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Sample records for intracerebral atypical calcification

  1. Intracerebral metaplastic meningioma with prominent ossification and extensive calcification

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jingxiang; Petersson, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    We present a patient (male 26 years) with a short history of recurrent seizures induced by a largely intracerebrally located frontal lobe meningioma. The tumor displayed a heretofore unpublished combination of extensive metaplastic bone formation and prominent non-psammomatous calcifications with focal chicken-wire pattern. PMID:21769319

  2. Atypical localizations of calcific deposits in the shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Vinanti, G.B.; Pavan, D.; Rossato, A.; Biz, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Calcific tendinopathies of the shoulder are due to inflammation around deposits of calcium within periarticular tendineal structures. Presentation of cases We present three cases of atypical localization of calcium deposits in the shoulder. All of the cases have been treated with arthroscopic excision, followed by post-operative rehabilitation, regaining excellent results. Patients were evaluated 6 months after surgery using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) and the UCLA modified shoulder rating. Discussion Calcific tendinopathy is a self-limiting condition or is successfully treated with conservative therapy especially during the early phases of the pathology. If conservative measures fail, removal of calcium deposits is recommended. Arthroscopic management showed good results in our three cases. Conclusion We suggest that arthroscopic treatment of calcific tendonitis guarantees good results even when calcium deposits are in atypical locations. PMID:25884610

  3. Evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow in patient with atypical senile dementia with asymmetrical calcification.

    PubMed

    Shoyama, Masaru; Ukai, Satoshi; Shinosaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    We report an 83-year-old woman with atypical senile dementia with Fahr-type calcification. Brain computed tomography demonstrated asymmetrical calcification predominant in the basal ganglia on the right side and pronounced diffuse cortical atrophy in the frontotemporal areas. The patient was clinically diagnosed with diffuse neurofibrillary tangles with calcification. Brain single photon emission computed tomography findings revealed that cerebral blood flow was reduced on the right side, as compared with the left side, in widespread areas. Hemispheric asymmetry in both calcification and cerebral blood flow suggests a relationship between calcification and vascular changes. PMID:25737312

  4. Atypical presentation of pseudoxanthoma elasticum with abdominal cutis laxa: evidence for a spectrum of ectopic calcification disorders?

    PubMed

    Vanakker, Olivier M; Leroy, Bart P; Schurgers, Leon J; Vermeer, Cees; Coucke, Paul J; De Paepe, Anne

    2011-11-01

    A patient is presented with severe cutis laxa of the abdomen. Molecular investigations, including sequencing of the fibulin-5 and elastin gene, failed to endorse the diagnosis of inherited cutis laxa. Ultrasonographical discovery of renal calcifications during his general work-up suggested a possible diagnosis of pseudo-xanthoma elasticum (PXE). A discrete yellowish reticular pattern in the anterior neck region was detected upon careful clinical examination. Clinically, the patient presented characteristics of both classic PXE (retinopathy, renal calcifications) and the PXE-like syndrome (cutis laxa beyond the flexural areas). Skin biopsy and ophthalmological examination confirmed the diagnosis of PXE. In addition, ultrastructural evaluation revealed calcium deposits in the periphery of elastic fibers, a typical observation in the PXE-like syndrome. Immunohistochemical experiments and ELISA tests for various inhibitors of calcification displayed results which were partly reminiscent of both PXE and the PXE-like syndrome. Molecular analysis revealed not only two ABCC6 mutations (related to PXE), but also a gain of function SNP in the GGCX gene, in which loss-of-function mutations cause the PXE-like syndrome. We conclude that the patients phenotype and--to a further extent--the PXE-like syndrome, are part of a spectrum of ectopic calcification disorders which are clinically and/or pathogenetically related to PXE. The molecular findings in this patient are however insufficient to explain the entire phenotype and suggest a role for multiple genetic factors in soft tissue mineralization. PMID:21964806

  5. Mammogram - calcifications

    MedlinePlus

    Microcalcifications or macrocalcifications; Breast cancer - calcifications; Mammography - calcifications ... or take in as medicine does not cause calcifications in the breast. Most calcifications are not a ...

  6. [Ectopic calcification].

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Seiji

    2014-02-01

    Calcium deposition can be observed in many tissues in addition to bones and teeth which physiologically calcify. This unphysiological calcification can damage several organs. It has been shown that vascular calcification which is a risk factor for cardiovascular events develops through similar mechanisms to physiological calcification. Further studies to clarify detailed mechanisms of calcification are necessary to develop measures that inhibit unphysiological ectopic calcification without affecting physiological calcification in bones and teeth.

  7. Neuroinflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Mracsko, Eva; Veltkamp, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a particularly severe type of stroke for which no specific treatment has been established yet. Although preclinical models of ICH have substantial methodological limitations, important insight into the pathophysiology has been gained. Mounting evidence suggests an important contribution of inflammatory mechanisms to brain damage and potential repair. Neuroinflammation evoked by intracerebral blood involves the activation of resident microglia, the infiltration of systemic immune cells and the production of cytokines, chemokines, extracellular proteases and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previous studies focused on innate immunity including microglia, monocytes and granulocytes. More recently, the role of adaptive immune cells has received increasing attention. Little is currently known about the interactions among different immune cell populations in the setting of ICH. Nevertheless, immunomodulatory strategies are already being explored in ICH. To improve the chances of translation from preclinical models to patients, a better characterization of the neuroinflammation in patients is desirable. PMID:25477782

  8. Atypical presentation of atypical mycobacteria in atypical diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Sugata Narayan; Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Satpathi, Partha Sarathi; Patra, Shinjan

    2016-01-01

    A 45-year-old, non-obese male presented with low-grade, remittent fever and a fluctuant swelling over the posterior aspect of his lower left flank. Laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis, raised ESR, hyperglycemia and raised HbA1C levels. Light microscopy of Ziehl–Neelsen-stained pus sample revealed numerous acid-fast bacilli. After 72 h of incubating aspirated pus in Löwenstein–Jensen media, non-pigmented, cream-colored colonies were observed, suggestive of rapid-growing atypical forms of mycobacteria. Polymerase chain reaction of isolated bacteria identified Mycobacterium chelonae as causative organism. Abdominal skiagram revealed extensive pancreatic intraductal calcifications suggestive of fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes and lumbar vertebral body destruction with evidence of paravertebral abscess. The patient was prescribed a split-mixed insulin regimen, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin with complete resolution of the subcutaneous abscess at 6 months. Diabetic patients are prone to infections. Mycobacteria, especially atypical ones, involving the spine and subcutaneous tissues have rarely been reported. PMID:27127641

  9. [Atypical depression].

    PubMed

    Escande, M; Boucard, J

    1999-04-01

    The principal atypical aspects of depressive disease are: minor and attenued aspects, monosymptomatic and atypical aspects (food disorders and sleep disorders), masqued aspects (somatoform, anxious, characterial and addict disorders), atypical aspects of child (anxious nevrotical disorder), pseudo-demented and characterial aspects of aged subjects. Facing to these aspects, the diagnosis of depression is evoqued on: the recent and fast advent of these disorders, their morning predominance, their recurrent character, the state of attenued depressive symptoms (anhedonia), the positive responsiveness to treatment.

  10. Delayed traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Baratham, Gopal; Dennyson, William G.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-one out of 7,866 head injuries were complicated by the development of delayed intracerebral haematomata. The age distribution of patients with this condition closely resembled that of patients with subdural haematomata and differed sharply from patients with extradural haemorrhage. This finding, combined with the fact that the two conditions often coexisted, suggests the possibility of similar aetiological factors operating in their production. The injury producing the lesion was often minor and the larger haematomata appeared to be associated with longer `asymptomatic' intervals. The neurological deterioration was in most instances clearly the result of an increase in intracranial pressure. When possible, angiography followed by definitive craniotomy was the most satisfactory method of management and multiple burr holes even when combined with needling of the hemisphere yielded unsatisfactory results. The distribution of lesions tended to confirm their traumatic origin. On no occasion was there a vascular abnormality to account for the haemorrhage and, despite the fact that the ages of most patients were in the seventh and eighth decades, the incidence of degenerative vascular disease was small. Contusional injury causes a local failure of the mechanisms that regulate cerebral blood flow. Hypoxia, hypercapnia, and venous congestion produce cerebral hyperaemia which encourages gradual haematoma formation particularly at the sites of injury. This explains not only the situation of the lesions but also the latency between the trauma and their development. PMID:5084138

  11. Intracerebral hemorrhage and cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Li; Reijmer, Yael D; Charidimou, Andreas; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Viswanathan, Anand

    2016-05-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia are composed of cognitive deficits resulted from a range of vascular lesions and pathologies, including both ischemic and hemorrhagic. However the contribution of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage presumed due to small vessel diseases on cognitive impairment is underestimated, in contrast to the numerous studies about the role of ischemic vascular disorders on cognition. In this review we summarize recent findings from clinical studies and appropriate basic science research to better elucidate the role and possible mechanisms of intracerebral hemorrhage in cognitive impairment and dementia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock.

  12. Atypical Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  13. Middle Cerebral Artery Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Hung-Wen; Liou, Michelle; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Liu, Hua-Shan; Tsai, Ping-Huei; Chiang, Shih-Wei; Chou, Ming-Chung; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Huang, Guo-Shu; Hsu, Hsian-He; Chen, Cheng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Calcification of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is uncommon in the healthy elderly. Whether calcification of the MCA is associated with cerebral ischemic stroke remains undetermined. We intended to investigate the association using Agatston calcium scoring of the MCA. This study retrospectively included 354 subjects with ischemic stroke in the MCA territory and 1518 control subjects who underwent computed tomography (CT) of the brain. We recorded major known risk factors for ischemic stroke, including age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, along with the MCA calcium burden, measured with the Agatston calcium scoring method. Univariate and modified logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between the MCA calcification and ischemic stroke. The univariate analyses showed significant associations of ischemic stroke with age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, total MCA Agatston score, and the presence of calcification on both or either side of the MCA. Subjects with the presence of MCA calcification on both or either side of the MCA were 8.46 times (95% confidence interval, 4.93–14.53; P < 0.001) more likely to have a cerebral infarct than subjects without MCA calcification after adjustment for the major known risk factors, including age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. However, a higher degree of MCA calcification reflected by the Agatston score was not associated with higher risk of MCA ischemic stroke after adjustment for the confounding factors and presence of MCA calcification. These results suggest that MCA calcification is associated with ischemic stroke in the MCA territory. Further prospective studies are required to verify the clinical implications of the MCA calcification. PMID:26683969

  14. [Diabetes mellitus and vascular calcification].

    PubMed

    Okuno, Yasuhisa; Sato, Kyoko

    2002-08-01

    Two types of arterial calcification are well recognized:intimal (atherosclerotic) and medial (Monckeberg type). These two calcifications are considered different in pathogenesis. Arterial calcification has recently been reported to be an organized, regulated process similar to bone formation. The relation of calcification to diabetes mellitus remains still unclear. EBCT can noninvasively and accurately detect coronary artery calcification. Diabetic patients seem to have increased prevalence of coronary calcification when compared with non-diabetic patients. Medial artery calcification is an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality in diabetic patients. PMID:15775402

  15. Calcific Metamorphosis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Shoaib Haider; Mohamed, Ahmed Nabil

    2016-01-01

    Dental trauma to the permanent dentition can lead to clinical complications and its management may considerably challenge a practitioner. The incidence of pulp canal obliteration following dental trauma has been reported to be approximately 4 – 24%. Attempting to locate canals following calcific metamorphosis and negotiating it to full working length may lead to iatrogenic errors such as fractured instrument and perforation. This review article describes the possible etiology of Calcific Metamorphosis, its clinical and radiographic features as well as its management.

  16. Calcific Metamorphosis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Shoaib Haider; Mohamed, Ahmed Nabil

    2016-07-01

    Dental trauma to the permanent dentition can lead to clinical complications and its management may considerably challenge a practitioner. The incidence of pulp canal obliteration following dental trauma has been reported to be approximately 4 - 24%. Attempting to locate canals following calcific metamorphosis and negotiating it to full working length may lead to iatrogenic errors such as fractured instrument and perforation. This review article describes the possible etiology of Calcific Metamorphosis, its clinical and radiographic features as well as its management. PMID:27610067

  17. Myocardial fibre calcification.

    PubMed Central

    McClure, J; Pieterse, A S; Pounder, D J; Smith, P S

    1981-01-01

    Three cases of myocardial fibre calcification found at post-mortem examination are described. In one case there was antemortem hypercalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia and the case was clearly an example of metastatic calcification. In the other two cases there was ischaemic myocardial necrosis and calcification was seen in fibres which were not overtly necrotic, but which were both in proximity to (the majority) and remote from the necrotic zones. Since renal failure with hyperphosphataemia was present in both cases, these were considered to be examples of augmented (by the hyperphosphataemia) dystrophic calcification. The histological, histochemical and ultrastructural features were identical in the three cases. Hydroxyapatite formation was observed initially in mitochondria, followed by spillage of crystals into the cytosol and ultimately into the interstitium. It is suggested that the fundamental lesion is a dysfunction of the fibre membrane; the similarity of this reaction with the calcification seen in skeletal muscle fibres in various myopathies is noted and a unifying hypothesis of the mechanism of skeletal and cardiac muscle fibre calcification is thereby suggested. Images PMID:7309897

  18. Dense calcification in a GH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ramez; Kalhan, Atul; Lammie, Alistair; Kotonya, Christine; Nannapanenni, Ravindra; Rees, Aled

    2014-01-01

    Summary A 30-year-old female presented with a history of secondary amenorrhoea, acromegalic features and progressive visual deterioration. She had elevated serum IGF1 levels and unsuppressed GH levels after an oral glucose tolerance test. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a heterogeneously enhancing space-occupying lesion with atypical extensive calcification within the sellar and suprasellar areas. Owing to the extent of calcification, the tumour was a surgical challenge. Postoperatively, there was clinical, radiological and biochemical evidence of residual disease, which required treatment with a somatostatin analogue and radiotherapy. Mutational analysis of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene was negative. This case confirms the relatively rare occurrence of calcification within a pituitary macroadenoma and its associated management problems. The presentation, biochemical, radiological and pathological findings are discussed in the context of the relevant literature. Learning points Calcification of pituitary tumours is relatively rare.Recognising calcification in pituitary adenomas on preoperative imaging is important in surgical decision-making.Gross total resection can be difficult to achieve in the presence of extensive calcification and dictates further management and follow-up to achieve disease control. PMID:24683483

  19. Calcific uremic arteriolopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sowers, Kurt M

    2010-01-01

    Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA)/calciphylaxis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease requiring renal replacement. Once thought to be rare, it is being increasingly recognized and reported on a global scale. The uremic milieu predisposes to multiple metabolic toxicities including increased levels of reactive oxygen species and inflammation. Increased oxidative stress and inflammation promote this arteriolopathy by adversely affecting endothelial function resulting in a prothrombotic milieu and significant remodeling effects on vascular smooth muscle cells. These arteriolar pathological effects include intimal hyperplasia, inflammation, endovascular fibrosis and vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis and differentiation into bone forming osteoblast-like cells resulting in medial calcification. Systemic factors promoting this vascular condition include elevated calcium, parathyroid hormone and hyperphosphatemia with consequent increases in the calcium × phosphate product. The uremic milieu contributes to a marked increased in upstream reactive oxygen species—oxidative stress and subsequent downstream increased inflammation, in part, via activation of the nuclear transcription factor NFκB and associated downstream cytokine pathways. Consitutive anti-calcification proteins such as Fetuin-A and matrix GLA proteins and their signaling pathways may be decreased, which further contributes to medial vascular calcification. The resulting clinical entity is painful, debilitating and contributes to the excess morbidity and mortality associated with chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease. These same histopathologic conditions also occur in patients without uremia and therefore, the term calcific obliterative arteriolopathy could be utilized in these conditions. PMID:20716935

  20. Calcific Metamorphosis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Shoaib Haider; Mohamed, Ahmed Nabil

    2016-01-01

    Dental trauma to the permanent dentition can lead to clinical complications and its management may considerably challenge a practitioner. The incidence of pulp canal obliteration following dental trauma has been reported to be approximately 4 – 24%. Attempting to locate canals following calcific metamorphosis and negotiating it to full working length may lead to iatrogenic errors such as fractured instrument and perforation. This review article describes the possible etiology of Calcific Metamorphosis, its clinical and radiographic features as well as its management. PMID:27610067

  1. Familial idiopathic cerebral calcifications.

    PubMed Central

    Boller, F; Boller, M; Gilbert, J

    1977-01-01

    Nine members of a family spanning three generations showed bilateral calcifications of the basal ganglia with autosomal dominant inheritance. Two members developed chorea, dementia, and a characteristic speech disturbance (palialalia) in the third or fourth decade. A third member possibly shows the initial stage of a similar syndrome. Six members with calcifications but without neurological signs are younger than 25 years. All nine patients had normal calcium and phosphorus, and no evidence of endocrinological or somatic abnormalities. Thie 'isiopathic' picture must be differentiated from hypoparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism. Images PMID:886353

  2. Pineal Calcification Among Black Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Kuang-Jaw

    1983-01-01

    A postmortem histopathological study was done in 233 pineal glands of black patients. Among them, 70 percent showed microscopic evidence of calcification in the pineal parenchyma. The frequency of calcification increased with age. However, the severity of calcification reached the peak in the 60 to 69 year old age group and then gradually declined. As compared to males, females had slightly higher frequency and reached the peak of severity in younger age groups. When pineal calcification was compared among patients with various malignancies, a higher frequency and more severe calcification were observed in patients with carcinoma of the prostate and the pancreas. A lower frequency and less severe calcification were observed in patients with carcinoma of the breast and the cervix. The results of this study emphasize the important role of sex hormone in genesis of pineal calcification. PMID:6631985

  3. Pineal calcification among black patients.

    PubMed

    Fan, K J

    1983-08-01

    A postmortem histopathological study was done in 233 pineal glands of black patients. Among them, 70 percent showed microscopic evidence of calcification in the pineal parenchyma. The frequency of calcification increased with age. However, the severity of calcification reached the peak in the 60 to 69 year old age group and then gradually declined. As compared to males, females had slightly higher frequency and reached the peak of severity in younger age groups. When pineal calcification was compared among patients with various malignancies, a higher frequency and more severe calcification were observed in patients with carcinoma of the prostate and the pancreas. A lower frequency and less severe calcification were observed in patients with carcinoma of the breast and the cervix. The results of this study emphasize the important role of sex hormone in genesis of pineal calcification.

  4. Electrocardiograph abnormalities in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Nagatani, Kimihiro; Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and type of electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities, and their possible association with the clinical/radiological findings in 118 consecutive patients with non-traumatic, non-neoplastic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). ECG frequently demonstrates abnormalities in patients with ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, but little is known of ECG changes in ICH patients. Clinical and radiological information was retrospectively reviewed. ECG recordings that were obtained within 24 hours of the initial hemorrhage were analyzed. Sixty-six patients (56%) had one or more ECG abnormalities. The most frequent was ST depression (24%), followed by left ventricular hypertrophy (20%), corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation (19%), and T wave inversion (19%). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following: insular involvement was an independent predictive factor of ST depression (p<0.001; odds ratio OR 10.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.84-36.57); insular involvement (p<0.001; OR 23.98; 95% CI 4.91-117.11) and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (p<0.001; OR 8.72; 95% CI 2.69-28.29) were independent predictive factors of QTc prolongation; deep hematoma location (p<0.001; OR 19.12; 95% CI 3.82-95.81) and hematoma volume >30 ml (p=0.001; OR 6.58; 95% CI 2.11-20.46) were independent predictive factors of T wave inversion. We demonstrate associations between ECG abnormalities and detailed characteristics of ICH.

  5. Calcification of multipotent prostate tumor endothelium.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Andrew C; Khan, Zia A; Shih, Shou-Ching; Kang, Soo-Young; Zwaans, Bernadette M M; Bischoff, Joyce; Klagsbrun, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Solid tumors require new blood vessels for growth and metastasis, yet the biology of tumor-specific endothelial cells is poorly understood. We have isolated tumor endothelial cells from mice that spontaneously develop prostate tumors. Clonal populations of tumor endothelial cells expressed hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cell markers and differentiated to form cartilage- and bone-like tissues. Chondrogenic differentiation was accompanied by an upregulation of cartilage-specific col2a1 and sox9, whereas osteocalcin and the metastasis marker osteopontin were upregulated during osteogenic differentiation. In human and mouse prostate tumors, ectopic vascular calcification was predominately luminal and colocalized with the endothelial marker CD31. Thus, prostate tumor endothelial cells are atypically multipotent and can undergo a mesenchymal-like transition.

  6. Development in intracerebral stem cell grafts

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Stephanny; Tajiri, Naoki; Borlongan, Cesar V.

    2015-01-01

    The field of stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising research area for brain repair. Optimizing the safety and efficacy of the therapy for clinical trials will require revisiting transplantation protocols. The cell delivery route stands as a key translational item that warrants careful consideration in facilitating the success of stem cell therapy in the clinic. Intracerebral administration, compared to peripheral route, requires an invasive procedure to directly implant stem cells into injured brain. Although invasive, intracerebral transplantation circumvents the prohibitive blood brain barrier in allowing grafted cells when delivered peripherally to penetrate the brain and reach the discreet damaged brain tissues. This review will highlight milestone discoveries in cell therapy for neurological disorders, with emphasis on intracerebral transplantation in relevant animal models and provide insights necessary to optimize the safety and efficacy of cell therapy for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. PMID:25739415

  7. Arterial calcification: Conscripted by collagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jordan D.

    2016-03-01

    In atherosclerotic plaques, patterns of calcification -- which have profound implications for plaque stability and vulnerability to rupture -- are determined by the collagen's content and patterning throughout the plaque.

  8. Vascular calcification: Mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle cell calcification.

    PubMed

    Leopold, Jane A

    2015-05-01

    Vascular calcification is highly prevalent and, when present, is associated with major adverse cardiovascular events. Vascular smooth muscle cells play an integral role in mediating vessel calcification by undergoing differentiation to osteoblast-like cells and generating matrix vesicles that serve as a nidus for calcium-phosphate deposition in the vessel wall. Once believed to be a passive process, it is now recognized that vascular calcification is a complex and highly regulated process that involves activation of cellular signaling pathways, circulating inhibitors of calcification, genetic factors, and hormones. This review will examine several of the key mechanisms linking vascular smooth muscle cells to vessel calcification that may be targeted to reduce vessel wall mineralization and, thereby, reduce cardiovascular risk.

  9. Metanephric adenoma with diffuse calcifications: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WU, JINGTAO; ZHU, QINGQIANG; ZHU, WENRONG; ZHANG, HONGYING

    2015-01-01

    Metanephric adenoma is a rare and benign renal neoplasm originating in the epithelial cells of the kidney. The tumor has a benign course and a characteristic histopathological appearance, typically exhibiting a solid and poorly-demarcated margin with rare cystic components or calcifications. However, it is often difficult to distinguish metanephric adenoma from malignant neoplasms prior to surgical resection. To the best of our knowledge, only one case of metastasis to the lymph nodes has been described in the literature thus far. The present study retrospectively analyzed one case of surgically and pathologically-confirmed atypical metanephric adenoma. Clinical and pathological analysis, as well as computed tomography scans, revealed a mass with a clearly defined margin and diffuse calcifications. The mass was subsequently resected and the patient recovered well following the procedure. PMID:26622757

  10. Supratentorial pressures. Part II: Intracerebral pulse waves.

    PubMed

    Miller, J D; Peeler, D F; Pattisapu, J; Parent, A D

    1987-09-01

    Intracerebral pulse waves were recorded in cat and monkey while intracranial pressure (ICP) manipulations were performed. The intracerebral pulse waves appeared comparable to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsations. The wave forms were divided into multiple smaller waves, designated P1 to P4. The P1 component was primarily of arterial origin and was accentuated by increasing ICP unrelated to increased venous pressure, most commonly from a mass lesion. Bilateral carotid occlusion resulted in decreased amplitude of P1. Venous hypertension from jugular venous or sagittal sinus occlusion, on the other hand, accentuated waves P2 and P3 more than P1. This is consistent with a Starling resistor model of the cerebral venous system in which mass lesions may compress low-pressure veins and accentuate the arterial pressure-dependent P1 wave, whereas venous hypertension causes increased prominence of the later P2 and P3 waves. PMID:2891069

  11. Intracerebral fibroma: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Stephen E.; McGinity, Michael J.; Henry, James M.; Vecil, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    Intracerebral fibromas are among the most rare neoplasms found in the central nervous system. Ten previously reported cases have been documented in the literature including only two reported cases since 1985. As a result, little is known about these uncommon intracerebral fibrous tumors. We report a case of an intracerebral fibroma without dural or leptomeningeal attachment, discuss the pertinent diagnostic findings and briefly review all prior reports of this entity. PMID:27194681

  12. An interesting case of intracerebral MRSA.

    PubMed

    Estridge, Robert; Contini, Shawnelle

    2016-10-01

    This article describes a patient whose intracerebral MRSA may have been caused by a spider bite to the thigh 2 months earlier. The patient's headache, nausea, and vomiting initially were thought to be caused by a high-grade glioma. Most brain abscesses have otogenic sources and are not from distant hematogenous spread. Although systemic antibiotics help with symptomatology, surgical eradication (when feasible) followed by IV antibiotics, provides definitive treatment. PMID:27685512

  13. Thyroid calcifications: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Lacout, Alexis; Chevenet, Carole; Thariat, Juliette; Marcy, Pierre Yves

    2016-05-01

    Incidental diagnosis of thyroid nodules is very common on adult neck ultrasonography examination. Thyroid calcifications are encountered in benign thyroid nodules and goiters as well as in thyroid malignancy. Depiction and characterization of such calcifications within a thyroid nodule may be a key element in the thyroid nodule diagnosis algorithm. The goal of this paper is to display typical radio-pathological correlations of various thyroid pathologies of benign and malignant conditions in which the calcification type diagnosis can play a key role in the final diagnosis of the thyroid nodule. PMID:26891122

  14. Intracerebral lymphoma deposits: investigation and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Plowman, P.N.; Wise, R.J.S.

    1984-06-01

    In a recently studied series of 12 patients with intracerebral lymphoma deposits, the following are noteworthy: Although most intracerebral lymphoma deposits are dramatically and homogenously enhanced on CT brain scan, this is not always the case; two patients with apparently necrotic centers are presented. Subtraction of enhanced CT brain scanning cuts before and after radiotherapy allow a quantitation of tumor response. The apparent paradox of deficient lymphoma deposit angiogenesis on angiography and good enhancement on CT scan was probed by positron emission topmography (ECAT) in the only patient who did not have a confounding prior craniotomy. ECAT and histopathological examination suggest that the microvasculature of intracerebral lymphoma deposits is rich. The ECAT data demonstrated that regional tumor blood flow was comparable to that in grey matter, but tumor oxygen metabolism was intermediate between grey and white matter. The interesting observation of coupled depression of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in the cerebrum overlying the tumor and its surrounding edema is discussed. A protracted radiotherapy prescription (with daily fractions of 175 cGY) is favored.

  15. Polyarteritis with symptomatic intracerebral aneurysms at initial presentation.

    PubMed

    Munn, E J; Alloway, J A; Diffin, D C; Arroyo, R A

    1998-10-01

    Polyarteritis rarely involves the cerebral vasculature, and has not been reported to have an initial presentation with intracerebral aneurysms. We describe the first case of polyarteritis presenting with symptomatic intracerebral aneurysms. A literature review from 1966 to 1997 identified 5 additional cases with evidence of intracerebral aneurysms and polyarteritis. The cases reviewed all had evidence of longstanding systemic symptoms suggestive of polyarteritis prior to diagnosis. Polyarteritis with intracerebral aneurysms is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and therefore must be recognized and treated early.

  16. Severe meningeal calcification in a Crouzon patient carrying a mutant C342W FGFR2.

    PubMed

    Ke, Ronghu; Lei, Jiaqi; Ge, Min; Cai, Tianyi; Yang, Junyi; Wu, Yingzhi; Mu, Xiongzheng

    2015-03-01

    Crouzon is an autosomal dominant craniosynostosis syndrome caused by mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-2 gene. Recent findings from animal studies imply a critical role for FGFs in the regulation of mineralization. Here, we presented a 5-year-old girl with severe meningeal calcification. Subsequently, we analyzed FGFR2 mutation and identified a mutation of Cys342Tyr. The findings suggest that abnormal calcification was atypical phenotype of Crouzon patients with Cys342Tyr mutation in FGFR2. PMID:25692891

  17. Calcification prevention tablets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, Geoffrey A.; Hasting, Michael A.; Gustavson, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Citric acid tablets, which slowly release citric acid when flushed with water, are under development by the Navy for calcification prevention. The citric acid dissolves calcium carbonate deposits and chelates the calcium. For use in urinals, a dispenser is not required because the tablets are non-toxic and safe to handle. The tablets are placed in the bottom of the urinal, and are consumed in several hundred flushes (the release rate can be tailored by adjusting the formulation). All of the ingredients are environmentally biodegradable. Mass production of the tablets on commercial tableting machines was demonstrated. The tablets are inexpensive (about 75 cents apiece). Incidences of clogged pipes and urinals were greatly decreased in long term shipboard tests. The corrosion rate of sewage collection pipe (90/10 Cu/Ni) in citric acid solution in the laboratory is several mils per year at conditions typically found in traps under the urinals. The only shipboard corrosion seen to date is of the yellow brass urinal tail pieces. While this is acceptable, the search for a nontoxic corrosion inhibitor is underway. The shelf life of the tablets is at least one year if stored at 50 percent relative humidity, and longer if stored in sealed plastic buckets.

  18. Prognostic factors in patients with intracerebral haematoma.

    PubMed Central

    Franke, C L; van Swieten, J C; Algra, A; van Gijn, J

    1992-01-01

    In a prospective study, the prognostic value of clinical characteristics in 157 consecutive patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage were examined by means of multivariate analysis. Two days after the event 37 (24%) patients had died. Factors independently contributing to the prediction of two day mortality were pineal gland displacement on CT of 3 mm or more (p less than 0.001), blood glucose level on admission of 8.0 mmol/l or more (p = 0.01), eye and motor score on the Glasgow Coma Scale of eight out of 10 or less (p = 0.022) and haematoma volume of 40 cm3 or more (p = 0.037). Between the third day and one year after the event another 46 of the 120 two day survivors had died; the independent prognostic indicators for death during that period were: age 70 years or more (p less than 0.001) and severe handicap (Rankin grade five) on the third day (p less than 0.001). Functional independence (Rankin grade two or less) at one year was most common not only with the converse features of age less than 70 years (p less than 0.01) and Rankin grade four or less on the third day (p = 0.002), but also with an eye and motor score on the Glasgow Coma Scale of nine or 10 on the third day (p less than 0.001). The 120 patients with intracerebral haemorrhage who were still alive two days after the event were matched with 120 patients with cerebral infarction, according to age, level of consciousness on the third day after stroke (Glasgow Coma Scale) and handicap (Rankin grade). Survival and handicap after one year did not differ between these two groups. The conclusion drawn is that it is not the cause (intracerebral haemorrhage or cerebral infarction) but the extent of the brain lesion that determines the outcome in patients who survive the first two days. PMID:1527534

  19. Intercellular Cross-talk in Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Egashira, Yusuke; Hua, Ya; Keep, Richard F.; Xi, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating cerebrovascular disorder with high mortality and morbidity. Currently, there are few treatment strategies for ICH-induced brain injury. A recent increase in interest in the pathophysiology of ICH, has led to elucidation of the pathways underlying ICH-induced brain injury, pathways where intercellular and hematoma to cell signaling play important roles. In this review, we summarize recent advances in ICH research focusing on intercellular and hematoma:cell cross-talk related to brain injury and recovery after ICH. PMID:25863131

  20. Intracerebral pneumatoceles following facial trauma: CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, D.B.; Hertzanu, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Three patients with delayed frontal intracerebral pneumatoceles following facial injury are presented. In one patient an unusual appearance of bilateral and symmetrical frontal lobe pneumatoceles was demonstrated. While diagnosis is not difficult on routine radiographs, CT is valuable for determining effects on the brain and clearly delineating the fracture site; CT shows the location of the pneumatocele and may show an associated air-fluid level, mass effect or surrounding edema, or rim enhancement following administration of contrast material. The radiological appearances in conjunction with the clinical findings are highly characteristic and should not be mistaken for gas-forming cerebral abscesses.

  1. Anterior ethmoidal artery aneurysm and intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    da Costa, L B; Valiante, T; Terbrugge, K; Tymianski, M

    2006-09-01

    The association between the formation of intracranial aneurysms and situations of increased blood flow in certain areas of the brain is well accepted today. It has been seen in association with arteriovenous malformations of the brain, carotid occlusion, and Moyamoya disease. The occurrence of aneurysms in small arteries of the skull base, with the exception of the intracavernous carotid artery, however, is rare. We report a case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with an intracerebral hemorrhage caused by a ruptured anterior ethmoidal artery aneurysm. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second case of documented intracranial bleeding from such a lesion.

  2. Calcification Transformation of Diasporic Bauxite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qiuyue; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Lv, Guozhi; Zhang, Zimu; Yin, Zhengnan; Zhang, Tingan

    2016-06-01

    The disposal of red mud, which is a solid waste that is generated during the extraction of alumina from bauxite, is one of major problems faced by the aluminum industry. Alkali in red mud seeping under the soil may pollute land and water. The Northeastern University, China, has proposed a calcification-carbonation method to deal with low-grade bauxite or red mud. Its main purpose is to change the equilibrium phase of red mud to 2CaO·SiO2 and CaCO3 hydrometallurgically, so that recomposed alkali-free red mud can be widely used. We conducted calcification transformation experiments using diasporic bauxite sampled from Wenshan, and investigated the effects of parameters such as diasporic bauxite grain size, temperature and treatment time on the calcification transformation digestion rate, which is also termed the calcification transformation rate (CTR). The main phase in the calcification transformation slag (CTS) is hydrogarnet with different grain sizes. The CTR increases with decrease in diasporic bauxite grain size, or increase in temperature or reaction time. The CTR reaches a maximum of 87% after 120 min reaction at 240°C. The Na2O/Al2O3 ratio decreases with increase in temperature and reaches 1.5. The sodium content in the CTS decreases with increasing reaction time and is lower than that in the red mud treated using the Bayer process (4-12%).

  3. Experimental Calcification of the Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Bonucci, Ermanno; Sadun, Raffaele

    1973-01-01

    Focal areas of calcification are frequent in rat myocardium 30 and 60 days after administration of dihydrotachysterol. These areas are PAS-positive, stain deeply with alcian blue and show high affinity for colloidal iron. Calcification is almost completely confined to intracellular structures. Small clusters of needle-shaped crystals are first found in apparently undamaged mitochondria in undamaged myocardial cells. When all the mitochondria are calcified, the cell degenerates, and inorganic crystals are laid down in relationship with its myofilaments. In other myocardial cells, clusters of amorphous or finely granular inorganic substance are found in both mitochondria and myofibrils. Both structures show signs of advanced degeneration. Inorganic substance has only occasionally been found within the structures of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. These structures do not seem to be involved in myocardial calcification under the present experimental conditions. Calcification of myocardial cells gives rise to a cellular reaction. Many macrophagic cells surround the calcified areas, which are rapidly reabsorbed. The present results show that myocardial mitochondria are actively engaged in controlling the intracellular concentration and movement of calcium ions. Their role in the myocardial contraction-relaxation cycle and the possible mechanism of myocardial calcification are discussed. ImagesFig 14Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 13 PMID:4197422

  4. Calcific thrombi of the inferior vena cava in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Schullinger, J N; Santulli, T V; Berdon, W E; Wigger, H J; MacMillan, R W; Demartini, P D; Baker, D H

    1978-08-01

    Calcified caval thrombus should be considered in any infant or child where calcifications are noted in the high right retroperitoneal area on plain x-rays of the abdomen. Although typically bullet-shaped in configuration, the calcium distribution in the neonate may be atypical or incompletely developed, suggesting neuroblastoma. Definitive diagnosis can be made by inferior vena cavagram. As no deaths or complications have been attributed to the lesion in the cases thus far reported, no specific treatment is recommended.

  5. Atypical charles bonnet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arun, Priti; Jain, Rajan; Tripathi, Vaibhav

    2013-10-01

    Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is not uncommon disorder. It may not present with all typical symptoms and intact insight. Here, a case of atypical CBS is reported where antipsychotics were not effective. Patient improved completely after restoration of vision.

  6. Atypical autoerotic deaths

    SciTech Connect

    Gowitt, G.T.; Hanzlick, R.L. )

    1992-06-01

    So-called typical' autoerotic fatalities are the result of asphyxia due to mechanical compression of the neck, chest, or abdomen, whereas atypical' autoeroticism involves sexual self-stimulation by other means. The authors present five atypical autoerotic fatalities that involved the use of dichlorodifluoromethane, nitrous oxide, isobutyl nitrite, cocaine, or compounds containing 1-1-1-trichloroethane. Mechanisms of death are discussed in each case and the pertinent literature is reviewed.

  7. CT of schistosomal calcification of the intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Fataar, S.; Bassiony, H.; Satyanath, S.; Rudwan, M.; Hebbar, G.; Khalifa, A.; Cherian, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The spectrum of schistosomal colonic calcification on abdominal radiographs has been described. The appearance on computed tomography (CT) is equally distinctive and occurs with varying degrees of genitourinary calcification. The authors have experience in three cases with the appearance on CT of intestinal calcification due to schistosomiasis.

  8. Arterial calcification: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Nicoll, Rachel; Henein, Michael Y

    2013-07-31

    There is a significant relationship between the presence, extent and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality in both CV and renal patients and CAC scoring can provide improved predictive ability over risk factor scoring alone. There is also a close relationship between CAC presence and atherosclerotic plaque burden, with angiography studies showing very high sensitivity but poor specificity of CAC score for predicting obstructive disease. Nevertheless, there are objections to CAC screening because of uncertainties and lack of studies showing improved outcome. Furthermore, histopathology studies indicate that heavily calcified plaque is unlikely to result in a CV event, while the vulnerable plaque tends to be uncalcified or 'mixed', suggesting that calcification may be protective. This scenario highlights a number of paradoxes, which may indicate that the association between CAC and CV events is spurious, following from the adoption of CAC as a surrogate for high plaque burden, which itself is a surrogate for the presence of vulnerable plaque. Since studies indicate that arterial calcification is a complex, organised and regulated process similar to bone formation, there is no particular reason why it should be a reliable indicator of either the plaque burden or the risk of a future CV event. We suggest that it is time to divorce arterial calcification from atherosclerosis and to view it as a distinct pathology in its own right, albeit one which frequently coexists with atherosclerosis and is related to it for reasons which are not yet fully understood.

  9. Genetics and molecular biology of brain calcification.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hao; Zheng, Wen; Jankovic, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Brain calcification is a common neuroimaging finding in patients with neurological, metabolic, or developmental disorders, mitochondrial diseases, infectious diseases, traumatic or toxic history, as well as in otherwise normal older people. Patients with brain calcification may exhibit movement disorders, seizures, cognitive impairment, and a variety of other neurologic and psychiatric symptoms. Brain calcification may also present as a single, isolated neuroimaging finding. When no specific cause is evident, a genetic etiology should be considered. The aim of the review is to highlight clinical disorders associated with brain calcification and provide summary of current knowledge of diagnosis, genetics, and pathogenesis of brain calcification.

  10. Delayed Intracerebral Hemorrhage Secondary to Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; Chen, Yi-Li; Yang, Shu-Xu; Wang, Yi-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is a routine procedure for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion, and is associated with many complications. A delayed hemorrhage after the VP shunt surgery, however, is quite rare. In this study, we report a case involving late-onset hemorrhage. The 67-year-old male patient with a history of head trauma and brain surgery underwent a VP shunt placement for hydrocephalus. The surgery course was uneventful and no bleeding was revealed in the first computed tomographic (CT) scan after the procedure. However, a massive intraparenchymal and intraventricular hemorrhage occurred 8 h following adjustment of the valve system on the 8th day after surgery. Erosion of the vasculature by catheter cannulation and a sudden reduction of CSF pressure after downregulation of the valve could be one of the possible causes of the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). PMID:26632700

  11. Treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage: the clinical evidences.

    PubMed

    Sterzi, R; Vidale, S

    2004-03-01

    Of all strokes 10% to 15% are intracerebral hemorrhage, primary ICH accounting for more than 75% of cases. A correct evaluation and management must start in the emergency room, in particular for patients who rapidly deteriorate. The diffusion of organized care for stroke patients and the availability of the stroke units in Italian hospitals, may represent a further opportunity to improve the outcome of patients with ICH. Despite the bulk of evidences coming from the randomized clinical therapeutic trials for acute ischemic stroke, the available data for randomized surgical trials are scanty. In these small randomized studies, neither surgical nor medical treatment has conclusively been shown to benefit patients with ICH. Surgical techniques are improving but it is important to find out the time window during which surgical evacuation is most effective with respect to the long-term outcome. The use of thrombolytic therapy to promote the resolution of ventricular blood clots appears to be promising.

  12. Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiaochun; Wen, Zunjia; Shen, Haitao; Shen, Meifen

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke is a common and severe neurological disorder and is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity, especially for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Increasing evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress responses participate in the pathophysiological processes of secondary brain injury (SBI) following ICH. The mechanisms involved in interoperable systems include endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, neuronal apoptosis and necrosis, inflammation, and autophagy. In this review, we summarized some promising advances in the field of oxidative stress and ICH, including contained animal and human investigations. We also discussed the role of oxidative stress, systemic oxidative stress responses, and some research of potential therapeutic options aimed at reducing oxidative stress to protect the neuronal function after ICH, focusing on the challenges of translation between preclinical and clinical studies, and potential post-ICH antioxidative therapeutic approaches. PMID:27190572

  13. Hyponatremia in Patients with Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jaime Robenolt; Morbitzer, Kathryn A; Liu-DeRyke, Xi; Parker, Dennis; Zimmerman, Lisa Hall; Rhoney, Denise H

    2014-11-20

    Hyponatremia is the most frequently encountered electrolyte abnormality in critically ill patients. Hyponatremia on admission has been identified as an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH). However, the incidence and etiology of hyponatremia (HN) during hospitalization in a neurointensive care unit following spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) remains unknown. This was a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients admitted to Detroit Receiving Hospital for sICH between January 2006 and July 2009. All serum Na levels were recorded for patients during the ICU stay. HN was defined as Na <135 mmol/L. A total of 99 patients were analyzed with HN developing in 24% of sICH patients. Patients with HN had an average sodium nadir of 130 ± 3 mmol/L and an average time from admission to sodium <135 mmol/L of 3.9 ± 5.7 days. The most common cause of hyponatremia was syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (90% of HN patients). Patients with HN were more likely to have fever (50% vs. 23%; p = 0.01), infection (58% vs. 28%; p = 0.007) as well as a longer hospital length of stay (14 (8-25) vs. 6 (3-9) days; p < 0.001). Of the patients who developed HN, fifteen (62.5%) patients developed HN in the first week following sICH. This shows HN has a fairly high incidence following sICH. The presence of HN is associated with longer hospital length of stays and higher rates of patient complications, which may result in worse patient outcomes. Further study is necessary to characterize the clinical relevance and treatment of HN in this population.

  14. Hyponatremia in Patients with Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Robenolt Gray, Jaime; Morbitzer, Kathryn A.; Liu-DeRyke, Xi; Parker, Dennis; Hall Zimmerman, Lisa; Rhoney, Denise H.

    2014-01-01

    Hyponatremia is the most frequently encountered electrolyte abnormality in critically ill patients. Hyponatremia on admission has been identified as an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH). However, the incidence and etiology of hyponatremia (HN) during hospitalization in a neurointensive care unit following spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) remains unknown. This was a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients admitted to Detroit Receiving Hospital for sICH between January 2006 and July 2009. All serum Na levels were recorded for patients during the ICU stay. HN was defined as Na <135 mmol/L. A total of 99 patients were analyzed with HN developing in 24% of sICH patients. Patients with HN had an average sodium nadir of 130 ± 3 mmol/L and an average time from admission to sodium <135 mmol/L of 3.9 ± 5.7 days. The most common cause of hyponatremia was syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (90% of HN patients). Patients with HN were more likely to have fever (50% vs. 23%; p = 0.01), infection (58% vs. 28%; p = 0.007) as well as a longer hospital length of stay (14 (8–25) vs. 6 (3–9) days; p < 0.001). Of the patients who developed HN, fifteen (62.5%) patients developed HN in the first week following sICH. This shows HN has a fairly high incidence following sICH. The presence of HN is associated with longer hospital length of stays and higher rates of patient complications, which may result in worse patient outcomes. Further study is necessary to characterize the clinical relevance and treatment of HN in this population. PMID:26237605

  15. Leakage Sign for Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hirohata, Masaru; Nakamura, Yukihiko; Takeshige, Nobuyuki; Aoki, Takachika; Hattori, Gousuke; Sakata, Kiyohiko; Abe, Toshi; Uchiyama, Yuusuke; Sakamoto, Teruo; Morioka, Motohiro

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Recent studies of intracerebral hemorrhage treatments have highlighted the need to identify reliable predictors of hematoma expansion. Several studies have suggested that the spot sign on computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is a sensitive radiological predictor of hematoma expansion in the acute phase. However, the spot sign has low sensitivity for hematoma expansion. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of a novel predictive method, called the leakage sign. Methods— We performed CTA for 80 consecutive patients presenting with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Two scans were completed: CTA phase and delayed phase (5 minutes after the CTA phase). By comparing the CTA phase images, we set a region of interest with a 10-mm diameter and calculated the Hounsfield units. We defined a positive leakage sign as a >10% increase in Hounsfield units in the region of interest. Additionally, hematoma expansion was determined on plain computed tomography at 24 hours in patients who did not undergo emergent surgery. Results— Positive spot signs and leakage signs were present in 18 (22%) patients and 35 (43%) patients, respectively. The leakage sign had higher sensitivity (93.3%) and specificity (88.9%) for hematoma expansion than the spot sign. The leakage sign, but not the spot sign, was significantly related with poor outcomes (severely disabled, vegetative state, and death) in all of the patients (P=0.03) and in patients with a hemorrhage in the putamen (P=0.0016). Conclusions— The results indicate that the leakage sign is a useful and sensitive method to predict hematoma expansion. PMID:26931155

  16. Atypical parkinsonism: an update

    PubMed Central

    Stamelou, Maria; Hoeglinger, Guenter U.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review This update discusses novel aspects on genetics, diagnosis, and treatments of atypical parkinsonism published over the past 2 years. Recent findings A genome-wide association study identified new genetic risk factors for progressive supranuclear palsy and new genetic conditions presenting with atypical parkinsonism have been described. The clinical criteria for diagnosis of corticobasal degeneration have been revised, and for progressive supranuclear palsy are under revision. Novel molecular techniques to identify possible biomarkers, as in other neurodegenerative disorders, have started being studied on atypical parkinsonian conditions, and although preliminary results seem promising, further studies are urgently warranted. Therapeutic trials based on disease-specific targets have shown no clinical improvement. Summary The knowledge obtained recently on atypical parkinsonian conditions points out the major deficits in this field. With the expanding phenotypical spectrum of atypical parkinsonian conditions, the early identification of patients has become difficult. The inability of conventional methods to identify these disorders earlier and better than clinicians, and the recent failure of promising therapeutic compounds, highlight the fact that the lack of biomarkers is probably the greatest limitation for developing treatments for these disorders. Thus, current and future research in this direction will be crucial. PMID:23812308

  17. Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, David; Goodship, Tim H.; Richards, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Summary Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. The atypical form of HUS is a disease characterized by complement overactivation. Inherited defects in complement genes and acquired autoantibodies against complement regulatory proteins have been described. Incomplete penetrance of mutations in all predisposing genes is reported, suggesting that a precipitating event or trigger is required to unmask the complement regulatory deficiency. The underlying genetic defect predicts the prognosis both in native kidneys and after renal transplantation. The successful trials of the complement inhibitor eculizumab in the treatment of atypical HUS will revolutionize disease management. PMID:24161037

  18. Atypical pityriasis rosea.

    PubMed

    Imamura, S; Ozaki, M; Oguchi, M; Okamoto, H; Horiguchi, Y

    1985-01-01

    Six cases of pityriasis rosea with atypical morphology and distribution of the eruption are reported. The eruption did not show a typical 'Christmas-tree' arrangement, confined to the trunk and proximal parts of the extremities. However, the histology of the eruption revealed dyskeratotic cells in the epidermis and extravasated erythrocytes in the dermis, which were recently reported as rather characteristic findings of this disease. Prodromal symptoms, course and response to therapy were compatible with pityriasis rosea. Histological examination is important and helpful for the diagnosis of atypical cases.

  19. Coral calcification and ocean acidification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jokiel, Paul L.; Jury, Christopher P.; Kuffner, Ilsa B.

    2016-01-01

    Over 60 years ago, the discovery that light increased calcification in the coral plant-animal symbiosis triggered interest in explaining the phenomenon and understanding the mechanisms involved. Major findings along the way include the observation that carbon fixed by photosynthesis in the zooxanthellae is translocated to animal cells throughout the colony and that corals can therefore live as autotrophs in many situations. Recent research has focused on explaining the observed reduction in calcification rate with increasing ocean acidification (OA). Experiments have shown a direct correlation between declining ocean pH, declining aragonite saturation state (Ωarag), declining [CO32_] and coral calcification. Nearly all previous reports on OA identify Ωarag or its surrogate [CO32] as the factor driving coral calcification. However, the alternate “Proton Flux Hypothesis” stated that coral calcification is controlled by diffusion limitation of net H+ transport through the boundary layer in relation to availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The “Two Compartment Proton Flux Model” expanded this explanation and synthesized diverse observations into a universal model that explains many paradoxes of coral metabolism, morphology and plasticity of growth form in addition to observed coral skeletal growth response to OA. It is now clear that irradiance is the main driver of net photosynthesis (Pnet), which in turn drives net calcification (Gnet), and alters pH in the bulk water surrounding the coral. Pnet controls [CO32] and thus Ωarag of the bulk water over the diel cycle. Changes in Ωarag and pH lag behind Gnet throughout the daily cycle by two or more hours. The flux rate Pnet, rather than concentration-based parameters (e.g., Ωarag, [CO3 2], pH and [DIC]:[H+] ratio) is the primary driver of Gnet. Daytime coral metabolism rapidly removes DIC from the bulk seawater. Photosynthesis increases the bulk seawater pH while providing the energy that drives

  20. Calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis. [Radiological findings

    SciTech Connect

    Karasick, D.; Karasick, S.

    1981-12-01

    Calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis is an imflammation of the longus colli muscle tendon which is located on the anterior surface of the verterbral column extending from the atlas to the third thoracic vertebra. The acute inflammatory condition is selflimiting with symptoms consisting of a gradually increasing neck pain often associated with throat pain and difficulty swallowing. The pain is aggravated by head and neck movement. Clinically the condition can be confused with retropharyngeal absecess, meningitis, infectious spondylitis, and post-traumatic muscle spasm. The radiographic features of this condition consist of pre-vertebral soft tissue swelling from C1 to C4 and amorphous calcific density in the longus colli tendon anterior to the body of C2 and inferior to the anterior arch of C1.

  1. [Atherosclerotic calcification of coronary artery detected by electron beam CT: A new probation of calcific algorithm].

    PubMed

    Li, Wensheng; Song, Zhijian; Zhao, Shumin; Zuo, Huanchen

    2006-08-01

    Electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) can detect the atherosclerotic calcification of coronary artery qualitatively and quantitatively. It was also verified that the atherosclerotic calcification was directly related to the atherosclerotic extent and had a limited relation to the occurrence of coronary heart disease (CHD). So EBCT is one of the good non-invasive methods for predicting the risk of CHD. However, there are some problems in the calcification parameters (calcification area, calcification score) adopted by EBCT which have high variability and low reproducibility. As a result, these parameters have imperfection and need to be improved further. This research provides a new calcification parameter (calcification volume) which makes the use of three dimensional information of all calcific pixels in EBCT scanning images of coronary artery. After experiment in 11 human coronary artery specimens, it was testified that calcification volume had a lower variability than calcification area and calcification score in 25% percentile, median, 75% percentile, Mean, respectively. P value of t test in Mean variability is 0.027, and 0.058. These results suggest that calcification volume may be a new calcification parameter. PMID:17002127

  2. Pleural calcification in northwest Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Bazas, T.; Oakes, D.; Gilson, J.C.; Bazas, B.; McDonald, J.C.

    1985-12-01

    Mass miniature radiography in 1969 detected a high prevalence of pleural calcification in three villages in northwest Greece. In 1980 a survey of a 15% sample of the population over the age of 10 was carried out with a 80% response rate. Full-size radiographs, ventilatory capacity measurements, and a detailed questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, type of work, and residence were used. Independent classification of the 408 films by two readers using the ILO/UC scheme showed very few small opacities but a very high prevalence of pleural calcification first evident in young adults and rising to 70% in the elderly. The overall prevalence was 34.7% in men and 21.5% in women. A comparison with the 1969 survey showed a progression rate of 5% per annum. In neither sex was there a significant relation of pleural calcification to smoking, ventilatory capacity, nor type of work, though those classified as field croppers had a slightly higher prevalence. There was no obvious evidence of increased lung cancer or mesothelioma in the village. The agent responsible for this apparently benign condition was not identified.

  3. Incidental Anterior Cruciate Ligament Calcification: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hisami; Fischer, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The calcification of knee ligaments is a finding noted only in a handful of case reports. The finding of an anterior cruciate ligament calcification has been reported once in the literature. Comparable studies involving the posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament and an ossicle within the anterior cruciate ligament are likewise discussed in reports of symptomatic patients. We report a case of incidentally discovered anterior cruciate ligament calcification. We discuss the likely etiology and clinical implications of this finding. PMID:27200163

  4. Incidental Anterior Cruciate Ligament Calcification: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Hisami; Fischer, Hans

    2016-03-01

    The calcification of knee ligaments is a finding noted only in a handful of case reports. The finding of an anterior cruciate ligament calcification has been reported once in the literature. Comparable studies involving the posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament and an ossicle within the anterior cruciate ligament are likewise discussed in reports of symptomatic patients. We report a case of incidentally discovered anterior cruciate ligament calcification. We discuss the likely etiology and clinical implications of this finding.

  5. Blood Pressure Management in Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Yousef; Qureshi, Adnan

    2016-06-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with devastating outcomes. Admission to the intensive care unit has been the only proven course to improve outcomes. All other treatment modalities have failed so far. The majority of patients presenting with ICH have an elevated blood pressure (BP). Initial data on the safety and efficacy of BP treatment in acute ICH have been conflicting. This has led to large prospective and randomized clinical trials to assess the safety and efficacy of early BP lowering in acute ICH. These trials showed safety and a tendency toward improved functional outcomes. In fact, the results of three subsequent meta-analyses also showed safety and possible efficacy of early lowering of BP in ICH. Based on the results of the published clinical trials and meta-analyses, the American Heart Association and the European Stroke Association concluded that early intensive treatment of BP in acute ICH is safe and might improve functional outcome. The authors advocate that-pending additional data from ongoing trials-health care professionals should maintain the SBp < 140 mm Hg in patients presenting with acute ICH. PMID:27214702

  6. [Multiple calcifications and ossifications of tendons].

    PubMed

    Gaucher, A; Péré, P; Gillet, P

    1991-06-21

    Multiple calcifications and ossifications of tendons are, as a rule, associated with similar lesions of other articular and/or periarticular structures. The nature and multiplicity of these lesions gives them an unquestionable diagnostic and nosological value. Multiple calcifications are part of the apatite arthritis or of diffuse articular chondrocalcinosis. Multiple ossifications of tendons often suggest Forestier's disease and ankylosing spondylitis.

  7. A new NOTCH3 mutation presenting as primary intracerebral haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Pradotto, Luca; Orsi, Laura; Daniele, Dino; Caroppo, Paola; Lauro, Danilo; Milesi, Alessandra; Sellitti, Luigi; Mauro, Alessandro

    2012-04-15

    Primary intracerebral haemorrhages (PICH) are defined as haemorrhages within the brain parenchyma in the absence of readily identifiable causes. CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy) is a hereditary vascular disease and its mainly clinical manifestations are early-onset infarcts. Spontaneous lobar haematomas are a rare occurrence. We report a very unusual presentation of CADASIL in a 65 year-old man carrying a new NOTCH3 mutation. The clinical onset of the disease was related to an intracerebral haematoma following colon surgery and causing a delirium. In brief, our report suggests that CADASIL must be considered in patient with PICH. PMID:22206696

  8. Dabigatran-related intracerebral hemorrhage resulting in hematoma expansion.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Claus Z; Steiner, Thorsten; Tietze, Anna; Damgaard, Dorte

    2014-02-01

    Warfarin-related intracerebral hemorrhage carries a particularly high risk of neurologic deterioration and death because of a high rate of hematoma expansion of about 50%. Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs)--apixaban, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban--have a significantly smaller risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, two facts make this situation complicated: First, the risk of hematoma expansion is unknown for NOACs. Second, there is no specific antidote for neither of the NOACs. We present a case that suggests that hematoma expansion may occur after NOAC-related ICH. PMID:24103671

  9. Calcific tendinitis of the shoulder

    PubMed Central

    DE CARLI, ANGELO; PULCINELLI, FERDINANDO; ROSE, GIACOMO DELLE; PITINO, DARIO; FERRETTI, ANDREA

    2014-01-01

    Calcific tendinitis is a common disease that predominantly affects individuals aged between 40 and 60 years. Women seem to be more affected than men. Various factors have been suggested to play a role in this condition, such as abnormal activity of the thyroid gland, metabolic diseases (e.g. diabetes), and genetic predisposition. Various etiological hypotheses have been advanced: the degenerative and multiphasic theories are the two most accredited ones. Clinically, calcific tendinitis is characterized by severe, disabling pain which occurs spontaneously, usually in the morning. There can be concomitant stiffness, giving rise to a frozen shoulder-like clinical picture. Conventional radiography of the shoulder is the most appropriate imaging approach. Most cases resolve spontaneously. Many conservative treatments have been reported in the literature, showing varying levels of evidence of efficacy. Arthroscopic surgery is the orthopedic specialist’s last option. It is to be noted that post-surgical pain can persist for many weeks after the operation. Finally, it is important not to forget the variant characterized by osteolytic involvement of the greater tuberosity, which has been associated with a worse clinical outcome, both after conservative treatment and after surgery. PMID:25606556

  10. Physiopathology of intratendinous calcific deposition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In calcific tendinopathy (CT), calcium deposits in the substance of the tendon, with chronic activity-related pain, tenderness, localized edema and various degrees of decreased range of motion. CT is particularly common in the rotator cuff, and supraspinatus, Achilles and patellar tendons. The presence of calcific deposits may worsen the clinical manifestations of tendinopathy with an increase in rupture rate, slower recovery times and a higher frequency of post-operative complications. The aetiopathogenesis of CT is still controversial, but seems to be the result of an active cell-mediated process and a localized attempt of the tendon to compensate the original decreased stiffness. Tendon healing includes many sequential processes, and disturbances at different stages of healing may lead to different combinations of histopathological changes, diverting the normal healing processes to an abnormal pathway. In this review, we discuss the theories of pathogenesis behind CT. Better understanding of the pathogenesis is essential for development of effective treatment modalities and for improvement of clinical outcomes. PMID:22917025

  11. Mechanisms and Clinical Consequences of Vascular Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dongxing; Mackenzie, Neil C. W.; Farquharson, Colin; MacRae, Vicky E.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular calcification has severe clinical consequences and is considered an accurate predictor of future adverse cardiovascular events, including myocardial infarction and stroke. Previously vascular calcification was thought to be a passive process which involved the deposition of calcium and phosphate in arteries and cardiac valves. However, recent studies have shown that vascular calcification is a highly regulated, cell-mediated process similar to bone formation. In this article, we outline the current understanding of key mechanisms governing vascular calcification and highlight the clinical consequences. By understanding better the molecular pathways and genetic circuitry responsible for the pathological mineralization process novel drug targets may be identified and exploited to combat and reduce the detrimental effects of vascular calcification on human health. PMID:22888324

  12. MicroRNAs Regulate Vascular Medial Calcification.

    PubMed

    Leopold, Jane A

    2014-01-01

    Vascular calcification is highly prevalent in patients with coronary artery disease and, when present, is associated with major adverse cardiovascular events, including an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. The pathogenesis of vascular calcification is complex and is now recognized to recapitulate skeletal bone formation. Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) play an integral role in this process by undergoing transdifferentiation to osteoblast-like cells, elaborating calcifying matrix vesicles and secreting factors that diminish the activity of osteoclast-like cells with mineral resorbing capacity. Recent advances have identified microRNAs (miRs) as key regulators of this process by directing the complex genetic reprogramming of SMCs and the functional responses of other relevant cell types relevant for vascular calcification. This review will detail SMC and bone biology as it relates to vascular calcification and relate what is known to date regarding the regulatory role of miRs in SMC-mediated vascular calcification.

  13. Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of breast calcifications

    SciTech Connect

    Lanyi, M.

    1987-01-01

    This book is the result of more than 10 years' intensive research into the phenomena of breast calcifications. The author, himself a decisive figure in the development of mammography, demonstrates that a careful, detailed analysis of X-rays can lead to a high degree of diagnostic certainty. Indeed, Lanyi's descriptions make one ask why mammography, which originally awakened such high hopes, is given so little attention today. Contents: historical review; critical analysis of the literature; statement of problems and goals; instruments used in the evaluation of breast microcalcifications; remarks on the pathogenesis, pathophysiology, and composition of breast calcifications; calcifications within the lobular and ductal system of the breast; calcifications in intra- and pericanalicular fibroadenomas; calcifications outside the lobular and ductal systems of the breast; differential diagnosis of microcalcifications; clinically occult, mammographically suspicious microcalcification cluster: Pre-, intra-, and postoperative measures; references, and index.

  14. Calcification inhibitors in human ligamentum flavum.

    PubMed

    Maruta, K; Ichimura, K; Matsui, H; Yamagami, T; Sano, A; Tsuji, H

    1993-01-01

    To examine the presence of substances which inhibit calcification in human ligamentum flavum, the inhibitory effect of an Na2HPO4 extract of the flavum was determined in terms of the in vitro calcium uptake of the ligamentum flavum matrix. Additionally, grafts of extracted and non-extracted dry ligamentum flavum matrices were transplanted into the dorsal muscles of rats, and calcification in the grafts was examined radiologically and histochemically. In order to determine if component cells of human ligamentum flavum produce calcification inhibitors, ligamentum flavum cells were cultured, and the crystal inhibitor activity of the culture medium was measured by a seed test which used hydroxyapatite as the nucleus of precipitation. The calcification reaction system demonstrated that the ligamentum flavum extract contains an inhibitory factor for calcium uptake by the ligamentum flavum matrix. The seed test revealed that human ligamentum flavum cells produce calcification inhibitor activity.

  15. Mechanisms of vascular calcification and associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Marulanda, Juliana; Alqarni, Saleh; Murshed, Monzur

    2014-01-01

    Mineralization of bone and tooth extracellular matrix (ECM) is a physiologic process, while soft tissue mineralization, also known as ectopic mineralization (calcification), is a pathologic condition. Vascular calcification is common in aging and also in a number of genetic and metabolic disorders. The calcific deposits in arteries complicate the prognosis and increase the morbidity in diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). To completely understand the pathophysiology of these lifethreatening diseases, it is critical to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying vascular calcification. Unveiling these mechanisms will eventually identify new therapeutic targets and also improve the management of the associated complications. In the current review, we discussed the common determinants of ECM mineralization, the mechanism of vascular calcification associated with several human diseases and outlined the most common therapeutic approaches to prevent its progression.

  16. Abdominal calcifications in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Pintér, A B; Weisenbach, J; Szemlédy, F

    1984-12-01

    Abdominal and pelvic calcifications are usually incidental findings and require further measures to determine their origin. Most laboratory investigations are of little help. Plain anteroposterior and lateral x-rays are essential. The time of appearance and localisation of a calcification is of diagnostic importance. Amorphous, granular and irregular calcification can be an early sign of malignancy. Mobility of a calcification also helps to clarify its origin. Over the past 15 years abdominal and pelvic calcifications, excluding urological radiodensities, have been found in 63 patients up to fourteen years of age at our institute. A migrating deposit in the omentum, a spontaneously amputated calcified ovary mimicking a vesical calculus and a congenital retroperitoneal xanthofibroma caused the greatest difficulty in establishing a preoperative diagnosis.

  17. Calcification

    MedlinePlus

    ... soft tissue tumors. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of ... Saunders; 2015:chap 26. Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC. Cellular responses to stress and toxic insults: ...

  18. [Atypical presentation of preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Ditisheim, A; Boulvain, M; Irion, O; Pechère-Bertschi, A

    2015-09-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related syndrome, which still represents one of the major causes of maternal-fetal mortality and morbidity. Diagnosis can be made difficult due to the complexity of the disorder and its wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. In order to provide an efficient diagnostic tool to the clinician, medical societies regularly rethink the definition criteria. However, there are still clinical presentations of preeclampsia that escape the frame of the definition. The present review will address atypical forms of preeclampsia, such as preeclampsia without proteinuria, normotensive preeclampsia, preeclampsia before 20 weeks of gestation and post-partum preeclampsia.

  19. Intracerebral hemorrhage caused by varicella-induced thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Lizarazo, Jairo; Castellanos, María Fernanda; Omaña, Claudia Rosa; Chaín, Miguel; Villamizar, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a previously healthy 44-years-old man with chickenpox, severe thrombocytopenia, mucosal hemorrhage, and intracerebral hemorrhage in the right hemisphere. The patient was treated with platelets and high doses of steroids. He recovered although with persistent left homonymous hemianopsia and epilepsy, which were controlled with medication. PMID:27622799

  20. Notch signaling in cardiovascular disease and calcification.

    PubMed

    Rusanescu, Gabriel; Weissleder, Ralph; Aikawa, Elena

    2008-08-01

    Recent increase in human lifespan has shifted the spectrum of aging-related disorders to an unprecedented upsurge in cardiovascular diseases, especially calcific aortic valve stenosis, which has an 80% risk of progression to heart failure and death. A current therapeutic option for calcified valves is surgical replacement, which provides only temporary relief. Recent progress in cardiovascular research has suggested that arterial and valve calcification are the result of an active process of osteogenic differentiation, induced by a pro-atherogenic inflammatory response. At molecular level, the calcification process is regulated by a network of signaling pathways, including Notch, Wnt and TGFbeta/BMP pathways, which control the master regulator of osteogenesis Cbfa1/Runx2. Genetic and in vitro studies have implicated Notch signaling in the regulation of macrophage activation and cardiovascular calcification. Individuals with inactivating Notch1 mutations have a high rate of cardiovascular disorders, including valve stenosis and calcification. This article reviews recent progress in the mechanism of cardiovascular calcification and discusses potential molecular mechanisms involved, focusing on Notch receptors. We propose a calcification model where extreme increases in vascular wall cell density due to inflammation-induced cell proliferation can trigger an osteogenic differentiation program mediated by Notch receptors. PMID:19936191

  1. Dystrophic calcification: A rare pediatric parotid mass.

    PubMed

    Chislett, Sean P; Liming, Bryan J; Rogers, Derek J

    2016-02-01

    Dystrophic calcification, the ectopic deposition of calcium in previously damaged or inflamed tissues, is an uncommon finding in the head and neck. Only a few cases have been reported in the parotidomasseteric region, and all of them have been located within and adjacent to the masseter. We present a case of dystrophic calcification occurring entirely within the parotid gland in a 7-year-old girl without apparent inciting inflammation, infection, or trauma. Our patient's presentation highlights the diagnostic challenge associated with parotid masses in the pediatric population. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of dystrophic calcification occurring entirely within the parotid gland in a child. PMID:26810287

  2. Coral calcification in a changing ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.

    2010-01-01

    One of the goals of the Coral Reef Ecosystem Studies (CREST) project is to examine how calcification rates in reef-building corals and encrusting coralline algae are changing in response to changes in the ocean environment.

