigations. Hesperidin is one of the citrus flavonoid shown to be active against various oxidative stress mediated diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the beneficial impact of a natural citrus flavonoglycoside hesperidin against 7, 12-Dimethylbenz [a] anthracene challenged experimental breast carcinogenesis with reference to drug metabolizing enzymes and intrinsic antioxidant status. The female Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered with single dose of 7, 12-DMBA to induce breast cancer and were treated with hesperidin [30mg/kg/body weight] for a consecutive 45 days. The results revealed that there was a significant reduction in the status of antioxidants levels and also significant alterations in the drug metabolizing enzymes were found in genotoxin DMBA exposed animals. Interestingly these, altered levels were significantly revered back to near normal in hesperidin administered animals via enhancing the intrinsic antioxidant levels and induction in Phase II enzymes and modulation in Phase I enzyme levels. Thus the antigenotoxic activity of hesperidin may be due to the modulatory effect in biotransformation enzymes and excellent antioxidant potentials which paving a way to consider hesperidin against the genotoxin involved oxidative stress mediated diseases.

  12. Biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes of Lumbriculus variegates as biomarkers of contaminated sediment exposure.

    PubMed

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Wiegand, Claudia

    2008-02-01

    In this study the black worm Lumbriculus variegatus was tested for suitability as biomonitor for moderately contaminated sediments. The response capacity of the biotransformation system phase II enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the oxidative defense enzyme catalase (CAT) to contaminated sediment and atrazine was investigated to establish them as sensitive biomarkers. To get an integrated view on the enzyme activity kinetics, increasing concentrations of the herbicide atrazine were applied to stimulate GST response, and relationship between enzyme activity and herbicide concentration was observed at various exposure durations. Furthermore, animals were exposed for up to 1 week to sediments of four typical urban river sections with high anthropogenic impact. L. variegatus was capable to accomplish the environmental stress and the selected enzymes showed elevation. Significant changes of GST (membrane-bound and soluble) were detected after at least 4 days of exposure to atrazine and contaminated sediments. Although CAT increase could be observed already after 1 day of exposure to sediments, an exposure time of one week is considerable for accurate interpretation of the enzymatic response. The clear enzymatic response of especially the membrane-bound GST indicated charges with organic lipophilic substances at all sampling sites.

  13. Amelioration of cholesterol induced atherosclerosis by normalizing gene expression, cholesterol profile and antioxidant enzymes by Vigna unguiculata.

    PubMed

    Janeesh, P A; Abraham, Annie

    2013-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, especially atherosclerosis, have found to be the dreadful diseases worldwide and therapeutic interventions using plant sources have wide therapeutic value. Vigna unguiculata (VU) leaves have been used as food and therapeutics. Hence, our study was designed to evaluate the hypolipidemic as well as anti-atherogenic potential of VU leaves in normalizing atherogenic gene expression, cholesterol profile, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant enzyme system on cholesterol fed rabbit model. For the study New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and experimental period was three months; group -i - ND [normal diet (40 g feed)], group-ii- ND (normal diet) +EAVU [ethyl acetate fraction of Vigna unguiculata (150 mg/kg body weight)], group -iii- ND [normal diet ]+ CFD [cholesterol fed diet (cholesterol 1 % of 40 g feed and cholic acid 0.5 % of 40 g feed)] and group-iv - ND [normal diet] +CFD [cholesterol fed diet ]+EAVU [ethyl acetate fraction of Vigna unguiculata (150 mg/kg body weight)]. Atherosclerosis was induced by feeding the rabbit with cholesterol (1 % of 40 g feed) and cholic acid (0.5 % of 40 g feed). Supplementation of EAVU normalized cholesterol profile, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation products like thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), antioxidant system and important genes of cardiovascular diseases like interleukin-10 (IL 10), paraoxanase-1 (PON I), interleukin-6 (IL 6), and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox 2) to near normal level as compared with normal diet. The result obtained showed the antioxidant as well as anti-atherogenic potential of Vigna unguiculata leaves in ameliorating cholesterol induced atherosclerosis, and thus it is good task to include VU leaves in daily diet for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases especially atherosclerosis.

  14. Transcriptional abundance of antioxidant enzymes in endometrium and their circulating levels in Zebu cows with and without uterine infection.

    PubMed

    Baithalu, R K; Singh, S K; Kumaresan, A; Mohanty, A K; Mohanty, T K; Kumar, S; Kerketta, S; Maharana, B R; Patbandha, T K; Attupuram, N; Agarwal, S K

    2017-02-01

    Oxidative stress during peripartum period may compromise the uterine immunity. In the present study, we assessed the oxidative stress and antioxidant status during peripartum period and studied their relationship with postpartum uterine infection in dairy cows. Peripheral blood concentrations of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) were determined (day -21, -7, on the day of calving and day +7, +21, +35) in normal (n=11), puerperal metritic (n=7) and clinical endometritic (n=6) cows. Endometrial biopsy was performed on the day of calving and expression of CAT, GPx4 and SOD2 genes was studied using qRT-PCR. Puerperal metritic cows had significantly (P<0.05) lower TAC (on day -7, day 0, day +7, +21 & +35), higher MDA (on day -21, -7 & on the day of calving) and NO (on day 0, +7 & day +35) concentrations compared to normal cows. Similarly, clinical endometritic cows had significantly (P<0.05) lower TAC (on day -7, 0, +7 & +21), higher MDA (on day -21, -7, +7 and +35) and NO (on day +7, +21 & +35) concentrations compared to normal cows. The expression of CAT and GPx4 genes was lower (P<0.05) and SOD2 gene was higher (P<0.05) in endometrial tissue of cows that developed uterine infection compared to normal cows. The relationship of peripheral levels of MDA and NO with antioxidant enzymes expression in endometrial tissue was found significant. Receiver operator characteristic analysis revealed that the concentrations of TAC on day -7 to day +35, MDA on day -21 to day +7 and NO on the day of calving to day +35 were highly correlated to the development of postpartum uterine infection in cows. It may be inferred that the low serum TAC level and high level of lipid peroxidation and NO during peripartum period influenced the endometrial expression of anitioxidative genes that compromised the uterine health during postpartum period.

  15. Effects of soybean oligosaccharides on antioxidant enzyme activities and insulin resistance in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Fei, Bei-bei; Ling, Li; Hua, Chen; Ren, Shu-yan

    2014-09-01

    The effects of soybean oligosaccharides (SBOS) on antioxidant enzyme activities and insulin resistance in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were investigated. Ninety-seven pregnant women with GDM were randomly divided into two groups, the control group (51 cases) and the SBOS group (46 cases). Before the group separation, the blood sugar level in patients was maintained stable by regular diet and insulin treatment. The control group was continued with the insulin treatment, while the SBOS group was treated with the combination of insulin and SBOS. Results showed that SBOS were able to reduce oxidative stress and alleviate insulin resistance in pregnant women with GDM, which indicates that SBOS may play an important role in the control of GDM complications.

  16. Environmentally realistic concentrations of the antibiotic Trimethoprim affect haemocyte parameters but not antioxidant enzyme activities in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Matozzo, Valerio; De Notaris, Chiara; Finos, Livio; Filippini, Raffaella; Piovan, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Several biomarkers were measured to evaluate the effects of Trimethoprim (TMP; 300, 600 and 900 ng/L) in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum after exposure for 1, 3 and 7 days. The actual TMP concentrations were also measured in the experimental tanks. The total haemocyte count significantly increased in 7 day-exposed clams, whereas alterations in haemocyte volume were observed after 1 and 3 days of exposure. Haemocyte proliferation was increased significantly in animals exposed for 1 and 7 days, whereas haemocyte lysate lysozyme activity decreased significantly after 1 and 3 days. In addition, TMP significantly increased haemolymph lactate dehydrogenase activity after 3 and 7 days. Regarding antioxidant enzymes, only a significant time-dependent effect on CAT activity was recorded. This study demonstrated that environmentally realistic concentrations of TMP affect haemocyte parameters in clams, suggesting that haemocytes are a useful cellular model for the assessment of the impact of TMP on bivalves.

  17. Effects of dietary sodium selenite and selenium yeast on antioxidant enzyme activities and oxidative stability of chicken breast meat.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Hussain; Tian, Jinke; Wang, Jianjun; Khan, Muhammad Ammar; Wang, Yuanxiao; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2012-07-25

    The effects of sodium selenite (SS) and selenium yeast (SY) alone and in combination (MS) on the selenium (Se) content, antioxidant enzyme activities (AEA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stability of chicken breast meat were investigated. The results showed that the highest (p < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was found in the SS-supplemented chicken breast meat; however, SY and MS treatments significantly increased (p < 0.05) the Se content and the activities of catalase (CAT), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), and TAC, but decreased (p < 0.05) the malondialdehyde (MDA) content at 42 days of age. Twelve days of storage at 4 °C decreased (p < 0.05) the activity of the GSH-Px, but CAT, T-SOD, and TAC remained stable. SY decreased the lipid oxidation more effectively in chicken breast meat. It was concluded that SY and MS are more effective than SS in increasing the AEA, TAC, and oxidative stability of chicken breast meat.

  18. Antioxidative Peptides Derived from Enzyme Hydrolysis of Bone Collagen after Microwave Assisted Acid Pre-Treatment and Nitrogen Protection

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yun-Jian; Le, Guo-Wei; Wang, Jie-Yun; Li, Ya-Xin; Shi, Yong-Hui; Sun, Jin

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid). The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave higher DH among the four protease tested (Acid protease, neutral protease, Alcalase and papain), with an optimum condition of: (1) ratio of enzyme and substrate, 4760 U/g; (2) concentration of substrate, 4%; (3) reaction temperature, 55 °C and (4) pH 7.0. At 4 h, DH increased significantly (P < 0.01) under nitrogen protection compared with normal microwave assisted acid pre-treatment hydrolysis conditions. The antioxidant ability of the hydrolysate increased and reached its maximum value at 3 h; however DH decreased dramatically after 3 h. Microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection could be a quick preparatory method for hydrolyzing bone collagen. PMID:21151439

  19. Antioxidant and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens Infusions Fermented with Kombucha Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Gamboa-Gómez, Claudia I.; González-Laredo, Rubén F.; Gallegos-Infante, José Alberto; Pérez, MŞ del Mar Larrosa; Moreno-Jiménez, Martha R.; Flores-Rueda, Ana G.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Physicochemical properties, consumer acceptance, antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of infusions and fermented beverages of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens were compared. Among physicochemical parameters, only the pH of fermented beverages decreased compared with the unfermented infusions. No relevant changes were reported in consumer preference between infusions and fermented beverages. Phenolic profile measured by UPLC MS/MS analysis demonstrated significant concentration changes of these compounds in plant infusions and fermented beverages. Fermentation induced a decrease in the concentration required to stabilize 50% of DPPH radical (i.e. lower IC50). Additionally, it enhanced the antioxidant activity measured by the nitric oxide scavenging assay (14% of E. camaldulensis and 49% of L. glaucescens); whereas relevant improvements in the fermented beverage were not observed in the lipid oxidation assay compared with unfermented infusions. The same behaviour was observed in the inhibitory activity of ACE; however, both infusions and fermented beverages had lower IC50 than positive control (captopril). The present study demonstrated that fermentation has an influence on the concentration of phenolics and their potential bioactivity. E. camaldulensis and L. glaucescens can be considered as natural sources of biocompounds with antihypertensive potential used either as infusions or fermented beverages. PMID:27956869

