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Sample records for intracellular chloride regulation

  1. S-Nitrosylation Regulates Nuclear Translocation of Chloride Intracellular Channel Protein CLIC4*

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Mariam; Shukla, Anjali; Amin, Palak; Niedelman, Wendy; Lee, Jessica; Jividen, Kasey; Phang, Juanita M.; Ding, Jinhui; Suh, Kwang S.; Curmi, Paul M. G.; Yuspa, Stuart H.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear translocation of chloride intracellular channel protein CLIC4 is essential for its role in Ca2+-induced differentiation, stress-induced apoptosis, and modulating TGF-β signaling in mouse epidermal keratinocytes. However, post-translational modifications on CLIC4 that govern nuclear translocation and thus these activities remain to be elucidated. The structure of CLIC4 is dependent on the redox environment, in vitro, and translocation may depend on reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the cell. Here we show that NO directly induces nuclear translocation of CLIC4 that is independent of the NO-cGMP pathway. Indeed, CLIC4 is directly modified by NO through S-nitrosylation of a cysteine residue, as measured by the biotin switch assay. NO enhances association of CLIC4 with the nuclear import proteins importin α and Ran. This is likely a result of the conformational change induced by S-nitrosylated CLIC4 that leads to unfolding of the protein, as exhibited by CD spectra analysis and trypsinolysis of the modified protein. Cysteine mutants of CLIC4 exhibit altered nitrosylation, nuclear residence, and stability, compared with the wild type protein likely as a consequence of altered tertiary structure. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor α-induced nuclear translocation of CLIC4 is dependent on nitric-oxide synthase activity. Inhibition of nitric-oxide synthase activity inhibits tumor necrosis factor α-induced nitrosylation and association with importin α and Ran and ablates CLIC4 nuclear translocation. These results suggest that S-nitrosylation governs CLIC4 structure, its association with protein partners, and thus its intracellular distribution. PMID:20504765

  2. Cellular chloride and bicarbonate retention alters intracellular pH regulation in Cftr KO crypt epithelium.

    PubMed

    Walker, Nancy M; Liu, Jinghua; Stein, Sydney R; Stefanski, Casey D; Strubberg, Ashlee M; Clarke, Lane L

    2016-01-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion channel providing a major pathway for Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) efflux across the apical membrane of the epithelium. In the intestine, CF manifests as obstructive syndromes, dysbiosis, inflammation, and an increased risk for gastrointestinal cancer. Cftr knockout (KO) mice recapitulate CF intestinal disease, including intestinal hyperproliferation. Previous studies using Cftr KO intestinal organoids (enteroids) indicate that crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline intracellular pH (pHi). We hypothesized that Cftr has a cell-autonomous role in downregulating pHi that is incompletely compensated by acid-base regulation in its absence. Here, 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein microfluorimetry of enteroids showed that Cftr KO crypt epithelium sustains an alkaline pHi and resistance to cell acidification relative to wild-type. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that Cftr KO enteroids exhibit downregulated transcription of base (HCO3 (-))-loading proteins and upregulation of the basolateral membrane HCO3 (-)-unloader anion exchanger 2 (Ae2). Although Cftr KO crypt epithelium had increased Ae2 expression and Ae2-mediated Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange with maximized gradients, it also had increased intracellular Cl(-) concentration relative to wild-type. Pharmacological reduction of intracellular Cl(-) concentration in Cftr KO crypt epithelium normalized pHi, which was largely Ae2-dependent. We conclude that Cftr KO crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline pHi as a consequence of losing both Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) efflux, which impairs pHi regulation by Ae2. Retention of Cl(-) and an alkaline pHi in crypt epithelium may alter several cellular processes in the proliferative compartment of Cftr KO intestine.

  3. Cellular chloride and bicarbonate retention alters intracellular pH regulation in Cftr KO crypt epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Nancy M.; Liu, Jinghua; Stein, Sydney R.; Stefanski, Casey D.; Strubberg, Ashlee M.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion channel providing a major pathway for Cl− and HCO3− efflux across the apical membrane of the epithelium. In the intestine, CF manifests as obstructive syndromes, dysbiosis, inflammation, and an increased risk for gastrointestinal cancer. Cftr knockout (KO) mice recapitulate CF intestinal disease, including intestinal hyperproliferation. Previous studies using Cftr KO intestinal organoids (enteroids) indicate that crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline intracellular pH (pHi). We hypothesized that Cftr has a cell-autonomous role in downregulating pHi that is incompletely compensated by acid-base regulation in its absence. Here, 2′,7′-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein microfluorimetry of enteroids showed that Cftr KO crypt epithelium sustains an alkaline pHi and resistance to cell acidification relative to wild-type. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that Cftr KO enteroids exhibit downregulated transcription of base (HCO3−)-loading proteins and upregulation of the basolateral membrane HCO3−-unloader anion exchanger 2 (Ae2). Although Cftr KO crypt epithelium had increased Ae2 expression and Ae2-mediated Cl−/HCO3− exchange with maximized gradients, it also had increased intracellular Cl− concentration relative to wild-type. Pharmacological reduction of intracellular Cl− concentration in Cftr KO crypt epithelium normalized pHi, which was largely Ae2-dependent. We conclude that Cftr KO crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline pHi as a consequence of losing both Cl− and HCO3− efflux, which impairs pHi regulation by Ae2. Retention of Cl− and an alkaline pHi in crypt epithelium may alter several cellular processes in the proliferative compartment of Cftr KO intestine. PMID:26542396

  4. Intracellular chloride regulation in amphibian dorsal root ganglion neurones studied with ion-selective microelectrodes.

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Leefmans, F J; Gamiño, S M; Giraldez, F; Noguerón, I

    1988-01-01

    1. Intracellular Cl- activity (aiCl) and membrane potential (Em) were measured in frog dorsal root ganglion neurones (DRG neurones) using double-barrelled Cl- -selective microelectrodes. In standard Ringer solution buffered with HEPES (5 mM), equilibrated with air or 100% O2, the resting membrane potential was -57.7 +/- 1.0 mV and aiCl was 23.6 +/- 1.0 mM (n = 53). The value of aiCl was 2.6 times the activity expected for an equilibrium distribution and the difference between Em and ECl was 25 mV. 2. Removal of external Cl- led to a reversible fall in aiCl. Initial rates of decay and recovery of aiCl were 4.1 and 3.3 mM min-1, respectively. During the recovery of aiCl following return to standard Ringer solution, most of the movement of Cl- occurred against the driving force for a passive distribution. Changes in aiCl were not associated with changes in Em. Chloride fluxes estimated from initial rates of change in aiCl when external Cl- was removed were too high to be accounted for by electrodiffusion. 3. The intracellular accumulation of Cl- was dependent on the extracellular Cl- activity (aoCl). The relationship between aiCl and aoCl had a sigmoidal shape with a half-maximal activation of about 50 mM-external Cl-. 4. The steady-state aiCl depended on the simultaneous presence of extracellular Na+ and K+. Similarly, the active reaccumulation of Cl- after intracellular Cl- depletion was abolished in the absence of either Na+ or K+ in the bathing solution. 5. The reaccumulation of Cl- was inhibited by furosemide (0.5-1 x 10(-3) M) or bumetanide (10(-5) M). The decrease in aiCl observed in Cl- -free solutions was also inhibited by bumetanide. 6. Cell volume changes were calculated from the observed changes in aiCl. Cells were estimated to shrink in Cl- -free solutions to about 75% their initial volume, at an initial rate of 6% min-1. 7. The present results provide direct evidence for the active accumulation of Cl- in DRG neurones. The mechanism of Cl- transport is

  5. Chloride intracellular channel 1 regulates the antineoplastic effects of metformin in gallbladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongchen; Wang, Zheng; Li, Maolan; Ye, Yuanyuan; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Yichi; Yuan, Ruiyan; Jin, Yunpeng; Hao, Yajuan; Jiang, Lin; Hu, Yunping; Chen, Shili; Liu, Fatao; Zhang, Yijian; Wu, Wenguang; Liu, Yingbin

    2017-06-01

    Metformin is the most commonly used drug for type 2 diabetes and has potential benefit in treating and preventing cancer. Previous studies indicated that membrane proteins can affect the antineoplastic effects of metformin and may be crucial in the field of cancer research. However, the antineoplastic effects of metformin and its mechanism in gallbladder cancer (GBC) remain largely unknown. In this study, the effects of metformin on GBC cell proliferation and viability were evaluated using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and an apoptosis assay. Western blotting was performed to investigate related signaling pathways. Of note, inhibition, knockdown and upregulation of the membrane protein Chloride intracellular channel 1 (CLIC1) can affect GBC resistance in the presence of metformin. Our data demonstrated that metformin apparently inhibits the proliferation and viability of GBC cells. Metformin promoted cell apoptosis and increased the number of early apoptotic cells. We found that metformin can exert growth-suppressive effects on these cell lines via inhibition of p-Akt activity and the Bcl-2 family. Notably, either dysfunction or downregulation of CLIC1 can partially decrease the antineoplastic effects of metformin while upregulation of CLIC1 can increase drug sensitivity. Our findings provide experimental evidence for using metformin as an antitumor treatment for gallbladder carcinoma. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  6. Regulation of the Membrane Insertion and Conductance Activity of the Metamorphic Chloride Intracellular Channel Protein CLIC1 by Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Stella M.; Alkhamici, Heba; Brown, Louise J.; Almond, Oscar C.; Goodchild, Sophia C.; Carne, Sonia; Curmi, Paul M. G.; Holt, Stephen A.; Cornell, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    The Chloride Intracellular ion channel protein CLIC1 has the ability to spontaneously insert into lipid membranes from a soluble, globular state. The precise mechanism of how this occurs and what regulates this insertion is still largely unknown, although factors such as pH and redox environment are known contributors. In the current study, we demonstrate that the presence and concentration of cholesterol in the membrane regulates the spontaneous insertion of CLIC1 into the membrane as well as its ion channel activity. The study employed pressure versus area change measurements of Langmuir lipid monolayer films; and impedance spectroscopy measurements using tethered bilayer membranes to monitor membrane conductance during and following the addition of CLIC1 protein. The observed cholesterol dependent behaviour of CLIC1 is highly reminiscent of the cholesterol-dependent-cytolysin family of bacterial pore-forming proteins, suggesting common regulatory mechanisms for spontaneous protein insertion into the membrane bilayer. PMID:23457643

  7. Regulation of the membrane insertion and conductance activity of the metamorphic chloride intracellular channel protein CLIC1 by cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Stella M; Alkhamici, Heba; Brown, Louise J; Almond, Oscar C; Goodchild, Sophia C; Carne, Sonia; Curmi, Paul M G; Holt, Stephen A; Cornell, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    The Chloride Intracellular ion channel protein CLIC1 has the ability to spontaneously insert into lipid membranes from a soluble, globular state. The precise mechanism of how this occurs and what regulates this insertion is still largely unknown, although factors such as pH and redox environment are known contributors. In the current study, we demonstrate that the presence and concentration of cholesterol in the membrane regulates the spontaneous insertion of CLIC1 into the membrane as well as its ion channel activity. The study employed pressure versus area change measurements of Langmuir lipid monolayer films; and impedance spectroscopy measurements using tethered bilayer membranes to monitor membrane conductance during and following the addition of CLIC1 protein. The observed cholesterol dependent behaviour of CLIC1 is highly reminiscent of the cholesterol-dependent-cytolysin family of bacterial pore-forming proteins, suggesting common regulatory mechanisms for spontaneous protein insertion into the membrane bilayer.

  8. Intracellular chloride ions regulate the time-course of GABA-mediated inhibitory synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Catriona M.; Bright, Damian P.; Sivilotti, Lucia G; Beato, Marco; Smart, Trevor G.

    2009-01-01

    The time-dependent integration of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic currents is an important process for shaping the input-output profiles of individual excitable cells, and therefore the activity of neuronal networks. Here, we show that the decay time-course of GABAergic inhibitory synaptic currents is considerably faster when recorded with physiological internal Cl− concentrations than with symmetrical Cl− solutions. This effect of intracellular Cl− is due to a direct modulation of the GABAA receptor that is independent of the net direction of current flow through the ion channel. As a consequence, the time window during which GABAergic inhibition can counteract coincident excitatory inputs is much shorter, under physiological conditions, compared to that previously measured using high internal Cl−. This is expected to have implications for neuronal network excitability and neurodevelopment, and for our understanding of pathological conditions, such as epilepsy and chronic pain, where intracellular Cl− concentrations can be altered. PMID:19692617

  9. Intracellular chloride ions regulate the time course of GABA-mediated inhibitory synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Houston, Catriona M; Bright, Damian P; Sivilotti, Lucia G; Beato, Marco; Smart, Trevor G

    2009-08-19

    The time-dependent integration of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic currents is an important process for shaping the input-output profiles of individual excitable cells, and therefore the activity of neuronal networks. Here, we show that the decay time course of GABAergic inhibitory synaptic currents is considerably faster when recorded with physiological internal Cl(-) concentrations than with symmetrical Cl(-) solutions. This effect of intracellular Cl(-) is due to a direct modulation of the GABA(A) receptor that is independent of the net direction of current flow through the ion channel. As a consequence, the time window during which GABAergic inhibition can counteract coincident excitatory inputs is much shorter, under physiological conditions, than that previously measured using high internal Cl(-). This is expected to have implications for neuronal network excitability and neurodevelopment, and for our understanding of pathological conditions, such as epilepsy and chronic pain, where intracellular Cl(-) concentrations can be altered.

  10. Twenty years of fluorescence imaging of intracellular chloride

    PubMed Central

    Arosio, Daniele; Ratto, Gian Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloride homeostasis has a pivotal role in controlling neuronal excitability in the adult brain and during development. The intracellular concentration of chloride is regulated by the dynamic equilibrium between passive fluxes through membrane conductances and the active transport mediated by importers and exporters. In cortical neurons, chloride fluxes are coupled to network activity by the opening of the ionotropic GABAA receptors that provides a direct link between the activity of interneurons and chloride fluxes. These molecular mechanisms are not evenly distributed and regulated over the neuron surface and this fact can lead to a compartmentalized control of the intracellular concentration of chloride. The inhibitory drive provided by the activity of the GABAA receptors depends on the direction and strength of the associated currents, which are ultimately dictated by the gradient of chloride, the main charge carrier flowing through the GABAA channel. Thus, the intracellular distribution of chloride determines the local strength of ionotropic inhibition and influences the interaction between converging excitation and inhibition. The importance of chloride regulation is also underlined by its involvement in several brain pathologies, including epilepsy and disorders of the autistic spectra. The full comprehension of the physiological meaning of GABAergic activity on neurons requires the measurement of the spatiotemporal dynamics of chloride fluxes across the membrane. Nowadays, there are several available tools for the task, and both synthetic and genetically encoded indicators have been successfully used for chloride imaging. Here, we will review the available sensors analyzing their properties and outlining desirable future developments. PMID:25221475

  11. Selective role of intracellular chloride in the regulation of the intrinsic but not extrinsic pathway of apoptosis in Jurkat T-cells.

    PubMed

    Heimlich, Gerd; Cidlowski, John A

    2006-01-27

    Apoptosis is a genetic program for the removal of unwanted cells from an organism, which is distinct from necrosis by its characteristic volume loss or apoptotic volume decrease. This cell shrinkage is the result of ion redistribution that is crucial for both the activation and execution of apoptosis. Here we report that UV-C but not Fas ligand treatment results in a significant decrease in intracellular chloride that can be abolished by modulation of chloride flux using either the chloride channel inhibitor SITS or medium with a reduced chloride concentration. Accordingly, downstream events are diminished during UV-C-induced apoptosis following chloride flux modulation, whereas Fas ligand-induced apoptotic characteristics are not affected. Moreover, the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway early in the apoptotic signaling cascade was affected by chloride flux in Jurkat T-cells. Thus, an alteration of intracellular chloride plays an important role in the activation of signaling molecules upstream of the mitochondria, specifically impairing the intrinsic but not extrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  12. High Intracellular Chloride Slows the Decay of Glycinergic Currents

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Samantha J.; Sivilotti, Lucia G.; Beato, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The time course of currents mediated by native and recombinant glycine receptors was examined with a combination of rapid agonist applications to outside-out patches and single-channel recording. The deactivation time constant of currents evoked by brief, saturating pulses of glycine is profoundly affected by the chloride concentration on the intracellular side of the cell membrane. Deactivation was threefold slower when intracellular chloride was increased from a low level (10 mm), similar to that observed in living mature neurons, to 131 mm (“symmetrical” chloride, often used in pipette internal solutions). Single-channel analysis revealed that high chloride has its greatest effect on the channel closing rate, slowing it by a factor of 2 compared with the value we estimated in the cell-attached mode (in which the channels are at physiological intracellular chloride concentrations). The same effect of chloride was observed when glycinergic evoked synaptic currents were recorded from juvenile rat spinal motoneurons in vitro, because the decay time constant was reduced from ∼7ms to ∼3 ms when cells were dialyzed with 10 mm chloride intracellular recording solution. Our results indicate that the time course of glycinergic synaptic inhibition in intact neurons is much faster than is estimated by measurements in symmetrical chloride and can be modulated by changes in intracellular chloride concentration in the range that can occur in physiological or pathological conditions. PMID:18987182

  13. Effects of ammonium and bicarbonate-CO2 on intracellular chloride levels in Aplysia neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, J M

    1978-01-01

    The level of intracellular free chloride in Aplysia giant neurons can be made to decline by pretreatment with 50 mM NH4+ solution followed by washing with 10 mM HCO3-/0.4% CO2-containing fluids. This effect can be completely blocked by the anion flux inhibitor, 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyano-stilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (SITS). The net change of free chloride in the cell cannot be explained by changes in the electrochemical gradient of chloride. These results support the hypothesis that at least one mechanism for intracellular pH regulation involves a Cl-/HCO-3 exchange process. PMID:25096

  14. Glutamate transporter-associated anion channels adjust intracellular chloride concentrations during glial maturation.

    PubMed

    Untiet, Verena; Kovermann, Peter; Gerkau, Niklas J; Gensch, Thomas; Rose, Christine R; Fahlke, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    Astrocytic volume regulation and neurotransmitter uptake are critically dependent on the intracellular anion concentration, but little is known about the mechanisms controlling internal anion homeostasis in these cells. Here we used fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) with the chloride-sensitive dye MQAE to measure intracellular chloride concentrations in murine Bergmann glial cells in acute cerebellar slices. We found Bergmann glial [Cl(-) ]int to be controlled by two opposing transport processes: chloride is actively accumulated by the Na(+) -K(+) -2Cl(-) cotransporter NKCC1, and chloride efflux through anion channels associated with excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) reduces [Cl(-) ]int to values that vary upon changes in expression levels or activity of these channels. EAATs transiently form anion-selective channels during glutamate transport, and thus represent a class of ligand-gated anion channels. Age-dependent upregulation of EAATs results in a developmental chloride switch from high internal chloride concentrations (51.6 ± 2.2 mM, mean ± 95% confidence interval) during early development to adult levels (35.3 ± 0.3 mM). Simultaneous blockade of EAAT1/GLAST and EAAT2/GLT-1 increased [Cl(-) ]int in adult glia to neonatal values. Moreover, EAAT activation by synaptic stimulations rapidly decreased [Cl(-) ]int . Other tested chloride channels or chloride transporters do not contribute to [Cl(-) ]int under our experimental conditions. Neither genetic removal of ClC-2 nor pharmacological block of K(+) -Cl(-) cotransporter change resting Bergmann glial [Cl(-) ]int in acute cerebellar slices. We conclude that EAAT anion channels play an important and unexpected role in adjusting glial intracellular anion concentration during maturation and in response to cerebellar activity. GLIA 2017;65:388-400.

  15. Regulation of Fast-Spiking Basket Cell Synapses by the Chloride Channel ClC–2

    PubMed Central

    Földy, Csaba; Lee, Sang-Hun; Morgan, Robert J.; Soltesz, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Parvalbumin-expressing, fast-spiking basket cells play key roles in the generation of synchronous, rhythmic population activities in the hippocampus. Here we show that GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic inputs from murine parvalbumin-expressing basket cells are selectively modulated by the membrane voltage- and intracellular chloride-dependent chloride channel ClC–2. These data demonstrate a novel cell type-specific regulation of intracellular chloride homeostasis in the perisomatic region of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. PMID:20676104

  16. Simultaneous intracellular chloride and pH measurements using a GFP-based sensor.

    PubMed

    Arosio, Daniele; Ricci, Fernanda; Marchetti, Laura; Gualdani, Roberta; Albertazzi, Lorenzo; Beltram, Fabio

    2010-07-01

    Chloride and protons perform important closely related roles in many cellular responses. Here we developed a ratiometric biosensor, ClopHensor, based on a highly chloride-sensitive Aequorea victoria GFP variant that is suited for the combined real-time optical detection of pH changes and chloride fluxes in live cells. We detected high chloride concentration in large dense-core exocytosis granules by targeting ClopHensor to these intracellular compartments.

  17. A Sensitive Membrane-Targeted Biosensor for Monitoring Changes in Intracellular Chloride in Neuronal Processes

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Spencer D.; Suchland, Katherine L.; Amara, Susan G.; Ingram, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Regulation of chloride gradients is a major mechanism by which excitability is regulated in neurons. Disruption of these gradients is implicated in various diseases, including cystic fibrosis, neuropathic pain and epilepsy. Relatively few studies have addressed chloride regulation in neuronal processes because probes capable of detecting changes in small compartments over a physiological range are limited. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, a palmitoylation sequence was added to a variant of the yellow fluorescent protein previously described as a sensitive chloride indicator (YFPQS) to target the protein to the plasma membrane (mbYFPQS) of cultured midbrain neurons. The reporter partitions to the cytoplasmic face of the cellular membranes, including the plasma membrane throughout the neurons and fluorescence is stable over 30–40 min of repeated excitation showing less than 10% decrease in mbYFPQS fluorescence compared to baseline. The mbYFPQS has similar chloride sensitivity (k50 =  41 mM) but has a shifted pKa compared to the unpalmitoylated YFPQS variant (cytYFPQS) that remains in the cytoplasm when expressed in midbrain neurons. Changes in mbYFPQS fluorescence were induced by the GABAA agonist muscimol and were similar in the soma and processes of the midbrain neurons. Amphetamine also increased mbYFPQS fluorescence in a subpopulation of cultured midbrain neurons that was reversed by the selective dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor, GBR12909, indicating that mbYFPQS is sensitive enough to detect endogenous DAT activity in midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. Conclusions/Significance The mbYFPQS biosensor is a sensitive tool to study modulation of intracellular chloride levels in neuronal processes and is particularly advantageous for simultaneous whole-cell patch clamp and live-cell imaging experiments. PMID:22506078

  18. Fluorescence imaging of changes in intracellular chloride in living brain slices.

    PubMed

    Inglefield, J R; Schwartz-Bloom, R D

    1999-06-01

    In brain slice preparations, chloride movements across the cell membrane of living cells are measured traditionally with 36Cl- tracer methods, Cl--selective microelectrodes, or whole-cell recording using patch clamp analysis. We have developed an alternative, noninvasive technique that uses the fluorescent Cl- ion indicator, 6-methoxy-N-ethylquinolinium iodide (MEQ), to study changes in intracellular Cl- by epifluorescence or UV laser scanning confocal microscopy. In brain slices taken from rodents younger than 22 days of age, excellent cellular loading is achieved with the membrane-permeable form of the dye, dihydro-MEQ. Subsequent intracellular oxidation of dihydro-MEQ to the Cl--sensitive MEQ traps the polar form of the dye inside the neurons. Because MEQ is a single-excitation and single-emission dye, changes in intracellular Cl- concentrations can be calibrated from the Stern-Volmer relationship, determined in separate experiments. Using MEQ as the fluorescent indicator for Cl-, Cl- flux through the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated Cl- channel (GABAA receptor) can be studied by dynamic video imaging and either nonconfocal (epifluorescence) or confocal microscopy in the acute brain slice preparation. Increases in intracellular Cl- quench MEQ fluorescence, thereby reflecting GABAA receptor activation. GABAA receptor functional activity can be measured in discrete cells located in neuroanatomically defined populations within areas such as the neocortex and hippocampus. Changes in intracellular Cl- can also be studied under various conditions such as oxygen/glucose deprivation ("in vitro ischemia") and excitotoxicity. In such cases, changes in cell volume may also occur due to the dependence of cell volume regulation on Na+, K+, and Cl- flux. Because changes in cell volume can affect optical fluorescence measurements, we assess cell volume changes in the brain slice using the fluorescent indicator calcein-AM. Determination of changes in MEQ fluorescence versus

  19. Members of the chloride intracellular ion channel protein family demonstrate glutaredoxin-like enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Al Khamici, Heba; Brown, Louise J; Hossain, Khondker R; Hudson, Amanda L; Sinclair-Burton, Alxcia A; Ng, Jane Phui Mun; Daniel, Elizabeth L; Hare, Joanna E; Cornell, Bruce A; Curmi, Paul M G; Davey, Mary W; Valenzuela, Stella M

    2015-01-01

    The Chloride Intracellular Ion Channel (CLIC) family consists of six evolutionarily conserved proteins in humans. Members of this family are unusual, existing as both monomeric soluble proteins and as integral membrane proteins where they function as chloride selective ion channels, however no function has previously been assigned to their soluble form. Structural studies have shown that in the soluble form, CLIC proteins adopt a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fold, however, they have an active site with a conserved glutaredoxin monothiol motif, similar to the omega class GSTs. We demonstrate that CLIC proteins have glutaredoxin-like glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase enzymatic activity. CLICs 1, 2 and 4 demonstrate typical glutaredoxin-like activity using 2-hydroxyethyl disulfide as a substrate. Mutagenesis experiments identify cysteine 24 as the catalytic cysteine residue in CLIC1, which is consistent with its structure. CLIC1 was shown to reduce sodium selenite and dehydroascorbate in a glutathione-dependent manner. Previous electrophysiological studies have shown that the drugs IAA-94 and A9C specifically block CLIC channel activity. These same compounds inhibit CLIC1 oxidoreductase activity. This work for the first time assigns a functional activity to the soluble form of the CLIC proteins. Our results demonstrate that the soluble form of the CLIC proteins has an enzymatic activity that is distinct from the channel activity of their integral membrane form. This CLIC enzymatic activity may be important for protecting the intracellular environment against oxidation. It is also likely that this enzymatic activity regulates the CLIC ion channel function.

  20. Intracellular chloride activities in canine tracheal epithelium. Direct evidence for sodium-coupled intracellular chloride accumulation in a chloride-secreting epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, M J

    1983-01-01

    Canine tracheal epithelium secretes Cl via an electrogenic transport process that appears to apply to a wide variety of secretory epithelia. To examine the mechanisms involved, intracellular chloride activity, acCl, was measured with Cl-selective intracellular microelectrodes. The results indicate that when the rate of secretion was minimal acCl was 37 mM; with stimulation of secretion the intracellular voltage depolarized, but acCl was not significantly altered, at 39 mM. These findings indicate that: (a) Cl is accumulated across the basolateral membrane under nonsecreting and secreting conditions at an activity 3.8 and 2.4 times, respectively, that predicted for an equilibrium distribution; (b) Cl exit across the apical membrane may be passive with an electrochemical driving force of 22 mV; and (c) stimulation of secretion enhanced the rate of Cl entry across the basolateral membrane, since Cl transport increased without a change in acCl. In the absence of Na in the extracellular fluid, acCl approached the value expected for an equilibrium distribution. This finding suggests that "uphill" entry of Cl into the cell against its electrochemical gradient is dependent upon, and energized by, the entry of Na down its gradient. Submucosal bumetanide, a loop diuretic, also decreased the rate of Cl secretion and decreased acCl, indicating an inhibition of Cl entry. These findings indicate that Cl entry into the cell is directed against its electrochemical gradient and is mediated by a Na-coupled, bumetanide-inhibitable, transport process at the basolateral membrane and that Cl may exit passively down a favorable electrochemical gradient across the apical membrane. PMID:6853719

  1. Regulated trafficking of the CFTR chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Kleizen, B; Braakman, I; de Jonge, H R

    2000-08-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the ABC transporter encoded by the cystic fibrosis gene, is localized in the apical membrane of epithelial cells where it functions as a cyclic AMP-regulated chloride channel and as a regulator of other ion channels and transporters. Whereas a key role of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation in CFTR-channel gating has been firmly established, more recent studies have provided clear evidence for the existence of a second level of cAMP regulation, i.e. the exocytotic recruitment of CFFR to the plasma membrane and its endocytotic retrieval. Regulated trafficking of the CFTR Cl- channel has sofar been demonstrated only in a subset of CFTR-expressing cell types. However, with the introduction of more sensitive methods to measure CFTR cycling and submembrane localization, it might turn out to be a more general phenomenon that could contribute importantly to both the regulation of CFTR-mediated chloride transport itself and to the regulation of other transporters and CFTR-modulated cellular functions. This review aims to summarize the present state of knowledge regarding polarized and regulated CFTR trafficking and endosomal recycling in epithelial cells, to discuss present gaps in our understanding of these processes at the cellular and molecular level, and to consider its possible implications for cystic fibrosis.

  2. Transgenic mouse lines for non-invasive ratiometric monitoring of intracellular chloride

    PubMed Central

    Batti, Laura; Mukhtarov, Marat; Audero, Enrica; Ivanov, Anton; Paolicelli, Rosa Chiara; Zurborg, Sandra; Gross, Cornelius; Bregestovski, Piotr; Heppenstall, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Chloride is the most abundant physiological anion and participates in a variety of cellular processes including trans-epithelial transport, cell volume regulation, and regulation of electrical excitability. The development of tools to monitor intracellular chloride concentration ([Cli]) is therefore important for the evaluation of cellular function in normal and pathological conditions. Recently, several Cl-sensitive genetically encoded probes have been described which allow for non-invasive monitoring of [Cli]. Here we describe two mouse lines expressing a CFP-YFP-based Cl probe called Cl-Sensor. First, we generated transgenic mice expressing Cl-Sensor under the control of the mouse Thy1 mini promoter. Cl-Sensor exhibited good expression from postnatal day two (P2) in neurons of the hippocampus and cortex, and its level increased strongly during development. Using simultaneous whole-cell monitoring of ionic currents and Cl-dependent fluorescence, we determined that the apparent EC50 for Cli was 46 mM, indicating that this line is appropriate for measuring neuronal [Cli] in postnatal mice. We also describe a transgenic mouse reporter line for Cre-dependent conditional expression of Cl-Sensor, which was targeted to the Rosa26 locus and by incorporating a strong exogenous promoter induced robust expression upon Cre-mediated recombination. We demonstrate high levels of tissue-specific expression in two different Cre-driver lines targeting cells of the myeloid lineage and peripheral sensory neurons. Using these mice the apparent EC50 for Cli was estimated to be 61 and 54 mM in macrophages and DRG, respectively. Our data suggest that these mouse lines will be useful models for ratiometric monitoring of Cli in specific cell types in vivo. PMID:23734096

  3. Modeling spontaneous activity in the developing spinal cord using activity-dependent variations of intracellular chloride.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Cristina; Tabak, Joel; Chub, Nikolai; O'Donovan, Michael J; Rinzel, John

    2005-04-06

    We investigated how spontaneous activity is generated in developing, hyperexcitable networks. We focused our study on the embryonic chick spinal cord, a preparation that exhibits rhythmic discharge on multiple timescales: slow episodes (lasting minutes) and faster intraepisode cycling (approximately 1 Hz frequency). For this purpose, we developed a mean field model of a recurrent network with slow chloride dynamics and a fast depression variable. We showed that the model, in addition to providing a biophysical mechanism for the slow dynamics, was able to account for the experimentally observed activity. The model made predictions on how interval and duration of episodes are affected when changing chloride-mediated synaptic transmission or chloride flux across cell membrane. These predictions guided experiments, and the model results were compared with experimental data obtained with electrophysiological recordings. We found agreement when transmission was affected through changes in synaptic conductance and good qualitative agreement when chloride flux was varied through changes in external chloride concentration or in the rate of the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter. Furthermore, the model made predictions about the time course of intracellular chloride concentration and chloride reversal potential and how these are affected by changes in synaptic conductance. Based on the comparison between modeling and experimental results, we propose that chloride dynamics could be an important mechanism in rhythm generation in the developing chick spinal cord.

  4. Chloride channels regulate chondrogenesis in chicken mandibular mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Meiyu; Duan, Yinzhong; Duan, Xiaohong

    2010-12-01

    Voltage gated chloride channels (ClCs) play an important role in the regulation of intracellular pH and cell volume homeostasis. Mutations of these genes result in genetic diseases with abnormal bone deformation and body size, indicating that ClCs may have a role in chondrogenesis. In the present study, we isolated chicken mandibular mesenchymal cells (CMMC) from Hamburg-Hamilton (HH) stage 26 chick embryos and induced chondrocyte maturation by using ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate (AA-BGP). We also determined the effect of the chloride channel inhibitor NPPB [5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid] on regulation of growth, differentiation, and gene expression in these cells using MTT and real-time PCR assays. We found that CLCN1 and CLCN3-7 mRNA were expressed in CMMC and NPPB reduced expression of CLCN3, CLCN5, and CLCN7 mRNA in these cells. At the same time, NPPB inhibited the growth of the CMMC, but had no effect on the mRNA level of cyclin D1 and cyclin E (P>0.05) with/without AA-BGP treatment. AA-BGP increased markers for early chondrocyte differentiation including type II collagen, aggrecan (P<0.01) and Sox9 (P<0.05), whilst had no effect on the late chondrocyte differentiation marker type X collagen. NPPB antagonized AA-BGP-induced expression of type II collagen and aggrecan (P<0.05). Furthermore, NPPB downregulated type X collagen (P<0.05) with/without AA-BGP treatment. We conclude that abundant chloride channel genes in CMMC play important roles in regulating chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Type X collagen might function as a target of chloride channel inhibitors during the differentiation process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cytoskeletal Network Morphology Regulates Intracellular Transport Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ando, David; Korabel, Nickolay; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2015-10-20

    Intracellular transport is essential for maintaining proper cellular function in most eukaryotic cells, with perturbations in active transport resulting in several types of disease. Efficient delivery of critical cargos to specific locations is accomplished through a combination of passive diffusion and active transport by molecular motors that ballistically move along a network of cytoskeletal filaments. Although motor-based transport is known to be necessary to overcome cytoplasmic crowding and the limited range of diffusion within reasonable timescales, the topological features of the cytoskeletal network that regulate transport efficiency and robustness have not been established. Using a continuum diffusion model, we observed that the time required for cellular transport was minimized when the network was localized near the nucleus. In simulations that explicitly incorporated network spatial architectures, total filament mass was the primary driver of network transit times. However, filament traps that redirect cargo back to the nucleus caused large variations in network transport. Filament polarity was more important than filament orientation in reducing average transit times, and transport properties were optimized in networks with intermediate motor on and off rates. Our results provide important insights into the functional constraints on intracellular transport under which cells have evolved cytoskeletal structures, and have potential applications for enhancing reactions in biomimetic systems through rational transport network design.

  6. Cytoskeletal Network Morphology Regulates Intracellular Transport Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ando, David; Korabel, Nickolay; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular transport is essential for maintaining proper cellular function in most eukaryotic cells, with perturbations in active transport resulting in several types of disease. Efficient delivery of critical cargos to specific locations is accomplished through a combination of passive diffusion and active transport by molecular motors that ballistically move along a network of cytoskeletal filaments. Although motor-based transport is known to be necessary to overcome cytoplasmic crowding and the limited range of diffusion within reasonable timescales, the topological features of the cytoskeletal network that regulate transport efficiency and robustness have not been established. Using a continuum diffusion model, we observed that the time required for cellular transport was minimized when the network was localized near the nucleus. In simulations that explicitly incorporated network spatial architectures, total filament mass was the primary driver of network transit times. However, filament traps that redirect cargo back to the nucleus caused large variations in network transport. Filament polarity was more important than filament orientation in reducing average transit times, and transport properties were optimized in networks with intermediate motor on and off rates. Our results provide important insights into the functional constraints on intracellular transport under which cells have evolved cytoskeletal structures, and have potential applications for enhancing reactions in biomimetic systems through rational transport network design. PMID:26488648

  7. Identification and Characterization of a Bacterial Homolog of Chloride Intracellular Channel (CLIC) Protein.

    PubMed

    Gururaja Rao, Shubha; Ponnalagu, Devasena; Sukur, Sowmya; Singh, Harkewal; Sanghvi, Shridhar; Mei, Yixiao; Jin, Ding J; Singh, Harpreet

    2017-08-17

    Chloride intracellular channels (CLIC) are non-classical ion channels lacking a signal sequence for membrane targeting. In eukaryotes, they are implicated in cell volume regulation, acidification, and cell cycle. CLICs resemble the omega class of Glutathione S-transferases (GST), yet differ from them in their ability to form ion channels. They are ubiquitously found in eukaryotes but no prokaryotic homolog has been characterized. We found that indanyloxyacetic acid-94 (IAA-94), a blocker of CLICs, delays the growth of Escherichia coli. In silico analysis showed that the E. coli stringent starvation protein A (SspA) shares sequence and structural homology with CLICs. Similar to CLICs, SspA lacks a signal sequence but contains an omega GST fold. Electrophysiological analysis revealed that SspA auto-inserts into lipid bilayers and forms IAA-94-sensitive ion channels. Substituting the ubiquitously conserved residue leucine 29 to alanine in the pore-forming region increased its single-channel conductance. SspA is essential for cell survival during acid-induced stress, and we found that acidic pH increases the open probability of SspA. Further, IAA-94 delayed the growth of wild-type but not sspA null mutant E. coli. Our results for the first time show that CLIC-like proteins exist in bacteria in the form of SspA, forming functional ion channels.

  8. ClC-3 is an intracellular chloride/proton exchanger with large voltage-dependent nonlinear capacitance.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Raul E; Grieschat, Matthias; Fahlke, Christoph; Alekov, Alexi K

    2013-06-19

    The chloride/proton exchangers ClC-3, ClC-4 and ClC-5 are localized in distinct intracellular compartments and regulate their luminal acidity. We used electrophysiology combined with fluorescence pH measurements to compare the functions of these three transporters. Since the expression of WT ClC-3 in the surface membrane was negligible, we removed an N-terminal retention signal for standard electrophysiological characterization of this isoform. This construct (ClC-313-19A) mediated outwardly rectifying coupled Cl(-)/H(+) antiport resembling the properties of ClC-4 and ClC-5. In addition, ClC-3 exhibited large electric capacitance, exceeding the nonlinear capacitances of ClC-4 and ClC-5. Mutations of the proton glutamate, a conserved residue at the internal side of the protein, decreased ion transport but increased nonlinear capacitances in all three isoforms. This suggests that nonlinear capacitances in mammalian ClC transporters are regulated in a similar manner. However, the voltage dependence and the amplitudes of these capacitances differed strongly between the investigated isoforms. Our results indicate that ClC-3 is specialized in mainly performing incomplete capacitive nontransporting cycles, that ClC-4 is an effective coupled transporter, and that ClC-5 displays an intermediate phenotype. Mathematical modeling showed that such functional differences would allow differential regulation of luminal acidification and chloride concentration in intracellular compartments.

  9. Chloride conductance and intracellular chloride accumulation in mouse Peyer's patch enterocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Cremaschi, D; James, P S; Rossetti, C; Smith, M W

    1990-01-01

    1. Measurements of membrane potential, Cl- conductance and intracellular Cl-, K+, Na+ and H+ activities have been carried out in the follicle-associated epithelium of the mouse Peyer's patch to characterize further the physiological properties of antigen-transporting M cells, enterocytes and intraepithelial lymphocytes. 2. Intraepithelial lymphocytes, identified in random impalements as a second negative jump in membrane potential (Vm), were found to have higher K+ and H+ activities, lower Na+ and Cl- activities and higher negative values for Vm than either of the other two epithelial cell types. Cl- activity in these cells was higher than that predicted from the Nernst equation. 3. M cells identified as having the first negative jump in Vm in impalements involving intraepithelial lymphocytes were unable to accumulate Cl-. They also had a lower Vm than that found in apparently fully differentiated enterocytes. This Vm was partly depolarized at a low Cl- concentration. 4. Apparently fully differentiated enterocytes could be further divided into two populations depending on whether the Vm could or could not be partly depolarized by a low Cl- concentration. The mean Vm and intracellular Cl- activity of Cl(-)-sensitive cells, measured in high Cl- medium, were less than values found for Cl(-)-insensitive enterocytes. Cl- was only accumulated by enterocytes showing no depolarization at low external Cl- concentration. 5. The Vm of mature villus enterocytes was the same as that determined for Cl(-)-insensitive follicle-associated enterocytes. Villus enterocyte Vm was not depolarized at a low Cl- concentration. 6. The present ability to distinguish two apparently large populations of follicle-associated enterocytes having M cell-like or villus enterocyte-like properties is discussed in relation to current theories describing how M cells might be formed. The presence of a Cl- conductance in M cell enterocytes, the inability to accumulate Cl- and the maintenance of a low Vm

  10. Continuous direct measurement of intracellular chloride and pH in frog skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, T. B.; Vaughan-Jones, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    1. Ion-sensitive electrodes (made with a chloride-sensitive ion-exchange resin) were used to measure the internal chloride activity (aiCl) of frog sartorius fibres at 25° C. 2. The internal pH (pHi) of other sartorius fibres was measured with a recessed tip pH-sensitive electrode (made with pH-sensitive glass). 3. In normal bicarbonate-free solution (containing 2·5 mM potassium), the average chloride equilibrium potential, ECl (calculated from aiCl and the measured chloride activity of the external solution (aoCl) was 87·7 ± 1·7 mV (mean ± S.E.; n = 16) in fibres where the average membrane potential, Em, was 88·3 ± 1·5 mV (mean ± S.E.; n = 16). In experiments where aiCl was varied between about 1 and 10 mM (which corresponds to values of Em between about -105 and -50 mV) ECl was within 1-3 mV of Em at equilibrium. These measurements of aiCl were obtained from the potential difference between the chloride-sensitive electrode and an intracellular indifferent micro-electrode filled with potassium chloride. If a potassium sulphate-filled indifferent micro-electrode was used, then values of aiCl below about 5 mM were erroneously high, probably due to interference from other sarcoplasmic ions at the indifferent electrode. 4. In solutions containing 15 mM bicarbonate and gassed with 5% CO2, pHi was 6·9, corresponding to an internal bicarbonate concentration of 7·6 mM. ECl measured in this solution was some 4 mV positive to Em. Most of the difference between ECl and Em could be ascribed to interference by sarcoplasmic bicarbonate on the basis of selectivity measurements of chloride against bicarbonate made on the ion-exchange resin in the relevant range of aCl. 5. If bicarbonate/CO2 in the external solution was replaced by HEPES/pure O2 at constant pH, then pHi rose from 6·88 ± 0·02 (mean ± S.E.) to 7·05 ± 0·02. A change in external pH of 1 unit caused pHi to change by about 0·02 unit and the intracellular buffering power was calculated to be about 35

  11. Gramicidin-perforated patch recording: GABA response in mammalian neurones with intact intracellular chloride.

    PubMed Central

    Ebihara, S; Shirato, K; Harata, N; Akaike, N

    1995-01-01

    1. By the development of a new perforated patch method using gramicidin, the effects of GABA on neurones dissociated from the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) were examined without disturbing the intracellular chloride concentration. 2. Using the patch pipette solution containing gramicidin (100 micrograms ml-1), the access resistance dropped to less than 20 M omega within 40 min after making the gigaohm seal. 3. Under current-clamp conditions, GABA caused a hyperpolarization accompanied by a blockade of spontaneous firing. Under voltage clamp at a holding potential (Vh) of -50 mV, GABA evoked an outward current by way of bicuculline- and picrotoxin-sensitive GABAA receptors. 4. A 10-fold change of extracellular chloride concentration resulted in a 58 mV shift of the reversal potential of GABA-induced outward current (EGABA), indicating that the membrane behaves like a chloride electrode in the presence of GABA. 5. The intracellular chloride activities (aCli), calculated with the Nernst equation using both extracellular chloride activity and EGABA values, ranged from 2.8 to 19.7 mM with a mean value of 9.5 mM. The aCli was not affected either by different pipette solutions or by different holding potentials more hyperpolarized than -40 mV. 6. In the recording from SNR neurones in brain slice using the gramicidin-perforated patch-clamp technique, the inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic currents were recorded in different current directions and the former was blocked by bicuculline. 7. In conclusion, the gramicidin-perforated patch method will disclose previously unknown aspects of biological responses involving Cl-. PMID:7541464

  12. Regulation of neuronal chloride homeostasis by neuromodulators

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, Vivek; Woodin, Melanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract KCC2 is the central regulator of neuronal Cl− homeostasis, and is critical for enabling strong hyperpolarizing synaptic inhibition in the mature brain. KCC2 hypofunction results in decreased inhibition and increased network hyperexcitability that underlies numerous disease states including epilepsy, neuropathic pain and neuropsychiatric disorders. The current holy grail of KCC2 biology is to identify how we can rescue KCC2 hypofunction in order to restore physiological levels of synaptic inhibition and neuronal network activity. It is becoming increasingly clear that diverse cellular signals regulate KCC2 surface expression and function including neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. In the present review we explore the existing evidence that G‐protein‐coupled receptor (GPCR) signalling can regulate KCC2 activity in numerous regions of the nervous system including the hypothalamus, hippocampus and spinal cord. We present key evidence from the literature suggesting that GPCR signalling is a conserved mechanism for regulating chloride homeostasis. This evidence includes: (1) the activation of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors and metabotropic Zn2+ receptors strengthens GABAergic inhibition in CA3 pyramidal neurons through a regulation of KCC2; (2) activation of the 5‐hydroxytryptamine type 2A serotonin receptors upregulates KCC2 cell surface expression and function, restores endogenous inhibition in motoneurons, and reduces spasticity in rats; and (3) activation of A3A‐type adenosine receptors rescues KCC2 dysfunction and reverses allodynia in a model of neuropathic pain. We propose that GPCR‐signals are novel endogenous Cl− extrusion enhancers that may regulate KCC2 function. PMID:26876607

  13. A role for intracellular zinc in glioma alteration of neuronal chloride equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Di Angelantonio, S; Murana, E; Cocco, S; Scala, F; Bertollini, C; Molinari, M G; Lauro, C; Bregestovski, P; Limatola, C; Ragozzino, D

    2014-01-01

    Glioma patients commonly suffer from epileptic seizures. However, the mechanisms of glioma-associated epilepsy are far to be completely understood. Using glioma-neurons co-cultures, we found that tumor cells are able to deeply influence neuronal chloride homeostasis, by depolarizing the reversal potential of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-evoked currents (EGABA). EGABA depolarizing shift is due to zinc-dependent reduction of neuronal KCC2 activity and requires glutamate release from glioma cells. Consistently, intracellular zinc loading rapidly depolarizes EGABA in mouse hippocampal neurons, through the Src/Trk pathway and this effect is promptly reverted upon zinc chelation. This study provides a possible molecular mechanism linking glioma invasion to excitation/inhibition imbalance and epileptic seizures, through the zinc–mediated disruption of neuronal chloride homeostasis. PMID:25356870

  14. A role for intracellular zinc in glioma alteration of neuronal chloride equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Di Angelantonio, S; Murana, E; Cocco, S; Scala, F; Bertollini, C; Molinari, M G; Lauro, C; Bregestovski, P; Limatola, C; Ragozzino, D

    2014-10-30

    Glioma patients commonly suffer from epileptic seizures. However, the mechanisms of glioma-associated epilepsy are far to be completely understood. Using glioma-neurons co-cultures, we found that tumor cells are able to deeply influence neuronal chloride homeostasis, by depolarizing the reversal potential of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-evoked currents (EGABA). EGABA depolarizing shift is due to zinc-dependent reduction of neuronal KCC2 activity and requires glutamate release from glioma cells. Consistently, intracellular zinc loading rapidly depolarizes EGABA in mouse hippocampal neurons, through the Src/Trk pathway and this effect is promptly reverted upon zinc chelation. This study provides a possible molecular mechanism linking glioma invasion to excitation/inhibition imbalance and epileptic seizures, through the zinc-mediated disruption of neuronal chloride homeostasis.

  15. Control of volume-sensitive chloride channel inactivation by the coupled action of intracellular chloride and extracellular protons.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Carballo, Carmen Y; De Santiago-Castillo, José A; Rosales-Saavedra, Teresa; Pérez-Cornejo, Patricia; Arreola, Jorge

    2010-08-01

    The volume-sensitive chloride current (I(ClVol)) exhibit a time-dependent decay presumably due to channel inactivation. In this work, we studied the effects of chloride ions (Cl(-)) and H(+) ions on I(ClVol) decay recorded in HEK-293 and HL-60 cells using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Under control conditions ([Cl(-)](e) = [Cl(-)](i) = 140 mM and pH(i) = pH(e) = 7.3), I(ClVol) in HEK cells shows a large decay at positive voltages but in HL-60 cells I(ClVol) remained constant independently of time. In HEK-293 cells, simultaneously raising the [Cl(-)](e) and [Cl(-)](i) from 25 to 140 mM (with pH(e) = pH(i) = 7.3) increased the fraction of inactivated channels (FIC). This effect was reproduced by elevating [Cl(-)](i) while keeping the [Cl(-)](e) constant. Furthermore, a decrease in pH(e) from 7.3 to 5.5 accelerated current decay and increased FIC when [Cl(-)] was 140 mM but not 25 mM. In HL-60 cells, a slight I(ClVol) decay was seen when the pH(e) was reduced from 7.3 to 5.5. Our data show that inactivation of I(ClVol) can be controlled by changing either the Cl(-) or H(+) concentration or both. Based on our results and previously published data, we have built a model that explains VRAC inactivation. In the model the H(+) binding site is located outside the electrical field near the extracellular entry whilst the Cl(-) binding site is intracellular. The model depicts inactivation as a pore constriction that happens by simultaneous binding of H(+) and Cl(-) ions to the channel followed by a voltage-dependent conformational change that ultimately causes inactivation.

  16. Chloride channel and chloride conductance regulator domains of CFTR, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

    PubMed Central

    Schwiebert, Erik M.; Morales, Marcelo M.; Devidas, Sreenivas; Egan, Marie E.; Guggino, William B.

    1998-01-01

    CFTR is a cyclic AMP (cAMP)-activated chloride (Cl−) channel and a regulator of outwardly rectifying Cl− channels (ORCCs) in airway epithelia. CFTR regulates ORCCs by facilitating the release of ATP out of cells. Once released from cells, ATP stimulates ORCCs by means of a purinergic receptor. To define the domains of CFTR important for Cl− channel function and/or ORCC regulator function, mutant CFTRs with N- and C-terminal truncations and selected individual amino acid substitutions were created and studied by transfection into a line of human airway epithelial cells from a cystic fibrosis patient (IB3–1) or by injection of in vitro transcribed complementary RNAs (cRNAs) into Xenopus oocytes. Two-electrode voltage clamp recordings, 36Cl− efflux assays, and whole cell patch-clamp recordings were used to assay for the Cl− channel function of CFTR and for its ability to regulate ORCCs. The data showed that the first transmembrane domain (TMD-1) of CFTR, especially predicted α-helices 5 and 6, forms an essential part of the Cl− channel pore, whereas the first nucleotide-binding and regulatory domains (NBD1/R domain) are essential for its ability to regulate ORCCs. Finally, the data show that the ability of CFTR to function as a Cl− channel and a conductance regulator are not mutually exclusive; one function could be eliminated while the other was preserved. PMID:9482946

  17. Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons of Mice Show Intracellular Chloride Accumulation and Chloride-Dependent Amplification of Capsaicin-Induced Responses

    PubMed Central

    Schöbel, Nicole; Radtke, Debbie; Lübbert, Matthias; Gisselmann, Günter; Lehmann, Ramona; Cichy, Annika; Schreiner, Benjamin S. P.; Altmüller, Janine; Spector, Alan C.; Spehr, Jennifer; Hatt, Hanns; Wetzel, Christian H.

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular Cl− concentrations ([Cl−]i) of sensory neurons regulate signal transmission and signal amplification. In dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), Cl− is accumulated by the Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter 1 (NKCC1), resulting in a [Cl−]i above electrochemical equilibrium and a depolarizing Cl− efflux upon Cl− channel opening. Here, we investigate the [Cl−]i and function of Cl− in primary sensory neurons of trigeminal ganglia (TG) of wild type (WT) and NKCC1−/− mice using pharmacological and imaging approaches, patch-clamping, as well as behavioral testing. The [Cl−]i of WT TG neurons indicated active NKCC1-dependent Cl− accumulation. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor activation induced a reduction of [Cl−]i as well as Ca2+ transients in a corresponding fraction of TG neurons. Ca2+ transients were sensitive to inhibition of NKCC1 and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs). Ca2+ responses induced by capsaicin, a prototypical stimulus of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member-1 (TRPV1) were diminished in NKCC1−/− TG neurons, but elevated under conditions of a lowered [Cl−]o suggesting a Cl−-dependent amplification of capsaicin-induced responses. Using next generation sequencing (NGS), we found expression of different Ca2+-activated Cl− channels (CaCCs) in TGs of mice. Pharmacological inhibition of CaCCs reduced the amplitude of capsaicin-induced responses of TG neurons in Ca2+ imaging and electrophysiological recordings. In a behavioral paradigm, NKCC1−/− mice showed less avoidance of the aversive stimulus capsaicin. In summary, our results strongly argue for a Ca2+-activated Cl−-dependent signal amplification mechanism in TG neurons that requires intracellular Cl− accumulation by NKCC1 and the activation of CaCCs. PMID:23144843

  18. Effect of external sodium on intracellular chloride activity in the surface cells of frog gastric mucosa. Microelectrode studies.

    PubMed

    Curci, S; Schettino, T

    1984-06-01

    The intracellular chloride activity and its dependence on ionic substitutions in the bathing media was studied in individual surface cells of resting gastric mucosa using conventional and Cl- selective microelectrodes. When the tissue was perfused with control NaCl-Ringer the cell membrane p.d.'s, cell-lumen (psi cm) and cell-serosa (psi cs) were -40.9 +/- 0.6 mV and -66.8 +/- 0.5 mV (n = 175) respectively and the p.d. measured by the Cl- selective microelectrodes across the serosal membrane (psi csCl-) averaged -32.4 +/- 0.7 mV (n = 138). From these values an intracellular Cl- activity (acCl-) of 15.3 mmol/l can be estimated. The data indicate that chloride ion is distributed close to equilibrium at the luminal membrane while it is accumulated by an energy requiring step at the serosal membrane. Reduction (2 mmol/l) or absence of chloride from the luminal bath did not result in any detectable change of acCl-; on the other hand, after removal of Cl- from the serosal bath the intracellular Cl- activity fell to 7.1 mmol/l. When the tissue was exposed to serosal Na+-free Ringer (Na+ replaced by choline or TMA), although the acCl- remained unaffected, a marked reduction of the electrochemical gradient for Cl- at the serosal membrane was observed. These data indicate that: chloride is accumulated in the surface cells against its electrochemical potential difference at the serosal membrane; the luminal membrane has a negligible conductance to Cl-, while the serosal membrane represents a conductive pathway to chloride; the uphill entry of chloride at the serosal membrane seems to be, at least partially, Na+-dependent.

  19. Simultaneous two-photon imaging of intracellular chloride concentration and pH in mouse pyramidal neurons in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sulis Sato, Sebastian; Artoni, Pietro; Landi, Silvia; Cozzolino, Olga; Parra, Riccardo; Pracucci, Enrico; Trovato, Francesco; Szczurkowska, Joanna; Luin, Stefano; Arosio, Daniele; Beltram, Fabio; Cancedda, Laura; Kaila, Kai; Ratto, Gian Michele

    2017-09-26

    Intracellular chloride ([Cl(-)]i) and pH (pHi) are fundamental regulators of neuronal excitability. They exert wide-ranging effects on synaptic signaling and plasticity and on development and disorders of the brain. The ideal technique to elucidate the underlying ionic mechanisms is quantitative and combined two-photon imaging of [Cl(-)]i and pHi, but this has never been performed at the cellular level in vivo. Here, by using a genetically encoded fluorescent sensor that includes a spectroscopic reference (an element insensitive to Cl(-) and pH), we show that ratiometric imaging is strongly affected by the optical properties of the brain. We have designed a method that fully corrects for this source of error. Parallel measurements of [Cl(-)]i and pHi at the single-cell level in the mouse cortex showed the in vivo presence of the widely discussed developmental fall in [Cl(-)]i and the role of the K-Cl cotransporter KCC2 in this process. Then, we introduce a dynamic two-photon excitation protocol to simultaneously determine the changes of pHi and [Cl(-)]i in response to hypercapnia and seizure activity.

  20. p53 and tumor necrosis factor alpha regulate the expression of a mitochondrial chloride channel protein.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Salas, E; Sagar, M; Cheng, C; Yuspa, S H; Weinberg, W C

    1999-12-17

    A novel chloride intracellular channel (CLIC) gene, clone mc3s5/mtCLIC, has been identified from differential display analysis of differentiating mouse keratinocytes from p53+/+ and p53-/- mice. The 4.2-kilobase pair cDNA contains an open reading frame of 762 base pairs encoding a 253-amino acid protein with two putative transmembrane domains. mc3s5/mtCLIC protein shares extensive homology with a family of intracellular organelle chloride channels but is the first shown to be differentially regulated. mc3s5/mtCLIC mRNA is expressed to the greatest extent in vivo in heart, lung, liver, kidney, and skin, with reduced levels in some organs from p53-/- mice. mc3s5/mtCLIC mRNA and protein are higher in p53+/+ compared with p53-/- basal keratinocytes in culture, and both increase in differentiating keratinocytes independent of genotype. Overexpression of p53 in keratinocytes induces mc3s5/mtCLIC mRNA and protein. Exogenous human recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha also up-regulates mc3s5/mtCLIC mRNA and protein in keratinocytes. Subcellular fractionation of keratinocytes indicates that both the green fluorescent protein-mc3s5 fusion protein and the endogenous mc3s5/mtCLIC are localized to the cytoplasm and mitochondria. Similarly, mc3s5/mtCLIC was localized to mitochondria and cytoplasmic fractions of rat liver homogenates. Furthermore, mc3s5/mtCLIC colocalized with cytochrome oxidase in keratinocyte mitochondria by immunofluorescence and was also detected in the cytoplasmic compartment. Sucrose gradient-purified mitochondria from rat liver confirmed this mitochondrial localization. This represents the first report of localization of a CLIC type chloride channel in mitochondria and the first indication that expression of an organellular chloride channel can be regulated by p53 and tumor necrosis factor alpha.

  1. Chloride intracellular channel 4 is required for maturation of the cerebral collateral circulation.

    PubMed

    Lucitti, Jennifer L; Tarte, Natalie J; Faber, James E

    2015-10-01

    The number and diameter of native collaterals in tissues of healthy mice vary widely, resulting in large differences in tissue injury in occlusive diseases. Recent studies suggest similar variation may exist in humans. Collateral variation in mice is determined by genetic background-dependent differences in embryonic collateral formation, by variation in maturation of the nascent collaterals, and by environmental factors such as aging that cause collateral rarefaction in the adult. Recently, formation of the collateral circulation in the brain was found to involve a unique VEGF-A-dependent "arteriolar" angiogenic sprouting-like mechanism. Elsewhere, chloride intracellular protein 4 (CLIC4) was implicated but not investigated directly, prompting the present study. Deletion of Clic4 had no effect on embryonic collaterogenesis. However, during collateral maturation from embryonic day 18.5 to postnatal day 7, reduced mural cell investment was observed and excessive pruning of collaterals occurred. Growth in collateral diameter was reduced. This resulted in 50% fewer collaterals of smaller diameter in the adult and thus larger infarct volume after middle cerebral artery occlusion. During collateral maturation, CLIC4 deficiency resulted in reduced expression of Vegfr2, Vegfr1, Vegfc, and mural cell markers, but not notch-pathway genes. Overexpression of VEGF-A in Clic4(-/-) mice had no effect on collaterogenesis, but rescued the above defects in collateral maturation by preventing mural cell loss and collateral pruning, thus restoring collateral number and diameter and reducing stroke severity in the adult. CLIC4 is not required for collaterogenesis but is essential for perinatal maturation of nascent collaterals through a mechanism that supports VEGF signaling.

  2. Chloride intracellular channel-4 is a determinant of native collateral formation in skeletal muscle and brain.

    PubMed

    Chalothorn, Dan; Zhang, Hua; Smith, Jennifer E; Edwards, John C; Faber, James E

    2009-07-02

    The capacity of the collateral circulation to lessen injury in occlusive vascular disease depends on the density and caliber of native (preexisting) collaterals, as well as their ability to outwardly remodel in ischemia. Native collateral conductance varies widely among healthy individuals, yet little is known about what specifies collateral formation. Chloride intracellular channel (CLIC)4 protein is required for endothelial cell hollowing, a process necessary for vessel formation during embryogenesis and ischemia. Whether CLIC4 has other physiological roles in vascular biology is uncertain. We studied collateral formation and remodeling in mice deficient in CLIC1 and CLIC4. Vascular responses to femoral artery ligation were similar in Clic1(-/-) and wild-type mice. In contrast, immediately after ligation perfusion dropped more in Clic4(-/-) than wild-type mice, suggesting fewer preexisting collaterals, a finding confirmed by angiography, greater ischemia, and worse recovery of perfusion; however, collateral remodeling was unaffected. Likewise, native cerebral collateral density in Clic4(-/-) (but not Clic1(-/-)) mice was reduced, resulting in severe infarctions. This was associated with impaired perinatal formation and stabilization of nascent collaterals. Clic4 hemizygous mice had intermediate deficits in the above parameters, suggesting a gene-dose effect. Ischemia augmented CLIC1 and CLIC4 expression similarly in wild-type mice. However, CLIC1 increased 3-fold more in Clic4(-/-) mice, suggesting compensation. Despite greater ischemia in Clic4(-/-) mice, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-2 increased less compared to wild-type, suggesting CLIC4 exerts influences upstream of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha-VEGF signaling. Hence, CLIC4 represents the second gene that, along with VEGF shown by us previously, specifies native collateral formation.

  3. Chloride intracellular channel 4 is required for maturation of the cerebral collateral circulation

    PubMed Central

    Lucitti, Jennifer L.; Tarte, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    The number and diameter of native collaterals in tissues of healthy mice vary widely, resulting in large differences in tissue injury in occlusive diseases. Recent studies suggest similar variation may exist in humans. Collateral variation in mice is determined by genetic background-dependent differences in embryonic collateral formation, by variation in maturation of the nascent collaterals, and by environmental factors such as aging that cause collateral rarefaction in the adult. Recently, formation of the collateral circulation in the brain was found to involve a unique VEGF-A-dependent “arteriolar” angiogenic sprouting-like mechanism. Elsewhere, chloride intracellular protein 4 (CLIC4) was implicated but not investigated directly, prompting the present study. Deletion of Clic4 had no effect on embryonic collaterogenesis. However, during collateral maturation from embryonic day 18.5 to postnatal day 7, reduced mural cell investment was observed and excessive pruning of collaterals occurred. Growth in collateral diameter was reduced. This resulted in 50% fewer collaterals of smaller diameter in the adult and thus larger infarct volume after middle cerebral artery occlusion. During collateral maturation, CLIC4 deficiency resulted in reduced expression of Vegfr2, Vegfr1, Vegfc, and mural cell markers, but not notch-pathway genes. Overexpression of VEGF-A in Clic4−/− mice had no effect on collaterogenesis, but rescued the above defects in collateral maturation by preventing mural cell loss and collateral pruning, thus restoring collateral number and diameter and reducing stroke severity in the adult. CLIC4 is not required for collaterogenesis but is essential for perinatal maturation of nascent collaterals through a mechanism that supports VEGF signaling. PMID:26276819

  4. The Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor: Its Intracellular Signaling and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yue; Li, Yin; Zhang, Weizhen

    2014-01-01

    The growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), also known as the ghrelin receptor, is involved in mediating a wide variety of biological effects of ghrelin, including: stimulation of growth hormone release, increase of food intake and body weight, modulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, regulation of gastrointestinal motility and secretion, protection of neuronal and cardiovascular cells, and regulation of immune function. Dependent on the tissues and cells, activation of GHSR may trigger a diversity of signaling mechanisms and subsequent distinct physiological responses. Distinct regulation of GHSR occurs at levels of transcription, receptor interaction and internalization. Here we review the current understanding on the intracellular signaling pathways of GHSR and its modulation. An overview of the molecular structure of GHSR is presented first, followed by the discussion on its signaling mechanisms. Finally, potential mechanisms regulating GHSR are reviewed. PMID:24651458

  5. Chloride channels in cancer: Focus on chloride intracellular channel 1 and 4 (CLIC1 AND CLIC4) proteins in tumor development and as novel therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Peretti, Marta; Angelini, Marina; Savalli, Nicoletta; Florio, Tullio; Yuspa, Stuart H; Mazzanti, Michele

    2015-10-01

    In recent decades, growing scientific evidence supports the role of ion channels in the development of different cancers. Both potassium selective pores and chloride permeabilities are considered the most active channels during tumorigenesis. High rate of proliferation, active migration, and invasiveness into non-neoplastic tissues are specific properties of neoplastic transformation. All these actions require partial or total involvement of chloride channel activity. In this context, this class of membrane proteins could represent valuable therapeutic targets for the treatment of resistant tumors. However, this encouraging premise has not so far produced any valid new channel-targeted antitumoral molecule for cancer treatment. Problematic for drug design targeting ion channels is their vital role in normal cells for essential physiological functions. By targeting these membrane proteins involved in pathological conditions, it is inevitable to cause relevant side effects in healthy organs. In light of this, a new protein family, the chloride intracellular channels (CLICs), could be a promising class of therapeutic targets for its intrinsic individualities: CLIC1 and CLIC4, in particular, not only are overexpressed in specific tumor types or their corresponding stroma but also change localization and function from hydrophilic cytosolic to integral transmembrane proteins as active ionic channels or signal transducers during cell cycle progression in certain cases. These changes in intracellular localization, tissue compartments, and channel function, uniquely associated with malignant transformation, may offer a unique target for cancer therapy, likely able to spare normal cells. This article is part of a special issue itled "Membrane Channels and Transporters in Cancers."

  6. Endocannabinoid signaling enhances visual responses through modulation of intracellular chloride levels in retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Miraucourt, Loïs S; Tsui, Jennifer; Gobert, Delphine; Desjardins, Jean-François; Schohl, Anne; Sild, Mari; Spratt, Perry; Castonguay, Annie; De Koninck, Yves; Marsh-Armstrong, Nicholas; Wiseman, Paul W; Ruthazer, Edward S

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs) are widely expressed in the vertebrate retina, but the role of endocannabinoids in vision is not fully understood. Here, we identified a novel mechanism underlying a CB1R-mediated increase in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) intrinsic excitability acting through AMPK-dependent inhibition of NKCC1 activity. Clomeleon imaging and patch clamp recordings revealed that inhibition of NKCC1 downstream of CB1R activation reduces intracellular Cl− levels in RGCs, hyperpolarizing the resting membrane potential. We confirmed that such hyperpolarization enhances RGC action potential firing in response to subsequent depolarization, consistent with the increased intrinsic excitability of RGCs observed with CB1R activation. Using a dot avoidance assay in freely swimming Xenopus tadpoles, we demonstrate that CB1R activation markedly improves visual contrast sensitivity under low-light conditions. These results highlight a role for endocannabinoids in vision and present a novel mechanism for cannabinoid modulation of neuronal activity through Cl− regulation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15932.001 PMID:27501334

  7. KRIT1 Regulates the Homeostasis of Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Goitre, Luca; Balzac, Fiorella; Degani, Simona; Degan, Paolo; Marchi, Saverio; Pinton, Paolo; Retta, Saverio Francesco

    2010-01-01

    KRIT1 is a gene responsible for Cerebral Cavernous Malformations (CCM), a major cerebrovascular disease characterized by abnormally enlarged and leaky capillaries that predispose to seizures, focal neurological deficits, and fatal intracerebral hemorrhage. Comprehensive analysis of the KRIT1 gene in CCM patients has suggested that KRIT1 functions need to be severely impaired for pathogenesis. However, the molecular and cellular functions of KRIT1 as well as CCM pathogenesis mechanisms are still research challenges. We found that KRIT1 plays an important role in molecular mechanisms involved in the maintenance of the intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) homeostasis to prevent oxidative cellular damage. In particular, we demonstrate that KRIT1 loss/down-regulation is associated with a significant increase in intracellular ROS levels. Conversely, ROS levels in KRIT1−/− cells are significantly and dose-dependently reduced after restoration of KRIT1 expression. Moreover, we show that the modulation of intracellular ROS levels by KRIT1 loss/restoration is strictly correlated with the modulation of the expression of the antioxidant protein SOD2 as well as of the transcriptional factor FoxO1, a master regulator of cell responses to oxidative stress and a modulator of SOD2 levels. Furthermore, we show that the KRIT1-dependent maintenance of low ROS levels facilitates the downregulation of cyclin D1 expression required for cell transition from proliferative growth to quiescence. Finally, we demonstrate that the enhanced ROS levels in KRIT1−/− cells are associated with an increased cell susceptibility to oxidative DNA damage and a marked induction of the DNA damage sensor and repair gene Gadd45α, as well as with a decline of mitochondrial energy metabolism. Taken together, our results point to a new model where KRIT1 limits the accumulation of intracellular oxidants and prevents oxidative stress-mediated cellular dysfunction and DNA damage by enhancing the

  8. KRIT1 regulates the homeostasis of intracellular reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Goitre, Luca; Balzac, Fiorella; Degani, Simona; Degan, Paolo; Marchi, Saverio; Pinton, Paolo; Retta, Saverio Francesco

    2010-07-26

    KRIT1 is a gene responsible for Cerebral Cavernous Malformations (CCM), a major cerebrovascular disease characterized by abnormally enlarged and leaky capillaries that predispose to seizures, focal neurological deficits, and fatal intracerebral hemorrhage. Comprehensive analysis of the KRIT1 gene in CCM patients has suggested that KRIT1 functions need to be severely impaired for pathogenesis. However, the molecular and cellular functions of KRIT1 as well as CCM pathogenesis mechanisms are still research challenges. We found that KRIT1 plays an important role in molecular mechanisms involved in the maintenance of the intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) homeostasis to prevent oxidative cellular damage. In particular, we demonstrate that KRIT1 loss/down-regulation is associated with a significant increase in intracellular ROS levels. Conversely, ROS levels in KRIT1(-/-) cells are significantly and dose-dependently reduced after restoration of KRIT1 expression. Moreover, we show that the modulation of intracellular ROS levels by KRIT1 loss/restoration is strictly correlated with the modulation of the expression of the antioxidant protein SOD2 as well as of the transcriptional factor FoxO1, a master regulator of cell responses to oxidative stress and a modulator of SOD2 levels. Furthermore, we show that the KRIT1-dependent maintenance of low ROS levels facilitates the downregulation of cyclin D1 expression required for cell transition from proliferative growth to quiescence. Finally, we demonstrate that the enhanced ROS levels in KRIT1(-/-) cells are associated with an increased cell susceptibility to oxidative DNA damage and a marked induction of the DNA damage sensor and repair gene Gadd45alpha, as well as with a decline of mitochondrial energy metabolism. Taken together, our results point to a new model where KRIT1 limits the accumulation of intracellular oxidants and prevents oxidative stress-mediated cellular dysfunction and DNA damage by enhancing the cell

  9. A flow cytometric method for measurement of intracellular chloride concentration in lymphocytes using the halide-specific probe 6-methoxy-N-(3-sulfopropyl) quinolinium (SPQ).

    PubMed

    Pilas, B; Durack, G

    1997-08-01

    A flow cytometry method using the halide-specific fluorescent dye, 6-methoxy-N-(3-sulfopropyl) quinolinium (SPQ), has been developed to measure intracellular chloride concentration in single cells. Collisions with chloride quench the fluorescence of SPQ, making it possible to relate the measured fluorescence intensity to chloride concentration with a Stern-Volmer equation. To demonstrate the method, porcine lymphocytes were loaded in vitro, using a hypotonic method, with 5 mM SPQ. Fluorescence excitation was provided by a UV laser and the fluorescence emission intensity at 485 nm was recorded. Calibration was performed by using 7 microM nigericin (a K/H antiporter) and 10 microM tributyltin (a Cl/OH antiporter) to equilibrate the concentrations of intracellular and extracellular chloride. Calibration measurements were made for chloride concentrations between 0 mM and 140 mM. The calibration produced a Stern-Volmer quenching constant of 16.2 M(-1) which was used to relate measured cell fluorescence to intracellular chloride concentration. The intracellular chloride concentration for fresh porcine lymphocytes was determined to be 56.2 +/- 3.3 mM. Stable loading of cells with 5 mM SPQ was accomplished in 15 minutes, leakage of SPQ from the cells was minimal, and over 95% of the cells remained viable after loading.

  10. Regulation of ClC-2 gating by intracellular ATP.

    PubMed

    Stölting, Gabriel; Teodorescu, Georgeta; Begemann, Birgit; Schubert, Julian; Nabbout, Rima; Toliat, Mohammad Reza; Sander, Thomas; Nürnberg, Peter; Lerche, Holger; Fahlke, Christoph

    2013-10-01

    ClC-2 is a voltage-dependent chloride channel that activates slowly at voltages negative to the chloride reversal potential. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and other nucleotides have been shown to bind to carboxy-terminal cystathionine-ß-synthase (CBS) domains of ClC-2, but the functional consequences of binding are not sufficiently understood. We here studied the effect of nucleotides on channel gating using single-channel and whole-cell patch clamp recordings on transfected mammalian cells. ATP slowed down macroscopic activation and deactivation time courses in a dose-dependent manner. Removal of the complete carboxy-terminus abolishes the effect of ATP, suggesting that CBS domains are necessary for ATP regulation of ClC-2 gating. Single-channel recordings identified long-lasting closed states of ATP-bound channels as basis of this gating deceleration. ClC-2 channel dimers exhibit two largely independent protopores that are opened and closed individually as well as by a common gating process. A seven-state model of common gating with altered voltage dependencies of opening and closing transitions for ATP-bound states correctly describes the effects of ATP on macroscopic and microscopic ClC-2 currents. To test for a potential pathophysiological impact of ClC-2 regulation by ATP, we studied ClC-2 channels carrying naturally occurring sequence variants found in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy, G715E, R577Q, and R653T. All naturally occurring sequence variants accelerate common gating in the presence but not in the absence of ATP. We propose that ClC-2 uses ATP as a co-factor to slow down common gating for sufficient electrical stability of neurons under physiological conditions.

  11. Role of intracellular calcium in cellular volume regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, S.M.; Chase, H.S. Jr.

    1986-06-01

    We investigated the role of intracellular calcium in epithelial cell volume regulation using cells isolated from the toad urinary bladder. A suspension of cells was prepared by treatment of the bladder with collagenase followed by ethyleneglycol-bis(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid. The cells retained their ion-transporting capabilities: ouabain (1 mM) and amiloride (10 microM) inhibited cellular uptake of /sup 86/Rb and /sup 22/Na, respectively. Using a Coulter counter to measure cellular volume, we found that we could swell cells either by reducing the extracellular osmolality or by adding the permeant solute urea (45 mM) isosmotically. Under both conditions, cells first swelled and then returned to their base-line volume, in spite of the continued presence of the stimulus to swell. Volume regulation was inhibited when cells were swelled at low extracellular (Ca) (100 nM) and was retarded in cells preloaded with the calcium buffer quin 2. Swelling increased the intracellular free calcium concentration ((Ca)i), as measured by quin 2 fluorescence: (Ca)i increased 35 +/- 9 nM (n = 6) after hypotonic swelling and 42 +/- 3 nM (n = 3) after urea swelling. Reducing extracellular (Ca) to less than 100 nM prevented the swelling-induced increase in (Ca)i, suggesting that the source of the increase in (Ca)i was extracellular. This result was confirmed in measurements of cellular uptake of 45Ca: the rate of uptake was significantly higher in swollen cells compared with control (1.1 +/- 0.2 vs. 0.4 +/- 0.1 fmol . cell-1 X 5 min-1). Our experiments provide the first demonstration that cellular swelling increases (Ca)i. This increase is likely to play a critical role in cellular volume regulation.

  12. Copper transporter 2 regulates intracellular copper and sensitivity to cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Huang, Carlos P; Fofana, Mariama; Chan, Jefferson; Chang, Christopher J; Howell, Stephen B

    2014-03-01

    Mammalian cells express two copper (Cu) influx transporters, CTR1 and CTR2. CTR1 serves as an influx transporter for both Cu and cisplatin (cDDP). In mouse embryo fibroblasts, reduction of CTR1 expression renders cells resistant to cDDP whereas reduction of CTR2 makes them hypersensitive both in vitro and in vivo. To investigate the role of CTR2 on intracellular Cu and cDDP sensitivity its expression was molecularly altered in the human epithelial 2008 cancer cell model. Intracellular exchangeable Cu(+) was measured with the fluorescent probe Coppersensor-3 (CS3). The ability of CS3 to report on changes in intracellular Cu(+) was validated by showing that Cu chelators reduced its signal, and that changes in signal accompanied alterations in expression of the major Cu influx transporter CTR1 and the two Cu efflux transporters, ATP7A and ATP7B. Constitutive knock down of CTR2 mRNA by ∼50% reduced steady-state exchangeable Cu by 22-23% and increased the sensitivity of 2008 cells by a factor of 2.6-2.9 in two separate clones. Over-expression of CTR2 increased exchangeable Cu(+) by 150% and rendered the 2008 cells 2.5-fold resistant to cDDP. The results provide evidence that CS3 can quantitatively assess changes in exchangeable Cu(+), and that CTR2 regulates both the level of exchangeable Cu(+) and sensitivity to cDDP in a model of human epithelial cancer. This study introduces CS3 and related sensors as novel tools for probing and assaying Cu-dependent sensitivity to anticancer therapeutics.