  3. Nanobacteria-associated calcific aortic valve stenosis.

    PubMed

    Jelic, Tomislav M; Chang, Ho-Huang; Roque, Rod; Malas, Amer M; Warren, Stafford G; Sommer, Andrei P

    2007-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve stenosis is the most common valvular disease in developed countries, and the major reason for operative valve replacement. In the US, the current annual cost of this surgery is approximately 1 billion dollars. Despite increasing morbidity and mortality, little is known of the cellular basis of the calcifications, which occur in high-perfusion zones of the heart. The case is presented of a patient with calcific aortic valve stenosis and colonies of progressively mineralized nanobacteria in the fibrocalcific nodules of the aortic cusps, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Consistent with their outstanding bioadhesivity, nanobacteria might serve as causative agents in the development of calcific aortic valve stenosis. PMID:17315391

  4. Atypical causes of cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Ken D; Sundaram, Vinay; Ayoub, Walid S

    2014-01-01

    Cholestatic liver disease consists of a variety of disorders. Primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis are the most commonly recognized cholestatic liver disease in the adult population, while biliary atresia and Alagille syndrome are commonly recognized in the pediatric population. In infants, the causes are usually congenital or inherited. Even though jaundice is a hallmark of cholestasis, it is not always seen in adult patients with chronic liver disease. Patients can have “silent” progressive cholestatic liver disease for years prior to development of symptoms such as jaundice and pruritus. In this review, we will discuss some of the atypical causes of cholestatic liver disease such as benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, Alagille Syndrome, biliary atresia, total parenteral nutrition induced cholestasis and cholestasis secondary to drug induced liver injury. PMID:25071336

  5. Unusual atypical language lateralization.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad T; Oghlakian, Roger; Koubeissi, Mohamad Z

    2016-01-01

    Determining the language-dominant hemisphere is essential for planning epilepsy surgery. A 60-year-old right-handed woman with epilepsy since age 16 failed a partial right anterior lobectomy at age 21. Later, a brain MRI found extensive right-sided cortical dysplasia and periventricular heterotopia. Subsequently, prolonged video-EEG monitoring localized her seizures to the right temporoparietal region. Functional MRI was inconclusive in lateralizing her language, prompting a Wada test, which strongly lateralized language to the right. This unique case of atypical language representation in a right-handed individual with an extensive right-hemispheric congenital malformation and seizure focus illustrates the important thorough presurgical language assessment. PMID:27668182

  6. Dermatofibroma: Atypical Presentations.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Mousumi Roy; Besra, Mrinal; Dutta, Somasree; Sarkar, Somnath

    2016-01-01

    Dermatofibroma is a common benign fibrohistiocytic tumor and its diagnosis is easy when it presents classical clinicopathological features. However, a dermatofibroma may show a wide variety of clinicopathological variants and, therefore, the diagnosis may be difficult. The typical dermatofibroma generally occurs as a single or multiple firm reddish-brown nodules. We report here two atypical presentations of dermatofibroma - Atrophic dermatofibroma and keloidal presentation of dermatofibroma. Clinical dermal atrophy is a common phenomenon in dermatofibromas as demonstrated by the dimpling on lateral pressure. However, this feature is exaggerated in the atrophic variant of dermatofibroma. Atrophic dermatofibroma is defined by dermal atrophy of more than 50% of the lesion apart from the usual features of common dermatofibroma. The keloidal variant of dermatofibroma should not be overlooked as a simple keloid. The findings of keloidal change in dermatofibromas may support that trauma is a possible cause of dermatofibroma. PMID:26955137

  7. The relationship between pulp calcifications and salivary gland calcifications

    PubMed Central

    Kaswan, Sumita; Maheshwari, Sneha; Rahman, Farzan; Khandelwal, Suneet

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Pulp stones are discrete calcified bodies found in the dental pulp. Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between the pulp stones and salivary gland stones. Material and Methods: 196 patients were randomly selected from the out patient department for the study. The periapical radiographs for all patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of dental pulp chambers and pulp canals. The intra oral occlusal radiographs were also evaluated to determine the presence or absence of salivary stones. The results were compared and analyzed using the Chi-square test (p<0.001). Results: Salivary gland calcifications were detected in 5 patients. 191 patients had pulp narrowing and 118 patients had pulp stones. There was no statistical correlation between pulp narrowing and salivary stones (p>0.001) and also between pulp stones and salivary gland stones (p>0.001). Conclusions: However, the incidental findings of salivary gland stones on intra oral occlusal radiographs can provide useful information in the early diagnosis of the condition, but in the present study no significant relationship was found between the presence of pulp stones and salivary gland stones. Key words:Pulp stone, salivary gland stone, periapical radiograph, occlusal radiograph. PMID:25674311

  8. Comparative histology of pineal calcification.

    PubMed

    Vígh, B; Szél, A; Debreceni, K; Fejér, Z; Manzano e Silva, M J; Vígh-Teichmann, I

    1998-07-01

    The pineal organ (pineal gland, epiphysis cerebri) contains several calcified concretions called "brain sand" or acervuli (corpora arenacea). These concretions are conspicuous with imaging techniques and provide a useful landmark for orientation in the diagnosis of intracranial diseases. Predominantly composed of calcium and magnesium salts, corpora arenacea are numerous in old patients. In smaller number they can be present in children as well. The degree of calcification was associated to various diseases. However, the presence of calcified concretions seems not to reflect a specific pathological state. Corpora arenacea occur not only in the actual pineal tissue but also in the leptomeninges, in the habenular commissure and in the choroid plexus. Studies with the potassium pyroantimonate (PPA) method on the ultrastructural localization of free calcium ions in the human pineal, revealed the presence of calcium alongside the cell membranes, a finding that underlines the importance of membrane functions in the production of calcium deposits. Intrapineal corpora arenacea are characterized by a surface with globular structures. Meningeal acervuli that are present in the arachnoid cover of the organ, differ in structure from intrapineal ones and show a prominent concentric lamination of alternating dark and light lines. The electron-lucent lines contain more calcium than the dark ones. There is a correlation between the age of the subject and the number of layers in the largest acervuli. This suggests that the formation of these layers is connected to circannual changes in the calcium level of the organ. The histological organization of the human pineal is basically the same as that of mammalian experimental animals. Pineal concretions present in mammalian animal species are mainly of the meningeal type. Meningeal cells around acervuli contain active cytoplasmic organelles and exhibit alkaline phosphatase reaction in the rat and mink, an indication of a presumable

  9. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor presenting with prominent calcification

    PubMed Central

    Izawa, Naoki; Sawada, Takeshi; Abiko, Ryuichi; Kumon, Daisuke; Hirakawa, Mami; Kobayashi, Mika; Obinata, Nobuyuki; Nomoto, Masahito; Maehata, Tadateru; Yamauchi, Shun-ichi; Kouro, Takefumi; Tsuda, Takashi; Kitajima, Satoshi; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Keiichi; Tanaka, Ichiro; Hoshikawa, Masahiro; Takagi, Masayuki; Itoh, Fumio

    2012-01-01

    We present a rare case of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) in the stomach with prominent calcification at presentation. A 61-year-old woman visited our hospital because of epigastric discomfort. A spherical calcified lesion with a diameter of about 30 mm was incidentally shown in the left upper quadrant on an abdominal X-ray. Computed tomography demonstrated that the tumor was growing from the upper gastric body, with calcification in the peripheral ring area. A laparoscopic partial gastrectomy was performed, and the resected specimen revealed a well-circumscribed tumor with exophytic growth from the gastric muscularis propria. Microscopic examination revealed spindle-shaped tumor cells with calcification and hemorrhage. Additionally, positive immunoreactivity of the tumor to KIT and CD34 and a low mitotic index resulted in the diagnosis of very low risk GIST. There are a few case reports of heavily calcified GIST, although solitary or punctate calcification of primary GIST has been reported in several case series. Dystrophic calcification of necrotic or degenerative tissue is the supposed cause of primary calcified GISTs. In contrast, appearance of calcification after administration of imatinib mesylate, which may be one indicator of disease response, is possibly caused by a different mechanism. PMID:23112561

  10. Atypical Cutaneous Manifestations in Syphilis.

    PubMed

    Ivars Lleó, M; Clavo Escribano, P; Menéndez Prieto, B

    2016-05-01

    Although the diversity of the clinical manifestations of syphilis is well-known, atypical presentations can also occur. Such atypical presentations are associated with a high risk of transmission as a result of diagnostic confusion and treatment delays owing to the disease's ability to mimic other common skin diseases, deviate from classic clinical presentations, and adopt unique forms. Cases of atypical syphilis have been described most frequently in patients with concomitant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Because the incidence of syphilis has been growing over recent years -particularly in patients with HIV co-infection- dermatologists need to be familiar with the less well-known clinical presentations of this venereal disease.

  11. Acute Renal Infarction Secondary to Calcific Embolus from Mitral Annular Calcification

    SciTech Connect

    Bande, Dinesh; Abbara, Suhny; Kalva, Sanjeeva P.

    2011-06-15

    We report a case of a 62-year-old man who presented with right groin pain who subsequently was found to have a renal infarct secondary to calcific embolus from mitral annular calcification on CT and angiography. We briefly review the literature and discuss the importance of this entity in clinical practice.

  12. Acute renal infarction secondary to calcific embolus from mitral annular calcification.

    PubMed

    Bande, Dinesh; Abbara, Suhny; Kalva, Sanjeeva P

    2011-06-01

    We report a case of a 62-year-old man who presented with right groin pain who subsequently was found to have a renal infarct secondary to calcific embolus from mitral annular calcification on CT and angiography. We briefly review the literature and discuss the importance of this entity in clinical practice.

  13. Markerless surgical robotic system for intracerebral hemorrhage surgery.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sangkyun; Cho, Hyunchul; Yoon, Siyeop; Park, Kyusic; Kim, Youngjun; Park, Sehyung; Kim, Laehyun; Lee, Deukhee

    2015-01-01

    Conventional intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) surgery uses a stereotactic frame to access an intracerebral hematoma. Using a stereotactic frame for ICH surgery requires a long preparation time. In order to resolve this problem, we propose a markerless surgical robotic system. This system uses weighted iterative closest point technology for surface registration, hand-eye calibration for needle insertion, and 3D surface scanning for registration. We need calibration to integrate the technologies: calibration of robot and needle coordinates and calibration of 3D surface scanning and needle coordinates. These calibrations are essential elements of the markerless surgical robotic system. This system has the advantages of being non-invasive, a short total operation time, and low radiation exposure compared to conventional ICH surgery. PMID:26737481

  14. Delayed supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage following posterior fossa surgery

    PubMed Central

    Salunke, Pravin; Malik, Vinod; Kovai, Priyamvadha; Aggarwal, Ashish; Khandelwal, Niranjan K.

    2016-01-01

    Delayed supratentorial intracerebral hematoma after posterior fossa surgery is uncommon. Only few cases have been reported in the past. The cause has been attributed to sitting position leading to changes in intracranial arterial and venous pressures. We report two cases of delayed intracerebral hematoma following posterior fossa surgery, none of which were operated in sitting position. MR venogram done in one patient showed venous sinus thrombosis. Intracererbal hematoma following infratentorial surgery is uncommon and is possibly due to venous sinus thrombosis leading to venous hypertension. Control of bleeding from venous sinuses due to avulsion of emissary veins during craniotomy/craniectomy possibly induces sinus thrombosis that may propagate antegrade or retrograde, leading to venous hypertension and parenchymal bleed. PMID:27366274

  15. Genomic profiles of damage and protection in human intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, S Thomas; Vespa, Paul M; Saver, Jeffery L; Coppola, Giovanni; Geschwind, Daniel H; Starkman, Sidney; Miller, Chad M; Kidwell, Chelsea S; Liebeskind, David S; Martin, Neil A

    2009-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) produces a high rate of death and disability. The molecular mechanisms of damage in perihematomal tissue in humans have not been systematically characterized. This study determines the gene expression profile and molecular networks that are induced in human perihematomal tissue through molecular analysis of tissue obtained from endoscopic clot evacuation. Differentially expressed genes and their cellular origin were confirmed in a mouse model of ICH. A total of 624 genes showed altered regulation in human ICH. Bioinformatic analysis shows that these genes form interconnected networks of proinflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and neuronal signaling cascades. Intracerebral hemorrhage evokes coordinated upregulation of proinflammatory signaling through specific cytokines and chemokines and their downstream molecular pathways. Anti-inflammatory networks are also induced by ICH, including annexins A1 and A2 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF β) and their intracellular cascades. Intracerebral hemorrhage downregulates many neuronal signaling systems, including the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor complex and membrane ion channels. Select portions of these molecular networks were confirmed in the mouse, and the proteins in a subset of these networks localized to subsets of neurons, oligodendrocytes, or leukocytes. These inflammatory and anti-inflammatory networks interact at several key points in neutrophil signaling, apoptotic cell death, and protease responses, and indicate that secondary damage in ICH activates opposing molecular systems. PMID:18628781

  16. Atypical vertebral Paget's disease.

    PubMed

    Beaudouin, Constance; Dohan, Anthony; Nasrallah, Toufic; Parlier, Caroline; Touraine, Sébastien; Ea, Korng; Kaci, Rachid; Laredo, Jean-Denis

    2014-07-01

    A 40-year-old Mauritanian man consulted for back pain. A computed tomography of the spine showed patchy sclerosis of the fifth and seventh thoracic vertebral bodies with normal neural arch of T5 and sclerosis and hypertrophy of the neural arch of T7, as well as diffuse sclerosis of the T11 vertebral body with a normal neural arch. At MRI, low signal-intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal-intensity on T2-weighted images involved the whole T5 and T7 vertebrae and the vertebral body of T11. Working diagnoses included metastatic disease and lymphoma, and a biopsy of T7 and then T11 was carried out. Both showed pathological findings very suggestive of Paget's disease. Since CT is usually the more specific radiological examination in vertebral Paget's disease, we thought it could be useful to report this atypical CT presentation (patchy sclerosis of the vertebral body without diffuse bone texture changes and isolated involvement of the vertebral body) of vertebral Paget's disease. PMID:24445956

  17. [Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Blasco Pelicano, Miquel; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago; Campistol Plana, Josep M

    2015-11-20

    The hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a clinical entity characterized by thrombocytopenia, non-immune hemolytic anemia and renal impairment. Kidney pathology shows thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) with endothelial cell injury leading to thrombotic occlusion of arterioles and capillaries. Traditionally, HUS was classified in 2 forms: Typical HUS, most frequently occurring in children and caused by Shiga-toxin-producing bacteria, and atypical HUS (aHUS). aHUS is associated with mutations in complement genes in 50-60% of patients and has worse prognosis, with the majority of patients developing end stage renal disease. After kidney transplantation HUS may develop as a recurrence of aHUS or as de novo disease. Over the last years, many studies have demonstrated that complement dysregulation underlies the endothelial damage that triggers the development of TMA in most of these patients. Advances in our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of aHUS, together with the availability of novel therapeutic options, will enable better strategies for the early diagnosis and etiological treatment, which are changing the natural history of aHUS. This review summarizes the aHUS clinical entity and describes the role of complement dysregulation in the pathogenesis of aHUS. Finally, we review the differential diagnosis and the therapeutic options available to patients with aHUS.

  18. Atypical manifestations of dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Pawaria, Arti; Mishra, Devendra; Juneja, Monica; Meena, Jagdish

    2014-06-01

    We reviewed case records of 40 in-patients (22 boys) with serologically confirmed dengue fever between 1st October and 30th November, 2013. Severe dengue was seen in 30, out of which 12 (30%) had compensated shock. Splenomegaly (6,15%) and encephalopathy (4,10%) were the commonest atypical features. Atypical manifestations of dengue fever were more common than that reported in the past.

  19. KINOMIC ALTERATIONS IN ATYPICAL MENINGIOMA

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Joshua C.; Taylor, Robert B.; Fiveash, John B.; de Wijn, Rik; Gillespie, G. Yancey; Willey, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to profile Atypical Meningioma in a high-throughput manner to better understand the altered signaling within these tumors and specifically the kinases altered in recurrent atypical meningioma. Kinomic Profiles could be used to identify prognostic biomarkers for responders/non-responders to classify future patients that are unlikely to benefit from current therapies. Directly these results could be used to identify drug-actionable kinase targets as well. Methods Peptide-substrate microarray kinase activity analysis was conducted with a PamStation®12 analyzing the tyrosine kinome in each tumor kinetically against ~144 target peptides. These data were then analyzed relative to clinical outcome (e.g., tumor recurrence). Results 3 major clusters of atypical meningiomas were identified with highly variant peptides primarily being targets of EGFR family, ABL, BRK and BMX kinases. Kinomic analysis of recurrent atypical meningiomas indicated patterns of increased phosphorylation of BMX, TYRO3 and FAK substrates as compared to non-recurrent tumors. Conclusion The atypical meningiomas profiled here exhibited molecular sub-clustering that may have phenotypic corollaries predictive of outcome. Recurrent tumors had increases in kinase activity that may predict resistance to current therapies, and may guide selection of directed therapies. Taken together these data further the understanding of kinomic alteration in atypical meningioma, and the processes that may not only mediate recurrence, but additionally may identify kinase targets for intervention. PMID:27158663

  20. Idiopathic Arterial Calcification of Infancy: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Attia, Tarek Hamed; Abd Alhamed, Mohamed Maisara; Selim, Mohamed Fouad; Haggag, Mohamed Salah; Fathalla, Diaa

    2015-11-01

    Idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy is a rare autosomal recessive disease, characterized by deposition of calcium along the internal elastic membrane of arteries, accompanied by fibrous thickening of the intima which causes luminal narrowing. Here we are reporting a case of idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy in a Saudi female newborn of non-consanguineous pregnant woman who had polyhydramnios. The newborn baby had severe respiratory distress, systemic hypertension and persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn. She was admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, where she was ventilated and proper treatment was provided. Molecular genetic testing was positive for mutations of ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase1 gene which is reported in 80% of cases of Idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy. The baby died at about 5 month of age because of myocardial ischemia and cardiorespiratory arrest. Idiopathic Arterial Calcification of Infancy should be considered in any newborn who presented with persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn, severe systemic hypertension and echogenic vessels on any radiological study. Calcifications of large and medium-sized arteries are important diagnostic finding.

  1. Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is defined by the triad of mechanical hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal impairment. Atypical HUS (aHUS) defines non Shiga-toxin-HUS and even if some authors include secondary aHUS due to Streptococcus pneumoniae or other causes, aHUS designates a primary disease due to a disorder in complement alternative pathway regulation. Atypical HUS represents 5 -10% of HUS in children, but the majority of HUS in adults. The incidence of complement-aHUS is not known precisely. However, more than 1000 aHUS patients investigated for complement abnormalities have been reported. Onset is from the neonatal period to the adult age. Most patients present with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal failure and 20% have extra renal manifestations. Two to 10% die and one third progress to end-stage renal failure at first episode. Half of patients have relapses. Mutations in the genes encoding complement regulatory proteins factor H, membrane cofactor protein (MCP), factor I or thrombomodulin have been demonstrated in 20-30%, 5-15%, 4-10% and 3-5% of patients respectively, and mutations in the genes of C3 convertase proteins, C3 and factor B, in 2-10% and 1-4%. In addition, 6-10% of patients have anti-factor H antibodies. Diagnosis of aHUS relies on 1) No associated disease 2) No criteria for Shigatoxin-HUS (stool culture and PCR for Shiga-toxins; serology for anti-lipopolysaccharides antibodies) 3) No criteria for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (serum ADAMTS 13 activity > 10%). Investigation of the complement system is required (C3, C4, factor H and factor I plasma concentration, MCP expression on leukocytes and anti-factor H antibodies; genetic screening to identify risk factors). The disease is familial in approximately 20% of pedigrees, with an autosomal recessive or dominant mode of transmission. As penetrance of the disease is 50%, genetic counseling is difficult. Plasmatherapy has been first line treatment until presently

  2. Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors, Coronary Artery Calcification and Coronary Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ulusoy, Fatih Rifat; Ipek, Emrah; Korkmaz, Ali Fuat; Gurler, Mehmet Yavuz; Gulbaran, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Atherosclerosis is an intimal disease which affects large and medium size arteries including aorta and carotid, coronary, cerebral and radial arteries. Calcium accumulated in the coronary arterial plaques have substantial contribution to the plaque volume. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship between coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors and coronary arterial calcification, and to delineate the importance of CACS in coronary artery bypass surgery. Materials and Methods The current study is retrospective and 410 patients admitted to our clinic with atypical chest pain and without known CAD were included. These individuals were evaluated by 16 slice electron beam computed tomography with suspicion of CAD and their calcium scores were calculated. Detailed demographic and medical history were obtained from all of the patients. Results In our study, we employed five different analyses using different coronary arterial calcification score (CACS) thresold levels reported in previous studies. All of the analyses, performed according to the previously defined thresold levels, showed that risk factors had strong positive relationship with CACS as mentioned in previous studies. Conclusion Coronary arterial calcification is part of the athero-sclerotic process and although it can be detected in atherosclerotic vessel, it is absent in a normal vessel. It can be concluded that the clinical scores, even they are helpful, have some limitations in a significant part of the population for cardiovascular risk determination. It is important for an anastomosis region to be noncalcified in coronary bypass surgery. In a coronary artery, it will be helpness for showing of calcific field and anostomosis spot. PMID:26155507

  3. High-Dose Menaquinone-7 Supplementation Reduces Cardiovascular Calcification in a Murine Model of Extraosseous Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Scheiber, Daniel; Veulemans, Verena; Horn, Patrick; Chatrou, Martijn L.; Potthoff, Sebastian A.; Kelm, Malte; Schurgers, Leon J.; Westenfeld, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular calcification is prevalent in the aging population and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus, giving rise to substantial morbidity and mortality. Vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla-protein (MGP) is an important inhibitor of calcification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of high-dose menaquinone-7 (MK-7) supplementation (100 µg/g diet) on the development of extraosseous calcification in a murine model. Calcification was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy combined with high phosphate diet in rats. Sham operated animals served as controls. Animals received high or low MK-7 diets for 12 weeks. We assessed vital parameters, serum chemistry, creatinine clearance, and cardiac function. CKD provoked increased aortic (1.3 fold; p < 0.05) and myocardial (2.4 fold; p < 0.05) calcification in line with increased alkaline phosphatase levels (2.2 fold; p < 0.01). MK-7 supplementation inhibited cardiovascular calcification and decreased aortic alkaline phosphatase tissue concentrations. Furthermore, MK-7 supplementation increased aortic MGP messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression (10-fold; p < 0.05). CKD-induced arterial hypertension with secondary myocardial hypertrophy and increased elastic fiber breaking points in the arterial tunica media did not change with MK-7 supplementation. Our results show that high-dose MK-7 supplementation inhibits the development of cardiovascular calcification. The protective effect of MK-7 may be related to the inhibition of secondary mineralization of damaged vascular structures. PMID:26295257

  4. High-Dose Menaquinone-7 Supplementation Reduces Cardiovascular Calcification in a Murine Model of Extraosseous Calcification.

    PubMed

    Scheiber, Daniel; Veulemans, Verena; Horn, Patrick; Chatrou, Martijn L; Potthoff, Sebastian A; Kelm, Malte; Schurgers, Leon J; Westenfeld, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    Cardiovascular calcification is prevalent in the aging population and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus, giving rise to substantial morbidity and mortality. Vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla-protein (MGP) is an important inhibitor of calcification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of high-dose menaquinone-7 (MK-7) supplementation (100 µg/g diet) on the development of extraosseous calcification in a murine model. Calcification was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy combined with high phosphate diet in rats. Sham operated animals served as controls. Animals received high or low MK-7 diets for 12 weeks. We assessed vital parameters, serum chemistry, creatinine clearance, and cardiac function. CKD provoked increased aortic (1.3 fold; p < 0.05) and myocardial (2.4 fold; p < 0.05) calcification in line with increased alkaline phosphatase levels (2.2 fold; p < 0.01). MK-7 supplementation inhibited cardiovascular calcification and decreased aortic alkaline phosphatase tissue concentrations. Furthermore, MK-7 supplementation increased aortic MGP messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression (10-fold; p < 0.05). CKD-induced arterial hypertension with secondary myocardial hypertrophy and increased elastic fiber breaking points in the arterial tunica media did not change with MK-7 supplementation. Our results show that high-dose MK-7 supplementation inhibits the development of cardiovascular calcification. The protective effect of MK-7 may be related to the inhibition of secondary mineralization of damaged vascular structures. PMID:26295257

  5. Dark calcification and the daily rhythm of calcification in the scleractinian coral, Galaxea fascicularis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Horani, F. A.; Tambutté, É.; Allemand, D.

    2007-09-01

    The rate of calcification in the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis was followed during the daytime using 45Ca tracer. The coral began the day with a low calcification rate, which increased over time to a maximum in the afternoon. Since the experiments were carried out under a fixed light intensity, these results suggest that an intrinsic rhythm exists in the coral such that the calcification rate is regulated during the daytime. When corals were incubated for an extended period in the dark, the calcification rate was constant for the first 4 h of incubation and then declined, until after one day of dark incubation, calcification ceased, possibly as a result of the depletion of coral energy reserves. The addition of glucose and Artemia reduced the dark calcification rate for the short duration of the experiment, indicating an expenditure of oxygen in respiration. Artificial hypoxia reduced the rate of dark calcification to about 25% compared to aerated coral samples. It is suggested that G. fascicularis obtains its oxygen needs from the surrounding seawater during the nighttime, whereas during the day time the coral exports oxygen to the seawater.

  6. Regulatory Circuits Controlling Vascular Cell Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Tamer; Cheng, Henry; Demer, Linda L.; Tintut, Yin

    2013-01-01

    Vascular calcification is a common feature of chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, and aging. Such abnormal calcium deposition occurs in medial and/or intimal layers of blood vessels as well as in cardiac valves. Once considered a passive and inconsequential finding, the presence of calcium deposits in the vasculature is widely accepted as a predictor of increased morbidity and mortality. Recognition of the importance of vascular calcification in health is driving research into mechanisms that govern its development, progression, and regression. Diverse, but highly interconnected factors, have been implicated, including disturbances in lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, and mineral and hormonal balances, which can lead to formation of osteoblast-like cells in the artery wall. A tight balance of procalcific and anticalcific regulators dictates the extent of disease. In this review, we focus on the main regulatory circuits modulating vascular cell calcification. PMID:23269436

  7. Calcific band keratopathy in an alpaca.

    PubMed

    Pucket, Jonathan D; Boileau, Melanie J; Sula, Mee Ja M

    2014-07-01

    A 4-year-old female Suri alpaca was presented for evaluation of acute onset weakness, lethargy, and recent development of opacities in both eyes. On ophthalmic examination, bilaterally symmetrical corneal opacities were noted along the interpalpebral fissures with a few corneal blood vessels intermingled. A presumed diagnosis of calcific band keratopathy was made based on location and appearance. The patient was euthanized a short while after diagnosis due to reasons unrelated to the eyes and histologic examination of the corneas revealed subepithelial calcium and vascularization, consistent with calcific band keratopathy. This case report is the first to document this ocular condition in an alpaca.

  8. Dystrophic calcification of the prostate after cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dru, Christopher; Bender, Leon

    2014-01-01

    We present a previously undocumented complication of dystrophic calcification of the prostate after cryotherapy. An 87-year-old male presented with recurrent lower urinary tract infections and was found to have an obstructing large calcified mass in the right lobe of the prostate. Subsequently, he underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and bladder neck with laser lithotripsy to remove the calculus. We propose that chronic inflammation and necrosis of the prostate from cryotherapy resulted in dystrophic calcification of the prostate. As the use of cryotherapy for the treatment of localized prostate cancer continues to increase, it is important that clinicians be aware of this scenario and the technical challenges it poses.

  9. Effect of manganese on calcification of bone

    PubMed Central

    Tal, E.; Guggenheim, K.

    1965-01-01

    1. Young mice were maintained on a basal diet composed of meat, which is poor in both manganese and calcium. 2. The addition of small amounts (2·5–5·0mg./kg. of meat) of manganese improved weight gain and calcification of bone and decreased incorporation of injected radiocalcium into bone. 3. Prolonged treatment with larger amounts (10·0–25·0mg./kg. of meat) of manganese depressed growth, induced defective calcification of bone and increased incorporation of radiocalcium into bone. PMID:14333572

  10. How Does Calcification Influence Plaque Vulnerability? Insights from Fatigue Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Baijian; Pei, Xuan; Li, Zhi-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Background. Calcification is commonly believed to be associated with cardiovascular disease burden. But whether or not the calcifications have a negative effect on plaque vulnerability is still under debate. Methods and Results. Fatigue rupture analysis and the fatigue life were used to evaluate the rupture risk. An idealized baseline model containing no calcification was first built. Based on the baseline model, we investigated the influence of calcification on rupture path and fatigue life by adding a circular calcification and changing its location within the fibrous cap area. Results show that 84.0% of calcified cases increase the fatigue life up to 11.4%. For rupture paths 10D far from the calcification, the life change is negligible. Calcifications close to lumen increase more fatigue life than those close to the lipid pool. Also, calcifications in the middle area of fibrous cap increase more fatigue life than those in the shoulder area. Conclusion. Calcifications may play a positive role in the plaque stability. The influence of the calcification only exists in a local area. Calcifications close to lumen may be influenced more than those close to lipid pool. And calcifications in the middle area of fibrous cap are seemly influenced more than those in the shoulder area. PMID:24955401

  11. 21 CFR 882.5840 - Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... pain relief. 882.5840 Section 882.5840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 882.5840 Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief is a device that applies electrical...

  12. 21 CFR 882.5840 - Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... pain relief. 882.5840 Section 882.5840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 882.5840 Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief is a device that applies electrical...

  13. 21 CFR 882.5840 - Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... pain relief. 882.5840 Section 882.5840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 882.5840 Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief is a device that applies electrical...

  14. 21 CFR 882.5840 - Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pain relief. 882.5840 Section 882.5840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 882.5840 Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief is a device that applies electrical...

  15. 21 CFR 882.5840 - Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... pain relief. 882.5840 Section 882.5840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 882.5840 Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief is a device that applies electrical...

  16. [Atypical antipsychotics and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Baranyi, Andreas; Yazdani, Renè; Haas-Krammer, Alexandra; Stepan, Alexandra; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Rothenhäusler, Hans-Bernd

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of atypical antipsychotics in psychopharmacology represented a major advance in the treatment of psychotic disorders. However, there have been numerous studies that certain atypical antipsychotics may be associated with a greater risk of metabolic abnormalities than others, including weight gain, hyperlipidemia and new-onset typ 2 diabetes mellitus. A G-Protein beta3 subunit Gen (C825T) polymorphism, an increased carbohydrate metabolism and dyshormonism are discussed as pathogenetic mechanisms. High risk patients (adiposity, hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, preexisting diabetes) should maintain an antipsychotic agent with a favourable side effect profile. In these cases a periodical diabetes screening and blood lipid controls are required. Clinicans must balance the significant benefits of atypical antipsychotics against the risk of metabolic disturbances. In this article recent findings are reviewed.

  17. Atypical Cutaneous Manifestations in Syphilis.

    PubMed

    Ivars Lleó, M; Clavo Escribano, P; Menéndez Prieto, B

    2016-05-01

    Although the diversity of the clinical manifestations of syphilis is well-known, atypical presentations can also occur. Such atypical presentations are associated with a high risk of transmission as a result of diagnostic confusion and treatment delays owing to the disease's ability to mimic other common skin diseases, deviate from classic clinical presentations, and adopt unique forms. Cases of atypical syphilis have been described most frequently in patients with concomitant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Because the incidence of syphilis has been growing over recent years -particularly in patients with HIV co-infection- dermatologists need to be familiar with the less well-known clinical presentations of this venereal disease. PMID:26708562

  18. Intracerebral bullet removal through an endoscopic transnasal craniectomy

    PubMed Central

    Villaret, Andrea Bolzoni; Zenga, Francesco; Esposito, Isabella; Rasulo, Frank; Fontanella, Marco; Nicolai, Piero

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the past decade, the endoscopic transnasal technique has been broadly applied as a feasible and less invasive approach to the skull base. The adaptability of the endoscopic technique allows a case-specific approach in order to minimize both endonasal and cranio-cerebral manipulation; therefore it can be also used in patients complaining exceptional skull base lesions and in weak patients. The objective of this paper is to present the first case of intracerebral bullet removal using a pure endoscopic transnasal route through a custom made unilateral craniectomy. Case Description: A 59-year-old patient was admitted to the emergency department after a gunshot injury to the head, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. Admission Glasgow Coma Scale was 7. Brain computed tomography (CT) scan highlighted a right occipital hole defect due to perforative impact, intracerebral dislocations of bone fragments, right intracerebral and subdural hematoma, and midline shift to the left side; the bullet was localized in the right frontal lobe and its tip was in contact with the ethmoid roof. The patient underwent emergency decompressive craniectomy and evacuation of the subdural hematoma and abdominal explorative laparotomy, ileum resection, and gastrorrhaphy. After 1 month, the patient underwent endoscopic transnasal removal of the bullet and skull base reconstruction due to cerebrospinal fluid infection. The postoperative course was uneventful and he has done well in follow-up with no evidence of cerebrospinal fluid leak and preservation of olfaction. Conclusion: The adaptability of the endoscopic transnasal technique offers patients complaining exceptional skull base lesions a case-specific strategy minimizing morbidity and postoperative stay. PMID:23372971

  19. Association of mitral annulus calcification, aortic valve calcification with carotid intima media thickness

    PubMed Central

    Sgorbini, Luca; Scuteri, Angelo; Leggio, Massimo; Leggio, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    Background Mitral annular calcification (MAC) and aortic annular calcification (AVC) may represent a manifestation of generalized atherosclerosis in the elederly. Alterations in vascular structure, as indexed by the intima media thickness (IMT), are also recognized as independent predictors of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Aim To examine the relationship between the degree of calcification at mitral and/or aortic valve annulus and large artery structure (thickness). Methods We evaluated 102 consecutive patients who underwent transthoracic echocardiography and carotid artery echoDoppler for various indications; variables measured were: systemic blood pressure (BP), pulse pressure (PP=SBP-DBP), body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, total, HDL, LDL chlolesterol, triglycerides, cIMT. The patients were divided according to a grading of valvular/annular lesions independent scores based on acoustic densitometry: 1 = annular/valvular sclerosis/calcification absence; 2 = annular/valvular sclerosis; 3 = annular calcification; 4 = annular-valvular calcification; 5 = valvular calcification with no recognition of the leaflets. Results Patient score was the highest observed for either valvular/annulus. Mean cIMT increased linearly with increasing valvular calcification score, ranging from 3.9 ± 0.48 mm in controls to 12.9 ± 1.8 mm in those subjects scored 5 (p < 0.0001). In the first to fourth quartile of cIMT values the respective maximal percentual of score were: score 1: 76.1%, score 2: 70.1%, score 4: 54.3% and score 5: 69.5% (p > 0.0001). Conclusion MAC and AVC score can identify subgroups of patients with different cIMT values which indicate different incidence and prevalence of systemic artery diseases. This data may confirm MAC-AVC as a useful important diagnostic parameter of systemic atherosclerotic disease. PMID:15471552

  20. Associations between Thyroid Hormones, Calcification Inhibitor Levels and Vascular Calcification in End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Meuwese, Christiaan Lucas; Olauson, Hannes; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Ripsweden, Jonaz; Barany, Peter; Vermeer, Cees; Drummen, Nadja; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Vascular calcification is a common, serious and elusive complication of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). As a pro-calcifying risk factor, non-thyroidal illness may promote vascular calcification through a systemic lowering of vascular calcification inhibitors such as matrix-gla protein (MGP) and Klotho. Methods and Material In 97 ESRD patients eligible for living donor kidney transplantation, blood levels of thyroid hormones (fT3, fT4 and TSH), total uncarboxylated MGP (t-ucMGP), desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP), descarboxyprothrombin (PIVKA-II), and soluble Klotho (sKlotho) were measured. The degree of coronary calcification and arterial stiffness were assessed by means of cardiac CT-scans and applanation tonometry, respectively. Results fT3 levels were inversely associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) scores and measures of arterial stiffness, and positively with dp-ucMGP and sKlotho concentrations. Subfractions of MGP, PIVKA-II and sKlotho did not associate with CAC scores and arterial stiffness. fT4 and TSH levels were both inversely associated with CAC scores, but not with arterial stiffness. Discussion The positive associations between fT3 and dp-ucMGP and sKlotho suggest that synthesis of MGP and Klotho is influenced by thyroid hormones, and supports a link between non-thyroidal illness and alterations in calcification inhibitor levels. However, the absence of an association between serum calcification inhibitor levels and coronary calcification/arterial stiffness and the fact that MGP and Klotho undergo post-translational modifications underscore the complexity of this association. Further studies, measuring total levels of MGP and membrane bound Klotho, should examine this proposed pathway in further detail. PMID:26147960

  1. Aneurysm strength can decrease under calcification.

    PubMed

    Volokh, Konstantin Y; Aboudi, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    Aneurysms are abnormal dilatations of vessels in the vascular system that are prone to rupture. Prediction of the aneurysm rupture is a challenging and unsolved problem. Various factors can lead to the aneurysm rupture and, in the present study, we examine the effect of calcification on the aneurysm strength by using micromechanical modeling. The calcified tissue is considered as a composite material in which hard calcium particles are embedded in a hyperelastic soft matrix. Three experimentally calibrated constitutive models incorporating a failure description are used for the matrix representation. Two constitutive models describe the aneurysmal arterial wall and the third one - the intraluminal thrombus. The stiffness and strength of the calcified tissue are simulated in uniaxial tension under the varying amount of calcification, i.e. the relative volume of the hard inclusion within the periodic unit cell. In addition, the triaxiality of the stress state, which can be a trigger for the cavitation instability, is tracked. Results of the micromechanical simulation show an increase of the stiffness and a possible decrease of the strength of the calcified tissue as compared to the non-calcified one. The obtained results suggest that calcification (i.e. the presence of hard particles) can significantly affect the stiffness and strength of soft tissue. The development of refined experimental techniques that will allow for the accurate quantitative assessment of calcification is desirable. PMID:26717251

  2. Multiple postoperative intracerebral haematomas remote from the site of craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Rapanà, A; Lamaida, E; Pizza, V

    1998-08-01

    A postoperative haemorrhage is a common and serious complication of a neurosurgical procedure. It usually occurs at the site of the surgery, but on occasion a postoperative haematoma is found at a distance from the previous craniotomy. Multiple postoperative haemorrhages are extremely rare. We report the case of a 63-year-old woman, operated on for the removal of a supratentorial astrocytoma, who developed in the early post-operative period multiple bilateral intracerebral haematomas without involvement of the surgical bed. PMID:10070433

  3. Oxidative Stress in Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Sources, Mechanisms, and Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xin; Tao, Chuanyuan; Gan, Qi; Zheng, Jun; Li, Hao; You, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with the highest mortality and morbidity despite only constituting approximately 10–15% of all strokes. Complex underlying mechanisms consisting of cytotoxic, excitotoxic, and inflammatory effects of intraparenchymal blood are responsible for its highly damaging effects. Oxidative stress (OS) also plays an important role in brain injury after ICH but attracts less attention than other factors. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that the metabolite axis of hemoglobin-heme-iron is the key contributor to oxidative brain damage after ICH, although other factors, such as neuroinflammation and prooxidases, are involved. This review will discuss the sources, possible molecular mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets of OS in ICH. PMID:26843907

  4. [Pathogenesis of atypical femoral fracture].

    PubMed

    Iwata, Ken; Mashiba, Tasuku

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated microdamage accumulation in the fracture sites in the patients of subtrochanteric atypical femoral fracture with long term bisphosphonate therapy and of incomplete shaft fracture of lateral femoral bowing without bisphosphonate therapy. Based on these findings, pathogenesis of atypical femoral fracture is revealed stress fracture caused by accumulation of microdamages between distal to the lesser trochanter and proximal to the supracondylar flare in the femur in association with severely suppressed bone turnover and/or abnormal lower limb alignment, that causes stress concentration on the lateral side cortex of the femur. PMID:26728533

  5. Characteristics of rib cartilage calcification in Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Sunwoo, Woong Sang; Choi, Hyo Geun; Kim, Dae Woo; Jin, Hong-Ryul

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Rib cartilage from the sixth, seventh, and eighth ribs offers a long cartilaginous curvature, making the material reliable for grafting. Calcification of cartilage causes unexpected absorption, difficult manipulation, and donor site morbidity. Most studies of calcification were performed in Western countries. OBJECTIVE To investigate the incidence, degree, and pattern of rib cartilage calcification in Asian patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective study of computed tomographic scans of the chest in 120 patients (60 male and 60 female). The incidence, degree, and pattern of cartilage calcification of the sixth through eighth ribs were noted. The patients were stratified into 6 age groups, and 20 patients (10 male and 10 female) were selected for each group. The degree of calcification was assessed as 0%, 1% to 25%, 26% to 50%, 51% to 75%, and 76% to 100%. Meaningful calcification was defined as 26% or greater. The pattern of calcification was classified as marginal, granular, and central. EXPOSURE Computed tomographic scans of the chest. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Degree of calcification, presence of meaningful calcification, and calcification pattern. RESULTS Overall, 50.8% of cartilage was calcified, and female patients showed more frequent calcification than male patients (59.4% vs 42.2% [P < .001]). Calcification rates of the sixth and seventh rib cartilage were higher than those of the eighth rib cartilage in all age groups except teenagers, who had a similar rate for all 3 ribs. Calcification of the sixth and seventh rib cartilage significantly increased with age. A meaningful calcification rate was very low in males younger than 60 years, whereas the rate was relatively higher in females than males for all age groups. Males predominantly had the marginal type of calcification, whereas females predominantly had a granular type. The rate and pattern of calcification had no relationship to age. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In Asian

  6. Acute Calcific Bursitis After Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Barbotage of Rotator Cuff Calcific Tendinopathy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bo-Sung; Lee, Seung Hak; Cho, Yung; Chung, Sun Gun

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound-guided percutaneous barbotage is an effective treatment for rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy, providing rapid and substantial pain relief. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman with aggravated pain early after ultrasound-guided barbotage of a large calcific deposit in the supraspinatus tendon. Subsequent examination revealed a thick calcification spreading along the subacromial-subdeltoid bursa space, suggesting acute calcific bursitis complicated by barbotage. Additional barbotage alleviated her pain completely. Therefore, a high index of suspicion for acute calcific bursitis is required in patients with unresolved or aggravated pain after barbotage. Repeated barbotage could be effective for this condition. PMID:26902864

  7. Intracerebral haemorrhage profiles are changing: results from the Dijon population-based study.

    PubMed

    Béjot, Yannick; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Durier, Jérôme; Aboa-Eboulé, Corine; Rouaud, Olivier; Giroud, Maurice

    2013-02-01

    Incidence of intracerebral haemorrhage over the past three decades is reported as stable. This disappointing finding is questionable and suggests that any reduction in intracerebral haemorrhage incidence associated with improvements in primary prevention, namely, better control of blood pressure, might have been offset by an increase in cases of intracerebral haemorrhage owing to other factors, including the use of antithrombotic drugs in the ageing population. Therefore, we aimed to analyse trends in intracerebral haemorrhage incidence from 1985 to 2008 in the population-based registry of Dijon, France, taking into consideration the intracerebral haemorrhage location, the effect of age and the changes in the distribution of risk factors and premorbid treatments. Incidence rates were calculated and temporal trends were analysed by age groups (<60, 60-74 and ≥75 years) and intracerebral haemorrhage location (lobar or deep) according to study periods 1985-92, 1993-2000 and 2001-08. Over the 24 years of the study, 3948 patients with first-ever stroke were recorded. Among these, 441 had intracerebral haemorrhage (48.3% male), including 49% lobar, 37% deep, 9% infratentorial and 5% of undetermined location. Mean age at onset increased from 67.3 ± 15.9 years to 74.7 ± 16.7 years over the study period (P < 0.001). Overall crude incidence was 12.4/100,000/year (95% confidence interval: 11.2-13.6) and remained stable over time. However, an ∼80% increase in intracerebral haemorrhage incidence among people aged ≥75 years was observed between the first and both second and third study periods, contrasting with a 50% decrease in that in individuals aged <60 years, and stable incidence in those aged 60-74 years. This result was attributed to a 2-fold increase in lobar intracerebral haemorrhage in the elderly, concomitantly with an observed rise in the premorbid use of antithrombotics at this age, whatever the intracerebral haemorrhage location considered. In conclusion

  8. Atypical moles: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Allen; Duffy, R Lamar

    2015-06-01

    Atypical moles are benign pigmented lesions. Although they are benign, they exhibit some of the clinical and histologic features of malignant melanoma. They are more common in fair-skinned individuals and in those with high sun exposure. Atypical moles are characterized by size of 6 mm or more at the greatest dimension, color variegation, border irregularity, and pebbled texture. They are associated with an increased risk of melanoma, warranting enhanced surveillance, especially in patients with more than 50 moles and a family history of melanoma. Because an individual lesion is unlikely to display malignant transformation, biopsy of all atypical moles is neither clinically beneficial nor cost-effective. The ABCDE (asymmetry, border irregularity, color unevenness, diameter of 6 mm or more, evolution) mnemonic is a valuable tool for clinicians and patients to identify lesions that could be melanoma. Also, according to the "ugly duckling" concept, benign moles tend to have a similar appearance, whereas an outlier with a different appearance is more likely to be undergoing malignant change. Atypical moles with changes suggestive of malignant melanoma should be biopsied, using an excisional method, if possible.

  9. Atypical SARS in Geriatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Helen M.L.; Hui, K.P.; Lien, Christopher T.C.; Narendran, K.; Heng, B.H.; Ling, A.E.

    2004-01-01

    We describe an atypical presentation of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in a geriatric patient with multiple coexisting conditions. Interpretation of radiographic changes was confounded by cardiac failure, with resolution of fever causing delayed diagnosis and a cluster of cases. SARS should be considered even if a contact history is unavailable, during an ongoing outbreak. PMID:15030694

  10. Adipocyte induced arterial calcification is prevented with sodium thiosulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Neal X.; O’Neill, Kalisha; Akl, Nader Kassis; Moe, Sharon M.

    2014-06-20

    Highlights: • High phosphorus can induce calcification of adipocytes, even when fully differentiated. • Adipocytes can induce vascular calcification in an autocrine manner. • Sodium thiosulfate inhibits adipocyte calcification. - Abstract: Background: Calcification can occur in fat in multiple clinical conditions including in the dermis, breasts and in the abdomen in calciphylaxis. All of these are more common in patients with advanced kidney disease. Clinically, hyperphosphatemia and obesity are risk factors. Thus we tested the hypothesis that adipocytes can calcify in the presence of elevated phosphorus and/or that adipocytes exposed to phosphorus can induce vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification. Methods: 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced into mature adipocytes and then treated with media containing high phosphorus. Calcification was assessed biochemically and PCR performed to determine the expression of genes for osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. Adipocytes were also co-cultured with bovine VSMC to determine paracrine effects, and the efficacy of sodium thiosulfate was determined. Results: The results demonstrated that high phosphorus induced the calcification of differentiated adipocytes with increased expression of osteopontin, the osteoblast transcription factor Runx2 and decreased expression of adipocyte transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (CEBPα), indicating that high phosphorus led to a phenotypic switch of adipocytes to an osteoblast like phenotype. Sodium thiosulfate, dose dependently decreased adipocyte calcification and inhibited adipocyte induced increase of VSMC calcification. Co-culture studies demonstrated that adipocytes facilitated VSMC calcification partially mediated by changes of secretion of leptin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from adipocytes. Conclusion: High phosphorus induced calcification of mature adipocytes, and

  11. [Intracerebral aneurysm--treatment options, informed consent, and legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Burkhardt, Werner Friedrich; Zinn, Pascal Olivier; Bozinov, Oliver; Bertalanffy, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    All medical subspecialties and, in particular, high-tech field neurosurgery are subject to continuous change in therapeutic concepts due to novel treatment options emerging through research and evolution in the field. Hence, the question arises if the patient's informed consent needs to be adjusted in the face of multiple therapeutic options with different configurations of risk/benefit relationships. In this paper we discuss different therapeutic scenarios with regard to ruptured intracerebral aneurysms (RIA) and unruptured intracerebral aneurysms (UIA), and we advise the medical doctor involved in the process. Indeed, experienced neurosurgeons and endovascular interventionalists are very familiar with the management of these scenarios; likewise, interns, residents, and otherwise affiliated physicians may be faced with these situations. In general, asymptomatic and mentally capacitated patients as well as legal guardians of minor patients and of mentally incapacitated patients with incidental aneurysms and more than one therapeutic option need to be accurately informed about the advantages and disadvantages of the treatment options available to them. In case of emergency or when treating a mentally disabled patient who is incapable of making a sound judgment and has no legal guardian, the attending doctor will have to choose the best possible treatment option. PMID:21958620

  12. Calcification by Reef-Building Sclerobionts

    PubMed Central

    Mallela, Jennie

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that deteriorating water quality associated with increased sediment stress has reduced calcification rates on coral reefs. However, there is limited information regarding the growth and development of reef building organisms, aside from the corals themselves. This study investigated encruster calcification on five fore-reefs in Tobago subjected to a range of sedimentation rates (1.2 to 15.9 mg cm−2 d−1). Experimental substrates were used to assess rates of calcification in sclerobionts (e.g. crustose coralline algae, bryozoans and barnacles) across key reef microhabitats: cryptic (low-light), exposed (open-horizontal) and vertical topographic settings. Sedimentation negatively impacted calcification by photosynthesising crustose coralline algae in exposed microhabitats and encrusting foram cover (%) in exposed and cryptic substrates. Heterotrophs were not affected by sedimentation. Fore-reef, turbid water encruster assemblages calcified at a mean rate of 757 (SD ±317) g m−2 y−1. Different microhabitats were characterised by distinct calcareous encruster assemblages with different rates of calcification. Taxa with rapid lateral growth dominated areal cover but were not responsible for the majority of CaCO3 production. Cryptobiont assemblages were composed of a suite of calcifying taxa which included sciaphilic cheilostome bryozoans and suspension feeding barnacles. These calcified at mean rates of 20.1 (SD ±27) and 4.0 (SD ±3.6) g m−2 y−1 respectively. Encruster cover (%) on exposed and vertical substrates was dominated by crustose coralline algae which calcified at rates of 105.3 (SD ±67.7) g m−2 y−1 and 56.3 (SD ±8.3) g m−2 y−1 respectively. Globally, encrusting organisms contribute significant amounts of carbonate to the reef framework. These results provide experimental evidence that calcification rates, and the importance of different encrusting organisms, vary significantly according to topography and sediment

  13. De novo calcification of liver and nodal metastases in prostate carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, P; Santosa, A C; Lin, G Y; Downs, T M

    2006-01-01

    Prostate cancer has a distinctly recognized pattern of metastases: multifocal and osteoblastic lesions involving the axial skeleton and non-calcified lymph nodes in the pelvic and lumbar aortic groups. Most adenocarcinomas are capable of producing macrocalcification. We report a case of prostate cancer with de novo calcified metastases to the liver and retroperitoneal lymph nodes mimicking the pattern usually seen in mucin-producing adenocarcinomas arising from the gastrointestinal tract. To our knowledge, this is the first such case to be reported in the literature. We propose a multifactorial mechanism that supports dystrophic calcification in this case. The knowledge of atypical presentation of metastatic disease can prevent diagnostic delay and prompt initiation of therapy.

  14. Localised pulmonary metastatic calcification associated with pulmonary artery obstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Bloodworth, J; Tomashefski, J F

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Metastatic pulmonary calcification, a complication of uraemia and disordered calcium metabolism, may be diffuse or localised. The factors that determine calcium precipitation are complex, but tissue alkalosis is thought to be important. As obstruction of the pulmonary artery theoretically causes local alkalosis a retrospective necropsy study was carried out to examine the relation between metastatic pulmonary calcification and vascular obstruction. METHODS: Five patients with focal and two with diffuse metastatic calcification in the lungs were identified over eight years. Lungs were studied macroscopically and by light microscopy, haematoxylin and eosin and histochemical stains being used for calcium. RESULTS: Underlying risk factors for calcification in these patients included renal failure in six and disseminated malignancy in five. In the five patients with localised calcification obstruction of the pulmonary artery by thrombus or tumour was found proximal or adjacent to areas of calcium deposition. In two patients metastatic calcification was confined to a lung with unilateral pulmonary artery thromboembolic occlusion. Calcification was not specifically associated with infarction, pneumonia, or diffuse alveolar damage. Lesions of the pulmonary artery were not seen in the two patients with diffuse bilateral metastatic calcification. CONCLUSION: In this small series there was a spatial association between pulmonary artery obstruction and localised metastatic calcification. It is proposed that pulmonary artery obstruction alters the microchemical environment of the lung, favouring tissue alkalosis and thereby enhancing parenchymal calcification in patients predisposed to this condition. Images PMID:1519194

  15. The role of inflammation in coronary artery calcification.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Jun; Zhu, Chen-Gang; Yu, Bing; Liu, Ya-Xin; Yu, Meng-Yue

    2007-12-01

    Vascular calcification is an age-dependent, common finding in human coronary arteries and begins as early as the second decade of life, just after fatty streak formation. Previous studies have showed that the severity of coronary calcification is closely related to atherosclerotic plaque burden and cardiac event rate. In the past few decades, coronary calcification has been considered passive and degenerative. With recent clinical and basic research, however, there is increasing recognition that coronary calcification is an active, regulated process. Current diagnostic methods for coronary artery calcification (CAC) are usually traditional coronary angiography, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) and multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) while treatment for patients with calcified coronary arteries is troublesome. Several lines of evidence suggest that inflammation plays a major role in the development of atherosclerosis as well as its clinical manifestations. Recent study showed that inflammatory process might be also involved in coronary calcification. Accordingly, measurements of inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) may in part reflect indices of atherosclerosis, such as coronary calcification, and are likely to provide distinct information regarding cardiovascular risk. In this article, we review the current evidence of relationship between coronary calcification and inflammation for purpose of drawing the more attention on the inflammatory mechanism of coronary calcification, which may change our research as well as therapeutic strategies for coronary calcification in the future. PMID:17964226

  16. Unusual ganglioglioma with extensive calcification and ossification.

    PubMed

    Kavishwar, Vikas Shashikant; Chadha, Kirti G; Barodawala, Shaikhali Moiz; Murthy, Anuradha Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Ganglioglioma is a slow-growing relatively low-grade mixed glioneuronal tumor with most cases corresponding to the WHO Grade I category. It frequently presents with seizures. The temporal lobe is the most common location followed by frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes. These generally behave in a benign fashion and have a favorable prognosis. We describe a case of a 24-year-old male presenting with convulsions and a calcified parieto-occipital mass. This mass removed from the parietal lobe showed neoplastic glial and dysplastic neuronal tissue amidst extensive areas of calcification and foci of ossification. On immunohistochemistry, the glial component expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein whereas the dysplastic neuronal component expressed synaptophysin and CD34. Epithelial membrane antigen was negative and Ki-67 showed a low proliferative index. After the surgery, the patient is free of neurological symptoms. Widespread calcification and ossification are very unusual in ganglioglioma, which prompted us to report this case. PMID:27510688

  17. Computed tomographic evaluation of pineal calcification.

    PubMed

    Kohli, N; Rastogi, H; Bhadury, S; Tandon, V K

    1992-04-01

    A prospective study to ascertain the incidence of normally calcified pineal gland, was carried out in 1000 consecutive patients from different parts of Uttar Pradesh (India), undergoing cranial computed tomography for reasons other than a pineal or parapineal pathology. A total of 167 (16.70%) patients were found to have calcified pineals. Of these 128 were males and 39 females. The incidence rose from 1.16 per cent in the first decade to 31.88 per cent above the age of 50 yr. The percentage incidence of normal pineal calcification was lower than that seen in the Western population. No significant difference was found between men and women in any age group. Although calcification appeared as early as the first decade, this percentage was significantly lower than in the higher age groups. Significantly higher incidence rates were seen in the second decade, third decade and sixth decade onwards. PMID:1428055

  18. Vascular calcification in diabetes: mechanisms and implications.

    PubMed

    Snell-Bergeon, Janet K; Budoff, Matthew J; Hokanson, John E

    2013-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death among adults with diabetes, and CVD prevention remains a major challenge. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) score measured by electron beam tomography (EBT) or multi-slice detector computed tomography correlates closely with plaque burden and coronary angiography, and predicts coronary events independently of other risk factors. Further, progression of CAC over several years has been shown to predict increased mortality. Coronary calcification is an active process strongly associated with atherosclerotic plaque evolution and is an accepted surrogate endpoint in studies of patients with diabetes older than 30. In this review, recent findings regarding the mechanisms and implications of vascular calcification in diabetes will be discussed. PMID:23526400

  19. Dystrophic Calcification of the Prostate after Cryotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We present a previously undocumented complication of dystrophic calcification of the prostate after cryotherapy. An 87-year-old male presented with recurrent lower urinary tract infections and was found to have an obstructing large calcified mass in the right lobe of the prostate. Subsequently, he underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and bladder neck with laser lithotripsy to remove the calculus. We propose that chronic inflammation and necrosis of the prostate from cryotherapy resulted in dystrophic calcification of the prostate. As the use of cryotherapy for the treatment of localized prostate cancer continues to increase, it is important that clinicians be aware of this scenario and the technical challenges it poses. PMID:25548712

  20. Enlarging mediastinal/hilar lymphadenopathy with calcification.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Takashi; Nakahata, Masashi; Moritani, Suzuko; Iida, Hiroatsu; Ogawa, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    A 77-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to enlarging mediastinal/hilar lymphadenopathy with calcification. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and bone marrow aspiration were performed. Subsequently, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) associated with mediastinal amyloidosis was diagnosed. We hereby report a case in which EBUS-TBNA led to a successful diagnosis of amyloidosis. PMID:26862422

  1. Atypical apocrine adenosis diagnosed on breast core biopsy: implications for management.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Benjamin C; Booth, Christine N

    2014-10-01

    Apocrine adenosis (AA) and atypical apocrine adenosis (AAA) are uncommon findings in breast biopsies that may be misinterpreted as carcinoma. The data from long-term follow up studies of open biopsies suggest that AAA is not a high-risk or precursor lesion. The clinical significance and risk implications of AAA diagnosed on core biopsy are not well established. The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of carcinoma in excision specimens after a core biopsy diagnosis of AA or AAA. We identified 34 core biopsies of AA (22) and AAA (12) performed between 1996 and 2014. The mean age at diagnosis was 60 years. The most common indications for core biopsy were calcifications (11), a mass or density (18), and a mass or density with calcifications (3). Two cases were detected on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. Available pathology reports and slides were reviewed, and surgical excision findings were correlated with core biopsy diagnoses. Of the core biopsies with AA or AAA, 7 also contained atypical ductal or lobular hyperplasia (AH) and 4 contained ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma. In the absence of coexisting AH or carcinoma in the initial core biopsy specimen, none of the surgical excision specimens after a diagnosis of AA (2) or AAA (7) contained ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma. AAA by itself is an uncommon core biopsy diagnosis that may not require surgical excision.

  2. Atypical fractures, a biased perspective.

    PubMed

    Aspenberg, Per

    2016-01-01

    When stress fractures started to show up in the femurs of elderly ladies, it was soon evident that bisphosphonate use lay behind, and the absolute risk increase due to bisphosphonate use was reasonably well estimated already in 2008. Thereafter followed a period of confusion: the term atypical fracture was introduced, with a definition so vague that the true stress fractures tended to disappear in a cloud of ambiguity. This cast doubt on the association with bisphosphonates. The association was then re-established by large epidemiological studies based on radiographic adjudication. Atypical fractures are largely caused by bisphosphonates. With a correct indication, bisphosphonates prevent many more fractures than they cause, at least during the first years of use. With an incorrect indication they are likely to cause more harm than good. PMID:26768286

  3. Atypical neuroimaging in Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Patell, Rushad; Dosi, Rupal; Joshi, Harshal K; Storz, Dennis

    2014-06-06

    Wilson's disease is a rare metabolic disease involving copper metabolism. Neuroimaging plays an important part in evaluation of patients with a neuropsychiatric presentation. We present a case of a 14-year-old girl with atypical confluent white matter disease and cystic degeneration on MRI, with a rapidly progressive course, who succumbed to complications despite treatment with trientine. Wilson's disease should be considered as a differential for leucoencephalopathy in young patients with progressive neurological disease for its early recognition and optimum outcome.

  4. Treatment of hypophosphatemic rickets in generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) without worsening of vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Carlos R; Ziegler, Shira G; Gupta, Ashutosh; Groden, Catherine; Hsu, Kevin S; Gahl, William A

    2016-05-01

    Patients with generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) develop vascular calcifications early in life. About half of them die within the first 6 months despite optimal medical care. A subset of those who survive eventually develop hypophosphatemic rickets. Since hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphaturia have been previously associated with increased survival in GACI patients, physicians often avoid phosphate repletion as treatment for rickets. As a consequence, GACI patients develop severe rachitic complications such as short stature and skeletal deformities. It appears that the recognition of hypophosphatemia later in life in some GACI patients is a consequence of having survived the first few months of life, and not the cause of their survival per se. Here, we report the long-term follow-up of a GACI patient who was phosphate-repleted for his rickets for more than 7 years without worsening of vascular calcification.

  5. Corals concentrate dissolved inorganic carbon to facilitate calcification.

    PubMed

    Allison, Nicola; Cohen, Itay; Finch, Adrian A; Erez, Jonathan; Tudhope, Alexander W

    2014-12-22

    The sources of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) used to produce scleractinian coral skeletons are not understood. Yet this knowledge is essential for understanding coral biomineralization and assessing the potential impacts of ocean acidification on coral reefs. Here we use skeletal boron geochemistry to reconstruct the DIC chemistry of the fluid used for coral calcification. We show that corals concentrate DIC at the calcification site substantially above seawater values and that bicarbonate contributes a significant amount of the DIC pool used to build the skeleton. Corals actively increase the pH of the calcification fluid, decreasing the proportion of DIC present as CO2 and creating a diffusion gradient favouring the transport of molecular CO2 from the overlying coral tissue into the calcification site. Coupling the increases in calcification fluid pH and [DIC] yields high calcification fluid [CO3(2-)] and induces high aragonite saturation states, favourable to the precipitation of the skeleton.

  6. Atypical centrioles during sexual reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Avidor-Reiss, Tomer; Khire, Atul; Fishman, Emily L.; Jo, Kyoung H.

    2015-01-01

    Centrioles are conserved, self-replicating, microtubule-based, 9-fold symmetric subcellular organelles that are essential for proper cell division and function. Most cells have two centrioles and maintaining this number of centrioles is important for animal development and physiology. However, how animals gain their first two centrioles during reproduction is only partially understood. It is well established that in most animals, the centrioles are contributed to the zygote by the sperm. However, in humans and many animals, the sperm centrioles are modified in their structure and protein composition, or they appear to be missing altogether. In these animals, the origin of the first centrioles is not clear. Here, we review various hypotheses on how centrioles are gained during reproduction and describe specialized functions of the zygotic centrioles. In particular, we discuss a new and atypical centriole found in sperm and zygote, called the proximal centriole-like structure (PCL). We also discuss another type of atypical centriole, the “zombie” centriole, which is degenerated but functional. Together, the presence of centrioles, PCL, and zombie centrioles suggests a universal mechanism of centriole inheritance among animals and new causes of infertility. Since the atypical centrioles of sperm and zygote share similar functions with typical centrioles in somatic cells, they can provide unmatched insight into centriole biology. PMID:25883936

  7. Atypical centrioles during sexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Avidor-Reiss, Tomer; Khire, Atul; Fishman, Emily L; Jo, Kyoung H

    2015-01-01

    Centrioles are conserved, self-replicating, microtubule-based, 9-fold symmetric subcellular organelles that are essential for proper cell division and function. Most cells have two centrioles and maintaining this number of centrioles is important for animal development and physiology. However, how animals gain their first two centrioles during reproduction is only partially understood. It is well established that in most animals, the centrioles are contributed to the zygote by the sperm. However, in humans and many animals, the sperm centrioles are modified in their structure and protein composition, or they appear to be missing altogether. In these animals, the origin of the first centrioles is not clear. Here, we review various hypotheses on how centrioles are gained during reproduction and describe specialized functions of the zygotic centrioles. In particular, we discuss a new and atypical centriole found in sperm and zygote, called the proximal centriole-like structure (PCL). We also discuss another type of atypical centriole, the "zombie" centriole, which is degenerated but functional. Together, the presence of centrioles, PCL, and zombie centrioles suggests a universal mechanism of centriole inheritance among animals and new causes of infertility. Since the atypical centrioles of sperm and zygote share similar functions with typical centrioles in somatic cells, they can provide unmatched insight into centriole biology.

