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Sample records for intracerebral hematoma due

  1. Dabigatran-related intracerebral hemorrhage resulting in hematoma expansion.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Claus Z; Steiner, Thorsten; Tietze, Anna; Damgaard, Dorte

    2014-02-01

    Warfarin-related intracerebral hemorrhage carries a particularly high risk of neurologic deterioration and death because of a high rate of hematoma expansion of about 50%. Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs)--apixaban, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban--have a significantly smaller risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, two facts make this situation complicated: First, the risk of hematoma expansion is unknown for NOACs. Second, there is no specific antidote for neither of the NOACs. We present a case that suggests that hematoma expansion may occur after NOAC-related ICH.

  2. [Intracerebral hemorrhages following drainage of chronic subdural hematomas].

    PubMed

    Alcalá-Cerra, Gabriel; Gutiérrez-Paternina, Juan José; Niño-Hernández, Lucía Mercedes; Polo-Torres, Carolina; Romero-Ramírez, Haroldo; Sabogal-Barrios, Rubén

    2011-01-01

    postoperative intracerebral hemorrhage after drainage of chronic subdural hematoma is a rarely reported complication; however, its incidence, according to different series may be underestimated. this report presents a 77 year old male patient who, after the drainage of bilateral chronic subdural hematomas, developed an extensive hemorrhage in the thalami, basal ganglia, midbrain and pons, with extension into the ventricles and obstructive hydrocephalus. compression by extra-axial collection decreases cerebral blood flow on the affected hemisphere and alters its vascular self-adjustment. The rapid increase in cerebral blood flow in brain areas with altered vascular self-adjustment appears to be the precipitating mechanism of intracerebral hemorrhage after surgical evacuation of chronic subdural hematomas.

  3. Image-guided endoscopic surgery for spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hematoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guo-Chen; Chen, Xiao-Lei; Hou, Yuan-Zheng; Yu, Xin-Guang; Ma, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Gang; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Jia-Shu; Tang, Hao; Zhu, Ru-Yuan; Zhou, Ding-Biao; Xu, Bai-Nan

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Endoscopic removal of intracerebral hematomas is becoming increasingly common, but there is no standard technique. The authors explored the use of a simple image-guided endoscopic method for removal of spontaneous supratentorial hematomas. METHODS Virtual reality technology based on a hospital picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) was used in 3D hematoma visualization and surgical planning. Augmented reality based on an Android smartphone app, Sina neurosurgical assist, allowed a projection of the hematoma to be seen on the patient's scalp to facilitate selection of the best trajectory to the center of the hematoma. A obturator and transparent sheath were used to establish a working channel, and an endoscope and a metal suction apparatus were used to remove the hematoma. RESULTS A total of 25 patients were included in the study, including 18 with putamen hemorrhages and 7 with lobar cerebral hemorrhages. Virtual reality combined with augmented reality helped in achieving the desired position with the obturator and sheath. The median time from the initial surgical incision to completion of closure was 50 minutes (range 40-70 minutes). The actual endoscopic operating time was 30 (range 15-50) minutes. The median blood loss was 80 (range 40-150) ml. No patient experienced postoperative rebleeding. The average hematoma evacuation rate was 97%. The mean (± SD) preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was 6.7 ± 3.2; 1 week after hematoma evacuation the mean GCS score had improved to 11.9 ± 3.1 (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Virtual reality using hospital PACS and augmented reality with a smartphone app helped precisely localize hematomas and plan the appropriate endoscopic approach. A transparent sheath helped establish a surgical channel, and an endoscope enabled observation of the hematoma's location to achieve satisfactory hematoma removal.

  4. Small supratentorial, extraaxial primitive neuroectodermal tumor causing large intracerebral hematoma.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Kockro, Ralf A; Dohmen-Scheufler, Hildegard; Woernle, Christoph M; Bellut, David; Kollias, Spyros; Bertalanffy, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    A 16-year-old boy presented with an unusual case of a supratentorial, extraaxial small round blue cell tumor of the central nervous system, which was most likely a primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). Preoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a large multistage hematoma in the left central region. Intraoperatively, a small, superficial tumorous lesion was found between the sagittal sinus and a large cortical vein hidden by the hematoma. The histological diagnosis was PNET. This tumor is one of the most aggressive intracerebral tumors, not only in children, so treatment strategies must be early, profound, and interdisciplinary. This case represents an important example of atypical extraaxial appearance of this lesion, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cortical or subcortical hemorrhage, since complete resection of this lesion is critical for the successful treatment and outcome.

  5. The study of traumatic intracerebral hematoma at Buri Ram Hospital.

    PubMed

    Nagabhand, A; Sangcham, K

    1993-07-01

    This report describes the study of traumatic intracerebral hematoma at Buri Ram Hospital. The total number was 71 cases. There were 26 cases with no investigation and were treated by exploratory burr hole with the mortality rate of 57.5 per cent, and 45 cases which were sent for CT scan before operation with the mortality rate of 37.5 per cent. CT scanning is a useful investigative tool for correct diagnosis and rapid treatment of head injury and the operation which helps to reduce the mortality rate.

  6. Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Perihemorrhagic Edema and Secondary Hematoma Expansion: From Bench Work to Ongoing Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Manoj K.; LacKamp, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a medical emergency, which often leads to severe disability and death. ICH-related poor outcomes are due to primary injury causing structural damage and mass effect and secondary injury in the perihemorrhagic region over several days to weeks. Secondary injury after ICH can be due to hematoma expansion (HE) or a consequence of repair pathway along the continuum of neuroinflammation, neuronal death, and perihemorrhagic edema (PHE). This review article is focused on PHE and HE and will cover the animal studies, related human studies, and clinical trials relating to these mechanisms of secondary brain injury in ICH patients. PMID:27917153

  7. CD163 promotes hematoma absorption and improves neurological functions in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen-Jing; Yu, Hong-Quan; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Qun; Meng, Hong-Mei

    2016-07-01

    Clinical outcomes are positively associated with hematoma absorption. The monocyte-macrophage scavenger receptor, CD163, plays an important role in the metabolism of hemoglobin, and a soluble form of CD163 is present in plasma and other tissue fluids; therefore, we speculated that serum CD163 affects hematoma absorption after intracerebral hemorrhage. Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage were divided into high- and low-level groups according to the average CD163 level (1,977.79 ± 832.91 ng/mL). Compared with the high-level group, the low-level group had a significantly slower hematoma absorption rate, and significantly increased National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores and modified Rankin Scale scores. These results suggest that CD163 promotes hematoma absorption and the recovery of neurological function in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

  8. CD163 promotes hematoma absorption and improves neurological functions in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wen-jing; Yu, Hong-quan; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Qun; Meng, Hong-mei

    2016-01-01

    Clinical outcomes are positively associated with hematoma absorption. The monocyte-macrophage scavenger receptor, CD163, plays an important role in the metabolism of hemoglobin, and a soluble form of CD163 is present in plasma and other tissue fluids; therefore, we speculated that serum CD163 affects hematoma absorption after intracerebral hemorrhage. Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage were divided into high- and low-level groups according to the average CD163 level (1,977.79 ± 832.91 ng/mL). Compared with the high-level group, the low-level group had a significantly slower hematoma absorption rate, and significantly increased National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores and modified Rankin Scale scores. These results suggest that CD163 promotes hematoma absorption and the recovery of neurological function in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. PMID:27630696

  9. Black Hole Sign: Novel Imaging Marker That Predicts Hematoma Growth in Patients With Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Zhang, Gang; Xiong, Xin; Wang, Xing-Chen; Yang, Wen-Song; Li, Ke-Wei; Wei, Xiao; Xie, Peng

    2016-07-01

    Early hematoma growth is a devastating neurological complication after intracerebral hemorrhage. We aim to report and evaluate the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) black hole sign in predicting hematoma growth in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage were screened for the presence of CT black hole sign on admission head CT performed within 6 hours after onset of symptoms. The black hole sign was defined as hypoattenuatting area encapsulated within the hyperattenuating hematoma with a clearly defined border. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of CT black hole sign in predicting hematoma expansion were calculated. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the presence of the black hole sign and early hematoma growth. A total of 206 patients were enrolled. Black hole sign was found in 30 (14.6%) of 206 patients on the baseline CT scan. The black hole sign was more common in patients with hematoma growth (31.9%) than those without hematoma growth (5.8%; P<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of back hole sign in predicting early hematoma growth were 31.9%, 94.1%, 73.3%, and 73.2%, respectively. The time-to-admission CT scan, baseline hematoma volume, and the presence of black hole sign on admission CT independently predict hematoma growth in multivariate model. The CT black hole sign could be used as a simple and easy-to-use predictor for early hematoma growth in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Comparison of hematoma shape and volume estimates in warfarin versus non-warfarin-related intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Kevin N; Cushing, Tracy A; Wendell, Lauren; Lev, Michael H; Romero, Javier M; Schwab, Kristin; Smith, Eric E; Greenberg, Steven M; Rosand, Jonathan; Goldstein, Joshua N

    2010-02-01

    Hematoma volume is a major determinant of outcome in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Accurate volume measurements are critical for predicting outcome and are thought to be more difficult in patients with oral anticoagulation-related ICH (OAT-ICH) due to a higher frequency of irregular shape. We examined hematoma shape and methods of volume assessment in patients with OAT-ICH. We performed a case-control analysis of a prospectively identified cohort of consecutive patients with ICH. We retrospectively reviewed 50 consecutive patients with OAT-ICH and 50 location-matched non-OAT-ICH controls. Two independent readers analyzed CT scans for hematoma shape and volume using both ABC/2 and ABC/3 methods. Readers were blinded to all clinical variables including warfarin status. Gold-standard ICH volumes were determined using validated computer-assisted planimetry. Within this cohort, median INR in patients with OAT-ICH was 3.2. Initial ICH volume was not significantly different between non-OAT-ICH and OAT-ICH (35 +/- 38 cc vs. 53 +/- 56 cc, P = 0.4). ICH shape did not differ by anticoagulation status (round shape in 10% of OAT-ICH vs. 16% of non-OAT-ICH, P = 0.5). The ABC/3 calculation underestimated median volume by 9 (3-28) cc, while the ABC/2 calculation did so by 4 (0.8-12) cc. Hematoma shape was not statistically significantly different in patients with OAT-ICH. Among bedside approaches, the standard ABC/2 method offers reasonable approximation of hematoma volume in OAT-ICH and non-OAT-ICH.

  11. Prediction and Observation of Post-Admission Hematoma Expansion in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ovesen, Christian; Havsteen, Inger; Rosenbaum, Sverre; Christensen, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Post-admission hematoma expansion in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) comprises a simultaneous major clinical problem and a possible target for medical intervention. In any case, the ability to predict and observe hematoma expansion is of great clinical importance. We review radiological concepts in predicting and observing post-admission hematoma expansion. Hematoma expansion can be observed within the first 24 h after symptom onset, but predominantly occurs in the early hours. Thus capturing markers of on-going bleeding on imaging techniques could predict hematoma expansion. The spot sign observed on computed tomography angiography is believed to represent on-going bleeding and is to date the most well investigated and reliable radiological predictor of hematoma expansion as well as functional outcome and mortality. On non-contrast CT, the presence of foci of hypoattenuation within the hematoma along with the hematoma-size is reported to be predictive of hematoma expansion and outcome. Because patients tend to arrive earlier to the hospital, a larger fraction of acute ICH-patients must be expected to undergo hematoma expansion. This renders observation and radiological follow-up investigations increasingly relevant. Transcranial duplex sonography has in recent years proven to be able to estimate hematoma volume with good precision and could be a valuable tool in bedside serial observation of acute ICH-patients. Future studies will elucidate, if better prediction and observation of post-admission hematoma expansion can help select patients, who will benefit from hemostatic treatment. PMID:25324825

  12. Multiple Spontaneous Intracerebral Hematoma without Presenting Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sangman; Park, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Ju-Seong

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage in those aged 45–84 years is 0.3-0.5%. In people over 80 years of age, this incidence increases 25-fold compared with that of the total population. The most common causes of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in the younger population are vascular malformation, aneurysm, and overuse of drugs. In contrast, common causes in the elderly include hypertension, tumors, and coagulation disorders. Here, we present a case involving a 72-year-old male patient who, without any of these predisposing conditions, was admitted to the hospital with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and showed signs of multifocal intracerebral hemorrhage during his stay. We conclude that spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage can occur without any predisposing factors, and can lead to a patient's death. Therefore, the possibility of recurrent spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage must be considered in patients with primary spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. PMID:27847776

  13. [Delayed Traumatic Intracerebral Hematoma during Antiplatelet Therapy after Operations for Ruptured Left ICPC Aneurysm and Right Traumatic Epidural Hematoma: A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Nomura, Shunsuke; Iwata, Yukiya; Baba, Motoki; Kawashima, Akitsugu; Sato, Hidetaka; Okada, Yoshikazu

    2015-07-01

    Delayed traumatic intracerebral hematoma (DTICH) is a rare complication of head injury that appears suddenly after an interval of several days or months. Here, we report a case of DTICH during antiplatelet therapy for vasospasm following surgeries for a ruptured left internal carotid-posterior communicating (ICPC) aneurysm and right acute epidural hematoma (EDH). A 77-year-old man with no medical history was diagnosed with a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to rupturing of a left ICPC aneurysm and a right linear fracture of the right parietal bone due to a head injury following the rupture. On day 2, the patient underwent successful clipping of the left ICPC aneurysm. Computed tomography (CT) performed post-clipping revealed a right acute EDH below the linear fracture of the right parietal bone, which was removed immediately. A next-day CT revealed minor contusions in both temporal poles. Fasudil, ozagrel, and cilostazol were administered from Day 3 post-clipping and EDH evacuation to prevent vasospasm. The contusions did not enlarge until Day 10. On Day 11, the patient became comatose, and a huge hematoma was identified in the right temporal lobe to frontal lobe. Although the hematoma was removed immediately, the patient died on Day 13. The hematoma was considered to be a rare case of DTICH that developed from a minor contusion of the right temporal lobe during antiplatelet therapy for vasospasm. In cases of aneurysmal SAH with head injury and contusion, we must pay attention to DTICH and select more deliberate treatment for vasospasm.

  14. Peri-Hemorrhagic Edema and Secondary Hematoma Expansion after Intracerebral Hemorrhage: From Benchwork to Practical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Babi, Marc-Alain; James, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) is the most lethal type of stroke. Half of these deaths occur within the acute phase. Frequently observed deterioration during the acute phase is often due to rebleeding or peri-hematomal expansion. The exact pathogenesis that leads to rebleeding or peri-hemorrhagic edema remains under much controversy. Numerous trials have investigated potential predictor of peri-hemorrhagic edema formation or rebleeding but have yet to come with consistent results. Unfortunately, almost all of the “classical” approaches have failed to show a significant impact in regard of significant clinical outcome in randomized clinical trials. Current treatment strategies may remain “double-edged swords,” for inherent reasons to the pathophysiology of sICH. Therefore, the right balance and possibly the combination of current accepted strategies as well as the evaluation of future approaches seem urgent. This article reviews the role of disturbed autoregulation following SICH, surgical and non-surgical approaches in management of SICH, peri-hematoma edema, peri-hematoma expansion, and future therapeutic trends. PMID:28154550

  15. Fatal endocarditis with methicilin-sensible Staphylococcus aureus and major complications: rhabdomyolysis, pericarditis, and intracerebral hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Georgescu, Anca Meda; Azamfirei, Leonard; Szalman, Krisztina; Szekely, Edit

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Over the last decades Staphylococcus aureus (SA) has become the dominant etiology of native valve infective endocarditis, with the community-acquired methicillin-sensible Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MSSA) strains being the prevailing type. Case: We report here a case of extremely severe CA-MSSA aortic valve acute endocarditis associated with persistent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) in a previously healthy man and include a literature review. The patient developed severe and rare complications (purpura, purulent pericarditis, intracerebral hematoma, and rhabdomyolysis) through systemic embolism; they required drainage of pericardial empyema and cerebral hematoma, the latter eventually caused a fatal outcome. The strains recovered from sequential blood culture sets and pericardial fluid were MSSA negative for genes encoding for staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST)-1 and Panton–Valentine leukocidin. C, G, and I enterotoxin genes were detected. Conclusions: This case with unusually severe evolution underlines the limited ability of vancomycin to control some MSSA infections, possibly due to potential involvement of SA virulence factors, hence the importance of clinical vigilance for community SAB cases. PMID:27741135

  16. Hematoma Shape, Hematoma Size, Glasgow Coma Scale Score and ICH Score: Which Predicts the 30-Day Mortality Better for Intracerebral Hematoma?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chih-Wei; Liu, Yi-Jui; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan; Fan, Hueng-Chuen; Yang, Fu-Chi; Hsueh, Chun-Jen; Kao, Hung-Wen; Juan, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Hsian-He

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the performance of hematoma shape, hematoma size, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score, and intracerebral hematoma (ICH) score in predicting the 30-day mortality for ICH patients. To examine the influence of the estimation error of hematoma size on the prediction of 30-day mortality. Materials and Methods This retrospective study, approved by a local institutional review board with written informed consent waived, recruited 106 patients diagnosed as ICH by non-enhanced computed tomography study. The hemorrhagic shape, hematoma size measured by computer-assisted volumetric analysis (CAVA) and estimated by ABC/2 formula, ICH score and GCS score was examined. The predicting performance of 30-day mortality of the aforementioned variables was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, paired t test, nonparametric test, linear regression analysis, and binary logistic regression. The receiver operating characteristics curves were plotted and areas under curve (AUC) were calculated for 30-day mortality. A P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results The overall 30-day mortality rate was 15.1% of ICH patients. The hematoma shape, hematoma size, ICH score, and GCS score all significantly predict the 30-day mortality for ICH patients, with an AUC of 0.692 (P = 0.0018), 0.715 (P = 0.0008) (by ABC/2) to 0.738 (P = 0.0002) (by CAVA), 0.877 (P<0.0001) (by ABC/2) to 0.882 (P<0.0001) (by CAVA), and 0.912 (P<0.0001), respectively. Conclusion Our study shows that hematoma shape, hematoma size, ICH scores and GCS score all significantly predict the 30-day mortality in an increasing order of AUC. The effect of overestimation of hematoma size by ABC/2 formula in predicting the 30-day mortality could be remedied by using ICH score. PMID:25029592

  17. Leakage Sign for Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Novel Predictor of Hematoma Growth.

    PubMed

    Orito, Kimihiko; Hirohata, Masaru; Nakamura, Yukihiko; Takeshige, Nobuyuki; Aoki, Takachika; Hattori, Gousuke; Sakata, Kiyohiko; Abe, Toshi; Uchiyama, Yuusuke; Sakamoto, Teruo; Morioka, Motohiro

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies of intracerebral hemorrhage treatments have highlighted the need to identify reliable predictors of hematoma expansion. Several studies have suggested that the spot sign on computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is a sensitive radiological predictor of hematoma expansion in the acute phase. However, the spot sign has low sensitivity for hematoma expansion. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of a novel predictive method, called the leakage sign. We performed CTA for 80 consecutive patients presenting with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Two scans were completed: CTA phase and delayed phase (5 minutes after the CTA phase). By comparing the CTA phase images, we set a region of interest with a 10-mm diameter and calculated the Hounsfield units. We defined a positive leakage sign as a >10% increase in Hounsfield units in the region of interest. Additionally, hematoma expansion was determined on plain computed tomography at 24 hours in patients who did not undergo emergent surgery. Positive spot signs and leakage signs were present in 18 (22%) patients and 35 (43%) patients, respectively. The leakage sign had higher sensitivity (93.3%) and specificity (88.9%) for hematoma expansion than the spot sign. The leakage sign, but not the spot sign, was significantly related with poor outcomes (severely disabled, vegetative state, and death) in all of the patients (P=0.03) and in patients with a hemorrhage in the putamen (P=0.0016). The results indicate that the leakage sign is a useful and sensitive method to predict hematoma expansion. © 2016 The Authors.

  18. Catheter placement for lysis of spontaneous intracerebral hematomas: does a catheter position in the core of the hematoma allow more effective and faster hematoma lysis?

    PubMed

    Malinova, Vesna; Schlegel, Anna; Rohde, Veit; Mielke, Dorothee

    2017-07-01

    For the fibrinolytic therapy of intracerebral hematomas (ICH) using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), a catheter position in the core of the hematoma along the largest clot diameter was assumed to be optimal for an effective clot lysis. However, it never had been proven that core position indeed enhances clot lysis if compared with less optimal catheter positions. In this study, the impact of the catheter position on the effectiveness and on the time course of clot lysis was evaluated. We analyzed the catheter position using a relative error calculating the distance perpendicular to the catheter's center in relation to hematoma's diameter and evaluated the relative hematoma volume reduction (RVR). The correlation of the RVR with the catheter position was evaluated. Additionally, we tried to identify patterns of clot lysis with different catheter positions. The patient's outcome at discharge was evaluated using the Glasgow outcome score. A total of 105 patients were included in the study. The mean hematoma volume was 56 ml. The overall RVR was 62.7 %. In 69 patients, a catheter position in the core of the clot was achieved. We found no significant correlation between catheter position and hematoma RVR (linear regression, p = 0.14). Core catheter position leads to more symmetrical hematoma RVR. Faster clot lysis happens in the vicinity of the catheter openings. We found no significant difference in the patient's outcome dependent on the catheter position (linear regression, p = 0.90). The catheter position in the core of the hematoma along its largest diameter does not significantly influence the effectiveness of clot lysis after rtPA application.

  19. Association Between Hypodensities Detected by Computed Tomography and Hematoma Expansion in Patients With Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Boulouis, Gregoire; Morotti, Andrea; Brouwers, H Bart; Charidimou, Andreas; Jessel, Michael J; Auriel, Eitan; Pontes-Neto, Octávio; Ayres, Alison; Vashkevich, Anastasia; Schwab, Kristin M; Rosand, Jonathan; Viswanathan, Anand; Gurol, Mahmut E; Greenberg, Steven M; Goldstein, Joshua N

    2016-08-01

    Hematoma expansion is a potentially modifiable predictor of poor outcome following an acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The ability to identify patients with ICH who are likeliest to experience hematoma expansion and therefore likeliest to benefit from expansion-targeted treatments remains an unmet need. Hypodensities within an ICH detected by noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) have been suggested as a predictor of hematoma expansion. To determine whether hypodense regions, irrespective of their specific patterns, are associated with hematoma expansion in patients with ICH. We analyzed a large cohort of 784 patients with ICH (the development cohort; 55.6% female), examined NCCT findings for any hypodensity, and replicated our findings on a different cohort of patients (the replication cohort; 52.7% female). Baseline and follow-up NCCT data from consecutive patients with ICH presenting to a tertiary care hospital between 1994 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Data analyses were performed between December 2015 and January 2016. Hypodensities were analyzed by 2 independent blinded raters. The association between hypodensities and hematoma expansion (>6 cm3 or 33% of baseline volume) was determined by multivariable logistic regression after controlling for other variables associated with hematoma expansion in univariate analyses with P ≤ .10. A total of 1029 patients were included in the analysis. In the development and replication cohorts, 222 of 784 patients (28.3%) and 99 of 245 patients (40.4%; 321 of 1029 patients [31.2%]), respectively, had NCCT scans that demonstrated hypodensities at baseline (κ = 0.87 for interrater reliability). In univariate analyses, hypodensities were associated with hematoma expansion (86 of 163 patients with hematoma expansion had hypodensities [52.8%], whereas 136 of 621 patients without hematoma expansion had hypodensities [21.9%]; P < .001). The association between hypodensities and hematoma expansion

  20. Association Between Hypodensities Detected by Computed Tomography and Hematoma Expansion in Patients With Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Boulouis, Gregoire; Morotti, Andrea; Brouwers, H. Bart; Charidimou, Andreas; Jessel, Michael J.; Auriel, Eitan; Pontes-Neto, Octávio; Ayres, Alison; Vashkevich, Anastasia; Schwab, Kristin M.; Rosand, Jonathan; Viswanathan, Anand; Gurol, Mahmut E.; Greenberg, Steven M.; Goldstein, Joshua N.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Hematoma expansion is a potentially modifiable predictor of poor outcome following an acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The ability to identify patients with ICH who are likeliest to experience hematoma expansion and therefore likeliest to benefit from expansion-targeted treatments remains an unmet need. Hypodensities within an ICH detected by noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) have been suggested as a predictor of hematoma expansion. OBJECTIVE To determine whether hypodense regions, irrespective of their specific patterns, are associated with hematoma expansion in patients with ICH. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We analyzed a large cohort of 784 patients with ICH (the development cohort; 55.6% female), examined NCCT findings for any hypodensity, and replicated our findings on a different cohort of patients (the replication cohort; 52.7% female). Baseline and follow-up NCCT data from consecutive patients with ICH presenting to a tertiary care hospital between 1994 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Data analyses were performed between December 2015 and January 2016. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Hypodensities were analyzed by 2 independent blinded raters. The association between hypodensities and hematoma expansion (>6 cm3 or 33% of baseline volume) was determined by multivariable logistic regression after controlling for other variables associated with hematoma expansion in univariate analyses with P ≤ .10. RESULTS A total of 1029 patients were included in the analysis. In the development and replication cohorts, 222 of 784 patients (28.3%) and 99 of 245 patients (40.4%; 321 of 1029 patients [31.2%]), respectively, had NCCT scans that demonstrated hypodensities at baseline (κ = 0.87 for interrater reliability). In univariate analyses, hypodensities were associated with hematoma expansion (86 of 163 patients with hematoma expansion had hypodensities [52.8%], whereas 136 of 621 patients without hematoma expansion had hypodensities [21

  1. CTA Spot Sign Predicts Hematoma Expansion in Patients with Delayed Presentation After Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, Guido J.; McNamara, Kristen A.; Ayres, Alison M.; Oleinik, Alexandra; Schwab, Kristin; Romero, Javier M.; Viswanathan, Anand; Greenberg, Steven M.; Rosand, Jonathan; Goldstein, Joshua N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hematoma expansion after acute intracerebral hemorrhage occurs most frequently in patients presenting within 3 h of symptom onset. However, the majority of patients present outside this window or with an unknown onset time. We investigated the prevalence of hematoma expansion in these patients and assessed the accuracy of the CT angiography (CTA) spot sign for identifying risk of hematoma expansion. Methods We analyzed 391 consecutive patients undergoing CTA and a followup CT. CTA spot sign readings were performed by two experienced readers and hematoma expansion was assessed by means of semi-automated software. Results Hematoma expansion occurred in 18 % of patients. When stratified by time from symptom onset to initial CT, hematoma expansion rates were: 39 % within 3 h; 11 % between 3 and 6 h, 11 % beyond 6 h (but with known onset), and 20 % in patients with unknown symptom onset. Of patients who developed hematoma expansion, only 38 % presented within 3 h. The accuracy of the spot sign in predicting hematoma expansion was 0.67 for patients presenting within 3 h, 0.83 between 3 and 6 h, 0.88 after 6 h, and 0.76 for patients presenting with an unknown onset time. Conclusions A substantial number of patients destined to suffer from hematoma expansion present either late or with an unknown symptom onset time. The CTA spot sign accurately identifies patients destined to expand regardless of time from symptom onset, and may therefore open a path to offer clinical trials and novel therapies to the many patients who do not present acutely. PMID:22878870

  2. Predictive Value of CTA Spot Sign on Hematoma Expansion in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Patients.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wen-Jie; Reis, Cesar; Reis, Haley; Zhang, John; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Hematoma expansion (HE) occurs in approximately one-third of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage and leads to high rates of mortality and morbidity. Currently, contrast extravasation within hematoma, termed the spot sign on computed tomography angiography (CTA), has been identified as a strong independent predictor of early hematoma expansion. Past studies indicate that the spot sign is a dynamic entity and is indicative of active hemorrhage. Furthermore, to enhance the spot sign's accuracy of predicting HE, spot parameters observed on CTA or dynamic CTA were used for its quantification. In addition, spot signs detected on multiphase CTA and dynamic CTA are shown to have higher sensitivity and specificity when compared with simple standardized spot sign detection in recent studies. Based on the spot sign, novel methods such as leakage sign and rate of contrast extravasation were explored to redefine HE prediction in combination with clinical characteristics and spot sign on CTA to assist clinical judgment. The spot sign is an accepted independent predictor of active hemorrhage and is used in both secondary intracerebral hemorrhage and the process of surgical assessment for hemorrhagic risk in patients with ischemic stroke. Spot sign predicts patients at high risk for hematoma expansion.

  3. Predictive Value of CTA Spot Sign on Hematoma Expansion in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Patients

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wen-Jie; Reis, Cesar; Reis, Haley

    2017-01-01

    Hematoma expansion (HE) occurs in approximately one-third of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage and leads to high rates of mortality and morbidity. Currently, contrast extravasation within hematoma, termed the spot sign on computed tomography angiography (CTA), has been identified as a strong independent predictor of early hematoma expansion. Past studies indicate that the spot sign is a dynamic entity and is indicative of active hemorrhage. Furthermore, to enhance the spot sign's accuracy of predicting HE, spot parameters observed on CTA or dynamic CTA were used for its quantification. In addition, spot signs detected on multiphase CTA and dynamic CTA are shown to have higher sensitivity and specificity when compared with simple standardized spot sign detection in recent studies. Based on the spot sign, novel methods such as leakage sign and rate of contrast extravasation were explored to redefine HE prediction in combination with clinical characteristics and spot sign on CTA to assist clinical judgment. The spot sign is an accepted independent predictor of active hemorrhage and is used in both secondary intracerebral hemorrhage and the process of surgical assessment for hemorrhagic risk in patients with ischemic stroke. Spot sign predicts patients at high risk for hematoma expansion. PMID:28852647

  4. Comparison of the Tada formula with software slicer: precise and low-cost method for volume assessment of intracerebral hematoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinghua; Chen, Xiaolei; Zhang, Jun; Zheng, Yi; Sun, Guochen; Yu, Xinguang; Xu, Bainan

    2014-11-01

    The Tada (ABC/2) formula has been used widely for volume assessment of intracerebral hematoma. However, the formula is crude for irregularly shaped hematoma. We aimed to compare the accuracy of the ABC/2 formula with open source software Slicer. Computed tomographic images of 294 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hematoma were collected. Hematoma volumes were assessed with the ABC/2 formula and calculated with software 3D Slicer. Results of these 2 methods were compared with regard to hematoma size and shape. The estimated hematoma volume was 58.41±37.83 cm(3) using the ABC/2 formula, compared with 50.38±31.93 cm(3) with 3D Slicer (mean percentage deviation, 16.38±9.15%). When allocate patients into groups according to hematoma size, the mean estimation error were 3.24 cm(3) (17.72%), 5.85 cm(3) (13.72%), and 15.14 cm(3) (17.48%) for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. When divided by shape, estimation error was 3.33 cm(3) (9.76%), 7.19 cm(3) (18.37%), and 29.39 cm(3) (39.12%) for regular, irregular, and multilobular hematomas. There is significant estimation error using the ABC/2 formula to calculate hematoma volume. Compared with hematoma size, estimation error is more significantly associated with hematoma shape. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Significance of satellite sign and spot sign in predicting hematoma expansion in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhiyuan; Zheng, Jun; Ali, Hasan; Guo, Rui; Li, Mou; Wang, Xiaoze; Ma, Lu; Li, Hao; You, Chao

    2017-09-20

    Hematoma expansion is related to poor outcome in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Recently, a non-enhanced computed tomography (CT) based finding, termed the 'satellite sign', was reported to be a novel predictor for poor outcome in spontaneous ICH. However, it is still unclear whether the presence of the satellite sign is related to hematoma expansion. Initial computed tomography angiography (CTA) was conducted within 6h after ictus. Satellite sign on non-enhanced CT and spot sign on CTA were detected by two independent reviewers. The sensitivity and specificity of both satellite sign and spot sign were calculated. Receiver-operator analysis was conducted to evaluate their predictive accuracy for hematoma expansion. This study included 153 patients. Satellite sign was detected in 58 (37.91%) patients and spot sign was detected in 38 (24.84%) patients. Among 37 patients with hematoma expansion, 22 (59.46%) had satellite sign and 23 (62.16%) had spot sign. The sensitivity and specificity of satellite sign for prediction of hematoma expansion were 59.46% and 68.97%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of spot sign were 62.16% and 87.07%, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) of satellite sign was 0.642 and the AUC of spot sign was 0.746. (P=0.157) CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the satellite sign is an independent predictor for hematoma expansion in spontaneous ICH. Although spot sign has the higher predictive accuracy, satellite sign is still an acceptable predictor for hematoma expansion when CTA is unavailable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Significance of Hematoma Shape and Density in Intracerebral Hemorrhage: The Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage Trial Study.

    PubMed

    Delcourt, Candice; Zhang, Shihong; Arima, Hisatomi; Sato, Shoichiro; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Wang, Xia; Davies, Leo; Stapf, Christian; Robinson, Thompson; Lavados, Pablo M; Chalmers, John; Heeley, Emma; Liu, Ming; Lindley, Richard I; Anderson, Craig S

    2016-05-01

    In patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), the shape and density of the hematoma are associated with its subsequent growth, but the impact of these parameters on clinical outcome is uncertain. Baseline computed tomographic scans and clinical data were obtained in the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage Trial (INTERACT2). Three independent neurologists blind to clinical data assessed ICH for shape and density using a previously described scale. Shape was defined as irregular when the ICH had ≥2 extra lesions added to the ellipsoid-shaped ICH. Density was heterogeneous when there were ≥3 low-density lesions within the ICH. Outcome measures were death and major disability (modified Rankin scale score of 3-5), combined and separate at 90-day postrandomization. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine the significance of hematoma characteristics on outcome. There were 2066 patient computed tomographic scans included in the analysis, with 46% and 38% having irregular and heterogeneous ICH, respectively. Irregular shape was independently associated with death/major disability (adjusted odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-1.98) and major disability alone (adjusted odds ratio, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.31-1.95), but not with death alone (adjusted odds ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.68-1.39). Heterogeneous density was not associated with clinical outcomes (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.85-1.33), 1.04 (95% CI, 0.73-1.48), and 1.14 (95% CI, 0.93-1.39), respectively, for death/major disability, death alone, and disability alone). Irregular shape, but not heterogeneous density, is independently associated with poor outcome after ICH. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00716079. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. CT Angiography Spot Sign, Hematoma Expansion, and Outcome in Primary Pontine Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Morotti, Andrea; Jessel, Michael J; Brouwers, H Bart; Falcone, Guido J; Schwab, Kristin; Ayres, Alison M; Vashkevich, Anastasia; Anderson, Christopher D; Viswanathan, Anand; Greenberg, Steven M; Gurol, M Edip; Romero, Javier M; Rosand, Jonathan; Goldstein, Joshua N

    2016-08-01

    The computed tomography angiography (CTA) spot sign is a validated predictor of hematoma expansion and poor outcome in supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), but patients with brainstem ICH have typically been excluded from the analyses. We investigated the frequency of spot sign and its relationship with hematoma expansion and outcome in patients with primary pontine hemorrhage (PPH). We performed a retrospective analysis of PPH cases obtained from a prospectively collected cohort of consecutive ICH patients who underwent CTA. CTA first-pass readings for spot sign presence were analyzed by two trained readers. Baseline and follow-up hematoma volumes on non-contrast CT scans were assessed by semi-automated computer-assisted volumetric analysis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive and negative likelihood ratio, and accuracy of spot sign for prediction of in-hospital mortality were calculated. 49 subjects met the inclusion criteria of whom 11 (22.4 %) showed a spot sign. In-hospital mortality was higher in spot sign-positive versus spot sign-negative subjects (90.9 vs 47.4 %, p = 0.020). Spot sign showed excellent specificity (95 %) and PPV (91 %) in predicting in-hospital mortality. Absolute hematoma growth, defined as parenchymal and intraventricular hematoma expansion of any amount, was significantly higher in spot sign-positive versus spot sign-negative subjects (13.72 ± 20.93 vs 3.76 ± 8.55 mL, p = 0.045). As with supratentorial ICH, the CTA spot sign is a common finding and is associated with higher risk of hematoma expansion and mortality in PPH. This marker may assist clinicians in prognostic stratification.

  8. In-hospital mortality after pre-treatment with antiplatelet agents or oral anticoagulants and hematoma evacuation of intracerebral hematomas.

    PubMed

    Stein, Marco; Misselwitz, Björn; Hamann, Gerhard F; Kolodziej, Malgorzata; Reinges, Marcus H T; Uhl, Eberhard

    2016-04-01

    Pre-treatment with antiplatelet agents is described to be a risk factor for mortality after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, the impact of antithrombotic agents on mortality in patients who undergo hematoma evacuation compared to conservatively treated patients with ICH remains controversial. This analysis is based on a prospective registry for quality assurance in stroke care in the State of Hesse, Germany. Patients' data were collected between January 2008 and December 2012. Only patients with the diagnosis of spontaneous ICH were included (International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision codes I61.0-I61.9). Predictors of in-hospital mortality were determined by univariate analysis. Predictors with P<0.1 were included in a binary logistic regression model. The binary logistic regression model was adjusted for age, initial Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), the presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and pre-ICH disability prior to ictus. In 8,421 patients with spontaneous ICH, pre-treatment with oral anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents was documented in 16.3% and 25.1%, respectively. Overall in-hospital mortality was 23.2%. In-hospital mortality was decreased in operatively treated patients compared to conservatively treated patients (11.6% versus 24.0%; P<0.001). Patients with antiplatelet pre-treatment had a significantly higher risk of death during the hospital stay after hematoma evacuation (odds ratio [OR]: 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24-4.97; P=0.010) compared to patients without antiplatelet pre-treatment treatment (OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.79-1.09; P=0.376). In conclusion a higher rate of in-hospital mortality after pre-treatment with antiplatelet agents in combination with hematoma evacuation after spontaneous ICH was observed in the presented cohort.

  9. Hemostatic proteins and their association with hematoma growth in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Martí-Fàbregas, Joan; Borrell, Montserrat; Silva, Yolanda; Delgado-Mederos, Raquel; Martínez-Ramírez, Sergi; de Juan-Delago, Manuel; Tirado, Isabel; Alejaldre, Aída; Marín, Rebeca; Martí-Vilalta, Josep-Lluis; Fontcuberta, Jordi

    2010-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that proteins of hemostasia could be associated with hematoma growth (HG) in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. We prospectively studied patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage within the first 6 hours after the onset of symptoms. HG was defined as an increase > 33% in the volume of hematoma on CT obtained 24 to 72 hours after the onset of symptoms in comparison with the CT obtained at admission. We collected admission and follow-up blood samples. We measured fibrinogen, factor XIII, thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor, plasminogen, α₂-antiplasmin, tissue plasminogen activator, d-dimer, thrombomodulin, thrombin-antithrombin complex, and plasmin-antiplasmin complex. We included 90 patients with a mean age of 71 ± 10.8 years; 61% were men. HG was observed in 35 (39%) of the patients. Mean baseline and follow-up protein measurements showed no difference between the groups with and without HG. The analysis of variance showed that factor XIII activity decreased in the non-HG group in the 24 to 72 hours sample, whereas it increased in the HG group (P = 0.001). Factor XIII was the only measured protein related to HG. The levels at the follow-up sample decreased in the non-HG group and increased in the HG group. Further studies are needed to confirm this association.

  10. Intracerebral hemorrhage due to developmental venous anomalies.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaodi; Wang, Yuzhou; Chen, Wenming; Wang, Wensheng; Chen, Kaizhe; Liao, Huayin; Lu, Jianjun; Li, Zhigang

    2016-04-01

    Developmental venous anomalies (DVA) and cavernous malformations (CM) are a common form of mixed vascular malformation. The relationship between DVA, CM and hemorrhage is complicated. It is important to differentiate hemorrhagic CM and hemorrhagic DVA. A retrospective review of all patients with acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) between 1 May 2008 and 1 May 2013 was performed. ICH due to DVA or CM were identified and compared for demographic features, clinical symptoms, neurological deficits, and radiological findings. A total of 1706 patients with acute spontaneous ICH were admitted to our hospital during the study period. Among these, 10 (0.59%) were caused by DVA and 42 (2.47%) were caused by CM. No significant differences were found in age (p=0.252) or sex ratio (p=1.000) between the two groups. Compared with CM-induced ICH, DVA-induced ICH were characterized by cerebellar predominance (p=0.000) and less severe neurological deficits (p=0.008). Infratentorial hemorrhagic DVA are characterized by cerebellar predominance and benign clinical course. Infratentorial hemorrhagic CM are mainly located in the brainstem. DVA should be given suspected rather than CM when considering the etiology of a cerebellar hemorrhage, especially in young adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Intracerebral Hematoma Contributes to Hydrocephalus After Intraventricular Hemorrhage via Aggravating Iron Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qianwei; Tang, Jun; Tan, Liang; Guo, Jing; Tao, Yihao; Li, Lin; Chen, Yujie; Liu, Xin; Zhang, John H; Chen, Zhi; Feng, Hua

    2015-10-01

    The intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) secondary to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) was reported to be relevant to a higher incidence of hydrocephalus, which would result in poorer outcomes for patients with ICH. However, the mechanisms responsible for this relationship remain poorly characterized. Thus, this study was designed to further explore the development and progression of hydrocephalus after secondary IVH. Autologous blood injection model was induced to mimic ICH with ventricular extension (ICH/IVH) or primary IVH in Sprague-Dawley rats. Magnetic resonance imaging, Morris water maze, brain water content, Evans blue extravasation, immunohistochemistry staining, Western blot, iron determination, and electron microscopy were used in these rats. Then, deferoxamine treatment was used to clarify the involvement of iron in the development of hydrocephalus. Despite the injection of equivalent blood volumes, ICH/IVH resulted in more significant ventricular dilation, ependymal cilia damage, and iron overload, as well as more severe early brain injury and neurological deficits compared with IVH alone. Systemic deferoxamine treatment more effectively reduced ventricular enlargement in ICH/IVH compared with primary IVH. Our results show that ICH/IVH caused more significant chronic hydrocephalus and iron accumulation than primary IVH alone. Intracerebral hematoma plays a vital role in persistent iron overload and aggravated hydrocephalus after ICH/IVH. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Low-density lipoprotein and intracerebral hematoma expansion in daily alcohol users.

    PubMed

    Pletsch, Gayle R; Boehme, Amelia K; Albright, Karen C; Burns, Christopher; Beasley, T Mark; Martin-Schild, Sheryl

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) rate correlates with alcohol consumption. Alcohol leads to elevated blood pressure (BP) and inhibition of platelet aggregation. These factors could promote excessive bleeding. To our knowledge, in the setting of normal liver function tests, there are no studies that have systematically evaluated the relationship between daily alcohol use and hematoma expansion. The aim of this study is to compare the baseline ICH characteristics, frequency of hematoma expansion, and outcomes in patients with ICH who are daily alcohol users with those who are not daily alcohol users. A retrospective chart review was performed on consecutive patients who presented from July 2008 to July 2013 to the Tulane University Hospital in New Orleans, La., USA, with a spontaneous ICH. Ninety-nine patients who met these criteria were admitted. Patients who underwent hematoma evacuation were excluded. Hemorrhage volumes were calculated based on the ABC/2 method. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was dichotomized into low (<100 mg/dl) and high (≥100 mg/dl) values. Comparisons were made using t tests, χ(2) and nonparametric equivalents where appropriate. ICH growth in 24 h and LDL were evaluated using linear regression. Of the 226 patients who met inclusion criteria, 20.4% had a history of daily alcohol use. The average age was 61 years (range 19-94), 55.6% of the patients were males, and 67.1% were of African American origin. Daily alcohol use was associated with male gender, lower rate of home antihypertensive, higher presenting BP, and lower platelet counts, but there was no difference in ICH characteristics, ICH growth, or clinical outcome. Daily alcohol use in patients with a low LDL level was associated with supratentorial location and trends for lower baseline Glasgow Coma Scale score, higher ICH score, and follow-up ICH volume, but no significant difference in significant hematoma expansion or clinical outcome except for

  13. Investigating the Relationship between Cerebrospinal Fluid and Magnetic Induction Phase Shift in Rabbit Intracerebral hematoma expansion Monitoring by MRI.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingsheng; Yan, Qingguang; Sun, Jian; Jin, Gui; Qin, Mingxin

    2017-09-11

    In a prior study of intracerebral hemorrhage monitoring using magnetic induction phase shift (MIPS), we found that MIPS signal changes occurred prior to those seen with intracranial pressure. However, the characteristic MIPS alert is not yet fully explained. Combining the brain physiology and MIPS theory, we propose that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may be the primary factor that leads to hematoma expansion being alerted by MIPS earlier than with intracranial pressure monitoring. This paper investigates the relationship between CSF and MIPS in monitoring of rabbit intracerebral hemorrhage models, which is based on the MIPS measurements data, the quantified data on CSF from medical images and the amount of injected blood in the rabbit intracerebral hemorrhage model. In the investigated results, a R value of 0.792 with a significance of 0.019 is observed between the MIPS and CSF, which is closer than MIPS and injected blood. Before the reversal point of MIPS, CSF is the leading factor in MIPS signal changing in an early hematoma expansion stage. Under CSF compensation, CSF reduction compensates for hematoma expansion in the brain to keep intracranial pressure stable. MIPS decrease results from the reducing CSF volume. This enables MIPS to detect hematoma expansion earlier than intracranial pressure.

  14. CD163/Hemoglobin Oxygenase-1 Pathway Regulates Inflammation in Hematoma Surrounding Tissues after Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Liu, BaoHua; Hu, BeiLei; Shao, ShengMin; Wu, Wei; Fan, LiuBo; Bai, GuangHui; Shang, Ping; Wang, XiaoTong

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in the expression of CD163 and hemoglobin oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in brain tissue surrounding hematomas after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and correlations with other factors. Brain tissues in the close surrounding of ICH hematomas (n = 27, ICH group) were collected at 6 hours or less, 6-24 hours, 24-72 hours, and more than 72 hours after bleeding onset, and more distant tissues (n = 12, control group) were histologically analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy. Interleukin (IL)-1, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, as well as the expression of CD163 and HO-1, were assessed using immunochemistry, Western blotting, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Apoptosis rates were determined with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assays. The expressions of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were increased at 6-24 hours (P <.05), reached a peak at 24-72 hours (P <.001 and P <.01), at which time histopathological changes became most obvious and apoptosis rates were highest, but diminished for more than 72 hours after ICH onset. The anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 peaked at 6-24 hours (P < .01) after ICH onset but dropped in the following periods to lower levels than the control (P <.05). CD163 and HO-1 expressions gradually increased from 6 to 24 hours to peaks at more than 72 hours after ICH onset (P <.001). The highest inflammation level in tissues surrounding ICH hematomas occurred 2-3 days after bleeding onset, but was accompanied by an anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 expression enhancement. In the period of more than 72 hours after ICH onset, CD163 and HO-1 expressions reached peaks and inflammatory cytokine expressions dropped. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Predictors of Hematoma Volume in Deep and Lobar Supratentorial Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, Guido J.; Biffi, Alessandro; Brouwers, H. Bart; Anderson, Christopher D.; Battey, Thomas W. K.; Ayres, Alison M.; Vashkevich, Anastasia; Schwab, Kristin; Rost, Natalia S.; Goldstein, Joshua N.; Viswanathan, Anand; Greenberg, Steven M.; Rosand, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Importance Hematoma volume is the strongest predictor of outcome in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Despite known differences in the underlying biology between deep and lobar ICHs, limited data are available on location specificity of factors reported to affect hematoma volume. Objective To evaluate whether determinants of ICH volume differ by topography, we sought to estimate location-specific effects for potential predictors of this radiological outcome. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Academic medical center. Participants A total of 744 supratentorial primary ICH patients (388 deep and 356 lobar) aged older than 18 years admitted between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010. Main Outcomes and Measures Intracerebral hemorrhage volume measured from the computed tomography scan obtained on presentation to the emergency department. Linear regression analysis, stratified by ICH location, was implemented to identify determinants of log-transformed ICH volume. Results Median ICH volume was larger in lobar hemorrhages (39 mL; interquartile range, 16-75 mL) than in deep hemorrhages (13 mL; interquartile range, 5-40 mL; P<.001). In multivariable linear regression, independent predictors of deep ICH volume were intensity of anticoagulation (β=0.32; standard error [SE]=0.08; P<.001; test for trend across 4 categories of the international normalized ratio), history of coronary artery disease (β=0.33; SE=0.17; P=.05), male sex (β=0.28; SE=0.14; P=.05), and age (β=−0.02; SE=0.01; P=.001). Independent predictors of lobar ICH volume were intensity of anticoagulation (β=0.14; SE=0.06; P=.02) and antiplatelet treatment (β=0.27; SE=0.13; P=.03). Conclusions and Relevance Predictors of hematoma volume only partially overlap between deep and lobar ICHs. These findings suggest that the mechanisms that determine the extent of bleeding differ for deep and lobar ICHs. Further studies are needed to characterize the specific biological pathways that underlie the observed

  16. Perihematomal Edema Is Greater in the Presence of a Spot Sign but Does Not Predict Intracerebral Hematoma Expansion.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Luna, David; Stewart, Teri; Dowlatshahi, Dar; Kosior, Jayme C; Aviv, Richard I; Molina, Carlos A; Silva, Yolanda; Dzialowski, Imanuel; Lum, Cheemun; Czlonkowska, Anna; Boulanger, Jean-Martin; Kase, Carlos S; Gubitz, Gord; Bhatia, Rohit; Padma, Vasantha; Roy, Jayanta; Subramaniam, Suresh; Hill, Michael D; Demchuk, Andrew M

    2016-02-01

    Perihematomal edema volume may be related to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume at baseline and, consequently, with hematoma expansion. However, the relationship between perihematomal edema and hematoma expansion has not been well established. We aimed to investigate the relationship among baseline perihematomal edema, the computed tomographic angiography spot sign, hematoma expansion, and clinical outcome in patients with acute ICH. Predicting Hematoma Growth and Outcome in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Using Contrast Bolus CT (PREDICT) was a prospective observational cohort study of ICH patients presenting within 6 hours from onset. Patients underwent computed tomography and computed tomographic angiography scans at baseline and 24-hour computed tomography scan. A post hoc analysis of absolute perihematomal edema and relative perihematomal edema (absolute perihematomal edema divided by ICH) volumes was performed on baseline computed tomography scans (n=353). Primary outcome was significant hematoma expansion (>6 mL or >33%). Secondary outcomes were early neurological deterioration, 90-day mortality, and poor outcome. Absolute perihematomal edema volume was higher in spot sign patients (24.5 [11.5-41.8] versus 12.6 [6.9-22] mL; P<0.001), but it was strongly correlated with ICH volume (ρ=0.905; P<0.001). Patients who experienced significant hematoma expansion had higher absolute perihematomal edema volume (18.4 [10-34.6] versus 11.8 [6.5-22] mL; P<0.001) but similar relative perihematomal edema volume (1.09 [0.89-1.37] versus 1.12 [0.88-1.54]; P=0.400). Absolute perihematomal edema volume and poorer outcomes were higher by tertiles of ICH volume, and perihematomal edema volume did not independently predict significant hematoma expansion. Perihematomal edema volume is greater at baseline in the presence of a spot sign. However, it is strongly correlated with ICH volume and does not independently predict hematoma expansion. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Gene expression profiles of patients with cerebral hematoma following spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Gu, Jianwen; Kong, Bin; Kuang, Yongqin; Cheng, Lin; Cheng, Jingmin; Xia, Xun; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Junhai

    2014-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the gene functions and expression profiles in perihematomal (PH) brain regions following spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. The gene expression profiles were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database under accession number GSE24265, which includes 11 brain samples from different regions, including four samples from PH areas, four from contralateral grey matter (CG) and three from contralateral white matter (CW). The gene expression profiles were pre-processed and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between PH and CG tissue, and PH and CW tissue were identified using R packages. The expression of genes in different tissues was analyzed by hierarchical clustering. Then, the interaction network between the DEGs was constructed using String software. Finally, Gene Ontology was performed and pathway analysis was conducted using FuncAssociate and Expression Analysis Systematic Explorer to identify the gene function. As a result, 399 DEGs were obtained between PH and CG, and 756 DEGs were identified between PH and CW. There were 35 common DEGs between the two groups. These DEGs may be involved in PH edema by regulating the calcium signaling pathway [calcium channel, voltage‑dependent, T-type, α1I subunit, Ca2+/calmodulin‑dependent protein kinase II α (CAMK2A), ryanodine receptor 2 (RYR2) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 1 (ITPR1)], cell proliferation (sphingosine kinase 1), neuron differentiation (Ephrin-A5) or extracellular matrix-receptor interaction [collagen, type I, α 2, laminin B1 (LAMB1), syndecan 2, fibronectin 1 and integrin α5 (ITGA5)]. A number of genes may cooperate to participate in the same pathway, such as ITPR1-RYR2, CAMK2A-RYR2 and ITGA5-LAMB1 interaction pairs. The present study provides several potential targets to decrease hematoma expansion and alleviate neuronal cell death following spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

  18. Clinical characteristics and outcome of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage with intracerebral hematoma.

    PubMed

    Wan, Anthony; Jaja, Blessing N R; Schweizer, Tom A; Macdonald, R Loch

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Intracerebral hematoma (ICH) with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) indicates a unique feature of intracranial aneurysm rupture since the aneurysm is in the subarachnoid space and separated from the brain by pia mater. Broad consensus is lacking regarding the concept that ultra-early treatment improves outcome. The aim of this study is to determine the associative factors for ICH, ascertain the prognostic value of ICH, and investigate how the timing of treatment relates to the outcome of SAH with concurrent ICH. METHODS The study data were pooled from the SAH International Trialists repository. Logistic regression was applied to study the associations of clinical and aneurysm characteristics with ICH. Proportional odds models and dominance analysis were applied to study the effect of ICH on 3-month outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale) and investigate the effect of time from ictus to treatment on outcome. RESULTS Of the 5362 SAH patients analyzed, 1120 (21%) had concurrent ICH. In order of importance, neurological status, aneurysm location, aneurysm size, and patient ethnicity were significantly associated with ICH. Patients with ICH experienced poorer outcome than those without ICH (OR 1.58; 95% CI 1.37-1.82). Treatment within 6 hours of SAH was associated with poorer outcome than treatment thereafter (adjusted OR 1.67; 95% CI 1.04-2.69). Subgroup analysis with adjustment for ICH volume, location, and midline shift resulted in no association between time from ictus to treatment and outcome (OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.94-1.07). CONCLUSIONS The most important associative factor for ICH is neurological status on admission. The finding regarding the value of ultra-early treatment suggests the need to more robustly reevaluate the concept that hematoma evacuation of an ICH and repair of a ruptured aneurysm within 6 hours of ictus is the most optimal treatment path.

  19. Determinants and Prognostic Significance of Hematoma Sedimentation Levels in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shoichiro; Delcourt, Candice; Zhang, Shihong; Arima, Hisatomi; Heeley, Emma; Zheng, Danni; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Stapf, Christian; Tzourio, Christophe; Robinson, Thompson; Lindley, Richard I; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the determinants and prognostic significance of a sedimentation level (fluid-blood level) in the hematoma among patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) who participated in the main Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial (INTERACT2). Post-hoc analysis of the INTERACT2 dataset, a randomized controlled trial of patients with acute ICH with elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP), randomly assigned to intensive (target SBP <140 mm Hg) or guideline-based (<180 mm Hg) BP management. Patients with a sedimentation level at baseline assessment on CT, and modified Rankin Scale score at 90-day, were included in these analyses. Factors associated with a sedimentation level and its significance in relation to 90-day clinical outcomes were assessed in univariable and multivariable logistic regression models. Of 2,065 participants, 19 (1%) had sedimentation level on baseline CT, which was independently associated with warfarin use (p = 0.006) and lobar ICH (p = 0.025). Sedimentation level was also associated with death or major disability at 90-day in both crude (84 vs. 53%; p = 0.014) and multivariable analyses adjusted for age, gender, Chinese region, warfarin use, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, onset to CT time, volume and location of ICH, intraventricular extension, and randomized intensive BP lowering (OR 3.94, 95% CI 1.01-15.37; p = 0.049). The presence of hematoma sedimentation level on baseline CT is associated with warfarin use and lobar location of ICH, and predicts a worse outcome. Although uncommon, sedimentation level is an easily detectable prognostic factor in acute ICH. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Role of surgery in the management of patients with supratentorial spontaneous intracerebral hematoma: Critical appraisal of evidence.

    PubMed

    Akhigbe, Taiwo; Zolnourian, Ardalan

    2017-05-01

    Whether surgery improves the outcome more than medical management alone continues to be a subject of intense debate and controversy. However, there is optimism that the management of spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage will change in future based new insight and better understanding of the acute pathophysiology of hematomas and its dynamics. Craniotomy as a surgical approach has been the most studied intervention for spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage but with no significant benefit when compared to best medical management. A literature search was conducted using electronic data bases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) on the Cochrane library, MEDLINE and EMBASE. In addition, critical appraisal of most current evidences was carried out. About 1387 articles identified through database search over 10-year period of which one systematic review and two randomised controlled trials most relevant to this review were critically appraised. The role of surgery in the management of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage still remains a matter of debate. There is insufficient evidence to justify a general policy of early surgery for patients with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage compared to initial medical management but STICH did demonstrate that patients with superficial hematoma might benefit from craniotomy. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Accuracy of the Spot Sign and the Blend Sign for Predicting Hematoma Expansion in Patients with Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jun; Yu, Zhiyuan; Xu, Zhao; Li, Mou; Wang, Xiaoze; Lin, Sen; Li, Hao; You, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Background Hematoma expansion is associated with poor outcome in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients. The spot sign and the blend sign are reliable tools for predicting hematoma expansion in ICH patients. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of the two signs in the prediction of hematoma expansion. Material/Methods Patients with spontaneous ICH were screened for the presence of the computed tomography angiography (CTA) spot sign and the non-contrast CT (NCCT) blend sign within 6 hours after onset of symptoms. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the spot sign and the blend sign in predicting hematoma expansion were calculated. The accuracy of the spot sign and the blend sign in predicting hematoma expansion was analyzed by receiver-operator analysis. Results A total of 115 patients were enrolled in this study. The spot sign was observed in 25 (21.74%) patients, whereas the blend sign was observed in 22 (19.13%) patients. Of the 28 patients with hematoma expansion, the CTA spot sign was found on admission CT scans in 16 (57.14%) and the NCCT blend sign in 12 (42.86%), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the spot sign for predicting hematoma expansion were 57.14%, 89.66%, 64.00%, and 86.67%, respectively. In contrast, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the blend sign were 42.86%, 88.51%, 54.55%, and 82.80%, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) of the spot sign was 0.734, which was higher than that of the blend sign (0.657). Conclusions Both the spot sign and the blend sign seemed to be good predictors for hematoma expansion, and the spot sign appeared to have better predictive accuracy. PMID:28498827

  2. The Accuracy of the Spot Sign and the Blend Sign for Predicting Hematoma Expansion in Patients with Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jun; Yu, Zhiyuan; Xu, Zhao; Li, Mou; Wang, Xiaoze; Lin, Sen; Li, Hao; You, Chao

    2017-05-12

    BACKGROUND Hematoma expansion is associated with poor outcome in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients. The spot sign and the blend sign are reliable tools for predicting hematoma expansion in ICH patients. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of the two signs in the prediction of hematoma expansion. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients with spontaneous ICH were screened for the presence of the computed tomography angiography (CTA) spot sign and the non-contrast CT (NCCT) blend sign within 6 hours after onset of symptoms. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the spot sign and the blend sign in predicting hematoma expansion were calculated. The accuracy of the spot sign and the blend sign in predicting hematoma expansion was analyzed by receiver-operator analysis. RESULTS A total of 115 patients were enrolled in this study. The spot sign was observed in 25 (21.74%) patients, whereas the blend sign was observed in 22 (19.13%) patients. Of the 28 patients with hematoma expansion, the CTA spot sign was found on admission CT scans in 16 (57.14%) and the NCCT blend sign in 12 (42.86%), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the spot sign for predicting hematoma expansion were 57.14%, 89.66%, 64.00%, and 86.67%, respectively. In contrast, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the blend sign were 42.86%, 88.51%, 54.55%, and 82.80%, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) of the spot sign was 0.734, which was higher than that of the blend sign (0.657). CONCLUSIONS Both the spot sign and the blend sign seemed to be good predictors for hematoma expansion, and the spot sign appeared to have better predictive accuracy.

  3. Association of Key Magnetic Resonance Imaging Markers of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease With Hematoma Volume and Expansion in Patients With Lobar and Deep Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Boulouis, Gregoire; van Etten, Ellis S; Charidimou, Andreas; Auriel, Eitan; Morotti, Andrea; Pasi, Marco; Haley, Kellen E; Brouwers, H Bart; Ayres, Alison M; Vashkevich, Anastasia; Jessel, Michael J; Schwab, Kristin M; Viswanathan, Anand; Greenberg, Steven M; Rosand, Jonathan; Goldstein, Joshua N; Gurol, M Edip

    2016-12-01

    Hematoma expansion is an important determinant of outcome in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) due to small vessel disease (SVD), but the association between the severity of the underlying SVD and the extent of bleeding at the acute phase is unknown to date. To investigate the association between key magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of SVD (as per the Standards for Reporting Vascular Changes on Neuroimaging [STRIVE] guidelines) and hematoma volume and expansion in patients with lobar or deep ICH. Analysis of data collected from 418 consecutive patients admitted with primary lobar or deep ICH to a single tertiary care medical center between January 1, 2000, and October 1, 2012. Data were analyzed on March 4, 2016. Participants were consecutive patients with computed tomographic images allowing ICH volume calculation and MRI allowing imaging markers of SVD assessment. The ICH volumes at baseline and within 48 hours after symptom onset were measured in 418 patients with spontaneous ICH without anticoagulant therapy, and hematoma expansion was calculated. Cerebral microbleeds, cortical superficial siderosis, and white matter hyperintensity volume were assessed on MRI. The associations between these SVD markers and ICH volume, as well as hematoma expansion, were investigated using multivariable models. This study analyzed 254 patients with lobar ICH (mean [SD] age, 75 [11] years and 140 [55.1%] female) and 164 patients with deep ICH (mean [SD] age 67 [14] years and 71 [43.3%] female). The presence of cortical superficial siderosis was an independent variable associated with larger ICH volume in the lobar ICH group (odds ratio per quintile increase in final ICH volume, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.14-1.94; P = .004). In multivariable models, the absence of cerebral microbleeds was associated with larger ICH volume for both the lobar and deep ICH groups (odds ratios per quintile increase in final ICH volume, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.11-1.81; P = .006 and 1.43; 95% CI

  4. Design of a prospective, dose-escalation study evaluating the Safety of Pioglitazone for Hematoma Resolution in Intracerebral Hemorrhage (SHRINC).

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Nicole R; Shah, Jharna; Sangha, Navdeep; Sosa, Lenis; Martinez, Rebecca; Shen, Loren; Kasam, Mallikarjunarao; Morales, Miriam M; Hossain, M Monir; Barreto, Andrew D; Savitz, Sean I; Lopez, George; Misra, Vivek; Wu, Tzu-Ching; El Khoury, Ramy; Sarraj, Amrou; Sahota, Preeti; Hicks, William; Acosta, Indrani; Sline, M Rick; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Zhao, Xiurong; Aronowski, Jaroslaw; Grotta, James C

    2013-07-01

    RATIONALE : Preclinical work demonstrates that the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma plays an important role in augmenting phagocytosis while modulating oxidative stress and inflammation. We propose that targeted stimulation of phagocytosis to promote efficient removal of the hematoma without harming surrounding brain cells may be a therapeutic option for intracerebral hemorrhage. AIMS : The primary objective is to assess the safety of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, pioglitazone, in increasing doses for three-days followed by a maintenance dose, when administered to patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage within 24 h of symptom onset compared with standard care. We will determine the maximum tolerated dose of pioglitazone. STUDY DESIGN : This is a prospective, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation safety trial in which patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage are randomly allocated to placebo or treatment. The Continual Reassessment Method for dose finding is used to determine the maximum tolerated dose of pioglitazone. Hematoma and edema resolution is evaluated with serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at specified time points. Functional outcome will be evaluated at three- and six-months. OUTCOMES : The primary safety outcome is mortality at discharge. Secondary safety outcomes include mortality at three-months and six-months, symptomatic cerebral edema, clinically significant congestive heart failure, edema, hypoglycemia, anemia, and hepatotoxicity. Radiographic outcomes will explore the time frame for resolution of 25%, 50%, and 75% of the hematoma. Clinical outcomes are measured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), the Barthel Index, modified Rankin Scale, Stroke Impact Scale-16, and EuroQol at three- and six-months.

  5. Increased risk of delayed cerebral ischemia in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with additional intracerebral hematoma.

    PubMed

    Platz, Johannes; Güresir, Erdem; Wagner, Marlies; Seifert, Volker; Konczalla, Juergen

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) has a major impact on the outcome of patients suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of this study was to assess the influence of an additional intracerebral hematoma (ICH) on the occurrence of DCI. METHODS The authors conducted a single-center retrospective analysis of cases of SAH involving patients treated between 2006 and 2011. Patients who died or were transferred to another institution within 10 days after SAH without the occurrence of DCI were excluded from the analysis. RESULTS Additional ICH was present in 123 (24.4%) of 504 included patients (66.7% female). ICH was classified as frontal in 72 patients, temporal in 24, and perisylvian in 27. DCI occurred in 183 patients (36.3%). A total of 59 (32.2%) of these 183 patients presented with additional ICH, compared with 64 (19.9%) of the 321 without DCI (p = 0.002). In addition, DCI was detected significantly more frequently in patients with higher World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grades. The authors compared the original and modified Fisher Scales with respect to the occurrence of DCI. The modified Fisher Scale (mFS) was superior to the original Fisher Scale (oFS) in predicting DCI. Furthermore, they suggest a new classification based on the mFS, which demonstrates the impact of additional ICH on the occurrence of DCI. After the different scales were corrected for age, sex, WFNS score, and aneurysm site, the oFS no longer was predictive for the occurrence of DCI, while the new scale demonstrated a superior capacity for prediction as compared with the mFS. CONCLUSIONS Additional ICH was associated with an increased risk of DCI in this study. Furthermore, adding the presence or absence of ICH to the mFS improved the identification of patients at the highest risk for the development of DCI. Thus, a simple adjustment of the mFS might help to identify patients at high risk for DCI.

  6. Femoral Nerve Palsy due to Anticoagulant Induced Retroperitoneal Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Gurbuz, Orcun; Ercan, Abdulkadir; Kumtepe, Gencehan; Karal, İlker Hasan; Velioglu, Yusuf; Ener, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    A forty-one-year-old man who, sought evaluation for a sudden hip flexion contracture and groin pain with a history of mechanical mitral valve replacement, had been misdiagnosed and treated as having lumbar discopathy for two days. This patient finally was diagnosed with compressive femoral neuropathy due to warfarin-induced retroperitoneal hematoma and successfully managed nonoperatively. This case is reported in order to draw attention to this rare presentation. PMID:25386195

  7. Sensitivity and specificity of fluid-blood levels for coagulopathy in acute intracerebral hematomas

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleger, M.J.; Hardee, E.P.; Hayman, L.A.; Contant, C.F. Jr. )

    1994-02-01

    To characterize the imaging features of intracerebral hemorrhages in patients with coagulopathies that alter prothrombin time or partial thromboplastin time. A fluid-blood level was defined as a horizontal interface between hypodense bloody serum layered above hyperdense settled blood. The prevalence of fluid-blood levels in acute intracerebral hemorrhages was determined on third-generation CT scans in 32 patients with elevation in prothrombin time or partial thromboplastin time. This was compared with the frequency of fluid-blood levels in 185 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage in which there was no laboratory evidence of coagulopathy. The probability of finding a fluid-blood level in an intracerebral hemorrhage of a patient with abnormal prothrombin time or partial thromboplastin time was 59% (sensitivity). The probability that there will be no fluid-blood level in a patient with a normal prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time was 98% (specificity). Fluid-blood levels in acute intracerebral hemorrhage are moderately sensitive to the presence of coagulopathy (i.e., abnormal prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time) and highly specific for this condition. Thus, an intracerebral hemorrhage with a fluid-blood level should prompt a thorough search for coagulopathy because early treatment of this condition may improve the 40% mortality in these patients. Caution should be used to distinguish the horizontal interface of a fluid-blood level from a clot with a flat top. A decubitus CT is useful in these rare instances. 20 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Systematic Characterization of the Computed Tomography Angiography Spot Sign in Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage Identifies Patients at Highest Risk for Hematoma Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Delgado Almandoz, Josser E.; Yoo, Albert J.; Stone, Michael J.; Schaefer, Pamela W.; Goldstein, Joshua N.; Rosand, Jonathan; Oleinik, Alexandra; Lev, Michael H.; Gonzalez, R. Gilberto; Romero, Javier M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose The presence of active contrast extravasation (the spot sign) on computed tomography (CT) angiography has been recognized as a predictor of hematoma expansion in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. We aim to systematically characterize the spot sign to identify features that are most predictive of hematoma expansion and construct a spot sign scoring system. Methods We retrospectively reviewed CT angiograms performed in all patients who presented to our emergency department over a 9-year period with primary intracerebral hemorrhage and had a follow-up noncontrast head CT within 48 hours of the baseline CT angiogram. Three neuroradiologists reviewed the CT angiograms and determined the presence and characteristics of spot signs according to strict radiological criteria. Baseline and follow-up intracerebral hemorrhage volumes were determined by computer-assisted volumetric analysis. Results We identified spot signs in 71 of 367 CT angiograms (19%), 6 of which were delayed spot signs (8%). The presence of any spot sign increased the risk of significant hematoma expansion (69%, OR=92, P<0.0001). Among the spot sign characteristics examined, the presence of ≥3 spot signs, a maximum axial dimension ≥5 mm, and maximum attenuation ≥180 Hounsfield units were independent predictors of significant hematoma expansion, and these were subsequently used to construct the spot sign score. In multivariate analysis, the spot sign score was the strongest predictor of significant hematoma expansion, independent of time from ictus to CT angiogram evaluation. Conclusion The spot sign score predicts significant hematoma expansion in primary intracerebral hemorrhage. If validated in other data sets, it could be used to select patients for early hemostatic therapy. PMID:19574553

  9. [Features of memantine action profile in cholinergic deficit and intracerebral posttraumatic hematoma (hemorrhagic stroke) models in rats].

    PubMed

    Garibova, T L; Voronina, T A; Litvinova, S A; Kuznetsova, A L; Kul'chikov, A E; Alesenko, A V

    2008-01-01

    Memantine, a low-affinity non-competitive antagonist of glutamatergic NMDA-subtype receptors, was used at a daily dose of 1 mg/kg over 10 days for the treatment of rats with cholinergic deficit induced by the chronic administration of scopolamine (1 mg/kg, 20 days). The drug prevented violation of the learning of conditioned active and passive avoidance reflexes and produced no significant effect on the emotional state of animals in elevated plus maze (EPM) test. In animals with intracerebral posttraumatic hematoma (hemorrhagic stroke), memantine (2 mg/kg, for 3 days after operation) completely prevented the loss of animals, reduced the neurological deficit, improved conditioned passive avoidance reflex performance, and decreased emotional stress in the EPM test.

  10. Treatment of ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm accompanying intracerebral hematomas: endovascular coiling followed by hematoma evacuation with burr hole trephination and catheterization.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joonho; Kim, Byung Moon; Shin, Yong Sam; Lim, Yong Cheol; Park, Sang Kyu

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of endovascular coiling of ruptured anterior communicating artery (AcomA) aneurysms followed by intracerebral hematoma (ICH) evacuation with burr hole trephination and catheterization. Twelve patients treated by coiling with subsequent ICH drainage with burr hole trephination and catheterization were recruited from 290 patients with ruptured AcomA aneurysm in our hospital between January 2001 and June 2007. The clinical and radiographic characteristics and outcomes of the 12 patients were retrospectively analyzed. All 12 patients were male, aged from 29 to 62 years, and had ICHs with 16-ml to 45-ml volumes; nine (75%) of them had frontal ICHs on the opposite side of the dominant A1. Admission Hunt-Hess (HH) grade was 4 in eight patients, 3 in two, and 5 in two. The treatment outcomes in 8 of the 12 patients were good recovery or moderately disabled (Glasgow Outcome Scale; GOS 5 or 4), and functionally dependent (GOS 3 or 2) in the other 4 patients at the 6-month clinical follow-up. There was no rebleeding during the follow-up (mean, 22.9 months; range, 7 to 68 months). The result of our series suggests that coiling with subsequent evacuation of the ICH with burr hole trephination and catheterization may be an alternative treatment option for ruptured AcomA aneurysm with an ICH requiring evacuation on the opposite side of the dominant A1.

