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Sample records for intracellular calcium signalling

  1. Stochastic models of intracellular calcium signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüdiger, Sten

    2014-01-01

    Cellular signaling operates in a noisy environment shaped by low molecular concentrations and cellular heterogeneity. For calcium release through intracellular channels-one of the most important cellular signaling mechanisms-feedback by liberated calcium endows fluctuations with critical functions in signal generation and formation. In this review it is first described, under which general conditions the environment makes stochasticity relevant, and which conditions allow approximating or deterministic equations. This analysis provides a framework, in which one can deduce an efficient hybrid description combining stochastic and deterministic evolution laws. Within the hybrid approach, Markov chains model gating of channels, while the concentrations of calcium and calcium binding molecules (buffers) are described by reaction-diffusion equations. The article further focuses on the spatial representation of subcellular calcium domains related to intracellular calcium channels. It presents analysis for single channels and clusters of channels and reviews the effects of buffers on the calcium release. For clustered channels, we discuss the application and validity of coarse-graining as well as approaches based on continuous gating variables (Fokker-Planck and chemical Langevin equations). Comparison with recent experiments substantiates the stochastic and spatial approach, identifies minimal requirements for a realistic modeling, and facilitates an understanding of collective channel behavior. At the end of the review, implications of stochastic and local modeling for the generation and properties of cell-wide release and the integration of calcium dynamics into cellular signaling models are discussed.

  2. Control of Intracellular Calcium Signaling as a Neuroprotective Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, R. Scott; Goad, Daryl L.; Grillo, Michael A.; Kaja, Simon; Payne, Andrew J.; Koulen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Both acute and chronic degenerative diseases of the nervous system reduce the viability and function of neurons through changes in intracellular calcium signaling. In particular, pathological increases in the intracellular calcium concentration promote such pathogenesis. Disease involvement of numerous regulators of intracellular calcium signaling located on the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles has been documented. Diverse groups of chemical compounds targeting ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors, pumps and enzymes have been identified as potential neuroprotectants. The present review summarizes the discovery, mechanisms and biological activity of neuroprotective molecules targeting proteins that control intracellular calcium signaling to preserve or restore structure and function of the nervous system. Disease relevance, clinical applications and new technologies for the identification of such molecules are being discussed. PMID:20335972

  3. Calcium, channels, intracellular signaling and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Jorge-Hernán; Bonilla-Abadía, Fabio; Cañas, Carlos A; Tobón, Gabriel J

    2014-01-01

    Calcium (Ca²⁺) is an important cation able to function as a second messenger in different cells of the immune system, particularly in B and T lymphocytes, macrophages and mastocytes, among others. Recent discoveries related to the entry of Ca²⁺ through the store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) has opened a new investigation area about the cell destiny regulated by Ca²⁺ especially in B and T lymphocytes. SOCE acts through calcium-release-activated calcium (CRAC) channels. The function of CRAC depends of two recently discovered regulators: the Ca²⁺ sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum or stromal interaction molecule (STIM-1) and one subunit of CRAC channels called Orai1. This review focuses on the role of Ca²⁺ signals in B and T lymphocytes functions, the signalling pathways leading to Ca²⁺ influx, and the relationship between Ca²⁺ signals and autoimmune diseases.

  4. Analysis of Intracellular Calcium Signaling in Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Péntek, Adrienn; Pászty, Katalin; Apáti, Ágota

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of changes in intracellular calcium concentration is one of the most common and useful tools for studying signal transduction pathways or cellular responses in basic research and drug screening purposes as well. Increasing number of such applications using human pluripotent stem cells and their derivatives requires development of calcium signal measurements for this special cell type. Here we describe a modified protocol for analysis of calcium signaling events in human embryonic stem cells, which can be used for other pluripotent cell types (such as iPSC) or their differentiated offspring as well.

  5. Evolution of the Calcium-Based Intracellular Signaling System

    PubMed Central

    Marchadier, Elodie; Oates, Matt E.; Fang, Hai; Donoghue, Philip C.J.; Hetherington, Alistair M.; Gough, Julian

    2016-01-01

    To progress our understanding of molecular evolution from a collection of well-studied genes toward the level of the cell, we must consider whole systems. Here, we reveal the evolution of an important intracellular signaling system. The calcium-signaling toolkit is made up of different multidomain proteins that have undergone duplication, recombination, sequence divergence, and selection. The picture of evolution, considering the repertoire of proteins in the toolkit of both extant organisms and ancestors, is radically different from that of other systems. In eukaryotes, the repertoire increased in both abundance and diversity at a far greater rate than general genomic expansion. We describe how calcium-based intracellular signaling evolution differs not only in rate but in nature, and how this correlates with the disparity of plants and animals. PMID:27358427

  6. Anti-cancer drugs interfere with intracellular calcium signaling.

    PubMed

    Florea, Ana-Maria; Büsselberg, Dietrich

    2009-09-01

    (Neuro-)toxicity of metal and metal compounds is frequently highlighted. While specific metals or metal compounds are essential for cellular function, other metals are toxic and/or carcinogens. Metals can trigger accidental cell death in the form of necrosis, or activate programmed cell death in the form of apoptosis. The aim of anti-cancer therapy is induction of apoptosis in tumor cells. Therefore, there is an interesting twist in the toxicity of metals and metal compounds (e.g., arsenic trioxide, cisplatin); since they have a higher specificity to induce apoptosis in cancer cells (possibly due to the high turnover in these cells) they are used to cure some forms of cancer. A body of evidence suggests that second messengers, such as modulations in the intracellular calcium concentration, could be involved in metals induced toxicity as well as in the beneficial effects shown by anti-cancer drugs. Here we review the influence on calcium homeostasis induced by some metallic compounds: cisplatin, arsenic trioxide and trimethyltin chloride.

  7. Study of neurotoxic intracellular calcium signalling triggered by amyloids.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Carlos; Caballero, Erica; Sanz-Blasco, Sara; Núñez, Lucía

    2012-01-01

    Neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated to dishomeostasis of intracellular Ca(2+) induced by amyloid β peptide (Aβ) species. Understanding of the effects of Aβ on intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis requires preparation of the different Aβ assemblies including oligomers and fibrils and the testing of their effects on cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) in neurons. Procedures for cerebellar granule cell culture, preparation of Aβ species as well as fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging of cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) in neurons are described.

  8. Localized intracellular calcium signaling in muscle: calcium sparks and calcium quarks.

    PubMed

    Niggli, E

    1999-01-01

    Subcellularly localized Ca2+ signals in cardiac and skeletal muscle have recently been identified as elementary Ca2+ signaling events. The signals, termed Ca2+ sparks and Ca2+ quarks, represent openings of Ca2+ release channels located in the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). In cardiac muscle, the revolutionary discovery of Ca2+ sparks has allowed the development of a fundamentally different concept for the amplification of Ca2+ signals by Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release. In such a system, a graded amplification of the triggering Ca2+ signal entering the myocyte via L-type Ca2+ channels is accomplished by a recruitment process whereby individual SR Ca2+ release units are locally controlled by L-type Ca2+ channels. In skeletal muscle, the initial SR Ca2+ release is governed by voltage-sensors but subsequently activates additional Ca2+ sparks by Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release from the SR. Results from studies on elementary Ca2+ release events will improve our knowledge of muscle Ca2+ signaling at all levels of complexity, from the molecule to normal cellular function, and from the regulation of cardiac and skeletal muscle force to the pathophysiology of excitation-contraction coupling.

  9. Mitochondrial transporters as novel targets for intracellular calcium signaling.

    PubMed

    Satrústegui, Jorgina; Pardo, Beatriz; Del Arco, Araceli

    2007-01-01

    Ca(2+) signaling in mitochondria is important to tune mitochondrial function to a variety of extracellular stimuli. The main mechanism is Ca(2+) entry in mitochondria via the Ca(2+) uniporter followed by Ca(2+) activation of three dehydrogenases in the mitochondrial matrix. This results in increases in mitochondrial NADH/NAD ratios and ATP levels and increased substrate uptake by mitochondria. We review evidence gathered more than 20 years ago and recent work indicating that substrate uptake, mitochondrial NADH/NAD ratios, and ATP levels may be also activated in response to cytosolic Ca(2+) signals via a mechanism that does not require the entry of Ca(2+) in mitochondria, a mechanism depending on the activity of Ca(2+)-dependent mitochondrial carriers (CaMC). CaMCs fall into two groups, the aspartate-glutamate carriers (AGC) and the ATP-Mg/P(i) carriers, also named SCaMC (for short CaMC). The two mammalian AGCs, aralar and citrin, are members of the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle, and citrin, the liver AGC, is also a member of the urea cycle. Both types of CaMCs are activated by Ca(2+) in the intermembrane space and function together with the Ca(2+) uniporter in decoding the Ca(2+) signal into a mitochondrial response.

  10. Acoustic tweezers for studying intracellular calcium signaling in SKBR-3 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae Youn; Yoon, Chi Woo; Lim, Hae Gyun; Park, Jin Man; Yoon, Sangpil; Lee, Jungwoo; Shung, K Kirk

    2015-12-01

    Extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin (FNT) play crucial roles in cell proliferation, adhesion, and migration. For better understanding of these associated cellular activities, various microscopic manipulation tools have been used to study their intracellular signaling pathways. Recently, it has appeared that acoustic tweezers may possess similar capabilities in the study. Therefore, we here demonstrate that our newly developed acoustic tweezers with a high-frequency lithium niobate ultrasonic transducer have potentials to study intracellular calcium signaling by FNT-binding to human breast cancer cells (SKBR-3). It is found that intracellular calcium elevations in SKBR-3 cells, initially occurring on the microbead-contacted spot and then eventually spreading over the entire cell, are elicited by attaching an acoustically trapped FNT-coated microbead. Interestingly, they are suppressed by either extracellular calcium elimination or phospholipase C (PLC) inhibition. Hence, this suggests that our acoustic tweezers may serve as an alternative tool in the study of intracellular signaling by FNT-binding activities.

  11. Fluoxetine suppresses calcium signaling in human T lymphocytes through depletion of intracellular calcium stores.

    PubMed

    Gobin, V; De Bock, M; Broeckx, B J G; Kiselinova, M; De Spiegelaere, W; Vandekerckhove, L; Van Steendam, K; Leybaert, L; Deforce, D

    2015-09-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as fluoxetine, have recently been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Although the effects on cytokine secretion, proliferation and viability of T lymphocytes have been extensively characterized, little is known about the mechanism behind these effects. It is well known that Ca(2+) signaling is an important step in the signaling transduction pathway following T cell receptor activation. Therefore, we investigated if fluoxetine interferes with Ca(2+) signaling in Jurkat T lymphocytes. Fluoxetine was found to suppress Ca(2+) signaling in response to T cell receptor activation. Moreover, fluoxetine was found to deplete intracellular Ca(2+) stores, thereby leaving less Ca(2+) available for release upon IP3- and ryanodine-receptor activation. The Ca(2+)-modifying effects of fluoxetine are not related to its capability to block the serotonin transporter, as even a large excess of 5HT did not abolish the effects. In conclusion, these data show that fluoxetine decreases IP3- and ryanodine-receptor mediated Ca(2+) release in Jurkat T lymphocytes, an effect likely to be at the basis of the observed immunosuppression.

  12. Intracellular calcium signals display an avalanche-like behavior over multiple lengthscales

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Lucía; Piegari, Estefanía; Sigaut, Lorena; Ponce Dawson, Silvina

    2012-01-01

    Many natural phenomena display “self-organized criticality” (SOC), (Bak et al., 1987). This refers to spatially extended systems for which patterns of activity characterized by different lengthscales can occur with a probability density that follows a power law with pattern size. Differently from power laws at phase transitions, systems displaying SOC do not need the tuning of an external parameter. Here we analyze intracellular calcium (Ca2+) signals, a key component of the signaling toolkit of almost any cell type. Ca2+ signals can either be spatially restricted (local) or propagate throughout the cell (global). Different models have suggested that the transition from local to global signals is similar to that of directed percolation. Directed percolation has been associated, in turn, to the appearance of SOC. In this paper we discuss these issues within the framework of simple models of Ca2+ signal propagation. We also analyze the size distribution of local signals (“puffs”) observed in immature Xenopus Laevis oocytes. The puff amplitude distribution obtained from observed local signals is not Gaussian with a noticeable fraction of large size events. The experimental distribution of puff areas in the spatio-temporal record of the image has a long tail that is approximately log-normal. The distribution can also be fitted with a power law relationship albeit with a smaller goodness of fit. The power law behavior is encountered within a simple model that includes some coupling among individual signals for a wide range of parameter values. An analysis of the model shows that a global elevation of the Ca2+ concentration plays a major role in determining whether the puff size distribution is long-tailed or not. This suggests that Ca2+-clearing from the cytosol is key to determine whether IP3-mediated Ca2+ signals can display a SOC-like behavior or not. PMID:22969730

  13. Microdamage induced calcium efflux from bone matrix activates intracellular calcium signaling in osteoblasts via L-type and T-type voltage-gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyungjin; Best, Makenzie; Akkus, Ozan

    2015-07-01

    Mechanisms by which bone microdamage triggers repair response are not completely understood. It has been shown that calcium efflux ([Ca(2+)]E) occurs from regions of bone undergoing microdamage. Such efflux has also been shown to trigger intracellular calcium signaling ([Ca(2+)]I) in MC3T3-E1 cells local to damaged regions. Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are implicated in the entry of [Ca(2+)]E to the cytoplasm. We investigated the involvement of VGCC in the extracellular calcium induced intracellular calcium response (ECIICR). MC3T3-E1 cells were subjected to one dimensional calcium efflux from their basal aspect which results in an increase in [Ca(2+)]I. This increase was concomitant with membrane depolarization and it was significantly reduced in the presence of Bepridil, a non-selective VGCC inhibitor. To identify specific type(s) of VGCC in ECIICR, the cells were treated with selective inhibitors for different types of VGCC. Significant changes in the peak intensity and the number of [Ca(2+)]I oscillations were observed when L-type and T-type specific VGCC inhibitors (Verapamil and NNC55-0396, respectively) were used. So as to confirm the involvement of L- and T-type VGCC in the context of microdamage, cells were seeded on devitalized notched bone specimen, which were loaded to induce microdamage in the presence and absence of Verapamil and NNC55-0396. The results showed significant decrease in [Ca(2+)]I activity of cells in the microdamaged regions of bone when L- and T-type blockers were applied. This study demonstrated that extracellular calcium increase in association with damage depolarizes the cell membrane and the calcium ions enter the cell cytoplasm by L- and T-type VGCCs.

  14. Cell-type-specific modelling of intracellular calcium signalling: a urothelial cell model.

    PubMed

    Appleby, Peter A; Shabir, Saqib; Southgate, Jennifer; Walker, Dawn

    2013-09-01

    Calcium signalling plays a central role in regulating a wide variety of cell processes. A number of calcium signalling models exist in the literature that are capable of reproducing a variety of experimentally observed calcium transients. These models have been used to examine in more detail the mechanisms underlying calcium transients, but very rarely has a model been directly linked to a particular cell type and experimentally verified. It is important to show that this can be achieved within the general theoretical framework adopted by these models. Here, we develop a framework designed specifically for modelling cytosolic calcium transients in urothelial cells. Where possible, we draw upon existing calcium signalling models, integrating descriptions of components known to be important in this cell type from a number of studies in the literature. We then add descriptions of several additional pathways that play a specific role in urothelial cell signalling, including an explicit ionic influx term and an active pumping mechanism that drives the cytosolic calcium concentration to a target equilibrium. The resulting one-pool model of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-dependent calcium signalling relates the cytosolic, extracellular and ER calcium concentrations and can generate a wide range of calcium transients, including spikes, bursts, oscillations and sustained elevations in the cytosolic calcium concentration. Using single-variate robustness and multivariate sensitivity analyses, we quantify how varying each of the parameters of the model leads to changes in key features of the calcium transient, such as initial peak amplitude and the frequency of bursting or spiking, and in the transitions between bursting- and plateau-dominated modes. We also show that, novel to our urothelial cell model, the ionic and purinergic P2Y pathways make distinct contributions to the calcium transient. We then validate the model using human bladder epithelial cells grown in monolayer cell

  15. Prolonged Oxaliplatin Exposure Alters Intracellular Calcium Signaling: A New Mechanism To Explain Oxaliplatin-Associated Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Christin; McGowan, Margit; Jordt, Sven; Ehrlich, Barbara E

    2012-01-01

    Oxaliplatin is a platinum based cytotoxic agent commonly used to treat colorectal cancers. Despite its effectiveness, oxaliplatin administration is associated with the development of cold-induced peripheral neuropathy. This potentially permanent side effect is provoked by cold exposure and can range from mild and self limited to severe and debilitating. Even with tumor shrinkage, these painful side effects can force dose-reduction or discontinuation of treatment. Neither the mechanism of action of oxaliplatin nor that of cold-induced neuropathy is understood. Paclitaxel, an entirely different chemotherapeutic agent used to treat a variety of malignancies, also is associated with the development of peripheral neuropathy. Unlike oxaliplatin, neurotoxicity arising from paclitaxel treatment is better understood and was found to have profound effects on intracellular calcium signaling (1,2). In this study we examined the effects of oxaliplatin on calcium signaling pathways and found that acute exposure of either a neuroblastoma cell line or primary neurons with therapeutic concentrations of oxaliplatin had no effect on intracellular calcium signaling. We also found that cellular temperature sensors (TRP channels) were also not activated by oxaliplatin. Interestingly, prolonged exposure of oxaliplatin sensitized cells to subsequent stimuli and enhanced the magnitude of intracellular calcium responses. Taken together, our results suggest that acute oxaliplatin exposure will not induce abnormal calcium signaling but oxaliplatin-primed cells do exhibit enhanced sensitivity. These findings provide new insight to the mechanism behind oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. PMID:21859566

  16. Modeling of progesterone-induced intracellular calcium signaling in human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Li, Long-Fei; Xiang, Cheng; Zhu, Ya-Bing; Qin, Kai-Rong

    2014-06-21

    Calcium ion is a secondary messenger of mammalian spermatozoa. The dynamic change of its concentration plays a vital role in the process of sperm motility, capacitation, acrosome and fertilization. Progesterone released by the cumulus cells, as a potent stimulator of fertilization, can activate the calcium channels on the plasma membrane, which in turn triggers the dynamic change of intracellular calcium concentration. In this paper, a mathematical model of calcium dynamic response in mammalian spermatozoa induced by progesterone is proposed and numerical simulation of the dynamic model is conducted. The results show that the dynamic response of calcium concentration predicted by the model is in accordance with experimental evidence. The proposed dynamic model can be used to explain the phenomena observed in the experiments and predict new phenomena to be revealed by experimental investigations, which will provide the basis to quantitatively investigate the fluid mechanics and biochemistry for the sperm motility induced by progesterone.

  17. Capsaicin mimics mechanical load-induced intracellular signaling events: involvement of TRPV1-mediated calcium signaling in induction of skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Ito, Naoki; Ruegg, Urs T; Kudo, Akira; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical load-induced intracellular signaling events are important for subsequent skeletal muscle hypertrophy. We previously showed that load-induced activation of the cation channel TRPV1 caused an increase in intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca ( 2+) ]i) and that this activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and promoted muscle hypertrophy. However, the link between mechanical load-induced intracellular signaling events, and the TRPV1-mediated increases in [Ca ( 2+) ]i are not fully understood. Here we show that administration of the TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin, induces phosphorylation of mTOR, p70S6K, S6, Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK, but not Akt, AMPK or GSK3β. Furthermore, the TRPV1-induced phosphorylation patterns resembled those induced by mechanical load. Our results continue to highlight the importance of TRPV1-mediated calcium signaling in load-induced intracellular signaling pathways.

  18. The role of intracellular calcium signals in inflammatory responses of polarised cystic fibrosis human airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Carla Maria Pedrosa

    2006-01-01

    Hyperinflammatory host responses to bacterial infection have been postulated to be a key step in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Previous studies have indicated that the CF airway epithelium itself contributes to the hyperinflammation of CF airways via an excessive inflammatory response to bacterial infection. However, it has been controversial whether the hyperinflammation of CF epithelia results from mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and/or is a consequence of persistent airways infection. Recent studies have demonstrated that intracellular calcium (Ca2+i) signals consequent to activation of apical G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by pro-inflammatory mediators are increased in CF airway epithelia. Because of the relationship between Ca2+i mobilisation and inflammatory responses, the mechanism for the increased Ca2+i signals in CF was investigated and found to result from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ store expansion. The ER Ca2+ store expansion imparts a hyperinflammatory phenotype to chronically infected airway epithelia as a result of the larger Ca2+i mobilisation coupled to an excessive inflammatory response following GPCR activation. The ER expansion is not dependent on ER retention of misfolded DeltaF508 CFTR, but reflects an epithelial response acquired following persistent luminal airway infection. With respect to the mechanism of ER expansion in CF, the current view is that chronic airway epithelial infection triggers an unfolded protein response as a result of the increased flux of newly synthesised inflammatory mediators and defensive factors into the ER compartment. This unfolded protein response is coupled to X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1) mRNA splicing and transcription of genes associated with the expansion of the protein-folding capacity of the ER (e.g. increases in ER chaperones and ER membranes). These studies have revealed a novel adaptive response in chronically infected airway epithelia

  19. Intracellular calcium signaling regulates autophagy via calcineurin-mediated TFEB dephosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Yanju; Song, Fuyong

    2015-01-01

    The transcription-regulating activity of TFEB is dependent on its phosphorylation modification, but the phosphatase(s) involved in TFEB dephosphorylation have remained elusive. It has now become clear that lysosomal calcium signaling activates calcineurin, an endogenous serine/threonine phosphatase, which dephosphorylate TFEB leading to upregulation of autophagy. PMID:26043755

  20. Intracellular calcium signals regulate growth of hepatic stellate cells via specific effects on cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Elwy M.; Rodrigues, Michele Angela; Gomes, Dawidson Assis; Sheung, Nina; Yu, Jin; Amaya, Maria Jimina; Nathanson, Michael H.; Dranoff, Jonathan A.

    2010-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are important mediators of liver fibrosis. Hormones linked to downstream intracellular Ca2+ signals upregulate HSC proliferation, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are unknown. Nuclear and cytosolic Ca2+ signals may have distinct effects on cell proliferation, so we expressed plasmid and adenoviral constructs containing the Ca2+ chelator parvalbumin (PV) linked to either a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) or a nuclear export sequence (NES) to block Ca2+ signals in distinct compartments within LX-2 immortalized human HSC and primary rat HSC. PV-NLS and PV-NES constructs each targeted to the appropriate intracellular compartment and blocked Ca2+ signals only within that compartment. PV-NLS and PV-NES constructs inhibited HSC growth. Furthermore, blockade of nuclear or cytosolic Ca2+ signals arrested growth at the G2/mitosis (G2/M) cell-cycle interface and prevented the onset of mitosis. Blockade of nuclear or cytosolic Ca2+ signals downregulated phosphorylation of the G2/M checkpoint phosphatase Cdc25C. Inhibition of calmodulin kinase II (CaMK II) had identical effects on LX-2 growth and Cdc25C phosphorylation. We propose that nuclear and cytosolic Ca2+ are critical signals that regulate HSC growth at the G2/M checkpoint via CaMK II-mediated regulation of Cdc25C phosphorylation. These data provide a new logical target for pharmacological therapy directed against progression of liver fibrosis. PMID:19131107

  1. Miro1 Regulates Activity-Driven Positioning of Mitochondria within Astrocytic Processes Apposed to Synapses to Regulate Intracellular Calcium Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Terri-Leigh; Higgs, Nathalie F.; Sheehan, David F.; Al Awabdh, Sana; López-Doménech, Guillermo; Arancibia-Carcamo, I. Lorena

    2015-01-01

    It is fast emerging that maintaining mitochondrial function is important for regulating astrocyte function, although the specific mechanisms that govern astrocyte mitochondrial trafficking and positioning remain poorly understood. The mitochondrial Rho-GTPase 1 protein (Miro1) regulates mitochondrial trafficking and detachment from the microtubule transport network to control activity-dependent mitochondrial positioning in neurons. However, whether Miro proteins are important for regulating signaling-dependent mitochondrial dynamics in astrocytic processes remains unclear. Using live-cell confocal microscopy of rat organotypic hippocampal slices, we find that enhancing neuronal activity induces transient mitochondrial remodeling in astrocytes, with a concomitant, transient reduction in mitochondrial trafficking, mediated by elevations in intracellular Ca2+. Stimulating neuronal activity also induced mitochondrial confinement within astrocytic processes in close proximity to synapses. Furthermore, we show that the Ca2+-sensing EF-hand domains of Miro1 are important for regulating mitochondrial trafficking in astrocytes and required for activity-driven mitochondrial confinement near synapses. Additionally, activity-dependent mitochondrial positioning by Miro1 reciprocally regulates the levels of intracellular Ca2+ in astrocytic processes. Thus, the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ signaling, dependent on Miro1-mediated mitochondrial positioning, could have important consequences for astrocyte Ca2+ wave propagation, gliotransmission, and ultimately neuronal function. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Mitochondria are key cellular organelles that play important roles in providing cellular energy and buffering intracellular calcium ions. The mechanisms that control mitochondrial distribution within the processes of glial cells called astrocytes and the impact this may have on calcium signaling remains unclear. We show that activation of glutamate receptors or increased neuronal

  2. Intracellular calcium channels in protozoa.

    PubMed

    Docampo, Roberto; Moreno, Silvia N J; Plattner, Helmut

    2014-09-15

    Ca(2+)-signaling pathways and intracellular Ca(2+) channels are present in protozoa. Ancient origin of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and other intracellular channels predates the divergence of animals and fungi as evidenced by their presence in the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis, the closest known relative to metazoans. The first protozoan IP3R cloned, from the ciliate Paramecium, displays strong sequence similarity to the rat type 3 IP3R. This ciliate has a large number of IP3- and ryanodine(Ry)-like receptors in six subfamilies suggesting the evolutionary adaptation to local requirements for an expanding diversification of vesicle trafficking. IP3Rs have also been functionally characterized in trypanosomatids, where they are essential for growth, differentiation, and establishment of infection. The presence of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) in a number of protozoa indicates that mitochondrial regulation of Ca(2+) signaling is also an early appearance in evolution, and contributed to the discovery of the molecular nature of this channel in mammalian cells. There is only sequence evidence for the occurrence of two-pore channels (TPCs), transient receptor potential Ca(2+) channels (TRPCs) and intracellular mechanosensitive Ca(2+)-channels in Paramecium and in parasitic protozoa.

  3. Intracellular Calcium Channels in Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Docampo, Roberto; Moreno, Silvia N.J.; Plattner, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Ca2+-signaling pathways and intracellular Ca2+ channels are present in protozoa. Ancient origin of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and other intracellular channels predates the divergence of animals and fungi as evidenced by their presence in the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis, the closest known relative to metazoans. The first protozoan IP3R cloned, from the ciliate Paramecium, displays strong sequence similarity to the rat type 3 IP3R. This ciliate has a large number of IP3- and ryanodine(Ry)-like receptors in 6 subfamilies suggesting the evolutionary adaptation to local requirements for an expanding diversification of vesicle trafficking. IP3Rs have also been functionally characterized in trypanosomatids, where they are essential for growth, differentiation, and establishment of infection. The presence of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) in a number of protozoa indicates that mitochondrial regulation of Ca2+ signaling is also an early appearance in evolution, and contributed to the discovery of the molecular nature of this channel in mammalian cells. There is only sequence evidence for the occurrence of two-pore channels (TPCs), transient receptor potential Ca2+ channels (TRPCs) and intracellular mechanosensitive Ca2+-channels in Paramecium and in parasitic protozoa. PMID:24291099

  4. Modelling intracellular competition for calcium: kinetic and thermodynamic control of different molecular modes of signal decoding

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Gabriela; Roque, Antonio C.; Simoes de Souza, Fabio M.

    2016-01-01

    Frequently, a common chemical entity triggers opposite cellular processes, which implies that the components of signalling networks must detect signals not only through their chemical natures, but also through their dynamic properties. To gain insights on the mechanisms of discrimination of the dynamic properties of cellular signals, we developed a computational stochastic model and investigated how three calcium ion (Ca2+)-dependent enzymes (adenylyl cyclase (AC), phosphodiesterase 1 (PDE1), and calcineurin (CaN)) differentially detect Ca2+ transients in a hippocampal dendritic spine. The balance among AC, PDE1 and CaN might determine the occurrence of opposite Ca2+-induced forms of synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). CaN is essential for LTD. AC and PDE1 regulate, indirectly, protein kinase A, which counteracts CaN during LTP. Stimulations of AC, PDE1 and CaN with artificial and physiological Ca2+ signals demonstrated that AC and CaN have Ca2+ requirements modulated dynamically by different properties of the signals used to stimulate them, because their interactions with Ca2+ often occur under kinetic control. Contrarily, PDE1 responds to the immediate amplitude of different Ca2+ transients and usually with the same Ca2+ requirements observed under steady state. Therefore, AC, PDE1 and CaN decode different dynamic properties of Ca2+ signals. PMID:27033299

  5. Anabolic androgenic steroids and intracellular calcium signaling: a mini review on mechanisms and physiological implications.

    PubMed

    Vicencio, J M; Estrada, M; Galvis, D; Bravo, R; Contreras, A E; Rotter, D; Szabadkai, G; Hill, J A; Rothermel, B A; Jaimovich, E; Lavandero, S

    2011-05-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that nongenomic effects of testosterone and anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) operate concertedly with genomic effects. Classically, these responses have been viewed as separate and independent processes, primarily because nongenomic responses are faster and appear to be mediated by membrane androgen receptors, whereas long-term genomic effects are mediated through cytosolic androgen receptors regulating transcriptional activity. Numerous studies have demonstrated increases in intracellular Ca2+ in response to AAS. These Ca2+ mediated responses have been seen in a diversity of cell types, including osteoblasts, platelets, skeletal muscle cells, cardiac myocytes and neurons. The versatility of Ca2+ as a second messenger provides these responses with a vast number of pathophysiological implications. In cardiac cells, testosterone elicits voltage-dependent Ca2+ oscillations and IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release from internal stores, leading to activation of MAPK and mTOR signaling that promotes cardiac hypertrophy. In neurons, depending upon concentration, testosterone can provoke either physiological Ca2+ oscillations, essential for synaptic plasticity, or sustained, pathological Ca2+ transients that lead to neuronal apoptosis. We propose therefore, that Ca2+ acts as an important point of crosstalk between nongenomic and genomic AAS signaling, representing a central regulator that bridges these previously thought to be divergent responses.

  6. THE ROLE OF INTRACELLULAR SODIUM (Na+) IN THE REGULATION OF CALCIUM (Ca2+)-MEDIATED SIGNALING AND TOXICITY

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xian-Min; Groveman, Bradley R; Fang, Xiao-Qian; Lin, Shuang-Xiu

    2010-01-01

    It is known that activated N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are a major route of excessive calcium ion (Ca2+) entry in central neurons, which may activate degradative processes and thereby cause cell death. Therefore, NMDARs are now recognized to play a key role in the development of many diseases associated with injuries to the central nervous system (CNS). However, it remains a mystery how NMDAR activity is recruited in the cellular processes leading to excitotoxicity and how NMDAR activity can be controlled at a physiological level. The sodium ion (Na+) is the major cation in extracellular space. With its entry into the cell, Na+ can act as a critical intracellular second messenger that regulates many cellular functions. Recent data have shown that intracellular Na+ can be an important signaling factor underlying the up-regulation of NMDARs. While Ca2+ influx during the activation of NMDARs down-regulates NMDAR activity, Na+ influx provides an essential positive feedback mechanism to overcome Ca2+-induced inhibition and thereby potentiate both NMDAR activity and inward Ca2+ flow. Extensive investigations have been conducted to clarify mechanisms underlying Ca2+-mediated signaling. This review focuses on the roles of Na+ in the regulation of Ca2+-mediated NMDAR signaling and toxicity. PMID:21243124

  7. Intracellular sphingosine releases calcium from lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Höglinger, Doris; Haberkant, Per; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Riezman, Howard; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M; Galione, Antony; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-11-27

    To elucidate new functions of sphingosine (Sph), we demonstrate that the spontaneous elevation of intracellular Sph levels via caged Sph leads to a significant and transient calcium release from acidic stores that is independent of sphingosine 1-phosphate, extracellular and ER calcium levels. This photo-induced Sph-driven calcium release requires the two-pore channel 1 (TPC1) residing on endosomes and lysosomes. Further, uncaging of Sph leads to the translocation of the autophagy-relevant transcription factor EB (TFEB) to the nucleus specifically after lysosomal calcium release. We confirm that Sph accumulates in late endosomes and lysosomes of cells derived from Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patients and demonstrate a greatly reduced calcium release upon Sph uncaging. We conclude that sphingosine is a positive regulator of calcium release from acidic stores and that understanding the interplay between Sph homeostasis, calcium signaling and autophagy will be crucial in developing new therapies for lipid storage disorders such as NPC.

  8. Intracellular calcium puffs in osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Radding, W; Jordan, S E; Hester, R B; Blair, H C

    1999-12-15

    We studied intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) in acid-secreting bone-attached osteoclasts, which produce a high-calcium acidic extracellular compartment. Acid secretion and [Ca(2+)](i) were followed using H(+)-restricted dyes and fura-2 or fluo-3. Whole cell calcium of acid-secreting osteoclasts was approximately 100 nM, similar to cells on inert substrate that do not secrete acid. However, measurements in restricted areas of the cell showed [Ca(2+)](i) transients to 500-1000 nM consistent with calcium puffs, transient (millisecond) localized calcium elevations reported in other cells. Spot measurements at 50-ms intervals indicated that puffs were typically less than 400 ms. Transients did not propagate in waves across the cell in scanning confocal measurements. Calcium puffs occurred mainly over regions of acid secretion as determined using lysotracker red DND99 and occurred at irregular periods averaging 5-15 s in acid secreting cells, but were rare in lysotracker-negative nonsecretory cells. The calmodulin antagonist trifluoperazine, cell-surface calcium transport inhibitors lanthanum or barium, and the endoplasmic reticulum ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin had variable acute effects on the mean [Ca(2+)](i) and puff frequency. However, none of these agents prevented calcium puff activity, suggesting that the mechanism producing the puffs is independent of these processes. We conclude that [Ca(2+)](i) transients in osteoclasts are increased in acid-secreting osteoclasts, and that the puffs occur mainly near the acid-transporting membrane. Cell membrane acid transport requires calcium, suggesting that calcium puffs function to maintain acid secretion. However, membrane H(+)-ATPase activity was insensitive to calcium in the 100 nM-1 microM range. Thus, any effects of calcium puffs on osteoclastic acid transport must be indirect.

  9. Intracellular Calcium Dysregulation: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Magi, Simona; Castaldo, Pasqualina; Macrì, Maria Loredana; Maiolino, Marta; Matteucci, Alessandra; Bastioli, Guendalina; Gratteri, Santo; Amoroso, Salvatore; Lariccia, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive neuronal loss. AD is associated with aberrant processing of the amyloid precursor protein, which leads to the deposition of amyloid-β plaques within the brain. Together with plaques deposition, the hyperphosphorylation of the microtubules associated protein tau and the formation of intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles are a typical neuropathological feature in AD brains. Cellular dysfunctions involving specific subcellular compartments, such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), are emerging as crucial players in the pathogenesis of AD, as well as increased oxidative stress and dysregulation of calcium homeostasis. Specifically, dysregulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis has been suggested as a common proximal cause of neural dysfunction in AD. Aberrant calcium signaling has been considered a phenomenon mainly related to the dysfunction of intracellular calcium stores, which can occur in both neuronal and nonneuronal cells. This review reports the most recent findings on cellular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of AD, with main focus on the control of calcium homeostasis at both cytosolic and mitochondrial level. PMID:27340665

  10. Intracellular Calcium Dysregulation: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Magi, Simona; Castaldo, Pasqualina; Macrì, Maria Loredana; Maiolino, Marta; Matteucci, Alessandra; Bastioli, Guendalina; Gratteri, Santo; Lariccia, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive neuronal loss. AD is associated with aberrant processing of the amyloid precursor protein, which leads to the deposition of amyloid-β plaques within the brain. Together with plaques deposition, the hyperphosphorylation of the microtubules associated protein tau and the formation of intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles are a typical neuropathological feature in AD brains. Cellular dysfunctions involving specific subcellular compartments, such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), are emerging as crucial players in the pathogenesis of AD, as well as increased oxidative stress and dysregulation of calcium homeostasis. Specifically, dysregulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis has been suggested as a common proximal cause of neural dysfunction in AD. Aberrant calcium signaling has been considered a phenomenon mainly related to the dysfunction of intracellular calcium stores, which can occur in both neuronal and nonneuronal cells. This review reports the most recent findings on cellular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of AD, with main focus on the control of calcium homeostasis at both cytosolic and mitochondrial level. PMID:27340665

  11. Intracellular sphingosine releases calcium from lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Höglinger, Doris; Haberkant, Per; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Riezman, Howard; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M; Galione, Antony; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate new functions of sphingosine (Sph), we demonstrate that the spontaneous elevation of intracellular Sph levels via caged Sph leads to a significant and transient calcium release from acidic stores that is independent of sphingosine 1-phosphate, extracellular and ER calcium levels. This photo-induced Sph-driven calcium release requires the two-pore channel 1 (TPC1) residing on endosomes and lysosomes. Further, uncaging of Sph leads to the translocation of the autophagy-relevant transcription factor EB (TFEB) to the nucleus specifically after lysosomal calcium release. We confirm that Sph accumulates in late endosomes and lysosomes of cells derived from Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patients and demonstrate a greatly reduced calcium release upon Sph uncaging. We conclude that sphingosine is a positive regulator of calcium release from acidic stores and that understanding the interplay between Sph homeostasis, calcium signaling and autophagy will be crucial in developing new therapies for lipid storage disorders such as NPC. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10616.001 PMID:26613410

  12. Intracellular sphingosine releases calcium from lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Höglinger, Doris; Haberkant, Per; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Riezman, Howard; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M; Galione, Antony; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate new functions of sphingosine (Sph), we demonstrate that the spontaneous elevation of intracellular Sph levels via caged Sph leads to a significant and transient calcium release from acidic stores that is independent of sphingosine 1-phosphate, extracellular and ER calcium levels. This photo-induced Sph-driven calcium release requires the two-pore channel 1 (TPC1) residing on endosomes and lysosomes. Further, uncaging of Sph leads to the translocation of the autophagy-relevant transcription factor EB (TFEB) to the nucleus specifically after lysosomal calcium release. We confirm that Sph accumulates in late endosomes and lysosomes of cells derived from Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patients and demonstrate a greatly reduced calcium release upon Sph uncaging. We conclude that sphingosine is a positive regulator of calcium release from acidic stores and that understanding the interplay between Sph homeostasis, calcium signaling and autophagy will be crucial in developing new therapies for lipid storage disorders such as NPC. PMID:26613410

  13. Miro1 Regulates Activity-Driven Positioning of Mitochondria within Astrocytic Processes Apposed to Synapses to Regulate Intracellular Calcium Signaling.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Terri-Leigh; Higgs, Nathalie F; Sheehan, David F; Al Awabdh, Sana; López-Doménech, Guillermo; Arancibia-Carcamo, I Lorena; Kittler, Josef T

    2015-12-01

    It is fast emerging that maintaining mitochondrial function is important for regulating astrocyte function, although the specific mechanisms that govern astrocyte mitochondrial trafficking and positioning remain poorly understood. The mitochondrial Rho-GTPase 1 protein (Miro1) regulates mitochondrial trafficking and detachment from the microtubule transport network to control activity-dependent mitochondrial positioning in neurons. However, whether Miro proteins are important for regulating signaling-dependent mitochondrial dynamics in astrocytic processes remains unclear. Using live-cell confocal microscopy of rat organotypic hippocampal slices, we find that enhancing neuronal activity induces transient mitochondrial remodeling in astrocytes, with a concomitant, transient reduction in mitochondrial trafficking, mediated by elevations in intracellular Ca(2+). Stimulating neuronal activity also induced mitochondrial confinement within astrocytic processes in close proximity to synapses. Furthermore, we show that the Ca(2+)-sensing EF-hand domains of Miro1 are important for regulating mitochondrial trafficking in astrocytes and required for activity-driven mitochondrial confinement near synapses. Additionally, activity-dependent mitochondrial positioning by Miro1 reciprocally regulates the levels of intracellular Ca(2+) in astrocytic processes. Thus, the regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling, dependent on Miro1-mediated mitochondrial positioning, could have important consequences for astrocyte Ca(2+) wave propagation, gliotransmission, and ultimately neuronal function. PMID:26631479

  14. Peroxisome is a reservoir of intracellular calcium.

    PubMed

    Raychaudhury, Bikramjit; Gupta, Shreedhara; Banerjee, Shouvik; Datta, Salil C

    2006-07-01

    We have examined fura 2-loaded purified peroxisomes under confocal microscope to prove that this mammalian organelle is a store of intracellular calcium pool. Presence of calcium channel and vanadate sensitive Ca(2+)-ATPase in the purified peroxisomal membrane has been demonstrated. We have further observed that machineries to maintain calcium pool in this mammalian organelle are impaired during infection caused by Leishmania donovani. Results reveal that peroxisomes have a merit to play a significant role in the metabolism of intracellular calcium. PMID:16713100

  15. Bimatoprost and prostaglandin F(2 alpha) selectively stimulate intracellular calcium signaling in different cat iris sphincter cells.

    PubMed

    Spada, Clayton S; Krauss, Achim H-P; Woodward, David F; Chen, June; Protzman, Charles E; Nieves, Amelia L; Wheeler, Larry A; Scott, David F; Sachs, George

    2005-01-01

    Bimatoprost is a synthetic analog of prostaglandin F(2 alpha) ethanolamide (prostamide F(2 alpha)), and shares a pharmacological profile consistent with that of the prostamides. Like prostaglandin F(2 alpha) carboxylic acid, bimatoprost potently lowers intraocular pressure in dogs, primates and humans. In order to distinguish its mechanism of action from prostaglandin F(2 alpha), fluorescence confocal microscopy was used to examine the effects of bimatoprost, prostaglandin F(2 alpha) and 17-phenyl prostaglandin F(2 alpha) on calcium signaling in resident cells of digested cat iris sphincter, a tissue which exhibits contractile responses to both agonists. Constant superfusion conditions obviated effective conversion of bimatoprost. Serial challenge with 100 nM bimatoprost and prostaglandin F(2 alpha) consistently evoked responses in different cells within the same tissue preparation, whereas prostaglandin F(2 alpha) and 17-phenyl prostaglandin F(2 alpha) elicited signaling responses in the same cells. Bimatoprost-sensitive cells were consistently re-stimulated with bimatoprost only, and prostaglandin F(2 alpha) sensitive cells could only be re-stimulated with prostaglandin F(2 alpha). The selective stimulation of different cells in the same cat iris sphincter preparation by bimatoprost and prostaglandin F(2 alpha), along with the complete absence of observed instances in which the same cells respond to both agonists, strongly suggests the involvement of distinct receptors for prostaglandin F(2 alpha) and bimatoprost. Further, prostaglandin F(2 alpha) but not bimatoprost potently stimulated calcium signaling in isolated human embryonic kidney cells stably transfected with the feline- and human-prostaglandin F(2 alpha) FP-receptor and in human dermal fibroblast cells, and only prostaglandin F(2 alpha) competed with radioligand binding in HEK-feFP cells. These studies provide further evidence for the existence of a bimatoprost-sensitive receptor that is distinct from

  16. Neuropeptide Y regulates intracellular calcium through different signalling pathways linked to a Y1-receptor in rat mesenteric small arteries

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Dolores; Buus, Carsten L; Mulvany, Michael J; Nilsson, Holger

    2000-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and tension were performed to clarify whether the mechanisms which cause the neuropeptide Y (NPY)-elicited contraction and potentiation of noradrenaline contractions, and the NPY inhibition of forskolin responses are linked to a single or different NPY receptor(s) in rat mesenteric small arteries.In resting arteries, NPY moderately elevated [Ca2+]i and tension. These effects were antagonized by the selective Y1 receptor antagonist, (R)-N2-(diphenacetyl)-N-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-D-arginineamide (BIBP 3226) (apparent pKB values of 8.54±0.25 and 8.27±0.17, respectively).NPY (0.1 μM) caused a near 3 fold increase in sensitivity to noradrenaline but did not significantly modify the tension-[Ca2+]i relationship for this agonist. BIBP 3226 competitively antagonized the contractile response to NPY in arteries submaximally preconstricted with noradrenaline (pA2 7.87±0.20).In arteries activated by vasopressin, the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin (3 μM) induced a maximum relaxation and a return of [Ca2+]i to resting levels. NPY completely inhibited these effects. The contractile responses to NPY in arteries maximally relaxed with either sodium nitroprusside (SNP) or nifedipine were not significantly higher than those evoked by the peptide at resting tension, in contrast to the contractions to NPY in forskolin-relaxed arteries. BIBP 3226 competitively antagonized the contraction to NPY in forskolin-relaxed arteries with a pA2 of 7.92±0.29.Electrical field stimulation (EFS) at 8–32 Hz caused large contractions in arteries relaxed with either forskolin or noradrenaline in the presence of phentolamine. These responses to EFS were inhibited by BIBP 3226. Similar EFS in resting, non-activated arteries did not produce any response.The present results suggest that different intracellular pathways are linked to a single NPY Y1 receptor in intact rat mesenteric small arteries, and provide

  17. Neuropeptide Y regulates intracellular calcium through different signalling pathways linked to a Y(1)-receptor in rat mesenteric small arteries.

    PubMed

    Prieto, D; Buus, C L; Mulvany, M J; Nilsson, H

    2000-04-01

    Simultaneous measurements of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and tension were performed to clarify whether the mechanisms which cause the neuropeptide Y (NPY)-elicited contraction and potentiation of noradrenaline contractions, and the NPY inhibition of forskolin responses are linked to a single or different NPY receptor(s) in rat mesenteric small arteries. In resting arteries, NPY moderately elevated [Ca(2+)](i) and tension. These effects were antagonized by the selective Y(1) receptor antagonist, (R)-N(2)-(diphenacetyl)-N-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-D-argininea mide (BIBP 3226) (apparent pK(B) values of 8.54+/-0.25 and 8.27+/-0.17, respectively). NPY (0.1 microM) caused a near 3 fold increase in sensitivity to noradrenaline but did not significantly modify the tension-[Ca(2+)](i) relationship for this agonist. BIBP 3226 competitively antagonized the contractile response to NPY in arteries submaximally preconstricted with noradrenaline (pA(2) 7.87+/-0.20). In arteries activated by vasopressin, the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin (3 microM) induced a maximum relaxation and a return of [Ca(2+)](i) to resting levels. NPY completely inhibited these effects. The contractile responses to NPY in arteries maximally relaxed with either sodium nitroprusside (SNP) or nifedipine were not significantly higher than those evoked by the peptide at resting tension, in contrast to the contractions to NPY in forskolin-relaxed arteries. BIBP 3226 competitively antagonized the contraction to NPY in forskolin-relaxed arteries with a pA(2) of 7.92+/-0.29. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) at 8-32 Hz caused large contractions in arteries relaxed with either forskolin or noradrenaline in the presence of phentolamine. These responses to EFS were inhibited by BIBP 3226. Similar EFS in resting, non-activated arteries did not produce any response. The present results suggest that different intracellular pathways are linked to a single NPY Y(1) receptor in intact rat

  18. Intracellular Calcium Measurements for Functional Characterization of Neuronal Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Talita; Castillo, Ana Regina G; Oliveira, Ágatha; Ulrich, Henning

    2016-01-01

    The central and peripheral nervous system is built by a network of many different neuronal phenotypes together with glial and other supporting cells. The repertoire of expressed receptors and secreted neurotransmitters and neuromodulators are unique for each single neuron leading to intracellular signaling cascades, many of them involving intracellular calcium signaling. Here we suggest the use of calcium signaling analysis upon specific agonist application to reliably identify neuronal phenotypes, being important not only for basic science, but also providing a reliable tool for functional characterization of cells prior to transplantation. Calcium imaging provides various cellular information including signaling amplitudes, cell localization, duration, and frequency. Microfluorimetry reveals a signal summarizing the entire population, and its use is indicated for high-throughput screening purposes.

  19. Biosynthesis of B2-integrin, intracellular calcium signalling and functional responses of normal and CD18-deficient bovine neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, H; Higuchi, H; Nochi, H; Tamoto, K; Araiso, T; Noda, H; Kociba, G J

    1996-09-01

    1Biosynthesis of CD11/CD18 in bovine leucocytes, intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) signalling, chemiluminescent responses and membrane fluidity of neutrophils and the effects of D-mannose on neutrophils from control heifers and a heifer with bovine leucocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) were measured. The synthesis of CD11/CD18 complex was clearly detected in leucocytes from a normal heifer, but not in a BLAD-affected heifer. The transient phase of increased [Ca2+]i was clearly detected in neutrophils from a heifer with BLAD stimulated with opsonised zymosan, aggregated bovine immunoglobulin G or concanavalin A, whereas the sustained phase was deficient or significantly decreased compared with control heifers. [Ca2+]i signalling of neutrophils from control heifers and a heifer with BLAD stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate via an 11b/CD18-independent pathway showed no transient phase, and the subsequent increase in [Ca2+]i was almost identical in neutrophils from affected and control heifers. [Ca2+]i concentration and chemiluminescent responses of neutrophils from a control heifer were clearly decreased by treatment with anti-CD18 and anti-IgG antibodies. No differences in membrane fluidity were detected between neutrophils derived from control and CD18-deficient cattle. D-mannose binds mainly to Fc rather than CD18 receptors, and decreased Agg-IgG induced [Ca2+]i and the chemiluminescent response of neutrophils. The [Ca2+]i responses and Agg-IgG induced chemiluminescent responses of neutrophils from control heifers and a BLAD-affected heifer were inhibited by D-mannose. The characteristic changes of [Ca2+]i signalling and functional responses of B2-integrin-deficient neutrophils were demonstrated. PMID:8880976

  20. Calcium signaling and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Steinlein, Ortrud K

    2014-08-01

    Calcium signaling is involved in a multitude of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. Over the last decade, it has been increasingly recognized as an important factor in epileptogenesis, and it is becoming obvious that the excess synchronization of neurons that is characteristic for seizures can be linked to various calcium signaling pathways. These include immediate effects on membrane excitability by calcium influx through ion channels as well as delayed mechanisms that act through G-protein coupled pathways. Calcium signaling is able to cause hyperexcitability either by direct modulation of neuronal activity or indirectly through calcium-dependent gliotransmission. Furthermore, feedback mechanisms between mitochondrial calcium signaling and reactive oxygen species are able to cause neuronal cell death and seizures. Unravelling the complexity of calcium signaling in epileptogenesis is a daunting task, but it includes the promise to uncover formerly unknown targets for the development of new antiepileptic drugs.

  1. INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A book chapter in ?Molecular Toxicology: Transcriptional Targets? reviewed the role of intracellular signaling in the developmental neurotoxicity of environmental chemicals. This chapter covered a number of aspects including the development of the nervous system, role of intrace...

  2. Spatiotemporal intracellular calcium dynamics during cardiac alternans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan G.; Karma, Alain

    2009-09-01

    Cellular calcium transient alternans are beat-to-beat alternations in the peak cytosolic calcium concentration exhibited by cardiac cells during rapid electrical stimulation or under pathological conditions. Calcium transient alternans promote action potential duration alternans, which have been linked to the onset of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Here we use a recently developed physiologically detailed mathematical model of ventricular myocytes to investigate both stochastic and deterministic aspects of intracellular calcium dynamics during alternans. The model combines a spatially distributed description of intracellular calcium cycling, where a large number of calcium release units are spatially distributed throughout the cell, with a full set of ionic membrane currents. The results demonstrate that ion channel stochasticity at the level of single calcium release units can influence the whole-cell alternans dynamics by causing phase reversals over many beats during fixed frequency pacing close to the alternans bifurcation. They also demonstrate the existence of a wide range of dynamical states. Depending on the sign and magnitude of calcium-voltage coupling, calcium alternans can be spatially synchronized or desynchronized, in or out of phase with action potential duration alternans, and the node separating out-of-phase regions of calcium alternans can be expelled from or trapped inside the cell. This range of states is found to be larger than previously anticipated by including a robust global attractor where calcium alternans can be spatially synchronized but out of phase with action potential duration alternans. The results are explained by a combined theoretical analysis of alternans stability and node motion using general iterative maps of the beat-to-beat dynamics and amplitude equations.

  3. Genetically-encoded probes for measurement of intracellular calcium

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Small, fluorescent, calcium-sensing molecules have been enormously useful in mapping intracellular calcium signals in time and space, as chapters in this volume attest. Despite their widespread adoption and utility, they suffer some disadvantages. Genetically-encoded calcium sensors that can by expressed inside cells by transfection or transgenesis are desirable. The last ten years have been marked by a rapid evolution in the laboratory of genetically encoded calcium sensors two families both figuratively and literally, resulting in11distinct configurations of fluorescent proteins and their attendant calcium sensor modules. Here, I described the design logic and performance of this abundant collection of sensors and describe their use and performance in intro and in vivo. Genetically-encoded calcium sensors have proved valuable in the measurement of calcium concentration in cellular organelles, for the most part in single cells in vitro. Their success as quantitative calcium sensors in tissues in vitro and in vivo is qualified, but they have proved valuable in imaging the pattern of calcium signals within tissues in whole animals. Some branches of the calcium sensor evolutionary tree continue to evolve rapidly and the steady progress in optimising sensor parameters leads to the certain hope that these drawbacks will eventually be overcome by further genetic engineering. PMID:21035686

  4. Calcium signals and calcium channels in osteoblastic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, R. L.; Akanbi, K. A.; Farach-Carson, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) channels are present in non-excitable as well as in excitable cells. In bone cells of the osteoblast lineage, Ca2+ channels play fundamental roles in cellular responses to external stimuli including both mechanical forces and hormonal signals. They are also proposed to modulate paracrine signaling between bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts at local sites of bone remodeling. Calcium signals are characterized by transient increases in intracellular Ca2+ levels that are associated with activation of intracellular signaling pathways that control cell behavior and phenotype, including patterns of gene expression. Development of Ca2+ signals is a tightly regulated cellular process that involves the concerted actions of plasma membrane and intracellular Ca2+ channels, along with Ca2+ pumps and exchangers. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge concerning the structure, function, and role of Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ signals in bone cells, focusing on the osteoblast.

  5. Calcium signaling in trypanosomatid parasites.

    PubMed

    Docampo, Roberto; Huang, Guozhong

    2015-03-01

    Calcium ion (Ca(2+)) is an important second messenger in trypanosomatids and essential for their survival although prolonged high intracellular Ca(2+) levels lead to cell death. As other eukaryotic cells, trypanosomes use two sources of Ca(2+) for generating signals: Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores and Ca(2+) entry across the plasma membrane. Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores is controlled by the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) that is located in acidocalcisomes, acidic organelles that are the primary Ca(2+) reservoir in these cells. A plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase controls the cytosolic Ca(2+) levels and a number of pumps and exchangers are responsible for Ca(2+) uptake and release from intracellular compartments. The trypanosomatid genomes contain a wide variety of signaling and regulatory proteins that bind Ca(2+) as well as many Ca(2+)-binding proteins that await further characterization. The mitochondrial Ca(2+) transporters of trypanosomatids have an important role in the regulation of cell bioenergetics and flagellar Ca(2+) appears to have roles in sensing the environment. In trypanosomatids in which an intracellular life cycle is present, Ca(2+) signaling is important for host cell invasion. PMID:25468729

  6. Monitoring the intracellular calcium response to a dynamic hypertonic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaowen; Yue, Wanqing; Liu, Dandan; Yue, Jianbo; Li, Jiaqian; Sun, Dong; Yang, Mengsu; Wang, Zuankai

    2016-03-01

    The profiling of physiological response of cells to external stimuli at the single cell level is of importance. Traditional approaches to study cell responses are often limited by ensemble measurement, which is challenging to reveal the complex single cell behaviors under a dynamic environment. Here we report the development of a simple microfluidic device to investigate intracellular calcium response to dynamic hypertonic conditions at the single cell level in real-time. Interestingly, a dramatic elevation in the intracellular calcium signaling is found in both suspension cells (human leukemic cell line, HL-60) and adherent cells (lung cancer cell line, A549), which is ascribed to the exposure of cells to the hydrodynamic stress. We also demonstrate that the calcium response exhibits distinct single cell heterogeneity as well as cell-type-dependent responses to the same stimuli. Our study opens up a new tool for tracking cellular activity at the single cell level in real time for high throughput drug screening.

  7. Store-operated calcium signaling in neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Regina A; Lowell, Clifford A

    2015-10-01

    Calcium signals in neutrophils are initiated by a variety of cell-surface receptors, including formyl peptide and other GPCRs, FcRs, and integrins. The predominant pathway by which calcium enters immune cells is termed SOCE, whereby plasma membrane CRAC channels allow influx of extracellular calcium into the cytoplasm when intracellular ER stores are depleted. The identification of 2 key families of SOCE regulators, STIM calcium "sensors" and ORAI calcium channels, has allowed for genetic manipulation of SOCE pathways and provided valuable insight into the molecular mechanism of calcium signaling in immune cells, including neutrophils. This review focuses on our current knowledge of the molecules involved in neutrophil SOCE and how study of these molecules has further informed our understanding of the role of calcium signaling in neutrophil activation.

  8. The effect of the calcium-antagonist nitrendipine on intracellular calcium concentration in endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Salameh, A.; Schomecker, G.; Breitkopf, K.; Dhein, S.; Klaus, W.

    1996-01-01

    1. Nitrendipine induces NO-release from coronary vascular endothelium presumably by activating endothelial NO-synthase. We have investigated whether this effect may be mediated by an influence on the intracellular calcium in endothelial cells. 2. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) were incubated with Fura-2/AM (1 microM) for 30 min and Fura-2 fluorescence was measured at 510 nm in response to chopped excitation with both 340 and 380 nm. The ratio 340/380 nm (known to reflect changes in intracellular calcium) was calculated from these data. 3. Nitrendipine (0.1 to 100 microM) led to a significant, concentration-dependent, monophasic increase in [Ca2+]i in suspended BAEC by 11 +/- 2 nM (0.1 microM), 23 +/- 3 nM (1 microM), 34 +/- 4 nM (10 microM) and by 47 +/- 5 nM (100 microM) from a control levels of 118 +/- 10 nM. 4. This elevation of intracellular calcium was prevented by pretreatment of BAECs with gadolinium (100 microM) or by incubation with calcium free saline solution. In contrast, the application of 0.3 microM thapsigargin did not abolish the nitrendipine-induced calcium signal. In additional experiments it was shown that the nitrendipine-induced NO-release (as measured with the oxy-haemoglobin-method could also be inhibited by gadolinium and was absent in calcium-free solution. 5. Thus, nitrendipine elevates intracellular calcium in suspended BAECs in a concentration-dependent manner. This elevation is mainly due to a gadolinium-sensitive calcium influx from the extracellular space rather than a calcium release from intracellular stores. Images Figure 5 PMID:8864521

  9. Pharmacology of intracellular signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Nahorski, Stefan R

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a brief and somewhat personalized review of the dramatic developments that have occurred over the last 45 years in our understanding of intracellular signalling pathways associated with G-protein-coupled receptor activation. Signalling via cyclic AMP, the phosphoinositides and Ca2+ is emphasized and these systems have already been revealed as new pharmacological targets. The therapeutic benefits of most of such targets are, however, yet to be realized, but it is certain that the discipline of pharmacology needs to widen its boundaries to meet these challenges in the future. PMID:16402119

  10. Calcium Signaling Is Required for Erythroid Enucleation.

    PubMed

    Wölwer, Christina B; Pase, Luke B; Russell, Sarah M; Humbert, Patrick O

    2016-01-01

    Although erythroid enucleation, the property of erythroblasts to expel their nucleus, has been known for 7ore than a century, surprisingly little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms governing this unique developmental process. Here we show that similar to cytokinesis, nuclear extrusion requires intracellular calcium signaling and signal transduction through the calmodulin (CaM) pathway. However, in contrast to cytokinesis we found that orthochromatic erythroblasts require uptake of extracellular calcium to enucleate. Together these functional studies highlight a critical role for calcium signaling in the regulation of erythroid enucleation.

  11. Calcium Signaling Is Required for Erythroid Enucleation

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Sarah M.; Humbert, Patrick O.

    2016-01-01

    Although erythroid enucleation, the property of erythroblasts to expel their nucleus, has been known for 7ore than a century, surprisingly little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms governing this unique developmental process. Here we show that similar to cytokinesis, nuclear extrusion requires intracellular calcium signaling and signal transduction through the calmodulin (CaM) pathway. However, in contrast to cytokinesis we found that orthochromatic erythroblasts require uptake of extracellular calcium to enucleate. Together these functional studies highlight a critical role for calcium signaling in the regulation of erythroid enucleation. PMID:26731108

  12. Intracellular Signal Modulation by Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Salik; Garantziotis, Stavros; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Boland, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the interactions of nanomaterials with biological systems and the resulting activation of signal transduction pathways is essential for the development of safe and consumer friendly nanotechnology. Here we present an overview of signaling pathways induced by nanomaterial exposures and describe the possible correlation of their physicochemical characteristics with biological outcomes. In addition to the hierarchical oxidative stress model and a review of the intrinsic and cell-mediated mechanisms of reactive Oxygen species (ROS) generating capacities of nanomaterials, we also discuss other oxidative stress dependent and independent cellular signaling pathways. Induction of the inflammasome, calcium signaling, and endoplasmic reticulum stress are reviewed. Furthermore, the uptake mechanisms can crucially affect the cytotoxicity of nanomaterials and membrane-dependent signaling pathways can be responsible for cellular effects of nanomaterials. Epigenetic regulation by nanomaterials effects of nanoparticle-protein interactions on cell signaling pathways, and the induction of various cell death modalities by nanomaterials are described. We describe the common trigger mechanisms shared by various nanomaterials to induce cell death pathways and describe the interplay of different modalities in orchestrating the final outcome after nanomaterial exposures. A better understanding of signal modulations induced by nanomaterials is not only essential for the synthesis and design of safer nanomaterials but will also help to discover potential nanomedical applications of these materials. Several biomedical applications based on the different signaling pathways induced by nanomaterials are already proposed and will certainly gain a great deal of attraction in the near future. PMID:24683030

  13. Intracellular signalling by C-peptide.

    PubMed

    Hills, Claire E; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2008-01-01

    C-peptide, a cleavage product of the proinsulin molecule, has long been regarded as biologically inert, serving merely as a surrogate marker for insulin release. Recent findings demonstrate both a physiological and protective role of C-peptide when administered to individuals with type I diabetes. Data indicate that C-peptide appears to bind in nanomolar concentrations to a cell surface receptor which is most likely to be G-protein coupled. Binding of C-peptide initiates multiple cellular effects, evoking a rise in intracellular calcium, increased PI-3-kinase activity, stimulation of the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, increased eNOS transcription, and activation of the MAPK signalling pathway. These cell signalling effects have been studied in multiple cell types from multiple tissues. Overall these observations raise the possibility that C-peptide may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment or prevention of long-term complications associated with diabetes. PMID:18382618

  14. Calcium signaling in pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Apáti, Ágota; Pászty, Katalin; Erdei, Zsuzsa; Szebényi, Kornélia; Homolya, László; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2012-04-28

    Pluripotent stem cells represent a new source of biological material allowing the exploration of signaling phenomena during normal cell development and differentiation. Still, the calcium signaling pathways and intracellular calcium responses to various ligands or stress conditions have not been sufficiently explored as yet in embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells and in their differentiated offspring. This is partly due to the special culturing conditions of these cell types, the rapid morphological and functional changes in heterogeneous cell populations during early differentiation, and methodological problems in cellular calcium measurements. In this paper, we review the currently available data in the literature on calcium signaling in pluripotent stem cells and discuss the potential shortcomings of these studies. Various assay methods are surveyed for obtaining reliable data both in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and in specific, stem cell-derived human tissues. In this paper, we present the modulation of calcium signaling in human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and in their derivates; mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells and cardiac tissues using the fluorescent calcium indicator Fluo-4 and confocal microscopy. LPA, trypsin and angiotensin II were effective in inducing calcium signals both in HUES9 and MSCl cells. Histamine and thrombin induced calcium signal exclusively in the MSCl cells, while ATP was effective only in HUES9 cells. There was no calcium signal evoked by GABA, even at relatively high concentrations. In stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes a rapid increase in the beating rate and an increase of the calcium signal peaks could be observed after the addition of adrenaline, while verapamil led to a strong decrease in cellular calcium and stopped spontaneous contractions in a relaxed state.

  15. Monitoring the intracellular calcium response to a dynamic hypertonic environment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaowen; Yue, Wanqing; Liu, Dandan; Yue, Jianbo; Li, Jiaqian; Sun, Dong; Yang, Mengsu; Wang, Zuankai

    2016-01-01

    The profiling of physiological response of cells to external stimuli at the single cell level is of importance. Traditional approaches to study cell responses are often limited by ensemble measurement, which is challenging to reveal the complex single cell behaviors under a dynamic environment. Here we report the development of a simple microfluidic device to investigate intracellular calcium response to dynamic hypertonic conditions at the single cell level in real-time. Interestingly, a dramatic elevation in the intracellular calcium signaling is found in both suspension cells (human leukemic cell line, HL-60) and adherent cells (lung cancer cell line, A549), which is ascribed to the exposure of cells to the hydrodynamic stress. We also demonstrate that the calcium response exhibits distinct single cell heterogeneity as well as cell-type-dependent responses to the same stimuli. Our study opens up a new tool for tracking cellular activity at the single cell level in real time for high throughput drug screening. PMID:27004604

  16. Monitoring the intracellular calcium response to a dynamic hypertonic environment

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaowen; Yue, Wanqing; Liu, Dandan; Yue, Jianbo; Li, Jiaqian; Sun, Dong; Yang, Mengsu; Wang, Zuankai

    2016-01-01

    The profiling of physiological response of cells to external stimuli at the single cell level is of importance. Traditional approaches to study cell responses are often limited by ensemble measurement, which is challenging to reveal the complex single cell behaviors under a dynamic environment. Here we report the development of a simple microfluidic device to investigate intracellular calcium response to dynamic hypertonic conditions at the single cell level in real-time. Interestingly, a dramatic elevation in the intracellular calcium signaling is found in both suspension cells (human leukemic cell line, HL-60) and adherent cells (lung cancer cell line, A549), which is ascribed to the exposure of cells to the hydrodynamic stress. We also demonstrate that the calcium response exhibits distinct single cell heterogeneity as well as cell-type-dependent responses to the same stimuli. Our study opens up a new tool for tracking cellular activity at the single cell level in real time for high throughput drug screening. PMID:27004604

  17. TMEM203 Is a Novel Regulator of Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis and Is Required for Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shambharkar, Prashant B.; Bittinger, Mark; Latario, Brian; Xiong, ZhaoHui; Bandyopadhyay, Somnath; Davis, Vanessa; Lin, Victor; Yang, Yi; Valdez, Reginald; Labow, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular calcium signaling is critical for initiating and sustaining diverse cellular functions including transcription, synaptic signaling, muscle contraction, apoptosis and fertilization. Trans-membrane 203 (TMEM203) was identified here in cDNA overexpression screens for proteins capable of modulating intracellular calcium levels using activation of a calcium/calcineurin regulated transcription factor as an indicator. Overexpression of TMEM203 resulted in a reduction of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) calcium stores and elevation in basal cytoplasmic calcium levels. TMEM203 protein was localized to the ER and found associated with a number of ER proteins which regulate ER calcium entry and efflux. Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from Tmem203 deficient mice had reduced ER calcium stores and altered calcium homeostasis. Tmem203 deficient mice were viable though male knockout mice were infertile and exhibited a severe block in spermiogenesis and spermiation. Expression profiling studies showed significant alternations in expression of calcium channels and pumps in testes and concurrently Tmem203 deficient spermatocytes demonstrated significantly altered calcium handling. Thus Tmem203 is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of cellular calcium homeostasis, is required for spermatogenesis and provides a causal link between intracellular calcium regulation and spermiogenesis. PMID:25996873

  18. Simultaneous measurement of ciliary beating and intracellular calcium.

    PubMed Central

    Korngreen, A; Priel, Z

    1994-01-01

    A novel system for measuring, simultaneously, ciliary beating and intracellular free calcium is presented. The advantages and dynamic nature of the system are demonstrated by measuring the effects of the calcium ionophore lonomycin and of extracellular ATP on ciliated rabbit trachea. The results are discussed with regard to the ciliary and calcium stimulation. PMID:7919010

  19. Calcium signaling and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Kass, G E; Orrenius, S

    1999-01-01

    The divalent calcium cation Ca(2+) is used as a major signaling molecule during cell signal transduction to regulate energy output, cellular metabolism, and phenotype. The basis to the signaling role of Ca(2+) is an intricate network of cellular channels and transporters that allow a low resting concentration of Ca(2+) in the cytosol of the cell ([Ca(2+)]i) but that are also coupled to major dynamic and rapidly exchanging stores. This enables extracellular signals from hormones and growth factors to be transduced as [Ca(2+)]i spikes that are amplitude and frequency encoded. There is considerable evidence that a number of toxic environmental chemicals target these Ca(2+) signaling processes, alter them, and induce cell death by apoptosis. Two major pathways for apoptosis will be considered. The first one involves Ca(2+)-mediated expression of ligands that bind to and activate death receptors such as CD95 (Fas, APO-1). In the second pathway, Ca(2+) has a direct toxic effect and its primary targets include the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Mitochondria may respond to an apoptotic Ca(2+) signal by the selective release of cytochrome c or through enhanced production of reactive oxygen species and opening of an inner mitochondrial membrane pore. Toxic agents such as the environmental pollutant tributyltin or the natural plant product thapsigargin, which deplete the ER Ca(2+) stores, will induce as a direct result of this effect the opening of plasma membrane Ca(2+) channels and an ER stress response. In contrast, under some conditions, Ca(2+) signals may be cytoprotective and antagonize the apoptotic machinery. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10229704

  20. The intracellular delivery of TAT-aequorin reveals calcium-mediated sensing of environmental and symbiotic signals by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita.

    PubMed

    Moscatiello, Roberto; Sello, Simone; Novero, Mara; Negro, Alessandro; Bonfante, Paola; Navazio, Lorella

    2014-08-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is an ecologically relevant symbiosis between most land plants and Glomeromycota fungi. The peculiar traits of AM fungi have so far limited traditional approaches such as genetic transformation. The aim of this work was to investigate whether the protein transduction domain of the HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (TAT) protein, previously shown to act as a potent nanocarrier for macromolecule delivery in both animal and plant cells, may translocate protein cargoes into AM fungi. We evaluated the internalization into germinated spores of Gigaspora margarita of two recombinant TAT fusion proteins consisting of either a fluorescent (GFP) or a luminescent (aequorin) reporter linked to the TAT peptide. Both TAT-fused proteins were found to enter AM fungal mycelia after a short incubation period (5-10 min). Ca2+ measurements in G. margarita mycelia pre-incubated with TAT-aequorin demonstrated the occurrence of changes in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration in response to relevant stimuli, such as touch, cold, salinity, and strigolactones, symbiosis-related plant signals. These data indicate that the cell-penetrating properties of the TAT peptide can be used as an effective strategy for intracellularly delivering proteins of interest and shed new light on Ca2+ homeostasis and signalling in AM fungi.

  1. Characterization of Helicobacter pylori VacA-containing vacuoles (VCVs), VacA intracellular trafficking and interference with calcium signalling in T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Kern, Beate; Jain, Utkarsh; Utsch, Ciara; Otto, Andreas; Busch, Benjamin; Jiménez-Soto, Luisa; Becher, Dörte; Haas, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    The human pathogen Helicobacter pylori colonizes half of the global population. Residing at the stomach epithelium, it contributes to the development of diseases such as gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcers, and gastric cancer. A major factor is the secreted vacuolating toxin VacA, which forms anion-selective channels in the endosome membrane that cause the compartment to swell, but the composition and purpose of the resulting VacA-containing vacuoles (VCVs) are still unknown. VacA exerts influence on the host immune response in various ways, including inhibition of T-cell activation and proliferation and suppression of the host immune response. In this study, for the first time the composition of VCVs from T cells was comprehensively analysed to investigate VCV function. VCVs were successfully isolated via immunomagnetic separation, and the purified vacuoles were analysed by mass spectrometry. We detected a set of 122 VCV-specific proteins implicated among others in immune response, cell death and cellular signalling processes, all of which VacA is known to influence. One of the individual proteins studied further was stromal interaction molecule (STIM1), a calcium sensor residing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that is important in store-operated calcium entry. Live cell imaging microscopy data demonstrated colocalization of VacA with STIM1 in the ER and indicated that VacA may interfere with the movement of STIM1 towards the plasma membrane-localized calcium release activated calcium channel protein ORAI1 in response to Ca(2+) store depletion. Furthermore, VacA inhibited the increase of cytosolic-free Ca(2+) in the Jurkat E6-1 T-cell line and human CD4(+) T cells. The presence of VacA in the ER and its trafficking to the Golgi apparatus was confirmed in HeLa cells, identifying these two cellular compartments as novel VacA target structures.

  2. Calcium signaling in taste cells.

    PubMed

    Medler, Kathryn F

    2015-09-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium.