  13. Intracellular Energetic Units regulate metabolism in cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Saks, Valdur; Kuznetsov, Andrey V; Gonzalez-Granillo, Marcela; Tepp, Kersti; Timohhina, Natalja; Karu-Varikmaa, Minna; Kaambre, Tuuli; Dos Santos, Pierre; Boucher, François; Guzun, Rita

    2012-02-01

    This review describes developments in historical perspective as well as recent results of investigations of cellular mechanisms of regulation of energy fluxes and mitochondrial respiration by cardiac work - the metabolic aspect of the Frank-Starling law of the heart. A Systems Biology solution to this problem needs the integration of physiological and biochemical mechanisms that take into account intracellular interactions of mitochondria with other cellular systems, in particular with cytoskeleton components. Recent data show that different tubulin isotypes are involved in the regular arrangement exhibited by mitochondria and ATP-consuming systems into Intracellular Energetic Units (ICEUs). Beta II tubulin association with the mitochondrial outer membrane, when co-expressed with mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) specifically limits the permeability of voltage-dependent anion channel for adenine nucleotides. In the MtCK reaction this interaction changes the regulatory kinetics of respiration through a decrease in the affinity for adenine nucleotides and an increase in the affinity for creatine. Metabolic Control Analysis of the coupled MtCK-ATP Synthasome in permeabilized cardiomyocytes showed a significant increase in flux control by steps involved in ADP recycling. Mathematical modeling of compartmentalized energy transfer represented by ICEUs shows that cyclic changes in local ADP, Pi, phosphocreatine and creatine concentrations during contraction cycle represent effective metabolic feedback signals when amplified in the coupled non-equilibrium MtCK-ATP Synthasome reactions in mitochondria. This mechanism explains the regulation of respiration on beat to beat basis during workload changes under conditions of metabolic stability. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Local Signaling in Myocytes."

  14. WNK2 Kinase Is a Novel Regulator of Essential Neuronal Cation-Chloride Cotransporters*

    PubMed Central

    Rinehart, Jesse; Vázquez, Norma; Kahle, Kristopher T.; Hodson, Caleb A.; Ring, Aaron M.; Gulcicek, Erol E.; Louvi, Angeliki; Bobadilla, Norma A.; Gamba, Gerardo; Lifton, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    NKCC1 and KCC2, related cation-chloride cotransporters (CCC), regulate cell volume and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic neurotranmission by modulating the intracellular concentration of chloride [Cl−]. These CCCs are oppositely regulated by serine-threonine phosphorylation, which activates NKCC1 but inhibits KCC2. The kinase(s) that performs this function in the nervous system are not known with certainty. WNK1 and WNK4, members of the WNK (with no lysine [K]) kinase family, either directly or via the downstream SPAK/OSR1 Ste20-type kinases, regulate the furosemide-sensitive NKCC2 and the thiazide-sensitive NCC, kidney-specific CCCs. What role the novel WNK2 kinase plays in this regulatory cascade, if any, is unknown. Here, we show that WNK2, unlike other WNKs, is not expressed in kidney; rather, it is a neuron-enriched kinase primarily expressed in neocortical pyramidal cells, thalamic relay cells, and cerebellar granule and Purkinje cells in both the developing and adult brain. Bumetanide-sensitive and Cl−-dependent 86Rb+ uptake assays in Xenopus laevis oocytes revealed that WNK2 promotes Cl− accumulation by reciprocally activating NKCC1 and inhibiting KCC2 in a kinase-dependent manner, effectively bypassing normal tonicity requirements for cotransporter regulation. TiO2 enrichment and tandem mass spectrometry studies demonstrate WNK2 forms a protein complex in the mammalian brain with SPAK, a known phosphoregulator of NKCC1. In this complex, SPAK is phosphorylated at Ser-383, a consensus WNK recognition site. These findings suggest a role for WNK2 in the regulation of CCCs in the mammalian brain, with implications for both cell volume regulation and/or GABAergic signaling. PMID:21733846

  15. Niflumic acid inhibits chloride conductance of rat skeletal muscle by directly inhibiting the CLC-1 channel and by increasing intracellular calcium

    PubMed Central

    Liantonio, A; Giannuzzi, V; Picollo, A; Babini, E; Pusch, M; Conte Camerino, D

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Given the crucial role of the skeletal muscle chloride conductance (gCl), supported by the voltage-gated chloride channel CLC-1, in controlling muscle excitability, the availability of ligands modulating CLC-1 are of potential medical as well as toxicological importance. Here, we focused our attention on niflumic acid (NFA), a molecule belonging to the fenamates group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Experimental approach: Rat muscle Cl− conductance (gCl) and heterologously expressed CLC-1 currents were evaluated by means of current-clamp (using two-microelectrodes) and patch-clamp techniques, respectively. Fura-2 fluorescence was used to determine intracellular calcium concentration, [Ca2+]i, in native muscle fibres. Key results: NFA inhibited native gCl with an IC50 of 42 μM and blocked CLC-1 by interacting with an intracellular binding site. Additionally, NFA increased basal [Ca2+]i in myofibres by promoting a mitochondrial calcium efflux that was not dependent on cyclooxygenase or CLC-1. A structure-activity study revealed that the molecular conditions that mediate the two effects are different. Pretreatment with the Ca-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrine partially inhibited the NFA effect. Therefore, in addition to direct channel block, NFA also inhibits gCl indirectly by promoting PKC activation. Conclusions and Implications: These cellular effects of NFA on skeletal muscle demonstrate that it is possible to modify CLC-1 and consequently gCl directly by interacting with channel proteins and indirectly by interfering with the calcium-dependent regulation of the channel. The effect of NFA on mitochondrial calcium stores suggests that NSAIDs, widely used drugs, could have potentially dangerous side-effects. PMID:17128287

  16. Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme inhibitor 2 regulates intracellular vesicle trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Kanerva, Kristiina; Maekitie, Laura T.; Baeck, Nils; Andersson, Leif C.

    2010-07-01

    Antizyme inhibitor 1 (AZIN1) and 2 (AZIN2) are proteins that activate ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the key enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis. Both AZINs release ODC from its inactive complex with antizyme (AZ), leading to formation of the catalytically active ODC. The ubiquitously expressed AZIN1 is involved in cell proliferation and transformation whereas the role of the recently found AZIN2 in cellular functions is unknown. Here we report the intracellular localization of AZIN2 and present novel evidence indicating that it acts as a regulator of vesicle trafficking. We used immunostaining to demonstrate that both endogenous and FLAG-tagged AZIN2 localize to post-Golgi vesicles of the secretory pathway. Immuno-electron microscopy revealed that the vesicles associate mainly with the trans-Golgi network (TGN). RNAi-mediated knockdown of AZIN2 or depletion of cellular polyamines caused selective fragmentation of the TGN and retarded the exocytotic release of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. Exogenous addition of polyamines normalized the morphological changes and reversed the inhibition of protein secretion. Our findings demonstrate that AZIN2 regulates the transport of secretory vesicles by locally activating ODC and polyamine biosynthesis.

  17. Acute effects of mercuric chloride on intracellular GSH levels and mercury distribution in the fish Oreochromic aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, P.; Min, S.Y.; Keong, W.M.

    1988-02-01

    In recent years there has been much interest in the effects of trace metals on intracellular levels of reduced glutathione (GSH). Most of the research has been performed on rats. As GSH is ubiquitous in living organisms it is of interest to establish a relationship between mercury intoxication and intracellular GSH levels in fish; especially as fish living in rivers and coastal areas are often expose to mercury as an aquatic pollutant. The role of GSH in fish trace metal toxicity has not been thoroughly investigated. The distribution of total glutathione (oxidized + reduced) in selected black sea bass organs seems to follow the established pattern for mammalian organs. Thus, it would appear that teleostian and mammalian glutathione metabolism may have many similarities. There are few reports concerning the effects of mercury during the first few hours of exposure. The aim of this investigation is to establish any changes in organ GSH and mercury levels following just 2 h exposure to mercuric chloride (HgCl/sub 2/).

  18. IQGAP1: A Regulator of Intracellular Spacetime Relativity

    PubMed Central

    Malarkannan, Subramaniam; Awasthi, Aradhana; Kamalakannan, Rajasekaran; Kumar, Pawan; Schuldt, Kristina M; Bartoszek, Allison; Manoharan, Niranjan; Goldner, Nicholas K; Umhoefer, Colleen M; Thakar, Monica S

    2012-01-01

    Activating and inhibiting receptors of lymphocytes collect valuable information about their mikròs kósmos. This information is essential to initiate or to turn off complex signaling pathways. Irrespective of these advances, our knowledge on how these intracellular activation cascades are coordinated in a spatiotemporal manner is far from complete. Amongst multiple explanations, the scaffolding proteins have emerged as a critical piece of this evolutionary tangram. Amongst many, IQGAP1 is one of the essential scaffolding proteins that coordinate multiple signaling pathways. IQGAP1 possesses multiple protein interaction motifs to achieve its scaffolding functions. Using these domains, IQGAP1 has been shown to regulate a number of essential cellular events. This includes actin polymerization, tubulin multimerization, MTOC formation, calcium/calmodulin signaling, Pak/Raf/Mek1/2-mediated Erk1/2 activation, formation of maestrosome, E-cadherin and CD44-mediated signaling and GSK3/APC-mediated β-catenin activation. In this review we summarize the recent developments and exciting new findings of cellular functions of IQGAP1. PMID:22345702

  19. Hydrodynamic Regulation of Monocyte Inflammatory Response to an Intracellular Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Evani, Shankar J.; Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Mareedu, Naresh; Montgomery, Robbie K.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.

    2011-01-01

    Systemic bacterial infections elicit inflammatory response that promotes acute or chronic complications such as sepsis, arthritis or atherosclerosis. Of interest, cells in circulation experience hydrodynamic shear forces, which have been shown to be a potent regulator of cellular function in the vasculature and play an important role in maintaining tissue homeostasis. In this study, we have examined the effect of shear forces due to blood flow in modulating the inflammatory response of cells to infection. Using an in vitro model, we analyzed the effects of physiological levels of shear stress on the inflammatory response of monocytes infected with chlamydia, an intracellular pathogen which causes bronchitis and is implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. We found that chlamydial infection alters the morphology of monocytes and trigger the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6. We also found that the exposure of chlamydia-infected monocytes to short durations of arterial shear stress significantly enhances the secretion of cytokines in a time-dependent manner and the expression of surface adhesion molecule ICAM-1. As a functional consequence, infection and shear stress increased monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells under flow and in the activation and aggregation of platelets. Overall, our study demonstrates that shear stress enhances the inflammatory response of monocytes to infection, suggesting that mechanical forces may contribute to disease pathophysiology. These results provide a novel perspective on our understanding of systemic infection and inflammation. PMID:21249123

  20. IQGAP1: a regulator of intracellular spacetime relativity.

    PubMed

    Malarkannan, Subramaniam; Awasthi, Aradhana; Rajasekaran, Kamalakannan; Kumar, Pawan; Schuldt, Kristina M; Bartoszek, Allison; Manoharan, Niranjan; Goldner, Nicholas K; Umhoefer, Colleen M; Thakar, Monica S

    2012-03-01

    Activating and inhibiting receptors of lymphocytes collect valuable information about their mikròs kósmos. This information is essential to initiate or to turn off complex signaling pathways. Irrespective of these advances, our knowledge on how these intracellular activation cascades are coordinated in a spatiotemporal manner is far from complete. Among multiple explanations, the scaffolding proteins have emerged as a critical piece of this evolutionary tangram. Among many, IQGAP1 is one of the essential scaffolding proteins that coordinate multiple signaling pathways. IQGAP1 possesses multiple protein interaction motifs to achieve its scaffolding functions. Using these domains, IQGAP1 has been shown to regulate a number of essential cellular events. This includes actin polymerization, tubulin multimerization, microtubule organizing center formation, calcium/calmodulin signaling, Pak/Raf/Mek1/2-mediated Erk1/2 activation, formation of maestrosome, E-cadherin, and CD44-mediated signaling and glycogen synthase kinase-3/adenomatous polyposis coli-mediated β-catenin activation. In this review, we summarize the recent developments and exciting new findings of cellular functions of IQGAP1.

  1. Intracellular pH regulation during spreading of human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The regulation of the intracelluar pH (pHi) during spreading of human neutrophils was studied by a combination of fluorescence imaging and video microscopy. Spreading on adhesive substrates caused a rapid and sustained cytosolic alkalinization. This pHi increase was prevented by the omission of external Na+, suggesting that it results from the activation of Na+/H+ exchange. Spreading-induced alkalinization was also precluded by the compound HOE 694 at concentrations that selectively block the NHE-1 isoform of the Na+H+ antiporter. Inhibition of Na+/H+ exchange by either procedure unmasked a sizable cytosolic acidification upon spreading, indicative of intracellular acid production. The excess acid generation was caused, at least in part, by the activation of the respiratory burst, since the acidification closely correlated with superoxide production, measured in single spreading neutrophils with dihydrorhodamine-123, and little acid production was observed in the presence of diphenylene iodonium, a blocker of the NADPH oxidase. Moreover, neutrophils from chronic granulomatous disease patients, which do not produce superoxide, failed to acidify. Comparable pHi changes were observed when beta 2 integrins were selectively activated during spreading on surfaces coated with anti-CD18 antibodies. When integrin engagement was precluded by pretreatment with soluble anti-CD18 antibody, the pHi changes associated with spreading on fibrinogen were markedly reduced. Inhibition of microfilament assembly with cytochalasin D precluded spreading and concomitantly abolished superoxide production and the associated pHi changes, indicating that cytoskeletal reorganization and/or an increase in the number of adherence receptors engaged are required for the responses. Neutrophils spread normally when the oxidase was blocked or when pHi was clamped near physiological values with nigericin. Spreading, however, was strongly inhibited when pHi was clamped at acidic values. Our results

  2. Altered expression of regulators of the cortical chloride transporters NKCC1 and KCC2 in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Arion, Dominique; Lewis, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Context Disturbances in markers of cortical GABA neurotransmission are a common finding in schizophrenia. The nature of GABA neurotransmission (hyperpolarizing or depolarizing) depends on the local intracellular Cl− concentration. In the central nervous system, the intracellular Cl− level is determined by the activity of two cation-chloride transporters, NKCC1 and KCC2. The activities of these transporters are in turn regulated by a network of serine-threonine kinases that includes OXSR1, STK39 and the WNK kinases WNK1, 3 and 4. Objective To compare the levels of NKCC1, KCC2, OXSR1, STK39, WNK1, WNK3 and WNK4 transcripts in prefrontal cortex area 9 between schizophrenia and normal comparison subjects. Design Real-time qPCR technique was used to measure transcript levels in prefrontal cortex. Setting Human brain specimens were obtained from autopsies conducted at the Allegheny County Medical Examiner’s Office, Pittsburgh, PA. Participants Postmortem brain specimens from 42 subjects with schizophrenia and 42 matched normal comparison subjects. Brain specimens from 18 macaque monkeys chronically exposed to haloperidol, olanzapine, or sham. Main outcome measures Relative expression levels for NKCC1, KCC2, OXSR1, STK39, WNK1, WNK3 and WNK4 transcripts compared to the mean expression level of three housekeeping transcripts. Results OXSR1 and WNK3 transcripts were substantially over-expressed in schizophrenia relative to comparison subjects. In contrast, NKCC1, KCC2, STK39, WNK1 and WNK4 transcript levels did not differ between subject groups. OXSR1 and WNK3 transcript expression levels were not changed in antipsychotic-exposed monkeys and were not affected by potential confounding factors in the subjects with schizophrenia. Conclusions In schizophrenia, increased expression levels, and possibly increased kinase activities, of OXSR1 and WNK3 may shift the balance of chloride transport by NKCC1 and KCC2 and alter the nature of GABA neurotransmission in the prefrontal

  3. [Polymethoxylated flavonoids activate cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel].

    PubMed

    Cao, Huan-Huan; Fang, Fang; Yu, Bo; Luan, Jian; Jiang, Yu; Yang, Hong

    2015-04-25

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-dependent chloride channel, plays key roles in fluid secretion in serous epithelial cells. Previously, we identified two polymethoxylated flavonoids, 3',4',5,5',6,7-hexamethoxyflavone (HMF) and 5-hydroxy-6,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (HTF) which could potentiate CFTR chloride channel activities. The present study was aimed to investigate the potentiation effects of HMF and HTF on CFTR Cl(-) channel activities by using a cell-based fluorescence assay and the short circuit Ussing chamber assay. The results of cell-based fluorescence assay showed that both HMF and HTF could dose-dependently potentiate CFTR Cl(-) channel activities in rapid and reversible ways, and the activations could be reversed by the CFTR blocker CFTRinh-172. Notably, HMF showed the highest affinity (EC50 = 2 μmol/L) to CFTR protein among the flavonoid CFTR activators identified so far. The activation of CFTR by HMF or HTF was forskolin (FSK) dependent. Both compounds showed additive effect with FSK and 3-Isobutyl-1-methylx (IBMX) in the activation of CFTR, while had no additive effect with genistein (GEN). In ex vivo studies, HMF and HTF could stimulate transepithelial Cl(-) secretion in rat colonic mucosa and enhance fluid secretion in mouse trachea submucosal glands. These results suggest that HMF and HTF may potentiate CFTR Cl(-) channel activities through both elevation of cAMP level and binding to CFTR protein pathways. The results provide new clues in elucidating structure and activity relationship of flavonoid CFTR activators. HMF might be developed as a new drug in the therapy of CFTR-related diseases such as bronchiectasis and habitual constipation.

  4. NHE1 is the sodium-hydrogen exchanger active in acute intracellular pH regulation in preimplantation mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Siyanov, Violetta; Baltz, Jay M

    2013-06-01

    Sodium-hydrogen exchangers (NHE) of the Slc9 gene family are the major regulators of intracellular pH against acidosis in mammalian cells. Of five plasma membrane NHE isoforms, mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryos express mRNAs encoding NHE1 (SLC9A1), NHE3 (SLC9A3), and NHE4 (SLC9A4), with higher mRNA levels for each in oocytes through one-cell stage embryos and lower levels after the two-cell stage. NHE2 (SLC9A2) and NHE5 (SLC9A5) are not expressed. Measurements of intracellular pH during recovery from induced acidosis indicated that recovery occurred via NHE activity at all preimplantation stages assessed (one-cell, two-cell, eight-cell and morula). Recovery from acidosis at each stage was entirely inhibited by cariporide, which is very highly selective for NHE1. In contrast, the moderately NHE3-selective inhibitor S3226 did not preferentially block recovery, nor did adding S3226 increase inhibition over cariporide alone, indicating that NHE3 did not play a role. There was no indication of NHE4 activity. Another regulator of intracellular pH against acidosis, the sodium-dependent bicarbonate/chloride exchanger (NDBCE; SLC4A8), had low or absent activity in two-cell embryos. Thus, NHE1 appears to be the only significant regulator of intracellular pH in preimplantation mouse embryos. Culturing embryos from the one-cell or two-cell stages in acidotic medium inhibited their development. Unexpectedly, inhibition of NHE1 with cariporide, NDBCE with DIDS, or both together did not affect embryo development to the blastocyst stage more substantially under conditions of chronic acidosis than at normal pH. Preimplantation mouse embryos thus appear to have limited capacity to resist chronic acidosis using intracellular pH regulatory mechanisms.

  5. A new solid-state microelectrode for measuring intracellular chloride activities.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, W M; Wojtkowski, W; Bixenman, W R

    1977-02-14

    Solid-state microelectrodes from measuring intracellular Cl activity (alphaiCl) were made by sealing the tips of tapered glass capillaries (tip diameter 0.3 mum), coating them under vacuum with a 0.2-0.3 mum thick layer of spectrscopic grade silver, and sealing them (except for the terminal 2-5 mum of the tip) inside tapered glass shields. 106 microelectrodes had an average slope of 55.0+/- 0.6 m V (S,E,) per decade c hange in alphaCl. Tip resistance was (77.1+/- 3.1) x 10(9) omega(n=30). Electrode response was rapid (10-20 s), was unaffected by HCO3, H2PO4, HPO42 or protein, and remained essentially unchanged over a 24-h period. AlphaiCl in frog sartorius muscle fibers and epithelial cells of bullfrog small intestine was measured in vitro. In both tissues, alphaiCl significantly exceeded the value corresponding to equlibrium ditribution of Cl across the cell membrane.

  6. Protein isoform-specific validation defines multiple chloride intracellular channel and tropomyosin isoforms as serological biomarkers of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hsin-Yao; Beer, Lynn A; Tanyi, Janos L; Zhang, Rugang; Liu, Qin; Speicher, David W

    2013-08-26

    New serological biomarkers for early detection and clinical management of ovarian cancer are urgently needed, and many candidates have been reported. A major challenge frequently encountered when validating candidates in patients is establishing quantitative assays that distinguish between highly homologous proteins. The current study tested whether multiple members of two recently discovered ovarian cancer biomarker protein families, chloride intracellular channel (CLIC) proteins and tropomyosins (TPM), were detectable in ovarian cancer patient sera. A multiplexed, label-free multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) assay was established to target peptides specific to all detected CLIC and TPM family members, and their serum levels were quantitated for ovarian cancer patients and non-cancer controls. In addition to CLIC1 and TPM1, which were the proteins initially discovered in a xenograft mouse model, CLIC4, TPM2, TPM3, and TPM4 were present in ovarian cancer patient sera at significantly elevated levels compared with controls. Some of the additional biomarkers identified in this homolog-centric verification and validation approach may be superior to the previously identified biomarkers at discriminating between ovarian cancer and non-cancer patients. This demonstrates the importance of considering all potential protein homologs and using quantitative assays for cancer biomarker validation with well-defined isoform specificity. This manuscript addresses the importance of distinguishing between protein homologs and isoforms when identifying and validating cancer biomarkers in plasma or serum. Specifically, it describes the use of targeted in-depth LC-MS/MS analysis to determine the members of two protein families, chloride intracellular channel (CLIC) and tropomyosin (TPM) proteins that are detectable in sera of ovarian cancer patients. It then establishes a multiplexed isoform- and homology-specific MRM assay to quantify all observed gene products in these two protein

  7. Regulating Intracellular Calcium in Plants: From Molecular Genetics to Physiology

    SciTech Connect

    Heven Sze

    2008-06-22

    To grow, develop, adapt, and reproduce, plants have evolved mechanisms to regulate the uptake, translocation and sorting of calcium ions into different cells and subcellular compartments. Yet how plants accomplish this remarkable feat is still poorly understood. The spatial and temporal changes in intracellular [Ca2+] during growth and during responses to hormonal and environmental stimuli indicate that Ca2+ influx and efflux transporters are diverse and tightly regulated in plants. The specific goals were to determine the biological roles of multiple Ca pumps (ECAs) in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We had pioneered the use of K616 yeast strain to functionally express plant Ca pumps, and demonstrated two distinct types of Ca pumps in plants (Sze et al., 2000. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 51,433). ACA2 represented one type that was auto-inhibited by the N-terminal region and stimulated by calmodulin. ECA1 represented another type that was not sensitive to calmodulin and phylogenetically distinct from ACAs. The goal to determine the biological roles of multiple ECA-type Ca pumps in Arabidopsis has been accomplished. Although we demonstrated ECA1 was a Ca pump by functional expression in yeast, the in vivo roles of ECAs was unclear. A few highlights are described. ECA1 and/or ECA4 are Ca/Mn pumps localized to the ER and are highly expressed in all cell types. Using homozygous T-DNA insertional mutants of eca1, we demonstrated that the ER-bound ECA1 supports growth and confers tolerance of plants growing on medium low in Ca or containing toxic levels of Mn. This is the first genetic study to determine the in vivo function of a Ca pump in plants. A phylogenetically distinct ECA3 is also a Ca/Mn pump that is localized to endosome, such as post-Golgi compartments. Although it is expressed at lower levels than ECA1, eca3 mutants are impaired in Ca-dependent root growth and in pollen tube elongation. Increased secretion of wall proteins in mutants suggests that Ca and Mn

  8. Regulation of CFTR chloride channel macroscopic conductance by extracellular bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Li, Man-Song; Holstead, Ryan G; Wang, Wuyang; Linsdell, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The CFTR contributes to Cl⁻ and HCO₃⁻ transport across epithelial cell apical membranes. The extracellular face of CFTR is exposed to varying concentrations of Cl⁻ and HCO₃⁻ in epithelial tissues, and there is evidence that CFTR is sensitive to changes in extracellular anion concentrations. Here we present functional evidence that extracellular Cl⁻ and HCO₃⁻ regulate anion conduction in open CFTR channels. Using cell-attached and inside-out patch-clamp recordings from constitutively active mutant E1371Q-CFTR channels, we show that voltage-dependent inhibition of CFTR currents in intact cells is significantly stronger when the extracellular solution contains HCO₃⁻ than when it contains Cl⁻. This difference appears to reflect differences in the ability of extracellular HCO₃⁻ and Cl⁻ to interact with and repel intracellular blocking anions from the pore. Strong block by endogenous cytosolic anions leading to reduced CFTR channel currents in intact cells occurs at physiologically relevant HCO₃⁻ concentrations and membrane potentials and can result in up to ∼50% inhibition of current amplitude. We propose that channel block by cytosolic anions is a previously unrecognized, physiologically relevant mechanism of channel regulation that confers on CFTR channels sensitivity to different anions in the extracellular fluid. We further suggest that this anion sensitivity represents a feedback mechanism by which CFTR-dependent anion secretion could be regulated by the composition of the secretions themselves. Implications for the mechanism and regulation of CFTR-dependent secretion in epithelial tissues are discussed.

  9. Antagonists of the TMEM16A Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Modulate Airway Smooth Muscle Tone and Intracellular Calcium

    PubMed Central

    Danielsson, Jennifer; Perez-Zoghbi, Jose; Bernstein, Kyra; Barajas, Matthew B.; Zhang, Yi; Kumar, Satish; Sharma, Pawan K.; Gallos, George; Emala, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Perioperative bronchospasm refractory to β-agonists continues to challenge anesthesiologists and intensivists. The TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel modulates airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction. We hypothesized that TMEM16A antagonists would relax ASM contraction by modulating membrane potential and calcium flux. Methods Human ASM, guinea pig tracheal rings or mouse peripheral airways were contracted with acetylcholine (Ach) or leukotriene D4 (LTD4) and then treated with the TMEM16A antagonists: benzbromarone, T16Ainh-A01, MONNA or B25. In separate studies, guinea pig tracheal rings were contracted with Ach and then exposed to increasing concentrations of isoproterenol (0.01nM-10μM) ± benzbromarone. Plasma membrane potential and intracellular calcium concentrations were measured in human ASM cells. Results Benzbromarone was the most potent TMEM16A antagonist tested for relaxing an Ach-induced contraction in guinea pig tracheal rings (n=6). Further studies were done to investigate benzbromarone’s clinical utility. In human ASM, benzbromarone relaxed either an acetylcholine- or LTD4-induced contraction (n=8). Benzbromarone was also effective in relaxing peripheral airways (n=9) and potentiating relaxation by β-agonists (n=5–10). In cellular mechanistic studies, benzbromarone hyperpolarized human ASM cells (n=9–12) and attenuated intracellular calcium flux from both the plasma membrane and sarcoplasmic reticulum (n=6–12). Conclusions TMEM16A antagonists work synergistically with β-agonists and through a novel pathway of interrupting ion flux both at the plasma membrane and sarcoplasmic reticulum to acutely relax human airway smooth muscle. PMID:26181339

  10. Intracellular calcium levels can regulate Importin-dependent nuclear import

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Ly-Huynh, Jennifer D.; Jans, David A.

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • High intracellular calcium inhibits Impα/β1- or Impβ1-dependent nuclear protein import. • The effect of Ca{sup 2+} on nuclear import does not relate to changes in the nuclear pore. • High intracellular calcium can result in mislocalisation of Impβ1, Ran and RCC1. - Abstract: We previously showed that increased intracellular calcium can modulate Importin (Imp)β1-dependent nuclear import of SRY-related chromatin remodeling proteins. Here we extend this work to show for the first time that high intracellular calcium inhibits Impα/β1- or Impβ1-dependent nuclear protein import generally. The basis of this relates to the mislocalisation of the transport factors Impβ1 and Ran, which show significantly higher nuclear localization in contrast to various other factors, and RCC1, which shows altered subnuclear localisation. The results here establish for the first time that intracellular calcium modulates conventional nuclear import through direct effects on the nuclear transport machinery.

  11. Metabolic regulation of neutrophil spreading, membrane tubulovesicular extensions (cytonemes) formation and intracellular pH upon adhesion to fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Galkina, Svetlana I; Sud'ina, Galina F; Klein, Thomas

    2006-08-01

    Circulating leukocytes have a round cell shape and roll along vessel walls. However, metabolic disorders can lead them to adhere to the endothelium and spread (flatten). We studied the metabolic regulation of adhesion, spreading and intracellular pH (pHi) of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes) upon adhesion to fibronectin-coated substrata. Resting neutrophils adhered and spread on fibronectin. An increase in pHi accompanied neutrophil spreading. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation or inhibition of P- and F-type ATPases affected neither neutrophil spreading nor pHi. Inhibition of glucose metabolism or V-ATPase impaired neutrophil spreading, blocked the increase in the pHi and induced extrusion of membrane tubulovesicular extensions (cytonemes), anchoring cells to substrata. Omission of extracellular Na(+) and inhibition of chloride channels caused a similar effect. We propose that these tubulovesicular extensions represent protrusions of exocytotic trafficking, supplying the plasma membrane of neutrophils with ion exchange mechanisms and additional membrane for spreading. Glucose metabolism and V-type ATPase could affect fusion of exocytotic trafficking with the plasma membrane, thus controlling neutrophil adhesive state and pHi. Cl(-) efflux through chloride channels and Na(+) influx seem to be involved in the regulation of the V-ATPase by carrying out charge compensation for the proton-pumping activity and through V-ATPase in regulation of neutrophil spreading and pHi.

  12. Metabolic regulation of neutrophil spreading, membrane tubulovesicular extensions (cytonemes) formation and intracellular pH upon adhesion to fibronectin

    SciTech Connect

    Galkina, Svetlana I. . E-mail: galkina@genebee.msu.su; Sud'ina, Galina F.; Klein, Thomas

    2006-08-01

    Circulating leukocytes have a round cell shape and roll along vessel walls. However, metabolic disorders can lead them to adhere to the endothelium and spread (flatten). We studied the metabolic regulation of adhesion, spreading and intracellular pH (pHi) of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes) upon adhesion to fibronectin-coated substrata. Resting neutrophils adhered and spread on fibronectin. An increase in pHi accompanied neutrophil spreading. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation or inhibition of P- and F-type ATPases affected neither neutrophil spreading nor pHi. Inhibition of glucose metabolism or V-ATPase impaired neutrophil spreading, blocked the increase in the pHi and induced extrusion of membrane tubulovesicular extensions (cytonemes), anchoring cells to substrata. Omission of extracellular Na{sup +} and inhibition of chloride channels caused a similar effect. We propose that these tubulovesicular extensions represent protrusions of exocytotic trafficking, supplying the plasma membrane of neutrophils with ion exchange mechanisms and additional membrane for spreading. Glucose metabolism and V-type ATPase could affect fusion of exocytotic trafficking with the plasma membrane, thus controlling neutrophil adhesive state and pHi. Cl{sup -} efflux through chloride channels and Na{sup +} influx seem to be involved in the regulation of the V-ATPase by carrying out charge compensation for the proton-pumping activity and through V-ATPase in regulation of neutrophil spreading and pHi.

  13. Regulation of Intracellular Free Calcium in Neuronal Cells by Opioids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-06-19

    receptor antagonists, 7-benzylidene naltrexone (BNTX; 01)’ and naltriben (NTB; 02), were used to characterize further the subtype of o-receptors that...Specific Opioid Binding to Neuroblastoma x Dorsal Root Ganglion Neuone Hybrid Cell Lines . . .. .. . . . .... . Effect of Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and Low ...NTB NTI U69593 TMB-S antisense oligonucleotide maximum density of binding sites 7 -benzylidene naltrexone intracellular free calcium

  14. Structural dynamics of soluble chloride intracellular channel protein CLIC1 examined by amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Stoychev, Stoyan H; Nathaniel, Christos; Fanucchi, Sylvia; Brock, Melissa; Li, Sheng; Asmus, Kyle; Woods, Virgil L; Dirr, Heini W

    2009-09-08

    Chloride intracellular channel protein 1 (CLIC1) functions as an anion channel in plasma and nuclear membranes when its soluble monomeric form converts to an integral-membrane form. The transmembrane region of CLIC1 is located in its thioredoxin-like domain 1, but the mechanism whereby the protein converts to its membrane conformation has yet to be determined. Since channel formation in membranes is enhanced at low pH (5 to 5.5), a condition that is found at the surface of membranes, the structural dynamics of soluble CLIC1 was studied at pH 7 and at pH 5.5 in the absence of membranes by amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (DXMS). Rapid hydrogen exchange data indicate that CLIC1 displays a similar core structure at these pH values. Domain 1 is less stable than the all-helical domain 2, and, while the structure of domain 1 remains intact, its conformational flexibility is further increased in an acidic environment (pH 5.5). In the absence of membrane, an acidic environment appears to prime the solution structure of CLIC1 by destabilizing domain 1 in order to lower the activation energy barrier for its conversion to the membrane-insertion conformation. The significantly enhanced H/D-exchange rates at pH 5.5 displayed by two segments (peptides 11-31 and 68-82) could be due to the protonation of acidic residues in salt bridges. One of these segments (peptide 11-31) includes part of the transmembrane region which, in the solution structure, consists of helix alpha1. This helix is intrinsically stable and is most likely retained in the membrane conformation. Strand beta2, another element of the transmembrane region, displays a propensity to form a helical structure and has putative N- and C-capping motifs, suggesting that it too most likely forms a helix in a lipid bilayer.

  15. Reversibly Bound Chloride in the Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Receptor Hormone Binding Domain: Possible Allosteric Regulation and a Conserved Structural Motif for the Chloride-binding Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, H.; Qiu, Y; Philo, J; Arakawa, T; Ogata, C; Misono, K

    2010-01-01

    The binding of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) to its receptor requires chloride, and it is chloride concentration dependent. The extracellular domain (ECD) of the ANP receptor (ANPR) contains a chloride near the ANP-binding site, suggesting a possible regulatory role. The bound chloride, however, is completely buried in the polypeptide fold, and its functional role has remained unclear. Here, we have confirmed that chloride is necessary for ANP binding to the recombinant ECD or the full-length ANPR expressed in CHO cells. ECD without chloride (ECD(-)) did not bind ANP. Its binding activity was fully restored by bromide or chloride addition. A new X-ray structure of the bromide-bound ECD is essentially identical to that of the chloride-bound ECD. Furthermore, bromide atoms are localized at the same positions as chloride atoms both in the apo and in the ANP-bound structures, indicating exchangeable and reversible halide binding. Far-UV CD and thermal unfolding data show that ECD(-) largely retains the native structure. Sedimentation equilibrium in the absence of chloride shows that ECD(-) forms a strongly associated dimer, possibly preventing the structural rearrangement of the two monomers that is necessary for ANP binding. The primary and tertiary structures of the chloride-binding site in ANPR are highly conserved among receptor-guanylate cyclases and metabotropic glutamate receptors. The chloride-dependent ANP binding, reversible chloride binding, and the highly conserved chloride-binding site motif suggest a regulatory role for the receptor bound chloride. Chloride-dependent regulation of ANPR may operate in the kidney, modulating ANP-induced natriuresis.

  16. Intracellular Peptides as Natural Regulators of Cell Signaling*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Fernanda M.; Berti, Denise A.; Ferreira, Zulma S.; Klitzke, Clécio F.; Markus, Regina P.; Ferro, Emer S.

    2008-01-01

    Protein degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system releases large amounts of oligopeptides within cells. To investigate possible functions for these intracellularly generated oligopeptides, we fused them to a cationic transactivator peptide sequence using reversible disulfide bonds, introduced them into cells, and analyzed their effect on G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signal transduction. A mixture containing four of these peptides (20–80 μm) significantly inhibited the increase in the extracellular acidification response triggered by angiotensin II (ang II) in CHO-S cells transfected with the ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R-CHO-S). Subsequently, either alone or in a mixture, these peptides increased luciferase gene transcription in AT1R CHO-S cells stimulated with ang II and in HEK293 cells treated with isoproterenol. These peptides without transactivator failed to affect GPCR cellular responses. All four functional peptides were shown in vitro to competitively inhibit the degradation of a synthetic substrate by thimet oligopeptidase. Overexpression of thimet oligopeptidase in both CHO-S and HEK293 cells was sufficient to reduce luciferase activation triggered by a specific GPCR agonist. Moreover, using individual peptides as baits in affinity columns, several proteins involved in GPCR signaling were identified, including α-adaptin A and dynamin 1. These results suggest that before their complete degradation, intracellular peptides similar to those generated by proteasomes can actively affect cell signaling, probably representing additional bioactive molecules within cells. PMID:18617518

  17. Intracellular peptides as natural regulators of cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Fernanda M; Berti, Denise A; Ferreira, Zulma S; Klitzke, Clécio F; Markus, Regina P; Ferro, Emer S

    2008-09-05

    Protein degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system releases large amounts of oligopeptides within cells. To investigate possible functions for these intracellularly generated oligopeptides, we fused them to a cationic transactivator peptide sequence using reversible disulfide bonds, introduced them into cells, and analyzed their effect on G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signal transduction. A mixture containing four of these peptides (20-80 microm) significantly inhibited the increase in the extracellular acidification response triggered by angiotensin II (ang II) in CHO-S cells transfected with the ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R-CHO-S). Subsequently, either alone or in a mixture, these peptides increased luciferase gene transcription in AT1R CHO-S cells stimulated with ang II and in HEK293 cells treated with isoproterenol. These peptides without transactivator failed to affect GPCR cellular responses. All four functional peptides were shown in vitro to competitively inhibit the degradation of a synthetic substrate by thimet oligopeptidase. Overexpression of thimet oligopeptidase in both CHO-S and HEK293 cells was sufficient to reduce luciferase activation triggered by a specific GPCR agonist. Moreover, using individual peptides as baits in affinity columns, several proteins involved in GPCR signaling were identified, including alpha-adaptin A and dynamin 1. These results suggest that before their complete degradation, intracellular peptides similar to those generated by proteasomes can actively affect cell signaling, probably representing additional bioactive molecules within cells.

  18. Chloride channels as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, macular degeneration, myotonia, kidney stones, renal salt wasting and hyperekplexia. Chloride-channel modulators have potential applications in the treatment of some of these disorders, as well as in secretory diarrhoeas, polycystic kidney disease, osteoporosis and hypertension. Modulators of GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid A) receptor chloride channels are in clinical use and several small-molecule chloride-channel modulators are in preclinical development and clinical trials. Here, we discuss the broad opportunities that remain in chloride-channel-based drug discovery. PMID:19153558

  19. SUMOylation regulates the intracellular fate of ZO-2.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Franziska; Mittag, Sonnhild; Cano-Cortina, Misael; Wagner, Tobias; Krämer, Oliver H; Niedenthal, Rainer; Gonzalez-Mariscal, Lorenza; Huber, Otmar

    2017-01-01

    The zonula occludens (ZO)-2 protein links tight junctional transmembrane proteins to the actin cytoskeleton and associates with splicing and transcription factors in the nucleus. Multiple posttranslational modifications control the intracellular distribution of ZO-2. Here, we report that ZO-2 is a target of the SUMOylation machinery and provide evidence on how this modification may affect its cellular distribution and function. We show that ZO-2 associates with the E2 SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 and with SUMO-deconjugating proteases SENP1 and SENP3. In line with this, modification of ZO-2 by endogenous SUMO1 was detectable. Ubc9 fusion-directed SUMOylation confirmed SUMOylation of ZO-2 and was inhibited in the presence of SENP1 but not by an enzymatic-dead SENP1 protein. Moreover, lysine 730 in human ZO-2 was identified as a potential modification site. Mutation of this site to arginine resulted in prolonged nuclear localization of ZO-2 in nuclear recruitment assays. In contrast, a construct mimicking constitutive SUMOylation of ZO-2 (SUMO1ΔGG-ZO-2) was preferentially localized in the cytoplasm. Based on previous findings the differential localization of these ZO-2 constructs may affect glycogen-synthase-kinase-3β (GSK3β) activity and β-catenin/TCF-4-mediated transcription. In this context we observed that ZO-2 directly binds to GSK3β and SUMO1ΔGG-ZO-2 modulates its kinase activity. Moreover, we show that ZO-2 forms a complex with β-catenin. Wild-type ZO-2 and ZO-2-K730R inhibited transcriptional activity in reporter gene assays, whereas the cytosolic SUMO1ΔGG-ZO-2 did not. From these data we conclude that SUMOylation affects the intracellular localization of ZO-2 and its regulatory role on GSK3β and β-catenin signaling activity.

  20. Rab proteins: The key regulators of intracellular vesicle transport

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuin, Tanmay; Roy, Jagat Kumar

    2014-10-15

    Vesicular/membrane trafficking essentially regulates the compartmentalization and abundance of proteins within the cells and contributes in many signalling pathways. This membrane transport in eukaryotic cells is a complex process regulated by a large and diverse array of proteins. A large group of monomeric small GTPases; the Rabs are essential components of this membrane trafficking route. Most of the Rabs are ubiquitously expressed proteins and have been implicated in vesicle formation, vesicle motility/delivery along cytoskeleton elements and docking/fusion at target membranes through the recruitment of effectors. Functional impairments of Rabs affecting transport pathways manifest different diseases. Rab functions are accompanied by cyclical activation and inactivation of GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms between the cytosol and membranes which is regulated by upstream regulators. Rab proteins are characterized by their distinct sub-cellular localization and regulate a wide variety of endocytic, transcytic and exocytic transport pathways. Mutations of Rabs affect cell growth, motility and other biological processes. - Highlights: • Rab proteins regulate different signalling pathways. • Deregulation of Rabs is the fundamental causes of a variety of human diseases. • This paper gives potential directions in developing therapeutic targets. • This paper also gives ample directions for modulating pathways central to normal physiology. • These are the huge challenges for drug discovery and delivery in near future.

  1. Chloride flux in phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun

    2016-09-01

    Phagocytes, such as neutrophils and macrophages, engulf microbes into phagosomes and launch chemical attacks to kill and degrade them. Such a critical innate immune function necessitates ion participation. Chloride, the most abundant anion in the human body, is an indispensable constituent of the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2 O2 -halide system that produces the potent microbicide hypochlorous acid (HOCl). It also serves as a balancing ion to set membrane potentials, optimize cytosolic and phagosomal pH, and regulate phagosomal enzymatic activities. Deficient supply of this anion to or defective attainment of this anion by phagocytes is linked to innate immune defects. However, how phagocytes acquire chloride from their residing environment especially when they are deployed to epithelium-lined lumens, and how chloride is intracellularly transported to phagosomes remain largely unknown. This review article will provide an overview of chloride protein carriers, potential mechanisms for phagocytic chloride preservation and acquisition, intracellular chloride supply to phagosomes for oxidant production, and methods to measure chloride levels in phagocytes and their phagosomes.

  2. Rab proteins: the key regulators of intracellular vesicle transport.

    PubMed

    Bhuin, Tanmay; Roy, Jagat Kumar

    2014-10-15

    Vesicular/membrane trafficking essentially regulates the compartmentalization and abundance of proteins within the cells and contributes in many signalling pathways. This membrane transport in eukaryotic cells is a complex process regulated by a large and diverse array of proteins. A large group of monomeric small GTPases; the Rabs are essential components of this membrane trafficking route. Most of the Rabs are ubiquitously expressed proteins and have been implicated in vesicle formation, vesicle motility/delivery along cytoskeleton elements and docking/fusion at target membranes through the recruitment of effectors. Functional impairments of Rabs affecting transport pathways manifest different diseases. Rab functions are accompanied by cyclical activation and inactivation of GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms between the cytosol and membranes which is regulated by upstream regulators. Rab proteins are characterized by their distinct sub-cellular localization and regulate a wide variety of endocytic, transcytic and exocytic transport pathways. Mutations of Rabs affect cell growth, motility and other biological processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Regulation of intracellular heme trafficking revealed by subcellular reporters

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiaojing; Rietzschel, Nicole; Walter Nuno, Ana Beatriz; Hanna, David A.; Phillips, John D.; Raven, Emma L.; Reddi, Amit R.; Hamza, Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Heme is an essential prosthetic group in proteins that reside in virtually every subcellular compartment performing diverse biological functions. Irrespective of whether heme is synthesized in the mitochondria or imported from the environment, this hydrophobic and potentially toxic metalloporphyrin has to be trafficked across membrane barriers, a concept heretofore poorly understood. Here we show, using subcellular-targeted, genetically encoded hemoprotein peroxidase reporters, that both extracellular and endogenous heme contribute to cellular labile heme and that extracellular heme can be transported and used in toto by hemoproteins in all six subcellular compartments examined. The reporters are robust, show large signal-to-background ratio, and provide sufficient range to detect changes in intracellular labile heme. Restoration of reporter activity by heme is organelle-specific, with the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum being important sites for both exogenous and endogenous heme trafficking. Expression of peroxidase reporters in Caenorhabditis elegans shows that environmental heme influences labile heme in a tissue-dependent manner; reporter activity in the intestine shows a linear increase compared with muscle or hypodermis, with the lowest heme threshold in neurons. Our results demonstrate that the trafficking pathways for exogenous and endogenous heme are distinct, with intrinsic preference for specific subcellular compartments. We anticipate our results will serve as a heuristic paradigm for more sophisticated studies on heme trafficking in cellular and whole-animal models. PMID:27528661

  4. P2Y purinergic receptor regulation of CFTR chloride channels in mouse cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Mizuma, Shintaro; Wang, Ge-Xin; Hume, Joseph R

    2004-05-01

    The intracellular signalling pathways and molecular mechanisms responsible for P2-purinoceptor-mediated chloride (Cl(-)) currents (I(Cl,ATP)) were studied in mouse ventricular myocytes. In standard NaCl-containing extracellular solutions, extracellular ATP (100 microm) activated two different currents, I(Cl,ATP) with a linear I-V relationship in symmetrical Cl(-) solutions, and an inwardly rectifying cation conductance (cationic I(ATP)). Cationic I(ATP) was selectively inhibited by Gd(3+) and Zn(2+), or by replacement of extracellular NaCl by NMDG; I(Cl,ATP) was Cl(-) selective, and inhibited by replacement of extracellular Cl(-) by Asp(-); both currents were prevented by suramin or DIDS pretreatment. In GTPgammaS-loaded cells, I(Cl,ATP) was irreversibly activated by ATP, but cationic I(ATP) was still regulated reversibly. GDPbetaS prevented activation of the I(Cl,ATP,) even though pertussis toxin pretreatment did not modulate I(Cl,ATP). These results suggest that activation of I(Cl,ATP) occurs via a G-protein coupled P2Y purinergic receptor. The I(Cl,ATP) persistently activated by GTPgammaS, was inhibited by glibenclamide but not by DIDS, thus exhibiting known pharmacological properties of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channels. In ventricular cells of cftr(-/-) mice, extracellular ATP activated cationic I(ATP), but failed to activate any detectable I(Cl,ATP). These results provide compelling evidence that activation of CFTR Cl(-) channels in mouse heart are coupled to G-protein coupled P2Y purinergic receptors.

  5. Intracellular LINGO-1 negatively regulates Trk neurotrophin receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Meabon, James S; de Laat, Rian; Ieguchi, Katsuaki; Serbzhinsky, Dmitry; Hudson, Mark P; Huber, B Russel; Wiley, Jesse C; Bothwell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Neurotrophins, essential regulators of many aspects of neuronal differentiation and function, signal via four receptors, p75, TrkA, TrkB and TrkC. The three Trk paralogs are members of the LIG superfamily of membrane proteins, which share extracellular domains consisting of leucine-rich repeat and C2 Ig domains. Another LIG protein, LINGO-1 has been reported to bind and influence signaling of p75 as well as TrkA, TrkB and TrkC. Here we examine the manner in which LINGO-1 influences the function of TrkA, TrkB and TrkC. We report that Trk activation promotes Trk association with LINGO-1, and that this association promotes Trk degradation by a lysosomal mechanism. This mechanism resembles the mechanism by which another LIG protein, LRIG1, promotes lysosomal degradation of receptor tyrosine kinases such as the EGF receptor. We present evidence indicating that the Trk/LINGO-1 interaction occurs, in part, within recycling endosomes. We show that a mutant form of LINGO-1, with much of the extracellular domain deleted, has the capacity to enhance TrkA signaling in PC12 cells, possibly by acting as an inhibitor of Trk down-regulation by full length LINGO-1. We propose that LINGO-1 functions as a negative feedback regulator of signaling by cognate receptor tyrosine kinases including TrkA, TrkB and TrkC.

  6. Intracellular VEGF regulates the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanqiu; Berendsen, Agnes D.; Jia, Shidong; Lotinun, Sutada; Baron, Roland; Ferrara, Napoleone; Olsen, Bjorn R.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporotic bones have reduced spongy bone mass, altered bone architecture, and increased marrow fat. Bone marrow stem cells from osteoporotic patients are more likely to differentiate into adipocytes than control cells, suggesting that adipocyte differentiation may play a role in osteoporosis. VEGF is highly expressed in osteoblastic precursor cells and is known to stimulate bone formation. Here we tested the hypothesis that VEGF is also an important regulator of cell fate, determining whether differentiation gives rise to osteoblasts or adipocytes. Mice with conditional VEGF deficiency in osteoblastic precursor cells exhibited an osteoporosis-like phenotype characterized by reduced bone mass and increased bone marrow fat. In addition, reduced VEGF expression in mesenchymal stem cells resulted in reduced osteoblast and increased adipocyte differentiation. Osteoblast differentiation was reduced when VEGF receptor 1 or 2 was knocked down but was unaffected by treatment with recombinant VEGF or neutralizing antibodies against VEGF. Our results suggested that VEGF controls differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells by regulating the transcription factors RUNX2 and PPARγ2 as well as through a reciprocal interaction with nuclear envelope proteins lamin A/C. Importantly, our data support a model whereby VEGF regulates differentiation through an intracrine mechanism that is distinct from the role of secreted VEGF and its receptors. PMID:22886301

  7. Ontogeny of intracellular isosmotic regulation in the european lobster Homarus gammarus (L.).

    PubMed

    Haond, C; Bonnal, L; Sandeaux, R; Charmantier, G; Trilles, J P

    1999-01-01

    Intracellular free amino acids were measured in the abdominal muscle of the three larval instars, postlarvae, and juveniles of the lobster Homarus gammarus, acclimated to seawater (35 per thousand) and to a dilute medium (22 per thousand), to study intracellular isosmotic regulation throughout the development of this species. Transfer to low salinity was followed by a highly significant drop of free amino acids level in all developmental stages. The main regulated amino acids were glycine, proline, and alanine. The level of regulation of total free amino acids changed at metamorphosis: the decrease in total free amino acids at low salinity was 46% in the three larval instars, but it was only 29% in postlarvae and 20% in juveniles. These results suggest that free amino acids, mainly glycine, proline, and alanine, are involved in intracellular isosmotic regulation in the lobster, with different levels of involvement in pre- and postmetamorphic stages. The ontogenetic changes in intracellular isosmotic regulation are discussed in relation to the changes in extracellular regulation (osmoregulation) in the lobster.

  8. Ectdomain shedding and regulated intracellular proteolysis in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Montes de Oca-B, Pavel

    2010-12-01

    The term Ectodomain Shedding (ES) refers to extracellular domain proteolytic release from cell membrane molecules. This proteolysis is mediated mainly by matrix metalloproteases (MMP) or disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAM), although some other proteases may mediate it. Virtually, all functional categories of cell membrane molecules are subject of this kind of proteolysis, for this reason ES is involved in different cellular processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, migration, differentiation or pathologies such as inflammation, cancer and degeneration among others. ES releases membrane molecule's extracellular domain (or ectodomain) to the extracellular milieu where it can play different biological functions. ES of transmembrane molecules also generates membrane attached terminal fragments comprising transmembrane and intracellular domains that enable their additional processing by intracellular proteases known as Regulated Intracellular Proteolysis (RIP). This second proteolytic cleavage delivers molecule's intracellular domain (ICD) that carry out intracellular functions. RIP is mediated by the group of intracellular cleaving proteases (i-CLiPs) that include presenilin from the γ-secretase complex. In the CNS the best well known ES is that of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, although many other membrane molecules expressed by cells of the CNS are also subject to ES and RIP. In this review, these molecules are summarized, and some meaningful examples are highlighted and described. In addition, ES and RIP implications in the context of cell biology are discussed. Finally, some considerations that rise from the study of ES and RIP are formulated in view of the unexpected roles of intracellular fragments.

  9. Disruption of intracellular calcium regulation is integral to aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death.

    PubMed

    Esterberg, Robert; Hailey, Dale W; Coffin, Allison B; Raible, David W; Rubel, Edwin W

    2013-04-24

    Intracellular Ca(2+) is a key regulator of life or death decisions in cultured neurons and sensory cells. The role of Ca(2+) in these processes is less clear in vivo, as the location of these cells often impedes visualization of intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics. We generated transgenic zebrafish lines that express the genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicator GCaMP in mechanosensory hair cells of the lateral line. These lines allow us to monitor intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics in real time during aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death. After exposure of live larvae to aminoglycosides, dying hair cells undergo a transient increase in intracellular Ca(2+) that occurs shortly after mitochondrial membrane potential collapse. Inhibition of intracellular Ca(2+) elevation through either caged chelators or pharmacological inhibitors of Ca(2+) effectors mitigates toxic effects of aminoglycoside exposure. Conversely, artificial elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) by caged Ca(2+) release agents sensitizes hair cells to the toxic effects of aminoglycosides. These data suggest that alterations in intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis play an essential role in aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death, and indicate several potential therapeutic targets to stem ototoxicity.

  10. Regulation of Intracellular pH in Lungs and Other Tissues During Hypercapnia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-10

    was observed in terms of "percent pH regula- sumed to equal venous Pco 2. tion." As shown in Fig. 1, the pH of kidney, lung, and Intracellular pH was...buffering. The value, "percent pH 80 Z70regulation" (19), calculated as (Alog HCO3/log Pco 2) - x 100 is also used to quantitate pH regulation. This...42: 2080-2093, 1964. 6. FENN, W. 0. Carbon dioxide and intracellular homeostasis . 19. SCHAEFER, K. E., M. HASSON, AND H. NIEMOELLER. Effect of Ann. NY

  11. Osmotic regulation of intracellular solute pools in Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed Central

    Glaasker, E; Konings, W N; Poolman, B

    1996-01-01

    Bacteria respond to changes in medium osmolarity by varying the concentrations of specific solutes in order to maintain constant turgor pressure. The cytoplasmic pools of K+, proline, glutamate, alanine, and glycine of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917 increased when the osmolarity of the growth media was raised from 0.20 to 1.51 osmol/kg by KCL. When glycine-betaine was present in a high-osmolarity chemically defined medium, it was accumulated to a high cytoplasmic concentration, while the concentrations of most other osmotically important solutes decreased. These observations, together with the effects of glycine-betaine on the specific growth rate under high-osmolarity conditions, suggest that glycine-betaine is preferentially accumulated in L. plantarum. Uptake of glycine-betaine, proline, glutamate, and alanine was studied in cells that were alternately exposed to hyper- and hypo-osmotic stresses. The rate of uptake of proline and glycine-betaine increased instantaneously upon increasing the osmolarity, whereas that of other amino acids did not. This activation occurred also under conditions in which protein synthesis was inhibited was most pronounced when cells were pregrown at high osmolarity. The duration of net transport was a function of the osmotic strength of the assay medium. Glutamate uptake was not activated by an osmotic upshock, and the uptake of alanine was low under all conditions tested. When cells were subjected to osmotic downshock, a rapid efflux of accumulated glycine-betaine, proline, and alanine occurred whereas the pools of other amin acids remained unaffected. The results indicate that osmolyte efflux is, at least to some extent, mediated via specific osmotically regulated efflux systems and not via nonspecific mechanisms as has been suggested previously. PMID:8550485

  12. Intracellular pathways regulating ciliary beating of rat brain ependymal cells

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thien; Chin, Wei-Chun; O’Brien, Jennifer A; Verdugo, Pedro; Berger, Albert J

    2001-01-01

    The mammalian brain ventricles are lined with ciliated ependymal cells. As yet little is known about the mechanisms by which neurotransmitters regulate cilia beat frequency (CBF). Application of 5-HT to ependymal cells in cultured rat brainstem slices caused CBF to increase. 5-HT had an EC50 of 30 μM and at 100 μM attained a near-maximal CBF increase of 52.7 ± 4.1 % (mean ± s.d.) (n= 8). Bathing slices in Ca2+-free solution markedly reduced the 5-HT-mediated increase in CBF. Fluorescence measurements revealed that 5-HT caused a marked transient elevation in cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) that then slowly decreased to a plateau level. Analysis showed that the [Ca2+]c transient was due to release of Ca2+ from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive stores; the plateau was probably due to extracellular Ca2+ influx through Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels. Application of ATP caused a sustained decrease in CBF. ATP had an EC50 of about 50 μM and 100 μM ATP resulted in a maximal 57.5 ± 6.5 % (n= 12) decrease in CBF. The ATP-induced decrease in CBF was unaffected by lowering extracellular [Ca2+], and no changes in [Ca2+]c were observed. Exposure of ependymal cells to forskolin caused a decrease in CBF. Ciliated ependymal cells loaded with caged cAMP exhibited a 54.3 ± 7.5 % (n= 9) decrease in CBF following uncaging. These results suggest that ATP reduces CBF by a Ca2+-independent cAMP-mediated pathway. Application of 5-HT and adenosine-5′-O-3-thiotriphosphate (ATP-γ-S) to acutely isolated ciliated ependymal cells resulted in CBF responses similar to those of ependymal cells in cultured slices suggesting that these neurotransmitters act directly on these cells. The opposite response of ciliated ependymal cells to 5-HT and ATP provides a novel mechanism for their active involvement in central nervous system signalling. PMID:11179397

  13. Identification of a Novel Member of the Chloride Intracellular Channel Gene Family (CLIC5) That Associates with the Actin Cytoskeleton of Placental Microvilli

    PubMed Central

    Berryman, Mark; Bretscher, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    The chloride intracellular channel (CLIC) gene family has been implicated in chloride ion transport within various subcellular compartments. We report here the molecular, biochemical, and cellular characterization of a new member of this gene family termed CLIC5. CLIC5 was isolated from extracts of placental microvilli as a component of a multimeric complex consisting of several known cytoskeletal proteins, including actin, ezrin, α-actinin, gelsolin, and IQGAP1. We cloned human cDNAs and generated antibodies specific for CLIC5, CLIC1/NCC27, and CLIC4/huH1/p64H1. CLIC5 shares 52–76% overall identity with human CLIC1, CLIC2, CLIC3, and CLIC4. Northern blot analysis showed that CLIC5 has a distinct pattern of expression compared with CLIC1 and CLIC4. Immunoblot analysis of extracts from placental tissues demonstrated that CLIC4 and CLIC5 are enriched in isolated placental microvilli, whereas CLIC1 is not. Moreover, in contrast to CLIC1 and CLIC4, CLIC5 is associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeletal fraction of microvilli. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that CLIC4 and CLIC5 are concentrated within the apical region of the trophoblast, whereas CLIC1 is distributed throughout the cytoplasm. These studies suggest that CLIC1, CLIC4, and CLIC5 play distinct roles in chloride transport and that CLIC5 interacts with the cortical actin cytoskeleton in polarized epithelial cells. PMID:10793131

  14. Redox Regulation of Intracellular Zinc: Molecular Signaling in the Life and Death of Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Aizenman, Elias

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Zn2+ has emerged as a major regulator of neuronal physiology, as well as an important signaling agent in neural injury. The intracellular concentration of this metal is tightly regulated through the actions of Zn2+ transporters and the thiol-rich metal binding protein metallothionein, closely linking the redox status of the cell to cellular availability of Zn2+. Accordingly, oxidative and nitrosative stress during ischemic injury leads to an accumulation of neuronal free Zn2+ and the activation of several downstream cell death processes. While this Zn2+ rise is an established signaling event in neuronal cell death, recent evidence suggests that a transient, sublethal accumulation of free Zn2+ can also play a critical role in neuroprotective pathways activated during ischemic preconditioning. Thus, redox-sensitive proteins, like metallothioneins, may play a critical role in determining neuronal cell fate by regulating the localization and concentration of intracellular free Zn2+. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 2249–2263. PMID:20849376

  15. Intracellular Na+ modulates the cAMP-dependent regulation of ion channels in the heart.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, R D; Jurevicius, J A; Hume, J R

    1991-01-01

    The cAMP-dependent regulation of ion channels was studied by using the whole-cell configuration of the patch clamp technique. In isolated cardiac ventricular myocytes, the beta-adrenergically regulated Cl- current (ICl) exhibited an unusual dependence on Na+, such that replacement of extracellular Na+ with compounds such as tetramethylammonium, choline, Tris, or N-methyl-D-glucamine resulted in a reduction in current amplitude without changing the reversal potential. Replacement of extracellular Na+ with tetramethylammonium also reduced the magnitude of the beta-adrenergically enhanced Ca2+ current and delayed rectifier K+ current, suggesting that removal of Na+ was affecting the cAMP pathway that regulates all three currents. Replacement of extracellular Na+ also reduced ICl that was stimulated by (i) direct activation of adenylate cyclase with forskolin, (ii) inhibition of phosphodiesterase with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, (iii) exposure to the membrane-permeable cAMP derivative 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, or (iv) direct phosphorylation of the channel with protein kinase A catalytic subunit. This suggests that the Na+ dependence is at a point beyond the activation of protein kinase A. The Na+ dependence of ICl regulation could not be explained by changes in intracellular Ca2+. However, the sensitivity of the ICl to changes in extracellular Na+ depended significantly on the intracellular Na+ concentration, suggesting that intracellular Na+ plays an important role in the cAMP-dependent regulation of ion channels. Images PMID:1714581

  16. Domain reorientation and rotation of an intracellular assembly regulate conduction in Kir potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Oliver B; Caputo, Alessandro T; Hill, Adam P; Vandenberg, Jamie I; Smith, Brian J; Gulbis, Jacqueline M

    2010-06-11

    Potassium channels embedded in cell membranes employ gates to regulate K+ current. While a specific constriction in the permeation pathway has historically been implicated in gating, recent reports suggest that the signature ion selectivity filter located in the outer membrane leaflet may be equally important. Inwardly rectifying K+ channels also control the directionality of flow, using intracellular polyamines to stem ion efflux by a valve-like action. This study presents crystallographic evidence of interdependent gates in the conduction pathway and reveals the mechanism of polyamine block. Reorientation of the intracellular domains, concomitant with activation, instigates polyamine release from intracellular binding sites to block the permeation pathway. Conformational adjustments of the slide helices, achieved by rotation of the cytoplasmic assembly relative to the pore, are directly correlated to the ion configuration in the selectivity filter. Ion redistribution occurs irrespective of the constriction, suggesting a more expansive role of the selectivity filter in gating than previously appreciated.

  17. Slow conversions among subconductance states of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel.

    PubMed Central

    Tao, T; Xie, J; Drumm, M L; Zhao, J; Davis, P B; Ma, J

    1996-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel exhibits multiple subconductance states. To study the regulation of conductance states of the CFTR channel, we expressed the wild-type CFTR protein in HEK 293 cells, and isolated microsomal membrane vesicles for reconstitution studies in lipid bilayer membranes. A single CFTR channel had a dominant conductance of 7.8 pS (H), plus two sub-open states with conductances of approximately 6 pS (M) and 2.7 pS (L) in 200 mM KCl with 1 mM MgCl2 (intracellular) and 50 mM KCl with no MgCl2 (extracellular), with pH maintained at 7.4 by 10 mM HEPES-Tris on both sides of the channel. In 200 mM KCl, both H and L states could be measured in stable single-channel recordings, whereas M could not. Spontaneous transitions between H and L were slow; it took 4.5 min for L-->H, and 3.2 min for H-->L. These slow conversions among subconductance states of the CFTR channel were affected by extracellular Mg; in the presence of millimolar Mg, the channel remained stable in the H state. Similar phenomena were also observed with endogenous CFTR channels in T84 cells. In high-salt conditions (1.5 M KCl), all three conductance states of the expressed CFTR channel, 12.1 pS, 8.2 pS, and 3.6 pS, became stable and seemed to gate independently from each other. The existence of multiple stable conductance states associated with the CFTR channel suggests two possibilities: either a single CFTR molecule can exist in multiple configurations with different conductance values, or the CFTR channel may contain multimers of the 170-kDa CFTR protein, and different conductance states are due to different aggregation states of the CFTR protein. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 8 PMID:8789091

  18. Slow conversions among subconductance states of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Tao, T; Xie, J; Drumm, M L; Zhao, J; Davis, P B; Ma, J

    1996-02-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel exhibits multiple subconductance states. To study the regulation of conductance states of the CFTR channel, we expressed the wild-type CFTR protein in HEK 293 cells, and isolated microsomal membrane vesicles for reconstitution studies in lipid bilayer membranes. A single CFTR channel had a dominant conductance of 7.8 pS (H), plus two sub-open states with conductances of approximately 6 pS (M) and 2.7 pS (L) in 200 mM KCl with 1 mM MgCl2 (intracellular) and 50 mM KCl with no MgCl2 (extracellular), with pH maintained at 7.4 by 10 mM HEPES-Tris on both sides of the channel. In 200 mM KCl, both H and L states could be measured in stable single-channel recordings, whereas M could not. Spontaneous transitions between H and L were slow; it took 4.5 min for L-->H, and 3.2 min for H-->L. These slow conversions among subconductance states of the CFTR channel were affected by extracellular Mg; in the presence of millimolar Mg, the channel remained stable in the H state. Similar phenomena were also observed with endogenous CFTR channels in T84 cells. In high-salt conditions (1.5 M KCl), all three conductance states of the expressed CFTR channel, 12.1 pS, 8.2 pS, and 3.6 pS, became stable and seemed to gate independently from each other. The existence of multiple stable conductance states associated with the CFTR channel suggests two possibilities: either a single CFTR molecule can exist in multiple configurations with different conductance values, or the CFTR channel may contain multimers of the 170-kDa CFTR protein, and different conductance states are due to different aggregation states of the CFTR protein.

  19. Regulation of the intracellular free iron pool by Dpr provides oxygen tolerance to Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuji; Fukui, Kôichi; Koujin, Naoko; Ohya, Hiroaki; Kimura, Kazuhiko; Kamio, Yoshiyuki

    2004-09-01

    Dpr is an iron-binding protein required for oxygen tolerance in Streptococcus mutans. We previously proposed that Dpr could confer oxygen tolerance to the bacterium by sequestering intracellular free iron ions that catalyze generation of highly toxic radicals (Y. Yamamoto, M. Higuchi, L. B. Poole, and Y. Kamio, J. Bacteriol. 182:3740-3747, 2000; Y. Yamamoto, L. B. Poole, R. R. Hantgan, and Y. Kamio, J. Bacteriol. 184:2931-2939, 2002). Here, we examined the intracellular free iron status of wild-type (WT) and dpr mutant strains of S. mutans, before and after exposure to air, by using electron spin resonance spectrometry. Under anaerobic conditions, free iron ion concentrations of WT and dpr strains were 225.9 +/- 2.6 and 333.0 +/- 61.3 microM, respectively. Exposure of WT cells to air for 1 h induced Dpr expression and reduced intracellular free iron ion concentrations to 22.5 +/- 5.3 microM; under these conditions, dpr mutant cells maintained intracellular iron concentration at 230.3 +/- 28.8 microM. A decrease in cell viability and genomic DNA degradation was observed in the dpr mutant exposed to air. These data indicate that regulation of the intracellular free iron pool by Dpr is required for oxygen tolerance in S. mutans.

  20. Regulation of intracellular pH in cnidarians: response to acidosis in Anemonia viridis.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Julien; Venn, Alexander; Tambutté, Éric; Ganot, Philippe; Allemand, Denis; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2014-02-01

    The regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) is a fundamental aspect of cell physiology that has received little attention in studies of the phylum Cnidaria, which includes ecologically important sea anemones and reef-building corals. Like all organisms, cnidarians must maintain pH homeostasis to counterbalance reductions in pHi, which can arise because of changes in either intrinsic or extrinsic parameters. Corals and sea anemones face natural daily changes in internal fluids, where the extracellular pH can range from 8.9 during the day to 7.4 at night. Furthermore, cnidarians are likely to experience future CO₂-driven declines in seawater pH, a process known as ocean acidification. Here, we carried out the first mechanistic investigation to determine how cnidarian pHi regulation responds to decreases in extracellular and intracellular pH. Using the anemone Anemonia viridis, we employed confocal live cell imaging and a pH-sensitive dye to track the dynamics of pHi after intracellular acidosis induced by acute exposure to decreases in seawater pH and NH₄Cl prepulses. The investigation was conducted on cells that contained intracellular symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium sp.) and on symbiont-free endoderm cells. Experiments using inhibitors and Na⁺-free seawater indicate a potential role of Na⁺/H⁺ plasma membrane exchangers (NHEs) in mediating pHi recovery following intracellular acidosis in both cell types. We also measured the buffering capacity of cells, and obtained values between 20.8 and 43.8 mM per pH unit, which are comparable to those in other invertebrates. Our findings provide the first steps towards a better understanding of acid-base regulation in these basal metazoans, for which information on cell physiology is extremely limited.

  1. Ets-1 regulates intracellular glutathione levels: key target for resistant ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Verschoor, Meghan L; Singh, Gurmit

    2013-11-15

    Ovarian cancer is characterized by high rates of metastasis and therapeutic resistance. Many chemotherapeutic agents rely on the induction of oxidative stress to cause cancer cell death, thus targeting redox regulation is a promising strategy to overcome drug resistance. We have used a tetracycline-inducible Ets-1 overexpression model derived from 2008 ovarian cancer cells in the present study. To examine the role of Ets-1 in glutathione regulation we have measured intracellular reactive oxygen species and glutathione levels, as well as glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity. Glutathione synthesis was limited using transsulfuration or Sx(c)- pathway blocking agents, and glutamate release was measured to confirm Sx(c)- blockade. Cell viability following drug treatment was assessed via crystal violet assay. Oxidative stress was induced through glucose oxidase treatment, which produces hydrogen peroxide by glucose oxidation. The protein expressions of redox-related factors were measured through western blotting. Overexpression of Ets-1 was associated with decreased intracellular ROS, concomitantly with increased intracellular GSH, GPX antioxidant activity, and Sx(c)- transporter activity. Under basal conditions, inhibition of the transsulfuration pathway resulted in decreased GSH levels and GPX activity in all cell lines, whereas inhibition of Sx(c)- by sulfasalazine decreased GPX activity in Ets-1-expressing cells only. However, under oxidative stress the intracellular GSH levels decreased significantly in correlation with increased Ets-1 expression following sulfasalazine treatment. In this study we have identified a role for proto-oncogene Ets-1 in the regulation of intracellular glutathione levels, and examined the effects of the anti-inflammatory drug sulfasalazine on glutathione depletion using an ovarian cancer cell model. The findings from this study show that Ets-1 mediates enhanced Sx(c)- activity to increase glutathione levels under oxidative stress

  2. The Arabidopsis Thylakoid Chloride Channel AtCLCe Functions in Chloride Homeostasis and Regulation of Photosynthetic Electron Transport

    PubMed Central

    Herdean, Andrei; Nziengui, Hugues; Zsiros, Ottó; Solymosi, Katalin; Garab, Győző; Lundin, Björn; Spetea, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Chloride ions can be translocated across cell membranes through Cl− channels or Cl−/H+ exchangers. The thylakoid-located member of the Cl− channel CLC family in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtCLCe) was hypothesized to play a role in photosynthetic regulation based on the initial photosynthetic characterization of clce mutant lines. The reduced nitrate content of Arabidopsis clce mutants suggested a role in regulation of plant nitrate homeostasis. In this study, we aimed to further investigate the role of AtCLCe in the regulation of ion homeostasis and photosynthetic processes in the thylakoid membrane. We report that the size and composition of proton motive force were mildly altered in two independent Arabidopsis clce mutant lines. Most pronounced effects in the clce mutants were observed on the photosynthetic electron transport of dark-adapted plants, based on the altered shape and associated parameters of the polyphasic OJIP kinetics of chlorophyll a fluorescence induction. Other alterations were found in the kinetics of state transition and in the macro-organization of photosystem II supercomplexes, as indicated by circular dichroism measurements. Pre-treatment with KCl but not with KNO3 restored the wild-type photosynthetic phenotype. Analyses by transmission electron microscopy revealed a bow-like arrangement of the thylakoid network and a large thylakoid-free stromal region in chloroplast sections from the dark-adapted clce plants. Based on these data, we propose that AtCLCe functions in Cl− homeostasis after transition from light to dark, which affects chloroplast ultrastructure and regulation of photosynthetic electron transport. PMID:26904077

  3. [The activation effect of nobiletin on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuang; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Yao-Fang; Wang, Xue; Yang, Hong

    2013-06-01

    Aim of the present study is to investigate activation effect of nobiletin on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel activity. CFTR-mediated iodide influx assay and patch-clamp tests were done on FRT cells stably co-transfected with human CFTR and EYFP/H148Q. Nobiletin potently activated CFTR chloride channel activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The CFTR blocker CFTR(inh)-172 could completely reverse the effect. Preliminary mechanism study indicated that nobiletin activated CFTR chloride channel through a direct binding way. In addition, ex vivo tests done on mice trachea showed that nobiletin time-dependently stimulated submucosal gland fluid secretion. Nobiletin may be a therapeutic lead compound in treating CFTR-related diseases including disseminated bronchiectasis.

  4. Intracellular oxygen determined by respiration regulates localization of Ras and prenylated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kim, A; Davis, R; Higuchi, M

    2015-01-01

    Reduction of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content induces the reduction of oxidative phosphorylation and dependence on fermentative glycolysis, that is, the Warburg effect. In aggressive prostate cancer (PCa), the reduction of mtDNA reduces oxygen consumption, increases intracellular oxygen concentration, and induces constitutive activation of Ras. Many essential proteins for cell death, growth, differentiation, and development, such as Ras, require prenylation for subcellular localization and activation. Prenylation of a protein is defined as the attachment of isoprenoids to a cysteine residue at or near the C-terminus. 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) produces isoprenoids, and is posttranslationally regulated by oxygen. We investigated a critical role of intracellular oxygen in membrane localization of prenylated proteins. Localization of prenylated proteins (H-Ras, prelamin A/C, and Rab5a) was observed in poorly differentiated PCa (PC-3) and well-differentiated PCa (LNCaP) cells. PC-3 cells exhibited high intracellular oxygen concentration, and H-Ras, prelamin A/C, and Rab5a were localized to various membranes (Golgi and plasma membrane, nuclear membrane, and early endosomes, respectively). Remarkably, exogenous hypoxia (0.2% O2) in PC-3 cells induced intracellular hypoxia and changed the localization of the prenylated proteins. H-Ras and Rab5a were translocated to cytosol, and prelamin A/C was in the nucleus forming an abnormal nuclear envelope. The localization was reversed by mevalonate indicating the involvement of mevalonate pathway. In contrast, in LNCaP cells, exhibiting low intracellular oxygen concentration, H-Ras and Rab5a were localized in the cytosol, and prelamin A/C was inside the nucleus forming an inadequate nuclear envelope. Exogenous hyperoxia (40% O2) increased the intracellular oxygen concentration and induced Ras translocation from cytosol to the membrane. Prelamin A/C was translocated to the nuclear membrane and formed a

  5. The Cap1–claudin-4 regulatory pathway is important for renal chloride reabsorption and blood pressure regulation

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yongfeng; Yu, Miao; Yang, Jing; Gonzales, Ernie; Perez, Ronaldo; Hou, Mingli; Tripathi, Piyush; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S.; Hamm, L. Lee; Hou, Jianghui

    2014-01-01

    The paracellular pathway through the tight junction provides an important route for transepithelial chloride reabsorption in the kidney, which regulates extracellular salt content and blood pressure. Defects in paracellular chloride reabsorption may in theory cause deregulation of blood pressure. However, there is no evidence to prove this theory or to demonstrate the in vivo role of the paracellular pathway in renal chloride handling. Here, using a tissue-specific KO approach, we have revealed a chloride transport pathway in the kidney that requires the tight junction molecule claudin-4. The collecting duct-specific claudin-4 KO animals developed hypotension, hypochloremia, and metabolic alkalosis due to profound renal wasting of chloride. The claudin-4–mediated chloride conductance can be regulated endogenously by a protease—channel-activating protease 1 (cap1). Mechanistically, cap1 regulates claudin-4 intercellular interaction and membrane stability. A putative cap1 cleavage site has been identified in the second extracellular loop of claudin-4, mutation of which abolished its regulation by cap1. The cap1 effects on paracellular chloride permeation can be extended to other proteases such as trypsin, suggesting a general mechanism may also exist for proteases to regulate the tight junction permeabilities. Together, we have discovered a theory that paracellular chloride permeability is physiologically regulated and essential to renal salt homeostasis and blood pressure control. PMID:25157135

  6. Regulation of the collagenase-3 receptor and its role in intracellular ligand processing in rat osteoblastic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walling, H. W.; Chan, P. T.; Omura, T. H.; Barmina, O. Y.; Fiacco, G. J.; Jeffrey, J. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1998-01-01

    We have previously described a specific, saturable receptor for rat collagenase-3 in the rat osteosarcoma cell line, UMR 106-01. Binding of rat collagenase-3 to this receptor is coupled to the internalization and eventual degradation of the enzyme and correlates with observed extracellular levels of the enzyme. In this study we have shown that decreased binding, internalization, and degradation of 125I-rat collagenase-3 were observed in cells after 24 h of parathyroid hormone treatment; these activities returned to control values after 48 h and were increased substantially (twice control levels) after 96 h of treatment with the hormone. Subcellular fractionation studies to identify the route of uptake and degradation of collagenase-3 localized intracellular accumulation of 125I-rat collagenase-3 initially in Golgi-associated lysosomes and later in secondary lysosomes. Maximal lysosomal accumulation of the radiolabel and stimulation of general lysosomal activity occurred after 72 h of parathyroid hormone treatment. Preventing fusion of endosomes with lysosomes (by temperature shift, colchicine, or monensin) resulted in no internalized 125I-collagenase-3 in either lysosomal fraction. Treatment of UMR cells with the above agents or ammonium chloride decreased excretion of 125I-labeled degradation products of collagenase-3. These experiments demonstrated that degradation of collagenase-3 required receptor-mediated endocytosis and sequential processing by endosomes and lysosomes. Thus, parathyroid hormone regulates the expression and synthesis of collagenase-3 as well as the abundance and functioning of the collagenase-3 receptor and the intracellular degradation of its ligand. The coordinate changes in the secretion of collagenase-3 and expression of the receptor determine the net abundance of the enzyme in the extracellular space.