  8. Atypical centrioles during sexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Avidor-Reiss, Tomer; Khire, Atul; Fishman, Emily L; Jo, Kyoung H

    2015-01-01

    Centrioles are conserved, self-replicating, microtubule-based, 9-fold symmetric subcellular organelles that are essential for proper cell division and function. Most cells have two centrioles and maintaining this number of centrioles is important for animal development and physiology. However, how animals gain their first two centrioles during reproduction is only partially understood. It is well established that in most animals, the centrioles are contributed to the zygote by the sperm. However, in humans and many animals, the sperm centrioles are modified in their structure and protein composition, or they appear to be missing altogether. In these animals, the origin of the first centrioles is not clear. Here, we review various hypotheses on how centrioles are gained during reproduction and describe specialized functions of the zygotic centrioles. In particular, we discuss a new and atypical centriole found in sperm and zygote, called the proximal centriole-like structure (PCL). We also discuss another type of atypical centriole, the "zombie" centriole, which is degenerated but functional. Together, the presence of centrioles, PCL, and zombie centrioles suggests a universal mechanism of centriole inheritance among animals and new causes of infertility. Since the atypical centrioles of sperm and zygote share similar functions with typical centrioles in somatic cells, they can provide unmatched insight into centriole biology. PMID:25883936

  9. Chronic intracerebral cannula can affect feeding behavior in the rat.

    PubMed

    Larue-Achagiotis, C; Louis-Sylvestre, J

    1989-04-01

    Intracerebral cannulae were placed in the lateral ventricle of rats. It was shown that the cannulae per se can affect feeding behavior. After recovery from surgery, rats displayed an unusual eating rate which consisted of very long, slow and large meals. This slow eating rate led to a modification of the circadian pattern; it induced a decrease in night-time and increase in day-time cumulative intakes. This phenomenon appeared when cannulae crossed the cortical motor area concerned with forelimb movements. Different stereotaxic coordinates had to be used in order to place cannulae in the lateral ventricle without disturbing the feeding pattern. This observation underlines the importance of recording feeding pattern before any surgery in any study of feeding behavior.

  10. [MRI semiotics features of experimental acute intracerebral hematomas].

    PubMed

    Burenchev, D V; Skvortsova, V I; Tvorogova, T V; Guseva, O I; Gubskiĭ, L V; Kupriianov, D A; Pirogov, Iu A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of revealing intracerebral hematomas (ICH), using MRI, within the first hours after onset and to determine their MRI semiotics features. Thirty animals with experimental ICH were studied. A method of two-stage introduction of autologous blood was used to develop ICH as human spontaneous intracranial hematomas. Within 3-5h after blood introduction to the rat brain. The control MRI was performed in the 3rd and 7th days after blood injections. ICH were definitely identified in the first MRI scans. The MRI semiotics features of acute ICH and their transformations were assessed. The high sensitivity of MRI to ICH as well as the uniform manifestations in all animals were shown. In conclusion, the method has high specificity for acute ICH detection.

  11. Surgical Trial in Lobar Intracerebral Haemorrhage (STICH II) Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Within the spectrum of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage there are some patients with large or space occupying haemorrhage who require surgery for neurological deterioration and others with small haematomas who should be managed conservatively. There is equipoise about the management of patients between these two extremes. In particular there is some evidence that patients with lobar haematomas and no intraventricular haemorrhage might benefit from haematoma evacuation. The STICH II study will establish whether a policy of earlier surgical evacuation of the haematoma in selected patients will improve outcome compared to a policy of initial conservative treatment. Methods/Design an international multicentre randomised parallel group trial. Only patients for whom the treating neurosurgeon is in equipoise about the benefits of early craniotomy compared to initial conservative treatment are eligible. All patients must have a CT scan confirming spontaneous lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (≤1 cm from the cortex surface of the brain and 10-100 ml in volume). Any clotting or coagulation problems must be corrected and randomisation must take place within 48 hours of ictus. With 600 patients, the study will be able to demonstrate a 12% benefit from surgery (2p < 0.05) with 80% power. Stratified randomisation is undertaken using a central 24 hour randomisation service accessed by telephone or web. Patients randomised to early surgery should have the operation within 12 hours. Information about the status (Glasgow Coma Score and focal signs) of all patients through the first five days of their trial progress is also collected in addition to another CT scan at about five days (+/- 2 days). Outcome is measured at six months via a postal questionnaire to the patient. Primary outcome is death or severe disability defined using a prognosis based 8 point Glasgow Outcome Scale. Secondary outcomes include: Mortality, Rankin, Barthel, EuroQol, and Survival. Trial

  12. Dystrophic calcifications after autologous fat injection on face.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dai Hyun; Jang, Hee Won; Kim, Hee Joo; Son, Sang Wook

    2014-06-01

    Autologous fat injection is widely used procedure for various functional and aesthetic purposes. However, it could result in many immediate or delayed complications including dystrophic calcifications. Almost all of the case reports about dystrophic calcification after autologous fat injection were result from the iatrogenic tissue trauma of breast augmentation. This is a report of a 30-year-old patient who developed pathologically proven multiple dystrophic calcifications on the face after autologous fat injection. PMID:24131074

  13. Atraumatic quadriceps tendon tear associated with calcific tendonitis.

    PubMed

    Abram, Simon G F; Sharma, Akash D; Arvind, Chinnakonda

    2012-11-27

    Calcific tendonitis of the quadriceps tendon is an uncommon condition. We present the first case of a quadriceps tendon tear associated with calcific tendonitis. In this case, the patient presented with symptoms mimicking a rupture of the quadriceps tendon. This case illustrates that although calcific tendonitis of the quadriceps is a rare condition it is not benign and should be considered when investigating acute symptoms associated with the extensor mechanism of the knee.

  14. Acute ischaemic brain lesions in intracerebral haemorrhage: multicentre cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Gregoire, Simone M; Charidimou, Andreas; Gadapa, Naveen; Dolan, Eamon; Antoun, Nagui; Peeters, Andre; Vandermeeren, Yves; Laloux, Patrice; Baron, Jean-Claude; Jäger, Hans R; Werring, David J

    2011-08-01

    Subclinical acute ischaemic lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging have recently been described in spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage, and may be important to understand pathophysiology and guide treatment. The underlying mechanisms are uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that ischaemic lesions are related to magnetic resonance imaging markers of the severity and type of small-vessel disease (hypertensive arteriopathy or cerebral amyloid angiopathy) in a multicentre, cross-sectional study. We studied consecutive patients with intracerebral haemorrhage from four specialist stroke centres, and age-matched stroke service referrals without intracerebral haemorrhage. Acute ischaemic lesions were assessed on magnetic resonance imaging (<3 months after intracerebral haemorrhage) using diffusion-weighted imaging. White matter changes and cerebral microbleeds were rated with validated scales. We investigated associations between diffusion-weighted imaging lesions, clinical and radiological characteristics. We included 114 patients with intracerebral haemorrhage (39 with clinically probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy) and 47 age-matched controls. The prevalence of diffusion-weighted imaging lesions was 9/39 (23%) in probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related intracerebral haemorrhage versus 6/75 (8%) in the remaining patients with intracerebral haemorrhage (P = 0.024); no diffusion-weighted imaging lesions were found in controls. Diffusion-weighted imaging lesions were mainly cortical and were associated with mean white matter change score (odds ratio 1.14 per unit increase, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.28, P = 0.024) and the presence of strictly lobar cerebral microbleeds (odds ratio 3.85, 95% confidence interval 1.15-12.93, P = 0.029). Acute, subclinical ischaemic brain lesions are frequent but previously underestimated after intracerebral haemorrhage, and are three times more common in cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related intracerebral haemorrhage than in

  15. Sortilin mediates vascular calcification via its recruitment into extracellular vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Goettsch, Claudia; Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Aikawa, Masanori; Iwata, Hiroshi; Pham, Tan; Nykjaer, Anders; Kjolby, Mads; Rogers, Maximillian; Michel, Thomas; Shibasaki, Manabu; Hagita, Sumihiko; Kramann, Rafael; Singh, Sasha A.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular calcification is a common feature of major cardiovascular diseases. Extracellular vesicles participate in the formation of microcalcifications that are implicated in atherosclerotic plaque rupture; however, the mechanisms that regulate formation of calcifying extracellular vesicles remain obscure. Here, we have demonstrated that sortilin is a key regulator of smooth muscle cell (SMC) calcification via its recruitment to extracellular vesicles. Sortilin localized to calcifying vessels in human and mouse atheromata and participated in formation of microcalcifications in SMC culture. Sortilin regulated the loading of the calcification protein tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) into extracellular vesicles, thereby conferring its calcification potential. Furthermore, SMC calcification required Rab11-dependent trafficking and FAM20C/casein kinase 2–dependent C-terminal phosphorylation of sortilin. In a murine model, Sort1-deficiency reduced arterial calcification but did not affect bone mineralization. Additionally, transfer of sortilin-deficient BM cells to irradiated atherosclerotic mice did not affect vascular calcification, indicating a primary role of SMC-derived sortilin. Together, the results of this study identify sortilin phosphorylation as a potential therapeutic target for ectopic calcification/microcalcification and may clarify the mechanism that underlies the genetic association between the SORT1 gene locus and coronary artery calcification. PMID:26950419

  16. Inhibitory Role of Notch1 in Calcific Aortic Valve Disease

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Sara N.; Nichols, Haley A.; Galindo, Cristi L.; Garner, Harold R.; Merrill, Walter H.; Hinton, Robert B.; Garg, Vidu

    2011-01-01

    Aortic valve calcification is the most common form of valvular heart disease, but the mechanisms of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) are unknown. NOTCH1 mutations are associated with aortic valve malformations and adult-onset calcification in families with inherited disease. The Notch signaling pathway is critical for multiple cell differentiation processes, but its role in the development of CAVD is not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular changes that occur with inhibition of Notch signaling in the aortic valve. Notch signaling pathway members are expressed in adult aortic valve cusps, and examination of diseased human aortic valves revealed decreased expression of NOTCH1 in areas of calcium deposition. To identify downstream mediators of Notch1, we examined gene expression changes that occur with chemical inhibition of Notch signaling in rat aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs). We found significant downregulation of Sox9 along with several cartilage-specific genes that were direct targets of the transcription factor, Sox9. Loss of Sox9 expression has been published to be associated with aortic valve calcification. Utilizing an in vitro porcine aortic valve calcification model system, inhibition of Notch activity resulted in accelerated calcification while stimulation of Notch signaling attenuated the calcific process. Finally, the addition of Sox9 was able to prevent the calcification of porcine AVICs that occurs with Notch inhibition. In conclusion, loss of Notch signaling contributes to aortic valve calcification via a Sox9-dependent mechanism. PMID:22110751

  17. Sortilin mediates vascular calcification via its recruitment into extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Goettsch, Claudia; Hutcheson, Joshua D; Aikawa, Masanori; Iwata, Hiroshi; Pham, Tan; Nykjaer, Anders; Kjolby, Mads; Rogers, Maximillian; Michel, Thomas; Shibasaki, Manabu; Hagita, Sumihiko; Kramann, Rafael; Rader, Daniel J; Libby, Peter; Singh, Sasha A; Aikawa, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Vascular calcification is a common feature of major cardiovascular diseases. Extracellular vesicles participate in the formation of microcalcifications that are implicated in atherosclerotic plaque rupture; however, the mechanisms that regulate formation of calcifying extracellular vesicles remain obscure. Here, we have demonstrated that sortilin is a key regulator of smooth muscle cell (SMC) calcification via its recruitment to extracellular vesicles. Sortilin localized to calcifying vessels in human and mouse atheromata and participated in formation of microcalcifications in SMC culture. Sortilin regulated the loading of the calcification protein tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) into extracellular vesicles, thereby conferring its calcification potential. Furthermore, SMC calcification required Rab11-dependent trafficking and FAM20C/casein kinase 2-dependent C-terminal phosphorylation of sortilin. In a murine model, Sort1-deficiency reduced arterial calcification but did not affect bone mineralization. Additionally, transfer of sortilin-deficient BM cells to irradiated atherosclerotic mice did not affect vascular calcification, indicating a primary role of SMC-derived sortilin. Together, the results of this study identify sortilin phosphorylation as a potential therapeutic target for ectopic calcification/microcalcification and may clarify the mechanism that underlies the genetic association between the SORT1 gene locus and coronary artery calcification. PMID:26950419

  18. Delayed Intracerebral Hemorrhage from a Pseudoaneurysm Following a Depressed Skull Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Nazari, Pouya; Wewel, Joshua T.; Dua, Sumeet G.; Chen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A 26-year-old male presented with delayed intracerebral hemorrhage from a ruptured distal middle cerebral artery pseudoaneurysm that followed a compound depressed skull fracture from years ago. The brain protrusion through the skull defect likely resulted in stretching and subsequent tearing of the arterial wall resulting in the pseudoaneurysm formation. No prior report of such a clinical occurrence exists in the literature. We highlight an unusual but treatable cause for intracerebral hemorrhage following surgery for traumatic brain injury. PMID:26958412

  19. [Intracerebral hemorrhage associated with nephrotic syndrome-Prevalemce and clinical characteristics].

    PubMed

    Kono, Ryuhei; Iwaki, Hirotaka; Takeshima, Shinichi; Shimoe, Yutaka; Ota, Shinzo; Kuriyama, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Of the 11,161 cases of stroke observed for over 9 years, 21 cases in which both levels of serum albumin and cholesterol were < 3 g/dl and > 250 mg/dl, respectively, were identified. Out of these 21 cases, cases of severe proteinuria, i.e., nephrotic syndrome were selected. These included 10 cases of arterial ischemic thrombosis, 2 cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, and 4 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage. The incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage associated with nephrotic syndrome was 0.18% of total stroke or 0.036% intracerebral hemorrhage. Nephrotic syndrome essentially induced a hypercoagulable state. The 4 cases with intracerebral hemorrhage associated with nephrotic syndrome, however, had strong risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage, suggesting that they overcame the risk for thrombophilia. The diseases associated with the nephrotic syndrome were diabetic nephropathy and amyloidosis in 3 cases and in 1 case, respectively. The nephrotic syndrome tends to be associated with a risk for venous or arterial thrombosis. In addition, we must pay attention to intracerebral hemorrhage associated with nephrotic syndrome in cases of stroke. PMID:26887837

  20. Magnesium intake is inversely associated with coronary artery calcification: the Framingham Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine whether magnesium intake is associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC). BACKGROUND: Animal and cell studies suggest that magnesium may prevent calcification within atherosclerotic plaques underlying c...

  1. Calcification and photosynthesis of the coral acropora cervicornis under calcium limited conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rathfon, Megan; Brewer, Debbie

    1997-01-01

    Differing hypothesis about the function of calcification are based on an interesting dilemma. Is the purpose of calcification mainly a structural and protective one or does calcification serve other functions? Does photosynthesis increase carbonate ion activity and cause calcification or does calcification increase CO2 levels and stimulate photsynthesis? It is proposed that calcification in corals is not dependent upon photosynthesis but upon calcium levels in the water. Under normal ocean conditions, corals convert a certain percentage of energy to photosynthesis and respiration and another percentage to calcification. As corals become nutrient stressed, particularly calcium limited, the ratio of photosynthesis to calcification shifts towards calcification in order to generate protons. The protons generated during calcification may stimulate photosynthesis and aid in the uptake of nutrients and biocarbonates. The results of the calcification experiment show a trend towards increased calcification and decreased photosynthesis when the coral Acropora cervicornis is calcium limited, but the data are inconclusive and further research is needed.

  2. Information Display System for Atypical Flight Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C. (Inventor); Ferryman, Thomas A. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Whitney, Paul D. (Inventor); White, Amanda M. (Inventor); Willse, Alan R. (Inventor); Cooley, Scott K. (Inventor); Jay, Joseph Griffith (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Mosbrucker, Chris J. (Inventor); Rosenthal, Loren J. (Inventor); Lynch, Robert E. (Inventor); Chidester, Thomas R. (Inventor); Prothero, Gary L. (Inventor); Andrei, Adi (Inventor); Romanowski, Timothy P. (Inventor); Robin, Daniel E. (Inventor); Prothero, Jason W. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Method and system for displaying information on one or more aircraft flights, where at least one flight is determined to have at least one atypical flight phase according to specified criteria. A flight parameter trace for an atypical phase is displayed and compared graphically with a group of traces, for the corresponding flight phase and corresponding flight parameter, for flights that do not manifest atypicality in that phase.

  3. Secondary calcification and dissolution respond differently to future ocean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silbiger, N. J.; Donahue, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    Climate change threatens both the accretion and erosion processes that sustain coral reefs. Secondary calcification, bioerosion, and reef dissolution are integral to the structural complexity and long-term persistence of coral reefs, yet these processes have received less research attention than reef accretion by corals. In this study, we use climate scenarios from RCP8.5 to examine the combined effects of rising ocean acidity and SST on both secondary calcification and dissolution rates of a natural coral rubble community using a flow-through aquarium system. We found that secondary reef calcification and dissolution responded differently to the combined effect of pCO2 and temperature. Calcification had a non-linear response to the combined effect of pCO2-temperature: the highest calcification rate occurred slightly above ambient conditions and the lowest calcification rate was in the highest pCO2-temperature condition. In contrast, dissolution increased linearly with pCO2-temperature. The rubble community switched from net calcification to net dissolution at +272 μatm pCO2 and 0.84 °C above ambient conditions, suggesting that rubble reefs may shift from net calcification to net dissolution before the end of the century. Our results indicate that dissolution may be more sensitive to climate change than calcification, and that calcification and dissolution have different functional responses to climate stressors, highlighting the need to study the effects of climate stressors on both calcification and dissolution to predict future changes in coral reefs.

  4. Secondary calcification and dissolution respond differently to future ocean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silbiger, N. J.; Donahue, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change threatens both the accretion and erosion processes that sustain coral reefs. Secondary calcification, bioerosion, and reef dissolution are integral to the structural complexity and long-term persistence of coral reefs, yet these processes have received less research attention than reef accretion by corals. In this study, we use climate scenarios from RCP 8.5 to examine the combined effects of rising ocean acidity and sea surface temperature (SST) on both secondary calcification and dissolution rates of a natural coral rubble community using a flow-through aquarium system. We found that secondary reef calcification and dissolution responded differently to the combined effect of pCO2 and temperature. Calcification had a non-linear response to the combined effect of pCO2 and temperature: the highest calcification rate occurred slightly above ambient conditions and the lowest calcification rate was in the highest temperature-pCO2 condition. In contrast, dissolution increased linearly with temperature-pCO2 . The rubble community switched from net calcification to net dissolution at +271 μatm pCO2 and 0.75 °C above ambient conditions, suggesting that rubble reefs may shift from net calcification to net dissolution before the end of the century. Our results indicate that (i) dissolution may be more sensitive to climate change than calcification and (ii) that calcification and dissolution have different functional responses to climate stressors; this highlights the need to study the effects of climate stressors on both calcification and dissolution to predict future changes in coral reefs.

  5. Calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff

    PubMed Central

    ElShewy, Mohamed Taha

    2016-01-01

    Calcific tendinitis within the rotator cuff tendon is a common shoulder disorder that should be differentiated from dystrophic calcification as the pathogenesis and natural history of both is totally different. Calcific tendinitis usually occurs in the fifth and sixth decades of life among sedentary workers. It is classified into formative and resorptive phases. The chronic formative phase results from transient hypoxia that is commonly associated with repeated microtrauma causing calcium deposition into the matrix vesicles within the chondrocytes forming bone foci that later coalesce. This phase may extend from 1 to 6 years, and is usually asymptomatic. The resorptive phase extends from 3 wk up to 6 mo with vascularization at the periphery of the calcium deposits causing macrophage and mononuclear giant cell infiltration, together with fibroblast formation leading to an aggressive inflammatory reaction with inflammatory cell accumulation, excessive edema and rise of the intra-tendineous pressure. This results in a severely painful shoulder. Radiological investigations confirm the diagnosis and suggest the phase of the condition and are used to follow its progression. Although routine conventional X-ray allows detection of the deposits, magnetic resonance imaging studies allow better evaluation of any coexisting pathology. Various methods of treatment have been suggested. The appropriate method should be individualized for each patient. Conservative treatment includes pain killers and physiotherapy, or “minimally invasive” techniques as needling or puncture and aspiration. It is almost always successful since the natural history of the condition ends with resorption of the deposits and complete relief of pain. Due to the intolerable pain of the acute and severely painful resorptive stage, the patient often demands any sort of operative intervention. In such case arthroscopic removal is the best option as complete removal of the deposits is unnecessary. PMID

  6. Association between calcifying nanoparticles and placental calcification

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanan; Zhang, Dechun; Lu, He; Luo, Shuang; Shen, Xuecheng

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the possible contribution of calcifying nanoparticles to the pathogenesis of placental calcification. Methods Calcified placental tissues and distal tissue samples were collected from 36 confirmed placental calcification cases. In addition, 20 normal placental tissue samples were obtained as a control group. All the tissue samples were cultured using special nanobacterial culture methods. The cultured calcifying nanoparticles were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and their growth was monitored by optical density (OD) at a wavelength of 650 nm. 16S rRNA gene expression of the cultured calcifying nanoparticles was also isolated and sequenced. Results Novel calcifying nanoparticles wrapped with electron-dense shells between 50 nm to 500 nm in diameter were observed in the extracellular matrix of calcified placental tissues. They were detected in placental villi and hydroxyapatite crystals, and contained “nucleic acid-like materials”. After isolation and four weeks of culture, 28 of 36 calcified placental tissue samples showed white granular precipitates attached to the bottom of the culture tubes. OD650 measurements indicated that the precipitates from the calcified placental tissues were able to grow in culture, whereas no such precipitates from the control tissues were observed. The 16S rRNA genes were isolated from the cultured calcifying nanoparticles and calcified placental tissues, and their gene sequencing results implied that calcifying nanoparticles were novel nanobacteria (GenBank JF823648). Conclusion Our results suggest that these novel calcifying nanoparticles may play a role in placental calcification. PMID:22615531

  7. Medial vascular calcification revisited: review and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lanzer, Peter; Boehm, Manfred; Sorribas, Victor; Thiriet, Marc; Janzen, Jan; Zeller, Thomas; St Hilaire, Cynthia; Shanahan, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Vascular calcifications (VCs) are actively regulated biological processes associated with crystallization of hydroxyapatite in the extracellular matrix and in cells of the media (VCm) or intima (VCi) of the arterial wall. Both patterns of VC often coincide and occur in patients with type II diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and other less frequent disorders; VCs are also typical in senile degeneration. In this article, we review the current state of knowledge about the pathology, molecular biology, and nosology of VCm, expand on potential mechanisms responsible for poor prognosis, and expose some of the directions for future research in this area. PMID:24740885

  8. [Endomyocardial fibrosis with massive calcification of the left ventricle].

    PubMed

    Trigo, Joana; Camacho, Ana; Gago, Paula; Candeias, Rui; Santos, Walter; Marques, Nuno; Matos, Pedro; Brandão, Victor; Gomes, Veloso

    2010-03-01

    Endomyocardial fibrosis is a rare disease, endemic in tropical countries. It is characterized by fibrosis of the endocardium that can extend to myocardium. Important calcification of the endocardium is rare with only a few cases reported in the literature. We report a case of endomyocardial fibrosis in a european caucasian patient, associated with massive calcification of left ventricle.

  9. Extracellular vesicles in cardiovascular calcification: expanding current paradigms.

    PubMed

    Krohn, Jona B; Hutcheson, Joshua D; Martínez-Martínez, Eduardo; Aikawa, Elena

    2016-06-01

    Vascular calcification is a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease, one of the leading causes of death in industrialized countries. New evidence on the mechanisms of mineralization identified calcification-competent extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from smooth muscle cells, valvular interstitial cells and macrophages as the mediators of calcification in diseased heart valves and atherosclerotic plaques. However, the regulation of EV release and the mechanisms of interaction between EVs and the extracellular matrix leading to the formation of destabilizing microcalcifications remain unclear. This review focuses on current limits in our understanding of EVs in cardiovascular disease and opens up new perspectives on calcific EV biogenesis, release and functions within and beyond vascular calcification. We propose that, unlike bone-derived matrix vesicles, a large population of EVs implicated in cardiovascular calcification are of exosomal origin. Moreover, the milieu-dependent loading of EVs with microRNA and calcification inhibitors fetuin-A and matrix Gla protein suggests a novel role for EVs in intercellular communication, adding a new mechanism to the pathogenesis of vascular mineralization. Similarly, the cell type-dependent enrichment of annexins 2, 5 or 6 in calcifying EVs posits one of several emerging factors implicated in the regulation of EV release and calcifying potential. This review aims to emphasize the role of EVs as essential mediators of calcification, a major determinant of cardiovascular mortality. Based on recent findings, we pinpoint potential targets for novel therapies to slow down the progression and promote the stability of atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:26824781

  10. Matrix Gla Protein polymorphisms are associated with coronary artery calcification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matrix Gla Protein (MGP) is a key regulator of vascular calcification. Genetic variation at the MGP locus could modulate the development of coronary artery calcification (CAC). We examined the cross-sectional association between MGP SNPs [rs1800802 (T-138C), rs1800801 (G-7A),and rs4236 (Ala102Thr)...

  11. Liposarcoma of the thigh with mixed calcification and ossification.

    PubMed

    Child, Jeremy R; Young, Colin R; Amini, Behrang

    2016-09-01

    Liposarcoma is one of the most common soft-tissue sarcomas. Calcification and ossification can occur in liposarcoma; however, the presence of both ossification and calcification is a very rare entity. We present a case of a partially calcified and ossified dedifferentiated liposarcoma of the thigh in a 76-year-old woman, which contained heterologous elements of chondrosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. PMID:27594953

  12. Activation of Nrf2 by dimethyl fumarate improves vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Ha, Chae-Myeong; Park, Sungmi; Choi, Young-Keun; Jeong, Ji-Yun; Oh, Chang Joo; Bae, Kwi-Hyun; Lee, Sun Joo; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Park, Keun-Gyu; Jun, Do Youn; Lee, In-Kyu

    2014-10-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has several pharmacological benefits including immunomodulation and prevention of fibrosis, which are dependent on the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant pathways. Therefore, we hypothesized that DMF could attenuate vascular calcification via Nrf2 activation. Vascular calcification induced by hyperphosphataemia was significantly inhibited by DMF in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in a dose-dependent manner. DMF-mediated Nrf2 upregulation was accompanied by the reduced expressions of genes related with osteoblast-like phenotype based on promoter activity, mRNA and protein expression, and von Kossa staining. Likewise, Nrf2 overexpression significantly decreased the formation of calcium deposit similar to the level of osteogenic staining in VSMCs, and DMF with Nrf2 knockdown failed to attenuate hyperphosphatemia induced vascular calcification. Furthermore, DMF significantly attenuated the calcification of ex vivo ring culture from both rat common carotid artery and mouse thoracic aorta as well as in vivo mouse model of Vitamin D3-induced calcification consistent with the increased Nrf2 protein levels in early stage of calcification by DMF. In conclusion, our data support that DMF stimulates Nrf2 activity to attenuate hyperphosphatamia in vitro or Vitamin D3-induced in vivo vascular calcification, which would be a beneficial effect on vascular diseases induced by oxidative stress such as vascular calcification. PMID:25135648

  13. [Atypical case of bronchial carcinoid].

    PubMed

    Andrzejak, R; Mydłowski, R; Krajewski, E; Orłowski, T; Bochnia, M

    1997-01-01

    This article illustrates problems in diagnosis and treatment of an atypical form of bronchial carcinoid. We described the case of a 49-year old man, exposed to granite dust and noise for 25 years who had suffered from frequent bronchitis inflammations and pneumonias for 5 years prior to the diagnosis. He was admitted to our clinic because of supposed occupational nature of hearing deficiency. Although a pneumoconiosis was excluded before the admission, we found clinical and X-ray features of the right lung emphysema with medium restrictive ventilation disturbances. Bronchoscopy was performed because of "bright" right lung and ventilation disturbances and it showed presence of the carcinoid. Unusual in this case were tiny anamnestical findings (mild dyspnea attacks after physical effort or nervousness) plus increasing frequency of reported from the childhood bronchitis and pneumonias and uncharacteristic "bright" right lung in X-ray. Therapeutical difficulties resulted from atypical histological form of the tumor, its diameter, polypous-infiltrative character, and inconvenient localization. In spite of late diagnosis of carcinoid and significant acceleration of respiratory decompensation symptoms after the diagnosis the attempt of surgical therapy was appropriate but unsuccessful. After the operation the patient was suffering long lasting lowering of arterial pressure (what was corrected with catecholamine infusions) probably as a result of serotonin secretion. However it was not established because of technical reasons.

  14. Atypical Teratomas of the Pineal

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, I.; Baxter, D. W.; Stratford, J. G.

    1963-01-01

    Atypical teratomas of the pineal were studied pathologically and clinically, and five illustrative cases are described. The results of three postmortem examinations are available, while two of the patients are living, one leading a normal life. Pathological verification revealed that two had suprasellar “ectopic” pinealomas. One neoplasm was located in the pineal (collicular) region. The histology of the tumours was identical, consisting of small cells resembling lymphocytes and large cells with prominent nucleoli and mitoses. This feature plus the midline location led to adoption of the term “atypical teratoma”. Patients with collicular pinealomas presented with headache, vomiting, papilledema, Parinaud's syndrome and, rarely, nystagmus retractorius. Diabetes insipidus, visual difficulty and hypopituitarism were characteristic features in those with suprasellar neoplasms. Treatment of collicular pinealoma has consisted of the use of a palliative shunt followed by a course of radiation. Chiasmal decompression and radiation have produced favourable results in patients with suprasellar pinealoma. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:20327617

  15. TBS Predict Coronary Artery Calcification in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Tzyy-Ling; Hsiao, Fu-Tsung; Li, Yi-Da

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. This study analyzes the association between the bony microarchitecture score (trabecular bone score, TBS) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in adults undergoing health exams. Materials and Methods. We retrospectively collected subjects (N = 81) who underwent coronary computed tomography and bone mineral density studies simultaneously. CAC was categorized to three levels (Group 0, G0, no CAC, score = 0, N = 45; Group 1, G1, moderate CAC, score = 1–100, N = 17; Group 2, G2, high CAC, score ≧ 101, N = 19). Multinomial logistic regression was used to study the association between TBS and CAC levels. Results. CAC is present in 44.4% of the population. Mean TBS ± SD was 1.399 ± 0.090. Per 1 SD increase in TBS, the unadjusted odds ratio (2.393) of moderate CAC compared with no CAC was significantly increased (95% CI, 1.219–4.696, p = 0.011). However, there has been no association of TBS with high CAC (OR: 1.026, 95% CI: 0.586–1.797, p = 0.928). These relationships also existed when individually adjusted for age, sex, and multiple other covariates. Conclusions. Higher TBS was related to moderate CAC, but not high CAC; a possible explanation may be that bone microarchitecture remodeling becomes more active when early coronary artery calcification occurs. However, further researches are needed to clarify this pathophysiology. PMID:27042671

  16. Mechanisms of ectopic calcification: implications for diabetic vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Fadini, Gian Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is the deposition of calcium/phosphate in the vasculature, which portends a worse clinical outcome and predicts major adverse cardiovascular events. VC is an active process initiated and regulated via a variety of molecular signalling pathways. There are mainly two types of calcifications: the media VC and the intima VC. All major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been linked to the presence/development of VC. Besides the risk factors, a genetic component is also operative to determine arterial calcification. Several events take place before VC is established, including inflammation, trans-differentiation of vascular cells and homing of circulating pro-calcific cells. Diabetes is an important predisposing factor for VC. Compared with non-diabetic subjects, patients with diabetes show increased VC and higher expression of bone-related proteins in the medial layer of the vessels. In this review we will highlight the mechanisms underlying vascular calcification in diabetic patients. PMID:26543821

  17. Susceptibility weighted imaging: differentiating between calcification and hemosiderin*

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Jeam Haroldo Oliveira; Santos, Antonio Carlos; Salmon, Carlos Ernesto Garrido

    2015-01-01

    Objective To present a detailed explanation on the processing of magnetic susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), demonstrating the effects of echo time and sensitive mask on the differentiation between calcification and hemosiderin. Materials and Methods Computed tomography and magnetic resonance (magnitude and phase) images of six patients (age range 41– 54 years; four men) were retrospectively selected. The SWI images processing was performed using the Matlab’s own routine. Results Four out of the six patients showed calcifications at computed tomography images and their SWI images demonstrated hyperintense signal at the calcification regions. The other patients did not show any calcifications at computed tomography, and SWI revealed the presence of hemosiderin deposits with hypointense signal. Conclusion The selection of echo time and of the mask may change all the information on SWI images, and compromise the diagnostic reliability. Amongst the possible masks, the authors highlight that the sigmoid mask allows for contrasting calcifications and hemosiderin on a single SWI image. PMID:25987750

  18. Consent for Brain Tissue Donation after Intracerebral Haemorrhage: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Samarasekera, Neshika; Lerpiniere, Christine; Farrall, Andrew J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; White, Philip M.; Torgersen, Antonia; Ironside, James W.; Smith, Colin; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam

    2015-01-01

    Background Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage is a devastating form of stroke and its incidence increases with age. Obtaining brain tissue following intracerebral haemorrhage helps to understand its cause. Given declining autopsy rates worldwide, the feasibility of establishing an autopsy-based collection and its generalisability are uncertain. Methods We used multiple overlapping sources of case ascertainment to identify every adult diagnosed with intracerebral haemorrhage between 1st June 2010-31st May 2012, whilst resident in the Lothian region of Scotland. We sought consent from patients with intracerebral haemorrhage (or their nearest relative if the patient lacked mental capacity) to conduct a research autopsy. Results Of 295 adults with acute intracerebral haemorrhage, 110 (37%) could not be approached to consider donation. Of 185 adults/relatives approached, 91 (49%) consented to research autopsy. There were no differences in baseline demographic variables or markers of intracerebral haemorrhage severity between consenters and non-consenters. Adults who died and became donors (n = 46) differed from the rest of the cohort (n = 249) by being older (median age 80, IQR 76–86 vs. 75, IQR 65–83, p = 0.002) and having larger haemorrhages (median volume 23ml, IQR 13–50 vs. 13ml, IQR 4–40; p = 0.002). Conclusions Nearly half of those approached consent to brain tissue donation after acute intracerebral haemorrhage. The characteristics of adults who gave consent were comparable to those in an entire community, although those who donate early are older and have larger haemorrhage volumes. PMID:26302447

  19. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Intracerebral Hemorrhages Associated with Clopidogrel

    PubMed Central

    Cordina, Steve M; Hassan, Ameer E; Ezzeddine, Mustapha A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: As clopidogrel is being increasingly used, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) associated with clopidogrel are expected to increase. We assessed the prevalence and clinical characteristics of of ICH with clopidogrel in a consecutive series of patients in two hospitals. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medication history of 204 patients (112 in one hospital and 92 in another – both individually consecutive) admitted with ICH. We identified the patients who were using clopidogrel prior to ICH occurrence. The etiology of the ICH was categorized on the basis of clinical history and diagnostic imaging, and outcome was subsequently evaluated. Results: A total of 8 (4%) of the 204 patients were using clopidogrel prior to onset of ICH. Clopidogrel was the only medication in 3 patients and was used with aspirin or warfarin in 3 and 2 patients, respectively. Aspirin or warfarin was the only medication in 23 (%) and 14 (%) patients associated with ICH, respectively. The hematoma was located in the basal ganglia (n=2), lobes (n=2), thalamus (n=1), intraventricular (n=2), and cerebellar (n=2). One patient had secondary intraventricular extension. All patients using a combination of clopidogrel and warfarin prior to ICH died. Conclusion: The prevalence of ICH associated with clopidogrel is approximating the prevalence of aspirin- or warfarin-associated ICH. The mortality with clopidogrel related ICH appears to be high particularly when in combination with another antithrombotic agent. PMID:22518241

  20. Intracerebral haemorrhage in Down syndrome: protected or predisposed?

    PubMed

    Buss, Lewis; Fisher, Elizabeth; Hardy, John; Nizetic, Dean; Groet, Jurgen; Pulford, Laura; Strydom, André

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), which arises from trisomy of chromosome 21, is associated with deposition of large amounts of amyloid within the central nervous system. Amyloid accumulates in two compartments: as plaques within the brain parenchyma and in vessel walls of the cerebral microvasculature. The parenchymal plaque amyloid is thought to result in an early onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia, a phenomenon so common amongst people with DS that it could be considered a defining feature of the condition. The amyloid precursor protein ( APP) gene lies on chromosome 21 and its presence in three copies in DS is thought to largely drive the early onset AD. In contrast, intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), the main clinical consequence of vascular amyloidosis, is a more poorly defined feature of DS. We review recent epidemiological data on stroke (including haemorrhagic stroke) in order to make comparisons with a rare form of familial AD due to duplication (i.e. having three copies) of the APP region on chromosome 21, here called 'dup-APP', which is associated with more frequent and severe ICH. We conclude that although people with DS are at increased risk of ICH, this is less common than in dup-APP, suggesting the presence of mechanisms that act protectively. We review these mechanisms and consider comparative research into DS and dup-APP that may yield further pathophysiological insight. PMID:27239286

  1. Stem cell therapy in intracerebral hemorrhage rat model

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Marcos F; Horn, Ana P

    2015-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a very complex pathology, with many different not fully elucidated etiologies and prognostics. It is the most severe subtype of stroke, with high mortality and morbidity rates. Unfortunately, despite the numerous promising preclinical assays including neuroprotective, anti-hypertensive, and anti-inflammatory drugs, to this moment only symptomatic treatments are available, motivating the search for new alternatives. In this context, stem cell therapy emerged as a promising tool. However, more than a decade has passed, and there is still much to be learned not only about stem cells, but also about ICH itself, and how these two pieces come together. To date, rats have been the most widely used animal model in this research field, and there is much more to be learned from and about them. In this review, we first summarize ICH epidemiology, risk factors, and pathophysiology. We then present different methods utilized to induce ICH in rats, and examine how accurately they represent the human disease. Next, we discuss the different types of stem cells used in previous ICH studies, also taking into account the tested transplantation sites. Finally, we summarize what has been achieved in assays with stem cells in rat models of ICH, and point out some relevant issues where attention must be given in future efforts. PMID:25914768

  2. Local aspects of sleep: observations from intracerebral recordings in humans.

    PubMed

    Nobili, Lino; De Gennaro, Luigi; Proserpio, Paola; Moroni, Fabio; Sarasso, Simone; Pigorini, Andrea; De Carli, Fabrizio; Ferrara, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Human sleep is considered a global phenomenon, orchestrated by central specialized neuronal networks modulating the whole-brain activity. However, recent studies point to a local regulation of sleep. Sleep disorders, such as sleepwalking, suggest that electroencephalographic (EEG) features of sleep and wakefulness might be simultaneously present in different cerebral regions. Recently, intracranial EEG recording techniques, mainly applied for the presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant epileptic patients, have provided new and interesting information on the activity of different cortical and subcortical structures during sleep in humans. In particular, it has been observed that the thalamus, during the transition between wake and sleep undergoes a deactivation process that precedes the one occurring within the cortex, with extensive cortical territories maintaining an activated pattern for several minutes after the thalamic deactivation. Very recent intracerebral EEG studies have also shown that human NREM sleep can be characterized by the coexistence of wake-like and sleep-like EEG patterns in different cortical areas. Moreover, unit-firing recordings in multiple brain regions of neurosurgical patients evidenced that most sleep slow waves and the underlying active and inactive neuronal states do occur locally. These findings add a new dimension to the concept of local sleep regulation and opens new perspectives in the interpretation of the substrates underlying behavioral states of vigilance. The implications for sleep medicine are also discussed. PMID:22877668

  3. Rare Coding Variation and Risk of Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Radmanesh, Farid; Falcone, Guido J.; Anderson, Christopher D.; McWilliams, David; Devan, William J.; Brown, W Mark; Battey, Thomas W. K.; Ayres, Alison M.; Raffeld, Miriam R.; Schwab, Kristin; Sun, Guangyun; Deka, Ranjan; Viswanathan, Anand; Goldstein, Joshua N.; Greenberg, Steven M.; Tirschwell, David L.; Silliman, Scott L.; Selim, Magdy; Meschia, James F.; Brown, Devin L.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Woo, Daniel; Rosand, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has a substantial genetic component. We performed a preliminary search for rare coding variants associated with ICH. Methods 757 cases and 795 controls were genotyped using the Illumina HumanExome Beadchip (Illumina, Inc. San Diego, CA, USA). Meta-analyses of single-variant and gene-based association were computed. Results No rare coding variants were associated with ICH. Three common variants on chromosome 19q13 at an established susceptibility locus, encompassing TOMM40, APOE, and APOC1 met genome-wide significance (p<5e-08). After adjusting for the APOE epsilon alleles, this locus was no longer convincingly associated with ICH. No gene reached genome-wide significance level in gene-based association testing. Conclusions While no coding variants of large effect were detected, this study further underscores a major challenge for the study of genetic susceptibility loci – large sample sizes are required for sufficient power except for loci with large effects. PMID:26111891

  4. Robot-assisted intracerebral hemorrhage evacuation: an experimental evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgner, Jessica; Swaney, Philip J.; Lathrop, Ray A.; Weaver, Kyle D.; Webster, Robert J.

    2013-03-01

    We present a novel robotic approach for the rapid, minimally invasive treatment of Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ICH), in which a hematoma or blood clot arises in the brain parenchyma. We present a custom image-guided robot system that delivers a steerable cannula into the lesion and aspirates it from the inside. The steerable cannula consists of an initial straight tube delivered in a manner similar to image-guided biopsy (and which uses a commercial image guidance system), followed by the sequential deployment of multiple individual precurved elastic tubes. Rather than deploying the tubes simultaneously, as has been done in nearly all prior studies, we deploy the tubes one at a time, using a compilation of their individual workspaces to reach desired points inside the lesion. This represents a new paradigm in active cannula research, defining a novel procedure-planning problem. A design that solves this problem can potentially save many lives by enabling brain decompression both more rapidly and less invasively than is possible through the traditional open surgery approach. Experimental results include a comparison of the simulated and actual workspaces of the prototype robot, and an accuracy evaluation of the system.

  5. Animal Stroke Model: Ischemia-Reperfusion and Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ren, Changhong; Sy, Christopher; Gao, Jinhuan; Ding, Yuchuan; Ji, Xunming

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a major health issue worldwide-one with serious financial and public health implications. As a result, ongoing clinical research on novel and improved stroke therapies is not only pertinent but also paramount. Due to the complexity of a stroke-like event and its many sequelae, devising usable methods and experimental models are necessary to study and better understand the pathophysiological processes that ensue. As it stands, animal models that simulate stroke-like events have proven to be the most logical and effective options in regards to experimental studies. A number of animal stroke models exist and have been demonstrated in previous studies on ischemic as well as hemorrhagic stroke. Considering the efficiency and reproducibility of animal models, here, we introduce an ischemic stroke model induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and an intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke model induced by collagenase injection. The models outlined here have been proven to demonstrate the clinical relevance desired for use in continued research on stroke pathophysiology and the study of future therapeutic options. PMID:27604729

  6. Intracerebral hematoma extends via perivascular spaces and perineurium.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jia; Lü, Tian-Ming; Qiu, Guang; Huang, Rui-Yu; Fang, Min; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Xiao, Duan; Liu, Xiao-Jia

    2013-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality. ICH results in the formation of hematoma that affects not only the primary site of injury but also the remote regions. In fact, hematoma can extend via perivascular spaces (also called Virchow-Robin spaces, VRS) and perineurium in an animal model of ICH. In the present study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) to investigate the characteristics of the perivascular and perineural extensions of hematomas in patients with ICH. A total of 20 ICH patients without secondary subarachnoid and secondary intraventricular hemorrhages were recruited. Brain MRI scans, including SWI, T1, and T2-weighted images, were performed between 17 h to 7 days after the onset of ICH. MRI with SWI revealed that paramagnetic substances spread along the VRS or the perineurium. Such distribution could cause the formation of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs). However, the distribution of remote hemorrhagic lesions varied, depending on the size and location of the original hematoma. The unenhanced CT scans of the 20 patients did not show any hyperdensity around the blood vessels and nerve tracts outside the hematoma. These results indicate the perivascular and perineural extensions of hematomas in patients with ICH, which is formed by the leakage of the original hematoma via the VRS or perineurium. We also provide a new explanation for the series of pathological processes involved in ICH, including the remote effects of hematoma and the formation of CMBs in patients with ICH. PMID:23812162

  7. Assessing functional outcomes following intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Richard; Lekic, Tim; Rojas, Hugo; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2009-07-14

    Translational neuroprotective and drug development studies need to be gauged against well-characterized functional outcomes, including motor, sensory and cognitive domains. Since intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) causes dramatic neurological and cognitive deficits in humans, we hypothesized that ICH would result in prolonged motor-sensory and learning/memory deficits in rats. Neurological tests of sensorimotor functions were performed before ICH, 1-3 days and 10 weeks after ICH. Water maze, open field, and rotarod performance was tested 2 and 8 weeks after ICH. Early neurological evaluations revealed significant deficits, with almost full recovery by 10 weeks. The water maze revealed significant learning (but not motor) deficits at 2 weeks, but by 8 weeks, the learning deficits had diminished and significant motor deficits had emerged, coinciding with a drop in activity. The injured hemisphere showed significant atrophy at sacrifice. Therefore, ICH produced detectable cognitive and motor deficits in rats that evolved over a 10-week period, and thereby provides a suitable baseline for analysis of future therapeutic interventions following hemorrhagic stroke.

  8. A critical appraisal of experimental intracerebral hemorrhage research

    PubMed Central

    MacLellan, Crystal L; Paquette, Rosalie; Colbourne, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    The likelihood of translating therapeutic interventions for stroke rests on the quality of preclinical science. Given the limited success of putative treatments for ischemic stroke and the reasons put forth to explain it, we sought to determine whether such problems hamper progress for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Approximately 10% to 20% of strokes result from an ICH, which results in considerable disability and high mortality. Several animal models reproduce ICH and its underlying pathophysiology, and these models have been widely used to evaluate treatments. As yet, however, none has successfully translated. In this review, we focus on rodent models of ICH, highlighting differences among them (e.g., pathophysiology), issues with experimental design and analysis, and choice of end points. A Pub Med search for experimental ICH (years: 2007 to 31 July 2011) found 121 papers. Of these, 84% tested neuroprotectants, 11% tested stem cell therapies, and 5% tested rehabilitation therapies. We reviewed these to examine study quality (e.g., use of blinding procedures) and choice of end points (e.g., behavioral testing). Not surprisingly, the problems that have plagued the ischemia field are also prevalent in ICH literature. Based on these data, several recommendations are put forth to facilitate progress in identifying effective treatments for ICH. PMID:22293989

  9. Image Guided Endoscopic Evacuation of Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Chad M; Vespa, Paul; Saver, Jeffrey L; Kidwell, Chelsea S; Carmichael, Stanley T.; Alger, Jeffry; Frazee, John; Starkman, Sid; Liebeskind, David; Nenov, Valeriy; Elashoff, Robert; Martin, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Background Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality. ICH lacks an effective medical or surgical treatment despite the acknowledged pathophysiological benefits of achieved hemostasis and clot removal. Image guided stereotactic endoscopic hematoma evacuation is a promising minimally invasive approach designed to limit operative injury and maximize hematoma removal. Methods A single center randomized controlled trial was designed to assess the safety and efficacy of stereotactic hematoma evacuation compared to best medical management. Patients were randomized within 24 hours of hemorrhage in a 3:2 fashion to best medical management plus endoscopic hematoma evacuation or best medical management alone. Data was collected to assess efficacy and safety of hematoma evacuation and to identify procedural components requiring technical improvement. Results 10 patients have been enrolled and randomized to treatment. Six patients underwent endoscopic evacuation with a hematoma volume reduction of 80% +/−13 at 24 hours post procedure. The medical arm demonstrated a hematoma enlargement of 78% +/−142 during this same period. Rehemorrhage rates and deterioration rates were similar in the two groups. Mortality was 20% in the endoscopic group and 50% in the medical treatment cohort. The endoscopic technique was shown to be effective in identification and evacuation of hematomas while reduction in the number of endoscopic passes and maintenance of hemostasis require further study. Conclusion Image guided stereotactic endoscopic hematoma removal is a promising minimally invasive technique that is effective in immediate hematoma evacuation. This technique deserves further investigation to determine its role in ICH management. PMID:18424298

  10. Influence of amphetamine on recovery after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Auriat, Angela M; Colbourne, Frederick

    2008-01-25

    D-amphetamine (AMP) paired with physical activity (e.g., beam walking) improves recovery after ischemic injury to the cortical motor system of rodents. We tested whether AMP promotes recovery after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. A moderate-sized ICH was produced by stereotaxically injecting collagenase into the striatum. Five days later rats were placed into either environmental enrichment cages (EE) or a control condition (group housing in standard cages) until euthanasia at 4 weeks post-ICH. Animals were injected with either AMP (2 mg/kg i.p.) or sterile saline on days 7, 9 and 11 after ICH. Rats in EE also received training on beam (walking) and tray (skilled reaching) tasks 30 min after each injection. Walking (beam and ladder task), skilled reaching (tray and staircase tasks) and neurological deficits (NDS) were repeatedly assessed. We predicted that EE would improve recovery and that AMP would further enhance it. Results showed that EE, but not AMP, significantly and consistently improved recovery on the beam and ladder task. Neither treatment significantly affected skilled reaching. Lesion volume was not significantly different among groups (overall average: 44.6 mm(3) of tissue lost +/-15.3 S.D.). In conclusion, EE provides modest benefit for striatal ICH whereas AMP does not. This suggests that AMP will not provide substantial benefit to those patients with severe ICH affecting the basal ganglia. PMID:17904232

  11. Etiology of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH): novel insights from Zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Eisa-Beygi, Shahram; Rezaei, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the most severe subtype of stroke. Treatment options are scarce and given the high morbidity and mortality, relatively ineffective. Since patients with ICH may have an unknown heritable component, the need to identify potential risk factors necessitates the use of animal models to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of neurovascular development and, thereby, identify candidate regulatory pathways that are likely to be disrupted in patients with ICH. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) exhibits the anatomical and physiological complexity of a closed circulatory system observed in all vertebrates (with arteries, veins and capillaries). Moreover, studies over the last decade, aided by the application of chemical mutagenesis screens, morpholino mediated knockdown approaches and tissue-specific transgenic markers, have paved the way for the identification of several genes and signaling pathways that regulate developmental neurovascular stabilization. We hypothesize that mutations in these genes or pharmacological perturbations of these gene-products may account, at least in part, for the etiology of some forms of spontaneous ICH in humans. PMID:27251071

  12. ENPP1-Fc prevents mortality and vascular calcifications in rodent model of generalized arterial calcification of infancy

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Ronald A.; Stabach, Paul; Cao, Wenxiang; Kavanagh, Dillon; Mullen, Isabelle; Braddock, Alexander A.; Covo, Mariel S.; Tehan, Martin; Yang, Guangxiao; Cheng, Zhiliang; Bouchard, Keith; Yu, Zhao-Xue; Thorn, Stephanie; Wang, Xiangning; Folta-Stogniew, Ewa J.; Negrete, Alejandro; Sinusas, Albert J.; Shiloach, Joseph; Zubal, George; Madri, Joseph A.; De La Cruz, Enrique M.; Braddock, Demetrios T.

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of ectopic calcification of the vascular wall range from lethal orphan diseases such as generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI), to common diseases such as hardening of the arteries associated with aging and calciphylaxis of chronic kidney disease (CKD). GACI is a lethal orphan disease in which infants calcify the internal elastic lamina of their medium and large arteries and expire of cardiac failure as neonates, while calciphylaxis of CKD is a ubiquitous vascular calcification in patients with renal failure. Both disorders are characterized by vascular Mönckeburg's sclerosis accompanied by decreased concentrations of plasma inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi). Here we demonstrate that subcutaneous administration of an ENPP1-Fc fusion protein prevents the mortality, vascular calcifications and sequela of disease in animal models of GACI, and is accompanied by a complete clinical and biomarker response. Our findings have implications for the treatment of rare and common diseases of ectopic vascular calcification. PMID:26624227

  13. Typical and atypical AIS. Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dudin, M; Pinchuk, D

    2012-01-01

    AIS hypothesis has the right to recognition, if it explains the transition of "healthy" vertebra column into status of "scoliotic" one. AIS is the most investigated disease in the history of orthopedics, but up the present time there is no clear explanation of some its phenomena: vertebra column mono-form deformation along with its poly etiology character, interrelation of its origin and development and child's growth process etc. The key for authors' view at AIS was scoliosis with non-standard (concave side) rotation. On the bases of its' multifunctional instrumental investigation results (Rtg, EMG, EEG, optical topography, hormonal and neuropeptides trials, thermo-vision methods and other) in comparison with typical AIS was worked out the new hypothesis, part of it is suggested for discussion. In the work under observation is the sequence of appearance of typical and atypical scoliosis symptomatology beginning from the preclinical stage. PMID:22744477

  14. Atypical immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xia; Feng, Jun; Cao, Xinxin; Zhang, Lu; Zhou, Daobin; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Primary immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL amyloidosis) is a plasma cell disorder which mainly affects heart, kidneys, liver, and peripheral nervous system. Cases of atypical AL amyloidosis presented as spontaneous vertebral compression fractures have been rarely reported, and data about the management and clinical outcomes of the patients are scarce. Methods: Herein, we present 3 new cases of AL amyloidosis with spontaneous vertebral compression fracture and review 13 cases retrieved from the literature. Results: Moreover, we observed overrepresentations of liver involvement and bone marrow involvement in AL amyloidosis with spontaneous vertebral compression fracture. Conclusion: We believe that better awareness of the rare clinical presentation as spontaneous vertebral compression fracture of AL amyloidosis can facilitate earlier diagnosis and earlier treatment. PMID:27603350

  15. Atypical parasitic ischiopagus conjoined twins.

    PubMed

    Corona-Rivera, J Román; Corona-Rivera, Enrique; Franco-Topete, Ramón; Acosta-León, Jorge; Aguila-Dueñas, Virginia; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2003-02-01

    Occurrence of asymmetrical or parasitic conjoined twins (CT) is rare, and currently they are classified analogically to the common unions of symmetrical CT. The authors report on an infant with a parasitic third limb attached to the left lateral aspect of the autosite trunk, in whom male gonadal tissue was found histologically. Parasite parts included complete left lower limb, hemipelvis, lumbosacral vertebral column, spinal cord, and one kidney with ureter and adrenal gland. Autosite anomalies comprised a small left diaphragmatic defect, omphalocele, exstrophy of cloaca, and lumbar meningomyelocele. The authors considered this case to be a rare atypical parasitic ischiopagus CT. The differential diagnosis of the type of twining and other entities with caudal duplications is analyzed briefly. PMID:12596123

  16. Atypical parasitic ischiopagus conjoined twins.

    PubMed

    Corona-Rivera, J Román; Corona-Rivera, Enrique; Franco-Topete, Ramón; Acosta-León, Jorge; Aguila-Dueñas, Virginia; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2003-02-01

    Occurrence of asymmetrical or parasitic conjoined twins (CT) is rare, and currently they are classified analogically to the common unions of symmetrical CT. The authors report on an infant with a parasitic third limb attached to the left lateral aspect of the autosite trunk, in whom male gonadal tissue was found histologically. Parasite parts included complete left lower limb, hemipelvis, lumbosacral vertebral column, spinal cord, and one kidney with ureter and adrenal gland. Autosite anomalies comprised a small left diaphragmatic defect, omphalocele, exstrophy of cloaca, and lumbar meningomyelocele. The authors considered this case to be a rare atypical parasitic ischiopagus CT. The differential diagnosis of the type of twining and other entities with caudal duplications is analyzed briefly.

  17. [Atypical trajectory of gunshot injury].

    PubMed

    Aygün, Mert; Tulay, Cumhur Murat

    2014-11-01

    Gunshot injuries are common medical-legal issues. Atypical tract lines resulting from this type of injuries cause difficulties in diagnosis and treatment. In this paper, a gunshot injury on the right anterior thigh extending to the right hemithorax was presented. A 67-year-old Syrian refugee patient was brought to the emergency service due to gunshot injury. Bullet entrance hole was determined on the right anterior thigh region; however, exit side could not be seen. Bullet was determined on the right thorax at tomography and the patient was taken to operation due to diaphragm rupture and lung parenchymal injury. Other body parts must be examined radiologically for the bullet which cannot be determined at gunshot injury side. PMID:25541926

  18. Aortic calcification produced by vitamin D3 plus nicotine.

    PubMed

    Niederhoffer, N; Bobryshev, Y V; Lartaud-Idjouadiene, I; Giummelly, P; Atkinson, J

    1997-01-01

    Calcification of the elastic arteries of the young rat by treatment with vitamin D and nicotine (VDN) has been proposed as an animal model of arterial calcification associated with age and age-related vascular pathology in man. The calcium-binding protein, S-100, which is found in human atherosclerotic lesions was associated with medial calcification of the aorta in VDN rats, especially in cases of severe calcification. Calcification (total calcium content: 366 +/- 87, n = 12 in VDN vs. 24 +/- 2 micromol g(-1) aortic dry weight in controls, n = 13) involved elastocalcinosis leading to elastolysis as revealed by a fall in the amount of desmosine and isodesmosine in the aortic wall (266 +/- 17 and 254 +/- 15 in VDN vs. 655 +/- 56 and 588 +/- 30 microg g(-1) aortic dry weight in controls). The decrease in elastin was associated with an increase in the stiffness of the aortic wall (elastic modulus: 15.1 +/- 1.8 in VDN vs. 6.7 +/- 0.5 10(6) dyn cm(-2) in controls), an increase in end-systolic stress (central systolic aortic pressure: 152 +/- 6 in VDN vs. 136 +/- 2 mm Hg in controls) (at a normotensive mean pressure level) and left ventricular hypertrophy (heart weight/body weight 2.51 +/- 0.10 in VDN vs. 2.24 +/- 0.07 g kg(-1) in controls). In conclusion, the mechanisms and consequences of aortic calcification in VDN show several similarities with calcification occurring in human athero- and arteriosclerosis.

  19. Observer study to evaluate the simulation of mammographic calcification clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Maria A. Z.; Marcomini, Karem D.; Bakic, Predrag R.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Schiabel, Homero

    2016-03-01

    Numerous breast phantoms have been developed to be as realistic as possible to ensure the accuracy of image quality analysis, covering a greater range of applications. In this study, we simulated three different densities of the breast parenchyma using paraffin gel, acrylic plates and PVC films. Hydroxyapatite was used to simulate calcification clusters. From the images acquired with a GE Senographe DR 2000D mammography system, we selected 68 regions of interest (ROIs) with and 68 without a simulated calcification cluster. To validate the phantom simulation, we selected 136 ROIs from the University of South Florida's Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). Seven trained observers performed two observer experiments by using a high-resolution monitor Barco mod. E-3620. In the first experiment, the observers had to distinguish between real or phantom ROIs (with and without calcification). In the second one, the observers had to indicate the ROI with calcifications between a pair of ROIs. Results from our study show that the hydroxyapatite calcifications had poor contrast in the simulated breast parenchyma, thus observers had more difficulty in identifying the presence of calcification clusters in phantom images. Preliminary analysis of the power spectrum was conducted to investigate the radiographic density and the contrast thresholds for calcification detection. The values obtained for the power spectrum exponent (β) were comparable with those found in the literature.

  20. In-vitro calcification study of polyurethane heart valves.

    PubMed

    Boloori Zadeh, Parnian; Corbett, Scott C; Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid

    2014-02-01

    Tri-leaflet polyurethane heart valves have been considered as a potential candidate in heart valve replacement surgeries. In this study, polyurethane (Angioflex(®)) heart valve prostheses were fabricated using a solvent-casting method to evaluate their calcification resistance. These valves were subjected to accelerated life testing (continuous opening and closing of the leaflets) in a synthetic calcification solution. Results showed that Angioflex(®) could be considered as a potential material for fabricating prosthetic heart valves with possibly a higher calcification resistance compared to tissue valves. In addition, calcification resistance of bisphosphonate-modified Angioflex(®) valves was also evaluated. Bisphosphonates are considered to enhance the calcification resistance of polymers once covalently bonded to the bulk of the material. However, our in-vitro results showed that bisphosphonate-modified Angioflex(®) valves did not improve the calcification resistance of Angioflex(®) compared to its untreated counterparts. The results also showed that cyclic loading of the valves' leaflets resulted in formation of numerous cracks on the calcified surface, which were not present when calcification study did not involve mechanical loading. Further study of these cracks did not result in enough evidence to conclude whether these cracks have penetrated to the polymeric surface.

  1. Preliminary Study on Composition and Microstructure of Calcification in Craniopharyngiomas

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Junxiang; Qi, Songtao; Pan, Jun; Zhang, Xi’an; Huang, Guanglong; Li, Danling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To analyze the element composition and microstructure of calcification in craniopharyngiomas and to explore the differences among differing degrees of calcification, 50 consecutive patients with craniopharyngioma were selected. X-ray diffraction analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis were performed on the calcified plaques isolated from the tumor specimens. All calcified plaques were constituted of hydroxyapatite crystals and some amorphous materials. The main elements for the analysis were calcium, phosphate, carbon, and oxygen. There were significant differences among groups of differing degrees of calcification in the percentage composition of calcium, phosphorus, and carbon (P < 0.05), in which the element content of calcium and phosphorus had a positive correlation with the extent of calcification (rp = 0.745 and 0.778, respectively, P < 0.01), while the element content of carbon had a negative correlation with the extent of calcification (rp =−0.526, P <0.01). The calcium, phosphorus, and carbon content are different in calcified plaques with different extents of calcification. The element content of calcium, phosphorus, and carbon influences the degree of calcification. PMID:27213742

  2. [Vascular Calcification - Pathological Mechanism and Clinical Application - . Role of vascular smooth muscle cells in vascular calcification].

    PubMed

    Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-05-01

    Vascular calcification is commonly seen with aging, chronic kidney disese (CKD), diabetes, and atherosclerosis, and is closely associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as the final stage of degeneration and necrosis of arterial wall and a passive, unregulated process. However, it is now known to be an active and tightly regulated process involved with phenotypic transition of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) that resembles bone mineralization. Briefly, calcium deposits of atherosclerotic plaque consist of hydroxyapatite and may appear identical to fully formed lamellar bone. By using a genetic fate mapping strategy, VSMC of the vascular media give rise to the majority of the osteochondrogenic precursor- and chondrocyte-like cells observed in the calcified arterial media of MGP (- / -) mice. Osteogenic differentiation of VSMC is characterized by the expression of bone-related molecules including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) -2, Msx2 and osteopontin, which are produced by osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Our recent findings are that (i) Runx2 and Notch1 induce osteogenic differentiation, and (ii) advanced glycation end-product (AGE) /receptor for AGE (RAGE) and palmitic acid promote osteogenic differentiation of VSMC. To understand of the molecular mechanisms of vascular calcification is now under intensive research area. PMID:25926569

  3. [Vascular Calcification - Pathological Mechanism and Clinical Application - . Role of vascular smooth muscle cells in vascular calcification].

    PubMed

    Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-05-01

    Vascular calcification is commonly seen with aging, chronic kidney disese (CKD), diabetes, and atherosclerosis, and is closely associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as the final stage of degeneration and necrosis of arterial wall and a passive, unregulated process. However, it is now known to be an active and tightly regulated process involved with phenotypic transition of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) that resembles bone mineralization. Briefly, calcium deposits of atherosclerotic plaque consist of hydroxyapatite and may appear identical to fully formed lamellar bone. By using a genetic fate mapping strategy, VSMC of the vascular media give rise to the majority of the osteochondrogenic precursor- and chondrocyte-like cells observed in the calcified arterial media of MGP (- / -) mice. Osteogenic differentiation of VSMC is characterized by the expression of bone-related molecules including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) -2, Msx2 and osteopontin, which are produced by osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Our recent findings are that (i) Runx2 and Notch1 induce osteogenic differentiation, and (ii) advanced glycation end-product (AGE) /receptor for AGE (RAGE) and palmitic acid promote osteogenic differentiation of VSMC. To understand of the molecular mechanisms of vascular calcification is now under intensive research area.

  4. Calcification of in vitro developed hypertrophic cartilage

    SciTech Connect

    Tacchetti, C.; Quarto, R.; Campanile, G.; Cancedda, R.

    1989-04-01

    We have recently reported that dedifferentiated cells derived from stage 28-30 chick embryo tibiae, when transferred in suspension culture in the presence of ascorbic acid, develop in a tissue closely resembling hypertrophic cartilage. Ultrastructural examination of this in vitro formed cartilage showed numerous matrix vesicles associated with the extracellular matrix. In the present article we report that the in vitro developed hypertrophic cartilage undergoes calcification. We indicate a correlation between the levels of alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition at different times of development. Following the transfer of cells into suspension culture and an initial lag phase, the level of alkaline phosphatase activity rapidly increased. In most experiments the maximum of activity was reached after 5 days of culture. When alkaline phosphatase activity and /sup 45/Ca deposition were measured in the same experiment, we observed that the increase in alkaline phosphatase preceded the deposition of nonwashable calcium deposits in the cartilage.

  5. Intracranial Artery Calcification and Its Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao Hong; Wang, Li Juan; Wong, Ka Sing

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial arterial calcification (IAC) is an easily identifiable entity on plain head computed tomography scans. Recent studies have found high prevalence rates for IAC worldwide, and this may be associated with ischemic stroke and cognitive decline. Aging, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and chronic kidney disease have been found to be associated with IAC. The severity of IAC can be assessed using different visual grading scales or various quantitative methods (by measuring volume or intensity). An objective method for assessing IAC using consistent criteria is urgently required to facilitate comparisons between multiple studies involving diverse populations. There is accumulating evidence from clinical studies that IAC could be utilized as an indicator of intracranial atherosclerosis. However, the pathophysiology underlying the potential correlation between IAC and ischemic stroke—through direct arterial stenosis or plaque stability—remains to be determined. More well-designed clinical studies are needed to explore the predictive values of IAC in vascular events and the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:27165425

  6. Maximal conservative therapy of calcific uremic ateriolopathy.

    PubMed

    Van Noten, Charlotte; Janssen van Doorn, Karin; Vermander, Evert; Vlayen, Sonja; Verpooten, Gert A; Couttenye, Marie-Madeleine

    2012-07-01

    We present the case of a 61-year- old female patient in long-term hemodialysis who developed calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA) upon administration of the oral calcimimetic agent cinacalcet for treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. In May 2009, the baseline serum values were parathormone (PTH) 310 pg/ml, calcium 9.1 mg/dl and phosphorous 6.9 mg/dl. Necrotic wounds in the suprapubic fat tissue were successfully treated first, by correcting the calcium phosphorous product; second, through treatment with sodium thiosulfate and third, through intensive wound care with hyperbaric oxygen therapy and vacuum-assisted closure therapy, with no need for parathyroidectomy. Multiple factors have been described to play a role in the development of CUA. Based on the findings of this case, the treatment of CUA should be aimed at correcting different causes simultaneously.

  7. Pathological calcifications studied with micro-CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Stuart R.; Rajamannan, Nalini M.; Brooks, Ellen R.; Langman, Craig B.; Pachman, Lauren M.

    2004-10-01

    The microstructure of pathological biomineral deposits has received relatively little attention, perhaps, in part because of the difficulty preparing samples for microscopy. MicroCT avoids these difficulties, and laboratory microCT results are reviewed for aortic valve calcification (human as well as a rabbit model), for human renal calculi (stones) and for calcinoses formed in juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). In calcified aortic valves of rabbits, numerical analysis of the data shows statistically significant correlation with diet. In a large kidney stone the pattern of mineralization is clearly revealed and may provide a temporal blueprint for stone growth. In JDM calcified deposits, very different microstructures are observed and may be related to processes unique to this disease.