  20. Hydrolysates of sheep cheese whey as a source of bioactive peptides with antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Ana Paula Folmer; Daroit, Daniel Joner; Fontoura, Roberta; Meira, Stela Maris Meister; Segalin, Jeferson; Brandelli, Adriano

    2014-11-01

    Enzymatic proteolysis may be employed to release bioactive peptides, which have been investigated for potential benefits from both technological and human health perspectives. In this study, sheep cheese whey (SCW) was hydrolyzed with a protease preparation from Bacillus sp. P7, and the hydrolysates were evaluated for antioxidant and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities. Soluble protein and free amino acids increased during hydrolysis of SCW for up to 4h. Antioxidant activity of hydrolysates, evaluated by the 2,2'azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging method, increased 3.2-fold from 0 h (15.9%) to 6h of hydrolysis (51.3%). Maximum Fe(2+) chelation was reached in 3h hydrolysates, and the reducing power peaked at 1h of hydrolysis, representing 6.2 and 2.1-fold increase, respectively, when compared to that of non-hydrolyzed SCW. ACE inhibition by SCW (12%) was improved through hydrolysis, reaching maximal values (55% inhibition) in 4h, although 42% inhibition was already observed after 1h hydrolysis. The peptide LAFNPTQLEGQCHV, derived from β-lactoglobulin, was identified from 4-h hydrolysates. Such a biotechnological approach might be an interesting strategy for SCW processing, potentially contributing to the management and valorization of this abundant dairy byproduct.

  1. Antioxidant and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens Infusions Fermented with Kombucha Consortium.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-Gómez, Claudia I; González-Laredo, Rubén F; Gallegos-Infante, José Alberto; Pérez, Mş Del Mar Larrosa; Moreno-Jiménez, Martha R; Flores-Rueda, Ana G; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria E

    2016-09-01

    Physicochemical properties, consumer acceptance, antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of infusions and fermented beverages of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens were compared. Among physicochemical parameters, only the pH of fermented beverages decreased compared with the unfermented infusions. No relevant changes were reported in consumer preference between infusions and fermented beverages. Phenolic profile measured by UPLC MS/MS analysis demonstrated significant concentration changes of these compounds in plant infusions and fermented beverages. Fermentation induced a decrease in the concentration required to stabilize 50% of DPPH radical (i.e. lower IC50). Additionally, it enhanced the antioxidant activity measured by the nitric oxide scavenging assay (14% of E. camaldulensis and 49% of L. glaucescens); whereas relevant improvements in the fermented beverage were not observed in the lipid oxidation assay compared with unfermented infusions. The same behaviour was observed in the inhibitory activity of ACE; however, both infusions and fermented beverages had lower IC50 than positive control (captopril). The present study demonstrated that fermentation has an influence on the concentration of phenolics and their potential bioactivity. E. camaldulensis and L. glaucescens can be considered as natural sources of biocompounds with antihypertensive potential used either as infusions or fermented beverages.

  2. Ecotoxicological effects of a veterinary food additive, copper sulphate, on antioxidant enzymes and mRNA expression in earthworms.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wenguang; Ding, Xueyao; Zhang, Yiming; Sun, Yongxue

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of the veterinary food additive copper sulphate (CuSO₄) on the eco-toxicological responses of earthworms Eisenia fetida (E. fetida). The following biomarkers were measured: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Gene expression analyses such as metallothionein (MT) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) were also examined. A time-dependent increase of CAT activity was found at 400 mg/kg and SOD activity at 200 and 400 mg/kg. The highest expression of Hsp70 (4.4-fold) was observed at day 15 at 400 mg/kg. Our results indicated that the measured antioxidant enzymes (except GST) had the ability to provide antioxidant defenses against the stressor; and compared to expression of MT, expression of Hsp70 could be more reliable molecular tools with predictive possibilities to monitor the eco-toxicity of stressors such as feed additive CuSO₄.

  3. Silicon Mitigates Salinity Stress by Regulating the Physiology, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, and Protein Expression in Capsicum annuum 'Bugwang'.

    PubMed

    Manivannan, Abinaya; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Muneer, Sowbiya; Ko, Chung Ho; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2016-01-01

    Silicon- (Si-) induced salinity stress resistance was demonstrated at physiological and proteomic levels in Capsicum annuum for the first time. Seedlings of C. annuum were hydroponically treated with NaCl (50 mM) with or without Si (1.8 mM) for 15 days. The results illustrated that saline conditions significantly reduced plant growth and biomass and photosynthetic parameters and increased the electrolyte leakage potential, lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide level. However, supplementation of Si allowed the plants to recover from salinity stress by improving their physiology and photosynthesis. During salinity stress, Si prevented oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, Si supplementation recovered the nutrient imbalance that had occurred during salinity stress. Additionally, proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) revealed that Si treatment upregulated the accumulation of proteins involved in several metabolic processes, particularly those associated with nucleotide binding and transferase activity. Moreover, Si modulated the expression of vital proteins involved in ubiquitin-mediated nucleosome pathway and carbohydrate metabolism. Overall, the results illustrate that Si application induced resistance against salinity stress in C. annuum by regulating the physiology, antioxidant metabolism, and protein expression.

  4. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity and antioxidant properties of Nepeta crassifolia Boiss & Buhse and Nepeta binaludensis Jamzad.

    PubMed

    Tundis, Rosa; Nadjafi, Farsad; Menichini, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    This article reports phytochemical and biological studies on Nepeta binaludensis and Nepeta crassifolia. Both species were investigated for their angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antioxidant properties through three in vitro models [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay]. Aerial parts were extracted with methanol and partitioned between water and subsequently n-hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. N. binaludensis methanol extract exerted significantly higher reducing power (1.9 μM Fe(II)/g) than did the positive control butylhydroxytoluene (63.2 μM Fe(II)/g) in FRAP assay. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was found for N. crassifolia, with IC50 values of 9.6 and 12.1 µg/mL for ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions, respectively. n-Butanol fraction of both species showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 59.3 and 81.7 µg/mL for N. binaludensis and N. crassifolia, respectively. Phytochemical investigations resulted in the isolation of ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, apigenin, luteolin and ixoroside. Apigenin-7-O-glucoside, 8-hydroxycirsimaritin and cirsimaritin were furthermore identified in N. crassifolia ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. Nepetanudoside B was isolated from the n-butanol fraction of N. binaludensis.

  5. Mycorrhizal-induced calmodulin mediated changes in antioxidant enzymes and growth response of drought-stressed trifoliate orange

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong-Ming; Srivastava, A. K.; Zou, Ying-Ning; Ni, Qiu-Dan; Han, Yu; Wu, Qiang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L) Raf.] is considered highly arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) dependent for growth responses through a series of signal transductions in form of various physiological responses. The proposed study was carried out to evaluate the effect of an AM fungus (Funneliformis mosseae) on growth, antioxidant enzyme (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD) activities, leaf relative water content (RWC), calmodulin (CaM), superoxide anion (O2•−), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations in leaves of the plants exposed to both well-watered (WW) and drought stress (DS) conditions. A 58-day of DS significantly decreased mycorrhizal colonization by 60% than WW. Compared to non-AM seedlings, AM seedlings displayed significantly higher shoot morphological properties (plant height, stem diameter, and leaf number), biomass production (shoot and root fresh weight) and leaf RWC, regardless of soil water status. AM inoculation significantly increased CaM and soluble protein concentrations and CAT activity, whereas significantly decreased O2•− and H2O2 concentration under both WW and DS conditions. The AM seedlings also exhibited significantly higher Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD activities than the non-AM seedlings under DS but not under WW, which are triggered by higher CaM levels in AM plants on the basis of correlation studies. Further, the negative correlation of Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD activities with O2•− and H2O2 concentration showed the DS-induced ROS scavenging ability of CaM mediated SODs under mycorrhization. Our results demonstrated that AM-inoculation elevated the synthesis of CaM in leaves and up-regulated activities of the antioxidant enzymes, thereby, repairing the possible oxidative damage to plants by lowering the ROS accumulation under DS condition. PMID:25538696

  6. Oxidative injury and antioxidant enzymes regulation in arsenic-exposed seedlings of four Brassica napus L. cultivars.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Muhammad A; Li, Lan; Ali, Basharat; Gill, Rafaqat A; Wang, Jian; Ali, Shafaqat; Gill, Muhammad B; Zhou, Weijun

    2015-07-01

    Environmental contamination due to arsenic (As) has become a major risk throughout the world; this affects plant growth and productivity. Its accumulation in food chain may pose a severe threat to organisms. The present study was carried out to observe the toxic effects of As (0, 50, 100, and 200 μM) on physiological and biochemical changes in four Brassica napus cultivars (ZS 758, Zheda 619, ZY 50, and Zheda 622). Results showed that As toxicity provoked a significant inhibition in growth parameters of B. napus cultivars and this reduction was more obvious in cultivar Zheda 622. The highest concentration of MDA, H2O2, and O2 (-) contents in both leaf and root tissues were observed at 200 μM As level, and a gradual decrease was observed at lower concentrations. Increasing As concentration gradually decreased chlorophyll and carotenoids contents. Activity of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT, APX, GR, and GSH was positively correlated with As treatments in all cultivars. The microscopic study of leaves and roots at 200 μM As level showed the disorganization in cell organelles. Disturbance in the morphology of chloroplast, broken cell wall, increase in size, and number of starch grains and immature nucleus were found in leaf ultrastructures under higher concentration of As. Moreover, damaged nucleus, diffused cell wall, enlarged vacuoles, and a number of mitochondria were observed in root tip cells at 200 μM As level. These results suggest that B. napus cultivars have efficient mechanism to tolerate As toxicity, as evidenced by an increased level of antioxidant enzymes.

  7. Effect of sodium chloride and cadmium on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunsheng; Xu, Ying; Jiang, Wei; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xiaoyan

    2014-06-01

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a salt-tolerant yeast species capable of removing cadmium (Cd) pollutant from aqueous solution. Presently, the physiological characteristics of Z. rouxii under the stress of sodium chloride (NaCl) and Cd are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of NaCl and Cd on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii after stress treatment for 24 h. Results showed that NaCl or Cd alone negatively affected the growth of Z. rouxii, but the growth-inhibiting effect of Cd on Z. rouxii was reduced in the presence of NaCl. Flow cytometry assay showed that under Cd stress, NaCl significantly reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death of Z. rouxii compared with those in the absence of NaCl. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) of Z. rouxii were significantly enhanced by 2%-6% NaCl, which likely contributed to the high salt tolerance of Z. rouxii. The POD activity was inhibited by 20 mg L-1 Cd while the SOD and CAT activities were enhanced by 8 mg L-1 Cd and inhibited by 20 mg L-1 or 50 mg L-1 Cd. The inhibitory effect of high-level Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii was counteracted by the combined use of NaCl, especially at 6%. This probably accounted for the decrease in Cd-induced ROS production and cell death of Z. rouxii after incubation with NaCl and Cd. Our work provided physiological clues as to the use of Z. rouxii as a biosorbent for Cd removal from seawater and liquid highly salty food.