  7. Regulation of the collagenase-3 receptor and its role in intracellular ligand processing in rat osteoblastic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walling, H. W.; Chan, P. T.; Omura, T. H.; Barmina, O. Y.; Fiacco, G. J.; Jeffrey, J. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1998-01-01

    We have previously described a specific, saturable receptor for rat collagenase-3 in the rat osteosarcoma cell line, UMR 106-01. Binding of rat collagenase-3 to this receptor is coupled to the internalization and eventual degradation of the enzyme and correlates with observed extracellular levels of the enzyme. In this study we have shown that decreased binding, internalization, and degradation of 125I-rat collagenase-3 were observed in cells after 24 h of parathyroid hormone treatment; these activities returned to control values after 48 h and were increased substantially (twice control levels) after 96 h of treatment with the hormone. Subcellular fractionation studies to identify the route of uptake and degradation of collagenase-3 localized intracellular accumulation of 125I-rat collagenase-3 initially in Golgi-associated lysosomes and later in secondary lysosomes. Maximal lysosomal accumulation of the radiolabel and stimulation of general lysosomal activity occurred after 72 h of parathyroid hormone treatment. Preventing fusion of endosomes with lysosomes (by temperature shift, colchicine, or monensin) resulted in no internalized 125I-collagenase-3 in either lysosomal fraction. Treatment of UMR cells with the above agents or ammonium chloride decreased excretion of 125I-labeled degradation products of collagenase-3. These experiments demonstrated that degradation of collagenase-3 required receptor-mediated endocytosis and sequential processing by endosomes and lysosomes. Thus, parathyroid hormone regulates the expression and synthesis of collagenase-3 as well as the abundance and functioning of the collagenase-3 receptor and the intracellular degradation of its ligand. The coordinate changes in the secretion of collagenase-3 and expression of the receptor determine the net abundance of the enzyme in the extracellular space.

  8. Miro1 Regulates Activity-Driven Positioning of Mitochondria within Astrocytic Processes Apposed to Synapses to Regulate Intracellular Calcium Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Terri-Leigh; Higgs, Nathalie F.; Sheehan, David F.; Al Awabdh, Sana; López-Doménech, Guillermo; Arancibia-Carcamo, I. Lorena

    2015-01-01

    It is fast emerging that maintaining mitochondrial function is important for regulating astrocyte function, although the specific mechanisms that govern astrocyte mitochondrial trafficking and positioning remain poorly understood. The mitochondrial Rho-GTPase 1 protein (Miro1) regulates mitochondrial trafficking and detachment from the microtubule transport network to control activity-dependent mitochondrial positioning in neurons. However, whether Miro proteins are important for regulating signaling-dependent mitochondrial dynamics in astrocytic processes remains unclear. Using live-cell confocal microscopy of rat organotypic hippocampal slices, we find that enhancing neuronal activity induces transient mitochondrial remodeling in astrocytes, with a concomitant, transient reduction in mitochondrial trafficking, mediated by elevations in intracellular Ca2+. Stimulating neuronal activity also induced mitochondrial confinement within astrocytic processes in close proximity to synapses. Furthermore, we show that the Ca2+-sensing EF-hand domains of Miro1 are important for regulating mitochondrial trafficking in astrocytes and required for activity-driven mitochondrial confinement near synapses. Additionally, activity-dependent mitochondrial positioning by Miro1 reciprocally regulates the levels of intracellular Ca2+ in astrocytic processes. Thus, the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ signaling, dependent on Miro1-mediated mitochondrial positioning, could have important consequences for astrocyte Ca2+ wave propagation, gliotransmission, and ultimately neuronal function. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Mitochondria are key cellular organelles that play important roles in providing cellular energy and buffering intracellular calcium ions. The mechanisms that control mitochondrial distribution within the processes of glial cells called astrocytes and the impact this may have on calcium signaling remains unclear. We show that activation of glutamate receptors or increased neuronal

  9. 5,5'-Dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) modification of cysteine improves the crystal quality of human chloride intracellular channel protein 2

    SciTech Connect

    Mi Wei; Li Lanfen; Su Xiaodong

    2008-04-18

    Structural studies of human chloride intracellular channel protein 2 (CLIC2) had been hampered by the problem of generating suitable crystals primarily due to the protein containing exposed cysteines. Several chemical reagents were used to react with the cysteines on CLIC2 in order to modify the redox state of the protein. We have obtained high quality crystals that diffracted to better than 2.5 A at a home X-ray source by treating the protein with 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB). After solving the crystal structure of CLIC2, we found that the DTNB had reacted with the Cys{sup 114}, and made CLIC2 in a homogenous oxidized state. This study demonstrated that the DTNB modification drastically improved the crystallization of CLIC2, and it implied that this method may be useful for other proteins containing exposed cysteines in general.

  10. Volume-activated chloride permeability can mediate cell volume regulation in a mathematical model of a tight epithelium.

    PubMed

    Strieter, J; Stephenson, J L; Palmer, L G; Weinstein, A M

    1990-08-01

    Cell volume regulation during anisotonic challenge is investigated in a mathematical model of a tight epithelium. The epithelium is represented as compliant cellular and paracellular compartments bounded by mucosal and serosal bathing media. Model variables include the concentrations of Na, K, and Cl, hydrostatic pressure, and electrical potential, and the mass conservation equations have been formulated for both steady-state and time-dependent problems. Ionic conductance is represented by the Goldman constant field equation (Civan, M.M., and R.J. Bookman. 1982. Journal of Membrane Biology. 65:63-80). A basolateral cotransporter of Na, K, and Cl with 1:1:2 stoichiometry (Geck, P., and E. Heinz. 1980. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 341:57-62.) and volume-activated basolateral ion permeabilities are incorporated in the model. MacRobbie and Ussing (1961. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. 53:348-365.) reported that the cells of frog skin exhibit osmotic swelling followed by a volume regulatory decrease (VRD) when the serosal bath is diluted to half the initial osmolality. Similar regulation is achieved in the model epithelium when both a basolateral cotransporter and a volume-activated Cl permeation path are included. The observed transepithelial potential changes could only be simulated by allowing volume activation of the basolateral K permeation path. The fractional VRD, or shrinkage as percent of initial swelling, is examined as a function of the hypotonic challenge. The fractional VRD increases with increasing osmotic challenge, but eventually declines under the most severe circumstances. This analysis demonstrates that the VRD response depends on the presence of adequate intracellular chloride stores and the volume sensitivity of the chloride channel.

  11. [Role of intracellular degradation system in regulation of innate immune response].

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Innate immunity is induced after sensing microbial components by pattern-recognition receptors and functions as a first line of host defense against microbes. However, innate immunity is also induced after sensing host-derived stimulatory substances such as monosodium urate crystals and causes the development of inflammatory diseases, such as gout. Therefore, a better understanding of innate immunity is required for the development of effective therapeutic treatments for infectious and inflammatory diseases. This paper summarizes recent findings on regulation of the innate immune response. Accumulating evidence has shown that the intracellular degradation system is critically involved in various cellular processes. We focused on the intracellular degradation system and have revealed the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of the innate immune response. Ubiquitin-proteasome, autophagy and phagocyte-specific proteases most certainly regulate the innate immune response induced by infection of microbes and exposure to host-derived stimulatory substances. Therefore, intracellular degradation systems would be attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of immune-related diseases.

  12. Variation in human cancer cell external phosphatidylserine is regulated by flippase activity and intracellular calcium.

    PubMed

    Vallabhapurapu, Subrahmanya D; Blanco, Víctor M; Sulaiman, Mahaboob K; Vallabhapurapu, Swarajya Lakshmi; Chu, Zhengtao; Franco, Robert S; Qi, Xiaoyang

    2015-10-27

    Viable cancer cells expose elevated levels of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the exoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. However, the mechanisms leading to elevated PS exposure in viable cancer cells have not been defined. We previously showed that externalized PS may be used to monitor, target and kill tumor cells. In addition, PS on tumor cells is recognized by macrophages and has implications in antitumor immunity. Therefore, it is important to understand the molecular details of PS exposure on cancer cells in order to improve therapeutic targeting. Here we explored the mechanisms regulating the surface PS exposure in human cancer cells and found that differential flippase activity and intracellular calcium are the major regulators of surface PS exposure in viable human cancer cells. In general, cancer cell lines with high surface PS exhibited low flippase activity and high intracellular calcium, whereas cancer cells with low surface PS exhibited high flippase activity and low intracellular calcium. High surface PS cancer cells also had higher total cellular PS than low surface PS cells. Together, our results indicate that the amount of external PS in cancer cells is regulated by calcium dependent flippase activity and may also be influenced by total cellular PS.

  13. Spermidine, a sensor for antizyme 1 expression regulates intracellular polyamine homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Ramesh M.; Bhattacharya, Sujoy; Bavaria, Mitul N.; Viar, Mary Jane; Johnson, Leonard R.

    2014-01-01

    Although, intracellular polyamine levels are highly regulated, it is unclear whether intracellular putrescine (PUT), spermidine (SPD), or spermine (SPM) levels act as a sensor to regulate their synthesis or uptake. Polyamines have been shown to induce AZ1 expression through a unique +1 frameshifting mechanism. However, under physiological conditions which particular polyamine induces AZ1, and thereby ODC activity, is unknown due to their inter-conversion. In this study we demonstrate that SPD regulates AZ1 expression under physiological conditions in IEC-6 cells. PUT and SPD showed potent induction of AZ1 within 4h in serum starved confluent cells grown in DMEM (control) medium. Unlike control cells, PUT failed to induce AZ1 in cells grown in DFMO containing medium, however, SPD caused a robust AZ1 induction in these cells. SPM showed very little effect on AZ1 expression in both the control and polyamine depleted cells. Only SPD induced AZ1 when S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) and/or ODC were inhibited. Surprisingly, addition of DENSpm along with DFMO restored AZ1 induction by putrescine in polyamine-depleted cells suggesting that the increased SSAT activity in response to DENSpm converted SPM to SPD leading to the expression of AZ1. This study shows that intracellular SPD levels controls AZ1 synthesis. PMID:24824458

  14. Extracellular zinc stimulates a calcium-activated chloride conductance through mobilisation of intracellular calcium in renal inner medullary collecting duct cells.

    PubMed

    Linley, J E; Simmons, N L; Gray, M A

    2007-01-01

    We have used the perforated patch clamp and fura-2 fluorescence techniques to study the effect of extracellular Zn(2+) on whole-cell Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents (I (CLCA)) in mouse inner medullary collecting duct cells (mIMCD-3). I (CLCA) was spontaneously active in 74% of cells under basal conditions and displayed time and voltage-independent kinetics and an outwardly rectifying current/voltage relationship (I/V). Addition of zinc chloride (10-400 microM) to the bathing solution resulted in a dose-dependent increase in I (CLCA) with little change in Cl(-) selectivity or biophysical characteristics, whereas gadolinium chloride (30 microM) and lanthanum chloride (100 microM) had no significant effect on the whole-cell current. Using fura-2-loaded mIMCD-3 cells, extracellular Zn(2+) (400 microM) stimulated an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) to an elevated plateau. The Zn(2+)-stimulated [Ca(2+)](i) increase was inhibited by thapsigargin (200 nM), the IP(3) receptor antagonist 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (10 microM) and removal of bath Ca(2+). Pre-exposure to Zn(2+) (400 microM) markedly attenuated the ATP (100 microM)-stimulated [Ca(2+)](i) increase. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that extracellular Zn(2+) stimulates an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) by a release of calcium from thapsigargin/IP(3) sensitive stores. A possible physiological role for a divalent metal ion receptor, distinct from the extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor, in IMCD cells is discussed.

  15. Characterization of intracellular pH regulation in the guinea-pig ventricular myocyte

    PubMed Central

    Leem, Chae Hun; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D

    1999-01-01

    Intracellular pH was recorded fluorimetrically by using carboxy-SNARF-1, AM-loaded into superfused ventricular myocytes isolated from guinea-pig heart. Intracellular acid and base loads were induced experimentally and the changes of pHi used to estimate intracellular buffering power (β). The rate of pHi recovery from acid or base loads was used, in conjunction with the measurements of β, to estimate sarcolemmal transporter fluxes of acid equivalents. A combination of ion substitution and pharmacological inhibitors was used to dissect acid effluxes carried on Na+-H+ exchange (NHE) and Na+-HCO3− cotransport (NBC), and acid influxes carried on Cl−-HCO3− exchange (AE) and Cl−-OH− exchange (CHE). The intracellular intrinsic buffering power (βi), estimated under CO2/HCO3−-free conditions, varied inversely with pHi in a manner consistent with two principal intracellular buffers of differing concentration and pK. In CO2/HCO3−-buffered conditions, intracellular buffering was roughly doubled. The size of the CO2-dependent component (βCO2) was consistent with buffering in a cell fully open to CO2. Because the full value of βCO2 develops slowly (2·5 min), it had to be measured under equilibrium conditions. The value of βCO2 increased monotonically with pHi. In 5 % CO2/HCO3−-buffered conditions (pHo 7·40), acid extrusion on NHE and NBC increased as pHi was reduced, with the greater increase occurring through NHE at pHi < 6·90. Acid influx on AE and CHE increased as pHi was raised, with the greater increase occurring through AE at pHi > 7·15. At resting pHi (7·04-7·07), all four carriers were activated equally, albeit at a low rate (about 0·15 mM min−1). The pHi dependence of flux through the transporters, in combination with the pHi and time dependence of intracellular buffering (βi+βCO2), was used to predict mathematically the recovery of pHi following an intracellular acid or base load. Under several conditions the mathematical predictions

  16. Selenoprotein K modulate intracellular free Ca(2+) by regulating expression of calcium homoeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Li, Ruimin; Huang, Yalan; Wang, Miao; Yang, Fan; Huang, Dana; Wu, Chunli; Li, Yue; Tang, Yijun; Zhang, Renli; Cheng, Jinquan

    2017-03-18

    Selenoprotein K (SelK) is an 11-kDa selenoprotein, which may be involved in the regulation of oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and immune response. To explore the function of SelK in the process of immune response, several short-hairpin RNAs (shRNA) were designed for the construction of recombinant plasmids to down-regulate the expression of SelK gene in vitro. These shRNAs specifically and efficiently interfered with the expression of SelK at both mRNA and protein levels. The expression of calcium homoeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein (CHERP) and the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration were significantly down-regulated in anti-CD3 stimulated SelK-knockdown cells. The expression of Interleukin 2 receptor alpha chain (IL-2Rα) and the secretion of Interleukin 4 (IL-4), which play a significant role in the process of T cell activation and proliferation, were also reduced in SelK-knockdown cells. Selenomethionine (Se-Met) at an optimum concentration of 5 μM could up-regulate SelK expression and reverse the change of the expression of CHERP and the intracellular free calcium caused by SelK-knockdown. These results hereby imply SelK may regulate the release of Ca(2+) by CHERP and play an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of T cell by TCR stimulation.

  17. Lanthanum chloride suppresses oxysterol-induced ECV-304 cell apoptosis via inhibition of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration elevation, oxidative stress, and activation of ERK and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongmei; Zhang, Congcong; Huang, Kaixun

    2011-06-01

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that oral administration of lanthanum chloride (LaCl(3)) inhibits the development of atherosclerosis, but the related mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Oxysterols are toxic to the vascular endothelial cells which are important in preventing the formation and progression of atheromatous plaque. In this study, we examined the effect of LaCl(3) on oxysterol cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol (Triol)-induced apoptosis and the related mechanisms in ECV-304 cells, a presumptive endothelial cell line. Incubation with Triol resulted in apoptosis of ECV-304 cells, as determined by Hoechst 33342 staining, fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled annexin V/propidium iodide double staining, and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Triol activated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and inhibition of Triol-activated ERK and NF-κB signaling by specific inhibitors attenuated apoptosis induction by Triol in ECV-304 cells. Pretreatment with LaCl(3) (1 μM) for 12 h before exposure to Triol decreased Triol-mediated apoptosis as well as activation of ERK and NF-κB. In addition, Triol induced oxidative stress in ECV-304 cells, manifested by the increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and malondialdehyde level, and the reduction of the content of total protein thiols and the activity of antioxidant glutathione peroxidases; LaCl(3) pretreatment significantly reversed these effects. Finally, LaCl(3) pretreatment significantly inhibited the increases of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration induced by Triol. Our study suggests that Triol induced ECV-304 cell apoptosis, and LaCl(3) could suppress this effect probably by inhibiting intracellular Ca(2+) concentration elevation, oxidative stress, as well as activation of ERK and NF-κB signaling pathways.

  18. Aquaporin-3 mediates hydrogen peroxide uptake to regulate downstream intracellular signaling

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Evan W.; Dickinson, Bryan C.; Chang, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by cell-surface NADPH Oxidase (Nox) enzymes is emerging as an important signaling molecule for growth, differentiation, and migration processes. However, how cells spatially regulate H2O2 to achieve physiological redox signaling over nonspecific oxidative stress pathways is insufficiently understood. Here we report that the water channel Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) can facilitate the uptake of H2O2 into mammalian cells and mediate downstream intracellular signaling. Molecular imaging with Peroxy Yellow 1 Methyl-Ester (PY1-ME), a new chemoselective fluorescent indicator for H2O2, directly demonstrates that aquaporin isoforms AQP3 and AQP8, but not AQP1, can promote uptake of H2O2 specifically through membranes in mammalian cells. Moreover, we show that intracellular H2O2 accumulation can be modulated up or down based on endogenous AQP3 expression, which in turn can influence downstream cell signaling cascades. Finally, we establish that AQP3 is required for Nox-derived H2O2 signaling upon growth factor stimulation. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the downstream intracellular effects of H2O2 can be regulated across biological barriers, a discovery that has broad implications for the controlled use of this potentially toxic small molecule for beneficial physiological functions. PMID:20724658

  19. PERK regulates Gq protein-coupled intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics in primary cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Siying; McGrath, Barbara C; Bai, Yuting; Tang, Xin; Cavener, Douglas R

    2016-10-01

    PERK (EIF2AK3) is an ER-resident eIF2α kinase required for behavioral flexibility and metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression via its translational control. Motivated by the recent discoveries that PERK regulates Ca(2+) dynamics in insulin-secreting β-cells underlying glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and modulates Ca(2+) signals-dependent working memory, we explored the role of PERK in regulating Gq protein-coupled Ca(2+) dynamics in pyramidal neurons. We found that acute PERK inhibition by the use of a highly specific PERK inhibitor reduced the intracellular Ca(2+) rise stimulated by the activation of acetylcholine, metabotropic glutamate and bradykinin-2 receptors in primary cortical neurons. More specifically, acute PERK inhibition increased IP3 receptor mediated ER Ca(2+) release, but decreased receptor-operated extracellular Ca(2+) influx. Impaired Gq protein-coupled intracellular Ca(2+) rise was also observed in genetic Perk knockout neurons. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel role of PERK in neurons, which is eIF2α-independent, and suggest that the impaired working memory in forebrain-specific Perk knockout mice may stem from altered Gq protein-coupled intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics in cortical pyramidal neurons.

  20. The Helicobacter pylori Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) is Essential for Growth Under Sodium Chloride Stress

    PubMed Central

    Gancz, Hanan; Merrell, D. Scott

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological data and animal models indicate that Helicobacter pylori and dietary NaCl have a synergistic ill effect on gastric maladies. Here we show that the Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur), which is a crucial regulatory factor required for H. pylori colonization, is essential for growth in the presence of high NaCl concentrations. Moreover, we demonstrate that the transcriptional response induced by sodium chloride stress exhibits similarities to that seen under iron depletion. PMID:21538253

  1. Influence of GABA-gated bicarbonate conductance on potential, current and intracellular chloride in crayfish muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Kaila, K; Pasternack, M; Saarikoski, J; Voipio, J

    1989-01-01

    1. The effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on membrane potential and conductance as well as on the intracellular Cl- activity (aiCl) and intracellular pH (pHi) were studied in crayfish muscle fibres using a three-microelectrode voltage clamp and ion-selective microelectrodes. In the presence of CO2-HCO3-, the intracellular HCO3- activity (aiHCO3) was estimated from pHi. 2. In a nominally HCO3(-)-free solution, a near-saturating concentration of GABA (0.2 mM) produced a marked increase in membrane conductance but little change in potential. In a solution containing 30 mM-HCO3- (equilibrated with 5% CO2 + 95% air; pH 7.4), the GABA-induced increase in conductance was associated with a depolarization of about 15 mV, with an increase in aiCl and with a decrease in aiHCO3. All these effects were blocked by picrotoxin (PTX). The depolarizing action of GABA was augmented following depletion of extracellular and intracellular Cl-. 3. The GABA-induced increase in aiCl which took place in the presence of HCO3- was blocked by clamping the membrane potential at its resting level. This indicates that the increase in aiCl was due to passive redistribution of Cl-. In both the presence and absence of HCO3-, the GABA-activated transmembrane flux of Cl- showed reversal at the level of the resting potential, which indicates that under steady-state conditions the Cl- equilibrium potential (ECl) is identical to the resting potential. 4. In a Cl(-)-free, 30 mM-HCO3(-)-containing solution, 0.5 mM-GABA produced a PTX-sensitive increase in conductance which amounted to 15% of the conductance activated in the presence of Cl-. In the absence of both Cl- and HCO3-, the respective figure was 2.8%. Assuming constant-field conditions, the conductance data yielded a permeability ratio PHCO3/PCl of 0.42 for the GABA-activated channels. 5. In a Cl(-)-containing, HCO3(-)-free solution, the reversal potential of the GABA-activated current (EGABA) was, by about 1 mV, less negative than the

  2. Intracellular calcium and cAMP regulate directional pigment movements in teleost erythrophores

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Teleost pigment cells (erythrophores and melanophores) are useful models for studying the regulation of rapid, microtubule-dependent organelle transport. Previous studies suggest that melanophores regulate the direction of pigment movements via changes in intracellular cAMP (Rozdzial and Haimo, 1986a; Sammak et al., 1992), whereas erythrophores may use calcium- (Ca(2+)-) based regulation (Luby- Phelps and Porter, 1982; McNiven and Ward, 1988). Despite these observations, there have been no direct measurements in intact erythrophores or any cell type correlating changes of intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) with organelle movements. Here we demonstrate that extracellular Ca2+ is necessary and that a Ca2+ influx via microinjection is sufficient to induce pigment aggregation in erythrophores, but not melanophores of squirrel fish. Using the Ca(2+)- sensitive indicator, Fura-2, we demonstrate that [Ca2+]i rises dramatically concomitant with aggregation of pigment granules in erythrophores, but not melanophores. In addition, we find that an erythrophore stimulated to aggregate pigment will immediately transmit a rise in [Ca2+]i to neighboring cells, suggesting that these cells are electrically coupled. Surprisingly, we find that a fall in [Ca2+]i is not sufficient to induce pigment dispersion in erythrophores, contrary to the findings obtained with the ionophore and lysed-cell models (Luby- Phelps and Porter, 1982; McNiven and Ward, 1988). We find that a rise in intracellular cAMP ([cAMP]i) induces pigment dispersion, and that this dispersive stimulus can be overridden by an aggregation stimulus, suggesting that both high [cAMP]i and low [Ca2+]i are necessary to produce pigment dispersion in erythrophores. PMID:8106546

  3. Intracellular APP Sorting and Aβ Secretion are Regulated by Src-mediated Phosphorylation of Mint2

    PubMed Central

    Chaufty, Jeremy; Sullivan, Sarah E.; Ho, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Mint adaptor proteins bind to the membrane-bound amyloid precursor protein (APP) and affect the production of pathogenic amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that loss of each of the three Mint proteins delays the age-dependent production of amyloid plaques in transgenic mouse models of AD. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying Mints effect on amyloid production are unclear. Because Aβ generation involves the internalization of membrane-bound APP via endosomes and Mints bind directly to the endocytic motif of APP, we proposed that Mints are involved in APP intracellular trafficking, which in turn, affects Aβ generation. Here, we show that APP endocytosis was attenuated in Mint knockout neurons, revealing a role for Mints in APP trafficking. We also show that the endocytic APP sorting processes are regulated by Src-mediated phosphorylation of Mint2 and that internalized APP is differentially sorted between autophagic and recycling trafficking pathways. A Mint2 phospho-mimetic mutant favored endocytosis of APP along the autophagic sorting pathway leading to increased intracellular Aβ accumulation. Conversely, the Mint2 phospho-resistant mutant increased APP localization to the recycling pathway and back to the cell surface thereby enhancing Aβ42 secretion. These results demonstrate that Src-mediated phosphorylation of Mint2 regulates the APP endocytic sorting pathway, providing a mechanism for regulating Aβ secretion. PMID:22787047

  4. Apoplastic and intracellular plant sugars regulate developmental transitions in witches’ broom disease of cacao

    PubMed Central

    Barau, Joan; Grandis, Adriana; Carvalho, Vinicius Miessler de Andrade; Teixeira, Gleidson Silva; Zaparoli, Gustavo Henrique Alcalá; do Rio, Maria Carolina Scatolin; Rincones, Johana; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    Witches’ broom disease (WBD) of cacao differs from other typical hemibiotrophic plant diseases by its unusually long biotrophic phase. Plant carbon sources have been proposed to regulate WBD developmental transitions; however, nothing is known about their availability at the plant–fungus interface, the apoplastic fluid of cacao. Data are provided supporting a role for the dynamics of soluble carbon in the apoplastic fluid in prompting the end of the biotrophic phase of infection. Carbon depletion and the consequent fungal sensing of starvation were identified as key signalling factors at the apoplast. MpNEP2, a fungal effector of host necrosis, was found to be up-regulated in an autophagic-like response to carbon starvation in vitro. In addition, the in vivo artificial manipulation of carbon availability in the apoplastic fluid considerably modulated both its expression and plant necrosis rate. Strikingly, infected cacao tissues accumulated intracellular hexoses, and showed stunted photosynthesis and the up-regulation of senescence markers immediately prior to the transition to the necrotrophic phase. These opposite findings of carbon depletion and accumulation in different host cell compartments are discussed within the frame of WBD development. A model is suggested to explain phase transition as a synergic outcome of fungal-related factors released upon sensing of extracellular carbon starvation, and an early senescence of infected tissues probably triggered by intracellular sugar accumulation. PMID:25540440

  5. Apoplastic and intracellular plant sugars regulate developmental transitions in witches' broom disease of cacao.

    PubMed

    Barau, Joan; Grandis, Adriana; Carvalho, Vinicius Miessler de Andrade; Teixeira, Gleidson Silva; Zaparoli, Gustavo Henrique Alcalá; do Rio, Maria Carolina Scatolin; Rincones, Johana; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2015-03-01

    Witches' broom disease (WBD) of cacao differs from other typical hemibiotrophic plant diseases by its unusually long biotrophic phase. Plant carbon sources have been proposed to regulate WBD developmental transitions; however, nothing is known about their availability at the plant-fungus interface, the apoplastic fluid of cacao. Data are provided supporting a role for the dynamics of soluble carbon in the apoplastic fluid in prompting the end of the biotrophic phase of infection. Carbon depletion and the consequent fungal sensing of starvation were identified as key signalling factors at the apoplast. MpNEP2, a fungal effector of host necrosis, was found to be up-regulated in an autophagic-like response to carbon starvation in vitro. In addition, the in vivo artificial manipulation of carbon availability in the apoplastic fluid considerably modulated both its expression and plant necrosis rate. Strikingly, infected cacao tissues accumulated intracellular hexoses, and showed stunted photosynthesis and the up-regulation of senescence markers immediately prior to the transition to the necrotrophic phase. These opposite findings of carbon depletion and accumulation in different host cell compartments are discussed within the frame of WBD development. A model is suggested to explain phase transition as a synergic outcome of fungal-related factors released upon sensing of extracellular carbon starvation, and an early senescence of infected tissues probably triggered by intracellular sugar accumulation.

  6. Intracellular glutathione regulates Andrographolide-induced cytotoxicity on hepatoma Hep3B cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lili; Shen, Kaikai; Liu, Jun; Chen, Ying; Liu, Tianyu; Wang, Zhengtao

    2009-01-01

    Andrographolide (ANDRO), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from the traditional herbal plant Andrographis paniculata, was reported to induce apoptosis in hepatoma Hep3B cells in our previous study (Ji LL, Liu TY, Liu J, Chen Y, Wang ZT. Andrographolide inhibits human hepatoma-derived Hep3B cells growth through the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Planta Med 2007; 73: 1397-1401). The present investigation was carried out to observe whether cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) plays important roles in ANDRO-induced apoptosis. ANDRO initially increased intracellular GSH levels which then decreased later, while inhibition of cellular GSH synthesis by L-Buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) augmented ANDRO-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in Hep3B cells. On the other hand, the thiol antioxidant dithiothreitol (DTT) rescued ANDRO-depleted cellular GSH, and abrogated ANDRO-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Furthermore, BSO pretreatment augmented ANDRO-decreased expression of antioxidant protein thioredoxin 1 (Trx1), while DTT reversed this decrease. Further results showed that ANDRO increased the activity of the GSH-related antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Taken together, this study demonstrates that the intracellular redox system plays important roles in regulating the cytotoxicity of ANDRO on hepatoma Hep3B cells.

  7. Phosphate-Regulated Induction of Intracellular Ribonucleases in Cultured Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Löffler, Andreas; Abel, Steffen; Jost, Wolfgang; Beintema, Jaap J.; Glund, Konrad

    1992-01-01

    Four intracellular RNases were found to be induced in cultured tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cells upon phosphate starvation. Localization studies revealed three (RNases LV 1-3) in the vacuoles and one (RNase LX) outside these organelles. All of these RNases were purified to homogeneity and were shown to be type I RNases on the basis of type of splitting, substrate, and base specificity at the cleavage site, molecular weight, isoelectric point, and pH optimum. Moreover, RNase LV 3 was shown by fingerprinting of tryptic digests on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and sequencing the N terminus and two tryptic peptides to be structurally very similar to a recently characterized extracellular RNase LE which is also phosphate regulated (Nürnberger et al. [1990] Plant Physiol 92: 970-976; Jost et al. [1991] Eur J Biochem 198: 1-6). Expression of the four intracellular RNases is induced by depleting the cells of phosphate and repressed by adding phosphate. Our studies indicate that higher plants, in addition to secreting enzymes for scavanging phosphate under starvation conditions, also induce intracellularly emergency rescue systems. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:16668816

  8. Alternative oxidase impacts ganoderic acid biosynthesis by regulating intracellular ROS levels in Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Shi, Deng-Ke; Zhu, Jing; Sun, Ze-Hua; Zhang, Guang; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Tian-Jun; Wang, Sheng-Li; Ren, Ang; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2017-09-13

    The alternative oxidase (AOX), which forms a branch of the mitochondrial respiratory electron transport pathway, functions to sustain electron flux and alleviate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In this article, a homologous AOX gene was identified in Ganoderma lucidum. The coding sequence of the AOX gene in G. lucidum contains 1038 nucleotides and encodes a protein of 39.48 kDa. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to study the function of AOX in G. lucidum, and two silenced strains (AOXi6 and AOXi21) were obtained, showing significant decreases of approximately 60 and 50 %, respectively, in alternative pathway respiratory efficiency compared to WT. The content of ganoderic acid (GA) in the mutant strains AOXi6 and AOXi21 showed significant increases of approximately 42 and 44 %, respectively, compared to WT. Elevated contents of intermediate metabolites in GA biosynthesis and elevated transcription levels of corresponding genes were also observed in the mutant strains AOXi6 and AOXi21. In addition, the intracellular ROS content in strains AOXi6 and AOXi21 was significantly increased, by approximately 1.75- and 1.93-fold, respectively, compared with WT. Furthermore, adding N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, significantly depressed the intracellular ROS content and GA accumulation in AOX-silenced strains. These results indicate that AOX affects GA biosynthesis by regulating intracellular ROS levels. Our research revealed the important role of AOX in the secondary metabolism of G. lucidum.

  9. Feedback Regulation of Intracellular Hydrostatic Pressure in Surface Cells of the Lens

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Junyuan; Sun, Xiurong; White, Thomas W.; Delamere, Nicholas A.; Mathias, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    In wild-type lenses from various species, an intracellular hydrostatic pressure gradient goes from ∼340 mmHg in central fiber cells to 0 mmHg in surface cells. This gradient drives a center-to-surface flow of intracellular fluid. In lenses in which gap-junction coupling is increased, the central pressure is lower, whereas if gap-junction coupling is reduced, the central pressure is higher but surface pressure is always zero. Recently, we found that surface cell pressure was elevated in PTEN null lenses. This suggested disruption of a feedback control system that normally maintained zero surface cell pressure. Our purpose in this study was to investigate and characterize this feedback control system. We measured intracellular hydrostatic pressures in mouse lenses using a microelectrode/manometer-based system. We found that all feedback went through transport by the Na/K ATPase, which adjusted surface cell osmolarity such that pressure was maintained at zero. We traced the regulation of Na/K ATPase activity back to either TRPV4, which sensed positive pressure and stimulated activity, or TRPV1, which sensed negative pressure and inhibited activity. The inhibitory effect of TRPV1 on Na/K pumps was shown to signal through activation of the PI3K/AKT axis. The stimulatory effect of TRPV4 was shown in previous studies to go through a different signal transduction path. Thus, there is a local two-legged feedback control system for pressure in lens surface cells. The surface pressure provides a pedestal on which the pressure gradient sits, so surface pressure determines the absolute value of pressure at each radial location. We speculate that the absolute value of intracellular pressure may set the radial gradient in the refractive index, which is essential for visual acuity. PMID:26536260

  10. Glutamate-induced elevations in intracellular chloride concentration in hippocampal cell cultures derived from EYFP-expressing mice.

    PubMed

    Slemmer, Jennifer E; Matsushita, Shinichi; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Weber, John T; Knöpfel, Thomas

    2004-06-01

    The homeostasis of intracellular Cl(-) concentration ([Cl(-)](i)) is critical for neuronal function, including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic synaptic transmission. Here, we investigated activity-dependent changes in [Cl(-)](i) using a transgenetically expressed Cl(-)-sensitive enhanced yellow-fluorescent protein (EYFP) in cultures of mouse hippocampal neurons. Application of glutamate (100 microm for 3 min) in a bath perfusion to cell cultures of various days in vitro (DIV) revealed a decrease in EYFP fluorescence. The EYFP signal increased in amplitude with increasing DIV, reaching a maximal response after 7 DIV. Glutamate application resulted in a slight neuronal acidification. Although EYFP fluorescence is sensitive to pH, EYFP signals were virtually abolished in Cl(-)-free solution, demonstrating that the EYFP signal represented an increase in [Cl(-)](i). Similar to glutamate, a rise in [Cl(-)](i) was also induced by specific ionotropic glutamate receptor agonists and by increasing extracellular [K(+)], indicating that an increase in driving force for Cl(-) suffices to increase [Cl(-)](i). To elucidate the membrane mechanisms mediating the Cl(-) influx, a series of blockers of ion channels and transporters were tested. The glutamate-induced increase in [Cl(-)](i) was resistant to furosemide, bumetanide and 4,4'-diisothiocyanato-stilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS), was reduced by bicuculline to about 80% of control responses, and was antagonized by niflumic acid (NFA) and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB). We conclude that membrane depolarization increases [Cl(-)](i) via several pathways involving NFA- and NPPB-sensitive anion channels and GABA(A) receptors, but not through furosemide-, bumetanide- or DIDS-sensitive Cl(-) transporters. The present study highlights the vulnerability of [Cl(-)](i) homeostasis after membrane depolarization in neurons.

  11. Two tonoplast MATE proteins function as turgor-regulating chloride channels in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiwen; Zhao, Fu-Geng; Tang, Ren-Jie; Yu, Yuexuan; Song, Jiali; Wang, Yuan; Li, Legong; Luan, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    The central vacuole in a plant cell occupies the majority of the cellular volume and plays a key role in turgor regulation. The vacuolar membrane (tonoplast) contains a large number of transporters that mediate fluxes of solutes and water, thereby adjusting cell turgor in response to developmental and environmental signals. We report that two tonoplast Detoxification efflux carrier (DTX)/Multidrug and Toxic Compound Extrusion (MATE) transporters, DTX33 and DTX35, function as chloride channels essential for turgor regulation in Arabidopsis. Ectopic expression of each transporter in Nicotiana benthamiana mesophyll cells elicited a large voltage-dependent inward chloride current across the tonoplast, showing that DTX33 and DTX35 each constitute a functional channel. Both channels are highly expressed in Arabidopsis tissues, including root hairs and guard cells that experience rapid turgor changes during root-hair elongation and stomatal movements. Disruption of these two genes, either in single or double mutants, resulted in shorter root hairs and smaller stomatal aperture, with double mutants showing more severe defects, suggesting that these two channels function additively to facilitate anion influx into the vacuole during cell expansion. In addition, dtx35 single mutant showed lower fertility as a result of a defect in pollen-tube growth. Indeed, patch-clamp recording of isolated vacuoles indicated that the inward chloride channel activity across the tonoplast was impaired in the double mutant. Because MATE proteins are widely known transporters of organic compounds, finding MATE members as chloride channels expands the functional definition of this large family of transporters. PMID:28202726

  12. Chloride Anions Regulate Kinetics but Not Voltage-Sensor Qmax of the Solute Carrier SLC26a5.

    PubMed

    Santos-Sacchi, Joseph; Song, Lei

    2016-06-07

    In general, SLC26 solute carriers serve to transport a variety of anions across biological membranes. However, prestin (SLC26a5) has evolved, now serving as a motor protein in outer hair cells (OHCs) of the mammalian inner ear and is required for cochlear amplification, a mechanical feedback mechanism to boost auditory performance. The mechanical activity of the OHC imparted by prestin is driven by voltage and controlled by anions, chiefly intracellular chloride. Current opinion is that chloride anions control the Boltzmann characteristics of the voltage sensor responsible for prestin activity, including Qmax, the total sensor charge moved within the membrane, and Vh, a measure of prestin's operating voltage range. Here, we show that standard narrow-band, high-frequency admittance measures of nonlinear capacitance (NLC), an alternate representation of the sensor's charge-voltage (Q-V) relationship, is inadequate for assessment of Qmax, an estimate of the sum of unitary charges contributed by all voltage sensors within the membrane. Prestin's slow transition rates and chloride-binding kinetics adversely influence these estimates, contributing to the prevalent concept that intracellular chloride level controls the quantity of sensor charge moved. By monitoring charge movement across frequency, using measures of multifrequency admittance, expanded displacement current integration, and OHC electromotility, we find that chloride influences prestin kinetics, thereby controlling charge magnitude at any particular frequency of interrogation. Importantly, however, this chloride dependence vanishes as frequency decreases, with Qmax asymptoting at a level irrespective of the chloride level. These data indicate that prestin activity is significantly low-pass in the frequency domain, with important implications for cochlear amplification. We also note that the occurrence of voltage-dependent charge movements in other SLC26 family members may be hidden by inadequate

  13. Distinct intracellular sAC-cAMP domains regulate ER calcium signaling and OXPHOS function.

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, Federica; Konrad, Csaba; D'Aurelio, Marilena; Ramos-Espiritu, Lavoisier S; Stepanova, Anna; Burstein, Suzanne R; Galkin, Alexander; Magranè, Jordi; Starkov, Anatoly; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2017-09-01

    cAMP regulates a wide variety of physiological functions in mammals. This single second messenger can regulate multiple, seemingly disparate functions within independently regulated cell compartments. We previously identified one such compartment inside the matrix of the mitochondria, where soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) regulates oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). We now show that sAC KO fibroblasts have a defect in OXPHOS activity and attempt to compensate for this defect by increasing OXPHOS proteins. Importantly, sAC KO cells also exhibit decreased probability of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) release associated with diminished phosphorylation of the inositol 3-phosphate receptor. Restoring sAC expression exclusively in the mitochondrial matrix rescues OXPHOS activity and reduces its biogenesis, indicating that these phenotypes are regulated by intramitochondrial sAC. In contrast, ER Ca(2+) release is only rescued when sAC expression is restored throughout the cell. Thus, we show that functionally distinct, sAC-defined, intracellular cAMP signaling domains regulate metabolism and Ca(2+) signaling. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Voltage- and calcium-dependent gating of TMEM16A/Ano1 chloride channels are physically coupled by the first intracellular loop

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qinghuan; Yu, Kuai; Perez-Cornejo, Patricia; Cui, Yuanyuan; Arreola, Jorge; Hartzell, H. Criss

    2011-01-01

    Ca2+-activated Cl− channels (CaCCs) are exceptionally well adapted to subserve diverse physiological roles, from epithelial fluid transport to sensory transduction, because their gating is cooperatively controlled by the interplay between ionotropic and metabotropic signals. A molecular understanding of the dual regulation of CaCCs by voltage and Ca2+ has recently become possible with the discovery that Ano1 (TMEM16a) is an essential subunit of CaCCs. Ano1 can be gated by Ca2+ or by voltage in the absence of Ca2+, but Ca2+- and voltage-dependent gating are very closely coupled. Here we identify a region in the first intracellular loop that is crucial for both Ca2+ and voltage sensing. Deleting 448EAVK in the first intracellular loop dramatically decreases apparent Ca2+ affinity. In contrast, mutating the adjacent amino acids 444EEEE abolishes intrinsic voltage dependence without altering the apparent Ca2+affinity. Voltage-dependent gating of Ano1 measured in the presence of intracellular Ca2+ was facilitated by anions with high permeability or by an increase in [Cl−]e. Our data show that the transition between closed and open states is governed by Ca2+ in a voltage-dependent manner and suggest that anions allosterically modulate Ca2+-binding affinity. This mechanism provides a unified explanation of CaCC channel gating by voltage and ligand that has long been enigmatic. PMID:21555582

  15. Piperine regulates UCP1 through the AMPK pathway by generating intracellular lactate production in muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nami; Nam, Miso; Kang, Mi Sun; Lee, Jung Ok; Lee, Yong Woo; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Kim, Hyeon Soo

    2017-01-01

    This study characterizes the human metabolic response to piperine, a curcumin extract, and the details of its underlying molecular mechanism. Using 1H-NMR-based metabolome analysis, we showed the metabolic effect of piperine on skeletal muscle and found that piperine increased the level of intracellular lactate, an important metabolic intermediate that controls expression of several genes involved in mitochondrial activity. Piperine also induced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its downstream target, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), while additionally stimulating glucose uptake in an AMPK dependent manner. Piperine also stimulates the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), an effect that was reversed by pretreatment with compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. Inhibition of p38 MAPK resulted in no piperine-induced glucose uptake. Increased level of lactate resulted in increased expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which regulates energy expenditure, thermogenesis, and fat browning. Knock-down of AMPK blocked piperine-induced UCP1 up-regulation, demonstrating the required role of AMPK in this effect. Taken together, these results suggest that piperine leads to benign metabolic effects by activating the AMPK-p38 MAPK signaling pathway and UCP1 expression by activating intracellular lactate production in skeletal muscle. PMID:28117414

  16. Intracellular calcium signals regulate growth of hepatic stellate cells via specific effects on cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Elwy M; Rodrigues, Michele Angela; Gomes, Dawidson Assis; Sheung, Nina; Yu, Jin; Amaya, Maria Jimina; Nathanson, Michael H; Dranoff, Jonathan A

    2009-03-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are important mediators of liver fibrosis. Hormones linked to downstream intracellular Ca(2+) signals upregulate HSC proliferation, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are unknown. Nuclear and cytosolic Ca(2+) signals may have distinct effects on cell proliferation, so we expressed plasmid and adenoviral constructs containing the Ca(2+) chelator parvalbumin (PV) linked to either a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) or a nuclear export sequence (NES) to block Ca(2+) signals in distinct compartments within LX-2 immortalized human HSC and primary rat HSC. PV-NLS and PV-NES constructs each targeted to the appropriate intracellular compartment and blocked Ca(2+) signals only within that compartment. PV-NLS and PV-NES constructs inhibited HSC growth. Furthermore, blockade of nuclear or cytosolic Ca(2+) signals arrested growth at the G2/mitosis (G2/M) cell-cycle interface and prevented the onset of mitosis. Blockade of nuclear or cytosolic Ca(2+) signals downregulated phosphorylation of the G2/M checkpoint phosphatase Cdc25C. Inhibition of calmodulin kinase II (CaMK II) had identical effects on LX-2 growth and Cdc25C phosphorylation. We propose that nuclear and cytosolic Ca(2+) are critical signals that regulate HSC growth at the G2/M checkpoint via CaMK II-mediated regulation of Cdc25C phosphorylation. These data provide a new logical target for pharmacological therapy directed against progression of liver fibrosis.

  17. Regulation of Intracellular Structural Tension by Talin in the Axon Growth and Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Dingyu, Wang; Fanjie, Meng; Zhengzheng, Ding; Baosheng, Huang; Chao, Yang; Yi, Pan; Huiwen, Wu; Jun, Guo; Gang, Hu

    2016-09-01

    Intracellular tension is the most important characteristic of neuron polarization as well as the growth and regeneration of axons, which can be generated by motor proteins and conducted along the cytoskeleton. To better understand this process, we created Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based tension probes that can be incorporated into microfilaments to provide a real-time measurement of forces in neuron cytoskeletons. We found that our probe could be used to assess the structural tension of neuron polarity. Nerve growth factor (NGF) upregulated structural forces, whereas the glial-scar inhibitors chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) and aggrecan weakened such forces. Notably, the tension across axons was distributed uniformly and remarkably stronger than that in the cell body in NGF-stimulated neurons. The mechanosensors talin/vinculin could antagonize the effect of glial-scar inhibitors via structural forces. However, E-cadherin was closely associated with glial-scar inhibitor-induced downregulation of structural forces. Talin/vinculin was involved in the negative regulation of E-cadherin transcription through the nuclear factor-kappa B pathway. Collectively, this study clarified the mechanism underlying intracellular tension in the growth and regeneration of axons which, conversely, can be regulated by talin and E-cadherin.

  18. Regulation of intracellular calcium by bupivacaine isomers in cardiac myocytes from Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Chedid, Núbia G B; Sudo, Roberto T; Aguiar, Marli I S; Trachez, Margarete M; Masuda, Masako O; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele

    2006-03-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of a racemic mixture of bupivacaine (RS(+/-)bupivacaine) and its isomers (S(-)bupivacaine and R(+)bupivacaine) on the Ca2+ handling by ventricular myocytes from Wistar rats. Single ventricular myocytes were enzymatically isolated and loaded with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fura 2-am to estimate intracellular Ca2+ concentration during contraction and relaxation cycles. S(-)bupivacaine (10 muM) significantly increased peak amplitude and the rate of increase of Ca2+ transients in 155% +/- 54% (P < 0.05) and 194% +/- 94% (P < 0.01) of control. However, exposure to R(+)bupivacaine had no effect on either peak amplitude or rate of increase at any concentration tested. Saponin-skinned ventricular fibers were used to investigate the effect of bupivacaine on the intracellular Ca2+ regulation by sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and on the Ca2+ sensitivity of contractile system. S(-), R(+), and RS(+/-)bupivacaine induced Ca2+ release from SR (P < 0.01). In SR-disrupted skinned ventricular cells, bupivacaine and its isomers (5 mM) increased the sensitivity of contractile system to Ca(2+). S(-), RS(+/-), and R(+)bupivacaine significantly increased pCa50 from 5.8 +/- 0.1, 5.8 +/- 0.1, and 5.8 +/- 0.1, to 6.1 +/- 0.1 (P < 0.05), 6.0 +/- 0.1 (P < 0.05), and 6.1 +/- 0.1 (P < 0.05). Ca2+ release from SR through RyR2 activation could explain the increase of Ca2+ transients in cardiac cells. Increased intracellular Ca2+ in cardiac myocytes display a stereoselectivity to S(-)bupivacaine.

  19. Viral Polymerase-Helicase Complexes Regulate Replication Fidelity To Overcome Intracellular Nucleotide Depletion

    PubMed Central

    Stapleford, Kenneth A.; Rozen-Gagnon, Kathryn; Das, Pratyush Kumar; Saul, Sirle; Poirier, Enzo Z.; Blanc, Hervé; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Merits, Andres

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To date, the majority of work on RNA virus replication fidelity has focused on the viral RNA polymerase, while the potential role of other viral replicase proteins in this process is poorly understood. Previous studies used resistance to broad-spectrum RNA mutagens, such as ribavirin, to identify polymerases with increased fidelity that avoid misincorporation of such base analogues. We identified a novel variant in the alphavirus viral helicase/protease, nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2) that operates in concert with the viral polymerase nsP4 to further alter replication complex fidelity, a functional linkage that was conserved among the alphavirus genus. Purified chikungunya virus nsP2 presented delayed helicase activity of the high-fidelity enzyme, and yet purified replication complexes manifested stronger RNA polymerization kinetics. Because mutagenic nucleoside analogs such as ribavirin also affect intracellular nucleotide pools, we addressed the link between nucleotide depletion and replication fidelity by using purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis inhibitors. High-fidelity viruses were more resistant to these conditions, and viral growth could be rescued by the addition of exogenous nucleosides, suggesting that mutagenesis by base analogues requires nucleotide pool depletion. This study describes a novel function for nsP2, highlighting the role of other components of the replication complex in regulating viral replication fidelity, and suggests that viruses can alter their replication complex fidelity to overcome intracellular nucleotide-depleting conditions. IMPORTANCE Previous studies using the RNA mutagen ribavirin to select for drug-resistant variants have highlighted the essential role of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in regulating replication fidelity. However, the role of other viral replicase components in replication fidelity has not been studied in detail. We identified here an RNA mutagen-resistant variant of the nsP2 helicase

  20. Absence of chloride intracellular channel 4 (CLIC4) predisposes to acute kidney injury but has minimal impact on recovery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background CLIC4, a member of the CLIC family of proteins, was recently demonstrated to translocate to the nucleus in differentiating keratinocytes where it potentiates TGFβ-driven gene regulation. Since TGFβ signaling is known to play important roles in the fibrotic response to acute kidney injury, and since CLIC4 is abundantly expressed in kidney, we hypothesized that CLIC4 may play a role in the response to acute kidney injury. Methods Previously described Clic4 null mice were analyzed for the effect of absence of CLIC4 on growth, development and response to kidney injury. Kidney size, glomerular counts and density of peritubular capillaries of matched WT and Clic4 null mice were determined. Cohorts of WT and Clic4 null mice were subjected to the folic acid model of acute kidney injury. Extent of acute injury and long term functional recovery were assessed by plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN); long term fibrosis/scarring was determined by histochemical assessment of kidney sections and by residual renal mass. Activation of the TGFβ signaling pathway was assessed by semi-quantitative western blots of phosphorylated SMADs 2 and 3. Results CLIC4 is abundantly expressed in the apical pole of renal proximal tubule cells, and in endothelial cells of glomerular and peritubular capillaries. CLIC4 null mice are small, have smaller kidneys with fewer glomeruli and less dense peritubular capillary networks, and have increased proteinuria. The Clic4 null mice show increased susceptibility to folic acid-induced acute kidney injury but no difference in recovery from acute injury, no nuclear redistribution of CLIC4 following injury, and no significant difference in activation of the TGFβ-signaling pathway as reflected in the level of phosphorylation of SMADs 2 and 3. Conclusions Absence of CLIC4 results in morphologic changes consistent with its known role in angiogenesis. These changes may be at least partially responsible for the increased susceptibility to acute kidney

  1. Intracellular regulation of the insect chemoreceptor complex impacts odour localization in flying insects.

    PubMed

    Getahun, Merid N; Thoma, Michael; Lavista-Llanos, Sofia; Keesey, Ian; Fandino, Richard A; Knaden, Markus; Wicher, Dieter; Olsson, Shannon B; Hansson, Bill S

    2016-11-01

    Flying insects are well known for airborne odour tracking and have evolved diverse chemoreceptors. While ionotropic receptors (IRs) are found across protostomes, insect odorant receptors (ORs) have only been identified in winged insects. We therefore hypothesized that the unique signal transduction of ORs offers an advantage for odour localization in flight. Using Drosophila, we found expression and increased activity of the intracellular signalling protein PKC in antennal sensilla following odour stimulation. Odour stimulation also enhanced phosphorylation of the OR co-receptor Orco in vitro, while site-directed mutation of Orco or mutations in PKC subtypes reduced the sensitivity and dynamic range of OR-expressing neurons in vivo, but not IR-expressing neurons. We ultimately show that these mutations reduce competence for odour localization of flies in flight. We conclude that intracellular regulation of OR sensitivity is necessary for efficient odour localization, which suggests a mechanistic advantage for the evolution of the OR complex in flying insects. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Sigma-1 receptor as regulator of neuronal intracellular Ca2+: clinical and therapeutic relevance.

    PubMed

    Monnet, François P

    2005-12-01

    Preserving brain function and cognitive faculties during aging and psychiatric diseases (e.g. psychotic, anxiety and affective disorders, dementia) is essential for the self-reliance and quality of life of patients. Cognitive loss involves not only memory, but also motor function. The decrease of catecholaminergic and excitatory neurotransmissions, as well as of protein phosphorylation, have currently been identified as prominent biological markers of the above-mentioned diseases. Such deleterious biological events are well known to occur downstream of a progressive decline of intracellular Ca2+ signalling. This latter constitutes a key target for the neuronal plasticity that has also been reported during aging and psychiatric disorders. Most of the medicines used in psychiatry are active on the sigma-1 receptor. This membrane bound receptor is widely distributed in memory-associated cortical and motor-related brainstem areas, prompting the hypothesis that it might contribute to the pathophysiology of these behavioural brain diseases. The sigma-1 receptor is characterized by a unique mode of action by regulating both Ca2+ entry at the plasma membrane level (i.e. via potassium channels, voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels) and Ca2+ mobilization from endoplasmic stores [i.e. via Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors]. This review presents recent data supporting the notion that drugs acting via the endoplasmic reticulum-coupled sigma-1 receptor might reverse these deleterious events by restoring both extra- and intra-cellular Ca(2+)-dependent neuronal responses.

  3. Intracellular pH regulation in detubulated frog skeletal muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Putnam, R W

    1996-10-01

    Intracellular pH regulation was studied in semitendinosus muscle fibers from frog (Rana pipiens). Intracellular pH (pHi) was measured with recessed-tip glass microelectrodes and membrane potential with conventional microelectrodes. Fibers had their connections between the surface and transverse tubular membrane disrupted (detubulation) with the formamide shock technique. Fibers were approximately 80% detubulated as determined by the decrease in membrane capacitance and the loss of contractile capability. The initial rate of pHi recovery from acidification to approximately 6.8 (no CO2) was dependent on external buffering power, reaching a maximum of approximately 0.6 pH/h at 50 mM HEPES, indicating that the rate of pHi recovery in frog muscle is limited by the diffusion of buffer through an external "unstirred layer". In detubulated fibers, pHi recovery from acidification due to both the amiloride-sensitive Na+/H+ and the 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (SITS)-sensitive (Na+ + HCO3-)/Cl- exchangers was nearly identical to recovery in fully tubulated fibers. This is consistent with these two pH recovery transporters being localized to the surface, and not the transverse tubular, membrane domain in frog skeletal muscle fibers.

  4. The early embryo response to intracellular reactive oxygen species is developmentally regulated.

    PubMed

    Bain, Nathan T; Madan, Pavneesh; Betts, Dean H

    2011-01-01

    In vitro embryo production (IVP) suffers from excessive developmental failure. Its inefficiency is linked, in part, to reactive oxygen species (ROS) brought on by high ex vivo oxygen (O(2)) tensions. To further delineate the effects of ROS on IVP, the intracellular ROS levels of early bovine embryos were modulated by: (1) varying O(2) tension; (2) exogenous H(2)O(2) treatment; and (3) antioxidant supplementation. Although O(2) tension did not significantly affect blastocyst frequencies (P>0.05), 20% O(2) accelerated the rate of first cleavage division and significantly decreased and increased the proportion of permanently arrested 2- to 4-cell embryos and apoptotic 9- to 16-cell embryos, respectively, compared with embryos cultured in 5% O(2) tension. Treatment with H(2)O(2), when applied separately to oocytes, zygotes, 2- to 4-cell embryos or 9- to 16-cell embryos, resulted in a significant (P<0.05) dose-dependent decrease in blastocyst development in conjunction with a corresponding increase in the induction of either permanent embryo arrest or apoptosis in a stage-dependent manner. Polyethylene glycol-catalase supplementation reduced ROS-induced embryo arrest and/or death, resulting in a significant (P<0.05) increase in blastocyst frequencies under high O(2) culture conditions. Together, these results indicate that intracellular ROS may be signalling molecules that, outside an optimal range, result in various developmentally regulated modes of embryo demise.

  5. Role of Metal-Dependent Regulation of ESX-3 Secretion in Intracellular Survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Tinaztepe, Emir; Wei, Jun-Rong; Raynowska, Jenelle; Portal-Celhay, Cynthia; Thompson, Victor; Philips, Jennifer A

    2016-08-01

    More people die every year from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection than from infection by any other bacterial pathogen. Type VII secretion systems (T7SS) are used by both environmental and pathogenic mycobacteria to secrete proteins across their complex cell envelope. In the nonpathogen Mycobacterium smegmatis, the ESX-1 T7SS plays a role in conjugation, and the ESX-3 T7SS is involved in metal homeostasis. In M. tuberculosis, these secretion systems have taken on roles in virulence, and they also are targets of the host immune response. ESX-3 secretes a heterodimer composed of EsxG (TB9.8) and EsxH (TB10.4), which impairs phagosome maturation in macrophages and is essential for virulence in mice. Given the importance of EsxG and EsxH during infection, we examined their regulation. With M. tuberculosis, the secretion of EsxG and EsxH was regulated in response to iron and zinc, in accordance with the previously described transcriptional response of the esx-3 locus to these metals. While iron regulated the esx-3 expression in both M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis, there is a significant difference in the dynamics of this regulation. In M. smegmatis, the esx-3 locus behaved like other iron-regulated genes such as mbtB In M. tuberculosis, both iron and zinc modestly repressed esx-3 expression. Diminished secretion of EsxG and EsxH in response to these metals altered the interaction of M. tuberculosis with macrophages, leading to impaired intracellular M. tuberculosis survival. Our findings detail the regulatory differences of esx-3 in M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis and demonstrate the importance of metal-dependent regulation of ESX-3 for virulence in M. tuberculosis.

  6. Role of Metal-Dependent Regulation of ESX-3 Secretion in Intracellular Survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Tinaztepe, Emir; Wei, Jun-Rong; Raynowska, Jenelle; Portal-Celhay, Cynthia; Thompson, Victor

    2016-01-01

    More people die every year from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection than from infection by any other bacterial pathogen. Type VII secretion systems (T7SS) are used by both environmental and pathogenic mycobacteria to secrete proteins across their complex cell envelope. In the nonpathogen Mycobacterium smegmatis, the ESX-1 T7SS plays a role in conjugation, and the ESX-3 T7SS is involved in metal homeostasis. In M. tuberculosis, these secretion systems have taken on roles in virulence, and they also are targets of the host immune response. ESX-3 secretes a heterodimer composed of EsxG (TB9.8) and EsxH (TB10.4), which impairs phagosome maturation in macrophages and is essential for virulence in mice. Given the importance of EsxG and EsxH during infection, we examined their regulation. With M. tuberculosis, the secretion of EsxG and EsxH was regulated in response to iron and zinc, in accordance with the previously described transcriptional response of the esx-3 locus to these metals. While iron regulated the esx-3 expression in both M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis, there is a significant difference in the dynamics of this regulation. In M. smegmatis, the esx-3 locus behaved like other iron-regulated genes such as mbtB. In M. tuberculosis, both iron and zinc modestly repressed esx-3 expression. Diminished secretion of EsxG and EsxH in response to these metals altered the interaction of M. tuberculosis with macrophages, leading to impaired intracellular M. tuberculosis survival. Our findings detail the regulatory differences of esx-3 in M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis and demonstrate the importance of metal-dependent regulation of ESX-3 for virulence in M. tuberculosis. PMID:27245412

  7. The nuclear chloride ion channel NCC27 is involved in regulation of the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Stella M; Mazzanti, Michele; Tonini, Raffaella; Qiu, Min Ru; Warton, Kristina; Musgrove, Elizabeth A; Campbell, Terence J; Breit, Samuel N

    2000-01-01

    NCC27 is a nuclear chloride ion channel, identified in the PMA-activated U937 human monocyte cell line. NCC27 mRNA is expressed in virtually all cells and tissues and the gene encoding NCC27 is also highly conserved. Because of these factors, we have examined the hypothesis that NCC27 is involved in cell cycle regulation. Electrophysiological studies in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells indicated that NCC27 chloride conductance varied according to the stage of the cell cycle, being expressed only on the plasma membrane of cells in G2/M phase. We also demonstrate that Cl− ion channel blockers known to block NCC27 led to arrest of CHO-K1 cells in the G2/M stage of the cell cycle, the same stage at which this ion channel is selectively expressed on the plasma membrane. These data strongly support the hypothesis that NCC27 is involved, in some as yet undetermined manner, in regulation of the cell cycle. PMID:11195932

  8. Cadmium Regulates the Expression of the CFTR Chloride Channel in Human Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rennolds, Jessica; Butler, Susie; Maloney, Kevin; Boyaka, Prosper N.; Davis, Ian C.; Knoell, Daren L.; Parinandi, Narasimham L.; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal ranked seventh on the Priority List of Hazardous Substances. As a byproduct of smelters, cadmium is a prevalent environmental contaminant. It is also a major component of cigarette smoke, and its inhalation is associated with decreased pulmonary function, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ion channels, including the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), play a central role in maintaining fluid homeostasis and lung functions. CFTR is mostly expressed in epithelial cells, and little is known about the effect of cadmium exposure on lung epithelial cell function. We show that exposure to cadmium decreases the expression of the CFTR protein and subsequent chloride transport in human airway epithelial cells in vitro. Impairment of CFTR protein expression was also observed in vivo in the lung of mice after intranasal instillation of cadmium. We established that the inhibitory effect of cadmium was not a nonspecific effect of heavy metals, as nickel had no effect on CFTR protein levels. Finally, we show that selected antioxidants, including alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), but not N-acetylcysteine, can prevent the cadmium-induced suppression of CFTR. In summary, we have identified cadmium as a regulator of the CFTR chloride channel present in lung epithelial cells. Future strategies to prevent the deleterious effect of cadmium on epithelial cells and lung functions may benefit from the finding that alpha-tocopherol protects CFTR expression and function. PMID:20363832

  9. Cadmium regulates the expression of the CFTR chloride channel in human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rennolds, Jessica; Butler, Susie; Maloney, Kevin; Boyaka, Prosper N; Davis, Ian C; Knoell, Daren L; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle

    2010-07-01

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal ranked seventh on the Priority List of Hazardous Substances. As a byproduct of smelters, cadmium is a prevalent environmental contaminant. It is also a major component of cigarette smoke, and its inhalation is associated with decreased pulmonary function, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ion channels, including the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), play a central role in maintaining fluid homeostasis and lung functions. CFTR is mostly expressed in epithelial cells, and little is known about the effect of cadmium exposure on lung epithelial cell function. We show that exposure to cadmium decreases the expression of the CFTR protein and subsequent chloride transport in human airway epithelial cells in vitro. Impairment of CFTR protein expression was also observed in vivo in the lung of mice after intranasal instillation of cadmium. We established that the inhibitory effect of cadmium was not a nonspecific effect of heavy metals, as nickel had no effect on CFTR protein levels. Finally, we show that selected antioxidants, including alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), but not N-acetylcysteine, can prevent the cadmium-induced suppression of CFTR. In summary, we have identified cadmium as a regulator of the CFTR chloride channel present in lung epithelial cells. Future strategies to prevent the deleterious effect of cadmium on epithelial cells and lung functions may benefit from the finding that alpha-tocopherol protects CFTR expression and function.

  10. Luminal fluid tonicity regulates airway ciliary beating by altering membrane stretch and intracellular calcium.

    PubMed

    Horváth, György; Sorscher, Eric J

    2008-06-01

    The coordinated, directional beating of airway cilia drives airway mucociliary clearance. Here we explore the hypothesis that airway surface liquid osmolarity is a key regulator of ciliary beating. Cilia in freshly isolated human and murine airways visualized with streaming video-microscopy exhibited a reciprocal dependence on a physiological range of luminal fluid osmolarities, across the entire range of ciliary activity (0-20 beats per sec). Increasing osmolarity slowed or completely abrogated, while lower osmolarity dramatically stimulated ciliary beating. In parallel, epithelial cell height and importantly, intracellular calcium levels (as judged by fluorescence imaging) also changed. Moreover, ciliary beating was stimulated by isosmotic solutions containing membrane permeant osmolytes, suggesting that cell size and membrane stretch (governed by apical fluid tonicity), rather than osmolarity itself, contribute to the activation. These findings shed light on the pathophysiology of diseases of mucociliary clearance such as cystic fibrosis and other chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Ion channel regulation of intracellular calcium and airway smooth muscle function.

    PubMed

    Perez-Zoghbi, Jose F; Karner, Charlotta; Ito, Satoru; Shepherd, Malcolm; Alrashdan, Yazan; Sanderson, Michael J

    2009-10-01

    Airway hyper-responsiveness associated with asthma is mediated by airway smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and has a complicated etiology involving increases in cell contraction and proliferation and the secretion of inflammatory mediators. Although these pathological changes are diverse, a common feature associated with their regulation is a change in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). Because the [Ca(2+)](i) itself is a function of the activity and expression of a variety of ion channels, in both the plasma membrane and sarcoplasmic reticulum of the SMC, the modification of this ion channel activity may predispose airway SMCs to hyper-responsiveness. Our objective is to review how ion channels determine the [Ca(2+)](i) and influence the function of airway SMCs and emphasize the potential of ion channels as sites for therapeutic approaches to asthma.

  12. Two cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutations have different effects on both pulmonary phenotype and regulation of outwardly rectified chloride currents.

    PubMed Central

    Fulmer, S B; Schwiebert, E M; Morales, M M; Guggino, W B; Cutting, G R

    1995-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), a disorder of electrolyte transport manifest in the lungs, pancreas, sweat duct, and vas deferens, is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The CFTR protein has been shown to function as a cAMP-activated chloride channel and also regulates a separate protein, the outwardly rectifying chloride channel (ORCC). To determine the consequence of disease-producing mutations upon these functions, mutant CFTR was transiently expressed in Xenopus oocytes and in human airway epithelial cells lacking functional CFTR. Both G551D, a mutation that causes severe lung disease, and A455E, a mutation associated with mild lung disease, altered but did not abolish CFTR's function as a chloride channel in Xenopus oocytes. Airway epithelial cells transfected with CFTR bearing either A455E or G551D had levels of chloride conductance significantly greater than those of mock-transfected and lower than those of wild-type CFTR-transfected cells, as measured by chloride efflux. A combination of channel blockers and analysis of current-voltage relationships were used to dissect the contribution of CFTR and the ORCC to whole cell currents of transfected cells. While CFTR bearing either mutation could function as a chloride channel, only CFTR bearing A455E retained the function of regulating the ORCC. These results indicate that CF mutations can affect CFTR functions differently and suggest that severity of pulmonary disease may be more closely associated with the regulatory rather than chloride channel function of CFTR. PMID:7542778

  13. Chloride channels activated by swell can regulate the NADPH oxidase generated membrane depolarisation in activated human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, Jatinder

    2008-01-11

    Chloride channels activated by swell have important functions in many physiological processes. The phagocyte NADPH oxidase is essential for host defence and it generates superoxide by transferring electrons from the donor NADPH to the acceptor O{sub 2}. This electron current, induces a depolarisation of the plasma membrane. In this study, I report that chloride channels activated by swell can counteract the depolarisation induced by the NADPH oxidase. When a chloride conductance was activated by swelling, its inhibition by either 50 {mu}M NPPB or removing external chloride, depolarised the plasma membrane potential to +26 mV {+-} 3.1 (n = 4) and +40 {+-} 1 mV (n = 4), respectively. These channels were partially inhibited by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor AEBSF (1 mM) and potently inhibited by ZnCl{sub 2} (3 mM). These currents were not activated by a phosphorylation step and elevations in intracellular calcium did not appear to activate chloride currents similar to those activated by swell.

  14. Positive and negative regulation of a SNARE protein by control of intracellular localization.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Hideki; de los Santos, Pablo; Neiman, Aaron M

    2004-04-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the developmentally regulated Soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein Spo20p mediates the fusion of vesicles with the prospore membrane, which is required for the formation of spores. Spo20p is subject to both positive and negative regulation by separate sequences in its aminoterminal domain. We report that the positive activity is conferred by a short, amphipathic helix that is sufficient to confer plasma membrane or prospore membrane localization to green fluorescent protein. In vitro, this helix binds to acidic phospholipids, and mutations that reduce or eliminate phospholipid binding in vitro inactivate Spo20p in vivo. Genetic manipulation of phospholipid pools indicates that the likely in vivo ligand of this domain is phosphatidic acid. The inhibitory activity is a nuclear targeting signal, which confers nuclear localization in vegetative cells and in cells entering meiosis. However, as cells initiate spore formation, fusions containing the inhibitory domain exit the nucleus and localize to the nascent prospore membrane. Thus, the SNARE Spo20p is both positively and negatively regulated by control of its intracellular localization.

  15. Intracellular and extracellular adenosine triphosphate in regulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells (β).

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunjiong; Geng, Bin; Cui, Qinghua; Guan, Youfei; Yang, Jichun

    2014-03-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis and release in mitochondria play critical roles in regulating insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction is mainly characterized by a decrease in ATP production, which is a central event in the progression of pancreatic β cell dysfunction and diabetes. ATP has been demonstrated to regulate insulin secretion via several pathways: (i) Intracellular ATP directly closes ATP-sensitive potassium channel to open L-type calcium channel, leading to an increase in free cytosolic calcium levels and exocytosis of insulin granules; (ii) A decrease in ATP production is always associated with an increase in production of reactive oxygen species, which exerts deleterious effects on pancreatic β cell survival and insulin secretion; and (iii) ATP can be co-secreted with insulin from pancreatic β cells, and the released ATP functions as an autocrine signal to modulate insulin secretory process via P2 receptors on the cell membrane. In this review, the recent findings regarding the role and mechanism of ATP synthesis and release in regulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells will be summarized and discussed.

  16. Intracellular trafficking of guanylate-binding proteins is regulated by heterodimerization in a hierarchical manner.

    PubMed

    Britzen-Laurent, Nathalie; Bauer, Michael; Berton, Valeria; Fischer, Nicole; Syguda, Adrian; Reipschläger, Simone; Naschberger, Elisabeth; Herrmann, Christian; Stürzl, Michael

    2010-12-07

    Guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) belong to the dynamin family of large GTPases and represent the major IFN-γ-induced proteins. Here we systematically investigated the mechanisms regulating the subcellular localization of GBPs. Three GBPs (GBP-1, GBP-2 and GBP-5) carry a C-terminal CaaX-prenylation signal, which is typical for small GTPases of the Ras family, and increases the membrane affinity of proteins. In this study, we demonstrated that GBP-1, GBP-2 and GBP-5 are prenylated in vivo and that prenylation is required for the membrane association of GBP-1, GBP-2 and GBP-5. Using co-immunoprecipitation, yeast-two-hybrid analysis and fluorescence complementation assays, we showed for the first time that GBPs are able to homodimerize in vivo and that the membrane association of GBPs is regulated by dimerization similarly to dynamin. Interestingly, GBPs could also heterodimerize. This resulted in hierarchical positioning effects on the intracellular localization of the proteins. Specifically, GBP-1 recruited GBP-5 and GBP-2 into its own cellular compartment and GBP-5 repositioned GBP-2. In addition, GBP-1, GBP-2 and GBP-5 were able to redirect non-prenylated GBPs to their compartment in a prenylation-dependent manner. Overall, these findings prove in vivo the ability of GBPs to dimerize, indicate that heterodimerization regulates sub-cellular localization of GBPs and underscore putative membrane-associated functions of this family of proteins.

  17. β-PIX controls intracellular viscoelasticity to regulate lung cancer cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Helen Wenshin; Chen, Yin-Quan; Huang, Chi-Ming; Liu, Ching-Yi; Chiou, Arthur; Wang, Yang-Kao; Tang, Ming-Jer; Kuo, Jean-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer metastasis occurs via a progress involving abnormal cell migration. Cell migration, a dynamic physical process, is controlled by the cytoskeletal system, which includes the dynamics of actin organization and cellular adhesive organelles, focal adhesions (FAs). However, it is not known whether the organization of actin cytoskeletal system has a regulatory role in the physiologically relevant aspects of cancer metastasis. In the present studies, it was found that lung adenocarcinoma cells isolated from the secondary lung cancer of the lymph nodes, H1299 cells, show specific dynamics in terms of the actin cytoskeleton and FAs. This results in a higher level of mobility and this is regulated by an immature FA component, β-PIX (PAK-interacting exchange factor-β). In H1299 cells, β-PIX's activity was found not to be down-regulated by sequestration onto stress fibres, as the cells did not bundle actin filaments into stress fibres. Thus, β-PIX mainly remained localized at FAs, which allowed maturation of nascent adhesions into focal complexes; this resulted in actin polymerization, increased actin network integrity, changes in the intracellular microrheology at the peripheral of the cell, and cell polarity, which in turn regulated cell migration. Perturbation of β-PIX caused an inhibition of cell migration, including migration velocity, accumulated distance and directional persistence. Our results demonstrate the importance of β-PIX to the regulation of high mobility of lung adenocarcinoma cell line H1299 and that this occurs via regulation of FA dynamics, changes in actin cytoskeleton organization and cell polarity. PMID:25683605

  18. β-PIX controls intracellular viscoelasticity to regulate lung cancer cell migration.

    PubMed

    Yu, Helen Wenshin; Chen, Yin-Quan; Huang, Chi-Ming; Liu, Ching-Yi; Chiou, Arthur; Wang, Yang-Kao; Tang, Ming-Jer; Kuo, Jean-Cheng

    2015-05-01

    Cancer metastasis occurs via a progress involving abnormal cell migration. Cell migration, a dynamic physical process, is controlled by the cytoskeletal system, which includes the dynamics of actin organization and cellular adhesive organelles, focal adhesions (FAs). However, it is not known whether the organization of actin cytoskeletal system has a regulatory role in the physiologically relevant aspects of cancer metastasis. In the present studies, it was found that lung adenocarcinoma cells isolated from the secondary lung cancer of the lymph nodes, H1299 cells, show specific dynamics in terms of the actin cytoskeleton and FAs. This results in a higher level of mobility and this is regulated by an immature FA component, β-PIX (PAK-interacting exchange factor-β). In H1299 cells, β-PIX's activity was found not to be down-regulated by sequestration onto stress fibres, as the cells did not bundle actin filaments into stress fibres. Thus, β-PIX mainly remained localized at FAs, which allowed maturation of nascent adhesions into focal complexes; this resulted in actin polymerization, increased actin network integrity, changes in the intracellular microrheology at the peripheral of the cell, and cell polarity, which in turn regulated cell migration. Perturbation of β-PIX caused an inhibition of cell migration, including migration velocity, accumulated distance and directional persistence. Our results demonstrate the importance of β-PIX to the regulation of high mobility of lung adenocarcinoma cell line H1299 and that this occurs via regulation of FA dynamics, changes in actin cytoskeleton organization and cell polarity. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  19. Calmodulin regulation of TMEM16A and 16B Ca2+-activated chloride channels

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tingting; Colecraft, Henry M

    2016-01-01

    Ca2+-activated chloride channels encoded by TMEM16A and 16B are important for regulating epithelial mucus secretion, cardiac and neuronal excitability, smooth muscle contraction, olfactory transduction, and cell proliferation. Whether and how the ubiquitous Ca2+ sensor calmodulin (CaM) regulates the activity of TMEM16A and 16B channels has been controversial and the subject of an ongoing debate. Recently, using a bioengineering approach termed ChIMP (Channel Inactivation induced by Membrane-tethering of an associated Protein) we argued that Ca2+-free CaM (apoCaM) is pre-associated with functioning TMEM16A and 16B channel complexes in live cells. Further, the pre-associated apoCaM mediates Ca2+-dependent sensitization of activation (CDSA) and Ca2+-dependent inactivation (CDI) of some TMEM16A splice variants. In this review, we discuss these findings in the context of previous and recent results relating to Ca2+-dependent regulation of TMEM16A/16B channels and the putative role of CaM. We further discuss potential future directions for these nascent ideas on apoCaM regulation of TMEM16A/16B channels, noting that such future efforts will benefit greatly from the pioneering work of Dr. David T. Yue and colleagues on CaM regulation of voltage-dependent calcium channels. PMID:26083059

  20. Regulation of intracellular pH in rat lactotrophs: involvement of anionic exchangers.

    PubMed

    Garcia, L; Boué-Grabot, E; Garret, M; Sartor, P

    1997-10-01

    Regulation of the intracellular pH (pHi) of normal rat lactotrophs was studied. As this cell type, cultured with 10% FCS, can achieve a relatively alkaline pHi (7.3-7.5), we investigated the presence of a mechanism based on Cl-/HCO3- exchange. Using the pHi-sensitive probe SNARF-1 (seminaphtorodafluor) in its permeant form, SNARF-1/AM, we studied pHi recovery after acidic loading in individual cells with a microspectrofluorometric approach. We showed the involvement of anionic exchange in lactotroph cell pHi regulation. Acute CO2-bicarbonate cell acidic loading combined with external Cl- depletion induces the activation of a Cl-/HCO3- exchange. This exchange is 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid sensitive and corresponds to the type 3 anionic exchanger (AE3). However, after nigericin acidification, Na+/H+ exchange can also participate in recovery. In addition, incubation experiments strongly suggest that a 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid-insensitive anionic exchanger (type 2 anionic exchanger or AE2) is present in rat lactotrophs. The presence and involvement of carbonic anhydrase in pHi regulation have been demonstrated. Finally, using Northern blot and reverse transcription-PCR techniques, messenger RNAs for both AE2 and AE3 were identified in anterior pituitary cell extracts. We concluded that in normal rat lactotrophs, pHi regulation is achieved by a complex system in which Cl-/HCO3- exchange has a pivotal role.