  3. The Analysis of Intracellular and Intercellular Calcium Signaling in Human Anterior Lens Capsule Epithelial Cells with Regard to Different Types and Stages of the Cataract

    PubMed Central

    Gosak, Marko; Markovič, Rene; Fajmut, Aleš; Marhl, Marko; Hawlina, Marko; Andjelić, Sofija

    2015-01-01

    In this work we investigated how modifications of the Ca2+ homeostasis in anterior lens epithelial cells (LECs) are associated with different types of cataract (cortical or nuclear) and how the progression of the cataract (mild or moderate) affects the Ca2+ signaling. We systematically analyzed different aspects of intra- and inter-cellular Ca2+ signaling in the human LECs, which are attached to surgically isolated lens capsule (LC), obtained during cataract surgery. We monitored the temporal and spatial changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration after stimulation with acetylcholine by means of Fura-2 fluorescence captured with an inverted microscope. In our analysis we compared the features of Ca2+ signals in individual cells, synchronized activations, spatio-temporal grouping and the nature of intercellular communication between LECs. The latter was assessed by using the methodologies of the complex network theory. Our results point out that at the level of individual cells there are no significant differences when comparing the features of the signals with regard either to the type or the stage of the cataract. On the other hand, noticeable differences are observed at the multicellular level, despite inter-capsule variability. LCs associated with more developed cataracts were found to exhibit a slower collective response to stimulation, a less pronounced spatio-temporal clustering of LECs with similar signaling characteristics. The reconstructed intercellular networks were found to be sparser and more segregated than in LCs associated with mild cataracts. Moreover, we show that spontaneously active LECs often operate in localized groups with quite well aligned Ca2+ activity. The presence of spontaneous activity was also found to affect the stimulated Ca2+ responses of individual cells. Our findings indicate that the cataract progression entails the impairment of intercellular signaling thereby suggesting the functional importance of altered Ca2+ signaling of

  4. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide enhances polymorphonuclear leukocyte function independent of changes in intracellular calcium.

    PubMed

    Klein, J B; Payne, V; Schepers, T M; McLeish, K R

    1990-10-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhanced expression of C3bi receptors (CR3), phagocytosis of opsonized bacteria, and subsequent hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). The role of changes in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in LPS-induced priming was examined by determining the effect of modulators of intracellular calcium on enhanced PMN function, determining the ability of calcium ionophores to reproduce the effects of LPS, and measuring PMN [Ca2+]i following addition of LPS. Inhibition of intracellular calcium-dependent processes with TMB-8 or quin-2 blocked all three measures of LPS-induced priming. LPS did not stimulate an increase in [Ca2+]i, and calcium ionophores failed to reproduce the effect of LPS. Maintenance of [Ca2+]i is necessary for LPS priming, but an increase in [Ca2+]i is not a component of the signal transduction pathway leading to PMN priming by LPS.

  5. Calcium Signaling in Taste Cells

    PubMed Central

    Medler, Kathryn F.

    2014-01-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. PMID:25450977

  6. Calcium-dependent intracellular signal pathways in primary cultured adipocytes and ANK3 gene variation in patients with bipolar disorder and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, A; Le Gal, K; Södersten, K; Vizlin-Hodzic, D; Ågren, H; Funa, K

    2015-08-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder of public health importance affecting >1% of the Swedish population. Despite progress, patients still suffer from chronic mood switches with potential severe consequences. Thus, early detection, diagnosis and initiation of correct treatment are critical. Cultured adipocytes from 35 patients with BD and 38 healthy controls were analysed using signal pathway reporter assays, that is, protein kinase C (PKC), protein kinase A (PKA), mitogen-activated protein kinases (extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)), Myc, Wnt and p53. The levels of activated target transcriptional factors were measured in adipocytes before and after stimulation with lithium and escitalopram. Variations were analysed in the loci of 25 different single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Activation of intracellular signals in several pathways analysed were significantly higher in patients than in healthy controls upon drug stimulation, especially with escitalopram stimulation of PKC, JNK and Myc, as well as lithium-stimulated PKC, whereas no meaningful difference was observed before stimulation. Univariate analyses of contingency tables for 80 categorical SNP results versus diagnoses showed a significant link with the ANK3 gene (rs10761482; likelihood ratio χ(2)=4.63; P=0.031). In a multivariate ordinal logistic fit for diagnosis, a backward stepwise procedure selected ANK3 as the remaining significant predictor. Comparison of the escitalopram-stimulated PKC activity and the ANK3 genotype showed them to add their share of the diagnostic variance, with no interaction (15% of variance explained, P<0.002). The study is cross-sectional with no longitudinal follow-up. Cohorts are relatively small with no medication-free patients, and there are no 'ill patient' controls. It takes 3 to 4 weeks of culture to expand adipocytes that may change epigenetic profiles but remove the possibility of medication effects

  7. Calcium signals in olfactory neurons.

    PubMed

    Tareilus, E; Noé, J; Breer, H

    1995-11-01

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the fluorescent calcium indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-Red was employed to estimate the intracellular concentration of free calcium ions in individual olfactory receptor neurons and to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the Ca(2+)-level upon stimulation. The chemosensory cells responded to odorants with a significant increase in the calcium concentration, preferentially in the dendritic knob. Applying various stimulation paradigma, it was found that in a population of isolated cells, subsets of receptor neurons display distinct patterns of responsiveness. PMID:7488645

  8. Calcium signals in olfactory neurons.

    PubMed

    Tareilus, E; Noé, J; Breer, H

    1995-11-01

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the fluorescent calcium indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-Red was employed to estimate the intracellular concentration of free calcium ions in individual olfactory receptor neurons and to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the Ca(2+)-level upon stimulation. The chemosensory cells responded to odorants with a significant increase in the calcium concentration, preferentially in the dendritic knob. Applying various stimulation paradigma, it was found that in a population of isolated cells, subsets of receptor neurons display distinct patterns of responsiveness.

  9. Intracellular calcium ions decrease the affinity of the GABA receptor.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Oomura, Y; Yakushiji, T; Akaike, N

    Intracellular free Ca2+ [( Ca2+]i) plays a crucial role in the transduction of extracellular signals. It has been implicated in the modulation of light sensitivity in Limulus photoreceptors and in the efficacy of synaptic transmission; calcium ion fluxes are also involved in the postsynaptic facilitation of nicotinic transmission seen in sympathetic ganglia, and in activation of the acetylcholine (ACh) receptor. [Ca2+]i is also a second messenger for many biologically active substances. We recorded neuronal activities of sensory neurones from the bullfrog (Rana catesbiana), using the suction pipette method and a 'concentration clamp' technique to apply gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to the cell. We report the first evidence that [Ca2+]i suppresses the GABA-activated Cl- conductance, by decreasing the apparent affinity of the GABA receptor. PMID:2431316

  10. Measurement of shear stress-mediated intracellular calcium dynamics in human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Jafarnejad, M.; Cromer, W. E.; Kaunas, R. R.; Zhang, S. L.; Zawieja, D. C.

    2015-01-01

    The shear stress applied to lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) by lymph flow changes dramatically under normal conditions as well as in response to disease conditions and immune reactions. In general, LEC are known to regulate the contraction frequency and strength of lymphatic pumping in response to shear stress. Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) is an important factor that regulates lymphatic contraction characteristics. In this study, we measured changes in the [Ca2+]i under different shear stress levels and determined the source of this calcium signal. Briefly, human dermal LEC were cultured in custom-made microchannels for 3 days before loading with 2 µM fura-2 AM, a ratiometric calcium dye to measure [Ca2+]i. Step changes in shear stress resulted in a rapid increase in [Ca2+]i followed by a gradual return to the basal level and sometimes below the initial baseline (45.2 ± 2.2 nM). The [Ca2+]i reached a peak at 126.2 ± 5.6 nM for 10 dyn/cm2 stimulus, whereas the peak was only 71.8 ± 5.4 nM for 1 dyn/cm2 stimulus, indicating that the calcium signal depends on the magnitude of shear stress. Removal of the extracellular calcium from the buffer or pharmocological blockade of calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) channels significantly reduced the peak [Ca2+]i, demonstrating a role of extracellular calcium entry. Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium pumps showed the importance of intracellular calcium stores in the initiation of this signal. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the shear-mediated calcium signal is dependent on the magnitude of the shear and involves ER store calcium release and extracellular calcium entry. PMID:25617358

  11. Intracellular calcium levels can regulate Importin-dependent nuclear import

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Ly-Huynh, Jennifer D.; Jans, David A.

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • High intracellular calcium inhibits Impα/β1- or Impβ1-dependent nuclear protein import. • The effect of Ca{sup 2+} on nuclear import does not relate to changes in the nuclear pore. • High intracellular calcium can result in mislocalisation of Impβ1, Ran and RCC1. - Abstract: We previously showed that increased intracellular calcium can modulate Importin (Imp)β1-dependent nuclear import of SRY-related chromatin remodeling proteins. Here we extend this work to show for the first time that high intracellular calcium inhibits Impα/β1- or Impβ1-dependent nuclear protein import generally. The basis of this relates to the mislocalisation of the transport factors Impβ1 and Ran, which show significantly higher nuclear localization in contrast to various other factors, and RCC1, which shows altered subnuclear localisation. The results here establish for the first time that intracellular calcium modulates conventional nuclear import through direct effects on the nuclear transport machinery.

  12. Intracellular Calcium Release at Fertilization in the Sea Urchin Egg

    PubMed Central

    Steinhardt, R.; Zucker, R.; Schattenand, G.

    2015-01-01

    Fertilization or ionophore activation of Lytechinus pictus eggs can be monitored after injection with the Ca-sensitive photoprotein aequorin to estimate calcium release during activation. We estimate the peak calcium transient to reach concentrations of 2.5–4.5 μM free calcium 45–60 sec after activation and to last 2–3 min, assuming equal Ca2+ release throughout the cytoplasm. Calcium is released from an intracellular store, since similar responses are obtained during fertilization at a wide range of external calcium concentrations or in zero-calcium seawater in ionophore activations. In another effort to estimate free calcium at fertilization, we isolated egg cortices, added back calcium quantitatively, and fixed for observation with a scanning electron microscope. In this way, we determined that the threshold for discharge of the cortical granules is between 9 and 18 μM Ca2+. Therefore, the threshold for the in vitro cortical reaction is about five times the amount of free calcium, assuming equal distribution in the egg. This result suggests that transient calcium release is confined to the inner subsurface of the egg. PMID:326602

  13. Intracellular signaling and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Iakova, Polina; Timchenko, Lubov; Timchenko, Nikolai A

    2011-02-01

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the third most common cause of cancer related death in the world. The recent development of new techniques for the investigations of global change in the gene expression, signaling pathways and wide genome binding has provided novel information for the mechanisms underlying liver cancer progression. Although these studies identified gene expression signatures in hepatocellular carcinoma, the early steps of the development of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) are not well understood. The development of HCC is a multistep process which includes the progressive alterations of gene expression leading to the increased proliferation and to liver cancer. This review summarizes recent progress in the identification of the key steps of the development of HCC with the focus on early events of carcinogenesis and on the role of translational and epigenetic alterations in the development of HCC. Quiescent stage of the liver is supported by several tumor suppressor proteins including p53, Rb and C/EBPα. Studies with chemical models of liver carcinogenesis and with human HCC have shown that the elevation of gankyrin is responsible for the elimination of these three proteins at early steps of carcinogenesis. Later stages of progression of the liver cancer are associated with alterations in many signaling pathways including translation which leads to epigenetic silencing/activation of many genes. Particularly, recent reports suggest a critical role of histone deacetylase 1, HDAC1, in the development of HCC through the interactions with transcription factors such as C/EBP family proteins. PMID:20850540

  14. Diffusive spatio-temporal noise in a first-passage time model for intracellular calcium release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flegg, Mark B.; Rüdiger, Sten; Erban, Radek

    2013-04-01

    The intracellular release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum is controlled by ion channels. The resulting calcium signals exhibit a rich spatio-temporal signature, which originates at least partly from microscopic fluctuations. While stochasticity in the gating transition of ion channels has been incorporated into many models, the distribution of calcium is usually described by deterministic reaction-diffusion equations. Here we test the validity of the latter modeling approach by using two different models to calculate the frequency of localized calcium signals (calcium puffs) from clustered IP3 receptor channels. The complexity of the full calcium system is here limited to the basic opening mechanism of the ion channels and, in the mathematical reduction simplifies to the calculation of a first passage time. Two models are then studied: (i) a hybrid model, where channel gating is treated stochastically, while calcium concentration is deterministic and (ii) a fully stochastic model with noisy channel gating and Brownian calcium ion motion. The second model utilises the recently developed two-regime method [M. B. Flegg, S. J. Chapman, and R. Erban, "The two-regime method for optimizing stochastic reaction-diffusion simulations," J. R. Soc., Interface 9, 859-868 (2012)], 10.1098/rsif.2011.0574 in order to simulate a large domain with precision required only near the Ca2+ absorbing channels. The expected time for a first channel opening that results in a calcium puff event is calculated. It is found that for a large diffusion constant, predictions of the interpuff time are significantly overestimated using the model (i) with a deterministic non-spatial calcium variable. It is thus demonstrated that the presence of diffusive noise in local concentrations of intracellular Ca2+ ions can substantially influence the occurrence of calcium signals. The presented approach and results may also be relevant for other cell-physiological first-passage time problems with

  15. Calcium Signaling in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Amaya, Maria Jimena; Nathanson, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) is a highly versatile second messenger that regulates a wide range of functions in every type of cell and tissue. To achieve this versatility, the Ca2+ signaling system operates in a variety of ways to regulate cellular processes that function over a wide dynamic range. This is particularly well exemplified for Ca2+ signals in the liver, which modulate diverse and specialized functions such as bile secretion, glucose metabolism, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. These Ca2+ signals are organized to control distinct cellular processes through tight spatial and temporal coordination of [Ca2+]i signals, both within and between cells. This article will review the machinery responsible for the formation of Ca2+ signals in the liver, the types of subcellular, cellular, and intercellular signals that occur, the physiological role of Ca2+ signaling in the liver, and the role of Ca2+ signaling in liver disease. PMID:23720295

  16. Optogenetic control of intracellular signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Cui, Bianxiao

    2015-02-01

    Cells employ a plethora of signaling pathways to make their life-and-death decisions. Extensive genetic, biochemical, and physiological studies have led to the accumulation of knowledge about signaling components and their interactions within signaling networks. These conventional approaches, although useful, lack the ability to control the spatial and temporal aspects of signaling processes. The recently emerged optogenetic tools open exciting opportunities by enabling signaling regulation with superior temporal and spatial resolution, easy delivery, rapid reversibility, fewer off-target side effects, and the ability to dissect complex signaling networks. Here we review recent achievements in using light to control intracellular signaling pathways and discuss future prospects for the field, including integration of new genetic approaches into optogenetics.

  17. Optogenetic control of intracellular signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Cui, Bianxiao

    2014-01-01

    Cells employ a plethora of signaling pathways to make their life-and-death decisions. Extensive genetic, biochemical, and physiological studies have led to the accumulation of knowledge about signaling components and their interactions within signaling networks. These conventional approaches, though useful, lack the ability to control the spatial and temporal aspects of signaling processes. The recently emerged optogenetic tools open up exciting opportunities by enabling signaling regulation with superior temporal and spatial resolution, easy delivery, rapid reversibility, fewer off-target side effects, and the ability to dissect complex signaling networks. Here we review recent achievements in using light to control intracellular signaling pathways, and discuss future prospects for the field, including integration of new genetic approaches into optogenetics. PMID:25529484

  18. Effect of ticlopidine ex vivo on platelet intracellular calcium mobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Derian, C.K.; Friedman, P.A.

    1988-04-01

    The antiplatelet compound ticlopidine exerts its potent inhibitory activity through an as yet undetermined mechanism(s). The goal of this study was to determine the effect, if any, of ticlopidine ex vivo on platelet calcium mobilization. Ticlopidine inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation by 50-80%. In the presence of 1 mM EGTA, ticlopidine inhibited ADP- and thrombin-stimulated increases in (Ca2+)i in fura-2 loaded platelets. We evaluated further the effect of ticlopidine on calcium mobilization by examining both agonist-stimulated formation of inositol trisphosphate in intact platelets and the ability of inositol trisphosphate to release /sup 45/Ca from intracellular sites in permeabilized cells. We show here that while ticlopidine significantly affected agonist-induced intracellular calcium mobilization in intact platelets, the drug was without effect on agonist-stimulated formation of inositol trisphosphate in intact platelets and on inositol trisphosphate-induced /sup 45/Ca release in saponin-permeabilized platelets. Our study demonstrates that ticlopidine exerts at least part of its effect via inhibition of intracellular calcium mobilization but that its site of action remains to be determined.

  19. L-type calcium channels: on the fast track to nuclear signaling.

    PubMed

    D'Arco, Marianna; Dolphin, Annette C

    2012-08-14

    Calcium signaling resulting from depolarization of neurons can trigger changes in transcription, and this response has been called excitation-transcription (E-T) coupling. In neurons, voltage-gated and ligand-gated calcium-permeable channels contribute to the increase in intracellular calcium. It appears that calcium signals mediated by specific voltage-gated calcium channels may have distinct roles in E-T coupling.

  20. Calcium signaling and cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Mauro Cunha Xavier; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki; Goulart, Vânia A M; Tonelli, Fernanda M P; Gomes, Katia N; Ulrich, Henning; Resende, Rodrigo R

    2015-11-01

    Cell proliferation is orchestrated through diverse proteins related to calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling inside the cell. Cellular Ca(2+) influx that occurs first by various mechanisms at the plasma membrane, is then followed by absorption of Ca(2+) ions by mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and, finally, there is a connection of calcium stores to the nucleus. Experimental evidence indicates that the fluctuation of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum provides a pivotal and physiological role for cell proliferation. Ca(2+) depletion in the endoplasmatic reticulum triggers Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane in an phenomenon called store-operated calcium entries (SOCEs). SOCE is activated through a complex interplay between a Ca(2+) sensor, denominated STIM, localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and a Ca(2+) channel at the cell membrane, denominated Orai. The interplay between STIM and Orai proteins with cell membrane receptors and their role in cell proliferation is discussed in this review.

  1. Intracellular Ca2+ signaling and preimplantation development.

    PubMed

    Armant, D Randall

    2015-01-01

    The key, versatile role of intracellular Ca2+ signaling during egg activation after fertilization has been appreciated for several decades. More recently, evidence has accumulated supporting the concept that cytoplasmic Ca2+ is also a major signaling nexus during subsequent development of the fertilized ovum. This chapter will review the molecular reactions that regulate intracellular Ca2+ levels and cell function, the role of Ca2+ signaling during egg activation and specific examples of repetitive Ca2+ signaling found throughout pre- and peri-implantation development. Many of the upstream and downstream pathways utilized during egg activation are also critical for specific processes that take place during embryonic development. Much remains to be done to elucidate the full complexity of Ca2+ signaling mechanisms in preimplantation embryos to the level of detail accomplished for egg activation. However, an emerging concept is that because this second messenger can be modulated downstream of numerous receptors and is able to bind and activate multiple cytoplasmic signaling proteins, it can help the coordination of development through up- and downstream pathways that change with each embryonic stage.

  2. Intracellular free calcium concentration and calcium transport in human erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Quintanar-Escorza, M.A.; Gonzalez-Martinez, M.T.; Navarro, L.; Maldonado, M.; Arevalo, B.; Calderon-Salinas, J.V. . E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx

    2007-04-01

    Erythrocytes are the route of lead distribution to organs and tissues. The effect of lead on calcium homeostasis in human erythrocytes and other excitable cells is not known. In the present work we studied the effect of lead intoxication on the uptake and efflux (measured as (Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+})-ATPase activity) of calcium were studied in erythrocytes obtained from lead-exposed workers. Blood samples were taken from 15 workers exposed to lead (blood lead concentration 74.4 {+-} 21.9 {mu}g/dl) and 15 non-exposed workers (9.9 {+-} 2 {mu}g/dl). In erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers, the intracellular free calcium was 79 {+-} 13 nM, a significantly higher concentration (ANOVA, P < 0.01) than the one detected in control (30 {+-} 9 nM). The enhanced intracellular free calcium was associated with a higher osmotic fragility and with important modifications in erythrocytes shape. The high intracellular free calcium in lead-exposed workers was also related to a 100% increase in calcium incorporation and to 50% reduction of (Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+})-ATPase activity. Lipid peroxidation was 1.7-fold higher in erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers as compared with control. The alteration on calcium equilibrium in erythrocytes is discussed in light of the toxicological effects in lead-exposed workers.

  3. Calcium store-mediated signaling in sustentacular cells of the mouse olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Hegg, Colleen Cosgrove; Irwin, Mavis; Lucero, Mary T

    2009-04-15

    Sustentacular cells have structural features that allude to functions of secretion, absorption, phagocytosis, maintenance of extracellular ionic gradients, metabolism of noxious chemicals, and regulation of cell turnover. We present data detailing their dynamic activity. We show, using a mouse olfactory epithelium slice model, that sustentacular cells are capable of generating two types of calcium signals: intercellular calcium waves where elevations in intracellular calcium propagate between neighboring cells, and intracellular calcium oscillations consisting of repetitive elevations in intracellular calcium confined to single cells. Sustentacular cells exhibited rapid, robust increases in intracellular calcium in response to G-protein coupled muscarinic and purinergic receptor stimulation. In a subpopulation of sustentacular cells, oscillatory calcium transients were evoked. We pharmacologically characterized the properties of purinergic-evoked increases in intracellular calcium. Calcium transients were elicited by release from intracellular stores and were not dependent on extracellular calcium. BAPTA-AM, a cytosolic calcium chelator, and cyclopiazonic acid, an endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor irreversibly blocked the purinergic-induced calcium transient. Phospholipase C antagonist U73122 inhibited the purinergic-evoked calcium transient. 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, an inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptor antagonist, and the ryanodine receptor (RyR) antagonists tetracaine and ryanodine, inhibited the UTP-induced calcium transients. Collectively, these data suggest that activation of the phospholipase C pathway, IP(3)-mediated calcium release, and subsequent calcium-induced-calcium release is involved in ATP-elicited increases in intracellular calcium. Our findings indicate that sustentacular cells are not static support cells, and, like glia in the central nervous system, have complex calcium signaling.

  4. Relationship between intracellular calcium and its muffling measured by calcium iontophoresis in snail neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Schwiening, C J; Thomas, R C

    1996-01-01

    1. We have measured intracellular free calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) with fura-2, and intracellular chloride with chloride-sensitive microelectrodes, in voltage-clamped snail neurones. By making iontophoretic injections of CaCl2 we have investigated calcium muffling, the sum of the processes which minimize the calcium transient, at different values of [Ca2+]i. 2. By injection of calcium into cell-sized droplets of buffer we measured the calcium transport index. It was stable over the range pCa 6-7.4 (0.48 +/- 0.06 measured at pCa 6.70 +/- 0.12, n = 5). 3. Measurement of intracellular chloride activity during a series of fura-2-KCl pressure injections revealed a nearly linear relationship between fura-2 Ca(2+)-insensitive fluorescence and the sum of the increments in intracellular chloride. This allowed us to calculate the intracellular fura-2 concentration ([fura-2]i). 4. The rate of recovery of [Ca2+]i following a depolarization-induced load was increased by low [fura-2]i (10-20 microM) but decreased by higher [fura-2]i (40-80 microM). These effects are consistent with the addition of a mobile buffer to the cytoplasm. 5. Iontophoresis of Ca2+ at various membrane potentials allowed us to calculate the intracellular calcium muffling power (the amount of calcium required to cause a transient tenfold increase in [Ca2+]i per unit volume) and calcium muffling ratio (number of Ca2+ ions injected divided by the maximum increase in [Ca2+]i per unit volume) at different values of [Ca2+]i. 6. Calcium muffling power at resting [Ca2+]i was approximately 40 microM Ca2+ (pCa unit)-1, (about 250 times less than for hydrogen ions). It increased linearly about fivefold with [Ca2+]i over the range 20-120 nM (10 cells, 153 measurements) and therefore exponentially with decreasing pCa. 7. The calcium muffling ratio appeared to be constant (361 +/- 14, n = 10 cells, 130 measurements) over the range 20-120 nM Ca2+. 8. In three experiments we modelled the additional calcium

  5. Understanding anomalous delays in a model of intracellular calcium dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Emily; Kirk, Vivien; Osinga, Hinke M.; Sneyd, James; Wechselberger, Martin

    2010-12-01

    In many cell types, oscillations in the concentration of free intracellular calcium ions are used to control a variety of cellular functions. It has been suggested [J. Sneyd et al., "A method for determining the dependence of calcium oscillations on inositol trisphosphate oscillations," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 1675-1680 (2006)] that the mechanisms underlying the generation and control of such oscillations can be determined by means of a simple experiment, whereby a single exogenous pulse of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) is applied to the cell. However, more detailed mathematical investigations [M. Domijan et al., "Dynamical probing of the mechanisms underlying calcium oscillations," J. Nonlinear Sci. 16, 483-506 (2006)] have shown that this is not necessarily always true, and that the experimental data are more difficult to interpret than first thought. Here, we use geometric singular perturbation techniques to study the dynamics of models that make different assumptions about the mechanisms underlying the calcium oscillations. In particular, we show how recently developed canard theory for singularly perturbed systems with three or more slow variables [M. Wechselberger, "A propos de canards (Apropos canards)," Preprint, 2010] applies to these calcium models and how the presence of a curve of folded singularities and corresponding canards can result in anomalous delays in the response of these models to a pulse of IP3.

  6. Calcium signaling in membrane repair

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiping; Zhang, Xiaoli; Yu, Lu; Xu, Haoxing

    2015-01-01

    Resealing allows cells to mend damaged membranes rapidly when plasma membrane (PM) disruptions occur. Models of PM repair mechanisms include the “lipid-patch”, “endocytic removal”, and “macro-vesicle shedding” models, all of which postulate a dependence on local increases in intracellular Ca2+ at injury sites. Multiple calcium sensors, including synaptotagmin (Syt) VII, dysferlin, and apoptosis-linked gene-2 (ALG-2), are involved in PM resealing, suggesting that Ca2+ may regulate multiple steps of the repair process. Although earlier studies focused exclusively on external Ca2+, recent studies suggest that Ca2+ release from intracellular stores may also be important for PM resealing. Hence, depending on injury size and the type of injury, multiple sources of Ca2+ may be recruited to trigger and orchestrate repair processes. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms by which the resealing process is promoted by vesicular Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ sensors that accumulate at damage sites. PMID:26519113

  7. Intracellular Calcium Regulates Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay

    PubMed Central

    Nickless, Andrew; Jackson, Erin; Marasa, Jayne; Nugent, Patrick; Mercer, Robert W.; Piwnica-Worms, David; You, Zhongsheng

    2014-01-01

    The nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway selectively eliminates aberrant transcripts containing premature translation termination codons (PTCs) and regulates the levels of a number of physiological mRNAs. NMD modulates the clinical outcome of a variety of human diseases, including cancer and many genetic disorders, and may represent an important target for therapeutic intervention. Here we have developed a novel multicolored, bioluminescence-based reporter system that can specifically and effectively assay NMD in live human cells. Using this reporter system, we conducted a robust high-throughput small-molecule screen in human cells and, unpredictably, identified a group of cardiac glycosides including ouabain and digoxin as potent inhibitors of NMD. Cardiac glycoside-mediated effects on NMD are dependent on binding and inhibiting the Na+/K+-ATPase on the plasma membrane and subsequent elevation of intracellular calcium levels. Induction of calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum also leads to inhibition of NMD. Thus, this study reveals intracellular calcium as a key regulator of NMD and has important implications for exploiting NMD in the treatment of disease. PMID:25064126

  8. Modulation of intracellular calcium levels by calcium lactate affects colon cancer cell motility through calcium-dependent calpain.

    PubMed

    Sundaramoorthy, Pasupathi; Sim, Jae Jun; Jang, Yeong-Su; Mishra, Siddhartha Kumar; Jeong, Keun-Yeong; Mander, Poonam; Chul, Oh Byung; Shim, Won-Sik; Oh, Seung Hyun; Nam, Ky-Youb; Kim, Hwan Mook

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cell motility is a key phenomenon regulating invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a major role in cellular adhesion and metastasis of various cancers. The relationship between dietary supplementation of calcium and colon cancer has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of calcium (Ca2+) supplementation on calpain-FAK-motility is not clearly understood. We sought to identify the mechanism of FAK cleavage through Ca2+ bound lactate (CaLa), its downstream signaling and role in the motility of human colon cancer cells. We found that treating HCT116 and HT-29 cells with CaLa immediately increased the intracellular Ca2+ (iCa2+) levels for a prolonged period of time. Ca2+ influx induced cleavage of FAK into an N-terminal FAK (FERM domain) in a dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylated FAK (p-FAK) was also cleaved in to its p-N-terminal FAK. CaLa increased colon cancer cells motility. Calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, reversed the effects of CaLa on FAK and pFAK cleavage in both cancer cell lines. The cleaved FAK translocates into the nucleus and modulates p53 stability through MDM2-associated ubiquitination. CaLa-induced Ca2+ influx increased the motility of colon cancer cells was mediated by calpain activity through FAK and pFAK protein destabilization. In conclusion, these results suggest that careful consideration may be given in deciding dietary Ca2+ supplementation to patient undergoing treatment for metastatic cancer.

  9. Modelling the coupling between intracellular calcium release and the cell cycle during cortical brain development.

    PubMed

    Barrack, Duncan S; Thul, Rüdiger; Owen, Markus R

    2014-04-21

    Most neocortical neurons formed during embryonic brain development arise from radial glial cells which communicate, in part, via ATP mediated calcium signals. Although the intercellular signalling mechanisms that regulate radial glia proliferation are not well understood, it has recently been demonstrated that ATP dependent intracellular calcium release leads to an increase of nearly 100% in overall cellular proliferation. It has been hypothesised that cytoplasmic calcium accelerates entry into S phase of the cell cycle and/or acts to recruit otherwise quiescent cells onto the cell cycle. In this paper we study this cell cycle acceleration and recruitment by forming a differential equation model for ATP mediated calcium-cell cycle coupling via Cyclin D in a single radial glial cell. Bifurcation analysis and numerical simulations suggest that the cell cycle period depends only weakly on cytoplasmic calcium. Therefore, the accelerative impact of calcium on the cell cycle can only account for a small fraction of the large increase in proliferation observed experimentally. Crucially however, our bifurcation analysis reveals that stable fixed point and stable limit cycle solutions can coexist, and that calcium dependent Cyclin D dynamics extend the oscillatory region to lower Cyclin D synthesis rates, thus rendering cells more susceptible to cycling. This supports the hypothesis that cycling glial cells recruit quiescent cells (in G0 phase) onto the cell cycle, via a calcium signalling mechanism, and that this may be the primary means by which calcium augments proliferation rates at the population scale. Numerical simulations of two coupled cells demonstrate that such a scenario is indeed feasible.

  10. Aequorin response facilitation and intracellular calcium accumulation in molluscan neurones

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen J.; Zucker, Robert S.

    1980-01-01

    1. When molluscan neural somata are filled with the calcium-indicating photo-protein aequorin and subjected to a 1 Hz train of depolarizing pulses (0·3 sec duration to + 15 mV) under voltage clamp, the successive photo-emissions due to calcium influx facilitate. The origin of this phenomenon was investigated in identified neurones from the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia californica. 2. Since outward currents inactivate cumulatively in successive pulses, the effective depolarization increases due to a series resistance error. Elimination of this error by electronic compensation or pharmacological block of outward current reduced aequorin response facilitation by only about 30%, on the average. 3. When voltage-dependent sodium and potassium currents are blocked in tetraethylammonium (TEA)-substituted zero-sodium sea water, the remaining inward calcium currents display no facilitation. On the contrary, a slow decline during a pulse and a slight progressive depression in successive pulses are observed. Barium-substitution for calcium in the same medium eliminates a small residual potassium current insensitive to external TEA. The remaining inward barium currents also display depression instead of facilitation. 4. A non-pharmacological separation of calcium current was accomplished by measuring tail currents at the potassium equilibrium potential following depolarizing pulses. Calcium tail currents activate rapidly and then decline gradually and incompletely as depolarizing pulse duration is lengthened. Tail currents also show no evidence of facilitation; there is instead a slight depression of currents after successive pulses. 5. Increments of optical absorbance in neurones filled with the calcium-sensitive dye arsenazo III show a depression rather than facilitation to successive depolarizations in a train. The time course of these absorbance signals is consistent with the time-dependent depression of calcium current. 6. Calibration of arsenazo III response amplitude

  11. Regulation of PKC mediated signaling by calcium during visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nivedita; Chakraborty, Supriya; Paul Chowdhury, Bidisha; Banerjee, Sayantan; Halder, Kuntal; Majumder, Saikat; Majumdar, Subrata; Sen, Parimal C

    2014-01-01

    Calcium is an ubiquitous cellular signaling molecule that controls a variety of cellular processes and is strictly maintained in the cellular compartments by the coordination of various Ca2+ pumps and channels. Two such fundamental calcium pumps are plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) and Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) which play a pivotal role in maintaining intracellular calcium homeostasis. This intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis is often disturbed by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, the causative organism of visceral leishmaniasis. In the present study we have dileneated the involvement of PMCA4 and SERCA3 during leishmaniasis. We have observed that during leishmaniasis, intracellular Ca2+ concentration was up-regulated and was further controlled by both PMCA4 and SERCA3. Inhibition of these two Ca2+-ATPases resulted in decreased parasite burden within the host macrophages due to enhanced intracellular Ca2+. Contrastingly, on the other hand, activation of PMCA4 was found to enhance the parasite burden. Our findings also highlighted the importance of Ca2+ in the modulation of cytokine balance during leishmaniasis. These results thus cumulatively suggests that these two Ca2+-ATPases play prominent roles during visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:25329062

  12. Coxiella subversion of intracellular host signaling.

    PubMed

    Hussain, S Kauser; Voth, Daniel E

    2012-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a highly infectious bacterial pathogen that replicates in a specialized vacuole inside eukaryotic cells. Due to a prolonged growth cycle, Coxiella continuously manipulates cellular processes to generate this parasitophorous vacuole (PV) and promote host cell viability. Here, we discuss recent findings that indicate Coxiella modulates several host signaling pathways to influence survival and ensure intracellular replication. The pathogen actively inhibits apoptotic cell death and activates the pro-survival kinases Akt and Erk1/2 to promote host viability. Coxiella's anti-apoptotic activity also involves the interface between autophagy and apoptosis, which is regulated by the interaction of autophagy-related Beclin-1 and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Additionally, Coxiella requires host kinase activity for PV biogenesis and maintenance. Thus, signaling modulation by Coxiella is critical for multiple aspects of host cell parasitism. Collectively, recent signaling studies have enhanced our understanding of the unique Coxiella-host cell interaction. Identification of bacterial factors that regulate signaling events will further our ability to model this intriguing infectious process.

  13. Mechanisms by which the inhibition of specific intracellular signaling pathways increase osteoblast proliferation on apatite surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seungwon; Tian, Yu-Shun; Lee, Yun-Jung; Yu, Frank H; Kim, Hyun-Man

    2011-04-01

    Osteoblasts proliferate slowly on the surface of calcium phosphate apatite which is widely used as a substrate biomaterial in bone regeneration. Owing to poor adhesion signaling in the cells grown on the calcium phosphate surface, inadequate growth factor signaling is generated to trigger cell cycle progression. The present study investigated an intracellular signal transduction pathway involved in the slow cell proliferation in osteoblasts grown on the calcium phosphate surface. Small GTPase RhoA and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) were more activated in cells grown on the surface of calcium phosphate apatite than on tissue culture plate. Specific inhibition of RhoA and PTEN induced the cells on calcium phosphate apatite surface to proliferate at a similar rate as cells on tissue culture plate surface. Specific inhibition of ROCK, which is a downstream effector of RhoA and an upstream activator of PTEN also increased proliferation of these osteoblasts. Present results indicate that physical property of calcium phosphate crystals that impede cell proliferation may be surmounted by the inhibition of the RhoA/ROCK/PTEN pathway to rescue delayed proliferation of osteoblasts on the calcium phosphate apatite surface. In addition, specific inhibition of ROCK promoted cell migration and osteoblast differentiation. Inhibition of the RhoA/ROCK/PTEN intracellular signaling pathway is expected to enhance cell activity to promote and accelerate bone regeneration on the calcium phosphate apatite surface.

  14. Role of intracellular calcium in cellular volume regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, S.M.; Chase, H.S. Jr.

    1986-06-01

    We investigated the role of intracellular calcium in epithelial cell volume regulation using cells isolated from the toad urinary bladder. A suspension of cells was prepared by treatment of the bladder with collagenase followed by ethyleneglycol-bis(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid. The cells retained their ion-transporting capabilities: ouabain (1 mM) and amiloride (10 microM) inhibited cellular uptake of /sup 86/Rb and /sup 22/Na, respectively. Using a Coulter counter to measure cellular volume, we found that we could swell cells either by reducing the extracellular osmolality or by adding the permeant solute urea (45 mM) isosmotically. Under both conditions, cells first swelled and then returned to their base-line volume, in spite of the continued presence of the stimulus to swell. Volume regulation was inhibited when cells were swelled at low extracellular (Ca) (100 nM) and was retarded in cells preloaded with the calcium buffer quin 2. Swelling increased the intracellular free calcium concentration ((Ca)i), as measured by quin 2 fluorescence: (Ca)i increased 35 +/- 9 nM (n = 6) after hypotonic swelling and 42 +/- 3 nM (n = 3) after urea swelling. Reducing extracellular (Ca) to less than 100 nM prevented the swelling-induced increase in (Ca)i, suggesting that the source of the increase in (Ca)i was extracellular. This result was confirmed in measurements of cellular uptake of 45Ca: the rate of uptake was significantly higher in swollen cells compared with control (1.1 +/- 0.2 vs. 0.4 +/- 0.1 fmol . cell-1 X 5 min-1). Our experiments provide the first demonstration that cellular swelling increases (Ca)i. This increase is likely to play a critical role in cellular volume regulation.

  15. Calcium signaling in neocortical development.

    PubMed

    Uhlén, Per; Fritz, Nicolas; Smedler, Erik; Malmersjö, Seth; Kanatani, Shigeaki

    2015-04-01

    The calcium ion (Ca(2+) ) is an essential second messenger that plays a pivotal role in neurogenesis. In the ventricular zone (VZ) of the neocortex, neural stem cells linger to produce progenitor cells and subsequently neurons and glial cells, which together build up the entire adult brain. The radial glial cells, with their characteristic radial fibers that stretch from the inner ventricular wall to the outer cortex, are known to be the neural stem cells of the neocortex. Migrating neurons use these radial fibers to climb from the proliferative VZ in the inner part of the brain to the outer layers of the cortex, where differentiation processes continue. To establish the complex structures that constitute the adult cerebral cortex, proliferation, migration, and differentiation must be tightly controlled by various signaling events, including cytosolic Ca(2+) signaling. During development, cells regularly exhibit spontaneous Ca(2+) activity that stimulates downstream effectors, which can elicit these fundamental cell processes. Spontaneous Ca(2+) activity during early neocortical development depends heavily on gap junctions and voltage dependent Ca(2+) channels, whereas later in development neurotransmitters and synapses exert an influence. Here, we provide an overview of the literature on Ca(2+) signaling and its impact on cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation in the neocortex. We point out important historical studies and review recent progress in determining the role of Ca(2+) signaling in neocortical development.

  16. Towards the Physics of Calcium Signalling in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Vaz Martins, Teresa; Evans, Matthew J.; Woolfenden, Hugh C.; Morris, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium is an abundant element with a wide variety of important roles within cells. Calcium ions are inter- and intra-cellular messengers that are involved in numerous signalling pathways. Fluctuating compartment-specific calcium ion concentrations can lead to localised and even plant-wide oscillations that can regulate downstream events. Understanding the mechanisms that give rise to these complex patterns that vary both in space and time can be challenging, even in cases for which individual components have been identified. Taking a systems biology approach, mathematical and computational techniques can be employed to produce models that recapitulate experimental observations and capture our current understanding of the system. Useful models make novel predictions that can be investigated and falsified experimentally. This review brings together recent work on the modelling of calcium signalling in plants, from the scale of ion channels through to plant-wide responses to external stimuli. Some in silico results that have informed later experiments are highlighted. PMID:27137393

  17. Altered calcium signaling in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Teneale A; Yapa, Kunsala T D S; Monteith, Gregory R

    2015-10-01

    It is the nature of the calcium signal, as determined by the coordinated activity of a suite of calcium channels, pumps, exchangers and binding proteins that ultimately guides a cell's fate. Deregulation of the calcium signal is often deleterious and has been linked to each of the 'cancer hallmarks'. Despite this, we do not yet have a full understanding of the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with cancer. Such an understanding could aid in guiding the development of therapies specifically targeting altered calcium signaling in cancer cells during tumorigenic progression. Findings from some of the studies that have assessed the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with tumorigenesis and/or processes important in invasion and metastasis are presented in this review. The potential of new methodologies is also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers.

  18. Calcium Signals from the Vacuole

    PubMed Central

    Schönknecht, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    The vacuole is by far the largest intracellular Ca2+ store in most plant cells. Here, the current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of vacuolar Ca2+ release and Ca2+ uptake is summarized, and how different vacuolar Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ pumps may contribute to Ca2+ signaling in plant cells is discussed. To provide a phylogenetic perspective, the distribution of potential vacuolar Ca2+ transporters is compared for different clades of photosynthetic eukaryotes. There are several candidates for vacuolar Ca2+ channels that could elicit cytosolic [Ca2+] transients. Typical second messengers, such as InsP3 and cADPR, seem to trigger vacuolar Ca2+ release, but the molecular mechanism of this Ca2+ release still awaits elucidation. Some vacuolar Ca2+ channels have been identified on a molecular level, the voltage-dependent SV/TPC1 channel, and recently two cyclic-nucleotide-gated cation channels. However, their function in Ca2+ signaling still has to be demonstrated. Ca2+ pumps in addition to establishing long-term Ca2+ homeostasis can shape cytosolic [Ca2+] transients by limiting their amplitude and duration, and may thus affect Ca2+ signaling. PMID:27137394

  19. Oxysterols and calcium signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Mackrill, John J

    2011-09-01

    Ionised calcium (Ca(2+)) is a key second messenger, regulating almost every cellular process from cell death to muscle contraction. Cytosolic levels of this ion can be increased via gating of channel proteins located in the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum and other membrane-delimited organelles. Ca(2+) can be removed from cells by extrusion across the plasma membrane, uptake into organelles and buffering by anionic components. Ca(2+) channels and extrusion mechanisms work in concert to generate diverse spatiotemporal patterns of this second messenger, the distinct profiles of which determine different cellular outcomes. Increases in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration are one of the most rapid cellular responses upon exposure to certain oxysterol congeners or to oxidised low-density lipoprotein, occurring within seconds of addition and preceding increases in levels of reactive oxygen species, or changes in gene expression. Furthermore, exposure of cells to oxysterols for periods of hours to days modulates Ca(2+) signal transduction, with these longer-term alterations in cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis potentially underlying pathological events within atherosclerotic lesions, such as hyporeactivity to vasoconstrictors observed in vascular smooth muscle, or ER stress-induced cell death in macrophages. Despite their candidate roles in physiology and disease, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that couple changes in oxysterol concentrations to alterations in Ca(2+) signalling. This review examines the ways in which oxysterols could influence Ca(2+) signal transduction and the potential roles of this in health and disease. PMID:21513705

  20. Cilioplasm is a cellular compartment for calcium signaling in response to mechanical and chemical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xingjian; Mohieldin, Ashraf M; Muntean, Brian S; Green, Jill A; Shah, Jagesh V; Mykytyn, Kirk; Nauli, Surya M

    2014-06-01

    Primary cilia with a diameter of ~200 nm have been implicated in development and disease. Calcium signaling within a primary cilium has never been directly visualized and has therefore remained a speculation. Fluid-shear stress and dopamine receptor type-5 (DR5) agonist are among the few stimuli that require cilia for intracellular calcium signal transduction. However, it is not known if these stimuli initiate calcium signaling within the cilium or if the calcium signal originates in the cytoplasm. Using an integrated single-cell imaging technique, we demonstrate for the first time that calcium signaling triggered by fluid-shear stress initiates in the primary cilium and can be distinguished from the subsequent cytosolic calcium response through the ryanodine receptor. Importantly, this flow-induced calcium signaling depends on the ciliary polycystin-2 calcium channel. While DR5-specific agonist induces calcium signaling mainly in the cilioplasm via ciliary CaV1.2, thrombin specifically induces cytosolic calcium signaling through the IP3 receptor. Furthermore, a non-specific calcium ionophore triggers both ciliary and cytosolic calcium responses. We suggest that cilia not only act as sensory organelles but also function as calcium signaling compartments. Cilium-dependent signaling can spread to the cytoplasm or be contained within the cilioplasm. Our study thus provides the first model to understand signaling within the cilioplasm of a living cell.

  1. Modulation of Intracellular Calcium Levels by Calcium Lactate Affects Colon Cancer Cell Motility through Calcium-Dependent Calpain

    PubMed Central

    Sundaramoorthy, Pasupathi; Sim, Jae Jun; Jang, Yeong-Su; Mishra, Siddhartha Kumar; Jeong, Keun-Yeong; Mander, Poonam; Chul, Oh Byung; Shim, Won-Sik; Oh, Seung Hyun; Nam, Ky-Youb; Kim, Hwan Mook

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cell motility is a key phenomenon regulating invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a major role in cellular adhesion and metastasis of various cancers. The relationship between dietary supplementation of calcium and colon cancer has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of calcium (Ca2+) supplementation on calpain-FAK-motility is not clearly understood. We sought to identify the mechanism of FAK cleavage through Ca2+ bound lactate (CaLa), its downstream signaling and role in the motility of human colon cancer cells. We found that treating HCT116 and HT-29 cells with CaLa immediately increased the intracellular Ca2+ (iCa2+) levels for a prolonged period of time. Ca2+ influx induced cleavage of FAK into an N-terminal FAK (FERM domain) in a dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylated FAK (p-FAK) was also cleaved in to its p-N-terminal FAK. CaLa increased colon cancer cells motility. Calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, reversed the effects of CaLa on FAK and pFAK cleavage in both cancer cell lines. The cleaved FAK translocates into the nucleus and modulates p53 stability through MDM2-associated ubiquitination. CaLa-induced Ca2+ influx increased the motility of colon cancer cells was mediated by calpain activity through FAK and pFAK protein destabilization. In conclusion, these results suggest that careful consideration may be given in deciding dietary Ca2+ supplementation to patient undergoing treatment for metastatic cancer. PMID:25629974

  2. Ultrafine particles cause cytoskeletal dysfunctions in macrophages: role of intracellular calcium

    PubMed Central

    Möller, Winfried; Brown, David M; Kreyling, Wolfgang G; Stone, Vicki

    2005-01-01

    Background Particulate air pollution is reported to cause adverse health effects in susceptible individuals. Since most of these particles are derived form combustion processes, the primary composition product is carbon with a very small diameter (ultrafine, less than 100 nm in diameter). Besides the induction of reactive oxygen species and inflammation, ultrafine particles (UFP) can cause intracellular calcium transients and suppression of defense mechanisms of alveolar macrophages, such as impaired migration or phagocytosis. Methods In this study the role of intracellular calcium transients caused by UFP was studied on cytoskeleton related functions in J774A.1 macrophages. Different types of fine and ultrafine carbon black particles (CB and ufCB, respectively), such as elemental carbon (EC90), commercial carbon (Printex 90), diesel particulate matter (DEP) and urban dust (UD), were investigated. Phagosome transport mechanisms and mechanical cytoskeletal integrity were studied by cytomagnetometry and cell viability was studied by fluorescence microscopy. Macrophages were exposed in vitro with 100 and 320 μg UFP/ml/million cells for 4 hours in serum free medium. Calcium antagonists Verapamil, BAPTA-AM and W-7 were used to block calcium channels in the membrane, to chelate intracellular calcium or to inhibit the calmodulin signaling pathways, respectively. Results Impaired phagosome transport and increased cytoskeletal stiffness occurred at EC90 and P90 concentrations of 100 μg/ml/million cells and above, but not with DEP or UD. Verapamil and W-7, but not BAPTA-AM inhibited the cytoskeletal dysfunctions caused by EC90 or P90. Additionally the presence of 5% serum or 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) suppressed the cytoskeletal dysfunctions. Cell viability showed similar results, where co-culture of ufCB together with Verapamil, W-7, FCS or BSA produced less cell dead compared to the particles only. PMID:16202162

  3. Feedback Regulation of Cell-Substratum Adhesion by Integrin-Mediated Intracellular Ca2+ Signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjaastad, Michael D.; Angres, Brigitte; Lewis, Richard S.; Nelson, W. James

    1994-08-01

    Integrin binding to extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cell migration and gene expression in embryogenesis, metastasis, wound healing, and the inflammatory response. In many cases, binding of integrins to ECM triggers intracellular signaling pathways. The regulatory roles of intracellular signaling mechanisms in these events are poorly understood. Using single-cell analysis, we demonstrate that beads coated with peptide containing Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), an integrin recognition motif found in many ECM proteins, elicit a rapid transient increase in intracellular calcium in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells. Also, significantly more beads bind to responding cells than to nonresponders. Several independent methods that inhibit RGD-induced Ca2+ signaling decrease both the number of beads bound and the strength of adhesion to an RGD-coated substratum. These results indicate that intracellular Ca2+ signaling participates in a positive feedback loop that enhances integrin-mediated cell adhesion

  4. Plant organellar calcium signalling: an emerging field

    PubMed Central

    Stael, Simon; Wurzinger, Bernhard; Mair, Andrea; Mehlmer, Norbert; Vothknecht, Ute C.; Teige, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This review provides a comprehensive overview of the established and emerging roles that organelles play in calcium signalling. The function of calcium as a secondary messenger in signal transduction networks is well documented in all eukaryotic organisms, but so far existing reviews have hardly addressed the role of organelles in calcium signalling, except for the nucleus. Therefore, a brief overview on the main calcium stores in plants—the vacuole, the endoplasmic reticulum, and the apoplast—is provided and knowledge on the regulation of calcium concentrations in different cellular compartments is summarized. The main focus of the review will be the calcium handling properties of chloroplasts, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. Recently, it became clear that these organelles not only undergo calcium regulation themselves, but are able to influence the Ca2+ signalling pathways of the cytoplasm and the entire cell. Furthermore, the relevance of recent discoveries in the animal field for the regulation of organellar calcium signals will be discussed and conclusions will be drawn regarding potential homologous mechanisms in plant cells. Finally, a short overview on bacterial calcium signalling is included to provide some ideas on the question where this typically eukaryotic signalling mechanism could have originated from during evolution. PMID:22200666

  5. The effects of digitalis on intracellular calcium transients in mammalian working myocardium as detected with aequorin.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J P

    1985-11-01

    The effects of positive inotropic agents on the amplitude and time course of the light signal and corresponding tension response were studied in cat and human working myocardium microinjected with the bioluminescent Ca2+ indicator aequorin. Distinctive patterns of light and tension responses were identified that are consistent with known actions of the various agents on the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores, rate of uptake of Ca2+ by the sarcoplasmic reticulum and sensitivity of the myofilaments to Ca2+. In common with most other inotropic drugs, the cardiotonic steroid, acetylstrophanthidin, in doses of 4 X 10(-7) to 2 X 10(-6)M increases the amount of Ca2+ available for excitation-contraction coupling in the heart. However, in contrast to most other agents, acetylstrophanthidin does not affect the time course of the calcium transient. In common with changes in [Ca2+]o, acetylstrophanthidin does not alter the relationship between the amplitude of the aequorin light signal and developed tension, which, in contrast to caffeine and isoproterenol, indicates that the increase in tension is fully accounted for by the increase in systolic free calcium. These findings suggest that the cardiotonic steroids increase loading of intracellular calcium stores without affecting the kinetics of subcellular handling of Ca2+. In doses of 8 X 10(-7) to 2 X 10(-6)M, acetylstrophanthidin produces a calcium-overload state characterized by 'after-contractions' and 'after-glimmers' that are associated with the development of automatic and triggerable dysrhythmias. These studies provide direct evidence that the inotropic and toxic effects of digitalis on animal and human working myocardium are produced by changes in intracellular Ca2+.

  6. Intracellular calcium and survival of tadpole forebrain cells in anoxia.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Michael S; Fahlman, Christian S; Bickler, Philip E

    2005-02-01

    The frog brain survives hypoxia with a slow loss of energy charge and ion homeostasis. Because hypoxic death in most neurons is associated with increases in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i), we examined the relationship between [Ca2+]i and survival of a mixed population of isolated cells from the forebrain of North American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana tadpoles. Forebrain cells from stage V-XV tadpoles were isolated by enzymatic digestion and loaded with one of three different calcium indicators (Fura-2, Fura 2-FF and BTC) to provide estimates of [Ca2+]i accurate at low and high [Ca2+]i. Propidium iodide (PI) fluorescence was used as an indicator of cell viability. Cells were exposed to anoxia (100% N2) and measurements of [Ca2+]i and cell survival made from 1 h to 18 h. Intracellular [Ca2+] increased significantly after 3-6 h anoxia (P<0.05), regardless of the type of Ca2+ indicator used; however, there were substantial differences in the measurements of [Ca2+]i with the different indicators, reflecting their varying affinities for Ca2+. Resting [Ca2+]i was approximately 50 nmol l(-1) and increased to about 9-30 micromol l(-1) after 4-6 h anoxia. The significant increase in [Ca2+]i during anoxia was not associated with significant increases in cell death, with 85-95% survival over this time period. Cells exposed to anoxia for 18 h, or those made anoxic for 4-6 and reoxygenated for 12 h to 16 h, had survival rates greater than 70%, but survival was significantly less than normoxic controls. These results indicate that large increases in [Ca2+]i are not necessarily associated with hypoxic cell death in vertebrate brain cells. PMID:15695760

  7. Source of nuclear calcium signals.

    PubMed Central

    Allbritton, N L; Oancea, E; Kuhn, M A; Meyer, T

    1994-01-01

    Transient increases of Ca2+ concentration in the nucleus regulate gene expression and other nuclear processes. We investigated whether nuclear Ca2+ signals could be regulated independently of the cytoplasm or were controlled by cytoplasmic Ca2+ signals. A fluorescent Ca2+ indicator that is targeted to the nucleus was synthesized by coupling a nuclear localization peptide to Calcium Green dextran, a 70-kDa Ca2+ indicator. Stimulation of rat basophilic leukemia cells by antigen or by photolytic uncaging of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate induced transient increases in nuclear and cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations. Elevations in the nuclear Ca2+ concentration followed those in the nearby perinuclear cytosol within 200 ms. Heparin-dextran, an inhibitor of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor that is excluded from the nucleus, was synthesized to specifically block the release of Ca2+ from cytosolic stores. Addition of this inhibitor suppressed Ca2+ transients in the nucleus and the cytosol. We conclude that the Ca2+ level in the nucleus is not independently controlled. Rather, nuclear Ca2+ increases follow cytosolic Ca2+ increases with a short delay most likely due to Ca2+ diffusion from the cytosol through the nuclear pores. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7809059

  8. Measuring intracellular calcium fluxes in high throughput mode.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Chris; Smith, Fiona; Williams, Christine; Marcos, Sandra; Liu, Zhen Han; Hayter, Paul; Ciaramella, Giuseppe; Keighley, Wilma; Gribbon, Phil; Sewing, Andreas

    2003-06-01

    The measurement of intracellular calcium fluxes in real time is widely applied within the pharmaceutical industry to measure the activation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRhyp;s), either for pharmacological characterisation or to screen for new surrogate ligands. Initially restricted to G(q) coupled GPCRs, the introduction of promiscuous and chimeric G-proteins has further widened the application of these assays. The development of new calcium sensitive dyes and assays has provided sensitive, homogeneous assays which can be readily applied to high throughput screening (HTS). In this paper we describe the full automation of this assay type using a fluorometric imaging plate reader (FLIPR ) integrated into a Beckman/Sagian system to establish a simple robotic system that is well suited for the current medium throughput screening in this area of lead discovery. Using a recently completed HTS we discuss important determinants for FLIPR based screening, highlight some limitations of the current approach, and look at the requirements for future automated systems capable of keeping up with expanding compound files.

  9. Calcium signaling in plant cells in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordyum, E.

    Changes in the intracellular Ca 2 + concentration in altered gravity (microgravity and clinostating) evidence that Ca2 + signaling can play a fundamental role in biological effects of microgravity. Calcium as a second messenger is known to play a crucial role in stimulus - response coupling for many plant cellular signaling pathways. Its messenger functions are realized by transient changes in the cytosolic ion concentration induced by a variety of internal and external stimuli such as light, hormones, temperature, anoxia, salinity, and gravity. Although the first data on the changes in the calcium balance in plant cells under the influence of altered gravity have appeared in eighties, a review highlighting the performed research and the possible significance of such Ca 2 + changes in the structural and metabolic rearrangements of plant cells in altered gravity is still lacking. In this paper, an attempt was made to summarize the available experimental results and to consider some hypotheses in this field of research. It is proposed to distinguish between cell gravisensing and cell graviperception; the former is related to cell structure and metabolism stability in the gravitational field and their changes in microgravity (cells not specialized to gravity perception), the latter is related to active use of a gravitational stimulus by cells presumably specialized to gravity perception for realization of normal space orientation, growth, and vital activity (gravitropism, gravitaxis) in plants. The main experimental data concerning both redistribution of free Ca 2 + ions in plant cell organelles and the cell wall, and an increase in the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration under the influence of altered gravity are presented. Based on the gravitational decompensation hypothesis, the consequence of events occurring in gravis ensing cells not specialized to gravity perception under altered gravity are considered in the following order: changes in the cytoplasmic membrane

  10. Abortive and propagating intracellular calcium waves: analysis from a hybrid model.

    PubMed

    Guisoni, Nara; Ferrero, Paola; Layana, Carla; Diambra, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The functional properties of inositol(1,4,5)-triphosphate (IP3) receptors allow a variety of intracellular Ca(2+) phenomena. In this way, global phenomena, such as propagating and abortive Ca(2+) waves, as well as local events such as puffs, have been observed. Several experimental studies suggest that many features of global phenomena (e.g., frequency, amplitude, speed wave) depend on the interplay of biophysical processes such as diffusion, buffering, efflux and influx rates, which in turn depend on parameters such as buffer concentration, Ca(2+) pump density, cytosolic IP3 level, and intercluster distance. Besides, it is known that cells are able to modify some of these parameters in order to regulate the Ca(2+) signaling. By using a hybrid model, we analyzed different features of the hierarchy of calcium events as a function of two relevant parameters for the calcium signaling, the intercluster distance and the pump strength or intensity. In the space spanned by these two parameters, we found two modes of calcium dynamics, one dominated by abortive calcium waves and the other by propagating waves. Smaller distances between the release sites promote propagating calcium waves, while the increase of the efflux rate makes the transition from propagating to abortive waves occur at lower values of intercluster distance. We determined the frontier between these two modes, in the parameter space defined by the intercluster distance and the pump strength. Furthermore, we found that the velocity of simulated calcium waves accomplishes Luther's law, and that an effective rate constant for autocatalytic calcium production decays linearly with both the intercluster distance and the pump strength.

  11. Abortive and Propagating Intracellular Calcium Waves: Analysis from a Hybrid Model

    PubMed Central

    Guisoni, Nara; Ferrero, Paola; Layana, Carla; Diambra, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The functional properties of inositol(1,4,5)-triphosphate (IP3) receptors allow a variety of intracellular Ca2+ phenomena. In this way, global phenomena, such as propagating and abortive Ca2+ waves, as well as local events such as puffs, have been observed. Several experimental studies suggest that many features of global phenomena (e.g., frequency, amplitude, speed wave) depend on the interplay of biophysical processes such as diffusion, buffering, efflux and influx rates, which in turn depend on parameters such as buffer concentration, Ca2+ pump density, cytosolic IP3 level, and intercluster distance. Besides, it is known that cells are able to modify some of these parameters in order to regulate the Ca2+ signaling. By using a hybrid model, we analyzed different features of the hierarchy of calcium events as a function of two relevant parameters for the calcium signaling, the intercluster distance and the pump strength or intensity. In the space spanned by these two parameters, we found two modes of calcium dynamics, one dominated by abortive calcium waves and the other by propagating waves. Smaller distances between the release sites promote propagating calcium waves, while the increase of the efflux rate makes the transition from propagating to abortive waves occur at lower values of intercluster distance. We determined the frontier between these two modes, in the parameter space defined by the intercluster distance and the pump strength. Furthermore, we found that the velocity of simulated calcium waves accomplishes Luther’s law, and that an effective rate constant for autocatalytic calcium production decays linearly with both the intercluster distance and the pump strength. PMID:25602295

  12. Effects of adenosine on polymorphonuclear leucocyte function, cyclic 3': 5'-adenosine monophosphate, and intracellular calcium.

    PubMed Central

    Nielson, C. P.; Vestal, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    1. Inhibition of human polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) function by adenosine was studied with respect to effects of adenosine on intracellular cyclic AMP and calcium during the PMN respiratory burst. 2. The adenosine analogue 5'-N-ethylcarboxamide-adenosine (NECA) and L-N6-phenyl-isopropyl-adenosine (L-PIA) inhibited PMN oxygen metabolite generation with relative potencies (NECA greater than adenosine greater than L-PIA) characteristic of an A2 receptor. 3. The respiratory burst was inhibited by adenosine when PMN were activated by calcium ionophore or chemotactic peptide but not when cells where activated by oleoyl-acetyl-glycerol (OAG). 4. Adenosine increased intracellular cyclic AMP during the PMN respiratory burst regardless of whether cells were stimulated by ionophore, chemotactic peptide or OAG. 5. To determine whether the differences in cell inhibition by adenosine were related to differences in intracellular calcium mobilization by each activating agent, calcium was evaluated with the fluorescent probe, indo-1. Adenosine suppressed the increase in intracellular calcium following PMN activation by calcium ionophore or chemotactic peptide. In contrast, calcium did not increase in PMN activated by OAG and adenosine did not affect intracellular calcium changes following this stimulus. 6. These results demonstrate that physiological concentrations of adenosine inhibit the PMN respiratory burst in association with an increase in intracellular cyclic AMP and reduction of intracellular calcium. PMID:2547490

  13. Calcium signaling mediates cold sensing in insect tissues.

    PubMed

    Teets, Nicholas M; Yi, Shu-Xia; Lee, Richard E; Denlinger, David L

    2013-05-28

    The ability to rapidly respond to changes in temperature is a critical adaptation for insects and other ectotherms living in thermally variable environments. In a process called rapid cold hardening (RCH), insects significantly enhance cold tolerance following brief (i.e., minutes to hours) exposure to nonlethal chilling. Although the ecological relevance of RCH is well-established, the underlying physiological mechanisms that trigger RCH are poorly understood. RCH can be elicited in isolated tissues ex vivo, suggesting cold-sensing and downstream hardening pathways are governed by brain-independent signaling mechanisms. We previously provided preliminary evidence that calcium is involved in RCH, and here we firmly establish that calcium signaling mediates cold sensing in insect tissues. In tracheal cells of the freeze-tolerant goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis, chilling to 0 °C evoked a 40% increase in intracellular calcium concentration as determined by live-cell confocal imaging. Downstream of calcium entry, RCH conditions significantly increased the activity of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) while reducing phosphorylation of the inhibitory Thr306 residue. Pharmacological inhibitors of calcium entry, calmodulin activation, and CaMKII activity all prevented ex vivo RCH in midgut and salivary gland tissues, indicating that calcium signaling is required for RCH to occur. Similar results were obtained for a freeze-intolerant species, adults of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata, suggesting that calcium-mediated cold sensing is a general feature of insects. Our results imply that insect tissues use calcium signaling to instantly detect decreases in temperature and trigger downstream cold-hardening mechanisms.

  14. Calcium signaling mediates cold sensing in insect tissues

    PubMed Central

    Teets, Nicholas M.; Yi, Shu-Xia; Lee, Richard E.; Denlinger, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to rapidly respond to changes in temperature is a critical adaptation for insects and other ectotherms living in thermally variable environments. In a process called rapid cold hardening (RCH), insects significantly enhance cold tolerance following brief (i.e., minutes to hours) exposure to nonlethal chilling. Although the ecological relevance of RCH is well-established, the underlying physiological mechanisms that trigger RCH are poorly understood. RCH can be elicited in isolated tissues ex vivo, suggesting cold-sensing and downstream hardening pathways are governed by brain-independent signaling mechanisms. We previously provided preliminary evidence that calcium is involved in RCH, and here we firmly establish that calcium signaling mediates cold sensing in insect tissues. In tracheal cells of the freeze-tolerant goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis, chilling to 0 °C evoked a 40% increase in intracellular calcium concentration as determined by live-cell confocal imaging. Downstream of calcium entry, RCH conditions significantly increased the activity of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) while reducing phosphorylation of the inhibitory Thr306 residue. Pharmacological inhibitors of calcium entry, calmodulin activation, and CaMKII activity all prevented ex vivo RCH in midgut and salivary gland tissues, indicating that calcium signaling is required for RCH to occur. Similar results were obtained for a freeze-intolerant species, adults of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata, suggesting that calcium-mediated cold sensing is a general feature of insects. Our results imply that insect tissues use calcium signaling to instantly detect decreases in temperature and trigger downstream cold-hardening mechanisms. PMID:23671084

  15. Calcium signaling mediates cold sensing in insect tissues.

    PubMed

    Teets, Nicholas M; Yi, Shu-Xia; Lee, Richard E; Denlinger, David L

    2013-05-28

    The ability to rapidly respond to changes in temperature is a critical adaptation for insects and other ectotherms living in thermally variable environments. In a process called rapid cold hardening (RCH), insects significantly enhance cold tolerance following brief (i.e., minutes to hours) exposure to nonlethal chilling. Although the ecological relevance of RCH is well-established, the underlying physiological mechanisms that trigger RCH are poorly understood. RCH can be elicited in isolated tissues ex vivo, suggesting cold-sensing and downstream hardening pathways are governed by brain-independent signaling mechanisms. We previously provided preliminary evidence that calcium is involved in RCH, and here we firmly establish that calcium signaling mediates cold sensing in insect tissues. In tracheal cells of the freeze-tolerant goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis, chilling to 0 °C evoked a 40% increase in intracellular calcium concentration as determined by live-cell confocal imaging. Downstream of calcium entry, RCH conditions significantly increased the activity of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) while reducing phosphorylation of the inhibitory Thr306 residue. Pharmacological inhibitors of calcium entry, calmodulin activation, and CaMKII activity all prevented ex vivo RCH in midgut and salivary gland tissues, indicating that calcium signaling is required for RCH to occur. Similar results were obtained for a freeze-intolerant species, adults of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata, suggesting that calcium-mediated cold sensing is a general feature of insects. Our results imply that insect tissues use calcium signaling to instantly detect decreases in temperature and trigger downstream cold-hardening mechanisms. PMID:23671084

  16. Extracellular calcium sensing and extracellular calcium signaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. M.; MacLeod, R. J.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    , localized changes in Ca(o)(2+) within the ECF can originate from several mechanisms, including fluxes of calcium ions into or out of cellular or extracellular stores or across epithelium that absorb or secrete Ca(2+). In any event, the CaR and other receptors/sensors for Ca(o)(2+) and probably for other extracellular ions represent versatile regulators of numerous cellular functions and may serve as important therapeutic targets.

  17. Calcium signaling properties of a thyrotroph cell line, mouse TαT1 cells.

    PubMed

    Tomić, Melanija; Bargi-Souza, Paula; Leiva-Salcedo, Elias; Nunes, Maria Tereza; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

    2015-12-01

    TαT1 cells are mouse thyrotroph cell line frequently used for studies on thyroid-stimulating hormone beta subunit gene expression and other cellular functions. Here we have characterized calcium-signaling pathways in TαT1 cells, an issue not previously addressed in these cells and incompletely described in native thyrotrophs. TαT1 cells are excitable and fire action potentials spontaneously and in response to application of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), the native hypothalamic agonist for thyrotrophs. Spontaneous electrical activity is coupled to small amplitude fluctuations in intracellular calcium, whereas TRH stimulates both calcium mobilization from intracellular pools and calcium influx. Non-receptor-mediated depletion of intracellular pool also leads to a prominent facilitation of calcium influx. Both receptor and non-receptor stimulated calcium influx is substantially attenuated but not completely abolished by inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels, suggesting that depletion of intracellular calcium pool in these cells provides a signal for both voltage-independent and -dependent calcium influx, the latter by facilitating the pacemaking activity. These cells also express purinergic P2Y1 receptors and their activation by extracellular ATP mimics TRH action on calcium mobilization and influx. The thyroid hormone triiodothyronine prolongs duration of TRH-induced calcium spikes during 30-min exposure. These data indicate that TαT1 cells are capable of responding to natively feed-forward TRH signaling and intrapituitary ATP signaling with acute calcium mobilization and sustained calcium influx. Amplification of TRH-induced calcium signaling by triiodothyronine further suggests the existence of a pathway for positive feedback effects of thyroid hormones probably in a non-genomic manner.

  18. Calcium signaling and T-type calcium channels in cancer cell cycling

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, James T; Zeng, Xiang-Bin; Pottle, Jonathan E; Lee, Kevin; Wang, Alun R; Yi, Stephenie G; Scruggs, Jennifer A S; Sikka, Suresh S; Li, Ming

    2008-01-01

    Regulation of intracellular calcium is an important signaling mechanism for cell proliferation in both normal and cancerous cells. In normal epithelial cells, free calcium concentration is essential for cells to enter and accomplish the S phase and the M phase of the cell cycle. In contrast, cancerous cells can pass these phases of the cell cycle with much lower cytoplasmic free calcium concentrations, indicating an alternative mechanism has developed for fulfilling the intracellular calcium requirement for an increased rate of DNA synthesis and mitosis of fast replicating cancerous cells. The detailed mechanism underlying the altered calcium loading pathway remains unclear; however, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests the T-type Ca2+ channel is abnormally expressed in cancerous cells and that blockade of these channels may reduce cell proliferation in addition to inducing apoptosis. Recent studies also show that the expression of T-type Ca2+ channels in breast cancer cells is proliferation state dependent, i.e. the channels are expressed at higher levels during the fast-replication period, and once the cells are in a non-proliferation state, expression of this channel is minimal. Therefore, selectively blocking calcium entry into cancerous cells may be a valuable approach for preventing tumor growth. Since T-type Ca2+ channels are not expressed in epithelial cells, selective T-type Ca2+ channel blockers may be useful in the treatment of certain types of cancers. PMID:18763278

  19. Presynaptic Calcium Signalling in Cerebellar Mossy Fibres

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Louiza B.; Jörntell, Henrik; Midtgaard, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Whole-cell recordings were obtained from mossy fibre terminals in adult turtles in order to characterize the basic membrane properties. Calcium imaging of presynaptic calcium signals was carried out in order to analyse calcium dynamics and presynaptic GABA B inhibition. A tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive fast Na+ spike faithfully followed repetitive depolarizing pulses with little change in spike duration or amplitude, while a strong outward rectification dominated responses to long-lasting depolarizations. High-threshold calcium spikes were uncovered following addition of potassium channel blockers. Calcium imaging using Calcium-Green dextran revealed a stimulus-evoked all-or-none TTX-sensitive calcium signal in simple and complex rosettes. All compartments of a complex rosette were activated during electrical activation of the mossy fibre, while individual simple and complex rosettes along an axon appeared to be isolated from one another in terms of calcium signalling. CGP55845 application showed that GABA B receptors mediated presynaptic inhibition of the calcium signal over the entire firing frequency range of mossy fibres. A paired-pulse depression of the calcium signal lasting more than 1 s affected burst firing in mossy fibres; this paired-pulse depression was reduced by GABA B antagonists. While our results indicated that a presynaptic rosette electrophysiologically functioned as a unit, topical GABA application showed that calcium signals in the branches of complex rosettes could be modulated locally, suggesting that cerebellar glomeruli may be dynamically sub-compartmentalized due to ongoing inhibition mediated by Golgi cells. This could provide a fine-grained control of mossy fibre-granule cell information transfer and synaptic plasticity within a mossy fibre rosette. PMID:20162034

  20. Role of intracellular free calcium in killing Penicillium marneffei within human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chen, Renqiong; Ji, Guangquan; Ma, Tuan; Huang, Xiaowen; Ren, Hong; Xi, Liyan

    2015-01-01

    Increases in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) promote phagocyte antimicrobial responses. Here, we investigated macrophages stimulated by Penicillium marneffei (P. marneffei). [Ca(2+)]c was determined in macrophages loaded with the fluorescent calcium probe Fura 2/AM as they were stimulated by P. marneffei. We found that P. marneffei induced an increase in [Ca(2+)]c in human macrophages. Further, increased [Ca(2+)]c with the ionophore A23187 promoted phagosomal acidification and maturation and reduced intracellular replication of P. marneffei in P. marneffei-infected human macrophages, whereas decreased [Ca(2+)]c with the chelation MAPTAM decreased TNF-α production, inhibited phagosomal acidification and maturation and increased intracellular replication of P. marneffei. These data indicate that Ca(2+) signaling may play an important role in controlling the replication of P. marneffei within macrophages.

  1. Platelet activating factor raises intracellular calcium ion concentration in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Peritoneal cells from thioglycollate-stimulated mice were allowed to adhere to coverglasses for 2 h to give a dense monolayer of adherent cells greater than 95% of which were macrophages. After incubation with the tetra-acetoxymethyl ester of quin2, coverglasses were rinsed with Ca2+-free saline, oriented at a 45 degree angle in square cuvettes containing a magnetically driven stir bar, and analyzed for changes in quin2 fluorescence in a spectrofluorimeter. Such fluorescence, taken as an indication of intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i), increased as exogenous calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]o) was raised to 1 mM. At [Ca2+]o approximately equal to 10 microM, [Ca2+]i = 72 +/- 14 nM (n = 26); at [Ca2+]o = 1 mM, [Ca2+]i = 140-220 nM, levels not increased by N, N, N', N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine, a membrane-permeant chelator of heavy metals than can quench quin2. Addition of mouse alpha + beta fibroblast interferon, lipopolysaccharide, thrombin, collagen, vasopressin, ADP, compound 48/80, or U46619 did not change [Ca2+]i. However, addition of platelet activating factor (PAF) (2-20 ng/ml) raised [Ca2+]i by 480 nM within 1 min if [Ca2+]o = 1 mM. In the presence of 5 mM EGTA, PAF raised [Ca2+]i by 25 nM. This suggests that PAF causes influx of exogenous Ca2+, as well as releasing some Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Consistent with these results, when PAF was added to 1 mM Ca2+ in the presence of 100 microM Cd2+ or Mn2+ to block Ca2+ influx, [Ca2+]i increased by only intermediate amounts; at the times of such dampened peak response, [Ca2+]i could be raised within 1 min to normal PAF-stimulated levels by chelation of the exogenous heavy metals with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. Normal PAF responses were observed in the presence of indomethacin. The lowest dose of PAF observed to raise [Ca2+]i was 0.1 ng/ml. Response of [Ca2+]i to 2-20 ng/ml PAF was transient, and second applications had no effect. The PAF response also was seen in

  2. Lead Poisoning Disturbs Oligodendrocytes Differentiation Involved in Decreased Expression of NCX3 Inducing Intracellular Calcium Overload.