  8. Effects of paraquat on photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant enzymes, and gene expression in Chlorella pyrenoidosa under mixotrophic compared with autotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiguo; Liu, Min; Zhang, Peiliang; Yu, Fugen; Lu, Shan; Li, Pengfu; Zhou, Junying

    2014-11-01

    Only limited information is available on herbicide toxicity to algae under mixotrophic conditions. In the present study, we studied the effects of the herbicide paraquat on growth, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant enzymes, and gene expression in Chlorella pyrenoidosa under mixotrophic compared with autotrophic conditions. The mean measured exposure concentrations of paraquat under mixotrophic and autotrophic conditions were in the range of 0.3-3.4 and 0.6-3.6 μM, respectively. Exposure to paraquat for 72 h under both autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions induced decreased growth and chlorophyll (Chl) content, increased superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities, and decreased transcript abundances of three photosynthesis-related genes (light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase subunit, photosystem II protein D1, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit [rbcL]). Compared with autotrophic conditions, the inhibition percentage of growth rate under mixotrophic conditions was lower at 0.8 μM paraquat, whereas it was greater at 1.8 and 3.4 μM paraquat. With exposure to 0.8-3.4 μM paraquat, the inhibition rates of Chl a and b content under mixotrophic conditions (43.1-52.4% and 54.6-59.7%, respectively) were greater compared with autotrophic conditions, whereas the inhibition rate of rbcL gene transcription under mixotrophic conditions (35.7-44.0%) was lower. These data showed that similar to autotrophic conditions, paraquat affected the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreased Chl synthesis and transcription of photosynthesis-related genes in C. pyrenoidosa under mixotrophic conditions, but a differential susceptibility to paraquat toxicity occurred between autotrophically versus mixotrophically grown cells.

  9. Amendment in phosphorus levels moderate the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L. as assayed by antioxidant enzymes activities.

    PubMed

    Sayantan, D; Shardendu

    2013-09-01

    Chromium (Z=24), a d-block element, is a potent carcinogen, whereas phosphorus is an essential and limiting nutrient for the plant growth and development. This study undertakes the role of phosphorus in moderating the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L., as both of them compete with each other during the uptake process. Two-factor complete randomized experiment (5 chromium × 5 phosphorus concentrations) was conducted for twenty eight days in green house. The individuals of R. sativus were grown in pots supplied with all essential nutrients. The toxic effects of chromium and the moderation of toxicity due to phosphorus amendment were determined as accumulation of chromium, nitrogen, phosphorus in root tissues and their effects were also examined in the changes in biomass, chlorophyll and antioxidant enzyme levels. Cr and N accumulation were almost doubled at the highest concentration of Cr supply, without any P amendment, whereas at the highest P concentration (125 mM), the accumulation was reduced to almost half. A significant reduction in toxic effects of Cr was determined as there was three-fold increase in total chlorophyll and biomass at the highest P amendment. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were analyzed at various levels of Cr each amended with five levels of P. It was observed that at highest level of P amendment, the reduction percentage in toxicity was 33, 44, 39 and 44, correspondingly. Conclusively, the phosphorus amendment moderates the toxicity caused by the supplied chromium in R. sativus. This finding can be utilized to develop a novel technology for the amelioration of chromium stressed fields.

  10. Fenofibrate exerts protective effects against gentamicin-induced toxicity in cochlear hair cells by activating antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Channy; Ji, Hye-Min; Kim, Se-Jin; Kil, Sung-Hee; Lee, Joon No; Kwak, Seongae; Choe, Seong-Kyu; Park, Raekil

    2017-01-01

    Fenofibrate, an activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), has been shown to protect the kidneys and brain cells from oxidative stress; however, its role in preventing hearing loss has not been reported to date, at least to the best of our knowledge. In this study, we demonstrated the protective effects of fenofibrate against gentamicin (GM)-induced ototoxicity. We found that the auditory brainstem response threshold which was increased by GM was significantly reduced by pre-treatment with fenofibrate in rats. In cochlear explants, the disruption of hair cell layers by GM was also markedly attenuated by pre-treatment with fenofibrate. In addition, fenofibrate almost completely abolished GM-induced reactive oxygen species generation, which seemed to be mediated at least in part by the restoration of the expression of PPAR-α-dependent antioxidant enzymes, including catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1. Of note, fenofibrate markedly increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) which was also induced to a certain degree by GM alone. The induced expression of HO-1 by fenofibrate appeared to be essential for mediating the protective effects of fenofibrate, as the inhibition of HO-1 activity significantly diminished the protective effects of fenofibrate against the GM-mediated death of sensory hair cells in cochlea explant culture, as well as in zebrafish neuromasts. These results suggest that fenofibrate protects sensory hair cells from GM-induced toxicity by upregulating PPAR-α-dependent antioxidant enzymes, including HO-1. Our results provide insight into the preventive therapy for hearing loss caused by aminoglycoside antibiotics. PMID:28290603

  11. Influence of UV radiation on chlorophyll, and antioxidant enzymes of wetland plants in different types of constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Xu, Defu; Wu, Yinjuan; Li, Yingxue; Howard, Alan; Jiang, Xiaodong; Guan, Yidong; Gao, Yongxia

    2014-09-01

    A surface- and vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland were designed to study the response of chlorophyll and antioxidant enzymes to elevated UV radiation in three types of wetland plants (Canna indica, Phragmites austrail, and Typha augustifolia). Results showed that (1) chlorophyll content of C. indica, P. austrail, and T. augustifolia in the constructed wetland was significantly lower where UV radiation was increased by 10 and 20 % above ambient solar level than in treatment with ambient solar UV radiation (p < 0.05). (2) The malondialdehyde (MDA) content, guaiacol peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities of wetland plants increased with elevated UV radiation intensity. (3) The increased rate of MDA, SOD, POD, and CAT activities of C. indica, P. australis, and T. angustifolia by elevated UV radiation of 10 % was higher in vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland than in surface-flow-constructed wetland. The sensitivity of MDA, SOD, POD, and CAT activities of C. indica, P. austrail, and T. augustifolia to the elevated UV radiation was lower in surface-flow-constructed wetland than in the vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland, which was related to a reduction in UV radiation intensity through the dissolved organic carbon and suspended matter in the water. C. indica had the highest SOD and POD activities, which implied it is more sensitive to enhanced UV radiation. Therefore, different wetland plants had different antioxidant enzymes by elevated UV radiation, which were more sensitive in vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland than in surface-flow-constructed wetland.

  12. Enzyme-Controlled Intracellular Self-Assembly of 18F Nanoparticles for Enhanced MicroPET Imaging of Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaling; Miao, Qingqing; Zou, Pei; Liu, Longfei; Wang, Xiaojing; An, Linna; Zhang, Xiaoliu; Qian, Xiangping; Luo, Shineng; Liang, Gaolin

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report the development of a new “smart” radioactive probe (i.e., 1) which can undergo furin-controlled condensation and self-assembly of radioactive nanoparticles (i.e., 1-NPs) in tumor cells and its application for enhanced microPET imaging of tumors in nude mice co-injected with its cold analog (i.e., 1-Cold). Furin-controlled condensation of 1-Cold and self-assembly of its nanoparticles (i.e., 1-Cold-NPs) in vitro were validated and characterized with HPLC, mass spectra, SEM, and TEM analyses. Cell uptake studies showed that both 1 and 1-Cold have good cell permeability. TEM images of 1-Cold-treated MDA-MB-468 cells directly uncovered that the intracellular 1-Cold-NPs were at/near the location of furin (i.e., Golgi bodies). MTT results indicated that 50 µM 1-Cold did not impose cytotoxicity to MDA-MB-468 cells up to 12 hours. MicroPET imaging of MDA-MB-468 tumor-bearing mice indicated that mice co-injected with 1 and 1-Cold showed higher uptake and longer attenuation of the radioactivity in tumors than those mice only injected with same dosage of 1. Tumor uptake ratios of 1 between these two groups of mice reached the maximum of 8.2 folds at 240 min post injection. Biodistribution study indicated that the uptake ratios of 1 in kidneys between these two groups continuously increased and reached 81.9 folds at 240 min post injection, suggesting the formation of radioactive NPs (i.e., 1-NPs) in MDA-MB-468 tumors of mice co-injected with 1 and 1-Cold. And the nanoparticles were slowly digested and secreted from the tumors, accumulating in the kidneys. Our ''smart'' probe (i.e., 1), together with the strategy of co-injection, might help researchers trace the biomarkers of interest within a longer time window. PMID:26199645

  13. 17beta-oestradiol up-regulates longevity-related, antioxidant enzyme expression via the ERK1 and ERK2[MAPK]/NFkappaB cascade.

    PubMed

    Borrás, Consuelo; Gambini, Juan; Gómez-Cabrera, M Carmen; Sastre, Juan; Pallardó, Federico V; Mann, Giovanni E; Viña, José

    2005-06-01

    Females live longer than males. Oestrogens protect females against aging by up-regulating the expression of antioxidant, longevity-related genes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD). The mechanism through which oestrogens up-regulate those enzymes remains unidentified, but may have implications for gender differences in lifespan. We show that physiological concentrations of oestradiol act through oestrogen receptors to reduce peroxide levels in MCF-7 cells (a mammary gland tumour cell line). Oestradiol increases MAP kinase (MAPK) activation as indicated by ERK1 and ERK2 phosphorylation in MCF-7 cells, which in turn activates the nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) signalling pathways as indicated by an increase in the p50 subunit of NFkappaB in nuclear extracts. Blockade of MAPK and NFkappaB signalling reduces the antioxidant effect of oestradiol. Finally, we show that activation of MAPK and NFkappaB by oestrogens drives the expression of the antioxidant enzymes Mn-SOD and GPx. We conclude that oestradiol sequentially activates MAPK and NFkappaB following receptor activation to up-regulate the expression of antioxidant enzymes, providing a cogent explanation for the antioxidant properties of oestrogen and its effects on longevity-related genes.