  1. Renal regulation of sodium, potassium and chloride balance in single- and twin-pregnant goats.

    PubMed

    Michałek, Katarzyna; Jankowiak, Dorota; Ozgo, Małgorzata; Skrzypczak, Wiesław F

    2010-06-01

    The aim of these studies was to analyse and compare changes in selected parameters of renal function in terms of water-electrolyte balance regulation in single- and twin-pregnant goats. Clearance analyses were carried out on 16 pregnant White Improved goats (8 in single and 8 in twin gestation). Blood plasma and urine samples were analysed for the concentration of inulin, endogenous creatinine, sodium, potassium, and chlorides. It has been demonstrated that glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the goat kidney does not change significantly during gestation. GFR recorded from the 1st week until the 20th week of gestation in twin-pregnant goats was only slightly higher compared to those observed in single-pregnant does. Blood plasma concentrations of major electrolytes, i.e. sodium, potassium and chloride ions, did not differ significantly in pregnant and non-pregnant goats, and remained within the reference values. From the very beginning of gestation, the single-pregnant goats showed increased renal potassium clearance; however, the level of sodium clearance remained stable. On the other hand, sodium clearance increased from the 2nd month of gestation in the twin-pregnant goats, while the load of excreted potassium did not change. These changes had probably resulted from varied levels of aldosterone and progesterone and their mutual proportions differing between the groups.

  2. Design and engineering of intracellular-metabolite-sensing/regulation gene circuits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Li, Sijin; Zhao, Huimin

    2016-01-01

    The development of high-throughput phenotyping tools is lagging far behind the rapid advances of genotype generation methods. To bridge this gap, we report a new strategy for design, construction, and fine-tuning of intracellular-metabolite-sensing/regulation gene circuits by repurposing bacterial transcription factors and eukaryotic promoters. As proof of concept, we systematically investigated the design and engineering of bacterial repressor-based xylose-sensing/regulation gene circuits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrated that numerous properties, such as induction ratio and dose-response curve, can be fine-tuned at three different nodes, including repressor expression level, operator position, and operator sequence. By applying these gene circuits, we developed a cell sorting based, rapid and robust high-throughput screening method for xylose transporter engineering and obtained a sugar transporter HXT14 mutant with 6.5-fold improvement in xylose transportation capacity. This strategy should be generally applicable and highly useful for evolutionary engineering of proteins, pathways, and genomes in S. cerevisiae. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Circadian Clock in a Mouse Colon Tumor Regulates Intracellular Iron Levels to Promote Tumor Progression*

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Fumiyasu; Matsunaga, Naoya; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Azuma, Hiroki; Hamamura, Kengo; Tsuruta, Akito; Tsurudome, Yuya; Ogino, Takashi; Hara, Yukinori; Suzuki, Takuya; Hyodo, Kenji; Ishihara, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; To, Hideto; Aramaki, Hironori; Koyanagi, Satoru; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an important biological catalyst and is critical for DNA synthesis during cell proliferation. Cellular iron uptake is enhanced in tumor cells to support increased DNA synthesis. Circadian variations in DNA synthesis and proliferation have been identified in tumor cells, but their relationship with intracellular iron levels is unclear. In this study, we identified a 24-h rhythm in iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) levels in colon-26 tumors implanted in mice. Our findings suggest that IRP2 regulates the 24-h rhythm of transferrin receptor 1 (Tfr1) mRNA expression post-transcriptionally, by binding to RNA stem-loop structures known as iron-response elements. We also found that Irp2 mRNA transcription is promoted by circadian clock genes, including brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (BMAL1) and the circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) heterodimer. Moreover, growth in colon-26(Δ19) tumors expressing the clock-mutant protein (CLOCKΔ19) was low compared with that in wild-type colon-26 tumor. The time-dependent variation of cellular iron levels, and the proliferation rate in wild-type colon-26 tumor was decreased by CLOCKΔ19 expression. Our findings suggest that circadian organization contributes to tumor cell proliferation by regulating iron metabolism in the tumor. PMID:26797126

  4. Analyzing fixed points of intracellular regulation networks with interrelated feedback topology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Modeling the dynamics of intracellular regulation networks by systems of ordinary differential equations has become a standard method in systems biology, and it has been shown that the behavior of these networks is often tightly connected to the network topology. We have recently introduced the circuit-breaking algorithm, a method that uses the network topology to construct a one-dimensional circuit-characteristic of the system. It was shown that this characteristic can be used for an efficient calculation of the system’s fixed points. Results Here we extend previous work and show several connections between the circuit-characteristic and the stability of fixed points. In particular, we derive a sufficient condition on the characteristic for a fixed point to be unstable for certain graph structures and demonstrate that the characteristic does not contain the information to decide whether a fixed point is asymptotically stable. All statements are illustrated on biological network models. Conclusions Single feedback circuits and their role for complex dynamic behavior of biological networks have extensively been investigated, but a transfer of most of these concepts to more complex topologies is difficult. In this context, our algorithm is a powerful new approach for the analysis of regulation networks that goes beyond single isolated feedback circuits. PMID:22672785

  5. Intracellular Redox Compartmentation and ROS-Related Communication in Regulation and Signaling1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed enormous progress in understanding redox signaling related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants. The consensus view is that such signaling is intrinsic to many developmental processes and responses to the environment. ROS-related redox signaling is tightly wedded to compartmentation. Because membranes function as barriers, highly redox-active powerhouses such as chloroplasts, peroxisomes, and mitochondria may elicit specific signaling responses. However, transporter functions allow membranes also to act as bridges between compartments, and so regulated capacity to transmit redox changes across membranes influences the outcome of triggers produced at different locations. As well as ROS and other oxidizing species, antioxidants are key players that determine the extent of ROS accumulation at different sites and that may themselves act as signal transmitters. Like ROS, antioxidants can be transported across membranes. In addition, the intracellular distribution of antioxidative enzymes may be modulated to regulate or facilitate redox signaling appropriate to the conditions. Finally, there is substantial plasticity in organellar shape, with extensions such as stromules, peroxules, and matrixules playing potentially crucial roles in organelle-organelle communication. We provide an overview of the advances in subcellular compartmentation, identifying the gaps in our knowledge and discussing future developments in the area. PMID:27208308

  6. Functional and molecular expression of volume-regulated chloride channels in canine vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Jun; Duan, Dayue; Janiak, Robert; Kuenzli, Karri; Horowitz, Burton; Hume, Joseph R

    1998-01-01

    We examined the possibility of functional and molecular expression of volume-regulated Cl− channels in vascular smooth muscle using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on cells from canine pulmonary and renal arteries. Decreasing external osmolarity induced cell swelling, which was accompanied by activation of Cl−-dependent outward-rectifying membrane currents with an anion permeability sequence of SCN− > I− > Br− > Cl− > aspartate−. These currents were sensitive to block by DIDS, extracellular ATP and the antioestrogen compound tamoxifen. Experiments were performed to determine whether the molecular form of the volume-regulated chloride channel (ClC-3) is expressed in pulmonary and renal arteries. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed expression of ClC-3 in both types of smooth muscle. ClC-3 expression was 76.4% of β-actin in renal artery and 48.0% of β-actin in pulmonary artery. We conclude that volume-regulated Cl− channels are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells and exhibit functional properties similar to those found in other types of cells, presumably contributing to the regulation of cell volume, electrical activity and, possibly, myogenic tone. PMID:9508834

  7. MTOR-Driven Metabolic Reprogramming Regulates Legionella pneumophila Intracellular Niche Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Abshire, Camille F.; Roy, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Vacuolar bacterial pathogens are sheltered within unique membrane-bound organelles that expand over time to support bacterial replication. These compartments sequester bacterial molecules away from host cytosolic immunosurveillance pathways that induce antimicrobial responses. The mechanisms by which the human pulmonary pathogen Legionella pneumophila maintains niche homeostasis are poorly understood. We uncovered that the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) required a sustained supply of host lipids during expansion. Lipids shortage resulted in LCV rupture and initiation of a host cell death response, whereas excess of host lipids increased LCVs size and housing capacity. We found that lipids uptake from serum and de novo lipogenesis are distinct redundant supply mechanisms for membrane biogenesis in Legionella-infected macrophages. During infection, the metabolic checkpoint kinase Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (MTOR) controlled lipogenesis through the Serum Response Element Binding Protein 1 and 2 (SREBP1/2) transcription factors. In Legionella-infected macrophages a host-driven response that required the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) adaptor protein Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (Myd88) dampened MTOR signaling which in turn destabilized LCVs under serum starvation. Inactivation of the host MTOR-suppression pathway revealed that L. pneumophila sustained MTOR signaling throughout its intracellular infection cycle by a process that required the upstream regulator Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) and one or more Dot/Icm effector proteins. Legionella-sustained MTOR signaling facilitated LCV expansion and inhibition of the PI3K-MTOR-SREPB1/2 axis through pharmacological or genetic interference or by activation of the host MTOR-suppression response destabilized expanding LCVs, which in turn triggered cell death of infected macrophages. Our work identified a host metabolic requirement for LCV homeostasis and demonstrated that L

  8. Measurements of intracellular ATP provide new insight into the regulation of glycolysis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ytting, Cecilie K; Fuglsang, Anja T; Hiltunen, J Kalervo; Kastaniotis, Alexander J; Özalp, Veli Cengiz; Nielsen, Lise Junker; Olsen, Lars Folke

    2012-01-01

    Glycolysis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits temporal oscillation under anaerobic or semianaerobic conditions. Previous evidence indicated that at least two membrane-bound ATPases, the mitochondrial F(0)F(1) ATPase and the plasma membrane P-type ATPase (Pma1p), were important in regulating the glycolytic oscillation. Measurements of intracellular ATP provide a unique tool to understand the role of these membrane ATPases and how their activities are regulated. We have constructed a new nanobiosensor that can perform time-resolved measurements of intracellular ATP in intact cells. Measurements of the temporal behaviour of intracellular ATP in a yeast strain with oscillating glycolysis showed that, in addition to oscillation in intracellular ATP, there is an overall slow decrease in intracellular ATP because the ATP consumption rate exceeds the ATP production in glycolysis. Measurements of the temporal behaviour of intracellular ATP in yeast strains lacking either of the two membrane bound ATPases have confirmed that F(0)F(1) ATPase and Pma1p contribute significantly to the ATP consumption in the cell and to the regulation of glycolytic oscillation. Furthermore, our measurements also demonstrate that ATPase activity is under strict control. In the absence of glucose ATPase activity is switched off, and the intracellular ATP concentration is high. When glucose is added to the cells the ATP concentration starts to decrease, because ATP consumption exceeds ATP production by glycolysis. Finally, when glucose is used up, the ATP consumption stops immediately. Thus, glucose or some compound derived from glucose must be involved in controlling the activity of these two ATPases. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  9. Regulation of Notch1 signaling by the APP intracellular domain facilitates degradation of the Notch1 intracellular domain and RBP-Jk.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Yeon; Mo, Jung-Soon; Ann, Eun-Jung; Yoon, Ji-Hye; Jung, Jane; Choi, Yun-Hee; Kim, Su-Man; Kim, Hwa-Young; Ahn, Ji-Seon; Kim, Hangun; Kim, Kwonseop; Hoe, Hyang-Sook; Park, Hee-Sae

    2011-06-01

    The Notch1 receptor is a crucial controller of cell fate decisions, and is also a key regulator of cell growth and differentiation in a variety of contexts. In this study, we have demonstrated that the APP intracellular domain (AICD) attenuates Notch1 signaling by accelerated degradation of the Notch1 intracellular domain (Notch1-IC) and RBP-Jk, through different degradation pathways. AICD suppresses Notch1 transcriptional activity by the dissociation of the Notch1-IC-RBP-Jk complex after processing by γ-secretase. Notch1-IC is capable of forming a trimeric complex with Fbw7 and AICD, and AICD enhances the protein degradation of Notch1-IC through an Fbw7-dependent proteasomal pathway. AICD downregulates the levels of RBP-Jk protein through the lysosomal pathway. AICD-mediated degradation is involved in the preferential degradation of non-phosphorylated RBP-Jk. Collectively, our results demonstrate that AICD functions as a negative regulator in Notch1 signaling through the promotion of Notch1-IC and RBP-Jk protein degradation.

  10. KLHL3 regulates paracellular chloride transport in the kidney by ubiquitination of claudin-8

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yongfeng; Wang, Jinzhi; Yang, Jing; Gonzales, Ernie; Perez, Ronaldo; Hou, Jianghui

    2015-01-01

    A rare Mendelian syndrome—pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHA-II)—features hypertension, hyperkalemia, and metabolic acidosis. Genetic linkage studies and exome sequencing have identified four genes—with no lysine kinase 1 (wnk1), wnk4, Kelch-like 3 (KLHL3), and Cullin 3 (Cul3)—mutations of which all caused PHA-II phenotypes. The previous hypothesis was that the KLHL3–Cul3 ubiquitin complex acted on the wnk4–wnk1 kinase complex to regulate Na+/Cl− cotransporter (NCC) mediated salt reabsorption in the distal tubules of the kidney. Here, we report the identification of claudin-8 as a previously unidentified physiologic target for KLHL3 and provide an alternative explanation for the collecting duct’s role in PHA-II. Using a tissue-specific KO approach, we have found that deletion of claudin-8 in the collecting duct of mouse kidney caused hypotension, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis, an exact mirror image of PHA-II. Mechanistically, the phenotypes in claudin-8 KO animals were caused by disruption of the claudin-8 interaction with claudin-4, the paracellular chloride channel, and delocalization of claudin-4 from the tight junction. In mouse collecting duct cells, knockdown of KLHL3 profoundly increased the paracellular chloride permeability. Mechanistically, KLHL3 was directly bound to claudin-8, and this binding led to the ubiquitination and degradation of claudin-8. The dominant PHA-II mutation in KLHL3 impaired claudin-8 binding, ubiquitination, and degradation. These findings have attested to the concept that the paracellular pathway is physiologically regulated through the ubiquitination pathway, and its deregulation may lead to diseases of electrolyte and blood pressure imbalances. PMID:25831548

  11. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator: a chloride channel gated by ATP binding and hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Bompadre, Silvia G; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2007-08-25

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a chloride channel that belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. Defective function of CFTR is responsible for cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common lethal autosomal recessive disorder in Caucasian populations. The disease is manifested in defective chloride transport across the epithelial cells in various tissues. To date, more than 1400 different mutations have been identified as CF-associated. CFTR is regulated by phosphorylation in its regulatory (R) domain, and gated by ATP binding and hydrolysis at its two nucleotide-binding domains (NBD1 and NBD2). Recent studies reveal that the NBDs of CFTR may dimerize as observed in other ABC proteins. Upon dimerization of CFTR's two NBDs, in a head-to-tail configuration, the two ATP-binding pockets (ABP1 and ABP2) are formed by the canonical Walker A and B motifs from one NBD and the signature sequence from the partner NBD. Mutations of the amino acids that interact with ATP reveal that the two ABPs play distinct roles in controlling ATP-dependent gating of CFTR. It was proposed that binding of ATP to the ABP2, which is formed by the Walker A and B in NBD2 and the signature sequence in NBD1, is critical for catalyzing channel opening. While binding of ATP to the ABP1 alone may not increase the opening rate, it does contribute to the stabilization of the open channel conformation. Several disease-associated mutations of the CFTR channel are characterized by gating defects. Understanding how CFTR's two NBDs work together to gate the channel could provide considerable mechanistic information for future pharmacological studies, which could pave the way for tailored drug design for therapeutical interventions in CF.

  12. Aluminum-dependent regulation of intracellular silicon in the aquatic invertebrate Lymnaea stagnalis

    PubMed Central

    Desouky, Mahmoud; Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; McCrohan, Catherine R.; White, Keith N.; Powell, Jonathan J.

    2002-01-01

    Silicon is essential for some plants, diatoms, and sponges but, in higher animals, its endogenous regulation has not been demonstrated. Silicate ions may be natural ligands for aluminum and here we show that, in the freshwater snail (Lymnaea stagnalis), intracellular silicon seems specifically up-regulated in response to sublethal aluminum exposure. X-ray microanalysis showed that exposure of snails to low levels of aluminum led to its accumulation in lysosomal granules, accompanied by marked up-regulation of silicon. Increased lysosomal levels of silicon were a specific response to aluminum because cadmium and zinc had no such effect. Furthermore, intra-lysosomal sulfur from metallothionein and other sulfur-containing ligands was increased after exposure to cadmium and zinc but not aluminum. To ensure that these findings indicated a specific in vivo response, and not ex vivo formation of hydroxy-aluminosilicates (HAS) from added aluminum (555 μg/liter) and water-borne silicon (43 μg/liter), two further studies were undertaken. In a ligand competition assay the lability of aluminum (527 μg/liter) was completely unaffected by the presence of silicon (46 μg/liter), suggesting the absence of HAS. In addition, exogenous silicon (6.5 mg/liter), added to the water column to promote formation of HAS, caused a decrease in lysosomal aluminum accumulation, showing that uptake of HAS would not explain the loading of aluminum into lysosomal granules. These findings, and arguments on the stability, lability, and kinetics of aluminum–silicate interactions, suggest that a silicon-specific mechanism exists for the in vivo detoxification of aluminum, which provides regulatory evidence of silicon in a multicellular organism. PMID:11891333

  13. MBNL and CELF proteins regulate alternative splicing of the skeletal muscle chloride channel CLCN1.

    PubMed

    Kino, Yoshihiro; Washizu, Chika; Oma, Yoko; Onishi, Hayato; Nezu, Yuriko; Sasagawa, Noboru; Nukina, Nobuyuki; Ishiura, Shoichi

    2009-10-01

    The expression and function of the skeletal muscle chloride channel CLCN1/ClC-1 is regulated by alternative splicing. Inclusion of the CLCN1 exon 7A is aberrantly elevated in myotonic dystrophy (DM), a genetic disorder caused by the expansion of a CTG or CCTG repeat. Increased exon 7A inclusion leads to a reduction in CLCN1 function, which can be causative of myotonia. Two RNA-binding protein families--muscleblind-like (MBNL) and CUG-BP and ETR-3-like factor (CELF) proteins--are thought to mediate the splicing misregulation in DM. Here, we have identified multiple factors that regulate the alternative splicing of a mouse Clcn1 minigene. The inclusion of exon 7A was repressed by MBNL proteins while promoted by an expanded CUG repeat or CELF4, but not by CUG-BP. Mutation analyses suggested that exon 7A and its flanking region mediate the effect of MBNL1, whereas another distinct region in intron 6 mediates that of CELF4. An exonic splicing enhancer essential for the inclusion of exon 7A was identified at the 5' end of this exon, which might be inhibited by MBNL1. Collectively, these results provide a mechanistic model for the regulation of Clcn1 splicing, and reveal novel regulatory properties of MBNL and CELF proteins.

  14. APP intracellular domain derived from amyloidogenic β- and γ-secretase cleavage regulates neprilysin expression.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Marcus O W; Mett, Janine; Stahlmann, Christoph P; Grösgen, Sven; Haupenthal, Viola J; Blümel, Tamara; Hundsdörfer, Benjamin; Zimmer, Valerie C; Mylonas, Nadine T; Tanila, Heikki; Müller, Ulrike; Grimm, Heike S; Hartmann, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by an accumulation of Amyloid-β (Aβ), released by sequential proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β - and γ-secretase. Aβ peptides can aggregate, leading to toxic Aβ oligomers and amyloid plaque formation. Aβ accumulation is not only dependent on de novo synthesis but also on Aβ degradation. Neprilysin (NEP) is one of the major enzymes involved in Aβ degradation. Here we investigate the molecular mechanism of NEP regulation, which is up to now controversially discussed to be affected by APP processing itself. We found that NEP expression is highly dependent on the APP intracellular domain (AICD), released by APP processing. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts devoid of APP processing, either by the lack of the catalytically active subunit of the γ-secretase complex [presenilin (PS) 1/2] or by the lack of APP and the APP-like protein 2 (APLP2), showed a decreased NEP expression, activity and protein level. Similar results were obtained by utilizing cells lacking a functional AICD domain (APPΔCT15) or expressing mutations in the genes encoding for PS1. AICD supplementation or retransfection with an AICD encoding plasmid could rescue the down-regulation of NEP further strengthening the link between AICD and transcriptional NEP regulation, in which Fe65 acts as an important adaptor protein. Especially AICD generated by the amyloidogenic pathway seems to be more involved in the regulation of NEP expression. In line, analysis of NEP gene expression in vivo in six transgenic AD mouse models (APP and APLP2 single knock-outs, APP/APLP2 double knock-out, APP-swedish, APP-swedish/PS1Δexon9, and APPΔCT15) confirmed the results obtained in cell culture. In summary, in the present study we clearly demonstrate an AICD-dependent regulation of the Aβ-degrading enzyme NEP in vitro and in vivo and elucidate the underlying mechanisms that might be beneficial to develop new therapeutic strategies for the

  15. APP intracellular domain derived from amyloidogenic β- and γ-secretase cleavage regulates neprilysin expression

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Marcus O. W.; Mett, Janine; Stahlmann, Christoph P.; Grösgen, Sven; Haupenthal, Viola J.; Blümel, Tamara; Hundsdörfer, Benjamin; Zimmer, Valerie C.; Mylonas, Nadine T.; Tanila, Heikki; Müller, Ulrike; Grimm, Heike S.; Hartmann, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by an accumulation of Amyloid-β (Aβ), released by sequential proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β - and γ-secretase. Aβ peptides can aggregate, leading to toxic Aβ oligomers and amyloid plaque formation. Aβ accumulation is not only dependent on de novo synthesis but also on Aβ degradation. Neprilysin (NEP) is one of the major enzymes involved in Aβ degradation. Here we investigate the molecular mechanism of NEP regulation, which is up to now controversially discussed to be affected by APP processing itself. We found that NEP expression is highly dependent on the APP intracellular domain (AICD), released by APP processing. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts devoid of APP processing, either by the lack of the catalytically active subunit of the γ-secretase complex [presenilin (PS) 1/2] or by the lack of APP and the APP-like protein 2 (APLP2), showed a decreased NEP expression, activity and protein level. Similar results were obtained by utilizing cells lacking a functional AICD domain (APPΔCT15) or expressing mutations in the genes encoding for PS1. AICD supplementation or retransfection with an AICD encoding plasmid could rescue the down-regulation of NEP further strengthening the link between AICD and transcriptional NEP regulation, in which Fe65 acts as an important adaptor protein. Especially AICD generated by the amyloidogenic pathway seems to be more involved in the regulation of NEP expression. In line, analysis of NEP gene expression in vivo in six transgenic AD mouse models (APP and APLP2 single knock-outs, APP/APLP2 double knock-out, APP-swedish, APP-swedish/PS1Δexon9, and APPΔCT15) confirmed the results obtained in cell culture. In summary, in the present study we clearly demonstrate an AICD-dependent regulation of the Aβ-degrading enzyme NEP in vitro and in vivo and elucidate the underlying mechanisms that might be beneficial to develop new therapeutic strategies for the

  16. Structural Dynamics of Soluble Chloride Intracellular Channel Protein CLIC1 Examined by Amide Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry (DXMS)†

    PubMed Central

    Stoychev, Stoyan H.; Nathaniel, Christos; Fanucchi, Sylvia; Brock, Melissa; Li, Sheng; Asmus, Kyle; Woods, Virgil L.; Dirr, Heini W.

    2009-01-01

    Chloride intracellular channel protein 1 (CLIC1) functions as an anion channel in plasma and nuclear membranes when its soluble monomeric form converts to an integral-membrane form. The transmembrane region of CLIC1 is located in its thioredoxin-like domain 1 but the mechanism whereby the protein converts to its membrane conformation has yet to be determined. Since channel formation in membranes is enhanced at low pH (5 to 5.5), a condition that is found at the surface of membranes, the structural dynamics of soluble CLIC1 was studied at pH 7 and at pH 5.5 in the absence of membranes by amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (DXMS). Rapid hydrogen exchange data indicate that CLIC1 displays a similar core structure at these pH values. Domain 1 is less stable than the all-helical domain 2 and, while the structure of domain 1 remains intact, its conformational flexibility is further increased in an acidic environment (pH 5.5). In the absence of membrane, an acidic environment appears to prime the solution structure of CLIC1 by destabilising domain 1 in order to lower the activation energy barrier for its conversion to the membrane-insertion conformation. The significantly enhanced H/D-exchange rates at pH 5.5 displayed by two segments (peptides 11-31 and 68-82) could be due to the protonation of acidic residues in salt bridges. One of these segments (peptide 11-31) includes part of the transmembrane region which, in the solution structure, consists of helix α1. This helix is intrinsically stable and is most likely retained in the membrane conformation. Strand β2, another element of the transmembrane region, displays a propensity to form a helical structure and has putative N- and C-capping motifs, suggesting that it too most likely forms a helix in a lipid bilayer. PMID:19650640

  17. Intracellular pH regulation by acid-base transporters in mammalian neurons.

    PubMed

    Ruffin, Vernon A; Salameh, Ahlam I; Boron, Walter F; Parker, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular pH (pHi) regulation in the brain is important in both physiological and physiopathological conditions because changes in pHi generally result in altered neuronal excitability. In this review, we will cover 4 major areas: (1) The effect of pHi on cellular processes in the brain, including channel activity and neuronal excitability. (2) pHi homeostasis and how it is determined by the balance between rates of acid loading (J L) and extrusion (J E). The balance between J E and J L determine steady-state pHi, as well as the ability of the cell to defend pHi in the face of extracellular acid-base disturbances (e.g., metabolic acidosis). (3) The properties and importance of members of the SLC4 and SLC9 families of acid-base transporters expressed in the brain that contribute to J L (namely the Cl-HCO3 exchanger AE3) and J E (the Na-H exchangers NHE1, NHE3, and NHE5 as well as the Na(+)- coupled HCO3 (-) transporters NBCe1, NBCn1, NDCBE, and NBCn2). (4) The effect of acid-base disturbances on neuronal function and the roles of acid-base transporters in defending neuronal pHi under physiopathologic conditions.

  18. Glucose regulates diacylglycerol intracellular levels and protein kinase C activity by modulating diacylglycerol kinase subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Miele, Claudia; Paturzo, Flora; Teperino, Raffaele; Sakane, Fumio; Fiory, Francesca; Oriente, Francesco; Ungaro, Paola; Valentino, Rossella; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro

    2007-11-02

    Although chronic hyperglycemia reduces insulin sensitivity and leads to impaired glucose utilization, short term exposure to high glucose causes cellular responses positively regulating its own metabolism. We show that exposure of L6 myotubes overexpressing human insulin receptors to 25 mm glucose for 5 min decreased the intracellular levels of diacylglycerol (DAG). This was paralleled by transient activation of diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) and of insulin receptor signaling. Following 30-min exposure, however, both DAG levels and DGK activity returned close to basal levels. Moreover, the acute effect of glucose on DAG removal was inhibited by >85% by the DGK inhibitor R59949. DGK inhibition was also accompanied by increased protein kinase C-alpha (PKCalpha) activity, reduced glucose-induced insulin receptor activation, and GLUT4 translocation. Glucose exposure transiently redistributed DGK isoforms alpha and delta, from the prevalent cytosolic localization to the plasma membrane fraction. However, antisense silencing of DGKdelta, but not of DGKalpha expression, was sufficient to prevent the effect of high glucose on PKCalpha activity, insulin receptor signaling, and glucose uptake. Thus, the short term exposure of skeletal muscle cells to glucose causes a rapid induction of DGK, followed by a reduction of PKCalpha activity and transactivation of the insulin receptor signaling. The latter may mediate, at least in part, glucose induction of its own metabolism.

  19. Extracellular NAD+ regulates intracellular calcium levels and induces activation of human granulocytes

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    β-NAD+e (extracellular β-NAD+), present at nanomolar levels in human plasma, has been implicated in the regulation of [Ca2+]i (the intracellular calcium concentration) in various cell types, including blood cells, by means of different mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that micromolar NAD+e (both the α and the β extracellular NAD+ forms) induces a sustained [Ca2+]i increase in human granulocytes by triggering the following cascade of causally related events: (i) activation of adenylate cyclase and overproduction of cAMP; (ii) activation of protein kinase A; (iii) stimulation of ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity and consequent overproduction of cADP-ribose, a universal Ca2+ mobilizer; and (iv) influx of extracellular Ca2+. The NAD+e-triggered [Ca2+]i elevation translates into granulocyte activation, i.e. superoxide and nitric oxide generation, and enhanced chemotaxis in response to 0.1–10 μM NAD+e. Thus extracellular β-NAD+e behaves as a novel pro-inflammatory cytokine, stimulating human granulocytes and potentially recruiting them at sites of inflammation. PMID:16225456

  20. Integrated intracellular metabolic profiling and pathway analysis approaches reveal complex metabolic regulation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huanhuan; Huang, Di; Wen, Jianping

    2016-02-15

    Clostridium acetobutylicum is one of the most important butanol producing strains. However, environmental stress in the fermentation process usually leads to a lower yield, seriously hampering its industrialization. In order to systematically investigate the key intracellular metabolites that influence the strain growth and butanol production, and find out the critical regulation nodes, an integrated analysis approach has been carried out in this study. Based on the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technology, the partial least square discriminant analysis and the pathway analysis, 40 metabolic pathways linked with 43 key metabolic nodes were identified. In-depth analysis showed that lots of amino acids metabolism promoted cell growth but exerted slight influence on butanol production, while sugar metabolism was favorable for cell growth but unfavorable for butanol synthesis. Besides, both lysine and succinic acid metabolism generated a complex effect on the whole metabolic network. Dicarboxylate metabolism exerted an indispensable role on cell growth and butanol production. Subsequently, rational feeding strategies were proposed to verify these conclusions and facilitate the butanol biosynthesis. Feeding amino acids, especially glycine and serine, could obviously improve cell growth while yeast extract, citric acid and ethylene glycol could significantly enhance both growth and butanol production. The feeding experiment confirmed that metabolic profiling combined with pathway analysis provided an accurate, reasonable and practical approach to explore the cellular metabolic activity and supplied a basis for improving butanol production. These strategies can also be extended for the production of other important bio-chemical compounds.

  1. Insulin regulation of glucose uptake: a complex interplay of intracellular signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Khan, A H; Pessin, J E

    2002-11-01

    Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipose tissue and striated muscle is critical for reducing post-prandial blood glucose concentrations and the dysregulation of this process is one hallmark of Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. It has been well established that the insulin-stimulated redistribution of the insulin responsive glucose transporter, GLUT-4, from intracellular storage sites to the plasma membrane depends on the production of phosphoinositide 3,4,5 trisphosphate by the Class IA Phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase. Recent discoveries however, have shown the presence of a second insulin signalling pathway leading to GLUT-4 translocation, a pathway dependent on insulin receptor signalling emanating from caveolae or lipid rafts at the plasma membrane. This pathway begins with the phosphorylation of the adaptor protein Cbl by the insulin receptor, and results in the activation of a small GTP binding protein, TC10, a member of the Rho family. TC10 is able to modulate actin structure in 3T3L1 adipocytes, and its overexpression inhibits insulin-stimulated GLUT-4 translocation, an inhibition completely dependent on localization of TC10 to the caveolae or lipid rafts. The spatial compartmentalization of insulin signalling from caveolae or lipid rafts provides a novel signalling pathway that functions in concert with general signalling mechanisms in the control of actin dynamics regulating insulin-dependent GLUT-4 translocation.

  2. Tyr(682) in the intracellular domain of APP regulates amyloidogenic APP processing in vivo.

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, Alessia P M; Weldon, Richard; Tamayev, Robert; Zhou, Dawang; Giliberto, Luca; Foreman, Oded; D'Adamio, Luciano

    2010-11-16

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is attributed to misfolding of Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Aβ is generated during amyloidogenic processing of Aβ-precursor protein (APP). Another characteristic of the AD brain is increased phosphorylation of APP amino acid Tyr(682). Tyr(682) is part of the Y(682)ENPTY(687) motif, a docking site for interaction with cytosolic proteins that regulate APP metabolism and signaling. For example, normal Aβ generation and secretion are dependent upon Tyr(682) in vitro. However, physiological functions of Tyr(682) are unknown. To this end, we have generated an APP Y682G knock-in (KI) mouse to help dissect the role of APP Tyr(682) in vivo. We have analyzed proteolytic products from both the amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic processing of APP and measure a profound shift towards non-amyloidogenic processing in APP KI mice. In addition, we demonstrate the essential nature of amino acid Tyr(682) for the APP/Fe65 interaction in vivo. Together, these observations point to an essential role of APP intracellular domain for normal APP processing and function in vivo, and provide rationale for further studies into physiological functions associated with this important phosphorylation site.

  3. Monitoring of Intracellular Tau Aggregation Regulated by OGA/OGT Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sungsu; Haque, Md Mamunul; Nam, Ghilsoo; Ryoo, Nayeon; Rhim, Hyewhon; Kim, Yun Kyung

    2015-08-26

    Abnormal phosphorylation of tau has been considered as a key pathogenic mechanism inducing tau aggregation in multiple neurodegenerative disorders, collectively called tauopathies. Recent evidence showed that tau phosphorylation sites are protected with O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) in normal brain. In pathological condition, tau is de-glycosylated and becomes a substrate for kinases. Despite the importance of O-GlcNAcylation in tau pathology, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), and an enzyme catalyzing O-GlcNAc to tau, has not been carefully investigated in the context of tau aggregation. Here, we investigated intracellular tau aggregation regulated by BZX2, an inhibitor of OGT. Upon the inhibition of OGT, tau phosphorylation increased 2.0-fold at Ser199 and 1.5-fold at Ser396, resulting in increased tau aggregation. Moreover, the BZX2 induced tau aggregation was efficiently reduced by the treatment of Thiamet G, an inhibitor of O-GlcNAcase (OGA). Our results demonstrated the protective role of OGT in tau aggregation and also suggest the counter-regulatory mechanism of OGA and OGT in tau pathology.

  4. Intracellular pH regulation by acid-base transporters in mammalian neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ruffin, Vernon A.; Salameh, Ahlam I.; Boron, Walter F.; Parker, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular pH (pHi) regulation in the brain is important in both physiological and physiopathological conditions because changes in pHi generally result in altered neuronal excitability. In this review, we will cover 4 major areas: (1) The effect of pHi on cellular processes in the brain, including channel activity and neuronal excitability. (2) pHi homeostasis and how it is determined by the balance between rates of acid loading (JL) and extrusion (JE). The balance between JE and JL determine steady-state pHi, as well as the ability of the cell to defend pHi in the face of extracellular acid-base disturbances (e.g., metabolic acidosis). (3) The properties and importance of members of the SLC4 and SLC9 families of acid-base transporters expressed in the brain that contribute to JL (namely the Cl-HCO3 exchanger AE3) and JE (the Na-H exchangers NHE1, NHE3, and NHE5 as well as the Na+- coupled HCO3− transporters NBCe1, NBCn1, NDCBE, and NBCn2). (4) The effect of acid-base disturbances on neuronal function and the roles of acid-base transporters in defending neuronal pHi under physiopathologic conditions. PMID:24592239

  5. Ouabain-induced perturbations in intracellular ionic homeostasis regulate death receptor-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Panayiotidis, Mihalis I; Franco, Rodrigo; Bortner, Carl D; Cidlowski, John A

    2010-07-01

    Apoptosis is defined by specific morphological and biochemical characteristics including cell shrinkage (termed apoptotic volume decrease), a process that results from the regulation of ion channels and plasma membrane transporter activity. The Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase is the predominant pump that controls cell volume and plasma membrane potential in cells and alterations in its function have been suggested to be associated with apoptosis. We report here that the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase inhibitor ouabain, potentiates apoptosis in the human lymphoma Jurkat cells exposed to Fas ligand (FasL) or tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) but not other apoptotic agents such as H(2)O(2), thapsigargin or UV-C implicating a role for the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in death receptor-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, ouabain also potentiated perturbations in cell Ca(2+) homeostasis only in conjunction with the apoptotic inducer FasL but not TRAIL. Ouabain did not affect alterations in the intracellular Ca(2+) levels in response to H(2)O(2), thapsigargin or UV-C. FasL-induced alterations in Ca(2+) were not abolished in Ca(2+)-free medium but incubation of cells with BAPTA-AM inhibited both Ca(2+) perturbations and the ouabain-induced potentiation of FasL-induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that the impairment of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity during apoptosis is linked to perturbations in cell Ca(2+) homeostasis that modulate apoptosis induced by the activation of Fas by FasL.

  6. Regulation of the sodium-potassium pump in cultured rat skeletal myotubes by intracellular sodium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, C.; Sampson, S.R.

    1989-07-01

    The properties of the Na-K pump and some of the factors controlling its amount and function were studied in rat myotubes in culture. The number of Na-K pump sites was quantified by measuring the amount of (/sup 3/H)ouabain bound to whole-cell preparations. Activity of the pump was determined by measurement of ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb-uptake and component of membrane potential. Chronic treatment of myotubes with tetrodotoxin (TTX), which lowers (Na)i, decreased the number of Na-K pumps, the ouabain-sensitive 86Rb uptake, and the size of the electrogenic pump component of Em. In contrast, chronic treatment with either ouabain or veratridine, which increases (Na+)i, resulted in an elevated level of Na-K pump sites. This effect was blocked by inhibitors of protein synthesis. Neither rates of degradation nor affinity of pump sites in cells treated with TTX, veratridine, or ouabain differred from those in control cells. The number and activity of Na-K pump sites were unaffected by chronic elevation in (Ca)i or chronic depolarization. We conclude that alterations in the level in intracellular Na ions play the major role in regulation of Na-K pump synthesis in cultured mammalian skeletal muscle.

  7. Regulation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling by Endocytosis and Intracellular Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Patrick; Schooler, Kevin; Wiley, H S.

    2001-06-01

    Ligand activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) leads to its rapid internalization and eventual delivery to lysosomes. This process is thought to be a mechanism to attenuate signaling, but signals could potentially be generated following endocytosis. To directly evaluate EGFR signaling during receptor trafficking, we developed a technique to rapidly and selectively isolate internalized EGFR and associated molecules using reversibly-biotinylated anti-EGFR antibodies. In addition, we developed antibodies specific to tyrosine-phosphorylated EGFR. Using a combination of fluorescence imaging and affinity precipitation approaches, we evaluated the state of EGFR activation and substrate association during trafficking in epithelial cells. We found that following internalization, EGFR remained active in the early endosomes. However, receptors were inactivated prior to degradation, apparently due to ligand removal from endosomes. Adapter molecules, such as Shc, were associated with EGFR both at the cell surface and within endosomes. Some molecules, such as Grb2, were primarily found associated with surface EGFR, while others, such as Eps8, were only found with intracellular receptors. During the inactivation phase, c-Cbl became EGFR-associated, consistent with its postulated role in receptor attenuation. We conclude that the association of the EGFR with different proteins is compartment-specific . In addition, ligand loss is the proximal cause of EGFR inactivation. Thus, regulated trafficking could potentially influence the pattern as well as the duration of signal transduction.

  8. Regulation of monocarboxylate transporter 1 in skeletal muscle cells by intracellular signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Narumi, Katsuya; Furugen, Ayako; Kobayashi, Masaki; Otake, Sho; Itagaki, Shirou; Iseki, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the major producer of lactic acid in the body, but its oxidative fibers also use lactic acid as a respiratory fuel. Monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 1 has been suggested to play a major role in influx of L-lactic acid for oxidation. The regulation mechanism of MCT1 was characterized utilizing rhabdomyosarcoma cells as an in vitro skeletal muscle model. The uptake of L-lactic acid via MCT1 was studied in the presence of various intracellular regulatory pathways, including pathways mediated by protein kinases A, C and G (PKA, PKC and PKG), protein tyrosine kinase (PTK), and Ca2+/calmodulin modulators. The results showed that PKG-, PTK-, and Ca2+/calmodulin-mediated regulatory pathways play no role in the regulation of L-lactic acid uptake, but a role for PKC- and PKA-mediated pathways was apparent. Uptake of L-lactic acid appeared to be stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, a PKC activator) via an increase in Vmax of transport processes with no alteration in Km. In parallel, PMA treatment also resulted in an increase in the level of MCT1 expression. On the other hand, exposure to 8-Br-cAMP, a cAMP analog, and to forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator, resulted in a significant decrease in L-lactic acid uptake. Additionally, 8-Br-cAMP reduced Vmax but not Km values. Parallel to the decrease in Vmax of L-lactic acid uptake, the level of MCT1 expression was decreased in response to incubation with 8-Br-cAMP. These results indicate the possible involvement of a PKC- and PKA-mediated pathway associated with expression of MCT1 and lactate transport.

  9. The role of cAMP-mediated intracellular signaling in regulating Na+ uptake in zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    Kumai, Yusuke; Kwong, Raymond W. M.

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, the role of cAMP in stimulating Na+ uptake in larval zebrafish was investigated. Treating larvae at 4 days postfertilization (dpf) with 10 μM forskolin or 1 μM 8-bromo cAMP significantly increased Na+ uptake by three-fold and twofold, respectively. The cAMP-dependent stimulation of Na+ uptake was probably unrelated to protein trafficking via microtubules because pretreatment with 200 μM colchicine or 30 μM nocodazole did not attenuate the magnitude of the response. Na+ uptake was stimulated markedly following acute (2 h) exposure to acidic water. The acid-induced increase in Na+ uptake was accompanied by a twofold elevation in whole body cAMP levels and attenuated by inhibiting PKA with 10 μM H-89. Knockdown of Na+-H+ exchanger 3b (NHE3b) attenuated, but did not abolish, the stimulation of Na+ uptake during forskolin treatment. In glial cell missing 2 morphants, in which the role of NHE3b in Na+ uptake is diminished and the Na+-Cl− cotransporter (NCC) becomes the predominant route of Na+ entry, forskolin treatment continued to increase Na+ uptake. These data suggest that at least NHE3b and NCC are targeted by cAMP in zebrafish larvae. Staining of larvae with fluorescent forskolin and propranolol revealed the presence of transmembrane adenylyl cyclase within multiple subtypes of ionocytes expressing β-adrenergic receptors. Taken together, results of the present study demonstrate that cAMP-mediated intracellular signaling may regulate multiple Na+ transporters and plays an important role in regulating Na+ uptake in zebrafish larvae during acute exposure to an acidic environment. PMID:24259461

  10. Rare Genomic Variants Link Bipolar Disorder with Anxiety Disorders to CREB-Regulated Intracellular Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Kerner, Berit; Rao, Aliz R; Christensen, Bryce; Dandekar, Sugandha; Yourshaw, Michael; Nelson, Stanley F

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a common, complex, and severe psychiatric disorder with cyclical disturbances of mood and a high suicide rate. Here, we describe a family with four siblings, three affected females and one unaffected male. The disease course was characterized by early-onset bipolar disorder and co-morbid anxiety spectrum disorders that followed the onset of bipolar disorder. Genetic risk factors were suggested by the early onset of the disease, the severe disease course, including multiple suicide attempts, and lack of adverse prenatal or early life events. In particular, drug and alcohol abuse did not contribute to the disease onset. Exome sequencing identified very rare, heterozygous, and likely protein-damaging variants in eight brain-expressed genes: IQUB, JMJD1C, GADD45A, GOLGB1, PLSCR5, VRK2, MESDC2, and FGGY. The variants were shared among all three affected family members but absent in the unaffected sibling and in more than 200 controls. The genes encode proteins with significant regulatory roles in the ERK/MAPK and CREB-regulated intracellular signaling pathways. These pathways are central to neuronal and synaptic plasticity, cognition, affect regulation and response to chronic stress. In addition, proteins in these pathways are the target of commonly used mood-stabilizing drugs, such as tricyclic antidepressants, lithium, and valproic acid. The combination of multiple rare, damaging mutations in these central pathways could lead to reduced resilience and increased vulnerability to stressful life events. Our results support a new model for psychiatric disorders, in which multiple rare, damaging mutations in genes functionally related to a common signaling pathway contribute to the manifestation of bipolar disorder.

  11. Intracellular calcium regulation among subpopulations of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shao-Gang; Zhang, Xiulin; Gold, Michael S

    2006-01-01

    Primary afferent neurons are functionally heterogeneous. To determine whether this functional heterogeneity reflects, in part, heterogeneity in the regulation of the concentration of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), the magnitude and decay of evoked Ca2+ transients were assessed in subpopulations of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons with voltage clamp and fura-2 ratiometric imaging. To determine whether differences in evoked Ca2+ transients among subpopulations of DRG neurons reflected differences in the contribution of Ca2+ regulatory mechanisms, pharmacological techniques were employed to assess the contribution of influx, efflux, release and uptake pathways. Subpopulations of DRG neurons were defined by cell body size, binding of the plant lectin IB4 and responsiveness to the algogenic compound capsaicin (CAP). Ca2+ transients were evoked with 30 mm K+ or voltage steps to 0 mV. There were marked differences between subpopulations of neurons with respect to both the magnitude and decay of the Ca2+ transient, with the largest and most slowly decaying Ca2+ transients in small-diameter, IB4-positive, CAP-responsive neurons. The smallest and most rapidly decaying transients were in large-diameter, IB4-negative and CAP-unresponsive DRG neurons. These differences were not due to a differential distribution of voltage-gated Ca2+ currents. However, these differences did appear to reflect a differential contribution of other influx, efflux, release and uptake mechanisms between subpopulations of neurons. These results suggest that electrical activity in subpopulations of DRG neurons will have a differential influence on Ca2+-regulated phenomena such as spike adaptation, transmitter release and gene transcription. Significantly more activity should be required in large-diameter non-nociceptive afferents than in small-diameter nociceptive afferents to have a comparable influence on these processes. PMID:16945973

  12. A cell-penetrating bispecific antibody for therapeutic regulation of intracellular targets.

    PubMed

    Weisbart, Richard H; Gera, Joseph F; Chan, Grace; Hansen, James E; Li, Erica; Cloninger, Cheri; Levine, Arnold J; Nishimura, Robert N

    2012-10-01

    The therapeutic use of antibodies is restricted by the limited access of antibodies to intracellular compartments. To overcome this limitation, we developed a cell-penetrating monoclonal antibody, mAb 3E10, as an intracellular delivery vehicle for the intracellular and intranuclear delivery of antibodies constructed as bispecific single-chain Fv fragments. Because MDM2 is an important target in cancer therapy, we selected monoclonal antibody (mAb) 3G5 for intracellular transport. mAb 3G5 binds MDM2 and blocks binding of MDM2 to p53. Here, we show that the resulting 3E10-3G5 bispecific antibody retains cell-penetrating and MDM2-binding activity, increases tumor p53 levels, and inhibits growth of MDM2-addicted tumors. The use of cell-penetrating bispecific antibodies in targeted molecular therapy will significantly broaden the spectrum of accessible intracellular targets and may have a profound impact in cancer therapy.

  13. Intracellular signaling in the regulation of renal Na-K-ATPase. II. Role of eicosanoids.

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, T; Cohen, H T; Katz, A I

    1993-01-01

    We recently reported a novel intracellular mechanism of renal Na-K-ATPase regulation by agents that increase cell cAMP, which involves protein kinase A-phospholipase A2 and is mediated by one or more arachidonic acid metabolites (Satoh, T., H. T. Cohen, and A. I. Katz. 1992. J. Clin. Invest. 89:1496). The present studies were, therefore, designed to assess the role of eicosanoids in the modulation of Na-K-ATPase activity in the rat cortical collecting duct. The effect of various cAMP agonists (dopamine, fenoldopam, vasopressin, forskolin, and dibutyryl cAMP), which inhibited the pump to a similar extent (approximately 50%), was independent of altered Na entry as it was elicited in the presence of amiloride or nystatin, or when NaCl was replaced with choline Cl. This effect was completely blocked by SKF 525A or ethoxyresorufin, two inhibitors of the cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase pathway, or by pretreating the animals with CoCl2, which depletes cytochrome P450. Equimolar concentrations (10(-7) M) of the cyclooxygenase inhibitors indomethacin or meclofenamate caused only a partial inhibition of the cAMP agonists' effect on the pump, whereas nordihydroguaiaretic acid or A 63162, two inhibitors of the lipoxygenase pathway, were without effect. Furthermore, two products of this pathway, leukotriene B4 and leukotriene D4, had no effect on Na-K-ATPase activity, and ICI 198615, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, did not alter pump inhibition by cAMP agonists. Several P450 monoxygenase arachidonic acid metabolites (5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid; 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid; 11,12-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid; and 12(R)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) as well as PGE2 inhibited the Na:K pump in dose-dependent manner, but the effect of PGE2 was blocked when Na availability was altered, whereas that of 12(R)-HETE remained unchanged. We conclude that the cytochrome P450-monooxygenase pathway of the arachidonic acid cascade plays a major role in the modulation of Na

  14. Nods, Nalps and Naip: intracellular regulators of bacterial-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chamaillard, Mathias; Girardin, Stephen E; Viala, Jérôme; Philpott, Dana J

    2003-09-01

    The innate immune system is the most ancestral and ubiquitous system of defence against microbial infection. The microbial sensing proteins involved in innate immunity recognize conserved and often structural components of microorganisms. One class of these pattern-recognition molecules, the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), are involved in detection of microbes in the extracellular compartment whereas a newly discovered family of proteins, the NBS-LRR proteins (for nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeat), are involved in intracellular recognition of microbes and their products. NBS-LRR proteins are characterized by three structural domains: a C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain able to sense a microbial motif, an intermediary nucleotide binding site (NBS) essential for the oligomerization of the molecule that is necessary for the signal transduction induced by different N-terminal effector motifs, such as a pyrin domain (PYD), a caspase-activating and recruitment domain (CARD) or a baculovirus inhibitor of apoptosis protein repeat (BIR) domain. Two of these family members, Nod1 and Nod2, play a role in the regulation of pro-inflammatory pathways through NF-kappaB induced by bacterial ligands. Recently, it was shown that Nod2 recognizes a specific peptidoglycan motif from bacteria, muramyl dipeptide (MDP). A surprising number of human genetic disorders have been linked to NBS-LRR proteins. For example, mutations in Nod2, which render the molecule insensitive to MDP and unable to induce NF-kappaB activation when stimulated, are associated with susceptibility to a chronic intestinal inflammatory disorder, Crohn's disease. Conversely, mutations in the NBS region of Nod2 induce a constitutive activation of NF-kappaB and are responsible for Blau syndrome, another auto-inflammatory disease. Nalp3, which is an NBS-LRR protein with an N-terminal Pyrin domain, is also implicated in rare auto-inflammatory disorders. In conclusion, NBS-LRR molecules appear as a new

  15. Sulfate-chloride exchange by lobster hepatopancreas is regulated by pH-sensitive modifier sites

    SciTech Connect

    Cattey, M.A.; Ahearn, G.A.; Gerencser, G.A. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville )

    1991-03-15

    {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} uptake by Atlantic lobster (Homarus americanus) hepatopancreatic epithelial brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) was stimulated by internal Cl{sup {minus}}, but not internal HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, or external Na{sup +}. Sulfate-chloride exchange was stimulated by inside positive, and inhibited by inside negative, trans-membrane K diffusion potentials. {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}-Cl{sup {minus}} exchange was strongly inhibited by 4,4{prime} diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid (DIDS), 4-acetamido-4{prime}-isotheocynaostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid, (SITS), and thiosulfate. Chloride, bicarbonate, furosamide, and bumetanide slightly, yet significantly, cis-inhibited {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}-Cl{sup {minus}} exchange. Altering bilateral pH from 8.0 to 5.4 stimulated {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}-Cl{sup {minus}} exchange when vesicles were loaded with Cl{sup {minus}}, but reduced bilateral pH alone or the presence of pH gradients did not affect {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} transport in the absence of internal Cl{sup {minus}}. {sup 36}Cl uptake into SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}-loaded BBMV was stimulated by an internal negative membrane potential and inhibited when the interior was electrically positive. A model is proposed which suggests that SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}-Cl{sup {minus}} exchange is regulated by internal and external pH-sensitive modifier sites on the anion antiporter and by coupling to the electrogenic 2 Na{sup +}/1 H{sup +} antiporter and by coupling to the electrogenic 2 Na{sup +}/1 H{sup +} antiporter on the same membrane.

  16. Genetic identification of intracellular trafficking regulators involved in Notch-dependent binary cell fate acquisition following asymmetric cell division.

    PubMed

    Le Bras, Stéphanie; Rondanino, Christine; Kriegel-Taki, Géraldine; Dussert, Aurore; Le Borgne, Roland

    2012-10-15

    Notch signalling is involved in numerous cellular processes during development and throughout adult life. Although ligands and receptors are largely expressed in the whole organism, activation of Notch receptors only takes place in a subset of cells and/or tissues and is accurately regulated in time and space. Previous studies have demonstrated that endocytosis and recycling of both ligands and/or receptors are essential for this regulation. However, the precise endocytic routes, compartments and regulators involved in the spatiotemporal regulation are largely unknown. In order to identify intracellular trafficking regulators of Notch signalling, we have undertaken a tissue-specific dsRNA genetic screen of candidates potentially involved in endocytosis and recycling within the endolysosomal pathway. dsRNA against 418 genes was induced in the Drosophila melanogaster sensory organ lineage in which Notch signalling regulates binary cell fate acquisition. Gain or loss of Notch signalling phenotypes were observed in adult sensory organs for 113 of them. Furthermore, 26 genes were found to regulate the steady state localisation of Notch, Sanpodo, a Notch co-factor, and/or Delta in the pupal lineage. In particular, we identified 20 genes with previously unknown function in D. melanogaster intracellular trafficking. Among them, we identified CG2747 and we show that it regulates the localisation of clathrin adaptor AP-1 complex, a negative regulator of Notch signalling. Together, our results further demonstrate the essential function of intracellular trafficking in regulating Notch-signalling-dependent binary cell fate acquisition and constitute an additional step toward the elucidation of the routes followed by Notch receptor and ligands during signalling.

  17. Intracellular mechanisms for alpha 1-adrenergic regulation of the transient outward current in rabbit atrial myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Braun, A P; Fedida, D; Clark, R B; Giles, W R

    1990-01-01

    -phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, had no effect on It. 6. Exposure of cells to the PKC inhibitors, staurosporine and H-7, either by bath superfusion or intracellularly, via the recording micropipette, did not block the decrease in It produced by methoxamine. 7. Prolonged stimulation of atrial myocytes for 7-9 h at 22 degrees C with 500 nM-PMA produced a 'down-regulation' of endogenous PKC activity, as well as a physical loss of the immunoreactive enzyme, as measured by an in vitro assay, and an anti-PKC monoclonal antibody, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Fig. 3 Fig. 10 PMID:1983124

  18. Candida albicans erythroascorbate peroxidase regulates intracellular methylglyoxal and reactive oxygen species independently of D-erythroascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Min-Kyu; Song, Sung-Hyun; Ku, MyungHee; Kang, Sa-Ouk

    2015-07-08

    Candida albicans D-erythroascorbate peroxidase (EAPX1), which can catalyze the oxidation of D-erythroascorbic acid (EASC) to water, was observed to be inducible in EAPX1-deficient and EAPX1-overexpressing cells via activity staining. EAPX1-deficient cells have remarkably increased intracellular reactive oxygen species and methylglyoxal independent of the intracellular EASC content. The increased methylglyoxal caused EAPX1-deficient cells to activate catalase-peroxidase and cytochrome c peroxidase, which led to defects in cell growth, viability, mitochondrial respiration, filamentation and virulence. These findings indicate that EAPX1 mediates cell differentiation and virulence by regulating intracellular methylglyoxal along with oxidative stresses, regardless of endogenous EASC biosynthesis or alternative oxidase expression.

  19. Regulation of intracellular pH in Calu-3 human airway cells.

    PubMed

    Inglis, S K; Finlay, L; Ramminger, S J; Richard, K; Ward, M R; Wilson, S M; Olver, R E

    2002-01-15

    The Calu-3 human cell line exhibits features of submucosal gland serous cells and secretes HCO(3)(-). The aim of this study was to identify the HCO(3)(-) transporters present in these cells by studying their role in the regulation of intracellular pH (pH(i)). Calu-3 cells were grown on coverslips, loaded with the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye BCECF, and their fluorescence intensity monitored as an indication of pH(i). Cells were acidified with NH(4)Cl (25 mM, 1 min) and pH(i) recovery recorded. In the absence of HCO(3)(-), initial recovery was 0.208 +/- 0.016 pH units min(-1) (n = 37). This was almost abolished by removal of extracellular Na(+) and by amiloride (1 mM), consistent with the activity of a Na(+)-H(+) exchanger (NHE). In the presence of HCO(3)(-) and CO(2), recovery (0.156 +/- 0.018 pH units min(-1)) was abolished (reduced by 91.8 +/- 6.7 %, n = 7) by removal of Na(+) but only attenuated (by 63.3 +/- 5.8 %, n = 9) by amiloride. 4,4-Dinitrostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DNDS) inhibited recovery by 45.8 +/- 5.0 % (n = 7). The amiloride-insensitive recovery was insensitive to changes in membrane potential, as confirmed by direct microelectrode measurements, brought about by changing extracellular [K(+)] in the presence of either valinomycin or the K(+) channel opener 1-EBIO. In addition, forskolin (10 microM), which activates the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl(-) conductance in these cells and depolarises the cell membrane, had no effect on recovery. Removal of extracellular Cl(-) trebled pH(i) recovery rates, suggesting that an electroneutral, DNDS-sensitive, Cl(-)-HCO(3)(-) exchanger together with a NHE may be involved in pH(i) regulation and HCO(3)(-) secretion in these cells. RT-PCR detected the expression of the electrogenic Na(+)-HCO(3)(-) cotransporter NBC1 and the Cl(-)-HCO(3)(-) exchanger (AE2) but not the electroneutral Na(+)-HCO(3)(-) cotransporter NBCn1.

  20. Regulation by thapsigargin and carbachol of the intracellular calcium concentration in rat submandibular glands.

    PubMed

    Métioui, M; Grosfils, K; Dehaye, J P

    1994-11-01

    1. Carbachol and thapsigargin both increased the intracellular calcium concentration in rat submandibular cells in the presence and in the absence of extracellular calcium. Depletion of intracellular calcium pools with thapsigargin prevented the response to carbachol. 2. The two agents also increased the influx of calcium. The muscarinic agonist stimulated the efflux of calcium outside the cell. 3. From these results it is concluded that submandibular cells possess several intracellular calcium pools sensitive to thapsigargin, among which some are sensitive to IP3. Depletion of these pools increase the uptake of extracellular calcium.

  1. Ouabain-induced perturbations in intracellular ionic homeostasis regulate death receptor-mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Panayiotidis, Mihalis I.; Franco, Rodrigo; Bortner, Carl D.; Cidlowski, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis is defined by specific morphological and biochemical characteristics including cell shrinkage (termed apoptotic volume decrease), a process that results from the regulation of ion channels and plasma membrane transporter activity. The Na+-K+-ATPase is the predominant pump that controls cell volume and plasma membrane potential in cells and alterations in its function have been suggested to be associated with apoptosis. We report here that the Na+-K+-ATPase inhibitor ouabain, potentiates apoptosis in the human lymphoma Jurkat cells exposed to Fas ligand (FasL) or Tumor necrosis factor--related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) but not other apoptotic agents such as H2O2, thapsigargin or UV-C implicating a role for the Na+-K+-ATPase in death receptor-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, ouabain also potentiated perturbations in cell Ca2+ homeostasis only in conjunction with the apoptotic inducer FasL but not TRAIL. Ouabain did not affect alterations in the intracellular Ca2+ levels in response to H2O2, thapsigargin or UV-C. FasL-induced alterations in Ca2+ were not abolished in Ca2+-free medium but incubation of cells with BAPTA-AM inhibited both Ca2+ perturbations and the ouabain-induced potentiation of FasL-induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that the impairment of the Na+-K+-ATPase activity during apoptosis is linked to perturbations in cell Ca2+ homeostasis that modulate apoptosis induced by the activation of Fas by FasL. PMID:20422450

  2. Intracellular pH regulation in unstimulated Calliphora salivary glands is Na+ dependent and requires V-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Schewe, Bettina; Blenau, Wolfgang; Walz, Bernd

    2012-04-15

    Salivary gland cells of the blowfly Calliphora vicina have a vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) that lies in their apical membrane and energizes the secretion of a KCl-rich primary saliva upon stimulation with serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine). Whether and to what extent V-ATPase contributes to intracellular pH (pH(i)) regulation in unstimulated gland cells is unknown. We used the fluorescent dye BCECF to study intracellular pH(i) regulation microfluorometrically and show that: (1) under resting conditions, the application of Na(+)-free physiological saline induces an intracellular alkalinization attributable to the inhibition of the activity of a Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporter; (2) the maintenance of resting pH(i) is Na(+), Cl(-), concanamycin A and DIDS sensitive; (3) recovery from an intracellular acid load is Na(+) sensitive and requires V-ATPase activity; (4) the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter is not involved in pH(i) recovery after a NH(4)Cl prepulse; and (5) at least one Na(+)-dependent transporter and the V-ATPase maintain recovery from an intracellular acid load. Thus, under resting conditions, the V-ATPase and at least one Na(+)-dependent transporter maintain normal pH(i) values of pH 7.5. We have also detected the presence of a Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporter, which seems to act as an acid loader. Despite this not being a common pH(i)-regulating transporter, its activity affects steady-state pH(i) in C. vicina salivary gland cells.

  3. Altered intracellular pH regulation in cells with high levels of P-glycoprotein expression.

    PubMed

    Young, Gregory; Reuss, Luis; Altenberg, Guillermo A

    2011-01-01

    P-glycoprotein is an ATP-binding-cassette transporter that pumps many structurally unrelated drugs out of cells through an ATP-dependent mechanism. As a result, multidrug-resistant cells that overexpress P-glycoprotein have reduced intracellular steady-state levels of a variety of chemotherapeutic agents. In addition, increased cytosolic pH has been a frequent finding in multidrug-resistant cells that express P-glycoprotein, and it has been proposed that this consequence of P-glycoprotein expression may contribute to the lower intracellular levels of chemotherapeutic agents. In these studies, we measured intracellular pH and the rate of acid extrusion in response to an acid load in two cells with very different levels of P-glycoprotein expression: V79 parental cells and LZ-8 multidrug resistant cells. Compared to the wild-type V79 cells, LZ-8 cells have a lower intracellular pH and a slower recovery of intracellular pH after an acid load. The data also show that LZ-8 cells have reduced ability to extrude acid, probably due to a decrease in Na(+)/H(+) exchanger activity. The alterations in intracellular pH and acid extrusion in LZ-8 cells are reversed by 24-h exposure to the multidrug-resistance modulator verapamil. The lower intracellular pH in LZ-8 indicates that intracellular alkalinization is not necessary for multidrug resistance. The reversal by verapamil of the decreased acid-extrusion suggests that P-glycoprotein can affect other membrane transport mechanism.

  4. CaMKII regulates intracellular Ca²⁺ dynamics in native endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Fanny; Charbel, Chimène; Blanchette, Alexandre; Ledoux, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    Localized endothelial Ca(2+) signalling, such as Ca(2+) pulsars, can modulate the contractile state of the underlying vascular smooth muscle cell through specific endothelial targets. In addition to K(Ca)3.1 as a target, Ca(2+) pulsars, an IP3R-dependent pulsatile Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) could activate a frequency-sensitive Ca(2+)-dependent kinase such as CaMKII. In the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), acetylcholine increased endothelial CaMKII phosphorylation and activation, thereby suggesting CaMKII activation independently of Ca(2+) influx. Herein, a reciprocal relation where CaMKII controls endothelial Ca(2+) dynamics has been investigated in mesenteric arteries. Both CaMKIIα and β isoforms have been identified in endothelial cells and close proximity (<40 nm) suggests their association in heteromultimers. Intracellular Ca(2+) monitoring with high speed confocal microscopy then showed that inhibition of CaMKII with KN-93 significantly increased the population of Ca(2+) pulsars active sites (+89%), suggesting CaMKII as a major regulator of Ca(2+) pulsars in native endothelium. Mechanistic insights were then sought through the elucidation of the impact of CaMKII on ER Ca(2+) store. ER Ca(2+) emptying was accelerated by CaMKII inhibition and ER Ca(2+) content was assessed using ionomycin. Exposure to KN-93 strongly diminished ER Ca(2+) content (-61%) by relieving CaMKII-dependent inhibition of IP3 receptors (IP3R). Moreover, in situ proximity ligation assay suggested CaMKII-IP3R promiscuity, essential condition for a protein-protein interaction. Interestingly, segregation of IP3R within myoendothelial projection (MEP) appears to be isoform-specific. Hence, only IP3R type 1 and type 2 are detected within fenestrations of the internal elastic lamina, sites of MEP, whilst type 3 is absent from these structures. In summary, CaMKII seems to act as a Ca(2+)-sensitive switch of a negative feedback loop regulating endothelial Ca(2

  5. Modulation of iron metabolism by iron chelation regulates intracellular calcium and increases sensitivity to doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Yalcintepe, Leman; Halis, Emre

    2016-01-01

    Increased intracellular iron levels can both promote cell proliferation and death, as such; iron has a “two-sided effect” in the delicate balance of human health. Though the role of iron in the development of cancer remains unclear, investigations of iron chelators as anti-tumor agents have revealed promising results. Here, we investigated the influence of iron and desferrioxamine (DFO), the iron chelating agent on intracellular calcium in a human leukemia cell line, K562. Iron uptake is associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Therefore, we showed that iron also caused dose-dependent ROS generation in K562 cells. The measurement of intracellular calcium was determined using Furo-2 with a fluorescence spectrophotometer. The iron delivery process to the cytoplasmic iron pool was examined by monitoring the fluorescence of cells loaded with calcein-acetoxymethyl. Our data showed that iron increased intracellular calcium, and this response was 8 times higher when cells were incubated with DFO. K562 cells with DFO caused a 3.5 times increase of intracellular calcium in the presence of doxorubicin (DOX). In conclusion, DFO induces intracellular calcium and increases their sensitivity to DOX, a chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:26773173

  6. Function and regulation of TRPM7, as well as intracellular magnesium content, are altered in cells expressing ΔF508-CFTR and G551D-CFTR.

    PubMed

    Huguet, F; Calvez, M L; Benz, N; Le Hir, S; Mignen, O; Buscaglia, P; Horgen, F D; Férec, C; Kerbiriou, M; Trouvé, P

    2016-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), one of the most common fatal hereditary disorders, is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. The CFTR gene product is a multidomain adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) protein that functions as a chloride (Cl(-)) channel that is regulated by intracellular magnesium [Mg(2+)]i. The most common mutations in CFTR are a deletion of a phenylalanine residue at position 508 (ΔF508-CFTR, 70-80 % of CF phenotypes) and a Gly551Asp substitution (G551D-CFTR, 4-5 % of alleles), which lead to decreased or almost abolished Cl(-) channel function, respectively. Magnesium ions have to be finely regulated within cells for optimal expression and function of CFTR. Therefore, the melastatin-like transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7 (TRPM7), which is responsible for Mg(2+) entry, was studies and [Mg(2+)]i measured in cells stably expressing wildtype CFTR, and two mutant proteins (ΔF508-CFTR and G551D-CFTR). This study shows for the first time that [Mg(2+)]i is decreased in cells expressing ΔF508-CFTR and G551D-CFTR mutated proteins. It was also observed that the expression of the TRPM7 protein is increased; however, membrane localization was altered for both ΔF508del-CFTR and G551D-CFTR. Furthermore, both the function and regulation of the TRPM7 channel regarding Mg(2+) is decreased in the cells expressing the mutated CFTR. Ca(2+) influx via TRPM7 were also modified in cells expressing a mutated CFTR. Therefore, there appears to be a direct involvement of TRPM7 in CF physiopathology. Finally, we propose that the TRPM7 activator Naltriben is a new potentiator for G551D-CFTR as the function of this mutant increases upon activation of TRPM7 by Naltriben.

  7. Chloride regulates leaf cell size and water relations in tobacco plants

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Navarro, Juan D.; Brumós, Javier; Rosales, Miguel A.; Cubero-Font, Paloma; Talón, Manuel; Colmenero-Flores, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Chloride (Cl–) is a micronutrient that accumulates to macronutrient levels since it is normally available in nature and actively taken up by higher plants. Besides a role as an unspecific cell osmoticum, no clear biological roles have been explicitly associated with Cl– when accumulated to macronutrient concentrations. To address this question, the glycophyte tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. var. Habana) has been treated with a basal nutrient solution supplemented with one of three salt combinations containing the same cationic balance: Cl–-based (CL), nitrate-based (N), and sulphate+phosphate-based (SP) treatments. Under non-saline conditions (up to 5mM Cl–) and no water limitation, Cl– specifically stimulated higher leaf cell size and led to a moderate increase of plant fresh and dry biomass mainly due to higher shoot expansion. When applied in the 1–5mM range, Cl– played specific roles in regulating leaf osmotic potential and turgor, allowing plants to improve leaf water balance parameters. In addition, Cl– also altered water relations at the whole-plant level through reduction of plant transpiration. This was a consequence of a lower stomatal conductance, which resulted in lower water loss and greater photosynthetic and integrated water-use efficiency. In contrast to Cl–, these effects were not observed for essential anionic macronutrients such as nitrate, sulphate, and phosphate. We propose that the abundant uptake and accumulation of Cl– responds to adaptive functions improving water homeostasis in higher plants. PMID:26602947

  8. Chloride regulates leaf cell size and water relations in tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Franco-Navarro, Juan D; Brumós, Javier; Rosales, Miguel A; Cubero-Font, Paloma; Talón, Manuel; Colmenero-Flores, José M

    2016-02-01

    Chloride (Cl(-)) is a micronutrient that accumulates to macronutrient levels since it is normally available in nature and actively taken up by higher plants. Besides a role as an unspecific cell osmoticum, no clear biological roles have been explicitly associated with Cl(-) when accumulated to macronutrient concentrations. To address this question, the glycophyte tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. var. Habana) has been treated with a basal nutrient solution supplemented with one of three salt combinations containing the same cationic balance: Cl(-)-based (CL), nitrate-based (N), and sulphate+phosphate-based (SP) treatments. Under non-saline conditions (up to 5 mM Cl(-)) and no water limitation, Cl(-) specifically stimulated higher leaf cell size and led to a moderate increase of plant fresh and dry biomass mainly due to higher shoot expansion. When applied in the 1-5 mM range, Cl(-) played specific roles in regulating leaf osmotic potential and turgor, allowing plants to improve leaf water balance parameters. In addition, Cl(-) also altered water relations at the whole-plant level through reduction of plant transpiration. This was a consequence of a lower stomatal conductance, which resulted in lower water loss and greater photosynthetic and integrated water-use efficiency. In contrast to Cl(-), these effects were not observed for essential anionic macronutrients such as nitrate, sulphate, and phosphate. We propose that the abundant uptake and accumulation of Cl(-) responds to adaptive functions improving water homeostasis in higher plants.

  9. Zinc chloride for odontogenesis of dental pulp stem cells via metallothionein up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Yung; Lin, Hsin-Hua; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Lin, Shau-Ping; Chen, Min-Huey

    2011-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that zinc chloride (ZnCl(2)) can induce metallthionein (MT) in the liver and kidney to protect tissues against toxicants and shows a better corneal wound healing than conventional drugs do. We hypothesized that ZnCl(2) can promote odontogenesis of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) via MT. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ZnCl(2) on human DPSCs and the expression of MT. DPSCs were isolated by flow cytometry with selective surface marker CD146 and STRO-1. After they grew into confluence, DPSCs were induced into odontoblasts with or without ZnCl(2) supplemented in the culture medium for 21 days. The effect of ZnCl(2) on DPSCs differentiation was examined followed by alkaline phosphatase staining/activity and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. By treating DPSCs with ZnCl(2), the duration of mineralization was shortened and expressions of differentiation markers into odontoblasts were more significant than those without ZnCl(2) stimulation. Besides, the MT gene expression was increased with the increasing expressions of odontoblasts' markers after treated with ZnCl(2). This was the first report that ZnCl(2) could promote odontoblastic differentiation of DPSCs through the up-regulation of gene MT. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development and regulation of chloride homeostasis in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Miho; Fukuda, Atsuo

    2015-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter of the mature central nervous system (CNS). The developmental switch of GABAergic transmission from excitation to inhibition is induced by changes in Cl− gradients, which are generated by cation-Cl− co-transporters. An accumulation of Cl− by the Na+-K+-2Cl− co-transporter (NKCC1) increases the intracellular Cl− concentration ([Cl−]i) such that GABA depolarizes neuronal precursors and immature neurons. The subsequent ontogenetic switch, i.e., upregulation of the Cl−-extruder KCC2, which is a neuron-specific K+-Cl− co-transporter, with or without downregulation of NKCC1, results in low [Cl−]i levels and the hyperpolarizing action of GABA in mature neurons. Development of Cl− homeostasis depends on developmental changes in NKCC1 and KCC2 expression. Generally, developmental shifts (decreases) in [Cl−]i parallel the maturation of the nervous system, e.g., early in the spinal cord, hypothalamus and thalamus, followed by the limbic system, and last in the neocortex. There are several regulators of KCC2 and/or NKCC1 expression, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Therefore, regionally different expression of these regulators may also contribute to the regional developmental shifts of Cl− homeostasis. KCC2 and NKCC1 functions are also regulated by phosphorylation by enzymes such as PKC, Src-family tyrosine kinases, and WNK1–4 and their downstream effectors STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK)-oxidative stress responsive kinase-1 (OSR1). In addition, activation of these kinases is modulated by humoral factors such as estrogen and taurine. Because these transporters use the electrochemical driving force of Na+ and K+ ions, topographical interaction with the Na+-K+ ATPase and its modulators such as creatine kinase (CK) should modulate functions of Cl

  11. Minireview: Role of Intracellular Scaffolding Proteins in the Regulation of Endocrine G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    The majority of hormones stimulates and mediates their signal transduction via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The signal is transmitted into the cell due to the association of the GPCRs with heterotrimeric G proteins, which in turn activates an extensive array of signaling pathways to regulate cell physiology. However, GPCRs also function as scaffolds for the recruitment of a variety of cytoplasmic protein-interacting proteins that bind to both the intracellular face and protein interaction motifs encoded by GPCRs. The structural scaffolding of these proteins allows GPCRs to recruit large functional complexes that serve to modulate both G protein-dependent and -independent cellular signaling pathways and modulate GPCR intracellular trafficking. This review focuses on GPCR interacting PSD95-disc large-zona occludens domain containing scaffolds in the regulation of endocrine receptor signaling as well as their potential role as therapeutic targets for the treatment of endocrinopathies. PMID:25942107

  12. Dynamic changes in intracellular ROS levels regulate airway basal stem cell homeostasis through Nrf2-dependent Notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Paul, Manash K; Bisht, Bharti; Darmawan, Daphne O; Chiou, Richard; Ha, Vi L; Wallace, William D; Chon, Andrew T; Hegab, Ahmed E; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David A; Alva-Ornelas, Jackelyn A; Gomperts, Brigitte N

    2014-08-07

    Airways are exposed to myriad environmental and damaging agents such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), which also have physiological roles as signaling molecules that regulate stem cell function. However, the functional significance of both steady and dynamically changing ROS levels in different stem cell populations, as well as downstream mechanisms that integrate ROS sensing into decisions regarding stem cell homeostasis, are unclear. Here, we show in mouse and human airway basal stem cells (ABSCs) that intracellular flux from low to moderate ROS levels is required for stem cell self-renewal and proliferation. Changing ROS levels activate Nrf2, which activates the Notch pathway to stimulate ABSC self-renewal and an antioxidant program that scavenges intracellular ROS, returning overall ROS levels to a low state to maintain homeostatic balance. This redox-mediated regulation of lung stem cell function has significant implications for stem cell biology, repair of lung injuries, and diseases such as cancer.

  13. Reactive Neurogenesis and Down-Regulation of the Potassium-Chloride Cotransporter KCC2 in the Cochlear Nuclei after Cochlear Deafferentation

    PubMed Central

    Tighilet, Brahim; Dutheil, Sophie; Siponen, Marina I.; Noreña, Arnaud J.

    2016-01-01

    While many studies have been devoted to investigating the homeostatic plasticity triggered by cochlear hearing loss, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in these central changes remain elusive. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of reactive neurogenesis after unilateral cochlear nerve section in the cochlear nucleus (CN) of cats. We found a strong cell proliferation in all the CN sub-divisions ipsilateral to the lesion. Most of the newly generated cells survive up to 1 month after cochlear deafferentation in all cochlear nuclei (except the dorsal CN) and give rise to a variety of cell types, i.e., microglial cells, astrocytes, and neurons. Interestingly, many of the newborn neurons had an inhibitory (GABAergic) phenotype. This result is intriguing since sensory deafferentation is usually accompanied by enhanced excitation, consistent with a reduction in central inhibition. The membrane potential effect of GABA depends, however, on the intra-cellular chloride concentration, which is maintained at low levels in adults by the potassium chloride co-transporter KCC2. The KCC2 density on the plasma membrane of neurons was then assessed after cochlear deafferentation in the cochlear nuclei ipsilateral and contralateral to the lesion. Cochlear deafferentation is accompanied by a strong down-regulation of KCC2 ipsilateral to the lesion at 3 and 30 days post-lesion. This study suggests that reactive neurogenesis and down-regulation of KCC2 is part of the vast repertoire involved in homeostatic plasticity triggered by hearing loss. These central changes may also play a role in the generation of tinnitus and hyperacusis. PMID:27630564

  14. Cold acclimation allows regulation of chloride secretion in a eurythermic teleost fish Fundulus heteroclitus.

    PubMed

    Malone, Alicia M; Cozzi, Regina R F; Marshall, William S

    2015-02-01

    Fundulus heteroclitus (mummichog or common killifish) is an ideal model for ion transport regulation in chloride cells of the opercular epithelium (OE) and the response to thermal challenge. Mummichogs were acclimated to warm (20 °C) and cold (5 °C) seawater and opercular epithelia dissected and mounted in isolated Ussing-style epithelia chambers. The α2 adrenergic agonist clonidine inhibited the Cl(-) secretion (measured as short-circuit current, Isc), while the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol and 1.0mM dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (db-cAMP) plus 0.1mM isobutyl methylxanthine (IBMX) stimulated Isc in OE from warm and cold acclimated fish, measured at 20 °C. In contrast, rapid cooling partially inhibited Isc, but totally blocked the inhibition by clonidine and stimulation by isoproterenol and db-cAMP+IBMX in OE from warm-acclimated fish, while OE from cold-acclimated animals responded normally at 5 °C. Warming epithelia from 5 °C to 20 °C restored Isc and stimulation by db-cAMP+IBMX markedly increased Isc to levels similar to warm acclimated epithelia, while isoproterenol was much less effective. The isoproterenol insensitivity suggests a downregulation of β-adrenergic receptors in the cold. We infer from present results and previous work (Buhariwalla et al. 2012) that cold shock of plasma membranes induces a phase shift from liquid to gel state that impaired plasma membrane protein mobility of necessary hormone regulatory functions, while cold acclimation preserved ion transport regulation via homeoviscous adaptation of plasma membrane lipids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Chp Chemosensory System Regulates Intracellular cAMP Levels by Modulating Adenylate Cyclase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fulcher, Nanette B.; Holliday, Phillip M.; Klem, Erich; Cann, Martin J.; Wolfgang, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Multiple virulence systems in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa are regulated by the second messenger signaling molecule adenosine 3’, 5’-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). Production of cAMP by the putative adenylate cyclase enzyme CyaB represents a critical control point for virulence gene regulation. To identify regulators of CyaB, we screened a transposon insertion library for mutants with reduced intracellular cAMP. The majority of insertions resulting in reduced cAMP mapped to the Chp gene cluster encoding a putative chemotaxis-like chemosensory system. Further genetic analysis of the Chp system revealed that it has both positive and negative effects on intracellular cAMP and that it regulates cAMP levels by modulating CyaB activity. The Chp system was previously implicated in the production and function of type IV pili (TFP). Given that cAMP and the cAMP-dependent transcriptional regulator Vfr control TFP biogenesis gene expression, we explored the relationship between cAMP, the Chp system and TFP regulation. We discovered that the Chp system controls TFP production through modulation of cAMP while control of TFP-dependent twitching motility is cAMP-independent. Overall, our data define a novel function for a chemotaxis-like system in controlling cAMP production and establish a regulatory link between the Chp system, TFP and other cAMP-dependent virulence systems. PMID:20345659

  16. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Chp chemosensory system regulates intracellular cAMP levels by modulating adenylate cyclase activity.