  11. Intracerebral hematoma secondary to lightning stroke: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Stanley, L D; Suss, R A

    1985-05-01

    A young boy sustained a lightning stroke to his head. He was rendered immediately unconscious and hemiplegic. Computed tomography revealed three discrete basal ganglia hematomas. This patient's management is discussed, and a review of lightning injuries to the central nervous system is presented.

  12. Targeting Secondary Hematoma Expansion in Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage – State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Jian; Hawryluk, Gregory W. J.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH), defined broadly as intracerebral hemorrhage not related to trauma, results in long-term disability or death in a large proportion of afflicted patients. Current management of this disease is predominantly supportive, including airway protection, optimization of hemodynamic parameters, and management of intracranial pressure. No active treatments that demonstrate beneficial effects on clinical outcome are currently available. Animal models of SICH have allowed for the elucidation of multiple pathways that may be attractive therapeutic targets. A minority of these, such as aggressive blood pressure management and recombinant activated factor VII administration, have led to large-scale clinical trials. There remains a critical need for further translational research in the realm of SICH. PMID:27826284

  13. Association Factors for CT Angiography Spot Sign and Hematoma Growth in Korean Patients with Acute Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage : A Single-Center Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Byung Hoo; Han, Young-Min; Jang, Kyung-Sool; Huh, Ryoong; Park, Young Sup

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to clarify the association factors and clinical significance of the CT angiography (CTA) spot sign and hematoma growth in Korean patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods We retrospectively collected the data of 287 consecutive patients presenting with acute ICH who arrived within 12 hours of ictus. Baseline clinical and radiological characteristics as well as the mortality rate within one month were assessed. A binary logistic regression was conducted to obtain association factors for the CTA spot sign and hematoma growth. Results We identified a CTA spot sign in 40 patients (13.9%) and hematoma growth in 78 patients (27.2%). An elapsed time to CT scan of less than 3 hours (OR, 5.14; 95% CI, 1.76-15.02; p=0.003) was associated with the spot sign. A CTA spot sign (OR, 5.70; 95% CI, 2.70-12.01; p<0.001), elevated alanine transaminase (GPT) level >40 IU (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.01-4.01; p=0.047), and an international normalized ratio ≥1.8 or warfarin medication (OR, 5.64; 95% CI, 1.29-24.57; p=0.021) were independent predictors for hematoma growth. Antiplatelet agent medication (OR, 4.92; 95% CI, 1.31-18.50; p=0.019) was significantly associated with hematoma growth within 6 hours of ictus. Conclusion As previous other populations, CTA spot sign was a strong predictor for hematoma growth especially in hyper-acute stage of ICH in Korea. Antithrombotics medication might also be associated with hyper-acute hematoma growth. In our population, elevated GPT was newly identified as a predictor for hematoma growth and its effect for hematoma growth is necessary to be confirmed through a further research. PMID:25371778

  14. Rapid onset mediastinal hematoma due to vertebral fracture and review of relevant literature.

    PubMed

    Koksal, Vaner; Coskun, Selcuk; Coskun, Pinar Koksal

    2015-12-01

    Patients with vertebral fractures are frequently encountered and those with thoracic and lumbar spine fractures are likely to have associated injuries. Detection of a widened mediastinum after trauma is very nonspecific and most of the time it is related to aortic injury or mediastinal hematoma. Vertebral or sternal fractures can also be the cause of mediastinal hematoma with or without aortic injury. This report reviews an unusual case of rapid onset mediastinal hematoma due to vertebral fracture after a fall. In the case, there was a mediastinal hematoma adjacent to a burst fracture of the T8 vertebral body. There was a rapid increase in identified hematoma during the emergency follow up and urgent erythrocyte transfusion was carried out. We would like to raise awareness of this infrequent presentation of mediastinal hematoma, as it is insidious and possibly fatal. In the evaluation of mediastinal hematoma, the detection of osseous injuries is a requirement.

  15. Deferoxamine reduces intracerebral hematoma-induced iron accumulation and neuronal death in piglets

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yuxiang; Hua, Ya; Keep, Richard F.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Xi, Guohua

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Our previous studies found that deferoxamine reduces intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced brain injury in rats. The current study examined whether deferoxamine reduces brain injury in a piglet ICH model. Methods Pigs received an injection of autologous blood into the right frontal lobe. Deferoxamine (50 mg/kg, IM) or vehicle was administered 2 hours after ICH and then every 12 hours up to 7 days. Animals were killed 3 or 7 days later to examine iron accumulation, white matter injury and neuronal death. Results ICH resulted in development of a reddish perihematomal zone, and iron accumulation, ferritin upregulation and neuronal death within that zone. Deferoxamine reduced the perihematomal reddish zone, white matter injury and the number of Perls’, ferritin and Fluoro-Jade C positive cells. Conclusions Iron accumulation occurs in the piglet brain after ICH. Deferoxamine reduces ICH-induced iron buildup and brain injury in piglets. PMID:19372448

  16. Spontaneous Intracerebral Hematoma in Low-Grade Glioma After 14 Years of Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Joković, Miloš; Bogosavljević, Vojislav; Nikolić, Igor; Jovanović, Nemanja

    We are reporting the case of a 53-year old woman presenting to our hospital with a hemorrhagic low-grade glioma (LGG). She was admitted to a nearby general hospital where she had presented with aphasia, right hemiplegia and change of mental status. Computer tomography (CT) images showed a left temporo-parietal hemorrhage with mass effect. She was transferred to our hospital neuro-intensive care unit where emergency craniotomy was performed. A tumor with hematoma was removed and further histopathology analysis revealed tumor progression. We reviewed the literature reporting cases of central nervous system tumors hemorrhage and found that these types of events are exquisitely rare in adults with LGG. However these events are possible, suggesting that it should be included in the differential diagnosis of any patient presenting with intracranial hemorrhage. This case raises questions regarding the benefit of early versus late intervention for patients known to have LGG.

  17. The Accuracy of Spot Sign in Predicting Hematoma Expansion after Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Du, Fei-Zhou; Jiang, Rui; Gu, Ming; He, Ci; Guan, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The role of spot sign on computed tomography angiography (CTA) for predicting hematoma expansion (HE) after primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has been the focus of many studies. Our study sought to evaluate the predictive accuracy of spot signs for HE in a meta-analytic approach. Materials and Methods The database of Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for eligible studies. Researches were included if they reported data on HE in primary ICH patients, assessed by spot sign on first-pass CTA. Studies with additional data of second-pass CTA, post-contrast CT (PCCT) and CT perfusion (CTP) were also included. Results 18 studies were pooled into the meta-analysis, including 14 studies of first-pass CTA, and 7 studies of combined CT modalities. In evaluating the accuracy of spot sign for predicting HE, studies of first-pass CTA showed that the sensitivity was 53% (95% CI, 49%–57%) with a specificity of 88% (95% CI, 86%–89%). The pooled positive likelihood ratio (PLR) was 4.70 (95% CI, 3.28–6.74) and the negative likelihood ratio (NLR) was 0.44 (95% CI, 0.34–0.58). For studies of combined CT modalities, the sensitivity was 73% (95% CI, 67%–79%) with a specificity of 88% (95% CI, 86%–90%). The aggregated PLR was 6.76 (95% CI, 3.70–12.34) and the overall NLR was 0.17 (95% CI 0.06–0.48). Conclusions Spot signs appeared to be a reliable imaging biomarker for HE. The additional detection of delayed spot sign was helpful in improving the predictive accuracy of early spot signs. Awareness of our results may impact the primary ICH care by providing supportive evidence for the use of combined CT modalities in detecting spot signs. PMID:25541717

  18. Delayed traumatic intracerebral hematoma (DTICH) and the determination of the manner of death. A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    McFeeley, P J; Blisard, K S

    1988-05-01

    The concept of a traumatic incident resulting in death when there has been a prolonged interval between the two events raises questions for medical examiners. A case is presented in which a 33-year-old man was found dead in his locked home. Although there was no evidence of foul play at the scene, the death was subsequently found to be directly related to an episode of head trauma sustained in an altercation approximately 1 1/2 months before. The fatal lesion was a large intraparenchymal hematoma in the right frontal lobe of the brain which had developed in an area of contusion identified by computerized tomography (CT) scan while he was hospitalized following the trauma. The literature regarding delayed traumatic intracerebral hematoma (DTICH) is reviewed and its relevance to cases coming under the jurisdiction of a medical examiner is discussed.

  19. Spontaneous epidural hematoma due to cervico-thoracic angiolipoma.

    PubMed

    Eap, C; Bannwarth, M; Jazeron, J-F; Kleber, J-C; Theret, É; Duntze, J; Litre, C-F

    2015-12-01

    Epidural angiolipomas are uncommon benign tumors of the spine. Their clinical presentation is usually a progressive spinal cord compression. We report the case of a 22-year-old patient who presented with an acute paraparesis and a spontaneous epidural hematoma, which revealed a epidural angiolipoma which extended from C7 to T3. The patient underwent a C7-T3 laminectomy, in emergency, with evacuation of the hematoma and extradural complete resection of a fibrous epidural tumor bleeding. The postoperative course was favorable with regression of neurological symptoms. Epidural angiolipomas can be revealed by spontaneous intratumoral hemorrhage without traumatism. The standard treatment is total removal by surgery.

  20. Blood glutamate grabbing does not reduce the hematoma in an intracerebral hemorrhage model but it is a safe excitotoxic treatment modality

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Candal, Andrés da; Vieites-Prado, Alba; Gutiérrez-Fernández, María; Rey, Ramón I; Argibay, Bárbara; Mirelman, David; Sobrino, Tomás; Rodríguez-Frutos, Berta; Castillo, José; Campos, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that blood glutamate grabbing is an effective strategy to reduce the excitotoxic effect of extracellular glutamate released during ischemic brain injury. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of two of the most efficient blood glutamate grabbers (oxaloacetate and recombinant glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1: rGOT1) in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Intracerebral hemorrhage was produced by injecting collagenase into the basal ganglia. Three treatment groups were developed: a control group treated with saline, a group treated with oxaloacetate, and a final group treated with human rGOT1. Treatments were given 1 hour after hemorrhage. Hematoma volume (analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), neurologic deficit, and blood glutamate and GOT levels were quantified over a period of 14 days after surgery. The results observed showed that the treatments used induced a significant reduction of blood glutamate levels; however, they did not reduce the hematoma, nor did they improve the neurologic deficit. In the present experimental study, we have shown that this novel therapeutic strategy is not effective in case of ICH pathology. More importantly, these findings suggest that blood glutamate grabbers are a safe treatment modality that can be given in cases of suspected ischemic stroke without previous neuroimaging. PMID:25735920

  1. Minimally Invasive Surgery for Evacuating the Intracerebral Hematoma in Early Stages Decreased Secondary Damages to the Internal Capsule in Dog Model of ICH Observed by Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guofeng; Wang, Fan; Wang, Likun; Shi, Jing; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Yingjun

    2017-04-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging was used to observe the effects of performing early minimally invasive surgery (MIS) on internal capsule in dog model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Twenty-five male dogs were selected to prepare an ICH model, and then they were randomly distributed into a model control (MC) group (5 dogs) or an MIS group (20 dogs). In the MIS group, the intracerebral hematoma was evacuated by stereotactic minimally invasive procedures over 6 hours (5 dogs), 12 hours (5 dogs), 18 hours (5 dogs), or 24 hours (5 dogs) after successful induction of ICH. The same procedure was performed in the MC group but without evacuating the hematoma. All the animals were sacrificed within 2 weeks after the hematoma was surgically evacuated. The neurologic deficit score and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were observed before and after the MIS. The perihematomal blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and the brain water content (BWC) were measured 2 weeks after the hematoma was surgically evacuated. The DTI demonstrated that integrity of the internal capsule restored largely after surgery and the fractional anisotropy (FA) values of the internal capsule on the hematoma side increased significantly as compared with those in the MC group or those before surgery in the same group. The postoperative ratios of FA values of each MIS subgroup increased compared with the MC group and those before surgery in the same subgroup before operation. The neurologic deficit score, the perihematomal BBB permeability, and the BWC of each MIS subgroup decreased significantly compared with those of the MC group. The 6-12-hour group displayed a more favorable result. Performing the MIS in the early stage (6-12 hours) after ICH could decrease the secondary damages to the internal capsule so as to promote the recovery of motor function. The optimal time window for MIS should be within 6-12 hours after onset of ICH. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Bilateral acute subdural hematomas with intracerebral hemorrhage without subarachnoid hemorrhage, caused by rupture of an internal carotid artery dorsal wall aneurysm. Case report.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Tomofumi; Ueba, Tetsuya; Kajiwara, Motohiro; Yamashita, Kohsuke

    2009-04-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with bilateral acute subdural hematomas (ASDHs) without subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). He was found comatose in a parked car. Computed tomography showed left frontal intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and bilateral ASDHs but no signs of SAH. Magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated an internal carotid artery dorsal wall aneurysm. Emergent surgical intervention was performed. However, he died of cerebral herniation 6 days later. We inferred that massive intracranial bleeding might have ruptured through the cortex and lacerated the arachnoid membrane. Aneurysm rupture generally results in unilateral SDH, whereas trauma is the usual cause of bilateral ASDHs with ICH. Our case suggests that ruptured aneurysm should be considered in patients with non-traumatic bilateral ASDHs without SAH.

  3. Results of surgical treatment of intrasylvian hematomas due to ruptured intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Başkaya, M K; Menendez, J A; Yüceer, N; Polin, R S; Nanda, A

    2001-04-01

    In this retrospective study, the surgical outcome of patients with intrasylvian hematomas due to rupture of intracranial aneurysms was analyzed. The authors studied ten patients who underwent aneurysm surgery and evacuation of the hematoma within 12 h of the onset of bleeding. All patients had an intrasylvian hematoma classified with computerized tomography and all patients underwent pre-operative angiography. In all patients, the origin of bleeding was a middle cerebral artery aneurysm, with the exception of one patient whose bleeding originated from a posterior communicating artery aneurysm. Three patients achieved good recovery without any significant neurological deficit and four achieved good recovery with moderate disabilities. One patient died due to pneumonia and two were in a vegetative state. Notably, three patients who were comatose (Hunt and Hess Grade V) at the time of presentation achieved good recovery following surgery. In this study, neurological status at presentation did not predict the outcome. The only significant prognostic factor in those patients who had intrasylvian hematoma was early surgery within 12 h of the bleeding. We suggest that early surgical treatment be performed in patients with intrasylvian hematoma, regardless of the neurological findings and grade on admission. Pre-operative angiography seems to be essential in identifying the source of bleeding.

  4. Acute spinal epidural hematoma and cranial interdural hematoma due to a rupture of a posterior communicating artery aneurysm: case report.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Andrea; Kotowski, Marc; Pereira, Vitor Mendes; Schaller, Karl

    2011-10-01

    We describe an unusual presentation of a ruptured aneurysm of the posterior communicating artery with an acute intracranial hematoma between the dural layers associated with an acute spinal epidural hematoma descending to L1. A 35-year-old woman presented 3 hours after ictus with a postcoital headache, neck stiffness, and bilateral abducens cranial nerve palsy. No other neurological deficits were present. Clinically, she had a subarachnoid hemorrhage World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade 1. CT scan demonstrates an acute subdural hematoma, extending from the right parasellar region, around the clivus, tentorium, and falx. Angio-CT showed a posterior communicating artery aneurysm and an anterior communicating artery aneurysm and an extension of the hematoma to the cervical spine. This justified a spinal and cerebral MRI that confirmed an extension of the hematoma to the epidural space at the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar levels. Three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography confirmed aneurysms on the right posterior communicating artery and on the anterior communicating artery. Both aneurysms were completely occluded by coiling. With reference to the concept of the cranial subdural compartment described in studies conducted using an electron microscope, this group of hematomas was classified as interdural. Ruptured aneurysm of the posterior communicating artery may cause cranial acute interdural hematoma with a typical subarachnoid hemorrhage clinical presentation, and it rarely can extend to spinal epidural space.

  5. A case of acute subdural hematoma due to ruptured aneurysm detected by postmortem angiography.

    PubMed

    Inokuchi, Go; Makino, Yohsuke; Yajima, Daisuke; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Torimitsu, Suguru; Hoshioka, Yumi; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2016-03-01

    Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) is mostly caused by head trauma, but intrinsic causes also exist such as aneurysm rupture. We describe here a case involving a man in his 70s who was found lying on the bedroom floor by his family. CT performed at the hospital showed ASDH and a forensic autopsy was requested. Postmortem cerebral angiography showed dilatation of the bifurcation of the middle cerebral artery, which coincided with the dilated part of the Sylvian fissure. Extravasation of contrast medium into the subdural hematoma from this site was suggestive of a ruptured aneurysm. Autopsy revealed a fleshy hematoma (total weight 110 g) in the right subdural space and findings of brain herniation. As indicated on angiography, a ruptured saccular aneurysm was confirmed at the bifurcation of the middle cerebral artery. Obvious injuries to the head or face could not be detected on either external or internal examination, and intrinsic ASDH due to a ruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysm was determined as the cause of death. One of the key points of forensic diagnosis is the strict differentiation between intrinsic and extrinsic onset for conditions leading to death. Although most subdural hematomas (SDH) are caused by extrinsic factors, forensic pathologists should consider the possibility of intrinsic SDH. In addition, postmortem angiography can be useful for identifying vascular lesions in such cases.

  6. [Suspicious case of epidural hematoma due to coagulopathy caused by vitamin K deficiency associated with antibiotics].

    PubMed

    Hirata, Naoyuki; Kanaya, Noriaki; Shimizu, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Masanori; Namiki, Akiyoshi

    2007-02-01

    We experienced a case of epidural hematoma caused by coagulopathy 3 days after surgery. A 72-year-old man, who had undergone a total gastrectomy, suffered from nausea and vomiting by ileus. He underwent repair of ileus under general anesthesia with thoracic epidural anesthesia. Three days after surgery, abnormal bleeding followed by disorder of prothrombin activity (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and paralysis due to thoracic epidural hematoma developed. It was suspected that these coagulopathies were the results of vitamin K deficiency. Vitamin K deficiency in this patient was considered to have been caused by cephem antibiotics containing N-methyl-thiotetrazole (NMTT) side chain and no oral intake of food for a few days preoperatively. The patient was treated with fresh frozen plasma and intravenous menatetrenon, which improved abnormal bleeding and disorder of PT and aPTT within 24hr. After a discussion with orthopedic consultants, we selected a conservative therapy rather than surgical removal of the hematoma. Thoracic epidural hematoma disappeared two months after surgery, but motor paralysis requiring rehabilitation remained. In conclusion, when patients have not eaten anything for a few days and antibiotics with an NMTT sidechain has been administered, care must be taken to prevent vitamin K deficiency and coagulopathy.

  7. [Neuroprotector effect of human recombinant erythropoietin sorbed on polymer nanoparticles studied on model of intracerebral post-traumatic hematoma (hemorrhagic stroke)].

    PubMed

    Balaban'ian, V Iu; Solev, I N; Elizarova, O S; Garibova, T L; Litvinova, S A; Voronina, T A

    2011-01-01

    The neuroprotective activity of recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEpo) sorbed on poly(butyl)cyanoacrilate nanoparticles (EPO-PBCA) and on polylactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles (EPO-PLGA) has been studied on Wistar rats with intracerebral post-traumatic hematoma (model of hemorrhagic stroke) (IPH-HS) in comparison to native r-HuEpo. It is established that EPO-PBCA produced a protective effect in rats after IPH-HS that was manifested by a decrease in the number of animals with neurological disorders such as circus movement, paresis, and paralysis of hind limbs; the drug also improved coordination (rotating rod test), reduced the number of lost animals, and decreased the loss weight among survived rats. In addition, EPO-PBCA optimized the research behavior of rats with IPH-HS in the open field test and prevented amnesia of passive avoidance reflex (PAR), which was caused by the IPH-HS. These effects were manifested during a two-week observation period. EPO-PLGA has a similar but much less pronounced effect on the major disorders caused by IPH-HS. The efficiency of native r-HuEpo as a neuropotective agent was insignificant and only manifested by decrease in the number of lost animals with IPH-HS.

  8. Delayed Diagnosis of Pelvic Hematoma without Fracture Due to Military Parachuting.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Cord W; Kotwal, Russ S; Kragh, John F

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. military has been conducting static-line parachute jumps for nearly a century. Beginning with World War II, military forces have also employed full-scale airborne operations as a method for insertion into combat. Through the years, injuries from blunt trauma as a result of static-line parachute jumps have evolved little with the refinement of equipment, training, and tactics. Parachute jumps continue to invoke primarily musculoskeletal injuries, especially to the lower extremities, back, neck, and head. These injuries are usually straightforward in their presentation and diagnosis. We describe the delayed diagnosis of a pelvic hematoma due to an uncommon blunt trauma jump injury. The purpose of this case report is to increase awareness of injury patterns during paratrooper operations, as well as to review the diagnosis and management of occult hemorrhage. Specific objectives for the readers are to (1) know the common injury types and patterns for airborne operations, (2) know the descent rate of T-10C/D parachutes and factors influencing the rate, (3) recognize signs and symptoms associated with a pelvic hematoma, and (4) recognize common complications resulting from a pelvic hematoma.

  9. The predictive accuracy of the black hole sign and the spot sign for hematoma expansion in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhiyuan; Zheng, Jun; Ma, Lu; Guo, Rui; Li, Mou; Wang, Xiaoze; Lin, Sen; Li, Hao; You, Chao

    2017-06-02

    In patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH), hematoma expansion (HE) is associated with poor outcome. Spot sign and black hole sign are neuroimaging predictors for HE. This study was aimed to compare the predictive value of two signs for HE. Within 6 h after onset of sICH, patients were screened for the computed tomography angiography spot sign and the non-contrast computed tomography black hole sign. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of two signs for HE prediction were calculated. The accuracy of two signs in predicting HE was analyzed by receiver-operator analysis. A total of 129 patients were included in this study. Spot sign was identified in 30 (23.3%) patients and black hole sign in 29 (22.5%) patients, respectively. Of 32 patients with HE, spot sign was observed in 19 (59.4%) and black hole sign was found in 14 (43.8%). The occurrence of black hole sign was significantly associated with spot sign (P < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of spot sign for predicting HE were 59.38, 88.66, 63.33, and 86.87% respectively. In contrast, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of black hole sign for predicting HE were 43.75, 84.54, 48.28, and 82.00%, respectively. The area under the curve was 0.740 for spot sign and 0.641 for black hole sign. (P = 0.228) Both spot sign and black hole sign appeared to have good predictive value for HE, and spot sign seemed to be a better predictor.

  10. Intracerebral Hemorrhage due to Venous Thrombosis of Developmental Venous Anomaly during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Seki, Morinobu; Shibata, Mamoru; Itoh, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays, developmental venous anomaly (DVA) is recognized as the most common cerebral vascular malformation. Most DVAs are diagnosed incidentally on routine brain imaging, but they are occasionally symptomatic. We report the case of a 26-year-old Japanese woman with intracerebral hemorrhage due to venous thrombosis of DVA. We examined her neurologic examinations carefully. We also observed her laboratory data, brain computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. She was 8 weeks pregnant and suffered from nausea, vomiturition, and appetite loss because of hyperemesis gravidarum. She presented with a sudden generalized seizure and was referred to our hospital. Brain CT showed a small hemorrhage and a tubular high-density structure compatible with an acutely thrombosed collecting vein in the right frontal lobe. T2*-weighted MRI also revealed a thrombosed collecting vein along with multiple medullary veins, which looked like caput medusa. She was diagnosed with an intracerebral hemorrhage and symptomatic epilepsy secondary to thrombosis of the DVA. After the acute phase of the disease, systemic anticoagulation therapy was administered to the patient to prevent the recurrence of venous thrombosis. We suspected that hyperemesis gravidarum with intravascular dehydration might have increased the risk of thrombosis in this patient. Thrombosis of the collecting vein of DVA is extremely rare. This is the first report regarding DVA thrombosis during pregnancy, to our knowledge. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Sudden motor and sensorial loss due to retroperitoneal hematoma during postoperative periods: a case report].

    PubMed

    Şen, Pelin; Gültekin, Havva Gül; Caymaz, İsmail; Özel, Ömer; Türköz, Ayda

    A 68 year-old male patient was hospitalized for radical prostatectomy. He had no abnormal medical history including neurological deficit before the operation. Prior to general anesthesia, an epidural catheter was inserted in the L3-4 interspace for intraoperative and postoperative analgesia. After surgery for nine hours, he developed confusion and flaccid paralysis of bilateral lower extremities occurred. No pathology was detected from cranial computed tomography and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging no pathology was detected. His thoracic/lumbar magnetic resonance imaging. Intraabdominal pressure was shown to be 25mmHg, and abdominal ultrasonography revealed progression in the inflammation/edema/hematoma in the perirenal region. The Bromage score was back to 1 in the right foot on the 24th hour and in the left foot on the 26th hour. Paraplegia developed in patients after epidural infusion might be caused by potentiated local anesthetic effect due to retroperitoneal hematoma and/or elevated intra-abdominal pressure. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Absorption fever characteristics due to percutaneous renal biopsy-related hematoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tingyang; Liu, Qingquan; Xu, Qin; Liu, Hui; Feng, Yan; Qiu, Wenhui; Huang, Fei; Lv, Yongman

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to describe the unique characteristics of absorption fever in patients with a hematoma after percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) and distinguish it from secondary infection of hematoma.We retrospectively studied 2639 percutaneous renal biopsies of native kidneys. We compared the clinical characteristics between 2 groups: complication group (gross hematuria and/or perirenal hematoma) and no complication group. The axillary temperature of patients with a hematoma who presented with fever was measured at 06:00, 10:00, 14:00, and 18:00. The onset and duration of fever and the highest body temperature were recorded. Thereafter, we described the time distribution of absorption fever and obtained the curve of fever pattern.Of 2639 patients, PRB complications were observed in 154 (5.8%) patients. Perirenal hematoma was the most common complication, which occurred in 118 (4.5%) of biopsies, including 74 small hematoma cases (thickness ≤3 cm) and 44 large hematoma cases (thickness >3 cm). Major complications were observed in only 6 (0.2%) cases resulting from a large hematoma. Of 118 patients with a perirenal hematoma, absorption fever was observed in 48 cases. Furthermore, large hematomas had a 5.23-fold higher risk for absorption fever than the small ones.Blood pressure, renal insufficiency, and prothrombin time could be risk factors for complications. Fever is common in patients with hematoma because of renal biopsy and is usually noninfectious. Evaluation of patients with post-biopsy fever is necessary to identify any obvious infection sources. If no focus is identified, empiric antibiotic therapy should not be initiated nor should prophylactic antibiotics be extended for prolonged durations. Absorption fevers will resolve in time without specific therapeutic interventions.

  13. Absorption fever characteristics due to percutaneous renal biopsy-related hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Tingyang; Liu, Qingquan; Xu, Qin; Liu, Hui; Feng, Yan; Qiu, Wenhui; Huang, Fei; Lv, Yongman

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to describe the unique characteristics of absorption fever in patients with a hematoma after percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) and distinguish it from secondary infection of hematoma. We retrospectively studied 2639 percutaneous renal biopsies of native kidneys. We compared the clinical characteristics between 2 groups: complication group (gross hematuria and/or perirenal hematoma) and no complication group. The axillary temperature of patients with a hematoma who presented with fever was measured at 06:00, 10:00, 14:00, and 18:00. The onset and duration of fever and the highest body temperature were recorded. Thereafter, we described the time distribution of absorption fever and obtained the curve of fever pattern. Of 2639 patients, PRB complications were observed in 154 (5.8%) patients. Perirenal hematoma was the most common complication, which occurred in 118 (4.5%) of biopsies, including 74 small hematoma cases (thickness ≤3 cm) and 44 large hematoma cases (thickness >3 cm). Major complications were observed in only 6 (0.2%) cases resulting from a large hematoma. Of 118 patients with a perirenal hematoma, absorption fever was observed in 48 cases. Furthermore, large hematomas had a 5.23-fold higher risk for absorption fever than the small ones. Blood pressure, renal insufficiency, and prothrombin time could be risk factors for complications. Fever is common in patients with hematoma because of renal biopsy and is usually noninfectious. Evaluation of patients with post-biopsy fever is necessary to identify any obvious infection sources. If no focus is identified, empiric antibiotic therapy should not be initiated nor should prophylactic antibiotics be extended for prolonged durations. Absorption fevers will resolve in time without specific therapeutic interventions. PMID:27631225

  14. [Evaluation of the hypertensive intracerebral hematoma based on the study on long-term outcome--Part I. Mode of hematoma extension and its clinical significance in putaminal hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Kanno, T; Nagata, J; Hoshino, M; Nakagawa, T; Chaudhari, M; Sano, H; Katada, K

    1986-09-01

    A retrospective analysis of our series of 355 cases of putaminal hemorrhage revealed some interesting aspects of its pathogenesis. All the cases were studied in detail with special attention to clinical presentation, diagnostic findings and the long-term clinical outcome. Role of surgery in management of putaminal hemorrhage is still controversial. Inability to form proper useful classification has been one of the reasons responsible for this controversy. A new classification is formulated which divides putaminal hemorrhage into four types. Mild type has hematoma localized to external capsule while moderate type shows hematoma extension to corona radiata from external capsule. In severe type, hematoma extends to internal capsule also while in very severe type it further extends to midbrain. These four types could be very well correlated to long-term clinical outcome. Accessory hematoma is discussed in detail. It is found to be more common in severe and very severe types. Its presence in mild or moderate types results in worse clinical outcome. Hypertension (BP greater than 200 mm of Hg) may play an important role in further extension of hematoma.

  15. Outcome assessment of hemiparesis due to intracerebral hemorrhage using diffusion tensor fractional anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Tetsuo; Marumoto, Kohei; Uchiyama, Yuki; Miyake, Hiroji; Domen, Kazuhisa

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic efficacy of magnetic resonance diffusion tensor fractional anisotropy (FA) for patients with hemiparesis due to intracerebral hemorrhage. Diffusion tensor FA brain images were acquired 14-21 days after putaminal and/or thalamic hemorrhage. The ratio of FA values within the cerebral peduncles of the affected and unaffected hemispheres (rFA) was calculated for each patient (n = 40) and assessed for correlation with Brunnstrom stage (BRS, 1-6), motor component of the functional independence measure (FIM-motor, 13-91), and the total length of stay (LOS) until discharge from rehabilitation (P < .05). Ordinal logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between rFA and specific outcomes as measured by BRS range (poor, BRS 1 or 2; moderate, BRS 3 or 4; and good, BRS 5 or 6; P < .05). The rFA values were .571-1.043 (median, .856) and BRS scores were 1-6 (median, 4) for shoulder/elbow/forearm, 1-6 (median, 4) for hand, and 2-6 (median, 4) for lower extremities. FIM-motor scores were 58-86 (median, 78) and LOS ranged from 42 to 225 days (median, 175.5 days). Correlation coefficients were statistically significant between rFA and shoulder/elbow/forearm BRS (.696), hand BRS (.779), lower extremity BRS (.631), FIM-motor (.442), and LOS (-.598). Logistic model fit was moderate for shoulder/elbow/forearm BRS (R(2) = .221) and lower extremity BRS (R(2) = .277), but was much higher for hand BRS (R(2) = .441). Diffusion tensor FA values are predictive of clinical outcome from hemiparesis due to putaminal and/or thalamic hemorrhage, particularly hand function recovery. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Axillary artery injury combined with delayed brachial plexus palsy due to compressive hematoma in a young patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Axillary artery injury in the shoulder region following blunt trauma without association with either shoulder dislocation or fracture of the humeral neck has been previously reported. Axillary artery injury might also be accompanied with brachial plexus injury. However, delayed onset of brachial plexus palsy caused by a compressive hematoma associated with axillary injury after blunt trauma in the shoulder region has been rarely reported. In previous reports, this condition only occurred in old patients with sclerotic vessels. We present a case of a young patient who suffered axillary artery injury associated with brachial plexus palsy that occurred tardily due to compressive hematoma after blunt trauma in the shoulder region without association of either shoulder dislocation or humeral neck fracture. Case presentation A 16-year-old male injured his right shoulder in a motorbike accident. On initial physical evaluation, the pulses on the radial and ulnar arteries in the affected arm were palpable. Paralysis developed later from 2 days after the injury. Functions in the right arm became significantly impaired. Angiography showed complete occlusion of the axillary artery. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a mass measuring 4 × 5 cm that was suspected to be a hematoma compressing the brachial plexus in a space between the subscapular muscle and the pectoralis minor muscle. Surgery was performed on the third day after injury. In intraoperative observations, the axillary artery was occluded with thrombus along 5 cm; a subscapular artery was ruptured; the brachial plexus was compressed by the hematoma. After evacuation of the hematoma, neurolysis of the brachial plexus, and revascularization of the axillary artery, the patient had an excellent functional recovery of the affected upper limb, postoperatively. Conclusion Surgeons should be aware that axillary artery injuries may even occur in young people after severe blunt trauma in the shoulder region

  17. Airway and circulatory collapse due to retropharyngeal hematoma after blunt vertebral artery injury.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Shunsuke; Fukushima, Kazuyuki; Hashimoto, Motonori; Furutake, Masayuki; Tanaka, Keiji; Okada, Kunihiko

    2016-12-09

    Retropharyngeal hematoma following blunt cervical spine injury is a known cause of airway obstruction, but it is not known to cause hemorrhagic shock. We report the case of a massive retropharyngeal hematoma caused by a blunt vertebral artery transection leading simultaneously to airway obstruction and hemorrhagic shock. An 83-year-old woman was injured in a motorcycle accident. In the field, the patient exhibited paradoxical breathing with no breath sounds, and her blood pressure could not be measured. Therefore, emergency intubation and fluid resuscitation were initiated and the patient was transferred to the emergency department. Computed tomography angiography revealed a massive retropharyngeal hematoma with contrast extravasation from the right vertebral artery, which caused airway obstruction and hemorrhagic shock. The right vertebral artery was transected at the C5 level, which was associated with C4/C5 dislocation. Vertebral artery transection was successfully treated by endovascular embolization, which was followed by complication of asymptomatic posterior circulation stroke. Blunt vertebral artery transection can cause massive retropharyngeal hematoma, which can rapidly expand and lead to hemorrhagic shock in addition to airway obstruction. In cases of massive retropharyngeal hematoma with hemorrhagic shock following blunt cervical spine injury, blunt vertebral artery transection should be suspected. If blunt vertebral artery transection is detected and hemorrhagic shock is persistent, endovascular embolization should be performed immediately in addition to emergency intubation.

  18. Subcapsular hematoma of the liver due to intercostal anesthesic blockage after cholecystectomy: case report.

    PubMed

    Santos Rodrigues, A L; Silva Santana, A C; Crociati Meguins, L; Felgueiras Rolo, D; Lobato Ferreira, M; Ribeiro Braga, C A

    2009-01-01

    The subcapsular hematoma of the liver (SHL) are the results of injuries such as liver needle biopsy, liver trauma, pregnancy illnesses, parasitic diseases and others. The approach of these lesions depends on the various clinical presentations of subcapsular hematoma of the liver because it may be small with minimal clinical repercussion, managed only by ultrasound observation. In some situations the SHL may present large dimensions with hemodinamic instability. A case of subcapsular hematoma of the liver secondary to anesthetic intercostal blockade to control the postoperative pain after cholecystectomy is reported. A 34-year-old woman was submitted to intercostal anesthetic blockade after cholecystectomy for treatment of cholelithiasis. The blockade evolved with pain in right flank followed of mucocutaneous pallor and fall of the haematocrit and hemoglobin levels. At relaparotomy, subcapsular hematoma of the liver was proven and tamponed with compresses. The patient had good postoperative evolution being discharged from hospital, after removing the compresses. In conclusion, the intercostal anesthesic blockade, as any other medical procedure, is not exempt of complications. Therefore, it must be carried through in well selected cases; Anyway nowadays, there are efficient drugs for the control of postoperative pain.

  19. Clinical outcome following ultra-early operation for patients with intracerebral hematoma from aneurysm rupture--focussing on the massive intra-sylvian type of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Su, C C; Saito, K; Nakagawa, A; Endo, T; Suzuki, Y; Shirane, R

    2002-01-01

    Of 250 patients admitted with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from 1994 to 2000, 16 had massive intra-sylvian hematomas. To predict the useful determinants of the clinical outcome for such patients we analyzed our last 16 cases. The study was performed in 2 parts. Part 1 covered the period from 1994 to 1996 and included 5 patients who underwent early surgery. Immediately before operation, Hunt & Kosnik grade (H&K) III was observed in 1, IV in 3 and V in 1 patient. Part 2, from 1997 to 2000, included 11 patients who underwent ultra-early surgery (within 3 hours after admission) with ventriculostomy and with 2 weeks' postoperative management in the ICU. Preoperatively, there were 2 patients with H&K III, 7 with IV, and 2 with V. The results in part 1 showed that 3 out of the 5 patients had poor outcome with symptomatic vasospasm. While in Part 2, seven returned to work, 2 had minimal and 1 had severe neurological deficits with symptomatic vasospasm, and 1 died. We therefore suggest that ultra-early surgery with ventriculostomy and postoperative management in the ICU is the most useful determinant to improve the clinical outcome in the treatment of SAH patients with massive intra-sylvian hematoma.

  20. [Bleeding during central venous catheterization : Cannot intubate, cannot ventilate due to massive cervical hematoma].

    PubMed

    Engelen, C; Trebes, C; Czarnecki, S; Junger, A

    2016-03-01

    Central venous catheterization is an invasive procedure which can be associated with severe complications. These include in particular unsuccessful arterial puncture and vascular injuries, which in addition to loss of blood can lead to massive soft tissue swelling. A 63-year-old female patient developed massive cervical bleeding during ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein puncture and the rapidly enlarging hematoma led to compromisation of the airway. A cannot intubate, cannot ventilate situation developed and the subsequent hypoxia led to cardiac arrest that was only resolved after emergency surgical tracheotomy during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  1. [Blunt force injuries due to martial arts in children--a diagnostic problem? Delayed diagnosis of an infected hematoma].

    PubMed

    Kruppa, C; Goericke, S L; Matheney, T; Ozokyay, L; Schildhauer, T A; Muhr, G; Dudda, M

    2010-10-01

    Blunt force injuries in martial arts occur frequently but isolated hematoma of muscles in the extremities is rare. Even minor trauma of the lower extremities due to throwing techniques in judo and other forms of Asian martial arts can lead to major pathologies. A 9-year-old girl presented with an unclear swelling and soreness of the calf muscle. The patient could not remember an obvious traumatic event. She was admitted 4 days later because of increased swelling, pain and erythema. The parents reported a minor trauma at judo training 1 week ago. Further investigation was performed with MRI and confirmed a massive hematoma much greater than previously shown by sonography. Histologic and microbiologic evaluation demonstrated florid inflammation and proof of Staphylococcus aureus was found intra-operatively. The diagnosis of blunt force injuries due to martial arts is difficult in childhood because often children do not remember a traumatic event. Therefore, it is important to obtain a thorough history from caregivers. Because sonography depends highly on the experience of the investigator MRI is considered to be a better diagnostic modality to diagnose and guide treatment in this age group.

  2. A case of acute subdural hematoma due to bleeding from metastatic chondrosarcoma of the skull

    PubMed Central

    Kosugi, Kenzo; Takahashi, Satoshi; Sasaki, Hikaru; Tamura, Ryota; Ohara, Kentaro; Yoshida, Kazunari

    2017-01-01

    Background: Intra or peritumoral hemorrhage of brain and skull tumors sometimes presents as stroke. Skull metastasis of chondrosarcoma is relatively rare, and furthermore, a case of intratumoural hemorrhage of skull metastasis of chondrosarcoma has not been reported. Case Description: A 73-year-old man underwent right lower leg amputation in the past because of chondrosarcoma and was operated for a skull metastasis. He presented with a sudden headache, and head computed tomography revealed a right acute subdural hematoma (SDH) adjacent to the recurrent skull metastatic tumor. The removal of the SDH and tumor resection were performed emergently. The intraoperative findings included metastatic invasion beyond the dura mater to as deep as the subdural space, and the histological diagnosis was metastatic chondrosarcoma. His postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion: In the event of subdural invasion of a metastatic lesion, intratumoral hemorrhage may induce acute SDH, as in the present case. Similar to our case, most previous reports of intracranial chondrosarcoma hemorrhage have had an unclear etiology. Despite the rarity of this event, a patient with a history of malignancy presenting with nontraumatic acute SDH should be examined for the intratumoral hemorrhage of skull metastasis in the differential diagnosis. PMID:28303203

  3. Prognosis of patients in coma after acute subdural hematoma due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Torné, Ramon; Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana; Romero-Chala, Fabián; Arikan, Fuat; Vilalta, Jordi; Sahuquillo, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Acute subdural hematomas (aSDH) secondary to intracranial aneurysm rupture are rare. Most patients present with coma and their functional prognosis has been classically considered to be very poor. Previous studies mixed good-grade and poor-grade patients and reported variable outcomes. We reviewed our experience by focusing on patients in coma only and hypothesized that aSDH might worsen initial mortality but not long-term functional outcome. Between 2005 and 2013, 440 subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients were admitted to our center. Nineteen (4.3%) were found to have an associated aSDH and 13 (2.9%) of these presented with coma. Their prospectively collected clinical and outcome data were reviewed and compared with that of 104 SAH patients without aSDH who presented with coma during the same period. Median aSDH thickness was 10mm. Four patients presented with an associated aneurysmal cortical laceration and only one had good recovery. Overall, we observed good long-term outcomes in both SAH patients in coma with aSDH and those without aSDH (38.5% versus 26.4%). Associated aSDH does not appear to indicate a poorer long-term functional prognosis in SAH patients presenting with coma. Anisocoria and brain herniation are observed in patients with aSDH thicknesses that are smaller than those observed in trauma patients. Despite a high initial mortality, early surgery to remove the aSDH results in a good outcome in over 60% of survivors. Aneurysmal cortical laceration appears to be an independent entity which shows a poorer prognosis than other types of aneurysmal aSDH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High precision localization of intracerebral hemorrhage based on 3D MPR on head CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianyong; Hou, Xiaoshuai; Sun, Shujie; Zhang, Jianguo

    2017-03-01

    The key step for minimally invasive intracerebral hemorrhage surgery is precisely positioning the hematoma location in the brain before and during the hematoma surgery, which can significantly improves the success rate of puncture hematoma. We designed a 3D computerized surgical plan (CSP) workstation precisely to locate brain hematoma based on Multi-Planar Reconstruction (MPR) visualization technique. We used ten patients' CT/MR studies to verify our designed CSP intracerebral hemorrhage localization method. With the doctor's assessment and comparing with the results of manual measurements, the output of CSP WS for hematoma surgery is more precise and reliable than manual procedure.

  5. [Intensive care management [corrected] of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Diedler, J; Sykora, M; Herweh, C; Orakcioglu, B; Zweckberger, K; Steiner, T; Hacke, W

    2011-04-01

    Approximately 10-15% of acute strokes are caused by non-aneurysmatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and incidences are expected to increase due to an aging population. Studies from the 1990s estimated mortality of ICH to be as high as 50%. However, these figures may partly be attributed to the fact that patients suffering from ICH frequently received only supportive therapy and the poor prognosis may therefore be more a self-fulfilling prophecy. Recently it has been shown that treatment in a specialized neurological intensive care unit alone was associated with better outcomes after ICH. In recent years considerable efforts have been undertaken in order to develop new therapies for ICH and to assess them in randomized controlled trials. Apart from admission status, hemorrhage volume is considered to be the main prognostic factor and impeding the spread of the hematoma is thus a basic therapeutic principle. The use of activated factor VIIa (aFVIIa) to stop hematoma enlargement has been assessed in two large randomized controlled trials, however the promising results of the dose-finding study could not be confirmed in a phase III trial. Although hemostatic therapy with aFVIIa reduced growth of the hematoma it failed to improve clinical outcome. Similar results were found in a randomized controlled trial on blood pressure management in acute ICH. The link between reduction of hematoma growth and improved outcome is therefore still lacking. Likewise the value of surgical hematoma evacuation remains uncertain. In the largest randomized controlled trial on surgical treatment in ICH so far, only a small subgroup of patients with superficial hemorrhages seemed to benefit from hematoma evacuation. Whether improved intensive care can contribute to improved outcome after ICH will be shown by data obtained in the coming years.

  6. Intracerebral haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Adnan I; Mendelow, A David; Hanley, Daniel F

    2011-01-01

    Intracerebral haemorrhage is an important public health problem leading to high rates of death and disability in adults. Although the number of hospital admissions for intracerebral haemorrhage has increased worldwide in the past 10 years, mortality has not fallen. Results of clinical trials and observational studies suggest that coordinated primary and specialty care is associated with lower mortality than is typical community practice. Development of treatment goals for critical care, and new sequences of care and specialty practice can improve outcome after intracerebral haemorrhage. Specific treatment approaches include early diagnosis and haemostasis, aggressive management of blood pressure, open surgical and minimally invasive surgical techniques to remove clot, techniques to remove intraventricular blood, and management of intracranial pressure. These approaches improve clinical management of patients with intracerebral haemorrhage and promise to reduce mortality and increase functional survival. PMID:19427958

  7. Intracerebral haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Adnan I; Mendelow, A David; Hanley, Daniel F

    2009-05-09

    Intracerebral haemorrhage is an important public health problem leading to high rates of death and disability in adults. Although the number of hospital admissions for intracerebral haemorrhage has increased worldwide in the past 10 years, mortality has not fallen. Results of clinical trials and observational studies suggest that coordinated primary and specialty care is associated with lower mortality than is typical community practice. Development of treatment goals for critical care, and new sequences of care and specialty practice can improve outcome after intracerebral haemorrhage. Specific treatment approaches include early diagnosis and haemostasis, aggressive management of blood pressure, open surgical and minimally invasive surgical techniques to remove clot, techniques to remove intraventricular blood, and management of intracranial pressure. These approaches improve clinical management of patients with intracerebral haemorrhage and promise to reduce mortality and increase functional survival.

  8. Intracranial Hematoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... one that causes only a brief lapse of consciousness (concussion) — can be minor, an intracranial hematoma is ... Increasing headache Vomiting Drowsiness and progressive loss of consciousness Dizziness Confusion Unequal pupil size Slurred speech As ...

  9. Intracranial Hematoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... vessel ruptures within your brain or between your skull and your brain. The collection of blood (hematoma) ... slide forcefully against the inner wall of your skull and become bruised. Although some head injuries — such ...

  10. Subdural Hematoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    greater than 21 days old. They have a tendency to present in older patients and after non- accidental trauma in children and may be associated with...of head trauma. In children, chronic subdural hematoma may be caused by unrecognized or unreported accidental trauma, nonaccidental trauma or...whiplash force caused by violent shaking. Subdural hematomas in infants are only rarely caused by accidental injury. A heterogeneous subdural

  11. [A case of an intracerebral mass lesion consisting of traumatic granulation tissue].

    PubMed

    Wanibuchi, M; Uede, T; Ishiguro, M; Tatewaki, K; Kurokawa, Y; Yoshida, Y

    1994-10-01

    We reported a rare case of an intracerebral granulomatous lesion accompanying severe edema formation in the healing stage of traumatic brain contusions. A 44-year-old male patient came to our outpatient clinic due to progressing headache and nausea. Upon computed tomographic examination, a low density mass with strong surrounding edema was detected at the right frontal base. Magnetic resonance images revealed a high intensity mass on both T1- and T2-weighted images at the right frontal base. Upon intravenous injection of a contrast agent, this lesion exhibited multifocal marginal contrast enhancement. Two additional small enhanced mass lesions were detected at the tip of the right temporal lobe and the medial portion of the left temporal lobe. We tentatively diagnosed it as a right frontal brain tumor and attempted the total removal of the right frontal mass. Unexpectedly, pathological diagnosis was intracerebral granulation tissue associated with accumulation of hemosiderin-laden macrophages and capillary wall thickening. In addition, there was no reactive gliosis. We speculated on the pathogenesis of intracerebral granulation tissue as follows. Since the patient was a heavy drinker and often fell down when he was drunk, it is likely that he might be suffering from intracerebral hematomas due to traumatic contusions. This assumption may be supported by the fact that an old subdural hematoma was observed during the operation and the radiological examination revealed multiple lesions. The gathering and proliferation of mesenchymal cells possibly derived from blood circulation probably began at the site of the damaged brain tissue, thus forming intracerebral granulation tissue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Massive Intracerebral Hemorrhage Caused by a Cavernous Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Soo; Lee, Jae Il; Choi, Chang Hwa

    2012-01-01

    We present a rare case of massive intracerebral hemorrhage resulting from a small, superficially-located supratentorial cavernous malformation, or cavernoma. These lesions rarely lead to massive, life-threatening intracerebral hemorrhages. A 17-year-old female presented with a 3-week history of declining mental status. Brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sizable intracranial hemorrhage, within the right occipital region, associated with a small nodule at the hematoma's posterior margin. An emergency operation removed the entire hematoma and nodule. Histological examination of the nodule was compatible with a diagnosis of cavernous malformation. The patient's post-operative course was uneventful. PMID:22396841

  13. Image Guided Endoscopic Evacuation of Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Chad M; Vespa, Paul; Saver, Jeffrey L; Kidwell, Chelsea S; Carmichael, Stanley T.; Alger, Jeffry; Frazee, John; Starkman, Sid; Liebeskind, David; Nenov, Valeriy; Elashoff, Robert; Martin, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Background Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality. ICH lacks an effective medical or surgical treatment despite the acknowledged pathophysiological benefits of achieved hemostasis and clot removal. Image guided stereotactic endoscopic hematoma evacuation is a promising minimally invasive approach designed to limit operative injury and maximize hematoma removal. Methods A single center randomized controlled trial was designed to assess the safety and efficacy of stereotactic hematoma evacuation compared to best medical management. Patients were randomized within 24 hours of hemorrhage in a 3:2 fashion to best medical management plus endoscopic hematoma evacuation or best medical management alone. Data was collected to assess efficacy and safety of hematoma evacuation and to identify procedural components requiring technical improvement. Results 10 patients have been enrolled and randomized to treatment. Six patients underwent endoscopic evacuation with a hematoma volume reduction of 80% +/−13 at 24 hours post procedure. The medical arm demonstrated a hematoma enlargement of 78% +/−142 during this same period. Rehemorrhage rates and deterioration rates were similar in the two groups. Mortality was 20% in the endoscopic group and 50% in the medical treatment cohort. The endoscopic technique was shown to be effective in identification and evacuation of hematomas while reduction in the number of endoscopic passes and maintenance of hemostasis require further study. Conclusion Image guided stereotactic endoscopic hematoma removal is a promising minimally invasive technique that is effective in immediate hematoma evacuation. This technique deserves further investigation to determine its role in ICH management. PMID:18424298

  14. Subcortical hematoma caused by cerebral amyloid angiopathy: does the first evidence of hemorrhage occur in the subarachnoid space?

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shigeki; Yamazaki, Kazunori; Miyakawa, Teruo; Onda, Kiyoshi; Hinokuma, Kaoru; Ikuta, Fusahiro; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2003-12-01

    Six autopsy cases of subcortical hematoma caused by CAA were examined to elucidate the primary site of hemorrhage. Immunohistochemistry for amyloid beta-protein (A beta) revealed extensive CAA in the intrasulcal meningeal vessels rather than in the cerebral cortical vessels. All of the examined cases had multiple hematomas in the subarachnoid space, mainly in the cerebral sulci, as well as intracerebral hematomas. Each intracerebral hematoma was connected to the subarachnoid hematomas at the depth of cerebral sulci or through the lateral side of the cortex. There was no debris of the cerebral cortical tissue in the subarachnoid hematomas. In case 2, another solitary subarachnoid hematoma, which was not connected to any intracerebral hematoma, was seen. In all of these subarachnoid hematomas, many ruptured A beta-immunopositive arteries were observed. These ruptured arteries did not accompany any debris of the brain tissue, some of them were large in diameter (250-300 microm), and several of them were far from the cerebral cortex. Therefore, it was considered that they were not cortical arteries but meningeal arteries. Within the cerebral cortex, there were only a few ruptured arteries associated with small hemorrhages. There were no ruptured vessels within the intracerebral hematomas. There was a strong suggestion that all of the subarachnoid hematomas, including the solitary one in case 2, originated from the rupture of the meningeal arteries. The present study indicates that in some cases of subcortical hematoma caused by CAA, the primary hemorrhage occurs in the subarachnoid space, in particular the cerebral sulci, because of rupture of multiple meningeal arteries. Infarction occurs subsequently in the cortex around the hematoma, the hematoma penetrates into the brain parenchyma, and finally, a subcortical hematoma is formed.

  15. Chronic subdural hematoma

    MedlinePlus

    Subdural hemorrhage - chronic; Subdural hematoma - chronic; Subdural hygroma ... A subdural hematoma develops when bridging veins tear and leak blood. These are the tiny veins that run between the ...

  16. Post traumatic pituitary apoplexy with contiguous intra cerebral hematoma operated through endonasal route--a case report.

    PubMed

    Dev, Ravi; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Sharma, Mahesh Chandra; Khetan, Prakash; Chugh, Ashish

    2007-01-01

    Pituitary apoplexy is a clinical syndrome occurring as a consequence of fulminant expansion of pituitary tumor due to massive infarction, necrosis, and hemorrhage. Its association with head injury is rare and only few reports are available. Shear forces on stalk and arterial vasospasm have been proposed to be the possible reasons. The clinical picture is characterized by sudden onset headache, visual symptoms, multiple cranial nerves involvement, meningismus, altered mental status, and hormonal dysfunction. Transsphenoidal decompression is the standard treatment but suprasellar and widespread extension of hematoma may need intracranial approach. We are reporting a rare association of head injury with pituitary apoplexy, where endonasal surgery proved to be a simple useful approach to evacuate contiguous intra-cerebral hematoma with excision of apoplectic pituitary adenoma.

  17. Surgery for Bilateral Large Intracranial Traumatic Hematomas: Evacuation in a Single Session

    PubMed Central

    Kompheak, Heng; Kim, Dong-Sung; Shin, Dong-Sung; Kim, Bum-Tae

    2014-01-01

    Objective Management guidelines for single intracranial hematomas have been established, but the optimal management of multiple hematomas has little known. We present bilateral traumatic supratentorial hematomas that each has enough volume to be evacuated and discuss how to operate effectively it in a single anesthesia. Methods In total, 203 patients underwent evacuation and/or decompressive craniectomies for acute intracranial hematomas over 5 years. Among them, only eight cases (3.9%) underwent operations for bilateral intracranial hematomas in a single session. Injury mechanism, initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, types of intracranial lesions, surgical methods, and Glasgow outcome scale were evaluated. Results The most common injury mechanism was a fall (four cases). The types of intracranial lesions were epidural hematoma (EDH)/intracerebral hematoma (ICH) in five, EDH/EDH in one, EDH/subdural hematoma (SDH) in one, and ICH/SDH in one. All cases except one had an EDH. The EDH was addressed first in all cases. Then, the evacuation of the ICH was performed through a small craniotomy or burr hole. All patients except one survived. Conclusion Bilateral intracranial hematomas that should be removed in a single-session operation are rare. Epidural hematomas almost always occur in these cases and should be removed first to prevent the hematoma from growing during the surgery. Then, the other hematoma, contralateral to the EDH, can be evacuated with a small craniotomy. PMID:25237431

  18. Progressive manifestations of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyu-Sun; Yi, Hyeong-Joong

    2014-11-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by sudden-onset headache with focal neurologic deficit and prolonged but reversible multifocal narrowing of the distal cerebral arteries. Stroke, either hemorrhagic or ischemic, is a relatively frequent presentation in RCVS, but progressive manifestations of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral infarction in a patient is seldom described. We report a rare case of a 56-year-old woman with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome consecutively presenting as cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and cerebral infarction. When she complained of severe headache with subtle cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, her angiography was non-specific. But, computed tomographic angiography showed typical angiographic features of this syndrome after four days. Day 12, she suffered mental deterioration and hemiplegia due to contralateral intracerebral hematoma, and she was surgically treated. For recurrent attacks of headache, medical management with calcium channel blockers has been instituted. Normalized angiographic features were documented after 8 weeks. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome should be considered as differential diagnosis of non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and repeated angiography is recommended for the diagnosis of this under-recognized syndrome.

  19. Magnesium, hemostasis, and outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Liotta, Eric M; Prabhakaran, Shyam; Sangha, Rajbeer S; Bush, Robin A; Long, Alan E; Trevick, Stephen A; Potts, Matthew B; Jahromi, Babak S; Kim, Minjee; Manno, Edward M; Sorond, Farzaneh A; Naidech, Andrew M; Maas, Matthew B

    2017-08-22

    We tested the hypothesis that admission serum magnesium levels are associated with hematoma volume, hematoma growth, and functional outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Patients presenting with spontaneous ICH were enrolled in an observational cohort study that prospectively collected demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiographic, and outcome data. We performed univariate and adjusted multivariate analyses to assess for associations between serum magnesium levels and initial hematoma volume, final hematoma volume, and in-hospital hematoma growth as radiographic measures of hemostasis, and functional outcome measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months. We included 290 patients for analysis. Admission serum magnesium was 2.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL. Lower admission magnesium levels were associated with larger initial hematoma volumes on univariate (p = 0.02), parsimoniously adjusted (p = 0.002), and fully adjusted models (p = 0.006), as well as greater hematoma growth (p = 0.004, p = 0.005, and p = 0.008, respectively) and larger final hematoma volumes (p = 0.02, p = 0.001, and p = 0.002, respectively). Lower admission magnesium level was associated with worse functional outcomes at 3 months (i.e., higher mRS; odds ratio 0.14, 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.64, p = 0.011) after adjustment for age, admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, initial hematoma volume, time from symptom onset to initial CT, and hematoma growth, with evidence that the effect of magnesium is mediated through hematoma growth. These data support the hypothesis that magnesium exerts a clinically meaningful influence on hemostasis in patients with ICH. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Progressive myelopathy due to a spontaneous intramedullary hematoma in a dog: pre- and postoperative clinical and magnetic resonance imaging follow-up.

    PubMed

    Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Hidalgo, Antoine; Benchekroun, Ghita; Fanchon, Laurent; Crespeau, Francois; Delisle, Francoise; Blot, Stephane

    2008-01-01

    A 4-year-old, male Jack Russell terrier was presented for a 6-month history of progressive right hemiparesis with episodic cervical hyperesthesia. The neurological examination showed a right-sided, upper motoneuron syndrome and partial Horner's syndrome. Two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations were performed 3 months apart and revealed a persistent cervical intramedullary hematoma. A dorsal myelotomy was performed. A subacute hematoma was confirmed histologically without underlying lesions. Eighteen months later, the dog's clinical signs were minimal. Two MRI examinations were performed 2 weeks and 5 months after surgery and revealed regressing signal abnormalities at the surgical site, consistent with a surgical scar.

  1. [A case of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage associated with cerebral arteriovenous malformation and aneurysm (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, K; Nishizaka, T; Tanji, H; Higa, K; Furukawa, F

    1977-02-01

    A 45-year-old man suddenly developed right hemiparesis and aphasia during work and lost conciousness next day, when he was admitted to us. Lumbar puncture showed bloody C.S.F. with the initial pressure of 220 mm H2O. Physical examination revealed hypertension and arteriosclerosis. Cerebral angiogram revealed an arteriovenous malformation in the left frontoparietal-parasagittal region and a saccular aneurysm at the left internal carotid-posterior communicating artery junction. In addition, the existence of putaminal hematoma was suspected on account of the displacement of the left anterior cerebral artery and the left lenticulostriate arteries. On the fourth day after admission his consciousness returned and the right hemiparesis gradually improved. One month later the disappearance of the displacement of the anterior cerebral artery was demonstrated by cerebral angiogram. A frontoparietal craniotomy was done and no hematoma was found around the arteriovenous malformation and the basis of the aneurysm did not adhere to the temporal lobe. Taking these findings into consideration, it is presumed that the hematoma in putaminal region was due to neither arteriovenous malformation nor aneurysm but was a hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage.

  2. Leukocyte Count and Intracerebral Hemorrhage Expansion.

    PubMed

    Morotti, Andrea; Phuah, Chia-Ling; Anderson, Christopher D; Jessel, Michael J; Schwab, Kristin; Ayres, Alison M; Pezzini, Alessandro; Padovani, Alessandro; Gurol, M Edip; Viswanathan, Anand; Greenberg, Steven M; Goldstein, Joshua N; Rosand, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Acute leukocytosis is a well-established response to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Leukocytes, because of their interaction with platelets and coagulation factors, may in turn play a role in hemostasis. We investigated whether admission leukocytosis was associated with reduced bleeding after acute ICH. Consecutive patients with primary ICH were prospectively collected from 1994 to 2015 and retrospectively analyzed. We included subjects with a follow-up computed tomographic scan available and automated complete white blood cell count performed within 48 hours from onset. Baseline and follow-up hematoma volumes were calculated with semiautomated software, and hematoma expansion was defined as volume increase >30% or 6 mL. The association between white blood cell count and ICH expansion was investigated with multivariate logistic regression. A total of 1302 subjects met eligibility criteria (median age, 75 years; 55.8% men), of whom 207 (15.9%) experienced hematoma expansion. Higher leukocyte count on admission was associated with reduced risk of hematoma expansion (odds ratio for 1000 cells increase, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.96; P=0.001). The risk of hematoma expansion was inversely associated with neutrophil count (odds ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-0.96; P=0.001) and directly associated with monocyte count (odds ratio, 2.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-6.83; P=0.034). There was no association between lymphocyte count and ICH expansion (odds ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.79-1.17; P=0.718). Higher admission white blood cell count is associated with lower risk of hematoma expansion. This highlights a potential role of the inflammatory response in modulating the coagulation cascade after acute ICH. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. [Characteristics of serum albumin in patients with intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke].

    PubMed

    Martynov, M Iu; Koplik, E V; Shchukin, I A; Smolina, N V; Kapel'nitskiĭ, P V; Chubykin, V I; Glukhareva, A P; Makarov, A N; Sudakov, K V

    2012-01-01

    Authors studied the influence of the psychoemotional stress preceding the stroke on the dynamics of neurological symptoms (Glasgo coma scale, Scandinavian stroke scale and Barthel index) and on the conformational changes of albumin in 59 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage due to arterial hypertension. The psychoemotional stress was associated with less favorable clinical course and outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage. Conformational properties of albumin were changed in all patients with intracerebral hemorrhage compared to controls. Psychoemotional stress preceding stroke aggravated changes in albumin molecule.

  4. Tranexamic Acid as Antifibrinolytic Agent in Non Traumatic Intracerebral Hemorrhages

    PubMed Central

    ARUMUGAM, Ananda; A RAHMAN, Noor Azman; THEOPHILUS, Sharon Casilda; SHARIFFUDIN, Ashraf; ABDULLAH, Jafri Malin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mortality and morbidity associated with intracerebral hemorrhage is still high. Up to now, there are no evidence-based effective treatments for acute ICH. This study is to assess the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA) on hematoma growth of patients with spontaneous ICH compared to a placebo. Methods: We performed a single-blinded, randomised placebo-controlled trial of TXA (intravenous 1g bolus, followed by infusion TXA 1 g/hour for 8 hours) in acute (< 8 hours) primary ICH. Strict blood pressure control (target SBP 140-160 mmHg). A repeat Computed Tomography brain was done after 24 hours to reassess hematoma growth. The primary objective is to test the effect of TXA on hematoma growth. Other objective was to test the feasibility, tolerability, and adverse events of TXA in primary ICH. Results: Statistical analysis showed significant hematoma growth in control group after 24 hours compared to baseline (14.3300 vs 17.9940, P = 0.001) whereas the treatment group there is no significant hematoma size expansion between baseline and after 24 hours (P = 0.313). Conclusions: This study showed a significant hematoma volume expansion in the control group compared to the treatment group. PMID:27006639

  5. Predicting Intracerebral Hemorrhage Growth With the Spot Sign: The Effect of Onset-to-Scan Time.

    PubMed

    Dowlatshahi, Dar; Brouwers, H Bart; Demchuk, Andrew M; Hill, Michael D; Aviv, Richard I; Ufholz, Lee-Anne; Reaume, Michael; Wintermark, Max; Hemphill, J Claude; Murai, Yasuo; Wang, Yongjun; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Yilong; Li, Na; Sorimachi, Takatoshi; Matsumae, Mitsunori; Steiner, Thorsten; Rizos, Timolaos; Greenberg, Steven M; Romero, Javier M; Rosand, Jonathan; Goldstein, Joshua N; Sharma, Mukul

    2016-03-01

    Hematoma expansion after acute intracerebral hemorrhage is common and is associated with early deterioration and poor clinical outcome. The computed tomographic angiography (CTA) spot sign is a promising predictor of expansion; however, frequency and predictive values are variable across studies, possibly because of differences in onset-to-CTA time. We performed a patient-level meta-analysis to define the relationship between onset-to-CTA time and frequency and predictive ability of the spot sign. We completed a systematic review for studies of CTA spot sign and hematoma expansion. We subsequently pooled patient-level data on the frequency and predictive values for significant hematoma expansion according to 5 predefined categorized onset-to-CTA times. We calculated spot-sign frequency both as raw and frequency-adjusted rates. Among 2051 studies identified, 12 met our inclusion criteria. Baseline hematoma volume, spot-sign status, and time-to-CTA were available for 1176 patients, and 1039 patients had follow-up computed tomographies for hematoma expansion analysis. The overall spot sign frequency was 26%, decreasing from 39% within 2 hours of onset to 13% beyond 8 hours (P<0.001). There was a significant decrease in hematoma expansion in spot-positive patients as onset-to-CTA time increased (P=0.004), with positive predictive values decreasing from 53% to 33%. The frequency of the CTA spot sign is inversely related to intracerebral hemorrhage onset-to-CTA time. Furthermore, the positive predictive value of the spot sign for significant hematoma expansion decreases as time-to-CTA increases. Our results offer more precise risk stratification for patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage and will help refine clinical prediction rules for intracerebral hemorrhage expansion. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Expanded dengue syndrome: subacute thyroiditis and intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although most symptomatic dengue infections follow an uncomplicated course, complications and unusual manifestations are increasingly being reported due to rising disease burden. Expanded dengue syndrome is a new entity added into World Health Organization (WHO) classification system to incorporate this wide spectrum of unusual manifestations. We report a case of expanded dengue syndrome with subacute thyroiditis and intracerebral hemorrhage. This is the first case report of thyroiditis in dengue infection. Case presentation A 20 years old man presented with fever, myalgias, arthralgias, retro-orbital pain, vomiting and gum bleeding during a large dengue outbreak in Lahore, Pakistan. On 7th day of illness patient became afebrile, but he developed severe headaches, unconsciousness followed by altered behavior. On 9th day of illness patient developed painful neck swelling accompanied by fever, tremors, palpitations, hoarseness of voice and odynophagia. Examination revealed acutely swollen, tender thyroid gland along with features of hyperthyroidism. Laboratory evaluation revealed stable hematocrit, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Patient had seroconverted for anti-dengue IgM antibodies on the 10th day of illness. A non-contrast Computed Tomogram (CT) of the brain showed right frontal lobe hematoma. Thyroid profile showed increased free T3 and T4 and low TSH. Technetium thyroid scan showed reduced tracer uptake. He was diagnosed as having subacute thyroiditis and treated with oral prednisolone and propranolol. Follow up CT brain showed resolving hematoma. Patient’s recovery was uneventful. Conclusion Subacute thyroiditis may develop during the course of dengue fever and should be included as a manifestation of expanded dengue syndrome. It should be suspected in patients with dengue fever who develop painful thyroid swelling and clinical features of hyperthyroidism. PMID:23033818

  7. Non-traumatic subdural hematoma secondary to septic brain embolism: A rare cause of unexpected death in a drug addict suffering from undiagnosed bacterial endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Geisenberger, D; Huppertz, L M; Büchsel, M; Kramer, L; Pollak, S; Grosse Perdekamp, M

    2015-12-01

    Acute subdural hematomas are mostly due to blunt traumatization of the head. In rare instances, subdural bleeding occurs without evidence of a previous trauma following spontaneous hemorrhage, e.g. from a ruptured aneurysm or an intracerebral hematoma perforating the brain surface and the arachnoid. The paper presents the morphological, microbiological and toxicological findings in a 38-year-old drug addict who was found by his partner in a dazed state. When brought to a hospital, he underwent trepanation to empty a right-sided subdural hematoma, but he died already 4h after admission. Autopsy revealed previously undiagnosed infective endocarditis of the aortic valve as well as multiple infarctions of brain, spleen and kidneys obviously caused by septic emboli. The subdural hematoma originated from a subcortical brain hemorrhage which had perforated into the subdural space. Microbiological investigation of the polypous vegetations adhering to the aortic valve revealed colonization by Streptococcus mitis and Klebsiella oxytoca. According to the toxicological analysis, no psychotropic substances had contributed to the lethal outcome. The case reported underlines that all deaths of drug addicts should be subjected to complete forensic autopsy, as apart from intoxications also natural and traumatic causes of death have to be taken into consideration.

  8. Nasal septal hematoma.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, C M

    1998-04-01

    Nasal septal hematoma is a rare but potentially serious complication of nasal trauma. Proper management consists of early recognition, prompt surgical evacuation of the hematoma, and antimicrobial therapy if a secondary nasal septal abscess is suspected. Clindamycin is recommended as initial therapy until the results of cultures and susceptibility studies are available.

  9. A Knowledge Discovery Approach to Diagnosing Intracranial Hematomas on Brain CT: Recognition, Measurement and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chun-Chih; Xiao, Furen; Wong, Jau-Min; Chiang, I.-Jen

    Computed tomography (CT) of the brain is preferred study on neurological emergencies. Physicians use CT to diagnose various types of intracranial hematomas, including epidural, subdural and intracerebral hematomas according to their locations and shapes. We propose a novel method that can automatically diagnose intracranial hematomas by combining machine vision and knowledge discovery techniques. The skull on the CT slice is located and the depth of each intracranial pixel is labeled. After normalization of the pixel intensities by their depth, the hyperdense area of intracranial hematoma is segmented with multi-resolution thresholding and region-growing. We then apply C4.5 algorithm to construct a decision tree using the features of the segmented hematoma and the diagnoses made by physicians. The algorithm was evaluated on 48 pathological images treated in a single institute. The two discovered rules closely resemble those used by human experts, and are able to make correct diagnoses in all cases.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Profile of Blood–Brain Barrier Injury in Patients With Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Didem; Bammer, Roland; Mlynash, Michael; Venkatasubramanian, Chitra; Eyngorn, Irina; Snider, Ryan W.; Gupta, Sandeep N.; Narayana, Rashmi; Fischbein, Nancy; Wijman, Christine A. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with blood–brain barrier (BBB) injury, which is a poorly understood factor in ICH pathogenesis, potentially contributing to edema formation and perihematomal tissue injury. We aimed to assess and quantify BBB permeability following human spontaneous ICH using dynamic contrast‐enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI). We also investigated whether hematoma size or location affected the amount of BBB leakage. Methods and Results Twenty‐five prospectively enrolled patients from the Diagnostic Accuracy of MRI in Spontaneous intracerebral Hemorrhage (DASH) study were examined using DCE MRI at 1 week after symptom onset. Contrast agent dynamics in the brain tissue and general tracer kinetic modeling were used to estimate the forward leakage rate (Ktrans) in regions of interest (ROI) in and surrounding the hematoma and in contralateral mirror–image locations (control ROI). In all patients BBB permeability was significantly increased in the brain tissue immediately adjacent to the hematoma, that is, the hematoma rim, compared to the contralateral mirror ROI (P<0.0001). Large hematomas (>30 mL) had higher Ktrans values than small hematomas (P<0.005). Ktrans values of lobar hemorrhages were significantly higher than the Ktrans values of deep hemorrhages (P<0.005), independent of hematoma volume. Higher Ktrans values were associated with larger edema volumes. Conclusions BBB leakage in the brain tissue immediately bordering the hematoma can be measured and quantified by DCE MRI in human ICH. BBB leakage at 1 week is greater in larger hematomas as well as in hematomas in lobar locations and is associated with larger edema volumes. PMID:23709564

  11. [Spontaneous hepatic hematoma in twin pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Quesnel, Carlos; Weber, Alejandro; Mendoza, Dalila; Garteiz, Denzil

    2012-02-01

    The hepatic hematoma or rupture appear in 1 of every 100,000 pregnancies. The most common causes of hepatic hematoma in pregnancy are severe preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome; some predisposing factors are seizures, vomiting, labor, preexistent hepatic disease and trauma. A 33 year old primigravid with a normal 33 week twin pregnancy presented abdominal pain and hypovolemic shock due to spontaneous subcapsular hepatic hematoma; laparoscopy was performed to evaluate the possibility of rupture, which was not found, later emergency cesarean section was carried out followed by hepatic hematoma drainage and abdominal packaging by laparoscopy. After surgery the flow through drainage was too high additionally hemodynamic instability and consumption coagulopathy. Abdominal panangiography was performed without identifying bleeding areas. Intesive care was given to the patient evolving satisfactorily, was discharged 19 days after the event. Seven months later she had laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to acute litiasic colecistitis. We found 5 cases in literatura about hepatic hematoma during pregnancy no related to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; these were related to hepatoma, amebian hepatic abscess, falciform cell anemia, cocaine consumption and molar pregnancy. Hepatics hematomas have high morbidity and mortality so is significant early diagnosis and multidisciplinary approach.