  14. Effect of cisplatin and cobalt chloride on antioxidant enzymes in the livers of Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice: protective role of heme oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Christova, Tania Y; Gorneva, Galina A; Taxirov, Svetoslav I; Duridanova, Dessislava B; Setchenska, Milka S

    2003-03-03

    Changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase and heme oxygenase (HO) and changes in lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were measured in the livers of control and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)-bearing mice 24 h after a single injection of cisplatin or CoCl(2). Treatment with cisplatin induced the same degree of lipid peroxidation and GSH depletion as did CoCl(2) but the antioxidant enzymes were differently involved in cisplatin- and cobalt-induced oxidative stress responses. In cobalt-treated mice the activities of these enzymes were either inhibited or not changed significantly and only the HO activity was increased (5-fold) as a main protective enzyme. In cisplatin-treated animals the antioxidant enzymes were activated but the enhancement of HO and CAT was greater in LLC-inoculated mice. It is suggested that these two enzymes represent the protective response against cisplatin toxicity in the livers of tumor-bearing animals.

  15. Jasmonic Acid Modulates the Physio-Biochemical Attributes, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Gene Expression in Glycine max under Nickel Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sirhindi, Geetika; Mir, Mudaser Ahmad; Abd-Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Gucel, Salih

    2016-01-01

    In present study, we evaluated the effects of Jasmonic acid (JA) on physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzyme activity, and gene expression in soybean (Glycine max L.) plants subjected to nickel (Ni) stress. Ni stress decreases the shoot and root length and chlorophyll content by 37.23, 38.31, and 39.21%, respectively, over the control. However, application of JA was found to improve the chlorophyll content and length of shoot and root of Ni-fed seedlings. Plants supplemented with JA restores the chlorophyll fluorescence, which was disturbed by Ni stress. The present study demonstrated increase in proline, glycinebetaine, total protein, and total soluble sugar (TSS) by 33.09, 51.26, 22.58, and 49.15%, respectively, under Ni toxicity over the control. Addition of JA to Ni stressed plants further enhanced the above parameters. Ni stress increases hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by 68.49%, lipid peroxidation (MDA) by 50.57% and NADPH oxidase by 50.92% over the control. Supplementation of JA minimizes the accumulation of H2O2, MDA, and NADPH oxidase, which helps in stabilization of biomolecules. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) increases by 40.04, 28.22, 48.53, and 56.79%, respectively, over the control in Ni treated seedlings and further enhancement in the antioxidant activity was observed by the application of JA. Ni treated soybean seedlings showed increase in expression of Fe-SOD by 77.62, CAT by 15.25, POD by 58.33, and APX by 80.58% over the control. Nevertheless, application of JA further enhanced the expression of the above genes in the present study. Our results signified that Ni stress caused negative impacts on soybean seedlings, but, co-application of JA facilitate the seedlings to combat the detrimental effects of Ni through enhanced osmolytes, activity of antioxidant enzymes and gene expression. PMID:27242811

  16. Effect of sprout extract from Tuscan black cabbage on xenobiotic-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Melega, Simone; Canistro, Donatella; Pagnotta, Eleonora; Iori, Renato; Sapone, Andrea; Paolini, Moreno

    2013-02-18

    In recent years, health protection by natural products has received considerable attention, and a multitude of nutraceuticals have been characterized and their use promoted. Dietary consumption of Cruciferous vegetables, rich in glucosinolates (GLs), and their myrosinase-mediated hydrolysis products isothiocyanates (ITCs), were associated with reductions in cancer risk. In this study, the chemo-preventive potential of sprout extract of Tuscan black cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala subvar. Laciniata L.) (TBCSE), through modulation of the xenobiotic-metabolizing apparatus and antioxidant defenses, was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rat liver. TBCSE was administered either orally or intraperitoneally, at a dose of 15mg/kg b.w., daily for twenty-one consecutive days, in the absence or presence of exogenous myrosinase, β-thioglucoside glucohydrolase (MYR), to distinguish the effects of intact GLs and ITCs, in the context of the extract. A complex, mild modulation pattern of P450-related monooxygenases was observed, mainly regarding CYP content (up to 36% loss), NADPH cytochrome (P450) c-reductase (up to 26% loss), CYP1A1 (up to 23% loss), but no evident distinctions among the effects of the extracts containing GLs or ITCs, were noted. In contrast, significant inductions of phase-II enzymes (up to 107% for UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase, and up to 36% for glutathione S-transferase) were recorded only where the GLs to ITCs conversion had occurred. A boosting effect on catalase (up to 38%), NAD(P)H:quinone reductase (up to 70%), glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase (up to 10%) was also recorded, suggesting an indirect antioxidant capacity of the extracts. Overall, the general phase-I inhibition, together with the up-regulation of detoxifying phase-II and antioxidant enzymes, exerted by the TBCSE supplementation, seem to be in line with the classical chemopreventive theory, but whether the addition of exogenous MYR is relevant, still remains to be

  17. [Oxidative stress, rRNA genes, and antioxidant enzymes in pathogenesis of schizophrenia and autism: modeling and clinical advices].

    PubMed

    Porokhovnik, L N; Pasekov, V P; Egolina, N A; Tsvetkova, T G; Kosiakova, N V; Gorbachevskaia, N L; Sukhotina, N K; Kozlovskaia, G V; Sorokin, A B; Korovina, N Iu; Liapunova, N A

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomal genes (RG), or genes for rRNA, are represented by multiple tandem repeats in eukaryotic genomes, and just a part of them is transcriptionally active. The quantity of active copies is a stable genome feature which determines the cell's capability for rapid synthesis of proteins, necessary to cope with stress conditions. Low number of active RG copies leads to reduced stress resistance and elevated risk of multifactorial disorders (MFD). Oxidative stress (OS) in the brain cells is believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of infantile autism (IA) and schizophrenia, i.e., MFDs with a manifested genetic predisposition. With autism, OS markers are found almost in every research, whilst with schizophrenia, the OS data are contradictory. Earlier, in a sample of patients with schizophrenia, we have found significantly higher quantity of active RG copies than at the average in healthy population. Here we have estimated the number of active RG copies in a sample of patients with IA (n = 51) and revealed significantly lower mean value than in healthy population. A novel mathematical model of the dynamic pattern of OS has been proposed. The model is realized as an ordinary differential equation system, supposing induction of antioxidant protection enzymes being mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), with the subsequent decrease of ROS content in a cell. The rate of synthesis of antioxidant protection enzymes is limited by the ribosome synthesis rate which depends on the number of active RG copies. Analysis of the model showed that the system always approaches a single stable equilibrium point along a damped oscillation trajectory, which in some degree resembles the dynamics of 'predator-prey' interaction in Lotka-Volterra model. The stationary ROS level inversely depends on the number of active RG copies. Our study explains the inconsistency of clinical data of OS in schizophrenia and suggests a novel criterion for discriminative cytogenetic diagnostics of

  18. Antioxidant Enzyme Responses Induced by Whiteflies in Tobacco Plants in Defense against Aphids: Catalase May Play a Dominant Role

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Haipeng; Sun, Xia; Xue, Ming; Zhang, Xiao; Li, Qingliang

    2016-01-01

    Background Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 (Middle East-Asia Minor 1) feeding alters antioxidative enzyme activity in some plant species. Infestation of B. tabaci nymphs decreases Myzus persicae performance on systemic, but not local leaves of tobacco plants. However, it is unclear if B. tabaci nymphs induced antioxidant activities contributing to the aphid resistance. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the relationship between antioxidants induced by nymphs of B. tabaci feeding on tobacco and aphid resistance. The activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were assayed in tobacco leaves at different feeding times following infestation of B. tabaci nymphs. The infestation altered the activities of CAT and POD, but had no significant effect on SOD activity. The highest CAT activity was observed at 15 d after infestation. This was 98.2% greater than control systemic leaves, but 32.6% lower than the control in local leaves. Higher POD activity was recorded in local vs. systemic leaves after 15 d of infestation. POD activity was 71.0% and 112.9% higher in local and systemic leaves, respectively, than in the controls. The changes of CAT, but not POD or SOD activity were correlated to levels of aphid resistance. H2O2 levels were higher in local than in systemic leaves in contrast to CAT activity. Tobacco curly shoot virus mediated virus-induced gene silencing was employed to determine if CAT activation was involved in the aphid resistance induced by B. tabaci nymphs. B. tabaci induced CAT activity decreased when the Cat1 expression was silenced. The performance assay indicated that Cat1 silencing made B. tabaci infested plants a more suitable host for aphids than infested control plants. The aphid survival rate was reduced by 40.4% in infested control plants, but reduced by only 26.1% in Cat1-silenced plants compared to uninfested controls. Also, qPCR results showed that silencing of Cat1

  19. Reactive oxygen species production and antioxidant enzyme activity during epididymal sperm maturation in Corynorhinus mexicanus bats.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Ríos, Edith; Rosado García, Adolfo; Cortés-Barberena, Edith; Königsberg, Mina; Arteaga-Silva, Marcela; Rodríguez-Tobón, Ahiezer; Fuentes-Mascorro, Gisela; León-Galván, Miguel Angel

    2016-03-01

    Prolonged sperm storage in the epididymis of Corynorhinus mexicanus bats after testicular regression has been associated with epididymal sperm maturation in the caudal region, although the precise factors linked with this phenomenon are unknown. The aim of this work is to determine the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and changes in antioxidant enzymatic activity occurring in the spermatozoa and epididymal fluid over time, in sperm maturation and storage in the caput, corpus and cauda of the bat epididymis. Our data showed that an increment in ROS production coincided with an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in epididymal fluid and with a decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity in the spermatozoa in at different time points and epididymal regions. The increase in ROS production was not associated with oxidative damage measured by lipid peroxidation. The results of the current study suggest the existence of a shift in the redox balance, which might be associated with sperm maturation and storage.

  20. Nutritional, amylolytic enzymes inhibition and antioxidant properties of bread incorporated with Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge C; Moguel-Ordoñez, Yolanda B; Matus-Basto, Angel J; Segura-Campos, Maira R

    2015-01-01

    Wheat bread with sucrose content replaced with different levels of stevia extract was compared with traditional wheat bread. The ability to reduce glucose intake was highlighted by performing enzymatic assays using α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was measured by determining the scavenging effect on α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical. In comparison with the control, the bread with stevia extract was softer and had lower microbial growth during the shelf-life study. The sensory test showed that the substitution of 50% stevia extract was more acceptable when comparing with all the quality characteristics. Regarding the nutritional contribution, the content of dietary fiber and digestible carbohydrates in the bread with stevia extract was higher and lower respectively, so caloric intake was significantly reduced. The results showed that the biological properties of Stevia rebaudiana extract were retained after the bread making process and that the proposed bread could be suitable as functional food in human nutrition.