    PubMed

    Fulcher, Nanette B; Holliday, Phillip M; Klem, Erich; Cann, Martin J; Wolfgang, Matthew C

    2010-05-01

    Multiple virulence systems in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa are regulated by the second messenger signalling molecule adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). Production of cAMP by the putative adenylate cyclase enzyme CyaB represents a critical control point for virulence gene regulation. To identify regulators of CyaB, we screened a transposon insertion library for mutants with reduced intracellular cAMP. The majority of insertions resulting in reduced cAMP mapped to the Chp gene cluster encoding a putative chemotaxis-like chemosensory system. Further genetic analysis of the Chp system revealed that it has both positive and negative effects on intracellular cAMP and that it regulates cAMP levels by modulating CyaB activity. The Chp system was previously implicated in the production and function of type IV pili (TFP). Given that cAMP and the cAMP-dependent transcriptional regulator Vfr control TFP biogenesis gene expression, we explored the relationship between cAMP, the Chp system and TFP regulation. We discovered that the Chp system controls TFP production through modulation of cAMP while control of TFP-dependent twitching motility is cAMP-independent. Overall, our data define a novel function for a chemotaxis-like system in controlling cAMP production and establish a regulatory link between the Chp system, TFP and other cAMP-dependent virulence systems.

  17. Regulation of biofilm formation and cellular buoyancy through modulating intracellular cyclic di-GMP levels in engineered cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Marco; Waters, Christopher M; Montgomery, Beronda L

    2016-02-01

    The second messenger cyclic dimeric (3'→5') GMP (cyclic di-GMP or c-di-GMP) has been implicated in the transition between motile and sessile lifestyles in bacteria. In this study, we demonstrate that biofilm formation, cellular aggregation or flocculation, and cellular buoyancy are under the control of c-di-GMP in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Synechocystis) and Fremyella diplosiphon. Synechocystis is a unicellular cyanobacterium and displays lower levels of c-di-GMP; F. diplosiphon is filamentous and displays higher intracellular c-di-GMP levels. We transformed Synechocystis and F. diplosiphon with a plasmid for constitutive expression of genes encoding diguanylate cylase (DGC) and phosphodiesterase (PDE) proteins from Vibrio cholerae or Escherichia coli, respectively. These engineered strains allowed us to modulate intracellular c-di-GMP levels. Biofilm formation and cellular deposition were induced in the DGC-expressing Synechocystis strain which exhibited high intracellular levels of c-di-GMP; whereas strains expressing PDE in Synechocystis and F. diplosiphon to drive low intracellular levels of c-di-GMP exhibited enhanced cellular buoyancy. In addition, the PDE-expressing F. diplosiphon strain showed elevated chlorophyll levels. These results imply roles for coordinating c-di-GMP homeostasis in regulating native cyanobacterial phenotypes. Engineering exogenous DGC or PDE proteins to regulate intracellular c-di-GMP levels represents an effective tool for uncovering cryptic phenotypes or modulating phenotypes in cyanobacteria for practical applications in biotechnology applicable in photobioreactors and in green biotechnologies, such as energy-efficient harvesting of cellular biomass or the treatment of metal-containing wastewaters.

  18. A pH-independent DNA nanodevice for quantifying chloride transport in organelles of living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Sonali; Prakash, Ved; Halder, Saheli; Chakraborty, Kasturi; Krishnan, Yamuna

    2015-07-01

    The concentration of chloride ions in the cytoplasm and subcellular organelles of living cells spans a wide range (5-130 mM), and is tightly regulated by intracellular chloride channels or transporters. Chloride-sensitive protein reporters have been used to study the role of these chloride regulators, but they are limited to a small range of chloride concentrations and are pH-sensitive. Here, we show that a DNA nanodevice can precisely measure the activity and location of subcellular chloride channels and transporters in living cells in a pH-independent manner. The DNA nanodevice, called Clensor, is composed of sensing, normalizing and targeting modules, and is designed to localize within organelles along the endolysosomal pathway. It allows fluorescent, ratiometric sensing of chloride ions across the entire physiological regime. We used Clensor to quantitate the resting chloride concentration in the lumen of acidic organelles in Drosophila melanogaster. We showed that lumenal lysosomal chloride, which is implicated in various lysosomal storage diseases, is regulated by the intracellular chloride transporter DmClC-b.

  19. A pH-independent DNA nanodevice for quantifying chloride transport in organelles of living cells.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sonali; Prakash, Ved; Halder, Saheli; Chakraborty, Kasturi; Krishnan, Yamuna

    2015-07-01

    The concentration of chloride ions in the cytoplasm and subcellular organelles of living cells spans a wide range (5-130 mM), and is tightly regulated by intracellular chloride channels or transporters. Chloride-sensitive protein reporters have been used to study the role of these chloride regulators, but they are limited to a small range of chloride concentrations and are pH-sensitive. Here, we show that a DNA nanodevice can precisely measure the activity and location of subcellular chloride channels and transporters in living cells in a pH-independent manner. The DNA nanodevice, called Clensor, is composed of sensing, normalizing and targeting modules, and is designed to localize within organelles along the endolysosomal pathway. It allows fluorescent, ratiometric sensing of chloride ions across the entire physiological regime. We used Clensor to quantitate the resting chloride concentration in the lumen of acidic organelles in Drosophila melanogaster. We showed that lumenal lysosomal chloride, which is implicated in various lysosomal storage diseases, is regulated by the intracellular chloride transporter DmClC-b.

  20. KChIP2 Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy Through Regulation of Ito and Intracellular Calcium Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hongwei; Hadri, Lahouaria; Palomeque, Julieta; Morel, Charlotte; Karakikes, Ioannis; Kaprielian, Roger; Hajjar, Roger; Lebeche, Djamel

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that the auxiliary subunit KChIP2, which assembles with pore-forming Kv4-subunits, represents a new potential regulator of the cardiac calcium-independent transient outward potassium current (Ito) density. In hypertrophy and heart failure, KChIP2 expression has been found to be significantly decreased. Our aim was to examine the role of KChIP2 in cardiac hypertrophy and the effect of restoring its expression on electrical remodeling and cardiac mechanical function using a combination of molecular, biochemical and gene targeting approaches. KChIP2 overexpression through gene transfer of Ad.KChIP2 in neonatal cardiomyocytes resulted in a significant increase in Ito-channel forming Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 protein levels. In vivo gene transfer of KChIP2 in aortic banded adult rats showed that, compared to sham-operated or Ad.β-gal-transduced hearts, KChIP2 significantly attenuated the developed left ventricular hypertrophy, robustly increased Ito densities, shortened action potential duration, and significantly altered myocyte mechanics by shortening contraction amplitudes and maximal rates of contraction and relaxation velocities and decreasing Ca2+ transients. Interestingly, blocking Ito with 4-aminopyridine in KChIP2-overexpressing adult cardiomyocytes significantly increased the Ca2+ transients to control levels. One-day old rat pups intracardially transduced with KChIP2 for two months then subjected to aortic banding for 6–8 weeks (to induce hypertrophy) showed similar echocardiographic, electrical and mechanical remodeling parameters. In addition, in cultured adult cardiomyocytes, KChIP2 overexpression increased the expression of Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a) and sodium calcium exchanger but had no effect on ryanodine receptor 2 or phospholamban expression. In neonatal myocytes, KChIP2 notably reversed Ang II-induced hypertrophic changes in protein synthesis and MAP-kinase activation. It also significantly decreased calcineurin expression, NFATc1

  1. Magnesium regulates intracellular ionized calcium concentration and cell geometry in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, A.; Cheng, T.P.; Altura, B.M. )

    1991-03-11

    It has been suggested that the extracellular Mg{sup 2+} may modulate contractility of VSMC by controlling the cellular level of free Ca{sup 2+}. The present studies were designed to determine the effects of (Mg{sup 2+}) on the distribution of intracellular free Ca{sup 2+} using digital imaging fluorescence microscopy of Fura-2 fluorescence of single VSMC cultured from rat aortas. When incubated with HEPES buffer solution containing 1.2mM Mg{sup 2+}, the myocytes are spindle-shaped, and the basal level of (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} estimated from the ratio (F340/F380) is 96.6 {plus minus} 7.9nM with a heterogeneous distribution. (Mg{sup 2+}){sub o} withdrawal from the incubation medium induces consistently a dramatic increment of (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} up to 579.6 {plus minus} 39.3nM, about a 5.8-fold elevation compared to control experiments. Similarly, lowering (Mg{sup 2+}){sub o} to 0.3mM (the lowest physiological range) elevates (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} to the intermediate level of 348.0 {plus minus} 31.5nM. However, the heterogeneous distribution of (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} is still evident when (Mg{sup 2+}){sub o} is lowered. Simultaneously to the (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} increments, cell shapes were changed. In contrast, elevation of (Mg{sup 2+}){sub o} to 4.8mM was found to decrease (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} to 72.0 {plus minus} 4.6nM. Removal of (Ca{sup 2+}){sub o}, however, abolished the increments of (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} induced by (Mg{sup 2+}){sub o} withdrawal. These results demonstrate that (Mg{sup 2+}){sub o} regulated (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} and geometry of VSMC, probably through controlling plasma membrane permeability to Ca{sup 2+}.

  2. Effects of agents which inhibit the regulation of intracellular pH on murine solid tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Newell, K.; Wood, P.; Stratford, I.; Tannock, I.

    1992-01-01

    Cell killing can be achieved in an acidic environment in tissue culture (medium pH less than 7.0) by agents (nigericin, carbonylcyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP)) which transport protons from the extracellular space into the cytoplasm. Cell killing is enhanced when these agents are used in combination with compounds (amiloride, 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS)) which inhibit the membrane-based exchangers responsible for the regulation of intracellular pH (pHi). We describe experiments which assess the ability of these agents to kill tumour cells in spheroids and in vivo. Both nigericin and CCCP were observed to penetrate tissue based on their ability to kill tumour cells in spheroids. The mean extracellular pH (pHe) of the KHT fibrosarcoma and the EMT-6 sarcoma were observed to be 0.21 and 0.32 pH units more acidic than the mean pHe in muscle tissue. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of the vasodilator hydralazine (10 mg kg-1) caused a reduction of the mean pHe of the KHT but not the EMT-6 tumour. Nigericin (2.5 mg kg-1, i.p.) plus amiloride (10 mg kg-1, i.p.) followed 30 min later by hydralazine (10 mg kg-1, i.p.) reduced the surviving fraction of cells in the KHT and EMT-6 tumours, but had minimal effects on growth delay. When KHT tumours were treated with 15 Gy X-rays followed immediately by nigericin plus amiloride and hydralazine a reduced surviving fraction as well as an increase in tumour growth delay was observed compared to radiation alone. The administration of nigericin (2.5 mg kg-1, i.p.) or the combination of nigericin (2.5 mg kg-1, i.p.) followed by hydralazine (10 mg kg-1, intravenous (i.v.)) resulted in reductions of tumour pHi of 0.27 and 0.29 pH units respectively as determined by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Our results show that the combination of nigericin and hydralazine (with or without amiloride) can kill cells in rodent solid tumours and that cell killing is associated with a reduction in the

  3. MicroRNAs in the intracellular space, regulation of organelle specific pathways in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao T; Brenu, Ekua W; Staines, Don R; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya M

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small (~22 nucleotide] non-coding RNA molecules originally characterised as nonsense or junk DNA. Emerging research suggests that these molecules have diverse regulatory roles in an array of molecular, cellular and physiological processes. MiRNAs are versatile and highly stable molecules, therefore, they are able to exist as intracellular or extracellular miRNAs. The purpose of this paper is to review the function and role of miRNAs in the intracellular space with specific focus on the interactions between miRNAs and organelles such as the mitochondria and the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Understanding the role of miRNAs in the intracellular space may be vital in understanding the mechanism of certain diseases.

  4. Chloroplast anchoring: its implications for the regulation of intracellular chloroplast distribution.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shingo; Takamatsu, Hideyasu; Sakurai-Ozato, Nami

    2009-01-01

    The intracellular distribution of organelles plays a pivotal role in the maintenance and adaptation of a wide spectrum of cellular activities in plants. Chloroplasts are a special type of organelle able to photosynthesize, capturing light energy to fix atmospheric CO2. Consequently, the intracellular positioning of chloroplasts is crucial for plant growth and development. Knowledge of the photoreceptors and cellular apparatus responsible for chloroplast movement has gradually accumulated over time, yet recent advances have allowed improved understanding. In this article, several aspects of research progress into the mechanisms for maintaining the specific intracellular distribution patterns of chloroplasts, namely, chloroplast anchoring, are summarized, together with a brief consideration of the future prospects of this subject. Our discussion covers developmental, physiological, ecophysiological, and recent cell biological research areas.

  5. State-dependent access of anions to the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel pore.

    PubMed

    Fatehi, Mohammad; Linsdell, Paul

    2008-03-07

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel is gated by intracellular factors; however, conformational changes in the channel pore associated with channel activation have not been identified. We have used patch clamp recording to investigate the state-dependent accessibility of substituted cysteine residues in the CFTR channel pore to a range of cysteine-reactive reagents applied to the extracellular side of the membrane. Using functional modification of the channel current-voltage relationship as a marker of modification, we find that several positively charged reagents are able to penetrate deeply into the pore from the outside irrespective of whether or not the channels have been activated. In contrast, access of three anionic cysteine-reactive reagents, the methanesulfonate sodium (2-sulfonatoethyl)methanesulfonate, the organic mercurial p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid, and the permeant anion Au(CN)(2)(-), to several different sites in the pore is strictly limited prior to channel activation. This suggests that in nonactivated channels some ion selectivity mechanism exists to exclude anions yet permit cations into the channel pore from the extracellular solution. We suggest that activation of CFTR channels involves a conformational change in the pore that removes a strong selectivity against anion entry from the extracellular solution. We propose further that this conformational change occurs in advance of channel opening, suggesting that multiple distinct closed pore conformations exist.

  6. High-antibody-producing Chinese hamster ovary cells up-regulate intracellular protein transport and glutathione synthesis.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Camila A; Marcellin, Esteban; Schulz, Benjamin L; Nouwens, Amanda S; Gray, Peter P; Nielsen, Lars K

    2015-02-06

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the preferred production host for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAb) due to their ability to perform post-translational modifications and their successful approval history. The completion of the genome sequence for CHO cells has reignited interest in using quantitative proteomics to identify markers of good production lines. Here we applied two different proteomic techniques, iTRAQ and SWATH, for the identification of expression differences between a high- and low-antibody-producing CHO cell lines derived from the same transfection. More than 2000 proteins were quantified with 70 of them classified as differentially expressed in both techniques. Two biological processes were identified as differentially regulated by both methods: up-regulation of glutathione biosynthesis and down-regulation of DNA replication. Metabolomic analysis confirmed that the high producing cell line displayed higher intracellular levels of glutathione. SWATH further identified up-regulation of actin filament processes and intracellular transport and down regulation of several growth-related processes. These processes may be important for conferring high mAb production and as such are promising candidates for targeted engineering of high-expression cell lines.

  7. Bile Acids and Bicarbonate Inversely Regulate Intracellular Cyclic di-GMP in Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Koestler, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that persists in aquatic reservoirs and causes the diarrheal disease cholera upon entry into a human host. V. cholerae employs the second messenger molecule 3′,5′-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) to transition between these two distinct lifestyles. c-di-GMP is synthesized by diguanylate cyclase (DGC) enzymes and hydrolyzed by phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes. Bacteria typically encode many different DGCs and PDEs within their genomes. Presumably, each enzyme senses and responds to cognate environmental cues by alteration of enzymatic activity. c-di-GMP represses the expression of virulence factors in V. cholerae, and it is predicted that the intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP is low during infection. Contrary to this model, we found that bile acids, a prevalent constituent of the human proximal small intestine, increase intracellular c-di-GMP in V. cholerae. We identified four c-di-GMP turnover enzymes that contribute to increased intracellular c-di-GMP in the presence of bile acids, and deletion of these enzymes eliminates the bile induction of c-di-GMP and biofilm formation. Furthermore, this bile-mediated increase in c-di-GMP is quenched by bicarbonate, the intestinal pH buffer secreted by intestinal epithelial cells. Our results lead us to propose that V. cholerae senses distinct microenvironments within the small intestine using bile and bicarbonate as chemical cues and responds by modulating the intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP. PMID:24799624

  8. ESCRTs regulate amyloid precursor protein sorting in multivesicular bodies and intracellular amyloid-β accumulation.

    PubMed

    Edgar, James R; Willén, Katarina; Gouras, Gunnar K; Futter, Clare E

    2015-07-15

    Intracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation is a key feature of early Alzheimer's disease and precedes the appearance of Aβ in extracellular plaques. Aβ is generated through proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP), but the intracellular site of Aβ production is unclear. APP has been localized to multivesicular bodies (MVBs) where sorting of APP onto intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) could promote amyloidogenic processing, or reduce Aβ production or accumulation by sorting APP and processing products to lysosomes for degradation. Here, we show that APP localizes to the ILVs of a subset of MVBs that also traffic EGF receptor (EGFR), and that it is delivered to lysosomes for degradation. Depletion of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) components, Hrs (also known as Hgs) or Tsg101, inhibited targeting of APP to ILVs and the subsequent delivery to lysosomes, and led to increased intracellular Aβ accumulation. This was accompanied by dramatically decreased Aβ secretion. Thus, the early ESCRT machinery has a dual role in limiting intracellular Aβ accumulation through targeting of APP and processing products to the lysosome for degradation, and promoting Aβ secretion.

  9. Regulation of melatonin production and intracellular calcium concentrations in the trout pineal organ.

    PubMed

    Meissl, H; Kroeber, S; Yáñez, J; Korf, H W

    1996-12-01

    The present in vitro study correlates measurements of the melatonin production from trout pineal organs with those of the intracellular calcium concentration in pinealocytes. Melatonin production increases with decreasing irradiance and shows maximal values in darkness. Some pinealocytes exhibit spontaneous calcium oscillations, although most of them have a stable basal calcium concentration. Diminishing extracellular calcium and enhancing magnesium reduces melatonin release in the light-and dark-adapted state. The application of Co2+ decreases melatonin secretion in the mesopic and scotopic range, reversibly blocks spontaneous calcium oscillations, reduces the basal intracellular calcium concentration in non-oscillating pinealocytes, and inhibits the KCl-induced rise in intracellular calcium. Application of glutamate, norepinephrine, isoproterenol, or dopamine has no significant effect on melatonin secretion. Norepinephrine does not influence the calcium concentration in any of the trout pinealocytes. Treatment with the GABAA-receptor agonist muscimol causes a slight reduction of melatonin release in the mesopic and scotopic range of illumination, without affecting intracellular calcium concentrations. Thus, Co2+ and low calcium/high magnesium buffer reduce melatonin release through an action on the calcium concentration in trout pinealocytes and not through a blockade of synaptic transmission. All the data show that the trout pineal organ synthesizes and releases melatonin in relation to the irradiance of the incident light and that neuronal inputs have a minor, if any, influence on melatonin synthesis.

  10. Modeling the effects of sodium chloride, acetic acid, and intracellular pH on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Hosein, Althea M; Breidt, Frederick; Smith, Charles E

    2011-02-01

    Microbiological safety has been a critical issue for acid and acidified foods since it became clear that acid-tolerant pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 can survive (even though they are unable to grow) in a pH range of 3 to 4, which is typical for these classes of food products. The primary antimicrobial compounds in these products are acetic acid and NaCl, which can alter the intracellular physiology of E. coli O157:H7, leading to cell death. For combinations of acetic acid and NaCl at pH 3.2 (a pH value typical for non-heat-processed acidified vegetables), survival curves were described by using a Weibull model. The data revealed a protective effect of NaCl concentration on cell survival for selected acetic acid concentrations. The intracellular pH of an E. coli O157:H7 strain exposed to acetic acid concentrations of up to 40 mM and NaCl concentrations between 2 and 4% was determined. A reduction in the intracellular pH was observed for increasing acetic acid concentrations with an external pH of 3.2. Comparing intracellular pH with Weibull model predictions showed that decreases in intracellular pH were significantly correlated with the corresponding times required to achieve a 5-log reduction in the number of bacteria.

  11. Stabilization of the Serum Lithium Concentration by Regulation of Sodium Chloride Intake: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Sumiya, Kenji; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Kohda, Yukinao

    2016-01-01

    To avoid fluctuation of the serum lithium concentration (CLi), sodium chloride (NaCl) intake was regulated in oral alimentation. A 62-year-old woman was hospitalized and orally administered 400 mg of lithium carbonate a day to treat her mania. Her CLi was found to be 0.75-0.81 mEq/L. Vomiting made it difficult for the patient to ingest meals orally, and therefore parenteral nutrition with additional oral intake of protein-fortified food was initiated. On day 22, parenteral nutrition was switched to oral alimentation to enable oral intake of food. The total NaCl equivalent amount was decreased to 1.2 g/d, and the CLi increased to 1.15 mEq/L on day 26. Oral alimentation with semi-solid food blended in a mixer was immediately initiated. Although the total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 4.5-5.0 g/d, her CLi remained high at 1.14-1.17 mEq/L on days 33 and 49, respectively. We investigated oral administration of NaCl (1.8 g/d) on day 52. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 6.3-6.8 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 1.08-0.97 mEq/L on days 63 and 104, respectively. After the start of the orally administered NaCl, her diet was changed to a completely blended diet on day 125. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 9.0-14.5 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 0.53 mEq/L on day 152; therefore, the oral administration of NaCl was discontinued on day 166. The CLi was found to be 0.70-0.85 mEq/L on days 176 and 220.

  12. DNA Damage–Induced Bcl-xL Deamidation Is Mediated by NHE-1 Antiport Regulated Intracellular pH

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Rui; Oxley, David; Smith, Trevor S; Follows, George A; Green, Anthony R; Alexander, Denis R

    2007-01-01

    The pro-survival protein Bcl-xL is critical for the resistance of tumour cells to DNA damage. We have previously demonstrated, using a mouse cancer model, that oncogenic tyrosine kinase inhibition of DNA damage–induced Bcl-xL deamidation tightly correlates with T cell transformation in vivo, although the pathway to Bcl-xL deamidation remains unknown and its functional consequences unclear. We show here that rBcl-xL deamidation generates an iso-Asp52/iso-Asp66 species that is unable to sequester pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins such as Bim and Puma. DNA damage in thymocytes results in increased expression of the NHE-1 Na/H antiport, an event both necessary and sufficient for subsequent intracellular alkalinisation, Bcl-xL deamidation, and apoptosis. In murine thymocytes and tumour cells expressing an oncogenic tyrosine kinase, this DNA damage–induced cascade is blocked. Enforced intracellular alkalinisation mimics the effects of DNA damage in murine tumour cells and human B-lineage chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells, thereby causing Bcl-xL deamidation and increased apoptosis. Our results define a signalling pathway leading from DNA damage to up-regulation of the NHE-1 antiport, to intracellular alkalanisation to Bcl-xL deamidation, to apoptosis, representing the first example, to our knowledge, of how deamidation of internal asparagine residues can be regulated in a protein in vivo. Our findings also suggest novel approaches to cancer therapy. PMID:17177603

  13. Characterization of intracellular growth regulator icgR by utilizing transcriptomics to identify mediators of pathogenesis in Shigella flexneri.

    PubMed

    Morris, Carolyn R; Grassel, Christen L; Redman, Julia C; Sahl, Jason W; Barry, Eileen M; Rasko, David A

    2013-09-01

    Shigella species Gram-negative bacteria which cause a diarrheal disease, known as shigellosis, by invading and destroying the colonic mucosa and inducing a robust inflammatory response. With no vaccine available, shigellosis annually kills over 600,000 children in developing countries. This study demonstrates the utility of combining high-throughput bioinformatic methods with in vitro and in vivo assays to provide new insights into pathogenesis. Comparisons of in vivo and in vitro gene expression identified genes associated with intracellular growth. Additional bioinformatics analyses identified genes that are present in S. flexneri isolates but not in the three other Shigella species. Comparison of these two analyses revealed nine genes that are differentially expressed during invasion and that are specific to S. flexneri. One gene, a DeoR family transcriptional regulator with decreased expression during invasion, was further characterized and is now designated icgR, for intracellular growth regulator. Deletion of icgR caused no difference in growth in vitro but resulted in increased intracellular replication in HCT-8 cells. Further in vitro and in vivo studies using high-throughput sequencing of RNA transcripts (RNA-seq) of an isogenic ΔicgR mutant identified 34 genes that were upregulated under both growth conditions. This combined informatics and functional approach has allowed the characterization of a gene and pathway previously unknown in Shigella pathogenesis and provides a framework for further identification of novel virulence factors and regulatory pathways.

  14. DNA damage-induced Bcl-xL deamidation is mediated by NHE-1 antiport regulated intracellular pH.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rui; Oxley, David; Smith, Trevor S; Follows, George A; Green, Anthony R; Alexander, Denis R

    2007-01-01

    The pro-survival protein Bcl-xL is critical for the resistance of tumour cells to DNA damage. We have previously demonstrated, using a mouse cancer model, that oncogenic tyrosine kinase inhibition of DNA damage-induced Bcl-xL deamidation tightly correlates with T cell transformation in vivo, although the pathway to Bcl-xL deamidation remains unknown and its functional consequences unclear. We show here that rBcl-xL deamidation generates an iso-Asp(52)/iso-Asp(66) species that is unable to sequester pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins such as Bim and Puma. DNA damage in thymocytes results in increased expression of the NHE-1 Na/H antiport, an event both necessary and sufficient for subsequent intracellular alkalinisation, Bcl-xL deamidation, and apoptosis. In murine thymocytes and tumour cells expressing an oncogenic tyrosine kinase, this DNA damage-induced cascade is blocked. Enforced intracellular alkalinisation mimics the effects of DNA damage in murine tumour cells and human B-lineage chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells, thereby causing Bcl-xL deamidation and increased apoptosis. Our results define a signalling pathway leading from DNA damage to up-regulation of the NHE-1 antiport, to intracellular alkalanisation to Bcl-xL deamidation, to apoptosis, representing the first example, to our knowledge, of how deamidation of internal asparagine residues can be regulated in a protein in vivo. Our findings also suggest novel approaches to cancer therapy.

  15. Effect of zinc binding residues in growth hormone (GH) and altered intracellular zinc content on regulated GH secretion.

    PubMed

    Petkovic, Vibor; Miletta, Maria Consolata; Eblé, Andrée; Iliev, Daniel I; Binder, Gerhard; Flück, Christa E; Mullis, Primus E

    2013-11-01

    Endocrine cells store hormones in concentrated forms (aggregates) in dense-core secretory granules that are released upon appropriate stimulation. Zn(2+) binding to GH through amino acid residues His18, His21, and Glu174 are essential for GH dimerization and might mediate its aggregation and storage in secretory granules. To investigate whether GH-1 gene mutations at these positions interfere with this process, GH secretion and intracellular production were analyzed in GC cells (rat pituitary cell line) transiently expressing wt-GH and/or GH Zn mutant (GH-H18A-H21A-E174A) in forskolin-stimulated vs nonstimulated conditions. Reduced secretion of the mutant variant (alone or coexpressed with wt-GH) compared with wt-GH after forskolin stimulation was observed, whereas an increased intracellular accumulation of GH Zn mutant vs wt-GH correlates with its altered extracellular secretion. Depleting Zn(2+) from culture medium using N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylemethyl)ethylenediamine, a high-affinity Zn(2+) chelator, led to a significant reduction of the stimulated wt-GH secretion. Furthermore, externally added Zn(2+) to culture medium increased intracellular free Zn(2+) levels and recovered wt-GH secretion, suggesting its direct dependence on free Zn(2+) levels after forskolin stimulation. Confocal microscopy analysis of the intracellular secretory pathway of wt-GH and GH Zn mutant indicated that both variants pass through the regulated secretory pathway in a similar manner. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that loss of affinity of GH to Zn(2+) as well as altering intracellular free Zn(2+) content may interfere with normal GH dimerization (aggregation) and storage of the mutant variant (alone or with wt-GH), which could possibly explain impaired GH secretion.

  16. The C-terminal tail of tetraspanin proteins regulates their intracellular distribution in the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Coceres, V M; Alonso, A M; Nievas, Y R; Midlej, V; Frontera, L; Benchimol, M; Johnson, P J; de Miguel, N

    2015-08-01

    The parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomoniasis, a prevalent sexually transmitted infection. Here, we report the cellular analysis of T.vaginalis tetraspanin family (TvTSPs). This family of membrane proteins has been implicated in cell adhesion, migration and proliferation in vertebrates. We found that the expression of several members of the family is up-regulated upon contact with vaginal ectocervical cells. We demonstrate that most TvTSPs are localized on the surface and intracellular vesicles and that the C-terminal intracellular tails of surface TvTSPs are necessary for proper localization. Analyses of full-length TvTSP8 and a mutant that lacks the C-terminal tail indicates that surface-localized TvTSP8 is involved in parasite aggregation, suggesting a role for this protein in parasite : parasite interaction. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Chlorotoxin does not inhibit volume-regulated, calcium-activated and cyclic AMP-activated chloride channels

    PubMed Central

    Maertens, Chantal; Wei, Lin; Tytgat, Jan; Droogmans, Guy; Nilius, Bernd

    2000-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to look for a high-affinity and selective polypeptide toxin, which could serve as a probe for the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) or the calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC). We have partially purified chlorotoxin, including new and homologous short chain insectotoxins, from the crude venom of Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus (Lqq) by means of gel filtration chromatography. Material eluting between 280 and 420 min, corresponding to fractions 15–21, was lyophilized and tested on VRAC and CaCC, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. We have also tested the commercially available chlorotoxin on VRAC, CaCC, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and on the glioma specific chloride channel (GCC). VRAC and the correspondent current, ICl,swell, was activated in Cultured Pulmonary Artery Endothelial (CPAE) cells by a 25% hypotonic solution. Neither of the fractions 16–21 significantly inhibited ICl,swell (n=4–5). Ca2+-activated Cl− currents, ICl,Ca, activated by loading T84 cells via the patch pipette with 1 μM free Ca2+, were not inhibited by any of the tested fractions (15–21), (n=2–5). Chlorotoxin (625 nM) did neither effect ICl,swell nor ICl,Ca (n=4–5). The CFTR channel, transiently transfected in COS cells and activated by a cocktail containing IBMX and forskolin, was not affected by 1.2 μM chlorotoxin (n=5). In addition, it did not affect currents through GCC. We conclude that submicromolar concentrations of chlorotoxin do not block volume-regulated, Ca2+-activated and CFTR chloride channels and that it can not be classified as a general chloride channel toxin. PMID:10683204

  18. PARK9-associated ATP13A2 localizes to intracellular acidic vesicles and regulates cation homeostasis and neuronal integrity

    PubMed Central

    Ramonet, David; Podhajska, Agata; Stafa, Klodjan; Sonnay, Sarah; Trancikova, Alzbeta; Tsika, Elpida; Pletnikova, Olga; Troncoso, Juan C.; Glauser, Liliane; Moore, Darren J.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the ATP13A2 gene (PARK9, OMIM 610513) cause autosomal recessive, juvenile-onset Kufor-Rakeb syndrome and early-onset parkinsonism. ATP13A2 is an uncharacterized protein belonging to the P5-type ATPase subfamily that is predicted to regulate the membrane transport of cations. The physiological function of ATP13A2 in the mammalian brain is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that ATP13A2 is localized to intracellular acidic vesicular compartments in cultured neurons. In the human brain, ATP13A2 is localized to pyramidal neurons within the cerebral cortex and dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. ATP13A2 protein levels are increased in nigral dopaminergic and cortical pyramidal neurons of Parkinson's disease brains compared with normal control brains. ATP13A2 levels are increased in cortical neurons bearing Lewy bodies (LBs) compared with neurons without LBs. Using short hairpin RNA-mediated silencing or overexpression to explore the function of ATP13A2, we find that modulating the expression of ATP13A2 reduces the neurite outgrowth of cultured midbrain dopaminergic neurons. We also find that silencing of ATP13A2 expression in cortical neurons alters the kinetics of intracellular pH in response to cadmium exposure. Furthermore, modulation of ATP13A2 expression leads to reduced intracellular calcium levels in cortical neurons. Finally, we demonstrate that silencing of ATP13A2 expression induces mitochondrial fragmentation in neurons. Oppositely, overexpression of ATP13A2 delays cadmium-induced mitochondrial fragmentation in neurons consistent with a neuroprotective effect. Collectively, this study reveals a number of intriguing neuronal phenotypes due to the loss- or gain-of-function of ATP13A2 that support a role for this protein in regulating intracellular cation homeostasis and neuronal integrity. PMID:22186024

  19. Modulating intracellular acidification by regulating the incubation time of proton caged compounds.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Marilena; Sabbatella, Gianfranco; Antonaroli, Simonetta; Orlando, Viviana; Biagioni, Stefano; Nucara, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    A proton caged compound, the 1-(2-nitrophenyl)- ethylhexadecyl sulfonate (HDNS), was dosed into HEK-293 at different incubation times. Samples were irradiated with filtered UV light for inducing photolysis of the HDNS and then probed by infrared spectroscopy. The intracellular acidification reaction can be followed by monitoring the consequent CO2 peak intensity variation. The total CO2 produced is similar for all the samples, hence it is only a function of the initial HDNS concentration. The way it is achieved, though, is different for the different incubation times and follows kinetics, which results in a combination of a linear CO2 increase and a steep CO2 increase followed by a decay. This is interpreted in terms of confinement of the HDNS into intracellular vesicles of variable average size and sensitive to UV light when they reach critical dimensions.

  20. Bile acids and bicarbonate inversely regulate intracellular cyclic di-GMP in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Koestler, Benjamin J; Waters, Christopher M

    2014-07-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that persists in aquatic reservoirs and causes the diarrheal disease cholera upon entry into a human host. V. cholerae employs the second messenger molecule 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) to transition between these two distinct lifestyles. c-di-GMP is synthesized by diguanylate cyclase (DGC) enzymes and hydrolyzed by phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes. Bacteria typically encode many different DGCs and PDEs within their genomes. Presumably, each enzyme senses and responds to cognate environmental cues by alteration of enzymatic activity. c-di-GMP represses the expression of virulence factors in V. cholerae, and it is predicted that the intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP is low during infection. Contrary to this model, we found that bile acids, a prevalent constituent of the human proximal small intestine, increase intracellular c-di-GMP in V. cholerae. We identified four c-di-GMP turnover enzymes that contribute to increased intracellular c-di-GMP in the presence of bile acids, and deletion of these enzymes eliminates the bile induction of c-di-GMP and biofilm formation. Furthermore, this bile-mediated increase in c-di-GMP is quenched by bicarbonate, the intestinal pH buffer secreted by intestinal epithelial cells. Our results lead us to propose that V. cholerae senses distinct microenvironments within the small intestine using bile and bicarbonate as chemical cues and responds by modulating the intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Functional Architecture of the Cytoplasmic Entrance to the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Chloride Channel Pore.

    PubMed

    El Hiani, Yassine; Linsdell, Paul

    2015-06-19

    As an ion channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator must form a continuous pathway for the movement of Cl(-) and other anions between the cytoplasm and the extracellular solution. Both the structure and the function of the membrane-spanning part of this pathway are well defined. In contrast, the structure of the pathway that connects the cytoplasm to the membrane-spanning regions is unknown, and functional roles for different parts of the protein forming this pathway have not been described. We used patch clamp recording and substituted cysteine accessibility mutagenesis to identify positively charged amino acid side chains that attract cytoplasmic Cl(-) ions to the inner mouth of the pore. Our results indicate that the side chains of Lys-190, Arg-248, Arg-303, Lys-370, Lys-1041, and Arg-1048, located in different intracellular loops of the protein, play important roles in the electrostatic attraction of Cl(-) ions. Mutation and covalent modification of these residues have charge-dependent effects on the rate of Cl(-) permeation, demonstrating their functional role in maximization of Cl(-) flux. Other nearby positively charged side chains were not involved in electrostatic interactions with Cl(-). The location of these Cl(-)-attractive residues suggests that cytoplasmic Cl(-) ions enter the pore via a lateral portal located between the cytoplasmic extensions to the fourth and sixth transmembrane helices; a secondary, functionally less relevant portal might exist between the extensions to the 10th and 12th transmembrane helices. These results define the cytoplasmic mouth of the pore and show how it attracts Cl(-) ions from the cytoplasm.

  2. Disrupted Dentate Granule Cell Chloride Regulation Enhances Synaptic Excitability during Development of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Hemal R.; Weissinger, Florian; Terunuma, Miho; Carlson, Gregory C.; Hsu, Fu-Chun; Moss, Stephen J.; Coulter, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition depends on the maintenance of intracellular Cl− concentration ([Cl−]in ) at low levels. In neurons in the developing CNS, [Cl−]in is elevated, EGABA is depolarizing, and GABA consequently is excitatory. Depolarizing GABAergic synaptic responses may be recapitulated in various neuropathological conditions, including epilepsy. In the present study, rat hippocampal dentate granule cells were recorded using gramicidin perforated patch techniques at varying times (1–60 d) after an epileptogenic injury, pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (STEP). In normal, non-epileptic animals, these strongly inhibited dentate granule cells act as a gate, regulating hippocampal excitation, controlling seizure initiation and/or propagation. For 2 weeks after STEP, we found that EGABA was positively shifted in granule cells. This shift in EGABA altered synaptic integration, increased granule cell excitability, and resulted in compromised “gate” function of the dentate gyrus. EGABA recovered to control values at longer latencies post-STEP (2–8 weeks), when animals had developed epilepsy. During this period of shifted EGABA, expression of the Cl− extruding K+/Cl− cotransporter, KCC2 was decreased. Application of the KCC2 blocker, furosemide, to control neurons mimicked EGABA shifts evident in granule cells post-STEP. Furthermore, post-STEP and furosemide effects interacted occlusively, both on EGABA in granule cells, and on gatekeeper function of the dentate gyrus. This suggests a shared mechanism, reduced KCC2 function. These findings demonstrate that decreased expression of KCC2 persists for weeks after an epileptogenic injury, reducing inhibitory efficacy and enhancing dentate granule cell excitability. This pathophysiological process may constitute a significant mechanism linking injury to the subsequent development of epilepsy. PMID:18094240

  3. Functional Architecture of the Cytoplasmic Entrance to the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Chloride Channel Pore*

    PubMed Central

    El Hiani, Yassine; Linsdell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    As an ion channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator must form a continuous pathway for the movement of Cl− and other anions between the cytoplasm and the extracellular solution. Both the structure and the function of the membrane-spanning part of this pathway are well defined. In contrast, the structure of the pathway that connects the cytoplasm to the membrane-spanning regions is unknown, and functional roles for different parts of the protein forming this pathway have not been described. We used patch clamp recording and substituted cysteine accessibility mutagenesis to identify positively charged amino acid side chains that attract cytoplasmic Cl− ions to the inner mouth of the pore. Our results indicate that the side chains of Lys-190, Arg-248, Arg-303, Lys-370, Lys-1041, and Arg-1048, located in different intracellular loops of the protein, play important roles in the electrostatic attraction of Cl− ions. Mutation and covalent modification of these residues have charge-dependent effects on the rate of Cl− permeation, demonstrating their functional role in maximization of Cl− flux. Other nearby positively charged side chains were not involved in electrostatic interactions with Cl−. The location of these Cl−-attractive residues suggests that cytoplasmic Cl− ions enter the pore via a lateral portal located between the cytoplasmic extensions to the fourth and sixth transmembrane helices; a secondary, functionally less relevant portal might exist between the extensions to the 10th and 12th transmembrane helices. These results define the cytoplasmic mouth of the pore and show how it attracts Cl− ions from the cytoplasm. PMID:25944907

  4. Dopamine DA1 receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells are regulated by glucocorticoid and sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Yasunari, K; Kohno, M; Yokokawa, K; Horio, T; Takeda, T

    1994-09-01

    The modulation of dopamine DA1 receptors of cultured rat renal arterial smooth muscle cells by glucocorticoid and sodium chloride was studied. At a concentration of 10 nM, the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone increased maximum receptor binding but had no effect on the dissociation constant. However, the maximum binding of [3H]Sch-23390 in cells treated with 100 mM sodium chloride did not change. However, the dissociation constant for DA1 receptor was increased by adding sodium chloride. The glucocorticoid effect on DA1 of arterial smooth muscle cells became apparent after hours of incubation in the presence of the steroid and was significantly inhibited by cycloheximide (10 micrograms/ml) or by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU-38486, indicating that the effect required protein synthesis through glucocorticoid receptors. Treatment of cells with 1 microM dexamethasone for 24 h increased basal and DA1-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. Basal adenylate cyclase was decreased by sodium chloride in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest differential control of DA1 receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells by glucocorticoid or sodium chloride.

  5. GmCLC1 Confers Enhanced Salt Tolerance through Regulating Chloride Accumulation in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Peipei; Wang, Longchao; Liu, Ailin; Yu, Bingjun; Lam, Hon-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The family of chloride channel proteins that mediate Cl- transportation play vital roles in plant nutrient supply, cellular action potential and turgor pressure adjustment, stomatal movement, hormone signal recognition and transduction, Cl- homeostasis, and abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. The anionic toxicity, mainly caused by chloride ions (Cl-), on plants under salt stress remains poorly understood. In this work, we investigated the function of soybean Cl-/H+ antiporter GmCLC1 under salt stress in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana, soybean, and yeast. We found that GmCLC1 enhanced salt tolerance in transgenic A. thaliana by reducing the Cl- accumulation in shoots and hence released the negative impact of salt stress on plant growth. Overexpression of GmCLC1 in the hairy roots of soybean sequestered more Cl- in their roots and transferred less Cl- to their shoots, leading to lower relative electrolyte leakage values in the roots and leaves. When either the soybean GmCLC1 or the yeast chloride transporter gene, GEF1, was transformed into the yeast gef1 mutant, and then treated with different chloride salts (MnCl2, KCl, NaCl), enhanced survival rate was observed. The result indicates that GmCLC1 and GEF1 exerted similar effects on alleviating the stress of diverse chloride salts on the yeast gef1 mutant. Together, this work suggests a protective function of GmCLC1 under Cl- stress. PMID:27504114

  6. STING regulates intracellular DNA-mediated, type I interferon-dependent innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hiroki; Ma, Zhe; Barber, Glen N

    2009-10-08

    The innate immune system is critical for the early detection of invading pathogens and for initiating cellular host defence countermeasures, which include the production of type I interferon (IFN). However, little is known about how the innate immune system is galvanized to respond to DNA-based microbes. Here we show that STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is critical for the induction of IFN by non-CpG intracellular DNA species produced by various DNA pathogens after infection. Murine embryonic fibroblasts, as well as antigen presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells (exposed to intracellular B-form DNA, the DNA virus herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) or bacteria Listeria monocytogenes), were found to require STING to initiate effective IFN production. Accordingly, Sting-knockout mice were susceptible to lethal infection after exposure to HSV-1. The importance of STING in facilitating DNA-mediated innate immune responses was further evident because cytotoxic T-cell responses induced by plasmid DNA vaccination were reduced in Sting-deficient animals. In the presence of intracellular DNA, STING relocalized with TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) from the endoplasmic reticulum to perinuclear vesicles containing the exocyst component Sec5 (also known as EXOC2). Collectively, our studies indicate that STING is essential for host defence against DNA pathogens such as HSV-1 and facilitates the adjuvant activity of DNA-based vaccines.

  7. Burkholderia pseudomallei Differentially Regulates Host Innate Immune Response Genes for Intracellular Survival in Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vellasamy, Kumutha Malar; Mariappan, Vanitha; Shankar, Esaki M.; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2016-01-01

    Background Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis poses a serious threat to humankind. B. pseudomallei secretes numerous virulence proteins that alter host cell functions to escape from intracellular immune sensors. However, the events underlying disease pathogenesis are poorly understood. Methods We determined the ability of B. pseudomallei to invade and survive intracellularly in A549 human lung epithelial cells, and also investigated the early transcriptional responses using an Illumina HumanHT-12 v4 microarray platform, after three hours of exposure to live B. pseudomallei (BCMS) and its secreted proteins (CCMS). Results We found that the ability of B. pseudomallei to invade and survive intracellularly correlated with increase of multiplicity of infection and duration of contact. Activation of host carbohydrate metabolism and apoptosis as well as suppression of amino acid metabolism and innate immune responses both by live bacteria and its secreted proteins were evident. These early events might be linked to initial activation of host genes directed towards bacterial dissemination from lungs to target organs (via proposed in vivo mechanisms) or to escape potential sensing by macrophages. Conclusion Understanding the early responses of A549 cells toward B. pseudomallei infection provide preliminary insights into the likely pathogenesis mechanisms underlying melioidosis, and could contribute to development of novel intervention strategies to combat B. pseudomallei infections. PMID:27367858

  8. Effects of Chlorogenic Acid on Intracellular Calcium Regulation in Lysophosphatidylcholine-Treated Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hye-Jin; Im, Seung-Soon; Song, Dae-Kyu; Bae, Jae-Hoon

    2017-01-16

    Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is a major phospholipid component of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and is implicated in its atherogenic activity. This study investigated the effects of LPC on cell viability, intracellular calcium homeostasis, and the protective mechanisms of chlorogenic acid (CGA) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). LPC increased intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) by releasing Ca2+ from intracellular stores and via Ca2+ influx through store-operated channels (SOCs). LPC also increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased cell viability. The mRNA expression of Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel 1 was increased significantly by LPC treatment and suppressed by CGA. CGA inhibited LPC-induced Ca2+ influx and ROS generation, and restored cell viability. These results suggested that CGA inhibits SOC-mediated Ca2+ influx and ROS generation by attenuating TRPC1 expression in LPC-treated HUVECs. Therefore, CGA might protect endothelial cells against LPC injury, thereby inhibiting atherosclerosis.

  9. Agouti regulation of intracellular calcium: role in the insulin resistance of viable yellow mice.

    PubMed Central

    Zemel, M B; Kim, J H; Woychik, R P; Michaud, E J; Kadwell, S H; Patel, I R; Wilkison, W O

    1995-01-01

    Several dominant mutations at the agouti locus in the mouse cause a syndrome of marked obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. Although it is known that the agouti gene is expressed in an ectopic manner in these mutants, the precise mechanism by which the agouti gene product mediates these effects is unclear. Since intracellular Ca2+ is believed to play a role in mediating insulin action and dysregulation of Ca2+ flux is observed in diabetic animals and humans, we examined the status of intracellular Ca2+ in mice carrying the dominant agouti allele, viable yellow (Avy). We show here that in mice carrying this mutation, the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) is elevated in skeletal muscle, and the degree of elevation is closely correlated with the degree to which the mutant traits are expressed in individual animals. Moreover, we demonstrate that the agouti gene product is capable of inducing increased [Ca2+]i in cultured and freshly isolated skeletal muscle myocytes from wild-type mice. Based on these findings, we present a model in which we propose that the agouti polypeptide promotes insulin resistance in mutant animals through its ability to increase [Ca2+]i. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7761392

  10. Agouti regulation of intracellular calcium: Role in the insulin resistance of viable yellow mice

    SciTech Connect

    Zemel, M.B.; Kim, J.H.; Woychik, R.P.; Michaud, E.J.; Hadwell, S.H.; Patel, I.R.; Wilkison, W.O.

    1995-05-23

    Several dominant mutations at the agouti locus in the mouse cause a syndrome of marked obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. Although it is known that the agouti gene is expressed in an ectopic manner in these mutants, the precise mechanism by which the agouti gene product mediates these effects is unclear. Since intracellular Ca{sup 2+} is believed to play a role in mediating insulin action and dysregulation of Ca{sup 2+} flux is observed in diabetic animals and humans, we examined the status of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} in mice carrying the dominant agouti allele, viable yellow (A{sup vy}). We show here that in mice carrying this mutation, the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) is elevated in skeletal muscle, and the degree of elevation is closely correlated with the degree to which the mutant traits are expressed in individual animals. Moreover, we demonstrate that the agouti gene product is capable of inducing increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in cultured and freshly isolated skeletal muscle myocytes from wild-type mice. Based on these findings, we present a model in which we propose that the agouti polypeptide promotes insulin resistance in mutant animals through its ability to increase [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. 36 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Chloride channel ClC- 2 enhances intestinal epithelial tight junction barrier function via regulation of caveolin-1 and caveolar trafficking of occludin.

    PubMed

    Nighot, Prashant K; Leung, Lana; Ma, Thomas Y

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the chloride channel ClC-2 plays a critical role in intestinal epithelial tight junction (TJ) barrier function via intracellular trafficking of TJ protein occludin. To study the mechanism of ClC-2-mediated TJ barrier function and intracellular trafficking of occludin, we established ClC-2 over-expressing Caco-2 cell line (Caco-2(CLCN2)) by full length ClC-2 ORF transfection. ClC-2 over-expression (Caco-2(CLCN2)) significantly enhanced TJ barrier (increased TER by ≥2 times and reduced inulin flux by 50%) compared to control Caco-2(pEZ) cells. ClC-2 over-expression (Caco-2(CLCN2)) increased occludin protein level compared to control Caco-2(pEZ) cells. Surface biotinylation assay revealed reduced steady state endocytosis of occludin in Caco-2(CLCN2) cells. Furthermore, ClC-2 over-expression led to reduction in caveolin-1 protein level and diminishment of caveolae assembly. Caveolae disruption increased TJ permeability in control but not ClC-2 over-expressing Caco-2(CLCN2) cells. Selective ClC-2 channel blocker GaTx2 caused an increase in caveolin-1 protein level and reduced occludin level. Delivery of cell permeable caveolin-1 scaffolding domain reduced the occludin protein level. Over all, these results suggest that ClC- 2 enhances TJ barrier function in intestinal epithelial cells via regulation of caveolin-1 and caveolae-mediated trafficking of occludin.

  12. Regulation of osmoadaptation in the moderate halophile Halobacillus halophilus: chloride, glutamate and switching osmolyte strategies

    PubMed Central

    Saum, Stephan H; Müller, Volker

    2008-01-01

    The moderate halophile Halobacillus halophilus is the paradigm for chloride dependent growth in prokaryotes. Recent experiments shed light on the molecular basis of the chloride dependence that is reviewed here. In the presence of moderate salinities Halobacillus halophilus mainly accumulates glutamine and glutamate to adjust turgor. The transcription of glnA2 (encoding a glutamine synthetase) as well as the glutamine synthetase activity were identified as chloride dependent steps. Halobacillus halophilus switches its osmolyte strategy and produces proline as the main compatible solute at high salinities. Furthermore, Halobacillus halophilus also shifts its osmolyte strategy at the transition from the exponential to the stationary phase where proline is exchanged by ectoine. Glutamate was found as a “second messenger” essential for proline production. This observation leads to a new model of sensing salinity by sensing the physico-chemical properties of different anions. PMID:18442383

  13. Protein-protein interactions involving voltage-gated sodium channels: Post-translational regulation, intracellular trafficking and functional expression.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dongmin; Okuse, Kenji; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A

    2009-07-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs), classically known to play a central role in excitability and signalling in nerves and muscles, have also been found to be expressed in a range of 'non-excitable' cells, including lymphocytes, fibroblasts and endothelia. VGSC abnormalities are associated with various diseases including epilepsy, long-QT syndrome 3, Brugada syndrome, sudden infant death syndrome and, more recently, various human cancers. Given their pivotal role in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes, regulation of functional VGSC expression has been the subject of intense study. An emerging theme is post-translational regulation and macro-molecular complexing by protein-protein interactions and intracellular trafficking, leading to changes in functional VGSC expression in plasma membrane. This partially involves endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation and ubiquitin-proteasome system. Several proteins have been shown to associate with VGSCs. Here, we review the interactions involving VGSCs and the following proteins: p11, ankyrin, syntrophin, beta-subunit of VGSC, papin, ERM and Nedd4 proteins. Protein kinases A and C, as well as Ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent kinase II that have also been shown to regulate intracellular trafficking of VGSCs by changing the balance of externalization vs. internalization, and an effort is made to separate these effects from the short-term phosphorylation of mature proteins in plasma membrane. Two further modulatory mechanisms are reciprocal interactions with the cytoskeleton and, late-stage, activity-dependent regulation. Thus, the review gives an updated account of the range of post-translational molecular mechanisms regulating functional VGSC expression. However, many details of VGSC subtype-specific regulation and pathophysiological aspects remain unknown and these are highlighted throughout for completeness.

  14. Regulation of transepithelial ion transport and intracellular calcium by extracellular ATP in human normal and cystic fibrosis airway epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, S. J.; Paradiso, A. M.; Boucher, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    1 The role of extracellular nucleotides in regulation of ion transport activities (short circuit current, Isc) of human respiratory epithelia was studied. 2 Application of nucleotides to the apical or basolateral membrane of human nasal epithelium induced a concentration-dependent increase in Isc. 3 The rank order of potency of purine- or pyrimidine-induced changes in Isc of normal human nasal epithelium when applied to the apical membrane (UTP greater than or equal to ATP greater than ATP gamma S greater than 2MeSATP greater than ADP beta S much greater than beta gamma MeATP greater than or equal to alpha beta MeATP) or basolateral membrane (2MeSATP greater than UTP greater than ATP greater than ATP gamma S greater than alpha beta MeATP greater than beta gamma MeATP) is consistent with involvement of a P2 purinoceptor. A similar rank order of potencies was observed for nucleotide effects on intracellular calcium measured by Fura-2 fluorescence using microspectrofluorimetry. 4 Similar nucleotide potency in the regulation of ion transport and intracellular calcium in cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelium (UTP greater than or equal to ATP) was observed, suggesting purinoceptors might be used to stimulate ion transport processes that would promote hydration of airway secretions and facilitate their clearance from CF lungs. 5 These data provide evidence for the regulation of ion transport by P2 purinoceptors in normal and cystic fibrosis human airway epithelium. PMID:1718521

  15. Sodium/proton exchanger isoform 1 regulates intracellular pH and cell proliferation in human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Sanhueza, Carlos; Araos, Joaquín; Naranjo, Luciano; Toledo, Fernando; Beltrán, Ana R; Ramírez, Marco A; Gutiérrez, Jaime; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea; Sobrevia, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells generate protons (H(+)) that are extruded to the extracellular medium mainly via the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1), which regulates intracellular pH (pHi) and cell proliferation. In primary cultures of human ascites-derived ovarian cancer cells (haOC) we assayed whether NHE1 was required for pHi modulation and cell proliferation. Human ovary expresses NHE1, which is higher in haOC and A2780 (ovarian cancer cells) compared with HOSE cells (normal ovarian cells). Basal pHi and pHi recovery (following a NH4Cl pulse) was higher in haOC and A2780, compared with HOSE cells. Zoniporide (NHE1 inhibitor) caused intracellular acidification and pHi recovery was independent of intracellular buffer capacity, but reduced in NHE1 knockdown A2780 cells. Zoniporide reduced the maximal proliferation capacity, cell number, thymidine incorporation, and ki67 (marker of proliferation) fluorescence in haOC cells. SLC9A1 (for NHE1) amplification associated with lower overall patient survival. In conclusion, NHE1 is expressed in human ovarian cancer where it has a pro-proliferative role. Increased NHE1 expression and activity constitute an unfavourable prognostic factor in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in intracellular copper concentration and copper-regulating gene expression after PC12 differentiation into neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ogra, Yasumitsu; Tejima, Aya; Hatakeyama, Naohiro; Shiraiwa, Moeko; Wu, Siyuan; Ishikawa, Tsutomu; Yawata, Ayako; Anan, Yasumi; Suzuki, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    It is suspected that some neurodegenerative diseases are a result of the disturbance of copper (Cu) homeostasis, although it remains unclear whether the disturbance of Cu homeostasis has aberrant effects on neurons. Herein, we investigated Cu metabolism specifically in neurons in terms of changes in the intracellular Cu concentration and the expression of Cu-regulating genes, such as Cu transporters and metallothioneins (MTs), before and after the differentiation of rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cells) into neurons. After the differentiation, Cu and Zn imaging with fluorescent probes revealed an increase in intracellular Cu concentration. The concentrations of other essential metals, which were determined by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, were not altered. The mRNA expression of the Cu influx transporter, Ctr1, was decreased after the differentiation, and the differentiated cells acquired tolerance to Cu and cisplatin, another substrate of Ctr1. In addition, the expression of MT-3, a brain-specific isoform, was increased, contrary to the decreased expression of MT-1 and MT-2. Taken together, the differentiation of PC12 cells into neurons induced MT-3 expression, thereby resulting in intracellular Cu accumulation. The decrease in Ctr1 expression was assumed to be a response aimed at abolishing the physiological accumulation of Cu after the differentiation. PMID:27623342

  17. A dynamically changing intracellular water network serves as a universal regulator of the cell: the water-governed cycle.

    PubMed

    Szolnoki, Zoltán

    2007-06-01

    The functioning of enzymes and protein folding are well known to be assisted by the surrounding chaperoning water molecules, which are connected to the protein via non-covalent, dynamically changing chemical bonds. A molecular intracellular network of weak non-covalent connections may be presumed to exist in living cells. The roles of such non-covalent networks are examined in terms of a molecular model which postulates a universal enzyme and biochemical mechanism regulating the maintenance of chemical stability in living cells.

  18. Intracellular trafficking of the amyloid β-protein precursor (APP) regulated by novel function of X11-like.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yuhki; Akiyama, Mayu; Araki, Yoichi; Sumioka, Akio; Shiono, Maki; Taru, Hidenori; Nakaya, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Tohru; Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2011-01-01

    Amyloid β (Aβ), a causative peptide of Alzheimer's disease, is generated by intracellular metabolism of amyloid β-protein precursor (APP). In general, mature APP (mAPP, N- and O-glycosylated form) is subject to successive cleavages by α- or β-, and γ-secretases in the late protein secretory pathway and/or at plasma membrane, while immature APP (imAPP, N-glycosylated form) locates in the early secretory pathway such as endoplasmic reticulum or cis-Golgi, in which imAPP is not subject to metabolic cleavages. X11-like (X11L) is a neural adaptor protein composed of a phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) and two C-terminal PDZ domains. X11L suppresses amyloidogenic cleavage of mAPP by direct binding of X11L through its PTB domain, thereby generation of Aβ lowers. X11L expresses another function in the regulation of intracellular APP trafficking. In order to analyze novel function of X11L in intracellular trafficking of APP, we performed a functional dissection of X11L. Using cells expressing various domain-deleted X11L mutants, intracellular APP trafficking was examined along with analysis of APP metabolism including maturation (O-glycosylation), processing and localization of APP. X11L accumulates imAPP into the early secretory pathway by mediation of its C-terminal PDZ domains, without being bound to imAPP directly. With this novel function, X11L suppresses overall APP metabolism and results in further suppression of Aβ generation. Interestingly some of the accumulated imAPP in the early secretory pathway are likely to appear on plasma membrane by unidentified mechanism. Trafficking of imAPP to plasma membrane is observed in other X11 family proteins, X11 and X11L2, but not in other APP-binding partners such as FE65 and JIP1. It is herein clear that respective functional domains of X11L regulate APP metabolism at multiple steps in intracellular protein secretory pathways.

  19. Regulation of intracellular pH in LLC-PK1 cells by Na+/H+ exchange.

    PubMed

    Montrose, M H; Murer, H

    1986-01-01

    Suspensions of LLC-PK1 cells (a continuous epitheliod cell line with renal characteristics) are examined for mechanisms of intracellular pH regulation using the fluorescent probe BCECF. Initial experiments determine suitable calibration procedures for use of the BCECF fluorescent signal. They also determine that the cell suspension contains cells which (after 4 hr in suspension) have Na+ and K+ gradients comparable to those of cells in monolayer culture. The steady-state intracellular pH (7.05 +/- 0.01, n = 5) of cells which have recovered in (pH 7.4) Na+-containing medium is not affected over several minutes by addition of 100 microM amiloride or removal of extracellular Na+ (Na+o less than 1 mM). In contrast, when the cells recover from an acid load (caused by NH4 preincubation and removal), the recovery is largely Na+ dependent and is sensitive to 100 microM amiloride. These results suggest that with resting pH near neutrality, both Na+o/H+i and Na+i/H+o exchange reactions are functionally inactive (compared to cellular buffering capacity). In contrast, Na+o/H+i exchange is activated by an increased cellular acid load. This activation may be observed directly either as a stimulation of net H+ efflux or net Na+ influx with decreasing intracellular pH. The extrapolation of this latter data suggests a "set point" of Na+/H+ exchange of approximately pH 7.0, consistent with the observed resting intracellular pH of approximately 7.05.

  20. GLUT-4 NH2 terminus contains a phenylalanine-based targeting motif that regulates intracellular sequestration.

    PubMed

    Piper, R C; Tai, C; Kulesza, P; Pang, S; Warnock, D; Baenziger, J; Slot, J W; Geuze, H J; Puri, C; James, D E

    1993-06-01

    Expression of chimeras, composed of portions of two different glucose transporter isoforms (GLUT-1 and GLUT-4), in CHO cells had indicated that the cytoplasmic NH2 terminus of GLUT-4 contains important targeting information that mediates intracellular sequestration of this isoform (Piper, R. C., C. Tai, J. W. Slot, C. S. Hahn, C. M. Rice, H. Huang, D. E. James. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 117:729-743). In the present studies, the amino acid constituents of the GLUT-4 NH2-terminal targeting domain have been identified. GLUT-4 constructs containing NH2-terminal deletions or alanine substitutions within the NH2 terminus were expressed in CHO cells using a Sindbis virus expression system. Deletion of eight amino acids from the GLUT-4 NH2 terminus or substituting alanine for phenylalanine at position 5 in GLUT-4 resulted in a marked accumulation of the transporter at the plasma membrane. Mutations at other amino acids surrounding Phe5 also caused increased cell surface expression of GLUT-4 but not to the same extent as the Phe5 mutation. GLUT-4 was also localized to clathrin lattices and this colocalization was abolished when either the first 13 amino acids were deleted or when Phe5 was changed to alanine. To ascertain whether the targeting information within the GLUT-4 NH2-terminal targeting domain could function independently of the glucose transporter structure this domain was inserted into the cytoplasmic tail of the H1 subunit of the asialoglycoprotein receptor. H1 with the GLUT-4 NH2 terminus was predominantly localized to an intracellular compartment similar to GLUT-4 and was sequestered more from the cell surface than was the wild-type H1 protein. It is concluded that the NH2 terminus of GLUT-4 contains a phenylalanine-based targeting motif that mediates intracellular sequestration at least in part by facilitating interaction of the transporter with endocytic machinery located at the cell surface.

  1. Intracellular degradation in the regulation of secretion of apolipoprotein B-100 by rabbit hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, I J; Higgins, J A

    1996-03-15

    Isolated rabbit hepatocytes were incubated with [35S]methionine to label intracellular pools of apolipoprotein B (apo-B). The cells were then reincubated with an excess of unlabelled methionine in the presence of oleate or protease inhibitors and the intracellular sites of accumulation of radiolabelled apo-B and the mass of apo-B were determined by isolation and analysis of subcellular fractions. Oleate or inhibitors of metalloproteases (o-phenanthroline), serine proteases (aprotinin), serine/cysteine proteases (leupeptin) or cysteins proteases (calpain inhibitor I; ALLN) but not aspartate proteases (pepstatin) resulted in inhibition of the cellular degradation of apo-B. The effect of o-phenanthroline was reversed by the addition of zinc ions. Oleate, o-phenanthroline and leupeptin also stimulated secretion of radiolabelled apo-B; the effects of the inhibitors and oleate were additive, suggesting that they could act via different mechanisms. o-Phenanthroline caused accumulation of apo-B in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) membranes; leupeptin caused accumulation of apo-B in the SER and cis-Golgi membranes, and ALLN and aprotinin caused accumulation of apo-B in the trans-Golgi membranes. These results suggest that intracellular degradation of apo-B occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum and in the trans-Golgi membranes and involves different proteases. Apo-B that accumulates in the ER membrane can be diverted into the lumen for secretion; however, apo-B that accumulates in the trans-Golgi membrane is irretrievably diverted from secretion.

  2. Regulation of exocytosis via release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores.

    PubMed

    Tse, F W; Tse, A

    1999-10-01

    The release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores is an important trigger for secretion in many cell types. Depending on the spatial relationship between the intracellular Ca(2+) stores and the site of exocytosis, the Ca(2+) signal can be very local or spread throughout the entire cell. Here, we review how the release of Ca(2+) from inositol trisphospate (IP(3))-sensitive stores contributes differently to the stimulus-secretion coupling in three types of secretory cells (acinar cells of the pancreas, gonadotrophs, and corticotrophs of the anterior pituitary gland). We propose that in both pancreatic acinar cells and pituitary gonadotrophs the IP(3)-sensitive stores may be in close proximity to the sites of exocytosis such that the concentration of Ca(2+) at these sites are transiently much higher than the average cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. In contrast, the local Ca(2+) gradient is less prominent in pituitary corticotrophs. Finally, some recent technical developments that may contribute significantly to future investigations of local Ca(2+) signals are discussed. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Sodium coupled bicarbonate influx regulates intracellular and apical pH in cultured rat caput epididymal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Wu-Lin; Li, Sheng; Huang, Jie-Hong; Yang, Deng-Liang; Zhang, Geng; Chen, Si-Liang; Ruan, Ye-Chun; Ye, Ke-Nan; Cheng, Christopher H K; Zhou, Wen-Liang

    2011-01-01

    The epithelium lining the epididymis provides an optimal acidic fluid microenvironment in the epididymal tract that enable spermatozoa to complete the maturation process. The present study aims to investigate the functional role of Na(+)/HCO(3)(-) cotransporter in the pH regulation in rat epididymis. Immunofluorescence staining of pan cytokeratin in the primary culture of rat caput epididymal epithelium showed that the system was a suitable model for investigating the function of epididymal epithelium. Intracellular and apical pH were measured using the fluorescent pH sensitive probe carboxy-seminaphthorhodafluor-4F acetoxymethyl ester (SNARF-4F) and sparklet pH electrode respectively to explore the functional role of rat epididymal epithelium. In the HEPES buffered Krebs-Henseleit (KH) solution, the intracellular pH (pHi) recovery from NH(4)Cl induced acidification in the cultured caput epididymal epithelium was completely inhibited by amiloride, the inhibitor of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE). Immediately changing of the KH solution from HEPES buffered to HCO(3)(-) buffered would cause another pHi recovery. The pHi recovery in HCO(3)(-) buffered KH solution was inhibited by 4, 4diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DIDS), the inhibitor of HCO(3)(-) transporter or by removal of extracellular Na(+). The extracellular pH measurement showed that the apical pH would increase when adding DIDS to the apical side of epididymal epithelial monolayer, however adding DIDS to the basolateral side had no effect on apical pH. The present study shows that sodium coupled bicarbonate influx regulates intracellular and apical pH in cultured caput epididymal epithelium.

  4. A novel natural product compound enhances cAMP-regulated chloride conductance of cells expressing CFTR[delta]F508.

    PubMed Central

    deCarvalho, Ana C. V.; Ndi, Chi P.; Tsopmo, Apollinaire; Tane, Pierre; Ayafor, Johnson; Connolly, Joseph D.; Teem, John L.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) results from mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, which encodes a chloride channel localized at the plasma membrane of diverse epithelia. The most common mutation leading to CF, Delta F508, occurs in the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1) of CFTR. The Delta F508 mutation disrupts protein processing, leading to a decreased level of mutant channels at the plasma membrane and reduced transepithelial chloride permeability. Partial correction of the Delta F508 molecular defect in vitro is achieved by incubation of cells with several classes of chemical chaperones, indicating that further investigation of novel small molecules is warranted as a means for producing new therapies for CF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The yeast two-hybrid assay was used to study the effect of CF-causing mutations on the ability of NBD1 to self-associate and form dimers. A yeast strain demonstrating defective growth as a result of impaired NBD1 dimerization due to Delta F508 was used as a drug discovery bioassay for the identification of plant natural product compounds restoring mutant NBD1 interaction. Active compounds were purified and the chemical structures determined. The purified compounds were tested in epithelial cells expressing CFTR Delta F508 and the resulting effect on transepithelial chloride permeability was assessed using short-circuit chloride current measurements. RESULTS: Wild-type NBD1 of CFTR forms homodimers in a yeast two-hybrid assay. CF-causing mutations within NBD1 that result in defective processing of CFTR (Delta F508, Delta I507, and S549R) disrupted NBD1 interaction in yeast. In contrast, a CF-causing mutation that does not impair CFTR processing (G551D) had no effect on NBD1 dimerization. Using the yeast-based assay, we identified a novel limonoid compound (TS3) that corrected the Delta F508 NBD1 dimerization defect in yeast and also increased the chloride permeability of Fisher Rat

  5. Arsenic Promotes Ubiquitinylation and Lysosomal Degradation of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Chloride Channels in Human Airway Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Bomberger, Jennifer M.; Coutermarsh, Bonita A.; Barnaby, Roxanna L.; Stanton, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic exposure significantly increases respiratory bacterial infections and reduces the ability of the innate immune system to eliminate bacterial infections. Recently, we observed in the gill of killifish, an environmental model organism, that arsenic exposure induced the ubiquitinylation and degradation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a chloride channel that is essential for the mucociliary clearance of respiratory pathogens in humans. Accordingly, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that low dose arsenic exposure reduces the abundance and function of CFTR in human airway epithelial cells. Arsenic induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in multiubiquitinylated CFTR, which led to its lysosomal degradation, and a decrease in CFTR-mediated chloride secretion. Although arsenic had no effect on the abundance or activity of USP10, a deubiquitinylating enzyme, siRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Cbl, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, abolished the arsenic-stimulated degradation of CFTR. Arsenic enhanced the degradation of CFTR by increasing phosphorylated c-Cbl, which increased its interaction with CFTR, and subsequent ubiquitinylation of CFTR. Because epidemiological studies have shown that arsenic increases the incidence of respiratory infections, this study suggests that one potential mechanism of this effect involves arsenic-induced ubiquitinylation and degradation of CFTR, which decreases chloride secretion and airway surface liquid volume, effects that would be proposed to reduce mucociliary clearance of respiratory pathogens. PMID:22467879

  6. Arsenic promotes ubiquitinylation and lysosomal degradation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channels in human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bomberger, Jennifer M; Coutermarsh, Bonita A; Barnaby, Roxanna L; Stanton, Bruce A

    2012-05-18

    Arsenic exposure significantly increases respiratory bacterial infections and reduces the ability of the innate immune system to eliminate bacterial infections. Recently, we observed in the gill of killifish, an environmental model organism, that arsenic exposure induced the ubiquitinylation and degradation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a chloride channel that is essential for the mucociliary clearance of respiratory pathogens in humans. Accordingly, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that low dose arsenic exposure reduces the abundance and function of CFTR in human airway epithelial cells. Arsenic induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in multiubiquitinylated CFTR, which led to its lysosomal degradation, and a decrease in CFTR-mediated chloride secretion. Although arsenic had no effect on the abundance or activity of USP10, a deubiquitinylating enzyme, siRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Cbl, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, abolished the arsenic-stimulated degradation of CFTR. Arsenic enhanced the degradation of CFTR by increasing phosphorylated c-Cbl, which increased its interaction with CFTR, and subsequent ubiquitinylation of CFTR. Because epidemiological studies have shown that arsenic increases the incidence of respiratory infections, this study suggests that one potential mechanism of this effect involves arsenic-induced ubiquitinylation and degradation of CFTR, which decreases chloride secretion and airway surface liquid volume, effects that would be proposed to reduce mucociliary clearance of respiratory pathogens.

  7. Regulated intramembrane proteolysis of the AXL receptor kinase generates an intracellular domain that localizes in the nucleus of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yinzhong; Wan, Jun; Yang, Zhifeng; Lei, Xiling; Niu, Qi; Jiang, Lanxin; Passtoors, Willemijn M; Zang, Aiping; Fraering, Patrick C; Wu, Fang

    2017-04-01

    Deregulation of the TAM (TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK) family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) has recently been demonstrated to predominately promote survival and chemoresistance of cancer cells. Intramembrane proteolysis mediated by presenilin/γ-secretase is known to regulate the homeostasis of some RTKs. In the present study, we demonstrate that AXL, but not TYRO3 or MERTK, is efficiently and sequentially cleaved by α- and γ-secretases in various types of cancer cell lines. Proteolytic processing of AXL redirected signaling toward a secretase-mediated pathway, away from the classic, well-known, ligand-dependent canonical RTK signaling pathway. The AXL intracellular domain cleavage product, but not full-length AXL, was further shown to translocate into the nucleus via a nuclear localization sequence that harbored a basic HRRKK motif. Of interest, we found that the γ-secretase-uncleavable AXL mutant caused an elevated chemoresistance in non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Altogether, our findings suggest that AXL can undergo sequential processing mediated by various proteases kept in a homeostatic balance. This newly discovered post-translational processing of AXL may provide an explanation for the diverse functions of AXL, especially in the context of drug resistance in cancer cells.-Lu, Y., Wan, J., Yang, Z., Lei, X., Niu, Q., Jiang, L., Passtoors, W. M., Zang, A., Fraering, P. C., Wu, F. Regulated intramembrane proteolysis of the AXL receptor kinase generates an intracellular domain that localizes in the nucleus of cancer cells. © The Author(s).

  8. Regulated intramembrane proteolysis of the AXL receptor kinase generates an intracellular domain that localizes in the nucleus of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yinzhong; Wan, Jun; Yang, Zhifeng; Lei, Xiling; Niu, Qi; Jiang, Lanxin; Passtoors, Willemijn M.; Zang, Aiping; Fraering, Patrick C.; Wu, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Deregulation of the TAM (TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK) family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) has recently been demonstrated to predominately promote survival and chemoresistance of cancer cells. Intramembrane proteolysis mediated by presenilin/γ-secretase is known to regulate the homeostasis of some RTKs. In the present study, we demonstrate that AXL, but not TYRO3 or MERTK, is efficiently and sequentially cleaved by α- and γ-secretases in various types of cancer cell lines. Proteolytic processing of AXL redirected signaling toward a secretase-mediated pathway, away from the classic, well-known, ligand-dependent canonical RTK signaling pathway. The AXL intracellular domain cleavage product, but not full-length AXL, was further shown to translocate into the nucleus via a nuclear localization sequence that harbored a basic HRRKK motif. Of interest, we found that the γ-secretase–uncleavable AXL mutant caused an elevated chemoresistance in non–small-cell lung cancer cells. Altogether, our findings suggest that AXL can undergo sequential processing mediated by various proteases kept in a homeostatic balance. This newly discovered post-translational processing of AXL may provide an explanation for the diverse functions of AXL, especially in the context of drug resistance in cancer cells.—Lu, Y., Wan, J., Yang, Z., Lei, X., Niu, Q., Jiang, L., Passtoors, W. M., Zang, A., Fraering, P. C., Wu, F. Regulated intramembrane proteolysis of the AXL receptor kinase generates an intracellular domain that localizes in the nucleus of cancer cells. PMID:28034848

  9. Intracellular Calcium Mobilization in Response to Ion Channel Regulators via a Calcium-Induced Calcium Release Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Petrou, Terry; Olsen, Hervør L.; Thrasivoulou, Christopher; Masters, John R.; Ashmore, Jonathan F.

    2017-01-01

    Free intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i), in addition to being an important second messenger, is a key regulator of many cellular processes including cell membrane potential, proliferation, and apoptosis. In many cases, the mobilization of [Ca2+]i is controlled by intracellular store activation and calcium influx. We have investigated the effect of several ion channel modulators, which have been used to treat a range of human diseases, on [Ca2+]i release, by ratiometric calcium imaging. We show that six such modulators [amiodarone (Ami), dofetilide, furosemide (Fur), minoxidil (Min), loxapine (Lox), and Nicorandil] initiate release of [Ca2+]i in prostate and breast cancer cell lines, PC3 and MCF7, respectively. Whole-cell currents in PC3 cells were inhibited by the compounds tested in patch-clamp experiments in a concentration-dependent manner. In all cases [Ca2+]i was increased by modulator concentrations comparable to those used clinically. The increase in [Ca2+]i in response to Ami, Fur, Lox, and Min was reduced significantly (P < 0.01) when the external calcium was reduced to nM concentration by chelation with EGTA. The data suggest that many ion channel regulators mobilize [Ca2+]i. We suggest a mechanism whereby calcium-induced calcium release is implicated; such a mechanism may be important for understanding the action of these compounds. PMID:27980039

  10. Dopamine synthesis and D3 receptor activation in pancreatic β-cells regulates insulin secretion and intracellular [Ca(2+)] oscillations.