  8. Pineal and habenula calcification in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sandyk, R

    1992-01-01

    Animal data indicate that melatonin secretion is stimulated by the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and that lesions of the PVN mimic the endocrine effects of pinealectomy. Since the PVN lies adjacent to the third ventricle, I propose that periventricular damage, which is found in schizophrenia and may account for the third ventricular dilatation seen on computed tomographic (CT), may disrupt PVN-pineal interactions and ultimately enhance the process of pineal calcification (PC). To investigate this hypothesis, I conducted CT study on the relationship of PC size to third ventricular width (TVW) in 12 chronic schizophrenic patients (mean age: 33.7 years; SD = 7.3). For comparison, I also studied the relationship of PC size to the ventricular brain ratio and prefrontal cortical atrophy. As predicted, there was a significant correlation between PC size and TVW (r pbi = .61, p < .05), whereas PC was unrelated to the control neuroradiological measures. The findings support the hypothesis that periventricular damage may be involved in the process of PC in schizophrenia and may indirectly implicate damage to the PVN in the mechanisms underlying dysfunction of the pineal gland in schizophrenia. In a second study, I investigated the prevalence of habenular calcification (HAC) on CT in a cohort of 23 chronic schizophrenic-patients (mean age: 31.2 years; SD = 5.95). In this sample HAC was present in 20 patients (87%). Since the prevalence of HAC in a control population of similar age is only 15% these data reveal an almost 6-fold higher prevalence of HAC (X2 = 84.01, p < .0001) in chronic schizophrenia as compared to normal controls. The implications of HAC for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia are discussed in light of the central role of the habenula in the regulation of limbic functions.

  9. Pineal and habenula calcification in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sandyk, R

    1992-01-01

    Animal data indicate that melatonin secretion is stimulated by the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and that lesions of the PVN mimic the endocrine effects of pinealectomy. Since the PVN lies adjacent to the third ventricle, I propose that periventricular damage, which is found in schizophrenia and may account for the third ventricular dilatation seen on computed tomographic (CT), may disrupt PVN-pineal interactions and ultimately enhance the process of pineal calcification (PC). To investigate this hypothesis, I conducted CT study on the relationship of PC size to third ventricular width (TVW) in 12 chronic schizophrenic patients (mean age: 33.7 years; SD = 7.3). For comparison, I also studied the relationship of PC size to the ventricular brain ratio and prefrontal cortical atrophy. As predicted, there was a significant correlation between PC size and TVW (r pbi = .61, p < .05), whereas PC was unrelated to the control neuroradiological measures. The findings support the hypothesis that periventricular damage may be involved in the process of PC in schizophrenia and may indirectly implicate damage to the PVN in the mechanisms underlying dysfunction of the pineal gland in schizophrenia. In a second study, I investigated the prevalence of habenular calcification (HAC) on CT in a cohort of 23 chronic schizophrenic-patients (mean age: 31.2 years; SD = 5.95). In this sample HAC was present in 20 patients (87%). Since the prevalence of HAC in a control population of similar age is only 15% these data reveal an almost 6-fold higher prevalence of HAC (X2 = 84.01, p < .0001) in chronic schizophrenia as compared to normal controls. The implications of HAC for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia are discussed in light of the central role of the habenula in the regulation of limbic functions. PMID:1305634

  10. Screening of Cyanobacterial Species for Calcification

    SciTech Connect

    Brady D. Lee; William A. Apel; Michelle R. Walton

    2004-07-01

    Species of cyanobacteria in the genera Synechococcus and Synechocystis are known to be the catalysts of a phenomenon called "whitings", which is the formation and precipitation of fine-grained CaCO3 particles. Whitings occur when the cyanobacteria fix atmospheric CO2 through the formation of CaCO3 on their cell surfaces, which leads to precipitation to the ocean floor and subsequent entombment in mud. Whitings represent one potential mechanism for CO2 sequestration. Research was performed to determine the ability of various strains of Synechocystis and Synechococcus to calcify when grown in microcosms amended with 2.5 mM HCO3- and 3.4 mM Ca2+. Results indicated that although all strains tested have the ability to calcify, only two Synechococcus species, strains PCC 8806 and PCC 8807, were able to calcify to the extent that a CaCO3 precipitate was formed. Enumeration of the cyanobacterial cultures during testing indicated that cell density did not appear to have a direct effect on calcification. Factors that had the greatest effect on calcification were CO2 removal and subsequent generation of alkaline pH. Whereas cell density was similar for all strains tested, differences in maximum pH were demonstrated. As CO2 was removed, growth medium pH increased and soluble Ca2+ was removed from solution. The largest increases in growth medium pH occurred when CO2 levels dropped below 400 ppmv. Research presented demonstrates that, under the conditions tested, many species of cyanobacteria in the genera Synechocystis and Synechococcus are able to calcify but only two species of Synechococcus were able to calcify to an extent that led to the precipitation of calcium carbonate.

  11. Idiopathic calcification of the seminal vesicles: a rare cause for prostate cancer overstaging.

    PubMed

    Pannek, J; Senge, T

    2001-01-01

    Calcification of the seminal vesicles is a rare phenomenon. We present 2 cases in whom calcification of the seminal vesicles led to preoperative overstaging of prostate cancer. Although idiopathic calcifications are extremely rare, calcifications appear more frequently in diabetic patients. Therefore, knowledge of these formations is essential to prevent overstaging, namely infiltration of the seminal vesicles.

  12. Soft-tissue calcification after subcutaneus emphysema in a neonate

    SciTech Connect

    Naidech, H.J.; Chawla, H.S.

    1982-08-01

    Bilateral, almost symmetric, calcifications of the soft tissues after subcutaneous emphysema have not, to our knowledge, been described. Because of the close clinical and radiographic evaluation in our case, the finding of calcinosis was not a diagnostic problem. Several 1.5 mm computed tomographic (CT) sections of the thorax were scanned and they were confirmatory in showing the distribution of the calcifications. Since subcutaneous emphysema is commonplace, and calcification after it is apparently unknown, the literature was reviewed and an additional cause of soft-tissue calcinosis is presented.

  13. CD163 promotes hematoma absorption and improves neurological functions in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wen-jing; Yu, Hong-quan; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Qun; Meng, Hong-mei

    2016-01-01

    Clinical outcomes are positively associated with hematoma absorption. The monocyte-macrophage scavenger receptor, CD163, plays an important role in the metabolism of hemoglobin, and a soluble form of CD163 is present in plasma and other tissue fluids; therefore, we speculated that serum CD163 affects hematoma absorption after intracerebral hemorrhage. Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage were divided into high- and low-level groups according to the average CD163 level (1,977.79 ± 832.91 ng/mL). Compared with the high-level group, the low-level group had a significantly slower hematoma absorption rate, and significantly increased National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores and modified Rankin Scale scores. These results suggest that CD163 promotes hematoma absorption and the recovery of neurological function in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

  14. CD163 promotes hematoma absorption and improves neurological functions in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen-Jing; Yu, Hong-Quan; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Qun; Meng, Hong-Mei

    2016-07-01

    Clinical outcomes are positively associated with hematoma absorption. The monocyte-macrophage scavenger receptor, CD163, plays an important role in the metabolism of hemoglobin, and a soluble form of CD163 is present in plasma and other tissue fluids; therefore, we speculated that serum CD163 affects hematoma absorption after intracerebral hemorrhage. Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage were divided into high- and low-level groups according to the average CD163 level (1,977.79 ± 832.91 ng/mL). Compared with the high-level group, the low-level group had a significantly slower hematoma absorption rate, and significantly increased National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores and modified Rankin Scale scores. These results suggest that CD163 promotes hematoma absorption and the recovery of neurological function in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. PMID:27630696

  15. Role of in-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in the diagnosis of intracerebral lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Palestro, C.J.; Swyer, A.J.; Kim, C.K.; Muzinic, M.; Goldsmith, S.J. )

    1991-05-01

    The differential diagnosis of intracerebral enhancing lesions on contrast computed tomography includes tumors, abscesses, and cerebrovascular accidents. Particularly important is the differentiation between tumor and abscess. While In-111 labeled leukocyte imaging is an accurate test for identification of foci of infection in general, the role of this procedure in the evaluation of the intracranial lesion is not well established. We undertook a retrospective review of 16 patients with contrast enhancing intracerebral lesions identified on computed tomography, who were also studied with labeled leukocyte imaging. Final diagnoses were: abscess (n = 2), primary brain tumor (n = 6), metastasis (n = 4), dermoid cyst (n = 1), and cerebral infarct (n = 3). There were two positive labeled leukocyte studies; both were cerebral abscesses. No labeled leukocyte activity was identified in any of the tumors or infarcts. We conclude that In-111 labeled leukocyte imaging is an accurate method of differentiating infectious from noninfectious causes of intracerebral lesions identified on computed tomography.

  16. CD163 promotes hematoma absorption and improves neurological functions in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wen-jing; Yu, Hong-quan; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Qun; Meng, Hong-mei

    2016-01-01

    Clinical outcomes are positively associated with hematoma absorption. The monocyte-macrophage scavenger receptor, CD163, plays an important role in the metabolism of hemoglobin, and a soluble form of CD163 is present in plasma and other tissue fluids; therefore, we speculated that serum CD163 affects hematoma absorption after intracerebral hemorrhage. Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage were divided into high- and low-level groups according to the average CD163 level (1,977.79 ± 832.91 ng/mL). Compared with the high-level group, the low-level group had a significantly slower hematoma absorption rate, and significantly increased National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores and modified Rankin Scale scores. These results suggest that CD163 promotes hematoma absorption and the recovery of neurological function in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. PMID:27630696

  17. The assay of anti-pyretic drugs in mice, using intracerebral injection of pyretogenins.

    PubMed

    Cashin, C H; Heading, C E

    1968-09-01

    1. A simple, cheap, and reliable method is described for the screening of new compounds for anti-pyretic activity. It involves the intracerebral injection of a suitable pyretogenin in conscious mice.2. The pyretic response is related to the logarithm of the dose in a substantially linear manner when "E" Pyrogen is used.3. A selection of established anti-pyretic drugs were effective in oral doses approaching those used clinically, which shows that the method is unusually sensitive.4. The response to intracerebral pyretogenin is not unduly influenced by drugs known to cause hypothermia.5. It is suggested that "E" Pyrogen injected intracerebrally has a direct effect on the central nervous system, rather than an indirect action through release of endogenous pyrogen. PMID:5676003

  18. Treadmill exercise ameliorates intracerebral hemorrhage-induced depression in rats.

    PubMed

    Roh, Joo Hwan; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Lee, Jae-Min; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Ju Ho; Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Seung Kyu; Kim, Khae Hawn

    2016-08-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a severe type of stroke causing neurological dysfunction with high mortality rate. Depression is one of the most common complications of ICH. In the present study, the effects of treadmill exercise on ICH-induced depressive symptoms in relation with apoptosis were investigated using rats. ICH rat model was induced by injection of collagenase into the hippocampus using stereotaxic instrument. Open field test for activity and forced swimming test for depressive symptoms were conducted. Apoptosis in the hippocampus was detected using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, immunohistochemistry for caspase-3, and western blot for Bcl-2 and Bax. Western blot analysis for 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in the dorsal raphe was also conducted for biomarkers of depression. In the present results, immobility time was increased and climbing time was decreased by induction of ICH and treadmill exercise inhibited immobility time and increased climbing time in ICH rats. DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were enhanced by induction of ICH and treadmill exercise suppressed ICH-induced DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 expression. Bax expression in the hippocampus was increased by induction of ICH and treadmill exercise inhibited Bax expression in the ICH rats. Expressions of 5-HT and TPH in the dorsal raphe were decreased by induction of ICH and treadmill exercise increased expressions of 5-HT and TPH in the ICH rats. In the present study, treadmill exercise ameliorated depressive symptoms through inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:27656626

  19. APOE polymorphisms influence longitudinal lipid trends preceding intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Phuah, Chia-Ling; Raffeld, Miriam R.; Ayres, Alison M.; Gurol, M. Edip; Viswanathan, Anand; Greenberg, Steven M.; Biffi, Alessandro; Rosand, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine whether APOE genotype influences a previously observed decline in serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels preceding primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), as a potential demonstration of nonamyloid mechanisms of APOE in ICH risk. Methods: We performed a single-center retrospective longitudinal analysis using patients with known APOE genotype drawn from an ongoing cohort study of ICH. Serum lipid measurements for TC, triglycerides (TGs), LDL, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) collected within 2 years before and after index ICH were extracted from electronic medical records. Piecewise linear mixed-effects models were used to compare APOE allele–specific effects on temporal serum lipid trends in ICH. Demographics, medical history, medications, and health maintenance data were included as fixed effects. Inter- and intraindividual variations in lipid levels were modeled as random effects. Results: A total of 124 ICH cases were analyzed. APOE ε4 carriers had greater rates of decline in serum TC and LDL within 6 months preceding ICH (TC: −7.30 mg/dL/mo, p = 0.0035; LDL: −8.44 mg/dL/mo, p = 0.0001). Conversely, serum TC and LDL levels in APOE ε2 carriers were unchanged within the same time period. APOE genotype had no associations with serum HDL or TG trends. Conclusions: APOE allele status predicts serum TC and LDL changes preceding acute ICH. Our results have implications for ongoing efforts in dissecting the role of dyslipidemia in cerebrovascular disease risk. APOE genotype–specific influence on lipid trends provides a clue for one mechanism by which APOE may influence risk of ICH. Further characterization of the metabolic roles of APOE is needed to improve the understanding of APOE biology in cerebrovascular disease risk. PMID:27433544

  20. Evaluating dipolar source localization feasibility from intracerebral SEEG recordings.

    PubMed

    Caune, V; Ranta, R; Le Cam, S; Hofmanis, J; Maillard, L; Koessler, L; Louis-Dorr, V

    2014-09-01

    Stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) is considered as the golden standard for exploring targeted structures during pre-surgical evaluation in drug-resistant partial epilepsy. The depth electrodes, inserted in the brain, consist of several collinear measuring contacts (sensors). Clinical routine analysis of SEEG signals is performed on bipolar montage, providing a focal view of the explored structures, thus eliminating activities of distant sources that propagate through the brain volume. We propose in this paper to exploit the common reference SEEG signals. In this case, the volume propagation information is preserved and electrical source localization (ESL) approaches can be proposed. Current ESL approaches used to localize and estimate the activity of the neural generators are mainly based on surface EEG/MEG signals, but very few studies exist on real SEEG recordings, and the case of equivalent current dipole source localization has not been explored yet in this context. In this study, we investigate the influence of volume conduction model, spatial configuration of SEEG sensors and level of noise on the ESL accuracy, using a realistic simulation setup. Localizations on real SEEG signals recorded during intracerebral electrical stimulations (ICS, known sources) as well as on epileptic interictal spikes are carried out. Our results show that, under certain conditions, a straightforward approach based on an equivalent current dipole model for the source and on simple analytical volume conduction models yields sufficiently precise solutions (below 10mm) of the localization problem. Thus, electrical source imaging using SEEG signals is a promising tool for distant brain source investigation and might be used as a complement to routine visual interpretations.

  1. High Rate of Microbleed Formation Following Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Jason; Wing, Jeffrey J.; Norato, Gina; Sobotka, Ian; Menon, Ravi S.; Burgess, Richard E.; Gibbons, M. Chris; Shara, Nawar M.; Fernandez, Stephen; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni; Russell, Laura; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Kidwell, Chelsea S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We sought to investigate the frequency of microbleed (MB) development following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a predominantly African-American population and to identify predictors of new MB formation. Methods The DECIPHER study was a prospective, longitudinal, MR-based cohort study designed to evaluate racial/ethnic differences in risk factors for MBs and to evaluate the prognostic impact of MBs in this ICH population. We evaluated new MB formation in 2 time periods: from baseline to 30 days and from 30 days to year 1. Results Of 200 subjects enrolled in DECIPHER, 84 had MRIs at all required timepoints to meet criteria for this analysis. In the baseline to day 30 analysis, 11 (13.1%) had new MBs, compared to 25 (29.8%) in the day 30 to year 1 analysis. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that baseline number of MBs (OR 1.05 [95% CI 1.01, 1.08], p=0.01) was associated with new MB formation at 30 days. A logistic regression model predicting new MB at 1 year included baseline number of MBs (OR 1.05 [1.00, 1.11], p=0.046), baseline age (OR 1.05 [1.00, 1.10], p=0.04) and WMD disease score (OR 1.18 [0.96, 1.45]. p=0.115). Overall 28 of 84 (33.3%) ICH subjects formed new MBs at some point in the first year post-ICH. Conclusions We found that one-third of ICH subjects in this cohort surviving one year developed new MBs, which suggests a dynamic and rapidly progressive vasculopathy. Future studies are needed to examine the impact of new MB formation on patient outcomes. PMID:26311530

  2. Poor Long-Term Blood Pressure Control after Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Zahuranec, Darin B.; Wing, Jeffrey J.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Menon, Ravi S.; Fernandez, Stephen J.; Burgess, Richard E.; Sobotka, Ian A.; German, Laura; Trouth, Anna J.; Shara, Nawar M.; Gibbons, M. Chris; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Kidwell, Chelsea S.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hypertension is the most important risk factor associated with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We explored racial differences in blood pressure (BP) control after ICH and assessed predictors of BP control at presentation, 30 days, and 1 year in a prospective cohort study. Methods Subjects with spontaneous ICH were identified from the DiffErenCes in the Imaging of Primary Hemorrhage based on Ethnicity or Race (DECIPHER) Project. Blood pressure was compared by race at each time point. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine predictors of presenting mean arterial pressure (MAP), and longitudinal linear regression was used to assess predictors of MAP at follow-up. Results A total of 162 patients were included (mean age 59, 53% male, 77% black). MAP at presentation was 9.6 mmHg higher in blacks than whites despite adjustment for confounders (p=0.065). Fewer than 20% of patients had normal blood pressure (<120/80 mmHg) at 30 days or 1 year. While there was no difference at 30 days (p=0.331), blacks were more likely than whites to have Stage I/II hypertension at one year (p=0.036). Factors associated with lower MAP at follow-up in multivariable analysis were being married at baseline (p=0.032) and living in a facility (versus personal residence) at the time of BP measurement (p=0.023). Conclusions Long-term blood pressure control is inadequate in patients following ICH, particularly in blacks. Further studies are needed to understand the role of social support and barriers to control to identify optimal approaches to improve blood pressure in this high-risk population. PMID:22903494

  3. PREDICTORS OF HIGHLY PREVALENT BRAIN ISCHEMIA IN INTRACEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Ravi S.; Burgess, Richard E.; Wing, Jeffrey J.; Gibbons, M. Christopher; Shara, Nawar M.; Fernandez, Stephen; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni; German, Laura; Sobotka, Ian; Edwards, Dorothy; Kidwell, Chelsea S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence, characteristics, risk factors and temporal profile of concurrent ischemic lesions in patients with acute primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods Patients were recruited within a prospective, longitudinal, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based study of primary ICH. Clinical, demographic, and MRI data were collected on all subjects at baseline and 1 month. Results Of the 138 patients enrolled, mean age was 59 years, 54% were male, 73% black, and 84% had a history of hypertension. At baseline, ischemic lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) were found in 35% of patients. At 1 month, lesions were present in 27%, and of these lesions, 83% were new and not present at baseline. ICH volume (p=0.025), intraventricular hemorrhage (p=0.019), presence of microbleeds (p=0.024), and large, early reductions in mean arterial pressure (p=0.003) were independent predictors of baseline DWI lesions. A multivariate logistical model predicting the presence of 1 month DWI lesions included history of any prior stroke (p=0.012), presence of 1 or more microbleeds (p=0.04), black race (p=0.641), and presence of a DWI lesion at baseline (p=0.007) Interpretation This study demonstrates that more than 1/3 of patients with primary ICH have active cerebral ischemia at baseline remote from the index hematoma, and 1/4 of patients experience ongoing, acute ischemic events at 1 month. Multivariate analyses implicate blood pressure reductions in the setting of an active vasculopathy as a potential underlying mechanism. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of these lesions on outcome and optimal management strategies to arrest vascular damage. PMID:22367992

  4. Racial differences in microbleed prevalence in primary intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Copenhaver, B R.; Hsia, A W.; Merino, J G.; Burgess, R E.; Fifi, J T.; Davis, L; Warach, S; Kidwell, C S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Primary intracerebral hemorrhage is two to three times more common in many racial populations, including black patients. Previous studies have shown that microbleeds, identified on gradient echo MRI (GRE), are present in 50–80% of patients with primary ICH. The objective of this study was to compare, by race, the rates, risk factors, and topography of microbleeds in patients hospitalized for primary ICH. Methods: Patients diagnosed with primary ICH at two metropolitan stroke centers were included. Clinical and neuroimaging data were recorded for each patient. Analyses were performed to compare baseline characteristics as well as imaging findings by race. Results: A total of 87 patients met inclusion criteria (42 black subjects, 45 white subjects). The black cohort was younger (p < 0.001), and had a greater rate of hypertension (p = 0.001), but not other vascular risk factors. Microbleeds were more prevalent in the black population, with 74% of blacks having one or more microbleeds compared to 42% of whites (p = 0.005). The black population also tended to have a greater frequency of microbleeds in multiple territories than the white population (38% vs 22%, p = 0.106). When adjusting for age, hypertension, and alcohol use, race was an independent predictor of microbleeds (OR 3.308, 95% CI 1.144–9.571, p = 0.027). Conclusions: These pilot data suggest that significant racial differences exist in the frequency and topography of microbleeds in patients with primary ICH. Microbleeds may be an important emerging imaging biomarker with the potential to provide insights into ICH pathophysiology, prognosis, and disease progression, as well as possible therapeutic strategies, particularly in medically underserved populations. GLOSSARY CAA = cerebral amyloid angiopathy; FLAIR = fluid-attenuated inversion recovery; FOV = field of view; GRE = gradient echo imaging; SES = socioeconomic status; TE = echo time; TR = repetition time. PMID:18838665

  5. Response of intracerebral human glioblastoma xenografts to multifraction radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, Tomoko; Faddegon, Bruce A.; Hu, Lily J.; Bollen, Andrew W.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Deen, Dennis F. . E-mail: ddeen@itsa.ucsf.edu

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: We investigated the effects of fractionated radiation treatments on the life spans of athymic rats bearing intracerebral brain tumors. Methods and Materials: U-251 MG or U-87 MG human glioblastoma cells were implanted into the brains of athymic rats, and the resulting tumors were irradiated once daily with various doses of ionizing radiation for 5 consecutive days or for 10 days with a 2-day break after Day 5. Results: Five daily doses of 1 and 1.5 Gy, and 10 doses of 0.75 and 1 Gy, cured some U-251 MG tumors. However, five daily doses of 0.5 Gy increased the survival time of animals bearing U-251 MG tumors 5 days without curing any animals of their tumors. Ten doses of 0.3 Gy given over 2 weeks extended the lifespan of the host animals 9 days without curing any animals. For U-87 MG tumors, 5 daily doses of 3 Gy produced an increased lifespan of 8 days without curing any animals, and 10 doses of 1 Gy prolonged lifespan 5.5 days without curing any animals. The differences in extension of life span between the 5- and 10-fraction protocols were minor for either tumor type. Conclusion: The finding that the U-251 MG tumors are more sensitive than U-87 MG tumors, despite the fact that U-251 MG tumors contain many more hypoxic cells than U-87 MG tumors, suggests the intrinsic cellular radiosensitivities of these cell lines are more important than hypoxia in determining their in vivo radiosensitivities.

  6. Treadmill exercise ameliorates intracerebral hemorrhage-induced depression in rats

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Joo Hwan; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Lee, Jae-Min; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Ju Ho; Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Seung Kyu; Kim, Khae Hawn

    2016-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a severe type of stroke causing neurological dysfunction with high mortality rate. Depression is one of the most common complications of ICH. In the present study, the effects of treadmill exercise on ICH-induced depressive symptoms in relation with apoptosis were investigated using rats. ICH rat model was induced by injection of collagenase into the hippocampus using stereotaxic instrument. Open field test for activity and forced swimming test for depressive symptoms were conducted. Apoptosis in the hippocampus was detected using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, immunohistochemistry for caspase-3, and western blot for Bcl-2 and Bax. Western blot analysis for 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in the dorsal raphe was also conducted for biomarkers of depression. In the present results, immobility time was increased and climbing time was decreased by induction of ICH and treadmill exercise inhibited immobility time and increased climbing time in ICH rats. DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were enhanced by induction of ICH and treadmill exercise suppressed ICH-induced DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 expression. Bax expression in the hippocampus was increased by induction of ICH and treadmill exercise inhibited Bax expression in the ICH rats. Expressions of 5-HT and TPH in the dorsal raphe were decreased by induction of ICH and treadmill exercise increased expressions of 5-HT and TPH in the ICH rats. In the present study, treadmill exercise ameliorated depressive symptoms through inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:27656626

  7. Assessing cognitive function after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    MacLellan, Crystal L; Langdon, Kristopher D; Churchill, Kayla P; Granter-Button, Shirley; Corbett, Dale

    2009-03-17

    Preclinical studies must rigorously assess whether putative therapies improve motor and cognitive function following brain injury. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) causes significant sensory-motor and cognitive deficits in humans. However, no study has evaluated cognition in rodent ICH models. Thus, we used a battery of tests to comprehensively examine whether a striatal ICH causes cognitive impairments in rats. Bacterial collagenase (or sterile saline for SHAM surgery) was injected into the striatum to create an ICH. Two days later, functional deficits were assessed using a neurological deficit scale (NDS), which is most sensitive to ICH injury. Sensory and/or motor deficits may confound cognitive testing; thus, we waited until these had resolved before testing learning and memory. Testing was conducted 1-7 months after ICH and included spontaneous alternation, elevated plus maze, open-field, Morris water maze, T-maze (win-shift and win-stay paradigms), and the radial arm maze (eight and four arms baited protocols). Significant motor deficits at 2 days completely resolved by 1 month, at which time cognitive testing began. In contrast to persistent cognitive deficits that occur after ICH in humans, we did not detect significant learning or memory deficits after ICH in rats. Our results suggest that these tests will not likely be useful for assessing outcome in experimental ICH studies. In conclusion, animal models that better mimic clinical ICH (both motor and cognitive deficits) must be developed. This may include increasing ICH severity or injuring other functional subdivisions within the striatum that may lead to more profound cognitive deficits.

  8. Clinical features of recurrent stroke after intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Nakase, Taizen; Yoshioka, Shotaroh; Sasaki, Masahiro; Suzuki, Akifumi

    2012-06-14

    There have been many reports about the prognosis and risk factors of stroke recurrence following brain infarction (BI). However, little is known about the stroke recurrence after primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH). Therefore, we explored the recurrent stroke patients after initial PICH retrospectively, to reveal the critical factors of stroke recurrence. Acute BI (n=4013) and acute PICH patients (n=1067) admitted to the hospital between April 2000 and March 2009 were consecutively screened. PICH patients with a history of ICH and BI patients with a history of ICH were then classified into the ICH-ICH group (n=64, age 70.8±9.5 years) and ICH-BI group (n=52, age 72.8±9.7years), respectively. ICH lesions were categorized into ganglionic and lober types according to the brain magnetic resonance imaging. Subtypes of BI were classified into cardioembolism, large-artery atherosclerosis, small-artery occlusion and others. There was no difference in incidence of risk factors between ICH-ICH and ICH-BI groups. Distribution of initial PICH lesions was significantly abundant in the lobar type in the ICH-ICH group (P<0.01) and in ganglionic type in the ICH-BI group (P<0.02). Age of onset was significantly older in recurrent lobar ICH compared with recurrent ganglionic ICH (P<0.01: 73.6±10.0 and 59.1±9.0 years, respectively). In conclusion, ganglionic ICH patients may have a chance of recurrent stroke in both brain infarction and ganglionic ICH, suggesting the participation of atherosclerosis in intracranial arteries. Lobar ICH patients were older and prone to recurrent lobar ICH, suggesting the participation of cerebral amyloid angiopathy as a risk of stroke recurrence. PMID:23139848

  9. Acute intracerebral haemorrhage: grounds for optimism in management.

    PubMed

    Delcourt, Candice; Anderson, Craig

    2012-12-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most devastating types of stroke, which has considerable disease burden in "non-white" ethnic groups where the population-attributable risks of elevated blood pressure are very high. Since the treatment of ICH remains largely supportive and expectant, nihilism and the early withdrawal of active therapy influence management decisions in clinical practice. However, approaches to management are now better defined on the basis of evidence that both survival and speed (and degree) of recovery are critically dependent on the location, size, and degree of expansion and extension into the intraventricular system of the haematoma of the ICH. Although no medical treatment has been shown to improve outcome in ICH, several promising avenues have emerged that include haemostatic therapy and intensive control of elevated blood pressure. Conversely, there is continued controversy over the role of evacuation of the haematoma of ICH via open craniotomy. Despite being an established practice for several decades, and having undergone evaluation in multiple randomised trials, there is uncertainty over which patients have the most to gain from an intervention with clear procedural risk. Minimally invasive surgery via local anaesthetic applied drill-puncture of the cranium and infusion of a thrombolytic agent is an attractive option for patients requiring critical management of the haematoma, not just in low resource settings but arguably also in specialist centres of western countries. With several ongoing clinical trials nearing completion, these treatments could enter routine practice within the next few years, further justifying the urgency of "time is brain" and that active management within well-organized, comprehensive acute stroke care units includes patients with ICH. PMID:23088860

  10. Treadmill exercise ameliorates intracerebral hemorrhage-induced depression in rats

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Joo Hwan; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Lee, Jae-Min; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Ju Ho; Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Seung Kyu; Kim, Khae Hawn

    2016-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a severe type of stroke causing neurological dysfunction with high mortality rate. Depression is one of the most common complications of ICH. In the present study, the effects of treadmill exercise on ICH-induced depressive symptoms in relation with apoptosis were investigated using rats. ICH rat model was induced by injection of collagenase into the hippocampus using stereotaxic instrument. Open field test for activity and forced swimming test for depressive symptoms were conducted. Apoptosis in the hippocampus was detected using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, immunohistochemistry for caspase-3, and western blot for Bcl-2 and Bax. Western blot analysis for 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in the dorsal raphe was also conducted for biomarkers of depression. In the present results, immobility time was increased and climbing time was decreased by induction of ICH and treadmill exercise inhibited immobility time and increased climbing time in ICH rats. DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were enhanced by induction of ICH and treadmill exercise suppressed ICH-induced DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 expression. Bax expression in the hippocampus was increased by induction of ICH and treadmill exercise inhibited Bax expression in the ICH rats. Expressions of 5-HT and TPH in the dorsal raphe were decreased by induction of ICH and treadmill exercise increased expressions of 5-HT and TPH in the ICH rats. In the present study, treadmill exercise ameliorated depressive symptoms through inhibiting apoptosis.

  11. Progesterone Improves Neurobehavioral Outcome in Models of Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lei, Beilei; Wang, Haichen; Jeong, Seongtae; Hsieh, Justin T; Majeed, Mohammed; Dawson, Hana; Sheng, Huaxin; Warner, David S; James, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    In models of acute brain injury, progesterone improves recovery through several mechanisms including modulation of neuroinflammation. Secondary injury from neuroinflammation is a potential therapeutic target after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). For potential translation of progesterone as a clinical acute ICH therapeutic, the present study sought to define efficacy of exogenous progesterone administration in ICH-relevant experimental paradigms. Young and aged C57BL/6 male, female, and ovariectomized (OVX) mice underwent left intrastriatal collagenase (0.05-0.075 U) or autologous whole blood (35 μl) injection. Progesterone at varying doses (4-16 mg/kg) was administered at 2, 5, 24, 48, and 72 h after injury. Rotarod and Morris water maze latencies were measured on days 1-7 and days 28-31 after injury, respectively. Hematoma volume, brain water content (cerebral edema), complementary immunohistochemistry, multiplex cytokine arrays, and inflammatory proteins were assessed at prespecified time points after injury. Progesterone (4 mg/kg) administration improved rotarod and water maze latencies (p < 0.01), and decreased cerebral edema (p < 0.05), microglial proliferation, and neuronal loss (p < 0.01) in young and aged male, young OVX, and aged female mice. Brain concentration of proinflammatory cytokines and Toll-like receptor-associated proteins were also decreased after progesterone (4 mg/kg) treatment (p < 0.01). Progesterone-treated young female mice showed no detectable effects. Exogenous progesterone improved short- and long-term neurobehavioral recovery and modulated neuroinflammation in male and OVX mice after ICH. Future studies should validate these findings, and address timing and length of administration before translation to clinical trial.

  12. Low Ambient Temperature and Intracerebral Hemorrhage: The INTERACT2 Study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Danni; Arima, Hisatomi; Sato, Shoichiro; Gasparrini, Antonio; Heeley, Emma; Delcourt, Candice; Lo, Serigne; Huang, Yining; Wang, Jiguang; Stapf, Christian; Robinson, Thompson; Lavados, Pablo; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rates of acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) increase in winter months but the magnitude of risk is unknown. We aimed to quantify the association of ambient temperature with the risk of ICH in the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Haemorrhage Trial (INTERACT2) participants on an hourly timescale. Methods INTERACT2 was an international, open, blinded endpoint, randomized controlled trial of patients with spontaneous ICH (<6h of onset) and elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP, 150–220 mmHg) assigned to intensive (target SBP <140 mmHg) or guideline-recommended (SBP <180 mmHg) BP treatment. We linked individual level hourly temperature to baseline data of 1997 participants, and performed case-crossover analyses using a distributed lag non-linear model with 24h lag period to assess the association of ambient temperature and risk of ICH. Results were presented as overall cumulative odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI. Results Low ambient temperature (≤10°C) was associated with increased risks of ICH: overall cumulative OR was 1.37 (0.99–1.91) for 10°C, 1.92 (1.31–2.81) for 0°C, 3.13 (1.89–5.19) for -10°C, and 5.76 (2.30–14.42) for -20°C, as compared with a reference temperature of 20°C.There was no clear relation of low temperature beyond three hours after exposure. Results were consistent in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Exposure to low ambient temperature within several hours increases the risk of ICH. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00716079 PMID:26859491

  13. Noninvasive detection of intracerebral hemorrhage using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennes, Hans-Juergen; Lott, Carsten; Windirsch, Michael; Hanley, Daniel F.; Boor, Stephan; Brambrink, Ansgar; Dick, Wolfgang

    1998-01-01

    Intracerebral Hemorrhage (IH) is an important cause of secondary brain injury in neurosurgical patients. Early identification and treatment improve neurologic outcome. We have tested Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) as an alternative noninvasive diagnostic tool compared to CT-Scans to detect IH. We prospectively studied 212 patients with neurologic symptoms associated with intracranial pathology before performing a CT-scan. NIRS signals indicated pathologies in 181 cases (sensitivity 0.96; specificity 0.29). In a subgroup of subdural hematomas NIRS detected 45 of 46 hematomas (sensitivity 0.96; specificity 0.79). Identification of intracerebral hemorrhage using NIRS has the potential to allow early treatment, thus possibly avoiding further injury.

  14. Noninvasive detection of intracerebral hemorrhage using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennes, Hans J.; Lott, C.; Windirsch, Michael; Hanley, Daniel F.; Boor, Stephan; Brambrink, Ansgar; Dick, Wolfgang

    1997-12-01

    Intracerebral Hemorrhage (IH) is an important cause of secondary brain injury in neurosurgical patients. Early identification and treatment improve neurologic outcome. We have tested Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) as an alternative noninvasive diagnostic tool compared to CT-Scans to detect IH. We prospectively studied 212 patients with neurologic symptoms associated with intracranial pathology before performing a CT-scan. NIRS signals indicated pathologies in 181 cases (sensitivity 0.96; specificity 0.29). In a subgroup of subdural hematomas NIRS detected 45 of 46 hematomas (sensitivity 0.96; specificity 0.79). Identification of intracerebral hemorrhage using NIRS has the potential to allow early treatment, thus possibly avoiding further injury.

  15. [Advance in research on the genetic etiology of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Kang, Jifeng; Huang, Qing; Liu, Yunhai

    2016-10-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) is a form of brain parenchymal hemorrhage caused by a variety of non-traumatic reasons, resulting in cerebral artery, veins or capillaries rupture. The etiology of SICH is variable, with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage being the most common, accounting for 60% ~ 81% of all cases. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy, drug use related hemorrhage, Moyamoya disease are also important causes of SICH. Previous studies showed that genetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of SICH. Here the genetic mechanisms of SICH and classification of its etiology are reviewed. PMID:27577228

  16. Noonan phenotype associated with intracerebral hemorrhage and cerebral vascular anomalies: case report.

    PubMed

    Hara, T; Sasaki, T; Miyauchi, H; Takakura, K

    1993-01-01

    A case of a 19-year-old man with multiple characteristics of the Noonan phenotype and a massive intracerebral hemorrhage in the left putaminal region is presented. The hemorrhage was removed surgically, and the patient made a good recovery and was finally able to walk unassisted. Postoperative cerebral angiograms revealed various vascular anomalies, including a small aneurysm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second detailed case report of an association of the Noonan phenotype with cerebral vascular anomalies presenting intracerebral hemorrhage. The etiology of this syndrome remains unknown but the possible causes of this rare association are discussed.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: generalized arterial calcification of infancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... It is characterized by abnormal accumulation of the mineral calcium (calcification) in the walls of the blood ... characterized by the accumulation of calcium and other minerals (mineralization) in elastic fibers, which are a component ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    MedlinePlus

    ... in regulating phosphate levels within the body (phosphate homeostasis) by transporting phosphate across cell membranes. The SLC20A2 ... link familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification with phosphate homeostasis. Nat Genet. 2012 Feb 12;44(3):254- ...

  19. Calcification of vestibular schwannoma: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Yu, Jinlu; Qu, Limei; Li, Yunqian

    2012-10-02

    Calcification rarely occurs in vestibular schwannoma (VS), and only seven cases of calcified VS have been reported in the literature. Here, we report a 48-year-old man with VS, who had a history of progressive left-sided hearing loss for 3 years. Neurological examination revealed that he had left-sided hearing loss and left cerebellar ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography angiography showed a mass with calcification in the left cerebellopontine angle (CPA). The tumor was successfully removed via suboccipital craniotomy, and postoperative histopathology showed that the tumor was a schwannoma. We reviewed seven cases of calcified VS that were previously reported in the literature, and we analyzed and summarized the characteristics of these tumors, including the calcification, texture, and blood supply. We conclude that calcification in VS is associated with its texture and blood supply, and these characteristics affect the surgical removal of the tumor.

  20. Placental calcification: ultrastructural and X-ray microanalytic studies.

    PubMed

    Varma, V A; Kim, K M

    1985-01-01

    Calcification is common in human placentas and is widely recognized as a normal part of maturation and aging of this organ. Eleven human placentas were studied by light and electron microscopy to elucidate the mechanism of placental calcification. Earliest mineral deposits were seen along the trophoblastic basement membrane of the chorionic villi undergoing fibrinoid degeneration. Transmission electron microscopic examination revealed crystalline deposits within small membrane-bound vesicles; the latter appear to be derived from degenerating cells and were particularly numerous within the basement membrane. X-ray microanalysis of these deposits revealed calcium and phosphorus peaks and the pattern of calcium hydroxyapatite was noted by electron diffraction. This pattern of calcification, i.e., precipitation of calcium hydroxyapatite in association with extracellular membrane bound vesicles, is similar to that seen in physiologic and pathologic calcifications of other tissues.

  1. [Calcifications of the prostate: a transrectal echographic study].

    PubMed

    Bock, E; Calugi, V; Stolfi, V; Rossi, P; D'Ascenzo, R; Solivetti, F M

    1989-05-01

    Prostatic lithiasis is a well know phenomenon. It has little clinical significance and is not easily shown by conventional radiography, which has poor sensitivity and specificity. The authors have studied 612 patients with both suprapubic and transrectal US in order to 1) assess US sensitivity and specificity and 2) report the frequency, spatial distribution, number and features of prostatic calcifications with special emphasis on differential diagnosis between prostatic neoplasms and chronic prostatitis. The authors have also studied the relationship between morphology and symptoms and the results agree with those reported in the scanty literature. The authors conclude that the parameters studied are directly related to age, except for a younger group with clear evidence of genital inflammation. The authors emphasize the impossibility to correlate morphology of prostatic calcifications with pathologic conditions: there are no specific symptoms clearly connected with calcification even though the inflammation is often associated with calcifications.

  2. Calcification generates protons for nutrient and bicarbonate uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnaughey, T. A.; Whelan, J. F.

    1997-03-01

    The biosphere's great carbonate deposits, from caliche soils to deep-sea carbonate oozes, precipitate largely as by-products of autotrophic nutrient acquisition physiologies. Protons constitute the critical link: Calcification generates protons, which plants and photosynthetic symbioses use to assimilate bicarbonate and nutrients. A calcium ATPase-based "trans" mechanism underlies most biological calcification. This permits high calcium carbonate supersaturations and rapid carbonate precipitation. The competitive advantages of calcification become especially apparent in light and nutrient-deficient alkaline environments. Calcareous plants often dominate the lower euphotic zone in both the benthos and the plankton. Geographically and seasonally, massive calcification concentrates in nutrient-deficient environments including alkaline soils, coral reefs, cyanobacterial mats and coccolithophorid blooms. Structural and defensive uses for calcareous skeletons are sometimes overrated.

  3. A Review of the Effect of Diet on Cardiovascular Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Nicoll, Rachel; Howard, John McLaren; Henein, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) calcification is known as sub-clinical atherosclerosis and is recognised as a predictor of CV events and mortality. As yet there is no treatment for CV calcification and conventional CV risk factors are not consistently correlated, leaving clinicians uncertain as to optimum management for these patients. For this reason, a review of studies investigating diet and serum levels of macro- and micronutrients was carried out. Although there were few human studies of macronutrients, nevertheless transfats and simple sugars should be avoided, while long chain ω-3 fats from oily fish may be protective. Among the micronutrients, an intake of 800 μg/day calcium was beneficial in those without renal disease or hyperparathyroidism, while inorganic phosphorus from food preservatives and colas may induce calcification. A high intake of magnesium (≥380 mg/day) and phylloquinone (500 μg/day) proved protective, as did a serum 25(OH)D concentration of ≥75 nmol/L. Although oxidative damage appears to be a cause of CV calcification, the antioxidant vitamins proved to be largely ineffective, while supplementation of α-tocopherol may induce calcification. Nevertheless other antioxidant compounds (epigallocatechin gallate from green tea and resveratrol from red wine) were protective. Finally, a homocysteine concentration >12 µmol/L was predictive of CV calcification, although a plasma folate concentration of >39.4 nmol/L could both lower homocysteine and protect against calcification. In terms of a dietary programme, these recommendations indicate avoiding sugar and the transfats and preservatives found in processed foods and drinks and adopting a diet high in oily fish and vegetables. The micronutrients magnesium and vitamin K may be worthy of further investigation as a treatment option for CV calcification. PMID:25906474

  4. [Neuroimaging findings in cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts].

    PubMed

    Herrera, Diego Alberto; Vargas, Sergio Alberto; Montoya, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts is a rare condition characterized by brain, retinal and bone anomalies, as well as a predisposition to gastrointestinal bleeding. There are few reported cases of this condition in adults, among whom the incidence is low. Neuroimaging findings are characteristic, with bilateral calcifications, leukoencephalopathy and intracranial cysts. The purpose of this article was to do a literature survey and illustrate two cases diagnosed with the aid of neuroimaging. PMID:24967922

  5. Absence of Residual Microcalcifications in Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia Diagnosed via Stereotactic Vacuum-Assisted Breast Biopsy: Is Surgical Excision Obviated?

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Inyoung; Kim, Min Jung; Moon, Hee Jung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of our study was to evaluate the underestimation rate of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) on vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB), and to examine the correlation between residual microcalcifications and the underestimation rate of ADH. Methods A retrospective study was performed on 27 women (mean age, 49.2±9.2 years) who underwent additional excision for ADH via VABB for microcalcifications observed by using mammography. The mammographic findings, histopathologic diagnosis of all VABB and surgical specimens, and association of malignancy with residual microcalcifications were evaluated. The underestimation rate of ADH was also calculated. Results Of the 27 women with microcalcifications, nine were upgraded to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS); thus, the underestimation rate was 33.3% (9/27). There was no difference in age (p=0.40) and extent of microcalcifications (p=0.10) when comparing benign and malignant cases. Six of 17 patients (35.3%) with remaining calcifications after VABB were upgraded to DCIS, and three of 10 patients (30%) with no residual calcifications after VABB were upgraded (p=1.00). Conclusion The underestimation rate of ADH on VABB was 33.3%. Furthermore, 30% of patients with no remaining calcifications were upgraded to DCIS. Therefore, we conclude that all ADH cases diagnosed via VABB should be excised regardless of the presence of residual microcalcifications. PMID:25320625

  6. Saccular cyst with atypical presentation

    PubMed Central

    Zamfir-Chiru-Anton, A; Gheorghe, DC

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory obstruction and stridor in infants and children are not uncommon. A rare cause of these sometimes life-threatening symptoms is the congenital saccular cyst. Objectives: We present the case of a 5-year-old girl with a cervical tumor, which appeared after a laryngeal endoscopic surgery of a saccular cyst with two relapses and a particular local evolution of its recurrence through the cricothyroid membrane. Material and method: The patient data has been reviewed over the entire follow-up period and a thorough an analysis of her investigations and surgery was performed. Results: The unusual evolution of this case was marked by an atypical exteriorization – not found in the published literature. The surgical approach was external, by paramedian thyrotomy, with no further long-term recurrence. Conclusions: An accurate diagnosis of saccular cysts can be made with the help of medical history, by an endoscopic visualization of the lesion and by the CT-scan imaging of the cervical region. Sometimes, saccular cysts can extend beyond laryngeal limits, determining fluid-filled tumors in the cervical region. PMID:27453755

  7. Atypical antipsychotics: sedation versus efficacy.

    PubMed

    Kane, John M; Sharif, Zafar A

    2008-01-01

    Many patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder experience disturbances in their sleep-wake cycle, which may be a result of the disorder itself, of pharmacotherapy, or of a comorbid sleep disorder. These sleep disruptions can seriously impair patients' functioning as well as their quality of life. Therefore, accurate assessment of sleep problems is essential to appropriately treat patients and promote symptomatic remission. Sedating antipsychotics may ameliorate sleep disturbances, as well as agitation or other behavioral emergencies; however, these agents may also sedate patients to the point of dissatisfaction with the medication and/or impaired functioning, which may, in turn, increase treatment noncompliance and nonadherence. Using short-term adjunctive medications, such as benzo-diazepines or hypnotic agents, with a nonsedating antipsychotic to alleviate sleep disturbances is a reasonable treatment option for patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Overall, the pharma-cokinetics and pharmacodynamics of atypical antipsychotics are important factors to consider in the risk-benefit analysis, as are dosing strategies and individual patient factors, and clinicians must decide which agents are most appropriate for which patients. PMID:18484805

  8. Biopsychosocial Aspects of Atypical Odontalgia

    PubMed Central

    Ciaramella, A.; Paroli, M.; Lonia, L.; Bosco, M.; Poli, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background. A few studies have found somatosensory abnormalities in atypical odontalgia (AO) patients. The aim of the study is to explore the presence of specific abnormalities in facial pain patients that can be considered as psychophysical factors predisposing to AO. Materials and Methods. The AO subjects (n = 18) have been compared to pain-free (n = 14), trigeminal neuralgia (n = 16), migraine (n = 17), and temporomandibular disorder (n = 14). The neurometer current perception threshold (CPT) was used to investigate somatosensory perception. Structured clinical interviews based on the DSM-IV axis I and DSM III-R axis II criteria for psychiatric disorders and self-assessment questionnaires were used to evaluate psychopathology and aggressive behavior among subjects. Results. Subjects with AO showed a lower Aβ, Aδ, and C trigeminal fiber pain perception threshold when compared to a pain-free control group. Resentment was determined to be inversely related to Aβ (rho: 0.62, P < 0.05), Aδ (rho: 0.53, P < 0.05) and C fibers (rho: 0.54, P < 0.05), and depression was inversely related with C fiber (rho: 0.52, P < 0.05) perception threshold only in AO subjects. Conclusion. High levels of depression and resentment can be considered predictive psychophysical factors for the development of AO after dental extraction. PMID:24959561

  9. Interventional trials in atypical parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Eschlböck, S; Krismer, F; Wenning, G K

    2016-01-01

    Atypical parkinson disorders (APD) are rapidly progressive neurodegenerative diseases with a variable clinical presentation that may even mimic Parkinson's disease. Multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD) are commonly summarized under this umbrella term. Significant developments in research have expanded knowledge and have broadened available symptomatic treatments, particularly for the treatment of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. Nonetheless, symptomatic support still remains limited in all of these disorders. Currently, there exists no effective treatment to delay disease progression and disease-modifying trials have failed to provide coherent and convincing results. Recent trials of rasagiline (in MSA), rifampicin (in MSA), tideglusib (in PSP) and davunetide (in PSP) reported negative results. Nevertheless, large cohorts of patients were recruited for interventional studies in the last few years which improved our understanding of trial methodology in APDs immensely. In addition, remarkable progress in basic research has been reported recently and will provide a solid foundation for future therapeutic trials. In this review, we will summarize published randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) in APDs. Additionally, the design of ongoing and unpublished interventions will be presented.

  10. Computed tomography study of pineal calcification in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bersani, G; Garavini, A; Taddei, I; Tanfani, G; Nordio, M; Pancheri, P

    1999-06-01

    Computed tomography studies concerning pineal calcification (PC) in schizophrenia have been conducted mainly by one author who correlated this calcification with several aspects of the illness. On the basis of these findings the aim of the present study was to analyze size and incidence of pineal gland calcification by CT in schizophrenics and healthy controls, and to verify the relationship between pineal calcification and age, and the possible correlation with psychopathologic variables. Pineal calcification was measured on CT scans of 87 schizophrenics and 46 controls divided into seven age subgroups of five years each. No significant differences in PC incidence and mean size between patients and controls were observed as far as the entire group was considered. PC size correlated with age both in schizophrenics and controls. We found a higher incidence of PC in schizophrenics in the age subgroup of 21-25 years, and a negative correlation with positive symptoms of schizophrenia in the overall group. These findings could suggest a premature calcific process in schizophrenics and a probable association with 'non-paranoid' aspects of the illness. Nevertheless the potential role of this process possibly related to some aspects of the altered neurodevelopment in schizophrenia is still unclear. PMID:10572342

  11. Ocean acidification reduces growth and calcification in a marine dinoflagellate.

    PubMed

    Van de Waal, Dedmer B; John, Uwe; Ziveri, Patrizia; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Hoins, Mirja; Sluijs, Appy; Rost, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is considered a major threat to marine ecosystems and may particularly affect calcifying organisms such as corals, foraminifera and coccolithophores. Here we investigate the impact of elevated pCO2 and lowered pH on growth and calcification in the common calcareous dinoflagellate Thoracosphaera heimii. We observe a substantial reduction in growth rate, calcification and cyst stability of T. heimii under elevated pCO2. Furthermore, transcriptomic analyses reveal CO2 sensitive regulation of many genes, particularly those being associated to inorganic carbon acquisition and calcification. Stable carbon isotope fractionation for organic carbon production increased with increasing pCO2 whereas it decreased for calcification, which suggests interdependence between both processes. We also found a strong effect of pCO2 on the stable oxygen isotopic composition of calcite, in line with earlier observations concerning another T. heimii strain. The observed changes in stable oxygen and carbon isotope composition of T. heimii cysts may provide an ideal tool for reconstructing past seawater carbonate chemistry, and ultimately past pCO2. Although the function of calcification in T. heimii remains unresolved, this trait likely plays an important role in the ecological and evolutionary success of this species. Acting on calcification as well as growth, ocean acidification may therefore impose a great threat for T. heimii.

  12. A Case of Atypical Mucin Balls Wearing Extended Wear of Silicone Hydrogel Lens for Therapeutic Use

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Yusuke; Ohta, Toshihiko; Murakami, Akira

    2013-01-01

    A 25-year-old man visited our hospital showing atopic conjunctivitis and corneal shield ulcer on his left eye. Although eye drops of 0.1% of betamethasone sodium phosphate and 0.1% of hyaluronic acid ophthalmic solution were prescribed, calcific corneal opacities developed. The corrected visual acuity decreased to 6/20 in Snellen chart. After corneal epithelial exfoliation, removal of calcific corneal opacity was scrubbed with MQA soaked in 0.05 M of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). After washing the eye with 200 mL of physiological saline, a silicon hydrogel lens, PureVision (balafilcon A), was inserted to obtain pain relief for the therapeutic use. At postoperative day 11, mucin balls were found between cornea and contact lens and stained by rose bengal dye. One of them was atypically larger than usual, and the major axis was approximately 1.5 mm. Wearing lens was stopped, and all of mucin balls and corneal staining were disappeared at postoperative day. Little corneal opacity remained, and visual acuity after surgery recovered to 14/20 at five months. PMID:23710394

  13. Intracerebral and Intravenous Transplantation Represents a Favorable Approach for Application of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jiang; Wang, Bin; Wang, Lian; Dong, Fang; Bai, Gang; Liu, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Background Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one severe subtype of stroke, with a very complex pathology. Stem cell-based therapy holds promising potential in the treatment of neurological disorders. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) have a therapeutic effect in recovery from brain damage following ICH. The aim of this study was to identify an effective and convenient way of using UC-MSCs in the ICH rat model. Material/Methods CM-DiI-labeled human UC-MSCs were transplanted intracerebrally or intravenously into collagenase VII-induced ICH rat models. Neurological function was evaluated before ICH and at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after treatment. ICH rats were sacrificed to evaluate the injury volume. Neurogenesis and angiogenesis and vascular areas were investigated using microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) immunohistochemistry at two weeks after transplantation. Results The intracerebral and intravenous administration of UC-MSCs both resulted in significant improvement in neurological function and decrease in injury volume of ICH rats. Transplanted UC-MSCs were chemotactic in vivo and showed a predominant distribution around the ICH region. In addition, UC-MSCs could integrate into the cerebral vasculature in both groups. Conclusions Both intracerebral and intravenous administration of UC-MSCs could have a favorable effect on recovery of neurological function in ICH rats, although the fundamental mechanisms may be different between the two groups. Our data suggest that intravenous implantation of UC-MSCs could serve as a favorable approach for cell-based therapy in central nervous system (CNS) diseases according to clinical needs. PMID:27703134

  14. ADVANCE: Study to Evaluate Cinacalcet Plus Low Dose Vitamin D on Vascular Calcification in Subjects With Chronic Kidney Disease Receiving Hemodialysis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-07-14

    Chronic Kidney Disease; End Stage Renal Disease; Coronary Artery Calcification; Vascular Calcification; Calcification; Cardiovascular Disease; Chronic Renal Failure; Hyperparathyroidism; Kidney Disease; Nephrology; Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

  15. Time Course and Predictors of Neurological Deterioration after Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Aaron S.; Gilmore, Emily; Choi, H. Alex; Mayer, Stephan A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Neurological deterioration (ND) is a devastating complication following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) but little is known about time course and predictors. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of placebo patients in ICH trials. We performed CT scans within 3 hours of symptoms and at 24- and 72-hours; and clinical evaluations at baseline, 1-hour, and days 1, 2, 3, and 15. Timing of ND was predefined: hyperacute (within 1 hour), acute (1-24 hours), subacute (1-3 days), and delayed (3-15 days). Results We enrolled 376 patients and 176 (47%) had ND within 15 days. In multivariate analyses of ND by category, hyperacute ND was associated with hematoma expansion (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.7-7.6) and baseline ICH volume (OR 1.04 per mL, 95% CI 1.02-1.06) ; acute ND with hematoma expansion (OR 7.59, 95% CI 3.91-14.74), baseline ICH volume (OR 1.02 per mL, 95% CI 1.01-1.04), admission GCS (OR 0.77 per point, 95% CI 0.65-0.91) and interventricular hemorrhage (IVH) (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.05-4.35); subacute ND with 72-hour edema (OR 1.03 per mL, 95% CI 1.02-1.05) and fever (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.01-6.14); and delayed ND with age (OR 1.11 per year, 95% CI 1.04-1.18), troponin (OR 4.30 per point, 95% CI 1.71-10.77) and infections (OR 3.69, 95% CI 1.11-12.23). Patients with ND had worse 90-day modified Rankin scores (5 vs. 3, p<0.001). Conclusions Neurological deterioration occurs frequently and predicts poor outcomes. Our results implicate hematoma expansion and IVH in early ND, and cerebral edema, fever, and medical complications in later ND. PMID:25657190

  16. Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors: challenges and search for solutions

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Ahitagni; Kashyap, Lakhan; Kakkar, Aanchal; Sarkar, Chitra; Julka, Pramod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a highly malignant embryonal central nervous system tumor commonly affecting children <3 years of age. It roughly constitutes 1%–2% of all pediatric central nervous system tumors. Recent data show that it is the most common malignant central nervous system tumor in children <6 months of age. Management of this aggressive tumor is associated with a myriad of diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. On the basis of radiology and histopathology alone, distinction of AT/RT from medulloblastoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor is difficult, and hence this tumor has been commonly misdiagnosed as primitive neuroectodermal tumor for decades. Presence of a bulky heterogeneous solid-cystic mass with readily visible calcification and intratumor hemorrhage, occurring off-midline in children <3 years of age, should alert the radiologist toward the possibility of AT/RT. Presence of rhabdoid cells on histopathology and polyphenotypic immunopositivity for epithelial, mesenchymal, and neuroectodermal markers along with loss of expression of SMARCB1/INI1 or SMARCA4/BRG1 help in establishing a diagnosis of AT/RT. The optimal management comprises maximal safe resection followed by radiation therapy and multiagent intensive systemic chemotherapy. Gross total excision is difficult to achieve in view of the large tumor size and location and young age at presentation. Leptomeningeal spread is noted in 15%–30% of patients, and hence craniospinal irradiation followed by boost to tumor bed is considered standard in children older than 3 years. However, in younger children, craniospinal irradiation may lead to long-term neurocognitive and neuroendocrine sequel, and hence focal radiation therapy may be a pragmatic approach. In this age group, high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue may also be considered to defer radiation therapy, but this approach is also associated with significant treatment-related morbidity and mortality

  17. Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors: challenges and search for solutions

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Ahitagni; Kashyap, Lakhan; Kakkar, Aanchal; Sarkar, Chitra; Julka, Pramod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a highly malignant embryonal central nervous system tumor commonly affecting children <3 years of age. It roughly constitutes 1%–2% of all pediatric central nervous system tumors. Recent data show that it is the most common malignant central nervous system tumor in children <6 months of age. Management of this aggressive tumor is associated with a myriad of diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. On the basis of radiology and histopathology alone, distinction of AT/RT from medulloblastoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor is difficult, and hence this tumor has been commonly misdiagnosed as primitive neuroectodermal tumor for decades. Presence of a bulky heterogeneous solid-cystic mass with readily visible calcification and intratumor hemorrhage, occurring off-midline in children <3 years of age, should alert the radiologist toward the possibility of AT/RT. Presence of rhabdoid cells on histopathology and polyphenotypic immunopositivity for epithelial, mesenchymal, and neuroectodermal markers along with loss of expression of SMARCB1/INI1 or SMARCA4/BRG1 help in establishing a diagnosis of AT/RT. The optimal management comprises maximal safe resection followed by radiation therapy and multiagent intensive systemic chemotherapy. Gross total excision is difficult to achieve in view of the large tumor size and location and young age at presentation. Leptomeningeal spread is noted in 15%–30% of patients, and hence craniospinal irradiation followed by boost to tumor bed is considered standard in children older than 3 years. However, in younger children, craniospinal irradiation may lead to long-term neurocognitive and neuroendocrine sequel, and hence focal radiation therapy may be a pragmatic approach. In this age group, high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue may also be considered to defer radiation therapy, but this approach is also associated with significant treatment-related morbidity and mortality

  18. Coronary artery calcification in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Sylvia E; Mensah, Korlei; Weinstein, Rachel B; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Rader, Daniel J

    2005-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in renal transplant recipients. Although renal transplant recipients frequently undergo cardiac functional tests prior to surgery, coronary atherosclerosis can remain undetected. Coronary artery calcification (CAC), an early marker of atherosclerosis can be quantified using EBCT. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent and characteristics of CAC at the time of renal transplantation. We evaluated 79 consecutive incident asymptomatic renal transplant recipients. Patients were mostly White (62%), male (54%) and had a deceased donor renal transplant (61%). The mean age was 47 (12.1) years. Sixty-five percentage of subjects had CAC. The mean CAC score was 331.5 (562.4) with a median of 43.3. Older age, presence of diabetes, not having a preemptive transplant, deceased donor transplantation and hypercholesterolemia were significantly associated with presence of CAC univariately. Median CAC scores were significantly increased in subjects with diabetes (127.8 vs. 28.9, p=0.05), exposed to dialysis (102.9 vs. 3.7, p<0.001) and deceased donor recipients (169.7 vs. 7.5, p=0.02). Using multiple logistic regression, age and time on dialysis were significantly associated with the presence of CAC at the time of transplant. In summary, CAC is prevalent in patients undergoing kidney transplant. CAC may be a method to identify renal transplant recipients at increased risk for future cardiovascular events. PMID:15996243

  19. Vascular calcification and renal bone disorders.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kuo-Cheng; Wu, Chia-Chao; Yen, Jen-Fen; Liu, Wen-Chih

    2014-01-01

    At the early stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the systemic mineral metabolism and bone composition start to change. This alteration is known as chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). It is well known that the bone turnover disorder is the most common complication of CKD-MBD. Besides, CKD patients usually suffer from vascular calcification (VC), which is highly associated with mortality. Many factors regulate the VC mechanism, which include imbalances in serum calcium and phosphate, systemic inflammation, RANK/RANKL/OPG triad, aldosterone, microRNAs, osteogenic transdifferentiation, and effects of vitamins. These factors have roles in both promoting and inhibiting VC. Patients with CKD usually have bone turnover problems. Patients with high bone turnover have increase of calcium and phosphate release from the bone. By contrast, when bone turnover is low, serum calcium and phosphate levels are frequently maintained at high levels because the reservoir functions of bone decrease. Both of these conditions will increase the possibility of VC. In addition, the calcified vessel may secrete FGF23 and Wnt inhibitors such as sclerostin, DKK-1, and secreted frizzled-related protein to prevent further VC. However, all of them may fight back the inhibition of bone formation resulting in fragile bone. There are several ways to treat VC depending on the bone turnover status of the individual. The main goals of therapy are to maintain normal bone turnover and protect against VC. PMID:25136676

  20. Intracranial Calcifications and Hemorrhages: Characterization with Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weiwei; Zhu, Wenzhen; Kovanlikaya, IIhami; Kovanlikaya, Arzu; Liu, Tian; Wang, Shuai; Salustri, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare gradient-echo (GRE) phase magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) in the detection of intracranial calcifications and hemorrhages. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Thirty-eight patients (24 male, 14 female; mean age, 33 years ± 16 [standard deviation]) with intracranial calcifications and/or hemorrhages diagnosed on the basis of computed tomography (CT), MR imaging (interval between examinations, 1.78 days ± 1.31), and clinical information were selected. GRE and QSM images were reconstructed from the same GRE data. Two experienced neuroradiologists independently identified the calcifications and hemorrhages on the QSM and GRE phase images in two randomized sessions. Sensitivity, specificity, and interobserver agreement were computed and compared with the McNemar test and k coefficients. Calcification loads and volumes were measured to gauge intermodality correlations with CT. Results A total of 156 lesions were detected: 62 hemorrhages, 89 calcifications, and five mixed lesions containing both hemorrhage and calcification. Most of these lesions (146 of 151 lesions, 96.7%) had a dominant sign on QSM images suggestive of a specific diagnosis of hemorrhage or calcium, whereas half of these lesions (76 of 151, 50.3%) were heterogeneous on GRE phase images and thus were difficult to characterize. Averaged over the two independent observers for detecting hemorrhages, QSM achieved a sensitivity of 89.5% and a specificity of 94.5%, which were significantly higher than those at GRE phase imaging (71% and 80%, respectively; P < .05 for both readers). In the identification of calcifications, QSM achieved a sensitivity of 80.5%, which was marginally higher than that with GRE phase imaging (71%; P = .08 and .10 for the two readers), and a specificity of 93.5%, which was significantly higher than that with GRE phase imaging (76.5%; P < .05 for both readers

  1. An atypical case of sporadic fatal insomnia.

    PubMed

    Priano, L; Giaccone, G; Mangieri, M; Albani, G; Limido, L; Brioschi, A; Pradotto, L; Orsi, L; Mortara, P; Fociani, P; Mauro, A; Tagliavini, F

    2009-08-01

    Fatal insomnia is a rare human prion disease characterised by sleep-wake disturbances, thalamic degeneration and deposition of type 2 disease-specific prion protein (PrP(Sc)). This report details a patient with sporadic fatal insomnia who exhibited cerebral deposition of type 1 PrP(Sc) and neuropathological changes largely in the basal ganglia. Previous damage of this brain region by a surgically removed colloid cyst and the insertion of two intracerebral shunts may have influenced the distribution of PrP(Sc) through a chronic inflammatory process. These findings add to our knowledge of the phenotypic variability of human prion diseases with prominent sleep disturbances.

  2. Computer aided breast calcification auto-detection in cone beam breast CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Ning, Ruola; Liu, Jiangkun

    2010-03-01

    In Cone Beam Breast CT (CBBCT), breast calcifications have higher intensities than the surrounding tissues. Without the superposition of breast structures, the three-dimensional distribution of the calcifications can be revealed. In this research, based on the fact that calcifications have higher contrast, a local thresholding and a histogram thresholding were used to select candidate calcification areas. Six features were extracted from each candidate calcification: average foreground CT number value, foreground CT number standard deviation, average background CT number value, background CT number standard deviation, foreground-background contrast, and average edge gradient. To reduce the false positive candidate calcifications, a feed-forward back propagation artificial neural network was designed. The artificial neural network was trained with the radiologists confirmed calcifications and used as classifier in the calcification auto-detection task. In the preliminary experiments, 90% of the calcifications in the testing data sets were detected correctly with an average of 10 false positives per data set.

  3. Increasing the effectiveness of intracerebral injections in adult and neonatal mice: a neurosurgical point of view.

    PubMed

    Mathon, Bertrand; Nassar, Mérie; Simonnet, Jean; Le Duigou, Caroline; Clemenceau, Stéphane; Miles, Richard; Fricker, Desdemona

    2015-12-01

    Intracerebral injections of tracers or viral constructs in rodents are now commonly used in the neurosciences and must be executed perfectly. The purpose of this article is to update existing protocols for intracerebral injections in adult and neonatal mice. Our procedure for stereotaxic injections in adult mice allows the investigator to improve the effectiveness and safety, and save time. Furthermore, for the first time, we describe a two-handed procedure for intracerebral injections in neonatal mice that can be performed by a single operator in a very short time. Our technique using the stereotaxic arm allows a higher precision than freehand techniques previously described. Stereotaxic injections in adult mice can be performed in 20 min and have >90% efficacy in targeting the injection site. Injections in neonatal mice can be performed in 5 min. Efficacy depends on the difficulty of precisely localizing the injection sites, due to the small size of the animal. We describe an innovative, effortless, and reproducible surgical protocol for intracerebral injections in adult and neonatal mice.