  1. TcI Isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi Exploit the Antioxidant Network for Enhanced Intracellular Survival in Macrophages and Virulence in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hosakote, Yashoda M.; Koo, Sue-jie; Dhiman, Monisha; Piñeyro, María Dolores; Parodi-Talice, Adriana; Basombrio, Miguel A.; Robello, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi species is categorized into six discrete typing units (TcI to TcVI) of which TcI is most abundantly noted in the sylvatic transmission cycle and considered the major cause of human disease. In our study, the TcI strains Colombiana (COL), SylvioX10/4 (SYL), and a cultured clone (TCC) exhibited different biological behavior in a murine model, ranging from high parasitemia and symptomatic cardiomyopathy (SYL), mild parasitemia and high tissue tropism (COL), to no pathogenicity (TCC). Proteomic profiling of the insect (epimastigote) and infective (trypomastigote) forms by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis/matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry, followed by functional annotation of the differential proteome data sets (≥2-fold change, P < 0.05), showed that several proteins involved in (i) cytoskeletal assembly and remodeling, essential for flagellar wave frequency and amplitude and forward motility of the parasite, and (ii) the parasite-specific antioxidant network were enhanced in COL and SYL (versus TCC) trypomastigotes. Western blotting confirmed the enhanced protein levels of cytosolic and mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidases and their substrate (tryparedoxin) and iron superoxide dismutase in COL and SYL (versus TCC) trypomastigotes. Further, COL and SYL (but not TCC) were resistant to exogenous treatment with stable oxidants (H2O2 and peroxynitrite [ONOO−]) and dampened the intracellular superoxide and nitric oxide response in macrophages, and thus these isolates escaped from macrophages. Our findings suggest that protein expression conducive to increase in motility and control of macrophage-derived free radicals provides survival and persistence benefits to TcI isolates of T. cruzi. PMID:27068090

  2. Heat stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in bubaline ( Bubalus bubalis) oocytes during in vitro maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Raies-ul-Haq, Mohammad; Dhanda, Suman; Kumar, Anil; Goud, T. Sridhar; Chauhan, M. S.; Upadhyay, R. C.

    2016-09-01

    In vitro environments like heat stress usually increase the production of reactive oxygen species in bubaline oocytes which have been implicated as one of the major causes for reduced developmental competence. Oocytes during meiotic maturation are sensitive to oxidative stress, and heat stress accelerates cellular metabolism, resulting in the higher production of free radicals. Therefore, the aim of present work was to assess the impact of heat stress during meiotic maturation on bubaline cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC), denuded oocytes (DO), and cumulus cell mass in terms of their oxidative status. Accordingly, for control group, COC were matured at 38.5 °C for complete 24 h of meiotic maturation and heat stress of 40.5 and 41.5 °C was applied to COC during the first 12 h of maturation and then moved to 38.5 °C for rest of the 12 h. In another group, COC after maturation were denuded from the surrounding cumulus cells by manual pipetting. Results indicated that the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxides, and nitric oxide (NO) was significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in the oocytes subjected to heat stress (40.5 and 41.5 °C) during meiotic maturation compared to the oocytes matured under standard in vitro culture conditions (38.5 °C). Also, the antioxidant enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were significantly ( P < 0.05) increased in all the treatment groups compared to the control group. Therefore, the present study clearly establishes that heat stress ensues oxidative stress in bubaline oocytes which triggers the induction of antioxidant enzymatic defense system for scavenging the ROS.

  3. Cadmium-induced physiological response and antioxidant enzyme changes in the novel cadmium accumulator, Tagetes patula.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Chen, Zueng-Sang; Hong, Chwan-Yang

    2011-05-30

    The accumulation and effect of cadmium (Cd) on the growth and enzymatic activities changes of antioxidants in Tagetes patula, French marigold, were investigated to reveal the physiological mechanisms corresponding to its Cd tolerance and accumulation. Hydroponically grown T. patula plants were treated with different concentrations of Cd (0, 10, 25, 50 μM Cd Cl(2)) at various regime of times. T. patula accumulated Cd to a maximum of 450 mg Cd kg(-1) dry weight (DW) in shoot and 3500 mg Cd kg(-1) DW in root after 14 days' exposure at 10 and 50 μM Cd Cl(2), respectively. The translocation factors of Cd were greater than 1 in plants exposed to 10 μM Cd Cl(2). Toxic effects were gradually observed with increasing Cd concentration (25 and 50 μM) accompanied with the reduction of biomass, chlorophyll content, decrease of cell viability and the increase level of lipid peroxidation. In leaves of T. patula, the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were induced by Cd. However, in roots, activities of APX, GR, SOD and catalase (CAT) were significantly reduced by 25 and 50 μM Cd treatment but not 10 μM Cd. In-gel zymography analysis revealed that Cd induced the enzymatic activities of APX, MnSOD, CuZnSOD and different isozymes of GR in leaves. These results indicate that T. patula is a novel Cd accumulator and able to tolerate with Cd-induced toxicity by activation of its antioxidative defense system.

  4. Impact of processing on the phenolic profiles of small millets: evaluation of their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties associated with hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, P M; Sreerama, Yadahally N

    2015-02-15

    The effects of germination, steaming and microwave treatments of whole grain millets (barnyard, foxtail and proso) on their phenolic composition, antioxidant activities and inhibitory properties against α-amylase and α-glucosidase were investigated. Compositional analysis of phenolics by HPLC revealed that vanillic and ferulic acids were the principal phenolic acids and kaempferol was the predominant flavonoid found in raw millets. Different processing treatments brought about relevant changes in the composition and content of certain phenolic acids and flavonoids in processed millets. Phenolic extracts of raw and processed millets exhibited multiple antioxidant activities and are also potent inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In general, germinated millets showed highest phenolic content as well as superior antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. These results suggest that germinated millet grains are potential source of phenolic antioxidants and also great sources of strong natural inhibitors for α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

  5. The neem limonoids azadirachtin and nimbolide inhibit hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis by modulating xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, DNA damage, antioxidants, invasion and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Priyadarsini, Ramamurthi Vidya; Manikandan, Palrasu; Kumar, Gurram Harish; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2009-05-01

    The neem tree has attracted considerable research attention as a rich source of limonoids that have potent antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. The present study was designed to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of the neem limonoids azadirachtin and nimbolide based on in vitro antioxidant assays and in vivo inhibitory effects on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Both azadirachtin and nimbolide exhibited concentration-dependent anti-radical scavenging activity and reductive potential in the order: nimbolide > azadirachtin > ascorbate. Administration of both azadirachtin and nimbolide inhibited the development of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by influencing multiple mechanisms including prevention of procarcinogen activation and oxidative DNA damage, upregulation of antioxidant and carcinogen detoxification enzymes and inhibition of tumour invasion and angiogenesis. On a comparative basis, nimbolide was found to be a more potent antioxidant and chemopreventive agent and offers promise as a candidate agent in multitargeted prevention and treatment of cancer.

  6. Protective effect of Tuscan black cabbage sprout extract against serum lipid increase and perturbations of liver antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Melega, S; Canistro, D; De Nicola, G R; Lazzeri, L; Sapone, A; Paolini, M

    2013-09-28

    A diet rich in fat is considered a primary risk factor for CVD, cancer and failures in metabolism and endocrine functions. Hyperlipidaemia generates oxidative stress and weakens antioxidant defences as well as metabolic detoxification systems. Brassicaceae are vegetables rich in glucosinolates and isothiocyanates, affecting enzymatic antioxidant as well as phase II enzymes and conceivably counteracting high-fat diet (HFD)-associated pathologies. The protective role of Tuscan black cabbage (a variety of kale) sprout extract (TBCSE) intake against HFD alterations was here studied. The effects on rat hepatic antioxidant as well as detoxifying enzymes, and serum lipid- and body weightlowering properties of TBCSE, were investigated. Feeding the animals with a HFD for 21 d increased body as well as liver weights, and induced hyperlipidaemia, as confirmed by a higher serum lipid profile v. control diet. Daily intragastric administration of TBCSE to HFD-fed rats lowered serum total cholesterol, TAG and NEFA. Body and liver weight gains were also reduced. Antioxidant (catalase, NAD(P)H:quinone reductase, oxidised glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase) and phase II (glutathione S-transferase and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase) enzymes were down-regulated by the HFD, while the extract restored normal levels in most groups. Generation of toxic intermediates, and membrane fatty acid composition changes by the HFD, might account for the altered hepatic antioxidant and detoxifying enzyme functions. The recovering effects of TBCSE could be attributed to high flavonoid, phenolic and organosulphur compound content, which possess free-radical-scavenging properties, enhance the antioxidant status and stimulate lipid catabolism. TBCSE intake emerges to be an effective alimentary strategy to counteract the perturbations associated with a diet rich in fat.

  7. Effects of fluoride on germination, early growth and antioxidant enzyme activities of legume plant species Prosopis juliflora.

    PubMed

    Saini, Poonam; Khan, Suphiya; Baunthiyal, Mamta; Sharma, Vinay

    2013-03-01

    Prosopis juliflora (Mimosoideae) is a fast growing and drought resistant tree of semi-arid region of India where fluoride (F) toxicity is a common problem. In the present investigations this species was fluoride tested to check their capacity as bioindicator plant and its efficiency to accumulate. To achieve this aim, P. juliflora seedlings grown in hydroponic culture containing different concentrations of F were analyzed for germination percentage together with some biochemical parameters viz, antioxidant enzyme activities, total chlorophyll and accumulation of F in different plant parts. After 15 days of treatment, root growth (r = -0.928, p < 0.01), shoot growth (r = -0.976, p < 0.01), vigor index (r = -0.984, p < 0.01) were in decreasing trend with increasing concentration of NaF. Both catalase (3.2 folds) and peroxidase (2.7 folds) enzymes activity increased with increase in F concentration. Plant accumulated larger portion of the F in the roots (1024.63 microg g(-1) d.wt.) followed by shoot (492.30 microg g(-1) d.wt.). As P. juliflora did not show any morphological changes (marginal and tip chlorosis of leaf portions, necrosis and together these features are referred to as leaf "tip-burn") therefore, this species may be used as suitable bioindicator species for potentially F affected areas. Further, higher accumulation of F in roots indicates that P. juliflora is a suitable species for the removal of F in phytoremediation purposes.

  8. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (G. etunicatum) fungus on antioxidant enzymes activity under zinc toxicity in lettuce plants.

    PubMed

    Farshian, Shadi; Khara, Jalil; Parviz, Malekzadeh

    2007-06-01

    Zinc is one of the eight trace elements which are essential for the normal healthy growth and reproduction of crop plants. Plants possess cellular mechanisms that may be involved in the detoxification of heavy metals and thus confer plants a better tolerance against them. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonization is one of these mechanisms. Here, the effect of mycorrhizal fungus G. etunicatum on Zn toxicity tolerance through enhanced activity of some of antioxidant enzymes has been studied. Treatments were applied in triplicates of two factorial analyses: (a) mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal; (b) 5 levels of Zinc (0, 1.5, 3.5, 5.5, 7.5 mM). Zinc was added to modified Hoagland's nutrient solution (with half P concentration). Plants were grown in growth chamber for 10 weeks. Toxicity symptoms such as necrosis and chlorosis appeared on the leaves. Activity of detoxifying enzymes Guaiacol peroxidase (GUPX) and Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were measured. GPX activity in roots and shoots of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants was increased. Also, APX activity increased in roots and shoots ofmycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. Root length colonization (RLC) was measured by gridline intersect method. Mycorrhizal colonization decreased due to Zinc exposure. The results indicate the probable role of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in stress tolerance.