    PubMed

    Ustione, Alessandro; Piston, David W

    2012-11-01

    Pancreatic islets are critical for glucose homeostasis via the regulated secretion of insulin and other hormones. We propose a novel mechanism that regulates insulin secretion from β-cells within mouse pancreatic islets: a dopaminergic negative feedback acting on insulin secretion. We show that islets are a site of dopamine synthesis and accumulation outside the central nervous system. We show that both dopamine and its precursor l-dopa inhibit glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and this inhibition correlates with a reduction in frequency of the intracellular [Ca(2+)] oscillations. We further show that the effects of dopamine are abolished by a specific antagonist of the dopamine receptor D3. Because the dopamine transporter and dopamine receptors are expressed in the islets, we propose that cosecretion of dopamine with insulin activates receptors on the β-cell surface. D3 receptor activation results in changes in intracellular [Ca(2+)] dynamics, which, in turn, lead to lowered insulin secretion. Because blocking dopaminergic negative feedback increases insulin secretion, expanding the knowledge of this pathway in β-cells might offer a potential new target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  11. Dopamine Synthesis and D3 Receptor Activation in Pancreatic β-Cells Regulates Insulin Secretion and Intracellular [Ca2+] Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Ustione, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic islets are critical for glucose homeostasis via the regulated secretion of insulin and other hormones. We propose a novel mechanism that regulates insulin secretion from β-cells within mouse pancreatic islets: a dopaminergic negative feedback acting on insulin secretion. We show that islets are a site of dopamine synthesis and accumulation outside the central nervous system. We show that both dopamine and its precursor l-dopa inhibit glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and this inhibition correlates with a reduction in frequency of the intracellular [Ca2+] oscillations. We further show that the effects of dopamine are abolished by a specific antagonist of the dopamine receptor D3. Because the dopamine transporter and dopamine receptors are expressed in the islets, we propose that cosecretion of dopamine with insulin activates receptors on the β-cell surface. D3 receptor activation results in changes in intracellular [Ca2+] dynamics, which, in turn, lead to lowered insulin secretion. Because blocking dopaminergic negative feedback increases insulin secretion, expanding the knowledge of this pathway in β-cells might offer a potential new target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:22918877

  12. Regulation of human airway ciliary beat frequency by intracellular pH

    PubMed Central

    Sutto, Zoltan; Conner, Gregory E; Salathe, Matthias

    2004-01-01

    pHi affects a number of cellular functions, but the influence of pHi on mammalian ciliary beat frequency (CBF) is not known. CBF and pHi of single human tracheobronchial epithelial cells in submerged culture were measured simultaneously using video microscopy (for CBF) and epifluorescence microscopy with the pH-sensitive dye BCECF. Baseline CBF and pHi values in bicarbonate-free medium were 7.2 ± 0.2 Hz and 7.49 ± 0.02, respectively (n = 63). Alkalization by ammonium pre-pulse to pHi 7.78 ± 0.02 resulted in a 2.2 ± 0.1 Hz CBF increase (P < 0.05). Following removal of NH4Cl, pHi decreased to 7.24 ± 0.02 and CBF to 5.8 ± 0.1 Hz (P < 0.05). Removal of extracellular CO2 to change pHi resulted in similar CBF changes. Pre-activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (10 μm forskolin), broad inhibition of protein kinases (100 μm H-7), inhibition of PKA (10 μm H-89), nor inhibition of phosphatases (10 μm cyclosporin + 1.5 μm okadaic acid) changed pHi-mediated changes in CBF, nor were they due to [Ca2+]i changes. CBF of basolaterally permeabilized human tracheobronchial cells, re-differentiated at the air–liquid interface, was 3.9 ± 0.3, 5.7 ± 0.4, 7.0 ± 0.3 and 7.3 ± 0.3 Hz at basolateral i.e., intracellular pH of 6.8, 7.2, 7.6 and 8.0, respectively (n = 18). Thus, intracellular alkalization stimulates, while intracellular acidification attenuates human airway CBF. Since phosphorylation and [Ca2+]i changes did not seem to mediate pHi-induced CBF changes, pHi may directly act on the ciliary motile machinery. PMID:15308676

  13. Anchored PDE4 regulates chloride conductance in wild-type and ΔF508-CFTR human airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Elise; Zlock, Lorna; Lao, Anna; Mika, Delphine; Namkung, Wan; Xie, Moses; Scheitrum, Colleen; Gruenert, Dieter C; Verkman, Alan S; Finkbeiner, Walter E; Conti, Marco; Richter, Wito

    2014-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) that impair its expression and/or chloride channel function. Here, we provide evidence that type 4 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE4s) are critical regulators of the cAMP/PKA-dependent activation of CFTR in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. In non-CF cells, PDE4 inhibition increased CFTR activity under basal conditions (ΔISC 7.1 μA/cm(2)) and after isoproterenol stimulation (increased ΔISC from 13.9 to 21.0 μA/cm(2)) and slowed the return of stimulated CFTR activity to basal levels by >3-fold. In cells homozygous for ΔF508-CFTR, the most common mutation found in CF, PDE4 inhibition alone produced minimal channel activation. However, PDE4 inhibition strongly amplified the effects of CFTR correctors, drugs that increase expression and membrane localization of CFTR, and/or CFTR potentiators, drugs that increase channel gating, to reach ∼ 25% of the chloride conductance observed in non-CF cells. Biochemical studies indicate that PDE4s are anchored to CFTR and mediate a local regulation of channel function. Taken together, our results implicate PDE4 as an important determinant of CFTR activity in airway epithelia, and support the use of PDE4 inhibitors to potentiate the therapeutic benefits of CFTR correctors and potentiators.

  14. Store-operated Ca2+ entry regulates Ca2+-activated chloride channels and eccrine sweat gland function

    PubMed Central

    Concepcion, Axel R.; Vaeth, Martin; Wagner, Larry E.; Eckstein, Miriam; Hecht, Lee; Yang, Jun; Crottes, David; Seidl, Maximilian; Shin, Hyosup P.; Weidinger, Carl; Cameron, Scott; Turvey, Stuart E.; Issekutz, Thomas; Meyts, Isabelle; Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Cuk, Mario; Yule, David I.

    2016-01-01

    Eccrine sweat glands are essential for sweating and thermoregulation in humans. Loss-of-function mutations in the Ca2+ release–activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel genes ORAI1 and STIM1 abolish store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), and patients with these CRAC channel mutations suffer from anhidrosis and hyperthermia at high ambient temperatures. Here we have shown that CRAC channel–deficient patients and mice with ectodermal tissue–specific deletion of Orai1 (Orai1K14Cre) or Stim1 and Stim2 (Stim1/2K14Cre) failed to sweat despite normal sweat gland development. SOCE was absent in agonist-stimulated sweat glands from Orai1K14Cre and Stim1/2K14Cre mice and human sweat gland cells lacking ORAI1 or STIM1 expression. In Orai1K14Cre mice, abolishment of SOCE was associated with impaired chloride secretion by primary murine sweat glands. In human sweat gland cells, SOCE mediated by ORAI1 was necessary for agonist-induced chloride secretion and activation of the Ca2+-activated chloride channel (CaCC) anoctamin 1 (ANO1, also known as TMEM16A). By contrast, expression of TMEM16A, the water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5), and other regulators of sweat gland function was normal in the absence of SOCE. Our findings demonstrate that Ca2+ influx via store-operated CRAC channels is essential for CaCC activation, chloride secretion, and sweat production in humans and mice. PMID:27721237

  15. Store-operated Ca2+ entry regulates Ca2+-activated chloride channels and eccrine sweat gland function.

    PubMed

    Concepcion, Axel R; Vaeth, Martin; Wagner, Larry E; Eckstein, Miriam; Hecht, Lee; Yang, Jun; Crottes, David; Seidl, Maximilian; Shin, Hyosup P; Weidinger, Carl; Cameron, Scott; Turvey, Stuart E; Issekutz, Thomas; Meyts, Isabelle; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Cuk, Mario; Yule, David I; Feske, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    Eccrine sweat glands are essential for sweating and thermoregulation in humans. Loss-of-function mutations in the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel genes ORAI1 and STIM1 abolish store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), and patients with these CRAC channel mutations suffer from anhidrosis and hyperthermia at high ambient temperatures. Here we have shown that CRAC channel-deficient patients and mice with ectodermal tissue-specific deletion of Orai1 (Orai1K14Cre) or Stim1 and Stim2 (Stim1/2K14Cre) failed to sweat despite normal sweat gland development. SOCE was absent in agonist-stimulated sweat glands from Orai1K14Cre and Stim1/2K14Cre mice and human sweat gland cells lacking ORAI1 or STIM1 expression. In Orai1K14Cre mice, abolishment of SOCE was associated with impaired chloride secretion by primary murine sweat glands. In human sweat gland cells, SOCE mediated by ORAI1 was necessary for agonist-induced chloride secretion and activation of the Ca2+-activated chloride channel (CaCC) anoctamin 1 (ANO1, also known as TMEM16A). By contrast, expression of TMEM16A, the water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5), and other regulators of sweat gland function was normal in the absence of SOCE. Our findings demonstrate that Ca2+ influx via store-operated CRAC channels is essential for CaCC activation, chloride secretion, and sweat production in humans and mice.

  16. The voltage dependence of the TMEM16B/anoctamin2 calcium-activated chloride channel is modified by mutations in the first putative intracellular loop

    PubMed Central

    Cenedese, Valentina; Betto, Giulia; Celsi, Fulvio; Cherian, O. Lijo; Pifferi, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Ca2+-activated Cl− channels (CaCCs) are involved in several physiological processes. Recently, TMEM16A/anoctamin1 and TMEM16B/anoctamin2 have been shown to function as CaCCs, but very little information is available on the structure–function relations of these channels. TMEM16B is expressed in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons, in microvilli of vomeronasal sensory neurons, and in the synaptic terminals of retinal photoreceptors. Here, we have performed the first site-directed mutagenesis study on TMEM16B to understand the molecular mechanisms of voltage and Ca2+ dependence. We have mutated amino acids in the first putative intracellular loop and measured the properties of the wild-type and mutant TMEM16B channels expressed in HEK 293T cells using the whole cell voltage-clamp technique in the presence of various intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. We mutated E367 into glutamine or deleted the five consecutive glutamates 386EEEEE390 and 399EYE401. The EYE deletion did not significantly modify the apparent Ca2+ dependence nor the voltage dependence of channel activation. E367Q and deletion of the five glutamates did not greatly affect the apparent Ca2+ affinity but modified the voltage dependence, shifting the conductance–voltage relations toward more positive voltages. These findings indicate that glutamates E367 and 386EEEEE390 in the first intracellular putative loop play an important role in the voltage dependence of TMEM16B, thus providing an initial structure–function study for this channel. PMID:22412191

  17. Autophagy negatively regulates tumor cell proliferation through phosphorylation dependent degradation of the Notch1 intracellular domain

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ji-Seon; Ann, Eun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Yoon, Ji-Hye; Lee, Hye-Jin; Jo, Eun-Hye; Lee, Keesook; Lee, Ji Shin; Park, Hee-Sae

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved mechanism that degrades long-lived proteins and dysfunctional organelles, and contributes to cell fate. In this study, autophagy attenuates Notch1 signaling by degrading the Notch1 intracellular domain (Notch1-IC). Nutrient-deprivation promotes Notch1-IC phosphorylation by MEKK1 and phosphorylated Notch1-IC is recognized by Fbw7 E3 ligase. The ubiquitination of Notch1-IC by Fbw7 is essential for the interaction between Notch1-IC and p62 and for the formation of aggregates. Inhibition of Notch1 signaling prevents the transformation of breast cancer cells, tumor progression, and metastasis. The expression of Notch1 and p62 is inversely correlated with Beclin1 expression in human breast cancer patients. These results show that autophagy inhibits Notch1 signaling by promoting Notch1-IC degradation and therefore plays a role in tumor suppression. PMID:27806347

  18. Organization and regulation of intracellular plasma membrane-connected HIV-1 assembly compartments in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In HIV-1-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), virus particles assemble primarily on intracellularly sequestered plasma membrane domains termed intracellular plasma membrane-connected compartments (IPMCs). Despite their clear role in virus formation, little is known of the organization, composition, dynamics or function of these compartments. Results We have used amphipathic membrane dyes to reveal the complex three-dimensional structure of IPMCs in whole MDMs and to visualize connections between IPMCs and the cell surface. The observation of similar IPMC structures in both infected and uninfected cells indicates that these compartments are not induced by virus infection, but are present constitutively in MDMs. By expressing a phospholipase Cδ pleckstrin homology domain linked to green fluorescent protein, we demonstrate that IPMCs contain phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Live cell imaging of cells expressing this probe shows that IPMCs are dynamic, but relatively stable, sub-domains of the plasma membrane. As recent electron microscopy studies indicated that portions of IPMCs are coated with β2 integrin-containing focal adhesion-like complexes linked to actin, we investigated whether the actin cytoskeleton is required for the organization of IPMCs. In MDMs treated with the actin polymerization inhibitor latrunculin, the normally compact IPMCs dispersed into smaller structures that remained connected to the plasma membrane. Moreover, latrunculin enhanced the release of preformed, mature HIV-1 particles from infected MDMs. Conclusions IPMCs are constitutive features of MDMs that are continuous with the plasma membrane and are used as unique sites for the assembly of new virions following infection by HIV-1. A functionally intact actin cytoskeleton is required to maintain the organization of the IPMCs and, in HIV-1-infected cells, perturbation of the actin cytoskeleton influences both the organization of the compartment and the

  19. Intracellular pH regulation of neurons in chemosensitive and nonchemosensitive areas of brain slices.

    PubMed

    Putnam, R W

    2001-12-01

    The role of changes of intracellular pH (pH(i)) as the proximal signal in central chemosensitive neurons has been studied. pH(i) recovery from acidification is mediated by Na(+)/H(+) exchange in all medullary neurons and pH(i) recovery from alkalinization is mediated by Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange in most medullary neurons. These exchangers are more sensitive to inhibition by changes in extracellular pH (pH(o)) in neurons from chemosensitive regions compared to those from nonchemosensitive regions. Thus, neurons from chemosensitive regions exhibit a maintained intracellular acidification in response to hypercapnic acidosis but they show pH(i) recovery in response to isohydric hypercapnia. A similar pattern of pH(i) response is seen in other CO(2)/H(+)-responsive cells, including glomus cells, sour taste receptor cells, and chemosensitive neurons from snails, suggesting that a maintained fall of pH(i) is a common feature of the proximal signal in all CO(2)/H(+)-sensitive cells. To further evaluate the potential role of pH(i) changes as proximal signals for chemosensitive neurons, studies must be done to: determine why a lack of pH(i) recovery from hypercapnic acidosis is seen in some nonchemosensitive neurons; establish a correlation between hypercapnia-induced changes of pH(i) and membrane potential (V(m)); compare the hypercapnia-induced pH(i) changes seen in neuronal cell bodies with those in dendritic processes; understand why the V(m) response to hypercapnia of many chemosensitive neurons is washed out when using whole cell patch pipettes; and employ knock out mice to investigate the role of certain proteins in the CO(2)/H(+) response of chemosensitive neurons.

  20. Intracellular Theileria annulata Promote Invasive Cell Motility through Kinase Regulation of the Host Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Min; Baumgartner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The intracellular, protozoan Theileria species parasites are the only eukaryotes known to transform another eukaryotic cell. One consequence of this parasite-dependent transformation is the acquisition of motile and invasive properties of parasitized cells in vitro and their metastatic dissemination in the animal, which causes East Coast Fever (T. parva) or Tropical Theileriosis (T. annulata). These motile and invasive properties of infected host cells are enabled by parasite-dependent, poorly understood F-actin dynamics that control host cell membrane protrusions. Herein, we dissected functional and structural alterations that cause acquired motility and invasiveness of T. annulata-infected cells, to understand the molecular basis driving cell dissemination in Tropical Theileriosis. We found that chronic induction of TNFα by the parasite contributes to motility and invasiveness of parasitized host cells. We show that TNFα does so by specifically targeting expression and function of the host proto-oncogenic ser/thr kinase MAP4K4. Blocking either TNFα secretion or MAP4K4 expression dampens the formation of polar, F-actin-rich invasion structures and impairs cell motility in 3D. We identified the F-actin binding ERM family proteins as MAP4K4 downstream effectors in this process because TNFα-induced ERM activation and cell invasiveness are sensitive to MAP4K4 depletion. MAP4K4 expression in infected cells is induced by TNFα-JNK signalling and maintained by the inhibition of translational repression, whereby both effects are parasite dependent. Thus, parasite-induced TNFα promotes invasive motility of infected cells through the activation of MAP4K4, an evolutionary conserved kinase that controls cytoskeleton dynamics and cell motility. Hence, MAP4K4 couples inflammatory signaling to morphodynamic processes and cell motility, a process exploited by the intracellular Theileria parasite to increase its host cell's dissemination capabilities. PMID:24626571

  1. An intracellular matrix metalloproteinase-2 isoform induces tubular regulated necrosis: implications for acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Ceron, Carla S; Baligand, Celine; Joshi, Sunil; Wanga, Shaynah; Cowley, Patrick M; Walker, Joy P; Song, Sang Heon; Mahimkar, Rajeev; Baker, Anthony J; Raffai, Robert L; Wang, Zhen J; Lovett, David H

    2017-06-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) causes severe morbidity, mortality, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Mortality is particularly marked in the elderly and with preexisting CKD. Oxidative stress is a common theme in models of AKI induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury. We recently characterized an intracellular isoform of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) induced by oxidative stress-mediated activation of an alternate promoter in the first intron of the MMP-2 gene. This generates an NH2-terminal truncated MMP-2 (NTT-MMP-2) isoform that is intracellular and associated with mitochondria. The NTT-MMP-2 isoform is expressed in kidneys of 14-mo-old mice and in a mouse model of coronary atherosclerosis and heart failure with CKD. We recently determined that NTT-MMP-2 is induced in human renal transplants with delayed graft function and correlated with tubular cell necrosis. To determine mechanism(s) of action, we generated proximal tubule cell-specific NTT-MMP-2 transgenic mice. Although morphologically normal at the light microscopic level at 4 mo, ultrastructural studies revealed foci of tubular epithelial cell necrosis, the mitochondrial permeability transition, and mitophagy. To determine whether NTT-MMP-2 expression enhances sensitivity to I-R injury, we performed unilateral I-R to induce mild tubular injury in wild-type mice. In contrast, expression of the NTT-MMP-2 isoform resulted in a dramatic increase in tubular cell necrosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. NTT-MMP-2 mice had enhanced expression of innate immunity genes and release of danger-associated molecular pattern molecules. We conclude that NTT-MMP-2 "primes" the kidney to enhanced susceptibility to I-R injury via induction of mitochondrial dysfunction. NTT-MMP-2 may be a novel AKI treatment target.

  2. Intracellular Ca2+ responses and cell volume regulation upon cholinergic and purinergic stimulation in an immortalized salivary cell line.

    PubMed

    Aure, Marit H; Røed, Asbjørn; Galtung, Hilde Kanli

    2010-06-01

    The water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5) seems to play a key role in salivary fluid secretion and appears to be critical in the cell volume regulation of acinar cells. Recently, the cation channel transient potential vanilloid receptor 4 (TRPV4) was shown to be functionally connected to AQP5 and also to cell volume regulation in salivary glands. We used the Simian virus 40 (SV40) immortalized cell line SMG C10 from the rat submandibular salivary gland to investigate the effect of ATP and the neurotransmitter analogue carbachol on Ca(2+) signalling and cell volume regulation, as well as the involvement of TRPV4 in the responses. We used fura-2-AM imaging, cell volume measurements, and western blotting. Both carbachol and ATP increased the concentration of intracellular Ca(2+), but no volume changes could be measured. Inhibition of TRPV4 with ruthenium red impaired both ATP- and carbachol-stimulated Ca(2+) signals. Peak Ca(2+) signalling during hyposmotic exposure was significantly decreased following inhibition of TRPV4, while the cells' ability to volume regulate appeared to be unaffected. These results show that in the SMG C10 cells, simulation of nervous stimulation did not induce cell swelling, although the cells had intact volume regulatory mechanisms. Furthermore, even though Ca(2+) signals were not needed for this volume regulation, TRPV4 seems to play a role during ATP and carbachol stimulation.

  3. An intracellular anion channel critical for pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Escobar, Iliana E; Lefkovith, Ariel J; Marks, Michael S; Oancea, Elena

    2014-12-16

    Intracellular ion channels are essential regulators of organellar and cellular function, yet the molecular identity and physiological role of many of these channels remains elusive. In particular, no ion channel has been characterized in melanosomes, organelles that produce and store the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanosome function cause albinism, characterized by vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired retinal development, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. The most common form of albinism is caused by mutations in oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), a melanosome-specific transmembrane protein with unknown function. Here we used direct patch-clamp of skin and eye melanosomes to identify a novel chloride-selective anion conductance mediated by OCA2 and required for melanin production. Expression of OCA2 increases organelle pH, suggesting that the chloride channel might regulate melanin synthesis by modulating melanosome pH. Thus, a melanosomal anion channel that requires OCA2 is essential for skin and eye pigmentation.

  4. Glibenclamide induces apoptosis through inhibition of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channels and intracellular Ca(2+) release in HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, J A; Kang, Y S; Lee, S H; Lee, E H; Yoo, B H; Lee, Y S

    1999-08-11

    Glibenclamide, an inhibitor of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channels, induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner in HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells. Glibenclamide increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, which was significantly inhibited by Ca(2+) release blockers dantrolene and TMB-8. BAPTA/AM, an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, and the Ca(2+) release blockers significantly inhibited glibenclamide-induced apoptosis. Glibanclamide also increased intracellular Cl(-) concentration, which was significantly blocked by CFTR Cl(-) channel activators levamisole and bromotetramisole. These activators also significantly inhibited both intracellular Ca(2+) release and apoptosis induced by glibenclamide. The expression of CFTR protein in the cells was confirmed by Western blot analysis. These results suggest that glibenclamide induced apoptosis through inhibition of CFTR Cl(-) channels and intracellular Ca(2+) release and that this protein may be a good target for treatment of human hepatomas.

  5. Regulation of the intracellular free calcium concentration in single rat dorsal root ganglion neurones in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, S A; Miller, R J

    1990-01-01

    1. Simultaneous whole-cell patch-clamp and Fura-2 microfluorimetric recordings of calcium currents (ICa) and the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were made from neurones grown in primary culture from the dorsal root ganglion of the rat. 2. Cells held at -80 mV and depolarized to 0 mV elicited a ICa that resulted in an [Ca2+]i transient which was not significantly buffered during the voltage step and lasted long after the cell had repolarized and the current ceased. The process by which the cell buffered [Ca2+]i back to basal levels could best be described with a single-exponential equation. 3. The membrane potential versus ICa and [Ca2+]i relationship revealed that the peak of the [Ca2+]i transient evoked at a given test potential closely paralleled the magnitude of the ICa suggesting that neither voltage-dependent nor Ca2(+)-induced Ca2+ release from intracellular stores made a significant contribution to the [Ca2+]i transient. 4. When the cell was challenged with Ca2+ loads of different magnitude by varying the duration or potential of the test pulse, [Ca2+]i buffering was more effective for larger Ca2+ loads. The relationship between the integrated ICa and the peak of the [Ca2+]i transient reached an asymptote at large Ca2+ loads indicating that Ca2(+)-dependent processes became more efficient or that low-affinity processes had been recruited. 5. Inhibition of Ca2+ influx with neuropeptide Y demonstrated that inhibition of a large ICa produced minor alterations in the peak of the [Ca2+]i transient, while inhibition of smaller currents produced corresponding decreases in the [Ca2+]i transient. Thus, inhibition of the ICa was reflected by a change in the peak [Ca2+]i only when submaximal Ca2+ loads were applied to the cell, implying that modulation of [Ca2+]i is dependent on the activation state of the cells. 6. Intracellular dialysis with the mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake blocker Ruthenium Red in whole-cell patch-clamp experiments removed the buffering

  6. Intracellular ATP can regulate afferent arteriolar tone via ATP-sensitive K+ channels in the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, J N; Schnermann, J; Brosius, F C; Briggs, J P; Furspan, P B

    1992-01-01

    Studies were performed to assess whether ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels on rabbit preglomerular vessels can influence afferent arteriolar (AA) tone. K+ channels with a slope conductance of 258 +/- 13 (n = 7) pS and pronounced voltage dependence were demonstrated in excised patches from vascular smooth muscle cells of microdissected preglomerular segments. Channel activity was markedly reduced by 1 mM ATP and in a dose-dependent fashion by glibenclamide (10(-9) M to 10(-6) M), a specific antagonist of KATP channels. 10(-5) M diazoxide, a K+ channel opener, activated these channels in the presence of ATP, and this effect was also blocked by glibenclamide. To determine the role of these KATP channels in the control of vascular tone, diazoxide was tested on isolated perfused AA. After preconstriction from a control diameter of 13.1 +/- 1.1 to 3.5 +/- 2.1 microns with phenylephrine (PE), addition of 10(-5) M diazoxide dilated vessels to 11.2 +/- 0.7 microns, which was not different from control. Further addition of 10(-5) M glibenclamide reconstricted the vessels to 5.8 +/- 1.5 microns (n = 5; P less than 0.03). In support of its specificity for KATP channels, glibenclamide did not reverse verapamil induced dilation in a separate series of experiments. To determine whether intracellular ATP levels can effect AA tone, studies were conducted to test the effect of the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose. After preconstriction from 13.4 +/- 3.2 to 7.7 +/- 1.3 microns with PE, bath glucose was replaced with 6 mM 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Within 10 min, the arteriole dilated to a mean value of 11.8 +/- 1.4 microns (n = 6; NS compared to control). Subsequent addition of 10(-5) M glibenclamide significantly reconstricted the vessels to a diameter of 8.6 +/- 0.5 micron (P less than 0.04). These data demonstrate that KATP channels are present on the preglomerular vasculature and that changes in intracellular ATP can directly influence afferent arteriolar tone via these channels

  7. The space of enzyme regulation in HeLa cells can be inferred from its intracellular metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Diener, Christian; Muñoz-Gonzalez, Felipe; Encarnación, Sergio; Resendis-Antonio, Osbaldo

    2016-01-01

    During the transition from a healthy state to a cancerous one, cells alter their metabolism to increase proliferation. The underlying metabolic alterations may be caused by a variety of different regulatory events on the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level whose identification contributes to the rational design of therapeutic targets. We present a mechanistic strategy capable of inferring enzymatic regulation from intracellular metabolome measurements that is independent of the actual mechanism of regulation. Here, enzyme activities are expressed by the space of all feasible kinetic constants (k-cone) such that the alteration between two phenotypes is given by their corresponding kinetic spaces. Deriving an expression for the transformation of the healthy to the cancer k-cone we identified putative regulated enzymes between the HeLa and HaCaT cell lines. We show that only a few enzymatic activities change between those two cell lines and that this regulation does not depend on gene transcription but is instead post-transcriptional. Here, we identify phosphofructokinase as the major driver of proliferation in HeLa cells and suggest an optional regulatory program, associated with oxidative stress, that affects the activity of the pentose phosphate pathway. PMID:27335086

  8. N-methylhemeanthidine chloride, a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation via down-regulating AKT activation

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Guoli; Yao, Guangmin; Zhan, Guanqun; Hu, Yufeng; Yue, Ming; Cheng, Ling; Liu, Yaping; Ye, Qi; Qing, Guoliang; Zhang, Yonghui; Liu, Hudan

    2014-11-01

    We previously reported the isolation of a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, N-methylhemeanthidine chloride (NMHC), from Zephyranthes candida, which exhibits potent cytotoxicity in a spectrum of tumor cells. However, the mechanism of action remains unclear. Using multiple cell lines derived from human pancreatic cancer, one of the most mortal and refractory human malignancies, we further studied the NMHC-mediated cytotoxicity and found that it induced drastic cytotoxicity in pancreatic cancer cells whereas an insignificant effect on a noncancerous cell line. The NMHC-mediated growth inhibition was more severe than the first-line chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine, leading to cell cycle arrest, apoptotic death and decreased glycolysis. NMHC exerted its function through down-regulating AKT activation, and the ectopic expression of activated AKT rescued the growth inhibition. Consistently, NMHC injections in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model manifested the anti-tumor effect in vivo. Engrafted tumor cells underwent AKT attenuation and apoptotic death upon treatments. As such, we here demonstrate the AKT inhibition may be one of the mechanisms by which NMHC decreases tumor cell survival rate in vitro and in vivo. Our data thereby suggest that NMHC holds great promise as a potent chemotherapeutic agent against pancreatic cancer and sheds new light on obtaining such agents from natural products toward therapeutic purposes. - Highlights: • N-methylhemeanthidine chloride (NMHC) is a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid. • NMHC exhibits potent anti-neoplastic activity. • NMHC leads to cell cycle arrest, apoptotic death and decreased metabolism. • NMHC down-regulates the AKT signaling pathway.

  9. Regulation of the processivity and intracellular localization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae dynein by dynactin

    PubMed Central

    Kardon, Julia R.; Reck-Peterson, Samara L.; Vale, Ronald D.

    2009-01-01

    Dynactin, a large multisubunit complex, is required for intracellular transport by dynein; however, its cellular functions and mechanism of action are not clear. Prior studies suggested that dynactin increases dynein processivity by tethering the motor to the microtubule through its own microtubule binding domains. However, this hypothesis could not be tested without a recombinant source of dynactin. Here, we have produced recombinant dynactin and dynein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and examined the effect of dynactin on dynein in single-molecule motility assays. We show that dynactin increases the run length of single dynein motors, but does not alter the directionality of dynein movement. Enhancement of dynein processivity by dynactin does not require the microtubule (MT) binding domains of Nip100 (the yeast p150Glued homolog). Dynactin lacking these MT binding domains also supports the proper localization and function of dynein during nuclear segregation in vivo. Instead, a segment of the coiled-coil of Nip100 is required for these activities. Our results directly demonstrate that dynactin increases the processivity of dynein through a mechanism independent of microtubule tethering. PMID:19293377

  10. Distinct intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics regulate apical constriction and differentially contribute to neural tube closure.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Makoto; Sato, Masanao; Koyama, Hiroshi; Hara, Yusuke; Hayashi, Kentaro; Yasue, Naoko; Imamura, Hiromi; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Nagai, Takeharu; Campbell, Robert E; Ueno, Naoto

    2017-04-01

    Early in the development of the central nervous system, progenitor cells undergo a shape change, called apical constriction, that triggers the neural plate to form a tubular structure. How apical constriction in the neural plate is controlled and how it contributes to tissue morphogenesis are not fully understood. In this study, we show that intracellular calcium ions (Ca(2+)) are required for Xenopus neural tube formation and that there are two types of Ca(2+)-concentration changes, a single-cell and a multicellular wave-like fluctuation, in the developing neural plate. Quantitative imaging analyses revealed that transient increases in Ca(2+) concentration induced cortical F-actin remodeling, apical constriction and accelerations of the closing movement of the neural plate. We also show that extracellular ATP and N-cadherin (cdh2) participate in the Ca(2+)-induced apical constriction. Furthermore, our mathematical model suggests that the effect of Ca(2+) fluctuations on tissue morphogenesis is independent of fluctuation frequency and that fluctuations affecting individual cells are more efficient than those at the multicellular level. We propose that distinct Ca(2+) signaling patterns differentially modulate apical constriction for efficient epithelial folding and that this mechanism has a broad range of physiological outcomes. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Intracellular Ca alternans: coordinated regulation by sarcoplasmic reticulum release, uptake, and leak.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lai-Hua; Sato, Daisuke; Garfinkel, Alan; Qu, Zhilin; Weiss, James N

    2008-09-15

    Beat-to-beat alternation in the cardiac intracellular Ca (Ca(i)) transient can drive action potential (AP) duration alternans, creating a highly arrhythmogenic substrate. Although a steep dependence of fractional sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca release on SR Ca load has been shown experimentally to promote Ca(i) alternans, theoretical studies predict that other factors are also important. Here we present an iterated map analysis of the coordinated effects of SR Ca release, uptake, and leak on the onset of Ca(i) alternans. Predictions were compared to numerical simulations using a physiologically realistic AP model as well as to AP clamp experiments in isolated patch-clamped rabbit ventricular myocytes exposed to 1), the Ca channel agonist BayK8644 (100 nM) to increase SR Ca load and release fraction, 2), overexpression of an adenoviral SERCA2a construct to increase SR Ca uptake, and 3), low-dose FK506 (20 microM) or ryanodine (1 microM) to increase SR Ca leak. Our findings show that SR Ca release, uptake, and leak all have independent direct effects that promote (release and leak) or suppress (uptake) Ca(i) alternans. However, since each factor affects the other by altering SR Ca load, the net balance of their direct and indirect effects determines whether they promote or suppress alternans. Thus, BayK8644 promotes, whereas Ad-SERCA2a overexpression, ryanodine, and FK506 suppress, Ca(i) alternans under AP clamp conditions.

  12. Intracellular regulation of the production and release of human erythroid-directed lymphokines.

    PubMed

    Dainiak, N; Sorba, S

    1991-01-01

    Erythroid burst-promoting activity (BPA) is released from B lymphocytes in soluble (sBPA) and membrane-bound (mBPA) forms. To study intracellular processes involved in production of these physically separable factors, we measured their time course release into serum-free medium from B cells that were pulse-exposed for 5-240 min to nonmitogenic base medium or inhibitors of energy-dependent metabolism (2,4-dinitrophenol, sodium azide, and 2-deoxy-D-glucose), transcription and translation (actinomycin D and cycloheximide), replicative DNA synthesis (cytosine arabinoside), or posttranslational processing (monensin). mBPA and sBPA were initially detectable after 1 and 2 h, respectively. Maximum cumulative levels of 8 +/- 0.6 and 9 +/- 1.0 U/ml, respectively, were reached after 8 h. In contrast, cumulative mBPA and sBPA levels in medium prepared from cells treated with metabolic inhibitors were reduced by up to 90%. Both surface exfoliation and mBPA expression by intact plasma membranes were diminished. Whereas pulse-exposure to cytosine arabinoside had no effect, treatment with actinomycin D or cycloheximide abolished BPA expression. Exposure to monensin reduced mBPA and sBPA levels to zero in a concentration-and time-dependent fashion. We conclude that production and release of BPA is an energy-dependent process, requiring mRNA synthesis and translation and posttranslational remodeling of the protein but not replicative DNA synthesis.

  13. Intracellular regulation of the production and release of human erythroid-directed lymphokines.

    PubMed Central

    Dainiak, N; Sorba, S

    1991-01-01

    Erythroid burst-promoting activity (BPA) is released from B lymphocytes in soluble (sBPA) and membrane-bound (mBPA) forms. To study intracellular processes involved in production of these physically separable factors, we measured their time course release into serum-free medium from B cells that were pulse-exposed for 5-240 min to nonmitogenic base medium or inhibitors of energy-dependent metabolism (2,4-dinitrophenol, sodium azide, and 2-deoxy-D-glucose), transcription and translation (actinomycin D and cycloheximide), replicative DNA synthesis (cytosine arabinoside), or posttranslational processing (monensin). mBPA and sBPA were initially detectable after 1 and 2 h, respectively. Maximum cumulative levels of 8 +/- 0.6 and 9 +/- 1.0 U/ml, respectively, were reached after 8 h. In contrast, cumulative mBPA and sBPA levels in medium prepared from cells treated with metabolic inhibitors were reduced by up to 90%. Both surface exfoliation and mBPA expression by intact plasma membranes were diminished. Whereas pulse-exposure to cytosine arabinoside had no effect, treatment with actinomycin D or cycloheximide abolished BPA expression. Exposure to monensin reduced mBPA and sBPA levels to zero in a concentration-and time-dependent fashion. We conclude that production and release of BPA is an energy-dependent process, requiring mRNA synthesis and translation and posttranslational remodeling of the protein but not replicative DNA synthesis. PMID:1985097

  14. The dynamic systems approach to control and regulation of intracellular networks.

    PubMed

    Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Ullah, Mukhtar; Wellstead, Peter; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2005-03-21

    Systems theory and cell biology have enjoyed a long relationship that has received renewed interest in recent years in the context of systems biology. The term 'systems' in systems biology comes from systems theory or dynamic systems theory: systems biology is defined through the application of systems- and signal-oriented approaches for an understanding of inter- and intra-cellular dynamic processes. The aim of the present text is to review the systems and control perspective of dynamic systems. The biologist's conceptual framework for representing the variables of a biochemical reaction network, and for describing their relationships, are pathway maps. A principal goal of systems biology is to turn these static maps into dynamic models, which can provide insight into the temporal evolution of biochemical reaction networks. Towards this end, we review the case for differential equation models as a 'natural' representation of causal entailment in pathways. Block-diagrams, commonly used in the engineering sciences, are introduced and compared to pathway maps. The stimulus-response representation of a molecular system is a necessary condition for an understanding of dynamic interactions among the components that make up a pathway. Using simple examples, we show how biochemical reactions are modelled in the dynamic systems framework and visualized using block-diagrams.

  15. A model system using confocal fluorescence microscopy for examining real-time intracellular sodium ion regulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jacqueline A; Collings, David A; Glover, Chris N

    2016-08-15

    The gills of euryhaline fish are the ultimate ionoregulatory tissue, achieving ion homeostasis despite rapid and significant changes in external salinity. Cellular handling of sodium is not only critical for salt and water balance but is also directly linked to other essential functions such as acid-base homeostasis and nitrogen excretion. However, although measurement of intracellular sodium ([Na(+)]i) is important for an understanding of gill transport function, it is challenging and subject to methodological artifacts. Using gill filaments from a model euryhaline fish, inanga (Galaxias maculatus), the suitability of the fluorescent dye CoroNa Green as a probe for measuring [Na(+)]i in intact ionocytes was confirmed via confocal microscopy. Cell viability was verified, optimal dye loading parameters were determined, and the dye-ion dissociation constant was measured. Application of the technique to freshwater- and 100% seawater-acclimated inanga showed salinity-dependent changes in branchial [Na(+)]i, whereas no significant differences in branchial [Na(+)]i were determined in 50% seawater-acclimated fish. This technique facilitates the examination of real-time changes in gill [Na(+)]i in response to environmental factors and may offer significant insight into key homeostatic functions associated with the fish gill and the principles of sodium ion transport in other tissues and organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship between L-glutamate-regulated intracellular Na+ dynamics and ATP hydrolysis in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Magistretti, P J; Chatton, J-Y

    2005-01-01

    Glutamate uptake into astrocytes and the resulting increase in intracellular Na+ (Na+(i)) have been identified as a key signal coupling excitatory neuronal activity to increased glucose utilization. Arguments based mostly on mathematical modeling led to the conclusion that physiological concentrations of glutamate more than double astrocytic Na+/K+-ATPase activity, which should proportionally increase its ATP hydrolysis rate. This hypothesis was tested in the present study by fluorescence monitoring of free Mg2+ (Mg2+(i)), a parameter that inversely correlates with ATP levels. Glutamate application measurably increased Mg2+(i) (i.e. decreased ATP), which was reversible after glutamate washout. Na+(i) and ATP changes were then directly compared by simultaneous Na+(i) and Mg2+ imaging. Glutamate increased both parameters with different rates and blocking the Na+/K+-ATPase during the glutamate-evoked Na+(i) response, resulted in a drop of Mg2+(i) levels (i.e. increased ATP). Taken together, this study demonstrates the tight correlation between glutamate transport, Na+ homeostasis and ATP levels in astrocytes.

  17. Regulated phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of tau protein: effects on microtubule interaction, intracellular trafficking and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed Central

    Billingsley, M L; Kincaid, R L

    1997-01-01

    This review attempts to summarize what is known about tau phosphorylation in the context of both normal cellular function and dysfunction. However, conceptions of tau function continue to evolve, and it is likely that the regulation of tau distribution and metabolism is complex. The roles of microtubule-associated kinases and phosphatases have yet to be fully described, but may afford insight into how tau phosphorylation at the distal end of the axon regulates cytoskeletal-membrane interactions. Finally, lipid and glycosaminoglycan modification of tau structure affords yet more complexity for regulation and aggregation. Continued work will help to determine what is causal and what is coincidental in Alzheimer's disease, and may lead to identification of therapeutic targets for halting the progression of paired helical filament formation. PMID:9169588

  18. Protein kinase C-zeta and protein kinase B regulate distinct steps of insulin endocytosis and intracellular sorting.

    PubMed

    Fiory, Francesca; Oriente, Francesco; Miele, Claudia; Romano, Chiara; Trencia, Alessandra; Alberobello, Anna Teresa; Esposito, Iolanda; Valentino, Rossella; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro

    2004-03-19

    We have investigated the molecular mechanisms regulating insulin internalization and intracellular sorting. Insulin internalization was decreased by 50% upon incubation of the cells with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. PI3K inhibition also reduced insulin degradation and intact insulin release by 50 and 75%, respectively. Insulin internalization was reduced by antisense inhibition of protein kinase C-zeta (PKCzeta) expression and by overexpression of a dominant negative PKCzeta mutant (DN-PKCzeta). Conversely, overexpression of PKCzeta increased insulin internalization as a function of the PKCzeta levels achieved in the cells. Expression of wild-type protein kinase B (PKB)-alpha or of a constitutively active form (myr-PKB) did not significantly alter insulin internalization and degradation but produced a 100% increase of intact insulin release. Inhibition of PKB by a dominant negative mutant (DN-PKB) or by the pharmacological inhibitor ML-9 reduced intact insulin release by 75% with no effect on internalization and degradation. In addition, overexpression of Rab5 completely rescued the effect of PKCzeta inhibition on insulin internalization but not that of PKB inhibition on intact insulin recycling. Indeed, PKCzeta bound to and activated Rab5. Thus, PI3K controls different steps within the insulin endocytic itinerary. PKCzeta appears to mediate the PI3K effect on insulin internalization in a Rab5-dependent manner, whereas PKB directs intracellular sorting toward intact insulin release.

  19. The fatal fungal outbreak on Vancouver Island is characterized by enhanced intracellular parasitism driven by mitochondrial regulation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hansong; Hagen, Ferry; Stekel, Dov J; Johnston, Simon A; Sionov, Edward; Falk, Rama; Polacheck, Itzhack; Boekhout, Teun; May, Robin C

    2009-08-04

    In 1999, the population of Vancouver Island, Canada, began to experience an outbreak of a fatal fungal disease caused by a highly virulent lineage of Cryptococcus gattii. This organism has recently spread to the Canadian mainland and Pacific Northwest, but the molecular cause of the outbreak remains unknown. Here we show that the Vancouver Island outbreak (VIO) isolates have dramatically increased their ability to replicate within macrophages of the mammalian immune system in comparison with other C. gattii strains. We further demonstrate that such enhanced intracellular parasitism is directly linked to virulence in a murine model of cryptococcosis, suggesting that this phenotype may be the cause of the outbreak. Finally, microarray studies on 24 C. gattii strains reveals that the hypervirulence of the VIO isolates is characterized by the up-regulation of a large group of genes, many of which are encoded by mitochondrial genome or associated with mitochondrial activities. This expression profile correlates with an unusual mitochondrial morphology exhibited by the VIO strains after phagocytosis. Our data thus demonstrate that the intracellular parasitism of macrophages is a key driver of a human disease outbreak, a finding that has significant implications for a wide range of other human pathogens.

  20. Dual chemotaxis signalling regulates Dictyostelium development: intercellular cyclic AMP pulses and intracellular F-actin disassembly waves induce each other.

    PubMed

    Vicker, Michael G; Grutsch, James F

    2008-10-01

    Aggregating Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae periodically emit and relay cAMP, which regulates their chemotaxis and morphogenesis into a multicellular, differentiated organism. Cyclic AMP also stimulates F-actin assembly and chemotactic pseudopodium extension. We used actin-GFP expression to visualise for the first time intracellular F-actin assembly as a spatio-temporal indicator of cell reactions to cAMP, and thus the kinematics of cell communication, in aggregating streams. Every natural cAMP signal pulse induces an autowave of F-actin disassembly, which propagates from each cell's leading end to its trailing end at a linear rate, much slower than the calculated and measured velocities of cAMP diffusion in aggregating Dictyostelium. A sequence of transient reactions follows behind the wave, including anterior F-actin assembly, chemotactic pseudopodium extension and cell advance at the cell front and, at the back, F-actin assembly, extension of a small retrograde pseudopodium (forcing a brief cell retreat) and chemotactic stimulation of the following cell, yielding a 20s cAMP relay delay. These dynamics indicate that stream cell behaviour is mediated by a dual signalling system: a short-range cAMP pulse directed from one cell tail to an immediately following cell front and a slower, long-range wave of intracellular F-actin disassembly, each inducing the other.

  1. Polyamines regulate cell growth and cellular methylglyoxal in high-glucose medium independently of intracellular glutathione.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Min-Kyu; Lee, Mun-Hyoung; Park, Seong-Jun; Shin, Sang-Min; Liu, Rui; Kang, Sa-Ouk

    2016-03-01

    Polyamines can presumably inhibit protein glycation, when associated with the methylglyoxal inevitably produced during glycolysis. Herein, we hypothesized a nonenzymatic interaction between putrescine and methylglyoxal in putrescine-deficient or -overexpressing Dictyostelium cells in high-glucose medium, which can control methylglyoxal production. Putrescine was essentially required for growth rescue accompanying methylglyoxal detoxification when cells underwent growth defect and cell cycle G1-arrest when supplemented with high glucose. Furthermore, methylglyoxal regulation by putrescine seemed to be a parallel pathway independent of the changes in cellular glutathione content in high-glucose medium. Consequently, we suggest that Dictyostelium cells need polyamines for normal growth and cellular methylglyoxal regulation.

  2. Intracellular calcium signaling regulates autophagy via calcineurin-mediated TFEB dephosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Yanju; Song, Fuyong

    2015-01-01

    The transcription-regulating activity of TFEB is dependent on its phosphorylation modification, but the phosphatase(s) involved in TFEB dephosphorylation have remained elusive. It has now become clear that lysosomal calcium signaling activates calcineurin, an endogenous serine/threonine phosphatase, which dephosphorylate TFEB leading to upregulation of autophagy. PMID:26043755

  3. Intracellular pH Regulation in Cultured Astrocytes from Rat Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Bevensee, Mark O.; Apkon, Michael; Boron, Walter F.

    1997-01-01

    In the preceding paper (Bevensee, M.O., R.A. Weed, and W.F. Boron. 1997. J. Gen. Physiol. 110: 453–465.), we showed that a Na+-driven influx of HCO3− causes the increase in intracellular pH (pHi) observed when astrocytes cultured from rat hippocampus are exposed to 5% CO2/17 mM HCO3−. In the present study, we used the pH-sensitive fluorescent indicator 2′,7′-biscarboxyethyl-5,6-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) and the perforated patch-clamp technique to determine whether this transporter is a Na+-driven Cl-HCO3 exchanger, an electrogenic Na/HCO3 cotransporter, or an electroneutral Na/HCO3 cotransporter. To determine if the transporter is a Na+-driven Cl-HCO3 exchanger, we depleted the cells of intracellular Cl− by incubating them in a Cl−-free solution for an average of ∼11 min. We verified the depletion with the Cl−-sensitive dye N-(6-methoxyquinolyl)acetoethyl ester (MQAE). In Cl−-depleted cells, the pHi still increases after one or more exposures to CO2/HCO3−. Furthermore, the pHi decrease elicited by external Na+ removal does not require external Cl−. Therefore, the transporter cannot be a Na+-driven Cl-HCO3 exchanger. To determine if the transporter is an electrogenic Na/ HCO3 cotransporter, we measured pHi and plasma membrane voltage (Vm) while removing external Na+, in the presence/absence of CO2/HCO3− and in the presence/absence of 400 μM 4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulphonic acid (DIDS). The CO2/HCO3− solutions contained 20% CO2 and 68 mM HCO3−, pH 7.3, to maximize the HCO3− flux. In pHi experiments, removing external Na+ in the presence of CO2/HCO3− elicited an equivalent HCO3− efflux of 281 μM s−1. The HCO3− influx elicited by returning external Na+ was inhibited 63% by DIDS, so that the predicted DIDS-sensitive Vm change was 3.3 mV. Indeed, we found that removing external Na+ elicited a DIDS-sensitive depolarization that was 2.6 mV larger in the presence than in the absence of CO2/ HCO3−. Thus, the Na

  4. NK Cell-Mediated Regulation of Protective Memory Responses against Intracellular Ehrlichial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Samar; El Andaloussi, Abdeljabar; Hisham, Ahmed; Ismail, Nahed

    2016-01-01

    Ehrlichiae are gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria that cause potentially fatal human monocytic ehrlichiosis. We previously showed that natural killer (NK) cells play a critical role in host defense against Ehrlichia during primary infection. However, the contribution of NK cells to the memory response against Ehrlichia remains elusive. Primary infection of C57BL/6 mice with Ehrlichia muris provides long-term protection against a second challenge with the highly virulent Ixodes ovatus Ehrlichia (IOE), which ordinarily causes fatal disease in naïve mice. Here, we show that the depletion of NK cells in E. muris-primed mice abrogates the protective memory response against IOE. Approximately, 80% of NK cell-depleted E. muris-primed mice succumbed to lethal IOE infection on days 8–10 after IOE infection, similar to naïve mice infected with the same dose of IOE. The lack of a recall response in NK cell-depleted mice correlated with an increased bacterial burden, extensive liver injury, decreased frequency of Ehrlichia-specific IFN-γ-producing memory CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, and a low titer of Ehrlichia-specific antibodies. Intraperitoneal infection of mice with E. muris resulted in the production of IL-15, IL-12, and IFN-γ as well as an expansion of activated NKG2D+ NK cells. The adoptive transfer of purified E. muris-primed hepatic and splenic NK cells into Rag2-/-Il2rg-/- recipient mice provided protective immunity against challenge with E. muris. Together, these data suggest that E. muris-induced memory-like NK cells, which contribute to the protective, recall response against Ehrlichia. PMID:27092553

  5. Factors Regulating Cell Wall Thickening and Intracellular Iodophilic Polysaccharide Storage in Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Mattingly, S. J.; Daneo-Moore, L.; Shockman, G. D.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of a series of different antibiotics on the synthesis and accumulation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), protein, cell wall peptidoglycan (PG), and intracellular iodophilic polysaccharide (IPS) in Streptococcus mutans FA-1 were examined. d-Cycloserine, penicillin G, or vancomycin treatment resulted in rapid inhibitions of PG synthesis and a consequent decrease in the relative amount of lysine found in PG fractions. Decreases in culture turbidity, an indicator of gross cellular lysis, were not observed. Secondary inhibitions of the rates and extent of syntheses of DNA, RNA, and protein were observed. With all three inhibitors of PG synthesis, IPS synthesis continued for varying time intervals but, at most, resulted in only relatively small and transient increases in cellular IPS content. Chloramphenicol inhibited protein synthesis but permitted continued synthesis of RNA and PG. After 6 h, the cells contained 42% of their [3H] lysine in the PG fraction compared with 25% in exponential-phase cells, a good indication of thickened cell walls. In the presence of chloramphenicol, cellular IPS content increased about 2.5-fold during the first 45 min and then decreased to a level (13%) at 6 h very similar to that of exponential-phase cells (about 10%). Rifampin inhibition of RNA (and, consequently, also protein) synthesis resulted in accumulation of cellular PG and IPS. After 6 h, IPS accounted for 38% of the cellular dry weight, and the cells contained 43% of their lysine in PG. Thus, rifampin-inhibited cells appear to have both thickened walls and a high IPS content. The correlation between inhibition of RNA synthesis and IPS accumulation was confirmed by exposing cultures to rifampin for 60 min and then removing the drug, thus permitting the cells to regrow. Upon removal of rifampin and resumption of RNA synthesis, cellular IPS content rapidly decreased to the level expected for exponentialphase cells. PMID:892902

  6. Aging is a primary risk factor for cardiac arrhythmias: disruption of intracellular Ca2+ regulation as a key suspect.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Fiona; Lancaster, Matthew K; Jones, Sandra A

    2011-08-01

    Aging is an inevitable time-dependent progression associated with a functional decline of the cardiovascular system even in 'healthy' individuals. Age positively correlates with an increasing risk of cardiac problems including arrhythmias. Not only the prevalence but also the severity of arrhythmias escalates with age. The reasons for this are multifactorial but dysregulation of intracellular calcium within the heart is likely to play a key role in initiating and perpetuating these life-threatening events. We now know that several aspects of cardiac calcium regulation significantly change with advancing age - changes that could produce electrical instability. Further development of knowledge of the mechanisms underlying these changes will allow us to reduce what currently is an inevitable increase in the incidence of arrhythmias in the elderly.

  7. Critical role for NAD glycohydrolase in regulation of erythropoiesis by hematopoietic stem cells through control of intracellular NAD content.

    PubMed

    Nam, Tae-Sik; Park, Kwang-Hyun; Shawl, Asif Iqbal; Kim, Byung-Ju; Han, Myung-Kwan; Kim, Youngho; Moss, Joel; Kim, Uh-Hyun

    2014-06-06

    NAD glycohydrolases (NADases) catalyze the hydrolysis of NAD to ADP-ribose and nicotinamide. Although many members of the NADase family, including ADP-ribosyltransferases, have been cloned and characterized, the structure and function of NADases with pure hydrolytic activity remain to be elucidated. Here, we report the structural and functional characterization of a novel NADase from rabbit reticulocytes. The novel NADase is a glycosylated, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cell surface protein exclusively expressed in reticulocytes. shRNA-mediated knockdown of the NADase in bone marrow cells resulted in a reduction of erythroid colony formation and an increase in NAD level. Furthermore, treatment of bone marrow cells with NAD, nicotinamide, or nicotinamide riboside, which induce an increase in NAD content, resulted in a significant decrease in erythroid progenitors. These results indicate that the novel NADase may play a critical role in regulating erythropoiesis of hematopoietic stem cells by modulating intracellular NAD.

  8. Structural asymmetry in a conserved signaling system that regulates division, replication, and virulence of an intracellular pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Jonathan W.; Herrou, Julien; Briegel, Ariane; Rotskoff, Grant; Crosson, Sean

    2015-01-01

    We have functionally and structurally defined an essential protein phosphorelay that regulates expression of genes required for growth, division, and intracellular survival of the global zoonotic pathogen Brucella abortus. Our study delineates phosphoryl transfer through this molecular pathway, which initiates from the sensor kinase CckA and proceeds through the ChpT phosphotransferase to two regulatory substrates: CtrA and CpdR. Genetic perturbation of this system results in defects in cell growth and division site selection, and a specific viability deficit inside human phagocytic cells. Thus, proper control of B. abortus division site polarity is necessary for survival in the intracellular niche. We further define the structural foundations of signaling from the central phosphotransferase, ChpT, to its response regulator substrate, CtrA, and provide evidence that there are at least two modes of interaction between ChpT and CtrA, only one of which is competent to catalyze phosphoryltransfer. The structure and dynamics of the active site on each side of the ChpT homodimer are distinct, supporting a model in which quaternary structure of the 2:2 ChpT–CtrA complex enforces an asymmetric mechanism of phosphoryl transfer between ChpT and CtrA. Our study provides mechanistic understanding, from the cellular to the atomic scale, of a conserved transcriptional regulatory system that controls the cellular and infection biology of B. abortus. More generally, our results provide insight into the structural basis of two-component signal transduction, which is broadly conserved in bacteria, plants, and fungi. PMID:26124143

  9. Intracellular energy status regulates activity in hypocretin/orexin neurones: a link between energy and behavioural states

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhong-Wu; Gan, Geliang; Suyama, Shigetomo; Gao, Xiao-Bing

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt)-containing neurones within the lateral hypothalamus integrate nutritional, energetic and behavioural cues to generate the final output in order to exert their functions. It is still not clear how Hcrt neurones monitor changes in energy status in animals. In brain slices from transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) exclusively in Hcrt neurones, we examined the roles of intracellular levels of ATP ([ATP]i) in regulating activities in these cells with conventional and perforated whole-cell recording. By using ‘ATP clamp’ we demonstrated that membrane potential (Vm) correlated with the [ATP]i in Hcrt neurones. Perforated recording revealed a Vm of −46.1 ± 1.6 mV (n = 18), close to the level measured with an [ATP]i equal to 5–6 mm (–48.7 ± 1.4 mV, n = 16, 5 mm ATP), suggesting that a unique demand for energy is required to maintain normal functionality in Hcrt cells. A direct disruption of ATP production or reduction in ambient glucose levels resulted in an inhibition of activity in Hcrt neurones. The Vm was significantly depolarized in Hcrt neurones in sleep-deprived mice as compared with controls (P < 0.01, t test), which was eliminated by experimental manipulations causing the same level of [ATP]i and KATP channel opening in both groups, suggesting a decrease during sleep and an increase during sustained wakefulness in [ATP]i in Hcrt cells. In summary, these data demonstrate that a delicate control of activity by monitoring the availability of intracellular energy stores in Hcrt cells may serve as a novel mechanism regulating energy expenditure and behavioural state dependent upon the energy state in animals. PMID:21727218

  10. Intracellular energy status regulates activity in hypocretin/orexin neurones: a link between energy and behavioural states.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong-Wu; Gan, Geliang; Suyama, Shigetomo; Gao, Xiao-Bing

    2011-09-01

    The hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt)-containing neurones within the lateral hypothalamus integrate nutritional, energetic and behavioural cues to generate the final output in order to exert their functions. It is still not clear how Hcrt neurones monitor changes in energy status in animals. In brain slices from transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) exclusively in Hcrt neurones, we examined the roles of intracellular levels of ATP ([ATP](i)) in regulating activities in these cells with conventional and perforated whole-cell recording. By using 'ATP clamp' we demonstrated that membrane potential (V(m)) correlated with the [ATP](i) in Hcrt neurones. Perforated recording revealed a V(m) of -46.1 ± 1.6 mV (n = 18), close to the level measured with an [ATP](i) equal to 5-6 mm (-48.7 ± 1.4 mV, n = 16, 5 mm ATP), suggesting that a unique demand for energy is required to maintain normal functionality in Hcrt cells. A direct disruption of ATP production or reduction in ambient glucose levels resulted in an inhibition of activity in Hcrt neurones. The V(m) was significantly depolarized in Hcrt neurones in sleep-deprived mice as compared with controls (P < 0.01, t test), which was eliminated by experimental manipulations causing the same level of [ATP](i) and K(ATP) channel opening in both groups, suggesting a decrease during sleep and an increase during sustained wakefulness in [ATP](i) in Hcrt cells. In summary, these data demonstrate that a delicate control of activity by monitoring the availability of intracellular energy stores in Hcrt cells may serve as a novel mechanism regulating energy expenditure and behavioural state dependent upon the energy state in animals.

  11. Intracellular Acid-extruding regulators and the effect of lipopolysaccharide in cultured human renal artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Loh, Shih-Hurng; Lee, Chung-Yi; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Shih, Shou-Jou; Chen, Li-Wei; Cheng, Tzu-Hurng; Chang, Chung-Yi; Tsai, Chein-Sung

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis of the intracellular pH (pHi) in mammalian cells plays a pivotal role in maintaining cell function. Thus far, the housekeeping Na(+)-H(+) exchanger (NHE) and the Na(+)-HCO3(-) co-transporter (NBC) have been confirmed in many mammalian cells as major acid extruders. However, the role of acid-extruding regulators in human renal artery smooth muscle cells (HRASMCs) remains unclear. It has been demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced vascular occlusion is associated with the apoptosis, activating calpain and increased [Ca(2+)]i that are related to NHE1 activity in endothelia cells. This study determines the acid-extruding mechanisms and the effect of LPS on the resting pHi and active acid extruders in cultured HRASMCs. The mechanism of pHi recovery from intracellular acidosis (induced by NH4Cl-prepulse) is determined using BCECF-fluorescence in cultured HRASMCs. It is seen that (a) the resting pHi is 7.19 ± 0.03 and 7.10 ± 0.02 for HEPES- and CO2/HCO3(-)- buffered solution, respectively; (b) apart from the housekeeping NHE1, another Na(+)-coupled HCO3(-) transporter i.e. NBC, functionally co-exists to achieve acid-equivalent extrusion; (c) three different isoforms of NBC: NBCn1 (SLC4A7; electroneutral), NBCe1 (SLC4A4; electrogenic) and NBCe2 (SLC4A5), are detected in protein/mRNA level; and (d) pHi and NHE protein expression/activity are significantly increased by LPS, in both a dose- and time- dependent manner, but NBCs protein expression is not. In conclusion, it is demonstrated, for the first time, that four pHi acid-extruding regulators: NHE1, NBCn1, NBCe1 and NBCe2, co-exist in cultured HRASMCs. LPS also increases cellular growth, pHi and NHE in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

  12. TRPV4 is endogenously expressed in vertebrate spermatozoa and regulates intracellular calcium in human sperm.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Majhi, Rakesh Kumar; Swain, Nirlipta; Giri, S C; Kar, Sujata; Samanta, Luna; Goswami, Chandan

    2016-05-13

    Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid sub-type 4 (TRPV4) is a non-selective cationic channel involved in regulation of temperature, osmolality and different ligand-dependent Ca(2+)-influx. Recently, we have demonstrated that TRPV4 is conserved in all vertebrates. Now we demonstrate that TRPV4 is endogenously expressed in all vertebrate sperm cells ranging from fish to mammals. In human sperm, TRPV4 is present as N-glycosylated protein and its activation induces Ca(2+)-influx. Its expression and localization differs in swim-up and swim-down cells suggesting that TRPV4 is an important determining factor for sperm motility. We demonstrate that pharmacological activation or inhibition of TRPV4 regulates Ca(2+)-wave propagation from head to tail. Such findings may have wide application in male fertility-infertility, contraception and conservation of endangered species as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. New mechanisms that regulate Saccharomyces cerevisiae short peptide transporter achieve balanced intracellular amino acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Melnykov, Artem V

    2016-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to take up large quantities of amino acids in the form of di- and tripeptides via a short peptide transporter, Ptr2p. It is known that PTR2 can be induced by certain peptides and amino acids, and the mechanisms governing this upregulation are understood at the molecular level. We describe two new opposing mechanisms of regulation that emphasize potential toxicity of amino acids: the first is upregulation of PTR2 in a population of cells, caused by amino acid secretion that accompanies peptide uptake; the second is loss of Ptr2p activity, due to transporter internalization following peptide uptake. Our findings emphasize the importance of proper amino acid balance in the cell and extend understanding of peptide import regulation in yeast.

  14. Annexin A2 and S100A10 regulate human papillomavirus type 16 entry and intracellular trafficking in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Dziduszko, Agnieszka; Ozbun, Michelle A

    2013-07-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause benign and malignant tumors of the mucosal and cutaneous epithelium. The initial events regulating HPV infection impact the establishment of viral persistence, which is requisite for malignant progression of HPV-infected lesions. However, the precise mechanisms involved in HPV entry into host cells, including the cellular factors regulating virus uptake, are not clearly defined. We show that HPV16 exposure to human keratinocytes initiates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-dependent Src protein kinase activation that results in phosphorylation and extracellular translocation of annexin A2 (AnxA2). HPV16 particles interact with AnxA2 in association with S100A10 as a heterotetramer at the cell surface in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, and the interaction appears to involve heparan-sulfonated proteoglycans. We show multiple lines of evidence that this interaction promotes virus uptake into host cells. An antibody to AnxA2 prevents HPV16 internalization, whereas an antibody to S100A10 blocks infection at a late endosomal/lysosomal site. These results suggest that AnxA2 and S100A10 have separate roles during HPV16 binding, entry, and trafficking. Our data additionally imply that AnxA2 and S100A10 may be involved in regulating the intracellular trafficking of virus particles prior to nuclear delivery of the viral genome.

  15. Annexin A2 and S100A10 Regulate Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Entry and Intracellular Trafficking in Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dziduszko, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause benign and malignant tumors of the mucosal and cutaneous epithelium. The initial events regulating HPV infection impact the establishment of viral persistence, which is requisite for malignant progression of HPV-infected lesions. However, the precise mechanisms involved in HPV entry into host cells, including the cellular factors regulating virus uptake, are not clearly defined. We show that HPV16 exposure to human keratinocytes initiates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-dependent Src protein kinase activation that results in phosphorylation and extracellular translocation of annexin A2 (AnxA2). HPV16 particles interact with AnxA2 in association with S100A10 as a heterotetramer at the cell surface in a Ca2+-dependent manner, and the interaction appears to involve heparan-sulfonated proteoglycans. We show multiple lines of evidence that this interaction promotes virus uptake into host cells. An antibody to AnxA2 prevents HPV16 internalization, whereas an antibody to S100A10 blocks infection at a late endosomal/lysosomal site. These results suggest that AnxA2 and S100A10 have separate roles during HPV16 binding, entry, and trafficking. Our data additionally imply that AnxA2 and S100A10 may be involved in regulating the intracellular trafficking of virus particles prior to nuclear delivery of the viral genome. PMID:23637395

  16. Amino acids regulate the intracellular trafficking of the general amino acid permease of Saccharomycescerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Esther J; Kaiser, Chris A

    2002-11-12

    The delivery to the plasma membrane of the general amino acid permease, Gap1p, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by the quality of the nitrogen source in the growth medium. In an effort to define how different nitrogen sources control Gap1p sorting, we find that mutations in GDH1 and GLN1 that decrease the flux through the glutamate and glutamine synthesis pathways result in increased Gap1p sorting to the plasma membrane. Conversely, deletion of MKS1, which increases glutamate and glutamine synthesis, decreases Gap1p sorting to the plasma membrane. Glutamate and glutamine are not unusual in their ability to regulate Gap1p sorting, because the addition of all natural amino acids and many amino acid analogs to the growth medium results in increased Gap1p sorting to the vacuole. Importantly, amino acids have the capacity to signal Gap1p sorting to the vacuole regardless of whether they can be used as a source of nitrogen. Finally, we show that rapamycin does not affect Gap1p sorting, indicating that Gap1p sorting is not directly influenced by the TOR pathway. Together, these data show that amino acids are a signal for sorting Gap1p to the vacuole and imply that the nitrogen-regulated Gap1p sorting machinery responds to amino acid-like compounds rather than to the overall nutritional status associated with growth on a particular nitrogen source.

  17. Crosstalk between intracellular and extracellular signals regulating interneuron production, migration and integration into the cortex

    PubMed Central

    Peyre, Elise; Silva, Carla G.; Nguyen, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    During embryogenesis, cortical interneurons are generated by ventral progenitors located in the ganglionic eminences of the telencephalon. They travel along multiple tangential paths to populate the cortical wall. As they reach this structure they undergo intracortical dispersion to settle in their final destination. At the cellular level, migrating interneurons are highly polarized cells that extend and retract processes using dynamic remodeling of microtubule and actin cytoskeleton. Different levels of molecular regulation contribute to interneuron migration. These include: (1) Extrinsic guidance cues distributed along migratory streams that are sensed and integrated by migrating interneurons; (2) Intrinsic genetic programs driven by specific transcription factors that grant specification and set the timing of migration for different subtypes of interneurons; (3) Adhesion molecules and cytoskeletal elements/regulators that transduce molecular signalings into coherent movement. These levels of molecular regulation must be properly integrated by interneurons to allow their migration in the cortex. The aim of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of the interplay between microenvironmental signals and cell autonomous programs that drive cortical interneuron porduction, tangential migration, and intergration in the developing cerebral cortex. PMID:25926769

  18. RNA Polymerase III Regulates Cytosolic RNA:DNA Hybrids and Intracellular MicroRNA Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Christine Xing'er; Kobiyama, Kouji; Shen, Yu J.; LeBert, Nina; Ahmad, Shandar; Khatoo, Muznah; Aoshi, Taiki; Gasser, Stephan; Ishii, Ken J.

    2015-01-01

    RNA:DNA hybrids form in the nuclei and mitochondria of cells as transcription-induced R-loops or G-quadruplexes, but exist only in the cytosol of virus-infected cells. Little is known about the existence of RNA:DNA hybrids in the cytosol of virus-free cells, in particular cancer or transformed cells. Here, we show that cytosolic RNA:DNA hybrids are present in various human cell lines, including transformed cells. Inhibition of RNA polymerase III (Pol III), but not DNA polymerase, abrogated cytosolic RNA:DNA hybrids. Cytosolic RNA:DNA hybrids bind to several components of the microRNA (miRNA) machinery-related proteins, including AGO2 and DDX17. Furthermore, we identified miRNAs that are specifically regulated by Pol III, providing a potential link between RNA:DNA hybrids and the miRNA machinery. One of the target genes, exportin-1, is shown to regulate cytosolic RNA:DNA hybrids. Taken together, we reveal previously unknown mechanism by which Pol III regulates the presence of cytosolic RNA:DNA hybrids and miRNA biogenesis in various human cells. PMID:25623070

  19. The Role of Chloride Transport in Postsynaptic Inhibition of Hippocampal Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misgeld, U.; Deisz, R. A.; Dodt, H. U.; Lux, H. D.

    1986-06-01

    Hippocampal inhibitory postsynaptic potentials are depolarizing in granule cells but hyperpolarizing in CA3 neurons because the reversal potentials and membrane potentials of these cells differ. Here the hippocampal slice preparation was used to investigate the role of chloride transport in these inhibitory responses. In both cell types, increasing the intracellular chloride concentration by injection shifted the reversal potential of these responses in a positive direction, and blocking the outward transport of chloride with furosemide slowed their recovery from the injection. In addition, hyperpolarizing and depolarizing inhibitory responses and the hyperpolarizing and depolarizing responses to the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ - aminobutyric acid decreased in the presence of furosemide. These effects of furosemide suggest that the internal chloride activity of an individual hippocampal neuron is regulated by two transport processes, one that accumulates chloride and one that extrudes chloride.

  20. Intracellular pH and multidrug resistance regulate complement-mediated cytotoxicity of nucleated human cells.

    PubMed

    Weisburg, J H; Roepe, P D; Dzekunov, S; Scheinberg, D A

    1999-04-16

    In previous work (Weisburg, J. H., Curcio, M., Caron, P. C., Raghi, G., Mechetner, E. B., Roepe, P. D., and Scheinberg, D. A. (1996) J. Exp. Med. 183, 2699-2704), we showed that multidrug resistance (MDR) cells created by continuous selection with the vinca alkaloid vincristine (HL60 RV+) or by retroviral infection (K562/human MDR 1 cells) exhibited significant resistance to complement-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC). This resistance was due to the presence of overexpressed P-glycoprotein (P-GP). In this paper, we probe the molecular mechanism of this phenomenon. We test whether the significant elevated intracellular pH (pHi) that accompanies P-GP overexpression is sufficient to confer resistance to CMC and whether this resistance is related to effects on complement function in the cell membrane. Control HL60 cells not expressing P-GP, but comparably elevated in cytosolic pHi by two independent methods (CO2 "conditioning" or isotonic Cl- substitution), are tested for CMC using two different antibody-antigen systems (human IgG and murine IgM; protein and carbohydrate) and two complement sources (rabbit and human). Elevation of pHi by either of these methods or by expression of P-GP confers resistance to CMC. Resistance is not observed when the alkalinization mediated by reverse Cl-/HCO3- exchange upon Cl- substitution is blocked by treatment with dihydro-4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate. Continuous photometric monitoring of 2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5, 6-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF), to assess changes in pHi or efflux of the probe through MAC pores, in single cells or cell populations, respectively, verifies changes in pHi upon CO2 conditioning and Cl- substitution and release of BCECF upon formation of MAC pores. Antibody binding and internalization kinetics are similar in both the parental and resistant cell lines as measured by radioimmunoassay, but flow cytometric data showed that net complement deposition in the cell membrane is both delayed and reduced in

  1. Embryonic common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) preferentially regulate intracellular tissue pH during acid-base challenges.

    PubMed

    Shartau, Ryan B; Crossley, Dane A; Kohl, Zachary F; Brauner, Colin J

    2016-07-01

    The nests of embryonic turtles naturally experience elevated CO2 (hypercarbia), which leads to increased blood PCO2  and a respiratory acidosis, resulting in reduced blood pH [extracellular pH (pHe)]. Some fishes preferentially regulate tissue pH [intracellular pH (pHi)] against changes in pHe; this has been proposed to be associated with exceptional CO2 tolerance and has never been identified in amniotes. As embryonic turtles may be CO2 tolerant based on nesting strategy, we hypothesized that they preferentially regulate pHi, conferring tolerance to severe acute acid-base challenges. This hypothesis was tested by investigating pH regulation in common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) reared in normoxia then exposed to hypercarbia (13 kPa PCO2 ) for 1 h at three developmental ages: 70% and 90% of incubation, and yearlings. Hypercarbia reduced pHe but not pHi, at all developmental ages. At 70% of incubation, pHe was depressed by 0.324 pH units while pHi of brain, white muscle and lung increased; heart, liver and kidney pHi remained unchanged. At 90% of incubation, pHe was depressed by 0.352 pH units but heart pHi increased with no change in pHi of other tissues. Yearlings exhibited a pHe reduction of 0.235 pH units but had no changes in pHi of any tissues. The results indicate common snapping turtles preferentially regulate pHi during development, but the degree of response is reduced throughout development. This is the first time preferential pHi regulation has been identified in an amniote. These findings may provide insight into the evolution of acid-base homeostasis during development of amniotes, and vertebrates in general.

  2. Neurotrophin-3 Regulates Synapse Development by Modulating TrkC-PTPσ Synaptic Adhesion and Intracellular Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyung Ah; Woo, Doyeon; Kim, Seungjoon; Choii, Gayoung; Jeon, Sangmin; Won, Seoung Youn; Kim, Ho Min; Heo, Won Do; Um, Ji Won; Ko, Jaewon

    2016-04-27

    Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is a secreted neurotrophic factor that binds neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinase C (TrkC), which in turn binds to presynaptic protein tyrosine phosphatase σ (PTPσ) to govern excitatory synapse development. However, whether and how NT-3 cooperates with the TrkC-PTPσ synaptic adhesion pathway and TrkC-mediated intracellular signaling pathways in rat cultured neurons has remained unclear. Here, we report that NT-3 enhances TrkC binding affinity for PTPσ. Strikingly, NT-3 treatment bidirectionally regulates the synaptogenic activity of TrkC: at concentrations of 10-25 ng/ml, NT-3 further enhanced the increase in synapse density induced by TrkC overexpression, whereas at higher concentrations, NT-3 abrogated TrkC-induced increases in synapse density. Semiquantitative immunoblotting and optogenetics-based imaging showed that 25 ng/ml NT-3 or light stimulation at a power that produced a comparable level of NT-3 (6.25 μW) activated only extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, whereas 100 ng/ml NT-3 (light intensity, 25 μW) further triggered the activation of phospholipase C-γ1 and CREB independently of PTPσ. Notably, disruption of TrkC intracellular signaling pathways, extracellular ligand binding, or kinase activity by point mutations compromised TrkC-induced increases in synapse density. Furthermore, only sparse, but not global, TrkC knock-down in cultured rat neurons significantly decreased synapse density, suggesting that intercellular differences in TrkC expression level are critical for its synapse-promoting action. Together, our data demonstrate that NT-3 is a key factor in excitatory synapse development that may direct higher-order assembly of the TrkC/PTPσ complex and activate distinct intracellular signaling cascades in a concentration-dependent manner to promote competition-based synapse development processes. In this study, we present several lines of experimental evidences to support the conclusion that

  3. Apical membrane sodium and chloride entry during osmotic swelling of renal (A6) epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Crowe, W E; Ehrenfeld, J; Brochiero, E; Wills, N K

    1995-03-01

    To assess the role of chloride in cell volume and sodium transport regulation, we measured cell height changes (CH), transepithelial chloride and sodium fluxes, and intracellular chloride content during challenge with hyposmotic solutions under open circuit (OC) conditions. CH maximally increased following hyposmotic challenge within approximately 5 minutes. The change in CH was smaller under short circuit (SC) conditions or following replacement of chloride in the mucosal solution by gluconate or cyclamate (Cl(-)-freem). When corrected for the osmotically inactive cell volume (30 +/- 2%), delta CH for controls (OC) were greater than predicted for an ideal osmometer. In contrast, delta CH for Cl(-)-freem or SC conditions were similar to that predicted for an ideal osmometer. Na+ and Cl- mucosa-to-serosa fluxes increased following hyposmotic challenge. Chloride fluxes increased maximally within 5 min, then decreased. In contrast, the Na+ flux increased slowly and reached a steady state after approximately 25 min. Under isosmotic conditions, exposure to Cl(-)-freem solutions led to decreases in the transepithelial conductance, Na+ flux, and CH. Chloride permeabilities in the apical and basolateral membranes were detected using the fluorescent intracellular chloride indicator MQAE. The results indicate that during osmotic swelling, the entry of both sodium and chloride is increased. The time courses of these increases differ, suggesting distinct mechanisms for the osmotic regulation of these apical membrane transport processes.

  4. Membrane proteins as 14-3-3 clients in functional regulation and intracellular transport.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew J; Daut, Jürgen; Schwappach, Blanche

    2011-06-01

    14-3-3 proteins regulate the function and subcellular sorting of membrane proteins. Often, 14-3-3 binding to client proteins requires phosphorylation of the client, but the relevant kinase is unknown in most cases. We summarize current progress in identifying kinases that target membrane proteins with 14-3-3 binding sites and discuss the molecular mechanisms of 14-3-3 action. One of the kinases involved is Akt/PKB, which has recently been shown to activate the 14-3-3-dependent switch in a number of client membrane proteins.