    PubMed

    Ma, Teng; Wu, Xiyan; Cai, Qiyan; Wang, Yun; Xiao, Lan; Tian, Yanping; Li, Hongli

    2015-08-13

    Lead (Pb) poisoning has always been a serious health concern, as it permanently damages the central nervous system. Chronic Pb accumulation in the human body disturbs oligodendrocytes (OLs) differentiation, resulting in dysmyelination, but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, Pb at 1 μM inhibits OLs precursor cells (OPCs) differentiation via decreasing the expression of Olig 2, CNPase proteins in vitro. Moreover, Pb treatment inhibits the sodium/calcium exchanger 3 (NCX3) mRNA expression, one of the major means of calcium (Ca(2+)) extrusion at the plasma membrane during OPCs differentiation. Also addition of KB-R7943, NCX3 inhibitor, to simulate Pb toxicity, resulted in decreased myelin basic protein (MBP) expression and cell branching. Ca(2+) response trace with Pb and KB-R7943 treatment did not drop down in the same recovery time as the control, which elevated intracellular Ca(2+) concentration reducing MBP expression. In contrast, over-expression of NCX3 in Pb exposed OPCs displayed significant increase MBP fluorescence signal in positive regions and CNPase expression, which recovered OPCs differentiation to counterbalance Pb toxicity. In conclusion, Pb exposure disturbs OLs differentiation via affecting the function of NCX3 by inducing intracellular calcium overload.

  3. Estimating firing rates from calcium signals in locust projection neurons in vivo.

    PubMed

    Moreaux, Laurent; Laurent, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    Combining intracellular electrophysiology and multi-photon calcium imaging in vivo, we studied the relationship between calcium signals (sampled at 500-750 Hz) and spike output in principal neurons in the locust antennal lobe. Our goal was to determine whether the firing rate of individual neurons can be estimated in vivo with calcium imaging and, if so, to measure directly the accuracy and resolution of our estimates. Using the calcium indicator Oregon Green BAPTA-1, we describe a simple method to reconstruct firing rates from dendritic calcium signals with 80-90% accuracy and 50 ms temporal resolution.

  4. The calcium-signaling toolkit: Updates needed.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Charlotte; Prevarskaya, Natalia; Vanden Abeele, Fabien

    2016-06-01

    Here, we review the role of Ca(2+) in apoptosis, namely that ER Ca(2+) depletion or a sustained elevation of cytosolic or mitochondrial Ca(2+) concentration are sufficient to trigger apoptosis. These concepts have emerged by the use of ER stressor agents that decrease the ER Ca(2+) pool by inhibiting SERCA pumps. However, aside from their well-known actions on Ca(2+) homeostasis disruption leading to apoptosis, new evidence show that some ER Ca(2+) modulators have significant implications in other Ca(2+)-mediated or Ca(2+)-independent pathways determining cell fate suggesting a more complex regulation of apoptosis by intracellular Ca(2+). Here, we discuss the crucial interplay between Ca(2+) mediated apoptosis, the Unfold Protein Response and autophagy determining cell fate, and the molecular compounds that have been used to depict these pathways. This review of the literature clearly shows the need for new inhibitors that do not interfere concomitantly with autophagy and Ca(2+) signaling. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate. Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen.

  5. Two distinct phases of calcium signalling under flow

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Lu, Shaoying; Zheng, Shuai; Jiang, Zonglai; Wang, Yingxiao

    2011-01-01

    Aims High shear stress (HSS) can have significant impact on angiogenesis and atherosclerosis in collateral arteries near the bifurcation and curvature regions. Here, we investigate the spatiotemporal pattern of HSS-induced intracellular calcium alteration. Methods and results Genetically encoded biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer were targeted in the cytoplasm and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to visualize the subcellular calcium dynamics in bovine aortic endothelial cells under HSS (65 dyn/cm2). Upon HSS application, the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) increased immediately and maintained a sustained high level, while the ER-stored calcium had a significant decrease only after 300 s. The perturbation of calcium influx across the plasma membrane (PM) by the removal of extracellular calcium or the blockage of membrane channels inhibited the early phase of [Ca2+]i increase upon HSS application, which was further shown to be sensitive to the magnitudes of shear stress and the integrity of cytoskeletal support. In contrast, Src, phospholipase C(PLC), and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) can regulate the late phase of HSS-induced [Ca2+]i increase via the promotion of the ER calcium efflux. Conclusion The HSS-induced [Ca2+]i increase consists of two well-co-ordinated phases with different sources and mechanisms: (i) an early phase due to the calcium influx across the PM which is dependent on the mechanical impact and cytoskeletal support and (ii) a late phase originated from the ER-calcium efflux which is regulated by the Src, PLC, and IP3R signalling pathway. Therefore, our work presented new molecular-level insights into systematic understanding of mechanotransduction in cardiovascular systems. PMID:21285296

  6. Multiple effects of opiates on intracellular calcium level and on calcium uptake in three neuronal cell lines.

    PubMed

    Fields, A; Gafni, M; Oron, Y; Sarne, Y

    1995-07-31

    The present study examines the modulation by opiates of intracellular calcium levels and calcium entry, using fura-2 imaging and 45Ca2+ uptake, in three neuronal cell lines. We show that opiates (10(-7)-10(-5) M morphine and 10(-9)-10(-7) M etorphine) exert both inhibitory and excitatory effects on KCl-induced elevation in intracellular calcium level in SK-N-SH, NG108-15 and NMB cell lines. In addition, opiates elevate basal (non KCl-stimulated) intracellular calcium level in all three cell cultures. 45Ca2+ uptake is augmented by opiates in SK-N-SH cells and this stimulatory effect is not blocked by pertussis toxin. In NMB cells, an additional inhibitory effect of opiates on basal calcium takes place: opiates reduce intracellular calcium level as measured by fura-2, and decrease calcium influx as detected by 45Ca2+ uptake. The heterogeneity in the opioid regulation of calcium could not be attributed to the type of opioid drug, neither to its concentration nor to the experimental conditions, since neighboring cells within the same culture responded differently.

  7. Axotomy Depletes Intracellular Calcium Stores in Primary Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Rigaud, Marcel; Gemes, Geza; Weyker, Paul D.; Cruikshank, James M.; Kawano, Takashi; Wu, Hsiang-En; Hogan, Quinn H.

    2010-01-01

    Background The cellular mechanisms of neuropathic pain are inadequately understood. Previous investigations have revealed disrupted Ca2+ signaling in primary sensory neurons after injury. We therefore examined the effect of injury on intracellular Ca2+ stores of the endoplasmic reticulum, which critically regulate the Ca2+ signal and neuronal function. Methods Intracellular Ca2+ levels were measured with Fura-2 or mag-Fura-2 microfluorometry in axotomized fifth lumbar (L5) dorsal root ganglion neurons and adjacent L4 neurons isolated from hyperalgesic rats following L5 spinal nerve ligation, compared to neurons from control animals. Results Endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ stores released by the ryanodine-receptor agonist caffeine decreased by 46% in axotomized small neurons. This effect persisted in Ca2+-free bath solution that removes the contribution of store-operated membrane Ca2+ channels, and after blockade of both the mitochondrial, sarco-endoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase, and the plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase pathways. Ca2+ released by the sarco-endoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase blocker thapsigargin and by the Ca2+-ionophore ionomycin was also diminished by 25% and 41%, respectively. In contrast to control neurons, Ca2+ stores in axotomized neurons were not expanded by neuronal activation by K+ depolarization, and the proportionate rate of refilling by sarco-endoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase was normal. Luminal Ca2+ concentration was also reduced by 38% in axotomized neurons in permeabilized neurons. The adjacent neurons of the L4 dorsal root ganglia showed modest and inconsistent changes after L5 spinal nerve ligation. Conclusions Painful nerve injury leads to diminished releasable endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ stores and a reduced luminal Ca2+ concentration. Depletion of Ca2+ stores may contribute to the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. PMID:19602958

  8. [Role of endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane junctions in intracellular calcium homeostasis and cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Jia, Hang-Huan; Xu, Man; Yu, Xiao-Jiang; Liu, Long-Zhu; Zang, Wei-Jin

    2016-08-25

    Calcium overload is one of the important mechanisms of cardiovascular disease. Endoplasmic reticulum is an important organelle which regulates intracellular calcium homeostasis by uptake, storage and mobilization of calcium. So it plays a critical role in regulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis. Endoplasmic reticulum, which is widely distributed in cytoplasm, has a large number of membrane junction sites. Recent studies have reported that these junction sites are distributed on plasma membrane and organelle membranes (mitochondria, lysosomes, Golgi apparatus, etc.), separately. They could form complexes to regulate calcium transport. In this review, we briefly outlined the recent research progresses of endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane junctions in intracellular calcium homeostasis and cardiovascular disease, which may offer a new strategy for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:27546511

  9. Resveratrol reduces intracellular free calcium concentration in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng; Zhang, Li-Ping; Ma, Hui-Jie; Wang, Chuan; Li, Ming; Wang, Qing-Shan

    2005-10-25

    Resveratrol (trans-3, 4', 5-trihydroxy stilbene), a phytoalexin found in grape skins and red wine, has been reported to have a wide range of biological and pharmacological properties. It has been speculated that resveratrol may have cardioprotective activity. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in rat ventricular myocytes. [Ca(2+)](i) was detected by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The results showed that resveratrol (15~60 mumol/L) reduced [Ca(2+)](i) in normal and Ca(2+)-free Tyrode's solution in a concentration-dependent manner. The effects of resveratrol on [Ca(2+)](i) in normal Tyrode's solution was partially inhibited by pretreatment with sodium orthovanadate (Na3VO4, 1.0 mmol/L, P<0.01), an inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatase, or L-type Ca(2+) channel agonist Bay K8644 (10 mumol/L, P<0.05), but could not be antagonized by NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME (1.0 mmol/L). Resveratrol also markedly inhibited the ryanodine-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase in Ca(2+)-free Tyrode's solution (P<0.01). When Ca(2+) waves were produced by increasing extracellular Ca(2+) concentration from 1 to 10 mmol/L, resveratrol (60 mumol/L) could reduce the velocity and duration of propagating waves, and block the propagating waves of elevated [Ca(2+)](i). These results suggest that resveratrol may reduce the [Ca(2+)](i) in isolated rat ventricular myocytes. The inhibition of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel and tyrosine kinase, and alleviation of Ca(2+) release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) are possibly involved in the effects of resveratrol on rat ventricular myocytes. These findings could help explain the protective activity of resveratrol against cardiovascular disease. PMID:16220198

  10. Vasopressin and disruption of calcium signalling in polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Chebib, Fouad T; Sussman, Caroline R; Wang, Xiaofang; Harris, Peter C; Torres, Vicente E

    2015-08-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic kidney disease and is responsible for 5-10% of cases of end-stage renal disease worldwide. ADPKD is characterized by the relentless development and growth of cysts, which cause progressive kidney enlargement associated with hypertension, pain, reduced quality of life and eventual kidney failure. Mutations in the PKD1 or PKD2 genes, which encode polycystin-1 (PC1) and polycystin-2 (PC2), respectively, cause ADPKD. However, neither the functions of these proteins nor the molecular mechanisms of ADPKD pathogenesis are well understood. Here, we review the literature that examines how reduced levels of functional PC1 or PC2 at the primary cilia and/or the endoplasmic reticulum directly disrupts intracellular calcium signalling and indirectly disrupts calcium-regulated cAMP and purinergic signalling. We propose a hypothetical model in which dysregulated metabolism of cAMP and purinergic signalling increases the sensitivity of principal cells in collecting ducts and of tubular epithelial cells in the distal nephron to the constant tonic action of vasopressin. The resulting magnified response to vasopressin further enhances the disruption of calcium signalling that is initiated by mutations in PC1 or PC2, and activates downstream signalling pathways that cause impaired tubulogenesis, increased cell proliferation, increased fluid secretion and interstitial inflammation.

  11. Coincident signalling between the Gi/Go-coupled delta-opioid receptor and the Gq-coupled m3 muscarinic receptor at the level of intracellular free calcium in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Yeo, A; Samways, D S; Fowler, C E; Gunn-Moore, F; Henderson, G

    2001-03-01

    In SH-SY5Y cells, activation of delta-opioid receptors with [D-Pen(2,5)]-enkephalin (DPDPE; 1 microM) did not alter the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration [Ca(2+)](i). However, when DPDPE was applied during concomitant Gq-coupled m3 muscarinic receptor stimulation by carbachol or oxotremorine-M, it produced an elevation of [Ca(2+)](i). The DPDPE-evoked increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was abolished when the carbachol-sensitive intracellular Ca(2+) store was emptied. There was a marked difference between the concentration-response relationship for the elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) by carbachol (EC(50) 13 microM, Hill slope 1) and the concentration-response relationship for carbachol's permissive action in revealing the delta-opioid receptor-mediated elevation of [Ca(2+)] (EC(50) 0.7 mM; Hill slope 1.8). Sequestration of free G protein beta gamma dimers by transient transfection of cells with a beta gamma binding protein (residues 495-689 of the C terminal tail of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2) reduced the ability of delta opioid receptor activation to elevate [Ca(2+)](i). However, DPDPE did not elevate either basal or oxotremorine-M-evoked inositol phosphate production indicating that delta-opioid receptor activation did not stimulate phospholipase C. Furthermore, delta-opioid receptor activation did not result in the reversal of muscarinic receptor desensitization, membrane hyperpolarization or stimulation of sphingosine kinase. There was no coincident signalling between the delta-opioid receptor and the lysophosphatidic acid receptor which couples to elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) in SH-SY5Y cells by a PLC-independent mechanism. In SH-SY5Y cells the coincident signalling between the endogenously expressed delta-opioid and m3 muscarinic receptors appears to occur in the receptor activation-Ca(2+) release signalling pathway at a step after the activation of phospholipase C. PMID:11259487

  12. Calcium signalling in human neutrophil cell lines is not affected by low-frequency electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Golbach, Lieke A; Philippi, John G M; Cuppen, Jan J M; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M Lidy

    2015-09-01

    We are increasingly exposed to low-frequency electromagnetic fields (LF EMFs) by electrical devices and power lines, but if and how these fields interact with living cells remains a matter of debate. This study aimed to investigate the potential effect of LF EMF exposure on calcium signalling in neutrophils. In neutrophilic granulocytes, activation of G-protein coupled receptors leads to efflux of calcium from calcium stores and influx of extracellular calcium via specialised calcium channels. The cytoplasmic rise of calcium induces cytoskeleton rearrangements, modified gene expression patterns, and cell migration. If LF EMF modulates intracellular calcium signalling, this will influence cellular behaviour and may eventually lead to health problems. We found that calcium mobilisation upon chemotactic stimulation was not altered after a short 30 min or long-term LF EMF exposure in human neutrophil-like cell lines HL-60 or PLB-985. Neither of the two investigated wave forms (Immunent and 50 Hz sine wave) at three magnetic flux densities (5 μT, 300 μT, and 500 μT) altered calcium signalling in vitro. Gene-expression patterns of calcium-signalling related genes also did not show any significant changes after exposure. Furthermore, analysis of the phenotypical appearance of microvilli by scanning electron microscopy revealed no alterations induced by LF EMF exposure. The findings above indicate that exposure to 50 Hz sinusoidal or Immunent LF EMF will not affect calcium signalling in neutrophils in vitro.

  13. Presenilins and calcium signaling – systems biology to the rescue

    PubMed Central

    Bezprozvanny, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in presenilins result in familial Alzheimer’s disease (FAD). Presenilins encode a catalytic subunit of γ-secretase complex, and FAD mutations in presenilins alter γ-secretase activity. Many FAD mutations in presenilins also affect intracellular calcium signaling. To explain these results it was proposed that presenilins encode endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium leak channels, and that this function is disrupted by FAD mutations. This hypothesis has been controversial. Two recent reports provide new evidence for the calcium leak channel hypothesis. One group reported the presence of putative ion-conduction pore in the high resolution crystal structure of bacterial presenilin homologue PSH1. Another group identified an essential role of presenilins in mediating ER calcium leak in unbiased cell-based screen for calcium homeostasis modulators. These results should enable the field to move forward and to focus on exploring connections between FAD mutations in presenilins, changes in γ-secretase and ER Ca2+ leak functions and development of the disease. PMID:23838181

  14. Calcium signal induced by mechanical perturbation of osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Xia, S L; Ferrier, J

    1995-06-01

    Multinucleated osteoclasts from rabbit long bone, 1-6 days in culture, respond to mechanical perturbation with a transient increase of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), as measured with the fluorescent indicator fluo-3 on a confocal laser scanning microscope. In experiments with different extracellular calcium concentrations (from 11.8 mM to calcium-free), the incidence, the magnitude, and the duration of [Ca2+]i responses decreases with decreasing bathing [Ca2+]. Following mechanical perturbation, a thapsigargin-induced [Ca2+]i response has a lower magnitude than the thapsigargin-induced response without mechanical perturbation. In thapsigargin-pretreated osteoclasts the mechanical perturbation-induced rise in [Ca2+]i is larger and longer than in control cells. Ni2+ inhibits the incidence and decreases both the magnitude and the duration of the responses, while nifedipine, verapamil, and Gd3+ have no effect. These measurements show that rabbit osteoclasts transduce a mechanical perturbation of the cell membrane into a [Ca2+]i signal via both a calcium influx and an internal calcium release.

  15. Astrocyte calcium signaling: the third wave.

    PubMed

    Bazargani, Narges; Attwell, David

    2016-02-01

    The discovery that transient elevations of calcium concentration occur in astrocytes, and release 'gliotransmitters' which act on neurons and vascular smooth muscle, led to the idea that astrocytes are powerful regulators of neuronal spiking, synaptic plasticity and brain blood flow. These findings were challenged by a second wave of reports that astrocyte calcium transients did not mediate functions attributed to gliotransmitters and were too slow to generate blood flow increases. Remarkably, the tide has now turned again: the most important calcium transients occur in fine astrocyte processes not resolved in earlier studies, and new mechanisms have been discovered by which astrocyte [Ca(2+)]i is raised and exerts its effects. Here we review how this third wave of discoveries has changed our understanding of astrocyte calcium signaling and its consequences for neuronal function.

  16. N-acetyl-L-cysteine and cysteine increase intracellular calcium concentration in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Md Ashraful; Ahn, Won-Gyun; Song, Dong-Keun

    2016-09-01

    N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and cysteine have been implicated in a number of human neutrophils' functional responses. However, though Ca(2+) signaling is one of the key signalings contributing to the functional responses of human neutrophils, effects of NAC and cysteine on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in human neutrophils have not been investigated yet. Thus, this study was carried out with an objective to investigate the effects of NAC and cysteine on [Ca(2+)]i in human neutrophils. We observed that NAC (1 µM ~ 1 mM) and cysteine (10 µM ~ 1 mM) increased [Ca(2+)]i in human neutrophils in a concentration-dependent manner. In NAC pre-supplmented buffer, an additive effect on N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i in human neutrophils was observed. In Ca(2+)-free buffer, NAC- and cysteine-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase in human neutrophils completely disappeared, suggesting that NAC- and cysteine-mediated increase in [Ca(2+)]i in human neutrophils occur through Ca(2+) influx. NAC- and cysteine-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase was effectively inhibited by calcium channel inhibitors SKF96365 (10 µM) and ruthenium red (20 µM). In Na(+)-free HEPES, both NAC and cysteine induced a marked increase in [Ca(2+)]i in human neutrophils, arguing against the possibility that Na(+)-dependent intracellular uptake of NAC and cysteine is necessary for their [Ca(2+)]i increasing activity. Our results show that NAC and cysteine induce [Ca(2+)]i increase through Ca(2+) influx in human neutrophils via SKF96365- and ruthenium red-dependent way. PMID:27610031

  17. N-acetyl-L-cysteine and cysteine increase intracellular calcium concentration in human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Md. Ashraful; Ahn, Won-Gyun

    2016-01-01

    N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and cysteine have been implicated in a number of human neutrophils' functional responses. However, though Ca2+ signaling is one of the key signalings contributing to the functional responses of human neutrophils, effects of NAC and cysteine on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in human neutrophils have not been investigated yet. Thus, this study was carried out with an objective to investigate the effects of NAC and cysteine on [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils. We observed that NAC (1 µM ~ 1 mM) and cysteine (10 µM ~ 1 mM) increased [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils in a concentration-dependent manner. In NAC pre-supplmented buffer, an additive effect on N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils was observed. In Ca2+-free buffer, NAC- and cysteine-induced [Ca2+]i increase in human neutrophils completely disappeared, suggesting that NAC- and cysteine-mediated increase in [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils occur through Ca2+ influx. NAC- and cysteine-induced [Ca2+]i increase was effectively inhibited by calcium channel inhibitors SKF96365 (10 µM) and ruthenium red (20 µM). In Na+-free HEPES, both NAC and cysteine induced a marked increase in [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils, arguing against the possibility that Na+-dependent intracellular uptake of NAC and cysteine is necessary for their [Ca2+]i increasing activity. Our results show that NAC and cysteine induce [Ca2+]i increase through Ca2+ influx in human neutrophils via SKF96365- and ruthenium red-dependent way. PMID:27610031

  18. N-acetyl-L-cysteine and cysteine increase intracellular calcium concentration in human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Md. Ashraful; Ahn, Won-Gyun

    2016-01-01

    N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and cysteine have been implicated in a number of human neutrophils' functional responses. However, though Ca2+ signaling is one of the key signalings contributing to the functional responses of human neutrophils, effects of NAC and cysteine on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in human neutrophils have not been investigated yet. Thus, this study was carried out with an objective to investigate the effects of NAC and cysteine on [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils. We observed that NAC (1 µM ~ 1 mM) and cysteine (10 µM ~ 1 mM) increased [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils in a concentration-dependent manner. In NAC pre-supplmented buffer, an additive effect on N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils was observed. In Ca2+-free buffer, NAC- and cysteine-induced [Ca2+]i increase in human neutrophils completely disappeared, suggesting that NAC- and cysteine-mediated increase in [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils occur through Ca2+ influx. NAC- and cysteine-induced [Ca2+]i increase was effectively inhibited by calcium channel inhibitors SKF96365 (10 µM) and ruthenium red (20 µM). In Na+-free HEPES, both NAC and cysteine induced a marked increase in [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils, arguing against the possibility that Na+-dependent intracellular uptake of NAC and cysteine is necessary for their [Ca2+]i increasing activity. Our results show that NAC and cysteine induce [Ca2+]i increase through Ca2+ influx in human neutrophils via SKF96365- and ruthenium red-dependent way.

  19. Licochalcone A induces T24 bladder cancer cell apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium levels.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinhui; Jiang, Jiangtao; Yang, Xinyan; Han, Jichun; Zheng, Qiusheng

    2016-07-01

    Licochalcone A (LCA) has been reported to significantly inhibit cell proliferation, increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and induce apoptosis of T24 human bladder cancer cells via mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-triggered signaling pathways. Based on these findings, the present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which LCA induces apoptosis of T24 cells. Cultured T24 cells were treated with LCA, and cell viability was measured using the sulforhodamine B assay. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry with Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, and by fluorescent microscopy with Hoechst 33258 staining. The levels of intracellular free calcium ions were determined using Fluo-3 AM dye marker. Intracellular ROS levels were assessed using the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate probe assay. The mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethyl benzimidazole carbocyanine iodide. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of B‑cell lymphoma (Bcl)‑extra large, Bcl‑2‑associated X protein, Bcl‑2‑interacting mediator of cell death, apoptotic protease activating factor‑1 (Apaf‑1), calpain 2, cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase (caspase)‑3, caspase‑4 and caspase‑9 were determined using reverse transcription semiquantitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. Treatment with LCA inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of T24 cells, and increased intracellular Ca2+ levels and ROS production. Furthermore, LCA induced mitochondrial dysfunction, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased the mRNA expression levels of Apaf‑1, caspase‑9 and caspase‑3. Exposure of T24 cells to LCA also triggered calpain 2 and caspase‑4 activation, resulting in apoptosis. These findings indicated that LCA increased intracellular Ca2+ levels, which may be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, the ER stress pathway may be

  20. Regulating Intracellular Calcium in Plants: From Molecular Genetics to Physiology

    SciTech Connect

    Heven Sze

    2008-06-22

    To grow, develop, adapt, and reproduce, plants have evolved mechanisms to regulate the uptake, translocation and sorting of calcium ions into different cells and subcellular compartments. Yet how plants accomplish this remarkable feat is still poorly understood. The spatial and temporal changes in intracellular [Ca2+] during growth and during responses to hormonal and environmental stimuli indicate that Ca2+ influx and efflux transporters are diverse and tightly regulated in plants. The specific goals were to determine the biological roles of multiple Ca pumps (ECAs) in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We had pioneered the use of K616 yeast strain to functionally express plant Ca pumps, and demonstrated two distinct types of Ca pumps in plants (Sze et al., 2000. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 51,433). ACA2 represented one type that was auto-inhibited by the N-terminal region and stimulated by calmodulin. ECA1 represented another type that was not sensitive to calmodulin and phylogenetically distinct from ACAs. The goal to determine the biological roles of multiple ECA-type Ca pumps in Arabidopsis has been accomplished. Although we demonstrated ECA1 was a Ca pump by functional expression in yeast, the in vivo roles of ECAs was unclear. A few highlights are described. ECA1 and/or ECA4 are Ca/Mn pumps localized to the ER and are highly expressed in all cell types. Using homozygous T-DNA insertional mutants of eca1, we demonstrated that the ER-bound ECA1 supports growth and confers tolerance of plants growing on medium low in Ca or containing toxic levels of Mn. This is the first genetic study to determine the in vivo function of a Ca pump in plants. A phylogenetically distinct ECA3 is also a Ca/Mn pump that is localized to endosome, such as post-Golgi compartments. Although it is expressed at lower levels than ECA1, eca3 mutants are impaired in Ca-dependent root growth and in pollen tube elongation. Increased secretion of wall proteins in mutants suggests that Ca and Mn

  1. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields modulate cell function through intracellular signal transduction mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Stephen J; Blackmore, Peter F; White, Jody; Joshi, Ravindra P; Schoenbach, Karl H

    2004-08-01

    These studies describe the effects of nanosecond (10-300 ns) pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) on mammalian cell structure and function. As the pulse durations decrease, effects on the plasma membrane (PM) decrease and effects on intracellular signal transduction mechanisms increase. When nsPEF-induced PM electroporation effects occur, they are distinct from classical PM electroporation effects, suggesting unique, nsPEF-induced PM modulations. In HL-60 cells, nsPEF that are well below the threshold for PM electroporation and apoptosis induction induce effects that are similar to purinergic agonistmediated calcium release from intracellular stores, which secondarily initiate capacitive calcium influx through store-operated calcium channels in the PM. NsPEF with durations and electric field intensities that do or do not cause PM electroporation, induce apoptosis in mammalian cells with a well-characterized phenotype typified by externalization of phosphatidylserine on the outer PM and activation of caspase proteases. Treatment of mouse fibrosarcoma tumors with nsPEF also results in apoptosis induction. When Jurkat cells were transfected by electroporation and then treated with nsPEF, green fluorescent protein expression was enhanced compared to electroporation alone. The results indicate that nsPEF activate intracellular mechanisms that can determine cell function and fate, providing an important new tool for probing signal transduction mechanisms that modulate cell structure and function and for potential therapeutic applications for cancer and gene therapy.

  2. Alan [corrected] N. Epstein award: Intracellular signaling and ingestive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Derek

    2010-07-14

    Understanding the role of intracellular signaling pathways in ingestive behavior is a challenging problem in behavioral neuroscience. This review summarizes work conducted on two systems with the aim of identifying intracellular events that relate to food and fluid intake. The first set of experiments focused on melanocortin receptors and their ability to signal through members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family. The second set of experiments focused on the role of intracellular signaling pathways in water and saline intakes that are stimulated by angiotensin II (AngII). The initial findings in each line of research have been extended by subsequent research that is discussed in turn. The paper represents an invited review by a symposium, award winner or keynote speaker at the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior [SSIB] Annual Meeting in Portland, July 2009.

  3. Simulations of intracellular calcium release dynamics in response to a high-intensity, ultrashort electric pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, R. P.; Nguyen, A.; Sridhara, V.; Hu, Q.; Nuccitelli, R.; Beebe, S. J.; Kolb, J.; Schoenbach, K. H.

    2007-04-01

    Numerical simulations for electrically induced, intracellular calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum are reported. A two-step model is used for self-consistency. Distributed electrical circuit representation coupled with the Smoluchowski equation yields the ER membrane nanoporation for calcium outflow based on a numerical simulation. This is combined with the continuum Li-Rinzel model and drift diffusion for calcium dynamics. Our results are shown to be in agreement with reported calcium release data. A modest increase (rough doubling) of the cellular calcium is predicted in the absence of extra-cellular calcium. In particular, the applied field of 15kV/cm with 60ns pulse duration makes for a strong comparison. No oscillations are predicted and the net recovery period of about 5min are both in agreement with published experimental results. A quantitative explanation for the lack of such oscillatory behavior, based on the density dependent calcium fluxes, is also provided.

  4. Calcium signaling in lacrimal glands.

    PubMed

    Putney, James W; Bird, Gary S

    2014-06-01

    Lacrimal glands provide the important function of lubricating and protecting the ocular surface. Failure of proper lacrimal gland function results in a number of debilitating dry eye diseases. Lacrimal glands secrete lipids, mucins, proteins, salts and water and these secretions are at least partially regulated by neurotransmitter-mediated cell signaling. The predominant signaling mechanism for lacrimal secretion involves activation of phospholipase C, generation of the Ca(2+)-mobilizing messenger, IP3, and release of Ca(2+) stored in the endoplasmic reticulum. The loss of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum then triggers a process known as store-operated Ca(2+) entry, involving a Ca(2+) sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum, STIM1, which activates plasma membrane store-operated channels comprised of Orai subunits. Recent studies with deletions of the channel subunit, Orai1, confirm the important role of SOCE in both fluid and protein secretion in lacrimal glands, both in vivo and in vitro.

  5. Role of intracellular calcium stores in hair-cell ribbon synapse

    PubMed Central

    Castellano-Muñoz, Manuel; Ricci, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular calcium stores control many neuronal functions such as excitability, gene expression, synaptic plasticity, and synaptic release. Although the existence of calcium stores along with calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) has been demonstrated in conventional and ribbon synapses, functional significance and the cellular mechanisms underlying this role remains unclear. This review summarizes recent experimental evidence identifying contribution of CICR to synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity in the CNS, retina and inner ear. In addition, the potential role of CICR in the recruitment of vesicles to releasable pools in hair-cell ribbon synapses will be specifically discussed. PMID:24971053

  6. Resveratrol and calcium signaling: molecular mechanisms and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    McCalley, Audrey E; Kaja, Simon; Payne, Andrew J; Koulen, Peter

    2014-06-05

    Resveratrol is a naturally occurring compound contributing to cellular defense mechanisms in plants. Its use as a nutritional component and/or supplement in a number of diseases, disorders, and syndromes such as chronic diseases of the central nervous system, cancer, inflammatory diseases, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases has prompted great interest in the underlying molecular mechanisms of action. The present review focuses on resveratrol, specifically its isomer trans-resveratrol, and its effects on intracellular calcium signaling mechanisms. As resveratrol's mechanisms of action are likely pleiotropic, its effects and interactions with key signaling proteins controlling cellular calcium homeostasis are reviewed and discussed. The clinical relevance of resveratrol's actions on excitable cells, transformed or cancer cells, immune cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells are contrasted with a review of the molecular mechanisms affecting calcium signaling proteins on the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria. The present review emphasizes the correlation between molecular mechanisms of action that have recently been identified for resveratrol and their clinical implications.

  7. Calcium signaling in UV-induced damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Dan; Zhang, Su-juan; Li, Yuan-yuan; Qu, Ying; Ren, Zhao-Yu

    2007-05-01

    Hepa1-6 cells were irradiated with UV and incubated for varying periods of time. [Ca 2+] i (intracellular calcium concentration) of UV-irradiated cell was measured by ratio fluorescence imaging system. The comet assay was used to determine DNA damage. During the UVB-irradiation, [Ca 2+] i had an ascending tendency from 0.88 J/m2 to 92.4J/m2. Comet assay instant test indicated that when the irradiation dosage was above 0.88J/m2, DNA damage was observed. Even after approximate 2 h of incubation, DNA damage was still not detected by 0.88J/m2 of UVB irradiation. During UVA-irradiation, the elevation of [Ca 2+] i was not dose-dependent in a range of 1200 J/m2-6000J/m2 and DNA damage was not observed by comet assay. These results suggested that several intracellular UV receptors might induce [Ca 2+] i rising by absorption of the UV energy. Just [Ca 2+] i rising can't induce DNA damage certainly, it is very likely that the breakdown of calcium steady state induces DNA damage.u

  8. C-Peptide and its intracellular signaling.

    PubMed

    Hills, Claire E; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2009-01-01

    Although long believed to be inert, C-peptide has now been shown to have definite biological effects both in vitro and in vivo in diabetic animals and in patients with type 1 diabetes. These effects point to a protective action of C-peptide against the development of diabetic microvascular complications. Underpinning these observations is undisputed evidence of C-peptide binding to a variety of cell types at physiologically relevant concentrations, and the downstream stimulation of multiple cell signaling pathways and gene transcription via the activation of numerous transcription factors. These pathways affect such fundamental cellular processes as re-absorptive and/or secretory phenotype, migration, growth, and survival. Whilst the receptor remains to be identified, experimental data points strongly to the existence of a specific G-protein-coupled receptor for C-peptide. Of the cell types studied so far, kidney tubular cells express the highest number of C-peptide binding sites. Accordingly, C-peptide exerts major effects on the function of these cells, and in the context of diabetic nephropathy appears to antagonise the pathophysiological effects of major disease mediators such as TGFbeta1 and TNFalpha. Therefore, based on its cellular activity profile C-peptide appears well positioned for development as a therapeutic tool to treat microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes. PMID:20039003

  9. Detection and measurement of the intracellular calcium variation in follicular cells.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Navarro, Ana M; Terol-Villalobos, Iván R; Jiménez-Hernández, Hugo; Peregrina-Barreto, Hayde; Gonzalez-Barboza, José-Joel

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a new method for measuring the variation of intracellular calcium in follicular cells. The proposal consists in two stages: (i) the detection of the cell's nuclei and (ii) the analysis of the fluorescence variations. The first stage is performed via watershed modified transformation, where the process of labeling is controlled. The detection process uses the contours of the cells as descriptors, where they are enhanced with a morphological filter that homogenizes the luminance variation of the image. In the second stage, the fluorescence variations are modeled as an exponential decreasing function, where the fluorescence variations are highly correlated with the changes of intracellular free Ca(2+). Additionally, it is introduced a new morphological called medium reconstruction process, which helps to enhance the data for the modeling process. This filter exploits the undermodeling and overmodeling properties of reconstruction operators, such that it preserves the structure of the original signal. Finally, an experimental process shows evidence of the capabilities of the proposal. PMID:25342958

  10. Detection and Measurement of the Intracellular Calcium Variation in Follicular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Navarro, Ana M.; Terol-Villalobos, Iván R.; Jiménez-Hernández, Hugo; Peregrina-Barreto, Hayde; Gonzalez-Barboza, José-Joel

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a new method for measuring the variation of intracellular calcium in follicular cells. The proposal consists in two stages: (i) the detection of the cell's nuclei and (ii) the analysis of the fluorescence variations. The first stage is performed via watershed modified transformation, where the process of labeling is controlled. The detection process uses the contours of the cells as descriptors, where they are enhanced with a morphological filter that homogenizes the luminance variation of the image. In the second stage, the fluorescence variations are modeled as an exponential decreasing function, where the fluorescence variations are highly correlated with the changes of intracellular free Ca2+. Additionally, it is introduced a new morphological called medium reconstruction process, which helps to enhance the data for the modeling process. This filter exploits the undermodeling and overmodeling properties of reconstruction operators, such that it preserves the structure of the original signal. Finally, an experimental process shows evidence of the capabilities of the proposal. PMID:25342958

  11. Requirement for nuclear calcium signaling in Drosophila long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Weislogel, Jan-Marek; Bengtson, C Peter; Müller, Michaela K; Hörtzsch, Jan N; Bujard, Martina; Schuster, Christoph M; Bading, Hilmar

    2013-05-07

    Calcium is used throughout evolution as an intracellular signal transducer. In the mammalian central nervous system, calcium mediates the dialogue between the synapse and the nucleus that is required for transcription-dependent persistent neuronal adaptations. A role for nuclear calcium signaling in similar processes in the invertebrate brain has yet to be investigated. Here, we show by in vivo calcium imaging of adult brain neurons of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, that electrical foot shocks used in olfactory avoidance conditioning evoked transient increases in cytosolic and nuclear calcium concentrations in neurons. These calcium signals were detected in Kenyon cells of the flies' mushroom bodies, which are sites of learning and memory related to smell. Acute blockade of nuclear calcium signaling during conditioning selectively and reversibly abolished the formation of long-term olfactory avoidance memory, whereas short-term, middle-term, or anesthesia-resistant olfactory memory remained unaffected. Thus, nuclear calcium signaling is required in flies for the progression of memories from labile to transcription-dependent long-lasting forms. These results identify nuclear calcium as an evolutionarily conserved signal needed in both invertebrate and vertebrate brains for transcription-dependent memory consolidation.

  12. Extrinsic periodic information interpolates between monostable and bistable states in intracellular calcium dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ling; Duan, Wei-Long

    2015-06-01

    Extrinsic periodic information including physiological cyclical and circadian replacement would affect inevitably a real cell, in this paper we investigate the effect of extrinsic periodic information on intracellular calcium dynamics by means of second-order algorithm for stochastic simulation colored noises. By simulating time evolutions and stationary probability distribution of intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, the results show: (i) intracellular calcium oscillation between cytosol and calcium store shows synchronous and anti-synchronous oscillation as intensity and frequency of extrinsic periodic information vary; (ii) extrinsic periodic information interpolates stability from bistable state → monostable state → bistable state → monostable state as frequency of extrinsic periodic information increases; (iii) extrinsic periodic information interpolates stability from monostable state → bistable state as intensity of extrinsic periodic information increases.

  13. Calcium signaling in diabetic cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Laetitia; Ruiz-Hurtado, Gema; Rueda, Angélica; Mercadier, Jean-Jacques; Benitah, Jean-Pierre; Gómez, Ana María

    2014-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common medical conditions. It is associated to medical complications in numerous organs and tissues, of which the heart is one of the most important and most prevalent organs affected by this disease. In fact, cardiovascular complications are the most common cause of death among diabetic patients. At the end of the 19th century, the weakness of the heart in diabetes was noted as part of the general muscular weakness that exists in that disease. However, it was only in the eighties that diabetic cardiomyopathy was recognized, which comprises structural and functional abnormalities in the myocardium in diabetic patients even in the absence of coronary artery disease or hypertension. This disorder has been associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and is characterized by early-onset diastolic dysfunction and late-onset systolic dysfunction, in which alteration in Ca(2+) signaling is of major importance, since it controls not only contraction, but also excitability (and therefore is involved in rhythmic disorder), enzymatic activity, and gene transcription. Here we attempt to give a brief overview of Ca(2+) fluxes alteration reported on diabetes, and provide some new data on differential modulation of Ca(2+) handling alteration in males and females type 2 diabetic mice to promote further research. Due to space limitations, we apologize for those authors whose important work is not cited.

  14. Atomic structure of intracellular amorphous calcium phosphate deposits.

    PubMed

    Betts, F; Blumenthal, N C; Posner, A S; Becker, G L; Lehninger, A L

    1975-06-01

    The radial distribution function calculated from x-ray diffraction of mineralized cytoplasmic structures isolated from the hepatopancreas of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) is very similar to that previously found for synthetic amorphous calcium phosphate. Both types of mineral apparently have only short-range atomic order, represented as a neutral ion cluster of about 10 A in longest dimension, whose probable composition is expressed by the formula Ca9(PO4)6. The minor differences observed are attributed to the presence in the biological mineral of significant amounts of Mg-2+ and ATP. Synthetic amorphous calcium phosphate in contact with a solution containing an amount of ATP equivalent to that of the biological mineral failed to undergo conversion to the thermodynamically more stable hydroxyapatite. The amorphous calcium phosphate of the cytoplasmic mineral granules is similarly stable, and does not undergo conversion to hydroxyapatite, presumably owing to the presence of ATP and Mg-2+, known in inhibitors of the conversion process. The physiological implications of mineral deposits consisting of stabilized calcium phosphate ion clusters are discussed.

  15. Intracellular calcium levels as screening tool for nanoparticle toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Meindl, Claudia; Kueznik, Tatjana; Bösch, Martina; Roblegg, Eva; Fröhlich, Eleonore

    2015-01-01

    The use of engineered nano-sized materials led to revolutionary developments in many industrial applications and in the medical field. These materials, however, also may cause cytotoxicity. In addition to size, surface properties and shape were identified as relevant parameters for cell damage. Cell damage may occur as disruption of membrane integrity, induction of apoptosis and by organelle damage. Generation of oxidative stress may serve as an indicator for cytotoxicity. Effects occurring upon short contact of particles with cells, for instance in the systemic blood circulation, could be identified according to increases of intracellular [Ca2+] levels, which are caused by variety of toxic stimuli. Negatively charged, neutral and positively charged polystyrene particles of different sizes were used to study the role of size and surface properties on viability, membrane disruption, apoptosis, lysosome function, intracellular [Ca2+] levels and generation of oxidative stress. Silica particles served to test this hypothesis. Twenty nm polystyrene particles as well as 12 nm and 40 nm silica particles caused membrane damage and apoptosis with no preference of the surface charge. Only 20 nm plain and amine functionalized polystyrene particles cause oxidative stress and only the plain particles lysosomal damage. A potential role of surface charge was identified for 200 nm polystyrene particles, where only the amidine particles caused lysosomal damage. Increases in intracellular [Ca2+] levels and cytotoxicity after 24 h was often linked but determination of intracellular [Ca2+] levels could serve to characterize further the type of membrane damage. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Applied Toxicology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Nano-sized materials may cause cytotoxicity. Negatively charged, neutral and positively charged polystyrene particles of different sizes and silica nanoparticles were used to study the role of size and surface properties on viability, membrane

  16. Intracellular calcium affects prestin's voltage operating point indirectly via turgor-induced membrane tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Lei; Santos-Sacchi, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Recent identification of a calmodulin binding site within prestin's C-terminus indicates that calcium can significantly alter prestin's operating voltage range as gauged by the Boltzmann parameter Vh (Keller et al., J. Neuroscience, 2014). We reasoned that those experiments may have identified the molecular substrate for the protein's tension sensitivity. In an effort to understand how this may happen, we evaluated the effects of turgor pressure on such shifts produced by calcium. We find that the shifts are induced by calcium's ability to reduce turgor pressure during whole cell voltage clamp recording. Clamping turgor pressure to 1kPa, the cell's normal intracellular pressure, completely counters the calcium effect. Furthermore, following unrestrained shifts, collapsing the cells abolishes induced shifts. We conclude that calcium does not work by direct action on prestin's conformational state. The possibility remains that calcium interaction with prestin alters water movements within the cell, possibly via its anion transport function.

  17. Intracellular Signaling by Diffusion: Can Waves of Hydrogen Peroxide Transmit Intracellular Information in Plant Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Vestergaard, Christian Lyngby; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Møller, Ian Max

    2012-01-01

    Amplitude- and frequency-modulated waves of Ca2+ ions transmit information inside cells. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), specifically hydrogen peroxide, have been proposed to have a similar role in plant cells. We consider the feasibility of such an intracellular communication system in view of the physical and biochemical conditions in plant cells. As model system, we use a H2O2 signal originating at the plasma membrane (PM) and spreading through the cytosol. We consider two maximally simple types of signals, isolated pulses and harmonic oscillations. First we consider the basic limits on such signals as regards signal origin, frequency, amplitude, and distance. Then we establish the impact of ROS-removing enzymes on the ability of H2O2 to transmit signals. Finally, we consider to what extent cytoplasmic streaming distorts signals. This modeling allows us to predict the conditions under which diffusion-mediated signaling is possible. We show that purely diffusive transmission of intracellular information by H2O2 over a distance of 1 μm (typical distance between organelles, which may function as relay stations) is possible at frequencies well above 1 Hz, which is the highest frequency observed experimentally. This allows both frequency and amplitude modulation of the signal. Signaling over a distance of 10 μm (typical distance between the PM and the nucleus) may be possible, but requires high signal amplitudes or, equivalently, a very low detection threshold. Furthermore, at this longer distance a high rate of enzymatic degradation is required to make signaling at frequencies above 0.1 Hz possible. In either case, cytoplasmic streaming does not seriously disturb signals. We conclude that although purely diffusion-mediated signaling without relaying stations is theoretically possible, it is unlikely to work in practice, since it requires a much faster enzymatic degradation and a much lower cellular background concentration of H2O2 than observed

  18. Probing the Complexities of Astrocyte Calcium Signaling.

    PubMed

    Shigetomi, Eiji; Patel, Sandip; Khakh, Baljit S

    2016-04-01

    Astrocytes are abundant glial cells that tile the entire central nervous system and mediate well-established functions for neurons, blood vessels, and other glia. These ubiquitous cells display intracellular Ca(2+) signals, which have been intensely studied for 25 years. Recently, the use of improved methods has unearthed the panoply of astrocyte Ca(2+) signals and a variable landscape of basal Ca(2+) levels. In vivo studies have started to reveal the settings under which astrocytes display behaviorally relevant Ca(2+) signaling. Studies in mice have emphasized how astrocyte Ca(2+) signaling is altered in distinct neurodegenerative diseases. Progress in the past few years, fueled by methodological advances, has thus reignited interest in astrocyte Ca(2+) signaling for brain function and dysfunction. PMID:26896246

  19. Fibroblast Circadian Rhythms of PER2 Expression Depend on Membrane Potential and Intracellular Calcium

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Takako; Wang, Connie W.; Pan, Haiyun

    2012-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus synchronizes circadian rhythms of cells and tissues throughout the body. In SCN neurons, rhythms of clock gene expression are suppressed by manipulations that hyperpolarize the plasma membrane or lower intracellular Ca2+. However, whether clocks in other cells also depend on membrane potential and calcium is unknown. In this study, we investigate the effects of membrane potential and intracellular calcium on circadian rhythms in mouse primary fibroblasts. Rhythms of clock gene expression were monitored using a PER2::LUC knockin reporter. We found that rhythms were lost or delayed at lower (hyperpolarizing) K+ concentrations. Bioluminescence imaging revealed that this loss of rhythmicity in cultures was due to loss of rhythmicity of single cells rather than desynchrony among cells. In lower Ca2+ concentrations, rhythms were advanced or had shorter periods. Buffering intracellular Ca2+ by the calcium chelator 1,2-Bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM) or manipulation of IP3-sensitive intracellular calcium stores by thapsigargin delayed rhythms. These results suggest that the circadian clock in fibroblasts, as in SCN neurons, is regulated by membrane potential and Ca2+. Changes in intracellular Ca2+ may mediate the effects of membrane potential that we observed. PMID:22734566

  20. A simple method to reconstruct firing rates from dendritic calcium signals.

    PubMed

    Moreaux, Laurent; Laurent, Gilles

    2008-12-01

    Calcium imaging using fluorescent reporters is the most widely used optical approach to investigate activity in intact neuronal circuits with single-cell resolution. Calcium signals, however, are often difficult to interpret, especially if the desired output quantity is membrane voltage or instantaneous firing rates. Combining dendritic intracellular electrophysiology and multi-photon calcium imaging in vivo, we recently investigated the relationship between optical signals recorded with the fluorescent calcium indicator Oregon Green BAPTA-1 (OGB-1) and spike output in principal neurons in the locust antennal lobe. We derived from these experiments a simple, empirical and easily adaptable method requiring minimal calibration to reconstruct firing rates from calcium signals with good accuracy and 50-ms temporal resolution.

  1. The role of intracellular calcium phosphate in osteoblast-mediated bone apatite formation.

    PubMed

    Boonrungsiman, Suwimon; Gentleman, Eileen; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Evans, Nicholas D; McComb, David W; Porter, Alexandra E; Stevens, Molly M

    2012-08-28

    Mineralization is a ubiquitous process in the animal kingdom and is fundamental to human development and health. Dysfunctional or aberrant mineralization leads to a variety of medical problems, and so an understanding of these processes is essential to their mitigation. Osteoblasts create the nano-composite structure of bone by secreting a collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) on which apatite crystals subsequently form. However, despite their requisite function in building bone and decades of observations describing intracellular calcium phosphate, the precise role osteoblasts play in mediating bone apatite formation remains largely unknown. To better understand the relationship between intracellular and extracellular mineralization, we combined a sample-preparation method that simultaneously preserved mineral, ions, and ECM with nano-analytical electron microscopy techniques to examine osteoblasts in an in vitro model of bone formation. We identified calcium phosphate both within osteoblast mitochondrial granules and intracellular vesicles that transported material to the ECM. Moreover, we observed calcium-containing vesicles conjoining mitochondria, which also contained calcium, suggesting a storage and transport mechanism. Our observations further highlight the important relationship between intracellular calcium phosphate in osteoblasts and their role in mineralizing the ECM. These observations may have important implications in deciphering both how normal bone forms and in understanding pathological mineralization.

  2. The role of intracellular calcium phosphate in osteoblast-mediated bone apatite formation

    PubMed Central

    Boonrungsiman, Suwimon; Gentleman, Eileen; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Evans, Nicholas D.; McComb, David W.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Stevens, Molly M.

    2012-01-01

    Mineralization is a ubiquitous process in the animal kingdom and is fundamental to human development and health. Dysfunctional or aberrant mineralization leads to a variety of medical problems, and so an understanding of these processes is essential to their mitigation. Osteoblasts create the nano-composite structure of bone by secreting a collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) on which apatite crystals subsequently form. However, despite their requisite function in building bone and decades of observations describing intracellular calcium phosphate, the precise role osteoblasts play in mediating bone apatite formation remains largely unknown. To better understand the relationship between intracellular and extracellular mineralization, we combined a sample-preparation method that simultaneously preserved mineral, ions, and ECM with nano-analytical electron microscopy techniques to examine osteoblasts in an in vitro model of bone formation. We identified calcium phosphate both within osteoblast mitochondrial granules and intracellular vesicles that transported material to the ECM. Moreover, we observed calcium-containing vesicles conjoining mitochondria, which also contained calcium, suggesting a storage and transport mechanism. Our observations further highlight the important relationship between intracellular calcium phosphate in osteoblasts and their role in mineralizing the ECM. These observations may have important implications in deciphering both how normal bone forms and in understanding pathological mineralization. PMID:22879397

  3. Calcium signaling regulates trafficking of familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) mutants of the calcium sensing receptor.

    PubMed

    Grant, Michael P; Stepanchick, Ann; Breitwieser, Gerda E

    2012-12-01

    Calcium-sensing receptors (CaSRs) regulate systemic Ca(2+) homeostasis. Loss-of-function mutations cause familial benign hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) or neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT). FHH/NSHPT mutations can reduce trafficking of CaSRs to the plasma membrane. CaSR signaling is potentiated by agonist-driven anterograde CaSR trafficking, leading to a new steady state level of plasma membrane CaSR, which is maintained, with minimal functional desensitization, as long as extracellular Ca(2+) is elevated. This requirement for CaSR signaling to drive CaSR trafficking to the plasma membrane led us to reconsider the mechanism(s) contributing to dysregulated trafficking of FHH/NSHPT mutants. We simultaneously monitored dynamic changes in plasma membrane levels of CaSR and intracellular Ca(2+), using a chimeric CaSR construct, which allowed explicit tracking of plasma membrane levels of mutant or wild-type CaSRs in the presence of nonchimeric partners. Expression of mutants alone revealed severe defects in plasma membrane targeting and Ca(2+) signaling, which were substantially rescued by coexpression with wild-type CaSR. Biasing toward heterodimerization of wild-type and FHH/NSHPT mutants revealed that intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations were insufficient to rescue plasma membrane targeting. Coexpression of the nonfunctional mutant E297K with the truncation CaSRΔ868 robustly rescued trafficking and Ca(2+) signaling, whereas coexpression of distinct FHH/NSHPT mutants rescued neither trafficking nor signaling. Our study suggests that rescue of FHH/NSHPT mutants requires a steady state intracellular Ca(2+) response when extracellular Ca(2+) is elevated and argues that Ca(2+) signaling by wild-type CaSRs rescues FHH mutant trafficking to the plasma membrane.

  4. Evaluation of Intracellular Signaling Downstream Chimeric Antigen Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Hannah; Svensson, Emma; Gigg, Camilla; Jarvius, Malin; Olsson-Strömberg, Ulla; Savoldo, Barbara; Dotti, Gianpietro; Loskog, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    CD19-targeting CAR T cells have shown potency in clinical trials targeting B cell leukemia. Although mainly second generation (2G) CARs carrying CD28 or 4-1BB have been investigated in patients, preclinical studies suggest that third generation (3G) CARs with both CD28 and 4-1BB have enhanced capacity. However, little is known about the intracellular signaling pathways downstream of CARs. In the present work, we have analyzed the signaling capacity post antigen stimulation in both 2G and 3G CARs. 3G CAR T cells expanded better than 2G CAR T cells upon repeated stimulation with IL-2 and autologous B cells. An antigen-driven accumulation of CAR+ cells was evident post antigen stimulation. The cytotoxicity of both 2G and 3G CAR T cells was maintained by repeated stimulation. The phosphorylation status of intracellular signaling proteins post antigen stimulation showed that 3G CAR T cells had a higher activation status than 2G. Several proteins involved in signaling downstream the TCR were activated, as were proteins involved in the cell cycle, cell adhesion and exocytosis. In conclusion, 3G CAR T cells had a higher degree of intracellular signaling activity than 2G CARs which may explain the increased proliferative capacity seen in 3G CAR T cells. The study also indicates that there may be other signaling pathways to consider when designing or evaluating new generations of CARs. PMID:26700307

  5. Resolution of intracellular calcium metabolism in intact segments of rabbit aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Phair, R.D.; Hai, C.M.

    1986-07-01

    A new method, based on computer-assisted kinetic analysis of /sup 45/Ca efflux data, was used to measure calcium contents and fluxes for extracellular and intracellular compartments in intact segments of rabbit aorta. After a 1-hour loading period, efflux data were collected for 8 hours using a flow-through tissue chamber. These long-term effluxes were necessary because information on intracellular calcium metabolism was concentrated in the slow components of the efflux curves while earlier components appeared to be dominated by washout of extracellular calcium. Intracellular compartments were identified as those whose calcium contents were altered by 10 microM phenylephrine. This method complements previous approaches by providing simultaneous estimates of compartmental calcium contents and fluxes without requiring the assumption of isotopic equilibrium and without recourse to standard wash techniques for removal of extracellular calcium. In normal, calcium-containing, bicarbonate-buffered physiological salt solution these compartments contained a total of approximately 300 nmol Ca/g wet aorta. Of this total, 55 nmol/g were associated with the slowest resolvable compartment whose turnover time was 170 minutes and whose exchange flux was 0.32 nmol min-1g-1. Two other intracellular compartments had turnover times of 30 minutes. One of these was phenylephrine releasable and contained 145 nmol/g; it exchanged calcium at 4.9 nmol min-1g-1. In normal physiological salt solution the plasma membrane was, surprisingly, not rate limiting for Ca efflux; and in 10 microM phenylephrine the membrane Ca flux was even greater, increasing 3.5-fold compared to control.

  6. Novel frontiers in calcium signaling: A possible target for chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bonora, Massimo; Giorgi, Carlotta; Pinton, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) is largely known as a second messenger that is able to drive effects ranging from vesicle formation to muscle contraction, energy production and much more. In spite of its physiological regulation, Ca(2+) is a strategic tool for regulating apoptosis, especially during transmission between the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria. Contact sites between these organelles are well-defined as signaling platforms where oncogenes and oncosuppressors can exert anti/pro-apoptotic activities. Recent advances from in vivo investigations into these regions highlight the role of the master oncosuppressor p53 in regulating Ca(2+) transmission and apoptosis, and we propose that Ca(2+) signals are relevant targets when developing new therapeutic approaches.

  7. Pharmacological analysis of intracellular Ca2+ signalling: problems and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C W; Broad, L M

    1998-09-01

    The complex changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration that follow cell stimulation reflect the concerted activities of Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane and in the membranes of intracellular stores, and the opposing actions of the mechanisms that extrude Ca2+ from the cytosol. Disentangling the roles of each of these processes is hampered by the lack of adequately selective pharmacological tools. In this review, Colin Taylor and Lisa Broad summarize the more serious problems associated with some of the commonly used drugs, and describe specific situations in which the multiple effects of drugs on Ca2(+)-signalling pathways have confused analysis of these pathways.

  8. Fast kinetics of calcium signaling and sensor design.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shen; Reddish, Florence; Zhuo, You; Yang, Jenny J

    2015-08-01

    Fast calcium signaling is regulated by numerous calcium channels exhibiting high spatiotemporal profiles which are currently measured by fluorescent calcium sensors. There is still a strong need to improve the kinetics of genetically encoded calcium indicators (sensors) to capture calcium dynamics in the millisecond time frame. In this review, we summarize several major fast calcium signaling pathways and discuss the recent developments and application of genetically encoded calcium indicators to detect these pathways. A new class of genetically encoded calcium indicators designed with site-directed mutagenesis on the surface of beta-barrel fluorescent proteins to form a pentagonal bipyramidal-like calcium binding domain dramatically accelerates calcium binding kinetics. Furthermore, novel genetically encoded calcium indicators with significantly increased fluorescent lifetime change are advantageous in deep-field imaging with high light-scattering and notable morphology change.

  9. Calcium binding proteins and calcium signaling in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Delfina C; Guragain, Manita; Patrauchan, Marianna

    2015-03-01

    With the continued increase of genomic information and computational analyses during the recent years, the number of newly discovered calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) in prokaryotic organisms has increased dramatically. These proteins contain sequences that closely resemble a variety of eukaryotic calcium (Ca(2+)) binding motifs including the canonical and pseudo EF-hand motifs, Ca(2+)-binding β-roll, Greek key motif and a novel putative Ca(2+)-binding domain, called the Big domain. Prokaryotic CaBPs have been implicated in diverse cellular activities such as division, development, motility, homeostasis, stress response, secretion, transport, signaling and host-pathogen interactions. However, the majority of these proteins are hypothetical, and only few of them have been studied functionally. The finding of many diverse CaBPs in prokaryotic genomes opens an exciting area of research to explore and define the role of Ca(2+) in organisms other than eukaryotes. This review presents the most recent developments in the field of CaBPs and novel advancements in the role of Ca(2+) in prokaryotes.

  10. Cannabidiol induces intracellular calcium elevation and cytotoxicity in oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Mato, Susana; Victoria Sánchez-Gómez, María; Matute, Carlos

    2010-11-01

    Heavy marijuana use has been linked to white matter histological alterations. However, the impact of cannabis constituents on oligodendroglial pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the in vitro effects of cannabidiol, the main nonpsychoactive marijuana component, on oligodendrocytes. Exposure to cannabidiol induced an intracellular Ca(2+) rise in optic nerve oligodendrocytes that was not primarily mediated by entry from the extracellular space, nor by interactions with ryanodine or IP(3) receptors. Application of the mitochondrial protonophore carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP; 1 μM) completely prevented subsequent cannabidiol-induced Ca(2+) responses. Conversely, the increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels elicited by FCCP was reduced after previous exposure to cannabidiol, further suggesting that the mitochondria acts as the source of cannabidiol-evoked Ca(2+) rise in oligodendrocytes. n addition, brief exposure to cannabidiol (100 nM-10 μM) led to a concentration-dependent decrease of oligodendroglial viability that was not prevented by antagonists of CB(1), CB(2), vanilloid, A(2A) or PPARγ receptors, but was instead reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). The oligodendrotoxic effect of cannabidiol was partially blocked by inhibitors of caspase-3, -8 and -9, PARP-1 and calpains, suggesting the activation of caspase-dependent and -independent death pathways. Cannabidiol also elicited a concentration-dependent alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential, and an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). Finally, cannabidiol-induced cytotoxicity was partially prevented by the ROS scavenger trolox. Together, these results suggest that cannabidiol causes intracellular Ca(2+) dysregulation which can lead to oligodendrocytes demise.

  11. [Roles of intracellular calcium and monomeric G-proteins in regulating exocytosis of human neutrophils].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Wang, Jun-Han; Wu, Jian-Min; Xu, Tao; Zhang, Chun-Guang

    2003-12-25

    Neutrophils play a major role in host defense against microbial infection. There are some clues indicate that neutrophils may also play a role in the pathophysiology of the airway obstruction in chronic asthma. We studied the roles of intracellular calcium and GTP gamma S in the regulation of neutrophils exocytosis using pipette perfusion and membrane capacitance measurement technique in whole cell patch clamp configuration. The results showed that the membrane capacitance increase induced by calcium revealed a biphasic process. The first phase occurred when the calcium level was between 0.2-14 micromol/L with a plateau amplitude of 1.23 pF and a calcium EC50 of 1.1 micromol/L. This phase might correspond to the release of the tertiary granules. The second phase occurred when the calcium concentration was between 20-70 micromol/L with a plateau increment of 6.36 pF, the calcium EC50 being about 33 micromol/L. This phase might represent the release of the primary and secondary granules. Intracellular calcium also simultaneously increased the exocytotic rate and the eventual extent in neutrophils. On the other hand, GTP gamma S can increase the exocytotic rate in a dose-dependent manner but had no effect on the eventual extent of membrane capacitance increment (>6 pF) if the cell was stimulated for a long period (>20 min). GTP gamma S (ranging from 20 to 100 micromol/L) induced the neutrophils to release all four types of the granules at very low intracellular calcium level. PMID:14695488

  12. The atrazine metabolite diaminochlorotriazine suppresses LH release from murine LβT2 cells by suppressing GnRH-induced intracellular calcium transients.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Gregory P; Tjalkens, Ronald B; Hanneman, William H

    2013-05-01

    The primary metabolite of the herbicide atrazine (ATRA), diaminochlorotriazine (DACT), has been suggested to cause disruption in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis leading to inhibition of luteinizing hormone (LH) release. DACT is a reactive electrophile known to form covalent protein adducts both in vitro and in vivo following ATRA exposure and maybe targeting proteins involved in GnRH-induced calcium signaling and subsequent LH release. To test this hypothesis, LβT2 pituitary cells were exposed to 300 μM DACT for 24 hrs and examined by fluorescence microscopy for GnRH-induced changes in intracellular calcium and LH release. LβT2 cells exposed to DACT had markedly diminished GnRH-induced intracellular calcium transients and a significant decreased LH release in response to GnRH. DACT appeared to cause a selective decrease in caffeine-sensitive ryanodine receptor-operated calcium stores in LβT2 cells, rather than in thapsigargin-sensitive ER calcium stores. This sensitivity correlated with the formation of covalent protein adducts by DACT, as determined by mass spectrometry. ERp57 was identified by mass spectrometry as a target of DACT adduction in the ER that could potentially mediate the effects of DACT on inhibition of GnRH-induced calcium signaling and inhibition of LH release. Intracellular calcium responses to GnRH and release of LH were restored in DACT-treated cells with the addition of a calcium ionophore (A23187). These data suggest that DACT forms adducts on proteins involved in calcium handling within the ER and that dysfunction in this critical signaling system is associated with loss of normal sensitivity to GnRH and subsequent decreased release of LH.

  13. The atrazine metabolite diaminochlorotriazine suppresses LH release from murine LβT2 cells by suppressing GnRH-induced intracellular calcium transients

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, Gregory P.; Tjalkens, Ronald B.; Hanneman, William H.

    2013-01-01

    The primary metabolite of the herbicide atrazine (ATRA), diaminochlorotriazine (DACT), has been suggested to cause disruption in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis leading to inhibition of luteinizing hormone (LH) release. DACT is a reactive electrophile known to form covalent protein adducts both in vitro and in vivo following ATRA exposure and maybe targeting proteins involved in GnRH-induced calcium signaling and subsequent LH release. To test this hypothesis, LβT2 pituitary cells were exposed to 300 μM DACT for 24 hrs and examined by fluorescence microscopy for GnRH-induced changes in intracellular calcium and LH release. LβT2 cells exposed to DACT had markedly diminished GnRH-induced intracellular calcium transients and a significant decreased LH release in response to GnRH. DACT appeared to cause a selective decrease in caffeine-sensitive ryanodine receptor-operated calcium stores in LβT2 cells, rather than in thapsigargin-sensitive ER calcium stores. This sensitivity correlated with the formation of covalent protein adducts by DACT, as determined by mass spectrometry. ERp57 was identified by mass spectrometry as a target of DACT adduction in the ER that could potentially mediate the effects of DACT on inhibition of GnRH-induced calcium signaling and inhibition of LH release. Intracellular calcium responses to GnRH and release of LH were restored in DACT-treated cells with the addition of a calcium ionophore (A23187). These data suggest that DACT forms adducts on proteins involved in calcium handling within the ER and that dysfunction in this critical signaling system is associated with loss of normal sensitivity to GnRH and subsequent decreased release of LH. PMID:24052811

  14. Neocortical GABA release at high intracellular sodium and low extracellular calcium: an anti-seizure mechanism.

    PubMed

    Rassner, Michael P; Moser, Andreas; Follo, Marie; Joseph, Kevin; van Velthoven-Wurster, Vera; Feuerstein, Thomas J

    2016-04-01

    In epilepsy, the GABA and glutamate balance may be disrupted and a transient decrease in extracellular calcium occurs before and during a seizure. Flow Cytometry based fluorescence activated particle sorting experiments quantified synaptosomes from human neocortical tissue, from both epileptic and non-epileptic patients (27.7% vs. 36.9% GABAergic synaptosomes, respectively). Transporter-mediated release of GABA in human and rat neocortical synaptosomes was measured using the superfusion technique for the measurement of endogenous GABA. GABA release was evoked by either a sodium channel activator or a sodium/potassium-ATPase inhibitor when exocytosis was possible or prevented, and when the sodium/calcium exchanger was active or inhibited. The transporter-mediated release of GABA is because of elevated intracellular sodium. A reduction in the extracellular calcium increased this release (in both non-epileptic and epileptic, except Rasmussen encephalitis, synaptosomes). The inverse was seen during calcium doubling. In humans, GABA release was not affected by exocytosis inhibition, that is, it was solely transporter-mediated. However, in rat synaptosomes, an increase in GABA release at zero calcium was only exhibited when the exocytosis was prevented. The absence of calcium amplified the sodium/calcium exchanger activity, leading to elevated intracellular sodium, which, together with the stimulation-evoked intracellular sodium increment, enhanced GABA transporter reversal. Sodium/calcium exchange inhibitors diminished GABA release. Thus, an important seizure-induced extracellular calcium reduction might trigger a transporter- and sodium/calcium exchanger-related anti-seizure mechanism by augmenting transporter-mediated GABA release, a mechanism absent in rats. Uniquely, the additional increase in GABA release because of calcium-withdrawal dwindled during the course of illness in Rasmussen encephalitis. Seizures cause high Na(+) influx through action potentials. A

  15. Intracellular Zinc Modulates Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor-mediated Calcium Release*

    PubMed Central

    Woodier, Jason; Rainbow, Richard D.; Stewart, Alan J.; Pitt, Samantha J.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant Zn2+ homeostasis is a hallmark of certain cardiomyopathies associated with altered contractile force. In this study, we addressed whether Zn2+ modulates cardiac ryanodine receptor gating and Ca2+ dynamics in isolated cardiomyocytes. We reveal that Zn2+ is a high affinity regulator of RyR2 displaying three modes of operation. Picomolar free Zn2+ concentrations potentiate RyR2 responses, but channel activation is still dependent on the presence of cytosolic Ca2+. At concentrations of free Zn2+ >1 nm, Zn2+ is the main activating ligand, and the dependence on Ca2+ is removed. Zn2+ is therefore a higher affinity activator of RyR2 than Ca2+. Millimolar levels of free Zn2+ were found to inhibit channel openings. In cardiomyocytes, consistent with our single channel results, we show that Zn2+ modulates both the frequency and amplitude of Ca2+ waves in a concentration-dependent manner and that physiological levels of Zn2+ elicit Ca2+ release in the absence of activating levels of cytosolic Ca2+. This highlights a new role for intracellular Zn2+ in shaping Ca2+ dynamics in cardiomyocytes through modulation of RyR2 gating. PMID:26041778

  16. Diquafosol promotes corneal epithelial healing via intracellular calcium-mediated ERK activation.

    PubMed

    Byun, Yong-Soo; Yoo, Young-Sik; Kwon, Ji-Young; Joo, Jong-Soo; Lim, Sung-A; Whang, Woong-Joo; Mok, Jee-Won; Choi, Jun-Sub; Joo, Choun-Ki

    2016-02-01

    Diquafosol is known as a purinergic P2Y2 receptor (P2Y2R) agonist that stimulates water and mucin secretion from conjunctival epithelial cells and goblet cells, leading to tear film stability in dry eye. However, its effect on corneal epithelial healing has not yet been elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of diquafosol on corneal epithelial healing in vivo and on P2Y2R-related downstream signaling pathways in vitro. We administered 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution on 3 mm-diameter epithelial defects made in rat corneas and assessed the wound closure over time. Corneal epithelial healing was significantly accelerated in diquafosol-treated eyes compared to control eyes at 12 and 24 h. During wound healing, P2Y2R staining appeared stronger in the re-epithelized margin near the wound defect. To evaluate whether diquafosol stimulates epidermal growth factor receptor/extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (EGFR/ERK)-related cell proliferation and migration, simian virus 40-transfected human corneal epithelial (THCE) cells were used for in vitro experiments. Cell proliferation was accelerated by diquafosol at concentrations from 20 to 200 μM during 48 h, but inhibited at concentrations over 2000 μM. The intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) elevation was measured in diquafosol (100 μM)-stimulated cells using Fluo-4/AM ([Ca(2+)]i indicator). [Ca(2+)]i elevation was observed in diquafosol-stimulated cells regardless of the presence of calcium in media, and suramin pretreatment inhibited the calcium response. The effect of diquafosol on phosphorylation of EGFR, ERK and Akt, and cell migration was determined by western blotting and in vitro cell migration assay. Diquafosol induced phosphorylation of EGFR at 2 min post-stimulation, and phosphorylation of ERK at 5 min post-stimulation. Phosphorylation of ERK was attenuated in cells pretreated with suramin or BAPTA/AM ([Ca(2+)]i chelator), and partially with AG1478 (EGFR inhibitor

  17. The cytotoxic and proapoptotic activities of hypnophilin are associated with calcium signaling in UACC-62 cells.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Mauro C X; Cota, Betania B; Rodrigues, Michele A; Leite, Maria F; de Souza-Fagundes, Elaine M

    2013-11-01

    Hypnophilin (HNP) is a sesquiterpene that is isolated from Lentinus cf. strigosus and has cytotoxic activities. Here, we studied the calcium signaling and cytotoxic effects of HNP in UACC-62 cells, a human skin melanoma cell line. HNP was able to increase the intracellular calcium concentration in UACC-62 cells, which was blocked in cells stimulated in Ca(2+) -free media. HNP treatment with BAPTA-AM, an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, caused an increase in calcium signals. HNP showed cytotoxicity against UACC-62 cells in which it induced DNA fragmentation and morphological alterations, including changes in the nuclear chromatin profile and increased cytoplasmatic vacuolization, but it had no effect on the plasma membrane integrity. These data suggest that cytotoxicity in UACC-62 cells, after treatment with HNP, is associated with Ca(2+) influx. Together, these findings suggest that HNP is a relevant tool for the further investigation of new anticancer approaches.

  18. Erythropoietin modulates intracellular calcium in a human neuroblastoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Assandri, Roberta; Egger, Marcel; Gassmann, Max; Niggli, Ernst; Bauer, Christian; Forster, Ian; Görlach, Agnes

    1999-01-01

    Recent investigations have shown that the glycoprotein erythropoietin (Epo) and its specific receptor (EpoR) are present in the mammalian brain including human, monkey and mouse. These findings suggest a local action of Epo in the nervous system. The aim of this study was to elucidate a possible functional interaction of Epo with neuronal cells. To examine the influence of externally applied Epo on Ca2+ homeostasis the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-MC was chosen as a suitable in vitro model for undifferentiated neuronal cells. Expression of the EpoR in SK-N-MC cells was detected by reverse transcription-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. Patch-clamp studies of SK-N-MC cells confirmed the expression of T-type Ca2+ channels, whose peak macroscopic current was increased by the addition of recombinant human Epo (rhEpo) to the bathing medium. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of SK-N-MC cells confirmed a transient increase in intracellular free [Ca2+] in response to externally applied rhEpo. The transient response to Epo was dependent on external Ca2+ and remained even after depletion of internal Ca2+ stores by caffeine or thapsigargin. However, after depletion the response to Epo was absent when cells were superfused with the T-type Ca2+ channel blocker flunarizine. This study demonstrates that Epo can interact with neuronal cells by affecting Ca2+ homeostasis through an increase in Ca2+ influx via plasma membrane T-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. PMID:10087335

  19. Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins as intracellular signaling intermediates.