  4. Subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage after alcohol ingestion and illicit use of sildenafil.

    PubMed

    Antar, Veysel; Sutpideler, Neslihan; Baran, Oguz; Bitirak, Gorkem

    2015-01-01

    Sildenafil is a drug used in the treatment of male impotence. Few cases of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage following the use of sildenafil have been cited in the literature. A 42-year-old man was admitted to the emergency outpatient clinic of İstanbul Educational and Research Hospital after sudden loss of consciousness. He had ingested alcohol, taken 50mg sildenafil and had sexual intercourse. Non-contrast cranial tomography revealed an intracerebral hematoma with extension to the ventricles. Sildenafil is a selective phosphodiesterase-5 enzyme inhibitor. With the inhibition of PDE-5, the amount of cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (c-GMP) in the smooth vascular muscle cells in the corpus cavernosum increases, leading to a relaxation of muscles and vasodilatation. Studies have shown that the NO-c-GMP pathway leads to cerebral vasodilatation with a similar mechanism. The literature has shown that the effect of PDE-1 and PDE-2 on cerebral bleeding control is affected by sildenafil. This increased blood flow increases the risk of intracranial haemorrhage. Although data concerning the presentation of intracerebral hematoma in connection with the combined use of alcohol ingestion and use of sildenafil is inadequate, it can nevertheless be thought that the combined use increases the risk of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and caution is in order concerning the matter. PMID:26037192

  5. [Vascular Calcification - Pathological Mechanism and Clinical Application - . Extracellular matrix tenascin-X in calcific aortic valves].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Ken-ichi

    2015-05-01

    We previously disclosed a novel extracellular matrix tenascin-X (TNX) , the largest member of the tenascin family. So far, we have made efforts to elucidate the roles of TNX. TNX is involved in collagen deposition, collagen fibrillogenesis, and modulation of collagen stiffness. Homozygous mutations in TNXB, the gene encoding TNX, cause a classic-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) , a heritable connective tissue disorder, whereas haploinsufficiency of TNXB and heterozygous mutations in TNXB are associated with hypermobility-type EDS. Recently, we performed proteomic analyses of calcific aortic valves (CAVs) compared with relatively adjacent normal tissues to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms of dystrophic valvular calcification. Interestingly, we found that TNX was the protein with the greatest decrease in expression among the differentially expressed proteins and that expression levels of proteins modulating collagen structure and function, such as type I collagen and decorin, were also decreased in CAVs. In this review, I will discuss about the decreased level of collagen due to the reduction of expression levels of proteins that play regulatory roles in collagen functions such as fibril organization and fibrillogenesis in CAVs. PMID:25926574

  6. Shunt tube calcification as a late complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunting

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Abubakr Darrag; Elzain, Mohammed Awad; Mohamed, Haddab Ahmed; Ibrahim Zayan, Baha Eldin Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Shunt calcification is a rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunting that occurs years later after the initial operation this condition is rarely reported in literature. Two patients with shunt calcifications were described. The first patient was 17-year-old lady who had congenital hydrocephalus and shunted in the early infancy, she was presented recently complaining of itching of the skin along the shunt track and limitation of neck movement. The patient was then operated with removal of the old peritoneal catheter and replacing it with a new one. The second patient was 17-year-old boy originally was a case of posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytoma associated with obstructive hydrocephalus, he was operated with both shunting for the hydrocephalus and tumor removal, 6 years later he presented with shunt exposure. Calcification of the shunt tube was discovered intraoperatively upon shunt removal. Shunt calcification has been observed mainly in barium-impregnated catheters. Introducing plain silicone-coated shunt tubing may reduce the rate of this condition. The usual complaints of the patients suffering from this condition are pain in the neck and chest wall along the shunt pathway and limitation of the neck movement due to shunt tube tethering, but features of shunt dysfunction and skin irritation above the shunt may be present. In this review, plain X-ray and operative findings showed that the most extensive calcification is present in the neck, where the catheters were subject to heavy mechanical stress. Disturbed calcium and phosphate metabolisms may be involved in this condition. Shunt calcification is a rare condition that occurs due to material aging presenting with features of shunt tethering, dysfunction or overlying skin irritation. Plain X-ray is needed to detect calcification while shunt removal, replacement or endoscopic third ventriculostomy may carry solution for this condition. PMID:26396620

  7. The association between abdominal body composition and vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Jensky, Nicole E; Criqui, Michael H; Wright, C Michael; Wassel, Christina L; Alcaraz, John E; Allison, Matthew A

    2011-12-01

    Subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) may be associated with both adipose and skeletal muscle tissues in the abdomen. Accordingly, we examined whether subcutaneous, intermuscular, and visceral adipose tissue, as well as abdominal lean muscle, were associated with the presence and extent of vascular calcification in multiple vascular beds. Three hundred and ninety four patients (58.1% men) underwent electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) scans as part of routine health maintenance screening. The coronary and carotid calcium scores were analyzed at the time of the scan, whereas the other calcium scores, as well as the body composition analyses, were analyzed retrospectively. Mean age was 55.2 ± 11.1 years and BMI was 26.9 ± 4.2. The prevalence of any calcification in the carotids, coronaries, thoracic aorta, abdominal aorta, and iliacs was 30.1, 60.1, 39.8, 55.7, and 56.8%, respectively. Compared to those with calcification in different vascular beds, those without vascular calcification generally had significantly more lean muscle and less adipose tissue. In separate multivariable logistic models, a 1 s.d. increment in the ratio of abdominal and visceral fat to total area of each corresponding compartments was significantly associated with an increased odds for the presence of thoracic aortic calcium (odds ratio (OR) = 1.6, 1.5, respectively; P = 0.01 for both). Conversely, increases in abdominal lean muscle were associated with significantly decreased odds of thoracic aortic calcification (OR = 0.34; P ≤ 0.01). A similar pattern of associations existed among the other vascular beds. Also, the association between lean muscle and vascular calcification was independent of visceral adipose tissue. In conclusion, adipose tissue was positively and lean body mass inversely associated with prevalent aortic calcification. PMID:21475146

  8. The dark and bright side of atherosclerotic calcification.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Giuseppe; Iacobini, Carla; Blasetti Fantauzzi, Claudia; Menini, Stefano

    2015-02-01

    Vascular calcification is an unfavorable event in the natural history of atherosclerosis that predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, increasing evidence suggests that different calcification patterns are associated with different or even opposite histopathological and clinical features, reflecting the dual relationship between inflammation and calcification. In fact, initial calcium deposition in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli results in the formation of spotty or granular calcification ("microcalcification"), which induces further inflammation. This vicious cycle favors plaque rupture, unless an adaptive response prevails, with blunting of inflammation and survival of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). VSMCs promote fibrosis and also undergo osteogenic transdifferentiation, with formation of homogeneous or sheet-like calcification ("macrocalcification"), that stabilizes the plaque by serving as a barrier towards inflammation. Unfortunately, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating this adaptive response. The advanced glycation/lipoxidation endproducts (AGEs/ALEs) have been shown to promote vascular calcification and atherosclerosis. Recent evidence suggests that two AGE/ALE receptors, RAGE and galectin-3, modulate in divergent ways, not only inflammation, but also vascular osteogenesis, by favoring "microcalcification" and "macrocalcification", respectively. Galectin-3 seems essential for VSMC transdifferentiation into osteoblast-like cells via direct modulation of the WNT-β-catenin signaling, thus driving formation of "macrocalcification", whereas RAGE favors deposition of "microcalcification" by promoting and perpetuating inflammation and by counteracting the osteoblastogenic effect of galectin-3. Further studies are required to understand the molecular mechanisms regulating transition from "microcalcification" to "macrocalcification", thus allowing to design therapeutic strategies which favor this adaptive process

  9. Role of admission serum albumin levels in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Limaye, Kaustubh; Yang, Ju Dong; Hinduja, Archana

    2016-03-01

    Low serum albumin levels have been reported to be an independent predictor of increased morbidity and mortality in multiple disease conditions. The aim of our study was to identify the impact of low serum albumin levels on mortality and outcomes at discharge in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. We retrospectively reviewed our prospective database of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage from January 2010 to December 2011. Patients were dichotomized into two groups based on their serum albumin levels upon admission. Hypoalbuminemia was defined as serum albumin levels ≤3.4 g/dl. The two groups were compared using Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and t test for continuous variables. Poor outcome was defined as death or discharge to a long-term nursing facility (modified Rankin Score 4-6). Out of 97 patients admitted with intracerebral hemorrhage, 90 met our inclusion criteria (42 had normal levels and 48 had hypoalbuminemia). The baseline characteristics, risk factors, etiology, location and volume of intracerebral hemorrhage, admission blood glucose, white cell count, length of hospital stay, length of intensive care unit stay, and complications were similar between both groups. Although admission hypoalbuminemia did not impact in-hospital mortality (28 vs 24 %, p = 0.635), there was a significant increase in poor outcomes at discharge (59 vs 31 %, p = 0.009) (OR 1.8; 95 % CI; 1.2-2.8). Similar to other diseases, hypoalbuminemia was associated with poor functional outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. This will need to be confirmed in larger prospective studies before adopting therapeutic and preventive strategies in future. PMID:26133948

  10. The mechanism of vascular calcification – a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Karwowski, Wojciech; Naumnik, Beata; Szczepański, Marek; Myśliwiec, Michał

    2012-01-01

    Summary Calcification of vessels reduces their elasticity, affecting hemodynamic parameters of the cardiovascular system. The development of arterial hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, ischemic heart disease or peripheral arterial disease significantly increases mortality in patients over 60 years of age. Stage of advancement and the extent of accumulation of calcium deposits in vessel walls are key risk factors of ischemic events. Vascular calcification is an active and complex process that involves numerous mechanisms responsible for calcium depositions in arterial walls. They lead to increase in arterial stiffness and in pulse wave velocity, which in turn increases cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. In-depth study and thorough understanding of vascular calcification mechanisms may be crucial for establishing an effective vasculoprotective therapy. The aim of this study was to present a comprehensive survey of current state-of-the-art research into the impact of metabolic and hormonal disorders on development of vascular calcification. Due to strong resemblance to the processes occurring in bone tissue, drugs used for osteoporosis treatment (calcitriol, estradiol, bisphosphonates) may interfere with the processes occurring in the vessel wall. On the other hand, drugs used to treat cardiovascular problems (statins, angiotensin convertase inhibitors, warfarin, heparins) may have an effect on bone tissue metabolism. Efforts to optimally control calcium and phosphate concentrations are also beneficial for patients with end-stage renal disease, for whom vessel calcification remains a major problem. PMID:22207127

  11. Gaussian weighted projection for visualization of cardiac calcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiang; Li, Ke; Gilkeson, Robert; Fei, Baowei

    2008-03-01

    At our institution, we are using dual-energy digital radiography (DEDR) as a cost-effective screening tool for the detection of cardiac calcification. We are evaluating DEDR using CT as the gold standard. We are developing image projection methods for the generation of digitally reconstructed radiography (DRR) from CT image volumes. Traditional visualization methods include maximum intensity projection (MIP) and average-based projection (AVG) that have difficulty to show cardiac calcification. Furthermore, MIP can over estimate the calcified lesion as it displays the maximum intensity along the projection rays regardless of tissue types. For AVG projection, the calcified tissue is usually overlapped with bone, lung and mediastinum. In order to improve the visualization of calcification on DRR images, we developed a Gaussian-weighted projection method for this particular application. We assume that the CT intensity values of calcified tissues have a Gaussian distribution. We then use multiple Gaussian functions to fit the intensity histogram. Based on the mean and standard deviation parameters, we incorporate a Gaussian weighted function into the perspective projection and display the calcification exclusively. Our digital and physical phantom studies show that the new projection method can display tissues selectively. In addition, clinical images show that the Gaussian-weighted projection method better visualizes cardiac calcification than either the AVG or MIP method and can be used to evaluate DEDR as a screening tool for the detection of coronary artery diseases.

  12. Epilepsy, occipital calcifications, and oligosymptomatic celiac disease in childhood.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Hugo A; De Rosa, Susana; Ruggieri, Victor; de Dávila, María T G; Fejerman, Natalio

    2002-11-01

    The association of epilepsy, occipital calcifications, and celiac disease has been recognized as a distinct syndrome. The objective of this study was to present the clinical, electrophysiologic, and neuroradiologic features in a series of patients with this syndrome. Thirty-two patients with the constellation of epilepsy, occipital calcifications, and celiac disease were identified in our epilepsy clinic. The mean age was 11 years and the mean length of follow-up was 7.4 years. The 1990 criteria of the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition were used to diagnose celiac disease. The Kruskal-Wallis statistics test was employed with a signficance of P < .05. Thirty-one patients had partial seizures, 21 of them with symptoms related to the occipital lobe. In most patients, the epilepsy was controlled or the seizures were sporadic. Three developed severe epilepsy. Occipital calcifications were present in all cases. Computed tomography in 7 patients showed hypodense areas in the white matter around calcifications, which decreased or disappeared after a period of gluten-free diet in 3 patients. A favorable outcome of epilepsy was detected in patients with the earliest dietary therapy. This study presents the largest series of children with this syndrome outside Italy. White-matter hypodensities surrounding calcifications are rarely reported. A prompt diagnosis of celiac disease might improve the evolution of the epilepsy and may improve cognitive status. PMID:12585717

  13. Effect of calcium carbonate saturation of seawater on coral calcification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gattuso, J.-P.; Frankignoulle, M.; Bourge, I.; Romaine, S.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    The carbonate chemistry of seawater is usually not considered to be an important factor influencing calcium-carbonate-precipitation by corals because surface seawater is supersaturated with respect to aragonite. Recent reports, however, suggest that it could play a major role in the evolution and biogeography of recent corals. We investigated the calcification rates of five colonies of the zooxanthellate coral Stylophora pistillata in synthetic seawater using the alkalinity anomaly technique. Changes in aragonite saturation from 98% to 585% were obtained by manipulating the calcium concentration. The results show a nonlinear increase in calcification rate as a function of aragonite saturation level. Calcification increases nearly 3-fold when aragonite saturation increases from 98% to 390%, i.e., close to the typical present saturation state of tropical seawater. There is no further increase of calcification at saturation values above this threshold. Preliminary data suggest that another coral species, Acropora sp., displays a similar behaviour. These experimental results suggest: (l) that the rate of calcification does not change significantly within the range of saturation levels corresponding to the last glacial-interglacial cycle, and (2) that it may decrease significantly in the future as a result of the decrease in the saturation level due to anthropogenic release of CO2 into the atmosphere. Experimental studies that control environmental conditions and seawater composition provide unique opportunities to unravel the response of corals to global environmental changes.

  14. Inflammatory, metabolic, and genetic mechanisms of vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Demer, Linda L; Tintut, Yin

    2014-04-01

    This review centers on updating the active research area of vascular calcification. This pathology underlies substantial cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, through adverse mechanical effects on vascular compliance, vasomotion, and, most likely, plaque stability. Biomineralization is a complex, regulated process occurring widely throughout nature. Decades ago, its presence in the vasculature was considered a mere curiosity and an unregulated, dystrophic process that does not involve biological mechanisms. Although it remains controversial whether the process has any adaptive value or past evolutionary advantage, substantial advances have been made in understanding the biological mechanisms driving the process. Different types of calcific vasculopathy, such as inflammatory versus metabolic, have parallel mechanisms in skeletal bone calcification, such as intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Recent work has identified important regulatory roles for inflammation, oxidized lipids, elastin, alkaline phosphatase, osteoprogenitor cells, matrix γ-carboxyglutamic acid protein, transglutaminase, osteoclastic regulatory factors, phosphate regulatory hormones and receptors, apoptosis, prelamin A, autophagy, and microvesicles or microparticles similar to the matrix vesicles of skeletal bone. Recent work has uncovered fascinating interactions between matrix γ-carboxyglutamic acid protein, vitamin K, warfarin, and transport proteins. And, lastly, recent breakthroughs in inherited forms of calcific vasculopathy have identified the genes responsible as well as an unexpected overlap of phenotypes. Until recently, vascular calcification was considered a purely degenerative, unregulated process. Since then, investigative groups around the world have identified a wide range of causative mechanisms and regulatory pathways, and some of the recent developments are highlighted in this review.

  15. Intracranial Cortical Calcifications in a Focal Epilepsy Patient with Pseudohypoparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ye Sel; Park, Jihyung; Park, Yoonkyung; Hwang, KyoungJin; Koo, Dae Lim; Kim, Daeyoung; Seo, Dae-Won

    2016-06-01

    Patients with chronic parathyroid dysfunction often have intracranial calcification in deep gray matter (GM) and subcortical white matter (WM) of their brain. Some of them are also epilepsy patients. Although cortical etiologies are main cause of epileptic seizure, cortical calcification has not been reported in these patients. We report a newly diagnosed focal epilepsy patient whose brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed intracranial calcifications in cortical as well as subcortical areas. Blood lab revealed that he had hypocalcemia due to pseudohypoparathyroidism. Video EEG monitoring revealed the ictal EEG mainly consist of polymorphic delta to theta waves with maximum at right temporal area followed by background attenuation and muscle artifacts. The interictal EEG showed multiple focal spike-wave discharges. After given oral calcium and calcitriol supplement, his calcium and phosphorous level normalized and he remains seizure free. This is the first case to show cortical calcification in a patient with pseudohypoparathyroidism. Cortical calcification could be an important measure of seizure burden in these patients and thus sophisticated imaging protocols should be used to visualize the extent of calcium deposits. PMID:27390678

  16. Intracranial Cortical Calcifications in a Focal Epilepsy Patient with Pseudohypoparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ye Sel; Park, Jihyung; Park, Yoonkyung; Hwang, KyoungJin; Koo, Dae Lim; Kim, Daeyoung; Seo, Dae-Won

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic parathyroid dysfunction often have intracranial calcification in deep gray matter (GM) and subcortical white matter (WM) of their brain. Some of them are also epilepsy patients. Although cortical etiologies are main cause of epileptic seizure, cortical calcification has not been reported in these patients. We report a newly diagnosed focal epilepsy patient whose brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed intracranial calcifications in cortical as well as subcortical areas. Blood lab revealed that he had hypocalcemia due to pseudohypoparathyroidism. Video EEG monitoring revealed the ictal EEG mainly consist of polymorphic delta to theta waves with maximum at right temporal area followed by background attenuation and muscle artifacts. The interictal EEG showed multiple focal spike-wave discharges. After given oral calcium and calcitriol supplement, his calcium and phosphorous level normalized and he remains seizure free. This is the first case to show cortical calcification in a patient with pseudohypoparathyroidism. Cortical calcification could be an important measure of seizure burden in these patients and thus sophisticated imaging protocols should be used to visualize the extent of calcium deposits. PMID:27390678

  17. Emergence of a novel bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prion from an atypical H-type BSE

    PubMed Central

    Masujin, Kentaro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Matsuura, Yuichi; Imamura, Morikazu; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Murayama, Yuichi; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The H-type of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (H-BSE) was serially passaged in bovinized transgenic (TgBoPrP) mice. At the fourth passage, most challenged mice showed a typical H-BSE phenotype with incubation periods of 223 ± 7.8 days. However, a different phenotype of BSE prion with shorter incubation periods of 109 ± 4 days emerged in a minor subset of the inoculated mice. The latter showed distinct clinical signs, brain pathology, and abnormal prion protein profiles as compared to H-BSE and other known BSE strains in mice. This novel prion was transmitted intracerebrally to cattle, with incubation periods of 14.8 ± 1.5 months, with phenotypes that differed from those of other bovine prion strains. These data suggest that intraspecies transmission of H-BSE in cattle allows the emergence of a novel BSE strain. Therefore, the continuation of feed ban programs may be necessary to exclude the recycling of H-BSE prions, which appear to arise spontaneously, in livestock. Such measures should help to reduce the risks from both novel and known strains of BSE. PMID:26948374

  18. Emergence of a novel bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prion from an atypical H-type BSE.

    PubMed

    Masujin, Kentaro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Matsuura, Yuichi; Imamura, Morikazu; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Murayama, Yuichi; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The H-type of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (H-BSE) was serially passaged in bovinized transgenic (TgBoPrP) mice. At the fourth passage, most challenged mice showed a typical H-BSE phenotype with incubation periods of 223 ± 7.8 days. However, a different phenotype of BSE prion with shorter incubation periods of 109 ± 4 days emerged in a minor subset of the inoculated mice. The latter showed distinct clinical signs, brain pathology, and abnormal prion protein profiles as compared to H-BSE and other known BSE strains in mice. This novel prion was transmitted intracerebrally to cattle, with incubation periods of 14.8 ± 1.5 months, with phenotypes that differed from those of other bovine prion strains. These data suggest that intraspecies transmission of H-BSE in cattle allows the emergence of a novel BSE strain. Therefore, the continuation of feed ban programs may be necessary to exclude the recycling of H-BSE prions, which appear to arise spontaneously, in livestock. Such measures should help to reduce the risks from both novel and known strains of BSE. PMID:26948374

  19. Local influence of calcifications on the wall mechanics of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Putter, Sander; van de Vosse, Frans N.; Breeuwer, Marcel; Gerritsen, Frans A.

    2006-03-01

    Finite element wall stress simulations on patient-specific models of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) may provide a better rupture risk predictor than the currently used maximum transverse diameter. Calcifications in the wall of AAA lead to a higher maximum wall stress and thus may lead to an elevated rupture risk. The reported material properties for calcifications and the material properties actually used for simulations show great variation. Previous studies have focused on simplified modelling of the calcification shapes within a realistic aneurysm shape. In this study we use an accurate representation of the calcification geometry and a simplified model for the AAA. The objective of this approach is to investigate the influence of the calcification geometry, the material properties and the modelling approach for the computed peak wall stress. For four realistic calcification shapes from standard clinical CT images of AAA, we performed simulations with three distinct modelling approaches, at five distinct elasticity settings. The results show how peak wall stress is sensitive to the material properties of the calcifications. For relatively elastic calcifications, the results from the different modelling approaches agree. Also, for relatively elastic calcifications the computed wall stress in the tissue surrounding the calcifications shows to be insensitive to the exact calcification geometry. For stiffer calcifications the different modelling approaches and the different geometries lead to significantly different results. We conclude that an important challenge for future research is accurately estimating the material properties and the rupture potential of the AAA wall including calcifications.

  20. Equine atypical myopathy: A metabolic study.

    PubMed

    Karlíková, R; Široká, J; Jahn, P; Friedecký, D; Gardlo, A; Janečková, H; Hrdinová, F; Drábková, Z; Adam, T

    2016-10-01

    Atypical myopathy (AM) is a potentially fatal disease of grazing horses. It is reportedly caused by the ingestion of sycamore seeds containing toxic hypoglycin A. In order to study metabolic changes, serum and urine samples from nine horses with atypical myopathy and 12 control samples from clinically healthy horses were collected and then analysed using a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry; serum metabolic profiles as the disease progressed were also studied. Metabolic data were evaluated using unsupervised and supervised multivariate analyses. Significant differences were demonstrated in the concentrations of various glycine conjugates and acylcarnitines (C2-C26). Moreover, the concentrations of purine and pyrimidine metabolites, vitamins and their degradation products (riboflavin, trigonelline, pyridoxate, pantothenate), and selected organic and amino acids (aspartate, leucine, 2-oxoglutarate, etc.) were altered in horses with AM. These results represent a global view of altered metabolism in horses with atypical myopathy. PMID:27687939

  1. Atypical measles syndrome in adults: still around.

    PubMed

    Melenotte, Cléa; Cassir, Nadim; Tessonnier, Laurent; Brouqui, Philippe

    2015-09-23

    Measles, a vaccine-preventable disease, is currently responsible for worldwide outbreaks mainly due to the failure to maintain high coverage of childhood immunisation. Atypical measles syndrome was first described in the 1960s in association with the inactivated measles vaccine. We report a case of atypical measles syndrome in a 29-year-old man without previous measles immunisation. He presented with fever, shortness of breath and a purpuric rash. Radiological investigations allowed the diagnosis of severe nodular pneumonia. Positive PCR in nasal and pharyngeal samples, and positive serology for a primary infection confirmed measles diagnosis. Both clinical symptoms and pulmonary nodules regressed spontaneously, whereas mediastinal lymph nodes increased and persisted up to 3 months after the primary infection. Physicians should be aware of the atypical measles syndrome presentation in order to limit the delay of diagnosis, to avoid unnecessary investigations and to prevent the potential spread of this infectious disease.

  2. Decreased calcification in the Southern Ocean over the satellite record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Natalie M.; Lovenduski, Nicole S.

    2015-03-01

    Widespread ocean acidification is occurring as the ocean absorbs anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, threatening marine ecosystems, particularly the calcifying plankton that provide the base of the marine food chain and play a key role within the global carbon cycle. We use satellite estimates of particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), surface chlorophyll, and sea surface temperature to provide a first estimate of changing calcification rates throughout the Southern Ocean. From 1998 to 2014 we observe a 4% basin-wide reduction in summer calcification, with ˜9% reductions in large regions (˜1 × 106 km2) of the Pacific and Indian sectors. Southern Ocean trends are spatially heterogeneous and primarily driven by changes in PIC concentration (suspended calcite), which has declined by ˜24% in these regions. The observed decline in Southern Ocean calcification and PIC is suggestive of large-scale changes in the carbon cycle and provides insight into organism vulnerability in a changing environment.

  3. Coconut Atrium: Transmural Calcification of the Entire Left Atrium

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Carlos Del; Weinstein, Paul; Kunnelis, Constantine; DiStefano, Peter; Ebers, Gloria M.

    2000-01-01

    Massive calcification of the left atrium usually spares the interatrial septum, which provides a cleavage plane for surgical access to the mitral valve. Endoatriectomy with mitral valve replacement is the currently accepted corrective procedure because it affords maximum exposure while decreasing the risk of embolization and intraoperative hemorrhage. We describe a case in which the entire left atrium, including the septum, was thickly calcified and resembled a coconut shell. This condition prevented surgical correction of severe mitral stenosis. To our knowledge, this is the most severe case of left atrial calcification yet reported in the literature. Although it is not possible to establish preoperatively that the atrium is completely calcified and impossible to incise, when predisposing factors and evidence of complete transmural calcification are present, the surgeon should be aware of this possibility and should weigh carefully the decision to operate. PMID:10830629

  4. Declining coral calcification on the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    De'ath, Glenn; Lough, Janice M; Fabricius, Katharina E

    2009-01-01

    Reef-building corals are under increasing physiological stress from a changing climate and ocean absorption of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. We investigated 328 colonies of massive Porites corals from 69 reefs of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) in Australia. Their skeletal records show that throughout the GBR, calcification has declined by 14.2% since 1990, predominantly because extension (linear growth) has declined by 13.3%. The data suggest that such a severe and sudden decline in calcification is unprecedented in at least the past 400 years. Calcification increases linearly with increasing large-scale sea surface temperature but responds nonlinearly to annual temperature anomalies. The causes of the decline remain unknown; however, this study suggests that increasing temperature stress and a declining saturation state of seawater aragonite may be diminishing the ability of GBR corals to deposit calcium carbonate.

  5. Impact of elevated CO2 on shellfish calcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazeau, Frédéric; Quiblier, Christophe; Jansen, Jeroen M.; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Middelburg, Jack J.; Heip, Carlo H. R.

    2007-04-01

    Ocean acidification resulting from human emissions of carbon dioxide has already lowered and will further lower surface ocean pH. The consequent decrease in calcium carbonate saturation potentially threatens calcareous marine organisms. Here, we demonstrate that the calcification rates of the edible mussel (Mytilus edulis) and Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) decline linearly with increasing pCO2. Mussel and oyster calcification may decrease by 25 and 10%, respectively, by the end of the century, following the IPCC IS92a scenario (~740 ppmv in 2100). Moreover, mussels dissolve at pCO2 values exceeding a threshold value of ~1800 ppmv. As these two species are important ecosystem engineers in coastal ecosystems and represent a large part of worldwide aquaculture production, the predicted decrease of calcification in response to ocean acidification will probably have an impact on coastal biodiversity and ecosystem functioning as well as potentially lead to significant economic loss.

  6. Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification Presented with Impulse Control Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Cem; Levent, Mustafa; Akbaba, Gulhan; Kara, Bilge; Yeniceri, Emine Nese; Inanc, Betul Battaloglu

    2015-01-01

    Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC), also referred to as Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (IBGC) or “Fahr's disease,” is a clinical condition characterized by symmetric and bilateral calcification of globus pallidus and also basal ganglions, cerebellar nuclei, and other deep cortical structures. It could be accompanied by parathyroid disorder and other metabolic disturbances. The clinical features are dysfunction of the calcified anatomic localization. IBGC most commonly presents with mental damage, convulsion, parkinson-like clinical picture, and neuropsychiatric behavior disorders; however, presentation with impulse control disorder is not a frequent presentation. In the current report, a 43-year-old male patient who has been admitted to psychiatry policlinic with the complaints of aggressive behavior episodes and who has been diagnosed with impulse control disorder and IBGC was evaluated in the light of the literature. PMID:26246920

  7. Atypical solitary fibrous tumor of the vulva.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, M

    2000-04-01

    An atypical solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) was encountered as a slow-growing, 15-cm, well-demarcated, vulvar tumor in a 70-year-old woman. The tumor was highly cellular and composed predominantly of hemangiopericytomatous and capillary hemangioma-like proliferations and short fascicular arrangements of spindled cells. Multinucleated giant cells and tumor necrosis also were present. The tumor cells were positive for vimentin, CD34, progesterone receptors, and bcl-2 and were diploid by flow cytometry. The patient was well without disease 9 months after surgery. Awareness of the occurrence of atypical SFT in the vulva is important so that confusion with other neoplasms can be avoided.

  8. Atypical RNAs in the coelacanth transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Nitsche, Anne; Doose, Gero; Tafer, Hakim; Robinson, Mark; Saha, Nil Ratan; Gerdol, Marco; Canapa, Adriana; Hoffmann, Steve; Amemiya, Chris T; Stadler, Peter F

    2014-09-01

    Circular and apparently trans-spliced RNAs have recently been reported as abundant types of transcripts in mammalian transcriptome data. Both types of non-colinear RNAs are also abundant in RNA-seq of different tissue from both the African and the Indonesian coelacanth. We observe more than 8,000 lincRNAs with normal gene structure and several thousands of circularized and trans-spliced products, showing that such atypical RNAs form a substantial contribution to the transcriptome. Surprisingly, the majority of the circularizing and trans-connecting splice junctions are unique to atypical forms, that is, are not used in normal isoforms.

  9. A Premature Infant with Fetal Myocardial and Abdominal Calcifications and Factor V Leiden Homozygosity

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Margaret G.K.; Webster, Gregory; Insoft, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a premature male neonate with confirmed Factor V Leiden deficiency diagnosed prenatally with cardiac and abdominal calcifications. Our patient’s findings suggest that clinicians consider thromboembolic conditions when multiple fetal calcifications are visualized. PMID:19861970

  10. Alkalinity Enrichment Enhances Net Calcification of a Coral Reef Flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albright, R.; Caldeira, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean acidification is projected to shift reefs from a state of net accretion to one of net dissolution sometime this century. While retrospective studies show large-scale changes in coral calcification over the last several decades, it is not possible to unequivocally link these results to ocean acidification due to confounding factors of temperature and other environmental parameters. Here, we quantified the calcification response of a coral reef flat to alkalinity enrichment to test whether reef calcification increases when ocean chemistry is restored to near pre-industrial conditions. We used sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to increase the total alkalinity of seawater flowing over a reef flat, with the aim of increasing carbonate ion concentrations [CO32-] and the aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) to values that would have been attained under pre-industrial atmospheric pCO2 levels. We developed a dual tracer regression method to estimate alkalinity uptake (i.e., calcification) in response to alkalinity enrichment. This approach uses the change in ratios between a non-conservative tracer (alkalinity) and a conservative tracer (a non-reactive dye, Rhodamine WT) to assess the fraction of added alkalinity that is taken up by the reef as a result of an induced increase in calcification rate. Using this method, we estimate that an average of 17.3% ± 2.3% of the added alkalinity was taken up by the reef community. In providing results from the first seawater chemistry manipulation experiment performed on a natural coral reef community (without artificial confinement), we demonstrate that, upon increase of [CO32-] and Ωarag to near pre-industrial values, reef calcification increases. Thus, we conclude that, the impacts of ocean acidification are already being felt by coral reefs. This work is the culmination of years of work in the Caldeira lab at the Carnegie Institution for Science, involving many people including Jack Silverman, Kenny Schneider, and Jana Maclaren.

  11. Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net coral reef calcification.

    PubMed

    Albright, Rebecca; Caldeira, Lilian; Hosfelt, Jessica; Kwiatkowski, Lester; Maclaren, Jana K; Mason, Benjamin M; Nebuchina, Yana; Ninokawa, Aaron; Pongratz, Julia; Ricke, Katharine L; Rivlin, Tanya; Schneider, Kenneth; Sesboüé, Marine; Shamberger, Kathryn; Silverman, Jacob; Wolfe, Kennedy; Zhu, Kai; Caldeira, Ken

    2016-03-17

    Approximately one-quarter of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere each year is absorbed by the global oceans, causing measurable declines in surface ocean pH, carbonate ion concentration ([CO3(2-)]), and saturation state of carbonate minerals (Ω). This process, referred to as ocean acidification, represents a major threat to marine ecosystems, in particular marine calcifiers such as oysters, crabs, and corals. Laboratory and field studies have shown that calcification rates of many organisms decrease with declining pH, [CO3(2-)], and Ω. Coral reefs are widely regarded as one of the most vulnerable marine ecosystems to ocean acidification, in part because the very architecture of the ecosystem is reliant on carbonate-secreting organisms. Acidification-induced reductions in calcification are projected to shift coral reefs from a state of net accretion to one of net dissolution this century. While retrospective studies show large-scale declines in coral, and community, calcification over recent decades, determining the contribution of ocean acidification to these changes is difficult, if not impossible, owing to the confounding effects of other environmental factors such as temperature. Here we quantify the net calcification response of a coral reef flat to alkalinity enrichment, and show that, when ocean chemistry is restored closer to pre-industrial conditions, net community calcification increases. In providing results from the first seawater chemistry manipulation experiment of a natural coral reef community, we provide evidence that net community calcification is depressed compared with values expected for pre-industrial conditions, indicating that ocean acidification may already be impairing coral reef growth. PMID:26909578

  12. Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net coral reef calcification.

    PubMed

    Albright, Rebecca; Caldeira, Lilian; Hosfelt, Jessica; Kwiatkowski, Lester; Maclaren, Jana K; Mason, Benjamin M; Nebuchina, Yana; Ninokawa, Aaron; Pongratz, Julia; Ricke, Katharine L; Rivlin, Tanya; Schneider, Kenneth; Sesboüé, Marine; Shamberger, Kathryn; Silverman, Jacob; Wolfe, Kennedy; Zhu, Kai; Caldeira, Ken

    2016-03-17

    Approximately one-quarter of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere each year is absorbed by the global oceans, causing measurable declines in surface ocean pH, carbonate ion concentration ([CO3(2-)]), and saturation state of carbonate minerals (Ω). This process, referred to as ocean acidification, represents a major threat to marine ecosystems, in particular marine calcifiers such as oysters, crabs, and corals. Laboratory and field studies have shown that calcification rates of many organisms decrease with declining pH, [CO3(2-)], and Ω. Coral reefs are widely regarded as one of the most vulnerable marine ecosystems to ocean acidification, in part because the very architecture of the ecosystem is reliant on carbonate-secreting organisms. Acidification-induced reductions in calcification are projected to shift coral reefs from a state of net accretion to one of net dissolution this century. While retrospective studies show large-scale declines in coral, and community, calcification over recent decades, determining the contribution of ocean acidification to these changes is difficult, if not impossible, owing to the confounding effects of other environmental factors such as temperature. Here we quantify the net calcification response of a coral reef flat to alkalinity enrichment, and show that, when ocean chemistry is restored closer to pre-industrial conditions, net community calcification increases. In providing results from the first seawater chemistry manipulation experiment of a natural coral reef community, we provide evidence that net community calcification is depressed compared with values expected for pre-industrial conditions, indicating that ocean acidification may already be impairing coral reef growth.

  13. The association of bone and osteoclasts with vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Han, Kum Hyun; Hennigar, Randolph A; O'Neill, W Charles

    2015-12-01

    The presence of bone tissue in calcified arteries may provide insights into the pathophysiology and potential reversibility of calcification, but the prevalence, distribution, and determinants of bone and osteoclasts in calcified arteries are unknown. Specimens of 386 arteries from lower limb amputations in 108 patients were examined retrospectively. Calcification was present in 282 arteries from 89 patients, which was medial in 64%, intimal in 9%, and both in 27%. Bone was present in 6% of arteries, essentially all of which were heavily calcified. Multiple sampling revealed that the true prevalence of bone in heavily calcified arteries was 25%. Bone was more common in medial rather than intimal calcifications (10% vs 3%, p=0.03) but did not vary with artery location (above vs below the knee). Heavily calcified arteries with bone were more likely to come from patients who were older (p=0.04), had diabetes (p=0.06), or were receiving warfarin (p=0.06), but there was no association with gender or renal failure. Bone was almost always adjacent to calcifications, along the periphery, but never within. Staining for the bone-specific proteins osteocalcin and osterix was noted in 20% and 45% of heavily calcified arteries without visible bone. Osteoclasts were present in 4.9% of arteries, all of which were heavily calcified and most of which contained bone. The frequent absence of bone in heavily calcified vessels and the histologic pattern strongly suggests a secondary rather than primary event. Recruitment of osteoclasts to vascular calcifications can occur but is rare, suggesting a limited capacity to reverse calcifications.

  14. Early detection of ocean acidification effects on marine calcification

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyina, T.; Zeebe, R. E.; E. Maier-Reimer; C. Heinze

    2009-02-19

    Ocean acidification is likely to impact calcification rates in many pelagic organisms, which may in turn cause significant changes in marine ecosystem structure. We examine effects of changes in marine CaCO3 production on total alkalinity (TA) in the ocean using the global biogeochemical ocean model HAMOCC. We test a variety of future calcification scenarios because experimental studies with different organisms have revealed a wide range of calcification sensitivities to CaCO3 saturation state. The model integrations start at a preindustrial steady state in the year 1800 and run until the year 2300 forced with anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Calculated trends in TA are evaluated taking into account the natural variability in ocean carbonate chemistry, as derived from repeat hydrographic transects. We conclude that the data currently available does not allow discerning significant trends in TA due to changes in pelagic calcification caused by ocean acidification. Given different calcification scenarios, our model calculations indicate that the TA increase over time will start being detectable by the year 2040, increasing by 5–30 umol/kg compared to the present-day values. In a scenario of extreme reductions in calcification, large TA changes relative to preindustrial conditions would have occurred at present, which we consider very unlikely. However, the time interval of reliable TA observations is too short to disregard this scenario. The largest increase in surface ocean TA is predicted for the tropical and subtropical regions. In order to monitor and quantify possible early signs of acidification effects, we suggest to specifically target those regions during future ocean chemistry surveys.

  15. Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net coral reef calcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albright, Rebecca; Caldeira, Lilian; Hosfelt, Jessica; Kwiatkowski, Lester; MacLaren, Jana K.; Mason, Benjamin M.; Nebuchina, Yana; Ninokawa, Aaron; Pongratz, Julia; Ricke, Katharine L.; Rivlin, Tanya; Schneider, Kenneth; Sesboüé, Marine; Shamberger, Kathryn; Silverman, Jacob; Wolfe, Kennedy; Zhu, Kai; Caldeira, Ken

    2016-03-01

    Approximately one-quarter of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere each year is absorbed by the global oceans, causing measurable declines in surface ocean pH, carbonate ion concentration ([CO32-]), and saturation state of carbonate minerals (Ω). This process, referred to as ocean acidification, represents a major threat to marine ecosystems, in particular marine calcifiers such as oysters, crabs, and corals. Laboratory and field studies have shown that calcification rates of many organisms decrease with declining pH, [CO32-], and Ω. Coral reefs are widely regarded as one of the most vulnerable marine ecosystems to ocean acidification, in part because the very architecture of the ecosystem is reliant on carbonate-secreting organisms. Acidification-induced reductions in calcification are projected to shift coral reefs from a state of net accretion to one of net dissolution this century. While retrospective studies show large-scale declines in coral, and community, calcification over recent decades, determining the contribution of ocean acidification to these changes is difficult, if not impossible, owing to the confounding effects of other environmental factors such as temperature. Here we quantify the net calcification response of a coral reef flat to alkalinity enrichment, and show that, when ocean chemistry is restored closer to pre-industrial conditions, net community calcification increases. In providing results from the first seawater chemistry manipulation experiment of a natural coral reef community, we provide evidence that net community calcification is depressed compared with values expected for pre-industrial conditions, indicating that ocean acidification may already be impairing coral reef growth.

  16. [Mechanism of losartan suppressing vascular calcification in rat aortic artery].

    PubMed

    Shao, Juan; Wu, Panfeng; Wu, Jiliang; Li, Mincai

    2016-08-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of the angiotensin II receptor 1 (AT1R) blocker losartan on vascular calcification in rat aortic artery and explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods SD rats were divided randomly into control group, vascular calcification model group and treatment group. Vascular calcification models were made by subcutaneous injection of warfarin plus vitamin K1 for two weeks. Rats in the treatment group were subcutaneously injected with losartan (10 mg/kg) at the end of the first week and consecutively for one week. We observed the morphological changes by HE staining and the calcium deposition by Alizarin red staining in the artery vascular wall. The mRNA expressions of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) were analyzed by reverse transcription PCR. The BMP2 and RUNX2 protein expressions were determined by Western blotting. The apoptosis of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were detected by TUNEL. The AT1R expression was tested by fluorescent immunohistochemistry. Results The aortic vascular calcification was induced by warfarin and vitamin K1. Compared with the vascular calcification model group, the mRNA and protein expressions of BMP2 and RUNX2 were significantly downregulated in the aorta in the losartan treatment group. Furthermore, the apoptosis of SMCs and the AT1R expression obviously decreased. Conclusion AT1R blocker losartan inhibits the apoptosis of SMCs and reduces AT1R expression; it downregulates the BMP2 and RUNX2 expressions in the vascular calcification process. PMID:27412937

  17. Symmetrical infantile thalamic degeneration with focal cytoplasmic calcification.

    PubMed

    Ambler, M; O'Neil, W

    1975-10-27

    Infantile thalamic degeneration is a rare clinico-pathological entity. Restricted location of the lesion and peculiar cytopathological changes serve to distinguish this disorder from other common encephalopathies. Optical and ultrastructural studies demonstrate cytoplasmic calcopherules in previously viable cells. According to current concepts of acute cellular reactions to injury and mechanism of intracellular calcification, the cytological changes cannot be attributed to either hypoxic ischemic cell change or dystrophic calcification. By analogy to other human and pathological material, the most likely basis for nondystrophic calcopherule formation is toxic or infectious injury with local synthesis, or autophagic or phagolysosomal degradation of cellular debris of specific chemical composition favoring calcium deposition.

  18. Evaluation and nonsurgical management of rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Greis, Ari C; Derrington, Stephen M; McAuliffe, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    Rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy is a common finding that accounts for about 7% of patients with shoulder pain. There are numerous theories on the pathogenesis of rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy. The diagnosis is confirmed with radiography, MRI or ultrasound. There are numerous conservative treatment options available and most patients can be managed successfully without surgical intervention. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and multiple modalities are often used to manage pain and inflammation; physical therapy can help improve scapular mechanics and decrease dynamic impingement; ultrasound-guided needle aspiration and lavage techniques can provide long-term improvement in pain and function in these patients.

  19. Prevention of vascular calcification with bisphosphonates without affecting bone mineralization: a new challenge?

    PubMed

    Neven, Ellen G; De Broe, Marc E; D'Haese, Patrick C

    2009-03-01

    Arterial calcification has been found to coexist with bone loss. Bisphosphonates, used as standard therapy for osteoporosis, inhibit experimentally induced vascular calcification, offering perspectives for the treatment of vascular calcification in renal failure patients. However, Lomashvili et al. report that the doses of etidronate and pamidronate that are effective in attenuating aortic calcification also decrease bone formation and mineralization in uremic rats, limiting their therapeutic use as anticalcifying agents.

  20. Recurrent hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhages: what should we do when a new hemispheric ischaemic event strikes?

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Osama S M

    2012-01-01

    Hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhage is usually a once in a lifetime event and recurrences are rare. Most recurrences usually develop within 2 years of the first event and the majority usually target the basal ganglia and thalami. Failure of blood pressure control is the most important, potentially preventable, culprit behind the development of primary intracerebral haemorrhages. However, the occurrence of a recurrent bleed in patients with optimally controlled hypertension should always prompt the physician to think of a new co-operating factor. We report on a 60-year-old hypertensive woman who developed right-sided thalamic haemorrhage 5 days after sustaining a lacunar infarct of the left thalamus for which she had been prescribed a dual antiplatelet therapy: aspirin and clopidrogrel. She had a history of two bilateral sequential hypertensive deep cerebellar haemorrhages which were developed 2 years ago. PMID:23264163

  1. Recurrent hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhages: what should we do when a new hemispheric ischaemic event strikes?

    PubMed

    Amin, Osama S M

    2012-01-01

    Hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhage is usually a once in a lifetime event and recurrences are rare. Most recurrences usually develop within 2 years of the first event and the majority usually target the basal ganglia and thalami. Failure of blood pressure control is the most important, potentially preventable, culprit behind the development of primary intracerebral haemorrhages. However, the occurrence of a recurrent bleed in patients with optimally controlled hypertension should always prompt the physician to think of a new co-operating factor. We report on a 60-year-old hypertensive woman who developed right-sided thalamic haemorrhage 5 days after sustaining a lacunar infarct of the left thalamus for which she had been prescribed a dual antiplatelet therapy: aspirin and clopidrogrel. She had a history of two bilateral sequential hypertensive deep cerebellar haemorrhages which were developed 2 years ago. PMID:23264163

  2. [Brain metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma with acute intracerebral hemorrhage: a surgical case report].

    PubMed

    Chonan, Masashi; Mino, Masaki; Yoshida, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro

    2012-05-01

    We report a rare case of brain metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma with intracerebral hemorrhage. A 79-year-old woman presented with sudden headache and monoplegia of the right upper limb 10 years after diagnosis of thyroid papillary adenocarcinoma. Despite the known metastatic lesions in the cervical lymph nodes and lungs, she had been well for 10 years since thyroidectomy, focal irradiation and internal radiation of 131I. CT demonstrated intracerebral hemorrhage in the left temporal lobe. Magnetic resonance imaging showed marked signal heterogeneity. She underwent radical surgery on the day of the onset and the histological diagnosis was metastatic brain tumor of thyroid papillary carcinoma. Postoperative course was uneventful, and the monoplegia was improved. Papillary thyroid carcinoma has a relatively benign course, and surgical removal of the brain metastasis is able to contribute to longer survival times for patients.

  3. The return of an old worm: cerebral paragonimiasis presenting with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eun Jung; Kim, Seung-Ki; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Chai, Jong-Yil; Chong, Sangjoon; Park, Sung-Hye; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Phi, Ji Hoon

    2012-11-01

    Paragonimiasis is caused by ingesting crustaceans, which are the intermediate hosts of Paragonimus. The involvement of the brain was a common presentation in Korea decades ago, but it becomes much less frequent in domestic medical practices. We observed a rare case of cerebral paragonimiasis manifesting with intracerebral hemorrhage. A 10-yr-old girl presented with sudden-onset dysarthria, right facial palsy and clumsiness of the right hand. Brain imaging showed acute intracerebral hemorrhage in the left frontal area. An occult vascular malformation or small arteriovenous malformation compressed by the hematoma was initially suspected. The lesion progressed for over 2 months until a delayed surgery was undertaken. Pathologic examination was consistent with cerebral paragonimiasis. After chemotherapy with praziquantel, the patient was monitored without neurological deficits or seizure attacks for 6 months. This case alerts practicing clinicians to the domestic transmission of a forgotten parasitic disease due to environmental changes.

  4. The Return of an Old Worm: Cerebral Paragonimiasis Presenting with Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Eun Jung; Kim, Seung-Ki; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Chai, Jong-Yil; Chong, Sangjoon; Park, Sung-Hye; Cheon, Jung-Eun

    2012-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is caused by ingesting crustaceans, which are the intermediate hosts of Paragonimus. The involvement of the brain was a common presentation in Korea decades ago, but it becomes much less frequent in domestic medical practices. We observed a rare case of cerebral paragonimiasis manifesting with intracerebral hemorrhage. A 10-yr-old girl presented with sudden-onset dysarthria, right facial palsy and clumsiness of the right hand. Brain imaging showed acute intracerebral hemorrhage in the left frontal area. An occult vascular malformation or small arteriovenous malformation compressed by the hematoma was initially suspected. The lesion progressed for over 2 months until a delayed surgery was undertaken. Pathologic examination was consistent with cerebral paragonimiasis. After chemotherapy with praziquantel, the patient was monitored without neurological deficits or seizure attacks for 6 months. This case alerts practicing clinicians to the domestic transmission of a forgotten parasitic disease due to environmental changes. PMID:23166429

  5. Protective effect of picolinic acid on mice intracerebrally infected with lethal doses of Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Blasi, E; Mazzolla, R; Pitzurra, L; Barluzzi, R; Bistoni, F

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the effects of picolinic acid (PLA), a product of tryptophan degradation, on mouse susceptibility to intracerebral infection with Candida albicans. We show that intraperitoneal administration of PLA significantly enhances the median survival time of mice inoculated with the lethal challenge. Furthermore, intracerebral administration of this agent induces a protective state against the local lethal infection, the phenomenon depending upon the administration schedule and doses of PLA employed. According to survival data, yeast growth in the brain as well as yeast colonization of the kidneys are drastically reduced in PLA-treated mice compared with those for untreated controls. Northern (RNA) blot analysis of brain tissues demonstrates that mRNA levels specific for tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1 are augmented and induced, respectively, after inoculation of PLA. These results indicate that PLA has a protective effect likely involving elicitation of a cytokine response in vivo against fungal infections. Images PMID:7506894

  6. Peripheral effects induced in BALB/c mice infected with DENV by the intracerebral route.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, E R A; Amorim, J F S; Paes, M V; Azevedo, A S; Gonçalves, A J S; Costa, S M; Mantuano-Barradas, M; Póvoa, T F; de Meis, J; Basílio-de-Oliveira, C A; Nogueira, A C M A; Alves, A M B

    2016-02-01

    The lack of an immunocompetent animal model for dengue mimicking the disease in humans is a limitation for advances in this field. Inoculation by intracerebral route of neuroadapted dengue strains in mice is normally lethal and provides a straightforward readout parameter for vaccine testing. However, systemic effects of infection and the immune response elicited in this model remain poorly described. In the present work, BALB/c mice infected by the intracerebral route with neuroadapted DENV2 exhibited several evidences of systemic involvement. DENV-inoculated mice presented virus infective particles in the brain followed by viremia, especially in late stages of infection. Infection induced cellular and humoral responses, with presence of activated T cells in spleen and blood, lymphocyte infiltration and tissue damages in brain and liver, and an increase in serum levels of some pro-inflammatory cytokines. Data highlighted an interplay between the central nervous system commitment and peripheral effects under this experimental condition. PMID:26748331

  7. Cohort study of atypical pressure ulcers development.

    PubMed

    Jaul, Efraim

    2014-12-01

    Atypical pressure ulcers (APU) are distinguished from common pressure ulcers (PU) with both unusual location and different aetiology. The occurrence and attempts to characterise APU remain unrecognised. The purpose of this cohort study was to analyse the occurrence of atypical location and the circumstances of the causation, and draw attention to the prevention and treatment by a multidisciplinary team. The cohort study spanned three and a half years totalling 174 patients. The unit incorporates two weekly combined staff meetings. One concentrates on wound assessment with treatment decisions made by the physician and nurse, and the other, a multidisciplinary team reviewing all patients and coordinating treatment. The main finding of this study identified APU occurrence rate of 21% within acquired PU over a three and a half year period. Severe spasticity constituted the largest group in this study and the most difficult to cure wounds, located in medial aspects of knees, elbows and palms. Medical devices caused the second largest occurrence of atypical wounds, located in the nape of the neck, penis and nostrils. Bony deformities were the third recognisable atypical wound group located in shoulder blades and upper spine. These three categories are definable and time observable. APU are important to be recognisable, and can be healed as well as being prevented. The prominent role of the multidisciplinary team is primary in identification, prevention and treatment. PMID:23374746

  8. New onset diabetes and atypical antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Liebzeit, K A; Markowitz, J S; Caley, C F

    2001-02-01

    As a class, the atypical antipsychotics are the first line treatment choice for the psychopharmacologic management of psychotic disorders. Emerging evidence currently suggests that at least two of the atypical antipsychotics, clozapine and olanzapine, and possibly quetiapine may be associated with the risk of new onset diabetes or serum glucose dyscontrol. Computerized Medline and Current Contents searches from years 1966 through June 2000 were undertaken to retrieve all pertinent studies and case reports of typical and atypical antipsychotics and glucose-insulin problems. Historically, both schizophrenia and the older antipsychotics medications have been reported to be associated with a similar risk for causing disruptions in serum glucose control. Additionally, diabetes has well recognized associations with a number of medical disorders such as cardiovascular disease; it is therefore worthy of attention. Hypothesized mechanisms for antipsychotic induced diabetes ranges from the antagonism of several neurotransmitter receptors to insulin resistance. A total of thirty-five cases of induced or exacerbated diabetes are presently available in the published literature; the vast majority of cases implicate clozapine (n=20) and olanzapine (n=15). In multiple cases, diabetic ketoacidosis has been the presenting symptom; daily atypical antipsychotic doses have been within acceptable ranges and were not considered to be excessive.

  9. [Atypical carcinoid of larynx: a case report].

    PubMed

    Gu, Wenjing; Wang, Xin; Shi, Jinfeng

    2015-09-01

    An 70-year-old male come for swallowing pain 5 years, turning worse 10 months. Laryngoscopy showed a tumor with rough surface at the laryngeal surface of epiglottic. Outpatient pathology: poorly differentiated carcinoma of the larynx. CT: the root of epiglottic is slightly thickened. He accepted the partial laryngectomy, tracheotomy, bilateral functional neck dissection. Pathology: atypical carcinoid of larynx.

  10. Atypical and Typical Antipsychotics in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noggle, Chad A.; Dean, Raymond S.

    2009-01-01

    The use of antipsychotic medications within the school-age population is rapidly increasing. Although typical antipsychotics may be used in rare cases, this influx is largely secondary to the availability of the atypical antipsychotics. Reduction of possible adverse effects and increased efficacy represent the primary basis for the atypical…

  11. Cohort study of atypical pressure ulcers development.

    PubMed

    Jaul, Efraim

    2014-12-01

    Atypical pressure ulcers (APU) are distinguished from common pressure ulcers (PU) with both unusual location and different aetiology. The occurrence and attempts to characterise APU remain unrecognised. The purpose of this cohort study was to analyse the occurrence of atypical location and the circumstances of the causation, and draw attention to the prevention and treatment by a multidisciplinary team. The cohort study spanned three and a half years totalling 174 patients. The unit incorporates two weekly combined staff meetings. One concentrates on wound assessment with treatment decisions made by the physician and nurse, and the other, a multidisciplinary team reviewing all patients and coordinating treatment. The main finding of this study identified APU occurrence rate of 21% within acquired PU over a three and a half year period. Severe spasticity constituted the largest group in this study and the most difficult to cure wounds, located in medial aspects of knees, elbows and palms. Medical devices caused the second largest occurrence of atypical wounds, located in the nape of the neck, penis and nostrils. Bony deformities were the third recognisable atypical wound group located in shoulder blades and upper spine. These three categories are definable and time observable. APU are important to be recognisable, and can be healed as well as being prevented. The prominent role of the multidisciplinary team is primary in identification, prevention and treatment.

  12. Infant Perception of Atypical Speech Signals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Gelfand, Hanna M.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to decode atypical and degraded speech signals as intelligible is a hallmark of speech perception. Human adults can perceive sounds as speech even when they are generated by a variety of nonhuman sources including computers and parrots. We examined how infants perceive the speech-like vocalizations of a parrot. Further, we examined how…

  13. Atypical Apocrine Adenosis: Diagnostic Challenges and Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Asirvatham, Jaya Ruth; Falcone, Maria Monica Garcia; Kleer, Celina G

    2016-10-01

    Apocrine change in the breast is an extremely common finding. In most cases, the benign or malignant nature of the lesion is easily recognized. Apocrine adenosis is used to describe sclerosing adenosis with apocrine change. The term apocrine atypia is used when there is significant cytologic atypia in apocrine cells, characterized by a 3-fold nuclear enlargement, prominent/multiple nucleoli, and hyperchromasia. Atypical apocrine adenosis is diagnosed when apocrine adenosis and apocrine atypia are superimposed. However, there are no definite criteria to distinguish atypical apocrine adenosis from apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ. Immunohistochemical markers can be confounding and may lead to erroneous diagnoses. Atypical apocrine features in sclerosing lesions may be misinterpreted as invasive carcinoma if the underlying lesion is not recognized. In the absence of definite features of malignancy, the diagnosis of apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ may be extremely difficult. In the present article, we review atypical apocrine adenosis focusing on diagnostic challenges and their implications on clinical management. PMID:27684975

  14. Observing Behavior and Atypically Restricted Stimulus Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, William V.; Dickson, Chata A.; Balsamo, Lyn M.; O'Donnell, Kristin Lombard; Tomanari, Gerson Y.; Farren, Kevin M.; Wheeler, Emily E.; McIlvane, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Restricted stimulus control refers to discrimination learning with atypical limitations in the range of controlling stimuli or stimulus features. In the study reported here, 4 normally capable individuals and 10 individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) performed two-sample delayed matching to sample. Sample-stimulus observing was recorded…

  15. 'Atypical' antipsychotics: where does ziprasidone fit?

    PubMed

    Remington, Gary

    2002-01-01

    Identified as the prototype of 'atypicality', clozapine heralded a new generation of antipsychotics intent on providing greater efficacy than 'typical' antipsychotics, while diminishing the risk of D2-related side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms and hyperprolactinemia. Ziprasidone is the most recent in this new class of antipsychotics to enter the clinical market. PMID:19811011

  16. Atypical Visuomotor Performance in Children with PDD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlooz, Wim A. J. M.; Hulstijn, Wouter

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently encounter difficulties in visuomotor tasks, which are possibly caused by atypical visuoperceptual processing. This was tested in children (aged 9-12 years) with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD; including PDD-NOS and Asperger syndrome), and two same-age control groups (Tourette syndrome…

  17. Atypical Responding among Special Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Mike

    1982-01-01

    Thirty special education high school students produced a significantly larger number of atypical responses to simple questions (name three colors, three common fruits, three major U.S. cities). Possible implications for classification as well as academic and emotional problems are noted. (CL)

  18. Atypical Alpha Asymmetry in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: A growing body of literature suggests atypical cerebral asymmetry and interhemispheric interaction in ADHD. A common means of assessing lateralized brain function in clinical populations has been to examine the relative proportion of EEG alpha activity (8-12 Hz) in each hemisphere (i.e., alpha asymmetry). Increased rightward alpha…

  19. Identification of atypical scrapie in Canadian sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of sheep and goats, exists in most small ruminant producing countries of the world. An atypical form of this disease, originally termed Nor98, was discovered in large abattoir surveillance of clinically normal, predominantly older sheep and rarely ...

  20. Atypical Gifted Learners and Their Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diket, Read M., Ed.; Abel, Trudy, Ed.

    This collection of 12 handouts focuses on different categories of atypical gifted learners and their characteristics. The handouts are generally two pages long and present a summary of the literature on the topic, some practical teaching suggestions, and references. The handouts include: (1) "Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Gifted Students" (Pam…

  1. Atypical Neural Self-Representation in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardo, Michael V.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Bullmore, Edward T.; Sadek, Susan A.; Pasco, Greg; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The "self" is a complex multidimensional construct deeply embedded and in many ways defined by our relations with the social world. Individuals with autism are impaired in both self-referential and other-referential social cognitive processing. Atypical neural representation of the self may be a key to understanding the nature of such impairments.…

  2. [THE AGING OF MICROVASCULAR NETWORK FORMED IN CORTEX FOLLOWING INTRACEREBRAL TRANSPLANTATION OF MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS].

    PubMed

    Sokolova, I B; Anisimov, S V; Puzanov, M V; Sergeev, I V; Dvoretskiĭ, D P

    2015-01-01

    Using a TV device to study microcirculation in brain we found that intracerebral transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells to 12-months old rats led to a significant increase (circa 1,5-fold times) of microvascular density in pia tissue and to increased constriction reactions of pia arterioles in response to noradrenalin application on a brain surface. Both microvascular density and pia arterioles reactivity was completely preserved in aging until 22-24 months. PMID:26390610

  3. Evidence of Dissociated Arousal States During NREM Parasomnia from an Intracerebral Neurophysiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Terzaghi, Michele; Sartori, Ivana; Tassi, Laura; Didato, Giuseppe; Rustioni, Valter; LoRusso, Giorgio; Manni, Raffaele; Nobili, Lino

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: Arousal parasomnias are expressions of sleep/wake state dissociations in which wakefulness and NREM sleep seem to coexist. We describe the results of a neurophysiological (intracerebral EEG) investigation that captured an episode of confusional arousal. Design: Observational analysis. Setting: Tertiary sleep center. Subject: A 20-year-old male with refractory focal epilepsy. Measurements and Results: The intracerebral EEG findings documented the presence of a local arousal of the motor and cingulate cortices associated with increased delta activity in the frontoparietal associative cortices; these findings were noted preceding the onset and persisting throughout the episode. Conclusions: The presence of dissociated sleep/wake states in confusional arousals is the expression not of a global phenomenon, but rather of the coexistence of different local states of being: arousal of the motor and cingulate cortices and inhibition of the associative ones. Whether this is an exclusive feature of NREM parasomnias, or a common substrate on which other triggering elements act, needs to be clarified. Citation: Terzaghi M; Sartori I; Tassi L; Didato G; Rustioni V; LoRusso G; Manni R; Nobili L. Evidence of dissociated arousal states during NREM parasomnia from an intracerebral neurophysiological study. SLEEP 2009;32(3):409–412. PMID:19294961

  4. An intra-cerebral abscess in a patient with Eisenmenger syndrome: An unusual case

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Allan; White, Mark A.J.; Gallo, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We present an unusual case where a large intra-cerebral abscess with severe complications was treated successfully with medical management alone in a patient with Eisenmenger syndrome. Presentation of case A 40 year old patient with Eisenmenger syndrome presented with a seven day history of headache, neck pain and intermittent vomiting and fever. The only neurological examination finding was blurred vision. MRI revealed a large left occipital lobe abscess, which subsequently ruptured into the lateral ventricle with associated ventriculitis and hydrocephalus. This complicated abscess was successfully treated with intravenous antibiotics alone, with complete resolution of the abscess and hydrocephalus on MRI at 13 months post-diagnosis. Discussion Patients with congenital cyanotic heart conditions, like Eisenmenger syndrome, are at increased risk of developing intra-cerebral abscesses. Effectively managing large abscesses with associated intra-ventricular rupture and hydrocephalus in these patients without any form of surgical intervention, including aspiration, is extremely rare. Conclusion Patients with congenital cyanotic heart disease who develop large intra-cerebral abscesses with severe complications, which would normally warrant surgical intervention, have the potential to be successfully treated with antibiotics alone with excellent outcome. PMID:26859871

  5. [Improvement of MRI effectiveness in the detection of intracerebral hematoma. Double inversion recovery].

    PubMed

    Burenchev, D V; Skvortsova, V I; Guseva, O I; Shumm, B A; Fomenkov, S A; Prokhorov, A V; Khetchikov, G V; Barkova, L A

    2009-01-01

    A study aimed at developing the pulse consequence, the double inversion recovery (DIR), using low field magnetic tomography, and assessing its effectiveness in the detection of intracerebral hematoma. The research has been conducted at "Ellipse" MR tomograph. The new pulse sequence has been created by the modification of the regular FLAIR, its technical parameters were as follows: the first TI - 90 ms, the second TI - 1300 ms, TR - 4665 ms, echo - 3. Twenty-seven patients have been enrolled in the study. The tissue contrast coefficients on FLAIR and DIR images have been compared. It has been shown that the contrast coefficient of normal brain structures and brain lesions on the DIR images in regard to the white matter are significantly higher than on the FLAIR images. Results of the study revealed that the dynamics of MR symptoms of intracerebral hematoma is faster on the DIR images compared to the FLAIR ones. This finding can be used for detection of intracerebral hematoma in difficult clinical cases.