  9. Antioxidant and Carbohydrate-Hydrolysing Enzymes Potential of Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz (Cucurbitaceae) Peel, Leaves and Pulp Fresh and Processed.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Bonesi, Marco; Menichini, Francesco; Tenuta, Maria Concetta; Leporini, Mariarosaria; Tundis, Rosa

    2016-12-01

    Sechum edule peel, leaves and pulp were investigated for their chemical composition (total phenol, flavonoid, carotenoid and vitamin C content), and for antioxidant activity and carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) inhibition. In order to evaluate the incidence of cooking process on retention of healthy phytochemicals, the pulp was subjected to different treatments (grill roasting, domestic oven baking, microwave cooking, blanching and steaming). Cooking processes reduced the total phenol content (58.5 mg/g extract for fresh pulp vs 26.3 and 29.3 mg/g extract for roasted and steamed samples, respectively). Pulp was found to be the most active in 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) (IC50 of 0.1 mg/mL), whereas peel showed the highest activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test (IC50 of 0.4 mg/mL). Moreover, peel exhibited the highest inhibitory activity against α-amylase with an IC50 of 0.2 mg/mL, except for steamed cooking process, which drastically influenced the bioactivity against both enzymes.

  10. Changes in antioxidant and lignifying enzyme activities in sunflower roots (Helianthus annuus L.) stressed with copper excess.

    PubMed

    Jouili, Hager; el Ferjani, Ezzedine

    2003-07-01

    Treatment with 50 microM CuSO4 for five days caused significant decrease in dry-matter production and protein level of ten-day-old sunflower seedling roots. An increase of lipoperoxidation product rate was also observed. The involvement of some enzyme activities in the sunflower root defence against Cu-induced oxidative stress was studied. Copper treatment induced several changes in antioxidant enzymes. SOD (superoxide dismutase, EC 1.15.1.1) activity was reduced but CAT (catalase, EC 1.11.1.6) and GPX (guaiacol peroxidase, EC 1.11.1.7) activities were significantly enhanced. The lignifying peroxidase activities, assayed using coniferyl alcohol and syringaldazine, were also stimulated. Analysis by native gel electrophoresis of syringaldazine peroxidase activity showed the stimulation of an isoform (A2) and the induction of another one (A1) under cupric stress conditions. On the other hand, the activity of PAL (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, EC 4.3.1.5), which plays an important role in plant defence, was also activated. The possible mechanisms by which Cu-induced growth delay and changes in enzymatic activities involved in plant defence processes are discussed.

  11. Effect of salt stress on ion concentration, proline content, antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expression in tomato cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Gharsallah, Charfeddine; Fakhfakh, Hatem; Grubb, Douglas; Gorsane, Faten

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a constraint limiting plant growth and productivity of crops throughout the world. Understanding the mechanism underlying plant response to salinity provides new insights into the improvement of salt tolerance-crops of importance. In the present study, we report on the responses of twenty cultivars of tomato. We have clustered genotypes into scale classes according to their response to increased NaCl levels. Three local tomato genotypes, representative of different saline scale classes, were selected for further investigation. During early (0 h, 6 h and 12 h) and later (7 days) stages of the response to salt treatment, ion concentrations (Na+, K+  and Ca2+), proline content, enzyme activities (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and guiacol peroxidase) were recorded. qPCR analysis of candidate genes WRKY (8, 31and 39), ERF (9, 16 and 80), LeNHX (1, 3 and 4) and HKT (class I) were performed. A high K+, Ca2 +and proline accumulation as well as a decrease of Na+  concentration-mediated salt tolerance. Concomitant with a pattern of high-antioxidant enzyme activities, tolerant genotypes also displayed differential patterns of gene expression during the response to salt stress. PMID:27543452

  12. Response of antioxidant enzymes to intermittent and continuous hyperbaric O sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harabin, A.L.; Braisted, J.C.; Flynn, E.T. )

    1990-02-26

    Rats and guinea pigs were exposed to 2.8 ATA O{sub 2} (HBO) delivered either continuously or intermittently (repeated cycles of 10 minutes 100% O{sub 2}:2.5 minutes air). The O{sub 2} time required to produce convulsions and death was increased significantly in both species by intermittency. To determine whether changes in brain and lung superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) correlated with the observed tolerance, enzyme activities were measured after short or long HBO exposures. For each exposure duration, one group received continuous and one intermittent HBO; O{sub 2} times were matched. HBO had marked effects on these enzymes: Lung SOD increased (guinea pigs 47%, rats 88%), CAT and GSHPx activities decreased (33%) in brain and lung. No differences were seen in lung GSHPx or brain CAT in rats or brain SOD of either species. In guinea pigs, but less so in rats, the observed changes in activity were usually modulated by intermittency. Increases in hematocrit, organ protein, and lung DNA, which may also reflect ongoing oxidative damage, were also slowed with intermittency in guinea pigs. Intermittency benefitted both species by postponing gross symptoms of toxicity, but its modulation of changes in enzyme activities and other biochemical variables was more pronounced in guinea pigs than in rats suggesting additional mechanisms for tolerance.

  13. Role of anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase in the development of cataract : study of serum levels in patients with senile and diabetic cataracts.

    PubMed

    Maurya, O P S; Mohanty, Lipa; Bhaduri, Gautam; Chandra, Abhishek

    2006-07-01

    Cataract is a universal phenomenon in old age and the most common cause of blindness worldover. Oxidative stress is believed to be a key factor in the gradual loss of transparency of lens. Free radicals formed result in derangement and opacification of lens fibres. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase are major anti-oxidant enzymes, which protect against free radicals. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of anti-oxidant enzymes - superoxide dismutase and catalase in the development of cataract in senile and diabetic persons. Serum levels of major anti-oxidant enzymes-superoxide dismutase and catalase were estimated in 20 patients with diabetic cataract, and matched with another 20 patients of senile cataract taken as control. Estimation of superoxide dismutase was done by improved spectrophotometric assay based on epinephrine auto-oxidation at 480nm, while catalase estimation was done by the method of Hugo Aebi. The mean serum levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase were lower as age increased. These enzymes were also significantly lower in diabetic cataracts (9.13 and 16.42 units/ml) as compared to senile cataracts (25.30 and 57.27units/ml). Oxidative stress is one of the major factors contributing to cataract formation. In diabetics where there is increased oxidative stress, the serum levels of the major anti-oxidant enzymes decrease, which lead to early cataract formation. It may be concluded that oxidative stress is an important factor in the development of diabetic cataracts and anti-oxidants may have a role in decreasing the incidence of cataract.

  14. Fructose-induced increase in intracellular free Mg2+ ion concentration in rat hepatocytes: relation with the enzymes of glycogen metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Gaussin, V; Gailly, P; Gillis, J M; Hue, L

    1997-01-01

    In rat hepatocytes subjected to a fructose load, ATP content decreased from 3.8 to 2.6 micromol/g of cells. Under these conditions, the intracellular free Mg2+ ion concentration,as measured with mag-fura 2, increased from 0.25 to 0.43 micromol/g of cells and 0.35 micromol of Mg2+ ions were released per g of cells in the extracellular medium. Therefore the increase in the intracellular free Mg2+ ion concentration was less than expected from the decrease in ATP, indicating that approx. 80% of the Mg2+ ions released from MgATP2- were buffered inside the cells. When this buffer capacity was challenged with an extra Mg2+ ion load by blocking the fructose-induced Mg2+ efflux, again approx. 80% of the extra Mg2+ ion load was buffered. The remaining 20% appearing as free Mg2+ions in fructose-treated hepatocytes could act as second messenger for enzymes having a Km for Mg2+ in the millimolar range. Fructose activated glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase, although both the time course and the dose-dependence of activation were different. This was reflected in a stimulation of glycogen synthesis with concentrations of fructose below 5 mM. Indeed, activation of glycogen synthase reached a maximum at 30 min of incubation and was observed with small (5 mM or less) concentrations of fructose, whereas the activation of glycogen phosphorylase was almost immediate (within 5 min) and maximal with large doses of fructose. The fructose-induced activation of glycogen phosphorylase, but not that of glycogen synthase, could be related to an increase in free Mg2+ ion concentration. PMID:9307033

  15. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of solid-liquid and enzyme-assisted extraction of phenolic compound from three species of tropical Sargassum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puspita, M.; Deniel, M.; Widowati, I.; Radjasa, O. K.; Douzenel, P.; Bedoux, G.; Bourgougnon, N.

    2017-02-01

    Sargassum has been well acknowledged for the potential natural product of its phlorotannins. Solid-liquid extraction (SLE) is the most common method used to extract them. However, this method has some drawbacks such as low yield and toxic. An alternative ecofriendly method has been proposed, i.e. enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE), proven to be more efficient. The aim is to compare the efficiency of SLE and EAE concerning their extraction yield, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. S. aquifolium, S. ilicifolium and S. polycystum were extracted using water, methanol, methanol 50%, and ethanol 75% and enzymes (Viscozyme and Protamex). Total phenolic content (TPC) was analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteu and antioxidant activity via DPPH and FRAP analysis. This study implied that bioactivity of Sargassum extracted with enzymes is better compared to the one using organic solvents.

  16. Nanoalumina induces apoptosis by impairing antioxidant enzyme systems in human hepatocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Alarifi, Saud; Ali, Daoud; Alkahtani, Saad

    2015-01-01

    Alumina nanoparticles (Al2O3NPs) are gradually used in various areas, including nanomedicine, biosensors, and electronics. The current study aimed to explore the DNA damage and cytotoxicity due to Al2O3NPs on human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2). The MTT and neutral red uptake assays showed that Al2O3NPs induce significant cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, Al2O3NPs induced significant intracellular reactive oxygen species production and elevated lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase levels in the HepG2 cells. Al2O3NPs also induced significant decrease in reduced glutathione levels and increase caspase-3 activity in HepG2 cells. DNA fragmentation analysis using the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis showed that Al2O3NPs cause genotoxicity in dose- and time-dependent manner. However, they induce reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress, leading to oxidative DNA damage, a probable mechanism of genotoxicity. This study warrants more careful assessment of Al2O3NPs before their industrial application. PMID:26045665

  17. Effect of BSO-supplemented heavy metals on antioxidant enzymes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Drazkiewicz, Maria; Skórzyńska-Polit, Ewa; Krupa, Zbigniew

    2010-09-01

    Activities of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes were investigated in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown for 7 and 14 days in modified Hoagland nutrient solution containing Cd and Cu alone or supplemented with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis. In A. thaliana treated with Cd+BSO, the modifying BSO effect involved dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) activity after 7 days of treatment and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities after 14 days. DHAR activity increased, while activities of APX, MDHAR and GR decreased in comparison to that found with Cd alone. BSO supplied in combination with Cu modified the metal effect on APX activity after 7 days of exposure and on MDHAR activity after 14 days. Cu+BSO enhanced APX activity, but decreased MDHAR activity as compared to that with Cu alone. Similarities and varieties in the modifying BSO effect, depending on the metal, have been discussed. The modifying BSO effect was more pronounced in the plants exposed to Cd than Cu, and was opposite after 7 and 14 days. However, differences between the effects of the individual metals on the enzymes were greater after 7 days of plant exposure.