    PubMed

    Kocab, Andrew J; Duckett, Colin S

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins have often been considered inhibitors of cell death due to early reports that described their ability to directly bind and inhibit caspases, the primary factors that implement apoptosis. However, a greater understanding is evolving regarding the vital roles played by IAPs as transduction intermediates in a diverse set of signaling cascades associated with functions ranging from the innate immune response to cell migration to cell-cycle regulation. In this review, we discuss the functions of IAPs in signaling, focusing primarily on the cellular IAP (c-IAP) proteins. The c-IAPs are important components in tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily signaling cascades, which include activation of the NF-κB transcription factor family. As these receptors modulate cell proliferation and cell death, the involvement of the c-IAPs in these pathways provides an additional means of controlling cellular fate beyond simply inhibiting caspase activity. Additionally, IAP-binding proteins, such as Smac and caspases, which have been described as having cell death-independent roles, may affect c-IAP activity in intracellular signaling. Collectively, the multi-faceted functions and complex regulation of the c-IAPs illustrate their importance as intracellular signaling intermediates.

  20. Collective Calcium Signaling of Defective Multicellular Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Garrett; Sun, Bo

    2015-03-01

    A communicating multicellular network processes environmental cues into collective cellular dynamics. We have previously demonstrated that, when excited by extracellular ATP, fibroblast monolayers generate correlated calcium dynamics modulated by both the stimuli and gap junction communication between the cells. However, just as a well-connected neural network may be compromised by abnormal neurons, a tissue monolayer can also be defective with cancer cells, which typically have down regulated gap junctions. To understand the collective cellular dynamics in a defective multicellular network we have studied the calcium signaling of co-cultured breast cancer cells and fibroblast cells in various concentrations of ATP delivered through microfluidic devices. Our results demonstrate that cancer cells respond faster, generate singular spikes, and are more synchronous across all stimuli concentrations. Additionally, fibroblast cells exhibit persistent calcium oscillations that increase in regularity with greater stimuli. To interpret these results we quantitatively analyzed the immunostaining of purigenic receptors and gap junction channels. The results confirm our hypothesis that collective dynamics are mainly determined by the availability of gap junction communications.

  1. Calcium-Oxidant Signaling Network Regulates AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Activation upon Matrix Deprivation*

    PubMed Central

    Sundararaman, Ananthalakshmy; Amirtham, Usha; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2016-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has recently been implicated in anoikis resistance. However, the molecular mechanisms that activate AMPK upon matrix detachment remain unexplored. In this study, we show that AMPK activation is a rapid and sustained phenomenon upon matrix deprivation, whereas re-attachment to the matrix leads to its dephosphorylation and inactivation. Because matrix detachment leads to loss of integrin signaling, we investigated whether integrin signaling negatively regulates AMPK activation. However, modulation of focal adhesion kinase or Src, the major downstream components of integrin signaling, failed to cause a corresponding change in AMPK signaling. Further investigations revealed that the upstream AMPK kinases liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) contribute to AMPK activation upon detachment. In LKB1-deficient cells, we found AMPK activation to be predominantly dependent on CaMKKβ. We observed no change in ATP levels under detached conditions at early time points suggesting that rapid AMPK activation upon detachment was not triggered by energy stress. We demonstrate that matrix deprivation leads to a spike in intracellular calcium as well as oxidant signaling, and both these intracellular messengers contribute to rapid AMPK activation upon detachment. We further show that endoplasmic reticulum calcium release-induced store-operated calcium entry contributes to intracellular calcium increase, leading to reactive oxygen species production, and AMPK activation. We additionally show that the LKB1/CaMKK-AMPK axis and intracellular calcium levels play a critical role in anchorage-independent cancer sphere formation. Thus, the Ca2+/reactive oxygen species-triggered LKB1/CaMKK-AMPK signaling cascade may provide a quick, adaptable switch to promote survival of metastasizing cancer cells. PMID:27226623

  2. Intracellular cyclic AMP not calcium, determines the direction of vesicle movement in melanophores: direct measurement by fluorescence ratio imaging

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Intracellular movement of vesiculated pigment granules in angelfish melanophores is regulated by a signalling pathway that triggers kinesin and dyneinlike microtubule motor proteins. We have tested the relative importance of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) vs cAMP ([cAMP]i) in the control of such motility by adrenergic agonists, using fluorescence ratio imaging and many ways to artificially stimulate or suppress signals in these pathways. Fura-2 imaging reported a [Ca2+]i elevation accompanying pigment aggregation, but this increase was not essential since movement was not induced with the calcium ionophore, ionomycin, nor was movement blocked when the increases were suppressed by withdrawal of extracellular Ca2+ or loading of intracellular BAPTA. The phosphatase inhibitor, okadaic acid, blocked aggregation and induced dispersion at concentrations that suggested that the protein phosphatase PP-1 or PP-2A was continuously turning phosphate over during intracellular motility. cAMP was monitored dynamically in single living cells by microinjecting cAMP-dependent kinase in which the catalytic and regulatory subunits were labeled with fluorescein and rhodamine respectively (Adams et al., 1991. Nature (Lond.). 349:694- 697). Ratio imaging of F1CRhR showed that the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor-mediated aggregation was accompanied by a dose-dependent decrease in [cAMP]i. The decrease in [cAMP]i was both necessary and sufficient for aggregation, since cAMP analogs or microinjected free catalytic subunit of A kinase-blocked aggregation or caused dispersal, whereas the cAMP antagonist RpcAMPs or the microinjection of the specific kinase inhibitor PKI5-24 amide induced aggregation. Our conclusion that cAMP, not calcium, controls bidirectional microtubule dependent motility in melanophores might be relevant to other instances of non-muscle cell motility. PMID:1348251

  3. Signal Transduction and Intracellular Trafficking by the Interleukin 36 Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Siddhartha S.; Singh, Divyendu; Raymond, Ernest L.; Ganesan, Rajkumar; Caviness, Gary; Grimaldi, Christine; Woska, Joseph R.; Mennerich, Detlev; Brown, Su-Ellen; Mbow, M. Lamine; Kao, C. Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Improper signaling of the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R), a member of the IL-1 receptor family, has been associated with various inflammation-associated diseases. However, the requirements for IL-36R signal transduction remain poorly characterized. This work seeks to define the requirements for IL-36R signaling and intracellular trafficking. In the absence of cognate agonists, IL-36R was endocytosed and recycled to the plasma membrane. In the presence of IL-36, IL-36R increased accumulation in LAMP1+ lysosomes. Endocytosis predominantly used a clathrin-mediated pathway, and the accumulation of the IL-36R in lysosomes did not result in increased receptor turnover. The ubiquitin-binding Tollip protein contributed to IL-36R signaling and increased the accumulation of both subunits of the IL-36R. PMID:26269592

  4. Temporally precise in vivo control of intracellular signalling.

    PubMed

    Airan, Raag D; Thompson, Kimberly R; Fenno, Lief E; Bernstein, Hannah; Deisseroth, Karl

    2009-04-23

    In the study of complex mammalian behaviours, technological limitations have prevented spatiotemporally precise control over intracellular signalling processes. Here we report the development of a versatile family of genetically encoded optical tools ('optoXRs') that leverage common structure-function relationships among G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to recruit and control, with high spatiotemporal precision, receptor-initiated biochemical signalling pathways. In particular, we have developed and characterized two optoXRs that selectively recruit distinct, targeted signalling pathways in response to light. The two optoXRs exerted opposing effects on spike firing in nucleus accumbens in vivo, and precisely timed optoXR photostimulation in nucleus accumbens by itself sufficed to drive conditioned place preference in freely moving mice. The optoXR approach allows testing of hypotheses regarding the causal impact of biochemical signalling in behaving mammals, in a targetable and temporally precise manner.

  5. The spatial pattern of atrial cardiomyocyte calcium signalling modulates contraction.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Lauren; Roderick, H Llewelyn; Berridge, Michael J; Conway, Stuart J; Bootman, Martin D

    2004-12-15

    We examined the regulation of calcium signalling in atrial cardiomyocytes during excitation-contraction coupling, and how changes in the distribution of calcium impacts on contractility. Under control conditions, calcium transients originated in subsarcolemmal locations and showed local regeneration through activation of calcium-induced calcium release from ryanodine receptors. Despite functional ryanodine receptors being expressed at regular (approximately 2 microm) intervals throughout atrial myocytes, the subsarcolemmal calcium signal did not spread in a fully regenerative manner through the interior of a cell. Rather, there was a diminishing centripetal propagation of calcium. The lack of regeneration was due to mitochondria and SERCA pumps preventing the inward movement of calcium. Inhibiting these calcium buffering mechanisms allowed the globalisation of action potential-evoked responses. In addition, physiological positive inotropic agents, such as endothelin-1 and beta-adrenergic agonists, as well as enhanced calcium current, calcium store loading and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate infusion also led to regenerative global responses. The consequence of globalising calcium signals was a significant increase in cellular contraction. These data indicate how calcium signals and their consequences are determined by the interplay of multiple subcellular calcium management systems.

  6. Calcium-Mediated Abiotic Stress Signaling in Roots.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Katie A; Matthus, Elsa; Swarbreck, Stéphanie M; Davies, Julia M

    2016-01-01

    Roots are subjected to a range of abiotic stresses as they forage for water and nutrients. Cytosolic free calcium is a common second messenger in the signaling of abiotic stress. In addition, roots take up calcium both as a nutrient and to stimulate exocytosis in growth. For calcium to fulfill its multiple roles must require strict spatio-temporal regulation of its uptake and efflux across the plasma membrane, its buffering in the cytosol and its sequestration or release from internal stores. This prompts the question of how specificity of signaling output can be achieved against the background of calcium's other uses. Threats to agriculture such as salinity, water availability and hypoxia are signaled through calcium. Nutrient deficiency is also emerging as a stress that is signaled through cytosolic free calcium, with progress in potassium, nitrate and boron deficiency signaling now being made. Heavy metals have the capacity to trigger or modulate root calcium signaling depending on their dose and their capacity to catalyze production of hydroxyl radicals. Mechanical stress and cold stress can both trigger an increase in root cytosolic free calcium, with the possibility of membrane deformation playing a part in initiating the calcium signal. This review addresses progress in identifying the calcium transporting proteins (particularly channels such as annexins and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels) that effect stress-induced calcium increases in roots and explores links to reactive oxygen species, lipid signaling, and the unfolded protein response. PMID:27621742

  7. The role of PIP2 and the IP3/DAG pathway in intracellular calcium release and cell survival during nanosecond electric pulse exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steelman, Zachary A.; Tolstykh, Gleb P.; Estlack, Larry E.; Roth, Caleb C.; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2015-03-01

    Phosphatidylinositol4,5-biphosphate (PIP2) is a membrane phospholipid of particular importance in cell-signaling pathways. Hydrolysis of PIP2 releases inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) from the membrane, activating IP3 receptors on the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and facilitating a release of intracellular calcium stores and activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Recent studies suggest that nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) cause depletion of PIP2 in the cellular membrane, activating the IP3 signaling pathway. However, the exact mechanism(s) causing this observed depletion of PIP2 are unknown. Complicating the matter, nsPEF create nanopores in the plasma membrane, allowing calcium to enter the cell and thus causing an increase in intracellular calcium. While elevated intracellular calcium can cause activation of phospholipase C (PLC) (a known catalyst of PIP2 hydrolysis), PIP2 depletion has been shown to occur in the absence of both extracellular and intracellular calcium. These observations have led to the hypothesis that the high electric field itself may be playing a direct role in the hydrolysis of PIP2 from the plasma membrane. To support this hypothesis, we used edelfosine to block PLC and prevent activation of the IP3/DAG pathway in Chinese Hamster Ovarian (CHO) cells prior to applying nsPEF. Fluorescence microscopy was used to monitor intracellular calcium bursts during nsPEF, while MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) survivability assays were utilized to determine whether edelfosine improved cell survival during nsPEF exposure. This work is critical to refine the role of PIP2 in the cellular response to nsPEF, and also to determine the fundamental biological effects of high electric field exposures.

  8. Variation in human cancer cell external phosphatidylserine is regulated by flippase activity and intracellular calcium

    PubMed Central

    Vallabhapurapu, Subrahmanya D.; Blanco, Víctor M.; Sulaiman, Mahaboob K.; Vallabhapurapu, Swarajya Lakshmi; Chu, Zhengtao; Franco, Robert S.; Qi, Xiaoyang

    2015-01-01

    Viable cancer cells expose elevated levels of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the exoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. However, the mechanisms leading to elevated PS exposure in viable cancer cells have not been defined. We previously showed that externalized PS may be used to monitor, target and kill tumor cells. In addition, PS on tumor cells is recognized by macrophages and has implications in antitumor immunity. Therefore, it is important to understand the molecular details of PS exposure on cancer cells in order to improve therapeutic targeting. Here we explored the mechanisms regulating the surface PS exposure in human cancer cells and found that differential flippase activity and intracellular calcium are the major regulators of surface PS exposure in viable human cancer cells. In general, cancer cell lines with high surface PS exhibited low flippase activity and high intracellular calcium, whereas cancer cells with low surface PS exhibited high flippase activity and low intracellular calcium. High surface PS cancer cells also had higher total cellular PS than low surface PS cells. Together, our results indicate that the amount of external PS in cancer cells is regulated by calcium dependent flippase activity and may also be influenced by total cellular PS. PMID:26462157

  9. Calcium signaling differentiation during Xenopus oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    El-Jouni, Wassim; Jang, Byungwoo; Haun, Shirley; Machaca, Khaled

    2005-12-15

    Ca(2+) is the universal signal for egg activation at fertilization in all sexually reproducing species. The Ca(2+) signal at fertilization is necessary for egg activation and exhibits specialized spatial and temporal dynamics. Eggs acquire the ability to produce the fertilization-specific Ca(2+) signal during oocyte maturation. However, the mechanisms regulating Ca(2+) signaling differentiation during oocyte maturation remain largely unknown. At fertilization, Xenopus eggs produce a cytoplasmic Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)(cyt)) rise that lasts for several minutes, and is required for egg activation. Here, we show that during oocyte maturation Ca(2+) transport effectors are tightly modulated. The plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA) is completely internalized during maturation, and is therefore unable to extrude Ca(2+) out of the cell. Furthermore, IP(3)-dependent Ca(2+) release is required for the sustained Ca(2+)(cyt) rise in eggs, showing that Ca(2+) that is pumped into the ER leaks back out through IP(3) receptors. This apparent futile cycle allows eggs to maintain elevated cytoplasmic Ca(2+) despite the limited available Ca(2+) in intracellular stores. Therefore, Ca(2+) signaling differentiates in a highly orchestrated fashion during Xenopus oocyte maturation endowing the egg with the capacity to produce a sustained Ca(2+)(cyt) transient at fertilization, which defines the egg's competence to activate and initiate embryonic development.

  10. Fatty Acid Signaling: The New Function of Intracellular Lipases

    PubMed Central

    Papackova, Zuzana; Cahova, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, intracellular triacylglycerols (TAG) stored in the form of cytoplasmic lipid droplets have been considered to be only passive “energy conserves”. Nevertheless, degradation of TAG gives rise to a pleiotropic spectrum of bioactive intermediates, which may function as potent co-factors of transcription factors or enzymes and contribute to the regulation of numerous cellular processes. From this point of view, the process of lipolysis not only provides energy-rich equivalents but also acquires a new regulatory function. In this review, we will concentrate on the role that fatty acids liberated from intracellular TAG stores play as signaling molecules. The first part provides an overview of the transcription factors, which are regulated by fatty acids derived from intracellular stores. The second part is devoted to the role of fatty acid signaling in different organs/tissues. The specific contribution of free fatty acids released by particular lipases, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipose triacylglycerol lipase and lysosomal lipase will also be discussed. PMID:25674855

  11. Roles of Intracellular Cyclic AMP Signal Transduction in the Capacitation and Subsequent Hyperactivation of Mouse and Boar Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    HARAYAMA, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    It is not until accomplishment of a variety of molecular changes during the transit through the female reproductive tract that mammalian spermatozoa are capable of exhibiting highly activated motility with asymmetric whiplash beating of the flagella (hyperactivation) and undergoing acrosomal exocytosis in the head (acrosome reaction). These molecular changes of the spermatozoa are collectively termed capacitation and promoted by bicarbonate, calcium and cholesterol acceptors. Such capacitation-promoting factors can stimulate intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) signal transduction in the spermatozoa. Meanwhile, hyperactivation and the acrosome reaction are essential to sperm fertilization with oocytes and are apparently triggered by a sufficient increase of intracellular Ca2+ in the sperm flagellum and head, respectively. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the relationship between cAMP signal transduction and calcium signaling cascades in the spermatozoa for the purpose of understanding the molecular basis of capacitation. In this review, I cover updated insights regarding intracellular cAMP signal transduction, the acrosome reaction and flagellar motility in mammalian spermatozoa and then account for possible roles of intracellular cAMP signal transduction in the capacitation and subsequent hyperactivation of mouse and boar spermatozoa. PMID:24162806

  12. Involvement of aberrant calcium signalling in herpetic neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Warwick, Rebekah A; Hanani, Menachem

    2016-03-01

    Alpha-herpesviruses, herpes simplex viruses (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV), are pathogens of the peripheral nervous system. After primary infection, these viruses establish latency within sensory ganglia, while retaining the ability to reactivate. Reactivation of VZV results in herpes zoster, a condition characterized by skin lesions that leads to post-herpetic neuralgia. Recurrent reactivations of HSV, which cause mucocutaneous lesions, may also result in neuralgia. During reactivation of alpha-herpesviruses, satellite glial cells (SGCs), which surround neurons in sensory ganglia, become infected with the replicating virus. SGCs are known to contribute to neuropathic pain in a variety of animal pain models. Here we investigated how infection of short-term cultures of mouse trigeminal ganglia with HSV-1 affects communication between SGCs and neurons, and how this altered communication may increase neuronal excitability, thus contributing to herpetic neuralgia. Mechanical stimulation of single neurons or SGCs resulted in intercellular calcium waves, which were larger in cultures infected with HSV-1. Two differences were observed between control and HSV-1 infected cultures that could account for this augmentation. Firstly, HSV-1 infection induced cell fusion among SGCs and neurons, which would facilitate the spread of calcium signals over farther distances. Secondly, using calcium imaging and intracellular electrical recordings, we found that neurons in the HSV-1 infected cultures exhibited augmented influx of calcium upon depolarization. These virally induced changes may not only cause more neurons in the sensory ganglia to fire action potentials, but may also increase neurotransmitter release at the presynaptic terminals in the spinal cord. They are therefore likely to be contributing factors to herpetic neuralgia. PMID:26684187

  13. Involvement of aberrant calcium signalling in herpetic neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Warwick, Rebekah A; Hanani, Menachem

    2016-03-01

    Alpha-herpesviruses, herpes simplex viruses (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV), are pathogens of the peripheral nervous system. After primary infection, these viruses establish latency within sensory ganglia, while retaining the ability to reactivate. Reactivation of VZV results in herpes zoster, a condition characterized by skin lesions that leads to post-herpetic neuralgia. Recurrent reactivations of HSV, which cause mucocutaneous lesions, may also result in neuralgia. During reactivation of alpha-herpesviruses, satellite glial cells (SGCs), which surround neurons in sensory ganglia, become infected with the replicating virus. SGCs are known to contribute to neuropathic pain in a variety of animal pain models. Here we investigated how infection of short-term cultures of mouse trigeminal ganglia with HSV-1 affects communication between SGCs and neurons, and how this altered communication may increase neuronal excitability, thus contributing to herpetic neuralgia. Mechanical stimulation of single neurons or SGCs resulted in intercellular calcium waves, which were larger in cultures infected with HSV-1. Two differences were observed between control and HSV-1 infected cultures that could account for this augmentation. Firstly, HSV-1 infection induced cell fusion among SGCs and neurons, which would facilitate the spread of calcium signals over farther distances. Secondly, using calcium imaging and intracellular electrical recordings, we found that neurons in the HSV-1 infected cultures exhibited augmented influx of calcium upon depolarization. These virally induced changes may not only cause more neurons in the sensory ganglia to fire action potentials, but may also increase neurotransmitter release at the presynaptic terminals in the spinal cord. They are therefore likely to be contributing factors to herpetic neuralgia.

  14. Calcium-Mediated Abiotic Stress Signaling in Roots

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Katie A.; Matthus, Elsa; Swarbreck, Stéphanie M.; Davies, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Roots are subjected to a range of abiotic stresses as they forage for water and nutrients. Cytosolic free calcium is a common second messenger in the signaling of abiotic stress. In addition, roots take up calcium both as a nutrient and to stimulate exocytosis in growth. For calcium to fulfill its multiple roles must require strict spatio-temporal regulation of its uptake and efflux across the plasma membrane, its buffering in the cytosol and its sequestration or release from internal stores. This prompts the question of how specificity of signaling output can be achieved against the background of calcium’s other uses. Threats to agriculture such as salinity, water availability and hypoxia are signaled through calcium. Nutrient deficiency is also emerging as a stress that is signaled through cytosolic free calcium, with progress in potassium, nitrate and boron deficiency signaling now being made. Heavy metals have the capacity to trigger or modulate root calcium signaling depending on their dose and their capacity to catalyze production of hydroxyl radicals. Mechanical stress and cold stress can both trigger an increase in root cytosolic free calcium, with the possibility of membrane deformation playing a part in initiating the calcium signal. This review addresses progress in identifying the calcium transporting proteins (particularly channels such as annexins and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels) that effect stress-induced calcium increases in roots and explores links to reactive oxygen species, lipid signaling, and the unfolded protein response. PMID:27621742

  15. Calcium-Mediated Abiotic Stress Signaling in Roots

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Katie A.; Matthus, Elsa; Swarbreck, Stéphanie M.; Davies, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Roots are subjected to a range of abiotic stresses as they forage for water and nutrients. Cytosolic free calcium is a common second messenger in the signaling of abiotic stress. In addition, roots take up calcium both as a nutrient and to stimulate exocytosis in growth. For calcium to fulfill its multiple roles must require strict spatio-temporal regulation of its uptake and efflux across the plasma membrane, its buffering in the cytosol and its sequestration or release from internal stores. This prompts the question of how specificity of signaling output can be achieved against the background of calcium’s other uses. Threats to agriculture such as salinity, water availability and hypoxia are signaled through calcium. Nutrient deficiency is also emerging as a stress that is signaled through cytosolic free calcium, with progress in potassium, nitrate and boron deficiency signaling now being made. Heavy metals have the capacity to trigger or modulate root calcium signaling depending on their dose and their capacity to catalyze production of hydroxyl radicals. Mechanical stress and cold stress can both trigger an increase in root cytosolic free calcium, with the possibility of membrane deformation playing a part in initiating the calcium signal. This review addresses progress in identifying the calcium transporting proteins (particularly channels such as annexins and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels) that effect stress-induced calcium increases in roots and explores links to reactive oxygen species, lipid signaling, and the unfolded protein response.

  16. Scrophularia orientalis extract induces calcium signaling and apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    LANGE, INGO; MOSCHNY, JULIA; TAMANYAN, KAMILLA; KHUTSISHVILI, MANANA; ATHA, DANIEL; BORRIS, ROBERT P.; KOOMOA, DANA-LYNN

    2016-01-01

    Effective neuroblastoma (NB) treatments are still limited despite treatment options available today. Therefore, this study attempted to identify novel plant extracts that have anticancer effects. Cytotoxicity and increased intracellular calcium levels were determined using the Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and Fluo4-AM (acetoxymethyl) staining and fluorescence microscopy in NB cells in order to screen a library of plant extracts. The current study examined the anticancer effects of a dichloromethane extract from Scrophularia orientalis L. (Scrophulariaceae), a plant that has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. This extract contained highly potent agents that significantly reduced cell survival and increased calcium levels in NB cells. Further analysis revealed that cell death induced by this extract was associated with intracellular calcium release, opening of the MPTP, caspase 3- and PARP-cleavage suggesting that this extract induced aberrant calcium signaling that resulted in apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. Therefore, agents from Scrophularia orientalis may have the potential to lead to new chemo therapeutic anticancer drugs. Furthermore, targeting intracellular calcium signaling may be a novel strategy to develop more effective treatments for NB. PMID:26848085

  17. Calcium signaling during reproduction and biotrophic fungal interactions in plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junyi; Gutjahr, Caroline; Bleckmann, Andrea; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Many recent studies have indicated that cellular communications during plant reproduction, fungal invasion, and defense involve identical or similar molecular players and mechanisms. Indeed, pollen tube invasion and sperm release shares many common features with infection of plant tissue by fungi and oomycetes, as a tip-growing intruder needs to communicate with the receptive cells to gain access into a cell and tissue. Depending on the compatibility between cells, interactions may result in defense, invasion, growth support, or cell death. Plant cells stimulated by both pollen tubes and fungal hyphae secrete, for example, small cysteine-rich proteins and receptor-like kinases are activated leading to intracellular signaling events such as the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the generation of calcium (Ca(2+)) transients. The ubiquitous and versatile second messenger Ca(2+) thereafter plays a central and crucial role in modulating numerous downstream signaling processes. In stimulated cells, it elicits both fast and slow cellular responses depending on the shape, frequency, amplitude, and duration of the Ca(2+) transients. The various Ca(2+) signatures are transduced into cellular information via a battery of Ca(2+)-binding proteins. In this review, we focus on Ca(2+) signaling and discuss its occurrence during plant reproduction and interactions of plant cells with biotrophic filamentous microbes. The participation of Ca(2+) in ROS signaling pathways is also discussed.

  18. Modeling intracellular signaling underlying striatal function in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anu G; Gutierrez-Arenas, Omar; Eriksson, Olivia; Jauhiainen, Alexandra; Blackwell, Kim T; Kotaleski, Jeanette H

    2014-01-01

    Striatum, which is the input nucleus of the basal ganglia, integrates cortical and thalamic glutamatergic inputs with dopaminergic afferents from the substantia nigra pars compacta. The combination of dopamine and glutamate strongly modulates molecular and cellular properties of striatal neurons and the strength of corticostriatal synapses. These actions are performed via intracellular signaling networks, containing several intertwined feedback loops. Understanding the role of dopamine and other neuromodulators requires the development of quantitative dynamical models for describing the intracellular signaling, in order to provide precise unambiguous descriptions and quantitative predictions. Building such models requires integration of data from multiple data sources containing information regarding the molecular interactions, the strength of these interactions, and the subcellular localization of the molecules. Due to the uncertainty, variability, and sparseness of these data, parameter estimation techniques are critical for inferring or constraining the unknown parameters, and sensitivity analysis evaluates which parameters are most critical for a given observed macroscopic behavior. Here, we briefly review the modeling approaches and tools that have been used to investigate biochemical signaling in the striatum, along with some of the models built around striatum. We also suggest a future direction for the development of such models from the, now becoming abundant, high-throughput data.

  19. Modeling intracellular signaling underlying striatal function in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anu G; Gutierrez-Arenas, Omar; Eriksson, Olivia; Jauhiainen, Alexandra; Blackwell, Kim T; Kotaleski, Jeanette H

    2014-01-01

    Striatum, which is the input nucleus of the basal ganglia, integrates cortical and thalamic glutamatergic inputs with dopaminergic afferents from the substantia nigra pars compacta. The combination of dopamine and glutamate strongly modulates molecular and cellular properties of striatal neurons and the strength of corticostriatal synapses. These actions are performed via intracellular signaling networks, containing several intertwined feedback loops. Understanding the role of dopamine and other neuromodulators requires the development of quantitative dynamical models for describing the intracellular signaling, in order to provide precise unambiguous descriptions and quantitative predictions. Building such models requires integration of data from multiple data sources containing information regarding the molecular interactions, the strength of these interactions, and the subcellular localization of the molecules. Due to the uncertainty, variability, and sparseness of these data, parameter estimation techniques are critical for inferring or constraining the unknown parameters, and sensitivity analysis evaluates which parameters are most critical for a given observed macroscopic behavior. Here, we briefly review the modeling approaches and tools that have been used to investigate biochemical signaling in the striatum, along with some of the models built around striatum. We also suggest a future direction for the development of such models from the, now becoming abundant, high-throughput data. PMID:24560149

  20. Dietary calcium attenuates platelet aggregation and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otsuka, K.; Watanabe, M.; Yue, Q.; McCarron, D. A.; Hatton, D.

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are known to be blood pressure sensitive to dietary calcium. The effects of dietary calcium on platelet aggregation and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization were assessed by turbidimetric methods and fura-2 methods, respectively, in washed platelets of SHR. Ca2+ ATPase activity was examined in aortic membrane fractions. Six weeks of dietary calcium supplementation attenuated the increase of systolic blood pressure (SBP 199 +/- 16 v 170 +/- 9 mm Hg, P < .001) and thrombin-induced platelet aggregation (84.5 +/- 3.7 v 73.7 +/- 7.4%, P < .004) at 9 weeks of age. The ionomycin-induced intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) peak in the absence of external Ca2+, which reflects [Ca2+]i storage size, and thrombin-evoked [Ca2+]i release from [Ca2+]i storage were decreased by 2.0% Ca diet (472 +/- 55 v 370 +/- 23 nmol/L, P < .001, 339 +/- 29 v 278 +/- 33 nmol/L, P < .002). In addition, SBP was positively correlated with platelet aggregation (r = 0.703, P = .0088), thrombin-evoked [Ca2+]i (r = 0.739, P = .0044), and ionomycin-induced [Ca2+]i (r = 0.591, P = .0415), respectively. However, there was no significant effect of dietary calcium on Ca2+-ATPase activity in aortic membranes. These results suggest that dietary calcium supplementation had a beneficial effect on platelets of SHR by attenuating [Ca2+]i mobilization from [Ca2+]i storage. The hypotensive effect of dietary calcium might be associated with attenuated [Ca2+]i mobilization in SHR.

  1. Digital Imaging Fluorescence Microscopy Reveals Intracellular Calcium Ions In Living Cardiac And Smooth Muscle Cells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil Wier, W.; Goldman, William F.

    1988-06-01

    We have used digital video microscopy to study the relationship of intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) to the function of living cardiac and vascular smooth muscle cells. The technical goal of our work is to obtain, with high spatial and temporal resolution, "maps" of [Ca2+]i inside single living cells. To relate [Ca2+]i to cell function, such "maps" can be used in conjunction with measurements of cell electrical activity, contractile activity or biochemical assays.

  2. Calcium signaling and secretion in cholangiocytes.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Mateus T; Nathanson, Michael H

    2015-07-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis affects up to one-third of individuals who abuse alcohol and can be associated with high mortality. Although this disorder is characterized by hepatocellular damage, steatosis and neutrophil infiltration, recent evidence suggests that cholestasis or impaired bile secretion may be a frequent occurrence as well. Bile secretion results from the concerted activity of hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells that line the bile ducts. Hepatocytes secrete bile acids and conjugated products into the bile canaliculi, which then are modified by cholangiocytes through secretion of bicarbonate and water to give rise to the final secreted bile. Here the molecular mechanisms regulating bile secretion in cholangiocytes are reviewed. Moreover, we discuss how the expression of intracellular Ca(2+) channels might be regulated in cholangiocytes, plus evidence that components of the Ca(2+) signaling machinery are altered in a range of cholestatic diseases of the bile ducts. PMID:26100660

  3. The negative inotropic action of canrenone is mediated by L-type calcium current blockade and reduced intracellular calcium transients

    PubMed Central

    Costa, AR; Torres, LB; Medei, E; Ricardo, RA; França, JP; Smaili, S; Nascimento, JHM; Oshiro, MEM; Bassani, JWM; Ferreira, AT; Tucci, PJF

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Adding spironolactone to standard therapy in heart failure reduces morbidity and mortality, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We analysed the effect of canrenone, the major active metabolite of spironolactone, on myocardial contractility and intracellular calcium homeostasis. Experimental approach: Left ventricular papillary muscles and cardiomyocytes were isolated from male Wistar rats. Contractility of papillary muscles was assessed with force transducers, Ca2+ transients by fluorescence and Ca2+ fluxes by electrophysiological techniques. Key results: Canrenone (300–600 µmol·L−1) reduced developed tension, maximum rate of tension increase and maximum rate of tension decay of papillary muscles. In cardiomyocytes, canrenone (50 µmol·L−1) reduced cell shortening and L-type Ca2+ channel current, whereas steady-state activation and inactivation, and reactivation curves were unchanged. Canrenone also decreased the Ca2+ content of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, intracellular Ca2+ transient amplitude and intracellular diastolic Ca2+ concentration. However, the time course of [Ca2+]i decline during transients evoked by caffeine was not affected by canrenone. Conclusion and implications: Canrenone reduced L-type Ca2+ channel current, amplitude of intracellular Ca2+ transients and Ca2+ content of sarcoplasmic reticulum in cardiomyocytes. These changes are likely to underlie the negative inotropic effect of canrenone. PMID:19663883

  4. Nesfatin-1 increases intracellular calcium concentration by protein kinase C activation in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mete; Gok, Zeynep Betul; Kacar, Emine; Serhatlioglu, Ihsan; Kelestimur, Haluk

    2016-04-21

    Nesfatin-1 is a recently identified anorexigenic hypothalamic polypeptide derived from the posttranslational processing of nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2). Several studies have indicated that this neuropeptide may be participated in somatosensory and visceral transmission including pain signals in addition to energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to explore the possible role of nesfatin-1 in the transmission of peripheral neural signals by investigating the effects of nesfatin-1 on intracellular free calcium levels ([Ca(2+)]i) in cultured neonatal rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. The effects of nesfatin-1 on [Ca(2+)]i in DRG neurons were investigated by using an in vitro calcium imaging system. DRG neurons were grown in primary culture following enzymatic and mechanical dissociation of ganglia from 1-or 2-day-old neonatal Wistar rats. Using the fura-2-based calcium imaging technique, the effects of nesfatin-1 on [Ca(2+)]i and role of the protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated pathway in nesfatin-1 effect were assessed. Nesfatin-1 elevated [Ca(2+)]i in cultured DRG neurons. The response was prevented by pretreating the cells with pertussis toxin. The protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine chloride suppressed nesfatin-1-induced rise in [Ca(2+)]i. The result shows that nesfatin-1 interacts with a G protein-coupled receptor, leading to an increase of [Ca(2+)]i, which is linked to protein kinase C activation in cultured rat DRG neurons.

  5. Calcium and cell death signaling in neurodegeneration and aging.

    PubMed

    Smaili, Soraya; Hirata, Hanako; Ureshino, Rodrigo; Monteforte, Priscila T; Morales, Ana P; Muler, Mari L; Terashima, Juliana; Oseki, Karen; Rosenstock, Tatiana R; Lopes, Guiomar S; Bincoletto, Claudia

    2009-09-01

    Transient increase in cytosolic (Cac2+) and mitochondrial Ca2+ (Ca m2+) are essential elements in the control of many physiological processes. However, sustained increases in Ca c2+ and Ca m2+ may contribute to oxidative stress and cell death. Several events are related to the increase in Ca m2+, including regulation and activation of a number of Ca2+ dependent enzymes, such as phospholipases, proteases and nucleases. Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) play pivotal roles in the maintenance of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and regulation of cell death. Several lines of evidence have shown that, in the presence of some apoptotic stimuli, the activation of mitochondrial processes may lead to the release of cytochrome c followed by the activation of caspases, nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic cell death. The aim of this review was to show how changes in calcium signaling can be related to the apoptotic cell death induction. Calcium homeostasis was also shown to be an important mechanism involved in neurodegenerative and aging processes.

  6. Calcium-Dependent Signaling and Kinases in Apicomplexan Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Billker, Oliver; Lourido, Sebastian; Sibley, L. David

    2009-01-01

    Summary Calcium controls many critical events in the complex life cycles of apicomplexan parasites including protein secretion, motility, and development. Calcium levels are normally tightly regulated and rapid release of calcium into the cytosol activates a family of calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), which are normally characteristic of plants. CDPKs present in apicomplexans have acquired a number of unique domain structures likely reflecting their diverse functions. Calcium regulation in parasites is closely linked to signaling by cyclic nucleotides and their associated kinases. This review summarizes the pivotal roles that calcium-and cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinases play in unique aspects of parasite biology. PMID:19527888

  7. Calcium signals and oocyte maturation in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Ryusaku; Takeda, Noriyo; Stricker, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    In various oocytes and eggs of animals, transient elevations in cytoplasmic calcium ion concentrations are known to regulate key processes during fertilization and the completion of meiosis. However, whether or not calcium transients also help to reinitiate meiotic progression at the onset of oocyte maturation remains controversial. This article summarizes reports of calcium signals playing essential roles during maturation onset (=germinal vesicle breakdown, GVBD) in several kinds of marine invertebrate oocytes. Conversely, other data from the literature, as well as previously unpublished findings for jellyfish oocytes, fail to support the view that calcium signals are required for GVBD. In addition to assessing the effects of calcium transients on GVBD in marine invertebrate oocytes, the ability of maturing oocytes to enhance their calcium-releasing capabilities after GVBD is also reviewed. Furthermore, possible explanations are proposed for the contradictory results that have been obtained regarding calcium signals during oocyte maturation in marine invertebrates. PMID:26679945

  8. Calcium signals and oocyte maturation in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Ryusaku; Takeda, Noriyo; Stricker, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    In various oocytes and eggs of animals, transient elevations in cytoplasmic calcium ion concentrations are known to regulate key processes during fertilization and the completion of meiosis. However, whether or not calcium transients also help to reinitiate meiotic progression at the onset of oocyte maturation remains controversial. This article summarizes reports of calcium signals playing essential roles during maturation onset (=germinal vesicle breakdown, GVBD) in several kinds of marine invertebrate oocytes. Conversely, other data from the literature, as well as previously unpublished findings for jellyfish oocytes, fail to support the view that calcium signals are required for GVBD. In addition to assessing the effects of calcium transients on GVBD in marine invertebrate oocytes, the ability of maturing oocytes to enhance their calcium-releasing capabilities after GVBD is also reviewed. Furthermore, possible explanations are proposed for the contradictory results that have been obtained regarding calcium signals during oocyte maturation in marine invertebrates.

  9. Intestinal Stem Cells: Got Calcium?

    PubMed

    Nászai, Máté; Cordero, Julia B

    2016-02-01

    Calcium ions are well-known intracellular signalling molecules. A new study identifies local cytoplasmic calcium as a central integrator of metabolic and proliferative signals in Drosophila intestinal stem cells. PMID:26859268

  10. Calcium Signaling throughout the Toxoplasma gondii Lytic Cycle: A STUDY USING GENETICALLY ENCODED CALCIUM INDICATORS.

    PubMed

    Borges-Pereira, Lucas; Budu, Alexandre; McKnight, Ciara A; Moore, Christina A; Vella, Stephen A; Hortua Triana, Miryam A; Liu, Jing; Garcia, Celia R S; Pace, Douglas A; Moreno, Silvia N J

    2015-11-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that invades host cells, creating a parasitophorous vacuole where it communicates with the host cell cytosol through the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. The lytic cycle of the parasite starts with its exit from the host cell followed by gliding motility, conoid extrusion, attachment, and invasion of another host cell. Here, we report that Ca(2+) oscillations occur in the cytosol of the parasite during egress, gliding, and invasion, which are critical steps of the lytic cycle. Extracellular Ca(2+) enhances each one of these processes. We used tachyzoite clonal lines expressing genetically encoded calcium indicators combined with host cells expressing transiently expressed calcium indicators of different colors, and we measured Ca(2+) changes in both parasites and host simultaneously during egress. We demonstrated a link between cytosolic Ca(2+) oscillations in the host and in the parasite. Our approach also allowed us to measure two new features of motile parasites, which were enhanced by Ca(2+) influx. This is the first study showing, in real time, Ca(2+) signals preceding egress and their direct link with motility, an essential virulence trait.

  11. Elevation of intracellular calcium levels in spiral ganglion cells by trimethyltin.

    PubMed

    Fechter, L D; Liu, Y

    1995-11-01

    The neurotoxicant, trimethyltin (TMT) produces cochlear impairment at far lower dose levels and far more rapidly than it does central nervous system effects. The initial effects of TMT in the cochlea, in vivo, are consistent with disruption of the inner hair cell type-1 spiral ganglion cell synapse although it is uncertain whether the effect is on presynaptic and/or postsynaptic units. This synapse is believed to be an excitatory glutamatergic one, providing the possibility that TMT could induce an excitotoxic process resulting in elevations in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i). The objective of this study was to determine whether TMT had direct toxic effects on the postsynaptic spiral ganglion cells studied in primary culture and to identify the role of extracellular calcium in such an effect. The marker of interest was the effect of this agent on [Ca2+]i levels as determined using quantitation of the fluorescent calcium dye, Fura-2. TMT did induce a marked and sustained elevation in [Ca2+]i level in the spiral ganglion cells that appeared to have a rapid initial phase and a slower saturating phase. Studies performed using calcium-free medium showed that elevation of [Ca2+]i in spiral ganglion cells by TMT was attenuated but not entirely blocked. Further, the L-type calcium channel blocker, nifedipine, was able to inhibit the initial increase in [Ca2+]i, suggesting that at least this phase of the TMT effect was mediated by calcium channels, although nifedipine had no significant effect on the time to reach the maximal [Ca2+]i level. Parallel control experiments performed using application of exogenous glutamate and depolarizing K+ concentrations also produced elevation in [Ca2+]i levels. The data indicate that TMT elevates [Ca2+]i in isolated spiral ganglion cells both by increasing extracellular uptake via Ca2+ channels and also by releasing Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Thus TMT ototoxicity appears to include a direct postsynaptic toxic event. PMID:8647712

  12. Calcium Signals Driven by Single Channel Noise

    PubMed Central

    Skupin, Alexander; Kettenmann, Helmut; Falcke, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Usually, the occurrence of random cell behavior is appointed to small copy numbers of molecules involved in the stochastic process. Recently, we demonstrated for a variety of cell types that intracellular Ca2+ oscillations are sequences of random spikes despite the involvement of many molecules in spike generation. This randomness arises from the stochastic state transitions of individual Ca2+ release channels and does not average out due to the existence of steep concentration gradients. The system is hierarchical due to the structural levels channel - channel cluster - cell and a corresponding strength of coupling. Concentration gradients introduce microdomains which couple channels of a cluster strongly. But they couple clusters only weakly; too weak to establish deterministic behavior on cell level. Here, we present a multi-scale modelling concept for stochastic hierarchical systems. It simulates active molecules individually as Markov chains and their coupling by deterministic diffusion. Thus, we are able to follow the consequences of random single molecule state changes up to the signal on cell level. To demonstrate the potential of the method, we simulate a variety of experiments. Comparisons of simulated and experimental data of spontaneous oscillations in astrocytes emphasize the role of spatial concentration gradients in Ca2+ signalling. Analysis of extensive simulations indicates that frequency encoding described by the relation between average and standard deviation of interspike intervals is surprisingly robust. This robustness is a property of the random spiking mechanism and not a result of control. PMID:20700497

  13. Effects of Transmitters and Amyloid-Beta Peptide on Calcium Signals in Rat Cortical Astrocytes: Fura-2AM Measurements and Stochastic Model Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Toivari, Eeva; Manninen, Tiina; Nahata, Amit K.; Jalonen, Tuula O.; Linne, Marja-Leena

    2011-01-01

    Background To better understand the complex molecular level interactions seen in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, the results of the wet-lab and clinical studies can be complemented by mathematical models. Astrocytes are known to become reactive in Alzheimer's disease and their ionic equilibrium can be disturbed by interaction of the released and accumulated transmitters, such as serotonin, and peptides, including amyloid- peptides (A). We have here studied the effects of small amounts of A25–35 fragments on the transmitter-induced calcium signals in astrocytes by Fura-2AM fluorescence measurements and running simulations of the detected calcium signals. Methodology/Principal Findings Intracellular calcium signals were measured in cultured rat cortical astrocytes following additions of serotonin and glutamate, or either of these transmitters together with A25–35. A25–35 increased the number of astrocytes responding to glutamate and exceedingly increased the magnitude of the serotonin-induced calcium signals. In addition to A25–35-induced effects, the contribution of intracellular calcium stores to calcium signaling was tested. When using higher stimulus frequency, the subsequent calcium peaks after the initial peak were of lower amplitude. This may indicate inadequate filling of the intracellular calcium stores between the stimuli. In order to reproduce the experimental findings, a stochastic computational model was introduced. The model takes into account the major mechanisms known to be involved in calcium signaling in astrocytes. Model simulations confirm the principal experimental findings and show the variability typical for experimental measurements. Conclusions/Significance Nanomolar A25–35 alone does not cause persistent change in the basal level of calcium in astrocytes. However, even small amounts of A25–35, together with transmitters, can have substantial synergistic effects on intracellular calcium signals. Computational modeling

  14. Spatiotemporal calcium signaling in a Drosophila melanogaster cell line stably expressing a Drosophila muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Cordova, D; Delpech, V Raymond; Sattelle, D B; Rauh, J J

    2003-11-01

    A muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), DM1, expressed in the nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster, has been stably expressed in a Drosophila S2 cell line (S2-DM1) and used to investigate spatiotemporal calcium changes following agonist activation. Carbamylcholine (CCh) and oxotremorine are potent agonists, whereas application of the vertebrate M1 mAChR agonist, McN-A-343, results in a weak response. Activation of S2-DM1 receptors using CCh resulted in an increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) that was biphasic. Two distinct calcium sources were found to contribute to calcium signaling: (1) internal stores that are sensitive to both thapsigargin and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and (2) capacitative calcium entry. Spatiotemporal imaging of individual S2-DM1 cells showed that the CCh-induced [Ca(2+)](i) transient resulted from a homogeneous calcium increase throughout the cell, indicative of calcium release from internal stores. In contrast, ionomycin induced the formation of a "calcium ring" at the cell periphery, consistent with external calcium influx. PMID:12827518

  15. Indicators and optical configuration for simultaneous high-resolution recording of membrane potential and intracellular calcium using laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bullen, A; Saggau, P

    1998-10-01

    The instrumental design and experimental conditions for high-speed, simultaneous optical recording of membrane potential and intracellular Ca2+ with subcellular resolution are presented. This method employs an extended version of a high-speed, random-access, laser-scanning fluorescence microscope designed to record fast physiological signals from small neuronal structures with high spatiotemporal resolution (Bullen, Patel, Saggau, Biophys J 73:477-491, 1997). With this instrument, imaging and optical recording functions are conducted separately allowing frame rates up to 3 kHz. Individual scanning points are selected interactively from a reference image collected with differential interference contrast (DIC) optics. At each recording site, fluorescence from two indicators is measured simultaneously by independent photodetectors. To optimize signal strength, spectral separation and the achievable signal-to-noise ratio, several combinations of voltage-sensitive dye, Ca2+ indicator and optical elements (dichroic mirrors, filters, etc.) were considered. The best results were achieved from the combination of the intracellular voltage-sensitive dye Di-2-ANEPEQ and the Ca2+ indicator Calcium Green-1. These indicators have overlapping absorption spectra allowing simultaneous excitation with a single laser line (488 nm). Spectral separation of the fluorescence from these two indicators was accomplished using a secondary dichroic mirror (DCLP580) and emission filters (535/45 and OG590). Representative records obtained with this instrument and this combination of indicators demonstrate the feasibility of simultaneous high fidelity measurements of membrane potential and intracellular Ca2+ from the same point at high spatial (2 micrometer) and temporal (signal averaging. PMID:9716714

  16. Calcium signaling in plant cells in altered gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordyum, E. L.

    2003-10-01

    Changes in the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration in altered gravity (microgravity and clinostating) evidence that Ca 2+ signaling can play a fundamental role in biological effects of microgravity. Calcium as a second messenger is known to play a crucial role in stimulus - response coupling for many plant cellular signaling pathways. Its messenger functions are realized by transient changes in the cytosolic ion concentration induced by a variety of internal and external stimuli such as light, hormones, temperature, anoxia, salinity, and gravity. Although the first data on the changes in the calcium balance in plant cells under the influence of altered gravity have appeared in 80 th, a review highlighting the performed research and the possible significance of such Ca 2+ changes in the structural and metabolic rearrangements of plant cells in altered gravity is still lacking. In this paper, an attempt was made to summarize the available experimental results and to consider some hypotheses in this field of research. It is proposed to distinguish between cell gravisensing and cell graviperception; the former is related to cell structure and metabolism stability in the gravitational field and their changes in microgravity (cells not specialized to gravity perception), the latter is related to active use of a gravitational stimulus by cells presumebly specialized to gravity perception for realization of normal space orientation, growth, and vital activity (gravitropism, gravitaxis) in plants. The main experimental data concerning both redistribution of free Ca 2+ ions in plant cell organelles and the cell wall, and an increase in the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration under the influence of altered gravity are presented. Based on the gravitational decompensation hypothesis, the consequence of events occurring in gravisensing cells not specialized to gravity perception under altered gravity are considered in the following order: changes in the cytoplasmic membrane surface

  17. DC electric fields direct breast cancer cell migration, induce EGFR polarization, and increase the intracellular level of calcium ions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Ma, Xiuli; Lin, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Migration of cancer cells leads to invasion of primary tumors to distant organs (i.e., metastasis). Growing number of studies have demonstrated the migration of various cancer cell types directed by applied direct current electric fields (dcEF), i.e., electrotaxis, and suggested its potential implications in metastasis. MDA-MB-231 cell, a human metastatic breast cancer cell line, has been shown to migrate toward the anode of dcEF. Further characterizations of MDA-MB-231 cell electrotaxis and investigation of its underlying signaling mechanisms will lead to a better understanding of electrically guided cancer cell migration and metastasis. Therefore, we quantitatively characterized MDA-MB-231 cell electrotaxis and a few associated signaling events. Using a microfluidic device that can create well-controlled dcEF, we showed the anode-directing migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, surface staining of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and confocal microscopy showed the dcEF-induced anodal EGFR polarization in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, we showed an increase of intracellular calcium ions in MDA-MB-231 cells upon dcEF stimulation. Altogether, our study provided quantitative measurements of electrotactic migration of MDA-MB-231 cells, and demonstrated the electric field-mediated EGFR and calcium signaling events, suggesting their involvement in breast cancer cell electrotaxis.

  18. Intracellular calcium store filling by an L-type calcium current in the basolateral amygdala at subthreshold membrane potentials.

    PubMed

    Power, John M; Sah, Pankaj

    2005-01-15

    The long-term changes that underlie learning and memory are activated by rises in intracellular Ca2+ that activate a number of signalling pathways and trigger changes in gene transcription. Ca2+ rises due to influx via L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (L-VDCCs) and release from intracellular Ca2+ stores have been consistently implicated in the biochemical cascades that underlie the final changes in memory formation. Here, we show that pyramidal neurones in the basolateral amygdala express an L-VDCC that is active at resting membrane potentials. Subthreshold depolarization of neurones either by current injection or summating synaptic potentials led to a sustained rise in cytosolic Ca2+ that was blocked by the dihydropyridine nicardipine. Activation of metabotropic receptors released Ca2+ from intracellular Ca2+ stores. At hyperpolarized potentials, metabotropic-evoked store release ran down with repeated stimulation. Depolarization of cells to -50 mV, or maintaining them at the resting membrane potential, restored release from intracellular Ca2+ stores, an effect that was blocked by nicardipine. These results show that Ca2+ influx via a low-voltage-activated L-type Ca2+ current refills inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ stores, and maintains Ca2+ release and wave generation by metabotropic receptor activation.

  19. Intracellular calcium store filling by an L-type calcium current in the basolateral amygdala at subthreshold membrane potentials

    PubMed Central

    Power, John M; Sah, Pankaj

    2005-01-01

    The long-term changes that underlie learning and memory are activated by rises in intracellular Ca2+ that activate a number of signalling pathways and trigger changes in gene transcription. Ca2+ rises due to influx via L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (L-VDCCs) and release from intracellular Ca2+ stores have been consistently implicated in the biochemical cascades that underlie the final changes in memory formation. Here, we show that pyramidal neurones in the basolateral amygdala express an L-VDCC that is active at resting membrane potentials. Subthreshold depolarization of neurones either by current injection or summating synaptic potentials led to a sustained rise in cytosolic Ca2+ that was blocked by the dihydropyridine nicardipine. Activation of metabotropic receptors released Ca2+ from intracellular Ca2+ stores. At hyperpolarized potentials, metabotropic-evoked store release ran down with repeated stimulation. Depolarization of cells to −50 mV, or maintaining them at the resting membrane potential, restored release from intracellular Ca2+ stores, an effect that was blocked by nicardipine. These results show that Ca2+ influx via a low-voltage-activated L-type Ca2+ current refills inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ stores, and maintains Ca2+ release and wave generation by metabotropic receptor activation. PMID:15550460

  20. Calcium influx affects intracellular transport and membrane repair following nanosecond pulsed electric field exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Gary Lee; Roth, Caleb C.; Dalzell, Danielle R.; Kuipers, Marjorie; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2014-05-01

    The cellular response to subtle membrane damage following exposure to nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) is not well understood. Recent work has shown that when cells are exposed to nsPEF, ion permeable nanopores (<2 nm) are created in the plasma membrane in contrast to larger diameter pores (>2 nm) created by longer micro- and millisecond duration pulses. Nanoporation of the plasma membrane by nsPEF has been shown to cause a transient increase in intracellular calcium concentration within milliseconds after exposure. Our research objective is to determine the impact of nsPEF on calcium-dependent structural and repair systems in mammalian cells. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells were exposed in the presence and absence of calcium ions in the outside buffer to either 1 or 20, 600-ns duration electrical pulses at 16.2 kV/cm, and pore size was determined using propidium iodide and calcium green. Membrane organization was observed with morphological changes and increases in FM1-43 fluorescence. Migration of lysosomes, implicated in membrane repair, was followed using confocal microscopy of red fluorescent protein-tagged LAMP1. Microtubule structure was imaged using mEmerald-tubulin. We found that at high 600-ns PEF dosage, calcium-induced membrane restructuring and microtubule depolymerization coincide with interruption of membrane repair via lysosomal exocytosis.

  1. Overexpression of Sly41 suppresses COPII vesicle–tethering deficiencies by elevating intracellular calcium levels

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Indrani; Barlowe, Charles

    2016-01-01

    SLY41 was identified as a multicopy suppressor of loss of Ypt1, a Rab GTPase essential for COPII vesicle tethering at the Golgi complex. SLY41 encodes a polytopic membrane protein with homology to a class of solute transporter proteins, but how overexpression suppresses vesicle-tethering deficiencies is not known. Here we show that Sly41 is efficiently packaged into COPII vesicles and actively cycles between the ER and Golgi compartments. SLY41 displays synthetic negative genetic interactions with PMR1, which encodes the major Golgi-localized Ca2+/Mn2+ transporter and suggests that Sly41 influences cellular Ca2+ and Mn2+ homeostasis. Experiments using the calcium probe aequorin to measure intracellular Ca2+ concentrations in live cells reveal that Sly41 overexpression significantly increases cytosolic calcium levels. Although specific substrates of the Sly41 transporter were not identified, our findings indicate that localized overexpression of Sly41 to the early secretory pathway elevates cytosolic calcium levels to suppress vesicle-tethering mutants. In vitro SNARE cross-linking assays were used to directly monitor the influence of Ca2+ on tethering and fusion of COPII vesicles with Golgi membranes. Strikingly, calcium at suppressive concentrations stimulated SNARE-dependent membrane fusion when vesicle-tethering activity was reduced. These results show that calcium positively regulates the SNARE-dependent fusion stage of ER–Golgi transport. PMID:27030673

  2. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 couples cellular prion protein to intracellular signalling in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Haas, Laura T; Salazar, Santiago V; Kostylev, Mikhail A; Um, Ji Won; Kaufman, Adam C; Strittmatter, Stephen M

    2016-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease-related phenotypes in mice can be rescued by blockade of either cellular prion protein or metabotropic glutamate receptor 5. We sought genetic and biochemical evidence that these proteins function cooperatively as an obligate complex in the brain. We show that cellular prion protein associates via transmembrane metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 with the intracellular protein mediators Homer1b/c, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and the Alzheimer's disease risk gene product protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta. Coupling of cellular prion protein to these intracellular proteins is modified by soluble amyloid-β oligomers, by mouse brain Alzheimer's disease transgenes or by human Alzheimer's disease pathology. Amyloid-β oligomer-triggered phosphorylation of intracellular protein mediators and impairment of synaptic plasticity in vitro requires Prnp-Grm5 genetic interaction, being absent in transheterozygous loss-of-function, but present in either single heterozygote. Importantly, genetic coupling between Prnp and Grm5 is also responsible for signalling, for survival and for synapse loss in Alzheimer's disease transgenic model mice. Thus, the interaction between metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 and cellular prion protein has a central role in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, and the complex is a potential target for disease-modifying intervention.

  3. Molecular mechanisms of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-induced calcium signaling.

    PubMed

    Gutknecht, Eric; Van der Linden, Ilse; Van Kolen, Kristof; Verhoeven, Kim F C; Vauquelin, Georges; Dautzenberg, Frank M

    2009-03-01

    The molecular mechanisms governing calcium signal transduction of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors CRF(1) and CRF(2(a)) stably expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells were investigated. Calcium signaling strictly depended on intracellular calcium sources, and this is the first study to establish a prominent contribution of the three major G-protein families to CRF receptor-mediated calcium signaling. Overexpression of Galpha(q/11) and Galpha(16) led to leftward shifts of the agonist concentration-response curves. Blockade of Galpha(q/11) proteins by the small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology partially reduced agonist-mediated calcium responses in CRF(1)- and CRF(2(a))-expressing HEK293 cells, thereby proving a contribution of the G(q) protein family. A small but significant inhibition of calcium signaling was recorded by pharmacological inhibition of G(i/o) proteins with pertussis toxin treatment. This effect was mediated by direct binding of Gbetagamma subunits to phospholipase C. G(i/o) inhibition also elevated cAMP responses in CRF receptor-overexpressing HEK293 cells and in Y79 retinoblastoma cells endogenously expressing human CRF(1) and CRF(2(a)) receptors, thereby demonstrating natural coupling of G(i) proteins to both CRF receptors. The strongest reduction of CRF receptor-mediated calcium mobilization was noted when blocking the G(s) signaling protein either by cholera toxin or by siRNA. It is noteworthy that simultaneous inhibition of two G-proteins shed light on the additive effects of G(s) and G(q) on the calcium signaling and, hence, that they act in parallel. On the other hand, G(i) coupling required prior G(s) activation. PMID:19098121

  4. Raised Intracellular Calcium Contributes to Ischemia-Induced Depression of Evoked Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Jalini, Shirin; Ye, Hui; Tonkikh, Alexander A.; Charlton, Milton P.; Carlen, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) leads to depression of evoked synaptic transmission, for which the mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that increased presynaptic [Ca2+]i during transient OGD contributes to the depression of evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs). Additionally, we hypothesized that increased buffering of intracellular calcium would shorten electrophysiological recovery after transient ischemia. Mouse hippocampal slices were exposed to 2 to 8 min of OGD. fEPSPs evoked by Schaffer collateral stimulation were recorded in the stratum radiatum, and whole cell current or voltage clamp recordings were performed in CA1 neurons. Transient ischemia led to increased presynaptic [Ca2+]i, (shown by calcium imaging), increased spontaneous miniature EPSP/Cs, and depressed evoked fEPSPs, partially mediated by adenosine. Buffering of intracellular Ca2+ during OGD by membrane-permeant chelators (BAPTA-AM or EGTA-AM) partially prevented fEPSP depression and promoted faster electrophysiological recovery when the OGD challenge was stopped. The blocker of BK channels, charybdotoxin (ChTX), also prevented fEPSP depression, but did not accelerate post-ischemic recovery. These results suggest that OGD leads to elevated presynaptic [Ca2+]i, which reduces evoked transmitter release; this effect can be reversed by increased intracellular Ca2+ buffering which also speeds recovery. PMID:26934214

  5. Slow Calcium Signals after Tetanic Electrical Stimulation in Skeletal Myotubes

    PubMed Central

    Eltit, José M.; Hidalgo, Jorge; Liberona, José L.; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    The fluorescent calcium signal from rat myotubes in culture was monitored after field-stimulation with tetanic protocols. After the calcium signal sensitive to ryanodine and associated to the excitation-contraction coupling, a second long-lasting calcium signal refractory to ryanodine was consistently found. The onset kinetics of this slow signal were slightly modified in nominally calcium-free medium, as were both the frequency and number of pulses during tetanus. No signal was detected in the presence of tetrodotoxin. The participation of the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) as the voltage sensor for this signal was assessed by treatment with agonist and antagonist dihydropyridines (Bay K 8644 and nifedipine), showing an enhanced and inhibitory response, respectively. In the dysgenic GLT cell line, which lacks the α1S subunit of the DHPR, the signal was absent. Transfection of these cells with the α1S subunit restored the slow signal. In myotubes, the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) mass increase induced by a tetanus protocol preceded in time the slow calcium signal. Both an IP3 receptor blocker and a phospholipase C inhibitor (xestospongin C and U73122, respectively) dramatically inhibit this signal. Long-lasting, IP3-generated slow calcium signals appear to be a physiological response to activity-related fluctuations in membrane potential sensed by the DHPR. PMID:15111418

  6. Changes in Intracellular Free Calcium Concentration during Illumination of Invertebrate Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. E.; Blinks, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Aequorin, which luminesces in the presence of calcium, was injected into photoreceptor cells of Limulus ventral eye. A bright light stimulus elicited a large increase in aequorin luminescence, the aequorin response, indicating a rise of intracellular calcium ion concentration, Cai. The aequorin response reached a maximum after the peak of the electrical response of the photoreceptor, decayed during a prolonged stimulus, and returned to an undetectable level in the dark. Reduction of Cao reduced the amplitude of the aequorin response by a factor no greater than 3. Raising Cao increased the amplitude of the aequorin response. The aequorin response became smaller when membrane voltage was clamped to successively more positive values. These results indicate that the stimulus-induced rise of Cai may be due in part to a light-induced influx of Ca and in part to release of Ca from an intracellular store. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a rise in Cai is a step in the sequence of events underlying light-adaptation in Limulus ventral photoreceptors. Aequorin was also injected into photoreceptors of Balanus. The aequorin responses were similar to those recorded from Limulus cells in all but two ways: (a) A large sustained aequorin luminescence was measured during a prolonged stimulus, and (b) removal of extracellular calcium reduced the aequorin response to an undetectable level. PMID:4155426

  7. Steroid signaling activation and intracellular localization of sex steroid receptors.

    PubMed

    Giraldi, Tiziana; Giovannelli, Pia; Di Donato, Marzia; Castoria, Gabriella; Migliaccio, Antimo; Auricchio, Ferdinando

    2010-12-01

    In addition to stimulating gene transcription, sex steroids trigger rapid, non-genomic responses in the extra-nuclear compartment of target cells. These events take place within seconds or minutes after hormone administration and do not require transcriptional activity of sex steroid receptors. Depending on cell systems, activation of extra-nuclear signaling pathways by sex steroids fosters cell cycle progression, prevents apoptosis, leads to epigenetic modifications and increases cell migration through cytoskeleton changes. These findings have raised the question of intracellular localization of sex steroid receptors mediating these responses. During the past years, increasing evidence has shown that classical sex steroid receptors localized in the extra-nuclear compartment or close to membranes of target cells induce these events. The emerging picture is that a process of bidirectional control between signaling activation and sex steroid receptor localization regulates the outcome of hormonal responses in target cells. This mechanism ensures cell cycle progression in estradiol-treated breast cancer cells, and its derangement might occur in progression of human proliferative diseases. These findings will be reviewed here together with unexpected examples of the relationship between sex steroid receptor localization, signaling activation and biological responses in target cells. We apologize to scientists whose reports are not mentioned or extensively discussed owing to space limitations.

  8. Calcium Signaling in Intact Dorsal Root Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Gemes, Geza; Rigaud, Marcel; Koopmeiners, Andrew S.; Poroli, Mark J.; Zoga, Vasiliki; Hogan, Quinn H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ca2+ is the dominant second messenger in primary sensory neurons. In addition, disrupted Ca2+ signaling is a prominent feature in pain models involving peripheral nerve injury. Standard cytoplasmic Ca2+ recording techniques use high K+ or field stimulation and dissociated neurons. To compare findings in intact dorsal root ganglia, we used a method of simultaneous electrophysiologic and microfluorimetric recording. Methods Dissociated neurons were loaded by bath-applied Fura-2-AM and subjected to field stimulation. Alternatively, we adapted a technique in which neuronal somata of intact ganglia were loaded with Fura-2 through an intracellular microelectrode that provided simultaneous membrane potential recording during activation by action potentials (APs) conducted from attached dorsal roots. Results Field stimulation at levels necessary to activate neurons generated bath pH changes through electrolysis and failed to predictably drive neurons with AP trains. In the intact ganglion technique, single APs produced measurable Ca2+ transients that were fourfold larger in presumed nociceptive C-type neurons than in nonnociceptive Aβ-type neurons. Unitary Ca2+ transients summated during AP trains, forming transients with amplitudes that were highly dependent on stimulation frequency. Each neuron was tuned to a preferred frequency at which transient amplitude was maximal. Transients predominantly exhibited monoexponential recovery and had sustained plateaus during recovery only with trains of more than 100 APs. Nerve injury decreased Ca2+ transients in C-type neurons, but increased transients in Aβ-type neurons. Conclusions Refined observation of Ca2+ signaling is possible through natural activation by conducted APs in undissociated sensory neurons and reveals features distinct to neuronal types and injury state. PMID:20526180

  9. Intracellular calcium signaling in the fertilized eggs of Annelida.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Takeshi; Deguchi, Ryusaku; Kyozuka, Keiichiro

    2014-08-01

    Fertilization is such a universal and indispensable step in sexual reproduction, but a high degree of variability exists in the way it takes place in the animal kingdom. As discussed in other reviews in this issue, recent works on this subject clarified many points. However, important results on the mechanisms of fertilization are obtained mainly from a few restricted model organisms. In this sense, it is utterly important to collect more information from various phyla. In this review, we have re-introduced Annelida as one of the most suitable models for the analysis of fertilization process. We have briefly reviewed the historical works on the fertilization of Annelida. Then, we have described recent findings on the two independent Ca(2+) increases in the fertilized eggs of Annelida, which arise from two different mechanisms and may have distinct physiological roles toward sperm entry and egg activation. We propose that the Ca(2+) increase in the fertilized eggs reflect the specific needs of the zygote in a given species.

  10. Monitoring intracellular calcium in response to GPCR activation using thin-film silicon photodiodes with integrated fluorescence filters.

    PubMed

    Martins, S A M; Moulas, G; Trabuco, J R C; Monteiro, G A; Chu, V; Conde, J P; Prazeres, D M F

    2014-02-15

    G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) drug discovery is a thriving strategy in the pharmaceutical industry. The standard approach uses living cells to test millions of compounds in a high-throughput format. Typically, changes in the intracellular levels of key elements in the signaling cascade are monitored using fluorescence or luminescence read-out systems, which require external equipment for signal acquisition. In this work, thin-film amorphous silicon photodiodes with an integrated fluorescence filter were developed to capture the intracellular calcium dynamics in response to the activation of the endogenous muscarinic M1 GPCR of HEK 293T cells. Using the new device it was possible to characterize the potency of carbachol (EC50=10.5 µM) and pirenzepine (IC50=4.2 μM), with the same accuracy as standard microscopy optical systems. The smaller foot-print provided by the detection system makes it an ideal candidate for the future integration in microfluidic devices for drug discovery. PMID:24055937

  11. Compartmentalized calcium signaling triggers subpopulation formation upon platelet activation through PAR1.

    PubMed

    Sveshnikova, Anastasia N; Ataullakhanov, Fazoil I; Panteleev, Mikhail A

    2015-04-01

    Blood platelets need to undergo activation to carry out their function of stopping bleeding. Different activation degrees lead to a stepped hierarchy of responses: ability to aggregate, granule release, and, in a fraction of platelets, phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure. This suggests the existence of decision-making mechanisms in the platelet intracellular signaling network. To identify and investigate them, we developed a computational model of PAR1-stimulated platelet signal transduction that included a minimal set of major players in the calcium signaling network. The model comprised three intracellular compartments: cytosol, dense tubular system (DTS) and mitochondria and extracellular space. Computer simulations showed that the stable resting state of platelets is maintained via a balance between calcium pumps and leaks through the DTS and plasma membranes. Stimulation of PAR1 induced oscillations in the cytosolic calcium concentrations, in good agreement with experimental observations. Further increase in the agonist level activated the mitochondrial uniporter leading to calcium uptake by mitochondria, which caused the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential in a fraction of platelets leading to the PS exposure. The formation of this subpopulation was shown to be a stochastic process determined by the small number of activated PAR1 receptors and by heterogeneity in the number of ion pumps. These results demonstrate how a gradual increase of the activation degree can be converted into a stepped response hierarchy ultimately leading to formation of two distinct subpopulations from an initially homogeneous population. PMID:25627921

  12. Regulation of chondrogenesis by protein kinase C: Emerging new roles in calcium signalling.

    PubMed

    Matta, Csaba; Mobasheri, Ali

    2014-05-01

    During chondrogenesis, complex intracellular signalling pathways regulate an intricate series of events including condensation of chondroprogenitor cells and nodule formation followed by chondrogenic differentiation. Reversible phosphorylation of key target proteins is of particular importance during this process. Among protein kinases known to be involved in these pathways, protein kinase C (PKC) subtypes play pivotal roles. However, the precise function of PKC isoenzymes during chondrogenesis and in mature articular chondrocytes is still largely unclear. In this review, we provide a historical overview of how the concept of PKC-mediated chondrogenesis has evolved, starting from the first discoveries of PKC isoform expression and activity. Signalling components upstream and downstream of PKC, leading to the stimulation of chondrogenic differentiation, are also discussed. Although it is evident that we are only at the beginning to understand what roles are assigned to PKC subtypes during chondrogenesis and how they are regulated, there are many yet unexplored aspects in this area. There is evidence that calcium signalling is a central regulator in differentiating chondroprogenitors; still, clear links between intracellular calcium signalling and prototypical calcium-dependent PKC subtypes such as PKCalpha have not been established. Exploiting putative connections and shedding more light on how exactly PKC signalling pathways influence cartilage formation should open new perspectives for a better understanding of healthy as well as pathological differentiation processes of chondrocytes, and may also lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:24440668

  13. Effects of intracellular injection of calcium buffers on light adaptation in Limulus ventral photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    The calcium sequestering agent, EGTA, was injected into Limulus ventral photoreceptors. Before injection, the inward membrane current induced by a long stimulus had a large initial transient which declined to a smaller plateau. Iontophoretic injection of EGTA tended to prevent the decline from transient to plateau. Before injection the plateau response was a nonlinear function of light intensity. After EGTA injection the response-intensity curves tended to become linear. Before injection, bright lights lowered the sensitivity as determined with subsequent test flashes. EGTA injection decreased the light-induced changes in sensitivity. Ca-EGTA buffers having different levels of free calcium were pressure-injected into ventral photoreceptors; the higher the level of free calcium, the lower the sensitivity measured after injection. The effects of inotophoretic injection of EGTA were not mimicked by injection or similar amounts of sulfate and the effects of pressure injection of EGTA buffer solutions were not mimicked by injection of similar volumes of pH buffer or mannitol. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that light adaptation is mediated by a rise of the intracellular free calcium concentration. PMID:810540

  14. Abnormal intracellular calcium homeostasis associated with vulnerability in the nerve cells from heroin-dependent rat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoshan; Wang, Guangyong; Pu, Hongwei; Jing, Hualan

    2014-07-14

    The cellular mechanisms by which opiate addiction develops with repetitive use remain largely unresolved. Intercellular calcium homeostasis is one of the most critical elements to determine neuroadaptive changes and neuronal fate. Heroin, one of the most addictive opiates, may induce neurotoxicity potentially inducing brain impairment, especially for those chronic users who get an overdose. Here we examined changes in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) after repeated exposure to heroin using cultured cerebral cortical neurons. Dynamic changes in [Ca2+]i indicated by fluo-3-AM were monitored using confocal laser scan microscopy, followed by cytotoxicity assessments. It showed that the cells dissociated from heroin-dependent rats had a smaller depolarization-induced [Ca2+]i responses, and a higher elevation in [Ca2+]i when challenged with a high concentration of heroin (500 μM). The restoration ability to remove calcium after washout of these stimulants was impaired. Calcium channel blocker verapamil inhibited the heroin-induced [Ca2+]i elevations as well as the heroin-induced cell damage. The relative [Ca2+]i of the nerve cells closely correlated with the number of damaged cells induced by heroin. These results demonstrate that nerve cells from heroin-dependent rats manifest abnormal [Ca2+]i homeostasis, as well as vulnerability to heroin overdose, suggesting involvement of [Ca2+]i regulation mechanisms in heroin addiction and neurotoxicity.

  15. Effects of dihydropyridines and inorganic calcium blockers on aggregation and on intracellular free calcium in platelets.

    PubMed

    Palés, J; Palacios-Araus, L; López, A; Gual, A

    1991-05-01

    [Ca2+]i increase is necessary in physiological platelet activity, particularly aggregation and release. The increase of [Ca2+]i observed during platelet activation depends in part on Ca2+ influx from the extracellular medium. The participation of voltage-operated Ca2+ channels as a pathway for Ca2+ entry is controversial. In the present study we have attempted to reinvestigate this problem by measuring aggregation and [Ca2+]i changes in platelets activated by ADP or thrombin and incubated with organic or inorganic blockers of calcium channels. The main findings of the present paper can be summarized as follows: (i) Ni2+, Co2+ and Mn2+, well known inorganic blockers of Ca2+ channels, inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP or thrombin in a dose-dependent manner, Ni2+ being the most effective agent. (ii) Thrombin induced a rise in free [Ca2+]i in platelets incubated both in 1 mmol/l Ca(2+)-containing medium and in nominally Ca(2+)-free medium; the rise of free [Ca2+]i was in the first case up to 370 +/- 31 nmol/l and in the second case up to 242 +/- 26 nmol/l, indicating that this observed difference was due to Ca2+ entry from the extracellular medium. Co2+ and Ni2+ abolished that difference by inhibiting Ca2+ influx. (iii) Nisoldipine, nitrendipine and nimodipine (10-50 nmol/l) inhibited in a dose-dependent manner platelet aggregation induced by either ADP or thrombin in platelets incubated in normal-Ca2+ normal-K+ medium, also, aggregation was inhibited to a similar extent in platelets incubated in normal-Ca2+ high-K+ medium. (iv) Nisoldipine--the most effective dihydropyridine to inhibit platelet aggregation--also inhibited Ca2+ influx in platelets incubated in normal-Ca2+ medium, either in normal-K+ or high-K+ media. Our data support the existence of voltage-operated, dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels (L-type) and a physiological role for them in platelet function.