  12. Characteristics of delayed intracerebral hemorrhage after ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhengquan; Wang, Zhong; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Shiming; Wu, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Background Delayed intracerebral hemorrhage after ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion is rare and has not been well investigated previously. Its characteristics is still unknown. Objective We reported 12 patients with delayed intracerebral hemorrhage after VP shunt to investigate the potential risk factors and the outcome. Results 12 patients (1.59%) of all the 754 hydrocephalus had delayed intracerebral hemorrhage after VP shunt insertion. 4 patients were women and 8 patients were men, ranging in age from 50 to 76 years. The delayed cerebral hemorrhage from day 3 to day 7 post operation was diagnosed by repeated CT. The delayed intracerebral hemorrhage was significantly related to age, prior craniotomy operation history and manipulation of valve system (3–7 days). Neither gender sexuality nor potential risk factors for postoperative hemorrhage (including anticoagulation/antiplatelet status, liver disease, diabetes, hypertension), time of shunt attempt affected the happen of delayed intracerebral hemorrhage. Materials and Methods The clinical characteristics including sex, age, anticoagulation/antiplatelet status, liver disease, diabetes, hypertension, craniotomy operation history, manipulation of valve system and time of shunt attempt of 754 patients who were surgically treated of VP shunt at the first affiliated hospital of Soochow University between 2007 and 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. The potential risk factors of the delayed intracerebral hemorrhage were statistically analyzed. Conclusions This study summarizes the presentation and outcome of a series of 12 patients with delayed intracerebral hemorrhage after VP shunt. Age ≥ 60 years, prior craniotomy operation and manipulation of the valve system are statistically significant to the delayed hematoma secondary to VP shunt. PMID:28496010

  13. Use of Statins and Outcomes in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Patients.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Fazeel M; Langefeld, Carl D; Moomaw, Charles J; Comeau, Mary E; Sekar, Padmini; Rosand, Jonathan; Kidwell, Chelsea S; Martini, Sharyl; Osborne, Jennifer L; Stutzman, Sonja; Hall, Christiana; Woo, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Statin use may be associated with improved outcome in intracerebral hemorrhage patients. However, the topic remains controversial. Our analysis examined the effect of prior, continued, or new statin use on intracerebral hemorrhage outcomes using the ERICH (Ethnic/Racial Variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage) data set. We analyzed ERICH (a multicenter study designed to examine ethnic variations in the risk, presentation, and outcomes of intracerebral hemorrhage) to explore the association of statin use and hematoma growth, mortality, and 3-month disability. We computed subset analyses with respect to 3 statin categories (prior, continued, or new use). Two thousand four hundred and fifty-seven enrolled cases (mean age, 62 years; 42% females) had complete data on mortality and 3-month disability (modified Rankin Scale). Among those, 1093 cases were on statins (prior, n=268; continued, n=423; new, n=402). Overall, statin use was associated with reduced mortality and disability without any effect on hematoma growth. This association was primarily driven by continued/new statin use. A multivariate analysis adjusted for age and major predictors for poor outcome showed that continued/new statins users had good outcomes compared with prior users. However, statins may have been continued/started more frequently among less severe patients. When a propensity score was developed based on factors that could influence a physician's decision in prescribing statins and used as a covariate, continued/new statin use was no longer a significant predictor of good outcome. Although statin use, especially continued/new use, was associated with improved intracerebral hemorrhage outcomes, this effect may merely reflect the physician's view of a patient's prognosis rather than a predictor of survival. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Bilateral Traumatic Intracranial Hematomas and its Outcome: a Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sharad; Sharma, Vivek; Singh, Kulwant; Pandey, Deepa; Sharma, Mukesh; Patil, Deepak Bhanudas; Shende, Neeraj; Chauhan, Richa Singh

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the age distribution, mode of injury, type of hematomas, and their surgical outcome in patients with bilateral traumatic head injuries. The present study included 669 cases of traumatic head injury who presented at the neurosurgery emergency out of which 94 cases had bilateral head injuries from the period of August 2009 to April 2014. The data from the hospital computerized database were retrospectively analysed. Cases of bilateral traumatic head injury included 94 patients out of which 88.29 % (n = 83) were males and 11.70 % (n = 11) were females. Commonest mode of injury was road traffic accident in 56.38 % (n = 53) followed by fall from height in 29.78 % (n = 28). In our study, 25.53 % patients had epidural hematoma (EDH) with intracerebral hematoma (ICH) or contusion (n = 24), followed by EDH with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in 18.08 % (n = 17). At the time of discharge, all those patients managed conservatively had good Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) while with surgical intervention 58 % patients had good GOS, 19 % had moderate disability, and 9 % remained with severe disability. In cases of bilateral hematomas, EDH is most common and should be managed in neurosurgical emergency. Other combinations of bilateral intracranial hematomas should be managed according to the surgical indication and serial CT imaging.

  15. Ruptured subcapsular hematoma of the liver due to pre-eclampsia presenting as interstitial pregnancy and the role of intra-abdominal packing.

    PubMed

    Ngene, N C; Amin, N; Moodley, J

    2015-01-01

    Ruptured subcapsular hematoma of the liver (RSHL) can mimic ruptured interstitial pregnancy because each of these conditions occasionally presents at the same gestational period and both do manifest hemodynamic instability. The similarities between the two conditions pose a diagnostic challenge, especially in an un-booked patient. We report a case of an un-booked primigravida, at 21 weeks of gestation, who arrived at a regional hospital with evidence of intra-abdominal bleeding and hypovolemic shock. She was diagnosed as potentially having a ruptured interstitial pregnancy. During the ensuing emergency laparotomy, RSHL was discovered, the area around the ruptured liver capsule was packed with large abdominal swabs, and the patient recovered. This case report illustrates the need to consider RSHL in patients presenting with features of ruptured interstitial pregnancy, as this will assist in the planning of intraoperative care. We also describe abdominal packing and highlight the need for this essential surgical intervention to be taught to doctors practising in low-resource settings.

  16. Significant Risk Factors for Postoperative Enlargement of Basal Ganglia Hematoma after Frameless Stereotactic Aspiration: Antiplatelet Medication and Concomitant IVH.

    PubMed

    Son, Wonsoo; Park, Jaechan

    2017-09-01

    Frameless stereotactic aspiration of a hematoma can be the one of the treatment options for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in the basal ganglia. Postoperative hematoma enlargement, however, can be a serious complication of intracranial surgery that frequently results in severe neurological deficit and even death. Therefore, it is important to identify the risk factors of postoperative hematoma growth. During a 13-year period, 101 patients underwent minimally invasive frameless stereotactic aspiration for basal ganglia hematoma. Patients were classified into two groups according to whether or not they had postoperative hematoma enlargement in a computed tomography scan. Baseline demographic data and several risk factors, such as hypertension, preoperative hematoma growth, antiplatelet medication, presence of concomitant intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), were analysed via a univariate statistical study. Nine of 101 patients (8.9%) showed hematoma enlargement after frameless stereotactic aspiration. Among the various risk factors, concomitant IVH and antiplatelet medication were found to be significantly associated with postoperative enlargement of hematomas. In conclusion, our study revealed that aspirin use and concomitant IVH are factors associated with hematoma enlargement subsequent to frameless stereotactic aspiration for basal ganglia hematoma.

  17. Ten-year clinical epidemiological trends of intracerebral hemorrhage in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Pengcheng; Eckermann, Jan M; Qin, Xinyue; Zhang, John H

    2010-10-01

    The combination of an increase in aged population and adaptation of Western lifestyle is modifying the epidemiological status of intracerebral hemorrhage in China. The purpose of this study is to analyse and characterize the changing trends of intracerebral hemorrhage in Chongqing, the largest city in Southwest China, over the past 10 years. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients diagnosed with intracerebral hemorrhage who visited the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from 1 January 1998 to 31 December 1998 and from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2008, respectively. Relevant variable information of these two populations for the two time periods was compared and discussed. There were a total of 404 intracerebral hemorrhage patients who met the study criteria and registered in the First Affiliated Hospital in 1998 (128 cases) and 2008 (276 cases). The highest incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage was noted in the 1960s and 1970s age groups. The mean onset age of intracerebral hemorrhage was 2·65 years older in 2008 compared to 1998, specifically 2·10 years older for men and 3·38 years for women. In 1998, male intracerebral hemorrhage patients outnumbered female patients (1·42:1). This gender disproportion became higher in 2008 (1·63:1). Hypertension accounts for the highest proportion of all risk factors. The number of patients had minimally invasive interventions (intracranial hematoma drainage) was increased, and the in-hospital mortality rate decreased to 14·13% in 2008 from 19·53% in 1998. We identified changes in population characteristics of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage during a period of economic development in China. These changes in patterns of intracerebral hemorrhage have raised new challenges and the needs for priority adjustment in the campaign for intracerebral hemorrhage prevention in China and other developing countries.

  18. Subdural hematoma following spinal cord stimulator implant.

    PubMed

    Chiravuri, Srinivas; Wasserman, Ronald; Chawla, Amit; Haider, Naeem

    2008-01-01

    Headache following interventional procedures is a diagnostic challenge due to the multitude of possible etiologies involved. Presentation can be simple (PDPH alone) or complex (exacerbation of pre-existing chronic headache along with PDPH) or headache associated with a new onset intracranial process. Subdural hematoma is a rare complication of cranio-spinal trauma. Cranial subdural hematoma may present in an acute, sub-acute, or chronic fashion. Diagnosis of a subdural hematoma in the wake of a PDPH is difficult, requiring a high level of suspicion. Delayed diagnosis of subdural hematoma is usually related to failure to consider it in the differential diagnosis. Thorough history, assessment of the evolution of symptoms, and imaging studies may identify the possible cause and help direct treatment. Change in the character of initial presenting symptoms may be a sign of resolution of the headache or the onset of a secondary process. We report a case of acute intracranial subdural hematoma secondary to unintentional dural puncture during placement of a permanent spinal cord stimulator lead for refractory angina. There is need for careful follow-up of patients with a known post-dural tear. Failure to identify uncommon adverse events in patients with complicated spinal cord stimulator implantation may lead to permanent injury.

  19. Rectus sheath hematoma: three case reports

    PubMed Central

    Kapan, Selin; Turhan, Ahmet N; Alis, Halil; Kalayci, Mustafa U; Hatipoglu, Sinan; Yigitbas, Hakan; Aygun, Ersan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Rectus sheath hematoma is an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain. It is an accumulation of blood in the sheath of the rectus abdominis, secondary to rupture of an epigastric vessel or muscle tear. It could occur spontaneously or after trauma. They are usually located infraumblically and often misdiagnosed as acute abdomen, inflammatory diseases or tumours of the abdomen. Case presentation We reported three cases of rectus sheath hematoma presenting with a mass in the abdomen and diagnosed by computerized tomography. The patients recovered uneventfully after bed rest, intravenous fluid replacement, blood transfusion and analgesic treatment. Conclusion Rectus sheath hematoma is a rarely seen pathology often misdiagnosed as acute abdomen that may lead to unnecessary laparotomies. Computerized tomography must be chosen for definitive diagnosis since ultrasonography is subject to error due to misinterpretation of the images. Main therapy is conservative management. PMID:18221529

  20. Chronic subdural hematoma in capoeira sport.

    PubMed

    Türkoğlu, Erhan; Serbes, Gökhan; Sanli, Metin; Sari, Onur; Sekerci, Zeki

    2008-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematomas in young people is extremely rare and has some provoking factors such as V-P shunts, arachnoid cyst, anticoagulant drug usage, vigorous sports and coagulopathies. A static or dynamic mechanical load is almost always delivered to skull associated with either mild or severe head trauma. A 25-year old-man who was previously healthy has complained of intermittent headache for six months. He had been interested in capoiera (Brazilian exciting sport) for two years and has had no any evidence of head injury. After admission, he was operated immediately because of chronic subdural hematoma. We report a patient who is the first chronic subdural hematoma in the literature due to playing capoeira.

  1. Nasal septal hematoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the nose between the 2 nostrils. An injury disrupts the blood vessels so that fluid and blood may collect under the lining. Causes A septal hematoma can be caused by: A broken nose Injury to the soft tissue of the area Surgery ...

  2. Recurrent subdural hematoma secondary to headbanging: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Jito, Junya; Nozaki, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background: “Headbanging” is the slang term used to denote violent shaking of one's head in time with the music. This abrupt flexion-extension movement of the head to rock music extremely rarely causes a subdural hematoma. Case Description: A 24-year-old female was admitted to our department because of right sided partial seizure and acute or subacute subdural hematoma over the left cerebral convexity. She had no history of recent head trauma but performed headbanging at a punk rock concert at 3 days before admission. Since, she had a previous acute subdural hematoma on the same side after an accidental fall from a baby buggy when she was 11 months old, the present was recurrent subdural hematoma probably due to headbanging. Conclusions: Headbanging has the hazardous potential to cause a subdural hematoma. PMID:26664766

  3. Neuroinflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Mracsko, Eva; Veltkamp, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a particularly severe type of stroke for which no specific treatment has been established yet. Although preclinical models of ICH have substantial methodological limitations, important insight into the pathophysiology has been gained. Mounting evidence suggests an important contribution of inflammatory mechanisms to brain damage and potential repair. Neuroinflammation evoked by intracerebral blood involves the activation of resident microglia, the infiltration of systemic immune cells and the production of cytokines, chemokines, extracellular proteases and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previous studies focused on innate immunity including microglia, monocytes and granulocytes. More recently, the role of adaptive immune cells has received increasing attention. Little is currently known about the interactions among different immune cell populations in the setting of ICH. Nevertheless, immunomodulatory strategies are already being explored in ICH. To improve the chances of translation from preclinical models to patients, a better characterization of the neuroinflammation in patients is desirable. PMID:25477782

  4. Epidural Hematoma in Lacrosse.

    PubMed

    Rimel, R W; Nelson, W E; Persing, J A; Jane, J A

    1983-03-01

    In brief: Several hours after being hit by a lacrosse stick in the left temporoparietal area slightly anterior to the ear, a lacrosse player was found unresponsive and wrapped in a blanket in his dormitory room. He had not lost consciousness during the game, sat out only five minutes, and completed the game. His Glasgow Coma Scale score was 12 of a possible 15. A CT scan showed an epidural hematoma and a skull fracture. He underwent an immediate left temporoparietal craniotomy and evacuation of the epidural hematoma. He recovered fully and requested permission to return to play six months after the injury. The authors think that an improved lacrosse helmet design would help prevent this type of injury.

  5. Spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage: Does surgery benefit comatose patients?

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Cem; Kabatas, Serdar; Gulsen, Salih; Cansever, Tufan; Gurkanlar, Doga; Caner, Hakan; Altinors, Nur

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Treatment of spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) is still controversial. We therefore analyzed the comatose patients diagnosed as having spontaneous SICH and treated by surgery. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the collected data of 25 comatose patients with initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ≤ 8 diagnosed as having spontaneous SICH and they had been treated by surgical evacuation between 1996 and 2008. The outcome was assessed using Glasgow outcome scale (GOS). The side and location of the hematoma and ventricular extension of the hematoma were recorded. The hematoma volume was graded as mild (<30 cc), moderate (30–60 cc) and massive (>60 cc). Results: Age of the patients ranged from 25 to 78 years (mean: 59.6 ± 15.14 years). Among the 25 patients studied, 11 (44%) were females and 14 (56%) were males. GCS before surgery was <5 in 8 (32%) patients and between 5 and 8 in 17 (68%) patients. The hematoma volume was less than 30 cc in 2 patients, between 30 and 60 cc in 9 patients and more than 60 cc in 14 patients. Fourteen of the patients had no ventricular connection and 11 of the hematomas were connected to ventricle. All the 25 patients were treated with craniotomy and evacuation of the hematoma was done within an average of 2 hours on admission to the emergency department. Postoperatively, no rebleeding occurred in our patients. The most important complication was infection in 14 of the patients. The mortality of our surgical series was 56%. GCS before surgery was one of the strongest factors affecting outcome GCS (oGCS) (P = 0.017). Income GCS (iGCS), however, did not affect GOS (P = 0.64). The volume of the hematoma also affected the outcome (P = 0.037). Ventricular extension of the hematoma did affect the oGCS and GOS (P = 0.002), but not the iGCS of the patients (P = 0.139). Conclusion: Our data suggest that being surgically oriented is very important to achieve successful outcomes in a select group

  6. Small intracerebral hemorrhages have a low spot sign prevalence and are less likely to expand.

    PubMed

    Dowlatshahi, Dar; Yogendrakumar, Vignan; Aviv, Richard I; Rodriguez-Luna, David; Molina, Carlos A; Silva, Yolanda; Dzialowski, Imanuel; Czlonkowska, Anna; Boulanger, Jean-Martin; Lum, Cheemun; Gubitz, Gord; Padma, Vasantha; Roy, Jayanta; Kase, Carlos S; Bhatia, Rohit; Hill, Michael D; Demchuk, Andrew M

    2016-02-01

    Hematoma expansion is a major predictor of morbidity and mortality after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Both baseline hematoma volume and the CT-angiogram (CTA) spot sign predict hematoma expansion. Because the CTA spot sign may represent foci of active hemorrhage, we hypothesized that patients with smaller baseline hematoma volumes are less likely to be spot sign positive, and therefore less likely to expand. We sought to validate our prior finding that small hematomas are unlikely to expand, and to determine the relationship between baseline hematoma volume, spot sign status, and risk of hematoma expansion. Data were from the prospective PREDICT ICH study. Patients presenting within 6 h of symptom onset with completed baseline CT, CTA, and follow-up CT were included. Baseline hematoma volume was categorized a priori (<3 mL, 3-10 mL, 10-20 mL, >20 mL). The primary outcome was significant hematoma expansion (≥6 mL, ≥12.5 mL or ≥33%) and secondary outcomes were early neurological worsening, good clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale 0-3), and mortality at 90 days. Among 315 patients meeting the inclusion criteria, baseline hematoma volume category predicted absolute hematoma expansion (p < 0.001), spot sign prevalence (p < 0.001), early neurologic worsening (p = 0.002), clinical outcome (p < 0.001), and mortality (p < 0.001). Very small hematomas (<3 mL) were unlikely to be spot positive (7.7%), unlikely to expand (2.6%), and were associated with a 73% chance of good clinical outcome. Spot sign appeared to be most predictive of expansion in the 3-10 mL baseline hematoma volume category. Very small hematomas are unlikely to expand and have a low spot sign prevalence. Hemostatic therapy trials may be best targeted at hemorrhages >3 mL in volume. © 2016 World Stroke Organization.

  7. Symptomatic calcified subdural hematomas.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R R; Mahapatra, A; Pawar, S J; Sousa, J; Athale, S D

    1999-09-01

    Two unique cases of chronic calcified subdural hematomas are reported in children as a long-term complication of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Both the patients had undergone shunt procedures in infancy for congenital hydrocephalus. In one patient, the cause of the hydrocephalus was aqueduct stenosis, while in the second patient, a lumbar meningomyelocele was associated with hydrocephalus. In both these patients, a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was done in infancy. In one of them, following the shunt surgery, a bilateral subdural collection was noticed which required burr hole evacuation. Both the patients remained asymptomatic for 9 years, when they presented to our center with acute raised intracranial pressure and contralateral hemiparesis. Both the patients had a relatively short history and had altered sensorium at admission. Surprisingly, in both the patients, the CT scan showed significant mass effect producing calcified subdural hematomas. The shunt systems were found to be working well at surgery. Craniotomy and excision of the calcified subdural hematomas was undertaken. Postoperatively, the patients showed satisfactory recovery, and at discharge the patients were doing well. At the follow-up at the outpatient clinic, the patients were asymptomatic.

  8. Microwave hematoma detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.; Matthews, Dennis L.

    2001-01-01

    The Microwave Hematoma Detector is a non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots near the outer surface of the body. While being geared towards finding sub-dural and epi-dural hematomas, the device can be used to detect blood pooling anywhere near the surface of the body. Modified versions of the device can also detect pneumothorax, organ hemorrhage, atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries, evaluate perfusion (blood flow) at or near the body surface, body tissue damage at or near the surface (especially for burn assessment) and be used in a number of NDE applications. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with a specialized antenna, signal processing/recognition algorithms and a disposable cap worn by the patient which will facilitate accurate mapping of the brain and proper function of the instrument. The invention may be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of sub-dural or epi-dural hematoma in human or animal patients, detection of hemorrhage within approximately 5 cm of the outer surface anywhere on a patient's body.

  9. Bilirubin oxidation products, oxidative stress, and intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Clark, J. F.; Loftspring, M.; Wurster, W. L.; Beiler, S.; Beiler, C; Wagner, K. R.; Pyne-Geithman, G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Hematoma and perihematomal regions after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are biochemically active environments known to undergo potent oxidizing reactions. We report facile production of bilirubin oxidation products (BOXes) via hemoglobin/Fenton reaction under conditions approximating putative in vivo conditions seen following ICH. Using a mixture of human hemoglobin, physiological buffers, unconjugated solubilized bilirubin, and molecular oxygen and/or hydrogen peroxide, we generated BOXes, confirmed by spectral signature consistent with known BOXes mixtures produced by independent chemical synthesis, as well as HPLC-MS of BOX A and BOX B. Kinetics are straightforward and uncomplicated, having initial rates around 0.002 μM bilirubin per μM hemoglobin per second under normal experimental conditions. In hematomas from porcine ICH model, we observed significant production of BOXes, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase, indicating a potent oxidizing environment. BOX concentrations increased from 0.084 ± 0.01 in fresh blood to 22.24 ± 4.28 in hematoma at 72 h, and were 11.22 ± 1.90 in adjacent white matter (nmol/g). Similar chemical and analytical results are seen in ICH in vivo, indicating the hematoma is undergoing similar potent oxidations. This is the first report of BOXes production using a well-defined biological reaction and in vivo model of same. Following ICH, amounts of unconjugated bilirubin in hematoma can be substantial, as can levels of iron and hemoglobin. Oxidation of unconjugated bilirubin to yield bioactive molecules, such as BOXes, is an important discovery, expanding the role of bilirubin in pathological processes seen after ICH. PMID:19066073

  10. Spot Sign in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Dynamic T1-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Schindlbeck, Katharina A; Santaella, Anna; Galinovic, Ivana; Krause, Thomas; Rocco, Andrea; Nolte, Christian H; Villringer, Kersten; Fiebach, Jochen B

    2016-02-01

    In computed tomographic imaging of acute intracerebral hemorrhage spot sign on computed tomographic angiography has been established as a marker for hematoma expansion and poor clinical outcome. Although, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can accurately visualize acute intracerebral hemorrhage, a corresponding MRI marker is lacking to date. We prospectively examined 50 consecutive patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage within 24 hours of symptom onset. The MRI protocol consisted of a standard stroke protocol and dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging with a time resolution of 7.07 s/batch. Stroke scores were assessed at admission and at time of discharge. Volume measurements of hematoma size and spot sign were performed with MRIcron. Contrast extravasation within sites of the hemorrhage (MRI spot sign) was seen in 46% of the patients. Patients with an MRI spot sign had a significantly shorter time to imaging than those without (P<0.001). The clinical outcome measured by the modified Rankin Scale was significantly worse in patients with spot sign compared with those without (P≤0.001). Hematoma expansion was observed in the spot sign group compared with the nonspot sign group, although the differences were not significant. Spot sign can be detected using MRI on postcontrast T1-weighted and dynamic T1-weighted images. It is associated with worse clinical outcome. The time course of contrast extravasation in dynamic T1 images indicates that these spots represent ongoing bleeding. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Traumatic acute spinal subarachnoid hematoma.

    PubMed

    Jang, Woo-Youl; Lee, Jung-Kil; Moon, Kyung-Sub; Kwak, Hyung-Jun; Joo, Sung-Pil; Kim, In-Young; Kim, Jae-Hyoo; Kim, Soo-Han

    2007-01-01

    This report describes a 66-year-old man who presented with progressive paraparesis after a fall. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an acute spinal hematoma at T11-12 with spinal cord compression. The patient underwent an emergency left T11-12 hemilaminectomy. The hematoma was subarachnoid and the source of bleeding was an injured radicular vein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of traumatic spinal subarachnoid hematoma. We discuss the possible mechanism and our case illustrates an injured radicular vein can be a source of traumatic spinal subarachnoid hematoma.

  12. Intramural esophagic hematoma secondary to coumarinic anticoagulation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Esophagic Intramural Hematoma is an uncommon clinical condition, with a prognosis which is essentially benign. On most cases, a predisposing or precipitating factor may be seen, with the most common ones being the history of esophagic instrumentation, food impactations and thrombocytopenia. In the following manuscript, the authors present the case of a 54-years-old male with history of valve replacement surgery, who was treated at the Clinica Cardiovascular (Medellin, Colombia), with a clinical case of Intramural Esophagic Hematoma that was later confirmed to be due to a Coumarinic overanticoagulation. On this case, it is evidenced that Intramural Esophagic Hematoma is an unrecognized complication of Courmarinic anticoagulation therapy. PMID:20069068

  13. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 facilitates heme scavenging after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gaiqing; Manaenko, Anatol; Shao, Anwen; Ou, Yibo; Yang, Peng; Budbazar, Enkhjargal; Nowrangi, Derek; Zhang, John H; Tang, Jiping

    2017-04-01

    Heme-degradation after erythrocyte lysis plays an important role in the pathophysiology of intracerebral hemorrhage. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 is a receptor expressed predominately at the neurovascular interface, which facilitates the clearance of the hemopexin and heme complex. In the present study, we investigated the role of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 in heme removal and neuroprotection in a mouse model of intracerebral hemorrhage. Endogenous low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 and hemopexin were increased in ipsilateral brain after intracerebral hemorrhage, accompanied by increased hemoglobin levels, brain water content, blood-brain barrier permeability and neurological deficits. Exogenous human recombinant low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 protein reduced hematoma volume, brain water content surrounding hematoma, blood-brain barrier permeability and improved neurological function three days after intracerebral hemorrhage. The expression of malondialdehyde, fluoro-Jade C positive cells and cleaved caspase 3 was increased three days after intracerebral hemorrhage in the ipsilateral brain tissues and decreased with recombinant low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1. Intracerebral hemorrhage decreased and recombinant low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 increased the levels of superoxide dismutase 1. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 siRNA reduced the effect of human recombinant low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 on all outcomes measured. Collectively, our findings suggest that low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 contributed to heme clearance and blood-brain barrier protection after intracerebral hemorrhage. The use of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 as supplement provides a novel approach to ameliorating intracerebral hemorrhage brain injury via its pleiotropic neuroprotective effects.

  14. Compressive hematoma and deep arteriovenous malformation: Emergency endovascular occlusion via a venous approach with surgical evacuation of the hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Yves; Sachet, Marina; Cattet, Florian; Lonjon, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Compressive hematoma associated with deep arterio-venous malformation is a difficult surgery. Arterial presurgical embolization is often indicated but rarely effective. Endovascular occlusion via a venous approach is a technique that has recently been undertaken successfully to treat certain types of sub-pial vascular malformation. The venous endovascular approach has succeeded in a 20-year-old man of who presented with a compressive hematoma due to rupture of a deep arteriovenous malformation. By fully endovascular occlusion, the surgery consisted of surgical removal of the hematoma, with reduced cortical damage. PMID:26825136

  15. Compressive hematoma and deep arteriovenous malformation: Emergency endovascular occlusion via a venous approach with surgical evacuation of the hematoma.

    PubMed

    Sedat, Jacques; Chau, Yves; Sachet, Marina; Cattet, Florian; Lonjon, Michel

    2016-02-01

    Compressive hematoma associated with deep arterio-venous malformation is a difficult surgery. Arterial presurgical embolization is often indicated but rarely effective. Endovascular occlusion via a venous approach is a technique that has recently been undertaken successfully to treat certain types of sub-pial vascular malformation. The venous endovascular approach has succeeded in a 20-year-old man of who presented with a compressive hematoma due to rupture of a deep arteriovenous malformation. By fully endovascular occlusion, the surgery consisted of surgical removal of the hematoma, with reduced cortical damage.

  16. Brain Injury After Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gang; Bao, Xuhui; Xi, Guohua; Keep, Richard; Thompson, B. Gregory; Hua, Ya

    2011-01-01

    Object Hypertension is the main cause of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH), but the effects of hypertension on ICH-induced brain injury have not been well studied. In this study, we examined ICH-induced brain injury in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods This two-part study was performed on 12 weeks old male SHR and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. First, rats received an intracaudate injection of 0.3 units collagenase and hematoma sizes were determined at 24 hours. Second, rats were injected with 100-μL autologous whole blood into the right basal ganglia. Brain edema, neuronal death, ferritin expression, microglia activation, and neurological deficits were examined. Results Hematoma sizes were the same in SHR and WKY rats 24 hours after collagenase injection. SHR had greater neuronal death and neurological deficits after blood injection. ICH also resulted in higher brain ferritin levels and stronger activation of microglia in SHR. However, perihematomal brain edema was same in the SHR and WKY rats. Conclusion Moderate chronic hypertension resulted in more severe ICH-induced neuronal death and neurological deficits, but did not exaggerate hematoma enlargement and perihematomal brain edema in the rat ICH models. PMID:21294617

  17. High doses of methylprednisolone are required for the treatment of collagenase-induced intracerebral hemorrhage in rats

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Methylprednisolone (MP) was evaluated for the treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage in a Sprague-Dawley rat model of cerebral hematoma induced by subcortical injection of collagenase. At 1 and 24 h after the injection, MP was administered intraperitoneally (IP) at a concentration of 10, 35, or 100 mg/kg. Control groups received saline IP at 1 and 24 h after the intracerebral injection of collagenase (positive controls) or saline (negative controls). Motor behaviour 24 h before and 24 h and 48 h after the intracerebral injection was evaluated by means of a neurologic exam and a rotarod treadmill test. The animals were euthanized at 48 h; brain water content was determined in half of the rats, and histopathological studies were done in the other half. Compared with the positive controls, the animals with collagenase-induced hematoma performed significantly better on the neurologic exam after treatment with 100 mg/kg of MP and on the rotarod test after treatment with 35 or 100 mg/kg of MP. The hematoma volume was significantly smaller (P < 0.002) after all doses of MP; however, the smallest volume was seen with 100 mg/kg. There were significantly fewer neutrophils (P < 0.01) within the hematoma in the MP-treated animals (maximum reduction with 100 mg/kg) than in the positive controls, but the numbers of reactive astrocytes did not differ significantly between the treatment groups. The number of necrotic neurons in the penumbra did not differ between the treatment groups; however, there were significantly fewer (P < 0.005) in the cerebral cortex in the group treated with 100 mg/kg of MP compared with the positive controls. These results suggest that high doses of MP administered shortly after occurrence of a cerebral hematoma are beneficial for the treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage. PMID:16479722

  18. Orbital subperiosteal hematoma from scuba diving.

    PubMed

    Rosenberry, Clark; Angelidis, Matthew; Devita, Diane

    2010-09-01

    Only a few cases of nontraumatic orbital subperiosteal hematoma due to scuba diving have been reported, and this is the first of such cases that underwent surgical intervention. This injury results from negative pressure within the face mask, suctioning orbital tissues into the mask after incomplete equilibration of pressure on descent. Valsalva maneuver is a second mechanism implicated in the etiology of this injury. Recognition of this injury is of the utmost importance because vision loss is a possible complication if there is compression of the optic nerve or increased intraocular pressure. In many cases of nontraumatic orbital hematoma, conservative management is adequate; however, this case was an exception due to worsening exam findings. Divers may be able to prevent this injury by frequent and gentle equilibration of mask pressure on descent. Copyright 2010 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. History of Preclinical Models of Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qingyi; Khatibi, Nikan; Chen, Hank; Zhang, John H.

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand a disease process, effective modeling is required that can assist scientists in understanding the pathophysiological processes that take place. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), a devastating disease representing 15% of all stroke cases, is just one example of how scientists have developed models that can effectively mimic human clinical scenarios. Currently there are three models of hematoma injections that are being used to induce an ICH in subjects. They include the microballoon model introduced in 1987 by Dr. David Mendelow, the bacterial collagenase injection model introduced in 1990 by Dr. Gary Rosenberg, and the autologous blood injection model introduced by Dr. Guo-Yuan Yang in 1994. These models have been applied on various animal models beginning in 1963 with canines, followed by rats and rabbits in 1982, pigs in 1996, and mice just recently in 2003. In this review, we will explore in detail the various injection models and animal subjects that have been used to study the ICH process while comparing and analyzing the benefits and disadvantages of each. PMID:21725723

  20. History of preclinical models of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingyi; Khatibi, Nikan H; Chen, Hank; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand a disease process, effective modeling is required that can assist scientists in understanding the pathophysiological processes that take place. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), a devastating disease representing 15% of all stroke cases, is just one example of how scientists have developed models that can effectively mimic human clinical scenarios. Currently there are three models of hematoma injections that are being used to induce an ICH in subjects. They include the microballoon model introduced in 1987 by Dr. David Mendelow, the bacterial collagenase injection model introduced in 1990 by Dr. Gary Rosenberg, and the autologous blood injection model introduced by Dr. Guo-Yuan Yang in 1994. These models have been applied on various animal models beginning in 1963 with canines, followed by rats and rabbits in 1982, pigs in 1996, and mice just recently in 2003. In this review, we will explore in detail the various injection models and animal subjects that have been used to study the ICH process while comparing and analyzing the benefits and disadvantages of each.

  1. Prevention of intracerebral haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Patrick; Mitra, Dipayan; Gregson, Barbara A; Mendelow, A David

    2007-07-01

    Nontraumatic intracerebral haemorrhages arise from a wide range of causes falling into two broad groups: discreet vascular "ictohaemorrhagic" lesions such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, cavernomas, tumours, and dural fistulae; and more generalised amyloid or hypertension related conditions. It is now possible using family history, associated risk factors and gradient echo MRI to predict cases at high risk of hypertensive or amyloid related haemorrhage. There is considerable potential for prevention of hypertensive haemorrhages by treatment of high risk cases with antihypertensive medication. As yet no effective preventative treatment for amyloid angiopathy related ICH has emerged although a variety of drugs are under investigation. Prevention of haemorrhage from ictohaemorrhagic lesions revolves around removal or obliteration of the lesion. Although there is a wide range of such lesions available treatments come down to three modalities. These are surgical excision, stereotactic radiosurgery and endovascular embolisation.

  2. Cleaning up after ICH: the role of Nrf2 in modulating microglia function and hematoma clearance

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiurong; Sun, Guanghua; Ting, Shun-Ming; Song, Shen; Zhang, Jie; Edwards, Nancy J; Aronowski, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    As a consequence of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), blood components enter brain parenchyma causing progressive damage to the surrounding brain. Unless hematoma is cleared, the reservoirs of blood continue to inflict injury to neurovascular structures and blunt the brain repair processes. Microglia/macrophages (MM Φ) represent the primary phagocytic system that mediates the cleanup of hematoma. Thus the efficacy of phagocytic function by MM Φ is an essential step in limiting ICH-mediated damage. By using primary microglia to model red blood cell (main component of hematoma) clearance, we studied the role of transcription factor Nrf2, a master-regulator of anti-oxidative defense, in the hematoma clearance process. We showed that in cultured microglia, activators of Nrf2 1) induce anti-oxidative defense components, 2) reduce peroxide formation, 3) upregulate phagocytosis-mediating scavenger receptor CD36, and 4) enhance RBC phagocytosis. Through inhibiting Nrf2 or CD36 in microglia, by DNA-decoy or neutralizing antibody, we documented the important role of Nrf2 and CD36 in RBC phagocytosis. Using autologous blood injection ICH model to measure hematoma resolution, we showed that Nrf2 activator, sulforaphane, injected to animals after the onset of ICH, induced CD36 expression in ICH-affected brain and improved hematoma clearance in rats and wild-type mice, but expectedly not in Nrf2-knockout-(KO) mice. Normal hematoma clearance was impaired in Nrf2-KO mice. Our experiments suggest that Nrf2 in microglia play an important role in augmenting the anti-oxidative capacity, phagocytosis and hematoma clearance after ICH. PMID:25328080

  3. Conjugate eye deviation in acute intracerebral hemorrhage: stroke acute management with urgent risk-factor assessment and improvement--ICH (SAMURAI-ICH) study.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shoichiro; Koga, Masatoshi; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Okuda, Satoshi; Okada, Yasushi; Kimura, Kazumi; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Furui, Eisuke; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Kario, Kazuomi; Arihiro, Shoji; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Minematsu, Kazuo; Toyoda, Kazunori

    2012-11-01

    Conjugate eye deviation (CED) occurs frequently in patients with acute stroke. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the factors that correlate with CED as well as the relationship between CED and outcomes in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. A total of 211 patients with acute supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage were recruited in a multicenter, prospective study. CED was assessed with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale "best gaze" subscore of ≥1. Hematoma location and volume were assessed on CT. Forty-five percent of the patients had CED. On multivariable analysis, right-sided lesion (OR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.18-4.93), hematoma volume (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.10 per 1 mL), and baseline Glasgow Coma Scale score (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.53-0.80 per 1 point) were independently associated with CED. After adjusting for sex, age, intraventricular extension of the hematoma, baseline Glasgow Coma Scale score, and hematoma volume, the presence of CED both on admission and 72 hours later was an independent predictor of death or dependency at 3 months poststroke (OR, 5.77; 95% CI, 2.27-16.94). The optimal cutoff volume of hematoma related to CED was ≥13.5 mL for patients with putaminal hemorrhage (sensitivity, 76%; specificity, 72%) and ≥7.7 mL for patients with thalamic hemorrhage (sensitivity, 82%; specificity, 83%). The persistence of CED was a significant predictor of death or dependency after acute supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage even after adjusting for initial severity and hematoma volume. CED can be evoked by a relatively smaller thalamic hematoma than a putaminal hematoma.

  4. Acute femoral neuropathy secondary to an iliacus muscle hematoma.

    PubMed

    Seijo-Martínez, M; Castro del Río, M; Fontoira, E; Fontoira, M

    2003-05-15

    We present a patient with a spontaneous iliacus muscle hematoma, appearing immediately after a minor physical maneuver, presenting with pain and femoral neuropathy initially evidenced by massive quadriceps muscle fasciculations. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of the pelvic area confirmed the diagnosis, showing a hematoma secondary to a partial muscle tear. The patient was managed conservatively, and the continuous muscle activity ceased in 3 days, with progressive improvement of the pain and weakness. The recovery was complete. Femoral neuropathy is uncommon and usually due to compression from psoas muscle mass lesions of diverse nature, including hematomas. Usually subacute, femoral neuropathy may present acutely in cases of large or strategically placed compressive femoral nerve lesions, and may require surgical evacuation. The case presented herein is remarkable since the muscle hematoma appeared after a nonviolent maneuver, fasciculations were present at onset, and conservative management was sufficient for a full recovery.

  5. Subdural hematoma as clinical presentation of osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Groninger, Anja; Schaper, Jörg; Messing-Juenger, Martina; Mayatepek, Ertan; Rosenbaum, Thorsten

    2005-02-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is an inherited collagenous disease. The mildest form may present with less severe findings, for example blue sclera, but can also lead to significant handicap such as deafness or multiple bone fractures. We describe an 11-month-old female in whom bilateral chronic subdural hematoma was the leading clinical presentation of osteogenesis imperfecta type I. She was hospitalized due to epileptic seizures caused by these bilateral subdural hematomas without preceding trauma. Osteogenesis imperfecta type I was diagnosed on the basis of clinical and radiologic findings. This case demonstrates that nontraumatic chronic subdural hematoma in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type I may be caused by impaired bone calcification, vascular fragility, and permanent friction between multiple bone fragments of the skull. Osteogenesis imperfecta type I should be considered as an underlying disease in cases of nontraumatic subdural hematoma. A thorough clinical examination is recommended to exclude subtle characteristics of the disease.

  6. Acute cervical spinal subdural hematoma not related to head injury.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Yul; Ju, Chang Il; Kim, Seok Won

    2010-06-01

    We report an extremely rare case of traumatic cervical spinal subdural hematoma not related to intracranial injury. There has been no report on traumatic cervical spinal subdrual hematoma not related to intracranial injury. A 27-year-old female patient was admitted to our emergency room due to severe neck pain and right arm motor weakness after car collision. On admission, she presented with complete monoplegia and hypoesthesia of right arm. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed subdural hematoma compressing spinal cord. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed 210,000 red blood cells/mm(3). She was managed conservatively by administrations of steroid pulse therapy and CSF drainage. Her muscle power of right arm improved to a Grade III 16 days after admission. Follow-up MRI taken 16th days after admission revealed almost complete resolution of the hematoma. Here, the authors report a traumatic cervical spinal SDH not associated with intracranial injury.

  7. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry--a novel method to quantify blood volume in experimental models of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kashefiolasl, Sepide; Foerch, Christian; Pfeilschifter, Waltraud

    2013-02-15

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 10% of all strokes and has a significantly higher mortality than cerebral ischemia. For decades, ICH has been neglected by experimental stroke researchers. Recently, however, clinical trials on acute blood pressure lowering or hyperacute supplementation of coagulation factors in ICH have spurred an interest to also design and improve translational animal models of spontaneous and anticoagulant-associated ICH. Hematoma volume is a substantial outcome parameter of most experimental ICH studies. We present graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis (AAS) as a suitable method to precisely quantify hematoma volumes in rodent models of ICH.

  8. Intravenous tPA Therapy Does Not Worsen Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Foerch, Christian; Rosidi, Nathanael L.; Schlunk, Frieder; Lauer, Arne; Cianchetti, Flor A.; Mandeville, Emiri; Arai, Ken; Yigitkanli, Kazim; Fan, Xiang; Wang, Xiaoying; van Leyen, Klaus; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Schaffer, Chris B.; Lo, Eng H.

    2013-01-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only FDA-approved treatment for reperfusing ischemic strokes. But widespread use of tPA is still limited by fears of inadvertently administering tPA in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Surprisingly, however, the assumption that tPA will worsen ICH has never been biologically tested. Here, we assessed the effects of tPA in two models of ICH. In a mouse model of collagenase-induced ICH, hemorrhage volumes and neurological deficits after 24 hrs were similar in saline controls and tPA-treated mice, whereas heparin-treated mice had 3-fold larger hematomas. In a model of laser-induced vessel rupture, tPA also did not worsen hemorrhage volumes, while heparin did. tPA is known to worsen neurovascular injury by amplifying matrix metalloproteinases during cerebral ischemia. In contrast, tPA did not upregulate matrix metalloproteinases in our mouse ICH models. In summary, our experimental data do not support the assumption that intravenous tPA has a deleterious effect in acute ICH. However, due to potential species differences and the inability of models to fully capture the dynamics of human ICH, caution is warranted when considering the implications of these findings for human therapy. PMID:23408937

  9. Intravenous tPA therapy does not worsen acute intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.

    PubMed

    Foerch, Christian; Rosidi, Nathanael L; Schlunk, Frieder; Lauer, Arne; Cianchetti, Flor A; Mandeville, Emiri; Arai, Ken; Yigitkanli, Kazim; Fan, Xiang; Wang, Xiaoying; van Leyen, Klaus; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Schaffer, Chris B; Lo, Eng H

    2013-01-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only FDA-approved treatment for reperfusing ischemic strokes. But widespread use of tPA is still limited by fears of inadvertently administering tPA in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Surprisingly, however, the assumption that tPA will worsen ICH has never been biologically tested. Here, we assessed the effects of tPA in two models of ICH. In a mouse model of collagenase-induced ICH, hemorrhage volumes and neurological deficits after 24 hrs were similar in saline controls and tPA-treated mice, whereas heparin-treated mice had 3-fold larger hematomas. In a model of laser-induced vessel rupture, tPA also did not worsen hemorrhage volumes, while heparin did. tPA is known to worsen neurovascular injury by amplifying matrix metalloproteinases during cerebral ischemia. In contrast, tPA did not upregulate matrix metalloproteinases in our mouse ICH models. In summary, our experimental data do not support the assumption that intravenous tPA has a deleterious effect in acute ICH. However, due to potential species differences and the inability of models to fully capture the dynamics of human ICH, caution is warranted when considering the implications of these findings for human therapy.

  10. Protective Effect of Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PQQ) in Rat Model of Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongjian; Shen, Jiabing; Song, Xinjian; Ge, Jianbin; Cai, Rixin; Dai, Aihua; Jiang, Zhongli

    2015-10-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) has invoked considerable interest because of its presence in foods, antioxidant properties, cofactor of dehydrogenase, and amine oxidase. Protective roles of PQQ in central nervous system diseases, such as experimental stroke and spinal cord injury models have been emerged. However, it is unclear whether intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), as an acute devastating disease, can also benefit from PQQ in experimental conditions. Herein, we examined the possible effect of PQQ on neuronal functions following ICH in the adult rats. The results showed that rats pretreated with PQQ at 10 mg/kg effectively improved the locomotor functions, alleviated the hematoma volumes, and reduced the expansion of brain edema after ICH. Also, pretreated rats with PQQ obviously reduced the production of reactive oxygen species after ICH, probably due to its antioxidant properties. Further, we found that, Bcl-2/Bax, the important indicator of oxidative stress insult in mitochondria after ICH, exhibited increasing ratio in PQQ-pretreated groups. Moreover, activated caspase-3, the apoptotic executor, showed coincident alleviation in PQQ groups after ICH. Collectively, we speculated that PQQ might be an effective and potential neuroprotectant in clinical therapy for ICH.

  11. The radiological findings in chronic expanding hematoma.

    PubMed

    Aoki, T; Nakata, H; Watanabe, H; Maeda, H; Toyonaga, T; Hashimoto, H; Nakamura, T

    1999-07-01

    To identify the characteristic MRI findings of chronic expanding hematoma correlated with the pathology. Three patients who had a chronic expanding hematoma involving the musculoskeletal system were reviewed retrospectively. Huge soft tissue masses suggestive of malignancy with destruction of the bony structure were revealed on radiography and computed tomography. MRI showed the masses to exhibit heterogeneous signal intensity on both T1 and T2-weighted images with a peripheral rim of low signal intensity, reflecting the central zones of fluid collection due to fresh and altered blood with a wall of collagenous fibrous tissue. These MRI findings were seen in all three patients and are considered to be characteristic; they assist in differentiation from neoplasm in consideration of the history of trauma or surgery.

  12. Minimally invasive surgery for spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyu; Chen, Jianjun; Li, Qi; Ren, Gaoping; Yao, Guoen; Liu, Ming; Dong, Qiang; Guo, Jìng; Li, Leilei; Guo, Jing; Xie, Peng

    2012-11-01

    There has been a nonstandard surgical procedure and extensive international controversy in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for the management of spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage. This meta-analysis assessed the effectiveness of MIS as compared with other treatment options, including conservative medical treatment and conventional craniotomy, in patients with supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CCTR), Web of Science, European Association for Grey Literature Exploitation (EAGLE), National Technical Information Service (NTIS), Current Controlled Trials, Clinical Trials, International Clinical Trials Registry, Internet Stroke Center, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (last searched December 2011) were searched. Randomized controlled trials on MIS in patients with computed tomography-confirmed supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage were included. We excluded low-quality randomized controlled trials. The death or dependence at the end of follow-up was defined as the primary outcome, and the death at the end of follow-up was defined as the secondary outcome. The 313 randomized controlled trials met the included criteria. We only analyzed 12 high-quality randomized controlled trials involving 1955 patients. The quality of the included trials was consistently high. OR of the primary outcome and secondary outcome of MIS both showed significant reductions (OR, 0.54, P<0.00001; OR, 0.53, P<0.00001). Patients with supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage may benefit more from MIS than other treatment options. The most likely candidates to benefit from MIS are both sexes, age of 30 to 80 years with superficial hematoma, Glasgow Coma Scale score of ≥9, hematoma volume between 25 and 40 mL, and within 72 hours after onset of symptoms. Our study could help select appropriate patients for MIS and guide clinicians to optimize treatment

  13. Encapsulated acute subdural hematoma mimicking acute epidural hematoma on computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Miki, Shunichiro; Fujita, Keishi; Katayama, Wataru; Sato, Masayuki; Kamezaki, Takao; Matsumura, Akira; Sakashita, Shingo

    2012-01-01

    An 87-year-old woman presented with an atypical case of acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) manifesting as disturbance of consciousness and left hemiparesis. Computed tomography revealed a high density lentiform lesion in the right convexity, which was thought to be acute epidural hematoma preoperatively. Emergent decompressive craniotomy revealed an encapsulated solid fresh clot in the subdural space and a bleeding small cortical artery under the clot. The arachnoid membrane and the brain parenchyma were intact, and no other abnormal feature such as aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation was observed. The encapsulated ASDH was removed en bloc and the patient fully recovered. Histological examination confirmed that both the outer thicker and the inner membrane were fibrinous single structures without vasculature. The red blood cells constituting the clot in the capsule maintained their cell structure. The reported pathological mechanisms of lentiform ASDH are adhesion of the arachnoid membrane and the dura mater or intracapsular bleeding from sinusoidal vessels in the outer membrane of the chronic subdural hematoma. However, in our case, the arachnoid membrane had not adhered to the dura mater and the capsule was a fibrinous single structural membrane without vasculature, which probably resulted from a previous hematoma due to initial bleeding from the cortical artery. The possible mechanism in our case was that the re-bleeding dissected and flowed into the fibrinous single structural membrane, resulting in formation of the lentiform ASDH.

  14. Contralateral development of chronic subdural hematoma after evacuation of chronic subdural hematoma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Sucu, H Kamil; Gökmen, M; Bezircioglu, H; Tektaş, S

    2006-09-01

    Contralateral acute complications such as acute epi/subdural hematomas can be encountered after evacuation of a chronic subdural hematoma, though they are rare. We found only one case of chronic subdural hematoma following the surgery for contralateral chronic subdural hematoma, have been published in English language literature. A 73-year-old male admitted to our hospital with a right-sided subdural hematoma. The subdural hematoma was evacuated through a burr-hole. A left-sided subdural higroma appeared after operation and turned into classical subdural hematoma in the course of time. After evacuation of contralateral chronic subdural hematoma, the patient recovered completely. All stages of the development of contralateral chronic subdural hematomas were shown by serial computed tomograms. It was suggested that traumatic chronic subdural hematomas develop from mostly subdural higromas. If contralateral subdural higroma is seen after surgical evacuation of a chronic subdural hematoma, the possibility of development of contralateral chronic subdural hematoma must be kept on mind.

  15. Huge Intramural Hematoma in a Thrombosed Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak Jin; Lee, Sang Won; Lee, Tae Hong; Kim, Young Soo

    2015-09-01

    We describe a case of a huge intramural hematoma in a thrombosed middle cerebral artery aneurysm. A 47-year-old female patient with liver cirrhosis and thrombocytopenia presented to the neurosurgical unit with a 5-day history of headache and cognitive dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography of the brain showed a thrombosed aneurysm located in the right middle cerebral artery with a posteriorly located huge intramural hematoma mimicking an intracerebral hematoma. Imaging studies and cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed no evidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Angiography showed a partially thrombosed aneurysm at the origin of the right anterior temporal artery and an incidental aneurysm at the bifurcation of the right middle cerebral artery. Both aneurysms were embolized by coiling. After embolization, the thrombosed aneurysmal sac and intramural hematoma had decreased in size 4 days later and almost completely disappeared 8 months later. This is the first reported case of a nondissecting, nonfusiform aneurysm with a huge intramural hematoma, unlike that of a dissecting aneurysm.

  16. Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Management

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Yup; Bae, Hee-Joon

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains a significant cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. To improve the devastating course of ICH, various clinical trials for medical and surgical interventions have been conducted in the last 10 years. Recent large-scale clinical trials have reported that early intensive blood pressure reduction can be a safe and feasible strategy for ICH, and have suggested a safe target range for systolic blood pressure. While new medical therapies associated with warfarin and non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants have been developed to treat ICH, recent trials have not been able to demonstrate the overall beneficial effects of surgical intervention on mortality and functional outcomes. However, some patients with ICH may benefit from surgical management in specific clinical contexts and/or at specific times. Furthermore, clinical trials for minimally invasive surgical evacuation methods are ongoing and may provide positive evidence. Upon understanding the current guidelines for the management of ICH, clinicians can administer appropriate treatment and attempt to improve the clinical outcome of ICH. The purpose of this review is to help in the decision-making of the medical and surgical management of ICH. PMID:28178413

  17. Idarucizumab as Antidote to Intracerebral Hemorrhage under Treatment with Dabigatran

    PubMed Central

    Held, Valentin; Eisele, Philipp; Eschenfelder, Christoph C.; Szabo, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Non-vitamin K anticoagulants (NOAC) such as dabigatran have become important therapeutic options for the prevention of stroke. Until recently, there were only nonspecific agents to reverse their anticoagulant effects in a case of emergency. Idarucizumab, an antibody fragment targeting dabigatran, is the first specific antidote for a NOAC to be approved, but real-world experience is limited. Methods We report two cases of patients on dabigatran with acute intracerebral hemorrhage who received idarucizumab. Results In both cases, idarucizumab promptly reversed the anticoagulant effect of dabigatran and there was no hematoma expansion in follow-up imaging. Conclusions In addition to clinical and preclinical studies, our cases add to the experience regarding the safety and efficacy of idarucizumab. They show that idarucizumab may be an important safety option for patients on dabigatran in emergency situations. PMID:27920714

  18. [Angiographical extravasation in the intracranial hemorrhage due to cerebrovascular moyamoya disease--autopsy study].

    PubMed

    Sayama, I; Fukasawa, H; Yasui, N; Suzuki, A

    1984-04-01

    A 53-year-old, non-hypertensive farmer, who had sudden attack of severe headache, was transferred to our clinic. He presented comatous state and tetraparesis without extraocular movements nor reactive pupils to light. CT scan, 7 hours after the ictus showed intracerebral hematoma in the right temporo-parietal region with ventricular extension. The following bilateral carotid angiograms established the diagnosis of the intracerebral hemorrhage due to cerebrovascular moyamoya disease. In angiograms of the affected side, irregular spotty stains spread from the periphei of the right posterior choroidal artery was delineated. The repeated CT scan after that indicated increment of hematoma. Fifty-three hours from the ictus, the patient died and an autopsy study was performed. After the fixation, the coronal brain section was made, and the careful observation of them elucidated the formation of an organized dissecting aneurysm in the angiographically extravasated vessel. About seven hundreds of serial specimen, 4 micron in thickness, was then investigated adjacent to the aneurysm. The organized dissecting aneurysm seemed to initiate from the branch of it, where marked fraying and undulation of the fibroelastic intima and internal elastic laminae were observed. The concavity toward the true lumen was completely disrupted and communicated to the extravascular space. As a result, the continuous part of it obstructed the lumen of the branch. These findings suggested the newly-developed dissection and it seemed to correspond to the angiographical extravasated points.

  19. Rehabilitation Augments Hematoma Clearance and Attenuates Oxidative Injury and Ion Dyshomeostasis After Brain Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Michael R; Dietrich, Kristen; Hackett, Mark J; Caine, Sally; Nadeau, Colby A; Aziz, Jasmine R; Nichol, Helen; Paterson, Phyllis G; Colbourne, Frederick

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the elemental and biochemical effects of rehabilitation after intracerebral hemorrhage, with emphasis on iron-mediated oxidative stress, using a novel multimodal biospectroscopic imaging approach. Collagenase-induced striatal hemorrhage was produced in rats that were randomized to enriched rehabilitation or control intervention starting on day 7. Animals were euthanized on day 14 or 21, a period of ongoing cell death. We used biospectroscopic imaging techniques to precisely determine elemental and molecular changes on day 14. Hemoglobin content was assessed with resonance Raman spectroscopy. X-ray fluorescence imaging mapped iron, chlorine, potassium, calcium, and zinc. Protein aggregation, a marker of oxidative stress, and the distribution of other macromolecules were assessed with Fourier transform infrared imaging. A second study estimated hematoma volume with a spectrophotometric assay at 21 days. In the first experiment, rehabilitation reduced hematoma hemoglobin content (P=0.004) and the amount of peri-hematoma iron (P<0.001). Oxidative damage was highly localized at the hematoma/peri-hematoma border and was decreased by rehabilitation (P=0.004). Lipid content in the peri-hematoma zone was increased by rehabilitation (P=0.016). Rehabilitation reduced the size of calcium deposits (P=0.040) and attenuated persistent dyshomeostasis of Cl(-) (P<0.001) but not K(+) (P=0.060). The second study confirmed that rehabilitation decreased hematoma volume (P=0.024). Rehabilitation accelerated clearance of toxic blood components and decreased chronic oxidative stress. As well, rehabilitation attenuated persistent ion dyshomeostasis. These novel effects may underlie rehabilitation-induced neuroprotection and improved recovery of function. Pharmacotherapies targeting these mechanisms may further improve outcome. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations and outcomes after acute intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Du, Quan; Yu, Wen-Hua; Dong, Xiao-Qiao; Yang, Ding-Bo; Shen, Yong-Feng; Wang, Hao; Jiang, Li; Du, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Zu-Yong; Zhu, Qiang; Che, Zhi-Hao; Liu, Qun-Jie

    2014-11-01

    Higher plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations have been associated with poor outcome of severe traumatic brain injury. We further investigated the relationships between plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations and clinical outcomes in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations of 128 consecutive patients and 128 sex- and gender-matched healthy subjects were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We assessed their relationships with disease severity and clinical outcomes including 1-week mortality, 6-month mortality and unfavorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score>2). Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations were substantially higher in patients than in healthy controls. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations were positively associated with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and hematoma volume using a multivariate linear regression. It emerged as an independent predictor for clinical outcomes of patients using a forward stepwise logistic regression. ROC curves identified the predictive values of plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations, and found its predictive value was similar to NIHSS scores and hematoma volumes. However, it just numerically added the predictive values of NIHSS score and hematoma volume. Increased plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations are associated with disease severity and clinical outcome after acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Spot sign on 90-second delayed computed tomography angiography improves sensitivity for hematoma expansion and mortality: prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ciura, Viesha A; Brouwers, H Bart; Pizzolato, Raffaella; Ortiz, Claudia J; Rosand, Jonathan; Goldstein, Joshua N; Greenberg, Steven M; Pomerantz, Stuart R; Gonzalez, R Gilberto; Romero, Javier M

    2014-11-01

    The computed tomography angiography (CTA) spot sign is a validated biomarker for poor outcome and hematoma expansion in intracerebral hemorrhage. The spot sign has proven to be a dynamic entity, with multimodal imaging proving to be of additional value. We investigated whether the addition of a 90-second delayed CTA acquisition would capture additional intracerebral hemorrhage patients with the spot sign and increase the sensitivity of the spot sign. We prospectively enrolled consecutive intracerebral hemorrhage patients undergoing first pass and 90-second delayed CTA for 18 months at a single academic center. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to assess clinical and neuroimaging covariates for relationship with hematoma expansion and mortality. Sensitivity of the spot sign for hematoma expansion on first pass CTA was 55%, which increased to 64% if the spot sign was present on either CTA acquisition. In multivariate analysis the spot sign presence was associated with significant hematoma expansion: odds ratio, 17.7 (95% confidence interval, 3.7-84.2; P=0.0004), 8.3 (95% confidence interval, 2.0-33.4; P=0.004), and 12.0 (95% confidence interval, 2.9-50.5; P=0.0008) if present on first pass, delayed, or either CTA acquisition, respectively. Spot sign presence on either acquisitions was also significant for mortality. We demonstrate improved sensitivity for predicting hematoma expansion and poor outcome by adding a 90-second delayed CTA, which may enhance selection of patients who may benefit from hemostatic therapy. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Metastatic intracerebral choriocarcinoma in a teenager.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, G. W.

    1997-01-01

    Intracerebral metastatic carcinoma is one of the most common tumors of the central nervous system. Intracerebral choriocarcinoma, however, is rare, but may occur as the initial manifestation of choriocarcinoma. This case report describes the treatment and outcome of a teenager with metastatic intracerebral choriocarcinoma. PMID:9375481

  3. Chronic subdural hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Yad R.; Parihar, Vijay; Namdev, Hemant; Bajaj, Jitin

    2016-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is one of the most common neurosurgical conditions. There is lack of uniformity in the treatment of CSDH amongst surgeons in terms of various treatment strategies. Clinical presentation may vary from no symptoms to unconsciousness. CSDH is usually diagnosed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan is more sensitive in the diagnosis of bilateral isodense CSDH, multiple loculations, intrahematoma membranes, fresh bleeding, hemolysis, and the size of capsule. Contrast-enhanced CT or MRI could detect associated primary or metastatic dural diseases. Although definite history of trauma could be obtained in a majority of cases, some cases may be secondary to coagulation defect, intracranial hypotension, use of anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs, etc., Recurrent bleeding, increased exudates from outer membrane, and cerebrospinal fluid entrapment have been implicated in the enlargement of CSDH. Burr-hole evacuation is the treatment of choice for an uncomplicated CSDH. Most of the recent trials favor the use of drain to reduce recurrence rate. Craniotomy and twist drill craniostomy also play a role in the management. Dural biopsy should be taken, especially in recurrence and thick outer membrane. Nonsurgical management is reserved for asymptomatic or high operative risk patients. The steroids and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors may also play a role in the management. Single management strategy is not appropriate for all the cases of CSDH. Better understanding of the nature of the pathology, rational selection of an ideal treatment strategy for an individual patient, and identification of the merits and limitations of different surgical techniques could help in improving the prognosis. PMID:27695533

  4. [Spontaneous peri-pancreatic hematoma associated with celiac trunk stenosis: diagnostic difficulties and therapeutic management].

    PubMed

    El Alaoui, Mounia; Olivié, Damien; Gandon, Yves; Bretagne, Jean-François

    2005-11-01

    We report a case of spontaneous peri-pancreatic hematoma which was associated with a celiac trunk stenosis. Hematoma was probably due to the rupture of a pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm. This diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma, initially retained, illustrates the difficult diagnostic process. Therapeutic modalities for preventing recurrence are discussed.

  5. Positron emission tomography in the newborn: extensive impairment of regional cerebral blood flow with intraventricular hemorrhage and hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Volpe, J.J.; Herscovitch, P.; Perlman, J.M.; Raichle, M.E.

    1983-11-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) now provides the capability of measuring regional cerebral blood flow with high resolution and little risk. In this study, we utilized PET in six premature infants (920 to 1,200 g) with major intraventricular hemorrhage and hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement to measure regional cerebral blood flow during the acute period (5 to 17 days of age). Cerebral blood flow was determined after intravenous injection of H/sub 2/O, labeled with the positron-emitting isotope, /sup 15/O. Findings were similar and dramatic in all six infants. In the area of hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement, little or no cerebral blood flow was detected. However, in addition, surprisingly, a marked two- to fourfold reduction in cerebral blood flow was observed throughout the affected hemisphere, well posterior and lateral to the intracerebral hematoma, including cerebral white matter and, to a lesser extent, frontal, temporal, and parietal cortex. In the one infant studied a second time, ie, at 3 months of age, the extent and severity of the decreased cerebral blood flows in the affected hemisphere were similar to those observed on the study during the neonatal period. At the three autopsies, the affected left hemisphere showed extensive infarction, corroborating the PET scans. These observations, the first demonstration of the use of PET in the determination of regional cerebral blood flow in the newborn, show marked impairments in regional cerebral blood flow in the hemisphere containing an apparently restricted intracerebral hematoma, indicating that the hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement is only a component of a much larger lesion, ischemic in basic nature, ie, an infarction. This large ischemic lesion explains the poor neurologic outcome in infants with intraventricular hemorrhage and hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement.

  6. Prehospital Systolic Hypertension and Outcomes in Patients with Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Connie; Govindarajan, Prasanthi

    2017-01-01

    Background It is well known that hematoma volume and expansion is associated with poor outcomes in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH). The factors associated with hematoma volume and possible expansion include the use of anticoagulant medications, autoimmune or bacterial diseases that reduce platelet production, and genetic defects of Von Willebrand factor causing inhibition or reduction of platelet aggregation. However, little is known about the role of elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) on hematoma volume and its ultimate role on sICH when identified in the prehospital setting. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of elevated SBP among diagnosed sICH patients transported by emergency medical services (EMS), and to explore possible associations between prehospital elevated SBP and hematoma volume. Methods This is a hypothesis-generating study for which we used a retrospective observational design. The subjects included 243 adult patients who were seen and treated for sICH in an emergency department serving a county hospital in a large metropolitan city. Elevated SBP in the setting of sICH was defined as ≥140 mm Hg. A univariate analysis was performed to investigate associations between patient demographics, elevated SBP, and sICH characteristics with the pre-determined outcome of hematoma volume. We then performed a multivariable logistic regression model to determine if elevated prehospital SBP remained associated with hematoma volume. Results The number of subjects with a hospital-based diagnosis of sICH was 243. Of those, 193 (79%) were transported by an ambulance. Among those transported by ambulance, 180 (93%) had a documented prehospital SBP; out of those patients with a documented SBP, 173 (96%) showed an elevated SBP of ≥140 mm Hg, and 82 (46%) had a hematoma volume of ≥30 mL. Our univariate analysis showed that sICH patients with an elevated prehospital SBP of ≥140 mm Hg were associated with hematoma volume

  7. Blend sign predicts poor outcome in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Yang, Wen-Song; Wang, Xing-Chen; Cao, Du; Zhu, Dan; Lv, Fa-Jin; Liu, Yang; Yuan, Liang; Zhang, Gang; Xiong, Xin; Li, Rui; Hu, Yun-Xin; Qin, Xin-Yue; Xie, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Blend sign has been recently described as a novel imaging marker that predicts hematoma expansion. The purpose of our study was to investigate the prognostic value of CT blend sign in patients with ICH. Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage who underwent baseline CT scan within 6 hours were included. The presence of blend sign on admission nonenhanced CT was independently assessed by two readers. The functional outcome was assessed by using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 90 days. Blend sign was identified in 40 of 238 (16.8%) patients on admission CT scan. The proportion of patients with a poor functional outcome was significantly higher in patients with blend sign than those without blend sign (75.0% versus 47.5%, P = 0.001). The multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that age, intraventricular hemorrhage, admission GCS score, baseline hematoma volume and presence of blend sign on baseline CT independently predict poor functional outcome at 90 days. The CT blend sign independently predicts poor outcome in patients with ICH (odds ratio 3.61, 95% confidence interval [1.47-8.89];p = 0.005). Early identification of blend sign is useful in prognostic stratification and may serve as a potential therapeutic target for prospective interventional studies.

  8. Subcapsular hematoma of the graft after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Massarollo, P C B; Shiroma, M E; Rodrigues, A J; Mies, S

    2004-05-01

    Subcapsular hematoma of the graft is an underreported complication of liver transplantation (LT). Among 408 LT performed from September 1, 1985, to September 1, 2000, eight patients developed a subcapsular hematoma within 30 days after LT (8/408 = 2.0%). Among the six early cases observed, five required further surgical approaches due to hematoma progression, rupture, and hemorrhage. One patient underwent liver retransplantation due to uncontrollable hepatic hemorrhage. The two more recent cases were successfully treated by early opening of the Glisson's capsule with hemostasis of the hepatic raw bleeding surface. The five patients who developed acute renal failure required dialysis. Three patients died during hospitalization. Among the survivors, two were discharged on the postoperative (PO) day 15; the others on PO day 37, 38, and 56. In conclusion, subcapsular hematoma of the graft is a potentially serious complication of LT that may produce severe hemorrhage, shock, and in extreme cases, graft loss or even death. The severity of the complication is related to the extension of the decapsulated area of the graft. An early surgical approach with intentional opening of the hematoma before progression of the lesion seems to facilitate hemostasis and improve results.

  9. Benign Sphenoid Wing Meningioma Presenting with an Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Frič, Radek; Hald, John K.; Antal, Ellen-Ann

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY OBJECT We report an unusual case of a benign lateral sphenoid wing meningioma that presented with, and was masked by, an acute intracerebral hemorrhage. CASE REPORT A 68-year-old woman was admitted after sudden onset of coma. Computed tomography (CT) revealed an intracerebral hemorrhage, without any underlying vascular pathology on CT angiography. During the surgery, we found a lateral sphenoid wing meningioma with intratumoral bleeding that extended into the surrounding brain parenchyma. RESULTS We removed the hematoma and resected the tumor completely in the same session. The histopathological classification of the tumor was a WHO grade I meningothelial meningioma. The patient recovered very well after surgery, without significant neurological sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: Having reviewed the relevant references from the medical literature, we consider this event as an extremely rare presentation of a benign sphenoid wing meningioma in a patient without any predisposing medical factors. The possible mechanisms of bleeding from this tumor type are discussed. PMID:27127413

  10. [Chronic subdural hematoma: historical studies].

    PubMed

    Guénot, M

    2001-11-01

    The first description of a chronic subdural hematoma was made in 1658 by J.J. Wepfer, followed in 1761 by Morgagni. A possible case was described by Honoré de Balzac in 1840 including its traumatic origin and surgical treatment. Virchow, in 1857, denied a traumatic origin, and gave the name of "pachymeningitis hemorrhagica interna" to this pathology which he explained by inflammatory processes. The traumatic etiology of chronic subdural hematoma was recognized in the XXth century, especially by Trotter in 1914. Pathophysiology was considered later on in the XXth century.

  11. Resveratrol Attenuates Neurodegeneration and Improves Neurological Outcomes after Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bonsack, Frederick; Alleyne, Cargill H; Sukumari-Ramesh, Sangeetha

    2017-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating type of stroke with a substantial public health impact. Currently, there is no effective treatment for ICH. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether the post-injury administration of Resveratrol confers neuroprotection in a pre-clinical model of ICH. To this end, ICH was induced in adult male CD1 mice by collagenase injection method. Resveratrol (10 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered at 30 min post-induction of ICH and the neurobehavioral outcome, neurodegeneration, cerebral edema, hematoma resolution and neuroinflammation were assessed. The Resveratrol treatment significantly attenuated acute neurological deficits, neurodegeneration and cerebral edema after ICH in comparison to vehicle treated controls. Further, Resveratrol treated mice exhibited improved hematoma resolution with a concomitant reduction in the expression of proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1β after ICH. Altogether, the data suggest the efficacy of post-injury administration of Resveratrol in improving acute neurological function after ICH.

  12. [Multiple chronic subdural hematoma in shaken-baby syndrome].

    PubMed

    Haga, Sei; Ishido, Katsuya; Inada, Nariyasu; Sakata, Shuji

    2004-08-01

    We described a case of shaken-baby syndrome with multiple chronic subdural hematomas. A 10-month-old male baby was admitted to our hospital because of loss of consciousness and convulsions. CT scan revealed an acute subarachnoid hemorrhage extending into the interhemispheric fissure and supracerebellar space. The patient was treated conservatively, and discharged from the hospitaL Two months after ictus, a baby was admitted to our hospital with general fatigue. CT scan demonstrated multiple chronic subdural hematomas. Burr hole irrigation and drainage brought about complete disappearance of these lesions. Retrospectively, it was found that these multiple subdural hematomas were due to shaken-baby syndrome. Shaken-baby syndrome is a form of child abuse that can cause significant head injury, and subdural hematoma is the most common manifestation. It is well known that the outcome of shaken-baby syndrome is generally not good. It is important to suspect shaken-baby syndrome when a chronic subdural hematoma is seen in a baby.