  18. Substrate Specificities and Intracellular Distributions of Three N-glycan Processing Enzymes Functioning at a Key Branch Point in the Insect N-Glycosylation Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Christoph; Jarvis, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    Man(α1–6)[GlcNAc(β1–2)Man(α1–3)]ManGlcNAc2 is a key branch point intermediate in the insect N-glycosylation pathway because it can be either trimmed by a processing β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (FDL) to produce paucimannosidic N-glycans or elongated by N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II (GNT-II) to produce complex N-glycans. N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (GNT-I) contributes to branch point intermediate production and can potentially reverse the FDL trimming reaction. However, there has been no concerted effort to evaluate the relationships among these three enzymes in any single insect system. Hence, we extended our previous studies on Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf) FDL to include GNT-I and -II. Sf-GNT-I and -II cDNAs were isolated, the predicted protein sequences were analyzed, and both gene products were expressed and their acceptor substrate specificities and intracellular localizations were determined. Sf-GNT-I transferred N-acetylglucosamine to Man5GlcNAc2, Man3GlcNAc2, and GlcNAc(β1–2)Man(α1–6)[Man(α1–3)]ManGlcNAc2, demonstrating its role in branch point intermediate production and its ability to reverse FDL trimming. Sf-GNT-II only transferred N-acetylglucosamine to Man(α1–6)[GlcNAc(β1–2)Man(α1–3)]ManGlcNAc2, demonstrating that it initiates complex N-glycan production, but cannot use Man3GlcNAc2 to produce hybrid or complex structures. Fluorescently tagged Sf-GNT-I and -II co-localized with an endogenous Sf Golgi marker and Sf-FDL co-localized with Sf-GNT-I and -II, indicating that all three enzymes are Golgi resident proteins. Unexpectedly, fluorescently tagged Drosophila melanogaster FDL also co-localized with Sf-GNT-I and an endogenous Drosophila Golgi marker, indicating that it is a Golgi resident enzyme in insect cells. Thus, the substrate specificities and physical juxtapositioning of GNT-I, GNT-II, and FDL support the idea that these enzymes function at the N-glycan processing branch point and are major factors determining the

  19. Effects of argan oil on the mitochondrial function, antioxidant system and the activity of NADPH- generating enzymes in acrylamide treated rat brain.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Birsen

    2017-03-01

    Argan oil (AO) is rich in minor compounds such as polyphenols and tocopherols which are powerful antioxidants. Acrylamide (ACR) has been classified as a neurotoxic agent in animals and humans. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction is one of the most probable molecular mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases. Female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to ACR (50mg/kg i.p. three times a week), AO (6ml/kg,o.p, per day) or together for 30days. The activities of cytosolic enzymes such as xanthine oxidase (XO), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), mitochondrial oxidative stress, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) enzymes, mitochondrial metabolic function, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were assessed in rat brain. Cytosolic and mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes were significantly diminished in the brains of rats treated with ACR compared to those in control. Besides, ACR treatment resulted in a significant reduction in brain ATP level, mitochondrial metabolic function, OXPHOS and TCA enzymes. Administration of AO restored both the cytosolic and mitochondrial oxidative stress by normalizing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) generating enzymes. In addition, improved mitochondrial function primarily enhancing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) generated enzymes activities and ATP level in the mitochondria. The reason for AO's obvious beneficial effects in this study may be due to synergistic effects of its different bioactive compounds which is especially effective on mitochondria. Modulation of the brain mitochondrial functions and antioxidant systems by AO may lead to the development of new mitochondria-targeted antioxidants in the future.

  20. Investigation into the effects of antioxidant-rich extract of Tamarindus indica leaf on antioxidant enzyme activities, oxidative stress and gene expression profiles in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Razali, Nurhanani; Abdul Aziz, Azlina; Lim, Chor Yin

    2015-01-01

    The leaf extract of Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica) had been reported to possess high phenolic content and showed high antioxidant activities. In this study, the effects of the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of the T. indica on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, H2O2-induced ROS production and gene expression patterns were investigated in liver HepG2 cells. Lipid peroxidation and ROS production were inhibited and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was enhanced when the cells were treated with the antioxidant-rich leaf extract. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that 207 genes were significantly regulated by at least 1.5-fold (p < 0.05) in cells treated with the antioxidant-rich leaf extract. The expression of KNG1, SERPINC1, SERPIND1, SERPINE1, FGG, FGA, MVK, DHCR24, CYP24A1, ALDH6A1, EPHX1 and LEAP2 were amongst the highly regulated. When the significantly regulated genes were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, “Lipid Metabolism, Small Molecule Biochemistry, Hematological Disease” was the top biological network affected by the leaf extract, with a score of 36. The top predicted canonical pathway affected by the leaf extract was the coagulation system (P < 2.80 × 10−6) followed by the superpathway of cholesterol biosynthesis (P < 2.17 × 10−4), intrinsic prothrombin pathway (P < 2.92 × 10−4), Immune Protection/Antimicrobial Response (P < 2.28 × 10−3) and xenobiotic metabolism signaling (P < 2.41 × 10−3). The antioxidant-rich leaf extract of T. indica also altered the expression of proteins that are involved in the Coagulation System and the Intrinsic Prothrombin Activation Pathway (KNG1, SERPINE1, FGG), Superpathway of Cholesterol Biosynthesis (MVK), Immune protection/antimicrobial response (IFNGR1, LEAP2, ANXA3 and MX1) and Xenobiotic Metabolism Signaling (ALDH6A1, ADH6). In conclusion, the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of T. indica inhibited lipid

  1. Transgenic production of cytokinin suppresses bacterially induced hypersensitive response symptoms and increases antioxidative enzyme levels in Nicotiana spp.

    PubMed

    Barna, B; Smigocki, A C; Baker, J C

    2008-11-01

    Responses of cytokinin overproducing transgenic Nicotiana plants to infections with compatible and incompatible Pseudomonas syringae pathovars were compared. Plants used were transformed with the ipt(isopentenyl transferase) gene that catalyzes the synthesis of cytokinin. In cytokinin overproducing lines that carry the ipt gene fused to the CaMV 35S (Nt+ipt), the wound-inducible proteinase inhibitor II (Ntx+ipt), or the light-inducible Rubisco small subunit protein (Npl+ipt) promoter, development of the hypersensitive response (HR) after infection with incompatible bacteria (P. syringae pv. tomato) was significantly inhibited as compared to the untransformed (Nt) controls. Over a 12 h period following inoculation, P. syrinage pv. tomato populations were slightly reduced in leaves of the cytokinin-overproducing Nt-ipt line compared with the Nt control. When the compatible P. syringae. pv. tabaci was used to infect the ipt transformed lines, slight or no significant differences in necrosis development were observed. Following infection, the titer of P. syringae pv. tabaci increased rapidly in both the transgenic and control lines but was higher in Nt+ipt plants. Leaf superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities were about 60% higher in ipt leaf extracts than in the controls. This augmented antioxidant capacity likely decreased the amount of H(2)O(2) that may be associated with the higher tolerance of plants to pathogen-induced necrosis. In addition, the Nt+ipt lines had a significantly lower molar ratio of free sterols to phospholipids. The more stable membrane lipid composition and the higher antioxidant capacity likely contributed to the suppressed HR symptoms in the cytokinin overproducing Nt+ipt plants. In conclusion, the overproduction of cytokinins in tobacco appears to suppress the HR symptoms induced by incompatible bacteria.

  2. Effect of iron stress on Withania somnifera L.: antioxidant enzyme response and nutrient elemental uptake of in vitro grown plants.

    PubMed

    Rout, Jyoti Ranjan; Behera, Sadhana; Keshari, Nitin; Ram, Shidharth Sankar; Bhar, Subhajit; Chakraborty, Anindita; Sudarshan, Mathummal; Sahoo, Santi Lata

    2015-03-01

    In the present study the response of antioxidant enzyme activities and the level of expression of their corresponding genes on bioaccumulation of iron (Fe) were investigated. In vitro germinated Withania somnifera L. were grown in Murashige and Skoog's liquid medium with increasing concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM) of FeSO4 for 7 and 14 days. Root and leaf tissues analyzed for catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7), have shown an increase in content with respect to exposure time. Isoforms of CAT, SOD and GPX were separated using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and observed that the isoenzymes were greatly affected by higher concentrations of Fe. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis performed by taking three pairs of genes of CAT (RsCat, Catalase1, Cat1) and SOD (SodCp, TaSOD1.2, MnSOD) to find out the differential expression of antioxidant genes under Fe excess. RsCat from CAT and MnSOD from SOD have exhibited high levels of gene expression under Fe stress, which was consistent with the changes of the activity assayed in solution after 7 days of treatment. Analysis by proton induced X-ray emission exhibited an increasing uptake of Fe in plants by suppressing and expressing of other nutrient elements. The results of the present study suggest that higher concentration of Fe causes disturbance in nutrient balance and induces oxidative stress in plant.

  3. Relation between iron metabolism and antioxidants enzymes and δ-ALA-D activity in rats experimentally infected by Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Mendes, Ricardo E; Baldissera, Matheus D; Bochi, Guilherme V; Moresco, Rafael N; Leal, Marta L R; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria R C; Christ, Ricardo; Gheller, Larissa; Marques, Éder J; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the iron metabolism in serum, as well as antioxidant enzymes, in addition to the Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activity in the liver of rats experimentally infected by Fasciola hepatica. Thirty male adult rats (Wistar) specific pathogen free were divided into four groups: two uninfected group (CTRL 1 and CTRL 2) with five animals each and two infected groups (INF 1 and INF 2) with 10 animals each. Infection was performed orally with 20 metacercariae at day 1. On day 15 (CTRL 1 and INF 1 groups) and 87 PI (CTRL 2 and INF 2 groups) blood and bone marrow were collected and the animals were subsequently euthanized for liver sampling. Blood was allocated in tubes without anticoagulant for serum acquisition to measure iron, transferrin and unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC). δ-ALA-D, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities were measured in the liver. A decrease in iron, transferrin and UIBC levels was observed in all infected animals compared to control groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, iron accumulation was observed in bone marrow of infected mice. Infected animals showed an increase in δ-ALA-D activity at 87 post-infection (PI) (INF 2) as well as in SOD activity at days 15 (INF 1) and 87 PI (INF 2). On the other hand, CAT activity was reduced in rats infected by F. hepatica during acute and chronic phase of fasciolosis (INF 1 and INF 2 groups), when moderate (acute) and severe necrosis in the liver histopathology were observed. These results may suggest that oxidative damage to tissues along with antioxidant mechanisms might have taken part in fasciolosis pathogenesis and are also involved in iron deficiency associated to changes in δ-ALA-D activity during chronic phase of disease.