  16. Calcium/calmodulin-mediated signal network in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Tianbao; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2003-01-01

    Various extracellular stimuli elicit specific calcium signatures that can be recognized by different calcium sensors. Calmodulin, the predominant calcium receptor, is one of the best-characterized calcium sensors in eukaryotes. In recent years, completion of the Arabidopsis genome project and advances in functional genomics have helped to identify and characterize numerous calmodulin-binding proteins in plants. There are some similarities in Ca(2+)/calmodulin-mediated signaling in plants and animals. However, plants possess multiple calmodulin genes and many calmodulin target proteins, including unique protein kinases and transcription factors. Some of these proteins are likely to act as "hubs" during calcium signal transduction. Hence, a better understanding of the function of these calmodulin target proteins should help in deciphering the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-mediated signal network and its role in plant growth, development and response to environmental stimuli.

  17. Cytosolic calcium homeostasis in fungi: Roles of plasma membrane transport and intracellular sequestration of calcium

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.J.; Vogg, G.; Sanders, D. )

    1990-12-01

    Cytosolic free calcium ((Ca{sup 2+}){sub c}) has been measured in the mycelial fungus Neurospora crassa with Ca{sup 2+} - selective microelectrodes. The mean value of (Ca{sup 2+}){sub c} is 92 {plus minus} 15 nM and it is insensitive to external pH values between 5.8 and 8.4. Simultaneous measurement of membrane potential enables the electrochemical potential difference for Ca{sup 2+} across the plasma membrane to be estimated as about {minus}60 kJmol{sup {minus}1} - a value that cannot be sustained either by a simple Ca{sup 2+} - ATPase, or, in alkaline conditions, by straightforward H{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchange with a stoichiometric ratio of {lt}5 H{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+}. The authors propose that the most likely alternative mechanism of Ca{sup 2+} efflux is ATP-driven H{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchange, with a stoichiometric ratio of at least 2 H{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+}. The increase in (Ca{sup 2+}){sub c} in the presence of CN{sup {minus}} at pH 8.4 is compared with {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} influx under the same conditions. The proportion of entering Ca{sup 2+} remaining free in the cytosol is only 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}, and since the concentration of available chelation sites on Ca{sup 2+} binding proteins is unlikely to exceed 100 {mu}M, a major role for the fungal vacuole in short-term Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis is indicated. This notion is supported by the observation that cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis is disrupted by a protonophore, which rapidly abolishes the driving force for Ca{sup 2+} uptake into fungal vacuoles.

  18. Crude oil exposures reveal roles for intracellular calcium cycling in haddock craniofacial and cardiac development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørhus, Elin; Incardona, John P.; Karlsen, Ørjan; Linbo, Tiffany; Sørensen, Lisbet; Nordtug, Trond; van der Meeren, Terje; Thorsen, Anders; Thorbjørnsen, Maja; Jentoft, Sissel; Edvardsen, Rolf B.; Meier, Sonnich

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that crude oil exposure affects cardiac development in fish by disrupting excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. We previously found that eggs of Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) bind dispersed oil droplets, potentially leading to more profound toxic effects from uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Using lower concentrations of dispersed crude oil (0.7–7 μg/L ∑PAH), here we exposed a broader range of developmental stages over both short and prolonged durations. We quantified effects on cardiac function and morphogenesis, characterized novel craniofacial defects, and examined the expression of genes encoding potential targets underlying cardiac and craniofacial defects. Because of oil droplet binding, a 24-hr exposure was sufficient to create severe cardiac and craniofacial abnormalities. The specific nature of the craniofacial abnormalities suggests that crude oil may target common craniofacial and cardiac precursor cells either directly or indirectly by affecting ion channels and intracellular calcium in particular. Furthermore, down-regulation of genes encoding specific components of the EC coupling machinery suggests that crude oil disrupts excitation-transcription coupling or normal feedback regulation of ion channels blocked by PAHs. These data support a unifying hypothesis whereby depletion of intracellular calcium pools by crude oil-derived PAHs disrupts several pathways critical for organogenesis in fish.

  19. Crude oil exposures reveal roles for intracellular calcium cycling in haddock craniofacial and cardiac development.

    PubMed

    Sørhus, Elin; Incardona, John P; Karlsen, Ørjan; Linbo, Tiffany; Sørensen, Lisbet; Nordtug, Trond; van der Meeren, Terje; Thorsen, Anders; Thorbjørnsen, Maja; Jentoft, Sissel; Edvardsen, Rolf B; Meier, Sonnich

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that crude oil exposure affects cardiac development in fish by disrupting excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. We previously found that eggs of Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) bind dispersed oil droplets, potentially leading to more profound toxic effects from uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Using lower concentrations of dispersed crude oil (0.7-7 μg/L ∑PAH), here we exposed a broader range of developmental stages over both short and prolonged durations. We quantified effects on cardiac function and morphogenesis, characterized novel craniofacial defects, and examined the expression of genes encoding potential targets underlying cardiac and craniofacial defects. Because of oil droplet binding, a 24-hr exposure was sufficient to create severe cardiac and craniofacial abnormalities. The specific nature of the craniofacial abnormalities suggests that crude oil may target common craniofacial and cardiac precursor cells either directly or indirectly by affecting ion channels and intracellular calcium in particular. Furthermore, down-regulation of genes encoding specific components of the EC coupling machinery suggests that crude oil disrupts excitation-transcription coupling or normal feedback regulation of ion channels blocked by PAHs. These data support a unifying hypothesis whereby depletion of intracellular calcium pools by crude oil-derived PAHs disrupts several pathways critical for organogenesis in fish. PMID:27506155

  20. Crude oil exposures reveal roles for intracellular calcium cycling in haddock craniofacial and cardiac development

    PubMed Central

    Sørhus, Elin; Incardona, John P.; Karlsen, Ørjan; Linbo, Tiffany; Sørensen, Lisbet; Nordtug, Trond; van der Meeren, Terje; Thorsen, Anders; Thorbjørnsen, Maja; Jentoft, Sissel; Edvardsen, Rolf B.; Meier, Sonnich

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that crude oil exposure affects cardiac development in fish by disrupting excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. We previously found that eggs of Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) bind dispersed oil droplets, potentially leading to more profound toxic effects from uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Using lower concentrations of dispersed crude oil (0.7–7 μg/L ∑PAH), here we exposed a broader range of developmental stages over both short and prolonged durations. We quantified effects on cardiac function and morphogenesis, characterized novel craniofacial defects, and examined the expression of genes encoding potential targets underlying cardiac and craniofacial defects. Because of oil droplet binding, a 24-hr exposure was sufficient to create severe cardiac and craniofacial abnormalities. The specific nature of the craniofacial abnormalities suggests that crude oil may target common craniofacial and cardiac precursor cells either directly or indirectly by affecting ion channels and intracellular calcium in particular. Furthermore, down-regulation of genes encoding specific components of the EC coupling machinery suggests that crude oil disrupts excitation-transcription coupling or normal feedback regulation of ion channels blocked by PAHs. These data support a unifying hypothesis whereby depletion of intracellular calcium pools by crude oil-derived PAHs disrupts several pathways critical for organogenesis in fish. PMID:27506155

  1. ER functions of oncogenes and tumor suppressors: Modulators of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling.

    PubMed

    Bittremieux, Mart; Parys, Jan B; Pinton, Paolo; Bultynck, Geert

    2016-06-01

    Intracellular Ca(2+) signals that arise from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the major intracellular Ca(2+)-storage organelle, impact several mitochondrial functions and dictate cell survival and cell death processes. Furthermore, alterations in Ca(2+) signaling in cancer cells promote survival and establish a high tolerance towards cell stress and damage, so that the on-going oncogenic stress does not result in the activation of cell death. Over the last years, the mechanisms underlying these oncogenic alterations in Ca(2+) signaling have started to emerge. An important aspect of this is the identification of several major oncogenes, including Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Mcl-1, PKB/Akt, and Ras, and tumor suppressors, such as p53, PTEN, PML, BRCA1, and Beclin 1, as direct and critical regulators of Ca(2+)-transport systems located at the ER membranes, including IP3 receptors and SERCA Ca(2+) pumps. In this way, these proteins execute part of their function by controlling the ER-mitochondrial Ca(2+) fluxes, favoring either survival (oncogenes) or cell death (tumor suppressors). Oncogenic mutations, gene deletions or amplifications alter the expression and/or function of these proteins, thereby changing the delicate balance between oncogenes and tumor suppressors, impacting oncogenesis and favoring malignant cell function and behavior. In this review, we provided an integrated overview of the impact of the major oncogenes and tumor suppressors, often altered in cancer cells, on Ca(2+) signaling from the ER Ca(2+) stores. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate. Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen.

  2. Cell- and stimulus type-specific intracellular free Ca2+ signals in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Martí, María C; Stancombe, Matthew A; Webb, Alex A R

    2013-10-01

    Appropriate stimulus-response coupling requires that each signal induces a characteristic response, distinct from that induced by other signals, and that there is the potential for individual signals to initiate different downstream responses dependent on cell type. How such specificity is encoded in plant signaling is not known. One possibility is that information is encoded in signal transduction pathways to ensure stimulus- and cell type-specific responses. The calcium ion acts as a second messenger in response to mechanical stimulation, hydrogen peroxide, NaCl, and cold in plants and also in circadian timing. We use GAL4 transactivation of aequorin in enhancer trap lines of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to test the hypothesis that stimulus- and cell-specific information can be encoded in the pattern of dynamic alterations in the concentration of intracellular free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i). We demonstrate that mechanically induced increases in [Ca(2+)]i are largely restricted to the epidermal pavement cells of leaves, that NaCl induces oscillatory [Ca(2+)]i signals in spongy mesophyll and vascular bundle cells, but not other cell types, and detect circadian rhythms of [Ca(2+)]i only in the spongy mesophyll. We demonstrate stimulus-specific [Ca(2+)]i dynamics in response to touch, cold, and hydrogen peroxide, which in the case of the latter two signals are common to all cell types tested. GAL4 transactivation of aequorin in specific leaf cell types has allowed us to bypass the technical limitations associated with fluorescent Ca(2+) reporter dyes in chlorophyll-containing tissues to identify the cell- and stimulus-specific complexity of [Ca(2+)]i dynamics in leaves of Arabidopsis and to determine from which tissues stress- and circadian-regulated [Ca(2+)]i signals arise.

  3. Voltage, calcium, and stretch activated ionic channels and intracellular calcium in bone cells.

    PubMed

    Ypey, D L; Weidema, A F; Höld, K M; Van der Laarse, A; Ravesloot, J H; Van Der Plas, A; Nijweide, P J

    1992-12-01

    Embryonic chick bone cells express various types of ionic channels in their plasma membranes for as yet unresolved functions. Chick osteoclasts (OCL) have the richest spectrum of channel types. Specific for OCL is a K+ channel, which activates (opens) when the inside negative membrane potential (Vm) becomes more negative (hyperpolarization). This is consistent with findings of others on rat OCL. The membrane conductance constituted by these channels is called the inward rectifying K+ conductance (GKi), or inward rectifier, because the hyperpolarization-activated channels cause cell-inward K+ current to pass more easily through the membrane than outward K+ current. Besides GKi channels, OCL may express two other types of voltage-activated K+ channels. One constitutes the transient outward rectifying K+ conductance (GKto), which is activated upon making the membrane potential less negative (depolarization) but has a transient nature. This conductance favors transient K+ conduction in the cell-outward direction. The GKto also occurs in a small percentage of cells in osteoblast (OBL) and periosteal fibroblast (PFB) cultures. The other OCL K+ conductance, the GKCa, is activated by both membrane depolarization and a rise in [Ca2+]i. GKCa channels are also present in the other chick bone cell types, that is, OBL, osteocytes (OCY), and PFB. Furthermore, in excised patches of all bone cell types, channels have been found that conduct anions, including Cl- and phosphate ions. These channels are only active around Vm = 0 mV. While searching for a membrane mechanism for adaptation of bone to mechanical loading, we found stretch-activated channels in chick osteoclasts; other investigators have found stretch-activated cation channels (K+ or aselective) in rat and human osteogenic cell lines. In contrast to other studies on cell lines or OBL from other species, we have not found any of the classic macroscopic voltage-activated calcium conductances (GCa) in any of the chick bone

  4. Role of calcium in polycystic kidney disease: From signaling to pathology

    PubMed Central

    Mangolini, Alessandra; de Stephanis, Lucia; Aguiari, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited monogenic kidney disease. Characterized by the development and growth of cysts that cause progressive kidney enlargement, it ultimately leads to end-stage renal disease. Approximately 85% of ADPKD cases are caused by mutations in the PKD1 gene, while mutations in the PKD2 gene account for the remaining 15% of cases. The PKD1 gene encodes for polycystin-1 (PC1), a large multi-functional membrane receptor protein able to regulate ion channel complexes, whereas polycystin-2 (PC2), encoded by the PKD2 gene, is an integral membrane protein that functions as a calcium-permeable cation channel, located mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In the primary cilia of the epithelial cells, PC1 interacts with PC2 to form a polycystin complex that acts as a mechanosensor, regulating signaling pathways involved in the differentiation of kidney tubular epithelial cells. Despite progress in understanding the function of these proteins, the molecular mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of ADPKD remain unclear. In this review we discuss how an imbalance between functional PC1 and PC2 proteins may disrupt calcium channel activities in the cilium, plasma membrane and ER, thereby altering intracellular calcium signaling and leading to the aberrant cell proliferation and apoptosis associated with the development and growth of renal cysts. Research in this field could lead to the discovery of new molecules able to rebalance intracellular calcium, thereby normalizing cell proliferation and reducing kidney cyst progression. PMID:26788466

  5. Role of calcium in polycystic kidney disease: From signaling to pathology.

    PubMed

    Mangolini, Alessandra; de Stephanis, Lucia; Aguiari, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited monogenic kidney disease. Characterized by the development and growth of cysts that cause progressive kidney enlargement, it ultimately leads to end-stage renal disease. Approximately 85% of ADPKD cases are caused by mutations in the PKD1 gene, while mutations in the PKD2 gene account for the remaining 15% of cases. The PKD1 gene encodes for polycystin-1 (PC1), a large multi-functional membrane receptor protein able to regulate ion channel complexes, whereas polycystin-2 (PC2), encoded by the PKD2 gene, is an integral membrane protein that functions as a calcium-permeable cation channel, located mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In the primary cilia of the epithelial cells, PC1 interacts with PC2 to form a polycystin complex that acts as a mechanosensor, regulating signaling pathways involved in the differentiation of kidney tubular epithelial cells. Despite progress in understanding the function of these proteins, the molecular mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of ADPKD remain unclear. In this review we discuss how an imbalance between functional PC1 and PC2 proteins may disrupt calcium channel activities in the cilium, plasma membrane and ER, thereby altering intracellular calcium signaling and leading to the aberrant cell proliferation and apoptosis associated with the development and growth of renal cysts. Research in this field could lead to the discovery of new molecules able to rebalance intracellular calcium, thereby normalizing cell proliferation and reducing kidney cyst progression.

  6. Role of calcium in polycystic kidney disease: From signaling to pathology.

    PubMed

    Mangolini, Alessandra; de Stephanis, Lucia; Aguiari, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited monogenic kidney disease. Characterized by the development and growth of cysts that cause progressive kidney enlargement, it ultimately leads to end-stage renal disease. Approximately 85% of ADPKD cases are caused by mutations in the PKD1 gene, while mutations in the PKD2 gene account for the remaining 15% of cases. The PKD1 gene encodes for polycystin-1 (PC1), a large multi-functional membrane receptor protein able to regulate ion channel complexes, whereas polycystin-2 (PC2), encoded by the PKD2 gene, is an integral membrane protein that functions as a calcium-permeable cation channel, located mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In the primary cilia of the epithelial cells, PC1 interacts with PC2 to form a polycystin complex that acts as a mechanosensor, regulating signaling pathways involved in the differentiation of kidney tubular epithelial cells. Despite progress in understanding the function of these proteins, the molecular mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of ADPKD remain unclear. In this review we discuss how an imbalance between functional PC1 and PC2 proteins may disrupt calcium channel activities in the cilium, plasma membrane and ER, thereby altering intracellular calcium signaling and leading to the aberrant cell proliferation and apoptosis associated with the development and growth of renal cysts. Research in this field could lead to the discovery of new molecules able to rebalance intracellular calcium, thereby normalizing cell proliferation and reducing kidney cyst progression. PMID:26788466

  7. Agouti regulation of intracellular calcium: Role in the insulin resistance of viable yellow mice

    SciTech Connect

    Zemel, M.B.; Kim, J.H.; Woychik, R.P.; Michaud, E.J.; Hadwell, S.H.; Patel, I.R.; Wilkison, W.O.

    1995-05-23

    Several dominant mutations at the agouti locus in the mouse cause a syndrome of marked obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. Although it is known that the agouti gene is expressed in an ectopic manner in these mutants, the precise mechanism by which the agouti gene product mediates these effects is unclear. Since intracellular Ca{sup 2+} is believed to play a role in mediating insulin action and dysregulation of Ca{sup 2+} flux is observed in diabetic animals and humans, we examined the status of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} in mice carrying the dominant agouti allele, viable yellow (A{sup vy}). We show here that in mice carrying this mutation, the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) is elevated in skeletal muscle, and the degree of elevation is closely correlated with the degree to which the mutant traits are expressed in individual animals. Moreover, we demonstrate that the agouti gene product is capable of inducing increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in cultured and freshly isolated skeletal muscle myocytes from wild-type mice. Based on these findings, we present a model in which we propose that the agouti polypeptide promotes insulin resistance in mutant animals through its ability to increase [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. 36 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. How complex are intracellular immune receptor signaling complexes?

    PubMed

    Bonardi, Vera; Dangl, Jeffery L

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs) are the major class of intracellular immune receptors in plants. NLRs typically function to specifically recognize pathogen effectors and to initiate and control defense responses that severely limit pathogen growth in plants (termed effector-triggered immunity, or ETI). Despite numerous reports supporting a central role in innate immunity, the molecular mechanisms driving NLR activation and downstream signaling remain largely elusive. Recent reports shed light on the pre- and post-activation dynamics of a few NLR-containing protein complexes. Recent technological advances in the use of proteomics may enable high-resolution definition of immune protein complexes and possible activation-relevant post-translational modifications of the components in these complexes. In this review, we focus on research aimed at characterizing pre- and post-activation NLR protein complexes and the molecular events that follow activation. We discuss the use of new or improved technologies as tools to unveil the molecular mechanisms that define NLR-mediated pathogen recognition.

  9. An adipocentric view of signaling and intracellular trafficking.

    PubMed

    Mora, Silvia; Pessin, Jeffrey E

    2002-01-01

    Adipocytes have traditionally been considered to be the primary site for whole body energy storage mainly in the form of triglycerides and fatty acids. This occurs through the ability of insulin to markedly stimulate both glucose uptake and lipogenesis. Conventional wisdom held that defects in fuel partitioning into adipocytes either because of increased adipose tissue mass and/or increased lipolysis and circulating free fatty acids resulted in dyslipidemia, obesity, insulin resistance and perhaps diabetes. However, it has become increasingly apparent that loss of adipose tissue (lipodystrophies) in both animal models and humans also leads to metabolic disorders that result in severe states of insulin resistance and potential diabetes. These apparently opposite functions can be resolved by the establishment of adipocytes not only as a fuel storage depot but also as a critical endocrine organ that secretes a variety of signaling molecules into the circulation. Although the molecular function of these adipocyte-derived signals are poorly understood, they play a central role in the maintenance of energy homeostasis by regulating insulin secretion, insulin action, glucose and lipid metabolism, energy balance, host defense and reproduction. The diversity of these secretory factors include enzymes (lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and adipsin), growth factors [vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)], cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 6) and several other hormones involved in fatty acid and glucose metabolism (leptin, Acrp30, resistin and acylation stimulation protein). Despite the large number of molecules secreted by adipocytes, our understanding of the pathways and mechanisms controlling intracellular trafficking and exocytosis in adipocytes is poorly understood. In this article, we will review the current knowledge of the trafficking and secretion processes that take place in adipocytes, focusing our attention on two of the best characterized adipokine

  10. Combined analysis of intracellular calcium with dual excitation fluorescence photometry and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttenweiler, Dietmar; Wojciechowski, Reinhold; Makabe, Makoto; Veigel, Claudia; Fink, Rainer H.

    1995-10-01

    We have developed an integrated microscopy system combining fast dual-excitation fluorescence photometry and digital image analysis with high spatial resolution, based mainly on standard components. With the combination of these well-established techniques in one setup it is possible to monitor intracellular calcium with both sufficiently high temporal and high spatial resolution on the same preparation for many biological applications. Our system consists of a commercially available dual-excitation photometric system, an attached ICCD camera, and a frame grabber board. With this integrated setup one can easily switch between the fast photometric mode and the imaging mode. We used the system to record Fura-2 calcium images (340/380 nm ratios), which were correlated with the faster spot measurements and were analyzed by means of image processing. As an example for its application we reconstructed caffeine-induced calcium transient released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of isolated and permeabilized skeletal muscle fiber preparations. Such a combined technique will also be important for cellular studies using other fluorescence indicators. Additionally, the described system has an external trigger facility that enables combination with other cell physiological methods, e.g., electrophysiological techniques.

  11. Calcium Channel Signaling Complexes with Receptors and Channels.

    PubMed

    Zamponi, Gerald W

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels are not only mediators of cell signalling events, but also are recipients of signalling inputs from G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and their associated second messenger pathways. The coupling of GPCRs to calcium channels is optimized through the formation of receptor-channel complexes. In addition, this provides a mechanism for receptorchannel co-trafficking to and from the plasma membrane. On the other hand, voltage-gated calcium channel activity affects other types of ion channels such as voltage-and calcium-activated potassium channels. Coupling efficiency between these two families of channels is also enhanced through the formation of channel-channel complexes. This review provides a concise overview of the current state of knowledge on the physical interactions between voltage-gated calcium channels and members of the GPCR family, and with other types of ion channels.

  12. Disturbed calcium signaling in spinocerebellar ataxias and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Egorova, Polina; Popugaeva, Elena; Bezprozvanny, Ilya

    2015-04-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders, such as spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) represent a huge scientific and medical question, but the molecular mechanisms of these diseases are still not clear. There is increasing evidence that neuronal calcium signaling is abnormal in many neurodegenerative disorders. Abnormal neuronal calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum may result in disturbances of cell homeostasis, synaptic dysfunction, and eventual cell death. Neuronal loss is observed in most cases of neurodegenerative diseases. Recent experimental evidence supporting the role of neuronal calcium signaling in the pathogenesis of SCAs and AD is discussed in this review.

  13. Oxidative stress-induced calcium signalling in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Greene, Vilma; Cao, Hong; Schanne, Francis A X; Bartelt, Diana C

    2002-05-01

    The effects of oxidative stress on levels of calcium ion (Ca(2+)) in Aspergillus nidulans were measured using strains expressing aequorin in the cytoplasm (Aeq(cyt)) and mitochondria (Aeq(mt)). When oxidative stress was induced by exposure to 10-mM H(2)O(2), the mitochondrial calcium response (Ca(mt)(2+)) was greater than the change in cytoplasmic calcium (Ca(c)(2+)). The Ca(mt)(2+) response to H(2)O(2) was dose dependent, while the increase in [Ca(c)(2+)] did not change with increasing H(2)O(2). The increase in both [Ca(c)(2+)] and [Ca(mt)(2+)] in response to oxidative stress was enhanced by exposure of cells to Ca(2+). The presence of chelator in the external medium only partially inhibited the Ca(mt)(2+) and Ca(c)(2+) responses to oxidative stress. Reagents that alter calcium fluxes had varied effects on the Ca(mt)(2+) response to peroxide. Ruthenium red blocked the increase in [Ca(mt)(2+)], while neomycin caused an even greater increase in [Ca(mt)(2+)]. Treatment with ruthenium red and neomycin had no effect on the Ca(c)(2+) response. Bafilomycin A and oligomycin had no effect on either the mitochondrial or cytoplasmic response. Inhibitors of both voltage-regulated calcium channels and intracellular calcium release channels inhibited the Ca(2+)-dependent component of the Ca(mt)(2+) response to oxidative stress. We conclude that the more significant Ca(2+) response to oxidative stress occurs in the mitochondria and that both intracellular and extracellular calcium pools can contribute to the increases in [Ca(c)(2+)] and [Ca(mt)(2+)] induced by oxidative stress.

  14. The role of calcium in hypoxia-induced signal transduction and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Seta, Karen A; Yuan, Yong; Spicer, Zachary; Lu, Gang; Bedard, James; Ferguson, Tsuneo K; Pathrose, Peterson; Cole-Strauss, Allyson; Kaufhold, Alexa; Millhorn, David E

    2004-01-01

    Mammalian cells require a constant supply of oxygen in order to maintain adequate energy production, which is essential for maintaining normal function and for ensuring cell survival. Sustained hypoxia can result in cell death. Sophisticated mechanisms have therefore evolved which allow cells to respond and adapt to hypoxia. Specialized oxygen-sensing cells have the ability to detect changes in oxygen tension and transduce this signal into organ system functions that enhance the delivery of oxygen to tissue in a wide variety of different organisms. An increase in intracellular calcium levels is a primary response of many cell types to hypoxia/ischemia. The response to hypoxia is complex and involves the regulation of multiple signaling pathways and coordinated expression of perhaps hundreds of genes. This review discusses the role of calcium in hypoxia-induced regulation of signal transduction pathways and gene expression. An understanding of the molecular events initiated by changes in intracellular calcium will lead to the development of therapeutic approaches toward the treatment of hypoxic/ischemic diseases and tumors. PMID:15261489

  15. Lipid body accumulation alters calcium signaling dynamics in immune cells.

    PubMed

    Greineisen, William E; Speck, Mark; Shimoda, Lori M N; Sung, Carl; Phan, Nolwenn; Maaetoft-Udsen, Kristina; Stokes, Alexander J; Turner, Helen

    2014-09-01

    There is well-established variability in the numbers of lipid bodies (LB) in macrophages, eosinophils, and neutrophils. Similarly to the steatosis observed in adipocytes and hepatocytes during hyperinsulinemia and nutrient overload, immune cell LB hyper-accumulate in response to bacterial and parasitic infection and inflammatory presentations. Recently we described that hyperinsulinemia, both in vitro and in vivo, drives steatosis and phenotypic changes in primary and transformed mast cells and basophils. LB reach high numbers in these steatotic cytosols, and here we propose that they could dramatically impact the transcytoplasmic signaling pathways. We compared calcium release and influx responses at the population and single cell level in normal and steatotic model mast cells. At the population level, all aspects of FcɛRI-dependent calcium mobilization, as well as activation of calcium-dependent downstream signaling targets such as NFATC1 phosphorylation are suppressed. At the single cell level, we demonstrate that LB are both sources and sinks of calcium following FcɛRI cross-linking. Unbiased analysis of the impact of the presence of LB on the rate of trans-cytoplasmic calcium signals suggest that LB enrichment accelerates calcium propagation, which may reflect a Bernoulli effect. LB abundance thus impacts this fundamental signaling pathway and its downstream targets.

  16. Lipid body accumulation alters calcium signaling dynamics in immune cells.

    PubMed

    Greineisen, William E; Speck, Mark; Shimoda, Lori M N; Sung, Carl; Phan, Nolwenn; Maaetoft-Udsen, Kristina; Stokes, Alexander J; Turner, Helen

    2014-09-01

    There is well-established variability in the numbers of lipid bodies (LB) in macrophages, eosinophils, and neutrophils. Similarly to the steatosis observed in adipocytes and hepatocytes during hyperinsulinemia and nutrient overload, immune cell LB hyper-accumulate in response to bacterial and parasitic infection and inflammatory presentations. Recently we described that hyperinsulinemia, both in vitro and in vivo, drives steatosis and phenotypic changes in primary and transformed mast cells and basophils. LB reach high numbers in these steatotic cytosols, and here we propose that they could dramatically impact the transcytoplasmic signaling pathways. We compared calcium release and influx responses at the population and single cell level in normal and steatotic model mast cells. At the population level, all aspects of FcɛRI-dependent calcium mobilization, as well as activation of calcium-dependent downstream signaling targets such as NFATC1 phosphorylation are suppressed. At the single cell level, we demonstrate that LB are both sources and sinks of calcium following FcɛRI cross-linking. Unbiased analysis of the impact of the presence of LB on the rate of trans-cytoplasmic calcium signals suggest that LB enrichment accelerates calcium propagation, which may reflect a Bernoulli effect. LB abundance thus impacts this fundamental signaling pathway and its downstream targets. PMID:25016314

  17. Cellular Architecture Regulates Collective Calcium Signaling and Cell Contractility

    PubMed Central

    Hoying, James B.; Deymier, Pierre A.; Zhang, Donna D.; Wong, Pak Kin

    2016-01-01

    A key feature of multicellular systems is the ability of cells to function collectively in response to external stimuli. However, the mechanisms of intercellular cell signaling and their functional implications in diverse vascular structures are poorly understood. Using a combination of computational modeling and plasma lithography micropatterning, we investigate the roles of structural arrangement of endothelial cells in collective calcium signaling and cell contractility. Under histamine stimulation, endothelial cells in self-assembled and microengineered networks, but not individual cells and monolayers, exhibit calcium oscillations. Micropatterning, pharmacological inhibition, and computational modeling reveal that the calcium oscillation depends on the number of neighboring cells coupled via gap junctional intercellular communication, providing a mechanistic basis of the architecture-dependent calcium signaling. Furthermore, the calcium oscillation attenuates the histamine-induced cytoskeletal reorganization and cell contraction, resulting in differential cell responses in an architecture-dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that endothelial cells can sense and respond to chemical stimuli according to the vascular architecture via collective calcium signaling. PMID:27196735

  18. Voltage-dependent calcium signaling in rat cerebellar unipolar brush cells.

    PubMed

    Birnstiel, S; Slater, N T; McCrimmon, D R; Mugnaini, E; Hartell, N A

    2009-09-01

    Unipolar brush cells (UBCs) are a class of excitatory interneuron found in the granule cell layer of the vestibulocerebellum. Mossy fibers form excitatory inputs on to the paint brush shaped dendrioles in the form of giant, glutamatergic synapses, activation of which results in prolonged bursts of action potentials in the postsynaptic UBC. The axons of UBCs themselves form mossy fiber contacts with other UBCs and granule cells, forming an excitatory, intrinsic cerebellar network that has the capacity to synchronize and amplify mossy fiber inputs to potentially large populations of granule cells. In this paper, we demonstrate that UBCs in rat cerebellar slices express low voltage activated (LVA) fast-inactivating and high voltage activated (HVA) slowly inactivating calcium channels. LVA calcium currents are mediated by T-type calcium channels and they are associated with calcium increases in the dendrites and to a lesser extent the cell soma. HVA currents, mediated by L-type calcium channels, are slowly inactivating and they produce larger overall increases in intracellular calcium but with a similar distribution pattern. We review these observations alongside several recent papers that examine how intrinsic membrane properties influence UBCs firing patterns and we discuss how UBC signaling may affect downstream cerebellar processing. PMID:19409228

  19. The signaling mechanisms of long distance intercellular calcium waves (far waves) in cultured human uterine myocytes.

    PubMed

    Young, Roger C; Schumann, Ralph; Zhang, Peisheng

    2002-01-01

    Cultured human myocytes exhibit intercellular calcium waves that travel farther than 100 microm ('far waves'). This work investigates the mechanism of far wave propagation. Culture lines were initiated from myometrial biopsies of term pregnant women. Calcium green-1 was used as a fluorescence probe for intracellular free calcium. Serial imaging was performed at a frame rate of 0.83 frames/s. Intercellular calcium waves were mechanically initiated by atraumatically applying small drops of mineral oil onto the surface of the monolayer. Each intercellular calcium wave was scored using a standardized grid, and points were assigned depending upon the distance the wave traveled and the fluorescent intensity observed within each region. Experiments were performed in the presence of inhibitors of gap junctions and connexin hemichannels (octanol), ATP (apyrase and MDL 12330 A), prostaglandins (indomethacin, high concentrations of lanthanum), the prostaglandin transporter, PGT (DIDS), and transmembrane calcium flux (low concentrations of lanthanum). Octanol, apyrase and MDL 12330 A failed to modify the far waves, indicating gap junctions, connexin hemichannels and ATP do not participate in the paracrine mechanism. Indomethacin at 30, 100 and 300 microM, in a dose dependent manner, reduced the far wave score to 0, suggesting a prostaglandin was critically involved in the mechanism. DIDS reduced the far wave score, but did not fully inhibit wave propagation, suggesting the presence of PGT-dependent and -independent components to the mechanism. Lanthanum at 0.1 mM had no effect, but at 1 mM, reduced the far wave score. These results are consistent with PGF2alpha and/or PGE2 being the signal molecule for the PGT-dependent component. Taken together, these data indicate that long distance intercellular calcium waves in cultured human myocytes utilizes a paracrine signaling mechanism, but with more than one extracellular signaling compound.

  20. The effects of thermal stimuli on intracellular calcium change and histamine releases in rat basophilic leukemia mast cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zu-Hui; Zhu, Dan; Chen, Ji-Yao; Zhou, Lu-Wei

    2012-05-01

    The effects of thermal stimuli on rat basophilic leukemia mast cells were studied. The cells in calcium-contained or calcium-free buffers were thermally stimulated in the temperature range of 25-60 °C. The corresponding calcium ion concentration in cells [Ca2+]i as well as the released histamine from cells was measured with fluorescence staining methods. The ruthenium red (RR), a block of membrane calcium channels (transient receptor potential family V (TRPV)), was used in experiments. Under the stimulus of 25-50 °C, no significant difference on [Ca2+]i was found between these three groups of the cells in calcium-contained buffer without or with RR and cells in calcium-free saline, indicating that the increased calcium in cytosol did not result from the extracellular buffer but came from the intracellular calcium stores. The [Ca2+]i continuously increased under the temperature of 50-60 °C, but the RR and calcium-free saline can obviously diminish the [Ca2+]i increase at these high temperatures, reflecting that the opening of the TRPV2 channels leads to a calcium influx resulting in the [Ca2+]i increment. The histamine release also became significant in these cases. Since the released histamine is a well-known mediator for the microcirculation promotion, the histamine release from mast cells could be one of the mechanisms of thermal therapy.

  1. Calcium Carbonate Mineralized Nanoparticles as an Intracellular Transporter of Cytochrome c for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ahn Na; Min, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Hong Jae; Jegal, Jun Ho; Lee, Jae Won; Lee, Sang Cheon

    2015-11-01

    A new intracellular delivery system based on an apoptotic protein-loaded calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ) mineralized nanoparticle (MNP) is described. Apoptosis-inducing cytochrome c (Cyt c) loaded CaCO3 MNPs (Cyt c MNPs) were prepared by block copolymer mediated in situ CaCO3 mineralization in the presence of Cyt c. The resulting Cyt c MNPs had a vaterite polymorph of CaCO3 with a mean hydrodynamic diameter of 360.5 nm and exhibited 60% efficiency for Cyt c loading. The Cyt c MNPs were stable at physiological pH (pH 7.4) and effectively prohibited the release of Cyt c, whereas, at intracellular endosomal pH (pH 5.0), Cyt c release was facilitated. The MNPs enable the endosomal escape of Cyt c for effective localization of Cyt c in the cytosols of MCF-7 cells. Flow cytometry showed that the Cyt c MNPs effectively induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. These findings indicate that the CaCO3 MNPs can meet the prerequisites for delivery of cell-impermeable therapeutic proteins for cancer therapy.

  2. Modulation of a sustained calcium current by intracellular pH in horizontal cells of fish retina

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    A sustained high voltage-activated (HVA), nifedipine- and cadmium- sensitive calcium current and a sustained calcium action potential (AP) were recorded from horizontal cells isolated from catfish retina. pH indicator dyes showed that superfusion with NH4Cl alkalinized these cells and that washout of NH4Cl or superfusion with Na-acetate acidified them. HVA current was slightly enhanced during superfusion of NH4Cl but was suppressed upon NH4Cl washout or application of Na- acetate. When 25 mM HEPES was added to the patch pipette to increase intracellular pH buffering, the effects of NH4Cl and Na-acetate on HVA current were reduced. These results indicated that intracellular acidification reduces HVA calcium current and alkalinization increases it. Sustained APs, recorded with high resistance, small diameter microelectrodes, were blocked by cobalt and cadmium and their magnitude varied with extracellular calcium concentration. These results provide confirmatory evidence that the HVA current is a major component of the AP and indicate that the AP can be used as a measure of how the HVA current can be modified in intact, undialyzed cells. The duration of APs was increased by superfusion with NH4Cl and reduced by washout of NH4Cl or superfusion with Na-acetate. The Na-acetate and NH4Cl washout- dependent shortening of the APs was observed in the presence of intracellular BAPTA, a calcium chelator, IBMX, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, and in Na-free or TEA-enriched saline. These findings provide supportive evidence that intracellular acidification may directly suppress the HVA calcium current in intact cells. Intracellular pH changes would thereby be expected to modulate not only the resting membrane potential of these cells in darkness, but calcium- dependent release of neurotransmitter from these cells as well. Furthermore, this acidification-dependent suppression of calcium current could serve a protective role by reducing calcium entry during retinal ischemia, which

  3. Cell swelling-induced ATP release is tightly dependent on intracellular calcium elevations

    PubMed Central

    Boudreault, Francis; Grygorczyk, Ryszard

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical stresses release ATP from a variety of cells by a poorly defined mechanism(s). Using custom-designed flow-through chambers, we investigated the kinetics of cell swelling-induced ATP secretion, cell volume and intracellular calcium changes in epithelial A549 and 16HBE14o− cells, and NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. Fifty per cent hypotonic shock triggered transient ATP release from cell confluent monolayers, which consistently peaked at around 1 min 45 s for A549 and NIH/3T3, and at 3 min for 16HBE14o− cells, then declined to baseline within the next 15 min. Whereas the release time course had a similar pattern for the three cell types, the peak rates differed significantly (294 ± 67, 70 ± 22 and 17 ± 2.8 pmol min−1 (106 cells)−1, for A549, 16HBE14o− and NIH/3T3, respectively). The concomitant volume changes of substrate-attached cells were analysed by a 3-dimensional cell shape reconstruction method based on images acquired from two perpendicular directions. The three cell types swelled at a similar rate, reaching maximal expansion in 1 min 45 s, but differed in the duration of the volume plateau and regulatory volume decrease (RVD). These experiments revealed that ATP release does not correlate with either cell volume expansion and the expected activation of stretch-sensitive channels, or with the activation of volume-sensitive, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid-inhibitable anion channels during RVD. By contrast, ATP release was tightly synchronized, in all three cell types, with cytosolic calcium elevations. Furthermore, loading A549 cells with the calcium chelator BAPTA significantly diminished ATP release (71% inhibition of the peak rate), while the calcium ionophore ionomycin triggered ATP release in the absence of cell swelling. Lowering the temperature to 10°C almost completely abolished A549 cell swelling-induced ATP release (95% inhibition of the peak rate). These results strongly suggest that calcium-dependent exocytosis plays a

  4. Dual effects of neuroprotection and neurotoxicity by general anesthetics: Role of intracellular calcium homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Huafeng; Inan, Saadet

    2013-01-01

    Although general anesthetics have long been considered neuroprotective, there are growing concerns about neurotoxicity. Preclinical studies clearly demonstrated that commonly used general anesthetics are both neuroprotective and neurotoxic, with unclear mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that differential activation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors, a calcium release channel located on the membrane of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), play important role on determining the fate of neuroprotection or neurotoxicity by general anesthetics. General anesthetics at low concentrations for short duration are sublethal stress factors which induce endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms and provide neuroprotection via adequate activation of InsP3R and moderate calcium release from ER. On the other hand, general anesthetics at high concentrations for prolonged duration are lethal stress factors which induce neuronal damage by over activation of InsP3R and excessive and abnormal Ca2+ release from ER. This review emphasizes the duel effects of both neuroprotection and neurotoxicity via differential regulation of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis by commonly used general anesthetics and recommends strategy to maximize neuroprotective but minimize neurotoxic effects of general anesthetics. PMID:23721657

  5. Differential effects of arsenic on calcium signaling in primary keratinocytes and malignant (HSC-1) cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, W L; Tsai, M H; Lin, M W; Chiu, Y C; Lu, J H; Chang, C H; Yu, H S; Yoshioka, T

    2012-08-01

    Arsenic is highly toxic to living cells, especially skin, and skin cancer is induced by drinking water containing arsenic. The molecular mechanisms of arsenic-induced cancer, however, are not well understood. To examine the initial processes in the development of arsenic-induced cancer, we analyzed calcium signaling at an early stage of arsenic treatment of human primary cells and compared the effects with those observed with arsenic treatment in carcinoma-derived cells. We found that arsenic inhibited inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) function in the endoplasmic reticulum by inducing phosphorylation, which led to decreased intracellular calcium levels. Blockade of IP3R phosphorylation by the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt inhibitor wortmannin rescued calcium signaling. In contrast, arsenic treatment of cells derived from a carcinoma (human squamous carcinoma; HSC-1) for 1h had no obvious effect. Taken together, these results suggest that arsenic-induced reduction in calcium signaling is one of the initial mechanisms underlying the malignant transformation in the development of skin cancer.

  6. Cadmium Induces Apoptosis in Freshwater Crab Sinopotamon henanense through Activating Calcium Signal Transduction Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinxiang; Zhang, Pingping; Liu, Na; Wang, Qian; Luo, Jixian; Wang, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Calcium ion (Ca2+) is one of the key intracellular signals, which is implicated in the regulation of cell functions such as impregnation, cell proliferation, differentiation and death. Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic environmental pollutant that can disturb cell functions and even lead to cell death. Recently, we have found that Cd induced apoptosis in gill cells of the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense via caspase activation. In the present study, we further investigated the role of calcium signaling in the Cd-induced apoptosis in the animals. Our data showed that Cd triggered gill cell apoptosis which is evidenced by apoptotic DNA fragmentation, activations of caspases-3, -8 and -9 and the presence of apoptotic morphological features. Moreover, Cd elevated the intracellular concentration of Ca2+, the protein concentration of calmodulin (CaM) and the activity of Ca2+-ATPase in the gill cells of the crabs. Pretreatment of the animals with ethylene glycol-bis-(b-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N’,N’-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), Ca2+ chelator, inhibited Cd-induced activation of caspases-3, -8 and -9 as well as blocked the Cd-triggered apoptotic DNA fragmentation. The apoptotic morphological features were no longer observed in gill cells pretreated with the Ca2+ signaling inhibitors before Cd treatment. Our results indicate that Cd evokes gill cell apoptosis through activating Ca2+-CaM signaling transduction pathway. PMID:26714174

  7. Calcium Signaling in Mammalian Eggs at Fertilization.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Hideki; Kikuchi, Takashi; Ito, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    The innovation and development of live-cell fluorescence imaging methods have revealed the dynamic aspects of intracellular Ca2+ in a wide variety of cells. The fertilized egg, the very first cell to be a new individual, has long been under extensive investigations utilizing Ca2+ imaging since its early days, and spatiotemporal Ca2+ dynamics and underlying mechanisms of Ca2+ mobilization, as well as physiological roles of Ca2+ at fertilization, have become more or less evident in various animal species. In this article, we illustrate characteristic patterns of Ca2+ dynamics in mammalian gametes and molecular basis for Ca2+ release from intracellular stores leading to the elevation in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration, and describe the identity and properties of sperm-borne egg-activating factor in relation to the induction of Ca2+ waves and Ca2+ oscillations, referring to its potential use in artificial egg activation as infertility treatment. In addition, a possible Ca2+ influx-driven mechanism for slow and long-lasting Ca2+ oscillations characteristic of mammalian eggs is proposed, based on the recent experimental findings and mathematical modeling. Cumulative knowledge about the roles of Ca2+ in the egg activation leading to early embryogenesis is summarized, to emphasize the diversity of functions that Ca2+ can perform in a single type of cell.

  8. Molecular Basis of the Extracellular Ligands Mediated Signaling by the Calcium Sensing Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chen; Miller, Cassandra L.; Gorkhali, Rakshya; Zou, Juan; Huang, Kenneth; Brown, Edward M.; Yang, Jenny J.

    2016-01-01

    Ca2+-sensing receptors (CaSRs) play a central role in regulating extracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]o) homeostasis and many (patho)physiological processes in multiple organs. This regulation is orchestrated by a cooperative response to extracellular stimuli such as small changes in Ca2+, Mg2+, amino acids, and other ligands. In addition, CaSR is a pleiotropic receptor regulating several intracellular signaling pathways, including calcium mobilization and intracellular calcium oscillation. Nearly 200 mutations and polymorphisms have been found in CaSR in relation to a variety of human disorders associated with abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis. In this review, we summarize efforts directed at identifying binding sites for calcium and amino acids. Both homotropic cooperativity among multiple calcium binding sites and heterotropic cooperativity between calcium and amino acid were revealed using computational modeling, predictions, and site-directed mutagenesis coupled with functional assays. The hinge region of the bilobed Venus flytrap (VFT) domain of CaSR plays a pivotal role in coordinating multiple extracellular stimuli, leading to cooperative responses from the receptor. We further highlight the extensive number of disease-associated mutations that have also been shown to affect CaSR's cooperative action via several types of mechanisms. These results provide insights into the molecular bases of the structure and functional cooperativity of this receptor and other members of family C of the G protein-coupled receptors (cGPCRs) in health and disease states, and may assist in the prospective development of novel receptor-based therapeutics. PMID:27746744

  9. Influence of zinc on calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways during aluminium-induced neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Singla, Neha; Dhawan, D K

    2014-10-01

    Metals perform important functions in the normal physiological system, and alterations in their levels may lead to a number of diseases. Aluminium (Al) has been implicated as a major risk factor, which is linked to several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. On the other hand, zinc (Zn) is considered as a neuromodulator and an essential dietary element that regulates a number of biological activities in our body. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Zn supplementation, if any, in ameliorating the changes induced by Al on calcium signalling pathway. Male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 140-160 g were divided into four different groups viz.: normal control, aluminium treated (100 mg/kg b.wt./day via oral gavage), zinc treated (227 mg/l in drinking water) and combined aluminium and zinc treated. All the treatments were carried out for a total duration of 8 weeks. Al treatment decreased the Ca(2+) ATPase activity whereas increased the levels of 3', 5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate, intracellular calcium and total calcium content in both the cerebrum and cerebellum, which, however, were modulated upon Zn supplementation. Al treatment exhibited a significant elevation in the protein expressions of phospholipase C, inositol triphosphate and protein kinase A but decreased the expression of protein kinase C, which, however, was reversed upon Zn co-treatment. Al treatment also revealed alterations in neurohistoarchitecture in the form of calcium deposits, which were improved upon zinc co-administration. The present study, therefore, suggests that zinc regulates the intracellular calcium signalling pathway during aluminium-induced neurodegeneration.

  10. Modeling of [Formula: see text]-mediated calcium signaling in vascular endothelial cells induced by fluid shear stress and ATP.

    PubMed

    Li, Long-Fei; Xiang, Cheng; Qin, Kai-Rong

    2015-10-01

    The calcium signaling plays a vital role in flow-dependent vascular endothelial cell (VEC) physiology. Variations in fluid shear stress and ATP concentration in blood vessels can activate dynamic responses of cytosolic-free [Formula: see text] through various calcium channels on the plasma membrane. In this paper, a novel dynamic model has been proposed for transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 [Formula: see text]-mediated intracellular calcium dynamics in VECs induced by fluid shear stress and ATP. Our model includes [Formula: see text] signaling pathways through P2Y receptors and [Formula: see text] channels (indirect mechanism) and captures the roles of the [Formula: see text] compound channels in VEC [Formula: see text] signaling in response to fluid shear stress (direct mechanism). In particular, it takes into account that the [Formula: see text] compound channels are regulated by intracellular [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] concentrations. The simulation studies have demonstrated that the dynamic responses of calcium concentration produced by the proposed model correlate well with the existing experimental observations. We also conclude from the simulation studies that endogenously released ATP may play an insignificant role in the process of intracellular [Formula: see text] response to shear stress.

  11. Calcium and signal transduction in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poovaiah, B. W.; Reddy, A. S.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental and hormonal signals control diverse physiological processes in plants. The mechanisms by which plant cells perceive and transduce these signals are poorly understood. Understanding biochemical and molecular events involved in signal transduction pathways has become one of the most active areas of plant research. Research during the last 15 years has established that Ca2+ acts as a messenger in transducing external signals. The evidence in support of Ca2+ as a messenger is unequivocal and fulfills all the requirements of a messenger. The role of Ca2+ becomes even more important because it is the only messenger known so far in plants. Since our last review on the Ca2+ messenger system in 1987, there has been tremendous progress in elucidating various aspects of Ca(2+) -signaling pathways in plants. These include demonstration of signal-induced changes in cytosolic Ca2+, calmodulin and calmodulin-like proteins, identification of different Ca2+ channels, characterization of Ca(2+) -dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) both at the biochemical and molecular levels, evidence for the presence of calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, and increased evidence in support of the role of inositol phospholipids in the Ca(2+) -signaling system. Despite the progress in Ca2+ research in plants, it is still in its infancy and much more needs to be done to understand the precise mechanisms by which Ca2+ regulates a wide variety of physiological processes. The purpose of this review is to summarize some of these recent developments in Ca2+ research as it relates to signal transduction in plants.

  12. Osteoprotegerin induces podosome disassembly in osteoclasts through calcium, ERK, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongyan; Liu, Xuezhong; Zou, Hui; Dai, Nannan; Yao, Lulian; Gao, Qian; Liu, Wei; Gu, Jianhong; Yuan, Yan; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, Zongping

    2015-02-01

    Osteoclasts are critical for bone resorption and use podosomes to attach to bone matrix. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a negative regulator of osteoclast function that can affect the formation and function of podosomes. However, the signaling pathways that link OPG to podosome function have not been well characterized. Therefore, this study examined the roles of intracellular calcium and MAPKs in OPG-induced podosome disassembly in osteoclasts. We assessed the effects of the intracellular calcium chelator Bapta-AM, ERK inhibitor U0126, and p38 inhibitor SB202190 on OPG-treated osteoclast differentiation, adhesion structures, intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration and the phosphorylation state of podosome associated proteins (Pyk2 and Src). Mouse monocytic RAW 264.7 cells were differentiated to osteoclasts using RANKL (30ng/mL) and M-CSF (25ng/mL). The cells were pretreated with Bapta-AM (5μM), U0126 (5μM), or SB202190 (10μM) for 30min, followed by 40ng/mL OPG for 3h. Osteoclastogenesis, adhesion structure, viability and morphology, intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration and the phosphorylation state of Pyk2 and Src were measured by TRAP staining, scanning electron microscopy, real-time cell analyzer, flow cytometry and western blotting, respectively. OPG significantly inhibited osteoclastogenesis, the formation of adhesion structures, and reduced the amount of phosphorylated Pyk2 and Src-pY527, but increased phosphorylation of Src-pY416. Bapta-AM, U0126, and SB202190 partially restored osteoclast differentiation and adhesion structures. Both Bapta-AM and U0126, but not SB202190, restored the levels of intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration, phosphorylated Pyk2 and Src-pY527. All three inhibitors blocked OPG-induced phosphorylation at Src-pY416. These results suggest OPG disrupts the attachment structures of osteoclasts and activates Src as an adaptor protein that competes for the reduced amount of phosphorylated Pyk2 through calcium- and ERK-dependent signaling

  13. Intracellular observation of nanocarriers modified with a mitochondrial targeting signal peptide.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Eriko; Yamada, Yuma; Yasuzaki, Yukari; Hyodo, Mamoru; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2013-11-01

    This study focused on the intracellular observation of nanocarriers modified with a mitochondrial targeting signal peptide (MTS). The nanocarriers showed an efficient cellular uptake, and the MTS had a positive effect on their mitochondrial targeting. This is the first report of an intracellular observation of nanocarriers modified with MTS.

  14. The symphony of autophagy and calcium signaling.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhiyuan; Klionsky, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Posttranslational regulation of macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy), including phosphorylating and dephosphorylating components of the autophagy-related (Atg) core machinery and the corresponding upstream transcriptional factors, is important for the precise modulation of autophagy levels. Several kinases that are involved in phosphorylating autophagy-related proteins have been identified in both yeast and mammalian cells. However, there has been much less research published with regard to the identification of the complementary phosphatases that function in autophagy. A recent study identified PPP3/calcineurin, a calcium-dependent phosphatase, as a regulator of autophagy, and demonstrated that one of the key targets of PPP3/calcineurin is TFEB, a master transcriptional factor that controls autophagy and lysosomal function in mammalian cells.

  15. Calcium Signaling in Oomycetes: An Evolutionary Perspective.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Limian; Mackrill, John J

    2016-01-01

    Oomycetes are a family of eukaryotic microbes that superficially resemble fungi, but which are phylogenetically distinct from them. These organisms cause major global economic losses to agriculture and fisheries, with representative pathogens being Phytophthora infestans, the cause of late potato blight and Saprolegnia diclina, the instigator of "cotton molds" in fish. As in all eukaryotes, cytoplasmic Ca(2+) is a key second messenger in oomycetes, regulating life-cycle transitions, controlling motility and chemotaxis and, in excess, leading to cell-death. Despite this, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentrations in these organisms. Consequently, this review analyzed the presence of candidate calcium channels encoded within the nine oomycete genomes that are currently available. This revealed key differences between oomycetes and other eukaryotes, in particular the expansion and loss of different channel families, and the presence of a phylum-specific group of proteins, termed the polycystic kidney disease tandem ryanodine receptor domain (PKDRR) channels. PMID:27092083

  16. Transforming growth factor alpha treatment alters intracellular calcium levels in hair cells and protects them from ototoxic damage in vitro.

    PubMed

    Staecker, H; Dazert, S; Malgrange, B; Lefebvre, P P; Ryan, A F; Van de Water, T R

    1997-07-01

    To determine if transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) pretreatment protects hair cells from aminoglycoside induced injury by modifying their intracellular calcium concentration, we assayed hair cell calcium levels in organ of Corti explants both before and after aminoglycoside (i.e. neomycin, 10(-3) M) exposure either with or without growth factor pretreatment. After TGF alpha (500 ng/ml) treatment, the intracellular calcium level of hair cells showed a five-fold increase as compared to the levels observed in the hair cells of control cultures. After ototoxin exposure, calcium levels in hair cells of control explants showed an increase relative to their baseline levels, while in the presence of growth factors pretreatment, hair cells showed a relative reduction in calcium levels. Pretreatment of organ of Corti explants afforded significant protection of hair cell stereocilia bundle morphology from ototoxic damage when compared to explants exposed to ototoxin alone. This study correlates a rise in hair cell calcium levels with the otoprotection of hair cells by TGF alpha in organ of Corti explants. PMID:9263032

  17. Increases in intracellular calcium via activation of an endogenous P2-purinoceptor in cultured CHO-K1 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Iredale, P. A.; Hill, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    1. Increases in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) were measured in chinese hamster cultured ovary cells (clone, CHO-K1), by use of the fluorescent, calcium-sensitive dye, fura-2. 2. Addition of both ATP and UTP elicited rapid increases in [Ca2+]i due to mobilization from intracellular stores and calcium entry across the plasma membrane. 3. Omission of calcium from the extracellular medium and pre-incubation with the inorganic calcium channel blocker, nickel (Ni2+) prevented the calcium entry components of the responses. 4. Investigation of the concentration-response relationships of various analogues of ATP suggests the presence of a purinoceptor which cannot be characterized as P2X or P2Y. In addition, there appears to be a sub-population of P2Y-purinoceptors which do not cross-react with the 'nucleotide' receptor population. 5. Cross-desensitization and additivity experiments suggest that both ATP and UTP activate the same receptor. 6. Pre-incubation with the tumour-promoting agent, beta-phorbol-12,13 dibutyrate (PDBu), caused a reduction in the increases in [Ca2+]i, suggesting a role for protein kinase C in feedback inhibition of purinoceptor responses in this cell line. 7. In summary, we present evidence for the existence of an endogenous P2U-purinoceptor (or 'nucleotide receptor') which is linked to increases in [Ca2+]i in CHO-K1 cells. PMID:8306069

  18. Ionic osmolytes and intracellular calcium regulate tissue production in chondrocytes cultured in a 3D charged hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Farnsworth, Nikki L; Mead, Benjamin E; Antunez, Lorena R; Palmer, Amy E; Bryant, Stephanie J

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the role of fixed negative charges in regulating cartilage-like tissue production by chondrocytes under static and dynamic three-dimensional culture, and to determine whether intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) is involved in mediating this response. Initial experiments using the 3D neutral hydrogel were conducted in static isotonic culture with ionic and non-ionic osmolytes added to the culture medium. Tissue production by bovine chondrocytes with non-ionic osmolytes was 1.9-fold greater than with ionic osmolytes, suggesting that the ionic nature of the osmolyte is an important regulator of tissue production. To investigate fixed negative charges, a 3D culture system containing encapsulated chondrocytes was employed based on a synthetic and neutral hydrogel platform within which negatively charged chondroitin sulfate was incorporated in a controlled manner. Incorporation of negative charges did not affect the mechanical properties of the hydrogel; however, intracellular ion concentration was elevated from the culture medium (330 mOsm) and estimated to be similar to that in ~400 mOsm culture medium. With dynamic loading, GAG synthesis decreased by 26% in neutral hydrogels cultured in 400mOsm medium, and increased by 26% in charged gels cultured in 330 mOsm. Treatment of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels with the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM decreased GAG synthesis by 32-46% and was similar among all conditions, suggesting multiple roles for Ca(2+) mediated tissue production including with ionic osmolytes. In conclusion, findings from this study suggest that a dynamic ionic environment regulates tissue synthesis and points to [Ca(2+)]i signaling as a potential mediator. PMID:25128592

  19. Rab8 modulates metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 intracellular trafficking and signaling in a protein kinase C-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Esseltine, Jessica L; Ribeiro, Fabiola M; Ferguson, Stephen S G

    2012-11-21

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are activated by glutamate, the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS. Alterations in glutamate receptor signaling are implicated in neuropathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, ischemia, and Huntington's disease among others. Group 1 mGluRs (mGluR1 and mGluR5) are primarily coupled to Gα(q/11) leading to the activation of phospholipase C and the formation of diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, which results in the release of intracellular calcium stores and protein kinase C (PKC) activation. Desensitization, endocytosis, and recycling are major mechanisms of GPCR regulation, and the intracellular trafficking of GPCRs is linked to the Rab family of small G proteins. Rab8 is a small GTPase that is specifically involved in the regulation of secretory/recycling vesicles, modulation of the actin cytoskeleton, and cell polarity. Rab8 has been shown to regulate the synaptic delivery of AMPA receptors during long-term potentiation and during constitutive receptor recycling. We show here that Rab8 interacts with the C-terminal tail of mGluR1a in an agonist-dependent manner and plays a role in regulating of mGluR1a signaling and intracellular trafficking in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Specifically, Rab8 expression attenuates mGluR1a-mediated inositol phosphate formation and calcium release from mouse neurons in a PKC-dependent manner, while increasing cell surface mGluR1a expression via decreased receptor endocytosis. These experiments provide us with an understanding of the role Rabs play in coordinated regulation of mGluR1a and how this impacts mGluR1a signaling.

  20. Activation of Src and release of intracellular calcium by phosphatidic acid during Xenopus laevis fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Ryan C.; Fees, Colby P.; Holland, William L.; Winger, Courtney C.; Batbayar, Khulan; Ancar, Rachel; Bergren, Todd; Petcoff, Douglas; Stith, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    We report a new step in the fertilization in Xenopus laevis which has been found to involve activation of Src tyrosine kinase to stimulate phospholipase C-γ (PLC- γ) which increases inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) to release intracellular calcium ([Ca]i). Molecular species analysis and mass measurements suggested that sperm activate phospholipase D (PLD) to elevate phosphatidic acid (PA). We now report that PA mass increased 2.7 fold by 1 minute after insemination and inhibition of PA production by two methods inhibited activation of Src and PLCγ, increased [Ca]i and other fertilization events. As compared to 14 other lipids, PA strongly bound Xenopus Src but not PLCγ. Addition of synthetic PA activated egg Src (an action requiring intact lipid rafts) and PLCγ as well as doubling the amount of PLCγ in rafts. In the absence of elevated [Ca]i, PA addition elevated IP3 mass to levels equivalent to that induced by sperm (but twice that achieved by calcium ionophore). Finally, PA induced [Ca]i release that was blocked by an IP3 receptor inhibitor. As only PLD1b message was detected, and Western blotting did not detect PLD2, we suggest that sperm activate PLD1b to elevate PA which then binds to and activates Src leading to PLCγ stimulation, IP3 elevation and [Ca]i release. Due to these and other studies, PA may also play a role in membrane fusion events such as sperm-egg fusion, cortical granule exocytosis, the elevation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and the large, late increase in sn 1,2-diacylglycerol in fertilization. PMID:24269904

  1. Measurement and analysis of calcium signaling in heterogeneous cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Richards, Gillian R; Jack, Andrew D; Platts, Amy; Simpson, Peter B

    2006-01-01

    High-content imaging platforms capable of studying kinetic responses at a single-cell level have elevated kinetic recording techniques from labor-intensive low-throughput experiments to potential high-throughput screening assays. We have applied this technology to the investigation of heterogeneous cell cultures derived from primary neural tissue. The neuronal cultures mature into a coupled network and display spontaneous oscillations in intracellular calcium, which can be modified by the addition of pharmacological agents. We have developed algorithms to perform Fourier analysis and quantify both the degree of synchronization and the effects of modulators on the oscillations. Functional and phenotypic experiments can be combined using this approach. We have used post-hoc immunolabeling to identify subpopulations of cells in cocultures and to dissect the calcium responses of these cells from the population response. The combination of these techniques represents a powerful tool for drug discovery.

  2. Differences in intracellular calcium dynamics cause differences in α-granule secretion and phosphatidylserine expression in platelets adhering on glass and TiO2.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Swati; Donati, Alessia; Reviakine, Ilya

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the activation of purified human platelets due to their adhesion on glass and TiO2 in the absence of extracellular calcium was investigated. Differences in α-granule secretion between platelets adhering on the two surfaces were detected by examining the expression and secretion of the α-granule markers P-selectin (CD62P) and β-thromboglobulin. Similarly, differences in the expression of phosphatidylserine (PS), and in the activation of the major integrin GPIIb/IIIa, on the surfaces of the adhering platelets, were also observed. While all of these activation markers were expressed in platelets adhering on glass, the surface markers were not expressed in platelets adhering on TiO2, and β-thromboglobulin secretion levels were substantially reduced. Differences in marker expression and secretion correlated with differences in the intracellular calcium dynamics. Calcium ionophore treatment triggered α-granule secretion and PS expression in TiO2-adhering platelets but had no effect on the activation of GPIIb/IIIa. These results demonstrate specificity in the way surfaces of artificial materials activate platelets, link differences in the intracellular calcium dynamics observed in the platelets adhering on the two surfaces to the differences in some of the platelet responses (α-granule secretion and PS expression), but also highlight the involvement of synergistic, calcium-independent pathways in platelet activation. The ability to control activation in surface-adhering platelets makes this an attractive model system for studying platelet signaling pathways and for tissue engineering applications. PMID:27124595

  3. Platelet Activating Factor Enhances Synaptic Vesicle Exocytosis Via PKC, Elevated Intracellular Calcium, and Modulation of Synapsin 1 Dynamics and Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Jennetta W.; Lu, Shao-Ming; Gelbard, Harris A.

    2016-01-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) is an inflammatory phospholipid signaling molecule implicated in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory and neurotoxicity during neuroinflammation. However, little is known about the intracellular mechanisms mediating PAF’s physiological or pathological effects on synaptic facilitation. We show here that PAF receptors are localized at the synapse. Using fluorescent reporters of presynaptic activity we show that a non-hydrolysable analog of PAF (cPAF) enhances synaptic vesicle release from individual presynaptic boutons by increasing the size or release of the readily releasable pool and the exocytosis rate of the total recycling pool. cPAF also activates previously silent boutons resulting in vesicle release from a larger number of terminals. The underlying mechanism involves elevated calcium within presynaptic boutons and protein kinase C activation. Furthermore, cPAF increases synapsin I phosphorylation at sites 1 and 3, and increases dispersion of synapsin I from the presynaptic compartment during stimulation, freeing synaptic vesicles for subsequent release. These findings provide a conceptual framework for how PAF, regardless of its cellular origin, can modulate synapses during normal and pathologic synaptic activity. PMID:26778968

  4. Calcium Signaling in Oomycetes: An Evolutionary Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Limian; Mackrill, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Oomycetes are a family of eukaryotic microbes that superficially resemble fungi, but which are phylogenetically distinct from them. These organisms cause major global economic losses to agriculture and fisheries, with representative pathogens being Phytophthora infestans, the cause of late potato blight and Saprolegnia diclina, the instigator of “cotton molds” in fish. As in all eukaryotes, cytoplasmic Ca2+ is a key second messenger in oomycetes, regulating life-cycle transitions, controlling motility and chemotaxis and, in excess, leading to cell-death. Despite this, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations in these organisms. Consequently, this review analyzed the presence of candidate calcium channels encoded within the nine oomycete genomes that are currently available. This revealed key differences between oomycetes and other eukaryotes, in particular the expansion and loss of different channel families, and the presence of a phylum-specific group of proteins, termed the polycystic kidney disease tandem ryanodine receptor domain (PKDRR) channels. PMID:27092083

  5. Intracellular calcium and its sodium-independent regulation in voltage-clamped snail neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, H J; Thomas, R C

    1995-01-01

    1. We have used both Ca(2+)-sensitive microelectrodes and fura-2 to measure the intracellular free calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i or its negative log, pCai) of snail neurones voltage clamped to -50 or -60 mV. Using Ca(2+)-sensitive microelectrodes, [Ca2+]i was found to be approximately 174 nM and pCai, 6.76 +/- 0.09 (mean +/- S.E.M.; n = 11); using fura-2, [Ca2+]i was approximately 40 nM and pCai, 7.44 +/- 0.06 (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 10). 2. Depolarizations (1-20 s) caused an increase in [Ca2+]i which was abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+, indicating that the rise in [Ca2+]i was due to Ca2+ influx through voltage-activated Ca2+ channels. 3. Caffeine (10-20 mM) caused an increase in [Ca2+]i in the presence or absence of extracellular Ca2+. The effects of caffeine on [Ca2+]i could be prevented by ryanodine. 4. Thapsigargin, an inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase, caused a small increase in resting [Ca2+]i and slowed the rate of recovery from Ca2+ loads following 20 s depolarizations. 5. Neither replacement of extracellular sodium with N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG), nor loading the cells with intracellular sodium, had any effect on resting [Ca2+]i or the rate of recovery of [Ca2+]i following depolarizations. 6. The mitochondrial uncoupling agent carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCmP) caused a small gradual rise in resting [Ca2+]i. Removal of extracellular sodium during exposure to CCmP had no further effect on [Ca2+]i. 7. Intracellular orthovanadate caused an increase in resting [Ca2+]i and prevented the full recovery of [Ca2+]i following small Ca2+ loads, but removal of extracellular sodium did not cause a rise in [Ca2+]i. We conclude that there is no Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger present in the cell body of these neurones and that [Ca2+]i is maintained by an ATP-dependent Ca2+ pump. Images Figure 1 PMID:7623274

  6. Regulation of Angiogenic Functions by Angiopoietins through Calcium-Dependent Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Pafumi, Irene; Favia, Annarita; Gambara, Guido; Papacci, Francesca; Ziparo, Elio; Palombi, Fioretta; Filippini, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Angiopoietins are vascular factors essential for blood vessel assembly and correct organization and maturation. This study describes a novel calcium-dependent machinery activated through Angiopoietin-1/2-Tie receptor system in HUVECs monolayer. Both cytokines were found to elicit intracellular calcium mobilization. Targeting intracellular Ca2+ signaling, antagonizing IP3 with 2-APB or cADPR with 8Br-cADPR, was found to modulate in vitro angiogenic responses to Angiopoietins in a specific way. 2-APB and 8Br-cADPR impaired the phosphorylation of AKT and FAK induced by Ang-1 and Ang-2. On the other hand, phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38, as well as cell proliferation, was not affected by either inhibitor. The ability of ECs to migrate following Angs stimulation, evaluated by “scratch assay,” was reduced by either 2-APB or 8Br-cADPR following Ang-2 stimulation and only slightly affected by 2-APB in cells stimulated with Ang-1. These results identify a novel calcium-dependent machinery involved in the complex interplay regulating angiogenic processes showing that IP3- and cADPR-induced Ca2+ release specifically regulates distinct Angs-mediated angiogenic steps. PMID:26146638

  7. Contribution of calcium ions and hydrogen ions to the signal transduction chain in phytochrome-mediated spore germination. [Onoclea sensibilis L

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne, R.

    1985-01-01

    Red light stimulates germination in the spores of Onoclea sensibilis L. Phytochrome is confirmed to be the photoreceptor pigment in the germination response by demonstrating red-far-red photoreversibility. External Ca/sup 2 +/ is required for this response with a threshold at a submicromolar concentration. Red light stimulates an increase in the total concentration of intracellular calcium in the spores as determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Subsequent exposure to far-red light inhibits the red light-induced increase in intracellular calcium. The majority of the increase occurs 5 minutes after the onset of irradiation. The calcium-antagonist, La/sup 3 +/ inhibits both germination and the red light-induced increase in intracellular calcium. Using /sup 31/P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the author tested the hypothesis that a sustained increase in intracellular pH contributes to the signal transduction chain. He never detected a red light-induced increase in intracellular pH or a change in portion efflux. An artificially induced change in intracellular pH of greater than 1 pH unit (5.8-7.2) has no effect on germination. Although the intracellular pH can be varied in magnitude greater than it would be expected to change if it were acting as an intracellular signal, germination of Onoclea spores is independent of intracellular pH in this range. These data indicate that a sustained increase in intracellular pH does not contribute to the single transduction chain phytochrome-mediated fern spore germination. Therefore, Ca/sup 2 +/, but not pH, contributes to the signal transduction chain in phytochrome-mediated fern spore germination.

  8. Role of calcium signaling in epithelial bicarbonate secretion.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jinsei; Lee, Min Goo

    2014-06-01

    Transepithelial bicarbonate secretion plays a key role in the maintenance of fluid and protein secretion from epithelial cells and the protection of the epithelial cell surface from various pathogens. Epithelial bicarbonate secretion is mainly under the control of cAMP and calcium signaling. While the physiological roles and molecular mechanisms of cAMP-induced bicarbonate secretion are relatively well defined, those induced by calcium signaling remain poorly understood in most epithelia. The present review summarizes the current status of knowledge on the role of calcium signaling in epithelial bicarbonate secretion. Specifically, this review introduces how cytosolic calcium signaling can increase bicarbonate secretion by regulating membrane transport proteins and how it synergizes with cAMP-induced mechanisms in epithelial cells. In addition, tissue-specific variations in the pancreas, salivary glands, intestines, bile ducts, and airways are discussed. We hope that the present report will stimulate further research into this important topic. These studies will provide the basis for future medicines for a wide spectrum of epithelial disorders including cystic fibrosis, Sjögren's syndrome, and chronic pancreatitis.

  9. NG2 glial cells integrate synaptic input in global and dendritic calcium signals

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenjing; Matthews, Elizabeth A; Nicolas, Vicky; Schoch, Susanne; Dietrich, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic signaling to NG2-expressing oligodendrocyte precursor cells (NG2 cells) could be key to rendering myelination of axons dependent on neuronal activity, but it has remained unclear whether NG2 glial cells integrate and respond to synaptic input. Here we show that NG2 cells perform linear integration of glutamatergic synaptic inputs and respond with increasing dendritic calcium elevations. Synaptic activity induces rapid Ca2+ signals mediated by low-voltage activated Ca2+ channels under strict inhibitory control of voltage-gated A-type K+ channels. Ca2+ signals can be global and originate throughout the cell. However, voltage-gated channels are also found in thin dendrites which act as compartmentalized processing units and generate local calcium transients. Taken together, the activity-dependent control of Ca2+ signals by A-type channels and the global versus local signaling domains make intracellular Ca2+ in NG2 cells a prime signaling molecule to transform neurotransmitter release into activity-dependent myelination. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16262.001 PMID:27644104

  10. Gαq/11-mediated intracellular calcium responses to retrograde flow in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Melchior, Benoît; Frangos, John A

    2012-08-15

    Disturbed flow patterns, including reversal in flow direction, are key factors in the development of dysfunctional endothelial cells (ECs) and atherosclerotic lesions. An almost immediate response of ECs to fluid shear stress is the increase in cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). Whether the source of [Ca(2+)](i) is extracellular, released from Ca(2+) intracellular stores, or both is still undefined, though it is likely dependent on the nature of forces involved. We have previously shown that a change in flow direction (retrograde flow) on a flow-adapted endothelial monolayer induces the remodeling of the cell-cell junction along with a dramatic [Ca(2+)](i) burst compared with cells exposed to unidirectional or orthograde flow. The heterotrimeric G protein-α q and 11 subunit (Gα(q/11)) is a likely candidate in effecting shear-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](i) since its expression is enriched at the junction and has been previously shown to be activated within seconds after onset of flow. In flow-adapted human ECs, we have investigated to what extent the Gα(q/11) pathway mediates calcium dynamics after reversal in flow direction. We observed that the elapsed time to peak [Ca(2+)](i) response to a 10 dyn/cm(2) retrograde shear stress was increased by 11 s in cells silenced with small interfering RNA directed against Gα(q/11). A similar lag in [Ca(2+)](i) transient was observed after cells were treated with the phospholipase C (PLC)-βγ inhibitor, U-73122, or the phosphatidylinositol-specific PLC inhibitor, edelfosine, compared with controls. Lower levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate accumulation seconds after the onset of flow correlated with the increased lag in [Ca(2+)](i) responses observed with the different treatments. In addition, inhibition of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor entirely abrogated flow-induced [Ca(2+)](i). Taken together, our results identify the Gα(q/11)-PLC pathway as the initial trigger for retrograde flow

  11. ATP releasing connexin 30 hemichannels mediate flow-induced calcium signaling in the collecting duct.

    PubMed

    Svenningsen, Per; Burford, James L; Peti-Peterdi, János

    2013-01-01

    ATP in the renal tubular fluid is an important regulator of salt and water reabsorption via purinergic calcium signaling that involves the P2Y2 receptor, ENaC, and AQP2. Recently, we have shown that connexin (Cx) 30 hemichannels are localized to the non-junctional apical membrane of cells in the distal nephron-collecting duct (CD) and release ATP into the tubular fluid upon mechanical stimuli, leading to reduced salt and water reabsorption. Cx30(-/-) mice show salt-dependent elevations in BP and impaired pressure-natriuresis. Thus, we hypothesized that increased tubular flow rate leads to Cx30-dependent purinergic intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) signaling in the CD. Cortical CDs (CCDs) from wild type and Cx30(-/-) mice were freshly dissected and microperfused in vitro. Using confocal fluorescence imaging and the calcium-sensitive fluorophore pair Fluo-4 and Fura Red, we found that increasing tubular flow rate from 2 to 20 nl/min caused a significant 2.1-fold elevation in [Ca(2+)]i in wild type CCDs. This response was blunted in Cx30(-/-) CCDs ([Ca(2+)]i increased only 1.2-fold, p < 0.0001 vs. WT, n = 6 each). To further test our hypothesis we performed CD [Ca(2+)]i imaging in intact mouse kidneys in vivo using multiphoton microscopy and micropuncture delivery of the calcium-sensitive fluorophore Rhod-2. We found intrinsic, spontaneous [Ca(2+)]i oscillations in free-flowing CDs of wild type but not Cx30(-/-) mice. The [Ca(2+)]i oscillations were sensitive also to P2-receptor inhibition by suramin. Taken together, these data confirm that mechanosensitive Cx30 hemichannels mediate tubular ATP release and purinergic calcium signaling in the CD which mechanism plays an important role in the regulation of CD salt and water reabsorption. PMID:24137132

  12. The Calcium Signaling Toolkit of the Apicomplexan Parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium spp

    PubMed Central

    Lourido, Sebastian; Moreno, Silvia N.J.