  13. [Computerized transverse axial tomography in intracerebral, intracerebellar and intraventricular hemorrhage (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, M; Imanaga, H; Jimbo, M; Kitamura, K

    1977-04-01

    Computerized transverse axial tomography (CT) of the brain is a recently developed method which allows non-invasive roentgenologic evaluation of intracranial diseases. The advent of CT represents a great advance in the diagnosis of a very wide variety of intracranial lesions, including cerebrovascular diseases. Especially, CT was found to be extremely informative in evaluating intracerebral, intracerebellar and intraventricular hemorrhage. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the clinical usefulness of CT in the diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage. From the seven hundreds cases of various intracranial diseases hitherto examined by the EMI-scanner (160 X 160 matrix), twenty-three cases of nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage were selected for the present study. Fifteen cases of fresh hemorrhage consisted of hypertensive cerebrovascular disease, arterio-venous malformation, aneurysm and unknown etiology, number of cases being six, three, four and two, respectively. All cases were examined within fifteen days after the ictus and the positive findings were obtained in all cases. The characteristic feature of the hematoma is the circumscribed and increased density area surrounded by the decreased density zone probably representing the accompanied brain edema. The sequential CT studies revealed that the hematoma area was gradually decreased in its density and finally transformed into the rather low density one in four weeks or so after the ictus. The smallest hematoma detected by CT was the cerebellar hematoma about five grams in weight, which was failed to be recognized by the angiography. In cases of the old hemorrhage, besides the decreased density area of the hematoma, such findings were obtained as cerebral atrophy, ventricular dilatation and porencephalic change. It would be concluded that CT study is the most useful aid at present available in the diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage. The precise anatomic extent of the hematoma, associated brain edema

  14. Negative spot sign in primary intracerebral hemorrhage: potential impact in reducing imaging.

    PubMed

    Romero, Javier M; Hito, Rania; Dejam, Andre; Ballesteros, Laia Sero; Cobos, Camilo Jaimes; Liévano, J Ortiz; Ciura, Viesha A; Barnaure, Isabelle; Ernst, Marielle; Liberato, Afonso P; Gonzalez, Gilberto R

    2017-02-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most devastating and costly diagnoses in the USA. ICH is a common diagnosis, accounting for 10-15 % of all strokes and affecting 20 out of 100,000 people. The CT angiography (CTA) spot sign, or contrast extravasation into the hematoma, is a reliable predictor of hematoma expansion, clinical deterioration, and increased mortality. Multiple studies have demonstrated a high negative predictive value (NPV) for ICH expansion in patients without spot sign. Our aim is to determine the absolute NPV of the spot sign and clinical characteristics of patients who had ICH expansion despite the absence of a spot sign. This information may be helpful in the development of a cost effective imaging protocol of patients with ICH. During a 3-year period, 204 patients with a CTA with primary intracerebral hemorrhage were evaluated for subsequent hematoma expansion during their hospitalization. Patients with intraventricular hemorrhage were excluded. Clinical characteristics and antithrombotic treatment on admission were noted. The number of follow-up NCCT was recorded. Of the resulting 123 patients, 108 had a negative spot sign and 7 of those patients subsequently had significant hematoma expansion, 6 of which were on antithrombotic therapy. The NPV of the CTA spot sign was calculated at 0.93. In patients without antithrombotic therapy, the NPV was 0.98. In summary, the negative predictive value of the CTA spot sign for expansion of ICH, in the absence of antithrombotic therapy and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) on admission, is very high. These results have the potential to redirect follow-up imaging protocols and reduce cost.

  15. [Subcapsular hematoma and rupture of the liver graft].

    PubMed

    Görög, Dénes; Fehérvári, Imre; Doros, Attila; Nemes, Balázs; Máthé, Zoltán; Kóbori, László; Járay, Jeno

    2008-08-01

    Subcapsular hematoma and/or rupture of the graft is uncommon but serious complication of liver transplantation. It may develop spontaneously or following parenchymal injuries or percutaneous transhepatic invasive procedures. This report describes three cases of subcapsular hematoma and/or rupture of the graft with different courses among 350 liver transplantations. In the first case, the patient died due to graft rupture caused by a pseudoaneurysm after biopsy. In the second case, a small injury of the donor liver resulted in a deep rupture, which required partial resection of the graft. The patient died in sepsis later. The third patient presented with a large subcapsular haematoma during transplantation, which was successfully treated. The authors' strategies developed intraoperatively for the management of hematomas. These involve opening and removing of the haematoma, haemostasis with Argon coagulation, which resulted in an adherent Glisson's capsule to the parenchyma and covering with collagen fleece coated with fibrinogen and thrombin.

  16. Liver Subcapsular Hematoma: A Rare Cause of Sudden Unexpected Death.

    PubMed

    Oualha, Dorra; Aissaoui, Abir; Belhaj, Meriam; Mesrati, Mohamed Amin; Moussa, Adnene; Salem, Nidhal Haj; Zakhama, Abdelfateh; Chadly, Ali

    2017-03-01

    The spontaneous subcapsular hematoma of the liver is very rare. There are only a few reported cases in the literature.Most reported cases of liver hematoma often occur during pregnancy as part of the hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count syndrome. The other causes may be due to amylosis, rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma, adenoma, focal nodular hyperplasia, hemorrhagic cyst, or hemopathy. Idiopathic spontaneous subscapular hematoma is a rare and often fatal condition.We report a case of a 43-year-old woman having Steinert disease who died because of a fatal spontaneous liver hemorrhage occurring without any traumatism. We did not find any apparent cause that could explain this hemorrhage even after a histological study of the liver.

  17. [Post-traumatic intramural hematoma of the duodenum].

    PubMed

    Michel, P; Hulin, A; Desbordes, J M

    1986-01-01

    A post-traumatic intramural hematoma of duodenum in a 9 year old child was detected during exploratory laparotomy but left undisturbed. Postoperative follow up during parenteral feeding included surveillance by repeated gastrografin follow through examinations, normal transit being restored by the 12th day. Intramural hematoma of duodenum is usually due to injury and often affects male children. Symptomatology is that of upper digestive occlusion. The principal investigation should be gastro-duodenal follow through examinations with gastrografin, because of the risk of an associated perforation, to reveal possible partial or total duodenal obstruction. Conservative treatment is possible, but in case of failure or in adults surgery is indicated with evacuation of the hematoma and in some cases a gastro-jejunostomy.

  18. Chronic subdural hematoma - an up-to-date concept.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoji; Ohno, Kikuo

    2013-06-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is prevalent among elderly populations worldwide, and its mysterious pathogenesis has been discussed in the literature for decades. The issues remaining to be solved in regard to CSDH include the initiating events; the bleeding into the subdural space and the formation of the outer and inner membranes, its development; increase and liquefaction of hematoma, the optimal treatments, and the natural history. The pathophysiology is becoming more clear due to recent findings from computed tomography studies and human models of CSDH. In this work, we review previous studies on CSDH and present a new integrated concept about the development of this common condition after head injuries.

  19. Blood pressure variability on antihypertensive therapy in acute intracerebral hemorrhage: the Stroke Acute Management with Urgent Risk-factor Assessment and Improvement-intracerebral hemorrhage study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Eijirou; Koga, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Junpei; Kario, Kazuomi; Kamiyama, Kenji; Furui, Eisuke; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Okuda, Satoshi; Todo, Kenichi; Kimura, Kazumi; Okada, Yasushi; Okata, Takuya; Arihiro, Shoji; Sato, Shoichiro; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Minematsu, Kazuo; Toyoda, Kazunori

    2014-08-01

    The associations between early blood pressure (BP) variability and clinical outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage after antihypertensive therapy, recently clarified by a post hoc analysis of Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial 2 (INTERACT2), were confirmed using the Stroke Acute Management with Urgent Risk-factor Assessment and Improvement (SAMURAI)-intracerebral hemorrhage study cohort. Patients with hyperacute (<3 hours from onset) intracerebral hemorrhage with initial systolic BP (SBP) >180 mm Hg were registered in a prospective, multicenter, observational study. All patients received antihypertensive therapy based on a predefined standardized protocol to lower and maintain SBP between 120 and 160 mm Hg using intravenous nicardipine. BPs were measured hourly during the initial 24 hours. BP variability was determined as SD and successive variation. The associations between BP variability and hematoma expansion (>33%), neurological deterioration within 72 hours, and unfavorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale, 4-6) at 3 months were assessed. Of the 205 patients, 33 (16%) showed hematoma expansion, 14 (7%) showed neurological deterioration, and 81 (39%) had unfavorable outcomes. The SD and successive variation of SBP were 13.8 (interquartile range, 11.5-16.8) and 14.9 (11.7-17.7) mm Hg, respectively, and those of diastolic BP were 9.4 (7.5-11.2) and 13.1 (11.2-15.9) mm Hg, respectively. On multivariate regression analyses, neurological deterioration was associated with the SD of SBP (odds ratio, 2.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.45-6.12 per quartile) and the successive variation of SBP (2.37; 1.32-4.83), and unfavorable outcome was associated with successive variation of SBP (1.42; 1.04-1.97). Hematoma expansion was not associated with any BP variability. SBP variability during the initial 24 hours of acute intracerebral hemorrhage was independently associated with neurological deterioration and unfavorable outcomes

  20. Restoration of the ascending reticular activating system compressed by hematoma in a stroke patient

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung Ho; Seo, Jeong Pyo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: We report on restoration of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), compressed by an intracerebral hematoma and perihematomal edema following a stroke. The restoration of the ARAS was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). Patient concerns: In a 60-year-old male, a brain MRI taken at 2 weeks after the surgery showed a hematoma and perihematomal edema in the left posterolateral pons and cerebellum, which were markedly resolved on a brain MRI after 5 weeks. Diagnoses: Intraventricular hemorrhage. Interventions: Navigation-guided stereotactic drainage of a hematoma in the left cerebellum, comprehensive rehabilitative therapy, including hypersomnia medication (modafinil), physical therapy, and occupational therapy. Outcomes: His hypersomnia improved significantly with rehabilitation, with no daytime hypersomnia beginning 3 weeks after the surgery. On 2-week DTT, neither the neural tract of the left lower dorsal or ventral ARAS were reconstructed, but these neural tracts were wellreconstructed on 5-week DTT. Lessons: In conclusion, restoration of nonreconstructed neural tracts of the lower ARAS with the resolution of the hematoma and perihematomal edema was demonstrated in a stroke patient, using DTT. PMID:28207526

  1. Optoacoustic detection and monitoring of blast-induced intracranial hematomas in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Andrey; Wynne, Karon E.; Prough, Donald S.; Dewitt, Douglas S.; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Irene Y.; Parsley, Margaret A.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2014-03-01

    Patients with acute intracranial hematomas often require surgical drainage within the first four hours after traumatic brain injury (TBI) to avoid death or severe neurologic disability. CT and MRI permit rapid, noninvasive diagnosis of hematomas, but can be used only at a major health-care facility. At present, there is no device for noninvasive detection and characterization of hematomas in pre-hospital settings. We proposed to use an optoacoustic technique for rapid, noninvasive diagnosis and monitoring of hematomas, including intracranial hematomas. Unlike bulky CT and MR equipment, an optoacoustic system can be small and easily transported in an emergency vehicle. In this study we used a specially-designed blast device to inflict TBI in rats. A near-infrared OPO-based optoacoustic system developed for hematoma diagnosis and for blood oxygenation monitoring in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) in small animals was used in the study. Optoacoustic signals recorded simultaneously from the SSS and hematomas allowed for measurements of their oxygenations. The presence of hematomas was confirmed after the experiment in gross pictures of the exposed brains. After blast the hematoma signal and oxygenation increased, while SSS oxygenation decreased due to the blastinduced TBI. The increase of the oxygenation in fresh hematomas may be explained by the leakage of blood from arteries which have higher blood pressure compared to that of veins. These results indicate that the optoacoustic technique can be used for early diagnosis of hematomas and may provide important information for improving outcomes in patients with TBI or stroke (both hemorrhagic and ischemic).

  2. HISTOTRIPSY LIQUEFACTION OF LARGE HEMATOMAS

    PubMed Central

    Khlokhova, Tatiana D.; Monsky, Wayne L.; Haider, Yasser A.; Maxwell, Adam; Wang, Yak-Nam; Matula, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Intra- and extra-muscular hematomas result from repetitive injury as well as sharp and blunt limb trauma. The clinical consequences can be serious, including debilitating pain and functional deficit. There are currently no short-term treatment options for large hematomas, only lengthy conservative treatment. The goal of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of a high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-based technique, termed histotripsy, for rapid (within a clinically relevant timeframe of 15–20 min) liquefaction of large volume (up to 20 mL) extra-vascular hematomas for subsequent fine-needle aspiration. Experiments were performed using in vitro extravascular hematoma phantoms—fresh bovine blood poured into 50 mL molds and allowed to clot. The resulting phantoms were treated by boiling histotripsy (BH), cavitation histotripsy (CH) or a combination in a degassed water tank under ultrasound guidance. Two different transducers operating at 1 MHz and 1.5 MHz with f-number = 1 were used. The liquefied lysate was aspirated and analyzed by histology and sized in a Coulter Counter. The peak instantaneous power to achieve BH was lower than (at 1.5 MHz) or equal to (at 1 MHz) that which was required to initiate CH. Under the same exposure duration, BH-induced cavities were one and a half to two times larger than the CH-induced cavities, but the CH-induced cavities were more regularly shaped, facilitating easier aspiration. The lysates contained a small amount of debris larger than 70 μm, and 99% of particulates were smaller than 10 μm. A combination treatment of BH (for initial debulking) and CH (for liquefaction of small residual fragments) yielded 20 mL of lysate within 17.5 minutes of treatment and was found to be most optimal for liquefaction of large extravascular hematomas. PMID:27126244

  3. Large intraluminal ileal hematoma presenting as small bowel obstruction in a child.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yun Jung; Nam, So Hyun; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2015-04-01

    Intraluminal small bowel hematoma has been rarely reported in children, as a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. We present a case of an intraluminal ileal hematoma presenting as small bowel obstruction in a child. Computed Tomography (CT) indicated a large intraluminal hyperdense lesion in the distal ileum as the cause of small bowel obstruction. Abdominal ultrasonography (US) showed an echogenic mass-like lesion with multiple septa in the distal ileum. Small bowel obstruction due to a complicated cystic mass was provisionally diagnosed. Histopathologic examination of the resected mass suggested a submucosal ileal hematoma. Although intraluminal small bowel hematoma is rare in children, it can present as an intraluminal cystic mass and should be considered as a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. The US and CT findings of submucosal ileal hematoma could be useful for the diagnosis of such cases in the future.

  4. Noninvasive, optoacoustic detection and characterization of intra- and extracranial hematomas and cerebral hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Andrey; Prough, Donald S.; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Irene Y.; Robertson, Claudia S.; Asokan, Vasantha; Agbor, Adaeze; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2015-03-01

    Early diagnosis of intracranial hematomas is necessary to improve outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). CT and MRI can diagnose intracranial hematomas, but cannot be used until the patient arrives at a major healthcare facility, resulting in delayed diagnosis. Near infrared spectroscopy may suggest the presence of unilateral intracranial hematomas, but provides minimal information on hematoma type and location due to limitations associated with strong light scattering. We have used optoacoustics (which combines high endogenous optical contrast with the resolution of ultrasound) to diagnose hematomas and monitor cerebral oxygenation. We performed animal and clinical studies on detection and characterization of hematomas and on monitoring cerebral hypoxia by probing the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). Recently, we built a medical grade, multi-wavelength, OPO-based optoacoustic system tunable in the near infrared spectral range. We developed new patient interfaces for noninvasive, transcranial measurements in the transmission mode in the presence of dense hair and used it in patients with TBI. The optoacoustic system was capable of detecting and characterizing intra- and extracranial hematomas. SSS blood oxygenation was measured as well with the new interface. The obtained results indicate that the optoacoustic system in the transmission mode provides detection and characterization of hematomas in TBI patients, as well as cerebral venous blood oxygenation monitoring. The transmission mode approach can be used for optoacoustic brain imaging, tomography, and mapping in humans.

  5. Intracerebral haemorrhage and cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Murao, K; Rossi, C; Cordonnier, C

    2013-10-01

    Relationships between intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and dementia might be of interest since some causes of ICH such as cerebral amyloid angiopathy are strongly linked with dementia, especially Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this narrative review was to highlight the interesting relationship of ICH lesions and cognitive decline leading to dementia. We considered the whole spectrum of hemorrhagic lesions in the brain parenchyma, namely spontaneous ICH and brain microbleeds. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Sonographic monitoring of midline shift predicts outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kiphuth, Ines C; Huttner, Hagen B; Breuer, Lorenz; Schwab, Stefan; Köhrmann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and the evolution of subsequent perihemorrhagic edema lead to midline shift (MLS), which can be assessed by transcranial duplex sonography (TDS). In this observational study, we monitored MLS with TDS in patients with supratentorial ICH up to day 14 after the ictus, and then correlated MLS with the outcome 6 months after hospital discharge. Sixty-eight patients with spontaneous ICH (volume >20 cm(3)) were admitted during a 1-year period between April 2009 and April 2010. Sixty-one patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were eligible for analysis. TDS to measure MLS was performed upon admission and then subsequently, using serial examinations in 24-hour intervals up to day 14. Statistical tests were used to determine cut-off values for functional outcome and mortality after 6 months. The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score upon admission was 21 and the mean hematoma volume was 52 cm(3). NIHSS score, functional outcome, hematoma volume and MLS were correlated in the examined patient cohort. ICH score upon admission, hematoma volume and the extent of MLS on days 1-14 were predictive of functional outcome and death. Values of MLS showed two peaks, the first between day 2 and day 5 and the second between day 12 and day 14, indicating that edema progresses not only during the acute but also during the subacute phase. Depending on the time point, an MLS of 4.5-7.5 mm or greater indicated an impending failure of conservative therapy. An MLS of 12 mm or greater at any time indicated mortality with a sensitivity of 69%, a specificity of 100% and positive and negative predictive values of 100 and 74%, respectively. MLS seems to be a crucial factor for outcome after ICH. Apart from the hematoma volume itself, edema adds to the intracranial pressure. To monitor MLS in early patient management after ICH, TDS is a useful noninvasive bedside alternative, avoiding increased radiation exposure and repeated

  7. Spinal Subdural Hematoma Associated with Intracranial Subdural Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Sook Young

    2015-01-01

    The simultaneous occurrence of an intracranial and a spinal subdural hematoma (SDH) is rare. We describe a case of cranial SDH with a simultaneous spinal SDH. An 82-year-old woman visited the emergency room because of drowsiness and not being able to walk 6 weeks after falling down. A neurological examination showed a drowsy mentality. Brain computed tomography showed bilateral chronic SDH with an acute component. The patient underwent an emergency burr-hole trephination and hematoma removal. She exhibited good recovery after the operation. On the fourth postoperative day, she complained of low-back pain radiating to both lower limbs, and subjective weakness of the lower limbs. Spine magnetic resonance imaging revealed a thoracolumbosacral SDH. A follow-up spinal magnetic resonance imaging study that was performed 16 days later showed a significant decrease in the size of the spinal SDH. We discuss the pathogenesis of this simultaneous occurrence of spinal and cranial SDH. PMID:26587198

  8. Developing a model of chronic subdural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jingyang; Ai, Jinglu; Macdonald, R Loch

    2011-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common neurosurgical condition that has a high incidence in the increasing elderly population of many countries. Pathologically, it is defined as a persistent liquefied hematoma in the subdural space more than 3 weeks old that is generally encased by a membraneous capsule. CSDHs likely originate after minor head trauma, with a key factor in its development being the potential for a subdural cavity to permit its expansion within, which is usually due to craniocerebral disproportion. The pathogenesis of CSDH has been attributed to osmotic or oncotic pressure differences, although measurements of these factors in the CSDH fluid do not support this theory. Current belief is that CSDH arises from recurrent bleeding in the subdural space, caused by a cycle of local angiogenesis, inflammation, coagulation and ongoing fibrinolysis. However, because of a lack of detailed knowledge about the precise mechanisms, treatment is often limited to surgical interventions that are invasive and often prone to recurrence. Thus, it is possible that an easily reproducible and representative animal model of CSDH would facilitate research in the pathogenesis of CSDH and aid with development of treatment options.

  9. Spot sign on 90 second delayed CTA improves sensitivity for hematoma expansion and mortality: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ciura, Viesha A.; Brouwers, H. Bart; Pizzolato, Raffaella; Ortiz, Claudia J.; Rosand, Jonathan; Goldstein, Joshua; Greenberg, Steven M.; Pomerantz, Stuart R; Gonzalez, R. Gilberto; Romero, Javier M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The CTA spot sign is a validated biomarker for poor outcome and hematoma expansion in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The spot sign has proven to be a dynamic entity, with multimodal imaging proving to be of additional value. We investigated whether the addition of a 90 second delayed CTA acquisition would capture additional ICH patients with the spot sign and increase the sensitivity of the spot sign. Methods We prospectively enrolled consecutive ICH patients undergoing first pass and 90 second delayed CTA over 18 months at a single academic center. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression were performed to assess clinical and neuroimaging covariates for relationship with hematoma expansion and mortality. Results Sensitivity of the spot sign for hematoma expansion on first pass CTA was 55%, which increased to 64% if the spot sign was present on either CTA acquisition. In multivariate analysis the spot sign presence was associated with significant hematoma expansion: odds ratio (OR) 17.7 (95% CI 3.7-84.2, p=0.0004), 8.3 (95% CI 2.0-33.4, p=0.004), and 12.0 (95% CI 2.9-50.5, p=0.0008) if present on first pass, delayed, or either CTA acquisition respectively. Spot sign presence on either acquisitions was also significant for mortality. Conclusions We demonstrate improved sensitivity for predicting hematoma expansion and poor outcome by adding a 90 second delayed CTA, which may enhance selection of patients that may benefit from hemostatic therapy. PMID:25300974

  10. Retroperitoneal hematoma following trauma: its clinical importance.

    PubMed

    Grieco, J G; Perry, J F

    1980-09-01

    Records of 100 consecutive patients treated in 1973 through 1977 with post-traumatic retroperitoneal hematomas (RH) were studied. Eighty RH followed blunt injury and 20 were due to penetrating trauma. Overall mortality was 26%. The worst prognosis was associated with RH from automobile accidents and pedestrian injuries. Pelvic RH were almost uniformly associated with pelvic fracture and were the primary cause of 39% of deaths. Blunt perinephric RH required renal exploration in 47% of patients. Blunt RH in other locations were associated with major visceral or vascular injury in half the patients and were the cause of death in five. Sixty-five per cent of RH due to penetrating trauma had visceral or vascular injury requiring operative correction. Contained rupture of descending choracic aorta presented as retrogastric RH in two patients. RH from penetrating trauma should be explored routinely, since 65% are associated with visceral or vascular injury.

  11. Effectiveness of Endoscopic Surgery for Comatose Patients with Large Supratentorial Intracerebral Hemorrhages

    PubMed Central

    YAMASHIRO, Shigeo; HITOSHI, Yasuyuki; YOSHIDA, Akimasa; KURATSU, Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of endoscopic surgery for life-threatening large brain hemorrhage, we reviewed our empirical cases of comatose patients with large supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage. Among 35 patients with putaminal or subcortical hemorrhage that was evacuated endoscopically, 14 cases (40%) presented both findings of neurological grade IV for severity and hematoma volume exceeding 70 mL in the recent 3 years (endoscope group), whereas 8 cases with the same conditions were treated by conventional craniotomy for the preceding 3-year period (craniotomy group). Between these two groups, mean age was higher and duration of surgery was shorter in the endoscope group, but no significant differences in hematoma size or evacuation rate were recognized. In the 10 cases that presented with signs of cerebral herniation (neurological grade IVb) and required emergent decompression, the preparation time for surgery tended to be shorter in the endoscope group, although the difference was not significant. Additional ventricular drainage was performed in 7 cases and showed a supplemental effect of reducing intracranial pressure (ICP). Consequently, all patients in the endoscope group were rescued without decompressive large craniectomy, even with symptoms of cerebral herniation. In conclusion, endoscopic surgery has the potential to offer an effective therapeutic option for comatose patients with large supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhages, matching conventional craniotomy for emergent treatment in terms of mortality and management of ICP. PMID:26369719

  12. Chronic Expanding Hematoma Following Abdominoplasty.

    PubMed

    Tatsuta, Sayo; Morioka, Daichi; Murakami, Naoki; Ohkubo, Fumio

    2017-02-01

    Chronic expanding hematoma (CEH) is a relatively rare complication of trauma or surgery. We report a patient with CEH as a late complication of abdominoplasty. A 58-year-old woman underwent conventional abdominoplasty and thereafter refused to use a compression binder, citing discomfort. One month postoperatively, she presented with a gradually enlarging, painful abdominal mass. The results of ultrasonography and computed tomography were highly suspicious for CEH. The lesion was completely removed, together with surrounding fibrous tissue. Histopathology revealed a chronic hemorrhage collection with a fibrous capsule, consistent with CEH. This condition as a late complication of abdominoplasty has not previously been reported in the literature. However, an online medical consultation site features several abdominoplasty patients asking about persistent hematomas that sound suspicious for CEH. CEH might be underdiagnosed by surgeons. Although a postoperative binder may increase the risk of skin necrosis and deep vein thrombosis, appropriate compression treatment is necessary to prevent hematoma formation. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  13. Factors associated with in-hospital mortality following intracerebral hemorrhage: a three-year study in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Togha, Mansooreh; Bakhtavar, Khadigeh

    2004-01-01

    Background Primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one of the common vascular insults with a relatively high rate of mortality. The aim of the current study was to determine the mortality rate and to evaluate the influence of various factors on the mortality of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Demographic characteristics along with clinical features and neuroimaging information on 122 patients with primary ICH admitted to Sina Hospital between 1999–2002 were assessed by multivariate analysis. Results Of 122 patients diagnosed with intracerebral hemorrhage, 70 were men and 52 were women. Sixtynine percent of subjects were between 60 to 80 years of age. A history of hypertension was the primary cause in 67.2% of participants and it was found more frequent compared to other cardiovascular risk factors such as a history of ischemic heart disease (17.2%), diabetes mellitus (18%) and cigarette smoking (13.1%). The overall mortality rate among ICH patients admitted to the hospital was 46.7%. About one third of the deaths occurred within the first two days after brain injury. Factor independently associated with in-hospital mortality were Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score (≤ 8), diabetes mellitus disease, volume of hematoma and and intraventricular hematoma. Conclusion Higher rate of mortality were observed during the first two weeks of hospitalization following ICH. Neuroimaging features along with GCS score can help the clinicians in developing their prognosis. PMID:15193159

  14. Pocket Hematoma: A Call for Definition.

    PubMed

    DE Sensi, Francesco; Miracapillo, Gennaro; Cresti, Alberto; Severi, Silva; Airaksinen, Kari Eino Juhani

    2015-08-01

    Pocket hematoma is a common complication of cardiac implantable electronic device procedures and a potential risk factor for device infections, especially in patients on oral anticoagulation or antiplatelet treatment. There is a wide variability in the incidence of pocket hematoma and bleeding complications in the literature and the major cause for this seems to be the variability of the used definitions for hematomas. The lack of generally accepted definition for pocket hematoma renders the comparisons across the studies difficult. In this article, we briefly review the current literature on this issue and propose a uniform definition for pocket hematoma and criteria for grading the severity of hematoma in clinical practice and research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Chronic epidural hematoma with rapid ossification.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jong Hee; Choi, Jae Young; Chang, Jin Woo; Park, Yong Gou; Kim, Tai Seung; Chung, Sang Sup

    2002-12-01

    The authors present a rare case of ossified chronic epidural hematoma. A 13-year-old female patient presented with an ossified chronic epidural hematoma. She had sustained a head injury about 10 weeks previously and had received conservative care for a delayed-onset epidural hematoma at a local hospital. Ossification was identified about 4 weeks after the head injury and then progressed rapidly. A chronic epidural hematoma with a thick collagenous capsule and newly formed bone was removed 73 days after the head injury. An epidural hematoma with mild symptoms can be treated conservatively. When, however, the hematoma is observed not to be naturally absorbed during serial follow-up examinations, surgical removal must be considered, even if the patient's condition is good, because this entity carries the risk of bone calcification and ossification.

  16. Histotripsy Liquefaction of Large Hematomas.

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Monsky, Wayne L; Haider, Yasser A; Maxwell, Adam D; Wang, Yak-Nam; Matula, Thomas J

    2016-07-01

    Intra- and extra-muscular hematomas result from repetitive injury as well as sharp and blunt limb trauma. The clinical consequences can be serious, including debilitating pain and functional deficit. There are currently no short-term treatment options for large hematomas, only lengthy conservative treatment. The goal of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of a high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-based technique, termed histotripsy, for rapid (within a clinically relevant timeframe of 15-20 min) liquefaction of large volume (up to 20 mL) extra-vascular hematomas for subsequent fine-needle aspiration. Experiments were performed using in vitro extravascular hematoma phantoms-fresh bovine blood poured into 50 mL molds and allowed to clot. The resulting phantoms were treated by boiling histotripsy (BH), cavitation histotripsy (CH) or a combination in a degassed water tank under ultrasound guidance. Two different transducers operating at 1 MHz and 1.5 MHz with f-number = 1 were used. The liquefied lysate was aspirated and analyzed by histology and sized in a Coulter Counter. The peak instantaneous power to achieve BH was lower than (at 1.5 MHz) or equal to (at 1 MHz) that which was required to initiate CH. Under the same exposure duration, BH-induced cavities were one and a half to two times larger than the CH-induced cavities, but the CH-induced cavities were more regularly shaped, facilitating easier aspiration. The lysates contained a small amount of debris larger than 70 μm, and 99% of particulates were smaller than 10 μm. A combination treatment of BH (for initial debulking) and CH (for liquefaction of small residual fragments) yielded 20 mL of lysate within 17.5 minutes of treatment and was found to be most optimal for liquefaction of large extravascular hematomas. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Management of subcapsular hematoma of the graft after living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Lee, Sung-Gyu; Sung, Gyu-Bo; Ko, Gi-Young; Park, Kwang-Min; Kim, Ki-Hun; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Moon, Deok-Bog; Ha, Tae-Yong; Song, Gi-Won

    2006-07-01

    Subcapsular hematoma of the graft is a serious complication of liver transplantation (LT), and there has been no discussion in the literature about optimal management except in sporadic case reports. The aim of this work is to review our experience of subcapsular hematoma in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to introduce our management strategy. Among the 818 cases of adult-to-adult LDLT between February 1997 and November 2005, there have been 4 cases of subcapsular hematoma. Two of these developed after percutaneous liver biopsy and the other 2 developed after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). Two developed immediately after the procedure, whereas the other 2 developed 8 and 12 days after the procedure, respectively, due to rupture of a pseudoaneurysm. Our management strategy was as follows; after performing dynamic computed tomography for initial diagnosis, these 3 steps were taken: 1) hepatic arteriography and selective embolization of bleeding focus; 2) pigtail catheter drainage (PCD) of subcapsular hematoma; and 3) hepatic vein stenting if there was a sign of outflow disturbance due to compression by a large hematoma. All 4 of our patients recovered from the insult of subcapsular hematoma. In conclusion, our results indicate that patients who develop subcapsular hematoma after LDLT can be treated nonsurgically.

  18. Single-Session Hematoma Removal and Transcranial Coil Embolization for a Cavernous Sinus Dural Arteriovenous Fistula: A Technical Case Report.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Yosuke; Sato, Kenichi; Endo, Hidenori; Matsumoto, Yasushi; Tominaga, Teiji

    2017-08-01

    Patients with cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas (CS dAVFs) with cortical venous varix are indicated for aggressive treatment because of the associated risk for intracranial hemorrhage. We present a case of surgical transvenous embolization in an 84-year-old woman with CS dAVF who presented with massive intracerebral hematoma. Cerebral angiograms revealed the dural AVF drained only into the superficial middle cerebral vein. Because an emergent mass reduction and prevention of rebleeding were necessary, single-session hematoma removal and transcranial embolization of a CS dAVF were performed in the neurosurgical operating room, using a mobile C-arm fluoroscopy. After the right frontotemporal craniotomy, intracerebral hematoma was removed and coil packing of the affected cavernous sinus was successfully performed via the dilated superficial middle cerebral vein. The transcortical vein approach enables occlusion of CS dAVF with isolated cortical venous drainage and may be a valuable alternative approach for some cases needed emergency craniotomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Evaluation of computerized tomography-guided stereotactic evacuation of putaminal hematomas by somatosensory evoked potentials].

    PubMed

    Takizawa, T; Sato, S; Sano, A; Murakami, Y; Matsumoto, A; Ohta, K

    1986-04-01

    Computerized tomography (CT) guided stereotactic evacuation of intracerebral hematomas is effective and little invasive treatment at subacute or chronic stage. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) of 23 patients with putaminal hemorrhage whose stereotactic evacuations were performed from day 4 to day 24 are studied about surgical result and CT findings. As for SEP, N20 which is thought to be generated in the thalamus or in the primary parietal area receiving direct projections from the thalamus is used for comparison with functional recovery. Among 12 patients whose N20s before the evacuation showed normal, 9 had good recovery of their hemiplegia. Motor recovery tended to begin quickly after the evacuation and the evacuation of hematomas were thought to make better result than conservative treatment. CT findings of 9 patients with good recovery revealed that the hematomas didn't invade to the internal capsule or invaded to the posterior part of the posterior limb alone. Among 3 patients whose N20s before the evacuation were not distinct and those after the evacuation were normal, 2 had good recovery of their hemiplegia. As those hematomas were relatively large but located laterally, the internal capsule was seem to be not invaded but only compressed. Among 8 patients whose N20s were not distinct both before and after the evacuation, 7 could not get the recovery of their hemiplegia. CT findings of them revealed that the hematomas were large or invaded toward the internal capsule and thalamus. From this study N20s of SEPs are thought to be useful to the decision of indication and the prediction of the functional prognosis about stereotactic evacuation of putaminal hemorrhage.

  20. Urokinase, a promising candidate for fibrinolytic therapy for intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qiang; Chen, Qianwei; Niu, Yin; Feng, Zhou; Li, Lin; Tao, Yihao; Tang, Jun; Yang, Liming; Guo, Jing; Feng, Hua; Zhu, Gang; Chen, Zhi

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with a high rate of mortality and severe disability, while fibrinolysis for ICH evacuation is a possible treatment. However, reported adverse effects can counteract the benefits of fibrinolysis and limit the use of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). Identifying appropriate fibrinolytics is still needed. Therefore, the authors here compared the use of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), an alternate thrombolytic, with that of tPA in a preclinical study. METHODS Intracerebral hemorrhage was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting autologous blood into the caudate, followed by intraclot fibrinolysis without drainage. Rats were randomized to receive uPA, tPA, or saline within the clot. Hematoma and perihematomal edema, brain water content, Evans blue fluorescence and neurological scores, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP mRNA, blood-brain barrier (BBB) tight junction proteins, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation were measured to evaluate the effects of these 2 drugs in ICH. RESULTS In comparison with tPA, uPA better ameliorated brain edema and promoted an improved outcome after ICH. In addition, uPA therapy more effectively upregulated BBB tight junction protein expression, which was partly attributed to the different effects of uPA and tPA on the regulation of MMPs and its related mRNA expression following ICH. CONCLUSIONS This study provided evidence supporting the use of uPA for fibrinolytic therapy after ICH. Large animal experiments and clinical trials are required to further explore the efficacy and safety of uPA in ICH fibrinolysis.

  1. Surgery for Patients With Spontaneous Deep Supratentorial Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jun; Li, Hao; Zhao, He-Xiang; Guo, Rui; Lin, Sen; Dong, Wei; Ma, Lu; Fang, Yuan; Tian, Meng; Liu, Ming; You, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) is one of the most dangerous cerebrovascular diseases, especially when in deep brain. The treatment of spontaneous deep supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage is still controversial. We conducted a retrospective case-control study using propensity score matching to compare the efficacy of surgery and conservative treatment for patients with deep surpatentorial hemorrhage. We observed the outcomes of consecutive patients with spontaneous deep supratentorial hemorrhage retrospectively from December 2008 to July 2013. Clinical outcomes of surgery and conservative treatments were compared in patients with deep sICH using propensity score matching method. The primary outcome was neurological function status at 6 months post ictus. The second outcomes included mortality at 30 days and 6 months, and the incidence of complications. Subgroup analyses of 6-month outcome were conducted. Sixty-three (22.66%) of the 278 patients who received surgery had a favorable neurological function status at 6 months, whereas in the conservative group, 66 of 278 (23.74%) had the same result (P = 0.763). The 30-day mortality in the surgical group was 19.06%, whereas 30.58% in the conservative group (P = 0.002). There was significant difference in the mortality at 6 months after ictus as well (23.38% vs 36.33%, P = 0.001). The subgroup analyses showed significantly better outcomes for the surgical group when hematoma was >40 mL (13.33% vs 0%, P = 0.005) or complicated with intraventricular hemorrhage (16.67% vs 7.27%, P = 0.034). For complications, the risk of pulmonary infection, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, urinary infection, pulmonary embolus, and need for tracheostomy/long term ventilation in the surgical group was higher than the conservative group (31.29% vs 15.47%, P < 0.001; 6.83% vs 3.96%, P = 0.133; 2.88% vs 1.80%, P = 0.400; 1.80% vs 1.08%, P = 0.476; 32.73% vs 23.38%, P = 0

  2. Post-coital intra-cerebral venous hemorrhage in a 78-year-old man with jugular valve incompetence: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Spontaneous intra-cerebral hemorrhage can occur in patients with venous disease due to obstructed venous outflow. Case presentation We report the case of a 78-year-old Caucasian man with jugular valve incompetence who experienced an intra-cerebral temporo-occipital hemorrhage following sexual intercourse. He had no other risk factors for an intra-cerebral hemorrhage. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of intra-cerebral hemorrhage due to jugular valve incompetence in association with the physical exertion associated with sexual intercourse. PMID:20659320

  3. Intramyocardial Hematoma After Ebstein Anomaly Repair.

    PubMed

    Lim, Joel Kian Boon; Lee, Jan Hau; Mok, Yee Hui; Chen, Ching Kit; Loh, Yee Jim

    2017-01-01

    Intramyocardial hematoma is a rare condition and is an incomplete form of myocardial rupture, which may occur after myocardial infarction, cardiac surgery, trauma, percutaneous coronary intervention, or spontaneously. We describe a case of a 16-year-old girl with intramyocardial hematoma mimicking an intracavitary thrombus following repair of Ebstein anomaly. The intramyocardial hematoma was incorrectly diagnosed on echocardiography as a right ventricular thrombus, and the true nature of the lesion was only realized during repeat surgical intervention for severe tricuspid regurgitation. The hematoma was managed conservatively and spontaneously resolved.

  4. Spontaneous subdural hematoma of the thoracolumbar region with massive recurrent bleed

    PubMed Central

    Cincu, Rafael; de Asis Lorente, Francisco; Rivero, David; Eiras, José; Ara, José Ramón

    2009-01-01

    Spinal subdural hematoma is a rare disorder and can be caused by abnormalities of coagulation, blood dyscrasias, lumbar puncture, trauma, underlying neoplasm, and arteriovenous malformation. We discuss an unusual case of an elderly woman who presented with spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma and developed massive rebleeding on the third day following initial evacuation of hematoma. This case illustrates that a patient with routine normal coagulation profile and adequate hemostasis can still harbor platelet dysfunction (in present case due to polycythemia) and later on can manifest as rebleeding and neurological deterioration. PMID:19838395

  5. Delayed Acute Subdural Hematoma Associated With Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Nobuhiko; Nakamura, Akiyoshi; Tabuse, Masanao; Miyazaki, Hiromichi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Delayed acute subdural hematoma (DASH) is a subdural hematoma which is detected later. An initial computed tomography (CT) does not reveal any intracranial hemorrhage at all. Few patients of DASH after mild traumatic brain injury associated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have been published. Patient Presentation: A 63-year-old woman presented with cardiac pulmonary arrest due to acute myocardial infarction and lethal arrhythmia. She had hit her head on the road. The initial CT did not reveal any hemorrhage in the intra-cranium. She fully recovered after PCI. However, 1 hour after PCI, she lost consciousness and immediate CT showed acute subdural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage. The period from losing consciousness to brain herniation presenting as anisocoria was very short—only 30 minutes in our patient. Although emergent evacuation of hematoma and external decompression were performed, the patient died 1 day after the operation. Conclusion: The authors encountered a patient of DASH after PCI that resulted in death. Clinicians should be aware that subdural hemorrhage can occur after PCI if no hemorrhage is noted in the initial head CT, and the operation should be performed as soon as possible when the consciousness level decreases. PMID:27526240

  6. Efficacy and safety of recombinant activated factor VII for acute intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Stephan A; Brun, Nikolai C; Begtrup, Kamilla; Broderick, Joseph; Davis, Stephen; Diringer, Michael N; Skolnick, Brett E; Steiner, Thorsten

    2008-05-15

    Intracerebral hemorrhage is the least treatable form of stroke. We performed this phase 3 trial to confirm a previous study in which recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) reduced growth of the hematoma and improved survival and functional outcomes. We randomly assigned 841 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage to receive placebo (268 patients), 20 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram of body weight (276 patients), or 80 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram (297 patients) within 4 hours after the onset of stroke. The primary end point was poor outcome, defined as severe disability or death according to the modified Rankin scale 90 days after the stroke. Treatment with 80 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram resulted in a significant reduction in growth in volume of the hemorrhage. The mean estimated increase in volume of the intracerebral hemorrhage at 24 hours was 26% in the placebo group, as compared with 18% in the group receiving 20 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram (P=0.09) and 11% in the group receiving 80 microg (P<0.001). The growth in volume of intracerebral hemorrhage was reduced by 2.6 ml (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.3 to 5.5; P=0.08) in the group receiving 20 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram and by 3.8 ml (95% CI, 0.9 to 6.7; P=0.009) in the group receiving 80 microg, as compared with the placebo group. Despite this reduction in bleeding, there was no significant difference among the three groups in the proportion of patients with poor clinical outcome (24% in the placebo group, 26% in the group receiving 20 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram, and 29% in the group receiving 80 microg). The overall frequency of thromboembolic serious adverse events was similar in the three groups; however, arterial events were more frequent in the group receiving 80 microg of rFVIIa than in the placebo group (9% vs. 4%, P=0.04). Hemostatic therapy with rFVIIa reduced growth of the hematoma but did not improve survival or functional outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage. (Clinical

  7. Systolic blood pressure after intravenous antihypertensive treatment and clinical outcomes in hyperacute intracerebral hemorrhage: the stroke acute management with urgent risk-factor assessment and improvement-intracerebral hemorrhage study.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yuki; Koga, Masatoshi; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Okuda, Satoshi; Okada, Yasushi; Kimura, Kazumi; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Furui, Eisuke; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Kario, Kazuomi; Arihiro, Shoji; Sato, Shoichiro; Kobayashi, Junpei; Tanaka, Eijirou; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Minematsu, Kazuo; Toyoda, Kazunori

    2013-07-01

    Blood pressure (BP) lowering is often conducted as part of general acute management in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. However, the relationship between BP after antihypertensive therapy and clinical outcomes is not fully known. Hyperacute (<3 hours from onset) intracerebral hemorrhage patients with initial systolic BP (SBP) >180 mm Hg were included. All patients received intravenous antihypertensive treatment, based on predefined protocol to lower and maintain SBP between 120 and 160 mm Hg. BPs were measured every 15 minutes during the initial 2 hours and every 60 minutes in the next 22 hours (a total of 30 measurements). The mean achieved SBP was defined as the mean of 30 SBPs, and associations between the mean achieved SBP and neurological deterioration (≥2 points' decrease in Glasgow Coma Score or ≥4 points' increase in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score), hematoma expansion (>33% increase), and unfavorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 4-6 at 3 months) were assessed with multivariate logistic regression analyses. Of the 211 patients (81 women, median age 65 [interquartile range, 58-74] years, and median initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 13 [8-17]) enrolled, 17 (8%) showed neurological deterioration, 36 (17%) showed hematoma expansion, and 87 (41%) had an unfavorable outcome. On multivariate regression analyses, mean achieved SBP was independently associated with neurological deterioration (odds ratio, 4.45; 95% confidence interval, 2.03-9.74 per 10 mm Hg increment), hematoma expansion (1.86; 1.09-3.16), and unfavorable outcome (2.03; 1.24-3.33) after adjusting for known predictive factors. High achieved SBP after standardized antihypertensive therapy in hyperacute intracerebral hemorrhage was independently associated with poor clinical outcomes. Aggressive antihypertensive treatment may ameliorate clinical outcomes.

  8. Retropharyngeal hematoma secondary to cervical spine surgery: report of one fatal case.

    PubMed

    Dedouit, Fabrice; Grill, Stéphane; Guilbeau-Frugier, Céline; Savall, Frédéric; Rougé, Daniel; Telmon, Norbert

    2014-09-01

    A 53-year-old woman suffering from radicular pain due to cervical herniation underwent a spinal surgery consisting of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with an implantable titanium cage. Five hours after the procedure, the patient developed cervical swelling and dyspnea. An emergency surgery permitted evacuation of a deep cervical hematoma and intubation of the patient, who died some minutes later. The family of the deceased lodged a complaint with the public prosecutor because of unclear circumstances of death. After analysis of the medical records by two forensic pathologists, a medicolegal autopsy was ordered. Massive retropharyngeal and mediastinal hematomas were diagnosed. Pathological study confirmed acute cervical hemorrhage, but failed to detect the source of bleeding. The forensic pathologists concluded that death was due to mechanical asphyxia secondary to pharyngeal compression by the cervical hematoma. To the best of our knowledge, death secondary to retropharyngeal hematoma in this neurosurgical context is rarely encountered.

  9. Intrastriatal Injection of Autologous Blood or Clostridial Collagenase as Murine Models of Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Beilei; Sheng, Huaxin; Wang, Haichen; Lascola, Christopher D.; Warner, David S.; Laskowitz, Daniel T.; James, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common form of cerebrovascular disease and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Lack of effective treatment and failure of large clinical trials aimed at hemostasis and clot removal demonstrate the need for further mechanism-driven investigation of ICH. This research may be performed through the framework provided by preclinical models. Two murine models in popular use include intrastriatal (basal ganglia) injection of either autologous whole blood or clostridial collagenase. Since, each model represents distinctly different pathophysiological features related to ICH, use of a particular model may be selected based on what aspect of the disease is to be studied. For example, autologous blood injection most accurately represents the brain's response to the presence of intraparenchymal blood, and may most closely replicate lobar hemorrhage. Clostridial collagenase injection most accurately represents the small vessel rupture and hematoma evolution characteristic of deep hemorrhages. Thus, each model results in different hematoma formation, neuroinflammatory response, cerebral edema development, and neurobehavioral outcomes. Robustness of a purported therapeutic intervention can be best assessed using both models. In this protocol, induction of ICH using both models, immediate post-operative demonstration of injury, and early post-operative care techniques are demonstrated. Both models result in reproducible injuries, hematoma volumes, and neurobehavioral deficits. Because of the heterogeneity of human ICH, multiple preclinical models are needed to thoroughly explore pathophysiologic mechanisms and test potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:25046028

  10. Intrastriatal injection of autologous blood or clostridial collagenase as murine models of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lei, Beilei; Sheng, Huaxin; Wang, Haichen; Lascola, Christopher D; Warner, David S; Laskowitz, Daniel T; James, Michael L

    2014-07-03

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common form of cerebrovascular disease and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Lack of effective treatment and failure of large clinical trials aimed at hemostasis and clot removal demonstrate the need for further mechanism-driven investigation of ICH. This research may be performed through the framework provided by preclinical models. Two murine models in popular use include intrastriatal (basal ganglia) injection of either autologous whole blood or clostridial collagenase. Since, each model represents distinctly different pathophysiological features related to ICH, use of a particular model may be selected based on what aspect of the disease is to be studied. For example, autologous blood injection most accurately represents the brain's response to the presence of intraparenchymal blood, and may most closely replicate lobar hemorrhage. Clostridial collagenase injection most accurately represents the small vessel rupture and hematoma evolution characteristic of deep hemorrhages. Thus, each model results in different hematoma formation, neuroinflammatory response, cerebral edema development, and neurobehavioral outcomes. Robustness of a purported therapeutic intervention can be best assessed using both models. In this protocol, induction of ICH using both models, immediate post-operative demonstration of injury, and early post-operative care techniques are demonstrated. Both models result in reproducible injuries, hematoma volumes, and neurobehavioral deficits. Because of the heterogeneity of human ICH, multiple preclinical models are needed to thoroughly explore pathophysiologic mechanisms and test potential therapeutic strategies.

  11. Cellular composition of the initial fracture hematoma compared to a muscle hematoma: a study in sheep.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Bleek, Katharina; Schell, Hanna; Kolar, Paula; Pfaff, Michael; Perka, Carsten; Buttgereit, Frank; Duda, Georg; Lienau, Jasmin

    2009-09-01

    Bone fracture leads to a cycle of inflammation, cellular migration, and proliferation to restore tissue integrity. Immune cells at the site of injury are involved especially in the early phase of the healing process, but little is known about the cells present in the initial fracture hematoma. The hypothesis of this study was that the cellular composition in a fracture hematoma differs from that found in a muscle hematoma and that these divergences get more pronounced over time. By using a reproducible osteotomy model and muscle trauma in sheep the distributions of the immune cell subpopulations were evaluated 1 and 4 h after surgery. The cell amount within the first 4 h increased in both hematoma. The number of dead cells was higher in the muscle hematoma. One hour postoperatively the initial fracture hematoma revealed a lower granulocyte percentage compared to the muscle hematoma. The ratio of T helper to cytotoxic T cells was higher in the fracture hematoma compared to the muscle hematoma at both investigated time points. B cell percentage increased in the fracture but not in the muscle hematoma from 1 to 4 h. This is the first study that compares the immune cell subpopulations of a fracture and muscle hematoma.

  12. The Effect of Age on Characteristics and Mortality of Intracerebral Hemorrhage in the Oldest-Old.

    PubMed

    Forti, Paola; Maioli, Fabiola; Domenico Spampinato, Michele; Barbara, Carlotta; Nativio, Valeria; Coveri, Maura; Zoli, Marco; Simonetti, Luigi; Di Pasquale, Giuseppe; Procaccianti, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) increases with age, but there is a lack of information about ICH characteristics in the oldest-old (age ≥85 years). In particular, there is a need for information about hematoma volume, which is included in most clinical scales for prediction of mortality in ICH patients. Many of these scales also assume that, independent of ICH characteristics, the oldest-old have a higher mortality than younger elderly patients (age 65-74 years). However, supporting evidence from cohort studies is limited. We investigated ICH characteristics of oldest-old subjects compared to young (<65 years), young-old (65-74 years) and old-old (75-84 years) subjects. We also investigated whether age is an independent mortality predictor in elderly (age ≥65 years) subjects with acute ICH. We retrospectively collected clinical and neuroimaging data of 383 subjects (age 34-104 years) with acute supratentorial primary ICH who were admitted to an Italian Stroke Unit (SU) between October 2007 and December 2014. Measured ICH characteristics included hematoma location, volume and intraventricular extension of hemorrhage on admission CT scan; admission Glasgow Coma Scale ≤8 and hematoma expansion (HE) measured on follow-up CT-scans obtained after 24 h. General linear models and logistic models were used to investigate the association of age with ICH characteristics. These models were adjusted for pre-admission characteristics, hematoma location and time from symptom onset to admission CT scan. Limited to elderly subjects, Cox models were used to investigate the association of age with in-SU and 1-year mortality: the model for in-SU mortality adjusted for pre-admission and ICH admission characteristics and the model for 1-year mortality additionally adjusted for functional status and disposition at SU discharge. Independent of pre-admission characteristics, hematoma location and time from symptom onset to admission CT-scan, oldest-old subjects had

  13. Cervical epidural hematoma after chiropractic spinal manipulation.

    PubMed

    Heiner, Jason D

    2009-10-01

    Spinal epidural hematoma is a rare but potentially devastating complication of spinal manipulation therapy. This is a case report of a healthy pregnant female who presented to the emergency department with a cervical epidural hematoma resulting from chiropractic spinal manipulation therapy that responded to conservative treatment rather than the more common route of surgical management.

  14. Traumatic subdural hematoma in the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Song, Jenn-Yeu; Chen, Yu-Hao; Hung, Kuang-Chen; Chang, Ti-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    Traumatic spinal subdural hematoma is rare and its mechanism remains unclear. This intervention describes a patient with mental retardation who was suffering from back pain and progressive weakness of the lower limbs following a traffic accident. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed a lumbar subdural lesion. Hematoma was identified in the spinal subdural space during an operation. The muscle power of both lower limbs recovered to normal after surgery. The isolated traumatic spinal subdural hematoma was not associated with intracranial subdural hemorrhage. A spinal subdural hematoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord compression, especially for patients who have sustained spinal trauma. Emergency surgical decompression is usually the optimal treatment for a spinal subdural hematoma with acute deterioration and severe neurological deficits.

  15. [Bilateral cerebellar hematoma after supratentorial glioma surgery].

    PubMed

    Czepko, Ryszard; Kwinta, Borys; Uhl, Henryka; Urbanik, Andrzej; Libionka, Witold; Pietraszko, Wojciech

    2004-01-01

    We present a case of bilateral hematoma in cerebellar hemispheres in a 30-year-old man after surgical treatment of extensive left frontal glioma. 16 hours after surgery the patient lost consciousness. An immediate CT revealed hematoma in both cerebellar hemispheres. The hematoma was subsequently removed via bilateral suboccipital craniectomy. After the operation the clinical status of the patient gradually improved - he was discharged in a good general condition. In the presented case the hematoma developed presumably as a consequence of extensive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) loss (670 ml) via postoperative wound drainage. The resulting cerebellar displacement caused strain of the draining veins, affecting blood outflow, and causing parenchymal hemorrhage. In order to prevent the complication, massive CSF loss during and after operation should be avoided. Careful monitoring of the patient's condition in the postoperative period, even if the general status is good, is important because only an immediate intervention may prevent the development of irreversible consequences of cerebellar hematoma formation.

  16. [Retroperitoneal hematoma in pelvic fractures].

    PubMed

    Purghel, F; Jemna, C; Ciuvică, R

    2011-01-01

    Retroperitoneal trauma implies a wide variety of organs in multiple systems (digestive, urinary, circulatory, musculoskeletal); although their common result is the retroperitoneal hematoma, their management is completely different, an intervention indicated for a particular lesion being able to completely decompensate other lesions in case of insufficient diagnostic. The present material highlights the recent diagnostic and therapeutic particularities in retroperitoneal hematoma from pelvic fractures. We noted a recent trend in diminishing the role of the fracture pattern on standard pelvis X-ray in assessing the risk of hemodinamic instability, new markers being indicated as more predictive. CT scan with contrast substance, when applies, remains the gold standard in identifying the source of the vascular bleeding and in guiding the subsequent therapeutic maneuvers. The angiographic embolisation in arterial lesions remains the main therapeutic procedure in hemodinamical unstable patients, with the possibility of repeating it when needed; the C-clamp external fixator application is associated. The pre-peritoneal packing constantly gains support as an emergency hemostasis maneuver. The treatment should be adapted in each case, the hemodinamic instability being the trigger in initiation and repetition of the emergency therapeutic interventions mentioned above.

  17. Chronic Subdural Hematoma in Women.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Kazuko; Sorimachi, Takatoshi; Honda, Yumie; Matsumae, Mitsunori

    2017-09-01

    Sex differences in various diseases recently have been recognized as an important factor in the approach to more efficient preventive and therapeutic medicine. We clarified sex differences in the clinical characteristics of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) by comparing men and women with CSDH, as there is a well-known male predominance in the prevalence of CSDH. Clinical factors and computed tomography findings were investigated retrospectively in 490 consecutive patients admitted to our hospital between 2006 and 2015 who were diagnosed with CSDH. On univariate analysis, women were significantly older than men (P < 0.05). In women, premorbid impaired activities of daily living, consciousness disturbance, acute-to-chronic subdural hematoma, and death as outcomes at discharge were significantly more frequent than in men (P < 0.05). In contrast, women had less frequent instances of good recovery and less alcohol intake (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated female sex as an independent predictor of consciousness disturbance at admission. Female sex also was identified as a predictor of death at discharge. We demonstrated sex differences in the clinical characteristics of CSDH. In the future, management of patients with CSDH with regard to sex differences in disease characteristics could be expected to improve the outcomes of women, which have been worse than in men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Robot-assisted intracerebral hemorrhage evacuation: an experimental evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgner, Jessica; Swaney, Philip J.; Lathrop, Ray A.; Weaver, Kyle D.; Webster, Robert J.

    2013-03-01

    We present a novel robotic approach for the rapid, minimally invasive treatment of Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ICH), in which a hematoma or blood clot arises in the brain parenchyma. We present a custom image-guided robot system that delivers a steerable cannula into the lesion and aspirates it from the inside. The steerable cannula consists of an initial straight tube delivered in a manner similar to image-guided biopsy (and which uses a commercial image guidance system), followed by the sequential deployment of multiple individual precurved elastic tubes. Rather than deploying the tubes simultaneously, as has been done in nearly all prior studies, we deploy the tubes one at a time, using a compilation of their individual workspaces to reach desired points inside the lesion. This represents a new paradigm in active cannula research, defining a novel procedure-planning problem. A design that solves this problem can potentially save many lives by enabling brain decompression both more rapidly and less invasively than is possible through the traditional open surgery approach. Experimental results include a comparison of the simulated and actual workspaces of the prototype robot, and an accuracy evaluation of the system.

  19. Factors predicting contralateral hematoma growth after unilateral drainage of bilateral chronic subdural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Fujitani, Shigeta; Ishikawa, Osamu; Miura, Keisuke; Takeda, Yasuhiro; Goto, Haruo; Maeda, Keiichiro

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common form of intracranial hemorrhage with a recurrence rate of 9.2%-26.5% after bur hole surgery. Occasionally patients with bilateral CSDH undergo unilateral surgery because the contralateral hematoma is deemed to be asymptomatic, and in some of these patients the contralateral hematoma may subsequently enlarge, requiring additional surgery. The authors investigated the factors related to the growth of these hematomas. METHODS Ninety-three patients with bilateral CSDH who underwent unilateral bur hole surgery at Aizu Chuo Hospital were included in a retrospective analysis. Findings on preoperative MRI, preoperative thickness of the drained hematoma, and the influence of antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs were considered and evaluated in univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS The overall growth rate was 19% (18 of 93 hematomas), and a significantly greater percentage of the hematomas that were iso- or hypointense on preoperative T1-weighted imaging showed growth compared with other hematomas (35.4% vs 2.3%, p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that findings on preoperative T1-weighted MRI were the sole significant predictor of hematoma growth, and other factors such as antiplatelet or anticoagulant drug use, patient age, patient sex, thickness of the treated hematoma, and T2-weighted MRI findings were not significantly related to hematoma growth. The adjusted odds ratio for hematoma growth in the T1 isointense/hypointense group relative to the T1 hyperintense group was 25.12 (95% CI 3.89-51.58, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS The findings of preoperative MRI, namely T1-weighted sequences, may be useful in predicting the growth of hematomas that did not undergo bur hole surgery in patients with bilateral CSDH.

  20. Subcapsular hematoma after ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Peter Ka-Fung; Chan, Chun-Ki; Ma, Wai-kit; To, Kim-Chung; Cheung, Fu-Keung; Yiu, Ming-kwong

    2013-09-01

    Renal hematoma after ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URSL) using holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser is a rare complication. We aimed to review our center's experience of post-URSL subcapsular hematoma. From 2007 to 2012, 1114 URSLs using 7.5F semi-rigid ureteroscopes were performed. Patients with post-URSL symptomatic renal hematoma were reviewed. Perioperative information on patients' preoperative morbidity, renal function, stone characteristics, and degree of hydronephrosis were reviewed. Operative information, postoperative presentation of symptoms, changes in blood parameters, CT findings, and subsequent management were documented. Post-URSL subcapsular hematoma was diagnosed in 4 of 1114 (0.36%) patients, who ranged in age from 43 to 63 years. Preoperative imaging showed that all four patients had obstructing proximal ureteral stones ranging in size from 0.7 to 2.1 cm, and three of them had thin renal cortices. Pressure bags were not used, and Double-J ureteral stents were inserted in all cases. All four patients had the triad of loin pain, fever, and significant hemoglobin drop necessitating transfusion. Three patients presented within 2 days of URSL, and one patient presented on day 20. One patient was treated conservatively and recovered with bed rest and antibiotics. Urgent angiography was performed on one patient in view of a significant drop in hemoglobin, but no embolization was needed. One patient underwent ultrasonography-guided drainage of the hematoma, and another had an emergency open clot evacuation because of significant compression on the kidney by the hematoma. Follow-up CT scans confirmed the resolution of the hematoma in all cases. Post-URSL subcapsular hematoma is a rare but potentially serious complication. A high index of suspicion is needed when patients present with significant loin pain and fever after URSL for obstructing proximal ureteral stones with thin renal cortices. The management of post-URSL subcapsular hematomas needs

  1. Subperiosteal Hematoma of the Ankle

    PubMed Central

    Hui, S H; Lui, T H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Periosteal reaction has a long list of differential diagnoses ranging from trauma, infection, metabolic disease to malignancy. The morphology of periosteal reaction shown in imaging studies helps to narrow down the list of differential diagnoses. Case report: A 25 year old gentleman had an inversion injury to his left ankle. He complained of lateral ankle and posterior heel pain and swelling after the injury. Radiograph of his left ankle revealed solid, smooth periosteal reaction at posterior aspect of left distal tibia. MRI showed periosteal reaction at the corresponding site, which was better demonstrated in CT scan. Follow up MRI and CT showed maturation of the new bone formation at the site of periosteal reaction. Findings were compatible with subperiosteal hematoma formation from injury, which ossified with time. Conclusion: Smooth, thick periosteal reaction favours benign process, while interrupted pattern is an alarming feature for more aggressive causes. PMID:27299131

  2. [A Case of Spinal Epidural Hematoma Presenting with Transient Hemiplegia].

    PubMed

    Komai, Takanori; Nakashima, Kazuya; Tominaga, Takashi; Nogaki, Hidekazu

    2016-04-01

    We report a rare case of a patient with spinal epidural hematoma who presented with transient hemiplegia. A 90-year-old man awakened from sleep due to sudden neck pain. Fifteen minutes later, the man experienced progressively worsening weakness in his left hand, and was transported in an ambulance to our hospital. At the hospital, he presented with hemiplegia, and we suspected intracranial disease. Therefore, we performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which revealed no intracranial lesions. Shortly after the MRI, the patient showed no signs of hemiplegia. However, since the severe neck pain persisted, we performed cervical MRI, which showed a high-intensity area at the C2-C5 level, predominantly on the left side. Despite recovery from hemiplegia, we performed a laminectomy of C3-C5 with evacuation of a hematoma at the C2-C6 level. After the surgery, the patient had no neck pain.

  3. [Chronic subdural hematoma of the posterior cranial fossa].

    PubMed

    Kachkov, I A; Rusinov, A I; Stashuk, G A

    1999-01-01

    The 41-year-old patient experienced a trauma in childhood. Her examination revealed the hypertensive syndrome, truncal and cerebellar symptoms, suboccipital pain. Computed tomography indicated that in the posterior cranial fossa was a 48 x 78 x 37-mm spreading from the tentorium of the cerebellum to the foramen magnum and descending along the clivus. At surgery, chronic subdural hematoma of the posterior cranial fossa was totally removed, the total volume of liquid and dense fractions was as high as 100 ml. After surgery, the patient recovered working capacity. The interest of this clinical case is due to a rare traumatic pathology, long disease, problematic preoperative diagnosis of chronic hematoma, a large formation, fair postoperative outcome.

  4. Delayed intrahepatic subcapsular hematoma after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Steve M M; Reekers, Jim A; Dwars, Boudewijn J

    2012-01-01

    Intrahepatic subcapsular hematoma after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a rare complication and is potentially life threatening. When radiologic studies confirm the presence of the hematoma, the decision to follow a conservative treatment should involve clinical monitoring. If there are signs of infection, the collection can safely be drained percutaneously. If there are signs of active bleeding, a selective embolization should be attempted first. If unsuccessful, subsequent surgical evacuation should be performed. We report the case of a patient with an intrahepatic subcapsular hematoma after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which occurred 6 weeks after surgery, and review the literature concerning the management of these bleedings.

  5. Predictors of 30-day mortality in patients with spontaneous primary intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Safatli, Diaa A.; Günther, Albrecht; Schlattmann, Peter; Schwarz, Falko; Kalff, Rolf; Ewald, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a life threatening entity, and an early outcome assessment is mandatory for optimizing therapeutic efforts. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from 342 patients with spontaneous primary ICH to evaluate possible predictors of 30-day mortality considering clinical, radiological, and therapeutical parameters. We also applied three widely accepted outcome grading scoring systems [(ICH score, FUNC score and intracerebral hemorrhage grading scale (ICH-GS)] on our population to evaluate the correlation of these scores with the 30-day mortality in our study. We also applied three widely accepted outcome grading scoring systems [(ICH score, FUNC score and intracerebral hemorrhage grading scale (ICH-GS)] on our population to evaluate the correlation of these scores with the 30-day mortality in our study. Results: From 342 patients (mean age: 67 years, mean Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] on admission: 9, mean ICH volume: 62.19 ml, most common hematoma location: basal ganglia [43.9%]), 102 received surgical and 240 conservative treatment. The 30-day mortality was 25.15%. In a multivariate analysis, GCS (Odds ratio [OR] =0.726, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.661–0.796, P < 0.001), bleeding volume (OR = 1.012 per ml, 95% CI = 1.007 – 1.017, P < 0.001), and infratentorial hematoma location (OR = 5.381, 95% CI = 2.166-13.356, P = 0.009) were significant predictors for the 30-day mortality. After receiver operating characteristics analysis, we defined a “high-risk group” for an unfavorable short-term outcome with GCS <11 and ICH volume >32 ml supratentorially or 21 ml infratentorially. Using Pearson correlation, we found a correlation of 0.986 between ICH score and 30-day mortality (P < 0.001), 0.853 between FUNC score and 30-day mortality (P = 0.001), and 0.924 between ICH-GS and 30-day mortality (P = 0.001). Conclusions: GCS score on admission together with the baseline volume and localization of the hemorrhage are strong

  6. Spinal subdural hematoma following cranial subdural hematoma : a case report with a literature review.

    PubMed

    Ji, Gyu Yeul; Oh, Chang Hyun; Chung, Daeyeong; Shin, Dong Ah

    2013-12-01

    Coexistence of cranial and spinal subdural hematomas is rare and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Herein, we report a case of cranial and spinal subdural hematomas after previous head trauma. As the pathogenesis of simultaneous intracranial and spinal subdural hematoma yet remains unclear, we developed an alternative theory to those proposed in the literature for their coexistence, the migration of blood through the subdural space.

  7. Expanding Hematoma's Life-Threatening Neck and Face Emergency Management of Ballistic Injuries.

    PubMed

    Shuker, Sabri T

    2016-07-01

    This article aims to bring attention to the morbidity and fatality of hemorrhage, how expanding hematoma and air compromise neck/face N/F injuries and present challenges. Large neck vessel ballistic injuries may lead to hemorrhage and expanding hematoma, resulting in airway compromise, due to injuries to the internal and/or external carotid arteries, internal jugular veins "internal carotid artery, external carotid artery, internal jugular vein," and the external carotid artery deep branches. This also leads to injuries to the cervical fascial layers (barriers of deep spaces) that facilitate pooling blood and hematoma into compartmental and large potential space which effects the pharynx, larynx, esophagus, and trachea.The expanding hematomas distort neck anatomical landmarks so "no neck zones" classifications are applicable. As the spectrum of injuries continues to evolve, the clinical characterization needs a new categorization based on compartmental hematoma and potential space anatomical location like retropharyngeal, parapharyngeal, sublingual, submandibular spaces, retrobulbar, and cheek compartment space hematomas.Presence of symptoms and location of the hematoma generally dictate what type of procedure is needed and how urgently it needs to be appropriately performed.Two unusual patients of pseudoaneurysms facial artery injuries with extravasation of blood producing a pulsating hematoma are referred to. Another patient considers large internal carotid artery injuries pseudoaneurysms revealed in angiography.The immediate management of life-saving patients requires aggressive airway maintenance at the scene, conscious victim will often obtain a posture that clears his airway and the semiconscious or unconscious put him in prone position. Air compromise may need emergency intubation, large bore cannula cricothyroidotomy, cricothyrotomy and at medical facilities tracheostomy.

  8. Development of a renal subcapsular hematoma during angiography for diagnosis and subsequent treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Akihiro; Tomonari, Testu; Tanaka, Hironori; Tanaka, Kumiko; Kagawa, Miwako; Tanaka, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Tatsuya; Harada, Rie; Sato, Momoko; Muguruma, Naoki; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2014-04-01

    A renal subcapsular hematoma rarely occurs without a history of trauma. It has been reported as a complication of urological interventions and also reported to occur spontaneously in patients with renal malignancies. However, there are no previous reports of renal subcapsular hematomas occurring in connection with abdominal angiography. We report here a case of a renal subcapsular hematoma that developed and was recognized during abdominal angiography for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). An 80-year-old male was referred to our hospital for transarterial embolization for multiple HCCs. His past medical history included hypertension. His laboratory data showed slightly decreased number of platelets and hepaplastin test due to liver cirrhosis. When computed tomography angiography was performed, a 7-cm subcapsular hematoma developed and was recognized over the right kidney during the procedure. He was successfully managed supportively with blood transfusion, tranexamic acid and antibiotics. Since thrombocytopenia and hypertension are reportedly risk factors for hematoma formation, careful manipulation is required during angiography in HCC patients with liver cirrhosis and hypertension. It must be kept in mind that rare complications, such as a renal subcapsular hematoma, can happen during abdominal angiography for diagnostic and interventional treatment of HCC.

  9. Spinal subdural hematoma following meningioma removal operation.

    PubMed

    Jun, Hyo Sub; Oh, Jae Keun; Park, Young Seok; Song, Joon Ho

    2014-03-01

    Although blood contamination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after an intracranial operation can occur, the development of a symptomatic spinal hematoma after craniotomy has been anecdotally reported and it is uncommon reported after a supratentorial meningioma removal operation. We report a case of spinal subdural hematoma following a supratentorial meningioma removal operation and discuss the mechanism of spinal subdural hematoma (SSDH) development. A 54-year-old woman presented with lumbago and radicular pain on both legs 4 days after a right parietooccipital craniotomy for meningioma removal. Only the straight leg raising sign was positive on neurologic examination but the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a lumbosacral spinal subdural hematoma. The patient received serial lumbar tapping, after which her symptoms showed improvement.

  10. Spinal Subdural Hematoma Following Meningioma Removal Operation

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Hyo Sub; Oh, Jae Keun; Park, Young Seok

    2014-01-01

    Although blood contamination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after an intracranial operation can occur, the development of a symptomatic spinal hematoma after craniotomy has been anecdotally reported and it is uncommon reported after a supratentorial meningioma removal operation. We report a case of spinal subdural hematoma following a supratentorial meningioma removal operation and discuss the mechanism of spinal subdural hematoma (SSDH) development. A 54-year-old woman presented with lumbago and radicular pain on both legs 4 days after a right parietooccipital craniotomy for meningioma removal. Only the straight leg raising sign was positive on neurologic examination but the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a lumbosacral spinal subdural hematoma. The patient received serial lumbar tapping, after which her symptoms showed improvement. PMID:24891866

  11. Treatment of Edema Associated With Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Leasure, Audrey; Kimberly, W Taylor; Sansing, Lauren H; Kahle, Kristopher T; Kronenberg, Golo; Kunte, Hagen; Simard, J Marc; Sheth, Kevin N

    2016-02-01

    Cerebral edema (i.e., "brain swelling") is a common complication following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and is associated with worse clinical outcomes. Perihematomal edema (PHE) accumulates during the first 72 h after hemorrhage, and during this period, patients are at risk of clinical deterioration due to the resulting tissue shifts and brain herniation. First-line medical therapies for patients symptomatic of PHE include osmotic agents, such as mannitol in low- or high-dose bolus form, or boluses of hypertonic saline (HTS) at varied concentrations with or without subsequent continuous infusion. Decompressive craniectomy may be required for symptomatic edema refractory to osmotherapy. Other strategies that reduce PHE such as hypothermia and minimally invasive surgery have shown promise in pilot studies and are currently being evaluated in larger clinical trials. Ongoing basic, translational, and clinical research seek to better elucidate the pathophysiology of PHE to identify novel strategies to prevent edema formation as a next major advance in the treatment of ICH.