  4. Effects of oxygenated or hydrogenated water on growth performance, blood parameters, and antioxidant enzyme activity of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shin, D; Cho, E S R; Bang, H-T; Shim, K S

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of providing oxygenated and hydrogenated water on the growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, and immunoglobulin concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activity of broiler chickens. In our investigation, 144 Ross × Ross broiler chicks were randomly allotted to three different treatment groups with four replicates (treatment × replicate × bird = 3 × 4 × 12). All chicks were given one of the following types of water for five weeks: tap water (CON), hydrogenated water (HNW), and oxygenated water (ONW). ONW supplementation increased the final body weight and weight gain and also improved both feed intake and feed conversion of broiler chickens as compared to those of CON broiler chickens (P < 0.05). The abdominal fat and its ratio to the final body weight showed that fat accumulation in the broiler chicken abdomen was reduced when broiler chickens drank only ONW for five weeks (P < 0.05). ONW supplementation improved blood parameters, including triacylglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Additionally, in accordance with a globulin increase in broiler chickens, both IgG and IgM generation were significantly enhanced when ONW was supplied to broiler chickens (P < 0.05) but only a numerical advance was observed in the HNW group (P > 0.05). Both oxygenated and hydrogenated water supplementation significantly improved the antioxidant effects (P < 0.05), and it seems that superoxide dismutase refinement was completed due to oxygen and/or hydrogen enhancement of drinking water. These results indicate that oxygen enhancement of drinking water may be recommended to improve growth performance by increasing immunoglobulins mainly IgG and IgM.

  5. Sensitization of cisplatin therapy by a naphthalimide based organoselenium compound through modulation of antioxidant enzymes and p53 mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, P; Singha Roy, S; Basu, A; Bhattacharjee, A; Bhattacharya, S

    2015-04-01

    The widely used anti-cancer drug cisplatin imparts various toxic manifestations in the host, with nephrotoxicity being the most severe one. The trace element selenium shows antioxidant activity in both human and animals. The present study was designed to assess the chemoprotecting and chemoenhancing efficacy of a naphthalimide based organoselenium compound 2-(5-selenocyanato-pentyl)-benzo[de]isoquinoline 1,3-dione during cisplatin chemotherapy in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. Cisplatin (5 mg/kg b.w.) was administered intraperitoneally and the organoselenium compound (3 mg/kg b.w.) was given by oral gavage in concomitant and pretreatment schedule. The effects of the test compound was evaluated by assaying biochemical, hematological, histological, genotoxicity parameters and by investigating induction of apoptosis in tumor cells, and calculating tumor growth response in the host. The organoselenium compound significantly prevented cisplatin induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species, and onset of lipid peroxidation in the kidney tissue of the experimental mice. In addition, the test compound was also substantially restored cisplatin induced depleted activities of the renal antioxidant enzymes and reduced glutathione level; prevented the serum blood urea nitrogen level, creatinine level, chromosomal aberration, DNA damage, histological alterations of kidney, and normalized the hematological profile of the tumor bearing mice. Furthermore, the organoselenium compound alone or during combination therapy induced apoptosis in tumor cells through mitochondria mediated and DNA damage mediated pathway and ultimately increased the life span of the tumor bearing host. Hence, the results showed that the test compound not only reduced the toxicity of cisplatin but also enhanced its anti-tumor efficacy.

  6. Interactive effects of phosphorus and Pseudomonas putida on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) growth, nutrient uptake, antioxidant enzymes and organic acids exudation.

    PubMed

    Israr, Dania; Mustafa, Ghulam; Khan, Khalid Saifullah; Shahzad, Muhammad; Ahmad, Niaz; Masood, Sajid

    2016-11-01

    Phosphorus (P) availability in alkaline soils of arid and semi-arid regions is a major constraint for decreased crop productivity. Use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) may enhance plant growth through the increased plant antioxidation activity. Additionally, PGPR may increase nutrient uptake by plants as a result of induced root exudation and rhizosphere acidification. The current study was aimed to investigate combined effects of P and Pesudomonas putida (PGPR) on chickpea growth with reference to antioxidative enzymatic activity and root exudation mediated plant nutrient uptake, particularly P. Half of the seeds were soaked in PGPR solution, whereas others in sterile water and latter sown in soils. Plants were harvested 8 weeks after onset of experiment and analyzed for leaf nutrient contents, antioxidant enzymes activities and organic acids concentrations. Without PGPR, P application (+P) increased various plant growth attributes, plant uptake of P and Ca, soil pH, citric acid and oxalic acid concentrations, whereas decreased the leaf POD enzymatic activity as compared to the P-deficiency. PGPR supply both under -P and +P improved the plant growth, plant uptake of N, P, and K, antioxidative activity of SOD and POD enzymes and concentrations of organic acids, whereas reduced the rhizosphere soil pH. Growth enhancement by PGPR supply was related to higher plant antioxidation activity as well as nutrient uptake of chickpea including P as a result of root exudation mediated rhizosphere acidification.

  7. Studies on the antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of enzyme-assisted water extracts from Du-zhong (Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiyang; Tian, Chengrui; Xu, Jianguo; Sun, Ye

    2009-12-01

    Enzyme-assisted water extracts (EWEDL) and ethanol extracts of Du-zhong leaves (EEDL) were evaluated for their antioxidant activities using the DPPH radical-scavenging assay, Fe(2+)-chelating assay, and inhibition ability of the linoleic acid peroxidation assay. In general, the antioxidant activity of Du-zhong leaf extracts increased with increasing concentration. Based on the two extracting methods with different antioxidative reactions, it was shown that the enzyme-assisted water extracting method was more effective for antioxidant extraction from Du-zhong leaves. By HPLC-MS analysis, the main phenolic compounds (geniposidic acid, epicatechin, and chlorogenic acid) identified in EWEDL and EEDL were similar. EWEDL and EEDL had total phenolic contents of 13.84 +/- 0.11 and 14.72 +/- 0.14 mg chlorogenic acid equivalents (CAE) in each gram of extract, respectively. However, there was no positive correlation between total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of EWEDL and EEDL measured by the three different assays.

  8. Effect of Commiphora mukul gum resin on hepatic marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in pancreas and heart of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, B; Karuna, R; Sreenivasa, Reddy S; Haritha, K; Sai, Mangala D; Sasi, Bhusana Rao B; Saralakumari, D

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the antioxidant efficacy of Commiphora mukul (C. mukul) gum resin ethanolic extract in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods The male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each: Control group (C), CM-treated control group (C+CMEE), Diabetic control group (D), CM- treated diabetic group (D+CMEE). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg/ bwt). After being confirmed the diabetic rats were treated with C. mukul gum resin ethanolic extract (CMEE) for 60 days. The biochemical estimations like antioxidant, oxidative stress marker enzymes and hepatic marker enzymes of tissues were performed. Results The diabetic rats showed increased level of enzymatic activities aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) in liver and kidney and oxidative markers like lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein oxidation (PO) in pancreas and heart. Antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly decreased in the pancreas and heart compared to control group. Administration of CMEE (200 mg/kg bw) to diabetic rats for 60 days significantly reversed the above parameters towards normalcy. Conclusions In conclusion, our data indicate the preventive role of C. mukul against STZ-induced diabetic oxidative stress; hence this plant could be used as an adjuvant therapy for the prevention and/or management of diabetes and aggravated antioxidant status. PMID:23569867

  9. Alterations in antioxidant metabolism and associated enzymes in pea (Pisum sativum) exposed to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Madamanchi, N.R.; Alscher, R.G. )

    1990-05-01

    The response of glutathione and ascorbate and the enzymes glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was studied in two cultivars of pea known to be differentially sensitive to SO{sub 2} (0.8 ppm). Total glutathione accumulated more rapidly on exposure to SO{sub 2} in insensitive cultivar Progress compared to the sensitive cultivar Nugget, confirming our previous results. However, corresponding changes in oxidized glutathione were not observed and ascorbate levels did not change over the course of the exposure. Changes in the activity of GR corresponded to the changes in total glutatione levels. Preliminary results indicate that SOD activity increased to a significantly higher extent in Progress than in Nugget. These data suggest a significant role for GR and possibly SOD in resistance to oxidative stress.

  10. Time course study of oxidative and nitrosative stress and antioxidant enzymes in K2Cr2O7-induced nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Barrera, Diana; Medina-Campos, Omar N; Carvajal, Raymundo C; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Macías-Ruvalcaba, Norma A; Maldonado, Perla D; Salcedo, Marcos I; Tapia, Edilia; Saldívar, Liliana; Castilla, María E; Ibarra-Rubio, María E

    2005-01-01

    Background Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7)-induced nephrotoxicity is associated with oxidative and nitrosative stress. In this study we investigated the relation between the time course of the oxidative and nitrosative stress with kidney damage and alterations in the following antioxidant enzymes: Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD), Mn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT). Methods Nephrotoxicity was induced in rats by a single injection of K2Cr2O7. Groups of animals were sacrificed on days 1,2,3,4,6,8,10, and 12. Nephrotoxicity was evaluated by histological studies and by measuring creatinine clearance, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and total protein. Oxidative and nitrosative stress were measured by immunohistochemical localization of protein carbonyls and 3-nitrotyrosine, respectively. Cu, Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, and CAT were studied by immunohistochemical localization. The activity of total SOD, CAT, GPx, and GR was also measured as well as serum and kidney content of chromium and urinary excretion of NO2 -/NO3-. Data were compared by two-way analysis of variance followed by a post hoc test. Results Serum and kidney chromium content increased reaching the highest value on day 1. Nephrotoxicity was made evident by the decrease in creatinine clearance (days 1–4) and by the increase in serum creatinine (days 1–4), BUN (days 1–6), urinary excretion of NAG (days 1–4), and total protein (day 1–6) and by the structural damage to the proximal tubules (days 1–6). Oxidative and nitrosative stress were clearly evident on days 1–8. Urinary excretion of NO2-/NO3- decreased on days 2–6. Mn-SOD and Cu, Zn-SOD, estimated by immunohistochemistry, and total SOD activity remained unchanged. Activity of GPx decreased on days 3–12 and those of GR and CAT on days 2–10. Similar findings were observed by immunohistochemistry of CAT. Conclusion These

  11. Endogenous antioxidant enzymes and glutathione S-transferase in protection of mesothelioma cells against hydrogen peroxide and epirubicin toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Kinnula, K.; Linnainmaa, K.; Raivio, K. O.; Kinnula, V. L.

    1998-01-01

    We have previously shown that cultured malignant mesothelioma cells contain elevated manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) mRNA levels and activities compared with non-malignant mesothelial cells. As many cytotoxic drugs generate both superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, we assessed the relative significance of catalase and the glutathione redox cycle, as well as glutathione S-transferase (GST), in protecting these cells against hydrogen peroxide and epirubicin toxicity. Mesothelioma cell lines containing high (M38K cells) and low (M14K cells) MnSOD, and non-malignant MeT-5A mesothelial cells were selected for the study. M38K cells were the most resistant of these three cell types to hydrogen peroxide (0.1-0.5 mM, 4 h) and epirubicin (0.1-0.5 microg ml(-1), 48 h) as judged by lactate