  6. Neuroprotective effects of bovine colostrum on intracerebral hemorrhage-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Eun; Ko, Il Gyu; Shin, Mal Soon; Kim, Chang Ju; Ko, Young Gwan; Cho, Hanjin

    2012-08-01

    Brain cell death after intracerebral hemorrhage may be mediated in part by an apoptotic mechanism. Colostrum is the first milk produced by mammals for their young. It plays an important role in protection and development by providing various antibodies, growth factors and nutrients, and has been used for various diseases in many countries. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effects of bovine colostrum using organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and an intracerebral hemorrhage animal model. We performed densitometric measurements of propidium iodide uptake, a step-down avoidance task, Nissl staining, and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry. The present results revealed that colostrum treatment significantly suppressed N-methyl-D-aspartic acid-induced neuronal cell death in the rat hippocampus. Moreover, colostrum treatment improved short-term memory by suppressing hemorrhage-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death and decreasing the volume of the lesion induced by intracerebral hemorrhage in the rat hippocampus. These results suggest that colostrum may have a beneficial role in recovering brain function following hemorrhagic stroke by suppressing apoptotic cell death. PMID:25624793

  7. Neuroprotective effects of bovine colostrum on intracerebral hemorrhage-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death in rats☆

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Eun; Ko, Il Gyu; Shin, Mal Soon; Kim, Chang Ju; Ko, Young Gwan; Cho, Hanjin

    2012-01-01

    Brain cell death after intracerebral hemorrhage may be mediated in part by an apoptotic mechanism. Colostrum is the first milk produced by mammals for their young. It plays an important role in protection and development by providing various antibodies, growth factors and nutrients, and has been used for various diseases in many countries. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effects of bovine colostrum using organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and an intracerebral hemorrhage animal model. We performed densitometric measurements of propidium iodide uptake, a step-down avoidance task, Nissl staining, and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry. The present results revealed that colostrum treatment significantly suppressed N-methyl-D-aspartic acid-induced neuronal cell death in the rat hippocampus. Moreover, colostrum treatment improved short-term memory by suppressing hemorrhage-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death and decreasing the volume of the lesion induced by intracerebral hemorrhage in the rat hippocampus. These results suggest that colostrum may have a beneficial role in recovering brain function following hemorrhagic stroke by suppressing apoptotic cell death. PMID:25624793

  8. Behavioral consequences of intracerebral vasopressin and oxytocin: focus on learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, M; Wotjak, C T; Neumann, I; Ludwig, M; Landgraf, R

    1996-01-01

    Since the pioneering work of David de Wied and his colleagues, the neuropeptides arginine vasopressin and oxytocin have been thought to play a pivotal role in behavioral regulation in general, and in learning and memory in particular. The present review focuses on the behavioral effects of intracerebral arginine vasopressin and oxytocin, with particular emphasis on the role of these neuropeptides as signals in interneuronal communication. We also discuss several methodological approaches that have been used to reveal the importance of these intracerebral neuropeptides as signals within signaling cascades. The literature suggests that arginine vasopressin improves, and oxytocin impairs, learning and memory. However, a critical analysis of the subject indicates the necessity for a revision of this generalized concept. We suggest that, depending on the behavioral test and the brain area under study, these endogenous neuropeptides are differentially involved in behavioral regulation; thus, generalizations derived from a single behavioral task should be avoided. In particular, recent studies on rodents indicate that socially relevant behaviors triggered by olfactory stimuli and paradigms in which the animals have to cope with an intense stressor (e.g., foot-shock motivated active or passive avoidance) are controlled by both arginine vasopressin and oxytocin released intracerebrally.

  9. Intracranial physiological calcifications in adults on computed tomography in Tabriz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Daghighi, M H; Rezaei, V; Zarrintan, S; Pourfathi, H

    2007-05-01

    Intracranial physiological calcifications are unaccompanied by any evidence of disease and have no demonstrable pathological cause. They are often due to calcium and sometimes iron deposition in the blood vessels of different structures of the brain. Computed tomography (CT) is the most sensitive means of detection of these calcifications. The aim of this study was the assessment of intracranial physiological calcifications in adults. We studied 1569 cases ranging in age from 15 to 85 in Tabriz Imam Khomeini Hospital, Iran. These patients had a history of head trauma and their CT scan did not show any evidence of pathological findings. The structures evaluated consisted of (A) the pineal gland, (B) the choroid plexus, (C) the habenula, (D) the basal ganglia, (E) the tentorium cerebelli, sagittal sinus and falx cerebri, (F) vessels and (G) lens and other structures which could be calcified. Of the 1569 subjects, 71.0% had pineal calcification, 66.2% had choroid plexus calcification, 20.1% had habenular calcification, 7.3% had tentorium cerebelli, sagittal sinus or falx cerebri calcifications, 6.6% had vascular calcification, 0.8% had basal ganglia calcification and 0.9% had lens and other non-defined calcifications. In general, the frequency of intracranial physiological calcifications was greater in men than in women. All types of calcification increased at older ages except for lens and other non-defined calcifications. We evaluated all the cranial structures and determined percentages for all types of intracranial physiological calcification. These statistics can be used for comparing physiological and pathological intracranial calcifications. Moreover, these statistics may be of interest from the clinical perspective and are potentially of clinical use. PMID:17594669

  10. Calcific Aortic Valve Stenosis: Methods, Models, and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jordan D.; Weiss, Robert M.; Heistad, Donald D.

    2011-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) is a major health problem facing aging societies. The identification of osteoblast-like and osteoclast-like cells in human tissue has led to a major paradigm shift in the field. CAVS was thought to be a passive, degenerative process, whereas now the progression of calcification in CAVS is considered to be actively regulated. Mechanistic studies examining the contributions of true ectopic osteogenesis, non-osseous calcification, and ectopic osteoblast-like cells (that appear to function differently from skeletal osteoblasts) to valvular dysfunction have been facilitated by the development of mouse models of CAVS. Recent studies also suggest that valvular fibrosis, as well as calcification, may play an important role in restricting cusp movement, and CAVS may be more appropriately viewed as a fibrocalcific disease. High resolution echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging have emerged as useful tools for testing the efficacy of pharmacological and genetic interventions in vivo. Key studies in humans and animals are reviewed that have shaped current paradigms in the field of CAVS, and suggest promising future areas for research. PMID:21617136

  11. Inflammatory, metabolic, and genetic mechanisms of vascular calcification

    PubMed Central

    Demer, Linda L.; Tintut, Yin

    2014-01-01

    This review centers on updating the active research area of vascular calcification. This pathology underlies substantial cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, through adverse mechanical effects on vascular compliance, vasomotion, and, most likely, plaque stability. Biomineralization is a complex, regulated process occurring widely throughout nature. Decades ago, its presence in the vasculature was considered a mere curiosity and an unregulated, “dystrophic” process that does not involve biological mechanisms. While it remains controversial whether the process has any adaptive value or past evolutionary advantage, substantial advances have been made in understanding the biological mechanisms driving the process. Different types of calcific vasculopathy, such as inflammatory vs. metabolic, have parallel mechanisms in skeletal bone calcification, such as intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Recent work has identified important regulatory roles for inflammation, oxidized lipids, elastin, alkaline phosphatase, osteoprogenitor cells, matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid protein (MGP), transglutaminase, osteoclastic regulatory factors, phosphate regulatory hormones and receptors, apoptosis, prelamin A, autophagy, and microvesicles or microparticles similar to the matrix vesicles of skeletal bone. Recent work has uncovered fascinating interactions between MGP, vitamin K, warfarin and transport proteins. And, lastly, recent breakthroughs in inherited forms of calcific vasculopathy, have identified the genes responsible as well as an unexpected overlap of phenotypes. PMID:24665125

  12. [Vascular calcifications, the hidden side effects of vitamin K antagonists].

    PubMed

    Bennis, Youssef; Vengadessane, Subashini; Bodeau, Sandra; Gras, Valérie; Bricca, Giampiero; Kamel, Saïd; Liabeuf, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Despite the availability of new oral anticoagulants, vitamin K antagonists (VKA, such as fluindione, acenocoumarol or warfarin) remain currently the goal standard medicines for oral prevention or treatment of thromboembolic disorders. They inhibit the cycle of the vitamin K and its participation in the enzymatic gamma-carboxylation of many proteins. The VKA prevent the activation of the vitamin K-dependent blood clotting factors limiting thus the initiation of the coagulation cascade. But other proteins are vitamin K-dependent and also remain inactive in the presence of VKA. This is the case of matrix Gla-protein (MGP), a protein that plays a major inhibitory role in the development of vascular calcifications. Several experimental and epidemiological results suggest that the use of the VKA could promote the development of vascular calcifications increasing thus the cardiovascular risk. This risk seems to be higher in patients with chronic kidney disease or mellitus diabetes who are more likely to develop vascular calcifications, and may be due to a decrease of the MGP activity. This review aims at summarizing the data currently available making vascular calcifications the probably underestimated side effects of VKA.

  13. Endothelial microparticles mediate inflammation-induced vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Buendía, Paula; Montes de Oca, Addy; Madueño, Juan Antonio; Merino, Ana; Martín-Malo, Alejandro; Aljama, Pedro; Ramírez, Rafael; Rodríguez, Mariano; Carracedo, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of endothelial cells (ECs) with TNF-α causes an increase in the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and the production of endothelial microparticles (EMPs). BMP-2 is known to produce osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). It was found that EMPs from TNF-α-stimulated endothelial cells (HUVECs) contained a significant amount of BMP-2 and were able to enhance VSMC osteogenesis and calcification. Calcium content was greater in VSMCs exposed to EMPs from TNF-α-treated HUVECs than EMPs from nontreated HUVECs (3.56 ± 0.57 vs. 1.48 ± 0.56 µg/mg protein; P < 0.05). The increase in calcification was accompanied by up-regulation of Cbfa1 (osteogenic transcription factor) and down-regulation of SM22α (VSMC lineage marker). Inhibition of BMP-2 by small interfering RNA reduced the VSMC calcification induced by EMPs from TNF-α-treated HUVECs. Similar osteogenic capability was observed in EMPs from both patients with chronic kidney disease and senescent cells, which also presented a high level of BMP-2 expression. Labeling of EMPs with CellTracker shows that EMPs are phagocytized by VSMCs under all conditions (with or without high phosphate, control, and EMPs from TNF-α-treated HUVECs). Our data suggest that EC damage results in the release of EMPs with a high content of calcium and BMP-2 that are able to induce calcification and osteogenic differentiation of VSMCs.

  14. Severe prostatic calcification after radiation therapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Jones, W A; Miller, E V; Sullivan, L D; Chapman, W H

    1979-06-01

    Severe symptomatic prostatic calcification was seen in 3 patients who had carcinoma of the prostate treated initially with transurethral resection, followed in 2 to 4 weeks by definitive radiation therapy. This complication is probably preventable if an interval of 6 weeks is allowed between transurethral resection of the prostate and radiation therapy.

  15. Low calcification in corals in the Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-10-01

    Reef-building coral communities in the Great Barrier Reef—the world's largest coral reef—may now be calcifying at only about half the rate that they did during the 1970s, even though live coral cover may not have changed over the past 40 years, a new study finds. In recent decades, coral reefs around the world, home to large numbers of fish and other marine species, have been threatened by such human activities as pollution, overfishing, global warming, and ocean acidification; the latter affects ambient water chemistry and availability of calcium ions, which are critical for coral communities to calcify, build, and maintain reefs. Comparing data from reef surveys during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s with present-day (2009) measurements of calcification rates in One Tree Island, a coral reef covering 13 square kilometers in the southern part of the Great Barrier Reef, Silverman et al. show that the total calcification rates (the rate of calcification minus the rate of dissolution) in these coral communities have decreased by 44% over the past 40 years; the decrease appears to stem from a threefold reduction in calcification rates during nighttime.

  16. Vascular diseases: aortitis, aortic aneurysms, and vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Ladich, Elena; Yahagi, Kazuyuki; Romero, Maria E; Virmani, Renu

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases of the aorta broadly include noninfectious and infectious aortitis, periaortitis, atherosclerosis, and inflammatory atherosclerotic aneurysms. Aortitis is uncommon but is increasingly recognized as an important cause of aortic aneurysms and dissections. Abdominal (AAA) and thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) have different pathologies and etiologies. AAAs are the most common type of aortic aneurysm, and the vast majority of these are atherosclerotic. The causes of TAA vary depending on the site of involvement, but medial degeneration is a common pathologic substrate, regardless of etiology, and genetic influences play a prominent role in TAA expression. Standardized classification schemes for inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the aorta have only recently been added to the pathology literature. A brief overview of the new histopathologic classifications for aortic inflammatory and degenerative diseases has recently been published by the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology and the Association for European Cardiovascular Pathology as a consensus document on the surgical pathology of the aorta. Vascular calcification is a highly regulated biologic process, and the mechanisms leading to vascular calcification are under investigation. Calcification may occur in the intima (atherosclerotic) or in the media secondary to metabolic disease. Rarely, vascular calcification may be associated with genetic disorders. PMID:27526100

  17. Endothelial microparticles mediate inflammation-induced vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Buendía, Paula; Montes de Oca, Addy; Madueño, Juan Antonio; Merino, Ana; Martín-Malo, Alejandro; Aljama, Pedro; Ramírez, Rafael; Rodríguez, Mariano; Carracedo, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of endothelial cells (ECs) with TNF-α causes an increase in the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and the production of endothelial microparticles (EMPs). BMP-2 is known to produce osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). It was found that EMPs from TNF-α-stimulated endothelial cells (HUVECs) contained a significant amount of BMP-2 and were able to enhance VSMC osteogenesis and calcification. Calcium content was greater in VSMCs exposed to EMPs from TNF-α-treated HUVECs than EMPs from nontreated HUVECs (3.56 ± 0.57 vs. 1.48 ± 0.56 µg/mg protein; P < 0.05). The increase in calcification was accompanied by up-regulation of Cbfa1 (osteogenic transcription factor) and down-regulation of SM22α (VSMC lineage marker). Inhibition of BMP-2 by small interfering RNA reduced the VSMC calcification induced by EMPs from TNF-α-treated HUVECs. Similar osteogenic capability was observed in EMPs from both patients with chronic kidney disease and senescent cells, which also presented a high level of BMP-2 expression. Labeling of EMPs with CellTracker shows that EMPs are phagocytized by VSMCs under all conditions (with or without high phosphate, control, and EMPs from TNF-α-treated HUVECs). Our data suggest that EC damage results in the release of EMPs with a high content of calcium and BMP-2 that are able to induce calcification and osteogenic differentiation of VSMCs. PMID:25342130

  18. Metastatic calcification of the stomach imaged on a bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, R.; Ryo, U.Y.; Pinsky, S.M.

    1984-10-01

    A whole body bone scan obtained on a 21-year-old woman with sickle cell disease and chronic renal failure showed localization of the radionuclide diffusely in the stomach. The localization of the radionuclide represented metastatic calcification of the stomach caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  19. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease)

    PubMed Central

    Mufaddel, Amir A.; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A.

    2014-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr’s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr’s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr’s disease. PMID:24983277

  20. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease).

    PubMed

    Mufaddel, Amir A; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A

    2014-07-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr`s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr`s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr`s disease.

  1. Isolation and Culture of Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells and In Vitro Calcification Assay.

    PubMed

    Villa-Bellosta, Ricardo; Hamczyk, Magda R

    2015-01-01

    Elevated serum phosphorus is a major risk factor for vascular calcification, which is characterized by the presence of calcium phosphate deposits, mainly hydroxyapatite crystals. In vitro studies of phosphate-induced calcification show that vascular smooth muscle cells undergo calcification with features similar to those observed in pathological vascular calcification in vivo, including the presence of hydroxyapatite crystals. Here, we describe the double-collagenase digestion method for isolating vascular smooth muscle cells from aorta, and a method for inducing calcification in vitro using high phosphate concentration.

  2. Calcification by juvenile corals under heterotrophy and elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drenkard, E. J.; Cohen, A. L.; McCorkle, D. C.; de Putron, S. J.; Starczak, V. R.; Zicht, A. E.

    2013-09-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) threatens the existence of coral reefs by slowing the rate of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) production of framework-building corals thus reducing the amount of CaCO3 the reef can produce to counteract natural dissolution. Some evidence exists to suggest that elevated levels of dissolved inorganic nutrients can reduce the impact of OA on coral calcification. Here, we investigated the potential for enhanced energetic status of juvenile corals, achieved via heterotrophic feeding, to modulate the negative impact of OA on calcification. Larvae of the common Atlantic golf ball coral, Favia fragum, were collected and reared for 3 weeks under ambient (421 μatm) or significantly elevated (1,311 μatm) CO2 conditions. The metamorphosed, zooxanthellate spat were either fed brine shrimp (i.e., received nutrition from photosynthesis plus heterotrophy) or not fed (i.e., primarily autotrophic). Regardless of CO2 condition, the skeletons of fed corals exhibited accelerated development of septal cycles and were larger than those of unfed corals. At each CO2 level, fed corals accreted more CaCO3 than unfed corals, and fed corals reared under 1,311 μatm CO2 accreted as much CaCO3 as unfed corals reared under ambient CO2. However, feeding did not alter the sensitivity of calcification to increased CO2; ∆ calcification/∆Ω was comparable for fed and unfed corals. Our results suggest that calcification rates of nutritionally replete juvenile corals will decline as OA intensifies over the course of this century. Critically, however, such corals could maintain higher rates of skeletal growth and CaCO3 production under OA than those in nutritionally limited environments.

  3. Molecular determinants of vascular calcification: a bench to bedside view.

    PubMed

    Dellegrottaglie, S; Sanz, J; Rajagopalan, S

    2006-08-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is an orchestrated event, evoking the programmed process of the osteogenesis and triggered by inflammatory cytokines active at vascular level. VC is a dynamic process in which the vessel wall intima, media and also cardiac valves may be involved. Intimal calcification is an endochondral ossification process in which type II collagen is mineralized by calcium deposition. In contrast, an intra-membranous ossification process leads to medial calcification, while a dystrophic calcification process is responsible for valvular calcification. Mechanisms involved in VC may be summarized as: 1. Activation of osteogenesis in the vessel wall, 2. Loss of inhibitory factors, 3. Enhanced bone turnover, and 4. Abnormalities in mineral metabolism. The signaling axis constituted by osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator nuclear factor kB (RANK) and its ligand (RANKL), along with the monocyte colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and the transcription factor core Binding protein (Cbfa-1), play a pivotal role in the control of VC. In contrast, fetuin-A, matrix G1a protein (MGP) and osteopontin (OPN) control the inhibition of VC. In addition, abnormal mineral metabolism with enhanced phosphates availability favors calcium deposition. The inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha enhance OPG and RANKL function in the vessel wall leading to VC. VC is a controlled process, depending on the balance between osteoblastic and osteoclastic influences and further modulated by the influence of risk factors like diabetes, smoking, age, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Recent advances in diagnostic tools such as with multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and electron beam computed tomography (EBCT), may help diagnosis and delineation of VC in the clinical setting and aid in understanding its prognostic value. PMID:16918372

  4. The role of vitamin K in soft-tissue calcification.

    PubMed

    Theuwissen, Elke; Smit, Egbert; Vermeer, Cees

    2012-03-01

    Seventeen vitamin K-dependent proteins have been identified to date of which several are involved in regulating soft-tissue calcification. Osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein (MGP), and possibly Gla-rich protein are all inhibitors of soft-tissue calcification and need vitamin K-dependent carboxylation for activity. A common characteristic is their low molecular weight, and it has been postulated that their small size is essential for calcification inhibition within tissues. MGP is synthesized by vascular smooth muscle cells and is the most important inhibitor of arterial mineralization currently known. Remarkably, the extrahepatic Gla proteins mentioned are only partly carboxylated in the healthy adult population, suggesting vitamin K insufficiency. Because carboxylation of the most essential Gla proteins is localized in the liver and that of the less essential Gla proteins in the extrahepatic tissues, a transport system has evolved ensuring preferential distribution of dietary vitamin K to the liver when vitamin K is limiting. This is why the first signs of vitamin K insufficiency are seen as undercarboxylation of the extrahepatic Gla proteins. New conformation-specific assays for circulating uncarboxylated MGP were developed; an assay for desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein and another assay for total uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein. Circulating desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein was found to be predictive of cardiovascular risk and mortality, whereas circulating total uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein was associated with the extent of prevalent arterial calcification. Vitamin K intervention studies have shown that MGP carboxylation can be increased dose dependently, but thus far only 1 study with clinical endpoints has been completed. This study showed maintenance of vascular elasticity during a 3-y supplementation period, with a parallel 12% loss of elasticity in the placebo group. More studies, both in healthy subjects and in patients at risk

  5. Mammographic calcification cluster detection and threshold gold thickness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, L. M.; Mackenzie, A.; Cooke, J.; Given-Wilson, R.; Wallis, M. G.; Chakraborty, D. P.; Dance, D. R.; Young, K. C.

    2012-03-01

    European Guidelines for quality control in digital mammography specify acceptable and achievable standards of image quality (IQ) in terms of threshold gold thickness using the CDMAM test object. However, there is little evidence relating such measurements to cancer detection. This work investigated the relationship between calcification detection and threshold gold thickness. An observer study was performed using a set of 162 amorphous selenium direct digital (DR) detector images (81 no cancer and 81 with 1-3 inserted calcification clusters). From these images four additional IQs were simulated: different digital detectors (computed radiography (CR) and DR) and dose levels. Seven observers marked and rated the locations of suspicious regions. DBM analysis of variances was performed on the JAFROC figure of merit (FoM) yielding 95% confidence intervals for IQ pairs. Automated threshold gold thickness (Tg) analysis was performed for the 0.25mm gold disc diameter on CDMAM images at the same IQs (16 images per IQ). Tg was plotted against FoM and a power law fitted to the data. There was a significant reduction in FoM for calcification detection for CR images compared with DR; FoM decreased from 0.83 to 0.63 (p<=0.0001). Detection was also sensitive to dose. There was a good correlation between FoM and Tg (R2=0.80, p<0.05), consequently threshold gold thickness was a good predictor of calcification detection at the same IQ. Since the majority of threshold gold thicknesses for the various IQs were above the acceptable standard despite large variations in calcification detection by radiologists, current EU guidelines may need revising.

  6. Kangaroo vs. porcine aortic valves: calcification potential after glutaraldehyde fixation.

    PubMed

    Narine, K; Chéry, Cyrille C; Goetghebeur, Els; Forsyth, R; Claeys, E; Cornelissen, Maria; Moens, L; Van Nooten, G

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the calcification potential of kangaroo and porcine aortic valves after glutaraldehyde fixation at both low (0.6%) and high (2.0%) concentrations of glutaraldehyde in the rat subcutaneous model. To our knowledge this is the first report comparing the time-related, progressive calcification of these two species in the rat subcutaneous model. Twenty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were each implanted with two aortic valve leaflets (porcine and kangaroo) after fixation in 0.6% glutaraldehyde and two aortic valve leaflets (porcine and kangaroo) after fixation in 2% glutaraldehyde respectively. Animals were sacrificed after 24 h and thereafter weekly for up to 10 weeks after implantation. Calcium content was determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and confirmed histologically. Mean calcium content per milligram of tissue (dry weight) treated with 0.6 and 2% glutaraldehyde was 116.2 and 110.4 microg/mg tissue for kangaroo and 95.0 and 106.8 microg/mg tissue for porcine valves. Calcium content increased significantly over time (8.8 microg/mg tissue per week) and was not significantly different between groups. Regression analysis of calcification over time showed no significant difference in calcification of valves treated with 0.6 or 2% glutaraldehyde within and between the two species. Using the subcutaneous model, we did not detect a difference in calcification potential between kangaroo and porcine aortic valves treated with either high or low concentrations of glutaraldehyde.

  7. Detection of Calcifications In Vivo and Ex Vivo After Brain Injury in Rat Using SWIFT

    PubMed Central

    Lehto, Lauri Juhani; Sierra, Alejandra; Corum, Curtis Andrew; Zhang, Jinjin; Idiyatullin, Djaudat; Pitkänen, Asla; Garwood, Michael; Gröhn, Olli

    2012-01-01

    Calcifications represent one component of pathology in many brain diseases. With MRI, they are most often detected by exploiting negative contrast in magnitude images. Calcifications are more diamagnetic than tissue, leading to a magnetic field disturbance that can be seen in phase MR images. Most phase imaging studies use gradient recalled echo based pulse sequences. Here, the phase component of SWIFT, a virtually zero acquisition delay sequence, was used to detect calcifications ex vivo and in vivo in rat models of status epilepticus and traumatic brain injury. Calcifications were detected in phase and imaginary SWIFT images based on their dipole like magnetic field disturbances. In magnitude SWIFT images, calcifications were distinguished as hypointense and hyperintense. Hypointense calcifications showed large crystallized granules with few surrounding inflammatory cells, while hyperintense calcifications contained small granules with the presence of more inflammatory cells. The size of the calcifications in SWIFT magnitude images correlated with that in Alizarin stained histological sections. Our data indicate that SWIFT is likely to better preserve signal in the proximity of a calcification or other field perturber in comparison to gradient echo due to its short acquisition delay and broad excitation bandwidth. Furthermore, a quantitative description for the phase contrast near dipole magnetic field inhomogeneities for the SWIFT pulse sequence is given. In vivo detection of calcifications provides a tool to probe the progression of pathology in neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, it appears to provide a surrogate marker for inflammatory cells around the calcifications after brain injury. PMID:22425671

  8. Atypical Trigeminal Neuralgia Secondary to Meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Niwant, Premeshwar; Motwani, Mukta; Naik, Sushil

    2015-01-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia is a disorder of the fifth cranial nerve that causes episodes of intense, stabbing, electric shock-like pain that lasts from few seconds to few minutes in the areas of the face where the branches of the nerve are distributed. More than one nerve branch can be affected by the disorder. We report an unusual case of trigeminal neuralgia affecting right side of face presenting atypical features of neuralgia and not responding to the usual course of treatment. The magnetic resonance imaging study of brain revealed a large extra-axial mass involving right cerebellopontine angle region causing moderate pressure effect on trigeminal nerve and brain stem. The aim of this case report is to show a tumor of cerebellopontine angle, presenting clinically as atypical trigeminal neuralgia. PMID:26664753

  9. Atypical cases of Dowling–Degos disease

    PubMed Central

    Naveen, Kikkeri Narayanshetty; Athaniker, Sharatchandra B.; Hegde, Spandana P.; Shetty, Rahul; Radha, Hanumanthayya; Parinitha, Sadashivappa Sangam

    2016-01-01

    Dowling–Degos disease (DDD) is a rare autosomal dominant condition characterized by multiple, small, round pigmented macules usually arranged in reticular pattern, chiefly distributed in axillae and groins. Here we are reporting three atypical cases of DDD in a family. They had hypopigmented macules with typical features of DDD indicating generalized DDD. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. We present these three cases to stress the existence of generalized DDD phenotype in the Indian population. PMID:27057490

  10. Managing atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome: chapter 2.

    PubMed

    Nester, Carla M

    2015-05-01

    Licht et al. present the 2-year follow-up data of the landmark trials studying the efficacy of eculizumab in the treatment of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). They report sustained improvements in hematologic parameters, continued safety, and additional improvements in kidney function with extended treatment. This report adds a layer of comfort to our care of patients with this rare disease; however, it is unlikely to be the final chapter in the treatment of aHUS.

  11. Imaging pathological tau in atypical parkinsonian disorders

    PubMed Central

    Coakeley, Sarah; Strafella, Antonio P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review This review examines the current literature on tau imaging in atypical parkinsonian disorders and other tauopathies. Recent findings There are a number of tau PET radiotracers that have demonstrated promising preliminary results in atypical parkinsonian disorders, such as progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration. These radiotracers were capable of selectively labeling tau in vitro and in vivo, with high affinity. Other radiotracers tested more extensively in patients with Alzheimer’s disease have also been able to successfully image tau deposition. Summary The development of tau radioligands for PET has led to the current testing of these tracers in clinical studies, many of which concentrate on patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Atypical parkinsonian disorders such as progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration are now being investigated as well. These disorders can be very difficult to diagnose, because of their clinical overlap with other parkinsonian disorders. Imaging tau using PET could serve as a diagnostic biomarker for these tauopathies and provide a means of assessing treatment that targets tau burden. PMID:26110795

  12. Aggressive papillary adenocarcinoma on atypical localization

    PubMed Central

    Balci, Mecdi Gurhan; Tayfur, Mahir; Deger, Ayse Nur; Cimen, Orhan; Eken, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma (ADPA) is a rare sweat gland tumor that is found on the fingers, toes, and the digits. To date, <100 cases have been reported in the literature. Apart from 1 case reported in the thigh, all of them were on digital or nondigital acral skin. Case presentation: A 67-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to the hospital due to a mass on the scalp. This lesion was present for almost a year. It was a semimobile cyctic mass that elevated the scalp. There was no change in the skin color. Its dimensions were 1.5 × 1 × 0.6 cm. The laboratory, clinic, and radiologic findings (head x-ray) of the patient were normal. It was evaluated as a benign lesion such as lipoma or epidermal cyst by a surgeon due to a small semimobile mass and no erosion of the skull. It was excised by a local surgery excision. The result of the pathologic examination was aggressive papillary adenocarcinoma. This diagnosis is synonymous with ADPA. Conclusion: In our case, localization was scalp. This localization is the first for this tumor in the literature. In addition, another atypical localization of this tumor (ADPA) is thigh in the literature. This case was presented due to both the rare and atypical localizations. That is why, in our opinion, revision of “digital” term in ADPA is necessary due to seem in atypical localizations like thigh and scalp. PMID:27428196

  13. Transpupillary thermotherapy for atypical central serous chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Ryosuke; Ideta, Hidenao; Hori, Hideyuki; Yuki, Kenya; Uno, Tsuyoshi; Tanabe, Tatsurou; Tsubota, Kazuo; Kawasaki, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Background Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) has been traditionally treated with laser photocoagulation. We thought that transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) utilizing a lower temperature than that of conventional laser photocoagulation might minimize permanent retinal and choroidal damage. Studies suggest that undesirable effects on vision due to TTT are minimal even if it is applied to foveal and/or parafoveal lesions when TTT requires a larger irradiation spot. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of TTT in the management of atypical CSC. Methods We defined atypical CSC as bullous retinal detachment with diffuse or several leakages, severe leakage with fibrin formation under serous retinal detachment, or leakage within a pigment epithelium detachment. Eight consecutive patients with atypical CSC underwent visual acuity testing, ophthalmic examination, color photography, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography to evaluate the results of transpupillary thermotherapy. Retreatment of atypical CSC was based on ophthalmic examination, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography. TTT was performed on the leaking spots shown in fluorescein angiography, with a power of 50–250 mW, spot size of 500–1200 μm, and exposure time of 13–60 seconds to minimize retinal damage. Results In five of eight affected eyes, serous detachments completely resolved within 1 month after the initial TTT. One eye had persistent subretinal fluid and required a second TTT treatment. Two eyes showed no resolution of CSC and were treated by conventional photocoagulation. Initial best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ranged from 20/600 to 20/20 (mean, 20/40; median, 20/30). Final BCVA ranged from 20/200 to 20/20 (mean, 20/25; median, 20/20). BCVA improved in all cases. Only two eyes with persistent subretinal fibrin and existing retinal pigment epithelial alternations in macular area showed limited improvement of BCVA despite the absence of

  14. Comparison of the x-ray attenuation properties of breast calcifications, aluminium, hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, L. M.; Mackenzie, A.; Dance, D. R.; Young, K. C.

    2013-04-01

    Aluminium is often used as a substitute material for calcifications in phantom measurements in mammography. Additionally, calcium oxalate, hydroxyapatite and aluminium are used in simulation studies. This assumes that these materials have similar attenuation properties to calcification, and this assumption is examined in this work. Sliced mastectomy samples containing calcification were imaged at ×5 magnification using a digital specimen cabinet. Images of the individual calcifications were extracted, and the diameter and contrast of each calculated. The thicknesses of aluminium required to achieve the same contrast as each calcification when imaged under the same conditions were calculated using measurements of the contrast of aluminium foils. As hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate are also used to simulate calcifications, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses of these materials were also calculated using tabulated attenuation coefficients. On average the equivalent aluminium thickness was 0.85 times the calcification diameter. For calcium oxalate and hydroxyapatite, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses were 1.01 and 2.19 times the thickness of these materials respectively. Aluminium and calcium oxalate are suitable substitute materials for calcifications. Hydroxyapatite is much more attenuating than the calcifications and aluminium. Using solid hydroxyapatite as a substitute for calcification of the same size would lead to excessive contrast in the mammographic image.

  15. Comparison of the x-ray attenuation properties of breast calcifications, aluminium, hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate.

    PubMed

    Warren, L M; Mackenzie, A; Dance, D R; Young, K C

    2013-04-01

    Aluminium is often used as a substitute material for calcifications in phantom measurements in mammography. Additionally, calcium oxalate, hydroxyapatite and aluminium are used in simulation studies. This assumes that these materials have similar attenuation properties to calcification, and this assumption is examined in this work. Sliced mastectomy samples containing calcification were imaged at ×5 magnification using a digital specimen cabinet. Images of the individual calcifications were extracted, and the diameter and contrast of each calculated. The thicknesses of aluminium required to achieve the same contrast as each calcification when imaged under the same conditions were calculated using measurements of the contrast of aluminium foils. As hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate are also used to simulate calcifications, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses of these materials were also calculated using tabulated attenuation coefficients. On average the equivalent aluminium thickness was 0.85 times the calcification diameter. For calcium oxalate and hydroxyapatite, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses were 1.01 and 2.19 times the thickness of these materials respectively. Aluminium and calcium oxalate are suitable substitute materials for calcifications. Hydroxyapatite is much more attenuating than the calcifications and aluminium. Using solid hydroxyapatite as a substitute for calcification of the same size would lead to excessive contrast in the mammographic image.

  16. Impact of calcifications on patient-specific wall stress analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Maier, A; Gee, M W; Reeps, C; Eckstein, H-H; Wall, W A

    2010-10-01

    As a degenerative and inflammatory desease of elderly patients, about 80% of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) show considerable wall calcification. Effect of calcifications on computational wall stress analyses of AAAs has been rarely treated in literature so far. Calcifications are heterogeneously distributed, non-fibrous, stiff plaques which are most commonly found near the luminal surface in between the intima and the media layer of the vessel wall. In this study, we therefore investigate the influence of calcifications as separate AAA constituents on finite element simulation results. Thus, three AAAs are reconstructed with regard to intraluminal thrombus (ILT), calcifications and vessel wall. Each patient-specific AAA is simulated twice, once including all three AAA constituents and once neglecting calcifications as it is still common in literature. Parameters for constitutive modeling of calcifications are thereby taken from experiments performed by the authors, showing that calcifications exhibit an almost linear stress-strain behavior with a Young's modulus E ≥ 40 MPa. Simulation results show that calcifications exhibit significant load-bearing effects and reduce stress in adjacent vessel wall. Average stress within the vessel wall is reduced by 9.7 to 59.2%. For two out of three AAAs, peak wall stress decreases when taking calcifications into consideration (8.9 and 28.9%). For one AAA, simulated peak wall stress increases by 5.5% due to stress peaks near calcification borders. However, such stress singularities due to sudden stiffness jumps are physiologically doubtful. It can further be observed that large calcifications are mostly situated in concavely shaped regions of the AAA wall. We deduce that AAA shape is influenced by existent calcifications, thus crucial errors occur if they are neglected in computational wall stress analyses. A general increase in rupture risk for calcified AAAs is doubted.

  17. Impact of calcifications on patient-specific wall stress analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Maier, A; Gee, M W; Reeps, C; Eckstein, H-H; Wall, W A

    2010-10-01

    As a degenerative and inflammatory desease of elderly patients, about 80% of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) show considerable wall calcification. Effect of calcifications on computational wall stress analyses of AAAs has been rarely treated in literature so far. Calcifications are heterogeneously distributed, non-fibrous, stiff plaques which are most commonly found near the luminal surface in between the intima and the media layer of the vessel wall. In this study, we therefore investigate the influence of calcifications as separate AAA constituents on finite element simulation results. Thus, three AAAs are reconstructed with regard to intraluminal thrombus (ILT), calcifications and vessel wall. Each patient-specific AAA is simulated twice, once including all three AAA constituents and once neglecting calcifications as it is still common in literature. Parameters for constitutive modeling of calcifications are thereby taken from experiments performed by the authors, showing that calcifications exhibit an almost linear stress-strain behavior with a Young's modulus E ≥ 40 MPa. Simulation results show that calcifications exhibit significant load-bearing effects and reduce stress in adjacent vessel wall. Average stress within the vessel wall is reduced by 9.7 to 59.2%. For two out of three AAAs, peak wall stress decreases when taking calcifications into consideration (8.9 and 28.9%). For one AAA, simulated peak wall stress increases by 5.5% due to stress peaks near calcification borders. However, such stress singularities due to sudden stiffness jumps are physiologically doubtful. It can further be observed that large calcifications are mostly situated in concavely shaped regions of the AAA wall. We deduce that AAA shape is influenced by existent calcifications, thus crucial errors occur if they are neglected in computational wall stress analyses. A general increase in rupture risk for calcified AAAs is doubted. PMID:20143120

  18. Low Florida coral calcification rates in the Plio-Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachert, Thomas C.; Reuter, Markus; Krüger, Stefan; Klaus, James S.; Helmle, Kevin; Lough, Janice M.

    2016-08-01

    In geological outcrops and drill cores from reef frameworks, the skeletons of scleractinian corals are usually leached and more or less completely transformed into sparry calcite because the highly porous skeletons formed of metastable aragonite (CaCO3) undergo rapid diagenetic alteration. Upon alteration, ghost structures of the distinct annual growth bands often allow for reconstructions of annual extension ( = growth) rates, but information on skeletal density needed for reconstructions of calcification rates is invariably lost. This report presents the bulk density, extension rates and calcification rates of fossil reef corals which underwent minor diagenetic alteration only. The corals derive from unlithified shallow water carbonates of the Florida platform (south-eastern USA), which formed during four interglacial sea level highstands dated approximately 3.2, 2.9, 1.8, and 1.2 Ma in the mid-Pliocene to early Pleistocene. With regard to the preservation, the coral skeletons display smooth growth surfaces with minor volumes of marine aragonite cement within intra-skeletal porosity. Within the skeletal structures, voids are commonly present along centres of calcification which lack secondary cements. Mean extension rates were 0.44 ± 0.19 cm yr-1 (range 0.16 to 0.86 cm yr-1), mean bulk density was 0.96 ± 0.36 g cm-3 (range 0.55 to 1.83 g cm-3) and calcification rates ranged from 0.18 to 0.82 g cm-2 yr-1 (mean 0.38 ± 0.16 g cm-2 yr-1), values which are 50 % of modern shallow-water reef corals. To understand the possible mechanisms behind these low calcification rates, we compared the fossil calcification rates with those of modern zooxanthellate corals (z corals) from the Western Atlantic (WA) and Indo-Pacific calibrated against sea surface temperature (SST). In the fossil data, we found a widely analogous relationship with SST in z corals from the WA, i.e. density increases and extension rate decreases with increasing SST, but over a significantly larger

  19. Hilar cholangiocarcinoma with intratumoral calcification: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Inoko, Kazuho; Tsuchikawa, Takahiro; Noji, Takehiro; Kurashima, Yo; Ebihara, Yuma; Tamoto, Eiji; Nakamura, Toru; Murakami, Soichi; Okamura, Keisuke; Shichinohe, Toshiaki; Hirano, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a rare case of hilar cholangiocarcinoma with intratumoral calcification that mimicked hepatolithiasis. A 73-year-old man presented to a local hospital with a calcified lesion in the hepatic hilum. At first, hepatolithiasis was diagnosed, and he underwent endoscopic stone extraction via the trans-papillary route. This treatment strategy failed due to biliary stricture. He was referred to our hospital, and further examination suggested the existence of cholangiocarcinoma. He underwent left hepatectomy with caudate lobectomy and extrahepatic bile duct resection. Pathological examination revealed hilar cholangiocarcinoma with intratumoral calcification, while no stones were found. To the best of our knowledge, only one case of calcified hilar cholangiocarcinoma has been previously reported in the literature. Here, we report a rare case of calcified hilar cholangiocarcinoma and reveal its clinicopathologic features. PMID:26478684

  20. Coccolithophore calcification response to past ocean acidification and climate change

    PubMed Central

    O’Dea, Sarah A.; Gibbs, Samantha J.; Bown, Paul R.; Young, Jeremy R.; Poulton, Alex J.; Newsam, Cherry; Wilson, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are forcing rapid ocean chemistry changes and causing ocean acidification (OA), which is of particular significance for calcifying organisms, including planktonic coccolithophores. Detailed analysis of coccolithophore skeletons enables comparison of calcite production in modern and fossil cells in order to investigate biomineralization response of ancient coccolithophores to climate change. Here we show that the two dominant coccolithophore taxa across the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) OA global warming event (~56 million years ago) exhibited morphological response to environmental change and both showed reduced calcification rates. However, only Coccolithus pelagicus exhibits a transient thinning of coccoliths, immediately before the PETM, that may have been OA-induced. Changing coccolith thickness may affect calcite production more significantly in the dominant modern species Emiliania huxleyi, but, overall, these PETM records indicate that the environmental factors that govern taxonomic composition and growth rate will most strongly influence coccolithophore calcification response to anthropogenic change. PMID:25399967

  1. Low Florida coral calcification rates in the Plio-Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachert, T. C.; Reuter, M.; Krüger, S.; Klaus, J. S.; Helmle, K.; Lough, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    In geological outcrops and drill cores from reef frameworks, the skeletons of scleractinian corals are usually leached and more or less completely transformed into sparry calcite because the highly porous skeletons formed of metastable aragonite (CaCO3) undergo rapid diagenetic alteration. Upon alteration, ghost structures of the distinct annual growth bands may be retained allowing for reconstructions of annual extension (= growth) rates, but information on skeletal density needed for reconstructions of calcification rates is invariably lost. Here we report the first data of calcification rates of fossil reef corals which escaped diagenetic alteration. The corals derive from unlithified shallow water carbonates of the Florida platform (southeastern USA), which formed during four interglacial sea level highstands dated 3.2, 2.9, 1.8, and 1.2 Ma in the mid Pliocene to early Pleistocene. With regard to the preservation, the coral skeletons display smooth growth surfaces with minor volumes of marine aragonite cement within intra-skeletal porosity. Within the skeletal structures, dissolution is minor along centers of calcification. Mean extension rates were 0.44 ± 0.19 cm yr-1 (range 0.16 to 0.86 cm yr-1) and mean bulk density was 0.86 ± 0.36 g cm-3 (range 0.55 to 1.22 g cm-3). Correspondingly, calcification rates ranged from 0.18 to 0.82 g cm-2 yr-1 (mean 0.38 ± 0.16 g cm-2 yr-1), values which are 50 % of modern shallow-water reef corals. To understand the possible mechanisms behind these low calcification rates, we compared the fossil calcification with modern zooxanthellate-coral (z-coral) rates from the Western Atlantic (WA) and Indo-Pacific (IP) calibrated against sea surface temperature (SST). In the fossil data, we found an analogous relationship with SST in z-corals from the WA, i.e. density increases and extension rate decreases with increasing SST, but over a significantly larger temperature window during the Plio-Pleistocene. With regard to the

  2. Coccolithophore calcification response to past ocean acidification and climate change.

    PubMed

    O'Dea, Sarah A; Gibbs, Samantha J; Bown, Paul R; Young, Jeremy R; Poulton, Alex J; Newsam, Cherry; Wilson, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are forcing rapid ocean chemistry changes and causing ocean acidification (OA), which is of particular significance for calcifying organisms, including planktonic coccolithophores. Detailed analysis of coccolithophore skeletons enables comparison of calcite production in modern and fossil cells in order to investigate biomineralization response of ancient coccolithophores to climate change. Here we show that the two dominant coccolithophore taxa across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) OA global warming event (~56 million years ago) exhibited morphological response to environmental change and both showed reduced calcification rates. However, only Coccolithus pelagicus exhibits a transient thinning of coccoliths, immediately before the PETM, that may have been OA-induced. Changing coccolith thickness may affect calcite production more significantly in the dominant modern species Emiliania huxleyi, but, overall, these PETM records indicate that the environmental factors that govern taxonomic composition and growth rate will most strongly influence coccolithophore calcification response to anthropogenic change. PMID:25399967

  3. Coccolithophore calcification response to past ocean acidification and climate change.

    PubMed

    O'Dea, Sarah A; Gibbs, Samantha J; Bown, Paul R; Young, Jeremy R; Poulton, Alex J; Newsam, Cherry; Wilson, Paul A

    2014-11-17

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are forcing rapid ocean chemistry changes and causing ocean acidification (OA), which is of particular significance for calcifying organisms, including planktonic coccolithophores. Detailed analysis of coccolithophore skeletons enables comparison of calcite production in modern and fossil cells in order to investigate biomineralization response of ancient coccolithophores to climate change. Here we show that the two dominant coccolithophore taxa across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) OA global warming event (~56 million years ago) exhibited morphological response to environmental change and both showed reduced calcification rates. However, only Coccolithus pelagicus exhibits a transient thinning of coccoliths, immediately before the PETM, that may have been OA-induced. Changing coccolith thickness may affect calcite production more significantly in the dominant modern species Emiliania huxleyi, but, overall, these PETM records indicate that the environmental factors that govern taxonomic composition and growth rate will most strongly influence coccolithophore calcification response to anthropogenic change.

  4. Calcific Tendinitis of the Gluteus Maximus in a Golfer.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ariel A; Stang, Thomas S; Fritz, Jan; Papp, Derek F

    2016-09-01

    Calcific tendinitis is a relatively rare condition in which calcium is inappropriately deposited in tendons, resulting in a local inflammatory reaction that can cause severe symptoms in certain cases. The cause of this disease process is not completely understood, although repetitive microtrauma likely plays a role in its development. Although the disorder most often involves the rotator cuff, it can affect other structures throughout the body, such as the tendons about the ankle and hip-including the rectus femoris and gluteus maximus. Nonoperative management typically involves using an anti-inflammatory medication and activity modification and can be augmented with formal physical therapy and modalities. Although nonoperative management provides adequate relief for many patients, sometimes operative debridement of the calcific deposit with or without repair of the involved tendon is required. The authors report an unusual case of calcific tendinitis of the gluteus maximus insertion in a golfer. The patient had tried nonoperative treatment for approximately 2 years with no real relief, and a recent exacerbation of the pain was significantly delaying his return to sport. Although plain radiographs did not show abnormalities, magnetic resonance imaging showed a calcific deposit in the insertion of the gluteus maximus tendon. After discussing further treatment options with the patient, the decision was made to remove the deposit and repair the insertion. He recovered completely and was able to return to play. The frequency, pathogenesis, and treatment of this condition are discussed in this case report, as well as the possible link to golf in this patient. [Orthopedics.2016; 39(5):e997-e1000.]. PMID:27337668

  5. Stone formation and calcification by nanobacteria in the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Bjorklund, Michael; Kajander, E. Olavi

    1998-07-01

    The formation of discrete and organized inorganic crystalline structures within macromolecular extracellular matrices is a widespread biological phenomenon generally referred to as biomineralization. Recently, bacteria have been implicated as factors in biogeochemical cycles for formation of many minerals in aqueous sediments. We have found nanobacterial culture systems that allow for reproducible production of apatite calcification in vitro. Depending on the culture conditions, tiny nanocolloid-sized particles covered with apatite, forming various size of aggregates and stones were observed. In this study, we detected the presence of nanobacteria in demineralized trilobit fossil, geode, apatite, and calcite stones by immunofluorescence staining. Amethyst and other quartz stones, and chalk gave negative results. Microorganisms are capable of depositing apatite outside the thermodynamic equilibrium in sea water. We bring now evidence that this occurs in the human body as well. Previously, only struvite kidney stones composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate and small amounts of apatite have been regarded as bacteria related. 90 percent of demineralized human kidney stones now screened, contained nanobacteria. At least three different distribution patterns of nanobacteria were conditions, and human kidney stones that are formed from small apatite units. Prerequisites for the formation of kidney stones are the supersaturation of urine and presence of nidi for crystallization. Nanobacteria are important nidi and their presence might be of special interest in space flights where supersaturation of urine is present due to the loss of bone. Furthermore, we bring evidence that nanobacteria may act as crystallization nidi for the formation of biogenic apatite structures in tissue calcification found in e.g., atherosclerotic plaques, extensive metastatic and tumoral calcification, acute periarthritis, malacoplakia, and malignant diseases. In nanaobacteria-infected fibroblasts

  6. Modelling coral polyp calcification in relation to ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohn, S.; Merico, A.

    2012-11-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations due to anthropogenic emissions induce changes in the carbonate chemistry of the oceans and, ultimately, a drop in ocean pH. This acidification process can harm calcifying organisms like coccolithophores, molluscs, echinoderms, and corals. It is expected that ocean acidification in combination with other anthropogenic stressors will cause a severe decline in coral abundance by the end of this century, with associated disastrous effects on reef ecosystems. Despite the growing importance of the topic, little progress has been made with respect to modelling the impact of acidification on coral calcification. Here we present a model for a coral polyp that simulates the carbonate system in four different compartments: the seawater, the polyp tissue, the coelenteron, and the calcifying fluid. Precipitation of calcium carbonate takes place in the metabolically controlled calcifying fluid beneath the polyp tissue. The model is adjusted to a state of activity as observed by direct microsensor measurements in the calcifying fluid. We find that a transport mechanism for bicarbonate is required to supplement carbon into the calcifying fluid because CO2 diffusion alone is not sufficient to sustain the observed calcification rates. Simulated CO2 perturbation experiments reveal decreasing calcification rates under elevated pCO2 despite the strong metabolic control of the calcifying fluid. Diffusion of CO2 through the tissue into the calcifying fluid increases with increasing seawater pCO2, leading to decreased aragonite saturation in the calcifying fluid. Our modelling study provides important insights into the complexity of the calcification process at the organism level and helps to quantify the effect of ocean acidification on corals.

  7. Magnetoencephalographic representation of the sensorimotor hand area in cases of intracerebral tumour

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, M; Fukuda, M; Kameyama, S; Kawaguchi, T; Masuda, H; Tanaka, R

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of magnetoencephalography (MEG) in localising the primary hand motor area and evaluating cortical distortion of the sensorimotor cortices in patients with intracerebral tumour. Methods: 10 normal volunteers (controls) and 14 patients with an intracerebral tumour located around the central region were studied. Somatosensory evoked magnetic fields (SEFs) following median nerve stimulation, and movement related cerebral magnetic fields (MRCFs) following index finger extension, were measured in all subjects and analysed by the equivalent current dipole (ECD) method to ascertain the neuronal sources of the primary sensory and motor components (N20m and MF, respectively). These ECD locations were defined as the primary hand sensory and motor areas and the positional relations between these two functional areas in controls and patients were investigated. Results: The standard range of ECD locations of MF to N20m was determined in controls. In 11 of the 14 patients, MRCFs could identify the primary motor hand area. ECD locations of MF were significantly closer to the N20m in the medial-lateral direction in patients than in controls. In patients with a tumour located below the sensorimotor hand area, relative ECD locations of MF to N20m moved anteriorly over the standard range determined in the control subjects. These MEG findings correlated well with radiological tumour locations. The mean estimated ECD strength of MF was significantly lower in patients than in controls. Conclusions: MRCF was useful in localising the primary motor hand area in patients with intracerebral tumour. The relative ECD locations of MF to N20m describe the anatomical distortion of the sensorimotor cortex. PMID:14638884

  8. Neuronal generators of the visual evoked potentials: intracerebral recording in awake humans.

    PubMed

    Ducati, A; Fava, E; Motti, E D

    1988-01-01

    Flash and pattern reversal visual evoked potentials were recorded in awake patients undergoing stereotactic procedures for severe dyskinetic disorders resistant to medical treatment. The nucleus ventralis lateralis thalami was reached via an occipital approach. VEPs were recorded on the scalp at the entrance of the intracerebral electrode, and serially from sites at different depths. A polarity reversal of the surface recorded wave form took place as the intracerebral electrode was advanced beneath the surface cortical layers. As concerns F-VEPs, most of the scalp activity mirrored the potentials recorded down to the depth of 70-65 mm from the thalamus. The largest amplitude of intracerebral F-VEPs was obtained from recording sites at 50-70 mm from the thalamus, i.e., in the depth of the calcarine fissure. A negative wave, peaking around 47-50 msec, became evident in recording sites at 30-40 mm from the thalamus but vanished as the electrode was advanced farther. In only one patient could we record a small negative wave, peaking at 33 msec, in the vicinity of the corpus geniculatum externum. Furthermore, the oscillatory activity recorded from the scalp appeared to be generated in the cortical layers. PR-VEPs also underwent polarity reversal as the electrode traversed the cortex. PR-VEPs disappeared more superficially than F-VEPs. No PR-evoked activity could be recorded in the vicinity of the corpus geniculatum externum. We conclude that slow and fast components of VEPs recorded from the scalp are entirely generated in cortical layers.

  9. Effect of Decompressive Craniectomy on Perihematomal Edema in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Klinger-Gratz, Pascal P.; Fiechter, Michael; Z’Graggen, Werner J.; Gautschi, Oliver P.; El-Koussy, Marwan; Gralla, Jan; Schaller, Karl; Zbinden, Martin; Arnold, Marcel; Fischer, Urs; Mattle, Heinrich P.; Raabe, Andreas; Beck, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Background Perihematomal edema contributes to secondary brain injury in the course of intracerebral hemorrhage. The effect of decompressive surgery on perihematomal edema after intracerebral hemorrhage is unknown. This study analyzed the course of PHE in patients who were or were not treated with decompressive craniectomy. Methods More than 100 computed tomography images from our published cohort of 25 patients were evaluated retrospectively at two university hospitals in Switzerland. Computed tomography scans covered the time from admission until day 100. Eleven patients were treated by decompressive craniectomy and 14 were treated conservatively. Absolute edema and hematoma volumes were assessed using 3-dimensional volumetric measurements. Relative edema volumes were calculated based on maximal hematoma volume. Results Absolute perihematomal edema increased from 42.9 ml to 125.6 ml (192.8%) after 21 days in the decompressive craniectomy group, versus 50.4 ml to 67.2 ml (33.3%) in the control group (Δ at day 21 = 58.4 ml, p = 0.031). Peak edema developed on days 25 and 35 in patients with decompressive craniectomy and controls respectively, and it took about 60 days for the edema to decline to baseline in both groups. Eight patients (73%) in the decompressive craniectomy group and 6 patients (43%) in the control group had a good outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0 to 4) at 6 months (P = 0.23). Conclusions Decompressive craniectomy is associated with a significant increase in perihematomal edema compared to patients who have been treated conservatively. Perihematomal edema itself lasts about 60 days if it is not treated, but decompressive craniectomy ameliorates the mass effect exerted by the intracerebral hemorrhage plus the perihematomal edema, as reflected by the reduced midline shift. PMID:26872068

  10. ARTHROSCOPY FOR TREATMENT OF REFRACTORY CALCIFIC TENDONITIS OF THE SHOULDER

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Marcos Rassi; Fernandes, Rui José

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the results from arthroscopic treatment in patients with calcific tendonitis of the shoulder. Methods: Between September 2001 and June 2006, 55 patients with calcific tendonitis of the shoulder that was resistant to conservative treatment were evaluated, with follow-up of 12 to 70 months. The mean age was 42 years, ranging from 30 to 64 years; 44 patients were female (80%). There were 37 right shoulders, and 63.63% of the cases were on the dominant side. Pain was the main symptom, and the mean time between onset of symptoms and arthroscopy was 38 months (range: five to 120 months). The tendon affected was the supraspinatus in 42 cases, the infraspinatus in 11 cases and an association between these in two cases. Acromioplasty was carried out in 12 patients (21.82%) and subacromial bursectomy was performed in all cases. Results: According to the UCLA criteria, 46 cases were excellent and six were good, making a total of 52 satisfactory results (94.54%). Conclusion: Arthroscopic treatment of calcific tendonitis of the shoulder appears to be an effective method, with high rates of satisfactory results. Associated acromioplasty is not necessary. PMID:27019839

  11. Calcification provides mechanical reinforcement to whale baleen alpha-keratin.

    PubMed

    Szewciw, L J; de Kerckhove, D G; Grime, G W; Fudge, D S

    2010-09-01

    Hard alpha-keratins such as hair, nail, wool and horn are stiff epidermal appendages used by mammals in a variety of functions including thermoregulation, feeding and intraspecific competition. Hard alpha-keratins are fibre-reinforced structures consisting of cytoskeletal elements known as 'intermediate filaments' embedded in an amorphous protein matrix. Recent research has shown that intermediate filaments are soft and extensible in living keratinocytes but become far stiffer and less extensible in keratinized cells, and this stiffening may be mediated by air-drying. Baleen, the keratinous plates used by baleen whales during filter feeding, is an unusual mammalian keratin in that it never air dries, and in some species, it represents the most heavily calcified of all the hard alpha-keratins. We therefore tested the hypothesis that whale baleen is stiffened by calcification. Here, we provide, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive description of baleen material properties and show that calcification contributes to overcoming the shortcomings of stiffening this hard alpha-keratin without the benefit of air-drying. We also demonstrate striking interspecies differences in the calcification patterns among three species of baleen whales and provide novel insights into the function and evolution of this unusual biomaterial.

  12. Peripheral arterial calcification: Prevalence, mechanism, detection, and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Singh, Krishna J; Zeller, Thomas; Jaff, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Vascular calcification (VC), particularly medial (Mönckeberg's medial sclerosis) arterial calcification, is common in patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and genetic pathways of VC are not fully known, hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and the suppression of parathyroid hormone activity are central to the development of vessel mineralization and, consequently, bone demineralization. In addition to preventive measures, such as the modification of atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk factors, current treatment strategies include the use of calcium-free phosphate binders, vitamin D analogs, and calcium mimetics that have shown promising results, albeit in small patient cohorts. The impact of intimal and medial VC on the safety and effectiveness of endovascular devices to treat symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) remains poorly defined. The absence of a generally accepted, validated vascular calcium grading scale hampers clinical progress in assessing the safety and utility of various endovascular devices (e.g., atherectomy) in treating calcified vessels. Accordingly, we propose the peripheral arterial calcium scoring system (PACSS) and a method for its clinical validation. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of vascular calcification and the development of optimal medical and endovascular treatment strategies are crucial as the population ages and presents with more chronic comorbidities. PMID:24402839

  13. Osteoprotegerin and Vascular Calcification: Clinical and Prognostic Relevance.

    PubMed

    Makarović, Sandra; Makarović, Zorin; Steiner, Robert; Mihaljević, Ivan; Milas-Ahić, Jasminka

    2015-06-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a key regulator in bone metabolism, that also has effect in vascular system. Studies suggest that osteoprotegerin is a critical arterial calcification inhibitor, and is released by endothelial cells as a protective mechanism for their survival in certain pathological conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and other metabolic disorders. That has been shown in studies in vitro and in animal models. The discovery that OPG deficient mice (OPG -/- mice) develop severe osteoporosis and arterial calcification, has led to conclusion that osteoprotegerin might be mulecule linking vascular and bone system. Paradoxically however, clinical trials have shown recently that OPG serum levels is increased in coronary artery disease and correlates with its severity, ischemic cardial decompensation, and future cardiovascular events. Therefore it is possible that osteoprotegerin could have a new function as a potential biomarker in early identification and monitoring patients with cardiovascular disease. Amongst that osteoprotegerin is in association with well known atherosclerosis risc factors: undoubtedly it is proven its relationship with age, smoking and diabetes mellitus. There is evidence regarding presence of hyperlipoproteinemia and increased serum levels of osteoprotegerin. Also the researches have been directed in genetic level, linking certain single nucleotid genetic polymorphisms of osteoprotegerin and vascular calcification appearance. This review emphasises multifactorial role of OPG, presenting numerous clinical and experimental studies regarding its role in vascular pathology, suggesting a novel biomarker in cardiovascular diseases, showing latest conclusions about this interesting topic that needs to be further explored. PMID:26753467

  14. In vitro models of aortic valve calcification: solidifying a system.

    PubMed

    Bowler, Meghan A; Merryman, W David

    2015-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) affects 25% of people over 65, and the late-stage stenotic state can only be treated with total valve replacement, requiring 85,000 surgeries annually in the US alone (University of Maryland Medical Center, 2013, http://umm.edu/programs/services/heart-center-programs/cardiothoracic-surgery/valve-surgery/facts). As CAVD is an age-related disease, many of the affected patients are unable to undergo the open-chest surgery that is its only current cure. This challenge motivates the elucidation of the mechanisms involved in calcification, with the eventual goal of alternative preventative and therapeutic strategies. There is no sufficient animal model of CAVD, so we turn to potential in vitro models. In general, in vitro models have the advantages of shortened experiment time and better control over multiple variables compared to in vivo models. As with all models, the hypothesis being tested dictates the most important characteristics of the in vivo physiology to recapitulate. Here, we collate the relevant pieces of designing and evaluating aortic valve calcification so that investigators can more effectively draw significant conclusions from their results. PMID:25249188

  15. Effect of trace metal availability on coccolithophorid calcification.

    PubMed

    Schulz, K G; Zondervan, I; Gerringa, L J A; Timmermans, K R; Veldhuis, M J W; Riebesell, U

    2004-08-01

    The deposition of atmospheric dust into the ocean has varied considerably over geological time. Because some of the trace metals contained in dust are essential plant nutrients which can limit phytoplankton growth in parts of the ocean, it has been suggested that variations in dust supply to the surface ocean might influence primary production. Whereas the role of trace metal availability in photosynthetic carbon fixation has received considerable attention, its effect on biogenic calcification is virtually unknown. The production of both particulate organic carbon and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) drives the ocean's biological carbon pump. The ratio of particulate organic carbon to CaCO3 export, the so-called rain ratio, is one of the factors determining CO2 sequestration in the deep ocean. Here we investigate the influence of the essential trace metals iron and zinc on the prominent CaCO3-producing microalga Emiliania huxleyi. We show that whereas at low iron concentrations growth and calcification are equally reduced, low zinc concentrations result in a de-coupling of the two processes. Despite the reduced growth rate of zinc-limited cells, CaCO3 production rates per cell remain unaffected, thus leading to highly calcified cells. These results suggest that changes in dust deposition can affect biogenic calcification in oceanic regions characterized by trace metal limitation, with possible consequences for CO2 partitioning between the atmosphere and the ocean.

  16. Consideration of coastal carbonate chemistry in understanding biological calcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassbender, Andrea J.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Feifel, Kirsten M.

    2016-05-01

    Correlations between aragonite saturation state (ΩAr) and calcification have been identified in many laboratory manipulation experiments aiming to assess biological responses to ocean acidification (OA). These relationships have been used with projections of ΩAr under continued OA to evaluate potential impacts on marine calcifiers. Recent work suggests, however, that calcification in some species may be controlled by the ratio of bicarbonate to hydrogen ion, or the substrate-to-inhibitor ratio (SIR), rather than ΩAr. SIR and ΩAr are not always positively correlated in the natural environment, which means that ΩAr can be a poor indicator of the calcifying environment when ΩAr->1. Highly variable carbonate chemistry in the coastal zone challenges our ability to monitor fluctuations in ΩAr, SIR, and the ΩAr-SIR relationship making it difficult to assess biological OA exposures and vulnerability. Careful consideration of natural variability throughout ocean environments is required to accurately determine the influence of OA on biological calcification.

  17. In vitro Models of Aortic Valve Calcification: Solidifying a System

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, Meghan A.; Merryman, W. David

    2014-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) affects 25% of people over 65, and the late-stage stenotic state can only be treated with total valve replacement, requiring 85,000 surgeries annually in the US alone [1]. As CAVD is an age-related disease, many of the affected patients are unable to undergo the open-chest surgery that is its only current cure. This challenge motivates the elucidation of the mechanisms involved in calcification, with the eventual goal of alternative preventative and therapeutic strategies. There is no sufficient animal model of CAVD, so we turn to potential in vitro models. In general, in vitro models have the advantages of shortened experiment time and better control over multiple variables compared to in vivo models. As with all models, the hypothesis being tested dictates the most important characteristics of the in vivo physiology to recapitulate. Here, we collate the relevant pieces of designing and evaluating aortic valve calcification so that investigators can more effectively draw significant conclusions from their results. PMID:25249188

  18. Positron emission tomography in the newborn: extensive impairment of regional cerebral blood flow with intraventricular hemorrhage and hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Volpe, J.J.; Herscovitch, P.; Perlman, J.M.; Raichle, M.E.

    1983-11-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) now provides the capability of measuring regional cerebral blood flow with high resolution and little risk. In this study, we utilized PET in six premature infants (920 to 1,200 g) with major intraventricular hemorrhage and hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement to measure regional cerebral blood flow during the acute period (5 to 17 days of age). Cerebral blood flow was determined after intravenous injection of H/sub 2/O, labeled with the positron-emitting isotope, /sup 15/O. Findings were similar and dramatic in all six infants. In the area of hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement, little or no cerebral blood flow was detected. However, in addition, surprisingly, a marked two- to fourfold reduction in cerebral blood flow was observed throughout the affected hemisphere, well posterior and lateral to the intracerebral hematoma, including cerebral white matter and, to a lesser extent, frontal, temporal, and parietal cortex. In the one infant studied a second time, ie, at 3 months of age, the extent and severity of the decreased cerebral blood flows in the affected hemisphere were similar to those observed on the study during the neonatal period. At the three autopsies, the affected left hemisphere showed extensive infarction, corroborating the PET scans. These observations, the first demonstration of the use of PET in the determination of regional cerebral blood flow in the newborn, show marked impairments in regional cerebral blood flow in the hemisphere containing an apparently restricted intracerebral hematoma, indicating that the hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement is only a component of a much larger lesion, ischemic in basic nature, ie, an infarction. This large ischemic lesion explains the poor neurologic outcome in infants with intraventricular hemorrhage and hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement.