  12. Endoscopic surgery versus conservative treatment for the moderate-volume hematoma in spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage (ECMOH): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is a disease with high morbidity, high disability rate, high mortality, and high economic burden. Whether patients can benefit from surgical evacuation of hematomas is still controversial, especially for those with moderate-volume hematomas in the basal ganglia. This study is designed to compare the efficacy of endoscopic surgery and conservative treatment for the moderate-volume hematoma in spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. Methods Patients meet the criteria will be randomized into the endoscopic surgery group (endoscopic surgery for hematoma evacuation and the best medical treatment) or the conservative treatment group (the best medical treatment). Patients will be followed up at 1, 3, and 6 months after initial treatment. The primary outcomes include the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale and the Modified Rankin Scale. The secondary outcomes consist of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and the mortality. The Barthel Index(BI) will also be evaluated. The sample size is 100 patients. Discussion The ECMOH trial is a randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate if endoscopic surgery is better than conservative treatment for patients with moderate-volume hematomas in the basal ganglia. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-11001614 (http://www.chictr.org/en/proj/show.aspx?proj=1618) PMID:22676908

  13. A rare case of infected splenic hematoma.

    PubMed

    Godkar, Darshan; Anandacoomarswamy, Dharshan; Bansal, Goldy; Patel, Rajnikant; Recco, Recco

    2007-01-01

    Splenic hematoma is a relatively benign condition in consideration that a majority are spontaneously absorbed. Rarely, they can become infected, a condition that is difficult to diagnose and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality if left untreated. We present a patient with a known history of intravenous drug abuse and recent abdominal trauma who was found to have infective endocarditis and subsequently an infected splenic hematoma. The related literature is also discussed.

  14. Tamoxifen treatment for intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qing; Guan, Jian; Wu, Gang; Xi, Guohua; Keep, Richard F; Hua, Ya

    2011-01-01

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator. In this study we investigated whether or not tamoxifen reduces intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced brain injury in rats. In all experiments, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received an injection of 100 μL autologous whole blood into the right basal ganglia. In the first set of experiments, rats were treated with tamoxifen (2.5 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle 2 and 24 h after ICH and were killed at day 3 for brain edema measurement. In the second set of experiments, rats were treated with tamoxifen (5 mg/kg) or vehicle and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and behavior tests were performed at days 1, 7, 14 and 28. Rats were killed at day 28 for brain histology. We found that tamoxifen at 5 but not at 2.5 mg/kg reduced perihematomal brain edema at day 3 (p<0.05). Brain histology showed that tamoxifen reduced caudate atrophy at day 28 (p<0.01). Tamoxifen also improved functional outcome (p<0.05). MRI demonstrated a tendency to smaller T2* lesions in tamoxifen-treated rats. However, two out of five rats treated with tamoxifen developed hydrocephalus. These results suggest that tamoxifen has neuroprotective effects in ICH, but the cause of hydrocephalus development following tamoxifen treatment needs to be examined further.

  15. Iliopsoas muscle hematoma secondary to alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Suguru; Tanaka, Nobutaka; Nomura, Yukihiro; Miyahara, Takuya; Furuya, Takatoshi

    2012-09-01

    Iliopsoas muscle hematoma in a patient with alcoholic liver cirrhosis is rarely seen, however it has a high mortality. Thus we should cautiously make a diagnosis and treatment. This is the case of a 60-year-old male. He had a 15-year history of alcoholic liver disease and emphysema. He presented with low back pain after a fall that had happened 2 months before. Due to persistent back pain, he went to see a local physician who, after detailed examination, suspected rupture of bilateral common iliac artery aneurysms and transferred the patient to our hospital. The same presumptive diagnosis was made, and on this basis, an aortic bifemoral Y-graft was implanted. He developed aspiration pneumonia and hepatic and renal dysfunction postoperatively, which led to multiple organ failure and subsequent in-hospital death on postoperative day 62. This was believed to be a case of iliopsoas muscle hematoma developed in a patient with liver cirrhosis, and considering it was a case with poor surgical risk, a conservative treatment option such as transcatheter arterial embolization should also have been considered. Although iliopsoas muscle hematoma with alcoholic liver cirrhosis is rare, an appropriate treatment plan should be determined on a case-by-case basis despite its poor prognosis.

  16. Sarcoma the great "masquerader" hematoma/deep vein thrombosis manifestation.

    PubMed

    Valverde, J; Vinagreiro, M; Gouveia, P; Koch, P; Soares, V; Gomes, T

    2016-01-01

    The clinical presentation of patients with soft-tissue sarcoma is highly variable. Most patients present with a painless mass, typically one that is increasing in size, and few have systemic symptoms such as fever, weight loss, or malaise. Soft tissue sarcomas can initially present as, or even be misdiagnosed as, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), leading to a late diagnosis. A 51-year-old woman presented to the hospital with complaints of pain and swelling in her left thigh, interpreted as an infected hematoma with an associated deep vein thrombosis and treated accordingly. The patient presented to our emergency department two more times. In the last visit and due to an unresolving clinical scenario a MRI and surgical byopsies were made that confirmed a sarcoma diagnosis. When a patient presents with an expanding, nontraumatic mass simulating a haematoma, several other differential diagnoses should be considered including aneurysm, bleeding tendency, chronic expanding haematoma and soft-tissue sarcoma. The growth of the tumor undetected while being treated for the DVT and then posteriorly for the hematoma, was without a doubt dismal to the patient, so earlier diagnosis would have been preferable. When a patient presents with an unusual history of hematoma in the extremities, it is necessary to consider the possibility of a malignant soft tissue tumor. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. [A Case of Subgaleal Hematoma with Exophthalmos and Diplopia].

    PubMed

    Takano, Issei; Suzuki, Kensuke; Sugiura, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Ryotaro; Nagaishi, Masaya; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Hyodo, Akio

    2015-08-01

    A 9-year-old girl struck the left side of her head on a doorknob, after which she gradually developed swelling. She was treated conservatively at another hospital before being referred and admitted to our hospital 9 days after injury, with complaints of exophthalmos and diplopia. Computed tomography (CT) scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a subgaleal hematoma (SGH). We therefore attempted to treat the patient by aspiration of the hematoma via needle puncture through the skin, for which we wrapped an elastic band around the head while infusing a hemostatic agent. No vascular anomalies and no abnormal shunts were identified by angiography under general anesthesia 13 days after injury. The patient was treated surgically due to increased head swelling and deteriorated exophthalmos. The liquefied, dark-red SGH was aspirated via a few cm of skin and a galeal incision on the left side of her head. A multiperforated drainage catheter was introduced into the hematoma cavity and the drainage catheter was connected to the vacuum-drain pump. After the surgery, the left exophthalmos disappeared. Twenty-three days after injury, she was discharged from our hospital without any neurological deficits.

  18. Admission Heart Rate Predicts Poor Outcomes in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage: The Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial Studies.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Miaoyan; Sato, Shoichiro; Zheng, Danni; Wang, Xia; Carcel, Cheryl; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Sandset, Else C; Delcourt, Candice; Arima, Hisatomi; Wang, Jiguang; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S

    2016-06-01

    Faster heart rate predicts higher mortality in coronary heart disease and acute ischemic stroke, but its prognostic significance in intracerebral hemorrhage remains uncertain. We aimed to determine the effect of admission heart rate on clinical and imaging outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. A post hoc pooled analysis of the pilot and main phases of the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial (INTERACT 1 and 2). Clinical outcomes were mortality and modified Rankin Scale score at 90 days; and imaging outcome was absolute growth in hematoma volume during the initial 24 hours. Patients were divided into 4 categories according to baseline heart rate (<65, 65-74, 75-84, and ≥85 bpm) and analyzed using multivariable adjusted models with the lowest heart rate group as the reference. Of 3185 patients with available data, higher admission heart rate was associated with both mortality and worse modified Rankin Scale score: adjusted hazard ratio for heart rate (≥85 versus <65 bpm) 1.50 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.11) and adjusted odds ratio 1.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.63), respectively (both P-trend <0.05). There was no significant relationship between heart rate and absolute growth in hematoma volume (P-trend, 0.196). Higher admission heart rate is independently associated with death and poor functional outcome after acute intracerebral hemorrhage. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00226096 and NCT00716079. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. History of Chronic Subdural Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Trephination or trepanation is an intentional surgical procedure performed from the Stone Age. It looks like escaping a black evil from the head. This technique is still used for treatment of chronic subdural hematoma (SDH). Now, we know the origin, pathogenesis and natural history of this lesion. The author try to explore the history of trephination and modern discovery of chronic SDH. The author performed a detailed electronic search of PubMed. By the key word of chronic SDH, 2,593 articles were found without language restriction in May 2015. The author reviewed the fact and way, discovering the present knowledge on the chronic SDH. The first authentic report of chronic SDH was that of Wepfer in 1657. Chronic SDH was regarded as a stroke in 17th century. It was changed as an inflammatory disease in 19th century by Virchow, and became a traumatic lesion in 20th century. However, trauma is not necessary in many cases of chronic SDHs. The more important prerequisite is sufficient potential subdural space, degeneration of the brain. Modifying Virchow's description, chronic SDH is sometimes traumatic, but most often caused by severe degeneration of the brain. From Wepfer's first description, nearly 350 years passed to explore the origin, pathogenesis, and fate of chronic SDH. The nature of the black evil in the head of the Stone Age is uncovering by many authors riding the giant's shoulder. Chronic SDH should be categorized as a degenerative lesion instead of a traumatic lesion. PMID:27169062

  20. Developmental venous anomaly presenting as a spontaneous intraparenchymal hematoma without thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Nitin; Zuccoli, Giulio; Murdoch, Geoffrey; Jankowitz, Brian T; Greene, Stephanie

    2016-12-01

    Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are cited as the most common cerebral vascular malformations. Still, intracerebral hematomas are rarely thought to be caused by DVAs. In this report, the authors present a unique case of a DVA that hemorrhaged spontaneously, rather than hemorrhaging into a venous infarction following DVA thrombosis as has been more commonly reported. A 22-year-old previously healthy male presented to the emergency department with a severe headache, confusion, and progressive hemiparesis. A computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated a spontaneous left parietal intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH), with intraventricular extension and acute hydrocephalus. CT angiography did not demonstrate an underlying vascular malformation. The patient was taken emergently to the operating room for a left parietal craniotomy for evacuation of the hematoma. Intraoperative pathology was consistent with a DVA Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and magnetic resonance venography (MRV) did not demonstrate a mass lesion, ischemic stroke, or underlying vascular malformation. An MRI obtained three years previously for headaches was normal. A postoperative diagnostic cerebral angiogram was normal. An MRI/MRA performed six months postoperatively demonstrated two foci of abnormal vessels on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), suggesting the presence of a venous vascular malformation. A diagnostic cerebral angiogram obtained six months postoperatively was again normal, including delayed imaging. Few reports have cited DVA as the sole cause of intracerebral hemorrhage. While very rare, these reports suggest hemorrhagic conversion of a venous infarction secondary to a thrombosed DVA as a possible etiology, and several provide imaging consistent with this diagnosis. This case study demonstrates a unique presentation of a hemorrhagic DVA in the absence of thrombosis or stroke. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Surgical Craniotomy for Intracerebral Haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mendelow, A David

    2015-01-01

    Craniotomy is probably indicated for patients with superficial spontaneous lobar supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) when the level of consciousness drops below 13 within the first 8 h of the onset of the haemorrhage. Once the level drops below 9, it is probably too late to consider craniotomy for these patients, so clinical vigilance is paramount. While this statement is only backed up by evidence that is moderately strong, meta-analysis of available data suggests that it is true in the rather limited number of patients with ICH. Meta-analyses like this can often predict the results of future prospective randomised controlled trials a decade or more before the trials are completed and published. Countless such examples exist in the literature, as is the case for thrombolysis in patients with myocardial infarction in the last millennium: meta-analysis determined the efficacy more than a decade BEFORE the last trial (ISIS-2) confirmed the benefit of thrombolysis for myocardial infarction. Careful examination of the meta-analysis' Forest plots in this chapter will demonstrate why this statement is made at the outset. Other meta-analyses of surgery for ICH have also indicated that minimal interventional techniques using topical thrombolysis or endoscopy via burrholes or even twist drill aspiration may be particularly successful for the treatment of supratentorial ICH, especially when the clot is deep seated. Ongoing clinical trials (CLEAR III and MISTIE III) should confirm this in the fullness of time. There are 2 exceptions to these generalisations. First, based on trial evidence, aneurysmal ICH is best treated with surgery. Second, cerebellar ICH represents a special case because of the development of hydrocephalus, which may require expeditious drainage as the intracranial pressure rises. The cerebellar clot will then require evacuation, usually via posterior fossa craniectomy, rather than craniotomy. Technical advances suggest that image-guided surgery

  2. Development in intracerebral stem cell grafts

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Stephanny; Tajiri, Naoki; Borlongan, Cesar V.

    2015-01-01

    The field of stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising research area for brain repair. Optimizing the safety and efficacy of the therapy for clinical trials will require revisiting transplantation protocols. The cell delivery route stands as a key translational item that warrants careful consideration in facilitating the success of stem cell therapy in the clinic. Intracerebral administration, compared to peripheral route, requires an invasive procedure to directly implant stem cells into injured brain. Although invasive, intracerebral transplantation circumvents the prohibitive blood brain barrier in allowing grafted cells when delivered peripherally to penetrate the brain and reach the discreet damaged brain tissues. This review will highlight milestone discoveries in cell therapy for neurological disorders, with emphasis on intracerebral transplantation in relevant animal models and provide insights necessary to optimize the safety and efficacy of cell therapy for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. PMID:25739415

  3. Educational Placement after Pediatric Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hawks, Charlotte; Jordan, Lori C.; Gindville, Melissa; Ichord, Rebecca N.; Licht, Daniel J.; Beslow, Lauren A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study describes educational placement of school-aged children after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and examines whether educational placement is associated with severity of neurological deficits. Methods Children with spontaneous ICH presenting from 2007 to 2013 were prospectively enrolled at 3 tertiary children’s hospitals. The pediatric stroke outcome measure (PSOM) and a parental questionnaire gathered information about neurological outcome, school attendance, and educational placement. Results The cohort of 92 enrolled children included 42 school-aged children (6–17 years) with ICH. Four died; 1 was excluded due to preexisting cognitive deficits. Thirty-seven completed 3-month follow-up, and 30 completed 12-month follow-up. At 12 months, 14 (46.7%) received regular age-appropriate programming, 12 (40%) attended school with in-class services, 3 (10%) were in special education programs, and one child (3.3%) received home-based services due to ICH-related deficits. Of 30 children with 3-month and 12-month follow-up, 14 children (46.7%) improved their education status, 13 (43.3%) remained at the same education level, and 3 (10%) began to receive in-class services. Increasing PSOM score predicted the need for educational modifications at 3 months (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.4–7.9, p=0.007) and at 12 months (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1–3.9, p=0.025). Conclusions Most children returned to school within a year after ICH and many had a reduction in the intensity of educational support. However, a great need for educational services persisted at 12 months after ICH with fewer than half enrolled in regular age-appropriate classes. Worse deficits on the PSOM were associated with remedial educational placement. PMID:27262667

  4. Serine protease inhibitor attenuates intracerebral hemorrhage-induced brain injury and edema formation in rat.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takehiro; Kuroda, Yasuhiro; Hosomi, Naohisa; Okabe, Naohiko; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Tamiya, Takashi; Xi, Guohua; Keep, Richard F; Itano, Toshifumi

    2010-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that thrombin plays an important role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced brain injury and edema formation. We, therefore, examined whether nafamostat mesilate (FUT), a serine protease inhibitor, can reduce ICH-induced brain injury. Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats received an infusion of autologous whole blood (100 microL), thrombin (5U/50 microL) or type VII collagenase (0.4 U/2 microL) into the right basal ganglia, the three ICH models used in the present study. FUT (10 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered intraperitoneally 6 h after ICH (or immediately after thrombin infusion) and then at 12-h intervals (six treatments in total, n = 5 in each group). All rats were sacrificed 72 h later. We also examined whether FUT promotes rebleeding in a model in which ICH was induced by intracerebral injection of collagenase. Systemic administration of FUT starting 6 h after ICH reduced brain water content in the ipsilateral basal ganglia 72 h after ICH compared with vehicle. FUT attenuated ICH-induced changes in 8-OHdG and thrombin-reduced brain edema. FUT did not increase collagenase-induced hematoma volume. FUT attenuates ICH-induced brain edema and DNA injury suggesting that serine protease inhibitor may be potential therapeutic agent for ICH.

  5. Thrombin and brain recovery after intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Ya; Keep, Richard F.; Gu, Yuxiang; Xi, Guohua

    2009-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common and often fatal subtype of stroke and produces severe neurological deficits in survivors. At present, there is lack of effective treatments that improve outcome in ICH. A neglected aspect of ICH research is the development of approaches that can be effectively used to improve recovery. Although previous studies have showed that thrombin induces blood-brain barrier leakage, brain edema and neuronal death after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), our recent studies have shown that thrombin may have a role in brain recovery after ICH. An understanding of the mechanisms by which thrombin affects neurogenesis, angiogenesis and plasticity may facilitate brain recovery after ICH. PMID:19064789

  6. Traumatic Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Risk Factors Associated with Progression.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Santiago; Gómez, Pedro A; Castaño-Leon, Ana María; Martínez-Pérez, Rafael; Munarriz, Pablo M; Lagares, Alfonso

    2015-08-15

    The increase in the volume of a traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (TICH) is a widely studied phenomenon that has a direct impact on the prognosis of patients. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with the progression of TICH. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 1970 adult patients >15 years of age who were consecutively admitted after sustaining a closed severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) between January 1987 and November 2013 at a single center. Beginning in 2007, patients with moderate TBIs were also included. A total of 782 patients exhibited one or more TICH on the initial CT scan, and met the selection criteria. The main outcome variable was the presence or absence of progression of the TICH. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. Factors independently associated with the growth of TICH obtained through logistic regression included the following: an initial volume <5 cc (odds ratio [OR] 2.42, p<0.001), cisternal compression (OR 1.95, p<0.001), decompressive craniectomy (OR 2.18, p<0.001), age (mean 37.67 vs. 42.95 years; OR 1.01, p<0.001), falls as mechanism of trauma (OR 1.72, p=0.001), multiple TICHs (OR 1.56, p=0.007), and hypoxia (OR 1.56, p=0.02). TICH progression occurred with a frequency of 63% in our study. We showed that there was a correlation between TICH growth and some variables, such as multiple TICHs, a lower initial volume, acute subdural hematoma, cisternal compression, older patient age, hypoxia, falls, and decompressive craniectomy.

  7. Predictors of tracheostomy in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yaghi, Shadi; Moore, Page; Ray, Bappaditya; Keyrouz, Salah G

    2013-06-01

    One third of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) require mechanical ventilation; in most, tracheostomy may be necessary. Limited data exist about predictors of tracheostomy in ICH. The aim of our study is to identify predictors of tracheostomy in ICH. We reviewed medical records of patients seen in our institution between 2005 and 2009, using ICD-9 codes for ICH, for admission clinical and radiological parameters. A stepwise logistic regression model was used to identify tracheostomy predictors. Ninety patients with ICH were included in the analysis, eleven of which required tracheostomy. Patients requiring a tracheostomy were more likely to have a large hematoma volume (≥30mL) (63.4% vs. 29.1%, p=0.037), intraventricular hemorrhage (81.8% vs. 27.8%, p<0.0001), hydrocephalus (81.8% vs. 8.8%, p<0.0001), admission GCS<8 (81.8% vs. 5.1%, p<0.0001), intubation≥14 days (54.5% vs. 1.27%, p<0.0001) and pneumonia (63.6% vs. 17.7%, p=0.003). Stepwise logistic regression yielded admission GCS (OR=80.55, p=0.0003) and intubation days (OR=87.49, p<0.006) as most important predictors. We could potentially predict the need for tracheostomy early in the course of ICH based on the admission GCS score; duration of intubation is another predictor for tracheostomy. Early tracheostomy could decrease the time, and therefore risks of prolonged endotracheal intubation and length of hospital stay. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Xenon neuroprotection in experimental stroke: interactions with hypothermia and intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Siyuan P; Lei, Beilei; James, Michael L; Lascola, Christopher D; Venkatraman, Talaignair N; Jung, Jin Yong; Maze, Mervyn; Franks, Nicholas P; Pearlstein, Robert D; Sheng, Huaxin; Warner, David S

    2012-12-01

    Xenon has been proven to be neuroprotective in experimental brain injury. The authors hypothesized that xenon would improve outcome from focal cerebral ischemia with a delayed treatment onset and prolonged recovery interval. Rats were subjected to 70 min temporary focal ischemia. Ninety minutes later, rats were treated with 0, 15, 30, or 45% Xe for 20 h or 0 or 30% Xe for 8, 20, or 44 h. Outcome was measured after 7 days. In another experiment, after ischemia, rats were maintained at 37.5° or 36.0°C for 20 h with or without 30% Xe. Outcome was assessed 28 days later. Finally, mice were subjected to intracerebral hemorrhage with or without 30% Xe for 20 h. Brain water content, hematoma volume, rotarod function, and microglial activation were measured. Cerebral infarct sizes (mean±SD) for 0, 15, 30, and 45% Xe were 212±27, 176±55, 160±32, and 198±54 mm, respectively (P=0.023). Neurologic scores (median±interquartile range) followed a similar pattern (P=0.002). Infarct size did not vary with treatment duration, but neurologic score improved (P=0.002) at all xenon exposure durations (8, 20, and 44 h). Postischemic treatment with either 30% Xe or subtherapeutic hypothermia (36°C) had no effect on 28-day outcome. Combination of these interventions provided long-term benefit. Xenon improved intracerebral hemorrhage outcome measures. Xenon improved focal ischemic outcome at 7, but not 28 days postischemia. Xenon combined with subtherapeutic hypothermia produced sustained recovery benefit. Xenon improved intracerebral hemorrhage outcome. Xenon may have potential for clinical stroke therapy under carefully defined conditions.

  9. Traumatic duodenal hematoma in the pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Winthrop, A L; Wesson, D E; Filler, R M

    1986-09-01

    Twenty children with duodenal hematomas secondary to blunt trauma were treated between 1953 and 1983. The duodenal injury was isolated in ten cases and associated with intra-abdominal injuries in the others. In ten, the duodenal injury was suspected on admission and the diagnosis was confirmed within 24 hours by radiographic contrast studies. All ten were managed successfully with nasogastric suction and intravenous fluids. Ten patients underwent laparotomy for increasing abdominal tenderness and guarding. An isolated duodenal hematoma was found in four and treated by evacuation and/or gastroenterostomy. In five of the remaining six surgical patients, all of whom had multiple intra-abdominal injuries, the duodenum was left untouched. Three of these patients had postoperative contrast studies that showed early resolution of the duodenal hematoma. No duodenal stricture or leak developed in any patient. The children with isolated duodenal hematomas who were treated conservatively had a mean hospital stay of six days, whereas those treated surgically had a mean stay of 17 days. The ten patients with multiple intra-abdominal injuries had a mean hospital stay of 32 days. In this group, eight required total parenteral nutrition or nasojejunal feeds for nutritional support. In these patients, an isolated duodenal hematoma resulted in minimal morbidity and nonoperative management was usually successful. The presence of associated intra-abdominal injuries was responsible for the prolonged hospitalization and delayed return of normal intestinal function in some patients.

  10. Efficacy and safety of penetration acupuncture on head for acute intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-Qiao; Bao, Chun-Ling; Jiao, Zhi-Hua; Dong, Gui-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Acupuncture, especially acupuncture treatment on head for acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), has long been disputable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of penetration acupuncture on head in patients with acute ICH. Methods: Eighty-two patients with acute ICH were randomized to receive penetration acupuncture treatment on head combined with conventional treatment (treatment group [TG]) or conventional treatment only (control group [CG]). Acupuncture treatments were given in 24 sessions over 4 weeks, with 3-month follow-up period. Measures included Clinical Neurological Function Deficit Scale (CNFDS), Barthel Index (BI), vital signs (respiration, heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation), and hematoma absorption ratio. Results: Both groups showed a progressively improvement in CNFDS and BI scores from day 7 to 90. The TG showed a significantly greater improvement in CNFDS than CG over time (P < 0.05). However, BI failed to show significant difference between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The vital signs were stable and no expansion of hematoma occurred over the course of acupuncture treatment. Conclusion: Penetration acupuncture treatment on head appeared to be safe over the course of treatment on acute ICH and may result in additional functional improvements detected in the CNFDS but not reflected in the BI. A larger-scale clinical trial with longer follow-up assessments is required to confirm these findings. PMID:27902622

  11. Subcapsular hematoma after right-lobe living-donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Mureo; Kozaki, Koichi; Yoshida, Toru; Yamamoto, Hidekazu; Ogawa, Kohei; Ogura, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Koichi

    2004-01-01

    Because right-lobe living-donor liver transplantation was introduced in adult-to-adult liver transplantation to mitigate the problems of small-for-size grafts, some technical controversies have been reported. This report describes a case of graft subcapsular hematoma due to parenchymal injury. A 53-year-old woman underwent a right-lobe living-donor liver transplantation for acute-on-chronic liver failure due to primary biliary cirrhosis. A huge subcapsular hematoma was discovered by routine Doppler echogram examination on the first posttransplantation day. Relaparotomy findings revealed that rotation of the graft for the hemostasis procedure during the transplant operation had induced a compression injury to the graft by the xiphoid process. It was speculated that a small laceration in the graft parenchyma led to the major subcapsular hematoma. This experience suggests that the graft liver must be handled with special care to prevent potential mechanical injury.

  12. [Transformation from chronic subdural hematoma into subdural empyema following cat bites: a case report].

    PubMed

    Konno, Takuya; Yamada, Kei; Kasahara, Sou; Umeda, Yoshitaka; Oyake, Mutsuo; Fujita, Nobuya

    2015-01-01

    A 69-year-old man developed motor aphasia and right hemiparesis with severe headache, during the treatment of cellulitis and sepsis due to cat bites. Brain CT showed a low density, crescent-shaped lesion in the left subdural space, which was hypointense on brain diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). One week later, when his neurological symptoms had worsened, the signal of the subdural lesion had changed to hyperintense on DWI. The lesion was capsule-shaped when enhanced by Gadolinium. The signal changes on DWI of the lesion indicated the existing hematoma had changed to an empyema, or so-called infected subdural hematoma, due to a hematogenous bacterial infection. Pasteurella multocida, a resident microbe in the oral cavity of cats, could be the responsible pathogen in this case. The patient recovered completely after treatment with intravenous high dose antibiotics. This is an important case report describing the transformation from a chronic subdural hematoma into a subdural empyema by DWI.

  13. Massive expanding hematoma of the chin following blunt trauma

    PubMed Central

    Niazi, K. Thanvir Mohamed; Raja, Dharmesh Kumar; Prakash, R.; Balaji, V. R.; Manikandan, D.; Ulaganathan, G.; Yoganandha, R.

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic hematoma of the face is common and usually self-limiting in nature. We report an unusual massive expanding hematoma of the chin within 9 h following a blunt trauma with no associated injuries or fracture. PMID:27829776

  14. Massive expanding hematoma of the chin following blunt trauma.

    PubMed

    Niazi, K Thanvir Mohamed; Raja, Dharmesh Kumar; Prakash, R; Balaji, V R; Manikandan, D; Ulaganathan, G; Yoganandha, R

    2016-10-01

    Posttraumatic hematoma of the face is common and usually self-limiting in nature. We report an unusual massive expanding hematoma of the chin within 9 h following a blunt trauma with no associated injuries or fracture.

  15. Chronic subdural hematoma: demonstration by magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Sipponen, J.T.; Sepponen, R.E.; Sivula, A.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of magnetic resonance (MR) to identify intracranial hematomas was tested in five patients with clinical and computed tomographic signs of chronic subdural hematoma. The extracerebral collections were displayed as a zone of bright intensity using the T1-weighted inversion recovery (IR 1500/400) sequence, reflecting the lesions' short T1 relaxation times. The collections also showed high intensity using the spin echo (SE) sequence, with a longer delay of 100ms and 160ms, reflecting the long T2 relaxation time. The spin echo sequence with a repetition time of 500ms and an echo delay of 160ms (SE 500/160) almost effaced other structures in the image, thus increasing the specificity of this pulse scheme for detection of chronic blood collections. Although in two of the five patients the subdural hematomas were in the isodense CT phase, all were easily visualized with MR.

  16. Myocardial Ischemia Caused by Subepicardial Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Grieshaber, Philippe; Nef, Holger; Böning, Andreas; Niemann, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Background Bleeding from bypass anastomosis leakage occurs early after coronary artery bypass grafting. Later, once the anastomosis is covered by intima, spontaneous bleeding is unlikely. Case Description A 63-year-old male patient developed a pseudoaneurysm-like, subepicardial late-term bleeding resulting in a hematoma that compromised coronary artery flow by increasing extracoronary pressure. This resulted in severe angina pectoris (Canadian Cardiovascular Society IV) and myocardial ischemia within the affected area. After surgical removal of the hematoma and repair of the anastomosis, the patient's symptoms disappeared and no signs of myocardial ischemia were present. Conclusion Surgical removal is an efficient therapy for subepicardial hematoma inducing myocardial ischemia. PMID:28352501

  17. Acute Alcohol Intoxication Aggravates Brain Injury Caused by Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Rats.

    PubMed

    Liew, Hock-Kean; Cheng, Hung-Yu; Huang, Li-Chuan; Li, Kuo-Wei; Peng, Hsiao-Fen; Yang, Hui-I; Lin, Peter Bor-Chian; Kuo, Jon-Son; Pang, Cheng-Yoong

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication is associated with worse intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) outcome, indicating the important role of alcohol in ICH pathogenesis. We intended to investigate the effects of ethanol pretreatment on the severity of ICH-induced brain injury in rats. At 1 hour after intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (3 g/kg), 0.2 U bacterial collagenase was infused into the striatum of male Sprague-Dawley rats to induce ICH. Accumulative mortality rate, body weight changes, and motorsensory and neurological abnormalities were evaluated. The hemorrhagic volume, hematoma expansion, and water content were measured by Drabkin's method, morphometric assay, and dry/wet method, respectively. Blood-brain barrier disruption was assessed using Evans blue assay. Oxidative stress was evaluated by the enzymatic activity of glutathione peroxidase, oxidation of hydroethidine, and the production of malondialdehyde. Cerebral blood flow perfusion volume and hypo-/hyperperfusion neuroimaging were examined by magnetic resonance imaging. Ethanol pretreatment aggravates the hematoma hemolysis, hemorrhagic volume, hematoma expansion, brain edema, blood-brain barrier disruption, microglial activation, elevated oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation in the hemorrhagic striatum. The summation effect of these consequences is the major cause of marked neurological impairment and higher mortality rate (64%) in ethanol-pretreated rats with ICH. This is a novel model to evaluate the effects of high-dose alcohol administration on experimental ICH rats. The present study may provide clues for making novel strategies in the management of patients with ICH who overconsume alcoholic drinks before the attack. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. CT angiography spot sign in intracerebral hemorrhage predicts active bleeding during surgery.

    PubMed

    Brouwers, H Bart; Raffeld, Miriam R; van Nieuwenhuizen, Koen M; Falcone, Guido J; Ayres, Alison M; McNamara, Kristen A; Schwab, Kristin; Romero, Javier M; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Viswanathan, Anand; Greenberg, Steven M; Ogilvy, Christopher S; van der Zwan, Albert; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Goldstein, Joshua N; Klijn, Catharina J M; Rosand, Jonathan

    2014-09-02

    To determine whether the CT angiography (CTA) spot sign marks bleeding complications during and after surgery for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In a 2-center study of consecutive spontaneous ICH patients who underwent CTA followed by surgical hematoma evacuation, 2 experienced readers (blinded to clinical and surgical data) reviewed CTAs for spot sign presence. Blinded raters assessed active intraoperative and postoperative bleeding. The association between spot sign and active intraoperative bleeding, postoperative rebleeding, and residual ICH volumes was evaluated using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. A total of 95 patients met inclusion criteria: 44 lobar, 17 deep, 33 cerebellar, and 1 brainstem ICH; ≥1 spot sign was identified in 32 patients (34%). The spot sign was the only independent marker of active bleeding during surgery (odds ratio [OR] 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-9.0). Spot sign (OR 4.1; 95% CI 1.1-17), female sex (OR 6.9; 95% CI 1.7-37), and antiplatelet use (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.2-21) were predictive of postoperative rebleeding. Larger residual hematomas and postoperative rebleeding were associated with higher discharge case fatality (OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.1-11) and a trend toward increased case fatality at 3 months (OR 2.9; 95% CI 0.9-8.8). The CTA spot sign is associated with more intraoperative bleeding, more postoperative rebleeding, and larger residual ICH volumes in patients undergoing hematoma evacuation for spontaneous ICH. The spot sign may therefore be useful to select patients for future surgical trials. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Positron emission tomography in the evaluation of subdural hematomas

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, K.; Bergstroem, M.; Eriksson, L.

    1980-12-01

    Fifteen patients with 21 subdural effusions were investigated both with transmission computer assisted tomography (CAT) and positron emission tomography (PET). The tracer in the emission studies was /sup 68/Ga-EDTA. Twelve lesions were visualized both with CAT and PET. Five lesions that were negative or doubtful on CAT were visualized with PET, whereas four lesions negative or doubtful on PET were demonstrated by CAT. The two methods complement each other due to the fact that they are based on different mechanisms: CAT mainly on attenuation of the fluid collection. PET on isotope accumulation, particularly in the hematoma membranes.

  20. Innovative management of nasal septal hematoma in an infant

    PubMed Central

    Sumitha, R.; Anandan, Ajay Kumar; Govarthanaraj, Aberna

    2015-01-01

    Nasal septal hematoma is a collection of blood between the cartilage or bone and mucoperichondrium or mucoperiosteum of the nose. This condition requires immediate surgical drainage to prevent complications. All patients need nasal packing postoperatively to prevent recurrence. This causes a lot of discomforts due to mouth breathing more in infants who are obligatory nose breathers. They can go for cyanosis in the postoperative period. Here, we discuss the case report of an infant who had tubular nasal pack with endotracheal tube postoperatively to maintain the patency of nose. PMID:26015758

  1. Innovative management of nasal septal hematoma in an infant.

    PubMed

    Sumitha, R; Anandan, Ajay Kumar; Govarthanaraj, Aberna

    2015-04-01

    Nasal septal hematoma is a collection of blood between the cartilage or bone and mucoperichondrium or mucoperiosteum of the nose. This condition requires immediate surgical drainage to prevent complications. All patients need nasal packing postoperatively to prevent recurrence. This causes a lot of discomforts due to mouth breathing more in infants who are obligatory nose breathers. They can go for cyanosis in the postoperative period. Here, we discuss the case report of an infant who had tubular nasal pack with endotracheal tube postoperatively to maintain the patency of nose.

  2. Rapid Spontaneously Resolving Acute Subdural Hematoma.

    PubMed

    Gan, Qi; Zhao, Hexiang; Zhang, Hanmei; You, Chao

    2017-01-18

    This study reports a rare patient of a rapid spontaneously resolving acute subdural hematoma. In addition, an analysis of potential clues for the phenomenon is presented with a review of the literature. A 1-year-and-2-month-old boy fell from a height of approximately 2 m. The patient was in a superficial coma with a Glasgow Coma Scale of 8 when he was transferred to the authors' hospital. Computed tomography revealed the presence of an acute subdural hematoma with a midline shift beyond 1 cm. His guardians refused invasive interventions and chose conservative treatment. Repeat imaging after 15 hours showed the evident resolution of the hematoma and midline reversion. Progressive magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the complete resolution of the hematoma, without redistribution to a remote site. Even though this phenomenon has a low incidence, the probability of a rapid spontaneously resolving acute subdural hematoma should be considered when patients present with the following characteristics: children or elderly individuals suffering from mild to moderate head trauma; stable or rapidly recovered consciousness; and simple acute subdural hematoma with a moderate thickness and a particularly low-density band in computed tomography scans.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.

  3. Fatal intracerebral haemorrhage following scorpion sting.

    PubMed

    Dube, Simmi; Sharma, V K; Dubey, T N; Gouda, Narendra B; Shrivastava, Vikrant

    2011-03-01

    Though uncommon, scorpion stings can cause cerebrovascular accidents by various mechanisms such as venom induced autonomic storm leading to hypertension, hypotension, myocarditis, DIC or vasculitis by direct actions. We present a case of intracerebral bleed following scorpion sting, which is a rare presentation and seldom reported.

  4. Acute diquat poisoning with intracerebral bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, S; Wilks, M; Coupe, M

    2001-01-01

    A case of severe diquat poisoning complicated by the development of aggressive behaviour, oliguric renal failure, and intracerebral bleeding is described. The patient was successfully managed and made a complete recovery. In this paper special attention has been given to the major clinical differences between diquat and paraquat intoxication.


Keywords: poisoning; diquat; paraquat PMID:11320278

  5. Subcorneal hematomas in excessive video game play.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Maria; Rizzo, Jason; Lennox, Luke; Rothman, Ilene

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of subcorneal hematomas caused by excessive video game play in a 19-year-old man. The hematomas occurred in a setting of thrombocytopenia secondary to induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. It was concluded that thrombocytopenia subsequent to prior friction from heavy use of a video game controller allowed for traumatic subcorneal hemorrhage of the hands. Using our case as a springboard, we summarize other reports with video game associated pathologies in the medical literature. Overall, cognizance of the popularity of video games and related pathologies can be an asset for dermatologists who evaluate pediatric patients.

  6. Rectus sheath hematoma with low molecular weight heparin administration: a case series.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Laura E J; Wortham, Dale C; Litton, Kayleigh M

    2014-09-01

    Rectus sheath hematoma is an uncommon but potentially serious bleeding complication that can occur spontaneously or as a result of anticoagulation administration. Case number one: A 62 year old chronically ill Caucasian female develops a rectus sheath hematoma seven days after hospital discharge. The previous hospitalization included low molecular weight heparin administration for deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis. The patient ultimately chooses comfort care and expires due to sepsis and respiratory failure. Case number two: A 79 year old Caucasian male develops a rectus sheath hematoma during hospital admission where LMWH is used for deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis. He is managed conservatively; however, his hematocrit drops from 46 to 25.8%. Case number three: A 44 year old chronically ill Caucasian female is treated with therapeutic low molecular weight heparin for recent deep vein thrombosis during a hospital admission. She develops a large rectus sheath hematoma requiring embolization as well as blood transfusion. We believe this reflects an underreported significant cause of morbidity and mortality with low molecular weight heparin administration. We review the pathophysiology of rectus sheath hematoma as well as its presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. We identify at-risk populations and proposed contributing factors. We also discuss factors leading to underreporting as well as preventive strategies implemented at our institution.

  7. Chronic intradiploic hematomas of the skull without coagulopathy: Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Tokmak, Mehmet; Ozek, Erdinc; Iplikçioğlu, Celal

    2015-01-01

    Chronic intradiploic hematoma was first described by Chorbski and Davis in 1934. To date, only twelve cases have been reported in the literature. Chronic intradiploic hematomas have also been described as non-neoplastic cysts of the diploe, traumatic cysts, and giant cell repetitive granulomas. The term chronic intradiploic hematoma was coined by Sato et al. in 1994. Case 1: a 16-year-old male presented with a non-tender scalp swelling on the right fronto-orbital region. Computed tomography (CT) scans showed an intraosseous isodense lesion with surrounding sclerosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results revealed an intradiploic mass with homogeneous cystic and abnormal signal intensities. Case 2: a 64-year-old male presented with a 6-month history of headaches and visual disturbances. CT scans showed an isodense lesion with surrounding sclerosis in the posterolateral left orbit. MRI results revealed a hypointense lesion on both the T1weighted and T2-weighted images of the posterolateral left orbit. Although rarely seen, the presence of a benign chronic hematoma should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis for each intradiploic mass lesion. When taking the medical history, all patients with such mass lesions should be asked about previous minor or major head traumas. Due to the possibility of progressive growth, surgical excision of an intradiploic hematoma is recommended after radiological diagnosis of the condition. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Delayed Femoral Nerve Palsy Associated with Iliopsoas Hematoma after Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Femoral nerve neuropathy after total hip arthroplasty is rare but catastrophic complication. Pain and quadriceps muscle weakness caused by this complication can significantly affect the functional outcome. Here we present a case report, describing delayed onset femoral nerve palsy associated with iliopsoas hematoma following pseudoaneurysm of a branch of profunda femoris artery after 3 months of primary total hip arthroplasty in an 80-year-old female patient with single kidney. Hip arthroplasty was done for painful primary osteoarthritis of left hip. Diagnosis of femoral nerve palsy was made by clinical examination and computed tomography imaging of pelvis. Patient was managed by surgical evacuation of hematoma and physiotherapy. The patient's clinical symptoms were improved after surgical evacuation of hematoma. This is the first case report of its kind in English literature regarding delayed onset femoral nerve palsy after primary total hip arthroplasty due to pseudoaneurysm of a branch of profunda femoris artery without any obvious precipitating factor. PMID:27752378

  9. Ruptured hepatic subcapsular hematoma following laparoscopic cholecystectomy: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Kentaro; Midorikawa, Yutaka; Mushiake, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masato; Yamakawa, Tatsuo; Sugiyama, Yasuyuki

    2010-12-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is now a standard procedure for cholecystolithiasis because of its minimally invasive nature compared to the conventional method. However, severe complications that have never been seen for open surgery have also been reported. Here, we report the case of a 28-year-old woman who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and then developed a ruptured subcapsular hematoma. On postoperative day 1, she developed shock, and postoperative bleeding was suspected. During re-operation, a ruptured subcapsular hematoma of the whole right lobe of the liver with active bleeding was found, and hemostasis was achieved. In this case, it was assumed that the rupture of the subcapsular hematoma was due to compression of the liver by the clamp for retrieving the spilled gallstones during the first operation and perioperative administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  10. Significance of monitoring the initial intracranial pressure on hematoma irrigation with trephination therapy for acute subdural hematomas in critical conditions.

    PubMed

    Otani, Naoki; Takasato, Yoshio; Masaoka, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Takanori; Yoshino, Yoshikazu; Yatsushige, Hiroshi; Miyawaki, Hiroki; Sumiyoshi, Kyoko; Sugawara, Takashi; Chikashi, Aoyagi; Takeuchi, Satoru; Suzuki, Go

    2010-01-01

    Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) patients presenting in a severe condition tend to have poor outcomes due to the significant brain edema required to maintain the ICP at less than 20-25 mmHg. This study compared the surgical outcomes of 16 critically ill patients with ASDH who underwent hematoma irrigation with trephination therapy (HITT) based on their initial ICP values. The initial mean GCS score upon admission was four. A unilateral dilated pupil was seen in one and bilateral dilated pupils were seen in seven patients. The co-existence of a brain contusion was seen in seven patients, brain swelling was noted in six patients, and both basal cistern effacement and a midline shift greater than 5 mm were observed in all patients. The mean initial ICP value was 45 mmHg (range: 3 to 85 mmHg). Ten patients (62.5%) underwent a rapid external decompression to evacuate the hematoma. By using the Glasgow Outcome Scale upon discharge a score of good recovery (GR) was assigned to two (12.5 %), moderate disability (MD) to four (25.0 %), vegetative state (VS) to two (12.5 %), and death (D) to eight (50.0 %) patients. All six patients who showed an initial ICP greater than 60 mmHg died despite intensive care. Eight patients who showed an initial ICP less than 40 mmHg had a favorable outcome, but two patients deteriorated due to a traumatic cerebrovascular disorder. It seems that the initial ICP monitoring with HITT for ASDH patients in critical condition may be an important factor for predicting both surgical outcome and clinical course.

  11. Postcatheterization Retroperitoneal Hematoma Due to Spontaneous Lumbar Arterial Hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinowski, E. Anthony; Trerotola, Scott O.

    1998-07-15

    A patient developed retroperitoneal hemorrhage after cardiac catheterization, initially thought to be a complication of the puncture. Diagnostic evaluation revealed the source to be spontaneous bleeding from a lumber artery, which was successfully embolized. Spontaneous hemorrhage is a recognized complication of anticoagulation therapy and must be considered in the differential diagnosis even in the face of a seemingly obvious source of bleeding.

  12. Retroperitoneal hematoma following radical orchiectomy: Two cases

    PubMed Central

    Glicksman, Rachel; Hamilton, Robert J.; Chung, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of testicular cancer is dependent on the stage of disease at presentation. Stage 1 testicular cancer is treated with radical orchiectomy, followed by active surveillance, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy. Occasionally, unusual and unexpected postoperative changes can be seen on computed tomography (CT), and may raise concern for metastatic disease. Here, we present two cases of testicular cancer patients who developed retroperitoneal hematomas post-radical orchiectomy, one as a classical clinical presentation, and the other as an atypical radiological entity only. The first is a case of a 38-year-old male with a non-seminoma testicular cancer, who developed severe flank pain, hemodynamic instability, and progressive anemia from a retroperitoneal hematoma in the immediate (<24 hours) postoperative period, requiring urgent surgical evacuation. The second is a case of a 33-year-old male with a testicular seminoma who had a large, suspicious retroperitoneal mass on a staging CT scan concerning for metastatic disease, which was later diagnosed as a retroperitoneal hematoma. These cases reveal the clinical variability with which a retroperitoneal hematoma post-radical orchiectomy may present. In addition, the second case demonstrates the importance of recognizing radiological postoperative changes and ensuring that these findings are not mistaken for and treated as metastatic disease. PMID:28163811

  13. Organized hematoma mimicking retroperitoneal cystic tumors.

    PubMed

    Ivankiv, Taras; Ogurtsov, Oleksii; Pokhylevych, Galina

    2016-01-01

    Isolated retroperitoneal cysts are uncommon with an estimated incidence of 1/5750-1/250,000. In women they occur about 1.5-2 times more often than in men. The largest numbers of patients are young or middle aged (20-50 years). Lack of knowledge about the causes of these rare entities and asymptomatic clinical picture often leads to diagnostic and tactical mistakes. The medical history of 54-year old male patient B., who has been hospitalized at Surgical Department №1 of Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University (Surgical Department of Lviv Regional Clinical Hospital), was processed retrospectively. Diagnosing of retroperitoneal organized hematoma in the early stages is not always possible, because exploration of retroperitoneal space can be difficult. General tests and tumor markers are usually normal range and not prognostically informative in this case. Decisively important were imaging diagnostic methods-USG and CT. As clinical cases of organized hematoma are quite rare, finding out retroperitoneal formation with irregular contours and infiltrative component indicates for retroperitoneal tumors. Thus, this formation accumulated contrast that says for increased vascularization. Intraoperative: formation with thick walls and heterogeneous structure. Histological diagnosis: hematoma in a phase of deep organization. On our opinion, taking into account location and structure of tumors, laparoscopic intervention was not appropriate, open surgery was reasonable approach. Preoperative biopsy has a crucial role to set preliminary diagnosis. Despite the fact that organized retroperitoneal hematomas are quite rare, their diagnosis requires detailed examination and histological verification. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Spontaneous retroclival hematoma: a case series.

    PubMed

    Narvid, Jared; Amans, Matthew R; Cooke, Daniel L; Hetts, Steven W; Dillon, William P; Higashida, Randall T; Dowd, Christopher F; Halbach, Van V

    2016-03-01

    Retroclival hematomas are rare, appearing mostly as posttraumatic phenomena in children. Spontaneous retroclival hematoma (SRH) in the absence of trauma also has few descriptions in the literature. None of the reported clinical cases features the combination of an SRH and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Nevertheless, despite extensive cases of idiopathic or angiographically negative subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) of the posterior fossa, only a single case report of a patient with a unique spontaneous retroclival hematoma has been identified. In this study, the authors reviewed the presentation, management, and clinical outcome of this rare entity. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of all patients with diagnosed SRH at their institution over a 3-year period. Collected data included clinical history, laboratory results, treatment, and review of all imaging studies performed. Four patients had SRH. All were appropriately evaluated for coagulopathic and/or traumatic etiologies of hemorrhage, though no etiology could be found. Moreover, all of the patients demonstrated SRH that both clearly crossed the basioccipital synchondrosis and was contained within a nondependent configuration along the retroclival dura mater. Spontaneous retroclival hematoma, often associated with IVH, is a rare subtype of intracranial hemorrhage frequently recognized only when MRI demonstrates compartmentalization of the posterior fossa hemorrhage. When angiography fails to reveal an underlying lesion, SRH patients, like patients with traditional angiographically negative SAH, enjoy a remarkably good prognosis.

  15. Cardiovascualr changes with acute subdural hematoma.

    PubMed

    VanderArk, G D

    1975-06-01

    Of 100 consecutive patients with acute subdural hematoma, 53 survived. Blood pressure and heart rate changes were not reliable indicators of increased intracranial pressure or cerebral disaster. Electrocardiographic changes in these patients were dramatic. Forty-one patients developed a new cardiac arrhythmia. Increased intracranial pressure and brain lesions adversely affect the heart. These effects must be recognized and appropriately treated.

  16. [Intracerebral aneurysm--treatment options, informed consent, and legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Burkhardt, Werner Friedrich; Zinn, Pascal Olivier; Bozinov, Oliver; Bertalanffy, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    All medical subspecialties and, in particular, high-tech field neurosurgery are subject to continuous change in therapeutic concepts due to novel treatment options emerging through research and evolution in the field. Hence, the question arises if the patient's informed consent needs to be adjusted in the face of multiple therapeutic options with different configurations of risk/benefit relationships. In this paper we discuss different therapeutic scenarios with regard to ruptured intracerebral aneurysms (RIA) and unruptured intracerebral aneurysms (UIA), and we advise the medical doctor involved in the process. Indeed, experienced neurosurgeons and endovascular interventionalists are very familiar with the management of these scenarios; likewise, interns, residents, and otherwise affiliated physicians may be faced with these situations. In general, asymptomatic and mentally capacitated patients as well as legal guardians of minor patients and of mentally incapacitated patients with incidental aneurysms and more than one therapeutic option need to be accurately informed about the advantages and disadvantages of the treatment options available to them. In case of emergency or when treating a mentally disabled patient who is incapable of making a sound judgment and has no legal guardian, the attending doctor will have to choose the best possible treatment option. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. Chronic expanding hematoma of thorax extended to the neck.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Hitoshi; Baba, Hiromitsu; Ondo, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of chronic expanding hematoma of thorax extended to the neck. An 83-year-old man with a history of Lucite ball plombage and thoracoplasty of bilateral thorax was admitted with numbness of left upper extremity. In 6 months, left supraclavicular fossa was gradually bulged like tumor. The lesion was diagnosed as chronic expanding hematoma. Surgically, Lucite balls were removed with surrounding hematoma debris and fluid, and neck hematoma, which was slightly communicated to the thorax, was extirpated. We discussed the genesis of this hematoma and its extension to the neck.

  18. Educational Placement After Pediatric Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Hawks, Charlotte; Jordan, Lori C; Gindville, Melissa; Ichord, Rebecca N; Licht, Daniel J; Beslow, Lauren A

    2016-08-01

    This study describes educational placement of school-aged children after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and examines whether educational placement is associated with severity of neurological deficits. Children with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage presenting from 2007 to 2013 were prospectively enrolled at three tertiary children's hospitals. The Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure and parental interview gathered information about neurological outcome, school attendance, and educational placement. The cohort of 92 enrolled children included 42 school-aged children (6 to 17 years) with intracerebral hemorrhage. Four children died; one was excluded because of preexisting cognitive deficits. Thirty-seven children completed three-month follow-up, and 30 completed 12-month follow-up. At 12 months, 14 children (46.7%) received regular age-appropriate programming, 12 (40%) attended school with in-class services, three (10%) were in special education programs, and one child (3.3%) received home-based services because of intracerebral hemorrhage-related deficits. Of 30 children with three- and 12-month follow-up, 14 (46.7%) improved their education status, 13 (43.3%) remained at the same education level, and three (10%) began to receive in-class services. An increasing Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure score predicted the need for educational modifications at three months (odds ratio, 3.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 7.9; P = 0.007) and at 12 months (odds ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 3.9; P = 0.025). Most children returned to school within a year after intracerebral hemorrhage, and many had a reduction in the intensity of educational support. However, a great need for educational services persisted at 12 months after intracerebral hemorrhage with fewer than half enrolled in regular age-appropriate classes. Worse deficits on the Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure were associated with remedial educational placement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  19. Continuous antihypertensive therapy throughout the initial 24 hours of intracerebral hemorrhage: the stroke acute management with urgent risk-factor assessment and improvement-intracerebral hemorrhage study.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Junpei; Koga, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Eijirou; Okada, Yasushi; Kimura, Kazumi; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Okuda, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Furui, Eisuke; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Kario, Kazuomi; Okata, Takuya; Arihiro, Shoji; Sato, Shoichiro; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Minematsu, Kazuo; Toyoda, Kazunori

    2014-03-01

    A short duration (<24 hours) of antihypertensive therapy (AHT) after acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) may be sufficient because active bleeding generally ceases within several hours. We aimed to determine the association between sequential systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels during AHT and outcomes in ICH patients. In 211 hyperacute ICH patients who underwent AHT based on predefined protocol, the mean of hourly SBP (mSBP) measurements was calculated over 1 to 8 hours (first mSBP), 9 to 16 hours (second mSBP), and 17 to 24 hours (third mSBP) after the initiation of AHT. Outcomes included neurological deterioration (72-hour Glasgow Coma Scale decrease ≥2 or National Instititutes of Health Stroke Scale increase ≥4), hematoma expansion (>33%), and unfavorable outcome (3-month modified Rankin Scale score 4-6). The median first, second, and third mSBPs were 132, 131, and 137 mm Hg, respectively. A higher first mSBP (odds ratio [OR], 2.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-4.69 per 10 mm Hg) or second mSBP (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.20-3.80) was independently associated with neurological deterioration, and a higher second mSBP (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.02-2.00) or third mSBP (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.05-2.05) was associated with unfavorable outcome. None of the mSBPs was associated with hematoma expansion. The continuation of AHT throughout the initial 24 hours after ICH may improve outcomes.

  20. Albumin treatment reduces neurological deficit and protects blood-brain barrier integrity after acute intracortical hematoma in the rat.

    PubMed

    Belayev, Ludmila; Saul, Isabel; Busto, Raul; Danielyan, Kristine; Vigdorchik, Alexey; Khoutorova, Larissa; Ginsberg, Myron D

    2005-02-01

    Acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common and severe form of stroke. To date, medical management of ICH has had scant impact on morbidity and mortality. Because albumin therapy is markedly neuroprotective in preclinical models of ischemic stroke, and because ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke share several common injury mechanisms, we hypothesized that albumin therapy might also benefit ICH. Acute intracortical hematoma was produced in anesthetized, normothermic rats by the single stereotaxic injection of 50 muL of autologous, nonheparinized whole blood over 5 minutes. Separate animal groups were treated either with 25% human albumin, 1.25 g/kg, or with intravenous saline vehicle at 60 minutes after ICH. Neurobehavior was quantified sequentially over the next 2 to 7 days. Damage to the blood-brain barrier was assessed at 2 days after ICH by fluorometric measurement of Evans blue extravasation in dissected brain regions. High-grade neurological deficits were present in all rats at 50 minutes after ICH (score 10.3+/-0.2, mean+/-SEM [maximal score 12]). Albumin-treated rats showed improved neuroscores relative to saline-treated animals beginning within hours of treatment and persisting throughout the 7-day survival period. At 3 and 7 days, mean total neuroscores of the albumin group were 38% to 43% lower than in saline-treated animals. Perihematomal Evans blue discoloration was readily evident in saline-treated ICH rats but was reduced by albumin treatment. Hemispheric Evans blue content ipsilateral to the hematoma was reduced by 49% by albumin treatment (albumin 93.9+/-13.3 versus saline 184.7+/-33.7 mg/g, P<0.05). Hematoma volume and brain swelling were not affected by albumin treatment. Prompt albumin therapy improves neurological function and blood-brain barrier integrity after acute intracortical hematoma. These observations have important potential clinical implications.

  1. Added value of delayed computed tomography angiography in primary intracranial hemorrhage and hematoma size for predicting spot sign.

    PubMed

    Wu, Te Chang; Chen, Tai Yuan; Shiue, Yow Ling; Chen, Jeon Hor; Hsieh, Tsyh-Jyi; Ko, Ching Chung; Lin, Ching Po

    2017-01-01

    Background The computed tomography angiography (CTA) spot sign represents active contrast extravasation within acute primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and is an independent predictor of hematoma expansion (HE) and poor clinical outcomes. The spot sign could be detected on first-pass CTA (fpCTA) or delayed CTA (dCTA). Purpose To investigate the additional benefits of dCTA spot sign in primary ICH and hematoma size for predicting spot sign. Material and Methods This is a retrospective study of 100 patients who underwent non-contrast CT (NCCT) and CTA within 24 h of onset of primary ICH. The presence of spot sign on fpCTA or dCTA, and hematoma size on NCCT were recorded. The spot sign on fpCTA or dCTA for predicting significant HE, in-hospital mortality, and poor clinical outcomes (mRS ≥ 4) are calculated. The hematoma size for prediction of CTA spot sign was also analyzed. Results Only the spot sign on dCTA could predict high risk of significant HE and poor clinical outcomes as on fpCTA ( P < 0.05). With dCTA, there is increased sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) for predicting significant HE, in-hospital mortality, and poor clinical outcomes. The XY value (product of the two maximum perpendicular axial dimensions) is the best predictor (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.82) for predicting spot sign on fpCTA or dCTA in the absence of intraventricular and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Conclusion This study clarifies that dCTA imaging could improve predictive performance of CTA in primary ICH. Furthermore, the XY value is the best predictor for CTA spot sign.

  2. Fatal intracerebral hemorrhage during dental treatment.

    PubMed

    Massalha, R; Valdman, S; Farkash, P; Merkin, L; Herishanu, Y

    1996-09-01

    Although chronic arterial hypertension is the leading cause of intracranial hemorrhage, an abrupt rise in systemic arterial pressure in normotensive people may sometimes induce a hemorrhagic stroke. Dental treatment is rarely associated with such an event. We report here on two middle-aged women, apparently healthy, who suffered from a fatal intracerebral hemorrhage following a dental treatment. On admission, high levels of arterial hypertension were found. It seems that trigeminal manipulation during dental treatment as well as increased serum levels of induced epinephrine mainly by stress and pain, and the small amounts absorbed from the site of local anesthesia might produce abrupt elevation of blood pressure, subsequent increase in cerebral blood flow and severe, even fatal intracerebral hemorrhage. The addition of catecholamines to local anesthetics should be considered. We recommend the use of benzodiazepin as a premedication drug to reduce stress during dental treatment.

  3. European research priorities for intracerebral haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Thorsten; Petersson, Jesper; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Christensen, Hanne; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Csiba, Laszlo; Harnof, Sagi; Krieger, Derk; Mendelow, David; Molina, Carlos; Montaner, Joan; Overgaard, Karsten; Roine, Risto O; Schmutzhard, Erich; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Toni, Danilo; Stapf, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Over 2 million people are affected by intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) worldwide every year, one third of them dying within 1 month, and many survivors being left with permanent disability. Unlike most other stroke types, the incidence, morbidity and mortality of ICH have not declined over time. No standardised diagnostic workup for the detection of the various underlying causes of ICH currently exists, and the evidence for medical or surgical therapeutic interventions remains limited. A dedicated European research programme for ICH is needed to identify ways to reduce the burden of ICH-related death and disability. The European Research Network on Intracerebral Haemorrhage EURONICH is a multidisciplinary academic research collaboration that has been established to define current research priorities and to conduct large clinical studies on all aspects of ICH.

  4. European Research Priorities for Intracerebral Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Thorsten; Petersson, Jesper; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Christensen, Hanne; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Csiba, Laszlo; Harnof, Sagi; Krieger, Derk; Mendelow, David; Molina, Carlos; Montaner, Joan; Overgaard, Karsten; Roine, Risto O.; Schmutzhard, Erich; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Toni, Danilo; Stapf, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Over 2 million people are affected by intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) worldwide every year, one third of them dying within 1 month, and many survivors being left with permanent disability. Unlike most other stroke types, the incidence, morbidity and mortality of ICH have not declined over time. No standardised diagnostic workup for the detection of the various underlying causes of ICH currently exists, and the evidence for medical or surgical therapeutic interventions remains limited. A dedicated European research programme for ICH is needed to identify ways to reduce the burden of ICH-related death and disability. The European Research Network on Intracerebral Haemorrhage EURONICH is a multidisciplinary academic research collaboration that has been established to define current research priorities and to conduct large clinical studies on all aspects of ICH. PMID:21986448

  5. Nitroxidergic nerve fibers of intracerebral vessels.

    PubMed

    Kotsyuba, A E; Kotsyuba, E P; Chertok, V M

    2010-05-01

    Light and electron histochemical methods were used to study the structure and distribution of neurons containing NADPH diaphorase and their processes in the parietal area of the cortex in rats. Most neurons were found to be characterized by tight associations with intracerebral vessels. The smallest distances between the axon plasmalemma and the smooth myocytes of intracerebral arteries in the cerebral cortex were at least 0.3-0.5 microm. Neuron bodies were located at functionally important locations of vessels (sites at which subsidiary vessels branched off, the origins of arterioles), and their processes accompanied vessels, densely entwining the vessels with their branches. Neurons whose dendrites contacted the bodies or process of above- or below-lying neurons often sent nerve conductors to arteries, veins, or capillaries. Thus, nitroxidergic neurons or groups of these neurons may monitor the state of the circulation at different points in the vascular bed, functioning as local nerve centers.

  6. CM352 Reduces Brain Damage and Improves Functional Recovery in a Rat Model of Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, José A; Sobrino, Tomás; López-Arias, Esteban; Ugarte, Ana; Sánchez-Arias, Juan A; Vieites-Prado, Alba; de Miguel, Irene; Oyarzabal, Julen; Páramo, José A; Campos, Francisco; Orbe, Josune; Castillo, José

    2017-06-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is an acute neurological disorder with high mortality and no effective treatment. In addition to the initial bleeding event, rebleeding and hematoma expansion are associated with poor outcome in these patients. We studied the effectiveness of the new antifibrinolytic agent CM352, a short-half-life matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, for achieving early hemostasis and improving functional recovery in a rat model of collagenase-induced ICH. ICH was induced by striatal injection of collagenase, and 1 hour later, rats received an intravenous injection of saline (n=6) or CM352 (1 mg/kg, n=6). Hematoma (basal and after 3 and 24 hours) and lesion (14 days) volumes were quantified on T2-weighted (T2) magnetic resonance images. Neurological and functional recovery was evaluated by using Bederson score and a cylinder test (basal, 24 hours, and 14 days). Early treatment (1 hour) with CM352 was efficient reducing hematoma expansion at 3 hours (P<0.01) and, more markedly, at 24 hours (P<0.01). Decreased bleeding after antifibrinolytic treatment was accompanied by reduced interleukin-6 levels at 3 hours (P<0.05) and smaller lesion volume at 14 days (P<0.01). CM352 drastically reduced sensorimotor impairment (cylinder test) after ICH in rats at 24 hours (P<0.01) and 14 days (P<0.01). Similarly, it also attenuated neurological deficit (Bederson scale) at 24 hours (P<0.01) and 14 days (P<0.01). Interestingly, late (3 hours) CM352 administration also resulted in reduced lesion size and better functional outcome. CM352, a new antifibrinolytic agent and matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, effectively prevented hematoma growth and reduced lesion size in ICH in association with improved functional and neurological recovery. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  7. Prediction of coma and anisocoria based on computerized tomography findings in patients with supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhi; Zheng, Wen; Zhu, Haixia; Chen, Yiwei; Fan, Xuejun; Hou, Deren; Deng, Hao

    2012-07-01

    Coma and anisocoria are the two common signs of a crucial state of neurological dysfunction. The ability to forecast the occurrence of these conditions would help clinicians make clinical risk assessments and decisions. From October 2006 to September 2008, 118 patients with supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) were enrolled in this retrospective investigation. Patients were distributed into 3 groups according to occurrence of the signs of coma and/or anisocoria in the observation unit during a 30-day period. Group 1 included 52 patients who had normal or impaired consciousness, group 2 included 27 patients who had coma with no anisocoria and group 3 consisted of 39 patients who had coma with anisocoria. The clinical characteristics and parameters on computerized tomography (CT) findings were compared using univariate analysis to determine the factors that were related to the level of consciousness. Logistic regression models established the predictive equations for coma and anisocoria. Univariate analysis revealed that hematoma volume, the score of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH score) and the amplitude of midline shift were the factors related to coma and anisocoria. Mean hematoma volume was 24.0 ± 13.0 ml, 53.6 ± 12.6 ml and 80.5 ± 24.6 ml, the mean amplitudes of midline shift were 1.3 ± 2.0 mm, 5.9 ± 4.9 mm and 10.1 ± 5.5 mm, and the mean IVH score was 0.8 ± 1.3, 3.3 ± 3.3 and 5.9 ± 3.4 in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that hematoma volume and IVH score were independent prognostic factors for coma and anisocoria. The predictive equations for coma and anisocoria were LogitP = 0.279X(HV) + 0.521X(IVH)-18.164 and LogitP = 0.125X(HV)+0.326X(IVH)-6.864, respectively. Hematoma volume and IVH score were the independent prognostic factors for coma and anisocoria. Logistic regression models established the fitted predictive equations, which could help clinicians make clinical risk assessments and decisions. Crown

  8. Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhages-warfarin as a risk factor.

    PubMed

    Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Kariappa, Sonia; Kaye, Andrew H

    2003-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of warfarin use in 156 consecutive patients presenting to a single tertiary referral centre with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage. Our study found that 11% of patients (16/159) presenting with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage were on warfarin for prophylactic anticoagulation at time of presentation. Comparison was made to other published Australian data with regard to the incidence of warfarin use in patients presenting with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage. Patient outcomes were also examined.

  9. Intracerebral lymphoma deposits: investigation and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Plowman, P.N.; Wise, R.J.S.

    1984-06-01

    In a recently studied series of 12 patients with intracerebral lymphoma deposits, the following are noteworthy: Although most intracerebral lymphoma deposits are dramatically and homogenously enhanced on CT brain scan, this is not always the case; two patients with apparently necrotic centers are presented. Subtraction of enhanced CT brain scanning cuts before and after radiotherapy allow a quantitation of tumor response. The apparent paradox of deficient lymphoma deposit angiogenesis on angiography and good enhancement on CT scan was probed by positron emission topmography (ECAT) in the only patient who did not have a confounding prior craniotomy. ECAT and histopathological examination suggest that the microvasculature of intracerebral lymphoma deposits is rich. The ECAT data demonstrated that regional tumor blood flow was comparable to that in grey matter, but tumor oxygen metabolism was intermediate between grey and white matter. The interesting observation of coupled depression of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in the cerebrum overlying the tumor and its surrounding edema is discussed. A protracted radiotherapy prescription (with daily fractions of 175 cGY) is favored.

  10. Clinical Course and Results of Surgery for Chronic Subdural Hematomas in Patients on Drugs Affecting Hemostasis

    PubMed Central

    Dziedzic, Tomasz Andrzej; Kunert, Przemysław; Marchel, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Objective An apparent increase of use of drugs affecting hemostasis in our neurosurgical department since the 1990s has encouraged us to investigate whether these drugs influence the clinical course and results of surgery for chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). Methods This retrospective analysis included 178 patients admitted for CSDH from 2007 to 2011 who were divided into two groups: on drugs affecting hemostasis (40; 22%) and no bleeding disorders (138; 78%). Medications in the first group included oral anticoagulants (33; 82.5%), antiplatelets (5; 12.5%) and low molecular weight heparins (2; 5%). Results The patients on drugs affecting hemostasis were older (74.3±7.4 vs. 68.4±14.8; p-value 0.01) and the group without bleeding disorders had more head trauma history (61% vs. 38%, p-value 0.01). The groups did not differ in bilateral hematoma rates (25% vs. 20%, p-value=NS). At diagnosis, mean hematoma thickness was lower in patients on drugs affecting hemostasis (18.7±7.4 mm vs. 21.9±7.9 mm, p-value<0.01). Average stay of hospital was 1 day longer in patients on drugs affecting hemostasis (11.7±4.1 vs.10.9±5.3, p-value=NS) and was related to the necessity of bleeding disorder reversal. Mean neurological status at presentation was similar between the groups (p-value=NS) as was the likelihood of hematoma recurrence (p-value=NS). Glasgow Outcome Scale results were comparable. Conclusion Patients on drugs affecting hemostasis are less often aware of a head trauma history, possibly suggesting a higher CSDH risk after minor trauma in this group. In these patients, smaller hematomas are symptomatic, probably due to faster hematoma formation. Drugs affecting hemostasis do not affect treatment results. PMID:28264245

  11. [Factors Contributing to Surgical Intervention for Subacute Subdural Hematoma Enlargement in Patients with Mild Head Injuries].

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Yosuke; Sasaki, Tohru; Kanamori, Masayuki; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Uenohara, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Teiji

    2017-09-01

    Delayed neurological deterioration following mild head injury(MHI)usually occurs within 24 hours. However, some cases require delayed surgical evacuation of an acute subdural hematoma(ASDH), owing to subacute progressive hematoma enlargement. This study aimed to determine radiological or clinical parameters associated with surgical intervention in ASDH cases in which surgery was not initially considered necessary. From 2010 to 2015, 64 patients were non-surgically treated for ASDH following MHI. We evaluated the various outcomes of eventual surgical ASDH evacuation after the first 48 hours following injury, due to hematoma enlargement and clinical deterioration. Univariate and multivariate analyses were applied to both the demographic and initial radiographic features to identify risk factors for ASDH progression and surgery. Overall, at the time of their last follow-up computed tomography, 57 patients(89%)demonstrated minimal ASDH or spontaneous hematoma resolution with conservative non-surgical management. The remaining 7 patients(11%)received delayed surgical ASDH evacuation a median of 5.1 days after the head trauma. There were no significant differences between the two groups for baseline characteristics, including age, prior history of anticoagulants, the presence of cerebral contusions, or subarachnoid hemorrhages. On multivariate analysis, use of antiplatelet drugs(p=0.013, OR=28, 95%CI=1.82-24)was independently associated with delayed hematoma evacuation. These data indicate that as much as 11% of patients with minimal ASDHs after MHI can deteriorate over the course of a week and then require surgical intervention, and that patients on concurrent antiplatelet medication require especially careful monitoring of hematoma progression.

  12. Factors Associated With Neck Hematoma After Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Sayaka; Yasunaga, Hideo; Matsui, Hiroki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Saito, Yuki; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To identify risk factors for post-thyroidectomy hematoma requiring airway intervention or surgery (“wound hematoma”) and determine post-thyroidectomy time to intervention. Post-thyroidectomy hematoma is rare but potentially lethal. Information on wound hematoma in a nationwide clinical setting is scarce. Using the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database, we extracted data from records of patients undergoing thyroidectomy from July 2010 to March 2014. Patients with clinical stage IV cancer or those with bilateral neck dissection were excluded because they could have undergone planned tracheotomy on the day of thyroidectomy. We assessed the association between background characteristics and wound hematoma ≤2 days post-thyroidectomy, using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Among 51,968 patients from 880 hospitals, wound hematoma occurred in 920 (1.8%) ≤2 days post-thyroidectomy and in 203 (0.4%) ≥3 days post-thyroidectomy (in-hospital mortality = 0.05%). Factors significantly associated with wound hematoma ≤2 days post-thyroidectomy were male sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30–1.77); higher age (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00–1.02); overweight or obese (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.04–1.44); type of surgery (partial thyroidectomy for benign tumor compared with: total thyroidectomy, benign tumor [OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.45–2.63]; partial thyroidectomy, malignant tumor [OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.00–1.46]; total thyroidectomy, malignant tumor [OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.82–3.49]; and thyroidectomy for Graves disease [OR 3.88, 95% CI 2.59–5.82]); neck dissection (OR, 1.53, 95% CI 1.05–2.23); antithrombotic agents (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.15–2.17); and blood transfusion (OR 5.33, 95% CI 2.39–11.91). Closer monitoring of airway and neck is recommended for patients with risk factors, and further cautious monitoring beyond 3 days post-thyroidectomy. PMID:26886632

  13. Vertex epidural hematoma: An analysis of a large series

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Vengalathur Ganesan; Kodeeswaran, Marappan; Deiveegan, Kunjithapatham; Sundar, Venkataraman; Sriram, Kuchalambal

    2017-01-01

    Context: Vertex epidural hematoma (VEDH) is uncommon. A high index of suspicion is required to suspect and diagnose this condition, and the surgical management is a challenge to neurosurgeons. There are only isolated case reports or small series of VEDH in the literature. Aims: We have tried to analyze a large series of VEDH seen in our institute. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study. Subjects and Methods: This is an analysis of case records of patients with VEDH during 17 years period from 1995 to 2012. Statistical Analysis Used: Nil. Results: Twenty nine cases of VEDH encountered over a period of 17 years have been analyzed, including 26 males and 3 females. Majority were due to road accidents. Headache, papilledema and lower limb weakness have been the major presenting features in these cases. The diagnosis was by direct coronal computerized tomography (CT) scan in most of them. Majority were managed conservatively with observation and serial imaging. Four patients who had large VEDH with altered sensorium were managed surgically. The source of bleeding was mainly from superior sagittal sinus. Conclusions: VEDH has to be suspected when a patient presents with impact over the vertex and features of raised intracranial pressure. Direct coronal CT or magnetic resonance imaging is useful in the diagnosis. Surgery is required when the patient develops progressive deterioration in sensorium and/or with the hematoma volume more than 30 ml. The present series of 29 cases is the largest reported so far. PMID:28484524

  14. [Six cases of organized chronic subdural hematoma].