  5. Taurodeoxycholate activates potassium and chloride conductances via an IP3-mediated release of calcium from intracellular stores in a colonic cell line (T84)

    PubMed Central

    Devor, D C; Sekar, M C; Frizzell, R A; Duffey, M E

    1993-01-01

    Whole-cell patch-clamp techniques and fluorescence measurements of intracellular Ca2+ concentration, (Ca2+)i, were used to investigate the mechanism of taurodeoxycholate (TDC) stimulation of Cl- secretion in the T84 colonic cell line. During perforated whole-cell recordings, the cell membrane voltage was alternately clamped to EK and ECl. Initially, TDC (0.75 mM) stimulated inward nonselective cation currents that were composed of discrete large conductance single-channel events. This initial response was followed by activation of K+ and Cl- currents with peak values of 385 +/- 41 pA and 98 +/- 28 pA, respectively (n = 12). The K+ and Cl- currents oscillated while TDC was present and returned to baseline levels upon its removal. The threshold for activation of the oscillatory currents was 0.1 mM TDC. Taurocholate, a bile acid that does not stimulate colonic Cl- secretion, induced no current response. The TDC-induced currents could be activated in Ca(2+)-free bathing solutions. Preincubation of cells with the Ca2+ chelator, bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, tetra(acetoxymethy)-ester (20 microM), (BAPTA-AM), eliminated the K+ and Cl- current responses, although the nonselective cation channel events were still present. Replacement of bath Na+ with NMDG+ inhibited the TDC-induced nonselective cation current but did not affect the K+ or Cl- currents. TDC induced a transient (Ca2+)i rise of 575 +/- 70 nM from a baseline of 71 +/- 5 nM (n = 15); thereafter, (Ca2+)i either plateaued or oscillated. TDC-induced (Ca2+)i oscillations were observed in the absence of bath Ca2+; however, removal of bath Ca2+ during the TDC response caused (Ca2+)i to return to near baseline values. Simultaneous K+ current and (Ca2+)i measurements confirmed that the initial nonselective cation current was independent of (Ca2+)i, while K+ current oscillations were in phase with the (Ca2+)i oscillations. TDC induced inositol monophosphate (IP) accumulation, reflecting

  6. Regulation of dendritic development by semaphorin 3A through novel intracellular remote signaling

    PubMed Central

    Goshima, Yoshio; Yamashita, Naoya; Nakamura, Fumio; Sasaki, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Numerous cell adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix proteins and axon guidance molecules participate in neuronal network formation through local effects at axo-dendritic, axo-axonic or dendro-dendritic contact sites. In contrast, neurotrophins and their receptors play crucial roles in neural wiring by sending retrograde signals to remote cell bodies. Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), a prototype of secreted type 3 semaphorins, is implicated in axon repulsion, dendritic branching and synapse formation via binding protein neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and the signal transducing protein PlexinAs (PlexAs) complex. This review focuses on Sema3A retrograde signaling that regulates dendritic localization of AMPA-type glutamate receptor GluA2 and dendritic patterning. This signaling is elicited by activation of NRP1 in growth cones and is propagated to cell bodies by dynein-dependent retrograde axonal transport of PlexAs. It also requires interaction between PlexAs and a high-affinity receptor for nerve growth factor, toropomyosin receptor kinase A. We propose a control mechanism by which retrograde Sema3A signaling regulates the glutamate receptor localization through trafficking of cis-interacting PlexAs with GluA2 along dendrites; this remote signaling may be an alternative mechanism to local adhesive contacts for neural network formation. PMID:27392015

  7. Core Amino Acid Residues in the Morphology-Regulating Protein, Mms6, for Intracellular Magnetite Biomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Ayana; Narumiya, Kaori; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Arakaki, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Living organisms produce finely tuned biomineral architectures with the aid of biomineral-associated proteins. The functional amino acid residues in these proteins have been previously identified using in vitro and in silico experimentation in different biomineralization systems. However, the investigation in living organisms is limited owing to the difficulty in establishing appropriate genetic techniques. Mms6 protein, isolated from the surface of magnetite crystals synthesized in magnetotactic bacteria, was shown to play a key role in the regulation of crystal morphology. In this study, we have demonstrated a defect in the specific region or substituted acidic amino acid residues in the Mms6 protein for observing their effect on magnetite biomineralization in vivo. Analysis of the gene deletion mutants and transformants of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 expressing partially truncated Mms6 protein revealed that deletions in the N-terminal or C-terminal regions disrupted proper protein localization to the magnetite surface, resulting in a change in the crystal morphology. Moreover, single amino acid substitutions at Asp123, Glu124, or Glu125 in the C-terminal region of Mms6 clearly indicated that these amino acid residues had a direct impact on magnetite crystal morphology. Thus, these consecutive acidic amino acid residues were found to be core residues regulating magnetite crystal morphology. PMID:27759096

  8. Box C/D small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) U60 regulates intracellular cholesterol trafficking.

    PubMed

    Brandis, Katrina A; Gale, Sarah; Jinn, Sarah; Langmade, Stephen J; Dudley-Rucker, Nicole; Jiang, Hui; Sidhu, Rohini; Ren, Aileen; Goldberg, Anna; Schaffer, Jean E; Ory, Daniel S

    2013-12-13

    Mobilization of plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol to the endoplasmic reticulum is essential for cellular cholesterol homeostasis. The mechanisms regulating this retrograde, intermembrane cholesterol transfer are not well understood. Because mutant cells with defects in PM to endoplasmic reticulum cholesterol trafficking can be isolated on the basis of resistance to amphotericin B, we conducted an amphotericin B loss-of-function screen in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using insertional mutagenesis to identify genes that regulate this trafficking mechanism. Mutant line A1 displayed reduced cholesteryl ester formation from PM-derived cholesterol and increased de novo cholesterol synthesis, indicating a deficiency in retrograde cholesterol transport. Genotypic analysis revealed that the A1 cell line contained one disrupted allele of the U60 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) host gene, resulting in haploinsufficiency of the box C/D snoRNA U60. Complementation and mutational studies revealed the U60 snoRNA to be the essential feature from this locus that affects cholesterol trafficking. Lack of alteration in predicted U60-mediated site-directed methylation of 28 S rRNA in the A1 mutant suggests that the U60 snoRNA modulates cholesterol trafficking by a mechanism that is independent of this canonical function. Our study adds to a growing body of evidence for participation of small noncoding RNAs in cholesterol homeostasis and is the first to implicate a snoRNA in this cellular function.

  9. Box C/D Small Nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) U60 Regulates Intracellular Cholesterol Trafficking*

    PubMed Central

    Brandis, Katrina A.; Gale, Sarah; Jinn, Sarah; Langmade, Stephen J.; Dudley-Rucker, Nicole; Jiang, Hui; Sidhu, Rohini; Ren, Aileen; Goldberg, Anna; Schaffer, Jean E.; Ory, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Mobilization of plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol to the endoplasmic reticulum is essential for cellular cholesterol homeostasis. The mechanisms regulating this retrograde, intermembrane cholesterol transfer are not well understood. Because mutant cells with defects in PM to endoplasmic reticulum cholesterol trafficking can be isolated on the basis of resistance to amphotericin B, we conducted an amphotericin B loss-of-function screen in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using insertional mutagenesis to identify genes that regulate this trafficking mechanism. Mutant line A1 displayed reduced cholesteryl ester formation from PM-derived cholesterol and increased de novo cholesterol synthesis, indicating a deficiency in retrograde cholesterol transport. Genotypic analysis revealed that the A1 cell line contained one disrupted allele of the U60 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) host gene, resulting in haploinsufficiency of the box C/D snoRNA U60. Complementation and mutational studies revealed the U60 snoRNA to be the essential feature from this locus that affects cholesterol trafficking. Lack of alteration in predicted U60-mediated site-directed methylation of 28 S rRNA in the A1 mutant suggests that the U60 snoRNA modulates cholesterol trafficking by a mechanism that is independent of this canonical function. Our study adds to a growing body of evidence for participation of small noncoding RNAs in cholesterol homeostasis and is the first to implicate a snoRNA in this cellular function. PMID:24174535

  10. Intra-cellular mechanism of Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in regulation of follicular development.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Emily; Kushnir, Vitaly; Ma, Xiaoting; Biswas, Anindita; Prizant, Hen; Gleicher, Norbert; Sen, Aritro

    2016-09-15

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily and plays a crucial role in testicular and ovarian functions. In clinical practice, AMH is used as a diagnostic and/or prognostic marker in women in association with ovulation induction and in various pathophysiological conditions. Despite widespread clinical use of AMH, our mechanistic understanding of AMH actions in regulating follicular development is limited. Using a mouse model, we in this study report that in vivo AMH treatment while stalls follicular development and inhibits ovulation, also prevents follicular atresia. We further show that these AMH actions are mediated through induction of two miRNAs, miR-181a and miR-181b, which regulate various aspects of FSH signaling and follicular growth, ultimately affecting downstream gene expression and folliculogenesis. We also report that in this mouse model AMH pre-treatment prior to superovulation improves oocyte yield. These studies, therefore, offer new mechanistic insight into AMH actions in folliculogenesis and point toward potential utilization of AMH as a therapeutic agent.

  11. Core Amino Acid Residues in the Morphology-Regulating Protein, Mms6, for Intracellular Magnetite Biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Ayana; Narumiya, Kaori; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Arakaki, Atsushi

    2016-10-19

    Living organisms produce finely tuned biomineral architectures with the aid of biomineral-associated proteins. The functional amino acid residues in these proteins have been previously identified using in vitro and in silico experimentation in different biomineralization systems. However, the investigation in living organisms is limited owing to the difficulty in establishing appropriate genetic techniques. Mms6 protein, isolated from the surface of magnetite crystals synthesized in magnetotactic bacteria, was shown to play a key role in the regulation of crystal morphology. In this study, we have demonstrated a defect in the specific region or substituted acidic amino acid residues in the Mms6 protein for observing their effect on magnetite biomineralization in vivo. Analysis of the gene deletion mutants and transformants of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 expressing partially truncated Mms6 protein revealed that deletions in the N-terminal or C-terminal regions disrupted proper protein localization to the magnetite surface, resulting in a change in the crystal morphology. Moreover, single amino acid substitutions at Asp123, Glu124, or Glu125 in the C-terminal region of Mms6 clearly indicated that these amino acid residues had a direct impact on magnetite crystal morphology. Thus, these consecutive acidic amino acid residues were found to be core residues regulating magnetite crystal morphology.

  12. Intracellular pH regulation in resting and contracting segments of rat mesenteric resistance vessels.

    PubMed Central

    Aalkjaer, C; Cragoe, E J

    1988-01-01

    1. The pH-sensitive dye 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5 (and -6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) was used to measure intracellular pH (pHi) in segments of rat resistance vessels (internal diameter about 200 microns) with the vessels mounted in a myograph for simultaneous measurements of isometric contraction. 2. BCECF loaded slowly into the vessels over 1 h and did not affect the maximal contractility of the vessels. There was a loss of dye with time which, however, was very slow when the segments were only excited for 2 s/min, suggesting that the loss was mainly due to dye bleaching with only a very slow leak. 3. The ratio of the emissions (at 540 nm) with excitation at 495 and 450 nm was calibrated in terms of pH using the K+-H+ ionophore nigericin. This calibration gave a pHi value of 7.15 +/- 0.02 (n = 20), suggesting that hydrogen ions are not in electrochemical equilibrium in these vascular smooth muscles which have a membrane potential of about -60 mV. 4. Addition of 10 mM-NH4Cl caused a transient alkalinization and wash-out of 10 mM-NH4Cl a transient acidification. Increasing CO2 with maintained bicarbonate caused a rapid acidification followed by an incomplete recovery. Removal of CO2 and bicarbonate (HEPES-buffered solution) with constant extracellular pH caused a transient alkalinization but steady-state pHi was not significantly altered. 5. In bicarbonate-free buffer the Na+-H+ exchange blocker 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride (EIPA) and sodium-free conditions caused a slow acidification. In bicarbonate buffer (PSS) EIPA had no detectable effect after 10 min but the anion exchange blocker diisothio-cyanatostilbenedisulphonic acid (DIDS) caused a small acidification over that time course. 6. The rate of recovery after an acid load was about 50% lower in HEPES buffer compared to PSS and it was inhibited by EIPA. In PSS amiloride and EIPA each had a small inhibitory effect on the pH recovery after an acid load. DIDS also inhibited the recovery from an acid load

  13. Regulation of aerobic granular sludge reformulation after granular sludge broken: effect of poly aluminum chloride (PAC).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongjun; Liu, Zhe; Wang, Fukun; Chen, Yiping; Kuschk, Peter; Wang, Xiaochang

    2014-04-01

    The present study focuses on the effect of poly aluminum chloride (PAC) on the re-formation of aerobic granular sludge after its rupture. The morphological changes, physical characteristics such as SVI, mechanical strength and surface properties of aerobic granular sludge during the re-formation process of broken granules were investigated. Moreover, components (protein (PN), polysaccharides (PS)) and distributions (soluble, loosely-bound (LB), tightly-bound (TB)) of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in sludge flocs were taken into consideration. It was found that the effect of charge neutralization and bridging induced by PAC treatment improved the surface properties of sludge, the re-formed granules had a larger size, more compact structure and that the removal performance of pollutants after chemical coagulation had improved. The results of correlation analysis demonstrated that PN in EPS correlated well with the surface characteristics and settling ability of sludge flocs, and PAC treatment strengthened the influence, further accelerated the reformation of granular sludge.

  14. Chemotaxis behavior toward an odor is regulated by constant sodium chloride stimulus in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Shingai, Ryuzo; Ichijo, Hiroshi; Wakabayashi, Tokumitsu; Tanaka, Hidetoshi; Ogurusu, Tarou

    2014-01-01

    We studied the chemotaxis behavior of Caenorhabditis elegans toward a chemoattractant in the presence of background sensory stimulus. Chemotaxis toward an odor butanone was greater in the presence of sodium chloride (NaCl) than that without NaCl. By contrast, chemotaxis toward NaCl was not affected by a butanone background. The salt-sensing ASE neuron-deficient che-1(p674) mutants and worms with ASE genetically ablated showed high chemotaxis toward butanone, regardless of the presence of a NaCl background. Therefore, in wild-type worms, information from ASE in the absence of NaCl suppresses butanone chemotaxis, while the suppression is removed in the presence of NaCl.

  15. MiR-101 and miR-144 Regulate the Expression of the CFTR Chloride Channel in the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Fatemat; Nuovo, Gerard J.; Crawford, Melissa; Boyaka, Prosper N.; Kirkby, Stephen; Nana-Sinkam, Serge P.; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle

    2012-01-01

    The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a chloride channel that plays a critical role in the lung by maintaining fluid homeostasis. Absence or malfunction of CFTR leads to Cystic Fibrosis, a disease characterized by chronic infection and inflammation. We recently reported that air pollutants such as cigarette smoke and cadmium negatively regulate the expression of CFTR by affecting several steps in the biogenesis of CFTR protein. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently received a great deal of attention as both biomarkers and therapeutics due to their ability to regulate multiple genes. Here, we show that cigarette smoke and cadmium up-regulate the expression of two miRNAs (miR-101 and miR-144) that are predicted to target CFTR in human bronchial epithelial cells. When premature miR-101 and miR-144 were transfected in human airway epithelial cells, they directly targeted the CFTR 3′UTR and suppressed the expression of the CFTR protein. Since miR-101 was highly up-regulated by cigarette smoke in vitro, we investigated whether such increase also occurred in vivo. Mice exposed to cigarette smoke for 4 weeks demonstrated an up-regulation of miR-101 and suppression of CFTR protein in their lungs. Finally, we show that miR-101 is highly expressed in lung samples from patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) when compared to control patients. Taken together, these results suggest that chronic cigarette smoking up-regulates miR-101 and that this miRNA could contribute to suppression of CFTR in the lungs of COPD patients. PMID:23226399

  16. MiR-101 and miR-144 regulate the expression of the CFTR chloride channel in the lung.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Fatemat; Nuovo, Gerard J; Crawford, Melissa; Boyaka, Prosper N; Kirkby, Stephen; Nana-Sinkam, Serge P; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle

    2012-01-01

    The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a chloride channel that plays a critical role in the lung by maintaining fluid homeostasis. Absence or malfunction of CFTR leads to Cystic Fibrosis, a disease characterized by chronic infection and inflammation. We recently reported that air pollutants such as cigarette smoke and cadmium negatively regulate the expression of CFTR by affecting several steps in the biogenesis of CFTR protein. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently received a great deal of attention as both biomarkers and therapeutics due to their ability to regulate multiple genes. Here, we show that cigarette smoke and cadmium up-regulate the expression of two miRNAs (miR-101 and miR-144) that are predicted to target CFTR in human bronchial epithelial cells. When premature miR-101 and miR-144 were transfected in human airway epithelial cells, they directly targeted the CFTR 3'UTR and suppressed the expression of the CFTR protein. Since miR-101 was highly up-regulated by cigarette smoke in vitro, we investigated whether such increase also occurred in vivo. Mice exposed to cigarette smoke for 4 weeks demonstrated an up-regulation of miR-101 and suppression of CFTR protein in their lungs. Finally, we show that miR-101 is highly expressed in lung samples from patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) when compared to control patients. Taken together, these results suggest that chronic cigarette smoking up-regulates miR-101 and that this miRNA could contribute to suppression of CFTR in the lungs of COPD patients.

  17. Differential regulation of Sciaenops ocellatus viperin expression by intracellular and extracellular bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Dang, Wei; Zhang, Min; Hu, Yong-hua; Sun, Li

    2010-08-01

    Viperin is an antiviral protein that has been found to exist in diverse vertebrate organisms and is involved in innate immunity against the infection of a wide range of viruses. However, it is largely unclear as to the potential role played by viperin in bacterial infection. In this study, we identified the red drum Sciaenops ocellatus viperin gene (SoVip) and analyzed its expression in relation to bacterial challenge. The complete gene of SoVip is 2570 bp in length and contains six exons and five introns. The open reading frame of SoVip is 1065 bp, which is flanked by a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 34 bp and a 3'-UTR of 350 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence of SoVip shares extensive identities with the viperins of several fish species and possesses the conserved domain of the radical S-adenosylmethionine superfamily proteins. Expressional analysis showed that constitutive expression of SoVip was relatively high in blood, muscle, brain, spleen, and liver, and low in kidney, gill, and heart. Experimental challenges with poly(I:C) and bacterial pathogens indicated that SoVip expression in liver was significantly upregulated by poly(I:C) and the fish pathogen Edwardsiella tarda but down-regulated by the fish pathogens Listonella anguillarum and Streptococcus iniae. Similar differential induction patterns were also observed at cellular level with primary hepatocytes challenged with E. tarda, L. anguillarum, and S. iniae. Infection study showed that all three bacterial pathogens could attach to cultured primary hepatocytes but only E. tarda was able to invade into and survive in hepatocytes. Together these results indicate that SoVip is involved in host immune response during bacterial infection and is differentially regulated at transcription level by different bacterial pathogens.

  18. Differential regulation of intracellular factors mediating cell cycle, DNA repair and inflammation following exposure to silver nanoparticles in human cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Investigating the cellular and molecular signatures in eukaryotic cells following exposure to nanoparticles will further our understanding on the mechanisms mediating nanoparticle induced effects. This study illustrates the molecular effects of silver nanoparticles (Ag-np) in normal human lung cells, IMR-90 and human brain cancer cells, U251 with emphasis on gene expression, induction of inflammatory mediators and the interaction of Ag-np with cytosolic proteins. Results We report that silver nanoparticles are capable of adsorbing cytosolic proteins on their surface that may influence the function of intracellular factors. Gene and protein expression profiles of Ag-np exposed cells revealed up regulation of many DNA damage response genes such as Gadd 45 in both the cell types and ATR in cancer cells. Moreover, down regulation of genes necessary for cell cycle progression (cyclin B and cyclin E) and DNA damage response/repair (XRCC1 and 3, FEN1, RAD51C, RPA1) was observed in both the cell lines. Double strand DNA damage was observed in a dose dependant manner as evidenced in γH2AX foci assay. There was a down regulation of p53 and PCNA in treated cells. Cancer cells in particular showed a concentration dependant increase in phosphorylated p53 accompanied by the cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP. Our results demonstrate the involvement of NFκB and MAP kinase pathway in response to Ag-np exposure. Up regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukins (IL-8, IL-6), macrophage colony stimulating factor, macrophage inflammatory protein in fibroblasts following Ag-np exposure were also observed. Conclusion In summary, Ag-np can modulate gene expression and protein functions in IMR-90 cells and U251 cells, leading to defective DNA repair, proliferation arrest and inflammatory response. The observed changes could also be due to its capability to adsorb cytosolic proteins on its surface. PMID:22321936

  19. Role of Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporters in Intracellular pH Regulation and Their Regulatory Mechanisms in Human Submandibular Glands.

    PubMed

    Namkoong, Eun; Shin, Yong-Hwan; Bae, Jun-Seok; Choi, Seulki; Kim, Minkyoung; Kim, Nahyun; Hwang, Sung-Min; Park, Kyungpyo

    2015-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCs) are involved in the pH regulation of salivary glands. However, the roles and regulatory mechanisms among different NBC isotypes have not been rigorously evaluated. We investigated the roles of two different types of NBCs, electroneutral (NBCn1) and electrogenic NBC (NBCe1), with respect to pH regulation and regulatory mechanisms using human submandibular glands (hSMGs) and HSG cells. Intracellular pH (pHi) was measured and the pHi recovery rate from cell acidification induced by an NH4Cl pulse was recorded. Subcellular localization and protein phosphorylation were determined using immunohistochemistry and co-immunoprecipitation techniques. We determined that NBCn1 is expressed on the basolateral side of acinar cells and the apical side of duct cells, while NBCe1 is exclusively expressed on the apical membrane of duct cells. The pHi recovery rate in hSMG acinar cells, which only express NBCn1, was not affected by pre-incubation with 5 μM PP2, an Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor. However, in HSG cells, which express both NBCe1 and NBCn1, the pHi recovery rate was inhibited by PP2. The apparent difference in regulatory mechanisms for NBCn1 and NBCe1 was evaluated by artificial overexpression of NBCn1 or NBCe1 in HSG cells, which revealed that the pHi recovery rate was only inhibited by PP2 in cells overexpressing NBCe1. Furthermore, only NBCe1 was significantly phosphorylated and translocated by NH4Cl, which was inhibited by PP2. Our results suggest that both NBCn1 and NBCe1 play a role in pHi regulation in hSMG acinar cells, and also that Src kinase does not regulate the activity of NBCn1.

  20. Neprilysin and Aβ Clearance: Impact of the APP Intracellular Domain in NEP Regulation and Implications in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Marcus O. W.; Mett, Janine; Stahlmann, Christoph P.; Haupenthal, Viola J.; Zimmer, Valerie C.; Hartmann, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    One of the characteristic hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) leading to plaque formation and toxic oligomeric Aβ complexes. Besides the de novo synthesis of Aβ caused by amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), Aβ levels are also highly dependent on Aβ degradation. Several enzymes are described to cleave Aβ. In this review we focus on one of the most prominent Aβ degrading enzymes, the zinc-metalloprotease Neprilysin (NEP). In the first part of the review we discuss beside the general role of NEP in Aβ degradation the alterations of the enzyme observed during normal aging and the progression of AD. In vivo and cell culture experiments reveal that a decreased NEP level results in an increased Aβ level and vice versa. In a pathological situation like AD, it has been reported that NEP levels and activity are decreased and it has been suggested that certain polymorphisms in the NEP gene result in an increased risk for AD. Conversely, increasing NEP activity in AD mouse models revealed an improvement in some behavioral tests. Therefore it has been suggested that increasing NEP might be an interesting potential target to treat or to be protective for AD making it indispensable to understand the regulation of NEP. Interestingly, it is discussed that the APP intracellular domain (AICD), one of the cleavage products of APP processing, which has high similarities to Notch receptor processing, might be involved in the transcriptional regulation of NEP. However, the mechanisms of NEP regulation by AICD, which might be helpful to develop new therapeutic strategies, are up to now controversially discussed and summarized in the second part of this review. In addition, we review the impact of AICD not only in the transcriptional regulation of NEP but also of further genes. PMID:24391587

  1. Murine MicroRNA-214 regulates intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM1) gene expression in genital Chlamydia muridarum infection

    PubMed Central

    Arkatkar, Tanvi; Gupta, Rishein; Li, Weidang; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Wali, Shradha; Neal Guentzel, M; Chambers, James P; Christenson, Lane K; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2015-01-01

    The hallmark of chlamydial infection is the development of upper genital pathology in the form of hydrosalpinx and oviduct and/or tubal dilatation. Although molecular events leading to genital tissue presentation and cellular architectural remodelling are unclear, early-stage host immune responses are believed to contribute to these long-term sequelae. Recently, we reported the contribution of selected infection-associated microRNAs (miRs) in the generation of host immunity at early-stage infection (day 6 after intravaginal Chlamydia muridarum challenge in C57BL/6 mice). In this report, we describe the contribution of an infection-associated microRNA, i.e. miR-214, to host immunity. Chlamydia muridarum infection in the C57BL/6 mouse genital tract significantly down-regulated miR-214 while up-regulating intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) gene expression. These in vivo observations were confirmed by establishing direct regulation of ICAM-1 by miR-214 in ex vivo genital cell cultures in the presence of miR-214 mimic and inhibitor. Because, ICAM-1 contributes to recruitment of neutrophils following infection, we also demonstrated that alteration of ICAM1 by miR-214 in interleukin-17A-deficient (IL-17A−/−) mice correlated with reduction of neutrophils infiltrating genital tissue at day 6 after challenge. Additionally, these early-stage events resulted in significantly decreased genital pathology in IL-17A−/− mice compared with C57BL/6 mice. This report provides evidence for early-stage regulation of ICAM1 by microRNAs, resulting in reduction of genital pathology associated with chlamydial infection. PMID:25865776

  2. Expression of the alaE gene is positively regulated by the global regulator Lrp in response to intracellular accumulation of l-alanine in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Kohei; Sato, Kazuki; Hori, Hatsuhiro; Makino, Yumiko; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ando, Tasuke; Isogai, Emiko; Yoneyama, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    The alaE gene in Escherichia coli encodes an l-alanine exporter that catalyzes the active export of l-alanine using proton electrochemical potential. In our previous study, alaE expression was shown to increase in the presence of l-alanyl-l-alanine (Ala-Ala). In this study, the global regulator leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) was identified as an activator of the alaE gene. A promoter less β-galactosidase gene was fused to an alaE upstream region (240 nucleotides). Cells that were lacZ-deficient and harbored this reporter plasmid showed significant induction of β-galactosidase activity (approximately 17-fold) in the presence of 6 mM l-alanine, l-leucine, and Ala-Ala. However, a reporter plasmid possessing a smaller alaE upstream region (180 nucleotides) yielded transformants with strikingly low enzyme activity under the same conditions. In contrast, lrp-deficient cells showed almost no β-galactosidase induction, indicating that Lrp positively regulates alaE expression. We next performed an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and a DNase I footprinting assay using purified hexahistidine-tagged Lrp (Lrp-His). Consequently, we found that Lrp-His binds to the alaE upstream region spanning nucleotide -161 to -83 with a physiologically relevant affinity (apparent KD, 288.7 ± 83.8 nM). Furthermore, the binding affinity of Lrp-His toward its cis-element was increased by l-alanine and l-leucine, but not by Ala-Ala and d-alanine. Based on these results, we concluded that the gene expression of the alaE is regulated by Lrp in response to intracellular levels of l-alanine, which eventually leads to intracellular homeostasis of l-alanine concentrations.

  3. Intracellular Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase regulates calcium influx and acrosomal exocytosis in bull and ram spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Dragileva, E; Rubinstein, S; Breitbart, H

    1999-11-01

    channel. The ability of thapsigargin to increase [Ca(2+)](i) could be due to depletion of Ca(2+) in the acrosome, resulting in the opening of a capacitative calcium entry channel in the plasma membrane. The effect of thapsigargin on elevated [Ca(2+)](i) in capacitated cells was 2-fold higher than that in noncapacitated sperm, suggesting that the intracellular Ca pump is active during capacitation and that this pump may have a role in regulating [Ca(2+)](i) during capacitation and the AR.

  4. The role of the intracellular and extracellular serotonin in the regulation of melatonin production in rat pinealocytes.

    PubMed

    Miguez, J M; Simonneaux, V; Pevet, P

    1997-09-01

    This study investigated whether the activation of pinealocyte beta-adrenergic receptors is involved in the regulation of serotonin (5-HT) synthesis and release, as it is for melatonin production. In addition, the role of the intra- and extra-cellular 5-HT in modulating the synthesis of melatonin induced by the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (ISO) was also studied. The incubation of dissociated pinealocytes with 0.1-10 microM ISO resulted in a concentration-dependent increase of melatonin synthesis. 5-HT release and intracellular 5-HT content were increased by 0.1 and 1 microM ISO but they were reduced after ISO 10 microM. Moreover, when incubated with the tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA), the secretion of 5-HT as well as the intracellular 5-HT levels were markedly reduced in both ISO-stimulated and unstimulated conditions. Melatonin release was also inhibited by PCPA, although it responded in the expected manner to increasing concentrations of ISO. These data indicate that the release of 5-HT from pinealocytes depends on the availability of cytoplasmic 5-HT, which in turn is highly dependent on the tryptophan hydroxylase activity. In cells stimulated with moderate ISO concentrations, 5-HT release may be an important regulatory process of pineal 5-HT. After a large stimulation of N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity by ISO, the synthesis of melatonin prevails on 5-HT release, whose decrease is associated to a deficit of intracellular 5-HT. On the other hand, the present study shows that the incubation of pineal cells with high concentrations of 5-HT or with a selective 5-HT2 receptor agonist, alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, reverses partially the inhibitory effect of PCPA on the ISO-stimulated melatonin synthesis. In contrast the 5-HT2 antagonist, ketanserin, results in an inhibiton of the release of melatonin following ISO stimulation. These results suggest that released 5-HT may have a role in the full expression of the beta

  5. A crucial role for cAMP and protein kinase A in D1 dopamine receptor regulated intracellular calcium transients.

    PubMed

    Dai, Rujuan; Ali, Mohammad K; Lezcano, Nelson; Bergson, Clare

    2008-01-01

    D1-like dopamine receptors stimulate Ca(2+) transients in neurons but the effector coupling and signaling mechanisms underlying these responses have not been elucidated. Here we investigated potential mechanisms using both HEK 293 cells that stably express D1 receptors (D1HEK293) and hippocampal neurons in culture. In D1HEK293 cells, the full D1 receptor agonist SKF 81297 evoked a robust dose-dependent increase in Ca(2+)(i) following 'priming' of endogenous G(q/11)-coupled muscarinic or purinergic receptors. The effect of SKF81297 could be mimicked by forskolin or 8-Br-cAMP. Further, cholera toxin and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitors, KT5720 and H89, as well as thapsigargin abrogated the D1 receptor evoked Ca(2+) transients. Removal of the priming agonist and treatment with the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 also blocked the SKF81297-evoked responses. D1R agonist did not stimulate IP(3) production, but pretreatment of cells with the D1R agonist potentiated G(q)-linked receptor agonist mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+) stores. In neurons, SKF81297 and SKF83959, a partial D1 receptor agonist, promoted Ca(2+) oscillations in response to G(q/11)-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) stimulation. The effects of both D1R agonists on the mGluR-evoked Ca(2+) responses were PKA dependent. Altogether the data suggest that dopamine D1R activation and ensuing cAMP production dynamically regulates the efficiency and timing of IP(3)-mediated intracellular Ca(2+) store mobilization.

  6. Regulating Toxin-Antitoxin Expression: Controlled Detonation of Intracellular Molecular Timebombs

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Finbarr; Kędzierska, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Genes for toxin-antitoxin (TA) complexes are widely disseminated in bacteria, including in pathogenic and antibiotic resistant species. The toxins are liberated from association with the cognate antitoxins by certain physiological triggers to impair vital cellular functions. TAs also are implicated in antibiotic persistence, biofilm formation, and bacteriophage resistance. Among the ever increasing number of TA modules that have been identified, the most numerous are complexes in which both toxin and antitoxin are proteins. Transcriptional autoregulation of the operons encoding these complexes is key to ensuring balanced TA production and to prevent inadvertent toxin release. Control typically is exerted by binding of the antitoxin to regulatory sequences upstream of the operons. The toxin protein commonly works as a transcriptional corepressor that remodels and stabilizes the antitoxin. However, there are notable exceptions to this paradigm. Moreover, it is becoming clear that TA complexes often form one strand in an interconnected web of stress responses suggesting that their transcriptional regulation may prove to be more intricate than currently understood. Furthermore, interference with TA gene transcriptional autoregulation holds considerable promise as a novel antibacterial strategy: artificial release of the toxin factor using designer drugs is a potential approach to induce bacterial suicide from within. PMID:24434949

  7. Induction of DKK1 by ox-LDL negatively regulates intracellular lipid accumulation in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Ge, Cheng; Wang, Lin; Liu, Xinxin; Chen, Yifei; Li, Mengmeng; Zhang, Mei

    2015-01-02

    Dickkopf1 (DKK1), a canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway antagonist, is closely associated with cardiovascular disease and adipogenesis. We performed an in vitro study to determine whether oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) increased the expression of DKK1 in macrophages and whether β-catenin and liver X receptor α (LXRα) were involved in this regulation. Induction of DKK1 expression by ox-LDL decreased the level of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) via a Wnt/β-catenin pathway and increased ATP-binding cassette transporter A/G1 (ABCA/G1) levels via a signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway. Lower LOX-1 and higher ABCA/G1 levels inhibited cholesterol loading in macrophages. In conclusion, ox-LDL may induce DKK1 expression in macrophages to inhibit the accumulation of lipids through a mechanism that involves downregulation of LOX-1-mediated lipid uptake and upregulation of ABCA/G1-dependent cholesterol efflux.

  8. Regulation of intracellular formaldehyde toxicity during methanol metabolism of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia methanolica.

    PubMed

    Wakayama, Keishi; Yamaguchi, Sakiko; Takeuchi, Akihito; Mizumura, Tasuku; Ozawa, Shotaro; Tomizuka, Noboru; Hayakawa, Takashi; Nakagawa, Tomoyuki

    2016-11-01

    In this study we found that the methylotrophic yeast Pichia methanolica showed impaired growth on high methanol medium (>5%, or 1.56 M, methanol). In contrast, P. methanolica grew well on glucose medium containing 5% methanol, but the growth defects reappeared on glucose medium supplemented with 5 mM formaldehyde. During methanol growth of P. methanolica, formaldehyde accumulated in the medium up to 0.3 mM before it was consumed rapidly based on cell growth. These findings indicate that the growth defect of P. methanolica on high methanol media is not caused directly by methanol toxicity, but rather by formaldehyde, which is a key toxic intermediate of methanol metabolism. Moreover, during methanol growth of P. methanolica, expression of enzymes in the methanol-oxidation pathway were induced before the alcohol oxidase isozymes Mod1p and Mod2p, and Mod1p expression was induced before Mod2p. These results suggest that to avoid excess accumulation of formaldehyde-the toxic intermediate of methanol metabolism-P. methanolica grown on methanol strictly regulates the order in which methanol-metabolizing enzymes are expressed.

  9. Mitofusin 2 decreases intracellular lipids in macrophages by regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chun; Ge, Beihai; He, Chao; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Xiaowen; Liu, Kejian; Qian, Cuiping; Zhang, Yu; Peng, Wenzhong; Guo, Xiaomei

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Mfn2 decreases cellular lipid accumulation by activating cholesterol transporters. • PPARγ is involved in the Mfn2-mediated increase of cholesterol transporter expressions. • Inactivation of ERK1/2 and p38 is involved in Mfn2-induced PPARγ expression. - Abstract: Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) inhibits atherosclerotic plaque formation, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. This study aims to reveal how Mfn2 functions in the atherosclerosis. Mfn2 expression was found to be significantly reduced in arterial atherosclerotic lesions of both mice and human compared with healthy counterparts. Here, we observed that Mfn2 increased cellular cholesterol transporter expression in macrophages by upregulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, an effect achieved at least partially by inhibiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway. These findings provide insights into potential mechanisms of Mfn2-mediated alterations in cholesterol transporter expression, which may have significant implications for the treatment of atherosclerotic heart disease.

  10. The Potential of Vitamin D-Regulated Intracellular Signaling Pathways as Targets for Myeloid Leukemia Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gocek, Elzbieta; Studzinski, George P.

    2015-01-01

    The current standard regimens for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are curative in less than half of patients; therefore, there is a great need for innovative new approaches to this problem. One approach is to target new treatments to the pathways that are instrumental to cell growth and survival with drugs that are less harmful to normal cells than to neoplastic cells. In this review, we focus on the MAPK family of signaling pathways and those that are known to, or potentially can, interact with MAPKs, such as PI3K/AKT/FOXO and JAK/STAT. We exemplify the recent studies in this field with specific relevance to vitamin D and its derivatives, since they have featured prominently in recent scientific literature as having anti-cancer properties. Since microRNAs also are known to be regulated by activated vitamin D, this is also briefly discussed here, as are the implications of the emerging acquisition of transcriptosome data and potentiation of the biological effects of vitamin D by other compounds. While there are ongoing clinical trials of various compounds that affect signaling pathways, more studies are needed to establish the clinical utility of vitamin D in the treatment of cancer. PMID:26239344

  11. Intracellular protein O-GlcNAc modification integrates nutrient status with transcriptional and metabolic regulation.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Alexis K; Ball, Lauren E

    2015-01-01

    The inducible, nutrient-sensitive posttranslational modification of protein Ser/Thr residues with O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) occurs on histones, transcriptional regulators, metabolic enzymes, oncogenes, tumor suppressors, and many critical intermediates of growth factor signaling. Cycling of O-GlcNAc modification on and off of protein substrates is catalyzed by the actions of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA), respectively. To date, there are less than 150 publications addressing the role of O-GlcNAc modification in cancer and over half were published in the last 2 years. These studies have clearly established that increased expression of OGT and hyper-O-GlcNAcylation is common to human cancers of breast, prostate, colon, lung, and pancreas. Furthermore, attenuating OGT activity reduces tumor growth in vitro and metastasis in vivo. This chapter discusses the structure and function of the O-GlcNAc cycling enzymes, mechanisms by which protein O-GlcNAc modification sense changes in nutrient status, the influence of O-GlcNAc cycling enzymes on glucose metabolism, and provides an overview of recent observations regarding the role of O-GlcNAcylation in cancer.

  12. The Transition from Proliferation to Differentiation in Colorectal Cancer Is Regulated by the Calcium Activated Chloride Channel A1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; McCaig, Colin D.; Pu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Breaking the balance between proliferation and differentiation in animal cells can lead to cancer, but the mechanisms maintaining this balance remain largely undefined. The calcium activated chloride channel A1 (CLCA1) is a member of the calcium sensitive chloride conductance family of proteins and is expressed mainly in the colon, small intestine and appendix. We show that CLCA1 plays a functional role in differentiation and proliferation of Caco-2 cells and of intestinal tissue. Caco-2 cells spontaneously differentiate either in confluent culture or when treated with butyrate, a molecule present naturally in the diet. Here, we compared CLCA1 expressional levels between patients with and without colorectal cancer (CRC) and determined the functional role of CLCA1 in differentiation and proliferation of Caco-2 cells. We showed that: 1) CLCA1 and CLCA4 expression were down-regulated significantly in CRC patients; 2) CLCA1 expression was up-regulated in Caco-2 cells induced to differentiate by confluent culture or by treatment with sodium butyrate (NaBT); 3) Knockdown of CLCA1 with siRNA significantly inhibited cell differentiation and promoted cell proliferation in Caco-2 confluent cultures, and 4) In Caco-2 3D culture, suppression of CLCA1 significantly increased cell proliferation and compromised NaBT-induced inhibition of proliferation. In conclusion, CLCA1 may contribute to promoting spontaneous differentiation and reducing proliferation of Caco-2 cells and may be a target of NaBT-induced inhibition of proliferation and therefore a potential diagnostic marker for CRC prognosis. PMID:23593331

  13. Role of oxygen in the regulation of Leydig tumor derived MA-10 cell steroid production: the effect of cobalt chloride.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anand; Rani, Lata; Dhole, Bodhana

    2014-04-01

    We have earlier shown that cobalt chloride (CoCl2)-induced hypoxia and second messenger 8-bromoadenosine 3', 5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP) stimulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production in Leydig tumor cell derived MA-10 cells. Both stimuli follow common signal transduction pathways including protein kinase A (PK-A), extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase/akt (PI3-K/Akt) pathways in the stimulation of VEGF by MA-10 cells. In the present study we investigated the role of CoCl2 and 8-Br-cAMP on steroid production in MA-10 cells. The MA-10 cells were cultured in Waymouth MB 752/1 medium, supplemented with 15% heat inactivated horse serum. Progesterone was estimated by radioimmunoassay (RIA).We report that 8-Br-cAMP stimulated progesterone production by the MA-10 cells whereas CoCl2 inhibited the same. Also, 8-Br-cAMP stimulated steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) mRNAs expression. However, CoCl2 had no effect on StAR mRNA. Cobalt chloride directly inhibited the expression of P450scc mRNA. The decrease in progesterone production could be attributed to three different mechanisms, (1) an increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), (2) an increase in HIF-1α activity, and (3) ultimately a decrease in the level of cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (CYT P450scc). Hypoxia has an action and mechanism of action similar to that of gonadotropins on VEGF production, whereas they have a contrasting effect on steroidogenesis. This study suggests that hypoxia could be as important as gonadotropins in regulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis.

  14. Structurally similar estradiol analogs uniquely alter the regulation of intracellular signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Yarger, James G; Babine, Robert E; Bittner, Michael; Shanle, Erin; Xu, Wei; Hershberger, Pamela; Nye, Steven H

    2013-02-01

    Ligand structure can affect the activation of nuclear receptors, such as estrogen receptors (ERs), and their control of signaling pathways for cellular responses including death and differentiation. We hypothesized that distinct biological functions of similar estradiol (E(2)) analogs could be identified by integrating gene expression patterns obtained from human tumor cell lines with receptor binding and functional data for the purpose of developing compounds for treatment of a variety of diseases. We compared the estrogen receptor subtype selectivity and impact on signaling pathways for three distinct, but structurally similar, analogs of E(2). Modifications in the core structure of E(2) led to pronounced changes in subtype selectivity for estrogen receptors, ER-α or ER-β, along with varying degrees of ER dimerization and activation. While all three E(2) analogs are predominantly ER-β agonists, the cell growth inhibitory activity commonly associated with this class of compounds was detected for only two of the analogs and might be explained by a ligand-specific pattern of gene transcription. Microarray studies using three different human tumor cell lines demonstrated that the analogs distinctly affect the transcription of genes in signaling pathways for chromosome replication, cell death, and oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation. That the E(2) analogs could lower tumor cell viability and stimulate neuronal differentiation confirmed that gene expression data could accurately distinguish biological activity of the E(2) analogs. The findings reported here confirm that cellular responses can be regulated by making key structural alterations to the core structure of endogenous ER ligands.

  15. Intracellular calcium in canine cultured tracheal smooth muscle cells is regulated by M3 muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, C. M.; Yo, Y. L.; Wang, Y. Y.

    1993-01-01

    1. The regulation of cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) during exposure to carbachol was measured directly in canine cultured tracheal smooth muscle cells (TSMCs) loaded with fura-2. Stimulation of muscarinic cholinoceptors (muscarinic AChRs) by carbachol produced a dose-dependent rise in [Ca2+]i which was followed by a stable plateau phase. The EC50 values of carbachol for the peak and sustained plateau responses were 0.34 and 0.33 microM, respectively. 2. Atropine (10 microM) prevented all the responses to carbachol, and when added during a response to carbachol, significantly, but not completely decreased [Ca2+]i within 5 s. Therefore, the changes in [Ca2+]i by carbachol were mediated through the muscarinic AChRs. 3. AF-DX 116 (a selective M2 antagonist) and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine (4-DAMP, a selective M3 antagonist) inhibited the carbachol-stimulated increase in [Ca2+]i with pKB values of 6.4 and 9.4, respectively, corresponding to low affinity for AF-DX 119 and high affinity for 4-DAMP in antagonizing this response. 4. The plateau elevation of [Ca2+]i was dependent on the presence of external Ca2+. Removal of Ca2+ by the addition of 2 mM EGTA caused the [Ca2+]i to decline rapidly to the resting level. In the absence of external Ca2+, only an initial transient peak of [Ca2+]i was seen which then declined to the resting level; the sustained elevation of [Ca2+]i could then be evoked by the addition of Ca2+ (1.8 mM) in the continued presence of carbachol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8298822

  16. Intracellular regulation of protein degradation during sepsis is different in fast- and slow-twitch muscle.

    PubMed

    Tiao, G; Lieberman, M; Fischer, J E; Hasselgren, P O

    1997-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the difference in the response to sepsis of protein breakdown between fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscle reflects differential activation of the energy-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway. In addition, we defined the time course and the tissue specificity of sepsis-induced changes in the expression of the ubiquitin pathway. Sepsis was induced in rats by cecal ligation and puncture; control rats were sham operated. Energy-dependent protein breakdown was measured in incubated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles. Ubiquitin mRNA levels were determined by Northern blot analysis. Sepsis resulted in increased energy-dependent protein breakdown and upregulated expression of ubiquitin mRNA in the fast-twitch EDL but not in the slow-twitch soleus muscle. The sepsis-induced increase in ubiquitin mRNA levels in the EDL muscle was noticeable before the increase in energy-dependent protein breakdown. Sepsis increased ubiquitin mRNA levels in the diaphragm (a mixed fiber-type muscle) but not in heart, liver, kidney, or intestine, consistent with a tissue-specific regulation of the ubiquitin system during sepsis. The results suggest that the difference in protein breakdown during sepsis between fast- and slow-twitch muscles reflects differential activation of the energy-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway. The data also suggest that the expression of the ubiquitin pathway is upregulated in a time-dependent fashion during sepsis and that this response is not a generalized phenomenon but is tissue specific.

  17. Two Phosphodiesterase Genes, PDEL and PDEH, Regulate Development and Pathogenicity by Modulating Intracellular Cyclic AMP Levels in Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haifeng; Liu, Kaiyue; Zhang, Xing; Tang, Wei; Wang, Jiansheng; Guo, Min; Zhao, Qian; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Zhengguang

    2011-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling plays an important role in regulating multiple cellular responses, such as growth, morphogenesis, and/or pathogenicity of eukaryotic organisms such as fungi. As a second messenger, cAMP is important in the activation of downstream effector molecules. The balance of intracellular cAMP levels depends on biosynthesis by adenylyl cyclases (ACs) and hydrolysis by cAMP phosphodiesterases (PDEases). The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae contains a high-affinity (PdeH/Pde2) and a low-affinity (PdeL/Pde1) PDEases, and a previous study showed that PdeH has a major role in asexual differentiation and pathogenicity. Here, we show that PdeL is required for asexual development and conidial morphology, and it also plays a minor role in regulating cAMP signaling. This is in contrast to PdeH whose mutation resulted in major defects in conidial morphology, cell wall integrity, and surface hydrophobicity, as well as a significant reduction in pathogenicity. Consistent with both PdeH and PdeL functioning in cAMP signaling, disruption of PDEH only partially rescued the mutant phenotype of ΔmagB and Δpka1. Further studies suggest that PdeH might function through a feedback mechanism to regulate the expression of pathogenicity factor Mpg1 during surface hydrophobicity and pathogenic development. Moreover, microarray data revealed new insights into the underlying cAMP regulatory mechanisms that may help to identify potential pathogenicity factors for the development of new disease management strategies. PMID:21386978

  18. Regulation of CLC-1 chloride channel biosynthesis by FKBP8 and Hsp90β

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yi-Jheng; Huang, Jing-Jia; Wu, Hao-Han; Hsieh, Hsin-Ying; Wu, Chia-Ying; Chen, Shu-Ching; Chen, Tsung-Yu; Tang, Chih-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in human CLC-1 chloride channel are associated with the skeletal muscle disorder myotonia congenita. The disease-causing mutant A531V manifests enhanced proteasomal degradation of CLC-1. We recently found that CLC-1 degradation is mediated by cullin 4 ubiquitin ligase complex. It is currently unclear how quality control and protein degradation systems coordinate with each other to process the biosynthesis of CLC-1. Herein we aim to ascertain the molecular nature of the protein quality control system for CLC-1. We identified three CLC-1-interacting proteins that are well-known heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90)-associated co-chaperones: FK506-binding protein 8 (FKBP8), activator of Hsp90 ATPase homolog 1 (Aha1), and Hsp70/Hsp90 organizing protein (HOP). These co-chaperones promote both the protein level and the functional expression of CLC-1 wild-type and A531V mutant. CLC-1 biosynthesis is also facilitated by the molecular chaperones Hsc70 and Hsp90β. The protein stability of CLC-1 is notably increased by FKBP8 and the Hsp90β inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) that substantially suppresses cullin 4 expression. We further confirmed that cullin 4 may interact with Hsp90β and FKBP8. Our data are consistent with the idea that FKBP8 and Hsp90β play an essential role in the late phase of CLC-1 quality control by dynamically coordinating protein folding and degradation. PMID:27580824

  19. Naringin regulates glutamate-nitric oxide cGMP pathway in ammonium chloride induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Arumugam; Vijayakumar, Natesan; Renuka, Mani

    2016-12-01

    Naringin, plant bioflavonoid extracted mainly from grapefruit and other related citrus species. This study was designed to assess the neuroprotective effect of naringin on ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) induced hyperammonemic rats. Experimental hyperammonemia was induced by intraperitonial injection (i.p) of NH4Cl (100mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) thrice a week for 8 consecutive weeks. Hyperammonemic rats were treated with naringin (80mg/kg b.w.) via oral gavage. Naringin administration drastically restored the levels of blood ammonia, plasma urea, nitric oxide (NO), glutamate, glutamine, lipid peroxidation, lipid profile, activities of liver marker enzymes, antioxidant status and sodium/potassium-ATPase (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase). In addition, naringin supplementation reverted back the pathological changes of liver, brain and kidney tissues, the expressions of Glutamine synthetase (GS), Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, neuronal nitric oxide (nNOS) and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) in hyperammonemic rats. Hence, this study suggested that nargingin exhibited their protective effect against NH4Cl induced toxicity via enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting the lipid peroxidation process. Take together, this study provides data that naingin effectively reduced neurotoxicity by attenuating hyperammonemia, suggesting that naringin act as a potential therapeutic agent to treat hyperammonemic rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Regulation of CLC-1 chloride channel biosynthesis by FKBP8 and Hsp90β.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yi-Jheng; Huang, Jing-Jia; Wu, Hao-Han; Hsieh, Hsin-Ying; Wu, Chia-Ying; Chen, Shu-Ching; Chen, Tsung-Yu; Tang, Chih-Yung

    2016-09-01

    Mutations in human CLC-1 chloride channel are associated with the skeletal muscle disorder myotonia congenita. The disease-causing mutant A531V manifests enhanced proteasomal degradation of CLC-1. We recently found that CLC-1 degradation is mediated by cullin 4 ubiquitin ligase complex. It is currently unclear how quality control and protein degradation systems coordinate with each other to process the biosynthesis of CLC-1. Herein we aim to ascertain the molecular nature of the protein quality control system for CLC-1. We identified three CLC-1-interacting proteins that are well-known heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90)-associated co-chaperones: FK506-binding protein 8 (FKBP8), activator of Hsp90 ATPase homolog 1 (Aha1), and Hsp70/Hsp90 organizing protein (HOP). These co-chaperones promote both the protein level and the functional expression of CLC-1 wild-type and A531V mutant. CLC-1 biosynthesis is also facilitated by the molecular chaperones Hsc70 and Hsp90β. The protein stability of CLC-1 is notably increased by FKBP8 and the Hsp90β inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) that substantially suppresses cullin 4 expression. We further confirmed that cullin 4 may interact with Hsp90β and FKBP8. Our data are consistent with the idea that FKBP8 and Hsp90β play an essential role in the late phase of CLC-1 quality control by dynamically coordinating protein folding and degradation.

  1. Adaptor protein 1 complexes regulate intracellular trafficking of the kidney anion exchanger 1 in epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Almomani, Ensaf Y.; King, Jennifer C.; Netsawang, Janjuree; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-Thai; Malasit, Prida; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Alexander, R. Todd

    2012-01-01

    Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) can be caused by mutations in the gene encoding the anion exchanger 1 (AE1) and is characterized by defective urinary acidification, metabolic acidosis, and renal stones. AE1 is expressed at the basolateral membrane of type A intercalated cells in the renal cortical collecting duct (kAE1). Two dRTA mutations result in the carboxyl-terminal truncation of kAE1; in one case, the protein trafficked in a nonpolarized way in epithelial cells. A recent yeast two-hybrid assay showed that the carboxyl-terminal cytosolic domain of AE1 interacts with adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1A) subunit μ1A (mu-1A; Sawasdee N, Junking M, Ngaojanlar P, Sukomon N, Ungsupravate D, Limjindaporn T, Akkarapatumwong V, Noisakran S, Yenchitsomanus PT. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 401: 85–91, 2010). Here, we show the interaction between kAE1 and mu-1A and B in vitro by reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation in epithelial cells and in vivo by coimmunoprecipitation from mouse kidney extract. When endogenous mu-1A (and to a lesser extent mu-1B) was reduced, kAE1 protein was unable to traffic to the plasma membrane and was rapidly degraded via a lysosomal pathway. Expression of either small interfering RNA-resistant mu-1A or mu-1B stabilized kAE1 in these cells. We also show that newly synthesized kAE1 does not traffic through recycling endosomes to the plasma membrane, suggesting that AP-1B, located in recycling endosomes, is not primarily involved in trafficking of newly synthesized kAE1 when AP-1A is present in the cells. Our data demonstrate that AP-1A regulates processing of the basolateral, polytopic membrane protein kAE1 to the cell surface and that both AP-1A and B adaptor complexes are required for normal kAE1 trafficking. PMID:22744004

  2. Intracellular pH-regulating mechanism of the squid axon. Interaction between DNDS and extracellular Na+ and HCO3-

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Intracellular pH (pHi) of the squid axon is regulated by a stilbenesensitive transporter that couples the influx of Na+ and HCO3- (or the equivalent) to the efflux of Cl-. According to one model, the extracellular ion pair NaCO3- exchanges for intracellular Cl-. In the present study, the ion-pair model was tested by examining the interaction of the reversible stilbene derivative 4,4'-dinitrostilbene- 2,2'-disulfonate (DNDS) with extracellular Na+ and HCO3-. Axons (initial pHi approximately 7.4) were internally dialyzed with a pH 6.5 solution containing 400 mM Cl- but no Na+. After pHi, as measured with a glass microelectrode, had fallen to approximately 6.6, dialysis was halted. In the presence of both external Na+ and HCO3- (pHo = 8.0, 22 degrees C), pHi increased due to the pHi-regulating mechanism. At a fixed [Na+]o of 425 mM and [HCO3-]o of 12 mM, DNDS reversibly reduced the equivalent acid-extrusion rate (JH) calculated from the rate of pHi recovery. The best-fit value for maximal inhibition was 104%, and for the [DNDS]o at half-maximal inhibition, 0.3 mM. At a [Na+]o of 425 mM, the [HCO3-]o dependence of JH was examined at 0, 0.1, and 0.25 mM DNDS. Although Jmax was always approximately 20 pmol cm-2 s-1, Km(HCO3-) was 2.6, 5.7, and 12.7 mM, respectively. Thus, DNDS is competitive with HCO3-. At a [HCO3-]o of 12 mM, the [Na+]o dependence of JH was examined at 0 and 0.1 mM DNDS. Although Jmax was approximately 20 pmol cm-2 s-1 in both cases, Km(Na+) was 71 and 179 mM, respectively. At a [HCO3-]o of 48 mM, Jmax was approximately 20 pmol cm-2 s-1 at [DNDS]o levels of 0, 0.1, and 0.25 mM. However, Km(Na+) was 22, 45, and 90 mM, respectively. Thus, DNDS (an anion) is also competitive with Na+. The results are consistent with simple competition between DNDS and NaCO3-, and place severe restrictions on other kinetic models. PMID:2915212

  3. Volatile profiling reveals intracellular metabolic changes in Aspergillus parasiticus: veA regulates branched chain amino acid and ethanol metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Filamentous fungi in the genus Aspergillus produce a variety of natural products, including aflatoxin, the most potent naturally occurring carcinogen known. Aflatoxin biosynthesis, one of the most highly characterized secondary metabolic pathways, offers a model system to study secondary metabolism in eukaryotes. To control or customize biosynthesis of natural products we must understand how secondary metabolism integrates into the overall cellular metabolic network. By applying a metabolomics approach we analyzed volatile compounds synthesized by Aspergillus parasiticus in an attempt to define the association of secondary metabolism with other metabolic and cellular processes. Results Volatile compounds were examined using solid phase microextraction - gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In the wild type strain Aspergillus parasiticus SU-1, the largest group of volatiles included compounds derived from catabolism of branched chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine); we also identified alcohols, esters, aldehydes, and lipid-derived volatiles. The number and quantity of the volatiles produced depended on media composition, time of incubation, and light-dark status. A block in aflatoxin biosynthesis or disruption of the global regulator veA affected the volatile profile. In addition to its multiple functions in secondary metabolism and development, VeA negatively regulated catabolism of branched chain amino acids and synthesis of ethanol at the transcriptional level thus playing a role in controlling carbon flow within the cell. Finally, we demonstrated that volatiles generated by a veA disruption mutant are part of the complex regulatory machinery that mediates the effects of VeA on asexual conidiation and sclerotia formation. Conclusions 1) Volatile profiling provides a rapid, effective, and powerful approach to identify changes in intracellular metabolic networks in filamentous fungi. 2) VeA coordinates the biosynthesis of secondary

  4. Fasting and postprandial regulation of the intracellular localization of adiponectin and of adipokines secretion by dietary fat in rats

    PubMed Central

    Olivares-García, V; Torre-Villalvazo, I; Velázquez-Villegas, L; Alemán, G; Lara, N; López-Romero, P; Torres, N; Tovar, A R; Díaz-Villaseñor, A

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective: Dietary fat sources modulate fasting serum concentration of adipokines, particularly adiponectin. However, previous studies utilized obese animals in which adipose tissue function is severely altered. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the postprandial regulation of adipokine secretion in nonobese rats that consumed high-fat diet (HFD) composed of different types of fat for a short time. Methods: The rats were fed a control diet or a HFD containing coconut, safflower or soybean oil (rich in saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid or polyunsaturated fatty acid, respectively) for 21 days. The serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, retinol, retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4), visfatin and resistin were determined at fasting and after refeeding. Adiponectin multimerization and intracellular localization, as well as the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones and transcriptional regulators, were evaluated in epididymal white adipose tissue. Results: In HFD-fed rats, serum adiponectin was significantly decreased 30 min after refeeding. With coconut oil, all three multimeric forms were reduced; with safflower oil, only the high-molecular-weight (HMW) and medium-molecular-weight (MMW) forms were decreased; and with soybean oil, only the HMW form was diminished. These reductions were due not to modifications in mRNA abundance or adiponectin multimerization but rather to an increment in intracellular localization at the ER and plasma membrane. Thus, when rats consumed a HFD, the type of dietary fat differentially affected the abundance of endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 44 kDa (ERp44), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) mRNAs, all of which are involved in the post-translational processing of adiponectin required for its secretion. Leptin, RBP-4, resistin and visfatin serum concentrations did not change during fasting, whereas modest alterations were observed after

  5. Improved localization of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in cells with 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl-tetrazolium chloride as fluorescent redox dye reveals its cell cycle-dependent regulation.

    PubMed

    Frederiks, Wilma M; van Marle, Jan; van Oven, Carel; Comin-Anduix, Begonya; Cascante, Marta

    2006-01-01

    Since the introduction of cyano-ditolyl-tetrazolium chloride (CTC), a tetrazolium salt that gives rise to a fluorescent formazan after reduction, it has been applied to quantify activity of dehydrogenases in individual cells using flow cytometry. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed that the fluorescent formazan was exclusively localized at the surface of individual cells and not at intracellular sites of enzyme activity. In the present study, the technique has been optimized to localize activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) intracellularly in individual cells. Activity was demonstrated in cultured fibrosarcoma cells in different stages of the cell cycle. Cells were incubated for the detection of G6PD activity using a medium containing 6% (w/v) polyvinyl alcohol, 5 mM CTC, magnesium chloride, sodium azide, the electron carrier methoxyphenazine methosulphate, NADP, and glucose-6-phosphate. Before incubation, cells were permeabilized with 0.025% glutaraldehyde. Fluorescent formazan was localized exclusively in the cytoplasm of fibrosarcoma cells. The amount of fluorescent formazan in cells increased linearly with incubation time when measured with flow cytometry and CLSM. When combining the Hoechst staining for DNA with the CTC method for the demonstration of G6PD activity, flow cytometry showed that G6PD activity of cells in S phase and G2/M phase is 27 +/- 4% and 43 +/- 4% higher, respectively, than that of cells in G1 phase. CLSM revealed that cells in all phases of mitosis as well as during apoptosis contained considerably lower G6PD activity than cells in interphase. It is concluded that posttranslational regulation of G6PD is responsible for this cell cycle-dependent activity.

  6. Combined Changes in Chloride Regulation and Neuronal Excitability Enable Primary Afferent Depolarization to Elicit Spiking without Compromising its Inhibitory Effects

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The central terminals of primary afferent fibers experience depolarization upon activation of GABAA receptors (GABAAR) because their intracellular chloride concentration is maintained above electrochemical equilibrium. Primary afferent depolarization (PAD) normally mediates inhibition via sodium channel inactivation and shunting but can evoke spikes under certain conditions. Antidromic (centrifugal) conduction of these spikes may contribute to neurogenic inflammation while orthodromic (centripetal) conduction could contribute to pain in the case of nociceptive fibers. PAD-induced spiking is assumed to override presynaptic inhibition. Using computer simulations and dynamic clamp experiments, we sought to identify which biophysical changes are required to enable PAD-induced spiking and whether those changes necessarily compromise PAD-mediated inhibition. According to computational modeling, a depolarizing shift in GABA reversal potential (EGABA) and increased intrinsic excitability (manifest as altered spike initiation properties) were necessary for PAD-induced spiking, whereas increased GABAAR conductance density (ḡGABA) had mixed effects. We tested our predictions experimentally by using dynamic clamp to insert virtual GABAAR conductances with different EGABA and kinetics into acutely dissociated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron somata. Comparable experiments in central axon terminals are prohibitively difficult but the biophysical requirements for PAD-induced spiking are arguably similar in soma and axon. Neurons from naïve (i.e. uninjured) rats were compared before and after pharmacological manipulation of intrinsic excitability, and against neurons from nerve-injured rats. Experimental data confirmed that, in most neurons, both predicted changes were necessary to yield PAD-induced spiking. Importantly, such changes did not prevent PAD from inhibiting other spiking or from blocking spike propagation. In fact, since the high value of ḡGABA required for PAD

  7. Quercetin Regulates Sestrin 2-AMPK-mTOR Signaling Pathway and Induces Apoptosis via Increased Intracellular ROS in HCT116 Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Guen Tae; Lee, Se Hee; Kim, Young Min

    2013-09-01

    The suppression of abnormal cell proliferation is therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer. In this study, we investigated the regulatory mechanism of quercetin-induced apoptosis through regulation of Sestrin 2 and AMPK signaling pathway. After treatment of quercetin to colon cancer cells, intracellular ROS was detected using by DCFH-DA. To examine how quercetin and H2O2 induced apoptosis, we analyzed the change of Sestrin 2, p53 expression and p-AMPKα1, p-mTOR levels by Western blotting. To evaluate the effect of intracellular ROS generated by quercetin on colon cancer cells, NAC, anti-oxidative agent, was co-treated. Quercetin increased apoptotic cell death though generating intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and it was responsible for Sestrin 2 expression. Increased Sestrin 2 expression was accompanied by AMPK activation. Interestingly, mTOR activity by Sestirn 2 expression was dependent on AMPK phosphorylation. On the other hand, the expression of Sestrin 2 by quercetin-generated intracellular ROS was independent of p53. We suggested that quercetin-induced apoptosis involved Sestrin 2/AMPK/mTOR pathway, which was regulated by increased intracellular ROS by quercetin.

  8. Role of H(+)-pyrophosphatase activity in the regulation of intracellular pH in a scuticociliate parasite of turbot: Physiological effects.

    PubMed

    Mallo, Natalia; Lamas, Jesús; de Felipe, Ana-Paula; Sueiro, Rosa-Ana; Fontenla, Francisco; Leiro, José-Manuel

    2016-10-01

    The scuticociliatosis is a very serious disease that affects the cultured turbot, and whose causal agent is the anphizoic and marine euryhaline ciliate Philasterides dicentrarchi. Several protozoans possess acidic organelles that contain high concentrations of pyrophosphate (PPi), Ca(2+) and other elements with essential roles in vesicular trafficking, pH homeostasis and osmoregulation. P. dicentrarchi possesses a pyrophosphatase (H(+)-PPase) that pumps H(+) through the membranes of vacuolar and alveolar sacs. These compartments share common features with the acidocalcisomes described in other parasitic protozoa (e.g. acid content and Ca(2+) storage). We evaluated the effects of Ca(2+) and ATP on H (+)-PPase activity in this ciliate and analyzed their role in maintaining intracellular pH homeostasis and osmoregulation, by the addition of PPi and inorganic molecules that affect osmolarity. Addition of PPi led to acidification of the intracellular compartments, while the addition of ATP, CaCl2 and bisphosphonates analogous of PPi and Ca(2+) metabolism regulators led to alkalinization and a decrease in H(+)-PPase expression in trophozoites. Addition of NaCl led to proton release, intracellular Ca(2+) accumulation and downregulation of H(+)-PPase expression. We conclude that the regulation of the acidification of intracellular compartments may be essential for maintaining the intracellular pH homeostasis necessary for survival of ciliates and their adaptation to salt stress, which they will presumably face during the endoparasitic phase, in which the salinity levels are lower than in their natural environment.

  9. TRPC1 regulates calcium‐activated chloride channels in salivary gland cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuyang; Birnbaumer, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Calcium‐activated chloride channel (CaCC) plays an important role in modulating epithelial secretion. It has been suggested that in salivary tissues, sustained fluid secretion is dependent on Ca2+ influx that activates ion channels such as CaCC to initiate Cl− efflux. However direct evidence as well as the molecular identity of the Ca2+ channel responsible for activating CaCC in salivary tissues is not yet identified. Here we provide evidence that in human salivary cells, an outward rectifying Cl− current was activated by increasing [Ca2+]i, which was inhibited by the addition of pharmacological agents niflumic acid (NFA), an antagonist of CaCC, or T16Ainh‐A01, a specific TMEM16a inhibitor. Addition of thapsigargin (Tg), that induces store‐depletion and activates TRPC1‐mediated Ca2+ entry, potentiated the Cl− current, which was inhibited by the addition of a non‐specific TRPC channel blocker SKF96365 or removal of external Ca2+. Stimulation with Tg also increased plasma membrane expression of TMEM16a protein, which was also dependent on Ca2+ entry. Importantly, in salivary cells, TRPC1 silencing, but not that of TRPC3, inhibited CaCC especially upon store depletion. Moreover, primary acinar cells isolated from submandibular gland also showed outward rectifying Cl− currents upon increasing [Ca2+]i. These Cl− currents were again potentiated with the addition of Tg, but inhibited in the presence of T16Ainh‐A01. Finally, acinar cells isolated from the submandibular glands of TRPC1 knockout mice showed significant inhibition of the outward Cl− currents without decreasing TMEM16a expression. Together the data suggests that Ca2+ entry via the TRPC1 channels is essential for the activation of CaCC. J. Cell. Physiol. 9999: 2848–2856, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25899321

  10. TRPC1 regulates calcium-activated chloride channels in salivary gland cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuyang; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Singh, Brij B

    2015-11-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) plays an important role in modulating epithelial secretion. It has been suggested that in salivary tissues, sustained fluid secretion is dependent on Ca(2+) influx that activates ion channels such as CaCC to initiate Cl(-) efflux. However direct evidence as well as the molecular identity of the Ca(2+) channel responsible for activating CaCC in salivary tissues is not yet identified. Here we provide evidence that in human salivary cells, an outward rectifying Cl(-) current was activated by increasing [Ca(2+)]i, which was inhibited by the addition of pharmacological agents niflumic acid (NFA), an antagonist of CaCC, or T16Ainh-A01, a specific TMEM16a inhibitor. Addition of thapsigargin (Tg), that induces store-depletion and activates TRPC1-mediated Ca(2+) entry, potentiated the Cl(-) current, which was inhibited by the addition of a non-specific TRPC channel blocker SKF96365 or removal of external Ca(2+). Stimulation with Tg also increased plasma membrane expression of TMEM16a protein, which was also dependent on Ca(2+) entry. Importantly, in salivary cells, TRPC1 silencing, but not that of TRPC3, inhibited CaCC especially upon store depletion. Moreover, primary acinar cells isolated from submandibular gland also showed outward rectifying Cl(-) currents upon increasing [Ca(2+)]i. These Cl(-) currents were again potentiated with the addition of Tg, but inhibited in the presence of T16Ainh-A01. Finally, acinar cells isolated from the submandibular glands of TRPC1 knockout mice showed significant inhibition of the outward Cl(-) currents without decreasing TMEM16a expression. Together the data suggests that Ca(2+) entry via the TRPC1 channels is essential for the activation of CaCC.

  11. Chloride channel ClC-5 binds to aspartyl aminopeptidase to regulate renal albumin endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Aven; Slattery, Craig; Nikolic-Paterson, David J; Hryciw, Deanne H; Wilk, Sherwin; Wilk, Elizabeth; Zhang, Yuan; Valova, Valentina A; Robinson, Phillip J; Kelly, Darren J; Poronnik, Philip

    2015-04-01

    ClC-5 is a chloride/proton exchanger that plays an obligate role in albumin uptake by the renal proximal tubule. ClC-5 forms an endocytic complex with the albumin receptor megalin/cubilin. We have identified a novel ClC-5 binding partner, cytosolic aspartyl aminopeptidase (DNPEP; EC 3.4.11.21), that catalyzes the release of N-terminal aspartate/glutamate residues. The physiological role of DNPEP remains largely unresolved. Mass spectrometric analysis of proteins binding to the glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-ClC-5 C terminus identified DNPEP as an interacting partner. Coimmunoprecipitation confirmed that DNPEP and ClC-5 also associated in cells. Further experiments using purified GST-ClC-5 and His-DNPEP proteins demonstrated that the two proteins bound directly to each other. In opossum kidney (OK) cells, confocal immunofluorescence studies revealed that DNPEP colocalized with albumin-containing endocytic vesicles. Overexpression of wild-type DNPEP increased cell-surface levels of ClC-5 and albumin uptake. Analysis of DNPEP-immunoprecipitated products from rat kidney lysate identified β-actin and tubulin, suggesting a role for DNPEP in cytoskeletal maintenance. A DNase I inhibition assay showed a significant decrease in the amount of G actin when DNPEP was overexpressed in OK cells, suggesting a role for DNPEP in stabilizing the cytoskeleton. DNPEP was not present in the urine of healthy rats; however, it was readily detected in the urine in rat models of mild and heavy proteinuria (diabetic nephropathy and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, respectively). Urinary levels of DNPEP were found to correlate with the severity of proteinuria. Therefore, we have identified another key molecular component of the albumin endocytic machinery in the renal proximal tubule and describe a new role for DNPEP in stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton.

  12. Regulation of p53 by metal ions and by antioxidants: dithiocarbamate down-regulates p53 DNA-binding activity by increasing the intracellular level of copper.

    PubMed Central

    Verhaegh, G W; Richard, M J; Hainaut, P

    1997-01-01

    Mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene frequently fall within the specific DNA-binding domain and prevent the molecule from transactivating normal targets. DNA-binding activity is regulated in vitro by metal ions and by redox conditions, but whether these factors also regulate p53 in vivo is unclear. To address this question, we have analyzed the effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on p53 DNA-binding activity in cell lines expressing wild-type p53. PDTC is commonly regarded as an antioxidant, but it can also bind and transport external copper ions into cells and thus exert either pro- or antioxidant effects in different situations. We report that PDTC, but not N-acetyl-L-cysteine, down-regulated the specific DNA-binding activity of p53. Loss of DNA binding correlated with disruption of the immunologically "wild-type" p53 conformation. Using different chelators to interfere with copper transport by PDTC, we found that bathocuproinedisulfonic acid (BCS), a non-cell-permeable chelator of Cu1+, prevented both copper import and p53 down-regulation. In contrast, 1,10-orthophenanthroline, a cell-permeable chelator of Cu2+, promoted the redox activity of copper and up-regulated p53 DNA-binding activity through a DNA damage-dependent pathway. We have previously reported that p53 protein binds copper in vitro in the form of Cu1+ (P. Hainaut, N. Rolley, M. Davies, and J. Milner, Oncogene 10:27-32, 1995). The data reported here indicate that intracellular levels and redox activity of copper are critical for p53 protein conformation and DNA-binding activity and suggest that copper ions may participate in the physiological control of p53 function. PMID:9315628

  13. Lysosome-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) regulate intracellular positioning of mitochondria in MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Rajapakshe, Anupama R; Podyma-Inoue, Katarzyna A; Terasawa, Kazue; Hasegawa, Katsuya; Namba, Toshimitsu; Kumei, Yasuhiro; Yanagishita, Masaki; Hara-Yokoyama, Miki

    2015-02-01

    The intracellular positioning of both lysosomes and mitochondria meets the requirements of degradation and energy supply, which are respectively the two major functions for cellular maintenance. The positioning of both lysosomes and mitochondria is apparently affected by the nutrient status of the cells. However, the mechanism coordinating the positioning of the organelles has not been sufficiently elucidated. Lysosome-associated membrane proteins-1 and -2 (LAMP-1 and LAMP-2) are highly glycosylated proteins that are abundant in lysosomal membranes. In the present study, we demonstrated that the siRNA-mediated downregulation of LAMP-1, LAMP-2 or their combination enhanced the perinuclear localization of mitochondria, in the pre-osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1. On the other hand, in the osteocytic cell line MLO-Y4, in which both the lysosomes and mitochondria originally accumulate in the perinuclear region and mitochondria also fill dendrites, the effect of siRNA of LAMP-1 or LAMP-2 was barely observed. LAMPs are not directly associated with mitochondria, and there do not seem to be any accessory molecules commonly required to recruit the motor proteins to lysosomes and mitochondria. Our results suggest that LAMPs may regulate the positioning of lysosomes and mitochondria. A possible mechanism involving the indirect and context-dependent action of LAMPs is discussed.

  14. Sympathetic regulation of vascular tone via noradrenaline and serotonin in the rat carotid body as revealed by intracellular calcium imaging.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Takuya; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Kusakabe, Tatsumi; Yamamoto, Yoshio

    2015-01-30

    Hypoxia-induced chemosensory activity in the carotid body (CB) may be enhanced by the sympathetic regulation of vascular tone in the CB. In the present study, we recorded cervical sympathetic nerve activity in rats exposed to hypoxia, and examined noradrenaline (NA)- and serotonin (5-HT)-induced intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) responses in smooth muscle cells and pericytes in isolated blood vessels from the CB. Multifiber electrical activity recorded from the cervical sympathetic trunk was increased during the inhalation of hypoxic gas. NA induced [Ca(2+)]i increases in smooth muscle cells in arteriole specimens, whereas 5-HT did not cause any [Ca(2+)]i responses. However, NA did not induce [Ca(2+)]i increases in pericytes in capillaries, whereas 5-HT did and this response was inhibited by the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, ketanserin. In conclusion, cervical sympathetic nerves enhanced by hypoxia may reduce blood flow in the CB in order to increase chemosensitivity. Thus, hypoxic chemosensitivity in the CB may involve a positive feedback mechanism via sympathetic nerves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Proton/l-Glutamate Symport and the Regulation of Intracellular pH in Isolated Mesophyll Cells.

    PubMed

    Snedden, W A; Chung, I; Pauls, R H; Bown, A W

    1992-06-01

    Addition of l-[U-(14)C]glutamate to a suspension of mechanically isolated asparagus (Asparagus sprengeri Regel) mesophyll cells results in (a) alkalinization of the medium, (b) uptake of l-[U-(14)C]glutamate, and (c) efflux of [(14)C]4-aminobutyrate, a product of glutamate decarboxylation. All three phenomena were eliminated by treatment with 1 millimolar aminooxyacetate. In vitro glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) assays showed that (a) 2 millimolar aminooxyacetate eliminated enzyme activity, (b) activity was pyridoxal phosphate-dependent, and (c) activity exhibited a sharp pH optimum at 6.0 that decreased to 20% of optimal activity at pH 5.0 and 7.0. Addition of 1.5 millimolar sodium butyrate or sodium acetate to cell suspensions caused immediate alkalinization of the medium followed by a resumption of acidification of the medium at a rate approximately double the initial rate. The data indicate that (a) continued H(+)/l-glutamate contransport is dependent upon GAD activity, (b) the pH-dependent properties of GAD are consistent with a role in a metabolic pH-stat, and (c) the regulation of intracellular pH during H(+)/l-Glu symport may involve both H(+) consumption during 4-aminobutyrate production and ATP-driven H(+) efflux.

  16. Regulation of outer hair cell cytoskeletal stiffness by intracellular Ca2+: underlying mechanism and implications for cochlear mechanics.

    PubMed

    Frolenkov, Gregory I; Mammano, Fabio; Kachar, Bechara

    2003-03-01

    Two Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms have been proposed to regulate the mechanical properties of outer hair cells (OHCs), the sensory-motor receptors of the mammalian cochlea. One involves the efferent neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, decreasing OHC axial stiffness. The other depends on elevation of intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) resulting in OHC elongation, a process known as Ca(2+)-dependent slow motility. Here we provide evidence that both these phenomena share a common mechanism. In whole-cell patch-clamp conditions, a fast increase of [Ca(2+)](i) by UV-photolysis of caged Ca(2+) or by extracellular application of Ca(2+)-ionophore, ionomycin, produced relatively slow (time constant approximately 20s) cell elongation. When OHCs were partially collapsed by applying minimal negative pressure through the patch pipette, elevation of the [Ca(2+)](i) up to millimole levels (estimated by Fura-2) was unable to restore the cylindrical shape of the OHC. Stiffness measurements with vibrating elastic probes showed that the increase of [Ca(2+)](i) causes a decrease of OHC axial stiffness, with time course similar to that of the Ca(2+)-dependent elongation, without developing any measurable force. We concluded that, contrary to a previous proposal, Ca(2+)-induced OHC elongation is unlikely to be driven by circumferential contraction of the lateral wall, but is more likely a passive mechanical reaction of the turgid OHC to Ca(2+)-induced decrease of axial stiffness. This may be the key phenomenon for controlling gain and operating point of the cochlear amplifier.

  17. Proton/l-Glutamate Symport and the Regulation of Intracellular pH in Isolated Mesophyll Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Snedden, Wayne A.; Chung, Induk; Pauls, Randy H.; Bown, Alan W.