    2015-01-01

    Apicomplexan parasites have complex life cycles, frequently split between different hosts and reliant on rapid responses as the parasites react to changing environmental conditions. Calcium ion (Ca2+) signaling is consequently essential for the cellular and developmental changes that support apicomplexan parasitism. Apicomplexan genomes reveal a rich repertoire of genes involved in calcium signaling, although many of the genes responsible for observed physiological changes remain unknown. There is evidence, for example, for the presence of a nifedipine-sensitive calcium entry mechanism in Toxoplasma, but the molecular components involved in Ca2+ entry in both Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, have not been identified. The major calcium stores are the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the acidocalcisomes, and the plant-like vacuole in Toxoplasma, or the food vacuole in Plasmodium spp. Pharmacological evidence suggests that Ca2+ release from intracellular stores may be mediated by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) or cyclic ADP ribose (cADPR) although there is no molecular evidence for the presence of receptors for these second messengers in the parasites. Several Ca2+-ATPases are present in apicomplexans and a putative mitochondrial Ca2+/H+ exchanger has been identified. Apicomplexan genomes contain numerous genes encoding Ca2+-binding proteins, with the notable expansion of calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), whose study has revealed novel roles in gliding motility, microneme secretion, host cell invasion and egress, and parasite differentiation. Microneme secretion has also been shown to depend on the C2 domain containing protein DOC2 in both Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma, providing further evidence for the complex transduction of Ca2+ signals in these organisms. The characterization of these pathways could lead to the discovery of novel drug targets and to a better understanding of the role of Ca2+ in these parasites. PMID:25605521

  13. Fast-Response Calmodulin-Based Fluorescent Indicators Reveal Rapid Intracellular Calcium Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Helassa, Nordine; Zhang, Xiao-hua; Conte, Ianina; Scaringi, John; Esposito, Elric; Bradley, Jonathan; Carter, Thomas; Ogden, David; Morad, Martin; Török, Katalin

    2015-11-03

    Faithful reporting of temporal patterns of intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics requires the working range of indicators to match the signals. Current genetically encoded calmodulin-based fluorescent indicators are likely to distort fast Ca(2+) signals by apparent saturation and integration due to their limiting fluorescence rise and decay kinetics. A series of probes was engineered with a range of Ca(2+) affinities and accelerated kinetics by weakening the Ca(2+)-calmodulin-peptide interactions. At 37 °C, the GCaMP3-derived probe termed GCaMP3fast is 40-fold faster than GCaMP3 with Ca(2+) decay and rise times, t1/2, of 3.3 ms and 0.9 ms, respectively, making it the fastest to-date. GCaMP3fast revealed discreet transients with significantly faster Ca(2+) dynamics in neonatal cardiac myocytes than GCaMP6f. With 5-fold increased two-photon fluorescence cross-section for Ca(2+) at 940 nm, GCaMP3fast is suitable for deep tissue studies. The green fluorescent protein serves as a reporter providing important novel insights into the kinetic mechanism of target recognition by calmodulin. Our strategy to match the probe to the signal by tuning the affinity and hence the Ca(2+) kinetics of the indicator is applicable to the emerging new generations of calmodulin-based probes.

  14. Fast-Response Calmodulin-Based Fluorescent Indicators Reveal Rapid Intracellular Calcium Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Helassa, Nordine; Zhang, Xiao-hua; Conte, Ianina; Scaringi, John; Esposito, Elric; Bradley, Jonathan; Carter, Thomas; Ogden, David; Morad, Martin; Török, Katalin

    2015-01-01

    Faithful reporting of temporal patterns of intracellular Ca2+ dynamics requires the working range of indicators to match the signals. Current genetically encoded calmodulin-based fluorescent indicators are likely to distort fast Ca2+ signals by apparent saturation and integration due to their limiting fluorescence rise and decay kinetics. A series of probes was engineered with a range of Ca2+ affinities and accelerated kinetics by weakening the Ca2+-calmodulin-peptide interactions. At 37 °C, the GCaMP3-derived probe termed GCaMP3fast is 40-fold faster than GCaMP3 with Ca2+ decay and rise times, t1/2, of 3.3 ms and 0.9 ms, respectively, making it the fastest to-date. GCaMP3fast revealed discreet transients with significantly faster Ca2+ dynamics in neonatal cardiac myocytes than GCaMP6f. With 5-fold increased two-photon fluorescence cross-section for Ca2+ at 940 nm, GCaMP3fast is suitable for deep tissue studies. The green fluorescent protein serves as a reporter providing important novel insights into the kinetic mechanism of target recognition by calmodulin. Our strategy to match the probe to the signal by tuning the affinity and hence the Ca2+ kinetics of the indicator is applicable to the emerging new generations of calmodulin-based probes. PMID:26527405

  15. Trimeric intracellular cation channels and sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyu; Lin, Peihui; Yamazaki, Daiju; Park, Ki Ho; Komazaki, Shinji; Chen, S R Wayne; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Ma, Jianjie

    2014-02-14

    Trimeric intracellular cation channels (TRIC) represents a novel class of trimeric intracellular cation channels. Two TRIC isoforms have been identified in both the human and the mouse genomes: TRIC-A, a subtype predominantly expressed in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of muscle cells, and TRIC-B, a ubiquitous subtype expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of all tissues. Genetic ablation of either TRIC-A or TRIC-B leads to compromised K(+) permeation and Ca(2+) release across the SR/ER membrane, supporting the hypothesis that TRIC channels provide a counter balancing K(+) flux that reduces SR/ER membrane depolarization for maintenance of the electrochemical gradient that drives SR/ER Ca(2+) release. TRIC-A and TRIC-B seem to have differential functions in Ca(2+) signaling in excitable and nonexcitable cells. Tric-a(-/-) mice display defective Ca(2+) sparks and spontaneous transient outward currents in arterial smooth muscle and develop hypertension, in addition to skeletal muscle dysfunction. Knockout of TRIC-B results in abnormal IP3 receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release in airway epithelial cells, respiratory defects, and neonatal lethality. Double knockout mice lacking both TRIC-A and TRIC-B show embryonic lethality as a result of cardiac arrest. Such an aggravated lethality indicates that TRIC-A and TRIC-B share complementary physiological functions in Ca(2+) signaling in embryonic cardiomyocytes. Tric-a(-/-) and Tric-b(+/-) mice are viable and susceptible to stress-induced heart failure. Recent evidence suggests that TRIC-A directly modulates the function of the cardiac ryanodine receptor 2 Ca(2+) release channel, which in turn controls store-overload-induced Ca(2+) release from the SR. Thus, the TRIC channels, in addition to providing a countercurrent for SR/ER Ca(2+) release, may also function as accessory proteins that directly modulate the ryanodine receptor/IP3 receptor channel functions.

  16. ERK1/2 mediates sperm acrosome reaction through elevation of intracellular calcium concentration.

    PubMed

    Jaldety, Yael; Breitbart, Haim

    2015-10-01

    Mammalian sperm acquire fertilization capacity after residing in the female reproductive tract for a few hours in a process called capacitation. Only capacitated sperm can bind the zona pellucida (ZP) of the egg and undergo the acrosome reaction, a process that allows penetration and fertilization. Extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) mediates signalling in many cell types, however its role in sperm function is largely unknown. Here we show that ERK1/2 is highly phosphorylated/activated after a short incubation of mouse sperm under capacitation conditions and that this phosphorylation is reduced after longer incubation. Further phosphorylation was observed upon addition of crude extract of egg ZP or epidermal growth factor (EGF). The mitogen-activated ERK-kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126 abolished ERK1/2 phosphorylation, in vitro fertilization rate and the acrosome reaction induced by ZP or EGF but not by the Ca2+-ionophore A23187. Moreover, inhibition of ERK1/2 along the capacitation process diminished almost completely the sperm's ability to go through the acrosome reaction, while inhibition at the end of capacitation attenuated the acrosome reaction rate by only 45%. The fact that the acrosome reaction, induced by the Ca2+ -ionophore A23187, was not inhibited by U0126 suggests that ERK1/2 mediates the acrosome reaction by activating Ca2+ transport into the cell. Direct determination of intracellular [Ca2+] revealed that Ca2+ influx induced by EGF or ZP was completely blocked by U0126. Thus, it has been established that the increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation/activation in response to ZP or by activation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) by EGF, is a key event for intracellular Ca2+ elevation and the subsequent occurrence of the acrosome reaction.

  17. Intracellular delivery of a cell-penetrating SOCS1 that targets IFN-gamma signaling.

    PubMed

    DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Wylezinski, Lukasz S; Hawiger, Jacek

    2009-07-21

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS1) is an intracellular inhibitor of the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway that couples interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) signaling to the nucleus. Because several inflammatory diseases are associated with uncontrolled IFN-gamma signaling, we engineered a recombinant cell-penetrating SOCS1 (CP-SOCS1) to target this pathway. Here, we show that CP-SOCS1, analogous to endogenous SOCS1, interacted with components of the IFN-gamma signaling complex and functionally attenuated the phosphorylation of STAT1, which resulted in the subsequent inhibition of the production of proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines. Thus, controlled, intracellular delivery of recombinant CP-SOCS1 boosted the anti-inflammatory potential of the cell by restoring the homeostatic balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling. This approach to controlling signal transduction has potential use for therapeutic targeting of signaling pathways associated with inflammatory diseases.

  18. Plastid-nucleus communication involves calcium-modulated MAPK signalling

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hailong; Feng, Peiqiang; Chi, Wei; Sun, Xuwu; Xu, Xiumei; Li, Yuan; Ren, Dongtao; Lu, Congming; David Rochaix, Jean; Leister, Dario; Zhang, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast retrograde signals play important roles in coordinating the plastid and nuclear gene expression and are critical for proper chloroplast biogenesis and for maintaining optimal chloroplast functions in response to environmental changes in plants. Until now, the signals and the mechanisms for retrograde signalling remain poorly understood. Here we identify factors that allow the nucleus to perceive stress conditions in the chloroplast and to respond accordingly by inducing or repressing specific nuclear genes encoding plastid proteins. We show that ABI4, which is known to repress the LHCB genes during retrograde signalling, is activated through phosphorylation by the MAP kinases MPK3/MPK6 and the activity of these kinases is regulated through 14-3-3ω-mediated Ca2+-dependent scaffolding depending on the chloroplast calcium sensor protein CAS. These findings uncover an additional mechanism in which chloroplast-modulated Ca2+ signalling controls the MAPK pathway for the activation of critical components of the retrograde signalling chain. PMID:27399341

  19. Intracellular calcium levels are differentially regulated in T lymphocytes triggered by anti-CD2 and anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Spinozzi, F; Agea, E; Bistoni, O; Belia, S; Travetti, A; Gerli, R; Muscat, C; Bertotto, A

    1995-03-01

    Antigen and/or mitogen-driven T-cell activation is mediated by a rise in intracellular free Ca2+, as second messenger. A regulatory key role for this process is represented by membrane-associated [Ca2+/Mg2+] ATP-ase that is mainly devoted to extrusion of intracellular ion excess. In the present study we have investigated the kinetics of CA2+ fluxes in both resting and already activated (Jurkat T-cell line) T lymphocytes after CD3 and CD2 (T11(2) and T11(3)) triggering and focused our attention on plasma membrane [Ca2+/Mg2+] ATP-ase activity. In both resting T cells and Jurkat cell line, the CD2 stimulation was able to determine a rise in intracellular free Ca2+ higher than that observed after CD3 triggering. In addition, this calcium signal was independent of negative feedback control exerted by [Ca2+/Mg2+] ATP-ase, as well as of IP3 generation. Thus the CD2 molecular system may, together with cell-adhesion properties, act as an amplifier of Ca2+ signals that, if delivered in the context of other molecular systems, such as CD3 or MHC class II antigens, are essentially devoted to the polyclonal co-stimulatory recruitment of a larger cellular repertoire. PMID:7662514

  20. Adenoviral gene transfer of Akt enhances myocardial contractility and intracellular calcium handling.

    PubMed

    Cittadini, A; Monti, M G; Iaccarino, G; Di Rella, F; Tsichlis, P N; Di Gianni, A; Strömer, H; Sorriento, D; Peschle, C; Trimarco, B; Saccà, L; Condorelli, G

    2006-01-01

    The serine-threonine kinase Akt/PKB mediates stimuli from different classes of cardiomyocyte receptors, including the growth hormone/insulin like growth factor and the beta-adrenergic receptors. Whereas the growth-promoting and antiapoptotic properties of Akt activation are well established, little is known about the effects of Akt on myocardial contractility, intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) handling, oxygen consumption, and beta-adrenergic pathway. To this aim, Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a wild-type Akt in vivo adenoviral gene transfer using a catheter-based technique combined with aortopulmonary crossclamping. Left ventricular (LV) contractility and intracellular Ca(2+) handling were evaluated in an isolated isovolumic buffer-perfused, aequorin-loaded whole heart preparations 10 days after the surgery. The Ca(2+)-force relationship was obtained under steady-state conditions in tetanized muscles. No significant hypertrophy was detected in adenovirus with wild-type Akt (Ad.Akt) versus controls rats (LV-to-body weight ratio 2.6+/-0.2 versus 2.7+/-0.1 mg/g, controls versus Ad.Akt, P, NS). LV contractility, measured as developed pressure, increased by 41% in Ad.Akt. This was accounted for by both more systolic Ca(2+) available to the contractile machinery (+19% versus controls) and by enhanced myofilament Ca(2+) responsiveness, documented by an increased maximal Ca(2+)-activated pressure (+19% versus controls) and a shift to the left of the Ca(2+)-force relationship. Such increased contractility was paralleled by a slight increase of myocardial oxygen consumption (14%), while titrated dose of dobutamine providing similar inotropic effect augmented oxygen consumption by 39% (P<0.01). Phospholamban, calsequestrin, and ryanodine receptor LV mRNA and protein content were not different among the study groups, while sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase protein levels were significantly increased in Ad.Akt rats. beta-Adrenergic receptor density, affinity, kinase-1

  1. Effects of paeonol on intracellular calcium concentration and expression of RUNX3 in LoVo human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Tan, Shi-Yun; Zhang, Jun; You, Hong-Xia

    2013-05-01

    Paeonol, a major phenolic component of the root bark of Paeonia moutan, is known to exhibit antitumor effects. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In the present study, the effects of paeonol on cell viability, intracellular calcium concentration and the expression of runt‑related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) were analyzed in LoVo human colon cancer cells. Results revealed that paeonol markedly reduced LoVo cell viability in a time‑ and dose‑dependent manner. Flow cytometry assays demonstrated that paeonol blocked the cell cycle at the G1 to S transition and significantly induced apoptosis in LoVo cells. Intracellular calcium accumulation occurred following a 48 h treatment with paeonol. Furthermore, RUNX3 gene expression was increased in paeonol‑treated cells. These observations indicate that paeonol possesses antiproliferative properties and apoptosis‑inducing activity. One of the antitumor mechanisms of paeonol may be its apoptosis‑inducing activity through an increased intracellular calcium concentration and the upregulation of RUNX3 expression. Paeonol may be a promising antitumor agent for colon carcinoma treatment.

  2. Calcium-binding proteins and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckingham, K.; Lu, A. Q.; Andruss, B. F.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The known roles for calcium-binding proteins in developmental signaling pathways are reviewed. Current information on the calcium-binding characteristics of three classes of cell-surface developmental signaling proteins (EGF-domain proteins, cadherins and integrins) is presented together with an overview of the intracellular pathways downstream of these surface receptors. The developmental roles delineated to date for the universal intracellular calcium sensor, calmodulin, and its targets, and for calcium-binding regulators of the cytoskeleton are also reviewed.

  3. The Impact of Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Mechanisms of Cell Calcium Signaling in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Lajdova, Ingrid; Spustova, Viera; Oksa, Adrian; Kaderjakova, Zuzana; Chorvat, Dusan; Morvova, Marcela; Sikurova, Libusa; Marcek Chorvatova, Alzbeta

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular calcium concentration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is significantly increased, and the regulatory mechanisms maintaining cellular calcium homeostasis are impaired. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin D3 on predominant regulatory mechanisms of cell calcium homeostasis. The study involved 16 CKD stages 2-3 patients with vitamin D deficiency treated with cholecalciferol 7000-14000 IU/week for 6 months. The regulatory mechanisms of calcium signaling were studied in PBMCs and red blood cells. After vitamin D3 supplementation, serum concentration of 25(OH)D3 increased (P < 0.001) and [Ca(2+)]i decreased (P < 0.001). The differences in [Ca(2+)]i were inversely related to differences in 25(OH)D3 concentration (P < 0.01). Vitamin D3 supplementation decreased the calcium entry through calcium release activated calcium (CRAC) channels and purinergic P2X7 channels. The function of P2X7 receptors was changed in comparison with their baseline status, and the expression of these receptors was reduced. There was no effect of vitamin D3 on P2X7 pores and activity of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPases. Vitamin D3 supplementation had a beneficial effect on [Ca(2+)]i decreasing calcium entry via CRAC and P2X7 channels and reducing P2X7 receptors expression.

  4. Noise decomposition of intracellular biochemical signaling networks using nonequivalent reporters.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Alex; Cheong, Raymond; Levchenko, Andre

    2014-12-01

    Experimental measurements of biochemical noise have primarily focused on sources of noise at the gene expression level due to limitations of existing noise decomposition techniques. Here, we introduce a mathematical framework that extends classical extrinsic-intrinsic noise analysis and enables mapping of noise within upstream signaling networks free of such restrictions. The framework applies to systems for which the responses of interest are linearly correlated on average, although the framework can be easily generalized to the nonlinear case. Interestingly, despite the high degree of complexity and nonlinearity of most mammalian signaling networks, three distinct tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling network branches displayed linearly correlated responses, in both wild-type and perturbed versions of the network, across multiple orders of magnitude of ligand concentration. Using the noise mapping analysis, we find that the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway generates higher noise than the NF-κB pathway, whereas the activation of c-Jun adds a greater amount of noise than the activation of ATF-2. In addition, we find that the A20 protein can suppress noise in the activation of ATF-2 by separately inhibiting the TNF receptor complex and JNK pathway through a negative feedback mechanism. These results, easily scalable to larger and more complex networks, pave the way toward assessing how noise propagates through cellular signaling pathways and create a foundation on which we can further investigate the relationship between signaling system architecture and biological noise.

  5. Noise decomposition of intracellular biochemical signaling networks using nonequivalent reporters

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Alex; Cheong, Raymond; Levchenko, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Experimental measurements of biochemical noise have primarily focused on sources of noise at the gene expression level due to limitations of existing noise decomposition techniques. Here, we introduce a mathematical framework that extends classical extrinsic–intrinsic noise analysis and enables mapping of noise within upstream signaling networks free of such restrictions. The framework applies to systems for which the responses of interest are linearly correlated on average, although the framework can be easily generalized to the nonlinear case. Interestingly, despite the high degree of complexity and nonlinearity of most mammalian signaling networks, three distinct tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling network branches displayed linearly correlated responses, in both wild-type and perturbed versions of the network, across multiple orders of magnitude of ligand concentration. Using the noise mapping analysis, we find that the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway generates higher noise than the NF-κB pathway, whereas the activation of c-Jun adds a greater amount of noise than the activation of ATF-2. In addition, we find that the A20 protein can suppress noise in the activation of ATF-2 by separately inhibiting the TNF receptor complex and JNK pathway through a negative feedback mechanism. These results, easily scalable to larger and more complex networks, pave the way toward assessing how noise propagates through cellular signaling pathways and create a foundation on which we can further investigate the relationship between signaling system architecture and biological noise. PMID:25404303

  6. Role of intracellular calcium and sodium in light adaptation in the retina of the honey bee drone (Apis mellifera, L).

    PubMed

    Bader, C; Baumann, F; Bertrand, D

    1976-04-01

    In the honey bee drone, the decrease in sensitivity to light of a retinula cell exposed to background illumination was found to be accurately reflected by the difference in amplitude between the initial transient depolarization and the lowest steady depolarization evoked by the background light. It is shown that both the decrease in sensitivity to light and the accompanying drop in potential from the transient to the plateau can be prevented by injecting EGTA intracellularly. A decrease in duration and amplitude of responses to short test flashes such as observed immediately after illumination was found to occur too when Ca or Na, but not K, Li, or Mg injected into dark-adapted retinula cells. Injection of EGTA into a retinula cell maintained a steady state of light adaptation, was found to cause an increase in amplitude and duration of the response to a short test flash, thus producing the effects of dark adaptation. It is suggested that, in the retina of the honey bee drone, an increase in intracellular calcium concentration plays a central role in light adaptation and that an increase in intracellular sodium concentration, resulting from the influx of sodium ions during the responses to light, could lead to this increase in intracellular free calcium.

  7. Sulfur mustard-induced increase in intracellular calcium: A mechanism of mustard toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, R.; Majerus, B.J.; Munavalli, G.S.; Petrali, J.P.

    1993-05-13

    The effect of sulfur mustard SM, bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide on intracellular free Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+)i was studied in vitro using the clonal mouse neuroblastoma-rat glioma hybrid NG108-15 and primary normal human epidermal keratinocyte (NHEK) cell culture models. SM depletes cellular glutathione (GSH) and thus may inhibit GSH-dependent Ca2+-ATPase (Ca2+ pump), leading to a high (Ca2+) and consequent cellular toxicity. Following 0.3 mM SM exposure, GSH levels decreased 20-34% between 1-6 hr in NG108-15 cells. SM increased (Ca2+)i, measured using the Ca2+-specific fluorescent probe Fluo-3 AM, in both NG108-15 cells (1030% between 2-6 hr) and NHEK (23-30% between 0.5-3 hr) . Depletion of cellular GSH by buthionine sulfoximine (1 mM), a specific GSH biosynthesis inhibitor, also increased Ca2+, (88% at 1 hr) in NHEK, suggesting that GSH depletion may lead to increased (Ca2+)i. Calcium, localized cytochemically with antimony, accumulated in increased amounts around mitochondria and endoplasmic reticula, in the cytosol, and in particular in the euchromatin regions of the nucleus beginning at 6 hr after 0.3 mM SM exposure of NG108-15 cells. Cell membrane integrity examined with the fluorescent membrane probe calcein AM was unaffected through 6 hr following 1 mM SM exposure; and cell viability (NG108-15 cells) measured by trypan blue exclusion was >80% of control through 9 hr following 0.3 mM SM exposure.

  8. Superiority of Biphasic Over Monophasic Defibrillation Shocks is Attributable to Less Intracellular Calcium Transient Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Gyo-Seung; Tang, Liang; Joung, Boyoung; Morita, Norishige; Hayashi, Hideki; Karagueuzian, Hrayr S.; Weiss, James N.; Lin, Shien-Fong; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To test the hypothesis that superiority of biphasic waveform (BW) over monophasic waveform (MW) defibrillation shocks is attributable to less intracellular calcium (Cai) transient heterogeneity. Background The mechanism by which BW shocks have a higher defibrillation efficacy than MW shocks remains unclear. Methods We simultaneously mapped epicardial membrane potential (Vm) and Cai during 6 ms MW and 3/3 ms BW shocks in 19 Langendorff-perfused rabbit ventricles. After shock, the percentage of depolarized area was plotted over time. The maximum (peak) postshock values (VmP and CaiP, respectively) were used to measure heterogeneity. Higher VmP and CaiP imply less heterogeneity. Results The defibrillation threshold was for BW and MW shocks were 288±99 V and 399±155 V, respectively (p=0.0005). Successful BW shocks had higher VmP (88±9 %) and CaiP (70±13 %) than unsuccessful MW shocks (VmP 76 %±10, p<0.001; CaiP, 57±8 %, p<0.001) of the same shock strength. In contrast, for unsuccessful BW and MW shocks of the same shock strengths, the VmP and CaiP were not significantly different. MW shocks more frequently created regions of low Cai surrounded by regions of high Cai (postshock Cai sinkholes). The defibrillation threshold for MW and BW shocks became similar after disabling the sarcoplasmic reticulum with thapsigargin and ryanodine. Conclusions The greater efficacy of BW shocks is directly related to their less heterogeneous effects on shock-induced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca release and Cai transients. Less heterogeneous Cai transients reduces the probability of Cai sinkhole formation, thereby preventing the postshock reinitiation of VF. PMID:18755345

  9. Intracellular calcium measurements with arsenazo III during cyclic AMP injections into molluscan neurons.

    PubMed

    Hockberger, P; Connor, J A

    1983-02-18

    Injections of cyclic adenosine monophosphate into molluscan neurons often produce a transient membrane depolarization. By using the calcium indicator dye arsenazo III, it was found that cyclic nucleotide injections into neurons of Archidoris montereyensis resulted in elevation of internal calcium concentrations. However, this was demonstrated to be a secondary consequence of an induced increase in membrane sodium permeability, and not due to any direct effect of cyclic adenosine monophosphate on cellular calcium influx or internal calcium regulating processes.

  10. Approaches and tools for modeling signaling pathways and calcium dynamics in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, KT

    2013-01-01

    Signaling pathways are cascades of intracellular biochemical reactions that are activated by transmembrane receptors, and ultimately lead to transcription in the nucleus. In neurons, both calcium permeable synaptic and ionic channels as well as G protein coupled receptors initiate activation of signaling pathway molecules that interact with electrical activity at multiple spatial and time scales. At small temporal and spatial scales, calcium modifies the properties of ionic channels, whereas at larger temporal and spatial scales, various kinases and phosphatases modify the properties of ionic channels, producing phenomena such as synaptic plasticity and homeostatic plasticity. The elongated structure of neuronal dendrites and the organization of multi-protein complexes by anchoring proteins implies that the spatial dimension must be explicit. Therefore, modeling signaling pathways in neurons utilizes algorithms for both diffusion and reactions. The small size of spines coupled with small concentrations of some molecules implies that some reactions occur stochastically. The need for stochastic simulation of many reaction and diffusion events coupled with the multiple temporal and spatial scales makes modeling of signaling pathways a difficult problem. Several different software programs have achieved different aspects of these capabilities. This review explains some of the mathematical formulas used for modeling reactions and diffusion. In addition, it briefly presents the simulators used for modeling reaction-diffusion systems in neurons, together with scientific problems addressed. PMID:23743449

  11. Effect of heat shock on intracellular calcium mobilization in neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells.

    PubMed

    Katayama, S; Shuntoh, H; Matsuyama, S; Tanaka, C

    1994-06-01

    The effect of heat shock on agonist-stimulated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and the expression of heat shock protein 72 (hsp72) in neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells (NG 108-15 cells) were examined. Hsp72 was expressed at 6 h after heat shock (42.5 degrees C, 2 h), reached a maximum at 12 h, and decreased thereafter. Bradykinin-induced [Ca2+]i rise was attenuated to 28% of control by heat shock at 2 h after heat shock, and reversion to the control level was seen 12 h later. When the cells were treated with quercetin or antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide against hsp72 cDNA, the synthesis of hsp72 was not induced by heat shock, whereas bradykinin-induced [Ca2+]i rise was abolished and the [Ca2+]i rise was not restored. Recovery from this stressed condition was evident when cells were stimulated by the Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin, even in the presence of either quercetin or antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) production was not altered by heat shock at 12 h after heat shock, whereas IP3 receptor binding activity was reduced to 45.3%. In the presence of quercetin or antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide, IP3 receptor binding activity decreased and reached 27.2% of the control 12 h after heat shock. Our working thesis is that heat shock transiently suppresses the IP3-mediated intracellular Ca2+ signal transduction system and that hsp72 is involved in the recovery of bradykinin-induced [Ca2+]i rise.

  12. Detection of light-induced changes of intracellular ionized calcium concentration in Limulus ventral photoreceptors using arsenazo III

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. E.; Brown, P. K.; Pinto, L. H.

    1977-01-01

    1. The metallochromic indicator dye, arsenazo III, was injected intracellularly into Limulus ventral photoreceptor cells to concentrations greater than 1 mM. 2. The absorption spectrum (450-750 nm) of the dye in single dark-adapted cells was measured by a scanning microspectrophotometer. When a cell was light-adapted, the absorption of the dye changed; the difference spectrum had two maxima at about 610 and 660 nm, a broad minimum at about 540 nm and an isosbestic point at about 585 nm. 3. When intracellular calcium concentration was raised in dark-adapted cells previously injected with arsenazo III, the difference spectum had two maxima at about 610 and 660 nm, a broad minimum at about 530 nm and an isosbestic point at about 585 nm. The injection of Mg2+ into dark-adapted cells previously injected with the dye induced a difference spectrum that had a single maximum at about 620 nm. Also, decreasing the intracellular pH of cells previously injected with the dye induced a difference spectrum that had a minimum at about 620 nm. The evidence suggests that there is a rise of intracellular ionized calcium when a Limulus ventral photoreceptor is light-adapted. 4. The intracellular calcium concentration, [Ca2+]1, in light-adapted photoreceptors was estimated to reach at least 10-4 M by compaing the light-induced difference spectra measured in ventral photoreceptors with a standard curve determined in microcuvettes containing 2mM arsenazo III in 400 mM-KCl, 1 mM-MgCl2 and 25 mM MOPS at pH 7·0. 5. In cells injected to less than 3 mM arsenazo III, light induced a transient decrease in optical transmission at 660 nm (T660). This decrease in T660 indicates that illumination of a ventral photoreceptor normally causes a transient increase of [Ca2+]1. 6. Arsenazo III was found to be sensitive, selective and rapid enough to measure light-induced changes of intracellular ionized calcium in Limulus ventral photoreceptor cells. PMID:17732

  13. Intracellular autocrine VEGF signaling promotes EBDC cell proliferation, which can be inhibited by Apatinib.

    PubMed

    Peng, Sui; Zhang, Yanyan; Peng, Hong; Ke, Zunfu; Xu, Lixia; Su, Tianhong; Tsung, Allan; Tohme, Samer; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Qiuyang; Lencioni, Riccardo; Zeng, Zhirong; Peng, Baogang; Chen, Minhu; Kuang, Ming

    2016-04-10

    Tumor cells produce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) which can interact with membrane or cytoplasmic VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) to promote cell growth. We aimed to investigate the role of extracellular/intracellular autocrine VEGF signaling and Apatinib, a highly selective VEGFR2 inhibitor, in extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EBDC). We found conditioned medium or recombinant human VEGF treatment promoted EBDC cell proliferation through a phospholipase C-γ1-dependent pathway. This pro-proliferative effect was diminished by VEGF, VEGFR1 or VEGFR2 neutralizing antibodies, but more significantly suppressed by intracellular VEGFR inhibitor. The rhVEGF induced intracellular VEGF signaling by promoting nuclear accumulation of pVEGFR1/2 and enhancing VEGF promoter activity, mRNA and protein expression. Internal VEGFR2 inhibitor Apatinib significantly inhibited intracellular VEGF signaling, suppressed cell proliferation in vitro and delayed xenograft tumor growth in vivo, while anti-VEGF antibody Bevacizumab showed no effect. Clinically, overexpression of pVEGFR1 and pVEGFR2 was significantly correlated with poorer overall survival (P = .007 and P = .020, respectively). In conclusion, the intracellular autocrine VEGF loop plays a predominant role in VEGF-induced cell proliferation. Apatinib is an effective intracellular VEGF pathway blocker that presents a great therapeutic potential in EBDC. PMID:26805764

  14. Intravital imaging reveals p53-dependent cancer cell death induced by phototherapy via calcium signaling

    PubMed Central

    Missiroli, Sonia; Poletti, Federica; Ramirez, Fabian Galindo; Morciano, Giampaolo; Morganti, Claudia; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Mammano, Fabio; Pinton, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in biology is signal transduction monitoring in a physiological context. Intravital imaging techniques are revolutionizing our understanding of tumor and host cell behaviors in the tumor environment. However, these deep tissue imaging techniques have not yet been adopted to investigate the second messenger calcium (Ca2+). In the present study, we established conditions that allow the in vivo detection of Ca2+ signaling in three-dimensional tumor masses in mouse models. By combining intravital imaging and a skinfold chamber technique, we determined the ability of photodynamic cancer therapy to induce an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations and, consequently, an increase in cell death in a p53-dependent pathway. PMID:25544762

  15. Intravital imaging reveals p53-dependent cancer cell death induced by phototherapy via calcium signaling.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Carlotta; Bonora, Massimo; Missiroli, Sonia; Poletti, Federica; Ramirez, Fabian Galindo; Morciano, Giampaolo; Morganti, Claudia; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Mammano, Fabio; Pinton, Paolo

    2015-01-30

    One challenge in biology is signal transduction monitoring in a physiological context. Intravital imaging techniques are revolutionizing our understanding of tumor and host cell behaviors in the tumor environment. However, these deep tissue imaging techniques have not yet been adopted to investigate the second messenger calcium (Ca²⁺). In the present study, we established conditions that allow the in vivo detection of Ca²⁺ signaling in three-dimensional tumor masses in mouse models. By combining intravital imaging and a skinfold chamber technique, we determined the ability of photodynamic cancer therapy to induce an increase in intracellular Ca²⁺ concentrations and, consequently, an increase in cell death in a p53-dependent pathway.

  16. Application of atomic force microscopy for studying intracellular signalization in neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankudinov, A. V.; Khalisov, M. M.; Penniyainen, V. A.; Podzorova, S. A.; Krylov, B. V.

    2015-10-01

    The first attempt is made at applying the method of atomic force microscopy (AFM) for determining the molecular mechanisms of intracellular signalization with the participation of Na+, K+-ATPhase playing an important role of a signal transductor (amplifier). The AFM method combined with the organotypic cultivation makes it possible to obtain quantitative information on the Young moduli of living neurons and cells subjected to the action of very low concentrations of ouabain. This substance is known to trigger in this case the intracellular signalization processes by transferring a molecular signal to the genome of a cell. The cell response is manifested in a sharp intensification of protein synthesis accompanied by a rearrangement of the cytoskeleton and activation of enzyme signal pathways in a cytosol. AFM measurements of the images of the cell surface relief are performed using the PeakForce quantitative nanomechanical properties mapping PeakForce QNM mode. The Young moduli of control neurons and of sensory neurons under the action of ouabain are measured simultaneously. It is found that the activation of the signal-transducing function of Na+, K+-ATPhase triggers intracellular signal cascades, which increase the cell stiffness. The application of the AFM method in further studies of the mechanisms of intracellular molecular processes appears as promising. Its combination with inhibitory analysis will clarify the role of individual molecules (e.g., a number of ferments) in regulation of growth and development of living organisms.

  17. Can calcium signaling be harnessed for cancer immunotherapy?

    PubMed

    Rooke, Ronald

    2014-10-01

    Experimental evidence shows the importance of the immune system in controlling tumor appearance and growth. Immunotherapy is defined as the treatment of a disease by inducing, enhancing or suppressing an immune response. In the context of cancer treatment, it involves breaking tolerance to a cancer-specific self-antigen and/or enhancing the existing anti-tumor immune response, be it specific or not. Part of the complexity in developing such treatment is that cancers are selected to escape adaptive or innate immune responses. These escape mechanisms are numerous and they may cumulate in one cancer. Moreover, different cancers of a same type may present different combinations of escape mechanisms. The limited success of immunotherapeutics in the clinic as stand-alone products may in part be explained by the fact that most of them only activate one facet of the immune response. It is important to identify novel methods to broaden the efficacy of immunotherapeutics. Calcium signaling is central to numerous cellular processes, leading to immune responses, cancer growth and apoptosis induced by cancer treatments. Calcium signaling in cancer therapy and control will be integrated to current cancer immunotherapy approaches. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium Signaling in Health and Disease. Guest Editors: Geert Bultynck, Jacques Haiech, Claus W. Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, and Marc Moreau.

  18. Can calcium signaling be harnessed for cancer immunotherapy?

    PubMed

    Rooke, Ronald

    2014-10-01

    Experimental evidence shows the importance of the immune system in controlling tumor appearance and growth. Immunotherapy is defined as the treatment of a disease by inducing, enhancing or suppressing an immune response. In the context of cancer treatment, it involves breaking tolerance to a cancer-specific self-antigen and/or enhancing the existing anti-tumor immune response, be it specific or not. Part of the complexity in developing such treatment is that cancers are selected to escape adaptive or innate immune responses. These escape mechanisms are numerous and they may cumulate in one cancer. Moreover, different cancers of a same type may present different combinations of escape mechanisms. The limited success of immunotherapeutics in the clinic as stand-alone products may in part be explained by the fact that most of them only activate one facet of the immune response. It is important to identify novel methods to broaden the efficacy of immunotherapeutics. Calcium signaling is central to numerous cellular processes, leading to immune responses, cancer growth and apoptosis induced by cancer treatments. Calcium signaling in cancer therapy and control will be integrated to current cancer immunotherapy approaches. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium Signaling in Health and Disease. Guest Editors: Geert Bultynck, Jacques Haiech, Claus W. Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, and Marc Moreau. PMID:24524821

  19. Intracellular free calcium and mitosis in mammalian cells: anaphase onset is calcium modulated, but is not triggered by a brief transient

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts and LLC-PK epithelial cells in prometaphase or metaphase were either injected with fura-2 or loaded with the acetoxymethyl ester derivative of fura-2 (fura-2 AM) and monitored by microspectrofluorimetry. With both methods of loading, we observed two aspects of intracellular free calcium (Cai) metabolism. (a) Most fibroblasts and epithelial cells exhibited a gradual rise from 75 nM in metaphase to 185 nM during cleavage, returning to baseline by early G1. (b) Mitotic Swiss 3T3 cells exhibited rapid transient Cai changes, similar to those previously reported [Poenie, M., J. Alderton, R. Y. Tsien, R. A. Steinhardt. 1985. Nature (Lond.). 315:147-149; Poenie, M., J. Alderton, R. Steinhardt, and R. Tsien. 1986. Science (Wash. DC). 233:886-889; Ratan, R., and M. L. Shelanski. 1988. J. Cell Biol. 107:993]. These Cai transients occurred repetitively, often beginning in metaphase and continuing long after daughter cell formation. Eliminating serum or calcium from the medium abolished the transients, but delayed neither the gradual Cai elevation nor anaphase onset. Co- injection of EGTA or 1,2-bis-(2-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'- tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) with fura-2 in calcium-free medium, but not in calcium containing medium, blocked both anaphase and the sustained Cai elevation in almost all cases. Blocked cells were rescued by returning calcium to the medium, whereupon Cai slowly but steadily rose as the cell entered anaphase. Spindle microtubules persisted through the EGTA block. Depolymerization of spindle microtubules by nocodazole also reversibly blocked anaphase onset and the sustained Cai elevation, but did not block transients. This study has revealed the following: (a) anaphase in mammalian fibroblasts and epithelial cells is not triggered by brief calcium transients; (b) anaphase is a calcium-modulated event, usually accompanied by a sustained elevation of Cai above 50 nM; (c) the elevation of Cai is dependent upon an intact spindle; and (d

  20. Calcium signaling dysfunction in schizophrenia: a unifying approach.

    PubMed

    Lidow, Michael S

    2003-09-01

    The present paper demonstrates a remarkable pervasiveness of underlying Ca(2+) signaling motifs among the available biochemical findings in schizophrenic patients and among the major molecular hypotheses of this disease. In addition, the paper reviews the findings suggesting that Ca(2+) is capable of inducing structural and cognitive deficits seen in schizophrenia. The evidence of the ability of antipsychotic drugs to affect Ca(2+) signaling is also presented. Based on these data, it is proposed that altered Ca(2+) signaling may constitute the central unifying molecular pathology in schizophrenia. According to this hypothesis schizophrenia can result from alterations in multiple proteins and other molecules as long as these alterations lead to abnormalities in certain key aspects of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling cascades. PMID:14499463

  1. The mechanism of injury-induced intracellular calcium concentration oscillations in the endothelium of excised rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Berra-Romani, Roberto; Raqeeb, Abdul; Torres-Jácome, Julián; Guzman-Silva, Alejandro; Guerra, Germano; Tanzi, Franco; Moccia, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial injury is the primary event that leads to a variety of severe vascular disorders. Mechanical injury elicits a Ca(2+) response in the endothelium of excised rat aorta, which comprises an initial Ca(2+) release from inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3))-sensitive stores followed by a long-lasting decay phase due to Ca(2+) entry through uncoupled connexons. The Ca(2+) signal may also adopt an oscillatory pattern, the molecular underpinnings of which are unclear. In the light of the role played by Ca(2+) spiking in tissue regeneration, this study aimed to unveil the mechanisms underlying injury-induced Ca(2+) oscillations. The latter reversibly ceased upon removal of extracellular Ca(2+) or addition of the gap junction blockers heptanol, 18 α,β-glycyrrhetinic acid, La(3+) and Ni(2+), but were insensitive to BTP-2 and SKF 96365. The spiking response was abolished by inhibiting the Ca(2+) entry mode of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX). The InsP(3)-producing agonist ATP resumed Ca(2+) oscillations in silent cells, while the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 suppressed them. Injury-induced Ca(2+) transients were prevented by the sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) blockers thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid, while they were unaffected by suramin and genistein. These data show for the first time that the coordinated interplay between NCX-mediated Ca(2+) entry and InsP(3)-dependent Ca(2+) release contributes to injury-induced intracellular Ca(2+) concentration oscillations.

  2. Juice of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) inhibits oxytocin-induced increase of the intracellular calcium concentration in human myometrial cells.

    PubMed

    Simões-Wüst, A P; Grãos, M; Duarte, C B; Brenneisen, R; Hamburger, M; Mennet, M; Ramos, M H; Schnelle, M; Wächter, R; Worel, A M; von Mandach, U

    2010-10-01

    The use of preparations from Bryophyllum pinnatum in tocolysis is supported by both clinical (retrospective comparative studies) and experimental (using uterus strips) evidence. We studied here the effect of B. pinnatum juice on the response of cultured human myometrial cells to stimulation by oxytocin, a hormone known to be involved in the control of uterine contractions by increasing the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). In this work, [Ca2+]i was measured online during stimulation of human myometrial cells (hTERT-C3 and M11) with oxytocin, which had been pre-incubated in the absence or in the presence of B. pinnatum juice. Since no functional voltage-gated Ca2+ channels could be detected in these myometrial cells, the effect of B. pinnatum juice was as well studied in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, which are known to have such channels and can be depolarised with KCl. B. pinnatum juice prevented the oxytocin-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in hTERT-C3 human myometrial cells in a dose-dependent manner, achieving a ca. 80% inhibition at a 2% concentration. Comparable results were obtained with M11 human primary myometrial cells. In hTERT-C3 cells, prevention of the oxytocin-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was independent of the extracellular Ca2+ concentration and of voltage-dependent Ca2+-channels. B. pinnatum juice delayed, but did not prevent the depolarization-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, the data suggest a specific and concentration-dependent effect of B. pinnatum juice on the oxytocin signalling pathway, which seems to corroborate its use in tocolysis. Such a specific mechanism would explain the rare and minor side-effects in tocolysis with B. pinnatum as well as its high therapeutic index. PMID:20381326

  3. Molecular and functional profiling of histamine receptor-mediated calcium ion signals in different cell lines.

    PubMed

    Meisenberg, Annika; Kaschuba, Dagmar; Balfanz, Sabine; Jordan, Nadine; Baumann, Arnd

    2015-10-01

    Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) play a pivotal role in cellular physiology. Often Ca(2+)-dependent processes are studied in commonly available cell lines. To induce Ca(2+) signals on demand, cells may need to be equipped with additional proteins. A prominent group of membrane proteins evoking Ca(2+) signals are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). These proteins register external signals such as photons, odorants, and neurotransmitters and convey ligand recognition into cellular responses, one of which is Ca(2+) signaling. To avoid receptor cross-talk or cross-activation with introduced proteins, the repertoire of cell-endogenous receptors must be known. Here we examined the presence of histamine receptors in six cell lines frequently used as hosts to study cellular signaling processes. In a concentration-dependent manner, histamine caused a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) in HeLa, HEK 293, and COS-1 cells. The concentration for half-maximal activation (EC50) was in the low micromolar range. In individual cells, transient Ca(2+) signals and Ca(2+) oscillations were uncovered. The results show that (i) HeLa, HEK 293, and COS-1 cells express sufficient amounts of endogenous receptors to study cellular Ca(2+) signaling processes directly and (ii) these cell lines are suitable for calibrating Ca(2+) biosensors in situ based on histamine receptor evoked responses.

  4. Hierarchic stochastic modelling applied to intracellular Ca(2+) signals.

    PubMed

    Moenke, Gregor; Falcke, Martin; Thurley, Keven

    2012-01-01

    Important biological processes like cell signalling and gene expression have noisy components and are very complex at the same time. Mathematical analysis of such systems has often been limited to the study of isolated subsystems, or approximations are used that are difficult to justify. Here we extend a recently published method (Thurley and Falcke, PNAS 2011) which is formulated in observable system configurations instead of molecular transitions. This reduces the number of system states by several orders of magnitude and avoids fitting of kinetic parameters. The method is applied to Ca(2+) signalling. Ca(2+) is a ubiquitous second messenger transmitting information by stochastic sequences of concentration spikes, which arise by coupling of subcellular Ca(2+) release events (puffs). We derive analytical expressions for a mechanistic Ca(2+) model, based on recent data from live cell imaging, and calculate Ca(2+) spike statistics in dependence on cellular parameters like stimulus strength or number of Ca(2+) channels. The new approach substantiates a generic Ca(2+) model, which is a very convenient way to simulate Ca(2+) spike sequences with correct spiking statistics.

  5. Calmodulin Binds to Extracellular Sites on the Plasma Membrane of Plant Cells and Elicits a Rise in Intracellular Calcium Concentration*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qinli; Chen, Bo; Liu, Peng; Zheng, Maozhong; Wang, Yuqing; Cui, Sujuan; Sun, Daye; Fang, Xiaohong; Liu, Chun-Ming; Lucas, William J.; Lin, Jinxing

    2009-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a highly conserved intracellular calcium sensor. In plants, CaM also appears to be present in the apoplasm, and application of exogenous CaM has been shown to influence a number of physiological functions as a polypeptide signal; however, the existence and localization of its corresponding apoplasmic binding sites remain controversial. To identify the site(s) of action, a CaM-conjugated quantum dot (QD) system was employed for single molecule level detection at the surface of plant cells. Using this approach, we show that QD-CaM binds selectively to sites on the outer surface of the plasma membrane, which was further confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Measurements of Ca2+ fluxes across the plasma membrane, using ion-selective microelectrodes, demonstrated that exogenous CaM induces a net influx into protoplasts. Consistent with these flux studies, calcium-green-dextran and FRET experiments confirmed that applied CaM/QD-CaM elicited an increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels. These results support the hypothesis that apoplasmic CaM can act as a signaling agent. These findings are discussed in terms of CaM acting as an apoplasmic peptide ligand to mediate transmembrane signaling in the plant kingdom. PMID:19254956

  6. GPCR and voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) signaling complexes.

    PubMed

    Altier, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels are transmembrane proteins that control nerve impulses and cell homeostasis. Signaling molecules that regulate ion channel activity and density at the plasma membrane must be specifically and efficiently coupled to these channels in order to control critical physiological functions such as action potential propagation. Although their regulation by G-protein receptor activation has been extensively explored, the assembly of ion channels into signaling complexes of GPCRs plays a fundamental role, engaging specific downstream -signaling pathways that trigger precise downstream effectors. Recent work has confirmed that GPCRs can intimately interact with ion channels and serve as -chaperone proteins that finely control their gating and trafficking in subcellular microdomains. This chapter aims to describe examples of GPCR-ion channel co-assembly, focusing mainly on signaling complexes between GPCRs and voltage-gated calcium channels.

  7. Calcium signaling as a mediator of cell energy demand and a trigger to cell death.

    PubMed

    Bhosale, Gauri; Sharpe, Jenny A; Sundier, Stephanie Y; Duchen, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    Calcium signaling is pivotal to a host of physiological pathways. A rise in calcium concentration almost invariably signals an increased cellular energy demand. Consistent with this, calcium signals mediate a number of pathways that together serve to balance energy supply and demand. In pathological states, calcium signals can precipitate mitochondrial injury and cell death, especially when coupled to energy depletion and oxidative or nitrosative stress. This review explores the mechanisms that couple cell signaling pathways to metabolic regulation or to cell death. The significance of these pathways is exemplified by pathological case studies, such as those showing loss of mitochondrial calcium uptake 1 in patients and ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  8. Calcium signaling as a mediator of cell energy demand and a trigger to cell death

    PubMed Central

    Bhosale, Gauri; Sharpe, Jenny A.; Sundier, Stephanie Y.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium signaling is pivotal to a host of physiological pathways. A rise in calcium concentration almost invariably signals an increased cellular energy demand. Consistent with this, calcium signals mediate a number of pathways that together serve to balance energy supply and demand. In pathological states, calcium signals can precipitate mitochondrial injury and cell death, especially when coupled to energy depletion and oxidative or nitrosative stress. This review explores the mechanisms that couple cell signaling pathways to metabolic regulation or to cell death. The significance of these pathways is exemplified by pathological case studies, such as those showing loss of mitochondrial calcium uptake 1 in patients and ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:26375864

  9. Ion channels and calcium signaling in motile cilia

    PubMed Central

    Doerner, Julia F; Delling, Markus; Clapham, David E

    2015-01-01

    The beating of motile cilia generates fluid flow over epithelia in brain ventricles, airways, and Fallopian tubes. Here, we patch clamp single motile cilia of mammalian ependymal cells and examine their potential function as a calcium signaling compartment. Resting motile cilia calcium concentration ([Ca2+] ~170 nM) is only slightly elevated over cytoplasmic [Ca2+] (~100 nM) at steady state. Ca2+ changes that arise in the cytoplasm rapidly equilibrate in motile cilia. We measured CaV1 voltage-gated calcium channels in ependymal cells, but these channels are not specifically enriched in motile cilia. Membrane depolarization increases ciliary [Ca2+], but only marginally alters cilia beating and cilia-driven fluid velocity within short (~1 min) time frames. We conclude that beating of ependymal motile cilia is not tightly regulated by voltage-gated calcium channels, unlike that of well-studied motile cilia and flagella in protists, such as Paramecia and Chlamydomonas. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11066.001 PMID:26650848

  10. [Thapsigargin-sensitive and insensitive intracellular calcium stores in acinar cells of the submandibular salivary gland in rats].

    PubMed

    Kopach, O V; Kruhlykov, I A; Voĭtenko, N V; Fedirko, N V

    2005-01-01

    Acinar cells of rat submandibular salivary gland are characterized by heterogeneity of intracellular Ca2+ stores. In the present work we have studied this heterogeneity using Arsenazo III dye to measure a cellular total calcium content and Fura-2/AM, to determine free cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). We have found that the amount of Ca2+ released by inhibition of Ca2+ ATPase of the ER with thapsigargin comprises approximately 30% of total ER calcium. This result was obtained in experiments on both intact and permeabilized acinar cells. We have also shown that both Ca2+ ATPase inhibition with thapsigargin and emptying the stores with acetylcholine (ACh) led to activation of store-operated Ca2+ influx (an increase in total calcium content of approximately 14%). In permeabilized cells application of ACh after preincubation with thapsigargin led to a further decrease in total cellular calcium content (approximately 38%). At the same time in intact cells it resulted in generation of [Ca2+]i transients with gradually decreasing amplitudes. Thus, ACh is capable of producing an additional release of Ca2+ from thapsigargin-insensitive stores. This additional release is IP3-dependent since it was completely blocked by heparin. We conclude that in acinar cells of rat submandibular gland thapsigargin-sensitive and thapsigargin-insensitive Ca2+ stores could exist.

  11. Acute mechanical overstimulation of isolated outer hair cells causes changes in intracellular calcium levels without shape changes.

    PubMed

    Fridberger, A; Ulfendahl, M

    1996-01-01

    Impaired auditory function following acoustic overstimulation, or noise, is mainly reported to be accompanied by cellular changes such as damage to the sensory hair bundles, but changes in the cell bodies of the outer hair cells have also been described. To investigate more closely the immediate cellular responses to overstimulation, isolated guinea pig outer hair cells were subjected to a 200 Hz oscillating water jet producing intense mechanical stimulation. The water jet was aimed at the cell body of the isolated outer hair cell. Cell shape changes were studied using video microscopy, and intracellular calcium concentration changes were monitored by means of the fluorescent calcium indicator Fluo-3. Cells exposed to a high-intensity stimulus showed surprisingly small light-microscopical alterations. The cytoplasmic calcium concentration increased in most cells, although some cells appeared very resistant to the mechanical stress. No correlation could be found be tween the calcium concentration changes and the cell length. The changes in calcium concentration reported here are suggested to be involved in the long-term pathogenesis of noise-induced hair cell damage.

  12. Detection and Quantification of Intracellular Signaling Using FRET-Based Biosensors and High Content Imaging.

    PubMed

    Halls, Michelle L; Poole, Daniel P; Ellisdon, Andrew M; Nowell, Cameron J; Canals, Meritxell

    2015-01-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensors represent invaluable tools to detect the spatiotemporal context of second messenger production and intracellular signaling that cannot be attained using traditional methods. Here, we describe a detailed protocol for the use of high content imaging in combination with FRET biosensors to assess second messenger production and intracellular signaling in a time-effective manner. We use four different FRET biosensors to measure cAMP levels, kinase (ERK and PKC), and GTPase activity. Importantly, we provide the protocols to express and measure these sensors in a variety of model cell lines and primary dorsal root ganglia neurons.

  13. Detection and Quantification of Intracellular Signaling Using FRET-Based Biosensors and High Content Imaging.

    PubMed

    Halls, Michelle L; Poole, Daniel P; Ellisdon, Andrew M; Nowell, Cameron J; Canals, Meritxell

    2015-01-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensors represent invaluable tools to detect the spatiotemporal context of second messenger production and intracellular signaling that cannot be attained using traditional methods. Here, we describe a detailed protocol for the use of high content imaging in combination with FRET biosensors to assess second messenger production and intracellular signaling in a time-effective manner. We use four different FRET biosensors to measure cAMP levels, kinase (ERK and PKC), and GTPase activity. Importantly, we provide the protocols to express and measure these sensors in a variety of model cell lines and primary dorsal root ganglia neurons. PMID:26260599

  14. Intracellular Calcium Gradients in Single Living Cells: Measurement and Analysis by Optical and Digital Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelamarty, Rao Viswanadha

    Intracellular calcium (Ca^{2+ }) has been considered as a regulator of many cellular processes. In addition, Ca^{2+ } also plays a key role in mediating actions of many hormones, growth factors, and drugs. This thesis describes two general approaches, digital video and photomultiplier (PMT) based fluorescence microscopic systems, to measure such Ca^{2+} changes throughout the cell. They reveal the heterogeneous spatial and fast temporal changes of Ca^{2+} within a single isolated living cell. In order to measure spatial Ca^ {2+} in three dimensions (3-D), optical section microscopy (OSM) coupled to digital video imaging is introduced. With this approach, an increase in nuclear Ca^{2+} compared to cytosolic Ca^{2+} is detected in human erythroblasts and rat hepatocytes under the addition of growth factors: erythropoietin and epidermal growth factor respectively. In addition, the primary effect of non growth-promoting hormone vasopressin, raise in cytosolic Ca^{2+}, is also observed. These observations are the first to underscore the importance of nuclear Ca^{2+} increase in cell growth and differentiation. On the other hand, to track fast Ca^ {2+} transients (mesc) during excitation -contraction (EC) cycle and then examine alterations in Ca^{2+} transients in healthy and diseased (hypertensive) heart cells, a PMT based system is implemented. Significant alterations in Ca^{2+} transients in hypertensive heart cells were observed. This finding is compatible with the clinical finding that patients with hypertensive cardiomyopathy suffer a lack of adequate relaxation. Finally, to correlate the Ca^{2+} dynamics in an EC cycle with mechanical activity, a hybrid optical digital processor was developed. The performance of the hybrid processor is analyzed and applied simultaneously with the PMT based system. The mechanical contraction and relaxation of a single cardiac cell closely paralleled that of Ca^{2+} dynamics during an EC cycle. In summary, this thesis illustrates

  15. The response of a human bronchial epithelial cell line to histamine: Intracellular calcium changes and extracellular release of inflammatory mediators

    SciTech Connect

    Noah, T.L.; Paradiso, A.M.; Madden, M.C.; McKinnon, K.P.; Devlin, R.B. )

    1991-11-01

    Epithelial cells are likely to modulate inflammation and tissue repair in the airways, but the factors responsible for these processes remain unclear. Because human airway epithelia are infrequently available for in vitro studies, transformed epithelial cell lines are of interest as models. The authors therefore investigated the response of an SV-40/adenovirus-transformed human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) to histamine, a mediator with relevance for airway diseases. The intracellular calcium response to histamine (10(-4) M) was measured, using Fura-2 and microspectrofluorimetry. Histamine induced a transient increase in intracellular calcium that originated from intracellular sources; this effect was inhibited by the H1 receptor antagonist diphenhydramine, suggesting that BEAS cells retain functioning histamine receptors. BEAS cells were grown to confluence on microporous, collagen-coated filters, allowing measurement of vectorial release of soluble mediators. Monolayers exposed to histamine for 30 min released interleukin-6 and fibronectin in the apical direction, in a dose-dependent manner. Little eicosanoid production was induced by histamine, either in the apical or the basolateral direction, although BEAS cells constitutively produced small amounts of prostaglandin E2 and 15-HETE. However, these cells formed large amounts of eicosanoids in response to ozone exposure as a positive control. Comparison of their data with published reports for human airway epithelia in primary culture suggests that the BEAS cell line is, in a number of respects, a relevant model for the study of airway epithelial responses to a variety of stimuli.

  16. Preventive effects of imperatorin on perfluorohexanesulfonate-induced neuronal apoptosis via inhibition of intracellular calcium-mediated ERK pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunkyung; Choi, So-Young; Yang, Jae-Ho; Lee, Youn Ju

    2016-07-01

    Early life neuronal exposure to environmental toxicants has been suggested to be an important etiology of neurodegenerative disease development. Perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), one of the major perfluoroalkyl compounds, is widely distributed environmental contaminants. We have reported that PFHxS induces neuronal apoptosis via ERK-mediated pathway. Imperatorin is a furanocoumarin found in various edible plants and has a wide range of pharmacological effects including neuroprotection. In this study, the effects of imperatorin on PFHxS-induced neuronal apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms are examined using cerebellar granule cells (CGC). CGC were isolated from seven-day old rats and were grown in culture for seven days. Caspase-3 activity and TUNEL staining were used to determine neuronal apoptosis. PFHxS-induced apoptosis of CGC was significantly reduced by imperatorin and PD98059, an ERK pathway inhibitor. PFHxS induced a persistent increase in intracellular calcium, which was significantly blocked by imperatorin, NMDA receptor antagonist, MK801 and the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel blockers, diltiazem and nifedipine. The activation of caspase-3 by PFHxS was also inhibited by MK801, diltiazem and nifedipine. PFHxS-increased ERK activation was inhibited by imperatorin, MK801, diltiazem and nifedipine. Taken together, imperatorin protects CGC against PFHxS-induced apoptosis via inhibition of NMDA receptor/intracellular calcium-mediated ERK pathway. PMID:27382356

  17. Preventive effects of imperatorin on perfluorohexanesulfonate-induced neuronal apoptosis via inhibition of intracellular calcium-mediated ERK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunkyung; Choi, So-Young; Yang, Jae-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Early life neuronal exposure to environmental toxicants has been suggested to be an important etiology of neurodegenerative disease development. Perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), one of the major perfluoroalkyl compounds, is widely distributed environmental contaminants. We have reported that PFHxS induces neuronal apoptosis via ERK-mediated pathway. Imperatorin is a furanocoumarin found in various edible plants and has a wide range of pharmacological effects including neuroprotection. In this study, the effects of imperatorin on PFHxS-induced neuronal apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms are examined using cerebellar granule cells (CGC). CGC were isolated from seven-day old rats and were grown in culture for seven days. Caspase-3 activity and TUNEL staining were used to determine neuronal apoptosis. PFHxS-induced apoptosis of CGC was significantly reduced by imperatorin and PD98059, an ERK pathway inhibitor. PFHxS induced a persistent increase in intracellular calcium, which was significantly blocked by imperatorin, NMDA receptor antagonist, MK801 and the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel blockers, diltiazem and nifedipine. The activation of caspase-3 by PFHxS was also inhibited by MK801, diltiazem and nifedipine. PFHxS-increased ERK activation was inhibited by imperatorin, MK801, diltiazem and nifedipine. Taken together, imperatorin protects CGC against PFHxS-induced apoptosis via inhibition of NMDA receptor/intracellular calcium-mediated ERK pathway. PMID:27382356

  18. Kinetic insulation as an effective mechanism for achieving pathway specificity in intracellular signaling networks

    PubMed Central

    Behar, Marcelo; Dohlman, Henrik G.; Elston, Timothy C.

    2007-01-01

    Intracellular signaling pathways that share common components often elicit distinct physiological responses. In most cases, the biochemical mechanisms responsible for this signal specificity remain poorly understood. Protein scaffolds and cross-inhibition have been proposed as strategies to prevent unwanted cross-talk. Here, we report a mechanism for signal specificity termed “kinetic insulation.” In this approach signals are selectively transmitted through the appropriate pathway based on their temporal profile. In particular, we demonstrate how pathway architectures downstream of a common component can be designed to efficiently separate transient signals from signals that increase slowly over time. Furthermore, we demonstrate that upstream signaling proteins can generate the appropriate input to the common pathway component regardless of the temporal profile of the external stimulus. Our results suggest that multilevel signaling cascades may have evolved to modulate the temporal profile of pathway activity so that stimulus information can be efficiently encoded and transmitted while ensuring signal specificity. PMID:17913886

  19. Bcl-2 proteins and calcium signaling: complexity beneath the surface.

    PubMed

    Vervliet, T; Parys, J B; Bultynck, G

    2016-09-29

    Antiapoptotic Bcl-2-family members are well known for their 'mitochondrial' functions as critical neutralizers of proapoptotic Bcl-2-family members, including the executioner multidomain proteins Bax and Bak and the BH3-only proteins. It has been clear for more than 20 years that Bcl-2 proteins can impact intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and dynamics. Moreover, altered Ca(2+) signaling is increasingly linked to oncogenic behavior. Specifically targeting the Ca(2+)-signaling machinery may thus prove to be a valuable strategy for cancer treatment. Over 10 years ago a major controversy was recognized concerning whether or not Bcl-2 proteins exerted their antiapoptotic functions via Ca(2+) signaling through lowering the filling state of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores or by suppressing Ca(2+) release from the ER without affecting the filling state of this Ca(2+) store. Further research from different laboratories indicated a wide variety of mechanisms by which Bcl-2-family members can impact Ca(2+) signaling. In this review, we propose that antiapoptotic Bcl-2-family members are multimodal regulators of intracellular Ca(2+)-signaling events in cell survival and cell death. We will discuss how different Bcl-2-family members impact cell survival and cell death by regulating Ca(2+) transport systems at the ER, mitochondria and plasma membrane and by impacting the organization of organelles and how these insights can be exploited for causing cell death in cancer cells. Finally, we propose that the existing controversy reflects the diversity of links between Bcl-2 proteins and Ca(2+) signaling, as certainly not all targets or mechanisms will be operative in every cell type and every condition.

  20. Depletion of calcium stores regulates calcium influx and signal transmission in rod photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Szikra, Tamas; Cusato, Karen; Thoreson, Wallace B; Barabas, Peter; Bartoletti, Theodore M; Krizaj, David

    2008-01-01

    Tonic synapses are specialized for sustained calcium entry and transmitter release, allowing them to operate in a graded fashion over a wide dynamic range. We identified a novel plasma membrane calcium entry mechanism that extends the range of rod photoreceptor signalling into light-adapted conditions. The mechanism, which shares molecular and physiological characteristics with store-operated calcium entry (SOCE), is required to maintain baseline [Ca2+]i in rod inner segments and synaptic terminals. Sustained Ca2+ entry into rod cytosol is augmented by store depletion, blocked by La3+ and Gd3+ and suppressed by organic antagonists MRS-1845 and SKF-96365. Store depletion and the subsequent Ca2+ influx directly stimulated exocytosis in terminals of light-adapted rods loaded with the activity-dependent dye FM1–43. Moreover, SOCE blockers suppressed rod-mediated synaptic inputs to horizontal cells without affecting presynaptic voltage-operated Ca2+ entry. Silencing of TRPC1 expression with small interference RNA disrupted SOCE in rods, but had no effect on cone Ca2+ signalling. Rods were immunopositive for TRPC1 whereas cone inner segments immunostained with TRPC6 channel antibodies. Thus, SOCE modulates Ca2+ homeostasis and light-evoked neurotransmission at the rod photoreceptor synapse mediated by TRPC1. PMID:18755743

  1. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor and dSTIM function in Drosophila insulin-producing neurons regulates systemic intracellular calcium homeostasis and flight.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Neha; Venkiteswaran, Gayatri; Sadaf, Sufia; Padmanabhan, Nisha; Banerjee, Santanu; Hasan, Gaiti

    2010-01-27

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling is known to regulate the development, maintenance and modulation of activity in neuronal circuits that underlie organismal behavior. In Drosophila, intracellular Ca(2+) signaling by the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor and the store-operated channel (dOrai) regulates the formation and function of neuronal circuits that control flight. Here, we show that restoring InsP(3)R activity in insulin-producing neurons of flightless InsP(3)R mutants (itpr) during pupal development can rescue systemic flight ability. Expression of the store operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) regulator dSTIM in insulin-producing neurons also suppresses compromised flight ability of InsP(3)R mutants suggesting that SOCE can compensate for impaired InsP(3)R function. Despite restricted expression of wild-type InsP(3)R and dSTIM in insulin-producing neurons, a global restoration of SOCE and store Ca(2+) is observed in primary neuronal cultures from the itpr mutant. These results suggest that restoring InsP(3)R-mediated Ca(2+) release and SOCE in a limited subset of neuromodulatory cells can influence systemic behaviors such as flight by regulating intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis in a large population of neurons through a non-cell-autonomous mechanism. PMID:20107057

  2. The ancient roots of calcium signalling evolutionary tree.

    PubMed

    Plattner, Helmut; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2015-03-01

    Molecular cascades of calcium homeostasis and signalling (Ca(2+) pumps, channels, cation exchangers, and Ca(2+)-binding proteins) emerged in prokaryotes and further developed at the unicellular stage of eukaryote evolution. With progressive evolution, mechanisms of signalling became diversified reflecting multiplication and specialisation of Ca(2+)-regulated cellular activities. Recent genomic analysis of organisms from different systematic positions, combined with proteomic and functional probing invigorated expansion in our understanding of the evolution of Ca(2+) signalling. Particularly impressive is the consistent role of Ca(2+)-ATPases/pumps, calmodulin and calcineurin from very early stages of eukaryotic evolution, although with interspecies differences. Deviations in Ca(2+) handling and signalling are observed between vertebrates and flowering plants as well as between protists at the basis of the two systematic categories, Unikonta (for example choanoflagellates) and Bikonta (for example ciliates). Only the B-subunit of calcineurin, for instance, is maintained to regulate highly diversified protein kinases for stress defence in flowering plants, whereas the complete dimeric protein, in vertebrates up to humans, regulates gene transcription, immune-defence and plasticity of the brain. Calmodulin is similarly maintained throughout evolution, but in plants a calmoldulin-like domain is integrated into protein kinase molecules. The eukaryotic cell has inherited and invented many mechanisms to exploit the advantages of signalling by Ca(2+), and there is considerable overall similarity in basic processes of Ca(2+) regulation and signalling during evolution, although some details may vary.

  3. [Intracellular calcium redistribution in the thrombocytes during aggregation and release reaction].

    PubMed

    Pozin, E Ia; Popov, E G; Gabbasov, Z A; Radin, A Iu; Markosian, R A

    1981-01-01

    With the aid of an original installation there was simultaneously measured aggregation, reaction of release of adenine nucleotides, and redistribution of calcium (by fluorescence of calcium-sensitive probe of chlortetracyclin) in one sample of the suspension of washed platelets of rabbit. For the first time there was found an increase in the intensity of fluorescence in the presence of ADP-induced aggregation which continued long after the platelets desaggregation. The obtained results suggest that this increase indicating the redistribution of calcium ions in cells, is associated with the refractory state of the platelets.

  4. Activation of the recombinant human alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor significantly raises intracellular free calcium.

    PubMed

    Delbono, O; Gopalakrishnan, M; Renganathan, M; Monteggia, L M; Messi, M L; Sullivan, J P

    1997-01-01

    The alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype, unlike other neuronal nicotinic receptors, exhibits a relatively high permeability to Ca++ ions. Although Ca++ entry through this receptor subtype has been implicated in various Ca(++)-dependent processes in the central nervous system, little is known about how this receptor modulates mammalian intracellular Ca++ dynamics. Intracellular Ca++ responses evoked by activation of the human alpha 7 nAChRs stably expressed in HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney) cells were studied. Inward current and intracellular Ca++ transients were recorded simultaneously in response to a fast drug application system. Current recordings under whole-cell voltage-clamp and fast ratiometric intracellular Ca++ imaging acquisition were synchronized to drug pulses. The mean peak [Ca++]i observed with 100 microM (-)-nicotine was 356 +/- 48 nM (n = 8). The magnitude of the intracellular Ca++ elevation corresponds to a 20% fractional current carried by Ca++ ions. The EC50 of the intracellular Ca++ responses for (-)-nicotine, (+/-)-epibatidine, 1,1 dimethyl-4-phenyl-piperazinium and acetylcholine were 51, 3.5, 75 and 108 microM, respectively. These EC50 values strongly correlate with those recorded for the cationic inward current through alpha 7 nAChR. alpha-Bungarotoxin, methyllcaconitine or extracellular Ca++ chelation ablated (-)-nicotine-evoked increase in intracellular Ca++ concentration. This study provides evidence that cation influx through the human alpha 7 nAChR is sufficient to mediate a significant, transient, rise in intracellular Ca++ concentration.

  5. Ca analysis: an Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular calcium transients including multiple, simultaneous regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Greensmith, David J

    2014-01-01

    Here I present an Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular Ca transients recorded using fluorescent indicators. The program can perform all the necessary steps which convert recorded raw voltage changes into meaningful physiological information. The program performs two fundamental processes. (1) It can prepare the raw signal by several methods. (2) It can then be used to analyze the prepared data to provide information such as absolute intracellular Ca levels. Also, the rates of change of Ca can be measured using multiple, simultaneous regression analysis. I demonstrate that this program performs equally well as commercially available software, but has numerous advantages, namely creating a simplified, self-contained analysis workflow.