    PubMed

    Isobe, Naoyuki; Sato, Hideki; Murakami, Taro; Kurokawa, Yasuharu; Seyama, Go; Oki, Shuichi

    2008-12-01

    Surgical procedures for chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) are performed using various methods on the basis of burr hole irrigation and drainage, but treatment for organized CSDH is rarely required. Primary operation for CSDH was performed in our hospital for 535 patients (391 men, 144 woman; age, 8 months to 104 years) between December 1991 and March 2007. Of these, 6 patients diagnosed with organized CSDH were reviewed. Five patients had a history of burr hole surgery. Computed tomography showed membranous structure and heterogenous distribution of air after burr hole surgery had perforated the subdural space. As for treatment, craniotomy was performed in all cases (small craniotomy, n=4; enlarged craniotomy, n=2), and additional treatment was required in 2 patients. Diagnosis of organized CSDH is not easy before a primary operation, but removal of both organized CSDH and the outer membrane by craniotomy in proportion to hematoma expansion is important once the presence of organized CSDH has been determined.

  15. Ultra-delayed lumbar surgical wound hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Kinon, Merritt D.; Nakhla, Jonathan; Brown, Kenroy; Bhashyam, Niketh; Yassari, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: There exists an inherent risk of increased venous thromboembolism (VTE) in surgical spine patients, which is independent of their existing risk factors. Prophylaxis and treatment of VTE is an imprecise practice and may have serious complications even well after the initial surgery. Furthermore, there are no clear guidelines on how to manage postoperative spine patients with regards to the timing of anticoagulation. Case Description: Here, we present the case of a middle-aged male, status post L2/3 laminectomy and discectomy who developed bilateral below the knee deep venous thrombosis. He was started on Enoxaparin and transitioned to Warfarin and returned with axial back pain, and was found to have a postoperative hematoma almost 3 weeks later in a delayed fashion. Conclusion: Delayed surgical wound hematoma with neural compression is an important complication to identify and should remain high on the differential diagnosis in patients on warfarin who present with axial spinal pain. PMID:28144491

  16. Aortic intramural hematoma: an unpredictable evolution.

    PubMed

    Ponte, Marta; Dias Ferreira, Nuno; Bettencourt, Nuno; Caeiro, Daniel; Fonseca, Marlene; Albuquerque, Aníbal; Vouga, Luís; Gama, Vasco

    2014-01-01

    Aortic intramural hematoma (IMH) is an acute aortic syndrome characterized by bleeding into the media of the aortic wall without intimal disruption or the classic flap formation. Its natural history is variable and still poorly understood, so strategies for therapeutic management are not fully established. In some cases there is partial or complete regression of the hematoma under medical treatment, but most progress to dissection, aneurysmal dilatation or aortic rupture. The authors present the case of a 44-year-old hypertensive male patient admitted with a diagnosis of IMH of the descending aorta. Despite initial symptom resolution and optimal medical therapy, the IMH evolved to a pseudoaneurysm, which was successfully treated by an endovascular approach. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Intracranial subdural hematomas with elevated rivaroxaban concentration and subsequently detected spinal subdural hematoma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka; Koga, Masatoshi; Matsuki, Takayuki; Hino, Tenyu; Yokota, Chiaki; Toyoda, Kazunori

    2016-07-01

    A 79-year-old lean man with a height of 157cm and weight of 42kg (body mass index, 17.2kg/m(2)) receiving rivaroxaban developed an intracranial subdural hematoma and was treated conservatively. Because he had a reduced creatinine clearance of 44mL/min, his dosage of rivaroxaban was reduced from 15 to 10mg daily according to official Japanese prescribing information. However, he developed bilateral intracranial subdural hematomas 2weeks later. Plasma rivaroxaban concentration on anti-factor Xa chromogenic assay was elevated at 301ng/mL, suggesting excessive accumulation. He underwent burr hole drainage and resumed anticoagulation with warfarin. Subsequently, he developed a lumbosacral hematoma. He was treated conservatively and discharged without neurological sequelae. The main cause of the increased concentration of rivaroxaban was believed to be his older age and low body weight. The etiology of the spinal hematoma was suspected to be the migration of intracranial hematoma to the spinal subdural space.

  18. Fibrin glue injection into the hematoma cavity for refractory chronic subdural hematoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Saiko; Amagasaki, Kenichi; Shono, Naoyuki; Nakaguchi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Repeat burr hole irrigation and drainage has been effective in most cases of recurrent chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH), however, refractory cases require further procedures or other interventions. Case Description: An 85-year-old male presented with left CSDH, which recurred five times. The hematoma was irrigated and drained through a left frontal burr hole during the first to third surgery and through a left parietal burr hole during the fourth and fifth surgery. The hematoma had no septation and was well-evacuated during each surgery. Antiplatelet therapy for preventing ischemic heart disease was stopped after the second surgery, the hematoma cavity was irrigated with artificial cerebrospinal fluid at the third surgery, and the direction of the drainage tube was changed to reduce the postoperative subdural air collection at the fourth surgery. However, none of these interventions was effective. He was successfully treated by fibrin glue injection into the hematoma cavity after the fifth surgery. Conclusion: This procedure may be effective for refractory CSDH in elderly patients. PMID:27999712

  19. Urologic manifestations of the iliacus hematoma syndrome.

    PubMed

    Colapinto, V; Comisarow, R H

    1979-08-01

    Anticoagulated patients may have a characteristic syndrome of femoral neuropathy from an iliacus muscle hematoma. They may present with urologic signs and symptoms, including groin, flank and thigh pain, groin tenderness, an iliac fossa mass and hematuria. Urography may reveal an enlarged psoas shadow and hydronephrosis from ureteral obstruction. Prompt diagnosis is essential so that early operative decompression of the femoral nerve can be done. The urologist has an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome.

  20. Organized hematoma mimicking retroperitoneal cystic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ivankiv, Taras; Ogurtsov, Oleksii; Pokhylevych, Galina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Isolated retroperitoneal cysts are uncommon with an estimated incidence of 1/5750–1/250,000. In women they occur about 1.5–2 times more often than in men. The largest numbers of patients are young or middle aged (20–50 years). Lack of knowledge about the causes of these rare entities and asymptomatic clinical picture often leads to diagnostic and tactical mistakes. Methods The medical history of 54-year old male patient B., who has been hospitalized at Surgical Department №1 of Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University (Surgical Department of Lviv Regional Clinical Hospital), was processed retrospectively. Result Diagnosing of retroperitoneal organized hematoma in the early stages is not always possible, because exploration of retroperitoneal space can be difficult. General tests and tumor markers are usually normal range and not prognostically informative in this case. Decisively important were imaging diagnostic methods—USG and CT. As clinical cases of organized hematoma are quite rare, finding out retroperitoneal formation with irregular contours and infiltrative component indicates for retroperitoneal tumors. Thus, this formation accumulated contrast that says for increased vascularization. Intraoperative: formation with thick walls and heterogeneous structure. Histological diagnosis: hematoma in a phase of deep organization. On our opinion, taking into account location and structure of tumors, laparoscopic intervention was not appropriate, open surgery was reasonable approach. Preoperative biopsy has a crucial role to set preliminary diagnosis. Conclusion Despite the fact that organized retroperitoneal hematomas are quite rare, their diagnosis requires detailed examination and histological verification. PMID:26764890

  1. Thyroid Gland Hematoma After Blunt Neck Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Saylam, Baris; Çomçali, Bülent; Ozer, Mehmet Vasfi; Coskun, Faruk

    2009-01-01

    Hemorrhage of a previously normal thyroid gland as a result of blunt trauma is a very rare condition. We report a case of blunt trauma that caused acute hemorrhage into the thyroid gland and presented with hoarseness. The diagnosis of thyroid gland hematoma was made with a combination of fiberoptic laryngoscopy, cervical computed tomography, and carotid angiography. The patient was treated conservatively, had a favorable course without further complications, and was discharged four days after admission. PMID:20046242

  2. Neuroendocrine changes in patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Huttner, Hagen B; Kiphuth, Ines-Christine; Teuber, Linda; Lücking, Hannes; Kloska, Stephan P; Staykov, Dimitre; Kuramatsu, Joji B; Mauer, Christoph; Breuer, Lorenz; Doerfler, Arnd; Köhrmann, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Neuroendocrine changes have been reported after ischemic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and brain trauma. As there are no corresponding data in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) we analyzed various neuroendocrine parameters to investigate possible alterations in hormone profiles of patients with ICH. Twenty patients with ICH were prospectively enrolled in the study. Patients were a priori parted into two groups: Ten non-ventilated patients treated on the stroke-unit (hemorrhage volumes <20 ml, "small ICH"), and 10 ventilated patients treated on the neurocritical care unit (hematoma volumes >20 ml with possible additional ventricular involvement ("large ICH"). Neuroendocrine parameters were compared between both groups referring to reference values. The following parameters were obtained over a period of 9 days in 20 patients with spontaneous supratentorial ICH: thyrotropin, free thiiodothyronine and thyroxine, human growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol. Small ICH patients were in a median 71 (54-88) years old and had a mean ICH volume of 9.5 ± 6.5 ml, whereas large ICH patients were 65 (47-80) years old and showed a mean volume of 56 ± 30.2 ml. None of the patients revealed pathological alterations for thyrotropin, free thiiodothyronine, thyroxine, human growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1, and testosterone. There was only a mild decrease of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol on day 3 in large ICH patients. Small ICH patients showed pathologically elevated levels of luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormone throughout the observation period. Large ICH patients showed a marked increase of prolactin that developed during the course. Overall, neuroendocrine changes in ICH patients are not as profound as reported for ischemic stroke or subarachnoid hemorrhage. The clinical significance of increased LH and FSH

  3. An obscure case of hepatic subcapsular hematoma.

    PubMed

    Ndzengue, Albert; Hammoudeh, Fadi; Brutus, Pierre; Ajah, Ofem; Purcell, Roland; Leadon, Joseph; Rafal, Richard B; Balmir, Simon; Enriquez, Danilo A; Posner, Gerald L; Jaffe, Eric A; Chandra, Pradeep

    2011-04-13

    Spontaneous liver bleeding is often reported in preeclampsia. It is otherwise rare and has been linked to gross anatomical lesions and coagulopathy. We report a case of subcapsular hematoma of the liver without any apparent lesion and in the absence of coagulopathy. A 41-year-old male, paraplegic for 16 years, presented to the emergency department 3 days after sudden onset of right upper quadrant and shoulder pain. He had been on vitamins and 5,000 units subcutaneous heparin 12-hourly at the nursing home for the last month. He was in no distress, afebrile, with stable vitals. Physical examination showed a diverting colostomy, tender hepatomegaly and sacral decubiti. A fecal occult blood test was negative. There was spastic paraplegia below the level of T12. Two days after admission, the patient was afebrile and hemodynamically stable. PTT, PT, liver profile, BUN and creatinine were all normal, however his hemoglobin had dropped from 11.3 to 7.6 g/dl. An abdominal CT scan revealed an isolated 9.0 × 1.8 cm subcapsular hematoma. The patient received blood transfusion in the intensive care unit and was discharged 7 days later. In conclusion, spontaneous liver hemorrhage occurs in the nonobstetrical population in the setting of gross anatomical lesions or coagulopathy. This is the first report of an isolated subcapsular liver hematoma.

  4. Subdural Thoracolumbar Spine Hematoma after Spinal Anesthesia: A Rare Occurrence and Literature Review of Spinal Hematomas after Spinal Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Maddali, Prasanthi; Walker, Blake; Fisahn, Christian; Page, Jeni; Diaz, Vicki; Zwillman, Michael E; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane; Moisi, Marc

    2017-02-16

    Spinal hematomas are a rare but serious complication of spinal epidural anesthesia and are typically seen in the epidural space; however, they have been documented in the subdural space. Spinal subdural hematomas likely exist within a traumatically induced space within the dural border cell layer, rather than an anatomical subdural space. Spinal subdural hematomas present a dangerous clinical situation as they have the potential to cause significant compression of neural elements and can be easily mistaken for spinal epidural hematomas. Ultrasound can be an effective modality to diagnose subdural hematoma when no epidural blood is visualized. We have reviewed the literature and present a full literature review and a case presentation of an 82-year-old male who developed a thoracolumbar spinal subdural hematoma after spinal epidural anesthesia. Anticoagulant therapy is an important predisposing risk factor for spinal epidural hematomas and likely also predispose to spinal subdural hematomas. It is important to consider spinal subdural hematomas in addition to spinal epidural hematomas in patients who develop weakness after spinal epidural anesthesia, especially in patients who have received anticoagulation.

  5. Subdural Thoracolumbar Spine Hematoma after Spinal Anesthesia: A Rare Occurrence and Literature Review of Spinal Hematomas after Spinal Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Maddali, Prasanthi; Walker, Blake; Fisahn, Christian; Page, Jeni; Diaz, Vicki; Zwillman, Michael E; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R. Shane

    2017-01-01

    Spinal hematomas are a rare but serious complication of spinal epidural anesthesia and are typically seen in the epidural space; however, they have been documented in the subdural space. Spinal subdural hematomas likely exist within a traumatically induced space within the dural border cell layer, rather than an anatomical subdural space. Spinal subdural hematomas present a dangerous clinical situation as they have the potential to cause significant compression of neural elements and can be easily mistaken for spinal epidural hematomas. Ultrasound can be an effective modality to diagnose subdural hematoma when no epidural blood is visualized. We have reviewed the literature and present a full literature review and a case presentation of an 82-year-old male who developed a thoracolumbar spinal subdural hematoma after spinal epidural anesthesia. Anticoagulant therapy is an important predisposing risk factor for spinal epidural hematomas and likely also predispose to spinal subdural hematomas. It is important to consider spinal subdural hematomas in addition to spinal epidural hematomas in patients who develop weakness after spinal epidural anesthesia, especially in patients who have received anticoagulation. PMID:28357164

  6. Chronic expanding hematoma: a late complication 45 years after thoracoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Shuichi

    2017-01-01

    A chronic expanding hematoma is a hematoma with long term, continuous growth. A 69-year-old male presented with an extra-thoracic chronic expanding hematoma 45 years after thoracoplasty. Six months prior to his visit with us, he had noticed a slight swelling on his back. Three months before his visit with us, the size of the swollen area gradually increased after bowling. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an extra-thoracic lesion measuring 120 mm in diameter. Heterogeneous signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images inside the lesion was reflected as hematoma of various ages. The hematoma was successfully resected after preoperative embolization. Chronic expanding hematoma can be a delayed complication after thoracoplasty. PMID:28203429

  7. [Chronic subdural hematoma: a disease of elderly people].

    PubMed

    Tagle, Patricio; Mery, Francisco; Torrealba, Gonzalo; Del Villar, Sergio; Carmona, Hans; Campos, Manuel; Méndez, Jorge; Chicharro, Ada

    2003-02-01

    The lack of specificity and heterogeneity of the clinical picture of chronic subdural hematoma, hampers its diagnosis. To report the experience of a Neurosurgical Service in chronic subdural hematoma. One hundred patients (77 male, mean age 77 +/- 13 years) with chronic subdural hematoma were analyzed. The main clinical presentations were mental status changes (50%) and progressive focal neurological deficit (46%). Five cases presented as a transient neurological deficit. All patients were treated with burr hole drainage. Thirteen had recurrence of the hematoma and they were reoperated. The surgical mortality was 3%. Eighty seven patients were followed for a mean of 66 months. Eighty one of these had a complete recovery, 6 had permanent neurological deficit and 2 of these were unable to care for themselves. Bad prognosis was associated with the absence of a previous trauma to explain the hematoma and symptoms of dementia as the clinical presentation. Most patients with chronic subdural hematoma treated with burr hole drainage have a good outcome.

  8. Chronic expanding hematoma: a late complication 45 years after thoracoplasty.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Akio; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2017-01-01

    A chronic expanding hematoma is a hematoma with long term, continuous growth. A 69-year-old male presented with an extra-thoracic chronic expanding hematoma 45 years after thoracoplasty. Six months prior to his visit with us, he had noticed a slight swelling on his back. Three months before his visit with us, the size of the swollen area gradually increased after bowling. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an extra-thoracic lesion measuring 120 mm in diameter. Heterogeneous signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images inside the lesion was reflected as hematoma of various ages. The hematoma was successfully resected after preoperative embolization. Chronic expanding hematoma can be a delayed complication after thoracoplasty.

  9. Renal subcapsular hematoma associated with brodifacoum toxicosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Radi, Zaher A; Thompson, Larry J

    2004-04-01

    A 5-y-old female dog died acutely and was presented for postmortem examination. Hemorrhage in the thoracic and peritoneal cavities and a large subcapsular renal hematoma were present at necropsy. Brodifacoum, a second-generation coumarin anticoagulant, was detected in the liver by HPLC analysis. Renal subcapsular hematoma is a well known, but uncommon condition in man. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a brodifacoum-associated renal subcapsular hematoma in a non-human species.

  10. Risk Factors Associated With Early vs Delayed Dementia After Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Biffi, Alessandro; Bailey, Destiny; Anderson, Christopher D; Ayres, Alison M; Gurol, Edip M; Greenberg, Steven M; Rosand, Jonathan; Viswanathan, Anand

    2016-08-01

    Patients who have experienced intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) appear to develop cognitive impairment at high rates, both early after ICH and over the long term. To identify and compare risk factors for early and delayed dementia after ICH. A longitudinal study enrolled patients who had experienced ICH from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2013. A total of 738 participants 18 years or older, without pre-ICH dementia, who presented to a tertiary care academic institution with primary ICH were included in the analyses of early post-ICH dementia (EPID). After accounting for incident dementia and mortality at 6 months, 435 participants were included in the analyses of delayed post-ICH dementia (DPID). Intracerebral hemorrhage. Cognitive performance was captured using the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status test. Outcomes included EPID, diagnosed within 6 months after ICH, and DPID, diagnosed beyond 6 months after ICH. Among 738 patients who had experienced ICH (mean [SD] age, 74.3 [12.1] years; 384 men [52.0%]), 140 (19.0%) developed dementia within 6 months. A total of 435 patients without dementia at 6 months were followed up longitudinally (median follow-up, 47.4 months; interquartile range, 43.4-52.1 months), with an estimated yearly incidence of dementia of 5.8% (95% CI, 5.1%-7.0%). Larger hematoma size (hazard ratio [HR], 1.47 per 10-mL increase; 95% CI, 1.09-1.97; P < .001 for heterogeneity) and lobar location of ICH (HR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.06-3.91; P = .02 for heterogeneity) were associated with EPID but not with DPID. Educational level (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.40-0.89; P < .001 for heterogeneity), incident mood symptoms (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.02-1.63; P = .01 for heterogeneity), and white matter disease as defined via computed tomography (HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.07-2.71; P = .04 for heterogeneity) were associated with DPID but not EPID. Incident dementia early after ICH is strongly associated with hematoma size and location. Delayed incident

  11. Risk of Epidural Hematoma after Neuraxial Techniques in Thrombocytopenic Parturients: A Report from the Multicenter Perioperative Outcomes Group.

    PubMed

    Lee, Linden O; Bateman, Brian T; Kheterpal, Sachin; Klumpner, Thomas T; Housey, Michelle; Aziz, Michael F; Hand, Karen W; MacEachern, Mark; Goodier, Christopher G; Bernstein, Jeffrey; Bauer, Melissa E

    2017-06-01

    Thrombocytopenia has been considered a relative or even absolute contraindication to neuraxial techniques due to the risk of epidural hematoma. There is limited literature to estimate the risk of epidural hematoma in thrombocytopenic parturients. The authors reviewed a large perioperative database and performed a systematic review to further define the risk of epidural hematoma requiring surgical decompression in this population. The authors performed a retrospective cohort study using the Multicenter Perioperative Outcomes Group database to identify thrombocytopenic parturients who received a neuraxial technique and to estimate the risk of epidural hematoma. Patients were stratified by platelet count, and those requiring surgical decompression were identified. A systematic review was performed, and risk estimates were combined with those from the existing literature. A total of 573 parturients with a platelet count less than 100,000 mm who received a neuraxial technique across 14 institutions were identified in the Multicenter Perioperative Outcomes Group database, and a total of 1,524 parturients were identified after combining the data from the systematic review. No cases of epidural hematoma requiring surgical decompression were observed. The upper bound of the 95% CI for the risk of epidural hematoma for a platelet count of 0 to 49,000 mm is 11%, for 50,000 to 69,000 mm is 3%, and for 70,000 to 100,000 mm is 0.2%. The number of thrombocytopenic parturients in the literature who received neuraxial techniques without complication has been significantly increased. The risk of epidural hematoma associated with neuraxial techniques in parturients at a platelet count less than 70,000 mm remains poorly defined due to limited observations.

  12. Diagnosis and Management of HELLP Syndrome Complicated by Liver Hematoma.

    PubMed

    Ditisheim, Agnès; Sibai, Baha M

    2017-03-01

    Subcapsular liver hematoma is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of preeclampsia and hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome. It may present with nonspecific signs and symptoms, none of which are diagnostic, and can mimic pulmonary embolism of cholecystitis. There is no consensus on the management of subcapsular liver hematoma. Unruptured liver hematoma can be conservatively managed. When rupture occurs, surgical, endovascular approaches and, rarely, liver transplantation, may be required. Actual literature is scant and retrospective in nature. Data on follow-up, time to resolution and outcome of subsequent pregnancies are very limited. We here review the diagnosis and management of liver hematoma.

  13. Massive intracerebral hemorrhage associated with Wegener granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Ceri, Mevlut; Ortabozkoyun, Levent; Unverdi, Selman; Kirac, Mustafa; Duranay, Murat

    2012-06-01

    Wegener granulomatosis (WG) is a necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis that predominantly affects airways and kidneys. But central nervous system involvement (7-11%) is an uncommon. Massive ICH may occur in the course of WG, and this serious condition is related with high risk of mortality. Therefore, the new treatment strategies may be considered in addition to classical practices in serious organ involvement and recurrent attack. Here, we present an adult patient with WG whose disease was complicated by a massive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), which subsequently led to death.

  14. Intracerebral pneumatoceles following facial trauma: CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, D.B.; Hertzanu, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Three patients with delayed frontal intracerebral pneumatoceles following facial injury are presented. In one patient an unusual appearance of bilateral and symmetrical frontal lobe pneumatoceles was demonstrated. While diagnosis is not difficult on routine radiographs, CT is valuable for determining effects on the brain and clearly delineating the fracture site; CT shows the location of the pneumatocele and may show an associated air-fluid level, mass effect or surrounding edema, or rim enhancement following administration of contrast material. The radiological appearances in conjunction with the clinical findings are highly characteristic and should not be mistaken for gas-forming cerebral abscesses.

  15. Platelet activity and outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Naidech, Andrew M; Bernstein, Richard A; Levasseur, Kimberly; Bassin, Sarice L; Bendok, Bernard R; Batjer, H Hunt; Bleck, Thomas P; Alberts, Mark J

    2009-03-01

    There are few data on platelet function in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We prospectively enrolled 69 patients with ICH and measured platelet function on admission. Aspirin use before ICH was associated with reduced platelet activity. Less platelet activity was associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (516.5 [interquartile range (IQR), 454-629.25] vs 637 [IQR, 493-654] aspirin reaction units; p = 0.04) and death at 14 days (480.5 [IQR, 444.5-632.5] vs 626 [IQR, 494-652] aspirin reaction units; p = 0.04). Objective measures of platelet function on admission are associated with intraventricular hemorrhage and death after ICH.

  16. Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis presenting as intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Wigger, Olivier; Windecker, Stephan; Bloechlinger, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis is a rare cause of valvular heart disease, most commonly associated with advanced malignancy. The morbidity of this kind of endocarditis lies in its tendency to embolize, while the valve function is usually preserved. The central nervous system is the most common site of embolization, leading to ischemic stroke. We report a case of nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis complicated by intracerebral hemorrhage as the first manifestation of adenocarcinoma of the lung. The endocarditis led to severe aortic regurgitation. In view of the advanced stage of lung cancer, the patient refused further therapy. He passed away 3 weeks after first diagnosis of the adenocarcinoma.

  17. Trephination mini-craniectomy for traumatic posterior fossa epidural hematomas in selected pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Han-Song; You, Chao-Guo; Yang, Liang; Zhang, Nu; Lin, Jian; Lin, Fen-Chun; Wang, Mao-De

    2017-08-01

    Posterior fossa epidural hematomas (PFEDH) are uncommon in children but usually require timely surgical intervention due to the risk of life-threatening brainstem compression. We attempt to make the surgical procedure less invasive by treating selected pediatric patients with trephination mini-craniectomy. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical courses, radiological findings, surgical procedures, and prognoses of the pediatric patients who were treated in our departments for traumatic PFEDH from January 2010 to January 2015. During this period, a total of 17 patients were surgically treated for PFEDH and 7 were managed with trephination mini-craniectomy for hematoma evacuation. The outcomes were good in all 7 patients as evaluated with Glasgow Outcome Score. There was no mortality in this series. The on average 30-month clinical follow-up showed that patients experienced satisfactory recoveries without complications. Our results suggest that trephination mini-craniectomy is a safe surgical technique for selected PFEDH patients with moderate hematoma volume and stabilized neurological functions. However, standard craniectomy is recommend when there are rapid deteriorations in patients' neurological functions or the hematomas are large and exerted severe mass effects. Copyright © 2017 Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of the Third Military Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Minimal invasive puncture and drainage versus endoscopic surgery for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhihong; Li, Yuqian; Xu, Feifei; Zhang, Xi; Tian, Qiang; Li, Lihong

    2017-01-01

    Two prevalent therapies for the treatment of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in basal ganglia are, minimally invasive puncture and drainage (MIPD), and endoscopic surgery (ES). Because both surgical techniques are of a minimally invasive nature, they have attracted greater attention in recent years. However, evidence comparing the curative effect of MIPD and ES has been uncertain. The indication for MIPD or ES has been uncertain till now. In the present study, 112 patients with spontaneous ICH in basal ganglia who received MIPD or ES were reviewed retrospectively. Baseline parameters prior to the operation, evacuation rate (ER), perihematoma edema, postoperative complications, and rebleeding incidences were collected. Moreover, 1-year postictus, the long-term functional outcomes of patients with regard to hematoma volume (HV) or Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score were judged, respectively, by the case fatality, Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), Barthel Index (BI), and modified Rankin Scale (mRS). The ES group had a higher ER than the MIPD group on postoperative day 1. The MIPD group had fewer adverse outcomes, which included less perihematoma edema, anesthetic time, and blood loss, than the ES group. The functional outcomes represented by GOS, BI, and mRS were better in the MIPD group than in the ES group for patients with HV 30–60 mL or GCS score 9–14. These results indicate that ES is more effective in evacuating hematoma in basal ganglia, while MIPD is less invasive than ES. Patients with HV 30–60 mL or GCS score 9–14 may benefit more from the MIPD procedure than from ES. PMID:28182164

  19. Antihypertensive treatments for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with cerebrovascular stenosis: A randomized clinical trial (ATICHST).

    PubMed

    Ye, Zengpanpan; Ai, Xiaolin; Zheng, Jun; Hu, Xin; Lin, Sen; You, Chao; Li, Hao

    2017-06-01

    Antihypertensive treatment is associated with clinical outcomes in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH). ADAPT showed that intensive blood pressure lowering (<140 mm Hg) does not reduce peri-hematoma regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with sICH. However, the stenosis of main cerebral arteries that has a high presence in patients with sICH is well-known related to the brain ischemia. The effect of intensive BP lowering for sICH in patients with cerebrovascular stenosis is still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the safety and effectiveness of intensive BP lowering for sICH in patients with cerebrovascular stenosis. A pilot trial has been conducted to calculate the sample size and 80 patients of sICH with cerebrovascular stenosis will be involved. The target of systolic blood pressure (SBP) will be maintained at from 120 to 140 mm Hg or from 140 to 180 mm Hg for 7 days. Cerebral ischemia will be assessed at 24 hours after onset by computed tomography (CT) perfusion imaging and the follow-up will be conducted at 30-day and 90-day. The primary outcome is the reduction of peri-hematoma rCBF. The other cerebral perfusion indexes and the rate of ischemic stroke are regarded as other primary outcomes. The secondary outcomes include clinical outcome at 30 days and 90 days, complications, and hospital stays. The ATICHST trial has been signed as a parallel, prospective, randomized, assessor-blinded clinical trial to determine the effects of intensive BP lowering on sICH in patients with cerebrovascular stenosis, the results of which will contribute to guide the management of blood pressure in sICH. The protocol will determine the safety and effectiveness of intensive BP lowering for sICH with cerebrovascular stenosis.

  20. Intraoperative Gastric Intramural Hematoma: A Rare Complication of Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi Chan; Ravindranathan, Sharmila; Choksi, Vivek; Kattalan, Jestin Pudussery; Shankar, Uday; Kaplan, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 73 Final Diagnosis: Gastric intramural hematoma Symptoms: Bleeding Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Diagnostic/therapeutic accident Background: Intramural hematomas primarily present in the esophagus or duodenum. We report a case of intramural hematoma in the gastric wall (GIH) secondary to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement in a setting of platelet dysfunction. Case Report: This case study reviews the hospitalization of a 73-year-old male with a history of chronic kidney disease who was admitted for coronary artery bypass graft surgery and mitral valve repair. During his complicated hospital course, he inadvertently required the placement of a PEG tube. His coagulation profile prior to this procedure was within normal limits. The patient had no history of coagulopathy and was taking aspirin 81 mg per day. PEG tube placement was withheld due to an expanding hematoma that was noted at the site of needle insertion in the gastric wall. A single dose of intravenous desmopressin (0.3 microgram/kilogram) was administered under the suspicion of uremic bleeding. No further gastrointestinal bleeding events were observed. A platelet function assay (PFA) and collagen/epinephrine closure time indicated platelet dysfunction. Three days later, we again attempted a PEG tube placement. His PFA prior to this procedure had normalized due to aspirin discontinuation and improvement of renal function. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) showed an area of flat bluish gastric submucosal bruising at the site of the previous hematoma. The PEG tube was placed successfully at an adjacent site. Over the course of the following month, the patient underwent uneventful feeding through the PEG tube. Conclusions: To our knowledge, cases of GIH are rarely documented in literature. Multidisciplinary vigilance is required to maintain a high index of suspicion for this

  1. The impact of neuronal Notch-1/JNK pathway on intracerebral hemorrhage-induced neuronal injury of rat model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Maohua; Sun, Jun; Lu, Chuan; Chen, Xiandong; Ba, Huajun; Lin, Qun; Cai, Jianyong; Dai, Junxia

    2016-11-08

    Notch signaling is a highly conserved pathway that regulates cell fate decisions during embryonic development. Notch activation endangers neurons by modulating NF-κB and HIF-1α pathways, however, the role of Notch signaling in activating JNK/c-Jun following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has not been investigated. In this study, we used rat ICH models and thrombin-induced cell models to investigate the potential role of Notch-1/JNK signals. Our findings revealed that Notch-1 and JNK increased in hematoma-surrounding neurons tissues following ICH during ischemic conditions (all p<0.05). Besides, the expression of active caspase-3 protein was also up-regulated after ICH. According to in-vitro assays, the expression of Notch-1, p-JNK, and active caspase-3 were all up-regulated in cell viability-decreasing ICH cell models (all p<0.05). However, blocking of either Notch-1 or JNK suppressed the phosphorylation of JNK and the expression of active caspase-3, and cell viability was obviously ameliorated. In conclusion, this work suggested Notch-1 activates JNK pathway to induce the active caspase-3, leading to neuronal injury when intracerebral hemorrhage or ischemia occurred. Thus the Notch-1/JNK signal pathway has an important role in ICH process, and may be a therapeutic target to prevent brain injury.

  2. The impact of neuronal Notch-1/JNK pathway on intracerebral hemorrhage-induced neuronal injury of rat model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Maohua; Sun, Jun; Lu, Chuan; Chen, Xiandong; Ba, Huajun; Lin, Qun; Cai, Jianyong; Dai, Junxia

    2016-01-01

    Notch signaling is a highly conserved pathway that regulates cell fate decisions during embryonic development. Notch activation endangers neurons by modulating NF-κB and HIF-1α pathways, however, the role of Notch signaling in activating JNK/c-Jun following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has not been investigated. In this study, we used rat ICH models and thrombin-induced cell models to investigate the potential role of Notch-1/JNK signals. Our findings revealed that Notch-1 and JNK increased in hematoma-surrounding neurons tissues following ICH during ischemic conditions (all p<0.05). Besides, the expression of active caspase-3 protein was also up-regulated after ICH. According to in-vitro assays, the expression of Notch-1, p-JNK, and active caspase-3 were all up-regulated in cell viability-decreasing ICH cell models (all p<0.05). However, blocking of either Notch-1 or JNK suppressed the phosphorylation of JNK and the expression of active caspase-3, and cell viability was obviously ameliorated. In conclusion, this work suggested Notch-1 activates JNK pathway to induce the active caspase-3, leading to neuronal injury when intracerebral hemorrhage or ischemia occurred. Thus the Notch-1/JNK signal pathway has an important role in ICH process, and may be a therapeutic target to prevent brain injury. PMID:27655677

  3. Induction of NADPH-diaphorase activity in the forebrain in a model of intracerebral hemorrhage and its inhibition by the traditional Chinese medicine complex Nao Yi An.

    PubMed

    Peng, Z C; Li, X Q; Liang, Q H; Zhu, C X; Luo, T L; Yan, X X; Hu, S Y

    1997-01-01

    Induction of NADPH-diaphorase (NDP) activity in the rat cerebral cortex was studied after autologous blood injection into the internal capsule as experimental model of intracerebral hemorrhage. The potential inhibitory effect on NDP induction by Nao Yi An (NYA), a complex derived from materials of animal and plant origin used in the treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage in traditional Chinese medicine, was also investigated. In animals without therapeutic treatment 2 and 4 days after injection of autologous blood, NDP activity was highly induced in pyramidal neurons in the neocortex, piriform, and entorhinal cortices, in astrocytes and in phagocytes in the hematoma and the area surrounding it, as well as in the subcortical white matter, and in endothelial cells in both the cortex and subcortical white matter bilaterally. Oral administration of NYA failed to inhibit NDP induction in endothelial cells but demonstrated a strong inhibitory effect on NDP activity induced in pyramidal neurons and astrocytes. NDP induction in phagocytes was also inhibited by the administration of NYA. Altogether the present results suggest that intracerebral hemorrhage in the internal capsule may induce nitric oxide synthase activity in different cell populations in the cortex and that administration of NYA can selectively inhibit such induction and, thus, potentially play a neuroprotective role.

  4. Changes of Noradrenaline in Brain Homogenate of Rats with Brain Injury Secondary to Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Study of the Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Hua-Dong; Jiang, Xiao-Jiang; Wang, Jing-Zhou; Chen, Man-E

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the changes of noradrenaline (NE) content dynamically in the homogenate of rat brain tissues during experimental intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), so as to understand the role of NE in secondary brain injury. Methods: Seventy Wistar rats were randomly assigned into sham operation group and ICH group, each group subdivided into different time phase points as pre-operation, 0.5, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post-operation groups (n=5). ICH model was established by injection of collagenase and heparin into rat caudate nucleus, and the changes of NE content in the peripheral tissues of the hematoma, hypothalamus and brainstem were observed respectively at following time points as before operation and 0.5, 6, 12, 48 and 72 h after the operation. NE was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: NE activities in the peripheral tissues of the hematoma, hypothalamus and brainstem increased synchronously 0.5 h after operation, peaked at 24 h, and then began to decline at 48 h. At the same time, the neurobehavioral score varied synchronously together with NE. Conclusion: NE is involved in the pathogenesis of secondary damage of the brain during ICH. PMID:23674956

  5. Rapid reduction of acute subdural hematoma and redistribution of hematoma: case report.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Arata; Omata, Tomohiro; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    An 88-year-old woman presented with acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) which showed rapid resolution on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. She was transferred to our hospital after falling out of bed. On admission, she was comatose with Japan Coma Scale score of 200 and Glasgow Coma Scale score of E1V1M2. Brain CT showed a thick left frontotemporal ASDH. Conservative treatment consisted of 200 ml of glycerol administered intravenously twice a day, and maintenance in the approximately 20 degree head-up position to reduce intracranial pressure. Three days later, her consciousness recovered to Japan Coma Scale score of 30 and Glasgow Coma Scale score of E2V4M5. CT showed obvious reduction of the hematoma without brain or scalp swelling. Spinal MR imaging detected no redistribution of hematoma to the spine. The present case illustrates that rapid spontaneous reduction of ASDH may occur by redistribution of hematoma, mainly to the supratentorial subdural space because of brain atrophy.

  6. Acute subdural hematoma without subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by ruptured A1-A2 junction aneurysm. Case report.

    PubMed

    Takada, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Eiichi; Zaboronok, Alexander; Kujiraoka, Yuji; Akutsu, Hiroyoshi; Ihara, Satoshi; Nakai, Kei; Matsumura, Akira

    2012-01-01

    A 54-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with complaint of sudden headache. The patient had suffered two episodes of transient headache before admission. Computed tomography (CT) revealed acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) on the right side of the cerebral convexity with bilateral extension along the tentorium cerebelli without signs of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Three-dimensional CT angiography and conventional cerebral angiography revealed a left A1-A2 junction aneurysm. Neck clipping of the aneurysm was performed. The aneurysm extended inferiorly, with the dome embedded in the chiasmatic cistern and tightly adhered to the arachnoid membrane. There was no evidence of hematoma in the subarachnoid space. The patient was discharged without neurological deficit. Ruptured aneurysms resulting in ASDH without SAH or ICH are very rare. Radiological investigation such as three-dimensional CT angiography should be performed to find the causative aneurysm in a patient with ASDH with a history of repeated headaches and without traumatic signs or episodes, and the appropriate treatment should be planned with expediency.

  7. [Critical care management of intracerebral hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Huge, V

    2016-05-24

    Intracerebral hemorrhage accounts for up to 20 % percent of all ischemic strokes. In addition to a higher mortality, they are often associated with severe neurological impairment for those affected. Review of the current literature and guidelines addressing the critical care management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, including treatments to reduce primary and secondary neurological damage. Acute blood pressure lowering to less than 140 mmHg should be aspired immediately after intensive care admission. During the following days blood pressure variability should be minimized. Preexisting oral anticoagulation should be immediately reversed, while hemostatic therapy not associated with reversal of antithrombotic therapy should not be applied. Surgery for patients with impaired consciousness should be discussed. Use of pneumatic compression in immobile patients is recommended. Developing intracranial hypertension should be treated with combined physical and pharmacological measures in a stepwise approach. Administration of glucocorticoids is currently not recommended. Critical care management of spontaneous hemorrhage demands a multimodal, graded approach for reduction of both primary and secondary neurological damage.

  8. [Renal angiomyolipoma complicated by retroperitoneal hematoma].

    PubMed

    Rabii, R; Fekak, H; Moufid, K; Joual, A; Benjelloun, S; Khaleq, K; Idali, B; Harti, A; Barrou, L

    2002-07-01

    Renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is a benign tumor, they are generally asymptomatic or can manifested by abdominal pain, palpable mass or hematuria. We report an uncommoun case of 65 years old women who consulted for retroperitoneal hemorrhage by spontaneous rupture of renal AML with palpable mass. The ultrasound and CT abdominopelvic scan were performed in the preoperative diagnosis and showed a typical right renal AML with retroperitoneal hematoma. The right nephrectomy by transperitoneal approach was performed with a good follow-up. The histological examination confirmed the diagnosis for renal AML. About this case, the authors discuses the diagnosis and the management for AML with retroperitoneal hemorrhage.

  9. Chronic Subdural Hematoma: Epidemiology and Natural History.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wuyang; Huang, Judy

    2017-04-01

    This article discusses the epidemiology and natural history of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH), a common disease prevalent in the elderly population. The incidence of CSDH ranges from 1.72 to 20.6 per 100,000 persons per year. Risk factors include advancing age, male gender, and antiplatelet or anticoagulant use. Clinical progression is separated into 3 distinct periods, including the initial traumatic event, the latency period, and the clinical presentation period. The recurrence of CSDH and nonsurgical predictive factors are described in detail to provide a comprehensive understanding of the outcome of this disease.

  10. Bilateral occipital extradural hematoma in a child

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sharad; Sharma, Vivek; Shinde, Neeraj; Sharma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Extradural hematoma (EDH) occurs in approximately 2% of all patients with head injuries. Bilateral EDHs account for 2–10% of all acute EDHs in adults but are exceedingly rare in children. Posterior fossa EDHs occurs in 5% of all cases of EDHs. EDHs in children are more frequently venous (from tears of a dural sinus or diploic veins) and consequently have a better prognosis than EDHs in adults. Once the diagnosis of BEH is confirmed, urgent surgical treatment should be considered. We are reporting such rare form of injury as bilateral occipital EDH with supratentorial extension in 12 years child following road traffic accident. PMID:26557174

  11. [Progressive hematoma in anterior neck after endovascular treatment of middle cerebral artery aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Ankay Yilbas, Aysun; Kanburoglu, Cigdem; Uzumcugil, Filiz; Cifci, Coskun; Saralp, Ozge Ozen; Karagoz, Heves; Akinci, Seda Banu; Arat, Anil

    2016-12-23

    Cervical hematomas can lead to airway compromise, a life threatening condition, regardless of the cause. The following case is the first presentation of cervical hematoma as a complication of endovascular treatment of middle cerebral artery aneurysm. A 49 year-old woman was scheduled for stent placement under general anesthesia for middle cerebral artery aneurysm. Few days before intervention, acetyl salicylic acid and clopidogrel treatment was started. Following standard monitoring and anesthesia induction, the patient's trachea was intubated with a 7.5mm endotracheal tube and the procedure was completed without any complications. Three hours later, dyspnea developed and physical examination revealed progressive swelling and stiffness in the neck. Endotracheal intubation was performed with a 6mm diameter uncuffed tube with the aid of sedation. The vocal cords were completely closed due to compression. There was no leak around the endotracheal tube. The rapidly performed computerized tomography scans showed an enormous hematoma around the neck and extravasation of contrast medium through superior thyroid artery. After coil embolization of superior thyroid artery, she was taken to the intensive care unit as intubated and sedated. Surgical exploration of the hematoma was not recommended by the surgeons, because she was on clopidogrel. After two days, the patient's trachea was extubated safely ensuring that the swelling was sufficiently ceased and leak detected around the endotracheal tube. Securing the airway rapidly by endotracheal intubation is the most crucial point in the management of cervical hematomas. Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures should be performed only afterwards. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Spontaneous Resolution of Chronic Subdural Hematoma : Close Observation as a Treatment Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung Chan; Yoo, Dong Soo; Lee, Sang-Koo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) is common condition in neurosurgical field. It is difficult to select the treatment modality between the surgical method and the conservative method when patients have no or mild symptoms. The purpose of this study is to provide a suggestion that the patients could be cured with conservative treatment modality. Methods We enrolled 16 patients who had received conservative treatment for cSDH without special medications which could affect hematoma resolution such as mannitol, steroids, tranexamic acid and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. The patients were classified according to the Markwalder's Grading Scale. Results Among these 16 patients, 13 (81.3%) patients showed spontaneously resolved cSDH and 3 (18.7%) patients received surgery due to symptom aggravation and growing hematoma. They were categorized into two groups based on whether they were cured with conservative treatment or not. The first group was the spontaneous resolution group. The second group was the progression-surgery group. The mean hematoma volume in the spontaneous resolution group was 43.1 mL. The mean degree of midline shift in the spontaneous resolution group was 5.3 mm. The mean hematoma volume in the progression-surgery group was 62.0 mL. The mean degree of midline shift in the second group was 6 mm. Conclusion We suggest that the treatment modality should be determined according to the patient's symptoms and clinical condition and close observation could be performed in patients who do not have any symptoms or in patients who have mild to moderate headache without neurological deterioration. PMID:27847578

  13. Relative systolic blood pressure reduction and clinical outcomes in hyperacute intracerebral hemorrhage: the SAMURAI-ICH observational study.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yuki; Koga, Masatoshi; Todo, Kenichi; Okuda, Satoshi; Okada, Yasushi; Kimura, Kazumi; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Kamiyama, Kenji; Furui, Eisuke; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Kario, Kazuomi; Okata, Takuya; Kobayashi, Junpei; Tanaka, Eijirou; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Minematsu, Kazuo; Toyoda, Kazunori

    2015-05-01

    Blood pressure lowering is often performed as a part of general acute management in acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients. The relationship between relative blood pressure reduction and clinical outcomes is not fully known. Hyperacute (<3 h from onset) ICH patients with initial SBP more than 180 mmHg were included in the observational study. All patients received intravenous antihypertensive treatment based on a predefined protocol to lower and maintain SBP between 120 and 160 mmHg. The relative SBP reduction was defined as the ratio of SBP reduction to the admission SBP in the first 24 h, and associations between the relative SBP reduction and neurological deterioration (≥2 points decrease in the Glasgow Coma Scale score or ≥4 increase in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score), hematoma expansion (>33% increase), and unfavorable outcome (modified Rankin scale score 4-6 at 3 months) were assessed with multivariate logistic regression analyses. Of the 211 patients [81 women, median age 65 (interquartile range 58-74) years, and median initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 13 (8-17)] enrolled, 17 (8%) showed neurological deterioration, 36 (17%) showed hematoma expansion, and 87 (41%) had an unfavorable outcome. On multivariate regression analyses, relative SBP reduction was independently and inversely associated with neurological deterioration (odds ratio 0.053, 95% confidence interval 0.011-0.254 per 10% increment), hematoma expansion (0.289, 0.099-0.841), and unfavorable outcome (0.254, 0.095-0.680) after adjusting for known predictive factors. Insufficient relative SBP reduction after standardized antihypertensive therapy in hyperacute ICH was independently associated with poor clinical outcomes. Aggressive antihypertensive treatment may improve clinical outcomes.

  14. Pleiotropic role of PPARγ in Intracerebral Hemorrhage: An Intricate System involving Nrf2, RXR and NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiurong; Gonzales, Nicole; Aronowski, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a subtype of stroke involving formation of hematoma within brain parenchyma, which accounts for 8–15% of all strokes in Western societies and 20–30% among Asian populations, and has a one-year mortality rate greater than 50%. The high mortality and severe morbidity make ICH a major public health problem. Only a few evidence-based targeted treatments are used for ICH management, and interventions focus primarily on supportive care and comorbidity prevention. Even in patients who survive the ictus, extravasated blood (including plasma components) and subsequent intra-hematoma hemolytic products trigger a series of adverse events within the brain parenchyma, leading to secondary brain injury, edema and severe neurological deficits or death. Although the hematoma in humans gradually resolves within months, full restoration of neurologic function can be slow and often incomplete, leaving survivors with devastating neurological deficits. During past years, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) transcription factor and its agonists received recognition as important players in regulating not only glucose and lipid metabolism (which underlies its therapeutic effect in type 2 diabetes mellitus), and more recently, as an instrumental pleiotropic regulator of anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative regulation, and phagocyte-mediated cleanup processes. PPARγ agonists have emerged as potential therapeutic target for stroke. The use of PPARγ as a therapeutic target appears to have particularly strong compatibility toward pathogenic components of ICH. In addition to its direct genomic effect, PPARγ may interact with transcription factor, NF-κB, which may underlie many aspects of the anti-inflammatory effect of PPARγ. Furthermore, PPARγ appears to regulate expression of Nrf2, another transcription factor and master regulator of detoxification and anti-oxidative regulation. Finally, the synergistic co-stimulation of PPAR

  15. Effectiveness of endoscopic surgery for supratentorial hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage: a comparison with craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinghua; Chen, Xiaolei; Li, Fangye; Zheng, Xuan; Wang, Qun; Sun, Guochen; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Bainan

    2017-04-07

    OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and practicality of endoscopic surgery for treatment of supratentorial hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH) compared with traditional craniotomy. METHODS The authors retrospectively analyzed 151 consecutive patients who were operated on for treatment of supratentorial HICH between January 2009 and June 2014 in the Department of Neurosurgery at Chinese PLA General Hospital. Patients were separated into an endoscopy group (82 cases) and a craniotomy group (69 cases), depending on the surgery they received. The hematoma evacuation rate was calculated using 3D Slicer software to measure the hematoma volume. Comparisons of operative time, intraoperative blood loss, Glasgow Coma Scale score 1 week after surgery, hospitalization time, and modified Rankin Scale score 6 months after surgery were also made between these groups. RESULTS There was no statistically significant difference in preoperative data between the endoscopy group and the craniotomy group (p > 0.05). The hematoma evacuation rate was 90.5% ± 6.5% in the endoscopy group and 82.3% ± 8.6% in the craniotomy group, which was statistically significant (p < 0.01). The operative time was 1.6 ± 0.7 hours in the endoscopy group and 5.2 ± 1.8 hours in the craniotomy group (p < 0.01). The intraoperative blood loss was 91.4 ± 93.1 ml in the endoscopy group and 605.6 ± 602.3 ml in the craniotomy group (p < 0.01). The 1-week postoperative Glasgow Coma Scale score was 11.5 ± 2.9 in the endoscopy group and 8.3 ± 3.8 in the craniotomy group (p < 0.01). The hospital stay was 11.6 ± 6.9 days in the endoscopy group and 13.2 ± 7.9 days in the craniotomy group (p < 0.05). The mean modified Rankin Scale score 6 months after surgery was 3.2 ± 1.5 in the endoscopy group and 4.1 ± 1.9 in the craniotomy group (p < 0.01). Patients had better recovery in the endoscopy group than in the craniotomy group. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD

  16. The risk factors for recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Shigeo; Kinoshita, Yu; Nakagawa, Toru; Murakami, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common disease in the elderly, and the recurrence rate of CSDH is reported to range from 2.3 to 33%. We performed a retrospective review of a number of CSDH cases and the potential factors associated with CSDH recurrence. The patient population comprised 112 men and 65 women with a mean age of 74.7 years. We analyzed the following factors: age, sex, antiplatelet and anticoagulant use, hematoma laterality, hematoma thickness, degree of midline shift and internal architecture of the hematoma in the preoperative CT films, use of irrigation, direction of the drainage tube, width of the subdural space, and degree of midline shift and the presence of a massive subdural air collection in the postoperative CT films. Univariate analysis revealed that there was a trend for different rates of recurrence among the different types of hematomas. The presence of a postoperative massive subdural air collection tended to be associated with the recurrence of hematoma. Multivariate analysis revealed that separated hematomas were significantly associated with CSDH recurrence, whereas the presence of postoperative massive subdural air collection tended to be associated with hematoma recurrence. Neither univariate nor multivariate analysis could demonstrate an association between the direction of the drainage tube and the recurrence of CSDH.

  17. Subdural actinomycoma presenting as recurrent chronic subdural hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, N. J.; Bot, G. M.; Sahabi, S.; Aliu, S.; Usman, B.; Shilong, D. J.; Obande, J. O.; Shehu, B. B.

    2015-01-01

    Actimomycosis is a rare chronic bacterial infection of the central nervous system, and subdural actinomycoma is extremely rare. This case report brings to bear an uncommon association between subdural actinomycosis with chronic subdural hematoma. Subdural actinomycoma may present as a diagnostic conundrum and could be mistaken radiologically for either a subdural hematoma or an empyaema. PMID:25972947

  18. Subdural actinomycoma presenting as recurrent chronic subdural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Ismail, N J; Bot, G M; Sahabi, S; Aliu, S; Usman, B; Shilong, D J; Obande, J O; Shehu, B B

    2015-01-01

    Actimomycosis is a rare chronic bacterial infection of the central nervous system, and subdural actinomycoma is extremely rare. This case report brings to bear an uncommon association between subdural actinomycosis with chronic subdural hematoma. Subdural actinomycoma may present as a diagnostic conundrum and could be mistaken radiologically for either a subdural hematoma or an empyaema.

  19. Subcapsular liver hematoma causing cardiac tamponade in HELLP syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kinthala, S; Fakoory, M; Greaves, T; Kandamaran, L; Thomas, H; Moe, S

    2012-07-01

    HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets) syndrome is an obstetric complication with heterogeneous presentation, multisystem involvement and variable prognosis, but which usually resolves after delivery. We report a case of HELLP syndrome with subcapsular hematoma of the liver causing extrapericardial cardiac tamponade. The subcapsular hematoma and cardiac tamponade were managed conservatively.

  20. Subcapsular Liver Hematoma in Metastatic GIST Complicating Imatinib (Gleevec) Therapy.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Sridhar

    2007-01-01

    We report two patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) who had large subcapsular hepatic hematomas that developed while on imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) therapy. We describe the pertinent radiologic features of the subcapsular hematomas in these patients, and discuss possible etiologies for the bleeding in each patient.

  1. Balzac's 'Pierette'. An early description of chronic subdural hematoma.

    PubMed

    van den Doel, E M

    1986-12-01

    In his novel Pierrette, written in 1840, Balzac describes a case of chronic subdural hematoma, including its traumatic origin and surgical treatment. The description was written at a time when subdural hematoma was not seen as a separate clinical entity, and was generally thought to be the result of inflammation.

  2. The association between cerebral amyloid angiopathy and atherosclerosis in patients with intracerebral hemorrhages.

    PubMed

    Mendel, Tadeusz Andrzej; Wierzba-Bobrowicz, Teresa; Stępień, Tomasz; Szpak, Grażyna Maria

    2013-01-01

    aim of the study: To analyze the incidence and grade of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and atherosclerosis (AS) in cerebral vessels in patients who died from spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. The clinical diagnosis, based on CT scans of the brain, was made and immunohistochemic neuropathological examinations were performed in patients with intracerebral hemorrhages due to CAA. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy was diagnosed according to the Boston criteria. The Vonsattel and Mountoy scales were used to assess the grade and score of CAA. Atherosclerosis was assessed according to a four-grade scale presented in the Coding Guide from Collaborative Study of Epidemiological Factors in Cerebral Vascular Disease. Of the 189 patients who died due to intracerebral hemorrhages 42 (22%) presented CAA. According to the Vonsattel scale this group comprised 32 (76%) patients who showed severe, 6 (14%) moderate and 4 (10%) mild CAA. Atherosclerosis was diagnosed in the CAA group of patients as follows: 6 (14%) with grade 1; 20 (49%) with grade 2; 9 (20%) with grade 3; and 7 (17%) patients with grade 4. There was no correlation between CAA and AS. The CAA was probably the direct cause of death in part of cases with advanced CAA. The different mechanisms presumably can cause CAA and AS.

  3. Femoral neuropathy and meralgia paresthetica secondary to an iliacus hematoma.

    PubMed

    Yi, Tae Im; Yoon, Tae Hee; Kim, Joo Sup; Lee, Ga Eun; Kim, Bo Ra

    2012-04-01

    Compressive femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathies from an iliacus hematoma are unusual presentation. We report a case of a 16-year-old boy who developed right femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathies as a complication of traumatic ipsilateral iliacus hematoma formation. The patient complained of numbness in the right thigh and calf as well as right leg weakness, and pain in the right inguinal area. Nerve conduction study and needle electromyography identified the neuropathies. After the electrodiagnostic studies, the pelvic bone MRI revealed a large, 9×5×4.5 cm right iliacus hematoma. As a result, diagnosis of a right iliacus hematoma compressing the femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves was made, and the patient underwent an operation to remove the hematoma. Symptoms and neurological signs showed notable improvement after surgical decompression. Subsequent follow-up electrodiagnostic studies after 11 weeks demonstrated regeneration evidence.

  4. Femoral Neuropathy and Meralgia Paresthetica Secondary to an Iliacus Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Tae Im; Kim, Joo Sup; Lee, Ga Eun; Kim, Bo Ra

    2012-01-01

    Compressive femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathies from an iliacus hematoma are unusual presentation. We report a case of a 16-year-old boy who developed right femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathies as a complication of traumatic ipsilateral iliacus hematoma formation. The patient complained of numbness in the right thigh and calf as well as right leg weakness, and pain in the right inguinal area. Nerve conduction study and needle electromyography identified the neuropathies. After the electrodiagnostic studies, the pelvic bone MRI revealed a large, 9×5×4.5 cm right iliacus hematoma. As a result, diagnosis of a right iliacus hematoma compressing the femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves was made, and the patient underwent an operation to remove the hematoma. Symptoms and neurological signs showed notable improvement after surgical decompression. Subsequent follow-up electrodiagnostic studies after 11 weeks demonstrated regeneration evidence. PMID:22639754

  5. [Spontaneous epidural hematoma after open heart surgery: case report].

    PubMed

    Anegawa, S; Hayashi, T; Furukawa, Y; Nagashima, T; Kumate, M

    1999-11-01

    Acute epidural hematoma not associated with head injury is rarely encountered and is known as spontaneous epidural hematoma. To our knowledge, only five cases with epidural hematoma after open-heart surgery have been published. Pathogenesis and preventive measures have not yet been determined. We report a case of such spontaneous epidural hematoma and consider the possible pathogenesis. A 12-year-old female received a radical operation for severe subaortic stenosis. The intraoperative course was uneventful except for massive hemorrhage which was adequately controlled. Postoperatively, she was moved to the CCU still not having aroused from anesthesia. Eleven hours later, it was found that her pupils were fixed and dilated. CT scan demonstrated a huge bifrontal epidural hematoma with disappearance of the basal cistern. Even though immediate emergency evacuation was performed, the patient died of acute brain swelling four days after the operation.

  6. Primary Multiple Simultaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhages between 1950 and 2013: Analysis of Data on Age, Sex and Outcome.

    PubMed

    Laiwattana, Denchai; Sangsawang, Bussara; Sangsawang, Nucharee

    2014-01-01

    Primary multiple simultaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (MSICHs) are quite rare. Although occasional reports have been found, there have been no systematic reviews. The published case reports and case series contain overlapping data, leading to erroneous information about MSICHs. This is the first extensive review of accessible studies published in English on MSICHs. Our primary objective was to analyze the demographic data on age, sex, outcome and prognosis with regard to primary MSICHs. A PubMed search without language restriction for articles with results from human studies and registered between January 1950 and September 2013 yielded 677 articles. The following inclusion criteria were applied: (1) reported case(s) or case series on primary MSICHs; (2) text partly or fully in English, and (3) text contains identifiable data on age, sex and outcome of patients. A total of 24 articles met all the inclusion criteria. The reference lists of these 24 articles were inspected for additional relevant articles, which yielded another 20 articles. In all, 248 cases were identified; 143 cases were excluded for various reasons: 52 duplicate cases, 18 cases of multiple nonsimultaneous intracerebral hemorrhages, 25 cases of secondary MSICHs, and 48 cases with incomplete data on age, sex and outcome. The remaining 105 cases were analyzed. MSICHs were found to be more common in bilateral cases (53.33%): there were bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhages (33.33%), bilateral thalamic hemorrhages (18.10%), bilateral lobar hemorrhages (0.95%) and bilateral cerebellar hemorrhages (0.95%). Nonbilateral MSICHs were found in 46.67% of the cases. The hematomas were commonly distributed in the basal ganglia (45.83%), thalamus (30.56%) and cerebellum (10.19%). MSICHs were more frequently encountered in males (60.95%; average age: 59.13 ± 12.49 years). The average age of the female patients was higher (63.89 ± 13.11 years). Patients with primary MSICHs had a survival rate of 56.20%. There

  7. Nationwide survey of antihypertensive treatment for acute intracerebral hemorrhage in Japan.

    PubMed

    Koga, Masatoshi; Toyoda, Kazunori; Naganuma, Masaki; Kario, Kazuomi; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Furui, Eisuke; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Okuda, Satoshi; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Kimura, Kazumi; Okada, Yasushi; Minematsu, Kazuo

    2009-09-01

    Acute hypertension is associated with hematoma enlargement and poor clinical outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, the method of controlling blood pressure (BP) during the acute phase of ICH remains unknown. The aim of this study is to show current strategies about this issue in Japan. Questionnaires regarding antihypertensive treatment (AHT) strategies were sent to neurosurgeons, neurologists and others responsible for ICH management in 1424 hospitals. Of 600 respondents, 550 (92%) worked at hospitals wherein acute ICH patients are managed and 548 (99.6%) of them agreed with the application of AHT within 24 h of ICH onset. Most answered that the systolic BP threshold for starting AHT was 180 mm Hg (36%) or 160 mm Hg (31%), which differed significantly between neurosurgeons (median, 160 mm Hg) and neurologists/others (180 mm Hg, P<0.001). The goal of lowering systolic BP was to reach a maximum of 140, 150 or 160 mm Hg according to 448 respondents (82%) and 209 (38%) intensively lowered systolic BP to

  8. Neuroprotection of brain-permeable iron chelator VK-28 against intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Wan, Jieru; Lan, Xi; Han, Xiaoning; Wang, Zhongyu; Wang, Jian

    2017-09-01

    Iron overload plays a key role in the secondary brain damage that develops after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The significant increase in iron deposition is associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which leads to oxidative brain damage. In this study, we examined the protective effects of VK-28, a brain-permeable iron chelator, against hemoglobin toxicity in an ex vivo organotypic hippocampal slice culture (OHSC) model and in middle-aged mice subjected to an in vivo, collagenase-induced ICH model. We found that the effects of VK-28 were similar to those of deferoxamine (DFX), a well-studied iron chelator. Both decreased cell death and ROS production in OHSCs and in vivo, decreased iron-deposition and microglial activation around hematoma in vivo, and improved neurologic function. Moreover, compared with DFX, VK-28 polarized microglia to an M2-like phenotype, reduced brain water content, deceased white matter injury, improved neurobehavioral performance, and reduced overall death rate after ICH. The protection of VK-28 was confirmed in a blood-injection ICH model and in aged-male and young female mice. Our findings indicate that VK-28 is protective against iron toxicity after ICH and that, at the dosage tested, it has better efficacy and less toxicity than DFX does.

  9. New Insights into Nonvitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants' Reversal of Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yasaka, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    The nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban are associated with an equal or lower incidence of stroke and systemic embolism and a much lower incidence of intracranial hemorrhage and hemorrhagic stroke than warfarin is, without the need for routine laboratory monitoring. However, reversal strategies are not currently established in the case of NOAC-related hemorrhagic stroke. In emergency situations, well-defined management for NOAC-related hemorrhagic stroke may improve clinical outcomes. Thus, in this chapter, general measures initially required to prevent the expansion of intracerebral hematomas, charcoal administration to reduce NOAC absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, application of hemodialysis to remove dabigatran, and coagulation factor therapy including 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate and recombinant activated factor VII are reviewed. The specific reversal agents idarucizumab, which is a monoclonal antibody against dabigatran; andexanet alfa, a recombinant human factor Xa decoy for Xa inhibitors; and PER977, a small synthetic molecule for reversal of both Xa and thrombin inhibitors, are currently under development. These agents will facilitate the clinical management of NOAC-associated hemorrhagic stroke and other severe bleeding.

  10. Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Clinical Features of Intracerebral Hemorrhage: An Update

    PubMed Central

    An, Sang Joon; Kim, Tae Jung; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2017-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the second most common subtype of stroke and a critical disease usually leading to severe disability or death. ICH is more common in Asians, advanced age, male sex, and low- and middle-income countries. The case fatality rate of ICH is high (40% at 1 month and 54% at 1 year), and only 12% to 39% of survivors can achieve long-term functional independence. Risk factors of ICH are hypertension, current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, hypocholesterolemia, and drugs. Old age, male sex, Asian ethnicity, chronic kidney disease, cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) increase the risk of ICH. Clinical presentation varies according to the size and location of hematoma, and intraventricular extension of hemorrhage. Patients with CAA-related ICH frequently have concomitant cognitive impairment. Anticoagulation related ICH is increasing recently as the elderly population who have atrial fibrillation is increasing. As non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are currently replacing warfarin, management of NOAC-associated ICH has become an emerging issue. PMID:28178408

  11. The Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Management of Patients With Nonlobar Hypertensive Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Adeli, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Despite the increased use and availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), its role in hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains uncertain. In this retrospective study, we assessed the utility of MRI in diagnosis and management of patients with hypertensive ICH. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients with ICH presenting to our hospital over an 18-month period. We included patients who presented with hypertensive ICH in typical locations and excluded lobar hemorrhages. We further isolated cases that had undergone MRI. Collected data included mean age, gender, location of hematoma, neuroradiologist’s interpretative report of the MRI, and management steps taken in response to the results of the MRI. Logistic regression was used to determine whether the overall yield of MRI in these patients was significant. Results: We found 222 patients with ICH in our database. Forty-eight patients met our inclusion criteria, of which 24 had brain MRI done as a part of their hospital workup. Brain MRI obtained in 2 (8%) of the 24 patients revealed abnormalities that led to a change in management. The diagnostic yield of MRI and the management decisions that followed were both insignificant. Conclusions: The diagnostic yield of brain MRI in patients with nonlobar hypertensive ICH is low and does not result in significant changes in management. PMID:25829985

  12. History and Mechanism for Treatment of Intracerebral Hemorrhage with Scalp Acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhe; Guan, Ling; Wang, Yan; Xie, Cheng-Long; Lin, Xian-Ming; Zheng, Guo-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is an important public health problem with high rates of mortality, morbidity, and disability, but no clinically proven treatment strategy is available to date. Scalp acupuncture (SA) refers to a therapy for treating diseases by needling and stimulating the specific areas of the scalp. The evidence from clinical studies suggested that SA therapy may produce significant benefits for patients with acute ICH. However, the therapeutic mechanisms are yet not well addressed. Therefore, in this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview on the history and mechanisms of SA therapy on acute ICH. Although SA has been practiced for thousands of years in China and could date back to 5 BC, SA therapy for acute ICH develops only in the recent 30 years. The possible mechanisms associated with the therapeutic effects of SA on ICH include the influence on hematoma, brain edema, and blood brain barrier, the products released from haematoma, the immune and inflammatory reaction, focal perihemorrhagic hypoperfusion and hemorheology, neuroelectrophysiology, and so on. At last, the existence of instant effect of SA on acute ICH and its possible mechanisms are presented. PMID:22474527

  13. Up-regulation of Vps4A promotes neuronal apoptosis after intracerebral hemorrhage in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jianbing; Yuan, Debin; Xie, Lili; Tao, Xuelei; Duan, Chenwei; Bao, Yifeng; He, Yunfeng; Ge, Jianbin; Lu, Hongjian

    2017-04-01

    Vps4, vacuolar protein sorting 4, belongs to ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities (AAA) protein family which is made up of Vps4A and Vps4B. Previous studies demonstrated that Vps4A plays vital roles in diverse aspects such as virus budding, the efficient transport of H-Ras to the PM (plasma membrane) and the involvement in the MVB (multivesiculate bodies) pathway. Interestingly, Vps4A is also expressed in the brain. However, the distribution and function of Vps4A in ICH diseases remain unclear. In this study, we show that Vps4A may be involved in neuronal apoptosis during pathophysiological processes of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Based on the results of Western blot and immunohistochemistry, we found a remarkable up-regulation of Vps4A expression surrounding the hematoma after ICH. Double labeled immunofluorescence showed that Vps4A was co-expressed with NeuN but rarely with astrocytes and microglia. Morever, we detected that neuronal apoptosis marker active caspase-3 had co-localizations with Vps4A. Additionaly, Vps4A knockdown in vitro specifically leads to decreasing neuronal apoptosis coupled with increased Akt phosphorylation. All datas suggested that Vps4A was involved in promoting neuronal apoptosis via inhibiting Akt phosphorylation after ICH.

  14. [Infected subdural hematoma having a surgery of chronic subdural hematoma 1 year ago:a case report].

    PubMed

    Nagao, Takaaki; Miyazaki, Chikao; Ando, Shunpei; Haga, Daisuke; Kuroki, Takao; Sugo, Nobuo; Nagao, Takeki

    2015-02-01

    We report a case of an infected subdural hematoma that occurred 1 year after burr-hole irrigation for chronic subdural hematoma. A 78-year-old woman who had developed left hemiparesis was admitted to our hospital. A computed tomography(CT)scan revealed the presence of a chronic subdural hematoma in the right hemisphere. Her clinical symptoms improved immediately after emergency burr-hole irrigation, which allowed her discharge from the hospital. One year after the initial surgery, she developed an infection of the urinary tract infection, which led to severe pyelonephritis and septic shock. Treatment of the urological symptoms eliminated the systemic inflammation. One month after the urinary infection, the patient was readmitted to the hospital in a comatose state. A CT scan showed regrowth of a residual subdural hematoma surrounded by a thick capsule, causing a midline shift in the brain. An emergency operation for removal of the subdural hematoma by burr-hole irrigation was performed, and pus was drained from the subdural mass. Microbiological cultures of the abscess revealed the presence of Proteus mirabilis. After surgery, the patient was administered an antibiotic treatment for three weeks and she was discharged with no neurological deficits. Cultures of blood from the septic shock as well as from the abscess both revealed the presence of Proteus mirabilis. Therefore, a diagnosis of infected subdural hematoma, which was caused by hematogenous infection, was made. We conclude that attention should be paid to the risk of infection of the hematoma capsule in subdural hematomas.

  15. [Acute extra-axial hematoma post-traumatic of the clivus].

    PubMed

    Castillo, C; Lambré, H; Meli, F; Boero, A; Lylyk, P

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has amply shown its usefulness for the evaluation of traumatic cranio-encephalic lesions, particularly those involving the posterior fossa, due to the absence of bone artifacts, the availability of multiplanar sections and the greater sensitivity as regards Computerized Tomography (C. T.). We present an MRI examination of an extra-axial hematoma of the clivus in a child with head trauma, not visible on C. T. scans.

  16. Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidant Therapy.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaochun; Wen, Zunjia; Shen, Haitao; Shen, Meifen; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke is a common and severe neurological disorder and is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity, especially for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Increasing evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress responses participate in the pathophysiological processes of secondary brain injury (SBI) following ICH. The mechanisms involved in interoperable systems include endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, neuronal apoptosis and necrosis, inflammation, and autophagy. In this review, we summarized some promising advances in the field of oxidative stress and ICH, including contained animal and human investigations. We also discussed the role of oxidative stress, systemic oxidative stress responses, and some research of potential therapeutic options aimed at reducing oxidative stress to protect the neuronal function after ICH, focusing on the challenges of translation between preclinical and clinical studies, and potential post-ICH antioxidative therapeutic approaches.

  17. Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiaochun; Wen, Zunjia; Shen, Haitao; Shen, Meifen

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke is a common and severe neurological disorder and is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity, especially for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Increasing evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress responses participate in the pathophysiological processes of secondary brain injury (SBI) following ICH. The mechanisms involved in interoperable systems include endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, neuronal apoptosis and necrosis, inflammation, and autophagy. In this review, we summarized some promising advances in the field of oxidative stress and ICH, including contained animal and human investigations. We also discussed the role of oxidative stress, systemic oxidative stress responses, and some research of potential therapeutic options aimed at reducing oxidative stress to protect the neuronal function after ICH, focusing on the challenges of translation between preclinical and clinical studies, and potential post-ICH antioxidative therapeutic approaches. PMID:27190572

  18. Incidental Finding of Malpositioned Pacing Lead in the Left Ventricle in a Patient With Subacute Subdural Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Asma; Salim, Sohail; Castillo, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Malposition of the right ventricular lead into the left ventricle is an unusual complication of challenging management. We report a case of an elderly woman with a dual chamber permanent pacemaker implanted 2 months before admission because of high grade AV block, who presented to our institution with sub acute subdural hematoma along the left fronto-parietal area. Incidental ventricular pacemaker lead in the left ventricle was found on chest CT scan. The patient was not candidate for anticoagulation due to her recent subdural hematoma, hence a discussion about the risks of explantation of the pacemaker lead led to patient’s lead extraction without any complication.

  19. [Spontaneous hematoma of the atrial wall].