    1992-01-01

    Addition of l-[U-14C]glutamate to a suspension of mechanically isolated asparagus (Asparagus sprengeri Regel) mesophyll cells results in (a) alkalinization of the medium, (b) uptake of l-[U-14C]glutamate, and (c) efflux of [14C]4-aminobutyrate, a product of glutamate decarboxylation. All three phenomena were eliminated by treatment with 1 millimolar aminooxyacetate. In vitro glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) assays showed that (a) 2 millimolar aminooxyacetate eliminated enzyme activity, (b) activity was pyridoxal phosphate-dependent, and (c) activity exhibited a sharp pH optimum at 6.0 that decreased to 20% of optimal activity at pH 5.0 and 7.0. Addition of 1.5 millimolar sodium butyrate or sodium acetate to cell suspensions caused immediate alkalinization of the medium followed by a resumption of acidification of the medium at a rate approximately double the initial rate. The data indicate that (a) continued H+/l-glutamate contransport is dependent upon GAD activity, (b) the pH-dependent properties of GAD are consistent with a role in a metabolic pH-stat, and (c) the regulation of intracellular pH during H+/l-Glu symport may involve both H+ consumption during 4-aminobutyrate production and ATP-driven H+ efflux. PMID:16668938

  18. The ocular albinism type 1 protein, an intracellular G protein-coupled receptor, regulates melanosome transport in pigment cells.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Ilaria; Bagnato, Paola; Palmigiano, Angela; Innamorati, Giulio; Rotondo, Giuseppe; Altimare, Domenico; Venturi, Consuelo; Sviderskaya, Elena V; Piccirillo, Rosanna; Coppola, Massimiliano; Marigo, Valeria; Incerti, Barbara; Ballabio, Andrea; Surace, Enrico M; Tacchetti, Carlo; Bennett, Dorothy C; Schiaffino, Maria Vittoria

    2008-11-15

    The protein product of the ocular albinism type 1 gene, named OA1, is a pigment cell-specific G protein-coupled receptor exclusively localized to intracellular organelles, namely lysosomes and melanosomes. Loss of OA1 function leads to the formation of macromelanosomes, suggesting that this receptor is implicated in organelle biogenesis, however the mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of the disease remains obscure. We report here the identification of an unexpected abnormality in melanosome distribution both in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and skin melanocytes of Oa1-knock-out (KO) mice, consisting in a displacement of the organelles from the central cytoplasm towards the cell periphery. Despite their depletion from the microtubule (MT)-enriched perinuclear region, Oa1-KO melanosomes were able to aggregate at the centrosome upon disruption of the actin cytoskeleton or expression of a dominant-negative construct of myosin Va. Consistently, quantification of organelle transport in living cells revealed that Oa1-KO melanosomes displayed a severe reduction in MT-based motility; however, this defect was rescued to normal following inhibition of actin-dependent capture at the cell periphery. Together, these data point to a defective regulation of organelle transport in the absence of OA1 and imply that the cytoskeleton might represent a downstream effector of this receptor. Furthermore, our results enlighten a novel function for OA1 in pigment cells and suggest that ocular albinism type 1 might result from a different pathogenetic mechanism than previously thought, based on an organelle-autonomous signalling pathway implicated in the regulation of both membrane traffic and transport.

  19. RGS2 regulates urotensin II-induced intracellular Ca2+ elevation and contraction in glomerular mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Adebiyi, Adebowale

    2014-04-01

    Urotensin II (UII), a vasoactive peptide modulates renal hemodynamics. However, the physiological functions of UII in glomerular cells are unclear. In particular, whether UII alters mesangial tone remains largely unknown. The present study investigates the physiological effects of UII on glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs). This study also tested the hypothesis that the regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) controls UII receptor (UTR) activity in GMCs. RT-PCR, Western immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence revealed UTR expression in cultured murine GMCs. Mouse UII (mUII) stimulated Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores and activated store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) in the cells. mUII also caused a reduction in planar GMC surface area. mUII-induced [Ca(2+)]i elevation and contraction were attenuated by SB 657510, a UTR antagonist, araguspongin B, an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor antagonist, thapsigargin, a sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor, and La(3+), a store-operated Ca(2+) channel blocker, but not nimodipine, an L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker. In situ proximity ligation assay indicated molecular proximity between endogenous RGS2 and UTR in the cells. Treatment of GMCs with mUII elevated plasma membrane expression of RGS2 by ∼2-fold. mUII also increased the interaction between RGS2 and UTR in the cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of RGS2 in murine GMCs increased mUII-induced [Ca(2+)]i elevation and contraction by ∼35 and 31%, respectively. These findings indicate that mUII-induced SOCE results in murine GMC contraction. These data also suggest that UTR activation stimulates RGS2 recruitment to GMC plasma membrane as a negative feedback mechanism to regulate UTR signaling. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Conserved Ankyrin Repeat Proteins and Their NIMA Kinase Partners Regulate Extracellular Matrix Remodeling and Intracellular Trafficking in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Lažetić, Vladimir; Fay, David S

    2017-01-01

    Molting is an essential developmental process in nematodes during which the epidermal apical extracellular matrix, the cuticle, is remodeled to accommodate further growth. Using genetic approaches, we identified a requirement for three conserved ankyrin repeat-rich proteins, MLT-2/ANKS6, MLT-3/ANKS3, and MLT-4/INVS, in Caenorhabditis elegans molting. Loss of mlt function resulted in severe defects in the ability of larvae to shed old cuticle and led to developmental arrest. Genetic analyses demonstrated that MLT proteins functionally cooperate with the conserved NIMA kinase family members NEKL-2/NEK8 and NEKL-3/NEK6/NEK7 to promote cuticle shedding. MLT and NEKL proteins were specifically required within the hyp7 epidermal syncytium, and fluorescently tagged mlt and nekl alleles were expressed in puncta within this tissue. Expression studies further showed that NEKL-2-MLT-2-MLT-4 and NEKL-3-MLT-3 colocalize within largely distinct assemblies of apical foci. MLT-2 and MLT-4 were required for the normal accumulation of NEKL-2 at the hyp7-seam cell boundary, and loss of mlt-2 caused abnormal nuclear accumulation of NEKL-2 Correspondingly, MLT-3, which bound directly to NEKL-3, prevented NEKL-3 nuclear localization, supporting the model that MLT proteins may serve as molecular scaffolds for NEKL kinases. Our studies additionally showed that the NEKL-MLT network regulates early steps in clathrin-mediated endocytosis at the apical surface of hyp7, which may in part account for molting defects observed in nekl and mlt mutants. This study has thus identified a conserved NEKL-MLT protein network that regulates remodeling of the apical extracellular matrix and intracellular trafficking, functions that may be conserved across species.

  1. Cyclic AMP regulation of arachidonic acid (AA) release and phospholipid metabolism in human monocytes: modulation by intracellular calcium

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffstein, S.T.; Manzi, R.M.; Godfrey, R.W.

    1986-05-01

    Stimulation of inflammatory cells by specific ligands results in activation of phospholipase(s) and production of oxygenation products of AA. The authors have employed (/sup 3/H)AA labeled monocytes to examine the involvement of cAMP in regulating phospholipase activity as measured by percent of incorporated (/sup 3/H)AA released and TLC analysis of (/sup 3/H)AA cellular lipids. Maximum release of radiolabel (31 +/- 5%) occurred upon challenge with the calcium ionophore A23187/sup -/ (10..mu..M), while FMLP (1..mu..M) yielded 15 +/- 1% and untreated cells 8 +/- 1%. Pretreatment of monocytes with isobutyl methyl xanthine/sup -/(IBMX) or dibutyrl cyclic AMP (d-cAMP) inhibited FMLP stimulated release with IC/sub 50/'s of 2.5 x 10/sup -5/M and 8 x 10/sup -5/M respectively. Exposure of monocytes to maximal levels of IBMX (5 x 10/sup -4/M) or d-cAMP (10/sup -3/M) also reduced release from controls by 40%, while A23187 induced release was uneffected by either. Examination of (/sup 3/H) AA labeled phospholipids showed that phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylinositol were the major pools labeled and that stimulation by FMLP or A23187 appeared to deplete the PC pool exclusively. Prior exposure to IBMX or d-cAMP inhibited the loss from the PC pool only in untreated or FMLP stimulated cells. The data suggests that a phospholipase A/sub 2/ activity, directly primarily towards PC, is regulated by cAMP possibly by inhibiting receptor mediated increases in intracellular calcium levels.

  2. Horizontal cell feedback regulates calcium currents and intracellular calcium levels in rod photoreceptors of salamander and mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Babai, Norbert; Thoreson, Wallace B

    2009-01-01

    We tested whether horizontal cells (HCs) provide feedback that regulates the Ca2+ current (ICa) of rods in salamander and mouse retinas. In both species, hyperpolarizing HCs by puffing a glutamate antagonist, 6,7-dinitro-quinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX), onto HC processes caused a negative shift in the voltage dependence of rod ICa and increased its peak amplitude. Conversely, depolarizing HCs by puffing kainic acid (KA) into the outer plexiform layer (OPL) caused a positive voltage shift and decreased rod ICa. Experiments on salamander retina showed that these effects were blocked by addition of the pH buffer, Hepes. Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was examined in rods by confocal microscopy after loading salamander and mouse retinal slices with Fluo-4. Rods were depolarized to near the dark resting potential by bath application of high K+ solutions. Hyperpolarizing HCs with 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulphamoylbenzo[f]quinoxaline (NBQX) enhanced high K+-evoked Ca2+ increases whereas depolarizing HCs with KA inhibited Ca2+ increases. In both species these effects of NBQX and KA were blocked by addition of Hepes. Thus, like HC feedback in cones, changes in HC membrane potential modulate rod ICa thereby regulating rod [Ca2+]i at physiological voltages, in both mouse and salamander retinas. By countering the reduced synaptic output that accompanies hyperpolarization of rods to light, HC feedback will subtract spatially averaged luminance levels from the responses of individual rods to local changes. The finding that HC to rod feedback is present in both amphibian and mammalian species shows that this mechanism is highly conserved across vertebrate retinas. PMID:19332495

  3. Horizontal cell feedback regulates calcium currents and intracellular calcium levels in rod photoreceptors of salamander and mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Babai, Norbert; Thoreson, Wallace B

    2009-05-15

    We tested whether horizontal cells (HCs) provide feedback that regulates the Ca(2+) current (I(Ca)) of rods in salamander and mouse retinas. In both species, hyperpolarizing HCs by puffing a glutamate antagonist, 6,7-dinitro-quinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX), onto HC processes caused a negative shift in the voltage dependence of rod I(Ca) and increased its peak amplitude. Conversely, depolarizing HCs by puffing kainic acid (KA) into the outer plexiform layer (OPL) caused a positive voltage shift and decreased rod I(Ca.) Experiments on salamander retina showed that these effects were blocked by addition of the pH buffer, Hepes. Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) was examined in rods by confocal microscopy after loading salamander and mouse retinal slices with Fluo-4. Rods were depolarized to near the dark resting potential by bath application of high K(+) solutions. Hyperpolarizing HCs with 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulphamoylbenzo[f]quinoxaline (NBQX) enhanced high K(+)-evoked Ca(2+) increases whereas depolarizing HCs with KA inhibited Ca(2+) increases. In both species these effects of NBQX and KA were blocked by addition of Hepes. Thus, like HC feedback in cones, changes in HC membrane potential modulate rod I(Ca) thereby regulating rod [Ca(2+)](i) at physiological voltages, in both mouse and salamander retinas. By countering the reduced synaptic output that accompanies hyperpolarization of rods to light, HC feedback will subtract spatially averaged luminance levels from the responses of individual rods to local changes. The finding that HC to rod feedback is present in both amphibian and mammalian species shows that this mechanism is highly conserved across vertebrate retinas.

  4. AMP-activated kinase in human spermatozoa: identification, intracellular localization, and key function in the regulation of sperm motility.

    PubMed

    Calle-Guisado, Violeta; de Llera, Ana Hurtado; Martin-Hidalgo, David; Mijares, Jose; Gil, Maria C; Alvarez, Ignacio S; Bragado, Maria J; Garcia-Marin, Luis J

    2016-09-27

    AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), a protein that regulates energy balance and metabolism, has recently been identified in boar spermatozoa where regulates key functional sperm processes essential for fertilization. This work's aims are AMPK identification, intracellular localization, and their role in human spermatozoa function. Semen was obtained from healthy human donors. Sperm AMPK and phospho-Thr172-AMPK were analyzed by Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence. High- and low-quality sperm populations were separated by a 40%-80% density gradient. Human spermatozoa motility was evaluated by an Integrated Semen Analysis System (ISAS) in the presence or absence of the AMPK inhibitor compound C (CC). AMPK is localized along the human spermatozoa, at the entire acrosome, midpiece and tail with variable intensity, whereas its active form, phospho-Thr172-AMPK, shows a prominent staining at the acrosome and sperm tail with a weaker staining in the midpiece and the postacrosomal region. Interestingly, spermatozoa bearing an excess residual cytoplasm show strong AMPK staining in this subcellular compartment. Both AMPK and phospho-Thr172-AMPK human spermatozoa contents exhibit important individual variations. Moreover, active AMPK is predominant in the high motility sperm population, where shows a stronger intensity compared with the low motility sperm population. Inhibition of AMPK activity in human spermatozoa by CC treatment leads to a significant reduction in any sperm motility parameter analyzed: percent of motile sperm, sperm velocities, progressivity, and other motility coefficients. This work identifies and points out AMPK as a new molecular mechanism involved in human spermatozoa motility. Further AMPK implications in the clinical efficiency of assisted reproduction and in other reproductive areas need to be studied.

  5. Dietary salt regulates the phosphorylation of OSR1/SPAK kinases and the sodium chloride cotransporter through aldosterone.

    PubMed

    Chiga, Motoko; Rai, Tatemitsu; Yang, Sung-Sen; Ohta, Akihito; Takizawa, Toichiro; Sasaki, Sei; Uchida, Shinichi

    2008-12-01

    Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII) is caused by mutations in the WNK1 and WNK4 genes (WNK with-no-lysine kinase). In a mouse model of this disease where a mutant of Wnk4 D561A was knocked in, increased phosphorylation of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) was found and the transporter was concentrated on the apical membrane of the distal tubules. In addition, we recently found that other kinases, such as the oxidative stress response kinase-1/STE20/SPS1-related proline alanine-rich kinase (OSR1/SPAK), also showed increased phosphorylation in these mice. Here we determined whether this kinase cascade is regulated by dietary salt intake. We found that the phosphorylation states of NCC and OSR1/SPAK were increased by low-salt diets and decreased by high-salt diets; a regulation completely lost in the knock-in mice. Increased phosphorylation was reversed by spironolactone and this decreased phosphorylation was reversed by administration of exogenous aldosterone. These studies suggest that that the WNK-OSR1/SPAK-NCC cascade may be a novel effector system of aldosterone action in the kidney.

  6. Regulation of intracellular pH values in higher plant cells. Carbon-13 and phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance studies.

    PubMed

    Gout, E; Bligny, R; Douce, R

    1992-07-15

    The regulation of the cytoplasmic and vacuolar pH values (pHc and pHv) in sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells was analyzed using 31P and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Suspension-cultured cells were compressed in the NMR tube and perfused with the help of an original arrangement enabling a tight control of the pH (external pH, pHe) of the carefully oxygenated circulating nutrient medium. Intracellular pH values were measured from the chemical shifts of: CH2-linked carboxyl groups of citric acid below pH 5.7; orthophosphate between pH 5.7 and 8.0; 13C-enriched bicarbonate over pH 8.0. pHc and pHv were independent of pHe over the range 4.5-7.5. In contrast intracellular pH values decreased rapidly below pHe 4.5 and increased progressively at pHe over 7.5. There was an acceleration in the rate of O2 consumption accompanied with a decrease in cytoplasmic ATP concentration as pHe decreased. When the rate of O2 consumption was approaching the uncoupled O2 uptake rate, a loss of pHc control was observed. It is concluded that as pHe decreased, the plasma membrane ATPase consumed more and more ATP to reject the invading H+ ions in order to maintain pHc at a constant value. Below pHe 4.5 the efficiency of the H+ pump to react to back leakage of H+ ions became insufficient, leading to an acidification of pHc and to an alkalinization of pHe. On the other hand, over pHe 7.5 a passive influx of OH- ions was observed, and pHc increased proportionally to the increase of pHe. Simultaneously appreciable amounts of organic acids (malate and citrate) were synthesized by cells during the course of the alkalinization of the cytoplasmic compartment. The synthesis of organic acids which partially counteract the alkalinization of the cytoplasmic compartment may result from a marked activation of the cytoplasmic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase induced by an increase in cytoplasmic bicarbonate concentration. The fluctuations of pHv followed a similar course to that of p

  7. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is an extracellular chloride sensor.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Steven D; Ramjeesingh, Mohabir; Bear, Christine E; Argent, Barry E; Linsdell, Paul; Gray, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a Cl(-) channel that governs the quantity and composition of epithelial secretions. CFTR function is normally tightly controlled as dysregulation can lead to life-threatening diseases such as secretory diarrhoea and cystic fibrosis. CFTR activity is regulated by phosphorylation of its cytosolic regulatory (R) domain, and ATP binding and hydrolysis at two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). Here, we report that CFTR activity is also controlled by extracellular Cl(-) concentration ([Cl(-)]o). Patch clamp current recordings show that a rise in [Cl(-)]o stimulates CFTR channel activity, an effect conferred by a single arginine residue, R899, in extracellular loop 4 of the protein. Using NBD mutants and ATP dose response studies in WT channels, we determined that [Cl(-)]o sensing was linked to changes in ATP binding energy at NBD1, which likely impacts NBD dimer stability. Biochemical measurements showed that increasing [Cl(-)]o decreased the intrinsic ATPase activity of CFTR mainly through a reduction in maximal ATP turnover. Our studies indicate that sensing [Cl(-)]o is a novel mechanism for regulating CFTR activity and suggest that the luminal ionic environment is an important physiological arbiter of CFTR function, which has significant implications for salt and fluid homeostasis in epithelial tissues.

  8. The effect of NO-donors on chloride efflux, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and mRNA expression of CFTR and ENaC in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Oliynyk, Igor; Hussain, Rashida; Amin, Ahmad; Johannesson, Marie; Roomans, Godfried M

    2013-06-01

    Since previous studies showed that the endogenous bronchodilator, S-nitrosglutathione (GSNO), caused a marked increase in CFTR-mediated chloride (Cl(-)) efflux and improved the trafficking of CFTR to the plasma membrane, and that also the nitric oxide (NO)-donor GEA3162 had a similar, but smaller, effect on Cl(-) efflux, it was investigated whether the NO-donor properties of GSNO were relevant for its effect on Cl(-) efflux from airway epithelial cells. Hence, the effect of a number of other NO-donors, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP), diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide adduct (DETA-NO), and diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide adduct (DEA-NONOate) on Cl(-) efflux from CFBE (∆F508/∆F508-CFTR) airway epithelial cells was tested. Cl(-) efflux was determined using the fluorescent N-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-6-methoxyquinoliniu bromide (MQAE)-technique. Possible changes in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration were tested by the fluorescent fluo-4 method in a confocal microscope system. Like previously with GSNO, after 4 h incubation with the NO-donor, an increased Cl(-) efflux was found (in the order SNAP>DETA-NO>SNP). The effect of DEA-NONOate on Cl(-) efflux was not significant, and the compound may have (unspecific) deleterious effects on the cells. Again, as with GSNO, after a short (5 min) incubation, SNP had no significant effect on Cl(-) efflux. None of the NO-donors that had a significant effect on Cl(-) efflux caused significant changes in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. After 4 h preincubation, SNP caused a significant increase in the mRNA expression of CFTR. SNAP and DEA-NONOate decreased the mRNA expression of all ENaC subunits significantly. DETA-NO caused a significant decrease only in α-ENaC expression. After a short preincubation, none of the NO-donors had a significant effect, neither on the expression of CFTR, nor on that of the ENaC subunits in the presence and absence of L-cysteine. It can be concluded that

  9. Expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator corrects defective chloride channel regulation in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, Devra P.; Anderson, Matthew P.; Gregory, Richard J.; Cheng, Seng H.; Paul, Sucharita; Jefferson, Douglas M.; McCann, John D.; Klinger, Katherine W.; Smith, Alan E.; Welsh, Michael J.

    1990-09-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) was expressed in cultured cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells and Cl- channel activation assessed in single cells using a fluorescence microscopic assay and the patch-clamp technique. Expression of CFTR, but not of a mutant form of CFTR (ΔF508), corrected the Cl- channel defect. Correction of the phenotypic defect demonstrates a causal relationship between mutations in the CFTR gene and defective Cl- transport which is the hallmark of the disease.

  10. Involvement of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 in the Regulation of Selective Excretion of Sodium or Chloride Ions by the Kidneys.

    PubMed

    Marina, A S; Kutina, A V; Shakhmatoba, E I; Natochin, Yu V

    2017-02-01

    An increase of total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentration in the plasma in rats was revealed 5 min after oral, but not intraperitoneal administration of NaCl or Trizma HCl solutions. The increase in GLP-1 level was similar to that after oral glucose administration. After intraperitoneal administration of 2.5% NaCl, GLP-1 mimetic exenatide accelerated natriuresis and urinary chloride excretion. Under conditions of normonatriemia and hyperchloremia induced by injection of 6.7% Trizma HCl, exenatide stimulated chloride excretion and reabsorption of sodium ions in the kidneys. These findings suggest that GLP-1 participates in selective regulation of the balance of sodium and chloride ions.

  11. Regulation of intracellular cyclic AMP in skeletal muscle cells involves the efflux of cyclic nucleotide to the extracellular compartment

    PubMed Central

    Godinho, Rosely Oliveira; Costa-Jr, Valter Luiz

    2003-01-01

    This report analyses the intracellular and extracellular accumulation of cyclic AMP in primary rat skeletal muscle cultures, after direct and receptor-dependent stimulation of adenylyl cyclase (AC). Isoprenaline, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and forskolin induced a transient increase in the intracellular cyclic AMP that peaked 5 min after onset stimulation. Under stimulation with isoprenaline or CGRP, the intracellular cyclic AMP initial rise was followed by an exponential decline, reaching 46 and 52% of peak levels in 10 min, respectively. Conversely, the forskolin-dependent accumulation of intracellular cyclic AMP decreased slowly and linearly, reaching 49% of the peak level in 30 min. The loss of intracellular cyclic AMP from peak levels, induced by direct or receptor-induced activation of AC, was followed by an increase in the extracellular cyclic AMP. This effect was independent on PDEs, since it was obtained in the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). Besides, in isoprenaline treated cells, the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol reduced both intra- and extracellular accumulation of cyclic AMP, whereas the organic anion transporter inhibitor probenecid reduced exclusively the extracellular accumulation. Together our data show that direct or receptor-dependent activation of skeletal muscle AC results in a transient increase in the intracellular cyclic AMP, despite the continuous presence of the stimulus. The temporal declining of intracellular cyclic AMP was not dependent on the cyclic AMP breakdown but associated to the efflux of cyclic nucleotide to the extracellular compartment, by an active transport since it was prevented by probenecid. PMID:12642402

  12. Cortisol regulates sodium homeostasis by stimulating the transcription of sodium-chloride transporter (NCC) in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hao; Hu, Huei-Jyun; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2016-02-15

    In mammals, sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) and sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) are expressed in renal tubules, and exhibit functional redundancy and mutual compensation in Na(+) uptake. In teleosts, the gills of the adult and skin of the embryonic stage function as external kidneys, and ionocytes are responsible for ionoregulation in these tissues. NHE- and NCC-expressing ionocytes mutually cooperate to adjust Na(+) uptake, which is analogous to the activity of the mammalian kidney. Cortisol is a hormone that controls Na(+) uptake through regulating NCC expression and activity in mammals; however, cortisol-mediated control of NCC expression is little understood in non-mammalian vertebrates, such as teleosts. It is essential for our understanding of the evolution of such regulation to determine whether cortisol has a conserved effect on NCC in vertebrates. In the present study, we treated zebrafish embryos with low Na(+) medium (LNa, 0.04 mM Na(+)) for 3 d to stimulate the mRNA expression of nhe3b, ncc, and cyp11b1 (a cortisol-synthesis enzyme) and whole body cortisol level. Exogenous cortisol treatment (20 mg/l, 3 d) resulted in an elevation of whole-body Na(+) content, ncc expression, and the density of ncc-expressing cells in zebrafish larvae. In loss-of-function experiments, microinjection of glucocorticoid receptor (gr) morpholino (MO) suppressed sodium content, ncc expression, and the density of ncc-expressing cells, but injection of mr MO had no such effects. In addition, exogenous cortisol treatment and gr MO injection also altered ncc expression and the density of ncc-expressing cells in gcm2 morphant larvae. Taken together, cortisol and GR appear to regulate Na(+) absorption through stimulating ncc expression and the differentiation of ncc-expressing ionocytes, providing new insights into the actions of cortisol on Na(+) uptake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enzymological mechanism for the regulation of lanthanum chloride on flavonoid synthesis of soybean seedlings under enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Caixia; Hu, Huiqing; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    In order to probe into the enzymological mechanism for the regulation of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) on flavonoid synthesis in plants under enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation, the effects of LaCl₃ (20 and 60 mg l(-1)) on the content of flavonoids as well as the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumarate : coenzyme A ligase (4CL), and chalcone synthase (CHS) in soybean seedlings under enhanced UV-B radiation (2.6 and 6.2 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) were investigated. Enhanced UV-B radiation (2.6 and 6.2 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) caused the increase in the content of flavonoids as well as the activities of PAL, C4H, 4CL, and CHS in soybean seedlings. The treatment of 20 mg l(-1) LaCl₃ also efficiently increased these indices, which promoted the flavonoid synthesis and provided protective effects for resisting enhanced UV-B radiation. On the contrary, the treatment of 60 mg l(-1) LaCl₃ decreased the content of flavonoids as well as the activities of C4H, 4CL, and CHS in soybean seedlings except increasing the activity of PAL, which were not beneficial to the flavonoid synthesis and provided negative effects for resisting enhanced UV-B radiation. In conclusion, enhanced UV-B radiation caused the increase in the flavonoid synthesis by promoting the activities of PAL, C4H, 4CL, and CHS in soybean seedlings. The treatment of LaCl₃ could change flavonoid synthesis in soybean seedlings under enhanced UV-B radiation by regulating the activities of PAL, C4H, 4CL, and CHS, which is an enzymological mechanism for the regulation of LaCl₃ on flavonoid synthesis in plants under enhanced UV-B radiation.

  14. The hypertonic environment differentially regulates wild-type CFTR and TNR-CFTR chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Lassance-Soares, Roberta M; Cheng, Jie; Krasnov, Kristina; Cebotaru, Liudmila; Cutting, Garry R; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Morales, Marcelo M; Guggino, William B

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that the hypertonic environment of the renal medulla regulates the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) and its natural splice variant, TNR-CFTR. To accomplish this, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) stable cell lines expressing TNR-CFTR or CFTR were used. The cells were treated with hypertonic medium made with either NaCl or urea or sucrose (480 mOsm/kg or 560 mOsm/kg) to mimic the tonicity of the renal medulla environment. Western blot data showed that CFTR and TNR-CFTR total cell protein is increased by hypertonic medium, but using the surface biotinylation technique, only CFTR was found to be increased in cell plasma membrane. Confocal microscopy showed TNR-CFTR localization primarily at the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane. In conclusion, CFTR and TNR-CFTR have different patterns of distribution in MDCK cells and they are modulated by a hypertonic environment, suggesting their physiological importance in renal medulla.

  15. Regulation of chloride secretion across porcine endometrial epithelial cells by prostaglandin E2.

    PubMed

    Deachapunya, C; O'Grady, S M

    1998-04-01

    1. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of PGE2 regulation of Cl- transport across glandular endometrial cells grown in primary culture. 2. Most of the basal short circuit current (Isc) was inhibited by luminal addition of 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB) or glibenclamide, suggesting the presence of a basally active Cl- conductance in the apical membrane. 3. Basolateral addition of 10 microM PGE2 increased Isc by 41 +/- 3 microA. A similar response was observed when cells were treated with 8-(4-chlorophenylthio) adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (CPT-cAMP). Pretreatment of monolayers with NPPB and glibenclamide blocked the PGE2 and cAMP-mediated increase in Isc, suggesting that the effects of PGE2 and cAMP were dependent on the activity of an apical NPPB- and glibenclamide-sensitive conductance. 4. Addition of 50 nM antiPGE2 antibody to the basolateral bathing solution decreased basal Isc by 20 % and shifted the threshold response to exogenous PGE2. This result suggests autocrine regulation of electrogenic Cl- transport by PGE2. 5. Experiments with amphotericin B-permeabilized monolayers revealed that the apical PGE2-activated, NPPB- and glibenclamide-sensitive conductance was Cl- dependent and that the current-voltage relationship and anion permeation properties (SCN->Br- > Cl- > I-) were characteristic of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). 6. Cultured porcine endometrial epithelial cells were specifically labelled with an antibody to a peptide sequence within the regulatory domain of CFTR. 7. The effect of PGE2 was blocked by basolateral addition of bumetanide and furosemide at concentrations that are selective for inhibition of Na+-K+-2Cl-cotransport activity. The effect of bumetanide on Isc was Cl- dependent, suggesting a role for the bumetanide-sensitive transport pathway in Cl- secretion. 8. PGE2 and cAMP also activated an outwardly rectifying basolateral K+ channel which presumably

  16. Sumoylation regulates nuclear accumulation and signaling activity of the soluble intracellular domain of the erbb4 receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Knittle, Anna Maria; Helkkula, Maria; Johnson, Mark S; Sundvall, Maria; Elenius, Klaus

    2017-10-03

    Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4 (ErbB4) is a kinase that can signal via a proteolytically released intracellular domain (ICD) in addition to classical receptor tyrosine kinase-activated signaling cascades. Previously, we have demonstrated that ErbB4 ICD is posttranslationally modified by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) and functionally interacts with the PIAS3 SUMO E3 ligase. However, direct evidence of SUMO modification in ErbB4 signaling has remained elusive. Here, we report that the conserved lysine residue 714 in the ErbB4 ICD undergoes SUMO modification, which was reversed by sentrin-specific proteases (SENPs) 1, 2 and 5. Although ErbB4 kinase activity was not necessary for the SUMOylation, the SUMOylated ErbB4 ICD was tyrosine phosphorylated to a higher extent than unmodified ErbB4 ICD. Mutation of the SUMOylation site neither compromised ErbB4-induced phosphorylation of the canonical signaling pathway effectors Erk1/2, Akt, or STAT5 nor ErbB4 stability. In contrast, SUMOylation was required for nuclear accumulation of the ErbB4 ICD. We also found that Lys-714 was located within a leucine-rich stretch, which resembles a nuclear export signal, and could be inactivated by site-directed mutagenesis. Furthermore, SUMOylation modulated the interaction of ErbB4 with chromosomal region maintenance 1 (CRM1), the major nuclear export receptor for proteins. Finally, the SUMO acceptor lysine was functionally required for ErbB4 ICD-mediated inhibition of mammary epithelial cell differentiation in a three-dimensional cell culture model. Our findings indicate that a SUMOylation-mediated mechanism regulates nuclear localization and function of the ICD of ErbB4 receptor tyrosine kinase. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  17. Intracellular redox equilibrium is essential for the constitutive expression of AP-1 dependent genes in resting cells: studies on TGF-β1 regulation.

    PubMed

    González-Ramos, Marta; Mora, Inés; de Frutos, Sergio; Garesse, Rafael; Rodríguez-Puyol, Manuel; Olmos, Gemma; Rodríguez-Puyol, Diego

    2012-06-01

    The mechanisms involved in the continuous expression of constitutive genes are unclear. We hypothesize that steady state intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which their levels are tightly maintained, could be regulating the expression of these constitutive genes in resting cells. We analyzed the regulation of an important constitutive gene, TGF-β1, after decreasing intracellular ROS concentration in human mesangial cells. Decreased intracellular hydrogen peroxide by catalase addition reduced TGF-β1 protein, mRNA expression and promoter activity. Furthermore, catalase decreased the basal activity of Activated Protein-1 (AP-1) that regulates TGF-β1 promoter activity. This effect disappeared when AP-1 binding site was removed. Similar results were observed with another protein containing AP-1 binding sites in its promoter, such as eNOS, but it was not the case in other constitutive genes without any AP-1 binding site, as COX1 or PKG1. The pharmacological inhibition of the different ROS synthesis sources by blocking NADPH oxidase, the mitochondrial respiratory chain or xanthine oxidase, or the use of human fibroblasts with genetically deficient mitochondrial activity, induced a similar, significant reduction of steady state ROS concentration as the one observed with catalase. Moreover, there was decreased TGF-β1 expression in all the cases excepting the xanthine oxidase blockade. These findings suggest a novel role for the steady state intracellular ROS concentration, where the compartmentalized, different systems involved in the intracellular ROS production, could be essential for the expression of constitutive AP1-dependent genes, as TGF-β1.

  18. Epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation by intracellular prostaglandin E2-activated prostaglandin E2 receptors. Role in retinoic acid receptor-β up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Martínez, Ana B; Lucio Cazaña, Francisco J

    2013-09-01

    The pharmacological modulation of renoprotective factor vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) in the proximal tubule has therapeutic interest. In human proximal tubular HK-2 cells, treatment with all-trans retinoic acid or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) triggers the production of VEGF-A. The pathway involves an initial increase in intracellular PGE2, followed by activation of EP receptors (PGE2 receptors, most likely an intracellular subset) and increase in retinoic acid receptor-β (RARβ) expression. RARβ then up-regulates transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which increases the transcription and production of VEGF-A. Here we studied the role in this pathway of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation by EP receptors. We found that EGFR inhibitor AG1478 prevented the increase in VEGF-A production induced by PGE2- and all-trans retinoic acid. This effect was due to the inhibition of the transcriptional up-regulation of RARβ, which resulted in loss of the RARβ-dependent transcriptional up-regulation of HIF-1α. PGE2 and all-trans retinoic acid also increased EGFR phosphorylation and this effect was sensitive to antagonists of EP receptors. The role of intracellular PGE2 was indicated by two facts; i) PGE2-induced EGFR phosphorylation was substantially prevented by inhibitor of prostaglandin uptake transporter bromocresol green and ii) all-trans retinoic acid treatment, which enhanced intracellular but not extracellular PGE2, had lower effect on EGFR phosphorylation upon pre-treatment with cyclooxygenase inhibitor diclofenac. Thus, EGFR transactivation by intracellular PGE2-activated EP receptors results in the sequential activation of RARβ and HIF-1α leading to increased production of VEGF-A and it may be a target for the therapeutic modulation of HIF-1α/VEGF-A. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels (CaCCs) Regulate Action Potential and Synaptic Response in Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wendy C.; Xiao, Shaohua; Huang, Fen; Harfe, Brian D.; Jan, Yuh Nung; Jan, Lily Yeh

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Central neurons respond to synaptic inputs from other neurons by generating synaptic potentials. Once the summated synaptic potentials reach threshold for action potential firing, the signal propagates leading to transmitter release at the synapse. The calcium influx accompanying such signaling opens calcium-activated ion channels for feedback regulation. Here we report a novel mechanism for modulating hippocampal neuronal signaling that involves calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs). We present the first evidence that CaCCs reside in hippocampal neurons and are in close proximity of calcium channels and NMDA receptors to shorten action potential duration, dampen excitatory synaptic potentials, impede temporal summation, and raise the threshold for action potential generation by synaptic potential. Having recently identified TMEM16A and TMEM16B as CaCCs, we further show that TMEM16B but not TMEM16A is important for hippocampal CaCC, laying the groundwork for deciphering the dynamic CaCC modulation of neuronal signaling in neurons important for learning and memory. PMID:22500639

  20. N-methylhemeanthidine chloride, a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation via down-regulating AKT activation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Guoli; Yao, Guangmin; Zhan, Guanqun; Hu, Yufeng; Yue, Ming; Cheng, Ling; Liu, Yaping; Ye, Qi; Qing, Guoliang; Zhang, Yonghui; Liu, Hudan

    2014-11-01

    We previously reported the isolation of a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, N-methylhemeanthidine chloride (NMHC), from Zephyranthes candida, which exhibits potent cytotoxicity in a spectrum of tumor cells. However, the mechanism of action remains unclear. Using multiple cell lines derived from human pancreatic cancer, one of the most mortal and refractory human malignancies, we further studied the NMHC-mediated cytotoxicity and found that it induced drastic cytotoxicity in pancreatic cancer cells whereas an insignificant effect on a noncancerous cell line. The NMHC-mediated growth inhibition was more severe than the first-line chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine, leading to cell cycle arrest, apoptotic death and decreased glycolysis. NMHC exerted its function through down-regulating AKT activation, and the ectopic expression of activated AKT rescued the growth inhibition. Consistently, NMHC injections in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model manifested the anti-tumor effect in vivo. Engrafted tumor cells underwent AKT attenuation and apoptotic death upon treatments. As such, we here demonstrate the AKT inhibition may be one of the mechanisms by which NMHC decreases tumor cell survival rate in vitro and in vivo. Our data thereby suggest that NMHC holds great promise as a potent chemotherapeutic agent against pancreatic cancer and sheds new light on obtaining such agents from natural products toward therapeutic purposes.

  1. The sodium chloride cotransporter SLC12A3: new roles in sodium, potassium, and blood pressure regulation.

    PubMed

    Moes, Arthur D; van der Lubbe, Nils; Zietse, Robert; Loffing, Johannes; Hoorn, Ewout J

    2014-01-01

    SLC12A3 encodes the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC), which is primarily expressed in the kidney, but also in intestine and bone. In the kidney, NCC is located in the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells in the distal convoluted tubule. Although NCC reabsorbs only 5 to 10% of filtered sodium, it is important for the fine-tuning of renal sodium excretion in response to various hormonal and non-hormonal stimuli. Several new roles for NCC in the regulation of sodium, potassium, and blood pressure have been unraveled recently. For example, the recent discoveries that NCC is activated by angiotensin II but inhibited by dietary potassium shed light on how the kidney handles sodium during hypovolemia (high angiotensin II) and hyperkalemia. The additive effect of angiotensin II and aldosterone maximizes sodium reabsorption during hypovolemia, whereas the inhibitory effect of potassium on NCC increases delivery of sodium to the potassium-secreting portion of the nephron. In addition, great steps have been made in unraveling the molecular machinery that controls NCC. This complex network consists of kinases and ubiquitinases, including WNKs, SGK1, SPAK, Nedd4-2, Cullin-3, and Kelch-like 3. The pathophysiological significance of this network is illustrated by the fact that modification of each individual protein in the network changes NCC activity and results in salt-dependent hypotension or hypertension. This review aims to summarize these new insights in an integrated manner while identifying unanswered questions.

  2. Permeability of wild-type and mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channels to polyatomic anions.

    PubMed

    Linsdell, P; Tabcharani, J A; Rommens, J M; Hou, Y X; Chang, X B; Tsui, L C; Riordan, J R; Hanrahan, J W

    1997-10-01

    Permeability of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel to polyatomic anions of known dimensions was studied in stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells by using the patch clamp technique. Biionic reversal potentials measured with external polyatomic anions gave the permeability ratio (P/P) sequence NO > Cl > HCO > formate > acetate. The same selectivity sequence but somewhat higher permeability ratios were obtained when anions were tested from the cytoplasmic side. Pyruvate, propanoate, methane sulfonate, ethane sulfonate, and gluconate were not measurably permeant (P/P < 0.06) from either side of the membrane. The relationship between permeability ratios from the outside and ionic diameters suggests a minimum functional pore diameter of approximately 5.3 A. Permeability ratios also followed a lyotropic sequence, suggesting that permeability is dependent on ionic hydration energies. Site-directed mutagenesis of two adjacent threonines in TM6 to smaller, less polar alanines led to a significant (24%) increase in single channel conductance and elevated permeability to several large anions, suggesting that these residues do not strongly bind permeating anions, but may contribute to the narrowest part of the pore.

  3. Interaction between 2 extracellular loops influences the activity of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Steven D; Wang, Wuyang; Linsdell, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Activity of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel is thought to be controlled by cytoplasmic factors. However, recent evidence has shown that overall channel activity is also influenced by extracellular anions that interact directly with the extracellular loops (ECLs) of the CFTR protein. Very little is known about the structure of the ECLs or how substances interacting with these ECLs might affect CFTR function. We used patch-clamp recording to investigate the accessibility of cysteine-reactive reagents to cysteines introduced throughout ECL1 and 2 key sites in ECL4. Furthermore, interactions between ECL1 and ECL4 were investigated by the formation of disulfide crosslinks between cysteines introduced into these 2 regions. Crosslinks could be formed between R899C (in ECL4) and a number of sites in ECL1 in a manner that was dependent on channel activity, suggesting that the relative orientation of these 2 loops changes on activation. Formation of these crosslinks inhibited channel function, suggesting that relative movement of these ECLs is important to normal channel function. Implications of these findings for the effects of mutations in the ECLs that are associated with cystic fibrosis and interactions with extracellular substances that influence channel activity are discussed.

  4. Role of GTP-binding proteins in the regulation of mammalian cardiac chloride conductance

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Beta-Adrenoceptor agonists activate a time- and voltage-independent Cl- conductance in mammalian cardiac myocytes. To characterize the cellular signaling pathways underlying its regulation, wide-tipped pipettes fitted with a pipette perfusion device were used to record whole-cell current and to introduce nucleotides to the interior of guinea pig ventricular myocytes. Replacement of pipette GTP with GDP beta S prevented activation of the Cl- conductance by Iso, suggesting a requirement for G protein turnover. With GTP in the pipette, the effect of Iso could be abolished by the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, and mimicked by histamine or forskolin. These actions of Iso and forskolin are mediated exclusively via cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), because (a) maximal activation of the Cl- conductance by forskolin or pipette cAMP occluded the effect of Iso, and (b) switching to pipette solution containing a synthetic peptide inhibitor (PKI) of PKA completely abolished the Cl- conductance activated by Iso and prevented the action of forskolin, but had no further effect. These results argue against basal activation of the Cl- conductance, and make it extremely unlikely that the stimulatory G protein, Gs, has any direct, phosphorylation-independent influence. The muscarinic receptor agonists acetylcholine (ACh) and carbachol diminished, in a reversible manner, Cl- conductance activated by Iso or forskolin, but not that elicited by cAMP. The muscarinic inhibition was abolished by replacing pipette GTP with GDP beta S, or by preincubating cells with pertussis toxin (PTX), and was therefore mediated by an inhibitory G protein, presumably Gi, influencing adenylyl cyclase activity. Nonhydrolyzable GTP analogues (GTP gamma S or GppNHp) applied via the pipette did not themselves activate Cl- conductance, but rendered Cl- current activation by brief exposures to Iso or histamine, but not to forskolin, irreversible. The Cl- conductance persistently activated by Iso was

  5. An Oxygen-Sensing Two-Component System in the Burkholderia cepacia Complex Regulates Biofilm, Intracellular Invasion, and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Tiffany L.; Boisvert, Nicole M.; Priebe, Gregory P.

    2017-01-01

    Burkholderia dolosa is a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), which is a group of bacteria that cause chronic lung infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and can be associated with outbreaks carrying high morbidity and mortality. While investigating the genomic diversity of B. dolosa strains collected from an outbreak among CF patients, we previously identified fixL as a gene showing signs of strong positive selection. This gene has homology to fixL of the rhizobial FixL/FixJ two-component system. The goals of this study were to determine the functions of FixLJ and their role in virulence in B. dolosa. We generated a fixLJ deletion mutant and complemented controls in B. dolosa strain AU0158. Using a fixK-lacZ reporter we found that FixLJ was activated in low oxygen in multiple BCC species. In a murine pneumonia model, the B. dolosa fixLJ deletion mutant was cleared faster from the lungs and spleen than wild-type B. dolosa strain AU0158 at 7 days post infection. Interestingly, the fixLJ deletion mutant made more biofilm, albeit with altered structure, but was less motile than strain AU0158. Using RNA-seq with in vitro grown bacteria, we found ~11% of the genome was differentially expressed in the fixLJ deletion mutant relative to strain AU0158. Multiple flagella-associated genes were down-regulated in the fixLJ deletion mutant, so we also evaluated virulence of a fliC deletion mutant, which lacks a flagellum. We saw no difference in the ability of the fliC deletion mutant to persist in the murine model relative to strain AU0158, suggesting factors other than flagella caused the phenotype of decreased persistence. We found the fixLJ deletion mutant to be less invasive in human lung epithelial and macrophage-like cells. In conclusion, B. dolosa fixLJ is a global regulator that controls biofilm formation, motility, intracellular invasion/persistence, and virulence. PMID:28046077

  6. An Oxygen-Sensing Two-Component System in the Burkholderia cepacia Complex Regulates Biofilm, Intracellular Invasion, and Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Schaefers, Matthew M; Liao, Tiffany L; Boisvert, Nicole M; Roux, Damien; Yoder-Himes, Deborah; Priebe, Gregory P

    2017-01-01

    Burkholderia dolosa is a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), which is a group of bacteria that cause chronic lung infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and can be associated with outbreaks carrying high morbidity and mortality. While investigating the genomic diversity of B. dolosa strains collected from an outbreak among CF patients, we previously identified fixL as a gene showing signs of strong positive selection. This gene has homology to fixL of the rhizobial FixL/FixJ two-component system. The goals of this study were to determine the functions of FixLJ and their role in virulence in B. dolosa. We generated a fixLJ deletion mutant and complemented controls in B. dolosa strain AU0158. Using a fixK-lacZ reporter we found that FixLJ was activated in low oxygen in multiple BCC species. In a murine pneumonia model, the B. dolosa fixLJ deletion mutant was cleared faster from the lungs and spleen than wild-type B. dolosa strain AU0158 at 7 days post infection. Interestingly, the fixLJ deletion mutant made more biofilm, albeit with altered structure, but was less motile than strain AU0158. Using RNA-seq with in vitro grown bacteria, we found ~11% of the genome was differentially expressed in the fixLJ deletion mutant relative to strain AU0158. Multiple flagella-associated genes were down-regulated in the fixLJ deletion mutant, so we also evaluated virulence of a fliC deletion mutant, which lacks a flagellum. We saw no difference in the ability of the fliC deletion mutant to persist in the murine model relative to strain AU0158, suggesting factors other than flagella caused the phenotype of decreased persistence. We found the fixLJ deletion mutant to be less invasive in human lung epithelial and macrophage-like cells. In conclusion, B. dolosa fixLJ is a global regulator that controls biofilm formation, motility, intracellular invasion/persistence, and virulence.

  7. Intracellular pH regulates basolateral K+ and Cl- conductances in colonic epithelial cells by modulating Ca2+ activation

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The role of intracellular pH as a modulator of basolateral K+ and Cl- conductances in epithelial cells was studied using digitonin- permeabilized colonic cell layers so that cytosolic pH could be clamped at specific values, while basolateral K+ and Cl- conductances were activated by stepwise increases in intracellular free Ca2+. Increasing the intracellular pH from 6.6 to 8.0 enhanced the sensitivity of both ionic conductances to intracellular Ca2+, but changing extracellular pH had no effect. Maximal K+ and Cl- currents activated by Ca2+ were not affected by changes in intracellular pH, suggesting that protons do not alter the conduction properties of the channels. Hill analysis of the Ca2+ activation process revealed that raising the cytosolic pH from 6.6 to 8.0 reduced the K1/2 for Ca2+ activation. In the absence of Ca2+, changes in intracellular pH did not have a significant effect on the basolateral K+ and Cl- conductances. These results are consistent with the notion that changes in cytosolic pH can modulate basolateral conductances by modifying the action of calcium, perhaps by acting at or near the activation site to provide a mechanism of variable "gain control." PMID:1719125

  8. Sphingosine kinase 2 (Sphk2) regulates platelet biogenesis by providing intracellular sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Urtz, Nicole; Gaertner, Florian; Legate, Kyle R; Petzold, Tobias; Lorenz, Michael; Mazharian, Alexandra; Watson, Steve P; Massberg, Steffen

    2013-08-01

    Human megakaryocytes (MKs) release trillions of platelets each day into the circulation to maintain normal homeostatic platelet levels. We have previously shown that extracellular sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) plays a key role in thrombopoiesis via its receptor S1pr1. In addition to its role as an extracellular mediator, S1P can also function as a second messenger in the intracellular compartment. Although signaling via intracellular S1P is involved in various cellular processes, a role in thrombopoiesis has not been examined. Sphingosine kinases are the key enzymes that produce intracellular S1P. Here we report that sphingosine kinase 2 (Sphk2) is the major messenger RNA species present in MKs. Sphk2 predominantly localizes to the nucleus and is the major source of intracellular S1P in MKs. Loss of Sphk2 significantly reduced intracellular S1P in MKs and downregulated the expression and activity of Src family kinases (SFKs). Loss of Sphk2 and inhibition of SFK activity resulted in defective intravascular proplatelet shedding, the final stage of thrombopoiesis. Correspondingly, mice lacking Sphk2 in the hematopoietic system display thrombocytopenia. Together, our data suggest that Sphk2 provides the source of intracellular S1P that controls thrombopoiesis, which is associated with SFK expression and activity in MKs.

  9. Sodium chloride affects Listeria monocytogenes adhesion to polystyrene and stainless steel by regulating flagella expression.

    PubMed

    Caly, D; Takilt, D; Lebret, V; Tresse, O

    2009-12-01

    To study the adhesion capability of seven strains of Listeria monocytogenes to polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces after cultivation at various NaCl concentrations. Determination of growth limits indicated that all seven strains were able to grow in up to 11% NaCl in rain heart infusion and 3 g l(-1) yeast extract-glucose at 20 degrees C, but no growth was detected at 15% NaCl. Adhesion of L. monocytogenes was estimated after 4-h incubation at 20 degrees C in 96-well microtitre plates. Statistical results revealed no significant difference between adhesion to polystyrene and stainless steel although surface properties were different. Adhesion between 0% and 6% NaCl was not different, whereas adhesion at 11% NaCl was significantly lower. This discrepancy in adhesion was correlated with the down-regulation of flagella at 11% NaCl. Only high salinity levels, close to nongrowth conditions, repressed the expression of flagella, and consequently, decreased the adhesion capability of L. monocytogenes. Adhesion of L. monocytogenes to inert surfaces depends on environmental conditions that affect flagellum expression. High salinity concentrations would delay biofilm formation.

  10. Molecular determinants of anion selectivity in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel pore.

    PubMed Central

    Linsdell, P; Evagelidis, A; Hanrahan, J W

    2000-01-01

    Ionic selectivity in many cation channels is achieved over a short region of the pore known as the selectivity filter, the molecular determinants of which have been identified in Ca(2+), Na(+), and K(+) channels. However, a filter controlling selectivity among different anions has not previously been identified in any Cl(-) channel. In fact, because Cl(-) channels are only weakly selective among small anions, and because their selectivity has proved so resistant to site-directed mutagenesis, the very existence of a discrete anion selectivity filter has been called into question. Here we show that mutation of a putative pore-lining phenylalanine residue, F337, in the sixth membrane-spanning region of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel, dramatically alters the relative permeabilities of different anions in the channel. Specifically, mutations that reduce the size of the amino acid side chain present at this position virtually abolish the relationship between anion permeability and hydration energy, a relationship that characterizes the anion selectivity not only of wild-type CFTR, but of most classes of Cl(-) channels. These results suggest that the pore of CFTR may indeed contain a specialized region, analogous to the selectivity filter of cation channels, at which discrimination between different permeant anions takes place. Because F337 is adjacent to another amino acid residue, T338, which also affects anion selectivity in CFTR, we suggest that selectivity is predominantly determined over a physically discrete region of the pore located near these important residues. PMID:10827976

  11. Dietary flavonoid fisetin regulates aluminium chloride-induced neuronal apoptosis in cortex and hippocampus of mice brain.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Dharmalingam; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam

    2015-12-01

    Dietary flavonoids have been suggested to promote brain health by protecting brain parenchymal cells. Recently, understanding the possible mechanism underlying neuroprotective efficacy of flavonoids is of great interest. Given that fisetin exerts neuroprotection, we have examined the mechanisms underlying fisetin in regulating Aβ aggregation and neuronal apoptosis induced by aluminium chloride (AlCl3) administration in vivo. Male Swiss albino mice were induced orally with AlCl3 (200 mg/kg. b.wt./day/8 weeks). Fisetin (15 mg/Kg. b.wt. orally) was administered for 4 weeks before AlCl3-induction and administered simultaneously for 8 weeks during AlCl3-induction. We found aggregation of Amyloid beta (Aβ 40-42), elevated expressions of Apoptosis stimulating kinase (ASK-1), p-JNK (c-Jun N-terminal Kinase), p53, cytochrome c, caspases-9 and 3, with altered Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in favour of apoptosis in cortex and hippocampus of AlCl3-administered mice. Furthermore, TUNEL and fluoro-jade C staining demonstrate neurodegeneration in cortex and hippocampus. Notably, treatment with fisetin significantly (P<0.05) reduced Aβ aggregation, ASK-1, p-JNK, p53, cytochrome c, caspase-9 and 3 protein expressions and modulated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. TUNEL-positive and fluoro-jade C stained cells were also significantly reduced upon fisetin treatment. We have identified the involvement of fisetin in regulating ASK-1 and p-JNK as possible mediator of Aβ aggregation and subsequent neuronal apoptosis during AlCl3-induced neurodegeneration. These findings define the possibility that fisetin may slow or prevent neurodegneration and can be utilised as neuroprotective agent against Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Overexpression of Endothelin-A-receptor in breast cancer: regulation by estradiol and cobalt-chloride induced hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Wülfing, Pia; Götte, Martin; Sonntag, Barbara; Kersting, Christian; Schmidt, Hartmut; Wülfing, Christian; Buerger, Horst; Greb, Robert; Böcker, Werner; Kiesel, Ludwig

    2005-04-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential significance of Endothelin (ET)-1 and its receptors, ETAR and ETBR, in the development and progression of breast cancer. The objective of this study was to assess the expression levels and potential regulation of the "ET axis" in human non-neoplastic and neoplastic breast tissue as well as in various human breast cancer cell lines. Expression of ET-1, ETAR and ETBR was evaluated in 31 neoplastic and 7 non-neoplastic breast tissue samples and in six human breast cancer cell lines using conventional and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) and cobalt-chloride (CoCl2) treatment on ET-1, ETAR and ETBR expression were studied in vitro. ETAR mRNA expression levels were found to be statistically significantly higher in breast cancer specimens than in non-neoplastic breast tissue (p<0.001). For ET-1 and ETBR mRNA expression, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. All cell lines exhibited expression of ET-1 and ETAR mRNA, whereas none showed significant ETBR mRNA expression. We observed a strong and reproducible induction of ETAR mRNA and protein expression by E2 and CoCl2 in MDA-MB-468 and BT-474 cells and in MDA-MB-453 and SK-BR-3 cells with a maximum increase after 8 and 16 h of treatment, respectively, while MCF-7 and HBL-100 cells showed a constitutive expression pattern. The present data suggest a novel mechanism in the regulation of ETAR expression in breast cancer. Based on these findings, a combination of ETAR-antagonists with adjuvant endocrine treatment seems to be a reasonable therapeutic strategy.

  13. Volume-regulated chloride conductance in the LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Shuba, Y M; Prevarskaya, N; Lemonnier, L; Van Coppenolle, F; Kostyuk, P G; Mauroy, B; Skryma, R

    2000-10-01

    Patch-clamp recordings were used to study ion currents induced by cell swelling caused by hypotonicity in human prostate cancer epithelial cells, LNCaP. The reversal potential of the swelling-evoked current suggested that Cl(-) was the primary charge carrier (termed I(Cl,swell)). The selectivity sequence of the underlying volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) for different anions was Br(-) approximately I(-) > Cl(-) > F(-) > methanesulfonate > glutamate, with relative permeability numbers of 1.26, 1.20, 1.0, 0.77, 0.49, and 0.036, respectively. The current-voltage patterns of the whole cell currents as well as single-channel currents showed moderate outward rectification. Unitary VRAC conductance was determined at 9.6 +/- 1.8 pS. Conventional Cl(-) channel blockers 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (100 microM) and DIDS (100 microM) inhibited whole cell I(Cl,swell) in a voltage-dependent manner, with the block decreasing from 39.6 +/- 9.7% and 71.0 +/- 11. 0% at +50 mV to 26.2 +/- 7.2% and 14.5 +/- 6.6% at -100 mV, respectively. Verapamil (50 microM), a standard Ca(2+) antagonist and P-glycoprotein function inhibitor, depressed the current by a maximum of 15%. Protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors downregulated I(Cl,swell) (genistein with an IC(50) of 2.6 microM and lavendustin A by 60 +/- 14% at 1 microM). The protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor sodium orthovanadate (500 microM) stimulated I(Cl,swell) by 54 +/- 11%. We conclude that VRACs in human prostate cancer epithelial cells are modulated via protein tyrosine phosphorylation.

  14. Regulation of chloride self exchange by cAMP in cortical collecting tubule

    SciTech Connect

    Tago, K.; Schuster, V.L.; Stokes, J.B.

    1986-07-01

    The hormonal control of Cl transport was examined in rabbit cortical collecting tubules using the lumen-to-bath /sup 36/Cl tracer rate coefficient (K/sub Cl/, nm/s). Tracer movement via Sl-HCO/sub 3/ exchange was minimized by using HCO/sub 3/-CO/sub 2/-free solutions. The electrical driving force was minimized by treating with amiloride. Under these conditions, net Cl transport was zero, yet there was a large K/sub Cl/ that fell 88% on removing bath (trans) Cl. These results are consistent with the mechanism of tracer flux being predominantly Cl self exchange. K/sub Cl/ fell spontaneously with time in vitro; after this decline K/sub Cl/ could be stimulated with 8-bromo-cAMP. cAMP present from the onset of perfusion prevented the time-dependent fall in K/sub Cl/. When tracer movement was restricted to diffusion by eliminating Cl self exchange (0 Cl bath), cAMP had no effect on K/sub Cl/. Although both isoproterenol and vasopressin are known to stimulate adenylate cyclase in this epithelium, only isoproterenol mimicked the cAMP effect on K/sub Cl/. The isoproterenol effect was blocked by either propranolol or prostaglandin E/sub 2/. Lumen addition of the disulfonic stilbene DIDS had no effect on K/sub Cl/. Lumen addition of furosemide or trichloromethiazide had minimal or no effect. Taken together, these results indicate that Cl self exchange is regulated by ..beta..-adrenergic agents acting via cAMP. The lack of an effect of vasopressin suggests cellular heterogeneity in this response to cAMP.

  15. ATP-regulated chloride conductance in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-enriched pig pancreas microsomes.

    PubMed

    Bégault, B; Anagnostopoulos, T; Edelman, A

    1993-11-07

    The Cl- conductance of endoplasmic reticulum-enriched pancreatic microsomes was identified. Its regulation by nucleotides was investigated by measuring the rate of cation ionophore-induced microsome swelling in the presence of an inward Cl- gradient. The conductance was solubilized and reconstituted into liposomes. The Cl- conductance in intact microsomes was inhibited by stilbene (10(-4) M) and indanyloxyacetic acid (10(-5) M) derivatives. ATP increased Cl- conductance with half-maximal stimulation at 8 x 10(-6) M. Other trinucleotides (GTP, CTP and UTP) were without effect at 10(-4) M. The non-hydrolysable analogue of ATP, adenosine 5'-[beta gamma-methylene]triphosphate (AppCH2p) increased Cl- conductance with a potency similar to that of ATP. The same concentration of adenosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (ATP gamma S) which is a substrate for kinases, had no effect. ATP stimulation of Cl- conductance was inhibited by stilbene derivatives. The data suggest the presence of at least one ATP-binding site, and show that the ATP does not need to be hydrolyzed and that its spatial conformation is important for activating the Cl- conductance. Solubilized microsomal proteins reconstituted into liposomes retained their stilbene-inhibited, ATP-stimulated Cl- conductance. A 167 kDa protein was detected by anti-CFTR antibodies in the intact microsomes, but not in the solubilized proteins. The 64 kDa protein (a component of a ubiquitous Cl- channel) was detected in the both intact and solubilized microsomes. These results suggest that this Cl- conductance is not a CFTR protein.

  16. Aromatase up-regulation, insulin and raised intracellular oestrogens in men, induce adiposity, metabolic syndrome and prostate disease, via aberrant ER-α and GPER signalling.

    PubMed

    Williams, Graeme

    2012-04-04

    For some years now, reduced testosterone levels have been related to obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, benign prostatic hypertrophy and even prostate cancer--often considered guilty more by association, than actual cause--with little attention paid to the important role of increased intracellular oestrogen, in the pathogenesis of these chronic diseases. In the final stage of the steroidogenic cascade, testosterone is metabolised to oestradiol by P450 aromatase, in the cytoplasm of adipocytes, breast cells, endothelial cells and prostate cells, to increase intracellular oestradiol concentration at the expense of testosterone. It follows therefore, that any compound that up-regulates aromatase, or any molecule that mimics oestrogen, will not only increase the activation of the mainly proliferative, classic ER-α, oestrogen receptors to induce adipogenesis and growth disorders in oestrogen-sensitive tissues, but also activate the recently identified transmembrane G protein-coupled oestrogen receptors (GPER), and deleteriously alter important intracellular signalling sequences, that promote mitogenic growth and endothelial damage. This paper simplifies how stress, xeno-oestrogens, poor dietary choices and reactive toxins up-regulate aromatase to increase intracellular oestradiol production; how oestradiol in combination with leptin and insulin cause insulin resistance and leptin resistance through aberrant serine phosphorylation; how the increased oestradiol, insulin and leptin stimulate rapid, non-genomic G protein-coupled phosphorylation cascades, to increase fat deposition and create the vasoconstrictive, dyslipidemic features of metabolic syndrome; how aberrant GPER signalling induces benign prostatic hypertrophy; and how increased intracellular oestradiol stimulates mitogenic change and tumour-cell activators, to cause prostate cancer. In essence, the up-regulation of aromatase produces increased intracellular oestradiol, increases ER

  17. Regulation of intracellular pH in the smooth muscle of guinea-pig ureter: Na+ dependence.

    PubMed Central

    Aickin, C C

    1994-01-01

    1. Mechanisms involved in the regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) in smooth muscle cells of guinea-pig ureter have been investigated using double-barrelled pH-sensitive microelectrodes in isolated strips of tissue. 2. Removal of CO2-HCO3- from the superfusing solution caused a fall in the steady-state pHi except in a few cells which had been excised from the animal for many hours (usually > 24 h). The pHi value was 7.22 +/- 0.09 (n = 89; mean +/- S.D. of an observation) in solution buffered with 5% CO2-21 mM HCO3-, compared with 6.92 +/- 0.24 (n = 67) in the nominal absence of CO2-HCO3-. Recovery from experimentally induced acidosis was faster in the presence, rather than nominal absence, of CO2-HCO3- (mean half-times of 2.7 +/- 0.7 min, n = 41, and 4.6 +/- 1.3 min, n = 12, respectively). These results suggest the presence of both HCO(3-)-dependent and -independent mechanisms for the effective extrusion of acid equivalents. 3. Recovery from acidosis was dependent on external Na+ (Na+o) in both the presence and nominal absence of CO2-HCO3-, with an apparent half-maximal activation at approximately 4 and 20 mM Na+o, respectively. Removal of Na+o in the steady state caused a fall in pHi which proceeded at a faster rate in the presence rather than in the nominal absence of CO2-HCO3-. 4. Amiloride (100 microM-1 mM) reversibly inhibited the recovery from acidosis and caused a fall in the steady-state pHi when applied in the nominal absence of CO2-HCO3-, but had no measurable effect on either the recovery from acidosis or steady-state pHi in the presence of CO2-HCO3-. These results suggest that Na(+)-H+ exchange was responsible for extrusion of acid equivalents in the nominal absence of CO2 and HCO3-, but that it played little part under more physiological conditions. 5. Although Na(+)-H+ exchange appeared to be activated below a pHi of about 7.2, it was incapable of maintaining a 'normal' pHi in the nominal absence of CO2-HCO3- in freshly excised cells, where values

  18. Chloride permeability regulation via a cyclic AMP pathway in cultured human sweat duct cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, P S

    1990-01-01

    1. Isolated coiled reabsorptive sweat ducts from normal subjects and patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) were cultured in vitro. Cells were harvested and plated onto permeable supports to form confluent cell sheets. The Ussing chamber technique was used to study pharmacological regulation of the transepithelial ion transport in these membranes. 2. Addition of a stable cyclic AMP analogue, 8-Br-cyclic AMP, to normal cell cultures resulted in a decrease of the transepithelial potential difference (PD). 3. Forskolin exposure resulted in a similar PD decrease, which was augmented by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX). 4. Exposure to isoprenaline, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and phenylephrine resulted in a response mimicking the forskolin-induced response, that was also amplified by IBMX. 5. Pre-incubation with cholera toxin abolished the isoprenaline response and reduced the control resistance. 6. Propranolol abolished the responses induced by isoprenaline and phenylephrine, whereas phentolamine had no effect. PGE2-induced responses were inert to both types of blockers. 7. Indomethazine addition to an unstimulated membrane resulted in a weak PD increase, i.e. a response opposite to that induced by isoprenaline. 8. IBMX addition to an unstimulated membrane resulted in a weak isoprenaline-like response. When the cells were pre-treated with indomethazine this IBMX response was absent. 9. Unidirectional Cl- isotope flux studies demonstrated a large increase of net Cl- reabsorption in response to isoprenaline and PGE2. 10. Mannitol isotope flux studies revealed that the paracellular permeability was unaffected by isoprenaline exposure. 11. Membranes derived from CF patients did not respond similarly to any of these agents. However, a weak spike, occasionally followed by a gradual increase of the short-circuit current (Iscc), was observed in both normal subjects and CF patients. 12. It is concluded that the primary effect on ion transport of factors

  19. Cobalt chloride induces neurite outgrowth in rat pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells through regulation of endothelin-2/vasoactive intestinal contractor.

    PubMed

    Kotake-Nara, Eiichi; Takizawa, Satoshi; Quan, Jiexia; Wang, Hongyu; Saida, Kaname

    2005-08-15

    We investigated whether endothelin-2/vasoactive intestinal contractor (ET-2/VIC) gene expression, upregulated by hypoxia in cancer cells, was associated with differentiation in neuronal cells. RT-PCR analysis, morphological observations, and immunostaining revealed that CoCl2, a hypoxic mimetic agent, at 200 microM increased expression of the ET-2/VIC gene, decreased expression of the ET-1 gene, and induced neurite outgrowth in PC-12 rat pheochromocytoma cells. These effects induced by 200 microM CoCl2 were completely inhibited by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine at 20 mM. In addition, CoCl2 increased the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) at an early stage. Furthermore, interleukin (IL)-6 gene expression was upregulated upon the differentiation induced by CoCl2. These results suggest that expression of ET-2/VIC and ET-1 mediated by ROS may be associated with neuronal differentiation through the regulation of IL-6. When the cells were treated with 500 microM CoCl2 for 24 hr, however, ET-2/VIC gene expression disappeared, IL-6 gene expression was downregulated, and necrosis was subsequently induced in the PC-12 cells.

  20. ß-Adrenergic Stimulation Increases RyR2 Activity via Intracellular Ca2+ and Mg2+ Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiao; Imtiaz, Mohammad S.; Beard, Nicole A.; Dulhunty, Angela F.; Thorne, Rick; vanHelden, Dirk F.; Laver, Derek R.

    2013-01-01

    Here we investigate how ß-adrenergic stimulation of the heart alters regulation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) by intracellular Ca2+ and Mg2+ and the role of these changes in SR Ca2+ release. RyRs were isolated from rat hearts, perfused in a Langendorff apparatus for 5 min and subject to 1 min perfusion with 1 µM isoproterenol or without (control) and snap frozen in liquid N2 to capture their phosphorylation state. Western Blots show that RyR2 phosphorylation was increased by isoproterenol, confirming that RyR2 were subject to normal ß-adrenergic signaling. Under basal conditions, S2808 and S2814 had phosphorylation levels of 69% and 15%, respectively. These levels were increased to 83% and 60%, respectively, after 60 s of ß-adrenergic stimulation consistent with other reports that ß-adrenergic stimulation of the heart can phosphorylate RyRs at specific residues including S2808 and S2814 causing an increase in RyR activity. At cytoplasmic [Ca2+] <1 µM, ß-adrenergic stimulation increased luminal Ca2+ activation of single RyR channels, decreased luminal Mg2+ inhibition and decreased inhibition of RyRs by mM cytoplasmic Mg2+. At cytoplasmic [Ca2+] >1 µM, ß-adrenergic stimulation only decreased cytoplasmic Mg2+ and Ca2+ inhibition of RyRs. The Ka and maximum levels of cytoplasmic Ca2+ activation site were not affected by ß-adrenergic stimulation. Our RyR2 gating model was fitted to the single channel data. It predicted that in diastole, ß-adrenergic stimulation is mediated by 1) increasing the activating potency of Ca2+ binding to the luminal Ca2+ site and decreasing its affinity for luminal Mg2+ and 2) decreasing affinity of the low-affinity Ca2+/Mg2+ cytoplasmic inhibition site. However in systole, ß-adrenergic stimulation is mediated mainly by the latter. PMID:23533585

  1. Thrombin receptors activate G(o) proteins in endothelial cells to regulate intracellular calcium and cell shape changes.

    PubMed

    Vanhauwe, Jurgen F; Thomas, Tarita O; Minshall, Richard D; Tiruppathi, Chinnaswamy; Li, Anli; Gilchrist, Annette; Yoon, Eun-ja; Malik, Asrar B; Hamm, Heidi E

    2002-09-13

    Thrombin receptors couple to G(i/o), G(q), and G(12/13) proteins to regulate a variety of signal transduction pathways that underlie the physiological role of endothelial cells in wound healing or inflammation. Whereas the involvement of G(i), G(q), G(12), or G(13) proteins in thrombin signaling has been investigated extensively, the role of G(o) proteins has largely been ignored. To determine whether G(o) proteins could contribute to thrombin-mediated signaling in endothelial cells, we have developed minigenes that encode an 11-amino acid C-terminal peptide of G(o1) proteins. Previously, we have shown that use of the C-terminal minigenes can specifically block receptor activation of G protein families (). In this study, we demonstrate that G(o) proteins are present in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs). Moreover, we show that thrombin receptors can stimulate [(35)S]guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate binding to G(o) proteins when co-expressed in Sf9 membranes. The potential coupling of thrombin receptors to G(o) proteins was substantiated by transfection of the G(o1) minigene into HMECs, which led to a blockade of thrombin-stimulated release of [Ca(2+)](i) from intracellular stores. Transfection of the beta-adrenergic kinase C terminus blocked the [Ca(2+)](i) response to the same extent as with G(o1) minigene peptide, suggesting that this G(o)-mediated [Ca(2+)](i) transient was caused by Gbetagamma stimulation of PLCbeta. Transfection of a G(i1/2) minigene had no effect on thrombin-stimulated [Ca(2+)](i) signaling in HMEC, suggesting that Gbetagamma derived from G(o) but not G(i) could activate PLCbeta. The involvement of G(o) proteins on events downstream from calcium signaling was further evidenced by investigating the effect of G(o1) minigenes on thrombin-stimulated stress fiber formation and endothelial barrier permeability. Both of these effects were sensitive to pertussis toxin treatment and could be blocked by transfection of G(o1) minigenes but

  2. Regulation of intracellular calcium in cortical neurons transgenic for human Aβ40 and Aβ42 following nutritive challenge

    PubMed Central

    Shirwany, Najeeb A; Xie, Jun; Guo, Qing

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is not fully understood. Amyloid plaques could be causally linked to neuronal loss in AD. Two proteolytic products of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP), Amyloid β40 (Aβ40) and Amyloid β42 (Aβ42), are considered to be critical in the neurodegeneration seen in AD. However, in transgenic mice that overexpress human Aβ40 or Aβ42, it was shown that Aβ42 was much more amyloidogenic than Aβ40. In contrast to this observation, we have found that cultured cortical neurons from mice transgenic for human Aβ40 and for Aβ42 are both and statistically equally vulnerable to nutritive challenge induced by trophic factor withdrawal (TFW). Aberrant regulation of InsP3R (Inositol triphosphate receptor)-mediated calcium release has been implicated in neuronal cell death. It is however not clear whether this pathway plays a critical role in cortical neurons transgenic for different species of human Aβ. We now report that Aβ40 and Aβ42 equally exacerbated intracellular calcium response to TFW in cortical neurons following TFW. When bradykinin (BK), a potent stimulant of InsP3R-mediated calcium release from ER, was applied to these cells, wild-type (WT) neurons exhibited a steep rise in [Ca2+]i but this was not observed in either Aβ transgenic type. Similarly, when 1 μM Xestopongin C (XeC), a specific blocker of InsP3R, was applied to these neurons, WT cells showed a significant attenuation of increase in [Ca2+]i following TFW, while elevation in [Ca2+]i induced by TFW remained largely unchanged in Aβ40 and Aβ42 cells. Finally, when we treated these cells with a Ca2+ chelator (BAPTA; 10 μM), all three cell types had a marked attenuation of [Ca2+]i. These findings indicate that the exacerbated calcium dysregulation following TFW in Aβ transgenic neurons are likely to be mediated by calcium channels other than ER InsP3R receptors. Overall, our results also suggest that a highly amyloidogenic Abeta species, such as Aβ42

  3. Volume regulation in mammalian skeletal muscle: the role of sodium–potassium–chloride cotransporters during exposure to hypertonic solutions

    PubMed Central

    Lindinger, Michael I; Leung, Matthew; Trajcevski, Karin E; Hawke, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Controversy exists as to whether mammalian skeletal muscle is capable of volume regulation in response to changes in extracellular osmolarity despite evidence that muscle fibres have the required ion transport mechanisms to transport solute and water in situ. We addressed this issue by studying the ability of skeletal muscle to regulate volume during periods of induced hyperosmotic stress using single, mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibres and intact muscle (soleus and EDL). Fibres and intact muscles were loaded with the fluorophore, calcein, and the change in muscle fluorescence and width (single fibres only) used as a metric of volume change. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle exposed to increased extracellular osmolarity would elicit initial cellular shrinkage followed by a regulatory volume increase (RVI) with the RVI dependent on the sodium–potassium–chloride cotransporter (NKCC). We found that single fibres exposed to a 35% increase in extracellular osmolarity demonstrated a rapid, initial 27–32% decrease in cell volume followed by a RVI which took 10–20 min and returned cell volume to 90–110% of pre-stimulus values. Within intact muscle, exposure to increased extracellular osmolarity of varying degrees also induced a rapid, initial shrinkage followed by a gradual RVI, with a greater rate of initial cell shrinkage and a longer time for RVI to occur with increasing extracellular tonicities. Furthermore, RVI was significantly faster in slow-twitch soleus than fast-twitch EDL. Pre-treatment of muscle with bumetanide (NKCC inhibitor) or ouabain (Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor), increased the initial volume loss and impaired the RVI response to increased extracellular osmolarity indicating that the NKCC is a primary contributor to volume regulation in skeletal muscle. It is concluded that mouse skeletal muscle initially loses volume then exhibits a RVI when exposed to increases in extracellular osmolarity. The rate of RVI is dependent

  4. Volume regulation in mammalian skeletal muscle: the role of sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporters during exposure to hypertonic solutions.

    PubMed

    Lindinger, Michael I; Leung, Matthew; Trajcevski, Karin E; Hawke, Thomas J

    2011-06-01

    Controversy exists as to whether mammalian skeletal muscle is capable of volume regulation in response to changes in extracellular osmolarity despite evidence that muscle fibres have the required ion transport mechanisms to transport solute and water in situ. We addressed this issue by studying the ability of skeletal muscle to regulate volume during periods of induced hyperosmotic stress using single, mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibres and intact muscle (soleus and EDL). Fibres and intact muscles were loaded with the fluorophore, calcein, and the change in muscle fluorescence and width (single fibres only) used as a metric of volume change. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle exposed to increased extracellular osmolarity would elicit initial cellular shrinkage followed by a regulatory volume increase (RVI) with the RVI dependent on the sodium–potassium–chloride cotransporter (NKCC). We found that single fibres exposed to a 35% increase in extracellular osmolarity demonstrated a rapid, initial 27–32% decrease in cell volume followed by a RVI which took 10-20 min and returned cell volume to 90–110% of pre-stimulus values. Within intact muscle, exposure to increased extracellular osmolarity of varying degrees also induced a rapid, initial shrinkage followed by a gradual RVI, with a greater rate of initial cell shrinkage and a longer time for RVI to occur with increasing extracellular tonicities. Furthermore, RVI was significantly faster in slow-twitch soleus than fast-twitch EDL. Pre-treatment of muscle with bumetanide (NKCC inhibitor) or ouabain (Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor), increased the initial volume loss and impaired the RVI response to increased extracellular osmolarity indicating that the NKCC is a primary contributor to volume regulation in skeletal muscle. It is concluded that mouse skeletal muscle initially loses volume then exhibits a RVI when exposed to increases in extracellular osmolarity. The rate of RVI is dependent on the

  5. Documents for SBAR Panel: Methylene Chloride and N-Methylpyrrolidone; Regulation of Certain Uses Under TSCA Section 6(a)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SBAR panel to to address the risks resulting from the manufacture, import, processing, distribution in commerce, and use of chemicals, as well as any manner or method of disposal of chemicals: n-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) and methylene chloride

  6. Chloride channels in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-ping; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Dayue Darrel

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles, including proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain, ie, stroke. Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Cl−) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke. At least three Cl− channel genes are expressed in VSMCs: 1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1), which may encode the calcium-activated Cl− channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Cl− channel and Cl−/H+ antiporter, which is closely related to the volume-regulated Cl− channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which encodes the PKA- and PKC-activated Cl− channels. Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization, vasoconstriction, and inhibition of VSMC proliferation. Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species, induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs. Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension. In addition, Cl− current mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death. This review focuses on the functional roles of Cl− channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Cl− channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke. PMID:23103617

  7. Phorbol ester stimulation of RasGRP1 regulates the sodium-chloride cotransporter by a PKC-independent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Benjamin; Joshi, Leena M.; Cooke, Leslie L.; Vazquez, Norma; Musch, Mark W.; Hebert, Steven C.; Gamba, Gerardo; Hoover, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    The sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) is the principal salt-absorptive pathway in the mammalian distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and is the site of action of one of the most effective classes of antihypertensive medications, thiazide diuretics. We developed a cell model system to assess NCC function in a mammalian cell line that natively expresses NCC, the mouse DCT (mDCT) cell line. We used this system to study the complex regulation of NCC by the phorbol ester (PE) 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a diacylglycerol (DAG) analog. It has generally been thought that PEs mediate their effects on transporters through the activation of PKC. However, there are at least five other DAG/PE targets. Here we describe how one of those alternate targets of DAG/PE effects, Ras guanyl-releasing protein 1 (RasGRP1), mediates the PE-induced suppression of function and the surface expression of NCC. Functional assessment of NCC by using thiazide-sensitive 22Na+ uptakes revealed that TPA completely suppresses NCC function. Biotinylation experiments demonstrated that this result was primar