  19. Characterization of the atypical lymphocytes in African swine fever

    PubMed Central

    Karalyan, Z. A.; Ter-Pogossyan, Z. R.; Abroyan, L. O.; Hakobyan, L. H.; Avetisyan, A. S.; Karalyan, N. Yu; Karalova, E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Atypical lymphocytes usually described as lymphocytes with altered shape, increased DNA amount, and larger size. For analysis of cause of genesis and source of atypical lymphocytes during African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection, bone marrow, peripheral blood, and in vitro model were investigated. Materials and Methods: Atypical lymphocytes under the influence of ASFV were studied for morphologic, cytophotometric, and membrane surface marker characteristics and were used in vivo and in vitro models. Results: This study indicated the increased size, high metabolic activity, and the presence of additional DNA amount in atypical lymphocytes caused by ASFV infection. Furthermore, in atypical lymphocytes, nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio usually decreased, compared to normal lymphocytes. In morphology, they looking like lymphocytes transformed into blasts by exposure to mitogens or antigens in vitro. They vary in morphologic detail, but most of them are CD2 positive. Conclusions: Our data suggest that atypical lymphocytes may represent an unusual and specific cellular response to ASFV infection. PMID:27536044

  20. Predictors of 30-day mortality in patients with spontaneous primary intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Safatli, Diaa A.; Günther, Albrecht; Schlattmann, Peter; Schwarz, Falko; Kalff, Rolf; Ewald, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a life threatening entity, and an early outcome assessment is mandatory for optimizing therapeutic efforts. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from 342 patients with spontaneous primary ICH to evaluate possible predictors of 30-day mortality considering clinical, radiological, and therapeutical parameters. We also applied three widely accepted outcome grading scoring systems [(ICH score, FUNC score and intracerebral hemorrhage grading scale (ICH-GS)] on our population to evaluate the correlation of these scores with the 30-day mortality in our study. We also applied three widely accepted outcome grading scoring systems [(ICH score, FUNC score and intracerebral hemorrhage grading scale (ICH-GS)] on our population to evaluate the correlation of these scores with the 30-day mortality in our study. Results: From 342 patients (mean age: 67 years, mean Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] on admission: 9, mean ICH volume: 62.19 ml, most common hematoma location: basal ganglia [43.9%]), 102 received surgical and 240 conservative treatment. The 30-day mortality was 25.15%. In a multivariate analysis, GCS (Odds ratio [OR] =0.726, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.661–0.796, P < 0.001), bleeding volume (OR = 1.012 per ml, 95% CI = 1.007 – 1.017, P < 0.001), and infratentorial hematoma location (OR = 5.381, 95% CI = 2.166-13.356, P = 0.009) were significant predictors for the 30-day mortality. After receiver operating characteristics analysis, we defined a “high-risk group” for an unfavorable short-term outcome with GCS <11 and ICH volume >32 ml supratentorially or 21 ml infratentorially. Using Pearson correlation, we found a correlation of 0.986 between ICH score and 30-day mortality (P < 0.001), 0.853 between FUNC score and 30-day mortality (P = 0.001), and 0.924 between ICH-GS and 30-day mortality (P = 0.001). Conclusions: GCS score on admission together with the baseline volume and localization of the hemorrhage are strong

  1. A nude rat model for neutron capture therapy of human intracerebral melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, R.F.; Matalka, K.Z.; Bailey, M.Q.; Staubus, A.E.; Soloway, A.H.; Moeschberger, M.L. ); Coderre, J.A. ); Rofstad, E.K. )

    1994-03-30

    The present study was carried out to determine the efficacy of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for intracerebral melanoma using nude rats, the human melanoma cell line MRA 27, and boronophenylalanine as the capture agent. MRA 27 cells (2 [times] 10[sup 5]) were implanted intracerebrally, and 30 days later, 120 mg of [sup 10]B-L-BPA were injected intraperitoneally into nude rats. Thirty days following implantation, tumor bearing rats were irradiated at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor. Six hours following administration of BPA, tumor, blood, and normal brain boron-10 levels were 23.7, 9.4, and 8.4 [mu]g/g respectively. Median survival time of untreated rats was 44 days compared to 76 days and 93 days for those receiving physical doses of 2.73 Gy and 3.64 Gy, respectively. Rats that have received both [sup 10]B-BPA and physical doses of 1.82, 2.73, or 3.64 Gy had median survival times of 170, 182, and 262 days, respectively. Forty percent of rats that had received the highest tumor dose (10.1 Gy) survived for > 300 days and in a replicate experiment 21% of the rats were longterm survivors (>220 days). Animals that received 12 Gy in a single dose or 18 Gy fractionated (2 Gy [times] 9) of gamma photons from a [sup 137]Cs source had median survival times of 86 and 79 days, respectively, compared to 47 days for untreated animals. Histopathologic examination of the brains of longterm surviving rats, euthanized at 8 or 16 months following BNCT, showed no residual tumor, but dense accumulations of melanin laden macrophages and minimal gliosis were observed. Significant prolongations in median survival time were noted in nude rats with intracerebral human melanoma that had received BNCT, thereby suggesting therapeutic efficacy. Large animal studies should be carried out to further assess BNCT of intracerebral melanoma before any human trials are contemplated. 49 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. The role of cellular senescence during vascular calcification: a key paradigm in aging research.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, N C W; MacRae, V E

    2011-07-01

    Vascular calcification has severe clinical consequences and is considered an accurate predictor of future adverse cardiovascular events. Vascular calcification refers to the deposition of calcium phosphate mineral, most often hydroxyapatite, in arteries. Extensive calcification of the vascular system is a key characteristic of aging. In this article, we outline the mechanisms governing vascular calcification and highlight its association with cellular senescence. This review discusses the molecular mechanisms of cellular senescence and its affect on calcification of vascular cells, the relevance of phosphate regulation and the function of FGF23 and Klotho proteins. The association of vascular calcification and cellular senescence with the rare human aging disorder Hutchison-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is highlighted and the mouse models used to try to determine the underlying pathways are discussed. By understanding the pathways involved in these processes novel drug targets may be elucidated in an effort to reduce the effects of cellular aging as a risk factor in cardiovascular disease.

  3. Decrease in coccolithophore calcification and CO2 since the middle Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, Clara T.; Hernández-Sánchez, María T.; Fuertes, Miguel-Ángel; González-Lemos, Saúl; Abrevaya, Lorena; Mendez-Vicente, Ana; Flores, José-Abel; Probert, Ian; Giosan, Liviu; Johnson, Joel; Stoll, Heather M.

    2016-01-01

    Marine algae are instrumental in carbon cycling and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) regulation. One group, coccolithophores, uses carbon to photosynthesize and to calcify, covering their cells with chalk platelets (coccoliths). How ocean acidification influences coccolithophore calcification is strongly debated, and the effects of carbonate chemistry changes in the geological past are poorly understood. This paper relates degree of coccolith calcification to cellular calcification, and presents the first records of size-normalized coccolith thickness spanning the last 14 Myr from tropical oceans. Degree of calcification was highest in the low-pH, high-CO2 Miocene ocean, but decreased significantly between 6 and 4 Myr ago. Based on this and concurrent trends in a new alkenone εp record, we propose that decreasing CO2 partly drove the observed trend via reduced cellular bicarbonate allocation to calcification. This trend reversed in the late Pleistocene despite low CO2, suggesting an additional regulator of calcification such as alkalinity.

  4. Decrease in coccolithophore calcification and CO2 since the middle Miocene.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Clara T; Hernández-Sánchez, María T; Fuertes, Miguel-Ángel; González-Lemos, Saúl; Abrevaya, Lorena; Mendez-Vicente, Ana; Flores, José-Abel; Probert, Ian; Giosan, Liviu; Johnson, Joel; Stoll, Heather M

    2016-01-01

    Marine algae are instrumental in carbon cycling and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) regulation. One group, coccolithophores, uses carbon to photosynthesize and to calcify, covering their cells with chalk platelets (coccoliths). How ocean acidification influences coccolithophore calcification is strongly debated, and the effects of carbonate chemistry changes in the geological past are poorly understood. This paper relates degree of coccolith calcification to cellular calcification, and presents the first records of size-normalized coccolith thickness spanning the last 14 Myr from tropical oceans. Degree of calcification was highest in the low-pH, high-CO2 Miocene ocean, but decreased significantly between 6 and 4 Myr ago. Based on this and concurrent trends in a new alkenone ɛp record, we propose that decreasing CO2 partly drove the observed trend via reduced cellular bicarbonate allocation to calcification. This trend reversed in the late Pleistocene despite low CO2, suggesting an additional regulator of calcification such as alkalinity. PMID:26762469

  5. Decrease in coccolithophore calcification and CO2 since the middle Miocene.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Clara T; Hernández-Sánchez, María T; Fuertes, Miguel-Ángel; González-Lemos, Saúl; Abrevaya, Lorena; Mendez-Vicente, Ana; Flores, José-Abel; Probert, Ian; Giosan, Liviu; Johnson, Joel; Stoll, Heather M

    2016-01-14

    Marine algae are instrumental in carbon cycling and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) regulation. One group, coccolithophores, uses carbon to photosynthesize and to calcify, covering their cells with chalk platelets (coccoliths). How ocean acidification influences coccolithophore calcification is strongly debated, and the effects of carbonate chemistry changes in the geological past are poorly understood. This paper relates degree of coccolith calcification to cellular calcification, and presents the first records of size-normalized coccolith thickness spanning the last 14 Myr from tropical oceans. Degree of calcification was highest in the low-pH, high-CO2 Miocene ocean, but decreased significantly between 6 and 4 Myr ago. Based on this and concurrent trends in a new alkenone ɛp record, we propose that decreasing CO2 partly drove the observed trend via reduced cellular bicarbonate allocation to calcification. This trend reversed in the late Pleistocene despite low CO2, suggesting an additional regulator of calcification such as alkalinity.

  6. Decrease in coccolithophore calcification and CO2 since the middle Miocene

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Clara T.; Hernández-Sánchez, María T.; Fuertes, Miguel-Ángel; González-Lemos, Saúl; Abrevaya, Lorena; Mendez-Vicente, Ana; Flores, José-Abel; Probert, Ian; Giosan, Liviu; Johnson, Joel; Stoll, Heather M.

    2016-01-01

    Marine algae are instrumental in carbon cycling and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) regulation. One group, coccolithophores, uses carbon to photosynthesize and to calcify, covering their cells with chalk platelets (coccoliths). How ocean acidification influences coccolithophore calcification is strongly debated, and the effects of carbonate chemistry changes in the geological past are poorly understood. This paper relates degree of coccolith calcification to cellular calcification, and presents the first records of size-normalized coccolith thickness spanning the last 14 Myr from tropical oceans. Degree of calcification was highest in the low-pH, high-CO2 Miocene ocean, but decreased significantly between 6 and 4 Myr ago. Based on this and concurrent trends in a new alkenone ɛp record, we propose that decreasing CO2 partly drove the observed trend via reduced cellular bicarbonate allocation to calcification. This trend reversed in the late Pleistocene despite low CO2, suggesting an additional regulator of calcification such as alkalinity. PMID:26762469

  7. Effect of image quality on calcification detection in digital mammography

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Lucy M.; Mackenzie, Alistair; Cooke, Julie; Given-Wilson, Rosalind M.; Wallis, Matthew G.; Chakraborty, Dev P.; Dance, David R.; Bosmans, Hilde; Young, Kenneth C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate if microcalcification detection varies significantly when mammographic images are acquired using different image qualities, including: different detectors, dose levels, and different image processing algorithms. An additional aim was to determine how the standard European method of measuring image quality using threshold gold thickness measured with a CDMAM phantom and the associated limits in current EU guidelines relate to calcification detection. Methods: One hundred and sixty two normal breast images were acquired on an amorphous selenium direct digital (DR) system. Microcalcification clusters extracted from magnified images of slices of mastectomies were electronically inserted into half of the images. The calcification clusters had a subtle appearance. All images were adjusted using a validated mathematical method to simulate the appearance of images from a computed radiography (CR) imaging system at the same dose, from both systems at half this dose, and from the DR system at quarter this dose. The original 162 images were processed with both Hologic and Agfa (Musica-2) image processing. All other image qualities were processed with Agfa (Musica-2) image processing only. Seven experienced observers marked and rated any identified suspicious regions. Free response operating characteristic (FROC) and ROC analyses were performed on the data. The lesion sensitivity at a nonlesion localization fraction (NLF) of 0.1 was also calculated. Images of the CDMAM mammographic test phantom were acquired using the automatic setting on the DR system. These images were modified to the additional image qualities used in the observer study. The images were analyzed using automated software. In order to assess the relationship between threshold gold thickness and calcification detection a power law was fitted to the data. Results: There was a significant reduction in calcification detection using CR compared with DR: the alternative FROC

  8. Effect of image quality on calcification detection in digital mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Lucy M.; Mackenzie, Alistair; Cooke, Julie; Given-Wilson, Rosalind M.; Wallis, Matthew G.; Chakraborty, Dev P.; Dance, David R.; Bosmans, Hilde; Young, Kenneth C.

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate if microcalcification detection varies significantly when mammographic images are acquired using different image qualities, including: different detectors, dose levels, and different image processing algorithms. An additional aim was to determine how the standard European method of measuring image quality using threshold gold thickness measured with a CDMAM phantom and the associated limits in current EU guidelines relate to calcification detection. Methods: One hundred and sixty two normal breast images were acquired on an amorphous selenium direct digital (DR) system. Microcalcification clusters extracted from magnified images of slices of mastectomies were electronically inserted into half of the images. The calcification clusters had a subtle appearance. All images were adjusted using a validated mathematical method to simulate the appearance of images from a computed radiography (CR) imaging system at the same dose, from both systems at half this dose, and from the DR system at quarter this dose. The original 162 images were processed with both Hologic and Agfa (Musica-2) image processing. All other image qualities were processed with Agfa (Musica-2) image processing only. Seven experienced observers marked and rated any identified suspicious regions. Free response operating characteristic (FROC) and ROC analyses were performed on the data. The lesion sensitivity at a nonlesion localization fraction (NLF) of 0.1 was also calculated. Images of the CDMAM mammographic test phantom were acquired using the automatic setting on the DR system. These images were modified to the additional image qualities used in the observer study. The images were analyzed using automated software. In order to assess the relationship between threshold gold thickness and calcification detection a power law was fitted to the data. Results: There was a significant reduction in calcification detection using CR compared with DR: the alternative FROC

  9. Age-related incidence of pineal calcification detected by computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.

    1982-03-01

    The age-related incidence of detectable pineal calcification in 725 patients (age range, newborn-20 yrs) suggests that there is a relationship between calcification and the hormonal role played by the pineal gland in the regulation of sexual development. Pineal calcification (demonstrated by computed tomography (CT) on 8-mm-thick sections) in patients less than 6 years old should be looked upon with suspicion, and follow-up CT should be considered to exclude the possible development of a pineal neoplasm.

  10. Progression to calcific mitral stenosis in end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    D'Cruz, I A; Madu, E C

    1995-12-01

    A 59-year-old man with end-stage renal disease and on hemodialysis had neither mitral stenosis nor mitral calcification on echo-Doppler examination in 1989, but had extensive mitral calcification and definite mitral stenosis on conventional and transesophageal echocardiography in 1994. The left ventricle had marked concentric hypertrophy. To our knowledge this is the first documentation of the development of calcific mitral stenosis in end-stage renal disease revealed by serial echo-Doppler studies.

  11. Calcification and airway stenosis in a child with chondrodysplasia calcificans punctata

    PubMed Central

    Goussard, Pierre; Andronikou, Savvas; Semakula-Katende, Namakula S; Gie, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Calcification of the airways is rarely seen in children. A male baby was born at 34 weeks with severe respiratory distress. Intubation was difficult with severe hypercarbia after intubation. Chest radiography demonstrated calcification in the tracheobronchial tree and this was confirmed with Chest CT scan. Flexible bronchoscopy confirmed long-segment funnel tracheal stenosis with visible calcifications in the trachea and bronchi. Chondrodysplasia punctata was diagnosed based on the clinical and radiological findings. PMID:25246461

  12. Atypical neuroimaging in Wilson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Patell, Rushad; Dosi, Rupal; Joshi, Harshal K; Storz, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Wilson's disease is a rare metabolic disease involving copper metabolism. Neuroimaging plays an important part in evaluation of patients with a neuropsychiatric presentation. We present a case of a 14-year-old girl with atypical confluent white matter disease and cystic degeneration on MRI, with a rapidly progressive course, who succumbed to complications despite treatment with trientine. Wilson's disease should be considered as a differential for leucoencephalopathy in young patients with progressive neurological disease for its early recognition and optimum outcome. PMID:24907221

  13. Atypical giant chondroblastoma mimicking a chondrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Dhanda, Sunita; Menon, Santosh; Gulia, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare, benign tumor derived from chondroblasts, commonly presenting in the second decade of life. It is usually found in the epiphysis or apophysis of long bones; however, it may rarely affect flat bones like scapula. Occasionally a histologically typical chondroblastoma may exhibit an aggressive behavior that is not normally associated with benign tumors such as a large size, pulmonary metastases, joint and soft-tissue infiltration and local recurrence. We present a case report of a patient with chondroblastoma showing atypical radiological presentation and non-concordance with age.

  14. Atypical giant chondroblastoma mimicking a chondrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Dhanda, Sunita; Menon, Santosh; Gulia, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare, benign tumor derived from chondroblasts, commonly presenting in the second decade of life. It is usually found in the epiphysis or apophysis of long bones; however, it may rarely affect flat bones like scapula. Occasionally a histologically typical chondroblastoma may exhibit an aggressive behavior that is not normally associated with benign tumors such as a large size, pulmonary metastases, joint and soft-tissue infiltration and local recurrence. We present a case report of a patient with chondroblastoma showing atypical radiological presentation and non-concordance with age. PMID:26458670

  15. Atypical And Severe Enlargement Of Right Atrium.

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, Carmine; Rossetti, Pietro; Rocci, Anna; Rubino, Pasquale; Basaglia, Manuela; Gaibazzi, Nicola; Quintavalla, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    A 76 year-old woman was admitted to the Emergency Department for recent-onset dyspnea and cough. The electrocardiogram was considered inconclusive. A thoracic X-ray showed global cardiac profile enlargement. Computed tomography, acutely performed in the clinical suspicion of atypical pneumonia/myocarditis or pericardial effusion, showed cardiac enlargement especially of the right chambers. In order to investigate Ebstein's anomaly, pericardial cysts, tumors or other conditions of the right heart a simple trans-thoracic echocardiogram was performed. Four chambers view showed a giant right atrium aneurysm with moderate tricuspid regurgitation without stenosis or typical Ebstein's echocardiographic pattern. PMID:27649002

  16. Atypical And Severe Enlargement Of Right Atrium.

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, Carmine; Rossetti, Pietro; Rocci, Anna; Rubino, Pasquale; Basaglia, Manuela; Gaibazzi, Nicola; Quintavalla, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    A 76 year-old woman was admitted to the Emergency Department for recent-onset dyspnea and cough. The electrocardiogram was considered inconclusive. A thoracic X-ray showed global cardiac profile enlargement. Computed tomography, acutely performed in the clinical suspicion of atypical pneumonia/myocarditis or pericardial effusion, showed cardiac enlargement especially of the right chambers. In order to investigate Ebstein's anomaly, pericardial cysts, tumors or other conditions of the right heart a simple trans-thoracic echocardiogram was performed. Four chambers view showed a giant right atrium aneurysm with moderate tricuspid regurgitation without stenosis or typical Ebstein's echocardiographic pattern.

  17. Atypical Bronchial Carcinoid Masquerading as Bronchial Asthma.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, V; Iqbal; Kumar, Vinod

    2015-11-01

    A case study of 35-year-old woman with persistent breathlessness and wheezing that had been unsuccessfully treated with inhaled beta 2-agonists and steroids for about two years. Patient developed dry cough and haemoptysis, so investigated further. Spirometry demonstrated a restrictive pattern. Chest CT demonstrated well defined hyperdense lesion in right middle lobe. Biopsy taken from the mass during bronchoscopy demonstrated the picture of atypical bronchial carcinoid. In this case, due to the lack of awareness, diagnosis of carcinoid was delayed by two years. PMID:27608788

  18. Trisomy 18 with unilateral atypical ectrodactyly

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Becerra et al. recently reported on an infant with multiple congenital anomalies who had trisomy 18. This preterm infant presented with bilateral ectrodactyly of feet, small cleft palate, esophageal atresia with associated tracheoesophageal fistula, congenital heart disease and other anomalies. The authors referenced article by Castle and Bernstein, in which they reported a male with trisomy 18 and cleft foot as well as a review of the literature which showed 2 other infants with trisomy 18 and ectrodactyly of the feet. An additional case of trisomy 18 associated with multiple congenital anomalies, including unilaterial, atypical ectrodactyly of the left foot.

  19. Globular adiponectin reduces vascular calcification via inhibition of ER-stress-mediated smooth muscle cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Bian, Yunfei; Wang, Yueru; Bai, Rui; Wang, Jiapu; Xiao, Chuanshi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to explore the mechanism of globular adiponectin inhibiting vascular calcification. Methods: We established drug-induced rat vascular calcification model, globular adiponectin was given to observe the effect of globular Adiponectin on the degree of calcification. The markers of vascular calcification and apoptosis were also investigated. Meanwhile, the in vitro effect of globular Adiponectin on vascular calcification was also evaluated using primary cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Results: We found that globular adiponectin could inhibit drug-induced rat vascular calcification significantly in vivo. The apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells was also reduced. The possible mechanism could be the down-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress by globular adiponectin. Experiments in primary cultured vascular smooth muscle cells also confirmed that globular adiponectin could reduce cell apoptosis to suppress vascular calcification via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Conclusions: This study confirmed that globular adiponectin could suppress vascular calcification; one of the mechanisms could be inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress to reduce cell apoptosis. It could provide an effective method in the therapy of vascular calcification-associated diseases. PMID:26045760

  20. Molecular Mechanisms of Vascular Calcification in Chronic Kidney Disease: The Link between Bone and the Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Byon, Chang Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Vascular calcification is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and increases mortality in those patients. Impaired calcium and phosphate homeostasis, increased oxidative stress, and loss of calcification inhibitors have been linked to vascular calcification in CKD. Additionally, impaired bone may perturb serum calcium/phosphate and their key regulator, parathyroid hormone, thus contributing to increased vascular calcification in CKD. Therapeutic approaches for CKD, such as phosphate binders and bisphosphonates, have been shown to ameliorate bone loss as well as vascular calcification. The precise mechanisms responsible for vascular calcification in CKD and the contribution of bone metabolism to vascular calcification have not been elucidated. This review discusses the role of systemic uremic factors and impaired bone metabolism in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification in CKD. The regulation of the key osteogenic transcription factor Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and the emerging role of Runx2-dependent receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) in vascular calcification of CKD are emphasized. PMID:25947259

  1. [Biomarkers of vascular calcifications: the osteoprotegerin/RANK/RANK L axis].

    PubMed

    Bargnoux, Anne-Sophie; Morena, Marion; Arnaud, Josiane; Cavalier, Étienne; Zaoui, Philippe; Delanaye, Pierre; Cristol, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    A better knowledge of physiopathologic phenomena responsible for vascular mineralization leads to emerging biological markers of vascular calcifications. In calcified arteries, the presence of bone matrix as well as osteoblast cells suggest that vascular calcification is an active and highly regulated process. The OPG/RANK/RANKL system is clearly of central significance in controlling vascular calcifications as in bone metabolism. Converging results suggest that circulating OPG determination should be a relevant marker of calcifications. The OPG/RANK/RANKL pathway also represents a potential therapeutic target in diseases associated with high bone resorption.

  2. Identification of Calcification with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhen; Mittal, Sandeep; Kish, Karl; Yu, Yingjian; Hu, J.; Haacke, E. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is a new MRI technique that can identify calcification by using phase images. We present a single case with a partially calcified oligodendroglioma, multiple calcified cysticercosis lesions, and multiple physiologic calcifications in the same patient. SWI phase images and computed tomography (CT) images are compared. SWI phase images showed the same calcified lesions as shown on CT and sometimes some new calcifications. Our conclusion is that SWI filtered phase images can identify calcifications as well as CT in this case. PMID:19097156

  3. Harnessing osteopontin and other natural inhibitors to mitigate ectopic calcification of bioprosthetic heart valve material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohri, Rachit

    Dystrophic calcification has been the long-standing major cause of bioprosthetic heart valve failure, and has been well studied in terms of the underlying causative mechanisms. Such understanding has yielded several anti-calcification strategies involving biomaterial modification at the preparation stage: chemical alteration, extraction of calcifiable components, or material modification with small-molecule anti-calcific agents. However, newer therapeutic opportunities are offered by the growing illustration of the pathology as a dynamic, actively regulated process involving several gene products, such as osteopontin (OPN), matrix-gla protein (MGP) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Osteopontin, a multi-functional matricellular glycosylated phosphoprotein has emerged as a prime candidate for the role of an in vivo inhibitor of ectopic calcification with two putative mechanisms: crystal poisoning and mineral-dissolution. The full therapeutic realization of its potential necessitates a better understanding of the mechanisms of anti-calcification by osteopontin, as well as appropriate in vivo models in which to evaluate its efficacy, potency and molecular mechanisms. In this work, we pursued the development and characterization of a reliable in vivo model with the OPN-null mouse to simulate the calcification of bioprosthetic valve material, namely glutaraldehyde-fixed bovine pericardium (GFBP) tissue. Subsequently, we used the calcification model to evaluate hypotheses based on the anti-calcific potential of osteopontin. Several modes of administering exogenous OPN to the implant site in OPN-null mice were explored, including soluble injected OPN, OPN covalently immobilized on the biomaterial, and OPN adsorbed onto the biomaterial. An investigation of the structure-function aspects of the anti-calcific ability of OPN was also pursued in the in vivo model. The OPN-null mouse was also used as an in vivo test-bed to evaluate the anti-calcific potential of other biomolecules

  4. Role of extracellular vesicles in de novo mineralization: an additional novel mechanism of cardiovascular calcification.

    PubMed

    New, Sophie E P; Aikawa, Elena

    2013-08-01

    Extracellular vesicles are membrane micro/nanovesicles secreted by many cell types into the circulation and the extracellular milieu in physiological and pathological conditions. Evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles, known as matrix vesicles, play a role in the mineralization of skeletal tissue, but emerging ultrastructural and in vitro studies have demonstrated their contribution to cardiovascular calcification as well. Cells involved in the progression of cardiovascular calcification release active vesicles capable of nucleating hydroxyapatite on their membranes. This review discusses the role of extracellular vesicles in cardiovascular calcification and elaborates on this additional mechanism of calcification as an alternative pathway to the currently accepted mechanism of biomineralization via osteogenic differentiation.

  5. Regulation of the sodium-phosphate cotransporter Pit-1 and its role in vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Magdalena; Martínez, Rafael; Amador, Cristián; Michea, Luis

    2009-10-01

    Vascular calcification is caused by the deposition of basic calcium phosphate crystals in blood vessels, myocardium, and/or cardiac valves. Calcification decreases artery wall compliance, and arterial calcification is associated to mortality in hyperphosphatemic renal failure and diabetes mellitus. The calcification of the tunica media characterizes the arteriosclerosis observed with age, diabetes and end stage-renal disease, and it can develop independently from intima calcification. As part of the vascular calcification mechanism, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) experience a transition from a contractile to an osteochondrogenic phenotype and a sequence of molecular events that are typical of endochondral ossification. The current evidence indicates a key role of increased phosphate uptake by VSMC for calcification, which supplies the substrate for hydroxyapatite formation and could trigger or potentiate VSMC transdiferentiation. The present review analyzes the sodium-phosphate cotransporter Pit-1, which is implicated in calcification. On the basis of the available data obtained in the study of vascular and osteoblastic experimental models, we discuss potential regulatory mechanisms that could lead to increased sodium-dependent phosphate uptake in vascular calcification. PMID:19485893

  6. Functional outcome after intracerebral haemorrhage - a review of the potential role of antiapoptotic agents.

    PubMed

    Salihu, Abubakar Tijjani; Muthuraju, Sangu; Idris, Zamzuri; Izaini Ghani, Abdul Rahman; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2016-04-01

    Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is the second most common form of stroke and is associated with greater mortality and morbidity compared with ischaemic stroke. The current ICH management strategies, which mainly target primary injury mechanisms, have not been shown to improve patient's functional outcome. Consequently, multimodality treatment approaches that will focus on both primary and secondary pathophysiology have been suggested. During the last decade, a proliferation of experimental studies has demonstrated the role of apoptosis in secondary neuronal loss at the periphery of the clot after ICH. Subsequently, the value of certain antiapoptotic agents in reducing neuronal death and improving functional outcome following ICH was evaluated in animal models. Preliminary evidence from those studies strongly supports the potential role of antiapoptotic agents in reducing neuronal death and improving functional outcome after intracerebral haemorrhage. Expectedly, the ongoing and subsequent clinical trials will substantiate these findings and provide clear information on the most potent and safe antiapoptotic agents, their appropriate dosage, and temporal window of action, thereby making them suitable for the multimodality treatment approach. PMID:26641962

  7. Endothelial depletion of murine SRF/MRTF provokes intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Weinl, Christine; Castaneda Vega, Salvador; Riehle, Heidemarie; Stritt, Christine; Calaminus, Carsten; Wolburg, Hartwig; Mauel, Susanne; Breithaupt, Angele; Gruber, Achim D.; Wasylyk, Bohdan; Olson, Eric N.; Adams, Ralf H.; Pichler, Bernd J.; Nordheim, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke and vascular dementia are age- and hypertension-associated manifestations of human cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). Cerebral microvessels are formed by endothelial cells (ECs), which are connected through tight junctions, adherens junctions, and stabilizing basement membrane structures. These endothelial connections ensure both vessel stability and blood–brain barrier (BBB) functions, the latter enabling selective exchange of ions, bioactive molecules, and cells between the bloodstream and brain tissue. SrfiECKO mice, permitting conditional EC-specific depletion of the transcription factor Serum Response Factor (SRF), suffer from loss of BBB integrity and intracerebral hemorrhaging. Cerebral microbleeds and larger hemorrhages developed upon postnatal and adult depletion of either SRF or its cofactors Myocardin Related Transcription Factor (MRTF-A/-B), revealing essential requirements of ongoing SRF/MRTF activity for maintenance of cerebral small vessel integrity. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging allowed detection, localization, and time-resolved quantification of BBB permeability and hemorrhage formation in SrfiECKO brains. At the molecular level, direct and indirect SRF/MRTF target genes, encoding structural components of tight junctions (Claudins and ZO proteins), adherens junctions (VE-cadherin, α-Actinin), and the basement membrane (Collagen IV), were down-regulated upon SRF depletion. These results identify SRF and its MRTF cofactors as major transcriptional regulators of EC junctional stability, guaranteeing physiological functions of the cerebral microvasculature. We hypothesize that impairments in SRF/MRTF activity contribute to human SVD pathology. PMID:26221020

  8. Right hemispheric dominance of visual phenomena evoked by intracerebral stimulation of the human visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Jacques; Frismand, Solène; Vignal, Jean-Pierre; Colnat-Coulbois, Sophie; Koessler, Laurent; Vespignani, Hervé; Rossion, Bruno; Maillard, Louis

    2014-07-01

    Electrical brain stimulation can provide important information about the functional organization of the human visual cortex. Here, we report the visual phenomena evoked by a large number (562) of intracerebral electrical stimulations performed at low-intensity with depth electrodes implanted in the occipito-parieto-temporal cortex of 22 epileptic patients. Focal electrical stimulation evoked primarily visual hallucinations with various complexities: simple (spot or blob), intermediary (geometric forms), or complex meaningful shapes (faces); visual illusions and impairments of visual recognition were more rarely observed. With the exception of the most posterior cortical sites, the probability of evoking a visual phenomenon was significantly higher in the right than the left hemisphere. Intermediary and complex hallucinations, illusions, and visual recognition impairments were almost exclusively evoked by stimulation in the right hemisphere. The probability of evoking a visual phenomenon decreased substantially from the occipital pole to the most anterior sites of the temporal lobe, and this decrease was more pronounced in the left hemisphere. The greater sensitivity of the right occipito-parieto-temporal regions to intracerebral electrical stimulation to evoke visual phenomena supports a predominant role of right hemispheric visual areas from perception to recognition of visual forms, regardless of visuospatial and attentional factors. PMID:24733699

  9. Markerless registration for intracerebral hemorrhage surgical system using weighted Iterative Closest Point (ICP).

    PubMed

    Shin, Sangkyun; Lee, Deukhee; Kim, Youngjun; Park, Sehyung

    2012-01-01

    It is required to use a stereotactic frame on a patient's crainial surface to access an intracerebral hematoma in conventional ICH (Intracerebral Hemorrhage) removal surgery. Since ICH using a stereotactic frame is an invasive procedure and also takes a long time, we attempt to develop a robotic ICH removal procedure with a markerless registration system using an optical 3-D scanner. Preoperative planning is performed using a patient's CT (Computed Tomography) images, which include the patient's 3-D geometrical information on the hematoma and internal structures of brain. To register the preplanned data and the intraoperative patient's data, the patient's facial surface is scanned by an optical 3-D scanner on the bed in the operating room. The intraoperatively scanned facial surface is registered to the pose of the patient's preoperative facial surface. The conventional ICP (Iterative Closest Point) algorithm can be used for the registration. In this paper, we propose a weighted ICP in order to improve the accuracy of the registration results. We investigated facial regions that can be used as anatomical landmarks. The facial regions for the landmarks in the preoperative 3-D model are weighted for more accurate registration. We increase weights at the relatively undeformed facial regions, and decrease weights at the other regions. As a result, more accurate and robust registration can be achieved from the preoperative data even with local facial shape changes. PMID:23367127

  10. Longitudinal quantification and visualization of intracerebral hemorrhage using multimodal magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Goh, S.Y. Matthew; Irimia, Andrei; Torgerson, Carinna M.; Tubi, Meral A.; Real, Courtney R.; Hanley, Daniel F.; Martin, Neil A.; Vespa, Paul M.; Van Horn, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate a set of approaches using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography whereby pathology-affected white matter (WM) fibers in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) can be selectively visualized. Methods Using structural neuroimaging and DTI volumes acquired longitudinally from three representative ICH patients, the spatial configuration of ICH-related trauma is delineated and the WM fiber bundles intersecting each ICH lesion are identified and visualized. Both the extent of ICH lesions as well as the proportion of WM fibers intersecting the ICH pathology are quantified and compared across subjects. Results Our method successfully demonstrates longitudinal volumetric differences in ICH lesion load and differences across time in percentage of fibers which intersect the primary injury. Conclusions Because neurological conditions such as intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) frequently exhibit pathology-related effects which lead to the exertion of mechanical pressure upon surrounding tissues, and thereby to the deformation and/or displacement of WM fibers, DTI fiber tractography is highly suitable for assessing longitudinal changes in WM fiber integrity and mechanical displacement. PMID:25518865

  11. Right hemispheric dominance of visual phenomena evoked by intracerebral stimulation of the human visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Jacques; Frismand, Solène; Vignal, Jean-Pierre; Colnat-Coulbois, Sophie; Koessler, Laurent; Vespignani, Hervé; Rossion, Bruno; Maillard, Louis

    2014-07-01

    Electrical brain stimulation can provide important information about the functional organization of the human visual cortex. Here, we report the visual phenomena evoked by a large number (562) of intracerebral electrical stimulations performed at low-intensity with depth electrodes implanted in the occipito-parieto-temporal cortex of 22 epileptic patients. Focal electrical stimulation evoked primarily visual hallucinations with various complexities: simple (spot or blob), intermediary (geometric forms), or complex meaningful shapes (faces); visual illusions and impairments of visual recognition were more rarely observed. With the exception of the most posterior cortical sites, the probability of evoking a visual phenomenon was significantly higher in the right than the left hemisphere. Intermediary and complex hallucinations, illusions, and visual recognition impairments were almost exclusively evoked by stimulation in the right hemisphere. The probability of evoking a visual phenomenon decreased substantially from the occipital pole to the most anterior sites of the temporal lobe, and this decrease was more pronounced in the left hemisphere. The greater sensitivity of the right occipito-parieto-temporal regions to intracerebral electrical stimulation to evoke visual phenomena supports a predominant role of right hemispheric visual areas from perception to recognition of visual forms, regardless of visuospatial and attentional factors.

  12. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in northeast Malaysian patients: a four-year study.

    PubMed

    Muiz, A J; Abdullah, J; Naing, N N; Ghazaime, G; Ariff, A R

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare nonsurgical versus stereotactic aspiration of intracerebral hematomas in relation to clinical aspects, computed tomographic imaging features of the brain, laboratory parameters and specific risk factors that may influence the outcome in southeast Asian Malay patients. Fifty-five of the patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) underwent stereotactic aspiration and 57 did not. Analysis was done on risk factors, locations and treatments of ICH, and the final outcomes measured by the Glasgow Outcome Scale. A total of 112 patients were evaluated. Mean age was 52 years with ages ranging from 12 to 80 years. Hypertension was seen in 60.7% of patients with ICH. The mortality rate was 25% by 3 months. 58.9% had a poor final outcome, while 41.1% had a good outcome. The selected variables were incorporated into models generated by multiple logistic regression method analysis to define the significant predictors of outcome. Significant predictors of outcome were the Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission, the duration of surgery and the total volume of the hematoma. Significant predictors of mortality were high total white blood cell differential count, low plasma protein, and high plasma lactate dehydrogenase and brain edema. The study suggests that stereotactic aspiration of patients with ICH does not offer any definite advantage over conservative treatment.

  13. Skilled reaching training promotes astroglial changes and facilitated sensorimotor recovery after collagenase-induced intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mestriner, R G; Pagnussat, A S; Boisserand, L S B; Valentim, L; Netto, C A

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the most devastating type of stroke and a leading cause of disability and mortality worldwide. Although rehabilitation improves recovery after ICH the cellular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. We decided to examine if skilled (SK) and unskilled (US) training after sham or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) surgeries would induce GFAP+ astrocytic changes and whether these modifications can be associated with functional improvement. A 4-week course of motor training, involving either skilled and unskilled training began seven days after surgery; sensorimotor recovery was evaluated using Staircase, ladder walk and cylinder tests. Histological and morphometric analyses were used to assess GFAP+ cell bilaterally in forelimb sensorimotor cortex and dorsolateral striatum. All behavioral tests showed that ICH-SK rats experienced a greater degree of recovery when compared to ICH no task or ICH-US groups; no behavioral differences were found among all sham groups. Astrocytic density was increased in all analyzed structures for ICH no task, ICH-SK and ICH-US rats. Morphological analysis revealed an increased number of primary processes in ipsilateral (to lesion) sensorimotor cortex for all ICH groups. Present results also revealed that both ICH and SK induced an increased length of GFAP+ primary process; there was a further increase in length processes for ICH-SK group in sensorimotor cortex and ipsilateral striatum. We suggest that skilled reaching is an effective intervention to promote astrocytic plasticity and recovery after ICH. PMID:20850433

  14. Prediction of the incidence of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage from meteorological data.

    PubMed

    Nakaguchi, Hiroshi; Matsuno, Akira; Teraoka, Akira

    2008-03-01

    We analyzed the relationship between the incidence of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and various meteorological data (daily atmospheric air pressure, air temperature, precipitation, humidity, presence of typhoons, occurrence of the rainy season, wind velocity, and wind direction) for patients at Teraoka Memorial Hospital in Shin-ichi Town, Japan, from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2003. All data were analyzed by contingency table analysis and multivariate regression analysis. From January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2003, we identified high-risk ICH days as those days for which the preceding 3 days mean recorded air pressure of 1,015 hPa or more and then conducted a statistical comparison of the incidence of ICH on high-risk ICH days with that on the other days. Our subjects were 164 patients with ICH. The relative risk of high-risk ICH days is 1.46 (Fisher's exact test, p=0.04). Mann-Whitney's U-tests indicate ICH tends to occur on days with lower maximum air temperature. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that 3 incidences influence the occurrence of intracerebral hemorrhage (p<0.01 each): (1) days associated with 4-day periods of mean air pressure in excess of 1,015 hPa; (2) days during which a typhoon was approaching; and (3) days with west or southwest wind . Detailed examination of meteorological data indicates a relationship with the incident rate of ICH.

  15. Update on the Surgical Trial in Lobar Intracerebral Haemorrhage (STICH II): statistical analysis plan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies had suggested that the outcome for patients with spontaneous lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) and no intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) might be improved with early evacuation of the haematoma. The Surgical Trial in Lobar Intracerebral Haemorrhage (STICH II) set out to establish whether a policy of earlier surgical evacuation of the haematoma in selected patients with spontaneous lobar ICH would improve outcome compared to a policy of initial conservative treatment. It is an international, multi-centre, prospective randomised parallel group trial of early surgery in patients with spontaneous lobar ICH. Outcome is measured at six months via a postal questionnaire. Results Recruitment to the study began on 27 November 2006 and closed on 15 August 2012 by which time 601 patients had been recruited. The protocol was published in Trials (http://www.trialsjournal.com/content/12/1/124/). This update presents the analysis plan for the study without reference to the unblinded data. The trial data will not be unblinded until after follow-up is completed in early 2013. The main trial results will be presented in spring 2013 with the aim to publish in a peer-reviewed journal at the same time. Conclusion The data from the trial will provide evidence on the benefits and risks of early surgery in patients with lobar ICH. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN22153967 PMID:23171588

  16. Early treatment of hypertension in acute ischemic and intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke: progress achieved, challenges, and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Feldstein, Carlos A

    2014-03-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk factor for ischemic and intracerebral hemorrhagic subtypes of stroke. Additionally, high blood pressure (BP) in the acute cerebrovascular event is associated with poor outcome, and a high percentage of stroke survivors have inadequate control of hypertension. The present is a systematic review of prospective, randomized, and controlled trials carried out on safety and efficacy of antihypertensive treatment of both subtypes of acute stroke. Six trials involving 7512 patients were included, which revealed controversies on the speed and the goals of treatment. These controversies could be due at least in part, from the fact that some studies analyzed the results of antihypertensive treatment in ischemic and intracerebral hemorrhagic subtypes of acute stroke together, and from a different prevalence of past-stroke in the randomized groups. Further research is necessary to establish whether standard antihypertensive treatment provides greater benefit than simple observation in patients with ischemic acute stroke and Stage 2 hypertension of JNC 7, albeit they were not candidates for acute reperfusion. In that case, the target reduction in BP could be 10% to 15% within 24 hours. The recently published INTERACT 2 has provided evidence that patients with hemorrhagic stroke may receive intensive antihypertensive treatment safely with the goal of reducing systolic BP to levels no lower than 130 mm Hg. It is important to take into account that marked BP lowering in acute stroke increases the risk of poor outcome by worsening cerebral ischemia from deterioration of cerebral blood flow autoregulation. PMID:24220549

  17. Pontine Infarct Presenting with Atypical Dental Pain: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Goel, Rajat; Kumar, Sanjeev; Panwar, Ajay; Singh, Abhishek B

    2015-01-01

    Orofacial pain' most commonly occurs due to dental causes like caries, gingivitis or periodontitis. Other common causes of 'orofacial pain' are sinusitis, temporomandibular joint(TMJ) dysfunction, otitis externa, tension headache and migraine. In some patients, the etiology of 'orofacial pain' remains undetected despite optimal evaluation. A few patients in the practice of clinical dentistry presents with dental pain without any identifiable dental etiology. Such patients are classified under the category of 'atypical odontalgia'. 'Atypical odontalgia' is reported to be prevalent in 2.1% of the individuals. 'Atypical orofacial pain' and 'atypical odontalgia' can result from the neurological diseases like multiple sclerosis, trigeminal neuralgia and herpes infection. Trigeminal neuralgia has been frequently documented as a cause of 'atypical orofacial pain' and 'atypical odontalgia'. There are a few isolated case reports of acute pontine stroke resulting in 'atypical orofacial pain' and 'atypical odontalgia'. However, pontine stroke as a cause of atypical odontalgia is limited to only a few cases, hence prevalence is not established. This case is one, where a patient presented with acute onset atypical dental pain with no identifiable dental etiology, further diagnosed as an acute pontine infarct on neuroimaging. A 40 years old male presented with acute onset, diffuse teeth pain on right side. Dental examination was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) of the brain had an acute infarct in right pons near the trigeminal root entry zone(REZ). Pontine infarct presenting with dental pain as a manifestation of trigeminal neuropathy, has rarely been reported previously. This stresses on the importance of neuroradiology in evaluation of atypical cases of dental pain. PMID:26464604

  18. Pontine Infarct Presenting with Atypical Dental Pain: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Rajat; Kumar, Sanjeev; Panwar, Ajay; Singh, Abhishek B

    2015-01-01

    Orofacial pain’ most commonly occurs due to dental causes like caries, gingivitis or periodontitis. Other common causes of ‘orofacial pain’ are sinusitis, temporomandibular joint(TMJ) dysfunction, otitis externa, tension headache and migraine. In some patients, the etiology of ‘orofacial pain’ remains undetected despite optimal evaluation. A few patients in the practice of clinical dentistry presents with dental pain without any identifiable dental etiology. Such patients are classified under the category of ‘atypical odontalgia’. ‘Atypical odontalgia’ is reported to be prevalent in 2.1% of the individuals. ‘Atypical orofacial pain’ and ‘atypical odontalgia’ can result from the neurological diseases like multiple sclerosis, trigeminal neuralgia and herpes infection. Trigeminal neuralgia has been frequently documented as a cause of ‘atypical orofacial pain’ and ‘atypical odontalgia’. There are a few isolated case reports of acute pontine stroke resulting in ‘atypical orofacial pain’ and ‘atypical odontalgia’. However, pontine stroke as a cause of atypical odontalgia is limited to only a few cases, hence prevalence is not established. This case is one, where a patient presented with acute onset atypical dental pain with no identifiable dental etiology, further diagnosed as an acute pontine infarct on neuroimaging. A 40 years old male presented with acute onset, diffuse teeth pain on right side. Dental examination was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) of the brain had an acute infarct in right pons near the trigeminal root entry zone(REZ). Pontine infarct presenting with dental pain as a manifestation of trigeminal neuropathy, has rarely been reported previously. This stresses on the importance of neuroradiology in evaluation of atypical cases of dental pain. PMID:26464604

  19. Neuromyelitis optica: atypical clinical and neuroradiological presentation.

    PubMed

    Splendiani, Alessandra; Mariani, Silvia; Anselmi, Monica; Catalucci, Alessia; Di Cesare, Ernesto; Gallucci, Massimo

    2015-02-01

    The extreme variability of clinical and MRI findings in the suspicion of Devic's disease always requires the detection of specific antibodies (AQP4). MRI scans were performed with a high-field MRI scanner (1.5T General Electric Signa Horizon): the MRI protocol of the brain employed axial DP, T2, T1, FLAIR and DWI weighted images (wi) and coronal T2-wi. After intravenous administration of contrast medium axial and sagittal T1-weighted images of the brain were repeated. The spine protocol employed after contrast medium included sagittal T2-wi, T2-wi with fat suppression and T1-wi. In May 2004, a 64-year-old healthy Caucasian woman began to suffer loss of motor and thermal sensitivity in the left lower limb. MRI showed non-specific areas of abnormal signal intensity on the deep left frontal and right frontoparietal white matter with no pathological enhancement after contrast medium and a small intramedullary area of altered signal at metameric level C2-C4 with a diagnosis of post-viral transverse myelitis. The patient had two similar episodes years later so the neurologist decided to search for circulating IgG AQP4 with the definitive diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica. In this case, compared to a clinical presentation of atypical deficit neurological involvement, the neuroradiological results of a progressive diffuse involvement of the white matter were atypical. PMID:25924171

  20. Neuromyelitis Optica: Atypical Clinical and Neuroradiological Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, Silvia; Anselmi, Monica; Catalucci, Alessia; Di Cesare, Ernesto; Gallucci, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The extreme variability of clinical and MRI findings in the suspicion of Devic's disease always requires the detection of specific antibodies (AQP4). MRI scans were performed with a high-field MRI scanner (1.5T General Electric Signa Horizon): the MRI protocol of the brain employed axial DP, T2, T1, FLAIR and DWI weighted images (wi) and coronal T2-wi. After intravenous administration of contrast medium axial and sagittal T1-weighted images of the brain were repeated. The spine protocol employed after contrast medium included sagittal T2-wi, T2-wi with fat suppression and T1-wi. In May 2004, a 64-year-old healthy Caucasian woman began to suffer loss of motor and thermal sensitivity in the left lower limb. MRI showed non-specific areas of abnormal signal intensity on the deep left frontal and right frontoparietal white matter with no pathological enhancement after contrast medium and a small intramedullary area of altered signal at metameric level C2-C4 with a diagnosis of post-viral transverse myelitis. The patient had two similar episodes years later so the neurologist decided to search for circulating IgG AQP4 with the definitive diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica. In this case, compared to a clinical presentation of atypical deficit neurological involvement, the neuroradiological results of a progressive diffuse involvement of the white matter were atypical. PMID:25924171

  1. Atypical CML with massive splenic infarct: an extremely rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Manna, Satyaki; Hajra, Adrija; Bhattacharya, Tanima Das

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 47-year-old man who presented with hepatosplenomegaly, anaemia and massive splenic infarct. A series of investigations led us to a diagnosis of atypical chronic myeloid leucaemia, a rare variety of a mixed myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm. This is the first case of atypical CML presenting with massive splenic infarction.

  2. Keloidal Atypical Fibroxanthoma: Case and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tongdee, Emily; Touloei, Khasha; Shitabata, Paul K.; Shareef, Shahjahan; Maranda, Eric L.

    2016-01-01

    Keloidal atypical fibroxanthoma (KAF) has recently been categorized as a variant of atypical fibroxanthoma. This paper will emphasize the importance of including KAF in both clinical and histological differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions which exhibit keloidal collagen and will also review the current literature on epidemiology, pathogenesis, histology, immunochemistry and treatments. PMID:27462224

  3. Young Peoples' Representations of "Atypical" Work in English Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crafter, Sarah; O'Dell, Lindsay; de Abreu, Guida; Cline, Tony

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we explore young peoples' normative representations of work. In particular, we are interested in the ways young people view work roles which could be considered "atypical" such as young caring or language brokering. Interviewed were 46 young people (15-18 years) some who did, and some who did not engage in the "atypical" work roles…

  4. Typical and Atypical Dementia Family Caregivers: Systematic and Objective Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Linda O.; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Burns, Robert; Graney, Marshall J.; Zuber, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This systematic, objective comparison of typical (spouse, children) and atypical (in-law, sibling, nephew/niece, grandchild) dementia family caregivers examined demographic, caregiving and clinical variables. Analysis was of 1,476 caregivers, of whom 125 were atypical, from the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregivers Health (REACH I and II)…

  5. Sensitivity of Calcification to Thermal Stress Varies among Genera of Massive Reef-Building Corals

    PubMed Central

    Carricart-Ganivet, Juan P.; Cabanillas-Terán, Nancy; Cruz-Ortega, Israel; Blanchon, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Reductions in calcification in reef-building corals occur when thermal conditions are suboptimal, but it is unclear how they vary between genera in response to the same thermal stress event. Using densitometry techniques, we investigate reductions in the calcification rate of massive Porites spp. from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), and P. astreoides, Montastraea faveolata, and M. franksi from the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (MBR), and correlate them to thermal stress associated with ocean warming. Results show that Porites spp. are more sensitive to increasing temperature than Montastraea, with calcification rates decreasing by 0.40 g cm−2 year−1 in Porites spp. and 0.12 g cm−2 year−1 in Montastraea spp. for each 1°C increase. Under similar warming trends, the predicted calcification rates at 2100 are close to zero in Porites spp. and reduced by 40% in Montastraea spp. However, these predictions do not account for ocean acidification. Although yearly mean aragonite saturation (Ωar) at MBR sites has recently decreased, only P. astreoides at Chinchorro showed a reduction in calcification. In corals at the other sites calcification did not change, indicating there was no widespread effect of Ωar changes on coral calcification rate in the MBR. Even in the absence of ocean acidification, differential reductions in calcification between Porites spp. and Montastraea spp. associated with warming might be expected to have significant ecological repercussions. For instance, Porites spp. invest increased calcification in extension, and under warming scenarios it may reduce their ability to compete for space. As a consequence, shifts in taxonomic composition would be expected in Indo-Pacific reefs with uncertain repercussions for biodiversity. By contrast, Montastraea spp. use their increased calcification resources to construct denser skeletons. Reductions in calcification would therefore make them more susceptible to both physical and biological breakdown, seriously

  6. Spatial and seasonal reef calcification in corals and calcareous crusts in the central Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roik, Anna; Roder, Cornelia; Röthig, Till; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2016-06-01

    The existence of coral reef ecosystems critically relies on the reef carbonate framework produced by scleractinian corals and calcareous crusts (i.e., crustose coralline algae). While the Red Sea harbors one of the longest connected reef systems in the world, detailed calcification data are only available from the northernmost part. To fill this knowledge gap, we measured in situ calcification rates of primary and secondary reef builders in the central Red Sea. We collected data on the major habitat-forming coral genera Porites, Acropora, and Pocillopora and also on calcareous crusts (CC) in a spatio-seasonal framework. The scope of the study comprised sheltered and exposed sites of three reefs along a cross-shelf gradient and over four seasons of the year. Calcification of all coral genera was consistent across the shelf and highest in spring. In addition, Pocillopora showed increased calcification at exposed reef sites. In contrast, CC calcification increased from nearshore, sheltered to offshore, exposed reef sites, but also varied over seasons. Comparing our data to other reef locations, calcification in the Red Sea was in the range of data collected from reefs in the Caribbean and Indo-Pacific; however, Acropora calcification estimates were at the lower end of worldwide rates. Our study shows that the increasing coral cover from nearshore to offshore environments aligned with CC calcification but not coral calcification, highlighting the potentially important role of CC in structuring reef cover and habitats. While coral calcification maxima have been typically observed during summer in many reef locations worldwide, calcification maxima during spring in the central Red Sea indicate that summer temperatures exceed the optima of reef calcifiers in this region. This study provides a foundation for comparative efforts and sets a baseline to quantify impact of future environmental change in the central Red Sea.

  7. Impact of seawater carbonate chemistry on the calcification of marine bivalves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, J.; Haynert, K.; Wegner, K. M.; Melzner, F.

    2015-07-01

    Bivalve calcification, particularly of the early larval stages, is highly sensitive to the change in ocean carbonate chemistry resulting from atmospheric CO2 uptake. Earlier studies suggested that declining seawater [CO32-] and thereby lowered carbonate saturation affect shell production. However, disturbances of physiological processes such as acid-base regulation by adverse seawater pCO2 and pH can affect calcification in a secondary fashion. In order to determine the exact carbonate system component by which growth and calcification are affected it is necessary to utilize more complex carbonate chemistry manipulations. As single factors, pCO2 had no effects and [HCO3-] and pH had only limited effects on shell growth, while lowered [CO32-] strongly impacted calcification. Dissolved inorganic carbon (CT) limiting conditions led to strong reductions in calcification, despite high [CO32-], indicating that [HCO3-] rather than [CO32-] is the inorganic carbon source utilized for calcification by mytilid mussels. However, as the ratio [HCO3-] / [H+] is linearly correlated with [CO32-] it is not possible to differentiate between these under natural seawater conditions. An equivalent of about 80 μmol kg-1 [CO32-] is required to saturate inorganic carbon supply for calcification in bivalves. Below this threshold biomineralization rates rapidly decline. A comparison of literature data available for larvae and juvenile mussels and oysters originating from habitats differing substantially with respect to prevailing carbonate chemistry conditions revealed similar response curves. This suggests that the mechanisms which determine sensitivity of calcification in this group are highly conserved. The higher sensitivity of larval calcification seems to primarily result from the much higher relative calcification rates in early life stages. In order to reveal and understand the mechanisms that limit or facilitate adaptation to future ocean acidification, it is necessary to better

  8. Autophagy protects end plate chondrocytes from intermittent cyclic mechanical tension induced calcification.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-guang; Yu, Yun-fei; Zheng, Quan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Chuang-dong; Zhao, Xiao-yn; Tong, Wen-xue; Wang, Hong; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Xiao-ling

    2014-09-01

    Calcification of end plate chondrocytes is a major cause of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of end plate chondrocyte calcification is still unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify whether autophagy in end plate chondrocytes could protect the calcification of end plate chondrocytes. Previous studies showed that intermittent cyclic mechanical tension (ICMT) contributes to the calcification of end plate chondrocytes in vitro. While autophagy serves as a cell survival mechanism, the relationship of autophagy and induced end plate chondrocyte calcification by mechanical tension in vitro is unknown. Thus, we investigated autophagy, the expression of the autophagy genes, Beclin-1 and LC3, and rat end plate chondrocyte calcification by ICMT. The viability of end plate chondrocytes was examined using the LIVE/DEAD viability/cytotoxicity kit. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to detect the expression of Beclin-1; LC3; type I, II and X collagen; aggrecan; and Sox-9 genes. Immunofluorescent and fluorescent microscopy showed decreased autophagy in the 10- and 20-day groups loaded with ICMT. Additionally, Alizarin red and alkaline phosphatase staining detected the palpable calcification of end plate chondrocytes after ICMT treatment. We found that increased autophagy induced by short-term ICMT treatment was accompanied by an insignificant calcification of end plate chondrocytes. To the contrary, the suppressive autophagy inhibited by long-term ICMT was accompanied by a more significant calcification. The process of calcification induced by ICMT was partially resisted by increased autophagy activity induced by rapamycin, implicating that autophagy may prevent end plate chondrocyte calcification.

  9. Sensitivity of calcification to thermal stress varies among genera of massive reef-building corals.

    PubMed

    Carricart-Ganivet, Juan P; Cabanillas-Terán, Nancy; Cruz-Ortega, Israel; Blanchon, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Reductions in calcification in reef-building corals occur when thermal conditions are suboptimal, but it is unclear how they vary between genera in response to the same thermal stress event. Using densitometry techniques, we investigate reductions in the calcification rate of massive Porites spp. from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), and P. astreoides, Montastraea faveolata, and M. franksi from the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (MBR), and correlate them to thermal stress associated with ocean warming. Results show that Porites spp. are more sensitive to increasing temperature than Montastraea, with calcification rates decreasing by 0.40 g cm(-2) year(-1) in Porites spp. and 0.12 g cm(-2) year(-1) in Montastraea spp. for each 1°C increase. Under similar warming trends, the predicted calcification rates at 2100 are close to zero in Porites spp. and reduced by 40% in Montastraea spp. However, these predictions do not account for ocean acidification. Although yearly mean aragonite saturation (Ω(ar)) at MBR sites has recently decreased, only P. astreoides at Chinchorro showed a reduction in calcification. In corals at the other sites calcification did not change, indicating there was no widespread effect of Ω(ar) changes on coral calcification rate in the MBR. Even in the absence of ocean acidification, differential reductions in calcification between Porites spp. and Montastraea spp. associated with warming might be expected to have significant ecological repercussions. For instance, Porites spp. invest increased calcification in extension, and under warming scenarios it may reduce their ability to compete for space. As a consequence, shifts in taxonomic composition would be expected in Indo-Pacific reefs with uncertain repercussions for biodiversity. By contrast, Montastraea spp. use their increased calcification resources to construct denser skeletons. Reductions in calcification would therefore make them more susceptible to both physical and biological breakdown

  10. Linking calcification by exotic snails to stream inorganic carbon cycling.

    PubMed

    Hotchkiss, Erin R; Hall, Robert O

    2010-05-01

    Biotic calcification is rarely considered in freshwater C budgets, despite calculations suggesting that calcifying animals can alter inorganic C cycling. Most studies that have quantified biocalcification in aquatic ecosystems have not directly linked CO(2) fluxes from biocalcification with whole-ecosystem rates of inorganic C cycling. The freshwater snail, Melanoides tuberculata, has achieved a high abundance and 37.4 g biomass m(-2) after invading Kelly Warm Springs in Grand Teton National Park. This high biomass suggests that introduced populations of Melanoides may alter ecosystem processes. We measured Melanoides growth rates and biomass to calculate the production of biomass, shell mass, and CO(2). We compared Melanoides biomass and inorganic C production with ecosystem C pools and fluxes, as well as with published rates of CO(2) production by other calcifying organisms. Melanoides calcification in Kelly Warm Springs produced 12.1 mmol CO(2) m(-2) day(-1) during summer months. We measured high rates of gross primary productivity and respiration in Kelly Warm Springs (-378 and 533 mmol CO(2) m(-2) day(-1), respectively); CO(2) produced from biocalcification increased net CO(2) production in Kelly Warm Springs from 155 to 167 mmol CO(2) m(-2) day(-1). This rate of CO(2) production via biocalcification is within the published range of calcification by animals. But these CO(2) fluxes are small when compared to ecosystem C fluxes from stream metabolism. The influence of animals is relative to ecosystem processes, and should always be compared with ecosystem fluxes to quantify the importance of a specific animal in its environment.

  11. Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide on Coral Photosynthesis and Calcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, T.; Fujimura, H.; Arakaki, T.; Oomori, T.

    2007-12-01

    The widely-observed decline of coral reefs is considered to be caused by changes in the environment by natural and anthropogenic activities. As one important factor, the run-off of various matters from human activities to the coastal seawater poses stresses to the corals by degrading the quality of the seawater. In Okinawa, Japan, red- soil running off from the developed land has been a major environmental issue since 1980s. Hydrogen peroxide (HOOH), a strong active oxygen species, is one of the photochemically formed chemicals in the red-soil-polluted seawater. Recent photochemical studies of seawater showed that HOOH photo-formation was faster in the red- soil-polluted seawater than clean seawater. We studied the effects of HOOH on corals by studying the changes in coral carbon metabolisms such as photosynthesis and calcification, which are indicators of the physiological state of a coral colony. The corals were exposed to various concentrations of HOOH (0, 0.3, 3 μM). Two massive coral species of Porites sp. and Goniastrea aspera and one branch coral of Galaxea facicularis were used for the exposure experiments. The control experiments showed that when no HOOH was added, metabolisms of each coral colony were relatively stable. On the other hand, when HOOH was added to the seawater, we observed obvious changes in the coral metabolisms in all the coral species. When 0.3 μM HOOH was added, photosynthesis decreased by 14% and calcification decreased by 17% within 3 days, compared with the control. When 3 μM HOOH was added, photosynthesis decreased by 21% and calcification decreased by 41% within 3 days, compared with the control. Our study showed that higher concentrations of HOOH posed more stress to the coral colonies.

  12. [Brain calcifications: a case presentation of congenital toxoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Ávila, Mauricio J; Rodríguez-Restrepo, Andrea

    2014-12-18

    Toxoplasmosis is a common disease in Latin America. The infection has a major impact on public health worldwide. Congenital toxoplasmosis is part of the spectrum of the disease and the consequences for the newborn are devastating. In this article, we present a case of brain calcifications and hydrocephalus secondary to infection with Toxoplasma gondii in a newborn, as well as the outcome during follow-up and long-term sequelae. It is of high importance for the clinician to think about this disease, due to its high prevalence in Latin America, and to adopt adequate measures for its prevention and timely management in order to reduce long-term sequelae.

  13. Bioavailability, biodistribution, and CNS toxicity of clinical-grade parvovirus H1 after intravenous and intracerebral injection in rats.

    PubMed

    Geletneky, Karsten; Leoni, Anne-Laure; Pohlmeyer-Esch, Gabriele; Loebhard, Stephanie; Leuchs, Barbara; Hoefer, Constance; Jochims, Karin; Dahm, Michael; Huber, Bernard; Rommelaere, Jean; Krebs, Ottheinz; Hajda, Jacek

    2015-02-01

    The autonomous parvovirus H1 (H1PV) is transmitted in rodent populations. The natural host is the rat, in which H1PV infection is pathogenic only in fetuses and newborns. H1PV infection of human cancer cells leads to strong oncolytic effects in preclinical models. In preparation for a clinical trial of H1PV injection in patients with malignant brain tumors, H1PV had to be prepared to Good Manufacturing Practice standards, including extensive toxicology testing in rats. Because the trial involves direct intracerebral injection of H1PV into the tumor and around the resection cavity, possible toxicity to CNS tissue had to be investigated. In addition, quantitative blood levels and the tissue distribution of H1PV after single intracerebral or intravenous injection were measured. Direct injection of H1PV into rat brain at 3 dose levels (maximum, 7.96 × 107 pfu) did not cause any macroscopic or histologic pathology. Furthermore, H1PV infection of the brain did not alter central or autonomous nervous system function. H1PV DNA was detected in almost all organs at 6 h, 48 h, and 14 d after intravenous and intracerebral injection, with the highest levels in liver and spleen. H1PV concentrations in most organs were similar after intravenous and intracerebral injection, indicating high permeability of the blood-brain barrier for this small virus. The current results demonstrate wide organ distribution of H1PV after intravenous or intracerebral injection, confirm that H1PV is nonpathogenic in adult rats even after direct injection into the brain, and form the basis for the ongoing ParvOryx01 clinical trial. PMID:25730755

  14. [The role of calcium ions in the pathomechanism of the artery calcification accompanying atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Małecki, Rafał; Adamiec, Rajmund

    2005-01-01

    Artery calcification occurring in atherosclerosis is connected with a high risk of cardiovascular events. Quantitative calcification evaluation using electron beam tomography indicated a correlation between artery calcification and well-known cardiovascular risk factors, i.e. smoking, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Elevated calcium scores are especially observed in diabetic patients, which may even explain the higher mortality in this group. Calcification leads to increased blood vessel rigidity and, consequently, elevated arterial vascular resistance and left ventricular hypertrophy. An increased risk of plaque rupture in relation to calcium-rich atherosclerotic lesions was not proved. Plaque rupture and thromboembolitic complications are probably higher in the case of lipid-rich lesions. Atherosclerotic calcification is an active process in which many cells (monocytes/macrophages, vascular smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells) participate. Many substances and transcription factors normally participating in the bone remodeling process are found in calcified atherosclerotic lesions (e.g. Cbfa-1, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, BMP-2, osteopontin, osteoprotegrin, and RANKL). On monocytes, cells playing an important role in atherosclerosis progression, the presence of a calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) has been demonstrated. Increase in monocyte chemotaxis and increased interleukin 6 secretion in response to extracellular calcium were observed. Monocytes also directly and indirectly enhance vascular calcification. Immune cells and cytokines participating in vascular calcification are connected in one pathogenetic mechanism, i.e. atherosclerosis as an inflammatory disease and calcification. PMID:15761385

  15. Generalized arterial calcification of infancy--Findings at post-mortem computed tomography and autopsy.

    PubMed

    Bolster, Ferdia; Ali, Zabiullah; Southall, Pamela; Fowler, David

    2015-09-01

    Generalized arterial calcification in infancy is a rare genetic disorder characterized by abnormal calcification of large and medium sized arteries and marked myointimal proliferation resulting in arterial stenosis. The condition is often fatal secondary to complications of cardiac ischemia, hypertension and cardiac failure. In this report we describe the findings at post mortem computed tomography, histology and autopsy.

  16. Dietary vitamin K and therapeutic warfarin alter susceptibility to vascular calcification in experimental chronic kidney disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is cardiovascular disease (CVD), with vascular calcification (VC) being a key modifier of disease progression. A local regulator of vascular calcification is vitamin K. This gamma-glutamyl carboxylase substrate is an essential ...

  17. Endochondral bone formation in the heart: a possible mechanism of coronary calcification.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, L A; Turner, R T; Ritman, E R

    2003-06-01

    During the atherosclerotic process, calcification occurs and is associated with a high likelihood of adverse events. Coronary calcification has been perceived as a passive precipitation of mineral. Recently, calcification associated with atherosclerosis has been found to be the result of an organized, regulated process that is similar to the process of calcification in bone. Mineralization in skeletal tissue can form by endochondral ossification in which mesenchymal cells differentiate into chondroblasts and produce a cartilage matrix which then degenerates and is remodeled to form bone. In this study, hearts from oophorectomized, aged female Sprague Dawley rats were found to contain areas of cartilage. Micro-computerized tomography radiogrammetry provided quantitative images of the architecture and confirmed the calcified tissue. Histological analysis revealed staining for several markers consistent with cartilage and bone tissue: acid phosphatase and bone matrix proteins, osteocalcin, osteopontin, osteonectin, and bone sialoprotein. In addition, cartilage types II, X, and procollagen type I were present. The presence of chondrocytes in the aged rat heart provides insights into the process of calcification in coronary arteries. Many proteins associated with calcification in bone are present in the cartilage that is present in vascular tissue, suggesting that endochondral calcification is another possible mechanism by which calcification of vascular tissue may occur.