    PubMed

    Iglesias López, A; Rodríguez Pan, A; Pazos Silva, V

    2014-01-01

    The clinical signs of heart masses tend to be nonspecific, generally depending more on their repercussions on heart function caused by their location rather than on their type. Imaging techniques make it possible to limit the differential diagnosis of heart masses based on their location, morphology, and characteristics of echogenicity, density, or intensity, depending on the technique used to study them. We present the case of a woman with squeezing mid chest pain irradiating to her shoulder and positive cardiac markers in whom a left atrial mass was identified at echocardiography. This finding was confirmed at chest CT. The signs at chest CT were compatible with a mural hematoma and this diagnosis was confirmed after intraoperative biopsy. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Refractory Spontaneous Chronic Subdural Hematoma: A Rare Presentation of an Intracranial Arteriovenous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The author has encountered a 67-year-old man with dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) presenting as a non-traumatic chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). This previously healthy patient was hospitalized due to progressive headache with subacute onset. He underwent burr-hole surgery twice for evacuating the left CSDH that was thickest at the posterior temporal area. The operative procedure and finding was not extraordinary, but subdural hematoma slowly progressed for days following the revision surgery. After investigation by super-selective external carotid angiography, a dural AVF found near the transverse-sigmoid sinus was diagnosed. Dural AVF was completely occluded with trans-arterial injecting polyvinyl alchol particles into the petrosquamosal branch of the middle meningeal artery. The patient showed a good neurological outcome with no additional intervention. Brain surgeons have to consider the possibility of dural AVF and perform cerebral angiogram if necessary when they manage the cases that have a spontaneously occurred and repeatedly recurring CSDH. PMID:28184348

  1. A case of idiopathic gastroesophageal submucosal hematoma and its disappearance observed by endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Oe, Shinji; Watanabe, Tatsuyuki; Kume, Keiichiro; Shibata, Michihiko; Hiura, Masaaki; Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Harada, Masaru

    2014-06-01

    A 74-year-old man was hospitalized due to hematemesis. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a very large and dark red mass in the cardiac region of the stomach that extended from the upper esophagus. A biopsy specimen showed hemorrhagic tissue and no malignant cells. The tumor-like region ulcerated at 5 days after the administration of intravenous lansoprazole at a dose of 30 mg twice a day and resolved with scar formation at 2 months after a change to oral rabeprazole at a dose of 10 mg/day.We diagnosed the patient with gastroesophageal submucosal hematoma. Gastroesophageal submucosal hematoma is a rare complication. In this case, we could follow the process of its disappearance by endoscopy.

  2. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma after abrupt sneezing with prompt recovery of severe paraparesis.

    PubMed

    Štětkářová, Ivana; Jelínková, Lenka; Janík, Vaclav; Peisker, Tomas

    2014-12-01

    Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is a rare neurologic condition with threatening consequences when spinal cord compression is present. The diagnosis must be performed quickly using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which shows collection of blood in the epidural space. With spinal cord compression, there is an indication for urgent surgical decompression. Here, we present a 64-year-old woman who developed sudden thoracic and lower back pain accompanied by severe paraparesis and urinary retention after sneezing abruptly. An MRI revealed a posterior thoracic epidural hematoma extending from the T6 to T11 vertebral level with spinal cord compression. Decompression was recommended, but the patient refused surgery, while neurologically improving with time. Complete neurologic recovery was observed within 24 hours after SSEH onset. A conservative therapeutic approach with careful observation may therefore be considered as a treatment of choice in some cases where surgery is refused, (due to high risk or other reasons) and neurologic recovery is early and sustained.

  3. Chronic subdural hematoma in a patient with congenital afibrinogenemia successfully treated with fibrinogen replacement.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Naoto; Akamine, Soichi; Tokuyama, Tsutomu; Sugiyama, Kenji; Kanayama, Naohiro; Namba, Hiroki

    2011-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman with congenital afibrinogenemia presented with chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) manifesting as severe headache, nausea, and somnolence after a minor head trauma. Brain computed tomography scans showed a right subdural hematoma associated with midline shift. Laboratory studies showed prolongation of prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and undetectably low level of fibrinogen. Until the present episode, she had received plasma-derived fibrinogen concentrate around menstruation and pregnancy. She had also suffered from spinal cord infarction due to vertebral artery occlusion. Burr-hole evacuation and drainage of CSDH was successfully performed using fibrinogen concentrate. The development of CSDH with afibrinogenemia is very rare. Although the past repeated administrations of fibrinogen concentrate were suspected to generate CSDH, paradoxical thrombotic complications caused by upregulation of prothrombin activation, thrombin generation, and growth factors released from platelets might be related to the development of CSDH with congenital afibrinogenemia.

  4. Life-threatening paraspinal muscle hematoma after percutaneous vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Chang-Hoon; Chung, Nam-Su; Lee, Jae-Heon; Lee, Han-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Bleeding and hematoma formation is rarely reported in percutaneous vertebroplasty procedure. An 84 year old male presented with a large paraspinal muscle hematoma after a percutaneous vertebroplasty. The patient had neither any prior bleeding disorder nor any anticoagulant treatment. Vital signs of the patient were unstable, and his hemoglobin level decreased daily. After a month of conservative treatment, including transfusion, cryotherapy, pain control and bed rest, his hemoglobin level remained stable and he showed relief from pain. Four months later, hematoma resolved spontaneously and he could walk without back pain. PMID:27746502

  5. Intraoperative Gastric Intramural Hematoma: A Rare Complication of Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi Chan; Ravindranathan, Sharmila; Choksi, Vivek; Pudussery Kattalan, Jestin; Shankar, Uday; Kaplan, Steven

    2016-12-19

    BACKGROUND Intramural hematomas primarily present in the esophagus or duodenum. We report a case of intramural hematoma in the gastric wall (GIH) secondary to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement in a setting of platelet dysfunction. CASE REPORT This case study reviews the hospitalization of a 73-year-old male with a history of chronic kidney disease who was admitted for coronary artery bypass graft surgery and mitral valve repair. During his complicated hospital course, he inadvertently required the placement of a PEG tube. His coagulation profile prior to this procedure was within normal limits. The patient had no history of coagulopathy and was taking aspirin 81 mg per day. PEG tube placement was withheld due to an expanding hematoma that was noted at the site of needle insertion in the gastric wall. A single dose of intravenous desmopressin (0.3 microgram/kilogram) was administered under the suspicion of uremic bleeding. No further gastrointestinal bleeding events were observed. A platelet function assay (PFA) and collagen/epinephrine closure time indicated platelet dysfunction. Three days later, we again attempted a PEG tube placement. His PFA prior to this procedure had normalized due to aspirin discontinuation and improvement of renal function. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) showed an area of flat bluish gastric submucosal bruising at the site of the previous hematoma. The PEG tube was placed successfully at an adjacent site. Over the course of the following month, the patient underwent uneventful feeding through the PEG tube. CONCLUSIONS To our knowledge, cases of GIH are rarely documented in literature. Multidisciplinary vigilance is required to maintain a high index of suspicion for this complication in patients with uremia or other coagulopathies to aid in prompt diagnosis.

  6. Activating blood circulation to remove stasis treatment of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage: A multi-center prospective randomized open-label blinded-endpoint trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-Ya; Yuan, Li-Xin; Zhang, Gen-Ming; Zhou, Li; Gao, Ying; Li, Qing-Bin; Chen, Che

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of the Chinese herbal therapeutic regimen of activating blood circulation (TRABC) in treatment of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH). This was a multi-center prospective randomized open-label blinded-endpoint (PROBE) trial with HICH admitted to 12 hospitals. Totally 240 participants were randomized to the treatment group treated with TRABC in addition to conventional Western treatment or the control group with conventional Western treatment equally for 3 months. Primary outcome was degree of disability as measured by modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Secondary outcomes were the absorption of hematoma and edema, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and patient-reported outcome measures for stroke and Barthel activities of daily living index. Adverse events and mortality were also recorded. After 3 months of treatment, the rate of mRS 0-1 and mRS 0-2 in the treatment group was 72.5% and 80.4%, respectively, and in the control group 48.1% and 63.9%, respectively, with a significant difference between groups (P<0.01). Hematoma volume decreased significantly at day 7 of treatment in the treatment group than the control group (P=0.038). Average Barthel scores in the treatment group after treatment was 89.11±19.93, and in the control group 82.18±24.02 (P=0.003). NIHSS scores of the two groups after treatment decreased significantly compared with before treatment (P=0.001). Patient-reported outcomes in the treatment group were lower than the control group at day 21 and 3 months of treatment (P<0.05). There were 4 deaths, 2 in each group, and 11 adverse events, 6 in the treatment group and 5 in the control group. The integrative therapy combined TRABC with conventional Western treatment for HICH could promote hematoma absorption thus minimize neurologic impairment, without increasing intracerebral hematoma expansion and re-bleeding.

  7. Detection and volume estimation of artificial hematomas in the subcutaneous fatty tissue: comparison of different MR sequences at 3.0 T.

    PubMed

    Ogris, Kathrin; Petrovic, Andreas; Scheicher, Sylvia; Sprenger, Hanna; Urschler, Martin; Hassler, Eva Maria; Yen, Kathrin; Scheurer, Eva

    2017-03-01

    In legal medicine, reliable localization and analysis of hematomas in subcutaneous fatty tissue is required for forensic reconstruction. Due to the absence of ionizing radiation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is particularly suited to examining living persons with forensically relevant injuries. However, there is limited experience regarding MRI signal properties of hemorrhage in soft tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate MR sequences with respect to their ability to show high contrast between hematomas and subcutaneous fatty tissue as well as to reliably determine the volume of artificial hematomas. Porcine tissue models were prepared by injecting blood into the subcutaneous fatty tissue to create artificial hematomas. MR images were acquired at 3T and four blinded observers conducted manual segmentation of the hematomas. To assess segmentability, the agreement of measured volume with the known volume of injected blood was statistically analyzed. A physically motivated normalization taking into account partial volume effect was applied to the data to ensure comparable results among differently sized hematomas. The inversion recovery sequence exhibited the best segmentability rate, whereas the T1T2w turbo spin echo sequence showed the most accurate results regarding volume estimation. Both sequences led to reproducible volume estimations. This study demonstrates that MRI is a promising forensic tool to assess and visualize even very small amounts of blood in soft tissue. The presented results enable the improvement of protocols for detection and volume determination of hemorrhage in forensically relevant cases and also provide fundamental knowledge for future in-vivo examinations.

  8. Evaluation of closed-suction drainage for treating auricular hematomas.

    PubMed

    Swaim, S F; Bradley, D M

    1996-01-01

    The principal and dynamics of closed-suction wound drainage lend themselves to use on auricular hematomas. This type of drainage was evaluated in the treatment of 10 auricular hematomas on nine animals. Seven animal owners rated the results of the procedure as "good," and two rated them as "fair." The two rating the procedure as having "fair" results owned dogs with allergic dermatitis, and the auricular hematomas recurred. In both dogs, auricular hematomas again recurred after other means of treatment were used. If the pocket for the vacuum tube is not secure and the animal is quite active, or if it molests the bandage, or both, it is possible for the tube to break or the needle to come off of the tubing.

  9. Case report: subcapsular hepatic hematoma: retraction injury during laparoscopic adrenalectomy.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Gerald H; Dunn, Matthew D

    2006-02-01

    We present a case of subcapsular hepatic hematoma resulting from retraction of the liver during laparoscopic adrenalectomy. We discuss the management and prevention of this rare and important complication.

  10. Hand-held instrument should relieve hematoma pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raggio, L. J.; Robertson, T. L.

    1967-01-01

    Portable instrument relieves hematomas beneath fingernails and toenails without surgery. This device simplifies the operative procedure with an instant variable heating tip, adjustable depth settings and interchangeable tip sizes for cauterizing small areas and relieving pressurized clots.

  11. Symptomatic Acute-on-Chronic Subdural Hematoma: A Clinicopathological Study.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Rudy J; Mojica-Sanchez, Gruschenka; Schwartzbauer, Gary; Hersh, David S

    2017-06-01

    The pathophysiology of acute-on-chronic subdural hematoma (ACSDH) is complex and incompletely understood. Evidence to date indicates that the overall process is initiated by rotational force with movement of the brain inside the skull, which exerts tensile strain and rupture of bridging veins, leading in turn to acute hemorrhage in the subdural potential space. This is followed by the proliferation of mesenchymal elements with angiogenesis and inflammation, which in turn becomes a substrate for repeated hemorrhage and expansion of the lesion. Given the prevalence of traumatic subdural processes in the forensic setting and the importance of proper assessment of timing, etiology, risk factors, and clinicopathological correlation, we studied 47 patients presenting to the University of Maryland Shock Trauma Center, all of whom underwent craniotomy with resection of the outer membrane due to symptomatic ACSDH. The surgically resected tissue was examined for histopathologic features in all cases. Our findings highlight that ACSDH is a condition precipitated by trauma that affects middle-aged and older adults, is relatively indolent, is unilateral or asymmetric, and has a low in-hospital mortality rate. Pathological analysis demonstrates a substantial outer membrane in all cases with varying degrees of inflammation and organization that cannot be precisely dated as a function of clinical presentation. The extrapolation of adult ACSDH to mixed acute and chronic subdural hemorrhage in the pediatric setting is problematic due to substantial differences in clinical presentation, severity of underlying brain injury, gross and microscopic findings, and outcome.

  12. Intracerebral haemorrhage in Down syndrome: protected or predisposed?

    PubMed Central

    Buss, Lewis; Fisher, Elizabeth; Hardy, John; Nizetic, Dean; Groet, Jurgen; Pulford, Laura; Strydom, André

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), which arises from trisomy of chromosome 21, is associated with deposition of large amounts of amyloid within the central nervous system. Amyloid accumulates in two compartments: as plaques within the brain parenchyma and in vessel walls of the cerebral microvasculature. The parenchymal plaque amyloid is thought to result in an early onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia, a phenomenon so common amongst people with DS that it could be considered a defining feature of the condition. The amyloid precursor protein ( APP) gene lies on chromosome 21 and its presence in three copies in DS is thought to largely drive the early onset AD. In contrast, intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), the main clinical consequence of vascular amyloidosis, is a more poorly defined feature of DS. We review recent epidemiological data on stroke (including haemorrhagic stroke) in order to make comparisons with a rare form of familial AD due to duplication (i.e. having three copies) of the APP region on chromosome 21, here called ‘dup-APP’, which is associated with more frequent and severe ICH. We conclude that although people with DS are at increased risk of ICH, this is less common than in dup-APP, suggesting the presence of mechanisms that act protectively. We review these mechanisms and consider comparative research into DS and dup-APP that may yield further pathophysiological insight. PMID:27239286

  13. Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage Image Analysis Methods: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Noel; Valdés, Jose; Guevara, Miguel; Silva, Augusto

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) account for 10-30% of all strokes and are a result of acute bleeding into the brain due to ruptures of small penetrating arteries. Despite major advancements in the management of ischemic strokes and other causes of hemorrhagic strokes, such as ruptured aneurysm, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), or cavernous angioma, during the past several decades, limited progress has been made in the treatment of ICH, and the prognosis for patients who suffer them remains poor. The societal impact of these hemorrhagic strokes is magnified by the fact that affected patients typically are a decade younger than those afflicted with ischemic strokes. The ICH continues to kill or disable most of their victims. Some studies show that those who suffer ICH have a 30-day mortality rate of 35-44% and a 6-month mortality rate approaching 50%. Approximately 700,000 new strokes occur in the United States annually and approximately 15% are hem-orrhagic strokes related to ICH. The poor outcome associated with ICH is related to the extent of brain damage. ICH produces direct destruction and compression of surrounding brain tissue. Direct compression causes poor perfusion and venous drainage to surrounding penumbra at risk, resulting in ischemia to the tissues that most need perfusion [16].

  14. Spontaneous Intracranial Extradural Hematoma in Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    N'dri Oka, Dominique; Tokpa, André; Bah, Alpha; Derou, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous extradural hematoma is rare in patients with sickle cell disease. We report a clinical case of a 19-year-old young man with sickle cell anemia who presented a sickle cell crisis complicated by the development of multiple acute extradural and subgaleal hematomas that had not been treated surgically. We discuss the physiopathology of this event. Although it is rare, clinicians should be aware of this phenomenon as part of a spectrum of neurologic complications in these patients. PMID:26251822

  15. Epidural Anesthesia Complicated by Subdural Hygromas and a Subdural Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Marovic, Paul; Ingram, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Inadvertent dural puncture during epidural anesthesia leads to intracranial hypotension, which if left unnoticed can cause life-threatening subdural hematomas or cerebellar tonsillar herniation. The highly variable presentation of intracranial hypotension hinders timely diagnosis and treatment. We present the case of a young laboring adult female, who developed subdural hygromas and a subdural hematoma following unintentional dural puncture during initiation of epidural anesthesia. PMID:27651956

  16. Rate of Perihematomal Edema Expansion Predicts Outcome After Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Urday, Sebastian; Beslow, Lauren A; Dai, Feng; Zhang, Fan; Battey, Thomas W K; Vashkevich, Anastasia; Ayres, Alison M; Leasure, Audrey C; Selim, Magdy H; Simard, J Marc; Rosand, Jonathan; Kimberly, W Taylor; Sheth, Kevin N

    2016-04-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage is a devastating disorder with no current treatment. Whether perihematomal edema is an independent predictor of neurologic outcome is controversial. We sought to determine whether perihematomal edema expansion rate predicts outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage. Retrospective cohort study. Tertiary medical center. One hundred thirty-nine consecutive supratentorial spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage patients 18 years or older admitted between 2000 and 2013. None. Intracerebral hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, and perihematomal edema volumes were measured from CT scans obtained at presentation, 24-hours, and 72-hours postintracerebral hemorrhage. Perihematomal edema expansion rate was the difference between initial and follow-up perihematomal edema volumes divided by the time interval. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the relationship between 1) perihematomal edema expansion rate at 24 hours and 90-day mortality and 2) perihematomal edema expansion rate at 24 hours and 90-day modified Rankin Scale score. Perihematomal edema expansion rate between admission and 24-hours postintracerebral hemorrhage was a significant predictor of 90-day mortality (odds ratio, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.48-5.99; p = 0.002). This association persisted after adjusting for all components of the intracerebral hemorrhage score (odds ratio, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.05-4.64; p = 0.04). Similarly, higher 24-hour perihematomal edema expansion rate was associated with poorer modified Rankin Scale score in an ordinal shift analysis (odds ratio, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.37-4.21; p = 0.002). The association persisted after adjustment for all intracerebral hemorrhage score components (odds ratio, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.12-3.83; p = 0.02). Faster perihematomal edema expansion rate 24-hours postintracerebral hemorrhage is associated with worse outcome. Perihematomal edema may represent an attractive translational target for secondary injury after intracerebral hemorrhage.

  17. [A case of infected subdural hematoma accompanied by cerebral infarction].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Norio; Naito, Yuichiro; Takanashi, Shigehiko; Ueno, Toshiaki; Nakagomi, Tadayoshi

    2013-05-01

    Infected subdural hematoma(ISH)is a rare disease caused by hematogenous infection of a preexisting subdural hematoma. We report a rare case of ISH accompanied by cerebral infarction. A 76-year-old man who had suffered a closed head injury 3 months before presented fever, headache and left hemiparesis during the medical treatment of acute cholangitis and obstructive jaundice with pancreatic cancer at the department of surgical gastroenterology. At the consultation, computed tomography(CT)scan indicated right chronic subdural hematoma. We performed a burr hole opening surgery on the same day. Abscess and hematoma was aspirated from the subdural space, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA)was detected in this specimen. Thus the diagnosis of the infected subdural hematoma was confirmed. However, despite the antibiotics therapy, follow-up CT showed a low-density area close to the residual abscess, which suggested cerebral infarction. Cerebral angiography showed a vasospasm at the cortical segment of the right middle cerebral artery near the residual abscess. Eventually we carried out a small craniotomy to evacuate the abscess. Our case showed that prompt surgical treatment is required in case of ISH and the whole hematoma and abscess should be removed as soon as possible with an image diagnosis and an additional surgical operation.

  18. Primary Enlarged Craniotomy in Organized Chronic Subdural Hematomas

    PubMed Central

    CALLOVINI, Giorgio Maria; BOLOGNINI, Andrea; CALLOVINI, Gemma; GAMMONE, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of craniotomy and membranectomy as initial treatment of organized chronic subdural hematoma (OCSH). We retrospectively reviewed a series of 34 consecutive patients suffering from OCSH, diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or contrast computer tomography (CCT) in order to establish the degree of organization and determine the intrahematomal architecture. The indication to perform a primary enlarged craniotomy as initial treatment for non-liquefied chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) with multilayer loculations was based on the hematoma MRI appearance—mostly hyperintense in both T1- and T2-weighted images with a hypointense web- or net-like structure within the hematoma cavity. The reason why some hematomas evolve towards a complex and organized architecture remains unclear; the most common aspect to come to light was the “long standing” of the CSDHs which, in our series, had an average interval of 10 weeks between head injury and initial scan. Recurrence was found to have occurred in 2 patients (6% of cases) in the form of acute subdural hematoma. One patient died as the result of an intraventricular and subarachnoid haemorrhage, while 2 patients (6%) suffered an haemorrhagic stroke ipsilateral to the OCSH. Eighty-nine percent of cases had a good recovery, while 11% remained unchanged or worsened. In select cases, based on the MRI appearance, primary enlarged craniotomy seems to be the treatment of choice for achieving a complete recovery and a reduced recurrence rate in OCSH. PMID:24305027

  19. Immunological characterization of the early human fracture hematoma.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Paula; Gaber, T; Strehl, C; Schmidt-Bleek, K; Lang, A; Huscher, D; Burmester, G R; Schmidmaier, G; Perka, C; Duda, G N; Buttgereit, F

    2016-12-01

    The initial inflammatory phase of fracture healing is of great importance for the clinical outcome. We aimed to develop a detailed time-dependent analysis of the initial fracture hematoma. We analyzed the composition of immune cell subpopulations by flow cytometry and the concentration of cytokines and chemokines by bioplex in 42 samples from human fractures of long bones <72 h post-trauma. The early human fracture hematoma is characterized by maturation of granulocytes and migration of monocytes/macrophages and hematopoietic stem cells. Both T helper cells and cytotoxic T cells proliferate within the fracture hematoma and/or migrate to the fracture site. Humoral immunity characteristics comprise high concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-8, IFNγ and TNFα, but also elevated concentration of anti-inflammatory cytokines, e.g., IL-1 receptor antagonist and IL-10. Furthermore, we found that cells of the fracture hematoma represent a source for key chemokines. Even under the bioenergetically restricted conditions that exist in the initial fracture hematoma, immune cells are not only present, but also survive, mature, function and migrate. They secrete a cytokine/chemokine cocktail that contributes to the onset of regeneration. We hypothesize that this specific microenvironment of the initial fracture hematoma is among the crucial factors that determine fracture healing.

  20. Primary enlarged craniotomy in organized chronic subdural hematomas.

    PubMed

    Callovini, Giorgio Maria; Bolognini, Andrea; Callovini, Gemma; Gammone, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of craniotomy and membranectomy as initial treatment of organized chronic subdural hematoma (OCSH). We retrospectively reviewed a series of 34 consecutive patients suffering from OCSH, diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or contrast computer tomography (CCT) in order to establish the degree of organization and determine the intrahematomal architecture. The indication to perform a primary enlarged craniotomy as initial treatment for non-liquefied chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) with multilayer loculations was based on the hematoma MRI appearance--mostly hyperintense in both T1- and T2-weighted images with a hypointense web- or net-like structure within the hematoma cavity. The reason why some hematomas evolve towards a complex and organized architecture remains unclear; the most common aspect to come to light was the "long standing" of the CSDHs which, in our series, had an average interval of 10 weeks between head injury and initial scan. Recurrence was found to have occurred in 2 patients (6% of cases) in the form of acute subdural hematoma. One patient died as the result of an intraventricular and subarachnoid haemorrhage, while 2 patients (6%) suffered an haemorrhagic stroke ipsilateral to the OCSH. Eighty-nine percent of cases had a good recovery, while 11% remained unchanged or worsened. In select cases, based on the MRI appearance, primary enlarged craniotomy seems to be the treatment of choice for achieving a complete recovery and a reduced recurrence rate in OCSH.

  1. Non-traumatic spontaneous acute epidural hematoma in a patient with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Serarslan, Yurdal; Aras, Mustafa; Altaş, Murat; Kaya, Hasan; Urfalı, Boran

    2014-01-01

    A 19-year-old female with sickle cell anemia (SCD) was referred to our hospital after two days of hospitalization at another hospital for a headache crisis. This headache crisis was due to a raised intracranial pressure; these symptoms were noted and included in her comprehensive list of symptoms. There was an acute drop in the hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. The cranial CT scan demonstrated a left fronto-parietal acute epidural hematoma (AEH) and a calvarial bone expansion, which was suggestive of medullary hematopoiesis. The patient underwent emergent craniotomy and evacuation of the hematoma. There were no abnormal findings intra-operatively apart from the AEH, except skull thickening and active petechial bleeding from the dural arteries. Repeated CT scan showed a complete evacuation of the hematoma. The possible underlying pathophysiological mechanisms were discussed. In addition to the factors mentioned in the relevant literature, any active petechial bleeding from the dural arteries on the separated surface of the dura from the skull could have contributed to the expanding of the AEH in our patient. Neurosurgeons and other health care providers should be aware of spontaneous AEH in patients with SCD. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Subcapsular Hepatic Hematoma After Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Zizzo, Maurizio; Lanaia, Andrea; Barbieri, Italo; Zaghi, Claudia; Bonilauri, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is one of the most frequently performed procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of biliary-pancreatic diseases. ERCP-related complications total around 2.5% to 8%, with a mortality rate ranging from 0.5% to 1%. An exceptional ERCP complication is subcapsular hepatic hematoma, and few cases are reported worldwide.We present the case of a 52-year-old woman with a history of recurring upper abdominal pain and a clinical and ultrasonographic diagnosis of obstructive jaundice due to common bile duct stones. After 2 difficult endoscopic biliary procedures, common bile duct stones clearance was obtained. Post-ERCP course was symptomatic with upper abdominal pain and anemization with hemodynamic instability.CT scan demonstrated a 15 cm × 11 cm subcapsular hepatic hematoma filled with air and liquid on the surface of the right hepatic lobe. The patient was successfully treated with the embolization of a small branch of right hepatic artery angiographically identified as the cause of bleeding.Subcapsular hepatic hematoma after ERCP is a rare complication that must be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of symptomatic cases after ERCP. Its diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory data and especially on imaging (ultrasound, CT, or MRI). Treatment is often conservative but, in some cases, embolization or percutaneous drainage or surgery may be necessary.

  3. [Right sensory-motor syndrome as the presentation of a spontaneous cervico-thoracic epidural hematoma].

    PubMed

    Castro, M; Egido, J A; Saldaña, C; Andrés, M T

    1998-10-01

    A spontaneous cervical epidural hematoma is an infrequent cause of cord compression. The commonest clinical presentations are with paraparesia and tetraparesia. Transient hemiparesia is very rare and a sensory-motor syndrome is exceptional. A 38 year old man had sudden onset of spontaneous interscapular vertebral pain with bilateral root radiation. A few minutes later he started to have weakness and sensory loss in his right limbs. On clinical examination there was pain on pressure over the spinal apophyses of the T4 and T5 vertebrae, hemiparesia and hemi-hypoalgesia of the right limbs. After ten hours this had all returned to normal. MRI of the cord showed an epidural hematoma extending from C6 to T2. Coagulation studies and spinal arteriography were normal. The sensory motor syndrome is an unusual form of presentation of a spontaneous cervico-thoracic epidural hematoma. Root pain is a symptom of great value for orientation of a syndrome which would otherwise seem to be of central origin. The explanation for this clinical findings may be compression of both lateral cord pathways due to their particular blood distribution. Regarding therapeutic approach, this should be conservative, with close observation to see whether it will resolve spontaneously in a short period of time.

  4. [Anesthetic management for a patient with chronic expanding hematoma of the thorax associated with respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Kurotaki, Kenji; Yoshida, Akiko; Ito, Yosuke; Nagaya, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Chronic expanding hematoma (CEH) of the thorax is an intractable disease which induces long-standing growing hematoma after tuberculosis or thoracic surgery. It causes respiratory failure and heart failure by compressing the mediastinum. A 68-year-old man with a history of tuberculosis during childhood had suffered from progressive exertional dyspnea for 20 years. Because a huge hematoma occupying whole right thoracic cavity compressed the heart and the trachea to the left, he was scheduled for extrapleural pneumonectomy. Bronchial arterial embolization was performed preoperatively to prevent hemoptysis and reduce intraoperative blood loss. There was no problem in the airway management using a double lumen endotracheal tube. However, severe hypotension and a decrease in cardiac index were observed due to excessive bleeding, leading to total blood loss of 11,000 g. In addition, surgical manipulation caused abrupt severe hypotension. Monitoring of arterial pressure-based cardiac output and deep body temperature was useful for the hemodynamic management during the operation. The successful postoperative course resulted in remarkable improvement of Huge-Jones dyspnea criteria from IV to II. In the anesthetic management of CEH precautions should be taken against the excessive intraoperative bleeding and abrupt hemodynamic changes.

  5. Pneumomediastinum and Mediastinal Hematoma Secondary to Right Brachiocephalic Vein Thrombectomy Mimicking STEMI

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Prem; Nivera, Noel

    2017-01-01

    A 50-year-old male with a history of hemodialysis dependent chronic kidney disease presented to our emergency department with acute midsternal crushing chest pain. Patient was diagnosed with acute anterolateral wall Myocardial Infraction due to the presence of corresponding ST segment elevations in EKG and underwent emergent cardiac catheterization which revealed normal patent coronaries without any disease. He continued to have chest pain for which CT of the chest was done which revealed pneumomediastinum with mediastinal hematoma, due to the recent attempted thrombectomy for thrombus in his right brachiocephalic vein. PMID:28804656

  6. Spontaneous retroclival hematoma in pituitary apoplexy: case series.

    PubMed

    Azizyan, Avetis; Miller, Joseph M; Azzam, Ramzi I; Maya, Marcel M; Famini, Pouyan; Pressman, Barry D; Moser, Franklin G

    2015-09-01

    Pituitary apoplexy is a rare and potentially life-threatening disorder that is most commonly characterized by a combination of sudden headache, visual disturbance, and hypothalamic/hormonal dysfunction. In many cases, there is hemorrhagic infarction of an underlying pituitary adenoma. The resulting clinical symptoms are due to compression of the remaining pituitary, cavernous sinuses, or cranial nerves. However, there are only 2 case reports in the literature describing spontaneous retroclival expansion of hemorrhage secondary to pituitary apoplexy. Ten cases of this entity with a review of the literature are presented here. This is a single-institution retrospective review of 2598 patients with sellar and parasellar masses during the 10-year period between 1999 and 2009. The pituitary and brain MRI and MRI studies were reviewed by 2 neuroradiologists for evidence of apoplexy, with particular attention given to retroclival extension. Eighteen patients (13 men and 5 women; mean age 54 years) were identified with presenting symptoms of sudden onset of headache and ophthalmoplegia, and laboratory findings consistent with pituitary apoplexy. Ten of these patients (8 men and 2 women; mean age 55 years) had imaging findings consistent with retroclival hematoma. Retroclival hemorrhage was seen in the majority of cases of pituitary apoplexy (56%), suggesting that it is more common than previously thought.

  7. Measurement of perihematomal edema in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Urday, Sebastian; Beslow, Lauren A; Goldstein, David W; Vashkevich, Anastasia; Ayres, Alison M; Battey, Thomas W K; Selim, Magdy H; Kimberly, W Taylor; Rosand, Jonathan; Sheth, Kevin N

    2015-04-01

    Perihematomal edema (PHE) is a marker of secondary injury in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). PHE measurement on computed tomography (CT) is challenging, and the principles used to detect PHE have not been described fully. We developed a systematic approach for CT-based measurement of PHE. Two independent raters measured PHE volumes on baseline and 24-hour post-ICH CT scans of 20 primary supratentorial ICH subjects. Boundaries were outlined with an edge-detection tool and adjusted after inspection of the 3 orthogonal planes. PHE was delineated with the additional principle that it should be (a) more hypodense than the corresponding area in the contralateral hemisphere and (b) most hypodense immediately surrounding the hemorrhage. We examined intra- and interrater reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots for interrater consistency. CT-based PHE was also compared using magnetic resonance imaging-based PHE detection for 18 subjects. Median PHE volumes were 22.7 cc at baseline and 20.4 cc at 24 hours post-ICH. There were no statistically significant differences in PHE measurements between raters. Interrater and intrarater reliability for PHE were excellent. At baseline and 24 hours, interrater intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.98 (0.96-1.00) and 0.98 (0.97-1.00); intrarater intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.99 (0.99-1.00) and 0.99 (0.98-1.00). Bland-Altman analysis showed the bias for PHE measurements at baseline and 24 hours, -0.5 cc (SD, 5.4) and -3.2 cc (SD, 5.0), was acceptably small. PHE volumes determined by CT and magnetic resonance imaging were similar (23.9±16.9 cc versus 23.9±16.0 cc, R(2) = 0.98, P<0.0001). Our method measures PHE with excellent reliability at baseline and 24 hours post-ICH. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Postural stability in patients with chronic subdural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Sundström, Nina; Djerf, Linda; Olivecrona, Zandra; Koskinen, Lars-Owe D

    2016-08-01

    Gait disturbances and falls are common in patients with chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH). Postural stability is mainly visually assessed and has not been described using an objective and quantitative measurement tool. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate postural stability in cSDH patients by measuring trunk sway during stance and gait compared to healthy elderly (HE). It was also to evaluate the relationships among postural stability and age, hematoma size, brain midline shift and hematoma location. Using a gyroscopic method, trunk sway was measured in 22 cSDH patients preoperatively, 5 postoperatively and 58 HE during seven standing and walking tasks. Trunk sway amplitude and velocity in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions were assessed. Postural stability was reduced in the cSDH group compared to HE for all standing tasks. During gait, the sway angle was increased while velocity was decreased in the cSDH group. Only 18 % of the patients could perform all tasks without losing their balance. Postoperatively, postural stability was normalized in the medial-lateral direction during standing. There were no correlations among age, hematoma size, brain midline shift or location of the hematoma and trunk sway. The majority of cSDH patients had reduced postural stability that was partly reversed soon after surgery. It was not correlated to hematoma characteristics, indicating that an increased risk to fall is present regardless of hematoma size and midline shift. This must be accounted for when handling these patients and measures taken to prevent further fall accidents during hospital stays.

  9. Encapsulated Unresolved Subdural Hematoma Mimicking Acute Epidural Hematoma: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Soo; Shin, Woo-Ram; Kim, Hyo-Joon; Kwon, Chang-Young

    2014-10-01

    Encapsulated acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) has been uncommonly reported. To our knowledge, a few cases of lentiform ASDH have been reported. The mechanism of encapsulated ASDH has been studied but not completely clarified. Encapsulated lentiform ASDH on a computed tomography (CT) scan mimics acute epidural hematoma (AEDH). Misinterpretation of biconvex-shaped ASDH on CT scan as AEDH often occurs and is usually identified by neurosurgical intervention. We report a case of an 85-year-old man presenting with a 2-day history of mental deterioration and right-sided weakness. CT scan revealed a biconvex-shaped hyperdense mass mixed with various densities of blood along the left temporoparietal cerebral convexity, which was misinterpreted as AEDH preoperatively. Emergency craniectomy was performed, but no AEDH was found beneath the skull. In the subdural space, encapsulated ASDH was located. En block resection of encapsulated ASDH was done. Emergency craniectomy confirmed that the preoperatively diagnosed AEDH was an encapsulated ASDH postoperatively. Radiologic studies of AEDH-like SDH allow us to establish an easy differential diagnosis between AEDH and ASDH by distinct features. More histological studies will provide us information on the mechanism underlying encapsulated ASDH.

  10. Rapamycin protects against neuronal death and improves neurological function with modulation of microglia after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Liu, F; Yang, T; Jin, T; Zhang, H; Luo, X; Wang, M

    2016-09-30

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) results in a devastating brain disorder with high mortality and poor prognosis and effective therapeutic intervention for the disease remains a challenge at present. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of rapamycin on ICH-induced brain damage and the possible involvement of activated microglia. ICH was induced in rats by injection of type IV collagenase into striatum. Different dose of rapamycin was systemically administrated by intraperitoneal injection beginning at 1 h after ICH induction. Western blot analysis showed that ICH led to a long-lasting increase of phosphorylated mTOR and this hyperactivation of mTOR was reduced by systemic administration of rapamycin. Rapamycin treatment significantly improved the sensorimotor deficits induced by ICH, and attenuated ICH-induced brain edema formation as well as lesion volume. Nissl and Fluoro-Jade C staining demonstrated that administration with rapamycin remarkably decreased neuronal death surrounding the hematoma at 7 d after ICH insult. ELISA and real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that rapamycin inhibited ICH-induced excessive expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in ipsilateral hemisphere. Furthermore, activation of microglia induced by ICH was significantly suppressed by rapamycin administration. These data indicated that treatment of rapamycin following ICH decreased the brain injuries and neuronal death at the peri-hematoma striatum, and increased neurological function, which associated with reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and activated microglia. The results provide novel insight into the neuroprotective therapeutic strategy of rapamycin for ICH insult, which possibly involving the regulation of microglial activation.

  11. Mouse Models of Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Ventricle, Cortex, and Hippocampus by Injections of Autologous Blood or Collagenase

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wei; Gao, Yufeng; Chang, Che-Feng; Wan, Jie-ru; Zhu, Shan-shan; Wang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating condition. Existing preclinical ICH models focus largely on striatum but neglect other brain areas such as ventricle, cortex, and hippocampus. Clinically, however, hemorrhagic strokes do occur in these other brain regions. In this study, we established mouse hemorrhagic models that utilize stereotactic injections of autologous whole blood or collagenase to produce ventricular, cortical, and hippocampal injury. We validated and characterized these models by histology, immunohistochemistry, and neurobehavioral tests. In the intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) model, C57BL/6 mice that received unilateral ventricular injections of whole blood demonstrated bilateral ventricular hematomas, ventricular enlargement, and brain edema in the ipsilateral cortex and basal ganglia at 72 h. Unilateral injections of collagenase (150 U/ml) caused reproducible hematomas and brain edema in the frontal cortex in the cortical ICH (c-ICH) model and in the hippocampus in the hippocampal ICH (h-ICH) model. Immunostaining revealed cellular inflammation and neuronal death in the periventricular regions in the IVH brain and in the perihematomal regions in the c-ICH and h-ICH brains. Locomotor abnormalities measured with a 24-point scoring system were present in all three models, especially on days 1, 3, and 7 post-ICH. Locomotor deficits measured by the wire-hanging test were present in models of IVH and c-ICH, but not h-ICH. Interestingly, mice in the c-ICH model demonstrated emotional abnormality, as measured by the tail suspension test and forced swim test, whereas h-ICH mice exhibited memory abnormality, as measured by the novel object recognition test. All three ICH models generated reproducible brain damage, brain edema, inflammation, and consistent locomotor deficits. Additionally, the c-ICH model produced emotional deficits and the h-ICH model produced cognitive deficits. These three models closely mimic human ICH and should be useful for

  12. The brain as a photoreceptor: intracerebral ocelli in the firefly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariyama, T.

    This paper deals with the structure and function of the intracerebral ocelli in the caudal area of the brain of the Japanese firefly. A pair of epilaterally placed specialized pigmented organs was found at the caudal ends of the brains of the fireflies Luciola cruciata and L. lateralis. On the basis of light and transmission electron micrographs of both male and female individuals these organs seemed photoreceptive in nature. Intracellular and extracellular recordings were obtained from the intracerebral ocelli of the fireflies with microelectrodes. The physiological evidence revealed that the cells found in the brain were, indeed, photoreceptors.

  13. Noncontrast Computed Tomography Hypodensities Predict Poor Outcome in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Patients.

    PubMed

    Boulouis, Gregoire; Morotti, Andrea; Brouwers, H Bart; Charidimou, Andreas; Jessel, Michael J; Auriel, Eitan; Pontes-Neto, Octavio; Ayres, Alison; Vashkevich, Anastasia; Schwab, Kristin M; Rosand, Jonathan; Viswanathan, Anand; Gurol, Mahmut E; Greenberg, Steven M; Goldstein, Joshua N

    2016-10-01

    Noncontrast computed tomographic (CT) hypodensities have been shown to be associated with hematoma expansion in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), but their impact on functional outcome is yet to be determined. We evaluated whether baseline noncontrast CT hypodensities are associated with poor clinical outcome. We performed a retrospective review of a prospectively collected cohort of consecutive patients with primary ICH presenting to a single academic medical center between 1994 and 2016. The presence of CT hypodensities was assessed by 2 independent raters on the baseline CT. Unfavorable outcome was defined as a modified Rankin score >3 at 90 days. The associations between CT hypodensities and unfavorable outcome were investigated using uni- and multivariable logistic regression models. During the study period, 1342 patients presented with ICH and 800 met restrictive inclusion criteria (baseline CT available for review, and 90-day outcome available). Three hundred and four (38%) patients showed hypodensities on CT, and 520 (65%) patients experienced unfavorable outcome. In univariate analysis, patients with unfavorable outcome were more likely to demonstrate hypodensities (48% versus 20%; P<0.0001). After adjustment for age, admission Glasgow coma scale, warfarin use, intraventricular hemorrhage, baseline ICH volume, and location, CT hypodensities were found to be independently associated with an increase in the odds of unfavorable outcome (odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval [1.10-2.65]; P=0.018). The presence of noncontract CT hypodensities at baseline independently predicts poor outcome and comes as a useful and widely available addition to our ability to predict ICH patients' clinical evolution. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Development of a mechanics-based model of brain deformations during intracerebral hemorrhage evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, Saramati; Weis, Jared A.; Godage, Isuru S.; Webster, Robert; Weaver, Kyle; Miga, Michael I.

    2017-03-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) occur in 24 out of 100,000 people annually and have high morbidity and mortality rates. The standard treatment is conservative. We hypothesize that a patient-specific, mechanical model coupled with a robotic steerable needle, used to aspirate a hematoma, would result in a minimally invasive approach to ICH management that will improve outcomes. As a preliminary study, three realizations of a tissue aspiration framework are explored within the context of a biphasic finite element model based on Biot's consolidation theory. Short-term transient effects were neglected in favor of steady state formulation. The Galerkin Method of Weighted Residuals was used to solve coupled partial differential equations using linear basis functions, and assumptions of plane strain and homogeneous isotropic properties. All aspiration models began with the application of aspiration pressure sink(s), calculated pressures and displacements, and the use of von Mises stresses within a tissue failure criterion. With respect to aspiration strategies, one model employs an element-deletion strategy followed by aspiration redeployment on the remaining grid, while the other approaches use principles of superposition on a fixed grid. While the element-deletion approach had some intuitive appeal, without incorporating a dynamic grid strategy, it evolved into a less realistic result. The superposition strategy overcame this, but would require empirical investigations to determine the optimum distribution of aspiration sinks to match material removal. While each modeling framework demonstrated some promise, the superposition method's ease of computation, ability to incorporate the surgical plan, and better similarity to existing empirical observational data, makes it favorable.

  15. Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Fails to Improve Outcomes Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice.

    PubMed

    Burchell, Sherrefa R; Iniaghe, Loretta O; Zhang, John H; Tang, Jiping

    2016-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the most fatal stroke subtype, with no effective therapies. Hematoma expansion and inflammation play major roles in the pathophysiology of ICH, contributing to primary and secondary brain injury, respectively. Fucoidan, a polysaccharide from the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus, has been reported to activate a platelet receptor that may function in limiting bleeding, and to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects. As such, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of fucoidan on hemorrhaging and neurological outcomes after ICH. Male CD-1 mice were subjected to experimental ICH by infusion of bacterial collagenase. Animals were randomly divided into the following groups: sham, ICH + vehicle, ICH + 25 mg/kg fucoidan, ICH + 75 mg/kg fucoidan, and ICH + 100 mg/kg fucoidan. Brain water content, neurobehavioral outcomes, and hemoglobin content were evaluated at 24 h post ICH. Our findings show that fucoidan failed to attenuate the ICH-induced increase in BWC. The neurological deficits that result from ICH also did not differ in the treatment groups at all three doses. Finally, we found that fucoidan had no effect on the hemoglobin content after ICH. We postulate that fucoidan treatment did not improve the measured outcomes after ICH because we used crude fucoidan, which has a high molecular weight, in our study. High-molecular-weight fucoidans are reported to have less therapeutic potential than low molecular weight fucoidans. They have been shown to exhibit anti-coagulant and pro-apoptotic properties, which seem to outweigh their anti-inflammatory and potential procoagulant abilities. We propose that using a low-molecular-weight fucoidan, or fractionating the crude polysaccharide, may be effective in treating ICH. Future studies are needed to confirm this.

  16. HEME OXYGENASE 2 DEFICIENCY INCREASES BRAIN SWELLING AND INFLAMMATION AFTER INTRACEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE

    PubMed Central

    WANG, J.; DORÉ, S.

    2015-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains a major medical problem and currently has no effective treatment. Hemorrhaged blood is highly toxic to the brain, and catabolism of the pro-oxidant heme, mainly released from hemoglobin, is critical for the resolution of hematoma after ICH. The degradation of the pro-oxidant heme is controlled by heme oxygenase (HO). We have previously reported a neuroprotective role for HO2 in early brain injury after ICH; however, in vivo data that specifically address the role of HO2 in brain edema and neuroinflammation after ICH are absent. Here, we tested the hypothesis that HO2 deletion would exacerbate ICH-induced brain edema, neuroinflammation, and oxidative damage. We subjected wild-type (WT) and HO2 knockout (−/−) mice to the collagenase-induced ICH model. Interestingly, HO2−/− mice had enhanced brain swelling and neuronal death, although HO2 deletion did not increase collagenase-induced bleeding; the exacerbation of brain injury in HO2−/− mice was also associated with increases in neutrophil infiltration, microglial/macrophage and astrocyte activation, DNA damage, peroxynitrite production, and cytochrome c immunoreactivity. In addition, we found that hemispheric enlargement was more sensitive than brain water content in the detection of subtle changes in brain edema formation in this model. Combined, these novel findings extend our previous observations and demonstrate that HO2 deficiency increases brain swelling, neuroinflammation, and oxidative damage. The results provide additional evidence that HO2 plays a critical protective role against ICH-induced early brain injury. PMID:18674596

  17. A20 Ameliorates Intracerebral Hemorrhage–Induced Inflammatory Injury by Regulating TRAF6 Polyubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Zhaoyou; Zhao, Ting; Zhou, Kai; Zhong, Qi; Wang, Yanchun; Xiong, Xiaoyi; Wang, Faxiang; Yang, Yuanrui; Zhu, Wenyao; Liu, Juan; Liao, Maofan; Wu, Lirong; Duan, Chunmei; Li, Jie; Gong, Qiuwen; Liu, Liang; Xiong, Ao; Yang, Meihua; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Reducing excessive inflammation is beneficial for the recovery from intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Here, the roles and mechanisms of A20 (TNFAIP3), an important endogenous anti-inflammatory factor, are examined in ICH. A20 expression in the PBMCs of ICH patients and an ICH mouse model was detected, and the correlation between A20 expression and neurologic deficits was analyzed. A20 expression was increased in PBMCs and was negatively related to the modified Rankin Scale score. A20 expression was also increased in mouse perihematomal tissues. A20−/− and A20-overexpressing mice were generated to further analyze A20 function. Compared with wild-type (WT) mice, A20−/− and A20-overexpressing mice showed significant increases and decreases, respectively, in hematoma volume, neurologic deficit score, mortality, neuronal degeneration, and proinflammatory factors. Moreover, WT-A20−/− parabiosis was established to explore the role of A20 in peripheral blood in ICH injury. ICH-induced damage, including brain edema, neurologic deficit score, proinflammatory factors, and neuronal apoptosis, was reduced in A20−/− parabionts compared with A20−/− mice. Finally, the interactions between TRAF6 and Ubc13 and UbcH5c were increased in A20−/− mice compared with WT mice; the opposite occurred in A20-overexpressing mice. Enhanced IκBα degradation and NF-κB activation were observed in A20−/− mice, but the results were reversed in A20-overexpressing mice. These results suggested that A20 is involved in regulating ICH-induced inflammatory injury in both the central and peripheral system and that A20 reduces ICH-induced inflammation by regulating TRAF6 polyubiquitination. Targeting A20 may thus be a promising therapeutic strategy for ICH. PMID:27986908

  18. Natural History and Prognostic Value of Corticospinal Tract Wallerian Degeneration in Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Venkatasubramanian, Chitra; Kleinman, Jonathan T.; Fischbein, Nancy J.; Olivot, Jean‐Marc; Gean, Alisa D.; Eyngorn, Irina; Snider, Ryan W.; Mlynash, Michael; Wijman, Christine A. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to define the incidence, imaging characteristics, natural history, and prognostic implication of corticospinal tract Wallerian degeneration (CST‐WD) in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) using serial MR imaging. Methods and Results Consecutive ICH patients with supratentorial ICH prospectively underwent serial MRIs at 2, 7, 14, and 21 days. MRIs were analyzed by independent raters for the presence and topographical distribution of CST‐WD on diffusion‐weighted imaging (DWI). Baseline demographics, hematoma characteristics, ICH score, and admission National Institute of Health Stroke Score (NIHSS) were systematically recorded. Functional outcome at 3 months was assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and the motor‐NIHSS. Twenty‐seven patients underwent 93 MRIs; 88 of these were serially obtained in the first month. In 13 patients (48%), all with deep ICH, CST‐WD changes were observed after a median of 7 days (interquartile range, 7 to 8) as reduced diffusion on DWI and progressed rostrocaudally along the CST. CST‐WD changes evolved into T2‐hyperintense areas after a median of 11 days (interquartile range, 6 to 14) and became atrophic on MRIs obtained after 3 months. In univariate analyses, the presence of CST‐WD was associated with poor functional outcome (ie, mRS 4 to 6; P=0.046) and worse motor‐NIHSS (5 versus 1, P=0.001) at 3 months. Conclusions Wallerian degeneration along the CST is common in spontaneous supratentorial ICH, particularly in deep ICH. It can be detected 1 week after ICH on DWI and progresses rostrocaudally along the CST over time. The presence of CST‐WD is associated with poor motor and functional recovery after ICH. PMID:23913508

  19. Utility of Early MRI in the Diagnosis and Management of Acute Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Wijman, Christine A.C.; Venkatasubramanian, Chitra; Bruins, Sara; Fischbein, Nancy; Schwartz, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Background The optimal diagnostic evaluation for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains controversial. In this retrospective study, we assessed the utility of early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in ICH diagnosis and management. Methods Eighty-nine (72%) of 123 patients with spontaneous ICH underwent a brain CT and MRI within 30 days of ICH onset. Seventy patients with a mean age of 62 ± 15 years were included. A stroke neurologist and a general neurologist, each blinded to the final diagnosis, independently reviewed the admission data and the initial head CT and then assigned a presumed ICH cause under 1 of 9 categories. ICH cause was potentially modified after subsequent MRI review. The final ‘gold standard’ ICH etiology was determined after review of the complete medical record by an independent investigator. Change in diagnostic category and confidence and the potential impact on patient management were systematically recorded. Results Mean time to MRI was 3 ± 5 days. Final ICH diagnosis was hypertension or cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in 50% of patients. After MRI review the stroke neurologist changed diagnostic category in 14%, diagnostic confidence in an additional 23% and management in 20%, and the general neurologist did so in 19, 21 and 21% of patients, respectively. MRI yield was highest in ICH secondary to ischemic stroke, CAA, vascular malformations and neoplasms, and did not differ by age, history of hypertension, hematoma location or the presence of intraventricular hemorrhage. Conclusions The results of this study suggest potential additive clinical benefit of early MRI in patients with spontaneous ICH. PMID:20733299

  20. The absence of the CD163 receptor has distinct temporal influences on intracerebral hemorrhage outcomes.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Jenna L; Lampert, Andrew S; Loyola Amador, Claudia; Schlakman, Brandon; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Svendsen, Pia; Moestrup, Søren K; Doré, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) toxicity precipitates secondary brain damage following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). CD163 is an anti-inflammatory Hb scavenger receptor and CD163-positive macrophages/microglia locally accumulate post-bleed, yet no studies have investigated the role of CD163 after ICH. ICH was induced in wildtype and CD163(-/-) mice and various anatomical and functional outcomes were assessed. At 3 d, CD163(-/-) mice have 43.4 ± 5.0% (p = 0.0002) and 34.8 ± 3.4% (p = 0.0003) less hematoma volume and tissue injury, respectively. Whereas, at 10 d, CD163(-/-) mice have 49.2 ± 15.0% larger lesions (p = 0.0385). An inflection point was identified, where CD163(-/-) mice perform better on neurobehavioral testing and have less mortality before 4 d, but increased mortality and worse function after 4 d (p = 0.0389). At 3 d, CD163(-/-) mice have less Hb, iron, and blood-brain barrier dysfunction, increased astrogliosis and neovascularization, and no change in heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) expression. At 10 d, CD163(-/-) mice have increased iron and VEGF immunoreactivity, but no significant change in HO1 or astrogliosis. These novel findings reveal that CD163 deficiency has distinct temporal influences following ICH, with early beneficial properties but delayed injurious effects. While it is unclear why CD163 deficiency is initially beneficial, the late injurious effects are consistent with the key anti-inflammatory role of CD163 in the recovery phase of tissue damage.

  1. A tale of two acute extradural hematomas

    PubMed Central

    Adeleye, Amos Olufemi; Jite, Ikechi E.; Smith, Omolara A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In much of the Western hemisphere, mortality from traumatic acute extradural hematomas (AEDH) has been drastically brought down toward 0%. This is still not the case however in most developing countries. Case Description: This report represents a tragi-comic tale of two cases of traumatic AEDH managed by an academic neurosurgeon in a neurosurgically ill-resourced private health facility during a nationwide industrial strike action preventing clinical-surgical care in the principal author's University Teaching Hospital. A young man presented with altered consciousness, Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) 14/15, following a road accident. The cranial computed tomography (CT) scan was obtained only 9 h after its request, long after the man had actually deteriorated to GCS 7/15 with pupillary changes. The neurosurgeon, summoned from the nearby University Teaching Hospital for the operative care of this man, arrived on-site and was about moving the patient into the operative room when he took the final breaths and died, all within 2 h of the belated neuroimaging. This scenario repeated itself in the same health facility just 24 h later with another young man who presented GCS 7/15 and another identical CT evidence of traumatic AEDH. With more financially able relations, the diagnostic/surgical care of this second patient was much more prompt. He made a very brisk recovery from neurosurgical operative intervention. He is alive and well, 5-month postoperative. Conclusions: In most low-resourced health systems of the developing countries, a significant proportion of potentially salvageable cases of AEDH still perish from this disease condition. PMID:27213108

  2. Evaluation of the hematoma consequences, neurobehavioral profiles, and histopathology in a rat model of pontine hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lekic, Tim; Rolland, William; Manaenko, Anatol; Krafft, Paul R.; Kamper, Joel E.; Suzuki, Hidenori; Hartman, Richard E.; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Object Primary pontine hemorrhage (PPH) represents approximately 7% of all intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) and is a clinical condition of which little is known. The aim of this study was to characterize the early brain injury, neurobehavioral outcome, and long-term histopathology in a novel preclinical rat model of PPH. Methods The authors stereotactically infused collagenase (Type VII) into the ventral pontine tegmentum of the rats, in accordance with the most commonly affected clinical region. Measures of cerebrovascular permeability (brain water content, hemoglobin assay, Evans blue, collagen Type IV, ZO-1, and MMP-2 and MMP-9) and neurological deficit were quantified at 24 hours postinfusion (Experiment 1). Functional outcome was measured over a 30-day period using a vertebrobasilar scale (the modified Voetsch score), open field, wire suspension, beam balance, and inclined-plane tests (Experiment 2). Neurocognitive ability was determined at Week 3 using the rotarod (motor learning), T-maze (working memory), and water maze (spatial learning and memory) (Experiment 3), followed by histopathological analysis 1 week later (Experiment 4). Results Stereotactic collagenase infusion caused dose-dependent elevations in hematoma volume, brain edema, neurological deficit, and blood-brain barrier rupture, while physiological variables remained stable. Functional outcomes mostly normalized by Week 3, whereas neurocognitive deficits paralleled the cystic cavitary lesion at 30 days. Obstructive hydrocephalus did not develop despite a clinically relevant 30-day mortality rate (approximately 54%). Conclusions These results suggest that the model can mimic several translational aspects of pontine hemorrhage in humans and can be used in the evaluation of potential preclinical therapeutic interventions. PMID:23198805

  3. Atorvastatin May Attenuate Recurrence of Chronic Subdural Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua; Luo, Zhengxiang; Liu, Zhongkun; Yang, Jian; Kan, Shifeng

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common form of intracranial hemorrhage with a substantial recurrence rate. Atorvastatin may reduce CSDH via its anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenesis effects, but its effectiveness for preventing recurrent CSDH has never been explored. We hypothesized that atorvastatin is effective in reducing recurrence of CSDH after surgery and identified determining factors predictive of hematoma recurrence. Methods: A prospective study was conducted in 168 surgical cases of CSDH.All patients were randomly assigned to the group treated with atorvastatin or control group. Clinically relevant data were compared between two groups, and subsequently between the recurrence and non-recurrence patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the relationship between atorvastatin treatment and the recurrence using brain atrophy, septated and bilateral hematoma was performed. Results: Atorvastatin group conferred an advantage by significantly decreasing the recurrence rate (P = 0.023), and patients managed with atorvastatin also had a longer time-to-recurrence (P = 0.038). Admission brain atrophy and bilateral hematoma differed significantly between the recurrence and non-recurrence patients (P = 0.047 and P = 0.045). The results of logistic regression analysis showed that atorvastatin significantly reduced the probability of recurrence; severe brain atrophy and bilateral hematoma were independent risk factors for recurrent CSDH. Conclusions: Atorvastatin administration may decrease the risks of recurrence.Patients with severe brain atrophy and bilateral CSDH are prone to the recurrence. PMID:27445673

  4. Splenic hematoma in acute pancreatitis. Role of coagulation disorders.

    PubMed

    Clavé, P; Guillaumes, S; Blanco, I; Martínez de Hurtado, J; Esquius, J; Marruecos, L; Fontcuberta, J; Pérez, C; Farré, A; Lluís, F

    1992-08-01

    Splenic hematomas are infrequent complications of acute pancreatitis. In some cases, local factors that may play a role in the pathogenesis of the hematoma (thrombosis of the splenic artery or veins, intrasplenic pseudocysts, perisplenic adhesions, enzymatic digestion) are found. In the absence of local factors, the etiology of splenic hemorrhage remains unknown. We report two cases of splenic hematoma occurring during an acute necro-hemorrhagic pancreatitis associated with renal failure that required renal replacement therapy (hemodialysis and continuous arteriovenous hemodialysis). In both cases, more than half of splenic parenchyma was affected by multiple infarctions. No local factors responsible for the splenic abnormalities were detected in either case. Thrombosis of the splenic arterial microcirculation and a coagulation disorder consistent with disseminated intravascular coagulation was detected in one patient. In the second patient, coagulation disorders secondary to either liver disease, pancreatitis and its septic complications, or extracorporeal circuit heparinization for renal replacement therapy were present. Coagulation disorders should be considered whenever a splenic hematoma is found in a patient with acute pancreatitis. Disseminated intravascular coagulation may be the etiology of a splenic hematoma in acute pancreatitis.

  5. Intracerebral adrenal medulla grafts: a review.

    PubMed

    Freed, W J; Poltorak, M; Becker, J B

    1990-11-01

    This review summarizes basic and clinical research on intracerebral adrenal medulla grafts, emphasizing potential applications to Parkinson's disease. Properties of intraventricular and intraparenchymal grafts are described, and cell survival and functional effects are compared. It is clear that adrenal medulla allografts survive poorly in the parenchyma of the corpus striatum and better in the lateral ventricle. Nerve growth factor (NGF) may improve the survival of adrenal medulla grafts. In the absence of added NGF even adrenal medulla grafts in the ventricle survive irregularly, and the factors required for graft survival in the ventricle are not well understood. In the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat model most evidence suggests, not surprisingly, that adrenal medulla grafts produce functional effects only when they survive. These effects may be related to production of catecholamines by the transplanted cells. In addition, adrenal medulla grafts may produce trophic effects on host brain. These effects are most evident in animals with MPTP-induced damage to dopaminergic systems and may be nonspecific, possibly related in part to the brain injury that is induced by graft implantation. Trophic effects may contribute to the functional effects of adrenal medulla grafts: For intraparenchymal grafts, trophic effects that do not require cell survival may contribute small functional changes, while additional behavioral effects may require substantial chromaffin cell survival. The evidence for direct dopamine-mediated effects as compared to trophic mechanisms of action for these grafts in animal models for Parkinson's disease is presented. Clinical studies of adrenal medulla grafts in human patients are examined and compared in detail. When inspected closely, the various clinical studies are in general agreement on most points, although there are differences in the degree of improvement found, both across different studies and individual patients. It is concluded that

  6. Acute gastric changes after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Smelley, Christopher; Specian, Robert D; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2005-03-21

    Severe intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) produces gastric pathology in about 30% of the patient population, even after the standard treatment of H2 receptor blockers or proton pump inhibitors. This study was undertaken to establish a rat model of ICH-induced gastric ulcer. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-350 g) were divided into two hemorrhage groups and a sham control group. ICH was produced either by injection of 100 microl of autologous arterial blood or by injection of 4 microl saline containing 0.6 unit of bacterial collagenase VII into the right basal ganglia. Rats were sacrificed at 24, 48, 72 h, and 7 days after ICH to harvest brains and stomachs. Greater degrees of hemorrhage and brain edema were observed in collagenase-induced ICH. Motor behavior decreased significantly after 24 h in both models. The incidence of acute ulceration with destruction of the forestomach epithelium was extremely low at 8.7% in the collagenase injection model and 4.8% in the blood injection rats. Small, pinpoint hemorrhages (petechiae) were noticed in 38% of rats after blood injection and 22% after collagenase injection, in the glandular portion of the gastric mucosa with penetration of red blood cells and inflammatory cells into the gastric mucosa. Enhanced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expressions were observed in gastric tissues after ICH with more intense staining occurring at 24 and 48 h. Due to the low incidence of ulceration, ICH-induced gastric ulceration in rodents may not appropriate for evaluating the potential human risk of gastric ulceration after ICH.

  7. Chronic subdural hematoma associated with arachnoid cyst. Two case histories with pathological observations.

    PubMed

    Takayasu, Takeshi; Harada, Kunyu; Nishimura, Shigeru; Onda, Jun; Nishi, Tohru; Takagaki, Hisashi

    2012-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts are well known to induce chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) after head injury. However, histological observations of the arachnoid cyst and hematoma membrane have only been rarely described. An 8-year-old boy and a 3-year-old boy presented with CSDH associated with arachnoid cyst. Surgical removal of the hematoma and biopsy of the hematoma membrane and cyst wall were performed. Clinical courses were good and without recurrence more than 1.5 years after surgery. Histological examination suggested that the cysts did not contribute to hematoma development. Pediatric hematoma membranes, similar to adult hematoma membranes, are key in the growth of CSDH. Therefore, simple hematoma evacuation is adequate as a first operation for CSDH associated with arachnoid cyst.

  8. Intracerebral infusion of an EGFR-targeted toxin in recurrent malignant brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Sampson, John H; Akabani, Gamal; Archer, Gerald E; Berger, Mitchel S; Coleman, R Edward; Friedman, Allan H; Friedman, Henry S; Greer, Kim; Herndon, James E; Kunwar, Sandeep; McLendon, Roger E; Paolino, Alison; Petry, Neil A; Provenzale, James M; Reardon, David A; Wong, Terence Z; Zalutsky, Michael R; Pastan, Ira; Bigner, Darell D

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), and intracerebral distribution of a recombinant toxin (TP-38) targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor in patients with recurrent malignant brain tumors using the intracerebral infusion technique of convection-enhanced delivery (CED). Twenty patients were enrolled and stratified for dose escalation by the presence of residual tumor from 25 to 100 ng/ml in a 40-ml infusion volume. In the last eight patients, coinfusion of (123)I-albumin was performed to monitor distribution within the brain. The MTD was not reached in this study. Dose escalation was stopped at 100 ng/ml due to inconsistent drug delivery as evidenced by imaging the coinfused (123)I-albumin. Two DLTs were seen, and both were neurologic. Median survival after TP-38 was 28 weeks (95% confidence interval, 26.5-102.8). Of 15 patients treated with residual disease, two (13.3%) demonstrated radiographic responses, including one patient with glioblastoma multiforme who had a nearly complete response and remains alive >260 weeks after therapy. Coinfusion of (123)I-albumin demonstrated that high concentrations of the infusate could be delivered >4 cm from the catheter tip. However, only 3 of 16 (19%) catheters produced intraparenchymal infusate distribution, while the majority leaked infusate into the cerebrospinal fluid spaces. Intracerebral CED of TP-38 was well tolerated and produced some durable radiographic responses at doses

  9. Intracerebral infusion of an EGFR-targeted toxin in recurrent malignant brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, John H.; Akabani, Gamal; Archer, Gerald E.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Coleman, R. Edward; Friedman, Allan H.; Friedman, Henry S.; Greer, Kim; Herndon, James E.; Kunwar, Sandeep; McLendon, Roger E.; Paolino, Alison; Petry, Neil A.; Provenzale, James M.; Reardon, David A.; Wong, Terence Z.; Zalutsky, Michael R.; Pastan, Ira; Bigner, Darell D.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), and intracerebral distribution of a recombinant toxin (TP-38) targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor in patients with recurrent malignant brain tumors using the intracerebral infusion technique of convection-enhanced delivery (CED). Twenty patients were enrolled and stratified for dose escalation by the presence of residual tumor from 25 to 100 ng/ml in a 40-ml infusion volume. In the last eight patients, coinfusion of 123I-albumin was performed to monitor distribution within the brain. The MTD was not reached in this study. Dose escalation was stopped at 100 ng/ml due to inconsistent drug delivery as evidenced by imaging the coinfused 123I-albumin. Two DLTs were seen, and both were neurologic. Median survival after TP-38 was 28 weeks (95% confidence interval, 26.5–102.8). Of 15 patients treated with residual disease, two (13.3%) demonstrated radiographic responses, including one patient with glioblastoma multiforme who had a nearly complete response and remains alive >260 weeks after therapy. Coinfusion of 123I-albumin demonstrated that high concentrations of the infusate could be delivered >4 cm from the catheter tip. However, only 3 of 16 (19%) catheters produced intraparenchymal infusate distribution, while the majority leaked infusate into the cerebrospinal fluid spaces. Intracerebral CED of TP-38 was well tolerated and produced some durable radiographic responses at doses ≤100 ng/ml. CED has significant potential for enhancing delivery of therapeutic macromolecules throughout the human brain. However, the potential efficacy of drugs delivered by this technique may be severely constrained by ineffective infusion in many patients. PMID:18403491

  10. Subserosal hematoma of the sigmoid colon after vaginal delivery

    PubMed Central

    Bacalbașa, N; Bohîlțea, RE; Dumitru, M; Turcan, N; Cîrstoiu, MM

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage is an obstetrical emergency that represents the leading cause of maternal mortality. Severe hemorrhagic complications that could appear postpartum are the abdomino-pelvic hematomas, which result from the rupture of the pelvic vessels. We reported a very rare case of puerperal retroperitoneal subserosal hematoma of sigmoid colon following vaginal delivery, which was successfully managed by conservative methods. As far as we know, there are only a few case reports of intramural hematoma of sigmoid colon in literature, having other etiologies than vaginal delivery trauma. The particularities of the case consisted in the association of hemangiomas and the low risk thrombophilia. Diagnosis was based on the clinical exam and the paraclinical founding. Laparotomy is generally considered the last choice, in life threatening cases with hemodynamic instability, compression signs, and presence of contrast leakage on noninvasive imaging methods, but avoiding colonic resection after dissection represented the true challenge of the case. PMID:28255383

  11. Spontaneous sternocleidomastoid muscle hematoma following thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Giannantoni, Nadia Mariagrazia; Della Marca, Giacomo; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Pilato, Fabio; Profice, Paolo; Morosetti, Roberta; Caliandro, Pietro; Frisullo, Giovanni

    2014-06-15

    Spontaneous or traumatic bleeding is a common complication of systemic thrombolysis in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We report the case of an 83 y.o. woman with right facio-brachio-crural hemiparesis, left deviation of the head and aphasia who developed, after thrombolytic therapy, a spontaneous sternocleidomastoid muscle hematoma that regressed few days later. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature of asymptomatic and spontaneous skeletal muscle hematoma following thrombolysis for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. The occurrence of lateral cervical tuberculosis lymphadenitis ipsilateral to sternocleidomastoid muscle hematoma may suggest a causal relationship between local chronic inflammation of active mycobacterial infection and thrombolysis-related extravasation. This case should suggest caution in thrombolytic treatment in patients with chronic immune dysregulation and vascular inflammation such as extra-pulmonary tuberculosis.

  12. Retrochorionic hematoma in congenital afibrinogenemia: resolution with fibrinogen concentrate infusions.

    PubMed

    Aygören-Pürsün, E; Martinez Saguer, I; Rusicke, E; Louwen, F; Geka, F; Ivaskevicius, V; Oldenburg, J; Klingebiel, T; Kreuz, W

    2007-04-01

    Without treatment, pregnancies in patients with congenital afibrinogenemia terminate in miscarriage at 5-6 weeks of gestation. Animal model studies have suggested that implantation site bleeding contributes to miscarriage in afibrinogenemia; however, retrochorionic hematoma in human congenital afibrinogenemia has not been previously observed. A patient with congenital afibrinogenemia receiving fibrinogen prophylaxis developed a retrochorionic hematoma in the first trimester. With continuous intensified fibrinogen concentrate replacement the hematoma resolved over 6 weeks, and the patient delivered a healthy infant. Median fibrinogen levels in the first trimester were 48 mg/dL and in second and third trimester 44 mg/dL. Median fibrinogen levels under 60 mg/dL may be adequate to maintain pregnancy in patients with congenital afibrinogenemia, although it is possible that higher levels might reduce the risk of hemorrhagic events.

  13. Non-Traumatic Spontaneous Spinal Subdural Hematoma in a Patient with Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation During Treatment with Rivaroxaban

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Jessica M.; Afanador, Hayley F.; Manjarrez, Efren; Morales, Ximena A.

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 69 Final Diagnosis: Spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma Symptoms: Paraplegia Medication: Rivaroxaban Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: General Internal Medicine • Hospital Medicine • Cardiology • Hematology • Neurology Objective: Diagnostic/therapeutic accidents Background: Spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma (SSDH) is a rare but disabling condition, accounting for only 4.1% of all intraspinal hematomas. Risk factors include arteriovenous malformations, coagulopathy, therapeutic anticoagulation, underlying neoplasms, or following spinal puncture. Vitamin K antagonists, antiplatelet agents, and heparinoids have been associated with SSDHs in prior reports. To the best of our knowledge, no cases have reported this association with the factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban, and SSDHs. Case Report: We report the case of a 69-year-old Honduran man with a 5-year history of symptomatic palpitations due to non-valvular atrial fibrillation. He was initially refractory to pharmacologic therapy. He underwent cardioversion in February 2014. After cardioversion, he remained asymptomatic on flecainide. He was anticoagulated on rivaroxaban 20 mg daily without incident since early 2013 until presentation in August 2014. He presented with sudden onset of excruciating upper and lower back pain after minimal movement. This was immediately followed by bilateral lower extremity paresis rapidly progressing to paraplegia with bowel and bladder dysfunction over 15 minutes. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an acute spinal subdural hematoma extending from T3 inferiorly to the conus medullaris. Six months after undergoing cervical and lumbar drainage procedures, he has not recovered bowel, bladder, or lower extremity neurologic function. Conclusions: Non-traumatic spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma is a rare neurological emergency that may occur during the use of rivaroxaban in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Physicians should suspect SSDH in

  14. A New Less Invasive Technique for Multiple-Level Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Hematomas: Wash-and-Go Technique.