  6. The effect of photoinitiators on intracellular AKT signaling pathway in tissue engineering application

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Leyuan; Sheybani, Natasha; Yeudall, W. Andrew; Yang, Hu

    2015-01-01

    Free-radical photopolymerization initiated by photoinitiators is an important method to make tissue engineering scaffolds. To advance understanding of photoinitiator cytocompatibility, we examined three photoinitiators including 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone (DMPA), Irgacure 2959 (I-2959), and eosin Y photoinitiating system (EY) in terms of their effects on viability of HN4 cells and expression levels of intracellular AKT and its phosphorylated form p-AKT. Our results show that the photoinitiators and their UV-exposed counterparts affect intracellular AKT signaling, which can be used in conjunction with cell viability for cytocompatibility assessment of photoinitiators. PMID:25709809

  7. Dendritic diameters affect the spatial variability of intracellular calcium dynamics in computer models

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Haroon; Roome, Christopher J.; Nedelescu, Hermina; Chen, Weiliang; Kuhn, Bernd; De Schutter, Erik

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in understanding calcium dynamics in dendrites, both experimentally and computationally. Many processes influence these dynamics, but in dendrites there is a strong contribution of morphology because the peak calcium levels are strongly determined by the surface to volume ratio (SVR) of each branch, which is inversely related to branch diameter. In this study we explore the predicted variance of dendritic calcium concentrations due to local changes in dendrite diameter and how this is affected by the modeling approach used. We investigate this in a model of dendritic calcium spiking in different reconstructions of cerebellar Purkinje cells and in morphological analysis of neocortical and hippocampal pyramidal neurons. We report that many published models neglect diameter-dependent effects on calcium concentration and show how to implement this correctly in the NEURON simulator, both for phenomenological pool based models and for implementations using radial 1D diffusion. More detailed modeling requires simulation of 3D diffusion and we demonstrate that this does not dissipate the local concentration variance due to changes of dendritic diameter. In many cases 1D diffusion of models of calcium buffering give a good approximation provided an increased morphological resolution is implemented. PMID:25100945

  8. Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer Disease: Role of Amyloid Precursor Protein and Presenilin 1 Intracellular Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nizzari, Mario; Thellung, Stefano; Corsaro, Alessandro; Villa, Valentina; Pagano, Aldo; Porcile, Carola; Russo, Claudio; Florio, Tullio

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder characterized by (1) progressive loss of synapses and neurons, (2) intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, composed of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein, and (3) amyloid plaques. Genetically, AD is linked to mutations in few proteins amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 and 2 (PS1 and PS2). The molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in AD as well as the physiological function of APP are not yet known. A recent theory has proposed that APP and PS1 modulate intracellular signals to induce cell-cycle abnormalities responsible for neuronal death and possibly amyloid deposition. This hypothesis is supported by the presence of a complex network of proteins, clearly involved in the regulation of signal transduction mechanisms that interact with both APP and PS1. In this review we discuss the significance of novel finding related to cell-signaling events modulated by APP and PS1 in the development of neurodegeneration. PMID:22496686

  9. Aquaporin-3 mediates hydrogen peroxide uptake to regulate downstream intracellular signaling

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Evan W.; Dickinson, Bryan C.; Chang, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by cell-surface NADPH Oxidase (Nox) enzymes is emerging as an important signaling molecule for growth, differentiation, and migration processes. However, how cells spatially regulate H2O2 to achieve physiological redox signaling over nonspecific oxidative stress pathways is insufficiently understood. Here we report that the water channel Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) can facilitate the uptake of H2O2 into mammalian cells and mediate downstream intracellular signaling. Molecular imaging with Peroxy Yellow 1 Methyl-Ester (PY1-ME), a new chemoselective fluorescent indicator for H2O2, directly demonstrates that aquaporin isoforms AQP3 and AQP8, but not AQP1, can promote uptake of H2O2 specifically through membranes in mammalian cells. Moreover, we show that intracellular H2O2 accumulation can be modulated up or down based on endogenous AQP3 expression, which in turn can influence downstream cell signaling cascades. Finally, we establish that AQP3 is required for Nox-derived H2O2 signaling upon growth factor stimulation. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the downstream intracellular effects of H2O2 can be regulated across biological barriers, a discovery that has broad implications for the controlled use of this potentially toxic small molecule for beneficial physiological functions. PMID:20724658

  10. The effect of vitamin D₃ supplementation on intracellular calcium and plasma membrane calcium ATPase activity in early stages of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Morvová, M; Lajdová, I; Spustová, V; Zvarík, M; Šikurová, L

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased concentration of intracellular calcium, which is pathological and may lead to irreversible damage of cell functions and structures. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of 6 months vitamin D(3) supplementation (14 000 IU/week) on free cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and on the plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) activity of patients with CKD stage 2-3. PMCA activity of patients was also compared to that of healthy volunteers. Vitamin D(3) supplementation of CKD patients resulted in the decrease of [Ca(2+)](i) (119.79+/-5.87 nmol/l vs. 105.36+/-3.59 nmol/l, n=14, P<0.001), whereas PMCA activity of CKD patients (38.75+/-22.89 nmol P(i)/mg/h) remained unchanged after vitamin D(3) supplementation (40.96+/-17.74 nmol P(i)/mg/h, n=14). PMCA activity of early stage CKD patients before supplementation of vitamin D(3), was reduced by 34 % (42.01+/-20.64 nmol P(i)/mg/h) in comparison to healthy volunteers (63.68+/-20.32 nmol P(i)/mg/h, n=28, P<0.001). These results indicate that vitamin D(3) supplementation had a lowering effect on [Ca(2+)](i) and negligible effect on PMCA activity in CKD patients.

  11. CREB modulates calcium signaling in cAMP-induced bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linxia; Liu, Li; Thompson, Ryan; Chan, Christina

    2014-10-01

    Calcium signaling has a versatile role in many important cellular functions. Despite its importance, regulation of calcium signaling in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells) has not been explored extensively. Our previous study revealed that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) enabled BMSCs to generate calcium signal upon stimulation by dopamine, KCl and glutamate. Concurrently, cAMP transiently activated the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in BMSCs. Activity of CREB can be modulated by the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase signaling pathway, however, whether the calcium signaling observed in cAMP-induced BMSCs requires CREB has not been investigated. In an effort to uncover the role of CREB in the generation of calcium signaling in response to modulators such as dopamine and KCl, we knocked down CREB activity in BMSCs. Our study indicated that BMSCs, but not its close relative fibroblasts, are responsive to dopamine and KCl after cAMP treatment. Calcium signal elicited by dopamine depends, in part, on calcium influx whereas that elicited by KCl depends completely on calcium influx. Knock-down of CREB activity significantly reduced or abolished the cAMP-induced calcium response, and reintroducing a constitutively active CREB partially restored the calcium response.

  12. CREB modulates calcium signaling in cAMP-induced bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linxia; Liu, Li; Thompson, Ryan; Chan, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Calcium signaling has a versatile role in many important cellular functions. Despite its importance, regulation of calcium signaling in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells) has not been explored extensively. Our previous study revealed that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) enabled BMSCs to generate calcium signal upon stimulation by dopamine, KCl and glutamate. Concurrently, cAMP transiently activated the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in BMSCs. Activity of CREB can be modulated by the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase signaling pathway, however, whether the calcium signaling observed in cAMP-induced BMSCs requires CREB has not been investigated. In an effort to uncover the role of CREB in the generation of calcium signaling in response to modulators such as dopamine and KCl, we knocked down CREB activity in BMSCs. Our study indicated that BMSCs, but not its close relative fibroblasts, are responsive to dopamine and KCl after cAMP treatment. Calcium signal elicited by dopamine depends, in part, on calcium influx whereas that elicited by KCl depends completely on calcium influx. Knock-down of CREB activity significantly reduced or abolished the cAMP-induced calcium response, and reintroducing a constitutively active CREB partially restored the calcium response. PMID:25154887

  13. Effects of ethanol on neurotransmitter release and intracellular free calcium in PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rabe, C.S.; Weight, F.F.

    1988-02-01

    The effect of ethanol on muscarine-stimulated release of l-(/sup 3/H)norepinephrine ((/sup 3/H)NE) was studied using the rat pheochromocytoma cell line, PC12. At concentrations of 25 mM and above, ethanol produced a dose-dependent inhibition of muscarine-stimulated release of (/sup 3/H)NE. The inhibition of muscarine-stimulated transmitter release occurred in the absence of any detectable effect of ethanol on (/sup 3/H)NE uptake or on muscarinic binding to the cells. However, ethanol produced an inhibition of muscarine-stimulated elevation of intracellular free Ca++ which corresponded with the inhibition of transmitter release. At concentrations greater than 100 mM, ethanol produced an increase in the basal release of (/sup 3/H)NE. Intracellular free Ca++ also was increased by ethanol concentrations greater than 100 mM. The elevation of basal transmitter release and intracellular free Ca++ by concentrations of ethanol greater than 100 mM occurred independently of the inhibition by ethanol of muscarine-stimulated elevation of intracellular free Ca++ and transmitter secretion. These results suggest that the effects of ethanol on neurotransmitter release are associated with the effects of ethanol on intracellular free Ca++.

  14. Calcium signaling in insulin action on striated muscle.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Ferrat, A; Lavandero, S; Jaimovich, E; Klip, A

    2014-11-01

    Striated muscles (skeletal and cardiac) are major physiological targets of insulin and this hormone triggers complex signaling pathways regulating cell growth and energy metabolism. Insulin increases glucose uptake into muscle cells by stimulating glucose transporter (GLUT4) translocation from intracellular compartments to the cell surface. The canonical insulin-triggered signaling cascade controlling this process is constituted by well-mapped tyrosine, lipid and serine/threonine phosphorylation reactions. In parallel to these signals, recent findings reveal insulin-dependent Ca(2+) mobilization in skeletal muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. Specifically, insulin activates the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum (SER) channels that release Ca(2+) into the cytosol i.e., the Ryanodine Receptor (RyR) and the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R). In skeletal muscle cells, a rapid, insulin-triggered Ca(2+) release occurs through RyR, that is brought about upon S-glutathionylation of cysteine residues in the channel by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the early activation of the NADPH oxidase (NOX2). In cardiomyocytes insulin induces a fast and transient increase in cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)]i trough L-type Ca(2+) channels activation. In both cell types, a relatively slower Ca(2+) release also occurs through IP3R activation, and is required for GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake. The insulin-dependent Ca(2+) released from IP3R of skeletal muscle also promotes mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. We review here these actions of insulin on intracellular Ca(2+) channel activation and their impact on GLUT4 traffic in muscle cells, as well as other implications of insulin-dependent Ca(2+) release from the SER. PMID:25224502

  15. Calcium signaling and amyloid toxicity in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Demuro, Angelo; Parker, Ian; Stutzmann, Grace E

    2010-04-23

    Intracellular Ca(2+) signaling is fundamental to neuronal physiology and viability. Because of its ubiquitous roles, disruptions in Ca(2+) homeostasis are implicated in diverse disease processes and have become a major focus of study in multifactorial neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD). A hallmark of AD is the excessive production of beta-amyloid (Abeta) and its massive accumulation in amyloid plaques. In this minireview, we highlight the pathogenic interactions between altered cellular Ca(2+) signaling and Abeta in its different aggregation states and how these elements coalesce to alter the course of the neurodegenerative disease. Ca(2+) and Abeta intersect at several functional levels and temporal stages of AD, thereby altering neurotransmitter receptor properties, disrupting membrane integrity, and initiating apoptotic signaling cascades. Notably, there are reciprocal interactions between Ca(2+) pathways and amyloid pathology; altered Ca(2+) signaling accelerates Abeta formation, whereas Abeta peptides, particularly in soluble oligomeric forms, induce Ca(2+) disruptions. A degenerative feed-forward cycle of toxic Abeta generation and Ca(2+) perturbations results, which in turn can spin off to accelerate more global neuropathological cascades, ultimately leading to synaptic breakdown, cell death, and devastating memory loss. Although no cause or cure is currently known, targeting Ca(2+) dyshomeostasis as an underlying and integral component of AD pathology may result in novel and effective treatments for AD.

  16. (Z)3,4,5,4‧-trans-tetramethoxystilbene, a new analogue of resveratrol, inhibits gefitinb-resistant non-small cell lung cancer via selectively elevating intracellular calcium level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xing-Xing; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Su Wei; Wong, Vincent Kam-Wai; He, Jian-Xing; Ding, Jian; Xue, Wei-Wei; Mujtaba, Tahira; Michelangeli, Francesco; Huang, Min; Huang, Jun; Xiao, Da-Kai; Jiang, Ze-Bo; Zhou, Yan-Ling; Kin-Ting Kam, Richard; Liu, Liang; Lai-Han Leung, Elaine

    2015-11-01

    Calcium is a second messenger which is required for regulation of many cellular processes. However, excessive elevation or prolonged activation of calcium signaling would lead to cell death. As such, selectively regulating calcium signaling could be an alternative approach for anti-cancer therapy. Recently, we have identified an effective analogue of resveratrol, (Z)3,4,5,4‧-trans-tetramethoxystilbene (TMS) which selectively elevated the intracellular calcium level in gefitinib-resistant (G-R) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. TMS exhibited significant inhibitory effect on G-R NSCLC cells, but not other NSCLC cells and normal lung epithelial cells. The phosphorylation and activation of EGFR were inhibited by TMS in G-R cells. TMS induced caspase-independent apoptosis and autophagy by directly binding to SERCA and causing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and AMPK activation. Proteomics analysis also further confirmed that mTOR pathway, which is the downstream of AMPK, was significantly suppressed by TMS. JNK, the cross-linker of ER stress and mTOR pathway was significantly activated by TMS. In addition, the inhibition of JNK activation can partially block the effect of TMS. Taken together, TMS showed promising anti-cancer activity by mediating calcium signaling pathway and inducing apoptosis as well as autophagy in G-R NSCLC cells, providing strategy in designing multi-targeting drug for treating G-R patients.

  17. (Z)3,4,5,4′-trans-tetramethoxystilbene, a new analogue of resveratrol, inhibits gefitinb-resistant non-small cell lung cancer via selectively elevating intracellular calcium level

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xing-Xing; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Su Wei; Wong, Vincent Kam-Wai; He, Jian-Xing; Ding, Jian; Xue, Wei-Wei; Mujtaba, Tahira; Michelangeli, Francesco; Huang, Min; Huang, Jun; Xiao, Da-Kai; Jiang, Ze-Bo; Zhou, Yan-Ling; Kin-Ting Kam, Richard; Liu, Liang; Lai-Han Leung, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is a second messenger which is required for regulation of many cellular processes. However, excessive elevation or prolonged activation of calcium signaling would lead to cell death. As such, selectively regulating calcium signaling could be an alternative approach for anti-cancer therapy. Recently, we have identified an effective analogue of resveratrol, (Z)3,4,5,4′-trans-tetramethoxystilbene (TMS) which selectively elevated the intracellular calcium level in gefitinib-resistant (G-R) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. TMS exhibited significant inhibitory effect on G-R NSCLC cells, but not other NSCLC cells and normal lung epithelial cells. The phosphorylation and activation of EGFR were inhibited by TMS in G-R cells. TMS induced caspase-independent apoptosis and autophagy by directly binding to SERCA and causing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and AMPK activation. Proteomics analysis also further confirmed that mTOR pathway, which is the downstream of AMPK, was significantly suppressed by TMS. JNK, the cross-linker of ER stress and mTOR pathway was significantly activated by TMS. In addition, the inhibition of JNK activation can partially block the effect of TMS. Taken together, TMS showed promising anti-cancer activity by mediating calcium signaling pathway and inducing apoptosis as well as autophagy in G-R NSCLC cells, providing strategy in designing multi-targeting drug for treating G-R patients. PMID:26542098

  18. Calcium signaling of pancreatic acinar cells in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Zhou, Rui; Zhang, Jian; Li, Zong-Fang

    2014-11-21

    Pancreatitis is an increasingly common and sometimes severe disease that lacks a specific therapy. The pathogenesis of pancreatitis is still not well understood. Calcium (Ca(2+)) is a versatile carrier of signals regulating many aspects of cellular activity and plays a central role in controlling digestive enzyme secretion in pancreatic acinar cells. Ca(2+) overload is a key early event and is crucial in the pathogenesis of many diseases. In pancreatic acinar cells, pathological Ca(2+) signaling (stimulated by bile, alcohol metabolites and other causes) is a key contributor to the initiation of cell injury due to prolonged and global Ca(2+) elevation that results in trypsin activation, vacuolization and necrosis, all of which are crucial in the development of pancreatitis. Increased release of Ca(2+) from stores in the intracellular endoplasmic reticulum and/or increased Ca(2+) entry through the plasma membrane are causes of such cell damage. Failed mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production reduces re-uptake and extrusion of Ca(2+) by the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-activated ATPase and plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase pumps, which contribute to Ca(2+) overload. Current findings have provided further insight into the roles and mechanisms of abnormal pancreatic acinar Ca(2+) signals in pancreatitis. The lack of available specific treatments is therefore an objective of ongoing research. Research is currently underway to establish the mechanisms and interactions of Ca(2+) signals in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis.

  19. Engendering biased signalling from the calcium-sensing receptor for the pharmacotherapy of diverse disorders

    PubMed Central

    Leach, K; Sexton, P M; Christopoulos, A; Conigrave, A D

    2014-01-01

    The human calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is widely expressed in the body, where its activity is regulated by multiple orthosteric and endogenous allosteric ligands. Each ligand stabilizes a unique subset of conformational states, which enables the CaSR to couple to distinct intracellular signalling pathways depending on the extracellular milieu in which it is bathed. Differential signalling arising from distinct receptor conformations favoured by each ligand is referred to as biased signalling. The outcome of CaSR activation also depends on the cell type in which it is expressed. Thus, the same ligand may activate diverse pathways in distinct cell types. Given that the CaSR is implicated in numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes, it is an ideal target for biased ligands that could be rationally designed to selectively regulate desired signalling pathways in preferred cell types. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Molecular Pharmacology of GPCRs. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-5 PMID:24111791

  20. Acanthamoeba castellanii metabolites increase the intracellular calcium level and cause cytotoxicity in wish cells.

    PubMed

    Mattana, A; Bennardini, F; Usai, S; Fiori, P L; Franconi, F; Cappuccinelli, P

    1997-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that trophozoites of the pathogenic free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii rapidly lyse a variety of cells in vitro. However, the role played by cytolitic molecules that may participate in Acanthamoebal cytopathogenicity has yet to be completely elucidated. The aim of this work was to study whether soluble molecules released by A. castellanii trophozoites could induce cytopathic effect in human epithelial cells in vitro. The results obtained indicate that A. castellanii trophozoites constitutively elaborate and release soluble factors that immediately elicit a cytosolic free-calcium increase in target cells. This phenomenon is induced by low molecular weight amoebic metabolites and depends on a transmembrane influx of extracellular calcium. Morphological changes, cytoskeletal damage, cell death and cytolysis followed the elevation of cytosolic free-calcium levels. Calcium ions are very important for cell homeostasis, in fact, they control the functions of a variety of cellular responses, including secretion, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Our results suggest that the substained elevation of the cytosolic free-calcium in response to A. castellanii metabolites might play a fundamental role in target cell damage during Acanthamoeba infections. PMID:9245619

  1. The non-excitable smooth muscle: Calcium signaling and phenotypic switching during vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    House, Suzanne J.; Potier, Marie; Bisaillon, Jonathan; Singer, Harold A.

    2008-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) is a highly versatile second messenger that controls vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) contraction, proliferation, and migration. By means of Ca2+ permeable channels, Ca2+ pumps and channels conducting other ions such as potassium and chloride, VSMC keep intracellular Ca2+ levels under tight control. In healthy quiescent contractile VSMC, two important components of the Ca2+ signaling pathways that regulate VSMC contraction are the plasma membrane voltage-operated Ca2+ channel of the high voltage-activated type (L-type) and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channel, Ryanodine Receptor (RyR). Injury to the vessel wall is accompanied by VSMC phenotype switch from a contractile quiescent to a proliferative motile phenotype (synthetic phenotype) and by alteration of many components of VSMC Ca2+ signaling pathways. Specifically, this switch that culminates in a VSMC phenotype reminiscent of a non-excitable cell is characterized by loss of L-type channels expression and increased expression of the low voltage-activated (T-type) Ca2+ channels and the canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels. The expression levels of intracellular Ca2+ release channels, pumps and Ca2+-activated proteins are also altered: the proliferative VSMC lose the RyR3 and the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase isoform 2a pump and reciprocally regulate isoforms of the ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. This review focuses on the changes in expression of Ca2+ signaling proteins associated with VSMC proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. The physiological implications of the altered expression of these Ca2+ signaling molecules, their contribution to VSMC dysfunction during vascular disease and their potential as targets for drug therapy will be discussed. PMID:18365243

  2. An atmospheric-pressure cold plasma leads to apoptosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by accumulating intracellular reactive oxygen species and calcium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, R. N.; Feng, H. Q.; Liang, Y. D.; Zhang, Q.; Tian, Y.; Su, B.; Zhang, J.; Fang, J.

    2013-07-01

    A non-thermal plasma is known to induce apoptosis of various cells but the mechanism is not yet clear. A eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiaewas used to investigate the cellular and biochemical regulations of cell apoptosis and cell cycle after an atmospheric-pressure cold plasma treatment. More importantly, intracellular calcium (Ca2+) was first involved in monitoring the process of plasma-induced apoptosis in this study. We analysed the cell apoptosis and cell cycle by flow cytometry and observed the changes in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca2+ concentration, cell mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) as well as nuclear DNA morphology via fluorescence staining assay. All experimental results indicated that plasma-generated ROS leads to the accumulation of intracellular ROS and Ca2+ that ultimately contribute to apoptosis associated with cell cycle arrest at G1 phase through depolarization of Δψm and fragmenting nuclear DNA. This work provides a novel insight into the physical and biological mechanism of apoptosis induced by a plasma which could benefit for promoting the development of plasmas applied to cancer therapy.

  3. Tri-modal regulation of cardiac muscle relaxation; intracellular calcium decline, thin filament deactivation, and cross-bridge cycling kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Biesiadecki, Brandon J.; Davis, Jonathan P.; Ziolo, Mark T.; Janssen, Paul M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac muscle relaxation is an essential step in the cardiac cycle. Even when the contraction of the heart is normal and forceful, a relaxation phase that is too slow will limit proper filling of the ventricles. Relaxation is too often thought of as a mere passive process that follows contraction. However, many decades of advancements in our understanding of cardiac muscle relaxation have shown it is a highly complex and well-regulated process. In this review, we will discuss three distinct events that can limit the rate of cardiac muscle relaxation: the rate of intracellular calcium decline, the rate of thin-filament de-activation, and the rate of cross-bridge cycling. Each of these processes are directly impacted by a plethora of molecular events. In addition, these three processes interact with each other, further complicating our understanding of relaxation. Each of these processes is continuously modulated by the need to couple bodily oxygen demand to cardiac output by the major cardiac physiological regulators. Length-dependent activation, frequency-dependent activation, and β-adrenergic regulation all directly and indirectly modulate calcium decline, thin-filament deactivation, and cross-bridge kinetics. We hope to convey our conclusion that cardiac muscle relaxation is a process of intricate checks and balances, and should not be thought of as a single rate-limiting step that is regulated at a single protein level. Cardiac muscle relaxation is a system level property that requires fundamental integration of three governing systems: intracellular calcium decline, thin filament deactivation, and cross-bridge cycling kinetics. PMID:25484996

  4. Regulation of calcium signals in the nucleus by a nucleoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Echevarría, Wihelma; Leite, M. Fatima; Guerra, Mateus T.; Zipfel, Warren R.; Nathanson, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium is a second messenger in virtually all cells and tissues1. Calcium signals in the nucleus have effects on gene transcription and cell growth that are distinct from those of cytosolic calcium signals; however, it is unknown how nuclear calcium signals are regulated. Here we identify a reticular network of nuclear calcium stores that is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum and the nuclear envelope. This network expresses inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors, and the nuclear component of InsP3-mediated calcium signals begins in its locality. Stimulation of these receptors with a little InsP3 results in small calcium signals that are initiated in this region of the nucleus. Localized release of calcium in the nucleus causes nuclear protein kinase C (PKC) to translocate to the region of the nuclear envelope, whereas release of calcium in the cytosol induces translocation of cytosolic PKC to the plasma membrane. Our findings show that the nucleus contains a nucleoplasmic reticulum with the capacity to regulate calcium signals in localized subnuclear regions. The presence of such machinery provides a potential mechanism by which calcium can simultaneously regulate many independent processes in the nucleus. PMID:12717445

  5. Lipid raft-dependent uptake, signaling, and intracellular fate of Porphyromonas gingivalis in mouse macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Hajishengallis, George

    2009-01-01

    Summary Lipid rafts are cholesterol-enriched microdomains involved in cellular trafficking and implicated as portals for certain pathogens. We sought to determine whether the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis enters macrophages via lipid rafts, and if so, to examine the impact of raft entry on its intracellular fate. Using J774A.1 mouse macrophages, we found that P. gingivalis colocalizes with lipid rafts in a cholesterol-dependent way. Depletion of cellular cholesterol using methyl-β-cyclodextrin resulted in about 50% inhibition of P. gingivalis uptake, although this effect was reversed by cholesterol reconstitution. The intracellular survival of P. gingivalis was dramatically inhibited in cholesterol-depleted cells relative to untreated or cholesterol-reconstituted cells, even when infections were adjusted to allow equilibration of the initial intracellular bacterial load. P. gingivalis thus appeared to exploit raft-mediated uptake for promoting its survival. Consistent with this, lipid raft disruption enhanced the colocalization of internalized P. gingivalis with lysosomes. In contrast, raft disruption did not affect the expression of host receptors interacting with P. gingivalis, although it significantly inhibited signal transduction. In summary, P. gingivalis uses macrophage lipid rafts as signaling and entry platforms, which determine its intracellular fate to the pathogen’s own advantage. PMID:18547335

  6. Pseudopterosin A inhibits phagocytosis and alters intracellular calcium turnover in a pertussis toxin sensitive site in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Moya, Claudia E; Jacobs, Robert S

    2006-08-01

    The free living ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila was chosen as a cellular model in order to investigate the mode of action of the anti-inflammatory marine natural product Pseudopterosin A (PsA). In this paper we present evidence that PsA inhibits phagosome formation (KD=10.5 microM) and triggers a discrete intracellular calcium release (depletion) from a site in T. thermophila cells (KD=6.4 microM). Pre-treatment with the Gi/o protein inhibitor, pertussis toxin (PTX), inhibits PsA activity of both responses providing pharmacological evidence that the site of action for PsA is at a PTX sensitive G protein or a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR). Addition of extracellular calcium induced a concentration dependent increase in the incidence of phagosome formation (KD=30.3 microM) and was blocked by PsA pre-treatment. This particular effect of PsA on extracellular calcium was not blocked by PTX pre-treatment.

  7. C-terminal clipping of chemokine CCL1/I-309 enhances CCR8-mediated intracellular calcium release and anti-apoptotic activity.

    PubMed

    Denis, Catherine; Deiteren, Kathleen; Mortier, Anneleen; Tounsi, Amel; Fransen, Erik; Proost, Paul; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Lambeir, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase M (CPM) targets the basic amino acids arginine and lysine present at the C-terminus of peptides or proteins. CPM is thought to be involved in inflammatory processes. This is corroborated by CPM-mediated trimming and modulation of inflammatory factors, and expression of the protease in inflammatory environments. Since the function of CPM in and beyond inflammation remains mainly undefined, the identification of natural substrates can aid in discovering the (patho)physiological role of CPM. CCL1/I-309, with its three C-terminal basic amino acids, forms a potential natural substrate for CPM. CCL1 plays a role not only in inflammation but also in apoptosis, angiogenesis and tumor biology. Enzymatic processing differently impacts the biological activity of chemokines thereby contributing to the complex regulation of the chemokine system. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether (i) CCL1/I-309 is prone to trimming by CPM, and (ii) the biological activity of CCL1 is altered after C-terminal proteolytic processing. CCL1 was identified as a novel substrate for CPM in vitro using mass spectrometry. C-terminal clipping of CCL1 augmented intracellular calcium release mediated by CCR8 but reduced the binding of CCL1 to CCR8. In line with the higher intracellular calcium release, a pronounced increase of the anti-apoptotic activity of CCL1 was observed in the BW5147 cellular model. CCR8 signaling, CCR8 binding and anti-apoptotic activity were unaffected when CPM was exposed to the carboxypeptidase inhibitor DL-2-mercaptomethyl-3-guanidino-ethylthiopropanoic acid. The results of this study suggest that CPM is a likely candidate for the regulation of biological processes relying on the CCL1-CCR8 system. PMID:22479563

  8. Ethanol's effects on neurotransmitter release and intracellular free calcium in PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rabe, C.S.; Weight, F.F.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of ethanol on muscarine-stimulated release of (/sup 3/H)NE was studied using the rat pheochromocytoma cell line, PC12. At concentrations of 25 mM and above, ethanol produced a dose dependent inhibition of muscarine-stimulated release of (/sup 3/H)NE. The inhibition of muscarine-stimulated transmitter release occurred in the absence of any effect of ethanol on (/sup 3/H)NE uptake, metabolism or on muscarinic binding to the cells. However, ethanol produced an inhibition of muscarine-stimulated elevation of intracellular free Ca2+ which corresponded with the inhibition of transmitter release. At concentrations greater than 100 mM, ethanol produced both a stimulation of the release of (/sup 3/H)NE as well as an increase in intracellular free Ca2+. The increase in basal transmitter release and intracellular free Ca2+ occurred independent of the inhibition by ethanol of muscarine-stimulated elevation of intracellular free Ca2+ or transmitter section. These results demonstrate the relationship of the effects of ethanol on cellular free Ca2+ and neurotransmitter release.

  9. Parvalbumin overexpression alters immune-mediated increases in intracellular calcium, and delays disease onset in a transgenic model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beers, D. R.; Ho, B. K.; Siklos, L.; Alexianu, M. E.; Mosier, D. R.; Mohamed, A. H.; Otsuka, Y.; Kozovska, M. E.; McAlhany, R. E.; Smith, R. G.; Appel, S. H.

    2001-01-01

    Intracellular calcium is increased in vulnerable spinal motoneurons in immune-mediated as well as transgenic models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To determine whether intracellular calcium levels are influenced by the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin, we developed transgenic mice overexpressing parvalbumin in spinal motoneurons. ALS immunoglobulins increased intracellular calcium and spontaneous transmitter release at motoneuron terminals in control animals, but not in parvalbumin overexpressing transgenic mice. Parvalbumin transgenic mice interbred with mutant SOD1 (mSOD1) transgenic mice, an animal model of familial ALS, had significantly reduced motoneuron loss, and had delayed disease onset (17%) and prolonged survival (11%) when compared with mice with only the mSOD1 transgene. These results affirm the importance of the calcium binding protein parvalbumin in altering calcium homeostasis in motoneurons. The increased motoneuron parvalbumin can significantly attenuate the immune-mediated increases in calcium and to a lesser extent compensate for the mSOD1-mediated 'toxic-gain-of-function' in transgenic mice.

  10. Simplest relationship between local field potential and intracellular signals in layered neural tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizhov, Anton V.; Sanchez-Aguilera, Alberto; Rodrigues, Serafim; de la Prida, Liset Menendez

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between the extracellularly measured electric field potential resulting from synaptic activity in an ensemble of neurons and intracellular signals in these neurons is an important but still open question. Based on a model neuron with a cylindrical dendrite and lumped soma, we derive a formula that substantiates a proportionality between the local field potential and the total somatic transmembrane current that emerges from the difference between the somatic and dendritic membrane potentials. The formula is tested by intra- and extracellular recordings of evoked synaptic responses in hippocampal slices. Additionally, the contribution of different membrane currents to the field potential is demonstrated in a two-population mean-field model. Our formalism, which allows for a simple estimation of unknown dendritic currents directly from somatic measurements, provides an interpretation of the local field potential in terms of intracellularly measurable synaptic signals. It is also applicable to the study of cortical activity using two-compartment neuronal population models.

  11. Simplest relationship between local field potential and intracellular signals in layered neural tissue.

    PubMed

    Chizhov, Anton V; Sanchez-Aguilera, Alberto; Rodrigues, Serafim; de la Prida, Liset Menendez

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between the extracellularly measured electric field potential resulting from synaptic activity in an ensemble of neurons and intracellular signals in these neurons is an important but still open question. Based on a model neuron with a cylindrical dendrite and lumped soma, we derive a formula that substantiates a proportionality between the local field potential and the total somatic transmembrane current that emerges from the difference between the somatic and dendritic membrane potentials. The formula is tested by intra- and extracellular recordings of evoked synaptic responses in hippocampal slices. Additionally, the contribution of different membrane currents to the field potential is demonstrated in a two-population mean-field model. Our formalism, which allows for a simple estimation of unknown dendritic currents directly from somatic measurements, provides an interpretation of the local field potential in terms of intracellularly measurable synaptic signals. It is also applicable to the study of cortical activity using two-compartment neuronal population models. PMID:26764724

  12. Determinants of the membrane orientation of a calcium signaling enzyme CD38.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong Juan; Zhu, Wen Jie; Wang, Xian Wang; Zhang, Li-He; Lee, Hon Cheung

    2015-09-01

    CD38 catalyzes the synthesis of two structurally distinct messengers for Ca²⁺-mobilization, cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), from cytosolic substrates, NAD and NADP, respectively. CD38 is generally thought of as a type II membrane protein with its catalytic site facing outside. We recently showed that CD38 exists, instead, in two opposite membrane orientations. The determinant for the membrane topology is unknown. Here, specific antibodies against type III CD38 were designed and produced. We show that mutating the positively charged residues in the N-terminal tail of CD38 converted its orientation to type III, with the catalytic domain facing the cytosol and it was fully active in producing intracellular cADPR. Changing the serine residues to aspartate, which is functionally equivalent to phosphorylation, had a similar effect. The mutated CD38 was expressed intracellularly and was un-glycosylated. The membrane topology could also be modulated by changing the highly conserved di-cysteine. The results indicate that the net charge of the N-terminal segment is important in determining the membrane topology of CD38 and that the type III orientation can be a functional form of CD38 for Ca²⁺-signaling. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium.

  13. Antagonizing amyloid-β/calcium-sensing receptor signaling in human astrocytes and neurons: a key to halt Alzheimer's disease progression?

    PubMed Central

    Dal Prà, Ilaria; Chiarini, Anna; Armato, Ubaldo

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes’ roles in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) promotion are important, since they survive soluble or fibrillar amyloid-β peptides (Aβs) neurotoxic effects, undergo alterations of intracellular and intercellular Ca2+ signaling and gliotransmitters release via the Aβ/α7-nAChR (α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor) signaling, and overproduce/oversecrete newly synthesized Aβ42 oligomers, NO, and VEGF-A via the Aβ/CaSR (calcium-sensing receptor) signaling. Recently, it was suggested that the NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor) inhibitor nitromemantine would block the synapse-destroying effects of Aβ/α7-nAChR signaling. Yet, this and the progressive extracellular accrual and spreading of Aβ42 oligomers would be stopped well upstream by NPS 2143, an allosteric CaSR antagonist (calcilytic). PMID:25883618

  14. Molecular Basis of Calcium Signaling in Lymphocytes: STIM and ORAI

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Patrick G.; Lewis, Richard S.; Rao, Anjana

    2010-01-01

    Ca2+ entry into cells of the peripheral immune system occurs through highly Ca2+-selective channels known as CRAC (calcium release-activated calcium) channels. CRAC channels are a very well-characterized example of store-operated Ca2+ channels, so designated because they open when the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ store becomes depleted. Physiologically, Ca2+ is released from the ER lumen into the cytoplasm when activated receptors couple to phospholipase C and trigger production of the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). IP3 binds to IP3 receptors in the ER membrane and activates Ca2+ release. The proteins STIM and ORAI were discovered through limited and genome-wide RNAi screens, respectively, performed in Drosophila cells and focused on identifying modulators of store-operated Ca2+ entry. STIM1 and STIM2 sense the depletion of ER Ca2+ stores, whereas ORAI1 is a pore subunit of the CRAC channel. In this review, we discuss selected aspects of Ca2+ signaling in cells of the immune system, focusing on the roles of STIM and ORAI proteins in store-operated Ca2+ entry. PMID:20307213

  15. GABAB receptors modulate NMDA receptor calcium signals in dendritic spines.

    PubMed

    Chalifoux, Jason R; Carter, Adam G

    2010-04-15

    Metabotropic GABA(B) receptors play a fundamental role in modulating the excitability of neurons and circuits throughout the brain. These receptors influence synaptic transmission by inhibiting presynaptic release or activating postsynaptic potassium channels. However, their ability to directly influence different types of postsynaptic glutamate receptors remains unresolved. Here we examine GABA(B) receptor modulation in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons from the mouse prefrontal cortex. We use two-photon laser-scanning microscopy to study synaptic modulation at individual dendritic spines. Using two-photon optical quantal analysis, we first demonstrate robust presynaptic modulation of multivesicular release at single synapses. Using two-photon glutamate uncaging, we then reveal that GABA(B) receptors strongly inhibit NMDA receptor calcium signals. This postsynaptic modulation occurs via the PKA pathway and does not affect synaptic currents mediated by AMPA or NMDA receptors. This form of GABA(B) receptor modulation has widespread implications for the control of calcium-dependent neuronal function.

  16. Biphasic Role of Calcium in Mouse Sperm Capacitation Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Alvau, Antonio; Escoffier, Jessica; Krapf, Dario; Sánchez-Cárdenas, Claudia; Salicioni, Ana M.; Darszon, Alberto; Visconti, Pablo E.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian sperm acquire fertilizing ability in the female tract in a process known as capacitation. At the molecular level, capacitation is associated with up-regulation of a cAMP-dependent pathway, changes in intracellular pH, intracellular Ca2+ and an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation. How these signaling systems interact during capacitation is not well understood. Results presented in this study indicate that Ca2+ ions have a biphasic role in the regulation of cAMP-dependent signaling. Media without added Ca2+ salts (nominal zero Ca2+) still contain micromolar concentrations of this ion. Sperm incubated in this medium did not undergo PKA activation or the increase in tyrosine phosphorylation suggesting that these phosphorylation pathways require Ca2+. However, chelation of the extracellular Ca2+ traces by EGTA induced both cAMP-dependent phosphorylation and the increase in tyrosine phosphorylation. The EGTA effect in nominal zero Ca2+ media was mimicked by two calmodulin antagonists, W7 and calmidazolium, and by the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A. These results suggest that Ca2+ ions regulate sperm cAMP and tyrosine phosphorylation pathways in a biphasic manner and that some of its effects are mediated by calmodulin. Interestingly, contrary to wild type mouse sperm, sperm from CatSper1 KO mice underwent PKA activation and an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation upon incubation in nominal zero Ca2+ media. Therefore, sperm lacking Catsper Ca2+ channels behave as wild-type sperm incubated in the presence of EGTA. This latter result suggests that Catsper transports the Ca2+ involved in the regulation of cAMP-dependent and tyrosine phosphorylation pathways required for sperm capacitation. PMID:25597298

  17. Real-time monitoring of intracellular signal transduction in PC12 cells by non-adiabatic tapered optical fiber biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibaii, M. I.; Latifi, H.; Asadollahi, A.; Noraeipoor, Z.; Dargahi, L.

    2014-05-01

    Real-time observation of intracellular process of signal transduction is very useful for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications as well as for basic research work of cell biology. For feasible and reagentless observation of intracellular alterations in real time, we examined the use of a nonadiabatic tapered optical fiber (NATOF) biosensor for monitoring of intracellular signal transduction that was mainly translocation of protein kinase C via refractive index change in PC12 cells adhered on tapered fiber sensor without any indicator reagent. PC12 cells were stimulated with KCl . Our results suggest that complex intracellular reactions could be real-time monitored and characterized by NATOF biosensor.

  18. Fungal genes related to calcium homeostasis and signalling are upregulated in symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhiza interactions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne; Arnould, Christine; Wipf, Daniel; Zhao, Bin; van Tuinen, Diederik

    2013-01-01

    Fluctuations in intracellular calcium levels generate signalling events and regulate different cellular processes. Whilst the implication of Ca(2+) in plant responses during arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) interactions is well documented, nothing is known about the regulation or role of this secondary messenger in the fungal symbiont. The spatio-temporal expression pattern of putatively Ca(2+)-related genes of Glomus intraradices BEG141 encoding five proteins involved in membrane transport and one nuclear protein kinase, was investigated during the AM symbiosis. Expression profiles related to successful colonization of host roots were observed in interactions of G. intraradices with roots of wild-type Medicago truncatula (line J5) compared to the mycorrhiza-defective mutant dmi3/Mtsym13. Symbiotic fungal activity was monitored using stearoyl-CoA desaturase and phosphate transporter genes. Laser microdissection based-mapping of fungal gene expression in mycorrhizal root tissues indicated that the Ca(2+)-related genes were differentially upregulated in arbuscules and/or in intercellular hyphae. The spatio-temporal variations in gene expression suggest that the encoded proteins may have different functions in fungal development or function during symbiosis development. Full-length cDNA obtained for two genes with interesting expression profiles confirmed a close similarity with an endoplasmic reticulum P-type ATPase and a Vcx1-like vacuolar Ca(2+) ion transporter functionally characterized in other fungi and involved in the regulation of cell calcium pools. Possible mechanisms are discussed in which Ca(2+)-related proteins G. intraradices BEG141 may play a role in mobilization and perception of the intracellular messenger by the AM fungus during symbiotic interactions with host roots.

  19. An enhanced functional interrogation/manipulation of intracellular signaling pathways with the peptide 'stapling' technology.

    PubMed

    He, Y; Chen, D; Zheng, W

    2015-11-12

    Specific protein-protein interactions (PPIs) constitute a key underlying mechanism for the presence of a multitude of intracellular signaling pathways, which are essential for the survival of normal and cancer cells. Specific molecular blockers for a crucial PPI would therefore be invaluable tools for an enhanced functional interrogation of the signaling pathway harboring this particular PPI. On the other hand, if a particular PPI is essential for the survival of cancer cells but is absent in or dispensable for the survival of normal cells, its specific molecular blockers could potentially be developed into effective anticancer therapeutics. Due to the flat and extended PPI interface, it would be conceivably difficult for small molecules to achieve an effective blockade, a problem which could be potentially circumvented with peptides or proteins. However, the well-documented proteolytic instability and cellular impermeability of peptides and proteins in general would make their developing into effective intracellular PPI blockers quite a challenge. With the advent of the peptide 'stapling' technology which was demonstrated to be able to stabilize the α-helical conformation of a peptide via bridging two neighboring amino-acid side chains with a 'molecular staple', a linear parent peptide could be transformed into a stronger PPI blocker with enhanced proteolytic stability and cellular permeability. This review will furnish an account on the peptide 'stapling' technology and its exploitation in efforts to achieve an enhanced functional interrogation or manipulation of intracellular signaling pathways especially those that are cancer relevant.

  20. Shock wave irradiations avoiding fluid flow evoke intracellular Ca2+ signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Toru; Tsukamoto, Akira; Tada, Shigeru

    Shock wave irradiation accelerates therapeutic effects including angiogenesis. One mechanism underlying those effects is cellular responses evoked by shock wave irradiation. Fluid flow is one of major physical phenomena induced by shock wave irradiation. Cellular responses evoked by fluid flow are similar to those evoked by shock wave irradiation. Thus, fluid flow could be responsible for cellular responses evoked by shock wave irradiation. However, it is obscure whether fluid flow is required for the cellular responses evoked by shock wave irradiation. In this study, intracellular Ca2 + signaling was observed in cells seeded in down-sized chambers. In the down-sized chambers, fluid flow was supposed to be suppressed because size of chambers (6 mm in diameter, 1 mm in thickness) was analogous to size of shock wave focus region (3mm in diameter). Dynamics of polystyrene microbeads suspended in the chambers were visualized with a CCD camera and analyzed with a particle image velocimetry (PIV) method to quantify fluid flow in the chamber. As a result, shock wave irradiation evoked intracellular Ca2 + signaling. However, fluid flow was not observed in the chamber due to shock wave irradiation. Thus, it was suggested that physical mechanics, not fluid flow, are further required for evoking intracellular Ca2 + signaling following to shock wave irradiation.

  1. Aroclor 1254, a developmental neurotoxicant, alters energy metabolism- and intracellular signaling-associated protein networks in rat cerebellum and hippocampus

    SciTech Connect

    Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.; Osorio, Cristina; Royland, Joyce E.; Ramabhadran, Ram; Alzate, Oscar

    2011-11-15

    The vast literature on the mode of action of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) indicates that PCBs are a unique model for understanding the mechanisms of toxicity of environmental mixtures of persistent chemicals. PCBs have been shown to adversely affect psychomotor function and learning and memory in humans. Although the molecular mechanisms for PCB effects are unclear, several studies indicate that the disruption of Ca{sup 2+}-mediated signal transduction plays significant roles in PCB-induced developmental neurotoxicity. Culminating events in signal transduction pathways include the regulation of gene and protein expression, which affects the growth and function of the nervous system. Our previous studies showed changes in gene expression related to signal transduction and neuronal growth. In this study, protein expression following developmental exposure to PCB is examined. Pregnant rats (Long Evans) were dosed with 0.0 or 6.0 mg/kg/day of Aroclor-1254 from gestation day 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21, and the cerebellum and hippocampus from PND14 animals were analyzed to determine Aroclor 1254-induced differential protein expression. Two proteins were found to be differentially expressed in the cerebellum following PCB exposure while 18 proteins were differentially expressed in the hippocampus. These proteins are related to energy metabolism in mitochondria (ATP synthase, sub unit {beta} (ATP5B), creatine kinase, and malate dehydrogenase), calcium signaling (voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 (VDAC1) and ryanodine receptor type II (RyR2)), and growth of the nervous system (dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 4 (DPYSL4), valosin-containing protein (VCP)). Results suggest that Aroclor 1254-like persistent chemicals may alter energy metabolism and intracellular signaling, which might result in developmental neurotoxicity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We performed brain proteomic analysis of rats exposed to the neurotoxicant

  2. Alcohol-induced blood-brain barrier dysfunction is mediated via inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R)-gated intracellular calcium release.

    PubMed

    Haorah, James; Knipe, Bryan; Gorantla, Santhi; Zheng, Jialin; Persidsky, Yuri

    2007-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) formed by brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC), pericytes and astrocytes controls the transport of ions, peptides and leukocytes in and out of the brain. Tight junctions (TJ) composed of TJ proteins (occludin, claudins and zonula occludens) ensure the structural integrity of the BMVEC monolayer. Neuropathologic studies indicated that the BBB was impaired in alcohol abusers; however, the underlying mechanism of BBB dysfunction remains elusive. Using primary human BMVEC, we previously demonstrated that oxidative stress induced by ethanol (EtOH) metabolism in BMVEC activated myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), resulting in the enhanced phosphorylation of either cytoskeletal or TJ proteins, and in BBB impairment. We proposed that EtOH metabolites stimulated inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP(3)R)-operated intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) release, thereby causing the activation of MLCK in BMVEC. Indeed, treatment of primary human BMVEC with EtOH or its metabolites resulted in the increased expression of IP(3)R protein and IP(3)R-gated intracellular Ca(2+) release. These functional changes paralleled MLCK activation, phosphorylation of cytoskeletal/TJ proteins, loss of BBB integrity, and enhanced leukocyte migration across BMVEC monolayers. Inhibition of either EtOH metabolism or IP(3)R activation prevented BBB impairment. These findings suggest that EtOH metabolites act as signaling molecules for the activation of MLCK via the stimulation of IP(3)R-gated intracellular Ca(2+) release in BMVEC. These putative events can lead to BBB dysfunction in the setting of alcoholism, and to neuro-inflammatory disorders promoting leukocyte migration across the BBB.

  3. The emerging role of phosphoinositide clustering in intracellular trafficking and signal transduction

    PubMed Central

    Picas, Laura; Gaits-Iacovoni, Frederique; Goud, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoinositides are master regulators of multiple cellular processes: from vesicular trafficking to signaling, cytoskeleton dynamics, and cell growth. They are synthesized by the spatiotemporal regulated activity of phosphoinositide-metabolizing enzymes. The recent observation that some protein modules are able to cluster phosphoinositides suggests that alternative or complementary mechanisms might operate to stabilize the different phosphoinositide pools within cellular compartments. Herein, we discuss the different known and potential molecular players that are prone to engage phosphoinositide clustering and elaborate on how such a mechanism might take part in the regulation of intracellular trafficking and signal transduction. PMID:27092250

  4. Intracellular Signaling by Hydrolysis of Phospholipids and Activation of Protein Kinase C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizuka, Yasutomi

    1992-10-01

    Hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids by phospholipase C is initiated by either receptor stimulation or opening of Ca2+ channels. This was once thought to be the sole mechanism to produce the diacylglycerol that links extracellular signals to intracellular events through activation of protein kinase C. It is becoming clear that agonist-induced hydrolysis of other membrane phospholipids, particularly choline phospholipids, by phospholipase D and phospholipase A_2 may also take part in cell signaling. The products of hydrolysis of these phospholipids may enhance and prolong the activation of protein kinase C. Such prolonged activation of protein kinase C is essential for long-term cellular responses such as cell proliferation and differentiation.

  5. Calcium and protein phosphorylation in the transduction of gravity signal in corn roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, M.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1991-01-01

    The involvement of calcium and protein phosphorylation in the transduction of gravity signal was studied using corn roots of a light-insensitive variety (Zea mays L., cv. Patriot). The gravitropic response was calcium-dependent. Horizontal placement of roots preloaded with 32P for three minutes resulted in changes in protein phosphorylation of polypeptides of 32 and 35 kD. Calcium depletion resulted in decreased phosphorylation of these phosphoproteins and replenishment of calcium restored the phosphorylation.

  6. Hydrogen sulfide interacts with calcium signaling to enhance the chromium tolerance in Setaria italica.

    PubMed

    Fang, Huihui; Jing, Tao; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Liping; Jin, Zhuping; Pei, Yanxi

    2014-12-01

    The oscillation of intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) concentration is a primary event in numerous biological processes in plants, including stress response. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an emerging gasotransmitter, was found to have positive effects in plants responding to chromium (Cr(6+)) stress through interacting with Ca(2+) signaling. While Ca(2+) resemblances H2S in mediating biotic and abiotic stresses, crosstalk between the two pathways remains unclear. In this study, Ca(2+) signaling interacted with H2S to produce a complex physiological response, which enhanced the Cr(6+) tolerance in foxtail millet (Setaria italica). Results indicate that Cr(6+) stress activated endogenous H2S synthesis as well as Ca(2+) signaling. Moreover, toxic symptoms caused by Cr(6+) stress were strongly moderated by 50μM H2S and 20mM Ca(2+). Conversely, treatments with H2S synthesis inhibitor and Ca(2+) chelators prior to Cr(6+)-exposure aggravated these toxic symptoms. Interestingly, Ca(2+) upregulated expression of two important factors in metal metabolism, MT3A and PCS, which participated in the biosynthesis of heavy metal chelators, in a H2S-dependent manner to cope with Cr(6+) stress. These findings also suggest that the H2S dependent pathway is a component of the Ca(2+) activating antioxidant system and H2S partially contributes Ca(2+)-activating antioxidant system.

  7. Roles of mitochondria and temperature in the control of intracellular calcium in adult rat sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kang, S.H.; Carl, A.; McHugh, J.M.; Goff, H.R.; Kenyon, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY We recorded Ca2+ current and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in isolated adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons at 20 and 30 °C. In neurons bathed in tetraethylammonium and dialyzed with cesium, warming reduced resting average [Ca2+]i from 87 to 49 nM and the time constant of the decay of [Ca2+]i transients (τr) from 1.3 s to 0.99 s (Q10 = 1.4). The Buffer Index, the ratio between Ca2+ influx and Δ[Ca2+]i (∫ICa·dt/Δ[Ca2+]i), increased 2- to 3-fold with warming. Neither inhibition of the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase by intracellular sodium orthovanadate nor inhibition of Ca2+ uptake by the endoplasmic reticulum by thapsigargin plus ryanodine were necessary for the effects of warming on these parameters. In contrast, inhibition of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter by intracellular ruthenium red largely reversed the effects of warming. Carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (500 nM) increased resting [Ca2+]i at 30 °C. 10 mM intracellular sodium prolonged the recovery of [Ca2+]i transients to 10 – 40 s. This effect was reversed by an inhibitor of mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+-exchange (CGP 37157, 10 μM). Thus, mitochondrial Ca2+-uptake is necessary for the temperature-dependent increase in Ca2+ buffering and mitochondrial Ca2+ fluxes contribute to the control of [Ca2+]i between 50 and 150 nM at 30 °C. PMID:17716728

  8. Calcium ion, an intracellular messenger of light adaptation, also participates in excitation of Limulus photoreceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Bolsover, S R; Brown, J E

    1985-01-01

    Photoreceptor cells of Limulus ventral eyes were bathed in artificial sea water (ASW) that contained 10 mM-EGTA and no added Ca2+ (EGTA-ASW). Test flashes elicited responses that increased to a maximum size within 10 min in EGTA-ASW but did not change further when dark-adapted cells were bathed for an additional 35 min in this solution. Light responses progressively declined from this maximum size if the cells were repetitively illuminated in EGTA-ASW. In this state of reduced responsiveness, response amplitudes were further reduced by intracellular ionophoretic injection of EGTA; response amplitudes were increased by intracellular ionophoretic injection of Ca2+. Both of these findings are opposite to what is normally observed for cells bathed in ASW. Also, after repetitive illumination in EGTA-ASW, both the slope of the response versus intensity relationship became steeper and light responses often had a delayed increase in amplitude. The light responses and the response versus intensity relation returned to normal when the bathing medium was changed back to ASW containing 10 mM-Ca2+. The light-induced rise in luminescence recorded from photoreceptors injected with the photoprotein aequorin (the 'aequorin response') declined by at most 50% after dark-adapted photoreceptors were bathed in EGTA-ASW for 45 min. However, the aequorin response progressively declined by 98% if cells were repetitively illuminated while bathed in EGTA-ASW. The total intracellular Ca content of whole end-organs was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Total intracellular Ca content did not change significantly while photoreceptors were bathed in EGTA-ASW even after repetitive illumination. We suggest that cytosolic Ca2+ is required by one or more steps in the mechanisms that link rhodopsin isomerization to both (i) an increase in the conductance of the cell membrane to Na+ and (ii) a release of Ca2+ from a light-labile store. PMID:3928878

  9. Intracellular calcium mobilization and phospholipid degradation in sphingosylphosphorylcholine-stimulated human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Orlati, S; Porcelli, A M; Hrelia, S; Lorenzini, A; Rugolo, M

    1998-01-01

    Extracellular sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) caused a remarkable elevation in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in immortalized human airway epithelial cells (CFNP9o-). An increase in total inositol phosphates formation was determined; however, the dose responses for [Ca2+]i elevation and inositol phosphates production were slightly different and, furthermore, PMA and pertussis toxin almost completely inhibited [Ca2+]i mobilization by SPC, whereas inositol phosphates production was only partially reduced. The possible direct interaction of SPC with Ca2+ channels of intracellular stores was determined by experiments with permeabilized cells, where SPC failed to evoke Ca2+ release, whereas lysophosphatidic acid was shown to be effective. The level of phosphatidic acid was increased by SPC only in the presence of AACOCF3, a specific inhibitor of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and blocked by both pertussis toxin and R59022, an inhibitor of diacylglycerol kinase. R59022 enhanced diacylglycerol production by SPC and also significantly reduced [Ca2+]i mobilization. Only polyunsaturated diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid were generated by SPC. Lastly, SPC caused stimulation of arachidonic acid release, indicating the involvement of PLA2. Taken together, these data suggest that, after SPC stimulation, phospholipase C-derived diacylglycerol is phosphorylated by a diacylglycerol kinase to phosphatidic acid, which is further hydrolysed by PLA2 activity to arachidonic and lysophosphatidic acids. We propose that lysophosphatidic acid might be the intracellular messenger able to release Ca2+ from internal stores. PMID:9729473

  10. Crystal Structures of the GCaMP Calcium Sensor Reveal the Mechanism of Fluorescence Signal Change and Aid Rational Design

    SciTech Connect

    Akerboom, Jasper; Velez Rivera, Jonathan D.; Rodriguez Guilbe, María M.; Alfaro Malavé, Elisa C.; Hernandez, Hector H.; Tian, Lin; Hires, S. Andrew; Marvin, Jonathan S.; Looger, Loren L.; Schreiter, Eric R.

    2009-03-16

    The genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP2 shows promise for neural network activity imaging, but is currently limited by low signal-to-noise ratio. We describe x-ray crystal structures as well as solution biophysical and spectroscopic characterization of GCaMP2 in the calcium-free dark state, and in two calcium-bound bright states: a monomeric form that dominates at intracellular concentrations observed during imaging experiments and an unexpected domain-swapped dimer with decreased fluorescence. This series of structures provides insight into the mechanism of Ca{sup 2+}-induced fluorescence change. Upon calcium binding, the calmodulin (CaM) domain wraps around the M13 peptide, creating a new domain interface between CaM and the circularly permuted enhanced green fluorescent protein domain. Residues from CaM alter the chemical environment of the circularly permuted enhanced green fluorescent protein chromophore and, together with flexible inter-domain linkers, block solvent access to the chromophore. Guided by the crystal structures, we engineered a series of GCaMP2 point mutants to probe the mechanism of GCaMP2 function and characterized one mutant with significantly improved signal-to-noise. The mutation is located at a domain interface and its effect on sensor function could not have been predicted in the absence of structural data.

  11. Extracellular Calcium Has Multiple Targets to Control Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Capiod, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Calcium channels and the two G-protein coupled receptors sensing extracellular calcium, calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and GPRC6a, are the two main means by which extracellular calcium can signal to cells and regulate many cellular processes including cell proliferation, migration and invasion of tumoral cells. Many intracellular signaling pathways are sensitive to cytosolic calcium rises and conversely intracellular signaling pathways can modulate calcium channel expression and activity. Calcium channels are undoubtedly involved in the former while the CaSR and GPRC6a are most likely to interfere with the latter. As for neurotransmitters, calcium ions use plasma membrane channels and GPCR to trigger cytosolic free calcium concentration rises and intracellular signaling and regulatory pathways activation. Calcium sensing GPCR, CaSR and GPRC6a, allow a supplemental degree of control and as for metabotropic receptors, they not only modulate calcium channel expression but they may also control calcium-dependent K+ channels. The multiplicity of intracellular signaling pathways involved, their sensitivity to local and global intracellular calcium increase and to CaSR and GPRC6a stimulation, the presence of membrane signalplex, all this confers the cells the plasticity they need to convert the effects of extracellular calcium into complex physiological responses and therefore determine their fate.

  12. Extracellular Calcium Has Multiple Targets to Control Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Capiod, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Calcium channels and the two G-protein coupled receptors sensing extracellular calcium, calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and GPRC6a, are the two main means by which extracellular calcium can signal to cells and regulate many cellular processes including cell proliferation, migration and invasion of tumoral cells. Many intracellular signaling pathways are sensitive to cytosolic calcium rises and conversely intracellular signaling pathways can modulate calcium channel expression and activity. Calcium channels are undoubtedly involved in the former while the CaSR and GPRC6a are most likely to interfere with the latter. As for neurotransmitters, calcium ions use plasma membrane channels and GPCR to trigger cytosolic free calcium concentration rises and intracellular signaling and regulatory pathways activation. Calcium sensing GPCR, CaSR and GPRC6a, allow a supplemental degree of control and as for metabotropic receptors, they not only modulate calcium channel expression but they may also control calcium-dependent K+ channels. The multiplicity of intracellular signaling pathways involved, their sensitivity to local and global intracellular calcium increase and to CaSR and GPRC6a stimulation, the presence of membrane signalplex, all this confers the cells the plasticity they need to convert the effects of extracellular calcium into complex physiological responses and therefore determine their fate. PMID:27161228

  13. Inflammatory mediators alter the astrocyte transcriptome and calcium signaling elicited by multiple G-protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Hamby, Mary E; Coppola, Giovanni; Ao, Yan; Geschwind, Daniel H; Khakh, Baljit S; Sofroniew, Michael V

    2012-10-17

    Inflammation features in CNS disorders such as stroke, trauma, neurodegeneration, infection, and autoimmunity in which astrocytes play critical roles. To elucidate how inflammatory mediators alter astrocyte functions, we examined effects of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and interferon-gamma (IFNγ), alone and in combination, on purified, mouse primary cortical astrocyte cultures. We used microarrays to conduct whole-genome expression profiling, and measured calcium signaling, which is implicated in mediating dynamic astrocyte functions. Combinatorial exposure to TGF-β1, LPS, and IFNγ significantly modulated astrocyte expression of >6800 gene probes, including >380 synergistic changes not predicted by summing individual treatment effects. Bioinformatic analyses revealed significantly and markedly upregulated molecular networks and pathways associated in particular with immune signaling and regulation of cell injury, death, growth, and proliferation. Highly regulated genes included chemokines, growth factors, enzymes, channels, transporters, and intercellular and intracellular signal transducers. Notably, numerous genes for G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and G-protein effectors involved in calcium signaling were significantly regulated, mostly down (for example, Cxcr4, Adra2a, Ednra, P2ry1, Gnao1, Gng7), but some up (for example, P2ry14, P2ry6, Ccrl2, Gnb4). We tested selected cases and found that changes in GPCR gene expression were accompanied by significant, parallel changes in astrocyte calcium signaling evoked by corresponding GPCR-specific ligands. These findings identify pronounced changes in the astrocyte transcriptome induced by TGF-β1, LPS, and IFNγ, and show that these inflammatory stimuli upregulate astrocyte molecular networks associated with immune- and injury-related functions and significantly alter astrocyte calcium signaling stimulated by multiple GPCRs.

  14. A quantitative comparison of the effects of intracellular calcium injection and light adaptation on the photoresponse of Limulus ventral photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    Calcium ions were iontophoretically injected into ventral photoreceptors of Limulus by passing current between two intracellular pipettes. Changes in sensitivity and photoresponse time course were measured for both light adaptation and Ca++ injection. We found for some photoreceptors that there was no significant difference in the photoresponse time course for desensitization produced by light adaptation or by Ca++ injection. In other photoreceptors, the time delay of photoresponse for Ca++ injection was slightly longer than for light adaptation. The variability of threshold response amplitude and time delay decreases when the photoreceptor is desensitized by either light adaptation or Ca++ injection. The peak amplitude versus log stimulus intensity relationships for controls, light adaptation, and Ca++ injection all could be described very closely by a single template curve shifted along the log intensity axis. A 40- to 50-fold change in sensitivity is associated with a 2-fold change in photoresponse time delay for both light adaptation and Ca++ injection. PMID:591913

  15. Contribution of sarcolemmal sodium-calcium exchange and intracellular calcium release to force development in isolated canine ventricular muscle

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    frequency in 70 mM [Na+]o was not a consequence of a decreased rate of refilling of a releasable pool of Ca2+ within the cell. These results demonstrate that frequency-dependent changes of contractile strength and intracellular Ca2+ loading in 140 mM [Na+]o require the presence of a functional sarcolemmal Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange process. The possibility that the negative staircase in 70 mM [Na+]o is related to inhibition of Ca(2+)-induced release of Ca2+ from the SR by various cellular mechanisms is discussed. PMID:1640221

  16. Opiates selectively increase intracellular calcium in developing type-1 astrocytes: role of calcium in morphine-induced morphologic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Stiene-Martin, A; Mattson, M P; Hauser, K F

    1993-12-17

    Endogenous opioids and opiate drugs inhibit nervous system maturation, in part, by affecting the growth of astrocytes. Opiates inhibit astrocyte proliferation and cause premature differentiation. The emerging importance of Ca2+ in astrocyte function prompted us to explore whether opiates might affect astrocyte development by altering Ca2+ homeostasis. Astrocyte-enriched cultures were derived from newborn ICR mouse cerebra. Quantitative fluorescent measurements of intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) using Fura-2 as well as fluo-3 and computer-aided image analysis showed that 1 microM morphine significantly increased [Ca2+]i in flat, polyhedral, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactive astrocytes at 2 and 6 min, and at 72 h. Co-administration of 3 microM naloxone blocked morphine-dependent increases in [Ca2+]i. Treatment with 1 microM concentrations of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist, U69,593, but not equimolar amounts of mu ([D-Ala2,MePhe4,Gly(ol)5]enkephalin)- or delta ([D-Pen2,D-Pen5]enkephalin)-opioid receptor agonists, significantly increased [Ca2+]i in astrocytes. To assess the role of Ca2+ in morphine-induced astrocyte differentiation, untreated and 1 microM morphine-treated astrocyte cultures were incubated for 5 days in < 0.01, 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mM extracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]o), or incubated with 1.0 mM [Ca2+]o in the presence of 1 microM of the Ca2+ ionophore, A23187. The areas of single astrocytes were measured and there was a positive correlation between astrocyte area and [Ca2+]o. Morphine had an additive effect on area and form factor measures when [Ca2+]o was 1.0 mM. High [Ca2+]o (3.0 mM) alone mimicked the action of morphine. Morphine alone had no effect on astrocyte area in the presence of 3.0 mM Ca2+.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Aluminum Chloride Induces Osteoblasts Apoptosis via Disrupting Calcium Homeostasis and Activating Ca(2+)/CaMKII Signal Pathway.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zheng; Liu, Dawei; Zhang, Qiuyue; Sun, Xudong; Li, Yanfei

    2016-02-01

    Aluminum promotes osteoblast (OB) apoptosis. Apoptosis is induced by the disordered calcium homeostasis. Therefore, to investigate the relationship between Al-induced OB apoptosis and calcium homeostasis, calvarium OBs from neonatal rats (3-4 days) were cultured and exposed to 0.048-mg/mL Al(3+) or 0.048-mg/mL Al(3+) combined with 5 μM BAPTA-AM (OBs were pretreated with 5 μM BAPTA-AM for 1 h, then added 0.048 mg/mL Al(3+)), respectively. Then OB apoptosis rate, intracellular calcium ions concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), mRNA expression level of calmodulin (CaM), and protein expression levels of CaM and p-CaMKII in OBs were examined. The result showed that AlCl3 increased OB apoptosis rate, and [Ca(2+)]i and p-CaMKII expression levels and decreased CaM expression levels, whereas BAPTA-AM relieved the effects. These results proved that AlCl3 induced OB apoptosis by disrupting the intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and activating the Ca(2+)/CaMKII signal pathway. Our findings can provide new insights for revealing the apoptosis mechanism of OBs exposed to AlCl3.

  18. A molecular signaling model of platelet phosphoinositide and calcium regulation during homeostasis and P2Y1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Purvis, Jeremy E.; Chatterjee, Manash S.; Brass, Lawrence F.

    2008-01-01

    To quantify how various molecular mechanisms are integrated to maintain platelet homeostasis and allow responsiveness to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), we developed a computational model of the human platelet. Existing kinetic information for 77 reactions, 132 fixed kinetic rate constants, and 70 species was combined with electrochemical calculations, measurements of platelet ultrastructure, novel experimental results, and published single-cell data. The model accurately predicted: (1) steady-state resting concentrations for intracellular calcium, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol phosphate, and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate; (2) transient increases in intracellular calcium, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and Gq-GTP in response to ADP; and (3) the volume of the platelet dense tubular system. A more stringent test of the model involved stochastic simulation of individual platelets, which display an asynchronous calcium spiking behavior in response to ADP. Simulations accurately reproduced the broad frequency distribution of measured spiking events and demonstrated that asynchronous spiking was a consequence of stochastic fluctuations resulting from the small volume of the platelet. The model also provided insights into possible mechanisms of negative-feedback signaling, the relative potency of platelet agonists, and cell-to-cell variation across platelet populations. This integrative approach to platelet biology offers a novel and complementary strategy to traditional reductionist methods. PMID:18596227

  19. Host Intracellular Signaling Events and Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Production in African Trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Kuriakose, Shiby M; Singh, Rani; Uzonna, Jude E

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites, possess specific molecules or proteins that are recognized by several host innate immune receptors, leading to the activation of several intracellular signaling molecules and pathways. The magnitude and quality of these events significantly affect the outcome of infection. African trypanosomes, including Trypanosoma congolense, are capable of manipulating the host immune response, including the activity of macrophages, which are the key immune cells that contribute to the immunopathogenesis of African trypanosomiasis. Although it is known that immune hyperactivation and excessive pro-inflammatory cytokine production are the hallmarks of African trypanosomiasis, the mechanisms through which these events are triggered are poorly defined. However, it is known that macrophages may play a significant role in these processes, because phagocytosis of trypanosomes by macrophages initiates intracellular signal transduction cascades that lead to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and alteration in cell function. This review highlights recent progress in our understanding of the innate immune receptors, signaling pathways, and transcription factors involved in T. congolense-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. It will reveal the existence of complex signaling events through which the parasite modulates the host immune response, thus identifying novel targets that could aid in designing strategies to effectively control the disease. PMID:27242788

  20. Host Intracellular Signaling Events and Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Production in African Trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Kuriakose, Shiby M.; Singh, Rani; Uzonna, Jude E.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites, possess specific molecules or proteins that are recognized by several host innate immune receptors, leading to the activation of several intracellular signaling molecules and pathways. The magnitude and quality of these events significantly affect the outcome of infection. African trypanosomes, including Trypanosoma congolense, are capable of manipulating the host immune response, including the activity of macrophages, which are the key immune cells that contribute to the immunopathogenesis of African trypanosomiasis. Although it is known that immune hyperactivation and excessive pro-inflammatory cytokine production are the hallmarks of African trypanosomiasis, the mechanisms through which these events are triggered are poorly defined. However, it is known that macrophages may play a significant role in these processes, because phagocytosis of trypanosomes by macrophages initiates intracellular signal transduction cascades that lead to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and alteration in cell function. This review highlights recent progress in our understanding of the innate immune receptors, signaling pathways, and transcription factors involved in T. congolense-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. It will reveal the existence of complex signaling events through which the parasite modulates the host immune response, thus identifying novel targets that could aid in designing strategies to effectively control the disease. PMID:27242788

  1. Host Intracellular Signaling Events and Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Production in African Trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Kuriakose, Shiby M; Singh, Rani; Uzonna, Jude E

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites, possess specific molecules or proteins that are recognized by several host innate immune receptors, leading to the activation of several intracellular signaling molecules and pathways. The magnitude and quality of these events significantly affect the outcome of infection. African trypanosomes, including Trypanosoma congolense, are capable of manipulating the host immune response, including the activity of macrophages, which are the key immune cells that contribute to the immunopathogenesis of African trypanosomiasis. Although it is known that immune hyperactivation and excessive pro-inflammatory cytokine production are the hallmarks of African trypanosomiasis, the mechanisms through which these events are triggered are poorly defined. However, it is known that macrophages may play a significant role in these processes, because phagocytosis of trypanosomes by macrophages initiates intracellular signal transduction cascades that lead to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and alteration in cell function. This review highlights recent progress in our understanding of the innate immune receptors, signaling pathways, and transcription factors involved in T. congolense-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. It will reveal the existence of complex signaling events through which the parasite modulates the host immune response, thus identifying novel targets that could aid in designing strategies to effectively control the disease.

  2. The effect of feeding during recovery from aerobic exercise on skeletal muscle intracellular signaling.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Paul T; Konopka, Adam R; Hinkley, J Matthew; Undem, Miranda K; Harber, Matthew P

    2014-02-01

    We previously reported an increase in skeletal muscle protein synthesis during fasted and fed recovery from nonexhaustive aerobic exercise (Harber et al., 2010). The current study examined skeletal muscle intracellular signaling in the same subjects to further investigate mechanisms of skeletal muscle protein metabolism with and without feeding following aerobic exercise. Eight males (VO₂peak: 52 ± 2 ml⁻¹·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) performed 60-min of cycle ergometry at 72 ± 1% VO₂peak on two occasions in a counter-balanced design. Exercise trials differed only in the postexercise nutritional intervention: EX-FED (5 kcal, 0.83 g carbohydrate, 0.37 g protein, 0.03 g fat per kg body weight) and EX-FAST (noncaloric, isovolumic placebo) ingested immediately and one hour after exercise. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis at rest (on a separate day) and two hours postexercise to assess intracellular signaling via western blotting of p70S6K1, eEF2, 4EBP1, AMPKα and p38 MAPK. p70S6K1 phosphorylation was elevated (p < .05) in EX-FED relative to REST and EX-FAST. eEF2, 4EBP1, AMPKα and p38 MAPK signaling were unaltered at 2 h after exercise independent of feeding status when expressed as the ratio of phosphorylated to total protein normalized to actin. These data demonstrate that feeding after a nonexhaustive bout of aerobic exercise stimulates skeletal muscle p70S6K1 intracellular signaling favorable for promoting protein synthesis which may, as recent literature has suggested, better prepare the muscle for subsequent exercise bouts. These data provide further support into the role of feeding on mechanisms regulating muscle protein metabolism during recovery from aerobic exercise.

  3. Developmental axon stretch stimulates neuron growth while maintaining normal electrical activity, intracellular calcium flux, and somatic morphology

    PubMed Central

    Loverde, Joseph R.; Pfister, Bryan J.

    2015-01-01

    Elongation of nerve fibers intuitively occurs throughout mammalian development, and is synchronized with expansion of the growing body. While most tissue systems enlarge through mitosis and differentiation, elongation of nerve fibers is remarkably unique. The emerging paradigm suggests that axons undergo stretch as contiguous tissues enlarge between the proximal and distal segments of spanning nerve fibers. While stretch is distinct from growth, tension is a known stimulus which regulates the growth of axons. Here, we hypothesized that the axon stretch-growth process may be a natural form of injury, whereby regenerative processes fortify elongating axons in order to prevent disconnection. Harnessing the live imaging capability of our axon stretch-growth bioreactors, we assessed neurons both during and following stretch for biomarkers associated with injury. Utilizing whole-cell patch clamp recording, we found no evidence of changes in spontaneous action potential activity or degradation of elicited action potentials during real-time axon stretch at strains of up to 18% applied over 5 min. Unlike traumatic axonal injury, functional calcium imaging of the soma revealed no shifts in free intracellular calcium during axon stretch. Finally, the cross-sectional areas of nuclei and cytoplasms were normal, with no evidence of chromatolysis following week-long stretch-growth limited to the lower of 25% strain or 3 mm total daily stretch. The neuronal growth cascade coupled to stretch was concluded to be independent of the changes in membrane potential, action potential generation, or calcium flux associated with traumatic injury. While axon stretch-growth is likely to share overlap with regenerative processes, we conclude that developmental stretch is a distinct stimulus from traumatic axon injury. PMID:26379492

  4. P2Y1 receptor inhibits GABA transport through a calcium signalling-dependent mechanism in rat cortical astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Pedro F; Vaz, Sandra H; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Sebastião, Ana M

    2014-08-01

    Astrocytes express a variety of purinergic (P2) receptors, involved in astrocytic communication through fast increases in [Ca(2+) ]i . Of these, the metabotropic ATP receptors (P2Y) regulate cytoplasmic Ca(2+) levels through the PLC-PKC pathway. GABA transporters are a substrate for a number of Ca(2+) -related kinases, raising the possibility that calcium signalling in astrocytes impact the control of extracellular levels of the major inhibitory transmitter in the brain. To access this possibility we tested the influence of P2Y receptors upon GABA transport into astrocytes. Mature primary cortical astroglial-enriched cultures expressed functional P2Y receptors, as evaluated through Ca(2+) imaging, being P2Y1 the predominant P2Y receptor subtype. ATP (100 μM, for 1 min) caused an inhibition of GABA transport through either GAT-1 or GAT-3 transporters, decreasing the Vmax kinetic constant. ATP-induced inhibition of GATs activity was still evident in the presence of adenosine deaminase, precluding an adenosine-mediated effect. This, was mimicked by a specific agonist for the P2Y1,12,13 receptor (2-MeSADP). The effect of 2-MeSADP on GABA transport was blocked by the P2 (PPADS) and P2Y1 selective (MRS2179) receptor antagonists, as well as by the PLC inhibitor (U73122). 2-MeSADP failed to inhibit GABA transport in astrocytes where intracellular calcium had been chelated (BAPTA-AM) or where calcium stores were depleted (α-cyclopiazonic acid, CPA). In conclusion, P2Y1 receptors in astrocytes inhibit GABA transport through a mechanism dependent of P2Y1 -mediated calcium signalling, suggesting that astrocytic calcium signalling, which occurs as a consequence of neuronal firing, may operate a negative feedback loop to enhance extracellular levels of GABA. PMID:24733747

  5. Intracellular distributions and putative functions of calcium-binding proteins in the bullfrog vestibular otolith organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, R. A.; Steyger, P. S.; Schuff, N. R.