  18. Hypothesis: Phytate is an important unrecognised nutrient and potential intravenous drug for preventing vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Pieter; Ketteler, Markus; Salcedo, Carolina; Perello, Joan

    2016-09-01

    Cardiovascular calcification (CVC) associated with conditions such as ageing, diabetes or renal impairment, results from the deposition of hydroxyapatite in the endothelium or media of blood vessels. Key medical management options are directed towards controlling plasma calcium and phosphate concentrations (e.g. parathormone inhibition, phosphate binders, dialysis), enhancing the effect of calcification inhibitors (e.g. fetuin-A, pyrophosphate, vitamin K, osteopontin, matrix Gla protein) and decreasing the effect of promoters of calcification (e.g. vitamin D, lipids, cytokines). Dietary phytate prevents the calcification of ageing in rats and epidemiological data suggest that phytate rich diets are associated with a lower incidence of CVC in the elderly. Intravenous phytate prevents aggressive CVC induced by vitamin D in rats. We propose that phytate should be added to the list of inhibitors of vascular calcification. We further suggest that adequate dietary phytate could prevent mild forms of calcification and that the low phytate content of diets for patients with renal disease can contribute to the increased risk of vascular calcification. It is also our contention that supra-physiological systemic phytate concentrations not achievable orally, might prevent aggressive vascular calcification. Appropriate epidemiological (to determine nutritional value) and clinical studies (evaluating safety and efficacy) are required to confirm, modify or reject our hypothesis. PMID:27515210

  19. Statistical Detection of Atypical Aircraft Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving; Chidester, Thomas; Shafto, Michael; Ferryman, Thomas; Amidan, Brett; Whitney, Paul; White, Amanda; Willse, Alan; Cooley, Scott; Jay, Joseph; Rosenthal, Loren; Swickard, Andrea; Bates, Derrick; Scherrer, Chad; Webb, Bobbie-Jo; Lawrence, Robert; Mosbrucker, Chris; Prothero, Gary; Andrei, Adi; Romanowski, Tim; Robin, Daniel; Prothero, Jason; Lynch, Robert; Lowe, Michael

    2006-01-01

    A computational method and software to implement the method have been developed to sift through vast quantities of digital flight data to alert human analysts to aircraft flights that are statistically atypical in ways that signify that safety may be adversely affected. On a typical day, there are tens of thousands of flights in the United States and several times that number throughout the world. Depending on the specific aircraft design, the volume of data collected by sensors and flight recorders can range from a few dozen to several thousand parameters per second during a flight. Whereas these data have long been utilized in investigating crashes, the present method is oriented toward helping to prevent crashes by enabling routine monitoring of flight operations to identify portions of flights that may be of interest with respect to safety issues.

  20. [Atypical early posttraumatic syndromes (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Muller, G E

    1974-01-01

    In a consecutive series of 1,925 head injuries, 283 patients (14.7%), could not be classified, neither in the group of simple head injuries without cerebral symptoms, nor in the group of typical concussions characterized by immediate amnesia or observed coma. We have prefered the rather neutral term of atypical early posttraumatic syndromes. In this group, apart from neurovegetative manifestations, partial disturbances of consciousness and perception, we have also classified delayed disturbances of consciousness. Special attention has been given to migraineous phenomena and to a syndrome, characteristic for children, described by Mealey. This is an intermediate group important from a medico-legal point of view because certain transient cerebral manifestations risk to be mistaken for psychological reactions. On the other hand symptoms probably of psychic origin were discussed. PMID:4469864

  1. Treatment of Morbidity with Atypical Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cott, Arthur

    1987-01-01

    The appropriate management of atypical chest pain requires an integration of medical and behavioural treatments. Unnecessary medicalization can increase morbidity. A sensitivity to the behavioural factors contributing to symptoms and disability may reduce both. The purpose of this paper is to provide physicians with a cognitive-behavioural perspective of the nature of morbidity and disability associated with chronic chest discomfort; some strategies for detecting heretofore unsuspected disability associated with chronic chest pain and related discomfort in patients with organic findings (both cardiac and non-cardiac), as well those with no identifiable disease process or organic cause; and some simple behavioural and cognitive-behavioural therapeutic techniques for treating and preventing such problems. PMID:21263912

  2. Case Report: Atypical Cornelia de Lange Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Leanza, Vito; Rubbino, Gabriella; Leanza, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) (also called Bushy Syndrome or Amsterdam dwarfism), is a genetic disorder that can lead to several alterations. This disease affects both physical and neuropsychiatric development. The various abnormalities include facial dysmorphia (arched eyebrows, synophrys, depressed nasal bridge, long philtrum, down-turned angles of the mouth), upper-extremity malformations, hirsutism, cardiac defects, and gastrointestinal alterations. The prevalence of this syndrome is approximately one per 15,000. Ultrasound is not the perfect means to diagnose CdLS, however, many abnormalities can be detected prenatally by scrupulous image observation. We report an atypical CdLS case characterized by increased nuchal translucency in the first trimester, normal karyotype, saddle nose, micrognathia with receding jaw, low set ears, facies senilis, arthrogryposis of the hands, absence of the Aranzio ductus venous, dilatation of gallbladder and bowel, a unique umbilical artery, increased volume of amniotic fluid, and intrauterine growth retardation ending with the interruption of pregnancy. PMID:26834972

  3. Disentangling the emerging evidence around atypical fractures.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Clark, Emma M

    2012-06-01

    Atypical femur fractures are rare but a growing concern, as they are more common in patients who use bisphosphonates. The best radiology-based studies have had access to only short-term exposure data, while the studies using prescription databases with substantial long-term data did not have access to radiology reports. The interests of the patients are probably best served by reserving long-term bisphosphonate treatment for patients who are at the highest risk of osteoporotic fractures and considering drug holidays after 5 years in patients at low risk. Recent studies have further strengthened the case for active medical or surgical therapy in patients with incomplete fractures, but patient numbers are small, and randomized controlled trials may not be forthcoming in the immediate future. The recommendations made to establish an international database for such fractures have not yet been followed, and more epidemiologic and pathophysiologic research is needed.

  4. Linguistic recycling in typical and atypical interaction.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    I present evidence that linguistic "recycling" - i.e., the redeployment of linguistic material from prior utterances during conversation - is a striking and prevalent feature not only of interaction between typical speakers, but also, and notably, of interaction involving the communication impaired. In the latter case, recycling may sometimes be used as a compensatory communicative resource when linguistic ability is compromised. Despite its prevalence, however, recycling has largely been ignored by clinical linguists. In addition to providing illustrations of linguistic recycling across a range of communication disorders, I also examine how it is subserved by phenomena such as priming, short-term memory and alignment. I subsequently argue for a shift in perspective that puts recycling at the heart of our perception of how typical and atypical interaction works, and suggest a number of potential benefits for clinical linguistics, ranging from the way we understand and analyse communication disorders to how we assess and treat them.

  5. Typical and atypical lesions of herpes genitalis.

    PubMed

    De Punzio, C; Masoni, S; Conaldi, P G; Fioretti, P

    1990-01-01

    143 women with suspected Herpes Genitalis (HG), recurrent or common drug resistant vaginitis, unexplained or threatened abortion were examined by colposcopy, Pap test, viral culture and HSV-specific antibodies titration. HG was detected in 34 cases: 16 resulted positive for virus isolation. For the patients with negative culture HG was diagnosed by means of clinical examination, anamnesis and therapeutic criteria ex juvantibus. Serology proved to give little information. Most of the patients showed typical HG manifestations, but 8 of them were affected by atypical lesions. The infection proved to be not necessarily related to specific factors of risk, and it was not always possible to individuate the source of contamination. Only 9 out of the 33 sexual partners of the patients had asymptomatic manifestations. Many problems concerning HG diagnosis, epidemiology and therapy remain to be solved. The authors think that an engagement at different levels (population, practitioners, gynaecologists, politicians) is needed to face this issue fairly.

  6. Atypical presentation of oral tuberculosis ulcer.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Sumita; Srikant, Natarajan; George, Thomas

    2007-11-01

    Tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease that can affect any part of the body, including the mouth. An upsurge in the number of tuberculosis cases, with a strong association with HIV infection, has been noted. We present a case of tuberculosis that clinically resembles a malignant chronic ulcer in the retromolar trigone-an uncommon site of occurrence. Histologically, the case demonstrated an atypical epitheloid granuloma with reduced lymphocyte count. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was confirmed following sputum culture of M tuberculosis. Antitubercular therapy improved the patient's condition. Although rare, tuberculosis must be considered as a differential diagnosis in chronic ulcers in the oral region; and its association with HIV must not be overlooked.

  7. Mycobacterium chelonae Is an Ubiquitous Atypical Mycobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Gouveia, Miguel; Gameiro, Ana; Ramos, Leonor; Cardoso, José Carlos; Brites, Maria Manuel; Tellechea, Óscar; Figueiredo, Américo

    2015-01-01

    The type of cutaneous infection varies mainly according to the patient's immune status, and the disseminated form is mostly found in the context of immunosuppression. We report the case of a 62-year-old male who was under long-term systemic corticosteroid therapy and presented with a 7-month history of multiple painless cutaneous lesions at various stages of development: papules, nodules, pustules and hemorrhagic crusts, as well as small erosions and ulcers distributed over the limbs and scalp. Cutaneous biopsy showed a suppurative granulomatous infiltrate with abscess formation. Fite stain revealed numerous extracellular bacilli, suggesting mycobacterial infection, particularly by atypical mycobacteria. Culture of a skin sample revealed Mycobacterium chelonae. The patient started multidrug therapy and showed clinical improvement despite of resistance to one of the antibiotics. This striking presentation underlines the role of immunosuppression with corticotherapy as a major risk factor for these infections. Multidrug therapy is advised and antibiogram is essential in directing treatment. PMID:26351432

  8. Atypical regions in large genomic DNA sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, S. |; McPeek, M.S.; Speed, T.P.

    1994-07-19

    Large genomic DNA sequences contain regions with distinctive patterns of sequence organization. The authors describe a method using logarithms of probabilities based on seventh-order Markov chains to rapidly identify genomic sequences that do not resemble models of genome organization built from compilations of octanucleotide usage. Data bases have been constructed from Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA sequences of >1000 nt and human sequences of >10,000 nt. Atypical genes and clusters of genes have been located in bacteriophage, yeast, and primate DNA sequences. The authors consider criteria for statistical significance of the results, offer possible explanations for the observed variation in genome organization, and give additional applications of these methods in DNA sequence analysis.

  9. The complex management of atypical Spitz tumours.

    PubMed

    Massi, Daniela; De Giorgi, Vincenzo; Mandalà, Mario

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, advances in molecular genetic characterisation have revealed that atypical Spitz tumours (ASTs) are basically heterogeneous diseases, although the clinical relevance of these findings is yet to be determined. Evidence of molecularly-defined diverse groups of lesions continues to accumulate; however, conflicting, confusing, and overlapping terminology has fostered ambiguity and lack of clarity in the field in general. The lack of fundamental diagnostic (morphological) unambiguous classification framework results in a number of challenges in the interpretation of the molecular genetic data. In this review, we discuss the main difficulties for pathologists and clinicians in the complex management of ASTs, with particular emphasis on the different genetic and biological features of recently-described entities, and offer our view of what could be medically reasonable to guide a rational approach in light of current data.

  10. Case Report: Atypical Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Leanza, Vito; Rubbino, Gabriella; Leanza, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) (also called Bushy Syndrome or Amsterdam dwarfism), is a genetic disorder that can lead to several alterations. This disease affects both physical and neuropsychiatric development. The various abnormalities include facial dysmorphia (arched eyebrows, synophrys, depressed nasal bridge, long philtrum, down-turned angles of the mouth), upper-extremity malformations, hirsutism, cardiac defects, and gastrointestinal alterations. The prevalence of this syndrome is approximately one per 15,000. Ultrasound is not the perfect means to diagnose CdLS, however, many abnormalities can be detected prenatally by scrupulous image observation. We report an atypical CdLS case characterized by increased nuchal translucency in the first trimester, normal karyotype, saddle nose, micrognathia with receding jaw, low set ears, facies senilis, arthrogryposis of the hands, absence of the Aranzio ductus venous, dilatation of gallbladder and bowel, a unique umbilical artery, increased volume of amniotic fluid, and intrauterine growth retardation ending with the interruption of pregnancy. PMID:26834972

  11. Atypical prion diseases in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Tranulis, Michael A; Benestad, Sylvie L; Baron, Thierry; Kretzschmar, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Although prion diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep, have long been recognized, our understanding of their epidemiology and pathogenesis is still in its early stages. Progress is hampered by the lengthy incubation periods and the lack of effective ways of monitoring and characterizing these agents. Protease-resistant conformers of the prion protein (PrP), known as the "scrapie form" (PrP(Sc)), are used as disease markers, and for taxonomic purposes, in correlation with clinical, pathological, and genetic data. In humans, prion diseases can arise sporadically (sCJD) or genetically (gCJD and others), caused by mutations in the PrP-gene (PRNP), or as a foodborne infection, with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) causing variant CJD (vCJD). Person-to-person spread of human prion disease has only been known to occur following cannibalism (kuru disease in Papua New Guinea) or through medical or surgical treatment (iatrogenic CJD, iCJD). In contrast, scrapie in small ruminants and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids behave as infectious diseases within these species. Recently, however, so-called atypical forms of prion diseases have been discovered in sheep (atypical/Nor98 scrapie) and in cattle, BSE-H and BSE-L. These maladies resemble sporadic or genetic human prion diseases and might be their animal equivalents. This hypothesis also raises the significant public health question of possible epidemiological links between these diseases and their counterparts in humans. PMID:21598097

  12. A case of atypical progressive supranuclear palsy

    PubMed Central

    Spaccavento, Simona; Del Prete, Marina; Craca, Angela; Loverre, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative extrapyramidal syndrome. Studies have demonstrated that PSP can present clinically as an atypical dementing syndrome dominated by a progressive apraxia of speech (AOS) and aphasia. Aim We aimed to investigate the clinical presentation of PSP, using a comprehensive multidimensional evaluation, and the disease response to various pharmacological treatments. Methods A 72-year-old right-handed male, with 17 years education, who first presented with aphasia, AOS, depression, apathy, and postural instability at 69 years; a complete neuropsychological evaluation, tapping the different cognitive domains, was performed. Results Testing revealed a moderate global cognitive deficit (Mini-Mental State Examination test score =20), low memory test scores (story recall, Rey’s 15-word Immediate and Delayed Recall), and poor phonemic and semantic fluency. The patient’s language was characterized by AOS, with slow speech rate, prolonged intervals between syllables and words, decreased articulatory accuracy, sound distortions, and anomia. Behavioral changes, such as depression, anxiety, apathy, and irritability, were reported. The neurological examination revealed supranuclear vertical gaze palsy, poor face miming, and a mild balance deficit. Magnetic resonance imaging showed only widespread cortical atrophy. Single photon emission computed tomography demonstrated left > right frontotemporal cortical abnormalities. After 6 months, a further neuropsychological assessment showed a progression in cognitive deficits, with additional attention deficits. The patient reported frequent falls, but the neurological deficits remained unchanged. Neuroimaging tests showed the same brain involvement. Conclusion Our case highlights the heterogeneity of the clinical features in this syndrome, demonstrating that atypical PSP can present as AOS and aphasia, without the classical features or involvement of the subcortical gray

  13. Abdominal aortic calcification is not superior over other vascular calcification in predicting mortality in hemodialysis patients: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) guidelines recommend that a lateral abdominal radiograph should be performed to assess vascular calcification (VC) in dialysis patients. However, abdominal aortic calcification is a prevalent finding, and it remains unclear whether other anatomical areas of VC can predict mortality more accurately. Methods A total of 217 maintenance hemodialysis patients were enrolled at the Sichuan Provincial People’s Hospital between July 2010 and March 2011. Radiographs of the abdomen, pelvis and hands were evaluated by a radiologist to evaluate the presence of VC. The correlation between different areas of VC and all-cause or cardiovascular mortality was analyzed using univariate and multivariate models. Results The prevalence of VC was 70.0% (152 patients), and most had abdominal aortic calcification (90.1%). During 26 ± 7 months of follow-up, 37 patients died. The VC score was independently associated with patient mortality. VC observed on abdominal radiographs (abdominal aortic calcification) was associated with all-cause mortality in models adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors (HR, 4.69; 95%CI, 1.60-13.69) and dialysis factors (HR, 3.38; 95%CI, 1.18-9.69). VC in the pelvis or hands was associated with all-cause mortality in the model adjusted for dialysis factors. When three combinations of VC in different radiographs were included in models, the presence of abdominal VC was only significantly associated with all-cause mortality in the integrated model. VC in the abdomen and pelvis was associated with all-cause mortality in the model adjusted for cardiovascular factors and the integrated model, but neither was significantly associated with cardiovascular mortality. VC in all radiographs was significantly associated with a more than 6-fold risk of all-cause mortality and a more than 5-fold risk of cardiovascular mortality compared to patients without VC. Conclusions VC in different arteries as shown on

  14. Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Patients & Families About Stroke Stroke Diagnosis ... UT Southwestern Medical Center. Copyright © 1997-2016 - The Internet Stroke Center. All rights reserved. The information contained ...

  15. Choroid plexus calcification: clinical, neuroimaging and histopathological correlations in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Marinescu, Ileana; Udriştoiu, I; Marinescu, D

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is recognized as a psychiatric disorder that causes the most pronounced disturbances of cognition and social integration. In the etiopathogenesis of the disease, genetic, neurobiological and vascular factors are involved. Functional integrity of the brain can be correlated with the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and the dysfunction of this barrier is an indicator that suggests neurodevelopmental abnormalities, injuries of various etiologies and dysfunctions within the small vessels of the brain that disrupt the calcium homeostasis. Neuroimaging shows that in patients with poor evolution, cognitive dysfunction and therapeutic resistance, the presence of choroid plexus calcification associated with hippocampal, frontal, temporoparietal and cerebellar atrophies. Antipsychotics with high capacity to block D2 dopamine receptors (haloperidol model) can aggravate apoptotic mechanisms of the brain areas involved in cognition and disrupts the functional integrity of the BBB due to decreased of choroid plexus blood flow because of the narrowing of cerebral small vessels. Choroid plexus calcification may be a predictive indicator of poor evolution or of a neurodegenerative type. PMID:23771083

  16. Hemodynamic and cellular response feedback in calcific aortic valve disease.

    PubMed

    Gould, Sarah T; Srigunapalan, Suthan; Simmons, Craig A; Anseth, Kristi S

    2013-07-01

    This review highlights aspects of calcific aortic valve disease that encompass the entire range of aortic valve disease progression from initial cellular changes to aortic valve sclerosis and stenosis, which can be initiated by changes in blood flow (hemodynamics) and pressure across the aortic valve. Appropriate hemodynamics is important for normal valve function and maintenance, but pathological blood velocities and pressure can have profound consequences at the macroscopic to microscopic scales. At the macroscopic scale, hemodynamic forces impart shear stresses on the surface of the valve leaflets and cause deformation of the leaflet tissue. As discussed in this review, these macroscale forces are transduced to the microscale, where they influence the functions of the valvular endothelial cells that line the leaflet surface and the valvular interstitial cells that populate the valve extracellular matrix. For example, pathological changes in blood flow-induced shear stress can cause dysfunction, impairing their homeostatic functions, and pathological stretching of valve tissue caused by elevated transvalvular pressure can activate valvular interstitial cells and latent paracrine signaling cytokines (eg, transforming growth factor-β1) to promote maladaptive tissue remodeling. Collectively, these coordinated and complex interactions adversely impact bulk valve tissue properties, feeding back to further deteriorate valve function and propagate valve cell pathological responses. Here, we review the role of hemodynamic forces in calcific aortic valve disease initiation and progression, with focus on cellular responses and how they feed back to exacerbate aortic valve dysfunction.

  17. The role of coccolithophore calcification in bioengineering their environment.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Kevin J; Clark, Darren R; Wheeler, Glen

    2016-06-29

    Coccolithophorids are enigmatic plankton that produce calcium carbonate coccoliths, which over geological time have buried atmospheric CO2 into limestone, changing both the atmosphere and geology of the Earth. However, the role of coccoliths for the proliferation of these organisms remains unclear; suggestions include roles in anti-predation, enhanced photosynthesis and sun-screening. Here we test the hypothesis that calcification stabilizes the pH of the seawater proximate to the organisms, providing a level of acidification countering the detrimental basification that occurs during net photosynthesis. Such bioengineering provides a more stable pH environment for growth and fits the empirical evidence for changes in rates of calcification under different environmental conditions. Under this scenario, simulations suggest that the optimal production ratio of inorganic to organic particulate C (PIC : POCprod) will be lower (by approx. 20%) with ocean acidification and that overproduction of coccoliths in a future acidified ocean, where pH buffering is weaker, presents a risk to calcifying cells. PMID:27358373

  18. Artifactual Stratum Corneum Calcification of the Beagle Dog Tongue.

    PubMed

    Glover, Christiana; Ochoa, Ricardo

    2015-07-01

    Examination of H&E-stained tongue samples from a 26-week intravenous infusion study of Beagle dogs, utilizing a compound with no recognized effect on mineral metabolism, exhibited superficial stratum corneum calcification in both treated and control animals. This resulted in the search for possible causes of the finding to help clarify confounding issues. Retrospective examination of 11 studies performed before the signal case indicated that the problem existed in the testing facility but was not recognized. Prior to 2008, this finding was not observed, perhaps indicating the requirement for a change in procedures or suppliers. Based on the hypothesis that the calcium salts were deposited from bone during processing, a series of tests was performed by fixing tongue and femur along with different tissues, processed routinely to slide, and stained with H&E and von Kossa stains. We conclude that the presence of superficial stratum corneum calcification of the tongue in dogs demonstrated in toxicology studies is an artifactual change related to the processing of tissues, specifically the fixation of tongue in the same container as bone and stomach. This change should not be confused with compound-related effects, even when the incidence varies between controls and treated animals.

  19. Vascular calcification, bone and mineral metabolism after kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    D’Marco, Luis; Bellasi, Antonio; Mazzaferro, Sandro; Raggi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The development of end stage renal failure can be seen as a catastrophic health event and patients with this condition are considered at the highest risk of cardiovascular disease among any other patient groups and risk categories. Although kidney transplantation was hailed as an optimal solution to such devastating disease, many issues related to immune-suppressive drugs soon emerged and it became evident that cardiovascular disease would remain a vexing problem. Progression of chronic kidney disease is accompanied by profound alterations of mineral and bone metabolism that are believed to have an impact on the cardiovascular health of patients with advanced degrees of renal failure. Cardiovascular risk factors remain highly prevalent after kidney transplantation, some immune-suppression drugs worsen the risk profile of graft recipients and the alterations of mineral and bone metabolism seen in end stage renal failure are not completely resolved. Whether this complex situation promotes progression of vascular calcification, a hall-mark of advanced chronic kidney disease, and whether vascular calcifications contribute to the poor cardiovascular outcome of post-transplant patients is reviewed in this article. PMID:26722649

  20. Succes of foraminiferal calcification mechanisms depend on ocean chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, I. V.; de Nooijer, L. J.; Hart, M.; Reichart, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    Although the relationship between Phanerozoic changes in seawater Mg/Ca and the evolutionary history of many marine calcifyers has been analyzed, the response of foraminifera to changes in Mg/Casw is only sparsely investigated. Geological longevity, areal distribution and importance in the global carbon cycle, however, make foraminifera particularly suitable to study the interplay between seawater chemistry and biogenic mineralogy. We assess global foraminifera abundances in the geological record from fossil species occurrences in the Paleobiology DataBase (PaleoDB; www.paleodb.org). Here, we present an analysis of the distribution of major groups of foraminifera through the Phanerozoic by comparing dominance of taxa producing aragonite or (low- and high-Mg) calcite in relation to changes in Mg/Casw and mass marine extinction events (P/T, T/J and K/Pg). This allows relating the effect of ocean chemistry to the relative success of foraminifera with different calcification strategies. We show for the first time that the success of foraminifera with different calcification mechanisms (i.e. aragonite versus calcite producers) is governed by Mg/Casw, potentially making foraminifera with unfavored mineralogy more vulnerable to major environmental perturbations. Furthermore, we suggest that planktic foraminifera, which are currently calcifying in a period with unfavorable sea water chemistry, might be more sensitive to on-going ocean acidification and associated environmental perturbations than currently assumed.

  1. The role of coccolithophore calcification in bioengineering their environment

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Darren R.; Wheeler, Glen

    2016-01-01

    Coccolithophorids are enigmatic plankton that produce calcium carbonate coccoliths, which over geological time have buried atmospheric CO2 into limestone, changing both the atmosphere and geology of the Earth. However, the role of coccoliths for the proliferation of these organisms remains unclear; suggestions include roles in anti-predation, enhanced photosynthesis and sun-screening. Here we test the hypothesis that calcification stabilizes the pH of the seawater proximate to the organisms, providing a level of acidification countering the detrimental basification that occurs during net photosynthesis. Such bioengineering provides a more stable pH environment for growth and fits the empirical evidence for changes in rates of calcification under different environmental conditions. Under this scenario, simulations suggest that the optimal production ratio of inorganic to organic particulate C (PIC : POCprod) will be lower (by approx. 20%) with ocean acidification and that overproduction of coccoliths in a future acidified ocean, where pH buffering is weaker, presents a risk to calcifying cells. PMID:27358373

  2. Growth and calcification of marine bryozoans in a changing ocean.

    PubMed

    Smith, Abigail M

    2014-06-01

    Bryozoans are colonial benthic marine invertebrate calcifiers, important and especially abundant and diverse in southern hemisphere shelf environments. Large heavily calcified colonies can be up to 50 years old, but most longer-lived bryozoans are limited to 10-20 y. Many smaller species are annual. Radial extension in flat encrusting bryozoans is generally on the order of 1-5 mm/y. Erect calcified species generally grow vertically 2-15 mm/y, though articulated species such as Cellaria may reach rates of 40 mm/y. Corresponding calcification rates are generally 10(1)-10(2) mg/y, but there can be an order of magnitude variation in rate among years in high-latitude bryozoans. Multi-branched bryozoans produce up to 24 g of CaCO3/y. The carbonate produced by bryozoans varies from calcite to aragonite and mixtures of both. Skeletal carbonate mineralogy of bryozoans is complex and appears to be strongly genetically controlled. Global climate change, leading to increasing water temperatures, will generally increase marine bryozoan metabolic rates, and may increase Mg in calcite. On the other hand, decreasing pH (ocean acidification) causes corrosion, changes in mineralogy, and decreased survival. This review of bryozoan growth and calcification allows a general perspective, but also reveals gaps in our knowledge which need to be addressed.

  3. Confocal laser scanning microscopy in study of bone calcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Tetsunari; Kokubu, Mayu; Kato, Hirohito; Imai, Koichi; Tanaka, Akio

    2012-12-01

    Bone regeneration in mandible and maxillae after extraction of teeth or tumor resection and the use of rough surface implants in bone induction must be investigated to elucidate the mechanism of calcification. The calcified tissues are subjected to chemical decalcification or physical grinding to observe their microscopic features with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy where the microscopic tissue morphology is significantly altered. We investigated the usefulness of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for this purpose. After staggering the time of administration of calcein and alizarin red to experimental rats and dogs, rat alveolar bone and dog femur grafted with coral as scaffold or dental implants were observed with CLSM. In rat alveolar bone, the calcification of newly-formed bone and net-like canaliculi was observed at the mesial bone from the roots progressed at the rate of 15 μm/day. In dog femur grafted with coral, newly-formed bones along the space of coral were observed in an orderly manner. In dog femur with dental implants, after 8 weeks, newly-formed bone proceeded along the rough surface of the implants. CLSM produced high-magnification images of newly-formed bone and thin sections were not needed.

  4. Growth and calcification of marine bryozoans in a changing ocean.

    PubMed

    Smith, Abigail M

    2014-06-01

    Bryozoans are colonial benthic marine invertebrate calcifiers, important and especially abundant and diverse in southern hemisphere shelf environments. Large heavily calcified colonies can be up to 50 years old, but most longer-lived bryozoans are limited to 10-20 y. Many smaller species are annual. Radial extension in flat encrusting bryozoans is generally on the order of 1-5 mm/y. Erect calcified species generally grow vertically 2-15 mm/y, though articulated species such as Cellaria may reach rates of 40 mm/y. Corresponding calcification rates are generally 10(1)-10(2) mg/y, but there can be an order of magnitude variation in rate among years in high-latitude bryozoans. Multi-branched bryozoans produce up to 24 g of CaCO3/y. The carbonate produced by bryozoans varies from calcite to aragonite and mixtures of both. Skeletal carbonate mineralogy of bryozoans is complex and appears to be strongly genetically controlled. Global climate change, leading to increasing water temperatures, will generally increase marine bryozoan metabolic rates, and may increase Mg in calcite. On the other hand, decreasing pH (ocean acidification) causes corrosion, changes in mineralogy, and decreased survival. This review of bryozoan growth and calcification allows a general perspective, but also reveals gaps in our knowledge which need to be addressed. PMID:25070865

  5. Mineralization by inhibitor exclusion: the calcification of collagen with fetuin.

    PubMed

    Price, Paul A; Toroian, Damon; Lim, Joo Eun

    2009-06-19

    One of our goals is to understand the mechanisms that deposit mineral within collagen fibrils, and as a first step we recently determined the size exclusion characteristics of the fibril. This study revealed that apatite crystals up to 12 unit cells in size can access the water within the fibril, whereas molecules larger than a 40-kDa protein are excluded. Based on these observations, we proposed a novel mechanism for fibril mineralization: that macromolecular inhibitors of apatite growth favor fibril mineralization by selectively inhibiting crystal growth in the solution outside of the fibril. To test this mechanism, we developed a system in which crystal formation is driven by homogeneous nucleation at high calcium phosphate concentration and the only macromolecule in solution is fetuin, a 48-kDa inhibitor of apatite growth. Our experiments with this system demonstrated that fetuin determines the location of mineral growth; in the presence of fetuin mineral grows exclusively within the fibril, whereas in its absence mineral grows in solution outside the fibril. Additional experiments showed that fetuin is also able to localize calcification to the interior of synthetic matrices that have size exclusion characteristics similar to those of collagen and that it does so by selectively inhibiting mineral growth outside of these matrices. We termed this new calcification mechanism "mineralization by inhibitor exclusion," the selective mineralization of a matrix using a macromolecular inhibitor of mineral growth that is excluded from that matrix. Future studies will be needed to evaluate the possible role of this mechanism in bone mineralization.

  6. Mineral and bone disorder and vascular calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Peres, Luis Alberto Batista; Pércio, Pedro Paulo Verona

    2014-01-01

    Vascular calcifications has been associated with bone and mineral disorders. The alterations in the serum level of calcium concentrations and phosphate are importants factors implicated in the arterial calcification in chronic kidney disease. The pathogenesis of vascular calcification is a complex mechanism and not completely clear, being able to correspond to an active process of cellular transformation and heterotopic ossification. Beyond the hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, they are involved in this process changes in the metabolism of inhibitors and promoters of calcification such as fetuin A, osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, and matrix gla protein. For the diagnosis of the calcified arterial injury are available several complementary methods, a method of estimate of the cardiovascular risk based on plain radiographs of the lumbar column and another method based on simple x-rays of the pelvis and hands. Below, we will present a review approching the link between vascular calcifications and mineral disorders. PMID:25055361

  7. Calcific tendonitis of the tibialis posterior tendon at the navicular attachment

    PubMed Central

    Harries, Luke; Kempson, Susan; Watura, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Calcific tendinosis (tendonosis/tendonitis) is a condition which results from the deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals in any tendon of the body. Calcific tendonitis usually presents with pain, which can be exacerbated by prolonged use of the affected tendon. We report a case of calcific tendinosis in the posterior tibialis tendon at the navicular insertion. The pathology is rare in the foot, and extremely rare in the tibialis posterior tendon, indeed there are only 2 reported in the published literature. This case report highlights the need to consider calcific tendinosis in the foot despite its rarity. If this diagnosis is considered early, appropriate investigations can then be requested and unnecessary biopsies, use of antibiotics and surgery can be avoided. We also discuss possible causes of calcific tendinosis in the tibialis posterior tendon, the role of imaging modalities and review treatment methods. PMID:22470798

  8. Vascular calcification: When should we interfere in chronic kidney disease patients and how?

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf El Din, Usama Abdel Azim; Salem, Mona Mansour; Abdulazim, Dina Ossama

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are endangered with the highest mortality rate compared to other chronic diseases. Cardiovascular events account for up to 60% of the fatalities. Cardiovascular calcifications affect most of the CKD patients. Most of this calcification is related to disturbed renal phosphate handling. Fibroblast growth factor 23 and klotho deficiency were incriminated in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification through different mechanisms including their effects on endothelium and arterial wall smooth muscle cells. In addition, deficient klotho gene expression, a constant feature of CKD, promotes vascular pathology and shares in progression of the CKD. The role of gut in the etio-pathogenesis of systemic inflammation and vascular calcification is a newly discovered mechanism. This review will cover the medical history, prevalence, pathogenesis, clinical relevance, different tools used to diagnose, the ideal timing to prevent or to withhold the progression of vascular calcification and the different medications and medical procedures that can help to prolong the survival of CKD patients.

  9. [Assessment of coronary calcification by computed tomography inclusive of 3DCT].

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Motoo; Tsushima, Kensuke

    2003-09-01

    Coronary artheroclerosis in diabetes patients can be divided into 2 phases, one is seen in the early phase of diabetes or insulin resistance syndrome as unstable plaque with lipid-rich core, thinner fibrous caps and small dose or a lack of calcification and the other in the late or advanced stage of diabetes is hard and stable plaque with much fibrous protein and calcification which extends from truncal to peripheral areas. In diabetic patients in the late stage, coronary accidents occur as the chronic multiple vessel diseases with a lot of calcification, while in the early stage of diabetes vasospastic angina and acute coronary syndrome with less calcification tends to occur. We can find out the coronary calcification by EBCT or 3DCT easily which is characteristic in patients of diabetes complicated with coronary artery disease and in the early stage the stenosis of left truncal artery or large vessels of LAD can be detectable by 3DCT. PMID:15775196

  10. [Mechanism, imaging technique and therapy for vascular calcification in patients of chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiraku; Yokoyama, Keitaro

    2007-05-01

    Vascular calcification has been reported to influence mortality and complications of cardiovascular diseases in patients with chronic kidney disease. Once vascular calcification was thought to the result from passive precipitation of calcium and phosphate, it now appears that end result of phenotypic change of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) into osteoblast-like cells. A variety of imaging technique are available to visualize vascular calcification, including X-ray, vascular ultrasound, electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) and multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) . Especially, MDCT with contrast medium that can detect not only coronary calcification but also stenosis is useful and noninvasive methods for screening of coronary artery disease. Through greater understanding of both the mechanism and clinical consequence of vascular calcification, future therapeutic strategies may be more effectively designed and applied. PMID:17471002

  11. [Serpiginous calcifications in breast filariasis: A descriptor not included in the BI-RADS classification system].

    PubMed

    Mora-Encinas, J P; Martín-Martín, B; Martín-Martín, L; Mora-Monago, R

    2015-01-01

    Filariasis is a parasitic disease with a benign course caused by nematodes. Filariasis is endemic in some tropical regions, and immigration has made it increasingly common in some centers in Spain. The death of the parasites can lead to calcifications that are visible in mammograms; these calcifications have specific characteristics and should not be confused with those arising in other diseases. However, the appearance of calcifications due to filariasis is not included in the most common systems used for the classification of calcifications on mammograms (BI-RADS), and this can lead to confusion. In this article, we discuss the need to update classification systems and warn radiologists about the appearance of these calcifications to ensure their correct diagnosis and avoid confusion with other diseases. PMID:25682995

  12. The effect of calcification on the structural mechanics of the costal cartilage.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jason L; Kent, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    The costal cartilage often undergoes progressive calcification with age. This study sought to investigate the effects of calcification on the structural mechanics of whole costal cartilage segments. Models were developed for five costal cartilage specimens, including representations of the cartilage, the perichondrium, calcification, and segments of the rib and sternum. The material properties of the cartilage were determined through indentation testing; the properties of the perichondrium were determined through optimisation against structural experiments. The calcified regions were then expanded or shrunk to develop five different sensitivity analysis models for each. Increasing the relative volume of calcification from 0% to 24% of the cartilage volume increased the stiffness of the costal cartilage segments by a factor of 2.3-3.8. These results suggest that calcification may have a substantial effect on the stiffness of the costal cartilage which should be considered when modelling the chest, especially if age is a factor.

  13. Nano-analytical electron microscopy reveals fundamental insights into human cardiovascular tissue calcification.

    PubMed

    Bertazzo, Sergio; Gentleman, Eileen; Cloyd, Kristy L; Chester, Adrian H; Yacoub, Magdi H; Stevens, Molly M

    2013-06-01

    The accumulation of calcified material in cardiovascular tissue is thought to involve cytochemical, extracellular matrix and systemic signals; however, its precise composition and nanoscale architecture remain largely unexplored. Using nano-analytical electron microscopy techniques, we examined valves, aortae and coronary arteries from patients with and without calcific cardiovascular disease and detected spherical calcium phosphate particles, regardless of the presence of calcific lesions. We also examined lesions after sectioning with a focused ion beam and found that the spherical particles are composed of highly crystalline hydroxyapatite that crystallographically and structurally differs from bone mineral. Taken together, these data suggest that mineralized spherical particles may play a fundamental role in calcific lesion formation. Their ubiquitous presence in varied cardiovascular tissues and from patients with a spectrum of diseases further suggests that lesion formation may follow a common process. Indeed, applying materials science techniques to ectopic and orthotopic calcification has great potential to lend critical insights into pathophysiological processes underlying calcific cardiovascular disease.

  14. [Serpiginous calcifications in breast filariasis: A descriptor not included in the BI-RADS classification system].

    PubMed

    Mora-Encinas, J P; Martín-Martín, B; Martín-Martín, L; Mora-Monago, R

    2015-01-01

    Filariasis is a parasitic disease with a benign course caused by nematodes. Filariasis is endemic in some tropical regions, and immigration has made it increasingly common in some centers in Spain. The death of the parasites can lead to calcifications that are visible in mammograms; these calcifications have specific characteristics and should not be confused with those arising in other diseases. However, the appearance of calcifications due to filariasis is not included in the most common systems used for the classification of calcifications on mammograms (BI-RADS), and this can lead to confusion. In this article, we discuss the need to update classification systems and warn radiologists about the appearance of these calcifications to ensure their correct diagnosis and avoid confusion with other diseases.

  15. Vascular calcification in rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence, pathophysiological aspects and potential targets.

    PubMed

    Paccou, J; Brazier, M; Mentaverri, R; Kamel, S; Fardellone, P; Massy, Z A

    2012-10-01

    Individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. Excess cardiovascular mortality in RA patients cannot be fully explained by conventional cardiovascular risk factors. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent progress concerning the prevalence and pathophysiological aspects of vascular calcification in RA. RA patients have early-onset diffuse calcification involving multiple vascular beds compared to age and sex-matched controls. Pathogenesis of vascular calcification in RA patients is not fully understood, but specific mediators such as proinflammatory cytokines and not global inflammation could be involved. The possible link between osteoporosis and vascular calcification in RA will not be discussed. Finally, potential targets to reduce vascular calcification in RA will be discussed.

  16. Intracerebral Mycobacterium bovis bacilli Calmette-Guerin infection-induced immune responses in the CNS 1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, JangEun; Ling, Changying; Kosmalski, Michelle M.; Hulseberg, Paul; Schreiber, Heidi A.; Sandor, Matyas; Fabry, Zsuzsanna

    2010-01-01

    To study whether cerebral mycobacterial infection induces granuloma and protective immunity similar to systemic infection, we intracerebrally infected mice with Mycobacterium bovis bacilli Calmette-Guerin. Granuloma and IFN-γ+CD4+ T cell responses are induced in the central nervous system (CNS) similar to periphery, but the presence of IFN-γIL-17 double-positive CD4+ T cells is unique to the CNS. The major CNS source of TNF-α is microglia, with modest production by CD4+ T cells and macrophage. Protective immunity is accompanied by accumulation of Foxp3+CD4+ T cells and PD-L2+ dendritic cells, suggesting that both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses develop in the CNS following mycobacterial infection. PMID:19535154

  17. From discharge planner to "concierge": recommendations for hospital social work by clients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Linton, Kristen F; Ing, Marissa M; Vento, Megan A; Nakagawa, Kazuma

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act and budget cuts have changed the role of hospital social workers by placing pressure on them to conduct speedy discharges and decrease readmission rates. This qualitative study aimed to assess if hospital social work is meeting the needs of clients in the hospital and postdischarge. Semistructured interviews with 10 clients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and 11 caregivers were conducted. Participants reported that social work services were not meeting their needs. Clients with ICH and their caregivers expressed needs from social workers that surpassed their roles as discharge planners, including counseling, help with finances and insurance, and advocacy. Participants wanted social work services to begin early in acute treatment with continuity postdischarge. Social workers should conduct ethical social work by meeting clients where they are, addressing needs as prioritized by the client, and advocating individually and organizationally for clients.

  18. Delayed Intracerebral Hemorrhage Secondary to Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Chen, Yi-Li; Yang, Shu-Xu; Wang, Yi-Rong

    2015-11-01

    The ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is a routine procedure for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion, and is associated with many complications. A delayed hemorrhage after the VP shunt surgery, however, is quite rare. In this study, we report a case involving late-onset hemorrhage. The 67-year-old male patient with a history of head trauma and brain surgery underwent a VP shunt placement for hydrocephalus. The surgery course was uneventful and no bleeding was revealed in the first computed tomographic (CT) scan after the procedure. However, a massive intraparenchymal and intraventricular hemorrhage occurred 8 h following adjustment of the valve system on the 8th day after surgery.Erosion of the vasculature by catheter cannulation and a sudden reduction of CSF pressure after downregulation of the valve could be one of the possible causes of the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).

  19. [Residual neurovirulence of the chimera of Langat and Denge-4 flaviviruses in intracerebral infection of monkeys].

    PubMed

    Karganova, G G; Pripuzova, N S; Tereshkina, N V; Gmyl', L V; Dzhivanian, T I; Rumiantsev, A A; Lashkevich, V A

    2005-01-01

    The residual neurovirulence of the previously obtained chimeric virus Tp21/DEN4, containing the RNA region encoding the pre M and E structural enzymes, strain Tp21, virus Langat, and the remaining part of the genome from the Denge 4 virus, was studied in experiments with monkeys Cercopithecus aethiops involving the intracerebral administration of the virus. The tick-borne encephalitis virus, strain Absettarov, was used as positive control. A comparative analysis of the experimental and published data showed the chimeric virus to be less virulent by its degree of morphological affection in the CNS zones, its spread into the CNS and by a percentage share of animals with viremia versus the Tp21 parent strain and Elantsev strain of the Langat virus.

  20. Should antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection be tailored for intracerebral penetration?

    PubMed Central

    Koopmans, P.P.; Ellis, R.; Best, B.M.; Letendre, S.

    2015-01-01

    The continuous replication of HIV-1 in the central nervous system, in particular the brain, and its potential long-term deleterious effect is the focus of this review. Cognitive deficits are observed in a significant percentage of HIV-1-infected patients. That may occur despite successful peripheral suppression of the HIV-1 replication. Compartmentalisation of HIV-1 in the brain, genetic mutation of HIV-1, age, HCV coinfection and poor intracerebral penetration, as well as possibly a direct toxic effect of antiretroviral drugs, are factors that may account for potential creeping damage of the brain after many years of treatment. Patients with neurological symptoms or cognitive deficits may require another approach to the treatment of their HIV infection. PMID:19749389

  1. The Injury and Therapy of Reactive Oxygen Species in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Looking at Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Jie; Chen, Weixiang; Hu, Rong; Feng, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage is an emerging major health problem often resulting in death or disability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been identified as one of the major damaging factors in ischemic stroke. However, there is less discussion about ROS in hemorrhage stroke. Metabolic products of hemoglobin, excitatory amino acids, and inflammatory cells are all sources of ROS, and ROS harm the central nervous system through cell death and structural damage, especially disruption of the blood-brain barrier. We have considered the antioxidant system of the CNS itself and the drugs aiming to decrease ROS after ICH, and we find that mitochondria are key players in all of these aspects. Moreover, when the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opens, ROS-induced ROS release, which leads to extensive liberation of ROS and mitochondrial failure, occurs. Therefore, the mitochondrion may be a significant target for elucidating the problem of ROS in ICH; however, additional experimental support is required. PMID:27293511

  2. Recruitment of Black Subjects for a Natural History Study of Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Dorothy F.; Menon, Ravi; Fokar, Ali; Gibbons, Christopher; Wing, Jeffrey; Sanchez, Brisa; Kidwell, Chelsea S.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, recruitment of minority subjects for clinical research has been challenging. We developed culturally-tailored recruitment materials for a longitudinal, natural history study of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and trained recruiting coordinators in cultural competence. Of 285 subjects meeting inclusion criteria, 158 (55% of eligible) agreed to participate (60% of eligible blacks vs. 45% of eligible non-blacks, p = 0.02). Of those enrolled, 138 (87%) agreed to participate in the genetic sub-study (86% of blacks vs. 90% of non-blacks enrolled, p = 0.78). Of those subjects who refused enrollment, lack of interest in research (42%) was the most common reason for the study as a whole. A higher rate of enrollment was achieved in blacks vs. non-blacks in this ICH clinical research study employing culturally-tailored recruitment approaches and training of recruitment coordinators to overcome traditional recruitment barriers to research participation in minority patients. PMID:23377714

  3. Recruitment of black subjects for a natural history study of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Dorothy F; Menon, Ravi; Fokar, Ali; Gibbons, Christopher; Wing, Jeffrey; Sanchez, Brisa; Kidwell, Chelsea S

    2013-02-01

    Historically, recruitment of minority subjects for clinical research has been challenging. We developed culturally-tailored recruitment materials for a longitudinal, natural history study of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and trained recruiting coordinators in cultural competence. Of 285 subjects meeting inclusion criteria, 158 (55% of those eligible) agreed to participate (60% of eligible Blacks vs. 45% of eligible non-Blacks, p..02). Of those enrolled, 138 (87%) agreed to participate in the genetic sub-study (86% of Blacks vs. 90% of non-Blacks enrolled, p..78). Of those subjects who refused enrollment, lack of interest in research (42%) was the most common reason given for the study as a whole. A higher rate of enrollment was achieved in Blacks vs. non-Blacks in this ICH clinical research study employing culturally tailored recruitment approaches and training of recruitment coordinators to overcome traditional recruitment barriers to research participation in minority patients. PMID:23377714

  4. The Injury and Therapy of Reactive Oxygen Species in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Looking at Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jie; Chen, Weixiang; Hu, Rong; Feng, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage is an emerging major health problem often resulting in death or disability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been identified as one of the major damaging factors in ischemic stroke. However, there is less discussion about ROS in hemorrhage stroke. Metabolic products of hemoglobin, excitatory amino acids, and inflammatory cells are all sources of ROS, and ROS harm the central nervous system through cell death and structural damage, especially disruption of the blood-brain barrier. We have considered the antioxidant system of the CNS itself and the drugs aiming to decrease ROS after ICH, and we find that mitochondria are key players in all of these aspects. Moreover, when the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opens, ROS-induced ROS release, which leads to extensive liberation of ROS and mitochondrial failure, occurs. Therefore, the mitochondrion may be a significant target for elucidating the problem of ROS in ICH; however, additional experimental support is required.

  5. Beware of delayed severe brain swelling after intracerebral haematoma in HELLP syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bodkin, PA; Labram, EK; Shetty, A

    2013-01-01

    Haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome is a condition associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes during pregnancy and peripartum, including neurological complications. We report the third case in the world literature of delayed brain swelling following cerebral haemorrhage as a complication of HELLP syndrome. A 36-year-old woman in labour developed HELLP, which was complicated with intracerebral haematoma. This was evacuated, but motor impairment persisted after surgery and unfortunately the patient died unexpectedly during the 11th postoperative day. Computer tomographic brain scans documented diffuse cerebral swelling, which we think may have been caused by cerebral vasospasm. Cerebral vasospasm should always be considered when managing patients who suffered from stroke complicating HELLP syndrome. Close monitoring is advised even in later stages of recovery.

  6. A unique experiment in neurological surgery: intracerebral injection of antitoxin for tetanus.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neal B; Pendleton, Courtney; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2010-06-01

    The discipline of neurological surgery was considered primarily "hopeless" and, at best, experimental in the late 19th century. Harvey Cushing's efforts during his initial uncharted voyage through the surgery of the human cranium were rudimentary and exploratory. A direct review of his available patient records from early in his career provides the opportunity to look back at Cushing as a physician-scientist, uncovering work that demonstrates that he was at the forefront of neurosurgical intervention in avenues that have been largely overlooked. The authors present Cushing's notes pertaining to a case of tetanus. This case represents the intersection of neurosurgery and tetanus treatment in Dr. Cushing's intracerebral injection of antitoxin to treat generalized tetanus. PMID:19817546

  7. Temporary postoperative visual loss associated with intracerebral hemorrhage after laparoscopic appendectomy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyo Jin; Jun, Jong Hun; Cha, Dong Guk; Lee, Young Sun

    2014-09-01

    Postoperative visual loss (POVL) after non-ophthalmic surgery is rare, with a reported incidence ranging from 0.013 to 0.2%. Most perioperative visual loss is associated with spine operations and cardiac bypass procedures. The most common cause of POVL is ischemic optic neuropathy. However, there are no previous reports of postoperative visual loss after laparoscopic appendectomy. A 43-year-old female with no underlying disease underwent laparoscopic appendectomy; the operation was completed in one hour and her blood pressure was stable during the perioperative period. In the post-anesthetic care unit, the patient complained of nausea and headache, but she did not complain of any unusual visual symptoms. Approximately one hour after arriving at the ward, the patient complained of visual disturbance. Neurologic examination revealed left homonymous hemianopsia, and subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage were found in the occipital area on brain MRI. PMID:25302101

  8. Perihematomal Cellular Injury Is Reduced by Trans-sodium Crocetinate in a Model of Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Schretter, Catherine; Clarke, Ryon; Lee, Kevin S

    2015-10-01

    The carotenoid compound trans-sodium crocetinate (TSC) has been shown to increase oxygenation in various tissues, including the brain. Notably, TSC can enhance oxygenation under conditions of reduced blood flow, thus attenuating the depth of an ischemic challenge. This study examined the impact of TSC on neuronal loss in an animal model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Utilizing a rat model of collagenase injection, TSC was shown to reduce perihematomal cellular loss after ICH, as assessed by Fluoro-Jade B staining in tissue sections. This is the first evidence demonstrating that TSC is capable of limiting hemorrhagic injury to neurons in the brain. The finding supports the concept that TSC may represent a candidate therapeutic for early intervention regardless of whether a stroke is hemorrhagic or ischemic in nature.

  9. BMP-2 promotes phosphate uptake, phenotypic modulation, and calcification of human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianwu; Yang, Hsueh-Ying; Giachelli, Cecilia M

    2008-08-01

    Vascular calcification is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events that are the most common cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease. Clinical and experimental studies indicate that hyperphosphatemia is a risk factor for vascular calcification and cardiovascular mortality in these patients. Our previous studies demonstrated that phosphate transport through the type III sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter, Pit-1, was necessary for phosphate-induced calcification and osteochondrogenic phenotypic change in cultured human smooth muscle cells (SMC). BMP-2 is a potent osteogenic protein required for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation that has been implicated in vascular calcification. In the present study, we have examined the effects of BMP-2 on human SMC calcification in vitro. We found that treatment of SMC with BMP-2 enhanced elevated phosphate-induced calcification, but did not induce calcification under normal phosphate conditions. mRNAs for BMP receptors, including ALK2, ALK3, ALK6, BMPR-II, ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB were all detected in human SMCs. Mechanistically, BMP-2 dose-dependently stimulated phosphate uptake in SMC (200 ng/ml BMP-2 vs. vehicle: 13.94 vs. 7.09 nmol/30 min/mg protein, respectively). Real-time PCR and Western blot revealed the upregulation of Pit-1 mRNA and protein levels, respectively, by BMP-2. More importantly, inhibition of phosphate uptake by a competitive inhibitor of sodium-dependent phosphate cotransport, phosphonoformic acid, abrogated BMP-2-induced calcification. These results indicate that phosphate transport via Pit-1 is crucial in BMP-2-regulated SMC calcification. In addition, BMP-2-induced Runx2 and inhibited SM22 expression, indicating that it promotes osteogenic phenotype transition in these cells. Thus, BMP-2 may promote vascular calcification via increased phosphate uptake and induction of osteogenic phenotype modulation in SMC. PMID:18179800

  10. Calcifications Are Potential Surrogates for Prostate Localization in Image-Guided Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Grace G. McGowan, Tom S.; Larsen, Tessa M.; Bruce, Lisa M.; Moran, Natasha K.; Tsao, Jonathan R.; MacPherson, Miller S.

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using calcifications as surrogates for the prostate position during cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) image-guided radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The twice-weekly CBCT images taken during the treatment course of 4 patients were retrospectively studied for the stability of the calcifications. The geometric center of three fiducial markers was used as the reference. The planning CT images of 131 prostate patients recently treated with external beam radiotherapy at our center were reviewed to estimate the calcification occurrence rate. Analysis was conducted using the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system. Two patients were treated using prostate calcifications as the landmark in on-line registration. Both the Varian standard and the low-dose CBCT modes were used for imaging. Results: The calcifications were found to be stable during the treatment course. At the 95% confidence interval, the difference between the distance from an identified calcification to the fiducial markers on CBCT and the distance on the planning CT scans was 0.2 {+-} 2.0 mm, 0.8 {+-} 2.2 mm, and 0.4 {+-} 2.4 mm in the left-right, anteroposterior, and superoinferior direction, respectively. Of the 131 patients, 46 (35%) had well-defined calcifications either inside the prostate or near the borders. Our experience in treating the first 2 patients demonstrated that the calcifications are easily distinguished on low-dose scans and that calcification registration can be precisely performed. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that calcifications can be reliable markers of prostate position and allow for precise image guidance with a low-imaging dose. With this approach, potentially about one-third of prostate patients could benefit from precise image guidance without the invasive use of markers.

  11. Direct comparison of regulators of calcification between bone and vessels in humans.

    PubMed

    Schweighofer, N; Aigelsreiter, A; Trummer, O; Graf-Rechberger, M; Hacker, N; Kniepeiss, D; Wagner, D; Stiegler, P; Trummer, C; Pieber, T; Obermayer-Pietsch, B; Müller, H

    2016-07-01

    Calcification is not only physiologically present in bone but is a main pathophysiological process in vasculature, favouring cardiovascular diseases. Our aim was to investigate changes in the expression of calcification regulators during vascular calcification in bone and vasculature. Levels of gene expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), osteopontin (OPN), matrix gla protein (MGP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), SMAD6, and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) were determined in bone, aorta, and external iliac artery tissue samples of transplant donors. Histological stages of atherosclerosis (AS) in vessels are defined as "no changes", "intima thickening", or "intima calcification". Patients' bone samples were subgrouped accordingly. We demonstrate that in vessels BSP and OPN expression significantly increased during intima thickening and decreased during intima calcification, whereas the expression of regulators of calcification did not significantly change in bone during intima thickening and intima calcification. At the stage of intima thickening, MGP, OPG, and SMAD6 expression and at stage of intima calcification only MGP expression was lower in bone than in vessel. The expression of BSP and RANKL was regulated in opposite ways in bone and vessels, whereas the expression of MGP, OC, RUNX2, and OPN was regulated in a tissue-specific manner. Our study is the first direct comparison of gene expression changes during AS progression in bone and vessels. Our results indicate that changes in the expression of regulators of calcification in the vessel wall as well as in bone occur early in the calcification process, even prior to deposition of calcium/phosphate precipitation. PMID:27108945

  12. Tenosynovitis with psammomatous calcification: a poorly recognized pseudotumor related to repetitive tendinous injury.

    PubMed

    Shon, Wonwoo; Folpe, Andrew L

    2010-06-01

    Tenosynovitis with psammomatous calcification, described in 1983 by Gravanis and Gaffney, is a distinctive clinicopathologic variant of "idiopathic calcifying tenosynovitis" or "calcific tendonitis." However, tenosynovitis with psammomatous calcification is poorly recognized by pathologists and for this reason has not been adopted widely as a distinct entity. We present the clinicopathologic features of 6 cases of tenosynovitis with psammomatous calcification. Cases involved the tendons, peritendinous soft tissues, and adjacent synovium of the distal extremities (3 fingers, 2 feet, and 1 carpal tendon) of women who ranged in age from 16 to 83 years (mean 48 y). The lesions presented a painful mass. A history of occupational or sports-related repetitive motion and/or persistent mild trauma was noted in all patients. No patient had a history of hyperphosphatemia. All lesions were treated by surgical excision and described clinically as variably cystic nodules composed of amorphous "cheese-like" debris. Histologically, the lesions were centered in the tendon or peritendinous soft tissue and composed of a mixed (myo) fibroblastic and histiocytic proliferation in association with a degenerating tendinous tissue, which was undergoing dystrophic calcification, with the formation of distinctive psammoma body-like spheroidal bodies. The clinical and morphologic characteristics of tenosynovitis with psammomatous calcification (distal location, absent hyperphosphatemia, and psammomatous calcifications) differ from those of typical idiopathic calcifying tenosynovitis/calcific tendinitis (proximal location and dystrophic tendinous calcification) and tumoral calcinosis (hyperphosphatemia and amorphous soft tissue calcification), and it should be recognized as a distinct clinicopathologic entity. Improved recognition of these unique features by pathologists should allow ready diagnosis of this unusual pseudotumor in most instances.

  13. Atypical antipsychotics to treat the neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Philip E; Gill, Sudeep S; Rochon, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in older adults with dementia and can be associated with a rapid decline in cognitive and functional status. This article reviews the current literature supporting the use of atypical antipsychotic medications in this population. Among the currently available atypical antipsychotics, risperidone and olanzapine have been the most widely studied in double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Despite the common use of other atypical antipsychotic medications, their efficacy and safety in older adults with dementia has not been as extensively studied. Some controversy surrounds the use of atypical antipsychotic agents in older adults with the suggestion that they may increase the incidence of stroke or even death. Despite the potential for increased risk of harm from the use of these medications, atypical antipsychotics are often effective in treating troublesome neuropsychiatric symptoms refractory to other treatments. Whenever possible, these atypical antipsychotic drug treatments should be combined with non-pharmacological treatments to limit the need and dose of antipsychotic drugs and constant monitoring for potential harms should be maintained. The choice of which atypical antipsychotic agent can be guided by the nature and severity of the target symptom and the medication least likely to cause harm to the patient. PMID:19412500

  14. Atypical antipsychotics in first admission schizophrenia: medication continuation and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mojtabai, Ramin; Lavelle, Janet; Gibson, P Joseph; Bromet, Evelyn J

    2003-01-01

    This study compares the effects of atypical and conventional antipsychotic medications on treatment continuation and outcomes in a first admission sample of patients with schizophrenia treated in usual practice settings. In a sample of 189 participants with a research diagnosis of DSM-IV schizophrenia drawn from the Suffolk County Mental Health Project, we compared the effects of atypical and conventional agents on change of medication, medication gaps, and rehospitalization. For these analyses we used the method of survival analysis for recurrent events, in which the episodes of treatment rather than individual subjects are the units of analysis. In addition, we compared improvement in positive and negative symptoms from intake to 24- or 48-month followups for subjects who stayed on one type of medication or changed to atypicals from conventional antipsychotics. Atypical agents were associated with lower risk of medication change, medication gaps, and rehospitalization. Both conventional and atypical agents were associated with improvement of positive symptoms at followup, but only subjects on atypical agents at followup experienced a significant improvement in negative symptoms. We conclude that in usual practice settings, as in randomized clinical trials, atypical agents are associated with improved treatment continuation and outcomes.

  15. Atypical chemokine receptors in cancer: friends or foes?

    PubMed

    Massara, Matteo; Bonavita, Ornella; Mantovani, Alberto; Locati, Massimo; Bonecchi, Raffaella

    2016-06-01

    The chemokine system is a fundamental component of cancer-related inflammation involved in all stages of cancer development. It controls not only leukocyte infiltration in primary tumors but also angiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation, and migration to metastatic sites. Atypical chemokine receptors are a new, emerging class of regulators of the chemokine system. They control chemokine bioavailability by scavenging, transporting, or storing chemokines. They can also regulate the activity of canonical chemokine receptors with which they share the ligands by forming heterodimers or by modulating their expression levels or signaling activity. Here, we summarize recent results about the role of these receptors (atypical chemokine receptor 1/Duffy antigen receptor for chemokine, atypical chemokine receptor 2/D6, atypical chemokine receptor 3/CXC-chemokine receptor 7, and atypical chemokine receptor 4/CC-chemokine receptor-like 1) on the tumorigenesis process, indicating that their effects are strictly dependent on the cell type on which they are expressed and on their coexpression with other chemokine receptors. Indeed, atypical chemokine receptors inhibit tumor growth and progression through their activity as negative regulators of chemokine bioavailability, whereas, on the contrary, they can promote tumorigenesis when they regulate the signaling of other chemokine receptors, such as CXC-chemokine receptor 4. Thus, atypical chemokine receptors are key components of the regulatory network of inflammation and immunity in cancer and may have a major effect on anti-inflammatory and immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:26908826

  16. Comparison of Brain Networks During Interictal Oscillations and Spikes on Magnetoencephalography and Intracerebral EEG.

    PubMed

    Jmail, Nawel; Gavaret, Martine; Bartolomei, F; Chauvel, P; Badier, Jean-Michel; Bénar, Christian-G

    2016-09-01

    Electromagnetic source localization in electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) allows finding the generators of transient interictal epileptiform discharges ('interictal spikes'). In intracerebral EEG (iEEG), oscillatory activity (above 30 Hz) has also been shown to be a marker of neuronal dysfunction. Still, the difference between networks involved in transient and oscillatory activities remains largely unknown. Our goal was thus to extract and compare the networks involved in interictal oscillations and spikes, and to compare the non-invasive results to those obtained directly within the brain. In five patients with both MEG and iEEG recordings, we computed correlation graphs across regions, for (1) interictal spikes and (2) epileptic oscillations around 30 Hz. We show that the corresponding networks can involve a widespread set of regions (average of 10 per patient), with only partial overlap (38 % of the total number of regions in MEG, 50 % in iEEG). The non-invasive results were concordant with intracerebral recordings (79 % for the spikes and 50 % for the oscillations). We compared our interictal results to iEEG ictal data. The regions labeled as seizure onset zone (SOZ) belonged to interictal networks in a large proportion of cases: 75 % (resp. 58 %) for spikes and 58 % (resp. 33 %) for oscillations in iEEG (resp. MEG). A subset of SOZ regions were detected by one type of discharges but not the other (25 % for spikes and 8 % for oscillations). Our study suggests that spike and oscillatory activities involve overlapping but distinct networks, and are complementary for presurgical mapping. PMID:27334988

  17. From Intracerebral EEG Signals to Brain Connectivity: Identification of Epileptogenic Networks in Partial Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Wendling, Fabrice; Chauvel, Patrick; Biraben, Arnaud; Bartolomei, Fabrice

    2010-01-01

    Epilepsy is a complex neurological disorder characterized by recurring seizures. In 30% of patients, seizures are insufficiently reduced by anti-epileptic drugs. In the case where seizures originate from a relatively circumscribed region of the brain, epilepsy is said to be partial and surgery can be indicated. The success of epilepsy surgery depends on the accurate localization and delineation of the epileptogenic zone (which often involves several structures), responsible for seizures. It requires a comprehensive pre-surgical evaluation of patients that includes not only imaging data but also long-term monitoring of electrophysiological signals (scalp and intracerebral EEG). During the past decades, considerable effort has been devoted to the development of signal analysis techniques aimed at characterizing the functional connectivity among spatially distributed regions over interictal (outside seizures) or ictal (during seizures) periods from EEG data. Most of these methods rely on the measurement of statistical couplings among signals recorded from distinct brain sites. However, methods differ with respect to underlying theoretical principles (mostly coming from the field of statistics or the field of non-linear physics). The objectives of this paper are: (i) to provide an brief overview of methods aimed at characterizing functional brain connectivity from electrophysiological data, (ii) to provide concrete application examples in the context of drug-refractory partial epilepsies, and iii) to highlight some key points emerging from results obtained both on real intracerebral EEG signals and on signals simulated from physiologically plausible models in which the underlying connectivity patterns are known a priori (ground truth). PMID:21152345

  18. Intracranial Tuberculoma Presenting as Atypical Eclampsia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Murugesan, Sharmila; Pradeep, Sunitha; John, Lopamudra; Kolluru, Vasavi

    2016-01-01

    Occurrence of eclampsia before 20 weeks of pregnancy and after 48 hours of delivery in the absence of typical signs of hypertension and or proteinuria is termed as atypical eclampsia. Atypical or non-classic eclampsia will have some symptoms of eclampsia but without the usual proteinuria or hypertension. All patients with atypical onset should undergo neurological evaluation to rule out neurologic causes of seizures. Cerebral tuberculosis is a rare and serious form of disease secondary to haematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here we present a case of cerebral tuberculoma with seizures in late pregnancy mimicking eclampsia. PMID:27504359

  19. Mitochondrial function is altered in horse atypical myopathy.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Hélène; Boemer, François; van Galen, Gaby; Serteyn, Didier; Amory, Hélène; Baise, Etienne; Cassart, Dominique; van Loon, Gunther; Marcillaud-Pitel, Christel; Votion, Dominique-M

    2016-09-01

    Equine atypical myopathy in Europe is a fatal rhabdomyolysis syndrome that results from the ingestion of hypoglycin A contained in seeds and seedlings of Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple). Acylcarnitine concentrations in serum and muscle OXPHOS capacity were determined in 15 atypical myopathy cases. All but one acylcarnitine were out of reference range and mitochondrial respiratory capacity was severely decreased up to 49% as compared to 10 healthy controls. The hallmark of atypical myopathy thus consists of a severe alteration in the energy metabolism including a severe impairment in muscle mitochondrial respiration that could contribute to its high death rate. PMID:27374763

  20. Role of osteoprotegerin and its ligands and competing receptors in atherosclerotic calcification.

    PubMed

    Tintut, Yin; Demer, Linda

    2006-11-01

    Vascular calcification significantly impairs cardiovascular physiology, and its mechanism is under investigation. Many of the same factors that modulate bone osteogenesis, including cytokines, hormones, and lipids, also modulate vascular calcification, acting through many of the same transcription factors. In some cases, such as for lipids and cytokines, the net effect on calcification is positive in the artery wall and negative in bone. The mechanism for this reciprocal relation is not established. A recent series of reports points to the possibility that two bone regulatory factors, receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and its soluble decoy receptor, osteoprotegerin (OPG), govern vascular calcification and may explain the phenomenon. Both RANKL and OPG are widely accepted as the final common pathway for most factors and processes affecting bone resorption. Binding of RANKL to its cognate receptor RANK induces NF-kappaB signaling, which stimulates osteoclastic differentiation in preosteoclasts and induces bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) expression in chondrocytes. A role for RANKL and its receptors in vascular calcification is spported by several findings: a vascular calcification phenotype in mice genetically deficient in OPG; an increase in expression of RANKL, and a decrease in expression of OPG, in calcified arteries; clinical associations between coronary disease and serum OPG and RANKL levels; and RANKL induction of calcification and osteoblastic differentiation in valvular myofibroblasts. PMID:17169261