    PubMed

    Tanriverdi, Osman; Gungor, Abuzer; Coban, Mustafa Kemal; Okay, Onder; Kamaci, Umit

    2017-03-01

    Aim Spinal epidural hematomas are rare entity in neurosurgery practice. Most of them are spontaneous due to anticoagulant therapy and called spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas (SSEHs). Laminectomy or hemilaminectomy for affected levels is still the first choice in the operative treatment of an SSEH. We describe a new less invasive surgical technique, performing single-level laminectomy and washing with 0.9% sodium chloride through a thin soft catheter for a 12-level thoracic-cervical SSEH in a patient under anticoagulant therapy. Patient and Operative Technique A 55-year-old woman was brought to the emergency department with a rapid onset of pain in her upper back and both legs with weakness of her lower extremities. An urgent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the whole spine showed a SEH. During the operation, after T2 laminectomy, a thin soft catheter was epidurally placed under the T1 lamina and gently pushed forward rostrally. Then continuous saline irrigation was utilized and aspiration made via the catheter to wash out the hematoma. Drainage of blood was observed. The procedure was performed for 15 minutes. Then the catheter was epidurally placed under the T3 lamina, and the procedure for the hematoma in the lower segment was repeated. Decompression of spinal cord and nerve roots was observed. Result Postoperative early MRI of the thoracic-cervical spine showed gross total evacuation of the SEH. Accordingly, the patient's muscle strength improved. Conclusion Although multiple laminectomy or hemilaminectomy for affected levels to evacuate the hematoma and decompress the spinal cord is the main choice of surgical treatment, single-level laminectomy and irrigation plus aspiration via a thin soft catheter can be performed successfully with good results in SSEH.

  15. Bilateral Ossified Chronic Subdural Hematoma Presenting as Diabetes Insipidus-Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Saquib A; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Sawarkar, Dattaraj; Singh, Manmohanjit; Sharma, Bhawani S

    2017-02-01

    Calcified chronic subdural hematomas are an occurrence rarely seen in neurosurgical clinical practice. And when they occur bilaterally, the radiologic image they present is fascinating, as is the clinical presentation, but their management may be challenging. They have been reported to present with a multitude of neurologic deficits but never with diabetes insipidus, which is described here. Due to the rarity of this pathology, the management protocol is not well defined, though there have been quite a few papers on this condition. This review article gathers information published over the years on this rare entity to suggest a treatment protocol.

  16. Review of the Management of Infected Subdural Hematoma.

    PubMed

    Dabdoub, Carlos B; Adorno, Juan Oscar; Urbano, Jair; Silveira, Elisabeth N; Orlandi, Bianca Maria M

    2016-03-01

    Infection of a subdural hematoma is an unusual cause of subdural empyema, with fewer than 50 cases reported in the literature. The appropriate surgical option for this entity has not been determined because of its rarity. We present a case report of a post-traumatic subdural hematoma infected with Escherichia coli that was successfully treated with craniotomy. In addition, we performed a PubMed search to comprehensively illustrate the causative organism, source of infection, clinical picture, surgical treatment, and outcome for this condition. This article presents an update on the condition. A 55-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of headache, seizure, and urinary incontinence. He had a history of alcoholism and several hospitalizations for mild head trauma. Neuroimaging studies revealed a chronic hematic collection in the left frontal-parietal region. Laboratory tests showed increased C-reactive protein levels. In addition, surgical results revealed an infected subdural hematoma. A bacterial culture of the purulent specimen identified E. coli. In view of the urinary complaint and leukocyturia, the cause of the infected subdural hematoma was postulated as a urinary tract infection. Infected subdural hematoma is an unusual disorder. We must keep in mind the possibility of this complication when seeing a patient who presents with any of the 3 most common symptoms in this review. In these patients, craniotomy should be the method of surgical drainage, especially in adults. It ensures maximal drainage of the loculated pus and allows the total removal of the infected hematoma capsule. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Delayed postoperative hematoma formation after inflatable penile prosthesis implantation.

    PubMed

    Garber, Bruce B; Bickell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Infrequent but serious postoperative complications following inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) insertion include infection, malfunction, and bleeding. Although prior publications report methods to reduce immediate postoperative bleeding, there is little in the literature concerning the etiology, diagnosis, imaging, and management of delayed bleeding after IPP insertion. The aim of the study was to review cases of delayed postoperative bleeding following IPP insertion in a large single-surgeon series. We carried out a retrospective chart review of 600 patients implanted with a Coloplast Titan IPP with One-Touch Release pump by a single surgeon, and analyzed cases of delayed postoperative bleeding. The main outcome measure was an analysis of the incidence, causes, diagnostic methods, treatment, and final outcome of these cases. Three out of 600 consecutive patients (0.5%) developed a delayed (defined as >5 days postoperative) hematoma following IPP insertion. All patients presented postoperatively with a swollen surgical site, and all were evaluated with a pelvic computed tomography scan to completely define the extent of the hematoma. Two patients developed a delayed hematoma because of excessive physical activity; the remaining patient bled because of premature administration of enoxaparin sodium (Lovenox) by his cardiologist. All three patients were successfully treated with hospital admission, intravenous antibiotics, wound exploration, hematoma evacuation, and antibiotic washout. All three IPPs were successfully salvaged; none developed peri-prosthetic infection. The incidence of delayed postoperative hematoma following IPP surgery was 0.5% in our series of 600 cases. All cases were successfully managed with intravenous antibiotics, hematoma evacuation, and antibiotic washout. Because of the low incidence of this complication, definitive statements concerning prevention and management cannot be made. However, we now recommend avoiding postoperative

  18. Intracerebral hemorrhage caused by varicella-induced thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Lizarazo, Jairo; Castellanos, María Fernanda; Omaña, Claudia Rosa; Chaín, Miguel; Villamizar, Sergio

    2016-02-16

    We present the case of a previously healthy 44-years-old man with chickenpox, severe thrombocytopenia, mucosal hemorrhage, and intracerebral hemorrhage in the right hemisphere. The patient was treated with platelets and high doses of steroids. He recovered although with persistent left homonymous hemianopsia and epilepsy, which were controlled with medication.

  19. Intracerebral microdialysis and CSF hydrodynamics in idiopathic adult hydrocephalus syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Agren-Wilsson, A; Roslin, M; Eklund, A; Koskinen, L; Bergenheim, A; Malm, J

    2003-01-01

    Background: In idiopathic adult hydrocephalus syndrome (IAHS), a pathophysiological model of "chronic ischaemia" caused by an arteriosclerotic process in association with a CSF hydrodynamic disturbance has been proposed. Objective: To investigate whether CSF hydrodynamic manipulation has an impact on biochemical markers related to ischaemia, brain tissue oxygen tension (PtiO2), and intracranial pressure. Methods: A microdialysis catheter, a PtiO2 probe, and an intracerebral pressure catheter were inserted into the periventricular white matter 0–7 mm from the right frontal horn in 10 patients with IAHS. A subcutaneous microdialysis probe was used as reference. Intracranial pressure and intracerebral PtiO2 were recorded continuously. Samples were collected for analysis between 2 and 4 pm on day 1 (baseline) and at the same time on day 2, two to four hours after a lumbar CSF hydrodynamic manipulation. The concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and glutamate on day 1 and 2 were compared. Results: After CSF drainage, there was a significant rise in the intracerebral concentration of lactate and pyruvate. The lactate to pyruvate ratio was increased and remained unchanged after drainage. There was a trend towards a lowering of glucose and glutamate. Mean intracerebral PtiO2 was higher on day 2 than on day 1 in six of eight patients. Conclusions: There is increased glucose metabolism after CSF drainage, as expected in a situation of postischaemic recovery. These new invasive techniques are promising tools in the future study of the pathophysiological processes in IAHS. PMID:12531954

  20. [Chronic spinal subdural hematoma associated with chronic intracranial subdural hematoma: a case report].

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Masateru; Fukuda, Shin; Ikeda, Hisato; Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    2009-10-01

    A 65-year-old woman presented with chronic spinal subdural hematoma (CSSH) associated with intracranial chronic subdural hematoma (CSH), manifesting as pain in the bilateral buttocks and posterior thighs. She had fallen and struck her lumbar region and occiput while walking 2 weeks previously. Neurological examination on admission demonstrated no paresis of the lower extremities. Brain computed tomography (CT) showed left CSH. Irrigation and drainage were performed the day after admission (3 weeks after injury). The gait disturbance disappeared and the pain of the bilateral buttocks and posterior thighs improved postoperatively. However, the pain reocurred 3 days after the operation. Brain CT showed no recurrence of CSH. Lumbar spinal radiography demonstrated spondylolisthesis at the L3-4 intervertebral space. Sagittal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed CSSH extending from the T-12 level to the sacrum as isointense to the spinal cord on T1-weighted images. Axial MR imaging showed the CSSH located in the subdural space and was compressing the cauda equina anteriorly. The pain was not so severe and she refused surgery. Therefore, we selected conservative treatment and observed her clinical course as an outpatient. Her pain had gradually improved at 3 months after injury, and disappeared at 4 months. MR imaging showed reduction of the CSSH 2 months after injury, and almost complete disappearance at 5 months. CSSH is a rare disease, but early diagnosis is important because remission can be achieved by early operation. The present case illustrates spontaneous resolution is also possible, so observation may be selected if the symptoms are mild and without motor weakness. (Received: March 25, 2009, Accepted :June 16, 2009)

  1. Subcapsular hematoma of the liver after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Geeta S; Falconer, J Stuart; Benyounes, Hakim

    2005-02-01

    Two female patients underwent an uneventful laparoscopic chloecystectomy (LC) for cholelithiasis. Their past medical history was insignificant. The first patient had diclofenac sodium for her postoperative pain relief. Both patients returned in the early postoperative period with pain in the right hypochondrium. Laboratory investigations revealed elevated leucocytes, C reactive protein (CRP), and deranged liver function tests. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed subcapsular haematoma of liver. CT-guided aspiration of hematoma was done in one case. Both patients improved over a period of time and a follow-up radiological scan showed resolving hematoma. The presentation, diagnostic evaluation, treatment, and possible causes are discussed.

  2. Two rare cases of intrahepatic subcapsular hematoma after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Minaya Bravo, Ana María; González González, Enrique; Ortíz Aguilar, Manuel; Larrañaga Barrera, Eduardo

    2010-12-01

    The appearance of subcapsular liver hematoma after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is an infrequent complication and seldom studied. Some cases have been connected to ketorolac given during surgery and after surgery. Other described causes are : hemangiomas or small iatrogenic lesions that could be aggravated by administration of ketorolac. Coagulation dysfunction like circulating heparin as seen in hemathological diseases is cause of bleeding after aggressive procedures. We describe two cases of subcapsular liver hematoma after LC, both of them have been given intravenous ketorolac and one of them had multiple myeloma. We discuss the causes and treatment of it.

  3. Subcapsular Liver Hematoma in HELLP Syndrome: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kapan, Murat; Evsen, Mehmet Siddik; Gumus, Metehan; Onder, Akin; Tekbas, Guven

    2010-06-01

    Subcapsular liver hematoma, as a rare complication of HELLP syndrome, must be managed in a tertiary center for prompt recognition and treatment with close monitoring of hemodynamic and coagulation parameters, treatment of underlying disorders, and assessment by the imaging techniques. These patients underwent different therapeutic options varying from conservative therapy to operative management, including liver transplantation. As a choice of treatment, patients with HELLP syndrome can be followed up conservatively in stable hemodynamic conditions. In this report, we presented a 32-year-old woman with subcapsular liver hematoma secondary to HELLP syndrome managed conservatively.

  4. Spontaneous Meckel's cave hematoma: A rare cause of trigeminal neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Alafaci, Concetta; Grasso, Giovanni; Granata, Francesca; Marino, Daniele; Salpietro, Francesco M.; Tomasello, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most common etiology of classic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is vascular compression. However, other causes must be considered. Among these, spontaneous hematoma of the Meckel's cave (MC) causing symptomatic TN is very rare. Case Description: We present the case of a 60-year-old woman with a 2-month history of left TN and diplopia. Neuroradiological examinations revealed a well-defined hematoma in the left MC. The patient underwent surgical decompression with a progressive neurological improvement. Conclusion: Despite the number of lesions potentially affecting the MC, spontaneous hemorrhage is rare but should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis. PMID:26539319

  5. A Giant Parietal Wall Hematoma: Unusual Complication of Laparoscopic Appendectomy

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Sanjay; Shetty, Sadanand V.

    2000-01-01

    Laparoscopic appendectomy is an established procedure in the treatment of appendicitis. Complications of the procedure are related to the Veress needle and trocar insertions or pertain to actual operative procedures. Trocar-related major bleeding is rare, and, if it occurs, is detected on the table or during the immediate postoperative period. Delay in recognition may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. We report a case of giant parietal wall hematoma in a 34-year-old female, presenting one week after discharge from the hospital. The hematoma was completely evacuated by exploration through paramedian incision, followed by an uneventful recovery. PMID:10987406

  6. Enlarged cerebrospinal fluid spaces in infants with subdural hematomas

    SciTech Connect

    Kapila, A.; Trice, J.; Spies, W.G.; Siegel, B.A.; Gado, M.H.

    1982-03-01

    Computed tomography in 16 infants with subdural hematomas showed enlarged basal cisterns, a wide interhemispheric fissure, prominent cortical sulci, and varying degrees of ventricular enlargement. Radionuclide cisternography in eight of the 16 patients showed findings consistent with enlargement of the subarachnoid space rather than those of communicating hydrocephalus. Clinical findings and brief follow-up showed no convincing evidence for cerebral atrophy in 13 patients. These findings suggest that the enlarged subarachnoid space, which is encountered in some infants and may be a developmental variant, predisposes such infants to subdural hematomas.

  7. [Isolated cheiro-facial formication caused by a thalamic hematoma].

    PubMed

    Awada, A

    1989-01-01

    A 25 year-old Saudi female patient presented with numbness of the left half of the face and the tongue and the left hand. Neurological and neuropsychological examinations were normal. Brain CT showed a small hematoma (5 to 7 mm diameter) of the right thalamus probably destroying or compressing the ventropostero-median and ventropostero-lateral thalamic nuclei. Thalamic hematoma has been reported only twice as a cause of pure sensory stroke. The absence of clinical signs together with the presence of symptoms, and the particular topography of the symptoms are discussed.

  8. 21 CFR 882.1935 - Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector. 882.1935 Section 882.1935 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector. (a) Identification. A Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma...

  9. 21 CFR 882.1935 - Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector. 882.1935 Section 882.1935 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector. (a) Identification. A Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma...

  10. 21 CFR 882.1935 - Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector. 882.1935 Section 882.1935 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector. (a) Identification. A Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma...

  11. Pharmacogenomic effects of apolipoprotein e on intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    James, Michael L; Sullivan, Patrick M; Lascola, Christopher D; Vitek, Michael P; Laskowitz, Daniel T

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of APOE genotype and the feasibility of administering an apolipoprotein E-mimetic therapeutic to modify outcomes in a murine model of intracerebral hemorrhage. Intracerebral hemorrhage was induced via stereotactic injection of 0.1 U Clostridial collagenase into the left basal ganglia of wild-type and apolipoprotein-E targeted-replacement mice, consisting of either homozygous 3/3 or 4/4 genotypes. Animals were randomized to receive either vehicle or apolipoprotein E-mimetic peptide. Outcomes included functional neurological tests (21-point neuroseverity score and Rotorod latency) over the initial 7 days after injury, radiographic and histological hemorrhage size at 3 and 7 days, brain water content for cerebral edema at 24 hours, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction for inflammatory markers at 6, 24, and 48 hours. Apolipoprotein-E targeted-replacement mice consisting of homozygous 3/3 demonstrated superior neuroseverity scores and Rotorod latencies over the first 3 days after intracerebral hemorrhage, decreased cerebral edema at 24 hours, and reduced upregulation of IL-6 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase at 6 hours when compared to their apolipoprotein-E targeted-replacement mice consisting of homozygous 4/4 counterparts. After intravenous administration of 1 mg/kg apolipoprotein E-mimetic peptide, both wild-type and apolipoprotein-E targeted-replacement mice consisting of homozygous 4/4 exhibited improved functional outcomes over 7 days after intracerebral hemorrhage, less edema at 24 hours, and reduced upregulation of IL-6 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase when compared to mice that did not receive the peptide. Our data indicate that APOE genotype influences neurological outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage in a murine model. In particular APOE4 is associated with poor functional outcome and increased cerebral edema. Additionally, this outcome can be modified by the addition of an apolipoprotein E

  12. Effects of plasma D-dimer levels on early mortality and long-term functional outcome after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin; Fang, Yuan; Ye, Feng; Lin, Sen; Li, Hao; You, Chao; Liu, Ming

    2014-08-01

    The activation of hemostatic systems has been detected in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients. The influence of plasma D-dimer levels on clinical outcome remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the impact of elevated plasma D-dimer levels on early mortality and long-term functional outcome in spontaneous ICH. A total of 259 spontaneous ICH patients (<24hours from ictus) between November 2010 and October 2011 were included. Clinical information and radiological findings were collected at admission. Spearman correlation analyses revealed that D-dimer concentrations were correlated with midline shift, hematoma volume, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) score and Glasgow Coma Scale score. Patients with subarachnoid extension had significantly higher D-dimer levels than those without SAH extension. Comparison of patients with IVH and those without yielded a similar result. Multivariate stepwise backward logistic analysis identified plasma D-dimer levels as an independent risk factor for 7 day mortality (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.237, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.017-1.504, p=0.033) and 3 month poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≥ 3) (adjusted OR=2.279, 95% CI 1.130-6.595, p=0.026). The mechanisms by which elevated D-dimer affects the prognoses of spontaneous ICH patients remain unclear and require clarification in future studies.

  13. Subdural and intracerebral hemorrhage caused by spontaneous bleeding in the middle meningeal artery after coil embolization of a cerebral aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, Shinya; Kakehi, Yoshiaki; Yamane, Fumitaka; Ooigawa, Hidetoshi; Kurita, Hiroki; Ishihara, Shoichiro

    2014-10-01

    Nontraumatic acute subdural hemorrhage (SDH) with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is rare and is usually caused by severe bleeding from aneurysms or arteriovenous fistulas. We encountered a very rare case of spontaneous bleeding from the middle meningeal artery (MMA), which caused hemorrhage in the temporal lobe and subdural space 2 weeks after coil embolization of an ipsilateral, unruptured internal cerebral artery aneurysm in the cavernous portion. At onset, the distribution of hematoma on a computed tomography scan led us to believe that the treated intracavernous aneurysm could bleed into the intradural space. Emergency craniotomy revealed that the dura of the middle fossa was intact except for the point at the foramen spinosum where the exposed MMA was bleeding. Retrospectively, angiography just before and after embolization of the aneurysm did not show any aberrations in the MMA. Although the MMA usually courses on the outer surface of the dura and is unlikely to rupture without an external force, physicians should be aware that the MMA may bleed spontaneously and cause SDH and ICH.

  14. Promoting blood circulation for removing blood stasis therapy for acute intracerebral hemorrhage: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui-qin; Wei, Jing-jing; Xia, Wan; Li, Ji-huang; Liu, Ai-ju; Yin, Su-bing; Wang, Chen; Song, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Guo-qing; Fan, Ji-ping

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the current evidence available regarding the promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis (PBCRBS) therapy for Chinese patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods: Six databases were searched from their inception to November 2013. The studies assessed in ≥4 domains with 'yes' were selected for detailed assessment and meta-analysis. The herbal compositions for PBCRBS therapy for acute ICH patients were also assessed. Results: From the 6 databases, 292 studies claimed randomized-controlled clinical trials (RCTs). Nine studies with 798 individuals were assessed in ≥4 domains with 'yes' by using the Cochrane RoB tool. Meta-analysis showed that PBCRBS monotherapy and adjuvant therapy for acute ICH could improve the neurological function deficit, reduce the volume of hematoma and perihematomal edema, and lower the mortality rate and dependency. Moreover, there were fewer adverse effects when compared with Western conventional medication controls. Xueshuantong Injection and Fufang Danshen Injection, Buyang Huanwu Decoction and Liangxue Tongyu formula, and three herbs (danshen root, sanqi and leech) were the most commonly used Chinese herbal patent injections, herbal prescriptions and single herbs, respectively. Conclusion: Despite the apparently positive findings, it is premature to conclude that there is sufficient efficacy and safety of PBCRBS for ICH because of the high clinical heterogeneity of the included studies and small number of trials in the meta-analysis. Further large sample-sizes and rigorously designed RCTs are needed. PMID:25960132

  15. Association between alpha-1 antichymotrypsin gene A/T polymorphism and primary intracerebral hemorrhage: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zusen; Ye, Qiang; Shao, Bei; He, Jincai; Zhu, Zhenguo; Cheng, Jianhua; Chen, Yanyan; Chen, Siyan; Huang, Xiaoya

    2015-01-01

    The present study is to use meta-analysis to explain the association between alpha-1 antichymotrypsin (ACT) gene A/T polymorphism and the risk of primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH). Relevant studies before 1 June 2015 were identified by searching PubMed, Cochrane database and Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE), and the references of retrieved articles. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to assess the strength of the association. Five independent publications, with 774 PICH cases and 940 controls, were included. There was no statistical evidence of association between ACT polymorphism and PICH risk under all genetic models in overall estimates (allele model: OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.80-1.28; heterozygote model: OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.60-1.45; homozygote model: OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.59-1.80; dominant model: OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.65-1.46; recessive model: OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.72-1.57). No association was found in subgroup analysis based on ethnicity, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, location of hematoma and blood pressure. Sensitivity analysis suggested that the combined results were stable and reliable. No significant publication bias was found by Begg’s test and Egger’s regression test. The results of our meta-analysis indicate that ACT polymorphism is unlikely to contribute to PICH susceptibility. PMID:26885003

  16. Compression-refractory breast hematoma secondary to pseudoaneurysm after stereotactically guided vacuum-assisted biopsy: the critical role of urgent surgical evacuation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Simon; Hennessey, Hooman; Kam Nakch, Idris; Alsharif, Shaza; Meterissian, Sarkis; Mesurolle, Benoît

    2014-10-01

    We report the case of a patient who underwent a vacuum-assisted biopsy of amorphous clustered microcalcifications complicated by a large compression-refractory hematoma secondary to pseudoaneurysm formation. Breast sonography was used to identify an actively bleeding vessel and guide compression. However, due to its unresponsiveness to conventional management and rapid progression, the hematoma required surgical evacuation and ligation of the bleeding vessel. This suggests that, in the face of significant intractable bleeding, a heightened awareness of the possible need for surgical intervention should be maintained.

  17. Medicolegal cases for spinal epidural hematoma and spinal epidural abscess.

    PubMed

    French, Keisha L; Daniels, Eldra W; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2013-01-01

    Spinal epidural hematoma and spinal epidural abscess are rare surgical emergencies resulting in significant neurologic deficits. Making the diagnosis for spinal epidural hematoma and spinal epidural abscess can be challenging; however, a delay in recognition and treatment can be devastating. The objective of this retrospective analysis study was to identify risk factors for an adverse outcome for the provider. The LexisNexis Academic legal search database was used to identify a total of 19 cases of spinal epidural hematoma and spinal epidural abscess filed against medical providers. Outcome data on trial verdicts, age, sex, initial site of injury, time to consultation, time to appropriate imaging studies, time to surgery, and whether a rectal examination was performed or not were recorded. The results demonstrated a significant association between time to surgery more than 48 hours and an unfavorable verdict for the provider. The degree of permanent neurologic impairment did not appear to affect the verdicts. Fifty-eight percent of the cases did not present with an initial deficit, including loss of bowel or bladder control. All medical professionals must maintain a high level of suspicion and act quickly. Physicians who are able to identify early clinical features, appropriately image, and treat within a 48 hour time frame have demonstrated a more favorable medicolegal outcome compared with their counterparts in filed lawsuits for spinal epidural hematoma and spinal epidural abscess cases.

  18. Hepatic subcapsular hematoma: a rare late complication after ERCP.

    PubMed

    Servide, María José; Prieto, Mikel; Marquina, Teresa

    2016-04-01

    We present a clinical case of a 83 years old man, who consulted to the Emergency Department by continuous pain in right upper quadrant, having been discharged a week ago after ERCP for choledocholithiasis. TAC was performed showing a subcapsular hematoma without active bleeding. This complication post ERCP has been described on few occasions.

  19. [Subcapsular hepatic hematoma: an uncommon complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography].

    PubMed

    Baudet, Juan-Salvador; Arguiñarena, Xabier; Redondo, Ignacio; Tadeo, Eva; Navazo, Lucía; Mendiz, Javier; Montiel, Raquel

    2011-02-01

    This report describes the case of a patient who developed a subcapsular hepatic hematoma 48 hours after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. She was treated by embolizing the sites of bleeding and by surgically resecting the area. We review the literature and discuss the potential mechanisms that cause this complication.

  20. Left atrial intramural hematoma after percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Franks, Russell J; de Souza, Anthony; Di Mario, Carlo

    2015-09-01

    We describe a rare complication of a complex chronic total occlusion recanalization procedure. Perforation of a distal right coronary artery collateral results in a left atrial intramural hematoma with consequent circulatory collapse. Access to prompt transoesophageal echocardiography and urgent surgical intervention were lifesaving and the case highlights possible implications on the planning of complex chronic total occlusion recanalization procedures.

  1. Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hematoma: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Pranshu; Grewal, Sarvpreet Singh; Gupta, Bharat; Jain, Vikas; Sobti, Harman

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic Basal ganglia hemorrhage is relatively uncommon. Bilateral basal ganglia hematoma after trauma is extremely rare and is limited to case reports. We report two cases of traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage, and review the literature in brief. Both cases were managed conservatively. PMID:23293672

  2. Rectus sheath hematoma: a complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, D; Jessel, J; Freund, U

    1992-12-01

    We describe a complication in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The routine introduction of a midclavicular secondary trocar resulted in a large hematoma of the rectus sheath. The patient developed atelectasis and pneumonia and required extended hospitalization. This previously described complication is detailed with recommendations to prevent its occurrence.

  3. Duodenal hematoma caused by endoscopic hemostatic procedures (sclerotherapy).

    PubMed

    Irisarri Garde, Rebeca; Vila Costas, Juan José

    2017-09-01

    Endoscopic hemostatic procedures such as local injection of epinephrine are commonly used for the treatment of bleeding ulcers. Although the risks are usually considered to be minimal, there are reports describing that duodenal intramural hematomas may develop as a complication after endoscopy especially in patients susceptible to hemorrhage such as those with anticoagulants therapy or blood dyscrasia.

  4. Leukotriene A4 Hydrolase Genotype and HIV Infection Influence Intracerebral Inflammation and Survival From Tuberculous Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Thuong, Nguyen T T; Heemskerk, Dorothee; Tram, Trinh T B; Thao, Le T P; Ramakrishnan, Lalita; Ha, Vu T N; Bang, Nguyen D; Chau, Tran T H; Lan, Nguyen H; Caws, Maxine; Dunstan, Sarah J; Chau, Nguyen V V; Wolbers, Marcel; Mai, Nguyen T H; Thwaites, Guy E

    2017-04-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most devastating form of tuberculosis, yet very little is known about the pathophysiology. We hypothesized that the genotype of leukotriene A4 hydrolase (encoded by LTA4H), which determines inflammatory eicosanoid expression, influences intracerebral inflammation, and predicts survival from TBM. We characterized the pretreatment clinical and intracerebral inflammatory phenotype and 9-month survival of 764 adults with TBM. All were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphism rs17525495, and inflammatory phenotype was defined by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leukocyte and cytokine concentrations. LTA4H genotype predicted survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected patients, with TT-genotype patients significantly more likely to survive TBM than CC-genotype patients, according to Cox regression analysis (univariate P = .040 and multivariable P = .037). HIV-uninfected, TT-genotype patients had high CSF proinflammatory cytokine concentrations, with intermediate and lower concentrations in those with CT and CC genotypes. Increased CSF cytokine concentrations correlated with more-severe disease, but patients with low CSF leukocytes and cytokine concentrations were more likely to die from TBM. HIV infection independently predicted death due to TBM (hazard ratio, 3.94; 95% confidence interval, 2.79-5.56) and was associated with globally increased CSF cytokine concentrations, independent of LTA4H genotype. LTA4H genotype and HIV infection influence pretreatment inflammatory phenotype and survival from TBM. LTA4H genotype may predict adjunctive corticosteroid responsiveness in HIV-uninfected individuals.

  5. Blood Aggravates Histological and Functional Damage after Acute Subdural Hematoma in Rats.

    PubMed

    Jussen, Daniel; Krenzlin, Harald; Papaioannou, Chrysostomos; Ens, Swetlana; Kempski, Oliver; Alessandri, Beat

    2017-02-15

    Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Whether the volume effect of the hematoma and increase of intracranial pressure (ICP) or the local effect of blood are responsible for this severe pathophysiology is unclear. Therefore, we compared subdural infusion of autologous blood and paraffin oil in a rat model of ASDH. In a histological study, we investigated the effects on acute ICP, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), cerebral blood flow (CBF), tissue oxygen changes, and brain damage at 2, 24, and 96 h post-infusion. Inflammatory reaction was analyzed by immuno-staining for microglia (ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 [Iba1]) and activated astrocytes (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP]). Besides acute ICP and CBF changes, we investigated the development of behavior (neuroscore and beamwalk test) for up to 4 days after injury in a behavioral study. Despite comparably increased ICP, there was a more pronounced lesion growth in the blood infusion group during the first 96 h. Further, there was an increased peri-lesional immunoreactive area of Iba1 and GFAP 96 h post-infusion, primarily in the blood infusion group, whereas hippocampal damage was comparable in both infusion groups. In the behavioral evaluation, paraffin-infused animals showed a better recovery, compared with the blood infusion group. In conclusion, comparable acute time-course of ICP, CPP, and CBF clearly indicates that the differences in lesion size, inflammatory reaction, and behavioral deficits after blood- and paraffin oil-induced ASDH are partially due to blood constituents. Therefore, current data suggest that subdural hematomas should be completely removed as quickly as possible; decompression alone may not be sufficient to prevent secondary brain damage.

  6. iPhone-Assisted Augmented Reality Localization of Basal Ganglia Hypertensive Hematoma.

    PubMed

    Hou, YuanZheng; Ma, LiChao; Zhu, RuYuan; Chen, XiaoLei

    2016-10-01

    A low-cost, time-efficient technique that could localize hypertensive hematomas in the basal ganglia would be beneficial for minimally invasive hematoma evacuation surgery. We used an iPhone to achieve this goal and evaluated its accuracy and feasibility. We located basal ganglia hematomas in 26 patients and depicted the boundaries of the hematomas on the skin. To verify the accuracy of the drawn boundaries, computed tomography (CT) markers surrounding the depicted boundaries were attached to 10 patients. The deviation between the CT markers and the actual hematoma boundaries was then measured. In the other 16 patients, minimally invasive endoscopic hematoma evacuation surgery was performed according to the depicted hematoma boundary. The deflection angle of the actual trajectory and deviation in the hematoma center were measured according to the preoperative and postoperative CT data. There were 40 CT markers placed on 10 patients. The mean deviation of these markers was 3.1 mm ± 2.4. In the 16 patients who received surgery, the deflection angle of the actual trajectory was 4.3° ± 2.1. The deviation in the hematoma center was 5.2 mm ± 2.6. This new method can locate basal ganglia hematomas with a sufficient level of accuracy and is helpful for minimally invasive endoscopic hematoma evacuation surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [A case of liver abscess with subcapsular hematoma mimicking ruptured hepatic cholangiocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Kim, Chung Ho; Kim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Hyun Jung; Lee, Young Sun; Choi, Jong Hwan; Jung, Young Kul; Yeon, Jong Eun; Byun, Kwan Soo

    2009-03-01

    Subcapsular hematoma is a very rare complication of liver abscess. We report a case of liver abscess with subcapsular hematoma mimicking ruptured hepatic cholangiocarcinoma. A 59-year-old man presented with right upper quadrant pain and febrile sense. Computed tomography showed a low attenuated mass with extensive subcapsular hematoma on the right hepatic lobe. The initial impression was a hematoma caused by the rupture of cholangiocarcinoma. Hepatic arteriography was performed, but no active bleeding focus was found. After drainage of the subcapsular hematoma, a hematoma wall biopsy through the drainage catheter and a liver biopsy of the low attenuated mass were performed. The biopsies showed many neutrophils, macrophages, and granulation tissues consistent with an abscess, but no malignant cells were detected. After antibiotics therapy for 6 weeks, computed tomography was performed 4 months later, and revealed complete resolution of the hematoma and the low attenuated hepatic lesion.

  8. Optoacoustic detection of intra- and extracranial hematomas in rats after blast injury

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Andrey; Wynne, Karon E.; Parsley, Margaret A.; Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Ruppert, Katherine A.; Prough, Donald S.; DeWitt, Douglas S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical drainage of intracranial hematomas is often required within the first four hours after traumatic brain injury (TBI) to avoid death or severe disability. Although CT and MRI permit hematoma diagnosis, they can be used only at a major health-care facility. This delays hematoma diagnosis and therapy. We proposed to use an optoacoustic technique for rapid, noninvasive diagnosis of hematomas. In this study we developed a near-infrared OPO-based optoacoustic system for hematoma diagnosis and cerebral venous blood oxygenation monitoring in rats. A specially-designed blast device was used to inflict TBI in anesthetized rats. Optoacoustic signals were recorded from the superior sagittal sinus and hematomas that allowed for measurements of their oxygenations. These results indicate that the optoacoustic technique may be used for early diagnosis of hematomas and may provide important information for improving outcomes in patients with TBI. PMID:25302157

  9. Acute Subdural Hematoma and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Caused by Ruptured Cortical Artery Aneurysm: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Shekarchizadeh, Ahmad; Masih, Saburi; Reza, Pourkhalili; Seif, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    The present report describes an acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), due to ruptured cortical aneurysm. To our knowledge, extremely rare cases of this sort have been reported so far. A 23-year-old male patient without previous trauma presented with severe headache and rapidly decreasing level of consciousness to decerebrate status. Computed tomography (CT) scan has demonstrated an ASDH together with SAH. Hematoma has immediately been evacuated without any evaluation by angiography. After evacuation of the thick subdural clot, a 10-mm aneurysm was revealed on a precentral artery of frontal cortex, which was ligated. However, after 35 days the patient discharged with left side hemiparesis and dysphasia, and just after several months of admission he got symptom free. Ruptured cortical aneurysm should be considered as one of the causes of spontaneous ASDH. Vascular anomaly investigations are suggested for these cases, thus CT angiography or digital subtraction angiography has to be considered if clinical condition allows. PMID:28503501

  10. [Accidental intracerebral penetration of a nasal hemostatic probe].

    PubMed

    Adam, J C; Mauchaufee, J C; Potard, G; L'Azou, D

    1999-04-01

    We report a case of inadvertent intracerebral introduction of a haemostatic device (Brighton tube) inserted into a nasal cavity for control of epistaxis in a patient with major craniofacial trauma. This complication remained unrecognized in the unconscious patient until the subsequent CT-scan control. In unconscious patients with a major facial trauma, intranasal haemostatic probes should be inserted under direct visual control by a ENT specialist and their position checked by digital palpation of the inflated cuffs behind the soft palate.

  11. Cerebral Microbleeds Predict Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Naganuma, Toshihide; Takemoto, Yoshiaki; Shoji, Tetsuo; Ishimura, Eiji; Okamura, Mikio; Nakatani, Tatsuya

    2015-08-01

    In hemodialysis patients, previous reports have described a high prevalence of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), but no longitudinal studies have been performed to determine the clinical significance of CMBs in these patients. In this study, we investigated whether the presence of CMBs was a predictor of future strokes in hemodialysis patients. Cranial MRI, including T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, was performed on 179 hemodialysis patients with no past history of cerebrovascular events. The patients were followed prospectively until death or renal transplantation. We used the Cox proportional hazards model with inverse probability of treatment weighting using the propensity score to compare the event-free survivals of patients with/without CMBs. For sensitivity analyses, stratification by propensity score quintile and regression adjustment were used. CMBs were detected in 45 of the 179 patients. During a median follow-up period of 5.0 years, stroke occurred in 24 patients, including 12 with intracerebral hemorrhage and 12 with cerebral infarctions. Cox proportional hazards analysis with inverse probability of treatment weighting using the propensity score revealed that the presence of CMBs was a strong and significant predictor of intracerebral hemorrhage (hazard ratio, 26.53; 95% confidence interval, 2.88-244.90) but not cerebral infarction (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-3.34). Sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. This study showed that the presence of CMBs was an independent and strong predictor of intracerebral hemorrhage in stroke-free hemodialysis patients, indicating that hemodialysis patients with CMBs should be carefully monitored for future onset of intracerebral hemorrhage. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Why Cannot Suction Drains Prevent Postoperative Spinal Epidural Hematoma?

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Dong Ki; Kim, Jin Woo; Yi, Seong Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Postoperative spinal epidural hematoma (POSEH) is different from spontaneous or post-spinal procedure hematoma because of the application of suction drains. However, it appeared that suction drains were not effective for prevention of POSEH in previous studies. The purpose of this study was to test our hypothesis that POSEH can be caused by hypercoagulability. Methods This was an experimental study. One hundred fifty milliliters of blood was donated from each of the 12 consecutive patients who underwent spine surgery and infused into 3 saline bags of 50 mL each. One of the 3 bags in each set contained 5,000 units of thrombin. All of them were connected to 120 ± 30 mmHg vacuum suctions: drainage was started 8 minutes after connection to the vacuum system for 12 normal blood bags (BV8) and 12 thrombin-containing blood bags (TBV8) and 15 minutes after connection for the remaining 12 normal blood bags (BV15). The amount of initial and remaining hematoma at 20 minutes, 120 minutes, and 24 hours after vacuum application were measured by their weight (g). The primary endpoint was the difference between BV8 and TBV8. The secondary end point was the difference between BV8 and BV15. Results The remaining hematoma in TBV8 was significantly greater than that in BV8 at all measurement points: 46.3 ± 12.4 vs. 17.0 ± 1.3 (p = 0.000) at 20 minutes; 33.0 ± 8.2 vs. 16.3 ± 1.2 (p = 0.000) at 120 minutes; and 26.1 ± 4.0 vs. 15.8 ± 1.6 (p = 0.000) at 24 hours after vacuum application. The remaining hematoma of BV15 was significantly greater than that of BV8 at all measurement points: 30.0 ± 12.0 vs. 17.0 ± 1.3 (p = 0.002) at 20 minutes; 24.2 ± 7.6 vs. 16.3 ± 1.2 at 120 minutes (p = 0.002); and 22.2 ± 6.6 vs. 15.8 ± 1.6 (p = 0.004) at 24 hours after vacuum application. Conclusions With a suction drain in place, the amount of remaining hematoma could be affected by coagulability. Thrombin-containing local hemostatics and the length of time elapsed before the

  13. [Neuro-critical management of glycemia in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Navas-Marrugo, Sandy Zuleica; Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage or intracranial hemorrhage represents between 10 and 15% of all cerebrovascular events. Intracerebral hemorrhage is far less frequent than ischemic stroke, but leads to increased morbidity and mortality, one of the leading causes of severe disability. Several changes have been identified in the field of intracerebral hemorrhage, including endocrine. These stress-mediated mechanisms exacerbate secondary injury. Deep knowledge of the injuries that are directly involved in the alterations of glucose in the context of an intracerebral hemorrhage, offers a vision of how the cytotoxicity, neuronal death and metabolic disturbances alter the prognosis of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

  14. Scrotal Hematoma Precipitated by Centrifuge Training in a Fighter Pilot with an Asymptomatic Varicocele.

    PubMed

    Kampel, Liyona; Klang, Eyal; Winkler, Harry; Gordon, Barak; Frenkel-Nir, Yael; Shoam, Yifat Erlich

    2015-12-01

    Varicocele is quite common in the general population, affecting up to 15% of men. It is not considered disqualifying for the pilot's training program of the Israeli Air Force as long as there are no related symptoms or associated pathologies. During combat flight, increased venous pressure due to acceleration forces and anti-G straining maneuvers, used to counteract high gravitational G forces, can theoretically aggravate the venous blood pooling in varicocele, leading to rupture. We describe a case of a young fighter-jet pilot presenting with a painful inguinal hematoma extending to the scrotum a day after participating in centrifuge training. Sonographic examination demonstrated dilated spermatic veins and intratesticular varicocele along with subcutaneous thickening of the scrotal wall consistent with hematoma. The effects of high G loads on blood flow in spermatic veins, and especially in varicocele, still need to be determined. Varicocele rupture has been described in relation to increased intra-abdominal pressure and could theoretically occur during anti-G straining maneuvers. Such an acute adverse event during combat flight can be detrimental to flight safety and the pilot's well-being.

  15. The question is whether hemiparesis is more common in unilateral than bilateral chronic subdural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Juković, Mirela; Petrović, Kosta; Till, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma is an intracranial hemorrhagic lesion that illustrates various expressions in clinical and radiological practice. The aim of this study was to emphasize the correlation between the brain site of chronic subdural hematoma and clinical symptoms/signs of disease. Furthermore, the study denotes the significance of hemiparesis occurrence in the patients with unilateral chronic subdural hematomas more than in those with bilateral ones, associated with time required to diagnose hematoma. A three-year study included 72 patients with chronic subdural hematoma. According to their clinical and neurological symptoms on hospital admission, all patients underwent non-contrast brain computed tomography scan, which confirmed the diagnosis. The radiological parameters, including the site of chronic subdural hematoma, a hematoma width and midline shift were recorded to give precise data about the correlation with neurological symptoms. A special focus was put on the lag time between the onset of symptoms and signs to diagnosis of chronic subdural hematoma. The study proved that the patients with unilateral chronic subdural hematoma had more frequent occurrence of hemiparesis than the patients with bilateral chronic subdural hematoma. It took the left-sided chronic subdural hematomas less time (about 200 hours earlier) than the right-sided ones to present its symptoms although the average hematoma diameter value was almost the same. The site and the form of intracranial lesion-chronic subdural hematoma could have a great influence on neurological and functional condition in a patient. Although the length of time required for making diagnosis as well as clinical symptoms greatly differ and the latter are not always so clear, physicians should maintain a high level of suspicion for this disease and thus contribute to prompt diagnosis and better clinical outcome of patients.

  16. A spinal epidural hematoma with symptoms mimicking cerebral stroke.

    PubMed

    Shima, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Muneyoshi; Nomura, Motohiro; Mori, Kentaro; Miyashita, Katsuyoshi; Tamase, Akira; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Osuka, Koji; Takayasu, Masakazu

    2012-02-01

    A spontaneous cervical epidural hematoma (SCEH) is a rare condition, which usually requires urgent treatment. However, unusual manifestations, such as hemiparesis, may lead to a misdiagnosis. We herein report a case of SCEH that presented with pure motor hemiparesis to discuss the appropriate and prompt diagnosis and treatment of such cases. An 84-year-old female was brought to our emergency department complaining of nuchal pain, followed by right hemiparesis. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan of the neck demonstrated a spinal epidural hematoma right posterolateral to the spinal cord, extending from C2 to C3. She was managed conservatively and her symptoms improved significantly. The authors emphasize that cervical spinal lesions should be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients with acute onset of hemiparesis, when they are associated with neck pain. Even though magnetic resonance imaging is the gold standard, a CT scan is also useful for quick screening for SCEH.

  17. Hepatic subcapsular hematoma: two neonates with disparate presentations.

    PubMed

    Anjay, Maliyackel Aiyappanpillai; Sasidharan, Chaniyil Krishnan; Anoop, Parameswaran

    2012-04-01

    Subcapsular hematoma of the liver rarely occurs in neonates and the diagnosis is often missed or delayed. We report two babies who had this uncommon condition in the early neonatal period. In the first baby, the hematoma was associated with ventouse delivery and presented with abdominal distension and worsening jaundice. In contrast, the other baby was relatively well, with progressive pallor as the only clinical finding. The former had no other identifiable risk factors, whereas the latter was confirmed as having classical hemophilia. The literature is briefly reviewed with regards to incidence, etiology, diagnosis and management. Awareness of this unusual entity coupled with a high index of suspicion is essential for early identification and stabilization of such babies.

  18. Postpartum spontaneous subcapsular hepatic hematoma related to preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Anyfantakis, Dimitrios; Kastanakis, Miltiades; Fragiadakis, Georgios; Karona, Paraskevi; Katsougris, Nikolaos; Bobolakis, Emmanouil

    2014-01-01

    Subcapsular hematoma of the liver represents an unusual clinical phenomenon in the pregnancy and postpartum period with serious complications in terms of fetal and maternal mortality. Here we report a case of a 32-year-old primiparous female at 36 weeks of gestation, admitted to a maternity ward of a private clinic for preeclampsia. The woman underwent an emergency caesarean section with the extraction of an alive foetus. A few hours after delivery, she was transferred to the emergency department of our institution complaining of severe epigastric pain. Diagnostic work-up was suggestive of a subcapsular right lob hepatic hematoma which was successfully managed conservatively. Timely diagnosis is necessary for the prevention of life-threatening events in mother and fetus. For this reason acute care physicians have to be vigilant of the condition and consider this in the differential diagnosis of epigastric pain during pregnancy and postpartum.

  19. Posterior left atrial wall hematoma mimicking cystic intracavitary atrial mass.

    PubMed

    Bahnacy, Yasser; Suresh, Cheriyil; Dawoud, Hamed; Zubaid, Mohammad

    2010-10-01

    Atrial myxoma is the most common benign primary tumor of the heart most commonly in the left atrium (LA). Cystic or cavitated intracardiac masses are rare. We report the case of a 43-year-old male patient admitted with chest infection, hemoptysis, and severe respiratory distress, who had to be ventilated. Chest computed tomography showed bilateral lung consolidation with large mass occupying the region of the LA. Transthoracic echocardiography and transesophageal echocardiography showed a large intracavitary left atrial cystic mobile mass. Open-heart surgical exploration did not show any mass inside the LA. A posterior left atrial wall hematoma was found and evacuated. Biopsies confirmed the presence of blood clots. Posterior left atrial wall hematoma may appear as left atrial intracavitary cystic mass and should be included in the differential diagnosis of cystic left atrial mass.

  20. Diplopia from Subacute Bilateral Subdural Hematoma after Spinal Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Hassen, Getaw Worku; Kalantari, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Subdural hematoma (SDH) is a rare, but life-threatening complication of spinal anesthesia. Subdural hematoma resulting from this procedure could present with vague symptoms such as chronic headache and could easily be missed. Chronic headache is one of the symptoms of chronic SDH in postpartum women. Diplopia as the presenting complaint in SDH secondary to peripartum spinal anesthesia has not, to our knowledge, been previously reported. Here, we report a case of diplopia secondary to postpartum subacute bilateral SDHs with transtentorial herniation after spinal anesthesia in a healthy primagravid 25-year-old woman. SDH can expand gradually and the initial symptoms might be subtle as in our case, despite critically high intracranial pressure. PMID:22461938

  1. Treatment of septal hematomas and abscesses in children.

    PubMed

    Menger, Dirk Jan; Tabink, Ivar; Nolst Trenité, Gilbert J

    2007-11-01

    The cartilaginous part of the nasal septum of a child with a septal hematoma or abscess is at risk of destruction. Consequently, the noses of these children can collapse, causing a saddle nose deformity, and in time, the normal outgrowth of both the nose and maxilla will be disturbed. In adulthood, they will have an underdeveloped saddle nose deformity with too much upward rotation of the nasal tip and a retroposition of the midface. Sequelae like these should be prevented by prompt diagnosis and surgical intervention. In this article, the management of septal hematomas and abscesses is discussed with special focus on reconstruction of destructed septal cartilage with the use of autologous cartilage grafts fixed to a polydioxanon plate.

  2. Surgical treatment of poor grade middle cerebral artery aneurysms associated with large sylvian hematomas following prophylactic hinged craniectomy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Jun; Ye, You-Fan; Shen, Yin; Zhu, Rui; Yao, Dong-Xiao; Zhao, Hong-Yang

    2014-10-01

    The clinical characteristics of patients who presented in poor clinical grade due to ruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysms (MCAAs) associated with large sylvian hematomas (SylH) were analyzed and an ingenious designed prophylactic hinged craniectomy was introduced. Twenty-eight patients were graded into Hunt-Hess grades IV-V and emergency standard micro-neurosurgeries (aneurysm clipping, hematoma evacuation and prophylactic hinged craniectomy) were performed, and their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. 46.43% of the patients reached encouraged favorable outcomes on discharge. The favorable outcome group and the poor outcome group significantly differed in terms of patients' anisocoria, Hunt-Hess grade before surgery, extent of the midline shift and time to the surgery after bleeding (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in age, sex, volume and location of the hematoma, size of aneurysm between the favorable and poor groups (P>0.05). However, ingenious designed prophylactic hinged craniectomy efficiently reduced the patients' intracranial pressure (ICP) after surgery. It was suggested that preoperative conditions such as Hunt-Hess grading, extent of the midline shift and the occurrence of cerebral hernia affect the prognosis of patients, but time to the surgery after bleeding and prophylactic hinged craniectomy are of significant importance for optimizing the prognosis of MCAA patients presenting with large SylH.

  3. Massive retroperitoneal hematoma as a complication of anticoagulation therapy in a patient treated in a pulmonary intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Stjepanović, Mihailo; Buha, Ivana; Raljević, Snezana; Babić, Uroš; Savić, Milan; Mašković, Jovana; Roksandić, Marina; Marić, Dragana

    2015-06-01

    Retroperitoneal hematoma may occur as a result of trauma, but also from rapture of arterial aneurysms (aortic or iliac), surgical complications, tumors or anticoagulation therapy. We presented a patient on permanent anticoagulation therapy. On the day of admission to our institudon, the patient had the value of his INR 5.57 which required immediate suspension of the therapy. The main symptom in this patient was pain in the right inguinal canal with propagation along the right leg, which was indicated in clinical picture of spontaneous retroperitoneal haematoma. After three days the fall of hemoglobin occurred, so the additonal diagnostics was done. A computed tomography of the abdomen was performed showing well limited, large retroperitoneal hematoma (213 x 79 x 91 mm). Transfusion of concentrated red blood cells was performed twice with satisfactory correction of hemoglobin level, and four units of fresh frozen plasma. The patient was hemodynamically stabilized and discharged after a two-month long intensive care unit treatment, with the advice to use low-molecular weight heparin 2 x 0.4 mg subcutaneusly, due to persistent arrhythmia. In patients on anticoagulation therapy regular monitoring of the anticoagulant status is extremely important, because of the possibility of fatal complications development, such as retroperitoneal hematoma.

  4. Intracranial subdural empyema mimicking a recurrent chronic subdural hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Ninh; Patel, Mohit; Nguyen, Ha Son; Mountoure, Andrew; Shabani, Saman; Gelsomino, Michael; Janich, Karl; Kurpad, Shekar

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial subdural empyema (ISDE) is a life-threatening condition. The risk for ISDE increases in patients that have undergone prior intracranial procedures. The non-specificity in its clinical presentation often makes ISDE difficult to diagnose. Here, we present a rare case of ISDE mimicking a recurrent chronic subdural hematoma, emphasizing the significance of obtaining early magnetic resonance images of the brain for early diagnosis and treatment to achieve the optimal outcome. PMID:27651110

  5. Congenital afibrinogenemia: a case report of a spontaneous hepatic hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Malaquin, Stephanie; Rebibo, Lionel; Chivot, Cyril; Badoux, Louise; Mahjoub, Yazine; Dupont, Herve

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Afibrinogenemia is a rare coagulation disorder. Clinical features of spontaneous bleeding, bleeding after minor trauma, or after surgery have been described as well as thrombo-embolic complications. In this article, we presented the case of a 19-year old female with congenital afibrinogenemia who was admitted with a spontaneous intrahepatic hematoma. Conclusions: Supportive treatment including transfusion and fibrinogen administration, associated with repeated packing surgeries and selective embolization, were successfully performed. PMID:27428204

  6. [Ruptured subcapsular hepatic hematoma associated with HELLP syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pilco, Paul; McCormack, Lucas; Perez, Daniel; Clavien, P A

    2006-01-01

    HELLP syndrome is a rare condition related to pregnancy; however, it can cause complications such as a ruptured subcapsular hepatic hematoma. In most cases, this is managed surgically, but the mortality rate is high, up to 50% of all patients. We present a case with conservative management by percutaneous embolization of the right hepatic artery with a successful outcome and we propose a modern treatment algorithm.

  7. Loculated cardiac hematoma causing hemodynamic compromise after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Andreia; Cassandra, Miryan; Pinto, Carlos; Oliveira, Catarina; Antunes, Manuel; Gonçalves, Lino

    2015-09-01

    The authors describe a case of a rare complication occurring after cardiac surgery. Three weeks after aortic valve replacement a young male became hemodynamically unstable. The echocardiogram showed a large loculated hematoma compressing the right atrium. The patient was reoperated and the mass was removed. Recovery was complete. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Congenital afibrinogenemia: a case report of a spontaneous hepatic hematoma.

    PubMed

    Malaquin, Stephanie; Rebibo, Lionel; Chivot, Cyril; Badoux, Louise; Mahjoub, Yazine; Dupont, Herve

    2016-07-01

    Afibrinogenemia is a rare coagulation disorder. Clinical features of spontaneous bleeding, bleeding after minor trauma, or after surgery have been described as well as thrombo-embolic complications. In this article, we presented the case of a 19-year old female with congenital afibrinogenemia who was admitted with a spontaneous intrahepatic hematoma. Supportive treatment including transfusion and fibrinogen administration, associated with repeated packing surgeries and selective embolization, were successfully performed.

  9. Cardiac echinococcosis with fatal intracerebral embolism.

    PubMed Central

    Byard, R W; Bourne, A J

    1991-01-01

    A previously well 7 year old boy presented with sudden loss of consciousness and fitting. No evidence of trauma or space occupying lesion was identified. Death occurred the next day due to cerebral infarction caused by embolised fragments from a ruptured left ventricular hydatid cyst that was found at necropsy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1994846

  10. A multicenter, prospective, observational study of warfarin-associated intracerebral hemorrhage: The SAMURAI-WAICH study.

    PubMed

    Osaki, Masato; Koga, Masatoshi; Maeda, Koichiro; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Furui, Eisuke; Todo, Kenichi; Kimura, Kazumi; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Okada, Yasushi; Okuda, Satoshi; Kario, Kazuomi; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Minematsu, Kazuo; Kitazono, Takanari; Toyoda, Kazunori

    2015-12-15

    Because patients with warfarin-associated intracerebral hemorrhage (WAICH) have a high risk of ongoing bleeding, disability, and death, urgent coagulopathy reversal should be considered. On the other hand, thromboembolism may occur with reversal or withholding of anticoagulant therapy. The current status of acute hemostatic treatments and clinical outcomes in WAICH patients was investigated. WAICH patients admitted within 3 days of onset were prospectively enrolled in 10 stroke centers. Thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications and functional outcomes were followed-up for one year. Of 50 WAICH patients (31 men, 73 ± 9 years old) enrolled, all stopped warfarin on admission. Elevated prothrombin time-international normalized ratios (PT-INR) were normalized in 43 (86%). Anticoagulant therapy was resumed with intravenous full-dose unfractionated heparin followed by warfarin in 9 (18%), intravenous low-dose unfractionated heparin followed by warfarin in 14 (28%) and warfarin alone in 14 (28%) at a median of 2.5 (IQR 1.25-9), 4 (2-5.5) and 6 (3-11) days after onset, respectively, after emergent admission. Onset-to-admission time (per 1-hour increase; OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.19-0.84) was inversely associated with hematoma expansion. Anticoagulant therapy was resumed with intravenous full-dose unfractionated heparin in 9 (18%), low-dose heparin in 14 (28%) and warfarin alone in 14 (28%) at a median of 2.5, 4 and 6 days after onset, respectively. During one-year follow-up (n=47), 11 thromboembolic and 6 hemorrhagic complications were documented. Twenty four patients showed unfavorable outcomes, corresponding to a modified Rankin Scale score of 4-6. Thromboembolic complications (OR, 10.62; 95% CI, 1.05-227.85), as well as advanced age (per 1 year; OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.10-1.61) and higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (per 1 point; OR, 1.24; 95% CI 1.07-1.55), were independently associated with unfavorable outcome. PT-INR normalization on admission and

  11. Anemia is an independent prognostic factor in intracerebral hemorrhage: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction To date only two studies have evaluated anemia status in acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) reporting that on admission anemia (OAA) was associated with larger hematoma volume, and lower hemoglobin levels during hospital stay, which related to poorer outcome. The question remains whether anemia influences outcome through related volume-effects or itself has an independent impact? Methods This single-center investigation included 435 consecutive patients with spontaneous ICH admitted to the Department of Neurology over five years. Functional short- and long-term outcome (3 months and 1 year) were analyzed for anemia status. Multivariate logistic and graphical regression analyses were calculated for associations of anemia and to determine independent effects on functional outcome. It was decided to perform a separate analysis for patients with ICH-volume <30cm3 (minor-volume-ICH). Results Overall short-term-outcome was worse in anemic patients (mRS[4-6] OAA = 93.3% vs. non-OAA = 61.2%, P < 0.01), and there was a further shift towards an increased long-term mortality (P = 0.02). The probability of unfavorable long-term-outcome (mRS[4-6]) in OAA was elevated 7-fold (OR:7.5; P < 0.01). Receiver operating characteristics curve (ROC) analysis revealed a positive but poor association of ICH-volume and anemia (AUC = 0.67) suggesting volume-undriven outcome-effects of anemia (AUC = 0.75). Multivariate regression analyses revealed that anemia, besides established parameters, has the strongest relation to unfavorable outcome (OR:3.0; P < 0.01). This is even more pronounced in minor-volume-ICH (OR:5.6; P < 0.01). Conclusions Anemia seems to be a previously unrecognized significant predictor of unfavorable functional outcome with independent effects beyond its association with larger hemorrhage volumes. The recognition of anemia and its treatment may possibly influence outcome after ICH and as such prospective interventional studies are warranted. PMID:23880122

  12. Chronic Subdural Hematoma in the Aged, Trauma or Degeneration?

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyeong-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematomas (CSHs) are generally regarded to be a traumatic lesion. It was regarded as a stroke in 17th century, an inflammatory disease in 19th century. From 20th century, it became a traumatic lesion. CSH frequently occur after a trauma, however, it cannot occur when there is no enough subdural space even after a severe head injury. CSH may occur without trauma, when there is sufficient subdural space. The author tried to investigate trends in the causation of CSH. By a review of literature, the author suggested a different view on the causation of CSH. CSH usually originated from either a subdural hygroma or an acute subdural hematoma. Development of CSH starts from the separation of the dural border cell (DBC) layer, which induces proliferation of DBCs with production of neomembrane. Capillaries will follow along the neomembrane. Hemorrhage would occur into the subdural fluid either by tearing of bridge veins or repeated microhemorrhage from the neomembrane. That is the mechanism of hematoma enlargement. Trauma or bleeding tendency may precipitate development of CSH, however, it cannot lead CSH, if there is no sufficient subdural space. The key determinant for development of CSH is a sufficient subdural space, in other words, brain atrophy. The most common and universal cause of brain atrophy is the aging. Modifying Virchow's description, CSH is sometimes traumatic, but most often caused by degeneration of the brain. Now, it is reasonable that degeneration of brain might play pivotal role in development of CSH in the aged persons.

  13. Perineural hematoma may result in nerve inflammation and myelin damage.

    PubMed

    Steinfeldt, Thorsten; Wiesmann, Thomas; Nimphius, Wilhelm; Cornelius, Valér; Eismann, Daniel; Kratz, Thomas; Hadzic, Admir; Wulf, Hinnerk; Werner, Tilmann

    2014-01-01

    Perineural hematoma may occur during performance of peripheral nerve blocks. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that an iatrogenic hematoma in the immediate vicinity of a peripheral nerve may cause histologic evidence of nerve injury. Fifty milliliters of autologous blood was injected adjacent to the right sciatic nerve in 20 anesthetized female pigs. In order to discern between blood-related volume and immune effects, 50 mL of albumin was injected at the same location in an additional 22 pigs. Either blood or albumin was injected in random order. The left sciatic nerve served as a negative control in all animals, that is, either no needle placement or needle placement without injection. After 48 hours, the nerves were resected. The grade of nerve injury was scored from 0 (no injury) to 3 (severe injury) by histologic analysis of myelin tissue and inflammatory cells. Eighty-two nerve specimens were examined. Injury scores were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in the blood injection (n = 20; median [interquartile range] 2 [2-2]) and albumin injection (n = 22, 1 [1-2]) conditions compared with the no needle placement (n = 22, 0 [0-1]) and "dry needle placement" (n = 20, 1 [0-1]) conditions. Widespread inflammatory changes were seen in the blood injection group, in which 15% of nerve specimens showed damage to myelin. Our data suggest that hematoma adjacent to nerve tissue may result in structural nerve injury and inflammatory changes.

  14. Chronic Subdural Hematoma in the Aged, Trauma or Degeneration?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematomas (CSHs) are generally regarded to be a traumatic lesion. It was regarded as a stroke in 17th century, an inflammatory disease in 19th century. From 20th century, it became a traumatic lesion. CSH frequently occur after a trauma, however, it cannot occur when there is no enough subdural space even after a severe head injury. CSH may occur without trauma, when there is sufficient subdural space. The author tried to investigate trends in the causation of CSH. By a review of literature, the author suggested a different view on the causation of CSH. CSH usually originated from either a subdural hygroma or an acute subdural hematoma. Development of CSH starts from the separation of the dural border cell (DBC) layer, which induces proliferation of DBCs with production of neomembrane. Capillaries will follow along the neomembrane. Hemorrhage would occur into the subdural fluid either by tearing of bridge veins or repeated microhemorrhage from the neomembrane. That is the mechanism of hematoma enlargement. Trauma or bleeding tendency may precipitate development of CSH, however, it cannot lead CSH, if there is no sufficient subdural space. The key determinant for development of CSH is a sufficient subdural space, in other words, brain atrophy. The most common and universal cause of brain atrophy is the aging. Modifying Virchow's description, CSH is sometimes traumatic, but most often caused by degeneration of the brain. Now, it is reasonable that degeneration of brain might play pivotal role in development of CSH in the aged persons. PMID:26885279

  15. Surgical treatment of intramural hematoma of the ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Susak, Stamenko; Redzek, Aleksandar; Torbica, Vladimir; Rajić, Jovan; Todić, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Intramural hematoma of the aorta presents potentially fatal condition developing as a result of a vasa vasorum rupture. It is a major risk factor for developing a frank aortic dissection. A 65-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic for the second time, after her symptoms of chest pain and vertigo (with no electrocardiographic signs of myocardial infarction) hadn't disappeared after several months of medicament treatment (indicated in the first hospitalization). Computed tomography arteriography of the aorta showed no sign of acute aortic dissection, but revealed a contrast depo in the aortic wall of 8 x 14 mm dimensions, with no extravasation of contrast. Also, massive pericardial effusion was observed (10-30 mm in thickness). Transesophageal echocardiography confirmed these findings completely. The patient underwent surgery, in which plaque exulceration was detected on the convex side of the ascending aorta, 3 cm above the aortic valve, 1 cm in diameter, with no signs of intimal tear. A resection of the ascending aorta was performed, and the aorta was reconstructed with a 30 mm Dacron tube graft. The patient was discharged on the 14th postoperative day with satisfactory results. Intramural hematoma is not a common event, but it is potentially a fatal one. Open surgery in patients with an intramural hematoma is an effective treatment strategy, although percutaneous endovascular treatment options are being described.

  16. A new technique for fractal analysis applied to human, intracerebrally recorded, ictal electroencephalographic signals.

    PubMed

    Bullmore, E; Brammer, M; Alarcon, G; Binnie, C

    1992-11-09

    Application of a new method of fractal analysis to human, intracerebrally recorded, ictal electroencephalographic (EEG) signals is reported. 'Frameshift-Richardson' (FR) analysis involves estimation of fractal dimension (1 < FD < 2) of consecutive, overlapping 10-s epochs of digitised EEG data; it is suggested that this technique offers significant operational advantages over use of algorithms for FD estimation requiring preliminary reconstruction of EEG data in phase space. FR analysis was found to reduce substantially the volume of EEG data, without loss of diagnostically important information concerning onset, propagation and evolution of ictal EEG discharges. Arrhythmic EEG events were correlated with relatively increased FD; rhythmic EEG events with relatively decreased FD. It is proposed that development of this method may lead to: (i) enhanced definition and localisation of initial ictal changes in the EEG presumed due to multi-unit activity; and (ii) synoptic visualisation of long periods of EEG data.

  17. Traumatic tentorial hematoma in two-wheeler riders: Correlation with helmet use

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Deepak; Dawar, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tentorial hematoma is frequently seen in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients, especially in motorized two-wheeler riders following head injury. However its relevance and prognostic significance are not known. Objective: To evaluate patients of TBI with tentorial hematoma using a simple grading system and attempt to correlate this grading with factors like helmet use and neurological outcome. Materials and Methods: This prospective study over a 1-year period included patients with TBI who had tentorial hematoma in the initial plain head. Patients were divided into three grades based on the initial CT findings: Grade I: Isolated tentorial hematoma, grade II: tentorial hematoma with midline shift but open cisterns and grade III: Tentorial hematoma with effaced cisterns. Clinical and radiological records of patients including admission GCS and GOS at discharge were assessed in all cases. Observations: A total of 1786 patients of TBI were admitted during the study period. Of these, 106 (5.9%) patients had tentorial hematoma. 84.9% (n = 90) were male and 15.1% (n = 16) were female with the mean age being 36.5 years (range 2-66 years). The mean admission GCS was 13, 11 and 8 in patients with grade I, II and III tentorial hematoma respectively. 43.4% (n = 46) of the patients had grade I, 32.1% (n = 34) had grade II and 24.5% (n = 26) patients had grade III tentorial hematoma. Seventy-one patients (84.5%) were riding motorized two wheelers with 63 (89%) wearing helmets. The majority of the patients wearing helmets (58.8%) had grade I hematoma with 35% (n = 22) having grade II hematoma and only 6.3% (n = 4) having grade III hematoma. Overall, there were 20 deaths. 50% (n = 10) of the deaths were in patients with grade III hematoma and 40% (n = 8) of the deaths were in patients with grade II hematoma. There were two (10%) deaths in patients with grade I hematoma (both unrelated to head injury). The mean GOS at the time of discharge was 5, 4.1 and 2.2 in patients

  18. β-amyloid deposits in veins in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy and intracerebral haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mendel, Tadeusz; Wierzba-Bobrowicz, Teresa; Stępień, Tomasz; Szpak, Grazyna Maria

    2013-01-01

    To review the incidence and grade of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in veins in patients who died due to spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). Neuropathological examinations were performed in the study group of 189 patients. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy was diagnosed according to the Boston criteria and confirmed during an autopsy. The Vonsattel and Mountjoy scales were used to assess the grade and scores of CAA. In the study group composed of 189 ICH patients, 42 presented CAA. In the microscopic examination, of the 42 patients 33 (78%) showed β-amyloid deposits in veins, which makes 17% of the total group of patients with ICH. In this group, the age ranged from 54 to 97 (mean age 80.18 ± 8.15 years). A group of 33 (27 women and 6 men) patients comprised 15 (45%) patients with severe CAA, 13 (40%) with moderate and 5 (15%) with mild CAA classified according to the Vonsattel scale. According to the Mountjoy scale 28 (85%) patients had a score of 4, which indicated the total involvement of the vessel. β-amyloid deposits in veins were found in 78% of patients with CAA and ICH, which makes 17% of the total group of patients with ICH. Interestingly, β-amyloid deposits in veins are not so rare in patients with CAA who died due to intracerebral haemorrhage. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy localization in the veins of the brain was observed more frequently than previously suspected. Veins may play a role in the elimination of β-amyloid from the brain.

  19. Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction and Spot Sign in Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Morotti, Andrea; Brouwers, H Bart; Romero, Javier M; Jessel, Michael J; Vashkevich, Anastasia; Schwab, Kristin; Afzal, Mohammad Rauf; Cassarly, Christy; Greenberg, Steven M; Martin, Renee Hebert; Qureshi, Adnan I; Rosand, Jonathan; Goldstein, Joshua N

    2017-08-01

    The computed tomographic angiography (CTA) spot sign is associated with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) expansion and may mark those patients most likely to benefit from intensive blood pressure (BP) reduction. To investigate whether the spot sign is associated with ICH expansion across a wide range of centers and whether intensive BP reduction decreases hematoma expansion and improves outcome in patients with ICH and a spot sign. SCORE-IT (Spot Sign Score in Restricting ICH Growth) is a preplanned prospective observational study nested in the Antihypertensive Treatment of Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage II (ATACH-II) randomized clinical trial. Participants included consecutive patients with primary ICH who underwent a CTA within 8 hours from onset at 59 sites from May 15, 2011, through December 19, 2015. Data were analyzed for the present study from July 1 to August 31, 2016. Patients in ATACH-II were randomized to intensive (systolic BP target, <140 mm Hg) vs standard (systolic BP target, <180 mm Hg) BP reduction within 4.5 hours from onset. Expansion of ICH was defined as hematoma growth of greater than 33%, and an unfavorable outcome was defined as a 90-day modified Rankin Scale score of 4 or greater (range, 0-6). The association among BP reduction, ICH expansion, and outcome was investigated with multivariable logistic regression. A total of 133 patients (83 men [62.4%] and 50 women [37.6%]; mean [SD] age, 61.9 [13.1] years) were included. Of these, 53 (39.8%) had a spot sign, and 24 of 123 without missing data (19.5%) experienced ICH expansion. The spot sign was associated with expansion with sensitivity of 0.54 (95% CI, 0.34-0.74) and specificity of 0.63 (95% CI, 0.53-0.72). After adjustment for potential confounders, intensive BP treatment was not associated with a significant reduction of ICH expansion (relative risk, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.27-2.51; P = .74) or improved outcome (relative risk of 90-day modified Rankin Scale score ≥4, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.53-2.91; P

  20. Sensitivity of radionuclide brain imaging and computerized transaxial tomography in detecting subdural hematoma

    SciTech Connect

    Razzak, M.A.; Mudarris, F.; Christie, J.H.

    1980-04-01

    In a series of 23 patients with surgically proven subdural hematoma of durations ranging between two days to seven months, the detection rate of Tc-99m-pertechnetate brain imaging was higher than computerized transaxial tomography (CT). With dynamic perfusion scanning, the detection rate was 71.5%. In contrast, CT demonstrated the hematoma in 52% of the cases. Lastly, the result of CT scanning was dependent on the size of the subdural hematoma as evaluated at the time of operation.

  1. [Subcapsular liver hematoma, severe complication of pregnancy toxemia. A case report].

    PubMed

    Chenoufi, Mohamed Badis; Ouerhani, Radhia; el Hitmi, Nadia; Tbatou, Adnane; Smaili, Lamia; Sfar, Ezzedine; Chelli, Hela

    2002-04-01

    Subcapsular liver hematoma is a rare and severe complication of pregnancy. This event is already known to have a poor maternal and foetal prognosis. The authors report a case of spontaneous rupture of subcapsular hematoma of the liver in 40 year old multiparous. Confirmation of diagnosis is obtained by abdominal echotomography or TOM. The surgical treatment of this hematoma joints the traumatic surgery of the liver. In every case foetal extraction by cesarean section constitutes the first therapeutic procedure.

  2. Neuronal tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β expression in a porcine model of intracerebral haemorrhage: Modulation by U-74389G.

    PubMed

    Bimpis, Alexios; Papalois, Apostolos; Voumvourakis, Konstantinos; Oláh, Orsolya; Tiszlavicz, Lazlo; Liapi, Charis

    2015-07-30

    Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) are important mediators of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) inflammatory response. Lazaroids, established antioxidants and neuroprotectants, have been studied in several brain pathologies. The present study was designed to investigate: a) TNF-α and IL-1β changes, in neurons and b) U-74389G effects, 4 and 24h after haematoma induction in a porcine model of intracerebral haemorrhage. In twenty male landrace pigs (swines) aged 135-150 days old, autologous whole blood was injected around the right basal ganglia territory; in ten of the pigs the lazaroid compound U-74389G was administered. Brain TNF-α and IL-1β immunopositive neurons were determined by immunoarray techniques at 4 and 24h timepoints. After the haematoma induction the number of TNF-α immunopositive neurons ipsilateral to the haematoma was significantly higher compared to the contralateral site at 4h (p<0.0005), while U-74389G significantly reduced the number of TNF-α immunopositive neurons, ipsilateral to the haematoma, at 4h (p=0.002); at 24h, TNF-α immunopositive neurons were found significantly lower in the control group ipsilateral to the haematoma in comparison to 4h timepoint(p<0.0005). The number of IL-1β immunopositive neurons at 4h after the hematoma induction was significantly higher ipsilateral to the haematoma site (p<0.0005). U-74389G had no statistical significant effect. TNF-α and IL-1β, increase in neurons, 4h after the haematoma induction, ipsilateral to the haematoma site. The administration of the antioxidant compound U-74389G, results in early (at 4h) decrease of TNF-α immunopositive neurons but shows no statistical significant effect to