    1997-01-01

    Hair cells in the bullfrog vestibular otolith organs were immunolabeled by monoclonal and polyclonal antisera against calbindin (CaB), calmodulin (CaM), calretinin (CaR), and parvalbumin (PA). S-100, previously shown to immunolabel striolar hair cells in fish vestibular organs, only weakly immunolabeled hair cells in the bullfrog vestibular otolith organs. Immunolabeling was not detected in supporting cells. With the exception of CaR, myelinated axons and unmyelinated nerve terminals were immunolabeled by all of the above antisera. Immunolabeling was seen in all saccular hair cells, although hair cells at the macular margins were immunolabeled more intensely for CaB, CaM, and PA than more centrally located hair cells. As the macula margins are known to be a growth zone, this labeling pattern suggests that marginal hair cells up-regulate their calcium-binding proteins during hair cell development. In the utriculus, immunolabeling for CaM and PA was generally restricted to striolar hair cells. CaR immunolabeling was restricted to the stereociliary array. Immunolabeling for other calcium-binding proteins was generally seen in both the cell body and hair bundles of hair cells, although this labeling was often localized to the stereociliary array and the apical portion of the cell body. CaM and PA immunolabeling in the stereociliary array in saccular and utricular striolar cells suggests a functional role for these proteins in mechanoelectric transduction and adaptation.

  6. The effect of compressive loading magnitude on in situ chondrocyte calcium signaling.

    PubMed

    Madden, Ryan M J; Han, Sang-Kuy; Herzog, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Chondrocyte metabolism is stimulated by deformation and is associated with structural changes in the cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM), suggesting that these cells are involved in maintaining tissue health and integrity. Calcium signaling is an initial step in chondrocyte mechanotransduction that has been linked to many cellular processes. Previous studies using isolated chondrocytes proposed loading magnitude as an important factor regulating this response. However, calcium signaling in the intact cartilage differs compared to isolated cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of loading magnitude on chondrocyte calcium signaling in intact cartilage. We hypothesized that the percentage of cells exhibiting at least one calcium signal increases with increasing load. Fully intact rabbit femoral condyle and patellar bone/cartilage samples were incubated in calcium-sensitive dyes and imaged continuously under compressive loads of 10-40 % strain. Calcium signaling was primarily associated with the dynamic loading phase and greatly increased beyond a threshold deformation of about 10 % nominal tissue strain. There was a trend toward more cells exhibiting calcium signaling as loading magnitude increased (p = 0.133). These results provide novel information toward identifying mechanisms underlying calcium-dependent signaling pathways related to cartilage homeostasis and possibly the onset and progression of osteoarthritis.

  7. [Studies of interaction of intracellular signalling and metabolic pathways under inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase with fluoroacetate].

    PubMed

    Zinchenko, V P; Goncharov, N V; Teplova, V V; Kasymov, V A; Petrova, O I; Berezhnov, A V; Senchenkov, E V; Mindukshev, I V; Jenkins, R O; Radilov, A S

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondrial aconitase has been shown to be inactivated by a spectrum of substances or critical states. Fluoroacetate (FA) is the most known toxic agent inhibiting aconitase. The biochemistry of toxic action of FA is rather well understood, though no effective therapy has been proposed for the past six decades. In order to reveal novel approaches for possible antidotes to be developed, experiments were performed with rat liver mitochondria, Ehrlich ascite tumor cells and cardiomyocytes, exposed to FA or fluorocitrate in vitro. The effect of FA developed at much higher concentrations in comparison with fluorocitrate and was dependent upon respiratory substrates in experiments with mitochondria: with pyruvate, FA induced a slow oxidation and/or leak of pyridine nucleotides and inhibition of respiration. Oxidation of pyridine nucleotides was prevented by incubation of mitochondria with cyclosporin A. Studies of the pyridine nucleotides level and calcium response generated in Ehrlich ascite tumor cells under activation with ATP also revealed a loss of pyridine nucleotides from mitochondria resulting in a shift in the balance of mitochondrial and cytosolic NAD(P)H under exposure to FA. An increase of cytosolic [Ca2+] was observed in the cell lines exposed to FA and is explained by activation of plasma membrane calcium channels; this mechanism, could have an impact on amplitude and rate of Ca2+ waves in cardiomyocytes. Highlighting the reciprocal relationship between intracellular pyridine nucleotides and calcium balance, we discuss metabolic pathway modulation in the context of probable development of an effective therapy for FA poisoning and other inhibitors of aconitase. PMID:18318221

  8. From calcium to NF-kappa B signaling pathways in neurons.

    PubMed

    Lilienbaum, Alain; Israël, Alain

    2003-04-01

    NF-kappa B plays crucial roles in the nervous system, including potential roles in long-term responses to synaptic plasticity, pro- or antiapoptotic effects during developmental cell death, and neurodegenerative disorders. We report here the characterization of signaling pathways leading to the constitutive activation of NF-kappa B in primary cultures of neonatal cerebellar granule neurons, consecutive to calcium entry into the cytosol. We found that opening of calcium channels at the plasma membrane and at intracellular stores is indispensable for the basal NF-kappa B activity. We demonstrated further that three cellular sensors of the cytosolic Ca(2+) levels, calmodulin, protein kinases C (PKCs), and the p21(ras)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway are simultaneously involved in the steps linking the Ca(2+) second messenger to NF-kappa B activity. Calmodulin triggers the activity of calcineurin, a phosphatase which plays a role in the basal NF-kappa B activity, while stimulation of both the calmodulin kinase II and Akt kinase pathways results in the up-regulation of the transcriptional potential of the p65 subunit of NF-kappa B. Finally, using pharmacological and molecular approaches, we analyze interactions between these three pathways at different levels and demonstrate a connection between PKCs and PI3K. All three components converge towards NF-kappa B, at the level of both nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity. These results stand in contrast to the situation in nonneuronal cells, which either do not respond to Ca(2+) or do not simultaneously activate all three cascades. By using a global approach in studying signaling pathways in neurons, these results provide further evidence to validate the concept of networks of transducing cascades, specific to cells and to physiological situations.

  9. Tuning cell migration: contractility as an integrator of intracellular signals from multiple cues

    PubMed Central

    Bordeleau, Francois; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    There has been immense progress in our understanding of the factors driving cell migration in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional microenvironments over the years. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that even though most cells share many of the same signaling molecules, they rarely respond in the same way to migration cues. To add to the complexity, cells are generally exposed to multiple cues simultaneously, in the form of growth factors and/or physical cues from the matrix. Understanding the mechanisms that modulate the intracellular signals triggered by multiple cues remains a challenge. Here, we will focus on the molecular mechanism involved in modulating cell migration, with a specific focus on how cell contractility can mediate the crosstalk between signaling initiated at cell-matrix adhesions and growth factor receptors. PMID:27508074

  10. Depolarizing chloride gradient in developing cochlear nucleus neurons: underlying mechanism and implication for calcium signaling.

    PubMed

    Witte, M; Reinert, T; Dietz, B; Nerlich, J; Rübsamen, R; Milenkovic, I

    2014-03-01

    Precise regulation of the chloride homeostasis crucially determines the action of inhibitory transmitters GABA and glycine and thereby endows neurons or even discrete neuronal compartments with distinct physiological responses to the same transmitters. In mammals, the signaling mediated by GABAA/glycine receptors shifts during early postnatal life from depolarization to hyperpolarization, due to delayed maturation of the chloride homeostasis system. While the activity of the secondary active, K(+)-Cl(-)-extruding cotransporter KCC2, renders GABA/glycine hyperpolarizing in auditory brainstem nuclei of altricial rodents, the mechanisms contributing to the initially depolarizing transmembrane gradient for Cl(-) in respective neurons remained unknown. Here we used gramicidin-perforated patch recordings, non-invasive Cl(-) and Ca(2+) imaging, and immunohistochemistry to identify the Cl(-)-loading transporter that renders depolarizing effects of GABA/glycine in early postnatal life of spherical bushy cells in the cochlear nucleus of gerbil. Our data identify the 1Na(+):1K(+):2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) as the major Cl(-)-loader responsible for depolarizing action of GABA/glycine at postnatal days 3-5 (P3-5). Extracellular GABA/muscimol elicited calcium signaling through R-, L-, and T-type channels, which was dependent on bumetanide- and [Na(+)]e-sensitive Cl(-) accumulation. The "adult like", low intracellular Cl(-) concentration is established during the second postnatal week, through a mechanism engaging the NKCC1-down regulation between P5 and P15 and ongoing KCC2-mediated Cl(-)-extrusion.

  11. Depolarizing chloride gradient in developing cochlear nucleus neurons: underlying mechanism and implication for calcium signaling.

    PubMed

    Witte, M; Reinert, T; Dietz, B; Nerlich, J; Rübsamen, R; Milenkovic, I

    2014-03-01

    Precise regulation of the chloride homeostasis crucially determines the action of inhibitory transmitters GABA and glycine and thereby endows neurons or even discrete neuronal compartments with distinct physiological responses to the same transmitters. In mammals, the signaling mediated by GABAA/glycine receptors shifts during early postnatal life from depolarization to hyperpolarization, due to delayed maturation of the chloride homeostasis system. While the activity of the secondary active, K(+)-Cl(-)-extruding cotransporter KCC2, renders GABA/glycine hyperpolarizing in auditory brainstem nuclei of altricial rodents, the mechanisms contributing to the initially depolarizing transmembrane gradient for Cl(-) in respective neurons remained unknown. Here we used gramicidin-perforated patch recordings, non-invasive Cl(-) and Ca(2+) imaging, and immunohistochemistry to identify the Cl(-)-loading transporter that renders depolarizing effects of GABA/glycine in early postnatal life of spherical bushy cells in the cochlear nucleus of gerbil. Our data identify the 1Na(+):1K(+):2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) as the major Cl(-)-loader responsible for depolarizing action of GABA/glycine at postnatal days 3-5 (P3-5). Extracellular GABA/muscimol elicited calcium signaling through R-, L-, and T-type channels, which was dependent on bumetanide- and [Na(+)]e-sensitive Cl(-) accumulation. The "adult like", low intracellular Cl(-) concentration is established during the second postnatal week, through a mechanism engaging the NKCC1-down regulation between P5 and P15 and ongoing KCC2-mediated Cl(-)-extrusion. PMID:24388924

  12. Effects of low-level laser exposure on calcium channels and intracellular release in cultured astrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mang, Thomas S.; Maneshi, Mohammed M.; Shucard, David W.; Hua, Susan; Sachs, Frederick

    2016-03-01

    Prompted by a study of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a model system of cultured astrocytes, we discovered that low level laser illumination (LLL) at 660nm elevates the level of intracellular Ca2+. The coherence of the illumination was not essential since incoherent red light also worked. For cells bathed in low Ca2+ saline so that influx was suppressed, the Ca2+ level rose with no significant latency following illumination and consistent with a slow leak of Ca2+ from storage such as from the endoplasmic reticulum and/or mitochondria. When the cells were bathed in normal Ca2+ saline, the internal Ca2+ rose, but with a latency of about 17 seconds from the beginning of illumination. Pharmacologic studies with ryanodine inhibited the light effect. Testing the cells with fluid shear stress as used in the TBI model showed that mechanically induced elevation of cell Ca2+ was unaffected by illumination.

  13. Key mediators of intracellular amino acids signaling to mTORC1 activation.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yehui; Li, Fengna; Tan, Kunrong; Liu, Hongnan; Li, Yinghui; Liu, Yingying; Kong, Xiangfeng; Tang, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2015-05-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is activated by amino acids to promote cell growth via protein synthesis. Specifically, Ras-related guanosine triphosphatases (Rag GTPases) are activated by amino acids, and then translocate mTORC1 to the surface of late endosomes and lysosomes. Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) resides on this surface and directly activates mTORC1. Apart from the presence of intracellular amino acids, Rag GTPases and Rheb, other mediators involved in intracellular amino acid signaling to mTORC1 activation include human vacuolar sorting protein-34 (hVps34) and mitogen-activating protein kinase kinase kinase kinase-3 (MAP4K3). Those molecular links between mTORC1 and its mediators form a complicate signaling network that controls cellular growth, proliferation, and metabolism. Moreover, it is speculated that amino acid signaling to mTORC1 may start from the lysosomal lumen. In this review, we discussed the function of these mediators in mTORC1 pathway and how these mediators are regulated by amino acids in details.

  14. Biphasic modulation by mGlu5 receptors of TRPV1-mediated intracellular calcium elevation in sensory neurons contributes to heat sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Masuoka, T; Nakamura, T; Kudo, M; Yoshida, J; Takaoka, Y; Kato, N; Ishibashi, T; Imaizumi, N; Nishio, M

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Elevation of glutamate, an excitatory amino acid, during inflammation and injury plays a crucial role in the reception and transmission of sensory information via ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the biphasic effects of metabotropic glutamate mGlu5 receptor activation on responses to noxious heat. Experimental Approach We assessed the effects of intraplantar quisqualate, a non-selective glutamate receptor agonist, on heat and mechanical pain behaviours in mice. In addition, the effects of quisqualate on the intracellular calcium response and on membrane currents mediated by TRPV1 channels, were examined in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons from mice. Key Results Activation of mGlu5 receptors in hind paw transiently increased, then decreased, the response to noxious heat. In sensory neurons, activation of mGlu5 receptors potentiated TRPV1-mediated intracellular calcium elevation, while terminating activation of mGlu5 receptors depressed it. TRPV1-induced currents were potentiated by activation of mGlu5 receptors under voltage clamp conditions and these disappeared after washout. However, voltage-gated calcium currents were inhibited by the mGlu5 receptor agonist, even after washout. Conclusions and Implications These results suggest that, in sensory neurons, mGlu5 receptors biphasically modulate TRPV1-mediated intracellular calcium response via transient potentiation of TRPV1 channel-induced currents and persistent inhibition of voltage-gated calcium currents, contributing to heat hyper- and hypoalgesia. PMID:25297838

  15. Calcium specificity signaling mechanisms in abscisic acid signal transduction in Arabidopsis guard cells

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Benjamin; Munemasa, Shintaro; Wang, Cun; Nguyen, Desiree; Yong, Taiming; Yang, Paul G; Poretsky, Elly; Belknap, Thomas F; Waadt, Rainer; Alemán, Fernando; Schroeder, Julian I

    2015-01-01

    A central question is how specificity in cellular responses to the eukaryotic second messenger Ca2+ is achieved. Plant guard cells, that form stomatal pores for gas exchange, provide a powerful system for in depth investigation of Ca2+-signaling specificity in plants. In intact guard cells, abscisic acid (ABA) enhances (primes) the Ca2+-sensitivity of downstream signaling events that result in activation of S-type anion channels during stomatal closure, providing a specificity mechanism in Ca2+-signaling. However, the underlying genetic and biochemical mechanisms remain unknown. Here we show impairment of ABA signal transduction in stomata of calcium-dependent protein kinase quadruple mutant plants. Interestingly, protein phosphatase 2Cs prevent non-specific Ca2+-signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate an unexpected interdependence of the Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent ABA-signaling branches and the in planta requirement of simultaneous phosphorylation at two key phosphorylation sites in SLAC1. We identify novel mechanisms ensuring specificity and robustness within stomatal Ca2+-signaling on a cellular, genetic, and biochemical level. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03599.001 PMID:26192964

  16. Calcium specificity signaling mechanisms in abscisic acid signal transduction in Arabidopsis guard cells.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Benjamin; Munemasa, Shintaro; Wang, Cun; Nguyen, Desiree; Yong, Taiming; Yang, Paul G; Poretsky, Elly; Belknap, Thomas F; Waadt, Rainer; Alemán, Fernando; Schroeder, Julian I

    2015-07-20

    A central question is how specificity in cellular responses to the eukaryotic second messenger Ca(2+) is achieved. Plant guard cells, that form stomatal pores for gas exchange, provide a powerful system for in depth investigation of Ca(2+)-signaling specificity in plants. In intact guard cells, abscisic acid (ABA) enhances (primes) the Ca(2+)-sensitivity of downstream signaling events that result in activation of S-type anion channels during stomatal closure, providing a specificity mechanism in Ca(2+)-signaling. However, the underlying genetic and biochemical mechanisms remain unknown. Here we show impairment of ABA signal transduction in stomata of calcium-dependent protein kinase quadruple mutant plants. Interestingly, protein phosphatase 2Cs prevent non-specific Ca(2+)-signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate an unexpected interdependence of the Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent ABA-signaling branches and the in planta requirement of simultaneous phosphorylation at two key phosphorylation sites in SLAC1. We identify novel mechanisms ensuring specificity and robustness within stomatal Ca(2+)-signaling on a cellular, genetic, and biochemical level.

  17. Differential Calcium Signaling Mediated by Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells and Their Unmyelinated Axons

    PubMed Central

    Sargoy, Allison; Sun, Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant calcium regulation has been implicated as a causative factor in the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in numerous injury models of optic neuropathy. Since calcium has dual roles in maintaining homeostasis and triggering apoptotic pathways in healthy and injured cells, respectively, investigation of voltage-gated Ca channel (VGCC) regulation as a potential strategy to reduce the loss of RGCs is warranted. The accessibility and structure of the retina provide advantages for the investigation of the mechanisms of calcium signalling in both the somata of ganglion cells as well as their unmyelinated axons. The goal of the present study was to determine the distribution of VGCC subtypes in the cell bodies and axons of ganglion cells in the normal retina and to define their contribution to calcium signals in these cellular compartments. We report L-type Ca channel α1C and α1D subunit immunoreactivity in rat RGC somata and axons. The N-type Ca channel α1B subunit was in RGC somata and axons, while the P/Q-type Ca channel α1A subunit was only in the RGC somata. We patch clamped isolated ganglion cells and biophysically identified T-type Ca channels. Calcium imaging studies of RGCs in wholemounted retinas showed that selective Ca channel antagonists reduced depolarization-evoked calcium signals mediated by L-, N-, P/Q- and T-type Ca channels in the cell bodies but only by L-type Ca channels in the axons. This differential contribution of VGCC subtypes to calcium signals in RGC somata and their axons may provide insight into the development of target-specific strategies to spare the loss of RGCs and their axons following injury. PMID:24416240

  18. Characterization of NAADP-mediated calcium signaling in human spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez-Tusie, A.A.; Vasudevan, S.R.; Churchill, G.C.; Nishigaki, T.; Treviño, C.L.

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Human sperm cells synthesize NAADP. •NAADP-AM mediates [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increases in human sperm in the absence of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o}. •Human sperm have two acidic compartments located in the head and midpiece. -- Abstract: Ca{sup 2+} signaling in spermatozoa plays a crucial role during processes such as capacitation and release of the acrosome, but the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unclear. Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a potent Ca{sup 2+}-releasing second messenger in a variety of cellular processes. The presence of a NAADP synthesizing enzyme in sea urchin sperm has been previously reported, suggesting a possible role of NAADP in sperm Ca{sup 2+} signaling. In this work we used in vitro enzyme assays to show the presence of a novel NAADP synthesizing enzyme in human sperm, and to characterize its sensitivity to Ca{sup 2+} and pH. Ca{sup 2+} fluorescence imaging studies demonstrated that the permeable form of NAADP (NAADP-AM) induces intracellular [Ca{sup 2+}] increases in human sperm even in the absence of extracellular Ca{sup 2+}. Using LysoTracker®, a fluorescent probe that selectively accumulates in acidic compartments, we identified two such stores in human sperm cells. Their acidic nature was further confirmed by the reduction in staining intensity observed upon inhibition of the endo-lysosomal proton pump with Bafilomycin, or after lysosomal bursting with glycyl-L-phenylalanine-2-naphthylamide. The selective fluorescent NAADP analog, Ned-19, stained the same subcellular regions as LysoTracker®, suggesting that these stores are the targets of NAADP action.

  19. Lipofundin® MCT/LCT 20% increase left ventricular systolic pressure in an ex vivo rat heart model via increase of intracellular calcium level

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon A; Han, Jeong Yeol; Jin, Sangkyu; Ok, Seong-Ho; Lee, Heon-Keun; Chung, Young-Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Lipid emulsions have been used to treat various drug toxicities and for total parenteral nutrition therapy. Their usefulness has also been confirmed in patients with local anesthetic-induced cardiac toxicity. The purpose of this study was to measure the hemodynamic and composition effects of lipid emulsions and to elucidate the mechanism associated with changes in intracellular calcium levels in myocardiocytes. Methods We measured hemodynamic effects using a digital analysis system after Intralipid® and Lipofundin® MCT/LCT were infused into hearts hanging in a Langendorff perfusion system. We measured the effects of the lipid emulsions on intracellular calcium levels in H9c2 cells by confocal microscopy. Results Infusion of Lipofundin® MCT/LCT 20% (1 ml/kg) resulted in a significant increase in left ventricular systolic pressure compared to that after infusing modified Krebs-Henseleit solution (1 ml/kg) (P = 0.003, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4–12.5). Lipofundin® MCT/LCT 20% had a more positive inotropic effect than that of Intralipid® 20% (P = 0.009, 95% CI, 1.4–11.6). Both lipid emulsion treatments increased intracellular calcium levels. Lipofundin® MCT/LCT (0.01%) increased intracellular calcium level more than that of 0.01% Intralipid® (P < 0.05, 95% CI, 0.0–1.9). Conclusions These two lipid emulsions had different inotropic effects depending on their triglyceride component. The inotropic effect of lipid emulsions could be related with intracellular calcium level. PMID:26885303

  20. Calcium signaling orchestrates glioblastoma development: Facts and conjunctures.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Catherine; Haeich, Jacques; Aulestia, Francisco J; Kilhoffer, Marie-Claude; Miller, Andrew L; Néant, Isabelle; Webb, Sarah E; Schaeffer, Etienne; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Chneiweiss, Hervé; Moreau, Marc

    2016-06-01

    While it is a relatively rare disease, glioblastoma multiform (GBM) is one of the more deadly adult cancers. Following current interventions, the tumor is never eliminated whatever the treatment performed; whether it is radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or surgery. One hypothesis to explain this poor outcome is the "cancer stem cell" hypothesis. This concept proposes that a minority of cells within the tumor mass share many of the properties of adult neural stem cells and it is these that are responsible for the growth of the tumor and its resistance to existing therapies. Accumulating evidence suggests that Ca(2+) might also be an important positive regulator of tumorigenesis in GBM, in processes involving quiescence, maintenance, proliferation, or migration. Glioblastoma tumors are generally thought to develop by co-opting pathways that are involved in the formation of an organ. We propose that the cells initiating the tumor, and subsequently the cells of the tumor mass, must hijack the different checkpoints that evolution has selected in order to prevent the pathological development of an organ. In this article, two main points are discussed. (i) The first is the establishment of a so-called "cellular society," which is required to create a favorable microenvironment. (ii) The second is that GBM can be considered to be an organism, which fights to survive and develop. Since GBM evolves in a limited space, its only chance of development is to overcome the evolutionary checkpoints. For example, the deregulation of the normal Ca(2+) signaling elements contributes to the progression of the disease. Thus, by manipulating the Ca(2+) signaling, the GBM cells might not be killed, but might be reprogrammed toward a new fate that is either easy to cure or that has no aberrant functioning. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate. Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen.

  1. Calcium signaling orchestrates glioblastoma development: Facts and conjunctures.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Catherine; Haeich, Jacques; Aulestia, Francisco J; Kilhoffer, Marie-Claude; Miller, Andrew L; Néant, Isabelle; Webb, Sarah E; Schaeffer, Etienne; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Chneiweiss, Hervé; Moreau, Marc

    2016-06-01

    While it is a relatively rare disease, glioblastoma multiform (GBM) is one of the more deadly adult cancers. Following current interventions, the tumor is never eliminated whatever the treatment performed; whether it is radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or surgery. One hypothesis to explain this poor outcome is the "cancer stem cell" hypothesis. This concept proposes that a minority of cells within the tumor mass share many of the properties of adult neural stem cells and it is these that are responsible for the growth of the tumor and its resistance to existing therapies. Accumulating evidence suggests that Ca(2+) might also be an important positive regulator of tumorigenesis in GBM, in processes involving quiescence, maintenance, proliferation, or migration. Glioblastoma tumors are generally thought to develop by co-opting pathways that are involved in the formation of an organ. We propose that the cells initiating the tumor, and subsequently the cells of the tumor mass, must hijack the different checkpoints that evolution has selected in order to prevent the pathological development of an organ. In this article, two main points are discussed. (i) The first is the establishment of a so-called "cellular society," which is required to create a favorable microenvironment. (ii) The second is that GBM can be considered to be an organism, which fights to survive and develop. Since GBM evolves in a limited space, its only chance of development is to overcome the evolutionary checkpoints. For example, the deregulation of the normal Ca(2+) signaling elements contributes to the progression of the disease. Thus, by manipulating the Ca(2+) signaling, the GBM cells might not be killed, but might be reprogrammed toward a new fate that is either easy to cure or that has no aberrant functioning. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate. Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen. PMID:26826650

  2. Light-driven calcium signals in mouse cone photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tao; Schubert, Timm; Paquet-Durand, François; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Chang, Le; Koeppen, Katja; Ott, Thomas; Griesbeck, Oliver; Seeliger, Mathias W; Euler, Thomas; Wissinger, Bernd

    2012-05-16

    Calcium mediates various neuronal functions. The complexity of neuronal Ca²⁺ signaling is well exemplified by retinal cone photoreceptors, which, with their distinct compartmentalization, offer unique possibilities for studying the diversity of Ca²⁺ functions in a single cell. Measuring subcellular Ca²⁺ signals in cones under physiological conditions is not only fundamental for understanding cone function, it also bears important insights into pathophysiological processes governing retinal neurodegeneration. However, due to the proximity of light-sensitive outer segments to other cellular compartments, optical measurements of light-evoked Ca²⁺ responses in cones are challenging. We addressed this problem by generating a transgenic mouse (HR2.1:TN-XL) in which both short- and middle-wavelength-sensitive cones selectively express the genetically encoded ratiometric Ca²⁺ biosensor TN-XL. We show that HR2.1:TN-XL allows recording of light-evoked Ca²⁺ responses using two-photon imaging in individual cone photoreceptor terminals and to probe phototransduction and its diverse regulatory mechanisms with pharmacology at subcellular resolution. To further test this system, we asked whether the classical, nitric oxide (NO)-soluble guanylyl-cyclase (sGC)-cGMP pathway could modulate Ca²⁺ in cone terminals. Surprisingly, NO reduced Ca²⁺ resting levels in mouse cones, without evidence for direct sGC involvement. In conclusion, HR2.1:TN-XL mice offer unprecedented opportunities to elucidate light-driven Ca²⁺ dynamics and their (dys)regulation in cone photoreceptors.

  3. Yeast Gdt1 is a Golgi-localized calcium transporter required for stress-induced calcium signaling and protein glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Colinet, Anne-Sophie; Sengottaiyan, Palanivelu; Deschamps, Antoine; Colsoul, Marie-Lise; Thines, Louise; Demaegd, Didier; Duchêne, Marie-Clémence; Foulquier, François; Hols, Pascal; Morsomme, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Calcium signaling depends on a tightly regulated set of pumps, exchangers, and channels that are responsible for controlling calcium fluxes between the different subcellular compartments of the eukaryotic cell. We have recently reported that two members of the highly-conserved UPF0016 family, human TMEM165 and budding yeast Gdt1p, are functionally related and might form a new group of Golgi-localized cation/Ca2+ exchangers. Defects in the human protein TMEM165 are known to cause a subtype of Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation. Using an assay based on the heterologous expression of GDT1 in the bacterium Lactococcus lactis, we demonstrated the calcium transport activity of Gdt1p. We observed a Ca2+ uptake activity in cells expressing GDT1, which was dependent on the external pH, indicating that Gdt1p may act as a Ca2+/H+ antiporter. In yeast, we found that Gdt1p controls cellular calcium stores and plays a major role in the calcium response induced by osmotic shock when the Golgi calcium pump, Pmr1p, is absent. Importantly, we also discovered that, in the presence of a high concentration of external calcium, Gdt1p is required for glycosylation of carboxypeptidase Y and the glucanosyltransferase Gas1p. Finally we showed that glycosylation process is restored by providing more Mn2+ to the cells. PMID:27075443

  4. Role of conserved intracellular motifs in Serrate signalling, cis-inhibition and endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Glittenberg, Marcus; Pitsouli, Chrysoula; Garvey, Clare; Delidakis, Christos; Bray, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Notch is the receptor in a signalling pathway that operates in a diverse spectrum of developmental processes. Its ligands (e.g. Serrate) are transmembrane proteins whose signalling competence is regulated by the endocytosis-promoting E3 ubiquitin ligases, Mindbomb1 and Neuralized. The ligands also inhibit Notch present in the same cell (cis-inhibition). Here, we identify two conserved motifs in the intracellular domain of Serrate that are required for efficient endocytosis. The first, a dileucine motif, is dispensable for trans-activation and cis-inhibition despite the endocytic defect, demonstrating that signalling can be separated from bulk endocytosis. The second, a novel motif, is necessary for interactions with Mindbomb1/Neuralized and is strictly required for Serrate to trans-activate and internalise efficiently but not for it to inhibit Notch signalling. Cis-inhibition is compromised when an ER retention signal is added to Serrate, or when the levels of Neuralized are increased, and together these data indicate that cis-inhibitory interactions occur at the cell surface. The balance of ubiquitinated/unubiquitinated ligand will thus affect the signalling capacity of the cell at several levels. PMID:17006545

  5. Intracellular Redox Compartmentation and ROS-Related Communication in Regulation and Signaling.

    PubMed

    Noctor, Graham; Foyer, Christine H

    2016-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed enormous progress in understanding redox signaling related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants. The consensus view is that such signaling is intrinsic to many developmental processes and responses to the environment. ROS-related redox signaling is tightly wedded to compartmentation. Because membranes function as barriers, highly redox-active powerhouses such as chloroplasts, peroxisomes, and mitochondria may elicit specific signaling responses. However, transporter functions allow membranes also to act as bridges between compartments, and so regulated capacity to transmit redox changes across membranes influences the outcome of triggers produced at different locations. As well as ROS and other oxidizing species, antioxidants are key players that determine the extent of ROS accumulation at different sites and that may themselves act as signal transmitters. Like ROS, antioxidants can be transported across membranes. In addition, the intracellular distribution of antioxidative enzymes may be modulated to regulate or facilitate redox signaling appropriate to the conditions. Finally, there is substantial plasticity in organellar shape, with extensions such as stromules, peroxules, and matrixules playing potentially crucial roles in organelle-organelle communication. We provide an overview of the advances in subcellular compartmentation, identifying the gaps in our knowledge and discussing future developments in the area. PMID:27208308

  6. Intracellular Redox Compartmentation and ROS-Related Communication in Regulation and Signaling1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed enormous progress in understanding redox signaling related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants. The consensus view is that such signaling is intrinsic to many developmental processes and responses to the environment. ROS-related redox signaling is tightly wedded to compartmentation. Because membranes function as barriers, highly redox-active powerhouses such as chloroplasts, peroxisomes, and mitochondria may elicit specific signaling responses. However, transporter functions allow membranes also to act as bridges between compartments, and so regulated capacity to transmit redox changes across membranes influences the outcome of triggers produced at different locations. As well as ROS and other oxidizing species, antioxidants are key players that determine the extent of ROS accumulation at different sites and that may themselves act as signal transmitters. Like ROS, antioxidants can be transported across membranes. In addition, the intracellular distribution of antioxidative enzymes may be modulated to regulate or facilitate redox signaling appropriate to the conditions. Finally, there is substantial plasticity in organellar shape, with extensions such as stromules, peroxules, and matrixules playing potentially crucial roles in organelle-organelle communication. We provide an overview of the advances in subcellular compartmentation, identifying the gaps in our knowledge and discussing future developments in the area. PMID:27208308

  7. Cell-penetrating Peptides Split into Two Groups Based on Modulation of Intracellular Calcium Concentration*

    PubMed Central

    Lorents, Annely; Kodavali, Praveen Kumar; Oskolkov, Nikita; Langel, Ülo; Hällbrink, Mattias; Pooga, Margus

    2012-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) promote the uptake of different cargo molecules, e.g. therapeutic compounds, making the harnessing of CPPs a promising strategy for drug design and delivery. However, the internalization mechanisms of CPPs are still under discussion, and it is not clear how cells compensate the disturbances induced by peptides in the plasma membrane. In this study, we demonstrate that the uptake of various CPPs enhances the intracellular Ca2+ levels in Jurkat and HeLa cells. The elevated Ca2+ concentration in turn triggers plasma membrane blebbing, lysosomal exocytosis, and membrane repair response. Our results indicate that CPPs split into two major classes: (i) amphipathic CPPs that modulate the plasma membrane integrity inducing influx of Ca2+ and activating downstream responses starting from low concentrations; (ii) non-amphipathic CPPs that do not evoke changes at relevant concentrations. Triggering of the membrane repair response may help cells to replace distorted plasma membrane regions and cells can recover from the influx of Ca2+ if its level is not drastically elevated. PMID:22437827

  8. A Specific Transitory Increase in Intracellular Calcium Induced by Progesterone Promotes Acrosomal Exocytosis in Mouse Sperm.

    PubMed

    Romarowski, Ana; Sánchez-Cárdenas, Claudia; Ramírez-Gómez, Héctor V; Puga Molina, Lis del C; Treviño, Claudia L; Hernández-Cruz, Arturo; Darszon, Alberto; Buffone, Mariano G

    2016-03-01

    During capacitation, sperm acquire the ability to undergo the acrosome reaction (AR), an essential step in fertilization. Progesterone produced by cumulus cells has been associated with various physiological processes in sperm, including stimulation of AR. An increase in intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) is necessary for AR to occur. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal correlation between the changes in [Ca(2+)]i and AR in single mouse spermatozoa in response to progesterone. We found that progesterone stimulates an [Ca(2+)]i increase in five different patterns: gradual increase, oscillatory, late transitory, immediate transitory, and sustained. We also observed that the [Ca(2+)]i increase promoted by progesterone starts at either the flagellum or the head. We validated the use of FM4-64 as an indicator for the occurrence of the AR by simultaneously detecting its fluorescence increase and the loss of EGFP in transgenic EGFPAcr sperm. For the first time, we have simultaneously visualized the rise in [Ca(2+)]i and the process of exocytosis in response to progesterone and found that only a specific transitory increase in [Ca(2+)]i originating in the sperm head promotes the initiation of AR. PMID:26819478

  9. Modulation of Calcium Signaling of Angiotensin AT1, Endothelin ETA, and ETB Receptors by Silibinin, Quercetin, Crocin, Diallyl Sulfides, and Ginsenoside Rb1.

    PubMed

    Bahem, Ruba; Hoffmann, Anja; Azonpi, Arnaud; Caballero-George, Catherina; Vanderheyden, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    Angiotensin II and endothelin-1 are potent vasoconstrictive peptides that play a central role in blood pressure regulation. Both peptides exert their pleiotropic effects via binding to their respective G-protein-coupled receptors, i.e., angiotensin AT1 and endothelin type A and type B receptors. In the present study, we have selected six structurally different plant-derived compounds with known cardioprotective properties to evaluate their ability to modulate calcium signaling of the above-mentioned receptors. For this purpose, we used and validated a cellular luminescence-based read-out system in which we measured intracellular calcium signaling in Chinese hamster ovary cells that express the calcium sensitive apo-aequorin protein. Firstly, silibinin, a flavanolignan that occurs in milk thistle (Silybum marianum), was investigated and found to be an antagonist for the human angiotensin AT1 receptor with an affinity constant of about 9 µM, while it had no effect on endothelin type A or type B receptor activation. Quercetin and crocin partially impeded intracellular calcium signaling resulting in a non-receptor-related reduction of the responses recorded for the three investigated G-protein-coupled receptors. Two organosulfur compounds, diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide, as well as the triterpene saponin ginsenoside Rb1 did not affect the activation of the angiotensin AT1 and endothelin type A and type B receptors. In conclusion, we were able, by using a nonradioactive cellular read-out system, to identify a novel pharmacological property of the flavanolignan silibinin.

  10. Walnut extracts protect cultured microglia against LPS-induced neurotoxicity via modulation of intracellular calcium concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Walnuts are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA), as compared to other edible plants. Previously, our laboratory had demonstrated that dietary walnut supplementation in aged animals enhanced protective signaling pathways, altered membrane microstructures, an...

  11. Development of a rapid biolistic assay to determine changes in relative levels of intracellular calcium in leaves following tetracycline uptake by pinto bean plants.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Michael H; Mojica, Elmer-Rico E; Patel, Minesh; Aga, Diana S; Berry, James O

    2009-08-01

    Tetracycline antibiotics, such as chlortetracycline (CTC) and tetracycline (TC), are introduced into agricultural lands through the application of manure as fertilizer. These compounds are phytotoxic to certain crop plants, including pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), the species used for this investigation. While the mechanism of this toxicity is not yet understood, CTC is known to be a calcium chelator. We describe here a novel method to show that CTC is taken up by pinto bean plants and chelates calcium in leaves. Cameleon fusion proteins can provide qualitative and quantitative imaging of intracellular calcium levels, but current methodology requires stable transformation. Many plant species, including pinto beans, are not yet transformable using standard Agrobacterium-based protocols. To determine the role of calcium chelation in this plant, a rapid, biolistic method was developed to transiently express the cameleon protein. This method can easily be adapted to other plant systems. Our findings provide evidence that chelation of intracellular calcium by CTC is related to phytotoxic effects caused by this antibiotic in pinto beans. Root uptake of CTC and TC by pinto beans and their translocation to leaves were further verified by fluorescence spectroscopy and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, confirming results of the biolistic method that showed calcium chelation by tetracyclines in leaves.

  12. Exendin-4 antagonizes Aβ1-42-induced suppression of long-term potentiation by regulating intracellular calcium homeostasis in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohui; Wang, Li; Jiang, Ruirui; Yuan, Yuan; Yu, Qianqian; Li, Yameng

    2015-11-19

    An imbalance of intracellular calcium homeostasis induced by amyloid β-protein (Aβ) contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), such as deficits in learning and memory. Therefore, regulation of calcium homeostasis may represent a new strategy for treatment of AD. Growing evidence suggests that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and AD are closely related in pathogenesis. Thus, drugs used in treatment of T2DM may modify the pathogenesis of AD. This study demonstrated that Exendin-4, which is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog used as a therapeutic drug for T2DM, significantly antagonized suppression of long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by Aβ1-42 in the rat hippocampal CA1 region in vivo. This neuroprotection may be mediated by regulation of calcium homeostasis. Pretreatment with Exendin-4 suppressed Aβ1-42-induced elevation in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) through L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (L-VDCCs) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Furthermore, Exendin-4 antagonized the decrease in p-Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (p-CaMKIIα) induced by Aβ1-42 in the rat hippocampal CA1 region. Thus, the neuroprotective effects of Exendin-4, which likely involve regulation of calcium homeostasis, provide theoretical support for using Exendin-4 to treat and prevent AD in the future.

  13. Exendin-4 antagonizes Aβ1-42-induced suppression of long-term potentiation by regulating intracellular calcium homeostasis in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohui; Wang, Li; Jiang, Ruirui; Yuan, Yuan; Yu, Qianqian; Li, Yameng

    2015-11-19

    An imbalance of intracellular calcium homeostasis induced by amyloid β-protein (Aβ) contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), such as deficits in learning and memory. Therefore, regulation of calcium homeostasis may represent a new strategy for treatment of AD. Growing evidence suggests that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and AD are closely related in pathogenesis. Thus, drugs used in treatment of T2DM may modify the pathogenesis of AD. This study demonstrated that Exendin-4, which is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog used as a therapeutic drug for T2DM, significantly antagonized suppression of long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by Aβ1-42 in the rat hippocampal CA1 region in vivo. This neuroprotection may be mediated by regulation of calcium homeostasis. Pretreatment with Exendin-4 suppressed Aβ1-42-induced elevation in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) through L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (L-VDCCs) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Furthermore, Exendin-4 antagonized the decrease in p-Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (p-CaMKIIα) induced by Aβ1-42 in the rat hippocampal CA1 region. Thus, the neuroprotective effects of Exendin-4, which likely involve regulation of calcium homeostasis, provide theoretical support for using Exendin-4 to treat and prevent AD in the future. PMID:26390937

  14. Deoxycholic acid mediates non-canonical EGFR-MAPK activation through the induction of calcium signaling in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Centuori, Sara M; Gomes, Cecil J; Trujillo, Jesse; Borg, Jamie; Brownlee, Joshua; Putnam, Charles W; Martinez, Jesse D

    2016-07-01

    Obesity and a western diet have been linked to high levels of bile acids and the development of colon cancer. Specifically, increased levels of the bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA), an established tumor promoter, has been shown to correlate with increased development of colorectal adenomas and progression to carcinoma. Herein we investigate the mechanism by which DCA leads to EGFR-MAPK activation, a candidate mechanism by which DCA may promote colorectal tumorigenesis. DCA treated colon cancer cells exhibited strong and prolonged activation of ERK1/2 when compared to EGF treatment alone. We also showed that DCA treatment prevents EGFR degradation as opposed to the canonical EGFR recycling observed with EGF treatment. Moreover, the combination of DCA and EGF treatment displayed synergistic activity, suggesting DCA activates MAPK signaling in a non-canonical manner. Further evaluation showed that DCA treatment increased intracellular calcium levels and CAMKII phosphorylation, and that blocking calcium with BAPTA-AM abrogated MAPK activation induced by DCA, but not by EGF. Finally we showed that DCA-induced CAMKII leads to MAPK activation through the recruitment of c-Src. Taken together, we demonstrated that DCA regulates MAPK activation through calcium signaling, an alternative mechanism not previously recognized in human colon cancer cells. Importantly, this mechanism allows for EGFR to escape degradation and thus achieve a constitutively active state, which may explain its tumor promoting effects.

  15. Deoxycholic acid mediates non-canonical EGFR-MAPK activation through the induction of calcium signaling in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Centuori, Sara M; Gomes, Cecil J; Trujillo, Jesse; Borg, Jamie; Brownlee, Joshua; Putnam, Charles W; Martinez, Jesse D

    2016-07-01

    Obesity and a western diet have been linked to high levels of bile acids and the development of colon cancer. Specifically, increased levels of the bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA), an established tumor promoter, has been shown to correlate with increased development of colorectal adenomas and progression to carcinoma. Herein we investigate the mechanism by which DCA leads to EGFR-MAPK activation, a candidate mechanism by which DCA may promote colorectal tumorigenesis. DCA treated colon cancer cells exhibited strong and prolonged activation of ERK1/2 when compared to EGF treatment alone. We also showed that DCA treatment prevents EGFR degradation as opposed to the canonical EGFR recycling observed with EGF treatment. Moreover, the combination of DCA and EGF treatment displayed synergistic activity, suggesting DCA activates MAPK signaling in a non-canonical manner. Further evaluation showed that DCA treatment increased intracellular calcium levels and CAMKII phosphorylation, and that blocking calcium with BAPTA-AM abrogated MAPK activation induced by DCA, but not by EGF. Finally we showed that DCA-induced CAMKII leads to MAPK activation through the recruitment of c-Src. Taken together, we demonstrated that DCA regulates MAPK activation through calcium signaling, an alternative mechanism not previously recognized in human colon cancer cells. Importantly, this mechanism allows for EGFR to escape degradation and thus achieve a constitutively active state, which may explain its tumor promoting effects. PMID:27086143

  16. Wnt-induced calcium signaling mediates axon growth and guidance in the developing corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, B Ian; Li, Li; Kalil, Katherine

    2012-01-10

    Wnt5a gradients guide callosal axons by repulsion through Ryk receptors in vivo. We recently found that Wnt5a repels cortical axons and promotes axon outgrowth through calcium signaling in vitro. Here, using cortical slices, we show that Wnt5a signals through Ryk to guide and promote outgrowth of callosal axons after they cross the midline. Calcium transient frequencies in callosal growth cones positively correlate with axon outgrowth rates in vitro. In cortical slices, calcium release through inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptors and calcium entry through transient receptor potential channels modulate axon growth and guidance. Knocking down Ryk inhibits calcium signaling in cortical axons, reduces rates of axon outgrowth subsequent to midline crossing, and causes axon guidance defects. Calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is required downstream of Wnt-induced calcium signaling for postcrossing callosal axon growth and guidance. Taken together, these results suggest that growth and guidance of postcrossing callosal axons by Wnt-Ryk-calcium signaling involves axon repulsion through CaMKII.

  17. Cross-talk between calcium signalling and protein phosphorylation at the thylakoid

    PubMed Central

    Stael, Simon; Rocha, Agostinho G.; Wimberger, Terje; Anrather, Dorothea; Vothknecht, Ute C.; Teige, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The role of protein phosphorylation for adjusting chloroplast functions to changing environmental needs is well established, whereas calcium signalling in the chloroplast is only recently becoming appreciated. The work presented here explores the potential cross-talk between calcium signalling and protein phosphorylation in chloroplasts and provides the first evidence for targets of calcium-dependent protein phosphorylation at the thylakoid membrane. Thylakoid proteins were screened for calcium-dependent phosphorylation by 2D gel electrophoresis combined with phospho-specific labelling and PsaN, CAS, and VAR1, among other proteins, were identified repeatedly by mass spectrometry. Subsequently their calcium-dependent phosphorylation was confirmed in kinase assays using the purified proteins and chloroplast extracts. This is the first report on the protein targets of calcium-dependent phosphorylation of thylakoid proteins and provides ground for further studies in this direction. PMID:22197893

  18. Intracellular Signaling Pathways Involved in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Molecular Targets.

    PubMed

    Layton Tovar, Cristian Fabián; Mendieta Zerón, Hugo

    2016-06-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant disease characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of immature lymphoid cells. ALL is the most common hematologic malignancy in early childhood, and it reaches peak incidence between the ages of 2 and 3 years. The prognosis of ALL is associated with aberrant gene expression, in addition to the presence of numerical or structural chromosomal alterations, age, race, and immunophenotype. The Relapse rate with regard to pharmacological treatment rises in childhood; thus, the expression of biomarkers associated with the activation of cell signaling pathways is crucial to establish the disease prognosis. Intracellular pathways involved in ALL are diverse, including Janus kinase/Signal transducers and transcription activators (JAK-STAT), Phosphoinositide-3-kinase-protein kinase B (PI3K-AKT), Ras mitogen-activated protein kinase (Ras-MAPK), Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), Nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-κB), and Hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1α (HIF-1α), among others. In this review, we present several therapeutic targets, intracellular pathways, and molecular markers that are being studied extensively at present.

  19. Relationship of free intracellular calcium to the cytolytic activity of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Ravdin, J I; Moreau, F; Sullivan, J A; Petri, W A; Mandell, G L

    1988-06-01

    Entamoeba histolytica adherence and destruction of host cells is required for in vivo pathogenicity; amebic in vitro adherence is mediated by a galactose- or N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-inhibitable surface lectin (Gal/GalNAc adherence lectin). Free intracellular Ca2+ concentration [( Ca2+]i) was measured in living amebae and target cells during amebic cytolysis of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and human polymorphonuclear neutrophils by utilizing the Ca2+ probe Fura-2 and computer-enhanced digitized microscopy. Motile E. histolytica trophozoites had oscillatory increases in [Ca2+]i in head or tail regions; however, there was no increase in regional or total amebic [Ca2+]i upon contact with a target CHO cell. Target CHO cells and polymorphonuclear neutrophils demonstrated marked irreversible increases in [Ca2+]i within 30 to 300 s following contact by an ameba (P less than 0.01); increased [Ca2+]i preceded the occurrence of nonspecific surface membrane permeability and death of the target cell. Target CHO cells contiguous on a monolayer to a cell contacted by an ameba experienced a rapid but reversible rise in [Ca2+]i (P less than 0.01) and were not killed. Galactose (40 mg/ml) totally abrogated the rise in target CHO cell [Ca2+]i that followed contact by amebae (P less than 0.01); immunoaffinity-purified amebic Gal/GalNAc adherence lectin (0.25 micrograms/ml) induced a rapid and reversible rise in CHO cell [Ca2+]i (P less than 0.01) which was inhibited by galactose. Amebic [Ca2+]i was not elevated following parasite adherence to target cells; a rapid and substantial rise in target cell [Ca2+]i occurred which was mediated, at least in part, by the Gal/GalNAc adherence lectin of the parasite and led to the death of target cells. PMID:2897335

  20. Intracellular calcium regulation among subpopulations of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shao-Gang; Zhang, Xiulin; Gold, Michael S

    2006-01-01

    Primary afferent neurons are functionally heterogeneous. To determine whether this functional heterogeneity reflects, in part, heterogeneity in the regulation of the concentration of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), the magnitude and decay of evoked Ca2+ transients were assessed in subpopulations of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons with voltage clamp and fura-2 ratiometric imaging. To determine whether differences in evoked Ca2+ transients among subpopulations of DRG neurons reflected differences in the contribution of Ca2+ regulatory mechanisms, pharmacological techniques were employed to assess the contribution of influx, efflux, release and uptake pathways. Subpopulations of DRG neurons were defined by cell body size, binding of the plant lectin IB4 and responsiveness to the algogenic compound capsaicin (CAP). Ca2+ transients were evoked with 30 mm K+ or voltage steps to 0 mV. There were marked differences between subpopulations of neurons with respect to both the magnitude and decay of the Ca2+ transient, with the largest and most slowly decaying Ca2+ transients in small-diameter, IB4-positive, CAP-responsive neurons. The smallest and most rapidly decaying transients were in large-diameter, IB4-negative and CAP-unresponsive DRG neurons. These differences were not due to a differential distribution of voltage-gated Ca2+ currents. However, these differences did appear to reflect a differential contribution of other influx, efflux, release and uptake mechanisms between subpopulations of neurons. These results suggest that electrical activity in subpopulations of DRG neurons will have a differential influence on Ca2+-regulated phenomena such as spike adaptation, transmitter release and gene transcription. Significantly more activity should be required in large-diameter non-nociceptive afferents than in small-diameter nociceptive afferents to have a comparable influence on these processes. PMID:16945973

  1. Functional Impact of Ryanodine Receptor Oxidation on Intracellular Calcium Regulation in the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Stefan R.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) serves as the major intracellular Ca2+ release channel that drives heart contraction. RyR2 is activated by cytosolic Ca2+ via the process of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR). To ensure stability of Ca2+ dynamics, the self-reinforcing CICR must be tightly controlled. Defects in this control cause sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ mishandling, which manifests in a variety of cardiac pathologies that include myocardial infarction and heart failure. These pathologies are also associated with oxidative stress. Given that RyR2 contains a large number of cysteine residues, it is no surprise that RyR2 plays a key role in the cellular response to oxidative stress. RyR’s many cysteine residues pose an experimental limitation in defining a specific target or mechanism of action for oxidative stress. As a result, the current understanding of redox-mediated RyR2 dysfunction remains incomplete. Several oxidative modifications, including S-glutathionylation and S-nitrosylation, have been suggested playing an important role in the regulation of RyR2 activity. Moreover, oxidative stress can increase RyR2 activity by forming disulfide bonds between two neighboring subunits (intersubunit cross-linking). Since intersubunit interactions within the RyR2 homotetramer complex dictate the channel gating, such posttranslational modification of RyR2 would have a significant impact on RyR2 function and Ca2+ regulation. This review summarizes recent findings on oxidative modifications of RyR2 and discusses contributions of these RyR2 modifications to SR Ca2+ mishandling during cardiac pathologies. PMID:27251471

  2. Infrasound increases intracellular calcium concentration and induces apoptosis in hippocampi of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaohui; Gong, Li; Li, Xiaofang; Ye, Lin; Wang, Bin; Liu, Jing; Qiu, Jianyong; Jiao, Huiduo; Zhang, Wendong; Chen, Jingzao; Wang, Jiuping

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the effect of infrasonic exposure on apoptosis and intracellular free Ca²⁺ ([Ca²⁺]i) levels in the hippocampus of adult rats. Adult rats were randomly divided into the control and infrasound exposure groups. For infrasound treatment, animals received infrasonic exposure at 90 (8 Hz) or 130 dB (8 Hz) for 2 h per day. Hippocampi were dissected, and isolated hippocampal neurons were cultured. The [Ca²⁺]i levels in hippocampal neurons from adult rat brains were determined by Fluo-3/AM staining with a confocal microscope system on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 following infrasonic exposure. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide double staining. Positive cells were sorted and analyzed by flow cytometry. Elevated [Ca²⁺]i levels were observed on days 14 and 21 after rats received daily treatment with 90 or 130 dB sound pressure level (SPL) infrasonic exposure (p<0.01 vs. control). The highest levels of [Ca²⁺]i were detected in the 130 dB SPL infrasonic exposure group. Meanwhile, apoptosis in hippocampal neurons was found to increase on day 7 following 90 dB SPL infrasound exposure, and significantly increased on day 14. Upon 130 dB infrasound treatment, apoptosis was first observed on day 14, whereas the number of apoptotic cells gradually decreased thereafter. Additionally, a marked correlation between cell apoptosis and [Ca²⁺]i levels was found on day 14 and 21 following daily treatment with 90 and 130 dB SPL, respectively. These results demonstrate that a period of infrasonic exposure induced apoptosis and upregulated [Ca²⁺]i levels in hippocampal neurons, suggesting that infrasound may cause damage to the central nervous system (CNS) through the Ca²⁺‑mediated apoptotic pathway in hippocampal neurons. PMID:21946944

  3. Relaxation of Rat Aorta by Farrerol Correlates with Potency to Reduce Intracellular Calcium of VSMCs

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xiaojiang; Hou, Xiaomin; Zhang, Mingsheng; Liang, Taigang; Zhi, Jianmin; Han, Lingge; Li, Qingshan

    2014-01-01

    Farrerol, isolated from Rhododendron dauricum L., has been proven to be an important multifunctional physiologically active component, but its vasoactive mechanism is not clear. The present study was performed to observe the vasoactive effects of farrerol on rat aorta and to investigate the possible underlying mechanisms. Isolated aortic rings of rat were mounted in an organ bath system and the myogenic effects stimulated by farrerol were studied. Intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]in) was measured by molecular probe fluo-4-AM and the activities of L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (LVGC) were studied with whole-cell patch clamp in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The results showed that farrerol significantly induced dose-dependent relaxation on aortic rings, while this vasorelaxation was not affected by NG-nitro-l-arginine methylester ester or endothelium denudation. In endothelium-denuded aortas, farrerol also reduced Ca2+-induced contraction on the basis of the stable contraction induced by KCl or phenylephrine (PE) in Ca2+-free solution. Moreover, after incubation with verapamil, farrerol can induce relaxation in endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted by PE, and this effect can be enhanced by ruthenium red, but not by heparin. With laser scanning confocal microscopy method, the farrerol-induced decline of [Ca2+]in in cultured VSMCs was observed. Furthermore, we found that farrerol could suppress Ca2+ influx via LVGC by patch clamp technology. These findings suggested that farrerol can regulate the vascular tension and could be developed as a practicable vasorelaxation drug. PMID:24747597

  4. Effects of an EGFR-binding affibody molecule on intracellular signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Nordberg, E; Ekerljung, L; Sahlberg, S H; Carlsson, J; Lennartsson, J; Glimelius, B

    2010-04-01

    Effects on intracellular signaling were studied in cells treated with the affibody molecule (ZEGFR:955)2 that targets the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR). EGFR is overexpressed in many types of cancers and plays a fundamental role in cell signaling and it is of interest to find targeting agents capable of blocking the receptor. The clinically approved antibody cetuximab (Erbitux) and the natural ligand EGF were included as reference molecules. Two EGFR-rich cell lines, A-431 and U-343, were exposed to the three targeting agents and lysed. The cell lysates were immunoprecipitated with the receptors, or directly separated by SDS-Page. Autophosphorylation of the receptors and phosphorylation of the downstream signaling proteins Erk and Akt, were evaluated by Western blotting. Although the three different agents compete for the same binding site on EGFR, they influenced the signaling differently. The affibody molecule did not induce autophosphorylation of EGFR or any other receptor in the EGFR-family but, in spite of this, induced phosphorylation of Erk in both cell lines and Akt in the A-431 cells. Thus, the results suggest that the signaling pattern induced by (ZEGFR:955)2 is only partly similar to that induced by cetuximab. This makes the affibody molecule a potentially interesting alternative to cetuximab for EGFR-targeted therapy since it might give different therapy-related effects on tumor cells and different side effects on normal tissues. PMID:20198342

  5. Ancient origins and evolutionary conservation of intracellular and neural signaling pathways engaged by the leptin receptor.

    PubMed

    Cui, Melissa Y; Hu, Caroline K; Pelletier, Chris; Dziuba, Adam; Slupski, Rose H; Li, Choi; Denver, Robert J

    2014-11-01

    In mammals, leptin acts on leptin receptor (LepR) -expressing neurons in the brain to suppress food intake and stimulate whole-body metabolism. A similar action of leptin on food intake has been reported in the frog Xenopus laevis and in several bony fishes. However, the intracellular signaling and neural pathways by which leptin regulates energy balance have not been investigated outside of mammals. Using reporter assays and site-directed mutagenesis we show that the frog LepR signals via signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 and STAT5 through evolutionarily conserved tyrosine residues in the LepR cytoplasmic domain. In situ hybridization histochemistry for LepR mRNA in brain and pituitary showed strong expression in the magno- and parvocellular divisions of the anterior preoptic area (homologous to the mammalian paraventricular nucleus), the suprachiasmatic nucleus, ventral hypothalamus, and pars intermedia and pars distalis of the anterior pituitary. Leptin injection increased phosphorylated STAT3 immunoreactivity in LepR mRNA-positive cells, and induced socs3 and pomc mRNAs. Microarray analysis of preoptic area/hypothalamus/pituitary 2 hours after leptin injection identified leptin-regulated genes that included c-fos, a known leptin-activated gene; pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone subunit β, suggesting an important role for leptin in the reproductive axis of frogs; and B-cell translocation factor 2, which has important functions in neurogenesis. Our findings support that the intracellular signaling pathways and neural substrates that mediate leptin actions on energy balance were present in the common ancestor of modern amphibians and amniotes and have been conserved over 350 million years of evolutionary time.

  6. Multiple Model-Informed Open-Loop Control of Uncertain Intracellular Signaling Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Perley, Jeffrey P.; Mikolajczak, Judith; Harrison, Marietta L.; Buzzard, Gregery T.; Rundell, Ann E.

    2014-01-01

    Computational approaches to tune the activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways both predictably and selectively will enable researchers to explore and interrogate cell biology with unprecedented precision. Techniques to control complex nonlinear systems typically involve the application of control theory to a descriptive mathematical model. For cellular processes, however, measurement assays tend to be too time consuming for real-time feedback control and models offer rough approximations of the biological reality, thus limiting their utility when considered in isolation. We overcome these problems by combining nonlinear model predictive control with a novel adaptive weighting algorithm that blends predictions from multiple models to derive a compromise open-loop control sequence. The proposed strategy uses weight maps to inform the controller of the tendency for models to differ in their ability to accurately reproduce the system dynamics under different experimental perturbations (i.e. control inputs). These maps, which characterize the changing model likelihoods over the admissible control input space, are constructed using preexisting experimental data and used to produce a model-based open-loop control framework. In effect, the proposed method designs a sequence of control inputs that force the signaling dynamics along a predefined temporal response without measurement feedback while mitigating the effects of model uncertainty. We demonstrate this technique on the well-known Erk/MAPK signaling pathway in T cells. In silico assessment demonstrates that this approach successfully reduces target tracking error by 52% or better when compared with single model-based controllers and non-adaptive multiple model-based controllers. In vitro implementation of the proposed approach in Jurkat cells confirms a 63% reduction in tracking error when compared with the best of the single-model controllers. This study provides an experimentally

  7. Multiple model-informed open-loop control of uncertain intracellular signaling dynamics.

    PubMed

    Perley, Jeffrey P; Mikolajczak, Judith; Harrison, Marietta L; Buzzard, Gregery T; Rundell, Ann E

    2014-04-01

    Computational approaches to tune the activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways both predictably and selectively will enable researchers to explore and interrogate cell biology with unprecedented precision. Techniques to control complex nonlinear systems typically involve the application of control theory to a descriptive mathematical model. For cellular processes, however, measurement assays tend to be too time consuming for real-time feedback control and models offer rough approximations of the biological reality, thus limiting their utility when considered in isolation. We overcome these problems by combining nonlinear model predictive control with a novel adaptive weighting algorithm that blends predictions from multiple models to derive a compromise open-loop control sequence. The proposed strategy uses weight maps to inform the controller of the tendency for models to differ in their ability to accurately reproduce the system dynamics under different experimental perturbations (i.e. control inputs). These maps, which characterize the changing model likelihoods over the admissible control input space, are constructed using preexisting experimental data and used to produce a model-based open-loop control framework. In effect, the proposed method designs a sequence of control inputs that force the signaling dynamics along a predefined temporal response without measurement feedback while mitigating the effects of model uncertainty. We demonstrate this technique on the well-known Erk/MAPK signaling pathway in T cells. In silico assessment demonstrates that this approach successfully reduces target tracking error by 52% or better when compared with single model-based controllers and non-adaptive multiple model-based controllers. In vitro implementation of the proposed approach in Jurkat cells confirms a 63% reduction in tracking error when compared with the best of the single-model controllers. This study provides an experimentally

  8. Calcium Signaling Involvement in Cadmium-Induced Astrocyte Cytotoxicity and Cell Death Through Activation of MAPK and PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiao Hua; Ge, Guo; Gao, Kai; Pang, Ying; Chai, Rui Chao; Jia, Xi Hua; Kong, Jin Ge; Yu, Albert Cheung-Hoi

    2015-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a highly ubiquitous toxic heavy metal, can contaminate the environment, including agricultural soil, water and air, via industrial runoff and other sources of pollution. Cd accumulated in the body via direct exposure or through the food chain results in neurodegeneration and many other diseases. Previous studies on its toxicity in the central nervous system (CNS) focused mainly on neurons. To obtain a more comprehensive understanding of Cd toxicity for the CNS, we investigated how astrocytes respond to acute and chronic Cd exposure and its toxic molecular mechanisms. When primary cultures of cerebral cortical astrocytes incubated with 1-300 μM CdCl2, morphological changes, LDH release and cell death were observed in a time and dose-dependent manner. Further studies demonstrated that acute and chronic Cd treatment phosphorylated JNK, p38 and Akt to different degrees, while ERK1/2 was only phosphorylated under low doses of Cd (10 μM) exposure. Inhibition of JNK and PI3K/Akt, but not of p38, could partially protect astrocyte from cytotoxicity in chronic and acute Cd exposure. Moreover, Cd also induced a strong calcium signal, while BAPTA, a specific intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) chelator, prevented Cd-induced intracellular increase of calcium levels in astrocytes; inhibited the Cd-induced activation of ERK1/2, JNK, p38 and Akt; and also significantly reduced astrocyte cell death. All of these results suggested that the Cd-Ca(2+)-MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways were involved in Cd-induced toxicity in astrocytes. This toxicity involvement indicates that these pathways may be exploited as a target for the prevention of Cd-induced neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26248512

  9. Insulin signals to prenyltransferases via the Shc branch of intracellular signaling.

    PubMed

    Goalstone, M L; Leitner, J W; Berhanu, P; Sharma, P M; Olefsky, J M; Draznin, B

    2001-04-20

    We assessed the roles of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and Shc in insulin action on farnesyltransferase (FTase) and geranylgeranyltransferase I (GGTase I) using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that overexpress wild-type human insulin receptors (CHO-hIR-WT) or mutant insulin receptors lacking the NPEY domain (CHO-DeltaNPEY) or 3T3-L1 fibroblasts transfected with adenoviruses that express the PTB or SAIN domain of IRS-1 and Shc, the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of IRS-1, or the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of Shc. Insulin promoted phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit of FTase and GGTase I in CHO-hIR-WT cells, but was without effect in CHO-DeltaNPEY cells. Insulin increased FTase and GGTase I activities and the amounts of prenylated Ras and RhoA proteins in CHO-hIR-WT (but not CHO-DeltaNPEY) cells. Overexpression of the PTB or SAIN domain of IRS-1 (which blocked both IRS-1 and Shc signaling) prevented insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the FTase and GGTase I alpha-subunit activation of FTase and GGTase I and subsequent increases in prenylated Ras and RhoA proteins. In contrast, overexpression of the IRS-1 PH domain, which impairs IRS-1 (but not Shc) signaling, did not alter insulin action on the prenyltransferases, but completely inhibited the insulin effect on the phosphorylation of IRS-1 and on the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Akt. Finally, overexpression of the Shc SH2 domain completely blocked the insulin effect on FTase and GGTase I activities without interfering with insulin signaling to MAPK. These data suggest that insulin signaling from its receptor to the prenyltransferases FTase and GGTase I is mediated by the Shc pathway, but not the IRS-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. Shc-mediated insulin signaling to MAPK may be necessary (but not sufficient) for activation of prenyltransferase activity. An additional pathway involving the Shc SH2 domain may be necessary to mediate the insulin effect on FTase and GGTase I.

  10. Computational modeling of neurons: intensity-duration relationship of extracellular electrical stimulation for changes in intracellular calcium.

    PubMed

    Adams, Robert D; Willits, Rebecca K; Harkins, Amy B

    2016-01-01

    In many instances of extensive nerve damage, the injured nerve never adequately heals, leaving lack of nerve function. Electrical stimulation (ES) has been shown to increase the rate and orient the direction of neurite growth, and is a promising therapy. However, the mechanism in which ES affects neuronal growth is not understood, making it difficult to compare existing ES protocols or to design and optimize new protocols. We hypothesize that ES acts by elevating intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) via opening voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCCs). In this work, we have created a computer model to estimate the ES Ca(2+) relationship. Using COMSOL Multiphysics, we modeled a small dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron that includes one Na(+) channel, two K(+) channels, and three VDCCs to estimate [Ca(2+)]i in the soma and growth cone. As expected, the results show that an ES that generates action potentials (APs) can efficiently raise the [Ca(2+)]i of neurons. More interestingly, our simulation results show that sub-AP ES can efficiently raise neuronal [Ca(2+)]i and that specific high-voltage ES can preferentially raise [Ca(2+)]i in the growth cone. The intensities and durations of ES on modeled growth cone calcium rise are consistent with directionality and orientation of growth cones experimentally shown by others. Finally, this model provides a basis to design experimental ES pulse parameters, including duration, intensity, pulse-train frequency, and pulse-train duration to efficiently raise [Ca(2+)]i in neuronal somas or growth cones. PMID:26510759

  11. Oxidative damage increases intracellular free calcium [Ca2+]i concentration in human erythrocytes incubated with lead.

    PubMed

    Quintanar-Escorza, M A; González-Martínez, M T; del Pilar, Intriago-Ortega Ma; Calderón-Salinas, J V

    2010-08-01

    One important effect of lead toxicity in erythrocytes consists of increasing [Ca(2+)](i) which in turn may cause alterations in cell shape and volume and it is associated with cellular rigidity, hemolysis, senescence and apoptosis. In this work, we proposed the use of erythrocytes incubated with Pb(2+) to assess association of the mechanisms of lead erythrocyte oxidative damage and calcium homeostasis. Lead incubation produced an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) dose- and time-dependent, which mainly involved Ca(2+) entry mechanism. Additionally, in this in vitro model alterations similar to erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers were produced: Increase in Ca(2+) influx, decrease in (Ca(2+)-Mg(2+))-ATPase activity and GSH/GSGG ratio; increase in lipoperoxidation, protein carbonylation and osmotic fragility accompanied of dramatic morphological changes. Co-incubation with trolox, a soluble vitamin-E analog is able to prevent these alterations indicating that lead damage mechanism is strongly associated with oxidative damage with an intermediate toxic effect via [Ca(2+)](i) increase. Furthermore, erythrocytes oxidation induced with a free radical generator (APPH) showed effects in [Ca(2+)](i) and oxidative damage similar to those found in erythrocytes incubated with lead. Co-incubation with trolox prevents the oxidative effects induced by AAPH in erythrocytes. These results suggest that increase of [Ca(2+)](i) depends on the oxidative status of the erythrocytes incubated with lead. We consider that this model contributes in the understanding of the relation between oxidative damage induced by lead exposure and Ca(2+) homeostasis, the consequences related to these phenomena and the molecular basis of lead toxicity in no excitable cells.

  12. Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis, superoxide production and calcium signaling of beta 2 integrin-deficient bovine neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, H; Sawada, C; Higuchi, H; Teraoka, H; Yamaguchi, M

    1997-01-01

    Fc receptor for immunoglobulin G-mediated phagocytosis, superoxide production and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) signaling of complement receptor type 3 (CR3)-deficient neutrophils from a heifer with leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) were compared to those of control heifers. The mean phagocytic activity of IgG-coated yeasts and aggregated bovine IgG (Agg-IgG)-induced superoxide production of CR3-deficient neutrophils were 10% and 77.9%, respectively, of those of control neutrophils. The [Ca2+]i signals in CR3-deficient neutrophils stimulated with Agg-IgG or concanavalin A were different with mean peak [Ca2+]i concentrations of 78% and 41.9%, respectively, of those of control neutrophils. These findings suggest that Fc receptor-mediated neutrophil functions are closely dependent on the presence of CR3 (CD11b/CD18) on the neutrophil cell surfaces. PMID:9343828

  13. Early development of intracellular calcium cycling defects in intact hearts of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, Sunil; Aistrup, Gary L.; Sharma, Rohan; Kelly, James E.; Arora, Rishi; Zheng, Jiabo; Veramasuneni, Mitra; Kadish, Alan H.; Balke, C. William

    2010-01-01

    Defects in excitation-contraction coupling have been reported in failing hearts, but little is known about the relationship between these defects and the development of heart failure (HF). We compared the early changes in intracellular Ca2+ cycling to those that underlie overt pump dysfunction and arrhythmogenesis found later in HF. Laser-scanning confocal microscopy was used to measure Ca2+ transients in myocytes of intact hearts in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) at different ages. Early compensatory mechanisms include a positive inotropic effect in SHRs at 7.5–9 mo compared with 6 mo. Ca2+ transient duration increased at 9 mo in SHRs, indicating changes in Ca2+ reuptake during decompensation. Cell-to-cell variability in Ca2+ transient duration increased at 7.5 mo, decreased at 9 mo, and increased again at 22 mo (overt HF), indicating extensive intercellular variability in Ca2+ transient kinetics during disease progression. Vulnerability to intercellular concordant Ca2+ alternans increased at 9–22 mo in SHRs and was mirrored by a slowing in Ca2+ transient restitution, suggesting that repolarization alternans and the resulting repolarization gradients might promote reentrant arrhythmias early in disease development. Intercellular discordant and subcellular Ca2+ alternans increased as early as 7.5 mo in SHRs and may also promote arrhythmias during the compensated phase. The incidence of spontaneous and triggered Ca2+ waves was increased in SHRs at all ages, suggesting a higher likelihood of triggered arrhythmias in SHRs compared with WKY rats well before HF develops. Thus serious and progressive defects in Ca2+ cycling develop in SHRs long before symptoms of HF occur. Defective Ca2+ cycling develops early and affects a small number of myocytes, and this number grows with age and causes the transition from asymptomatic to overt HF. These defects may also underlie the progressive susceptibility to Ca2+ alternans and Ca2+ wave

  14. Testin, a novel binding partner of the calcium-sensing receptor, enhances receptor-mediated Rho-kinase signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Magno, Aaron L.; Ingley, Evan; Brown, Suzanne J.; Conigrave, Arthur D.; Ratajczak, Thomas; Ward, Bryan K.

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} A yeast two-hybrid screen revealed testin bound to the calcium-sensing receptor. {yields} The second zinc finger of LIM domain 1 of testin is critical for interaction. {yields} Testin bound to a region of the receptor tail important for cell signalling. {yields} Testin and receptor interaction was confirmed in mammalian (HEK293) cells. {yields} Overexpression of testin enhanced receptor-mediated Rho signalling in HEK293 cells. -- Abstract: The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) plays an integral role in calcium homeostasis and the regulation of other cellular functions including cell proliferation and cytoskeletal organisation. The multifunctional nature of the CaR is manifested through ligand-dependent stimulation of different signalling pathways that are also regulated by partner binding proteins. Following a yeast two-hybrid library screen using the intracellular tail of the CaR as bait, we identified several novel binding partners including the focal adhesion protein, testin. Testin has not previously been shown to interact with cell surface receptors. The sites of interaction between the CaR and testin were mapped to the membrane proximal region of the receptor tail and the second zinc-finger of LIM domain 1 of testin, the integrity of which was found to be critical for the CaR-testin interaction. The CaR-testin association was confirmed in HEK293 cells by coimmunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy studies. Ectopic expression of testin in HEK293 cells stably expressing the CaR enhanced CaR-stimulated Rho activity but had no effect on CaR-stimulated ERK signalling